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Changes in Attitudes about Diversity of Preservice Teachers in a Children's Literature Class


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CHANGES IN ATTITUDES ABOUT DIVERS ITY OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS IN A CHILDRENS LITERATURE CLASS By HAKAN DEDEOGLU A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2007 Hakan Dedeoglu

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To all those individuals and groups that em brace, nurture, and work for social justice

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply grateful to those who help me to make this dissertation possible. I wish to express my gratitude to the peopl e who provided great help and support. I would like to thank my chair Linda Leonard Lamme for many hours reading the drafts of each chapter, for he r continuous encouragement and patient instruction and for her kindness and help all these years. Her support and encouragement always give me strength and courage to do my job better. I would like to thank to my co-chair Richard L. Allingt on for sharing his experience and knowledge with me and guiding me along the way. I would like to thank the members of my committee, John Cech, Danling Fu, and Ruth M. Lowery for their insightful sugge stions, advice, their kindness and support. I would like to thanks to all the preservi ce teachers who participated in this study. Their contributions were the source of the research. Thanks to all other professors, staff, frie nds, and fellow students who contributed in various ways to my completi ng this dissertation and who he lped in making my years at the University of Florida so enjoyable. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Em ine, and my two children, Ahmet Serkan, and Furkan, who have been supporting a nd understanding me all these years. Their support and understanding give me courage to face challenges ahead of me and never give up in front of difficulties. Without the support of my family, I never would have made it this far.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xiii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................3 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................7 Significance of the Study..............................................................................................8 Why Childrens Literature?..........................................................................................9 Limitations of the Study.............................................................................................12 Personal Involvement.................................................................................................12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW...........................................................................................17 Conceptual History and Definition of Multicultural Education.................................17 Research on Undergraduate Students Belief Systems Regarding Diversity.............25 The Effectiveness of a Multicultura l Education Course on a Teacher Education Program...........................................................................................27 The Effects or Impact of a Multicu ltural Education Course Components or Teacher Preparation Program Components.....................................................35 Preservice Teachers Beliefs, Attitude s, Knowledge, and Perceptions about Diversity...........................................................................................................38 Survey studies..............................................................................................40 Self-questionnaires.......................................................................................43 Review of the Theory and Research on Diversity in the Children's Literature..........47 Used in Preservice Teacher Education.......................................................................47 Issues in Childrens Literature.............................................................................48 Studies on Reader Response................................................................................52 Influence of text...........................................................................................53 Reader characteristics...................................................................................54 Instructional strategies and response processes...........................................55 Studies about Critical Literacy Theory................................................................57 Related Dissertations..................................................................................................60 Qualitative Studies...............................................................................................60 Quantitative Studies.............................................................................................63

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vi Mixed Studies......................................................................................................66 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................72 Design of The Study...................................................................................................72 Methodology...............................................................................................................74 Quantitative Phase......................................................................................................75 Research Questions.............................................................................................76 Instrument............................................................................................................77 Reliability of the scale..................................................................................79 Procedure......................................................................................................80 Scoring guide................................................................................................80 Population and Sample........................................................................................81 Overview of teacher education.....................................................................81 Sophomore year............................................................................................82 Junior year....................................................................................................83 Senior year....................................................................................................85 Demographic Profile of the Participants.............................................................85 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................86 Qualitative Phase........................................................................................................88 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................88 Critical theory and critical pedagogy...........................................................89 Critical multiculturalism..............................................................................90 Research Question...............................................................................................91 Childrens Literature (LAE 3005) in PROTEACH in Fall 2005........................91 Course Instructor.................................................................................................92 Demographics of COHORT 47 in LAE 3005.....................................................93 Data Collection....................................................................................................94 Interviews.....................................................................................................94 Observations.................................................................................................96 Archive-review of documents......................................................................97 Data Analysis.....................................................................................................100 Trustworthiness.........................................................................................................102 4 CONTEXT OF CHILDR ENS LITERATURE.......................................................108 Course Introduction..................................................................................................109 Introduction to Childrens Literature.................................................................109 Segments from Course Introduction:.................................................................111 How to find good books & childr ens literature awards:...........................111 Why a multicultural perspective?...............................................................113 Seating arrangements:................................................................................114 How to read a book: Rosenblatts theory...................................................115 Read aloud:.................................................................................................115 Assigned Readings....................................................................................................117 Picture Books.....................................................................................................117 Realistic Fiction.................................................................................................118

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vii Historical Fiction...............................................................................................119 Multicultural Literature.....................................................................................120 Segments from A ssigned Readings...................................................................121 Gender........................................................................................................121 Holocaust literature....................................................................................122 Multiple perspectives & critical literacy....................................................123 Cultural authenticity...................................................................................123 Literature circles.........................................................................................124 Self-Selected Readings.............................................................................................125 Modern Fantasy.................................................................................................125 Traditional Literature.........................................................................................126 Nonfiction Literature.........................................................................................127 Segments from Self-Selected Readings.............................................................128 Censorship..................................................................................................128 Disneyfied and Eurocentric folk books......................................................128 Literature based curriculum.......................................................................129 Book talk....................................................................................................129 Special Topics...........................................................................................................130 Project Booktalk................................................................................................130 Responses to Special Topic Books....................................................................131 Unified Assessment System..............................................................................131 Cultural Identity.................................................................................................132 5 DEMOGRAPHICS, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS................................................141 Demographic Variables............................................................................................142 Religious Denomination & Religion.................................................................142 Cross-Cultural Friendship.................................................................................146 Race...................................................................................................................148 Inner City Program Experiences.......................................................................150 Age....................................................................................................................152 Gender...............................................................................................................153 Foreign Travel Experiences...............................................................................154 Second Language...............................................................................................155 Student Body Description..................................................................................156 Class Standing...................................................................................................157 Multicultural Course Experience.......................................................................158 Correlational Results................................................................................................158 6 CHANGES IN ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS.........................................................176 Roots in Changes in Attitudes and Beliefs...............................................................177 Race/ Ethnicity..................................................................................................177 Gender...............................................................................................................187 Social Class.......................................................................................................191 Sexual Orientation.............................................................................................196 Language...........................................................................................................199

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viii Ability................................................................................................................202 Immigration.......................................................................................................204 Religion.............................................................................................................206 Multicultural & Monocultural Education..........................................................207 Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale....................................................................212 Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale..............................................................217 The Unique Analysis of Changes.............................................................................222 7 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION...........................................................................235 Summary of the Research Questions........................................................................236 Summary of Quantitative Sections....................................................................236 Summary of Qualitative Section.......................................................................239 Discussion.................................................................................................................241 Overall Evaluation of Personal and Profe ssional Beliefs about Diversity Scales....252 Implications and Suggestions...................................................................................255 APPENDIX A THE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL BELIEFS ABOUT DIVERSITY SCALES...................................................................................................................264 B INSTITUTIONAL RVEVIEW BOARD FORMS...................................................273 C SYLLABUS FOR LAE 3005 (SECTION 6712) CHILDRENS LITERATURE FALL, 2005..............................................................................................................276 D UNIFIED ELEMENTARY PROTEA CH UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL 2005 AND LATER.....................................288 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................290 Childrens Books......................................................................................................313 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................319

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Qualitative studies....................................................................................................69 2-2 Quantitative studies..................................................................................................70 2-3 Mixed studies...........................................................................................................71 3-1 Methodology matrix...............................................................................................104 3-2 Reliability scores and means of scales...................................................................104 3-3 Numerical values to define different scales...........................................................105 3-4 Demographics of participants.................................................................................105 3-5 Academic and demographic independe nt variables used in this study..................106 3-6 Statistical procedures..............................................................................................106 3-7 Demographics of cohort 47....................................................................................107 4-1 Childrens literature awards...................................................................................139 4-2 Read aloud book list...............................................................................................140 5-1 The statistical procedures used for the first research question...............................164 5-2 Item groups and group contexts.............................................................................164 5-3 Summary of t-test s, religious denomination beliefs scales.................................164 5-4 Summary of t-test s, religious denomination item groups....................................165 5-5 Summary of ANOVA, religious affiliations beliefs scales.................................165 5-6 Summary of ANOVA, religious affiliations item groups...................................166 5-7 Summary of t-tests, cr oss-cultural friendship involvement beliefs scales...........167 5-8 Summary of t-tests, cross-cultural friendship involvement item groups.............168

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x 5-9 Summary of t-tests, race beliefs scale..................................................................169 5-10 Summary of t-tests, race item groups..................................................................169 5-11 Summary of t-tests, inner ci ty experience beliefs scale.......................................169 5-12 Summary of t-tests, inne r city experience item groups........................................169 5-13 Summary of t-tests, gender item groups..............................................................170 5-14 Summary of t-tests, fore ign travel beliefs scale..................................................170 5-15 Summary of t-tests, fo reign travel item groups...................................................170 5-16 Summary of t-tests, seco nd language beliefs scales............................................170 5-17 Summary of ANOVA, student body description beliefs scale............................170 5-18 Summary of ANOVA, student body description item groups............................171 5-19 Summary of ANOVA, cl ass standing item groups.............................................171 5-20 Religious denomination gender cro sstabulation and chi-square result................171 5-21 Religious denomination religion cr osstabulation and chi-square result..............172 5-22 Race student body description cros stabulation and chi-square result.................172 5-23 Race cross cultural friendship cro sstabulation and chi-square result..................172 5-24 Inner city experience cross-cultural friendship cro sstabulation and chi-square result.......................................................................................................................173 5-25 Second language cross-cultural friends hip crosstabulation and chi-square result173 5-26 Race second language crosstabulation and chi-square result..............................173 5-27 Inner city experience multicultural course experien ce crosstabulation and chisquare result............................................................................................................174 5-28 Inner city experience foreign travel crosstabulat ion and chi-square result..........174 5-29 Foreign travel religious affiliations crosstabulation and chi-square result..........175 6-1 Beliefs scales item groups......................................................................................225 6-2 Summary of t-tests, race paired samples statistics...............................................225 6-3 Summary of t-tests, gender paired samples statistics...........................................225

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xi 6-4 Summary of t-tests, social cl ass paired samples statistics...................................225 6-5 Summary of t-tests, sexual orie ntation paired sa mples statistics.........................225 6-6 Ratings for the special topic books........................................................................226 6-7 Summaries of t-tests, language paired samples statistics.....................................226 6-8 Summaries of t-tests, ability paired samples statistics.........................................226 6-9 Summaries of t-tests, immigra tion paired samples statistics...............................226 6-10 Summaries of t-tests, religi on paired samples statistics.......................................226 6-11 Summaries of t-tests, multicultural/m onocultural education paired samples statistics..................................................................................................................226 6-12 Summary of paired t test for differe nces personal beliefs scale items................227 6-13 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 1)........................................227 6-14 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 5)........................................227 6-15 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 6)........................................228 6-16 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 7)........................................228 6-17 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 10)......................................228 6-18 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 12)......................................228 6-19 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 13)......................................229 6-20 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 14)......................................229 6-21 Personal beliefs scale prepost crosstabulation (item 15)......................................229 6-22 Paired t test for differences professional beliefs scale items...............................230 6-23 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 2)..................................230 6-24 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 5)..................................230 6-25 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 9)..................................231 6-26 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 10)................................231 6-27 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 11)................................231 6-28 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 12)................................231

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xii 6-29 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 15)................................232 6-30 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 16)................................232 6-31 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 18)................................232 6-32 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 19)................................232 6-33 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 20)................................233 6-34 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 22)................................233 6-35 Professional beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 25)................................233 6-36. Pre-post scales comparison....................................................................................233 6-37 Section by section comparison of changes.............................................................234 6-38 Gender Professional beliefs scale scores differences crosstabulation...............234 6-39 Cross-cultural friends hip involvement Persona l beliefs scale scores differences crosstabulation.....................................................................................234 7-1 Pearson chi-square results matrix...........................................................................257 7-2 Demographics beliefs s cales relations (t-tests)...................................................257 7-3 Demographics beliefs scal es relations (One-way ANOVA)...............................258 7-4 Demographics-personal belie fs scale item groups relations.................................258 7-5 Demographics-professional beli efs scale item groups relations...........................259 7-6 Summary of paired t test for diffe rences personal beliefs scale items...................259 7-7 Paired t test for differences professional beliefs scale items...............................260 7-8 Segments from qualitative groups and the context of diversity.............................261 7-9 2005 Ethnicity and gender of stude nt enrollment at the university........................262 7-10 2005 ethnicity of student enrollme nt at the college of education...........................262 7-11 Correlation results and mean values of the surveys...............................................262 7-12 Classification of scores differences......................................................................263

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xiii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CHANGES IN ATTITUDES ABOUT DIVERS ITY OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS IN A CHILDRENS LITERATURE CLASS By Hakan Dedeoglu May 2007 Chair: Linda Leonard Lamme Cochair: Richard L. Allington Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction Given the overwhelming body of research addressing the cultural gap between preservice teachers and the students they will ultimately teach, as well as the ineffectiveness of teacher application of multicultural theory to schooling, and shortcomings of multicultural education in teacher training programs, further research was needed to critically examine these issues. The purpose of this study was to understand how experiences in children's literature classes influence preservice teachers beliefs about diversity. The research concerned the critical examination of preservice teacher s knowledge, attitudes and commitment to diversity in childrens literature classes so as to improve the multicultural aspect of educational courses. In the process, I exam ined theories and practices of multicultural education and research findings on multi cultural education to examine numerous variables and qualitative data th at influenced preservice teac hers beliefs about diversity. For this study I employed a mixed method research design, using both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. A demographic section of a survey of students attitudes toward diversity pr ovided the preservice teachers demographic

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xiv variables and their influences on students beliefs on the issues of diversity. I used statistical analyses of survey results as sour ces of data for addressi ng students changes of beliefs related to diversity issues. Inte rviews, observations an d students written assignments in one section of childrens lite rature class comprised the qualitative data collection and analysis. Both qualitative and statistical analyses of the data indica te that religious denomination and cross-cultural friendship involvement as demographic variables significantly predicted scores on all the surveys. Another important implication of these analyses is the closing gap between students who had lower scores and higher scores on the pre surveys. The implications for multicultural edu cation and, professional development are discussed. My study contributes to this limite d body of literature, helping to develop a better understanding of how childre ns literature classes can affect students attitudes toward the issues of diversity.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A growing number of American schools en roll students a complex mix of races, cultures, languages, and religious affiliations However, the adults who teach this mix of children remain largely homogeneous white, female, monolingual, Christian adults. The work of recent scholars and census data refl ect growing concern with the cultural gap between the children in th e schools and their teachers (Banks, 2004; Cochran-Smith, 2004; Gay, 1992; Nieto, 2004; Sleeter & Grant, 1999). We must also acknowledge that this gap is increasing year by year. From a large quantity of research studies over a number of years, the evidence of demographic imperative includes information in three areas: diverse student population, the homogeneous teaching force, and the demographic divide (Gay, 2000; Hodghinson, 2001, 2002). Drawing information from Census 2000, educational demographer Harold Hodgkinson (2001) points out that 40% of the school population is now from racially and culturally diverse groups and this varies from 7% to 68% depending on the state. If recent projections are accurate, the statistical majority of th e student population by 2035 will consist of children of color (Villages & Lucas, 2002). The most recent information available on the nations teaching force draws a profile that is very different from the stude nt profile. White teachers currently represent 86 % of the teaching force and the vast majo rity (80%-93%) of students enrolled in teacher education programs are white students. It seems that the teaching force profile

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2 will remain primarily White European American. The educational implications of these differences between student population and teac hing force are far greater than statistical numbers if we look at the experiences of most teachers who speak only English while many students speak a first language that is not English (Ga y, 1993; Irvine, 1997). Also conditions of students with and w ithout the advantages of race, culture, language, and socioeconomic status, as well as the access to resources like equipment, supplies, physical facilities, books, com puter technology, and class size, show huge differences between urban, suburban and rura l schools (Cothran & Ennis, 2000; DarlingHammond, 1995; Dilg, 2003; Gould, 1996; Kozol, 1991, 1995). According to the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) (1996), the United States is produci ng enough teachers as a na tion to fill all of the openings. The problem is that these gradua tes are not necessarily in the subject areas where they are needed, and they do not want to go to the schools where they are most needed. For example Zeichner (2003) stated th at in high-poverty sc hools, classes are 77% more likely to be assigned an out-of-field teacher than classes in low-poverty schools. Also he stated that classes in which the majority is non-White students are 40% more likely to be assigned an out-offield teacher than those in mostly White schools. What is harder to ascertain can be fi gured out from the National E ducation Associations Status of the American public school teacher, 20002001 which shows whether all students have access to the tools, knowledge, and guida nce they need to succeed. In many areas addressed in this report: from teacher qua lity, to school building conditions, the indications are that many st udents do not have the same opportunities to learn, when compared to those in schools with largely high-income populations or in schools with a

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3 low proportion of ethnic minority students. As Nieto (2002/3) stated, the children who need the most get the fewe st funds and resources (p. 9). In addition to the clear demographic arguments that support its importance, multicultural education is strongly associated with the concepts of social justice and equity. Teachers must be familiar with the principles of multiculturalism in order to promote a just environment favorable to learni ng. Nel (1992) is brief in her summation of multicultural education and its relationship with teachers: The crucial factor in the ultimate success or failure of multicultural education in our schools is the teacherThe major task now is to educate the 90% White teacher corps to become effective and caring e ducators in schools wh ere minority children are fast becoming th e majority (p.23). Harbour, Middleton, Lewis and Anders on (2003) reviewed 10 years of multicultural research (1990 to 2000) to explain why multicultural education is important. They argue that it counters integration/assi milation tensions that remain unresolved, specifically, dominant culture privilege, a ssimilation pressure, acculturative stress, different definitions of persona l and professional success, and equity of access to critical resources. Some scholars describe multicultura l education as a tool to change teacher thinking to maximize student learning (Bynoe, 1998). By educating preservice teachers about multiculturalism, these teachers can b ecome advocates for the many culturally diverse students in our schools. Statement of the Problem One of the important implications of the current demographic data is the need for courses to prepare new teachers for diversit y they will encounter in their classrooms. Beginning in the late 1970s and early 1980s, many teacher education programs across the country began to include multicultural and diversity issues in the curriculum. Banks

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4 (1989, 2002) described a hierarchy of four curri cular models to integrate multiculturalism into the curriculum. Banks typology on multic ultural curriculum reform is one of the most widely referenced theoretical framewor ks in both academic and practitioner journals in multicultural education. These levels are: The contributions approach, The additive approach, The transformation approach The social action approach. Rasinski and Padak (1990) Bieger (1996) and Halagao (2004) examine these models in relation to literature connections and classroom applica tions. They provide a framework to address possible response ba sed connections between the reader and multicultural literature. Many scholars argu e that one of the main problems in classrooms, according to these models, is the teachers lack of comfort with multicultural literature, and confidence beyond the first level. Halagao (2004) stated that: Teacher educators of multicultural educa tion use Banks (2002) typology to help pre-service and in-service teachers move from integrating cultural content from a superficial level to a more socially reconstr uctive approach in their curriculum. But to many of these students, these approach es are a theoretical jargon to learn and memorize, but not to incorporat e into their daily teaching. To implement multicultural education successfully the entire school environment is required to modify; just modi fying one or two areas among these components will not be sufficient (Banks, 1993; Menkart, 1999; Pullen, 2000). For example, although many textbooks that are used in classrooms value a nd identify a broad variet y of cultures, they will not be powerful in the hands of a teach er who does not respect childrens different cultural backgrounds. All essentials of the school surroundings must mirror multicultural ideas for the reform to be successful.

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5 Focusing on student engagement with in diverse school communities, McMahon (2003) argue for the adoption of an approach to education that combines a form of critical pedagogy and antiracist multicul turalism, she stated that: Rather than embrace critical pedagogy, some schools and school boards address the issue of diversity by offering courses ta rgeting specific groups: such as Black History, Women's Issues, or Native Studi es. Instead of pr oviding opportunities for empowerment, these token gestures towa rd inclusivity actually serve to further marginalize peoples' histories and cult ures and maintain dominance. (p.263) Gay (1995) and Sleeter (2001) claimed that application of multicultural theory to schooling is often inconsistent and ineffective. There is a large quantity of research that supports the ineffectiveness of application of multicultura l education to the current teacher education programs. Terrill and Marks (2000) study showed how different preservice teachers' expectations for schools with children of colo r and second-language learners are from the reality. Preservice teac hers expected higher levels of discipline problems, lower levels of parental support, high er levels of child abuse, fewer gifted and talented students, and lower levels of motivation in the schools with children of color. Kagan's (1992) observation focused on the pres ervice teachers experiences. She stated, "candidates tend to use the information provided in course work to confirm rather than to confront and correct their preexisting beliefs" (p.154). Jo rdan (1995) described the resistance problem in suggesting that Ma ny pre-service teachers resist the painful process of confronting their own prejudices, and this may be attributed to different levels of readiness or differences in personal and intellectual development (p.373). Finney and Orr (1995) found that although the majority of teacher candidates learned something positive from a multicultura l education course, they still failed to recognize the economic, political, and sociocultural context that leads to racism and white privilege. Similarly Ahlqui st (1992) indicated that,

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6 Whether unconscious or conscious, inte ntional or unintentional, prospective teachers find it difficult to accept that wh ites have benefited economically, socially and psychologically from institutional and interactional racism, and males have benefited from sexism (p.89). In their article, Asimeng-Boahene and Klei n (2004) tried to find the answer to the question of why educators shoul d be concerned with cultural diversity in the classrooms, spotlighting on demography, stereotyping, socioeconomic class, different learning styles, and achievement processes. They stated that: today's teacher candidates need to know th at there is a diverse world in their future classrooms. This issue should and mu st be addressed thr ough instruction that informs teacher candidates about (1) curre nt demographics, (2) legislation to protect under-represented groups, and (3) anti bias instructional tools and practices (p.51). Ng (2003) discussed the four particular s hortcomings of multicultural education in teacher training programs. According to Ng, th e first problem is related to conceptual understanding of multicultural education. Sepa rating it from its foundation in historical and political movements of social change, results in a limited u nderstanding of the concept of multicultural educa tion. This perspective leads to an emphasis in teacher training in the use of alternative types of edu cational materials, activities, and social skills rather than a fundamental awareness of a liv ed theory in practice. The second problem deals with the functions of multicultural education in teacher training programs. Ng stated, A lack of attention to the implicit, suggested me ssages fueling the program can be of great detriment to a programs overall effectiveness (p.99). The third problem is that instruction regarding multicultural educ ation in teacher training too often lacks insight into the social and ps ychological situations of the participant as they encounter various stages of racial identity de velopment. Finally, as Ng stated: The absence of a sincere critique of Wh ite privilege in multicultural education allows for the continuation of ignorance re garding institutional and societal forms

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7 of oppression, and assures the current stat us of multicultural e ducation as anything but revolutionary (p.99). Multicultural education is more than cont ent; it includes policy, learning climate, instructional delivery, lead ership, and evaluation (Ba nks, 1994; Bennett, 2003; Gay, 2004; Grant & Gomez, 2000). But it must beco me an integral part of the teacher preparation experience instead of just one is olated course. Gay (2003/2004) stated that: In its comprehensive form, it must be an in tegral part of everything that happens in the education enterprise, whether it is assessing the academic competencies of students or teaching math, reading, writing, science, social studies, or computer science. Making explicit connections betw een multicultural education and subjectand skill-based curriculum and inst ruction is imperative (p. 31). One essential component of a teacher educat ion program therefore is to foster the attitudes, skills, and knowledge preservice teachers will n eed to work effectively with diverse students. Because the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of children in schools today are vastly dissimilar to those who teach them, preser vice teachers who have not developed their awareness, knowledge, and sk ills for working with diverse populations will be inadequately prepared to meet the demands of classrooms in the diverse American society. Purpose of the Study Focusing on theories and practices of multicultural education and the importance of research findings on multicultural educati on, it is important to critically examine preservice teachers knowledge, attitudes and co mmitment in educational courses such as childrens literature classes so as to improve multicultural as pect of educational courses. Therefore the purpose of this study is to understand how experiences in children's literature classes influence preservice teachers beliefs about diversity. Specifically, this study addressed the following questions:

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8 How do the political and social aspects of the demography of preservice teachers influence their beliefs on the issue of diversity? What are the changing attitudes and beliefs, if any, of preservice teachers views on the issue of diversity over th e course of a semester in ch ildrens literature classes? How do larger contextual factors such as power, privilege, and oppression affect the ways in which preservice teachers constr uct beliefs about diversity in childrens literature classes? Significance of the Study Laubscher and Powell (2003) explored thei r experiences as professors who teach about difference and are themselves consider ed different or other. The authors describe how society and their students pe rceive them, and illustrate the unique pedagogical opportunities that thei r course offers them and their primarily White, ablebodied, and socioeconomically advantaged studen ts to struggle not only with the theory, but also with the experience, of differen ce. They stated, We believe that richer learning is possible through atten tion to such politics of diffe rence, as opposed to add-on multiculturalism that celebrates exo tic otherness as diversity (p.221). After examining international movements regarding preparing teachers for antioppressive education, Kumashiro, Baber, Richardson, Ricker-Wilson and Wong (2004) stated that: While theories and recommendations contin ue to proliferate in the educational research literature on what it means to t each towards social justice and to prepare teachers for such teaching, so do concerns that these theories and recommendations fail to account for the ways that the contexts of teaching--cultural contexts, national contexts, political contexts--always affect teaching in idiosyncratic, unpredictable and even contradictory ways (p. 257). Given the overwhelming body of research addressing the cultural gap between preservice teachers and students (Banks, 2004; Cochran-Smith, 2004; Gay, 1992; Nieto, 2004; Sleeter & Grant, 1999), ineffectiveness of application of multicultural theory to

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9 schooling (Bieger, 1996; Gay, 2004; Gay, 1995; Rasinsky & Padak, 1990; Sleeter, 2001) and shortcomings of multicultural educati on in teacher training programs (Ahlquist, 1992; Asimeng-Boahene & Klein, 2004; Fi nney & Orr, 1995; Jordan, 1995; Kagan, 1992; Kumashiro, Baber, Richardson, Ri cker-Wilson & Wong, 2004; Laubscher & Powell, 2003; McMahon, 2003; Ng, 2003; Terril & Mark, 2000), further research is needed to critically examine these findings. Critical intellectuals is a term used by Giroux and McLaren (1986) to define teachers but as stated by Haerr (2004): teacher education programs do not give preservice teachers the knowledge or the skills to address issues of social justice or to even critique th e curriculum they are expected to implement. Instead the pr ograms focus on the technical, such as behavioral management techniques to main tain order and control, and learning to write lesson plans which cover state mandate d course objectives in order to prepare students to pass state tests. .Preservice teachers are apparently not expected to develop curriculum, but only to in terpret and implement it (p.141). This knowledge can have implications for teacher training programs in the development and integration of multicultural curriculum classes in their programs for preservice teachers. Even though there are seve ral studies and resear ch reports available on undergraduate students beliefs regardi ng diversity, and multi cultural education, I have found only a few data-based research reports about the changing attitudes of students in childrens literatur e classes. This study will contribute to the limited body of literature, thus helping to develop a bette r understanding of how ch ildrens literature classes affect students attitudes toward the issue of diversity. Why Childrens Literature? The National Council of Teachers of English Resolution on preparing and certifying teachers with knowledge of children s and adolescent lite rature proposed that:

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10 Teacher education should provide the chance for teachers to study a wide selection of books for children and adolescents, includ ing texts from diverse cultures, genres and historical periods. Such preparation should also involve a broad view of the appropriate and effective uses of this lit erature in classrooms and an understanding of the issues associated with such a curriculum (NCTE, 2002). Allington (1995) critiqued a typical day in an elementary school classroom: Children work, teachers correct and grade, no one ever discusses the work, the content, the thought, or the response (p.11). Ther efore teacher education programs should support beginning teachers as they learn what they need to know in order to create successful classrooms. Teacher education classrooms are places where beginning teachers take part in experiences that can shape their classroom practices. These classes help future teachers situate th eir classroom in the larger social and political context. Childrens literature classes, in partic ular, become venues for teaching about multicultural education and childrens literatur e and for developing skills for critical analysis of learning materials. Through re sponses to their readings in professional literature, and in childrens books, students ha ve an opportunity to work with their peers to learn new ways of making meaning that ca n apply to their future students. As Apol (1998) stated, Childrens litera ture is a form of education and socialization, an indication of a societys deepest hopes and fears, e xpectations and demands (p. 34). Beyond being a requirement of the program, students often attend childrens literature classes to learn what new childrens books have been writte n, what books are popular with children and teachers and how to integrate childrens books in to the curriculum rather than focusing on transactions with literature or readings through critical l iteracy (Harste, 1989; Pflieger, 1994). This is an indication of what Gri ffith (2001) described as students coming to childrens literature classes with their own goals and agendas.

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11 Both Brookfield (2005) and Branch (2005) had similar arguments. Inspired by his students comments like I still dont see why we had to read all this critical theory. Whats Gramsci got to do with adult education (p. vii), a teacher of critical theory for graduate students, Brookfi eld (2005) drew on the work s of Marx, Adorno, Fromm, Horkheimer, Althusser, Foucault, Marcuse, Habermas, hooks, Gramsci, Davis and others to illustrate the usefulness of critical th eory in helping students understand and then change the world in Power of Critical Theory: Liberating Adult Learning and Teaching. From his experiences in introduc tion to multicultural education courses with preservice teachers, Branch ( 2005) categorized and answered six types of questions that were pointed out by his students. These questio ns were related to its importance, target population, focus, curricular design, relevan ce to other areas and whos responsibility. More specifically these questions are What is the importance of multicultural education? For whom is multicultural education designed? Will the focus on differences and issues of racism divide our nation against itself ? What is the curricular composition of multicultural education? How is multicultural ed ucation relevant to the hard sciences, e.g., mathematics? Who can accomplish multicultural education? As sites for cultural, historical, politi cal, and social construction of literary conversation; places where texts have mean ing beyond sign systems, language structures, and ideologies (Apol, 1998), and areas where reflections of multicultural themes can be the focus, childrens literature classes that util ize critical literacy th eory and transactional theory as a framework, provide an opportunity for students to examine their own beliefs and attitudes regarding th e issue of diversity.

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12 To better understand the poten tial of childrens literature as texts for teacher preparation Brenner (2003) described the learning constructed by two preservice teachers, who read and interpreted a children s novel in an introducto ry teacher education course. This study showed that reading and ta lking with others a bout a childrens novel helps elucidate a set of academic theories about teaching and content. Childrens literature holds potential as a pedagogical tool for helping preservice teachers gain experience with issues and teaching methods such as the nature of learning and the role of the teacher. Thus, an opportunity to explore cultural diversity can be provided within the context of a childrens literature course in teacher education so that preservice teachers may begin to construct a personal framework to address multiculturalism. Limitations of the Study My study is limited to examining students at titudes toward the i ssue of diversity in childrens literature cour ses in the academic semesters of 2004, 2005, and 2006. The information collected in the qualitative part of this st udy emerges entirely from the perceptions and reflections of the participant experiences in one childrens literature classroom. The findings cannot be generalized to apply to all areas of teaching. Particular aspects and general themes emerging from the study may be transferable to another context. Personal Involvement Teaching about diversity and helping students who have been traditionally underrepresented to bring their needs forward and achieve success in schools has always been important to me. My interest in teach ing and learning about diversity comes from my experiences as a male working class member, who has been both a student (primary

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13 school to graduate school) and a teacher (e lementary school teacher for six years and teaching assistant in a college of education). I am a Turk, born and raised in Turkey, and my early educational experi ences occurred predominantly within public schools and colleges. Even though Turkey has a mixed cu ltural setting, in those almost exclusively Turks-dominated institutions, as pects of cultural identity such as class, gender, ability, and other social groupings are not valued or addressed in the overall pedagogical practices and curriculum. At the time that I was going to school, the banking method (Freire, 1970) of education excluded bringing student experiences into the classrooms. I found no positive representation of my culture in the textbooks. In and out of school, I had experiences that helped me understand how larger societal issues impacted me. I have a working-class background. In her book, Where we stand: Class matters hooks says about her mother All her dreams were about changing her material status (p.13). My mother dream was the same, to change her material status, but for her children rather than herself. Like hooks (2000) describes, my dad had the power over the family because he was working and making money. hooks says Being the man and making the money gave daddy the right to rule, to decide everyt hing, to overthrow mama s authority at any moment (p.19). In Where we stand: Class matters hooks talks about segr egated schools and she says, When those children were treated be tter, we thought it was because they were prettier, smarter, and just knew the right wa y to act (p.21). Not for the racial reason, hooks describes, I, too, thought the same way because rich and upper class children were treated better than working cla ss children in our schools. I was living in a small village and there was no high school. I had to go to th e nearest town to attend high school, which

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14 was 6 miles away from home. On the first day of high school, school administrators divided us into two groups, from villages (mostly working-class a nd farmers children) and those who lived in the town, to place students in classrooms. hooks (2000) states that, Slowly I bega n to understand fully that there was no place in academe for folks from working-cla ss backgrounds who did not wish to leave the past behind. (p.36). After working as a classr oom teacher, I returned to the university to take educational administration courses. Tec hnically I became a part of the middle class, but that was not who I was in reality. When we talked about summer vacation in a group of friends, I was talking about fishing, r eading books, spending time with my parents while they were talking about visiting ma ny places which I had never even heard of, skiing even, in summer. Pierre Bourdieu (1990, 2004) introduced the importance of social and cultural capital, noting that money or economic capital alone does not determine a persons social standing. Nieto (1999) noted the following: Most schools are organized to reflect the cultural capital or privileged social and cultural groups; in the United States that group is middle-class or upper class, English speaking Whites. As a result of th eir identity, some children arrive at the schoolhouse door with a built-in-privilege b ecause they have learned this cultural capital primarily in the same way as they have learned to walk, that is, unconsciously and effortlessly (p. 55). Both Nieto and hooks highlighted the im portance of understanding the impact of class issues on students and thei r learning styles as well as the inherent classism that exists in current pedagogical approaches. When school are organized to reflect the cultural capital of upper-and middle-class individuals, educational structures automatically set up classroom environments that may limit the achievement of persons from lower-social-class backgrounds.

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15 During my early years of teaching, I was often overwhelmed with everything that was incorporated into our curriculum ev ery day. Every subject came with either a textbook or a workbook. During my first couple years of teaching, I experienced some parts of Rosenblatts theory and critical literacy because, as an avid reader myself, I often made personal connections to the stories I re ad, and always wanted to talk about my books with middle grade students, but not with early grade students such as first and second graders. Even though none of us knew wh at to call it at the time, we were using these strategies. I was a new teacher and a lthough I could not theoretically understand why the language arts curriculum I was given did not seem right, I knew that something was very wrong. In time, I realized that the strategies our curriculum recommended did not support students literary experien ces. Through my years of e xperience in language arts classrooms we challenged the characters be havior and questioned the society in which we were living. And most importantly I cam e to realize that not only middle grade students but also students in early grades could carry on complex discussions about characters and plot as they interpreted stories from their individual perspectives. Another important aspect of these experiences was th at my students and I st arted to move from our individual responses to look at th e larger social systems at work. Over the years my educational background has been a major reason for my wanting to explore teaching and learning about divers ity to enable all students to succeed. My interest with multicultural e ducation involves helping student s and teachers acquire the knowledge and skills necessary fo r understanding and working with people from diverse cultural groups. The idea for this study did not just come with a simple search; it has a

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16 history that includes my experiences both liv ing in different cultures and many years of teaching experience.

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17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Conceptual History and Definiti on of Multicultural Education Cochran-Smith et al., (2004) described the ea rly years of the twen ty-first century as the best and worst of times in terms of multicultural education. On one side, they say it is a time for celebration and hope-a time of heightened attenti on to issues of diversity and schooling (p.931). Gollnicks (1995) analysis of national and stat e policy initiatives regarding multicultural e ducation refers to the requirement of the study of ethnic groups, cultural diversity, human relations or multicultural education as parts of teacher education programs in 40 states. On the other hand, they say, the early twenty -first century is indicative of the worst of times as the federa l government funded a major synthesis of the research on teacher preparation organized around five major questions, none of which have to do with preparing teachers for dive rse populations (Wilson at al., 2001). Indeed, Cochran-Smith et al., (2004) stated: Perhaps worst of all, in some states, a si gnificant influence on teacher certification and/or program approval regulations is th e assumption that multicultural education is a pernicious political agenda that is anti-White, anti -intellectual, and anticapitalist (p.932). Multicultural education as an educati onal philosophy and ideology was born out of the civil rights movements of the 1960s and the early 1970s. Ea rly studies in the field of multicultural education commonly challenged the neutrality of knowledge and the centrality of white men in curriculum. S upporters sought to deve lop a sense of group pride and to teach about discrimination ag ainst minority groups. Boyle-Baise (1999)

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18 focused on the development of multicultura l education since the 1960s, and presented a framework for viewing the development. Boyle-Baise (1999) conducted a qualitative study to explore the historical trends in mu lticultural education. The primary information came from interviews with scho lars who were central in founding the field such as James A. Banks, Carl Grant, Christine Bennett, Geneva Gay, Carlos Cortes, Donna Gollnick, Wilma Longstreet, and Christine Sleeter. Ba sed on this research study, the conceptual history of multicultural education ha s gone through the following periods: Quest for ethnic content, Movement from multiethnic to multicultural education, The move to greater inclusion, Searching for conceptual clarity. The first generation of scholars in multicu ltural education came to the field from ethnic studies. This was during the time peri od Banks calls a quest for ethnic content. Banks, Gay and Grant also were interested in strengthening educational access and achievement for children of color. Many early scholars moved in an evolutionary fashion from ethnic to multiethnic to multicultural studies (Boyle-Baise, 1999). Multicultural education, as a field of study contains a multitude of themes. By the latter 1980s, multicultural education meant differe nt things to different people. In search of conceptual clarity, Sleeter and Grant (1987) reviewed the literat ure about multicultural education. They found five broad cate gories within the field including: Teaching the culturally different, Human relations, Single group studies, Multicultural education, Education that is multicultural and social reconstructionist.

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19 In Making Choices for Multicultural Education, they supported an approach called education that is multicultural and social r econstructionist. This approach emphasized educational responsiveness to th e social/structural in equality of people of color (Sleeter & Grant 1999). Banks (2004) pointed out that a succe ssful implementation of multicultural education requires instit utional change including, changes in the curriculum; the teaching materials; teaching and learning styles; th e attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of teachers and administrators; and the goa ls, norms, and culture of the school. He emphasized that many of the educationa l organizations and practitioners have a limited conception of multicultu ral education, viewing it prim arily as curriculum reform that involves only changing or restructuring the curriculu m to include content about ethnic groups, women and other cultural groups. One important idea that can be drawn from this argument is that various dimensions of multicultural education must be more clearly described, conceptualized, and researched. In his literature review Banks (2004) used five dimensions to conceptualize multicultural education. These dimensions are: Content integration, which describes a teach er's efforts to integrate examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups when they teach particular subjects The knowledge construction process, wh ereby teachers aid students in understanding how implicit cultural assump tions, frames of reference, and bias influence the constructed knowledge within a particular discipline Prejudice reduction, which highlights the teach er's focus on the characteristics of students' racial attitudes An equity pedagogy, as a goal of the t eacher who prioritizes the academic achievement of all students; An empowering school culture, which is the attention paid by the entire school to issues of equity and inte ractions between members of the school community across

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20 ethnic and racial lines, for the express pur pose of developing a school culture of empowerment for all students. Even though this typology provides a way to organize and make sense of complex and disparate data and observations, he stated that like all classification schemas, it has both strengths and limitations. Banks (1989) described a hierarchy of four curricular models to integrate multiculturalism into the curriculum. Banks (1989) model includes four levels as the contributions, additive, transformative, and so cial action approaches. The first two levels of the model, the contributions and additive approaches, are the levels that have been focused on the heroes-and-holidays to incl ude multicultural issu es. Banks saw these approaches as superficial because they do not question the basic assumptions of traditional Eurocentric school curricula. It is only in the transformative and social action approaches that students are challenged in this direction. Th ese levels provide a framework for examining how multicultural ed ucation can be theorized and implemented for many researchers. Rasinski and Padak (1990), Bieger (1996) and Halagao (2004) examined these models in relation to literat ure connections and classroom applications. As stated earlier they provide a framew ork to address possible response based connections between the reader and multicultu ral literature. Many scholars mention that one of the main problems in classrooms, accord ing to these models, is the teachers lack of comfort with multicultura l literature, and confiden ce beyond the first level. Birkel (2000) examined the term multicultu ral education as us ed in the field of multicultural education and she points to several misconceptions. She wrote: The goals of multicultural education ar e to promote better understanding among our people, to reduce prejudice, to fulfill th e democratic ideal of equality under the law and freedom of thought and action within established law. It seeks to fashion unity in diversity through the idea of cu ltural pluralism. It aims to develop an

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21 appreciation of the contri butions to our country and to humankind made by people from all elements of our society (p.30). Definitions of multicultural education vary widely depending on the content selection, methodological focus, and referent group orientations. The following are the major definitions of multicultural education defined by the influential scholars in this field. Banks (1993) identified the major components when he explains that multicultural education is an idea, an educational reform movement, and a process whose major goal is to change the structure of educational institutions. Garcia (1982), and Frazier (1977) stated that multicultural e ducation is a concept, a framework, a way of thinking, a philosophical viewpoint, a value orientation, and a set of criteria for making decisions that better serve the educational needs of culturally diverse student populations. As a concept, idea, or philosophy multicultural education is a set of beliefs and explanations that recognizes and values th e importance of ethnic and cu ltural diversity in shaping lifestyles, social experiences personal identities, and educational opportunities of individuals, groups, and nations. Grant (1977) connected multicultural educ ation to its own value traditions by defining it as a humanistic concept; establishe s it as a condition of quality education for culturally pluralistic student populations; and su ggests that it is base d upon the principles of equality, human rights, social justice, a nd alternative life choi ces. The conception of multicultural education as an alternative way of thinking about how to provide quality education for diverse groups within the contex t of democratic ideas is further refined by Banks (1990), Bennett (1990), Slee ter (1991), and Nieto (2004).

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22 Increasingly, multicultural education is seen as a process instead of a product. As a process, it is a way of thinking, a decisionmaking style, and a way of behaving in educational settings that is pervasive a nd ongoing (Banks, 1993). It requires long-term investments of time and resources, and carefully planned and monitored actions. Sleeter and Grant (1988) cap tured the essence of this conception when they explained why they prefer to use education that is multicultural to identify the enterprise instead of multicultural education Rather than a specific, discrete education program (such as social studies, bilingual, or science education), they see multicultural education as a different approach to the entire educational enterprise in all its forms and functions. Probably the most inclusive and eclectic definition of multicultural education is one by Nieto (2004, 2006). While many other scholars use multiple elements such as content, process, ideology, and reform in their concep tions of multicultural education, Nieto's is by far the most comprehensive. She places multicultural educati on in a sociopolitical context, and incorporates substantive and pr ocedural components, outcome expectations, and some interpretive comments. The result is a synergistic composite that includes some features of most of the vari ous types of definition discusse d above. Nieto stated (2006): Multicultural education is a process of comprehensive school reform and basic education for all students. It challenges and rejects racism and other forms of discrimination in schools and society and accepts and affirms the pluralism (such as ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious, economic, and gender, among others) that students, their communities, and teachers represent. Multicultural education permeates the curriculum and instructional st rategies used in schools, as well as the interactions among teachers, students and parents, and the very way that schools conceptualize the natu re of teaching and learning. B ecause it uses critical pedagogy as its underlying philosophy and focuse s on knowledge, reflection, and action (praxis) as the basis for social chan ge, multicultural education furthers the democratic principles of social justice (p.228).

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23 She emphasized seven basic characteristic s of multicultural education in her definition. These are: multicultural education is antiracist education. multicultural education is basic education multicultural education is important for all students. multicultural education is pervasive. multicultural education is education for social justice. multicultural education is a process. multicultural education is critical pedagogy (p.228-229). Banks, Cookson, Gay, Hawley, Irvine, Ni eto, Schofield, and Stephan (2001) reviewed and synthesized the research relate d to diversity. They or ganized their findings under five categories including 12 essential pr inciples. These categor ies and principles are: Teacher Learning Principle 1. Professional development pr ograms should help teachers understand the complex characteristics of ethnic groups within U.S. society and the ways in which race, ethnicity, language, and social class interact to influence student behavior Student Learning Principle 2. Schools should ensure that all students have equitable opportunities to learn and to meet high standards. Principle 3. The curriculum should help students understand that knowledge is socially constructed and reflects researcher s' personal experiences as well as the social, political, and economic contex ts in which they live and work. Principle 4. Schools should pr ovide all students with opport unities to participate in extracurricular and cocurricular activi ties that develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes that increase academic achieve ment and foster positive interracial relationships.

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24 Intergroup Relations Principle 5. Schools should create or make salient superordinat e or cross-cutting groups in order to improve intergroup relations. Principle 6. Students should learn about st ereotyping and other related biases that have negative effects on r acial and ethnic relations. Principle 7. Students should learn about the values shared by virtually all cultural groups (e.g., justice, equality, freedom, peace, compassion, and charity). Principle 8. Teachers should help students acquire the social skills needed to interact effectively with st udents from other racial, et hnic, cultural, and language groups. Principle 9. Schools should pr ovide opportunities for student s from different racial, ethnic, cultural, and language groups to interact socially under conditions designed to reduce fear and anxiety. School Governance, Organization, and Equity Principle 10. A school's organizational st rategies should ensure that decisionmaking is widely shared and that me mbers of the school community learn collaborative skills and dispositions in order to create a caring learning environment for students. Principle 11. Leaders should ensure that all public schools, regardless of their locations, are funded equitably. Assessment Principle 12. Teachers should use multiple culturally sensitive techniques to assess complex cognitive and social skills p.196-203. In the context of teacher education Cochran-Smith (2004) designed a conceptual framework for educators, policy makers, resear chers, and others to make sense of the many instantiations in research, practice, and policy of policy what it means to recruit, prepare, support, and assess teachers for a multicultural society to understand the multiple meanings of multicultural education. She explained any instance of research, practice, or policy related to multicultural teacher educat ion implicitly (or explicitly) answers eight key questions: the diversity question, the id eology question, the knowledge question, the teacher learning question, the practice questi on, the outcome question, and the selection question (Cochran-Smith, 2004). In addition to these eight key questions she explained

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25 three external forces (institutional capaci ty, governmental/nongovernmental regulations, relationships with local communities and school s), and the larger historical and social contexts related to preparing te achers for diverse populations. From this review of literature on mu lticultural education, the definition of multicultural education can be found in severa l different ways, and educational practices described as multicultural are implemented based on several different frameworks. Many scholars agree on the definition of multicultura l education that multicultural education as a philosophical concept and an educational process (Grant, C. A. & Ladson-Billings G., 1997), and multiculturalism as a philosophical position and movement that assumes the gender, ethnic, racial, and cultural di versity of a pluralis tic society should be reflected in all of its institutionalized st ructures but especially in educational institutions, including the staff, norms and values, curriculum, and student body (Banks & Banks, 1993). Research on Undergraduate Students Belief Systems Regarding Diversity Several types of research methods were utilized to examin e the undergraduate students beliefs regardin g diversity using qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodologies. Qualitative studies included, case studies (Causey, Thomas & Armento 2000; Smith, 2000), ethnographic studies (Davis 1995; Pattnaik & Vold 1998), criticaltheory research (Levine-Rasky 2001; Noel 2003), narrative research (Clark & Medina 2000; Duesterberg 1998), action res earch (Graham & Young 2000), and phenomenological research (Mer ryfield, 2000; Paccione, 2000). Under the quantitative research methodol ogy, there are many surveys used in the field of teachers belief systems regarding diversity. These are Quick Discrimination Index (developed by Joseph G. Ponterotto & Alan Burkard 1993 and used in a case study, Garmon, 1998), The Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (developed by Henry, 1986;

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26 used by Milner, Flowers, Moore, & Flowers (20 03) as replicate an earlier study of Larke, (1990)), Survey of Multicultural Education Concepts (SMEC) (used by Moore, ReevesKazelskis (1992)), Semantic Differential Cultural Survey (used by Tran, Young, & DiLella (1994)), Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scale (developed by Pohan, and Aguilar (1994)), Modern Racism Scale (developed by McCon-ahay, Hardee, & Batts, (1981) used by Chang (2002)), Multicultural Competency Questionnaire (MCQ) ( used by King, & Howard-Hamilton (2003)). To measure preservice teachers beliefs on the issue of diversity, many questi onnaires were also deve loped on the basis of reviews of the multicultural education field, an d interviews with scholars in the area of multicultural education (Barry & Lechner 1995; Bhargava, A., Hawley, L.D., Scott, C.L., Stein, M. & Phelps, A 2004; Hasseler 1998; Terrill & Mark 2000; Weisman & Garza 2002). Another methodological cluster used by many researchers was mixed method design. Creswell (1995) used distinction in defi ning four of the mixed method designs: Sequential studies: The two phases are separate. Parallel/simultaneous studies: Two phases at a same time. Equivalent status design: conduct both quantitative and qualitative approaches equally to understand the phenomenon under study. Dominant-less dominant studies: within a si ngle dominant paradigm with a small component of the overall study dr awn from an alternative design. Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) defined a nd added a fifth type of mixed method design a multilevel use of a pproaches (p.18). A review of literature on preservice teacher beliefs on diversity shows examples of each type of design: Gonzales (1993); Lee (2002); Middleton (2002); Mo ss (2001); Nayda (2003); Wiggings and Follo (1999). Reviews of the research on multicultural teacher education tend to focus on three issues; I used these issues as subcategories to review the studies. These issues are:

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27 The effectiveness of a multicultural e ducation course on a teacher education program The effects or impact of multicultural e ducation course components or of teacher preparation program components Preservice teachers beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions about diversity. The Effectiveness of a Multicultural E ducation Course on a Teacher Education Program Ngai (2004) stated, In or der to energize K-12 multicu ltural education, effective multicultural education must star t with teacher education (p.321). Over the past decades, multicultural education advocates have propos ed various educational strategies and teaching approaches for teacher education programs to provide preservice teachers sufficient guidance in developing knowledge, skills, and dispositions dealing with diversity issues in the classroom. Multicultu ral approaches and st rategies in teacher education programs can heighten awareness of students to social problems regarding the issue of diversity and promote more open at titudes toward them, but the benefits range over various categories. For example in her study Nayda (2003) explored changes in teacher candidates multicultural attitudes a nd knowledge as well as the factors that contributed positively to those changes. Her findings suggest that teacher candidates multicultural attitudes and knowledge change d in a positive direction while the candidates attended a teacher preparation program. Nayda collected data from two questionnaires divided conceptually into si x scales (curriculum, bilingual education, stereotypes, culturally relate d behaviors, building of mi nority pupils self-esteem and assimilation) and semistructured interviews. She followed teacher candidates during their teacher preparation programs and found that ch anges seem to be influenced by fieldwork

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28 experiences in culturally/ethnically diverse se ttings, courses in multicultural and bilingual education, and classmates. Causey, Thomas and Armento (2000) examined the effectiveness of an approach on diversity issues used in an urban university during the final year of a teacher preparation program. Vosniadou and Brewers (1987) framew ork was used in this study to analyze cognitive schema and cognitive changes in preservice teachers with regard to their attitudes and beliefs about di versity. Autobiographical and post-experience essays, the reflection journals, and the dive rsity plans developed by the stude nts were part of the data collection procedures. The authors stated that: Teacher education programs, in collaborati on with school system educators, should address the career needs of t eachers as they face the joys and challenges of diverse classrooms. We must commit to follow-up programs for our graduates if we wish to support sensitivity to cultural diversity in classroom setti ngs over the career paths of educators (p.43). As components of multicultural education, it is important for teachers to affirm the cultures and backgrounds of the students and to create an in tegrated framework for the contextualizing of issues of race, class, and gender (Van Gunten & Martin, 2001, p.39). From this perspective in 1995, Davis conducted a 2-year ethnographic study of a teacher education program that addressed the teach ers adoption of culturally responsive pedagogy. She collected data from observations in teacher education classes on language development, multicultural education, and read ing and writing methods and interviews of instructors and preservice teachers. She c oncluded, preservice teachers experience and ultimately adopt a meritocratic and hegemoni c system of schooling in which academic performance is viewed in terms of indivi dual abilities and based on mainstream norms (p.553). Therefore she suggested that:

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29 in developing teacher education curr iculum and pedagogical strategies, an understanding is needed of the multiple and complex ways in which preservice teachers have developed a range of view s related to minority schooling, including the nature of intellectual ability, the purpose of sc hooling, and the reasons for student failure (p.560). Moss (2001) used both quantitative and quali tative data collection techniques to serve as a critical lens for teachers in pr omoting equity, student voice, and democratic structure guided by the researcher's interest in understanding th e potential of critical pedagogy (Sleeter & McLaren, 1995). She sele cted fifteen participants who are K-12 classroom teachers, enrolled in a graduate level education course, Education That Is Multicultural, included a set of simulation activ ities such as stereotypes, seal hunt, star power, decisions, gifted and talented, ghetto, foods across the globe (overpopulation), balkanization, cultural herita ge, and concepts. She exam ined the translation of multicultural learning activities in a college classroom into critical pedagogy in the public school classrooms. Survey responses indicate d that there was little transference to the public school classroom in terms of using the simulated activities. However analysis of narratives reflected a change Moss (2001) stat ed, Most of the teach ers were critically impacted during one or more of the learning acti vities in a way that resulted in a broader perspective and critical self-reflection with regard to their teaching practices (p.9). She concluded that: Teachers must engage in the critical peda gogical discourse in scholarship, but more importantly must apply a critical multicul tural lens to teaching practices. Only, then, can critical pedagogy be translat ed into public school practice and allow teachers to participate in the systemic cha nge of education from education that is monocultural to education th at is multicultural (p.10). Utilizing combined quantitative and qualita tive methods to explore the attitudes, beliefs, and commitments of a predominantly Anglo-American population of preservice teachers enrolled in a diversity course, Middl eton (2002) described preservice teachers

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30 beginning attitudes, beliefs, and commitments to diversity; changes in attitudes, beliefs, and commitments after participation in a dive rsity course; some theoretical underpinnings for understanding changes; and a framework for facilitating positive multicultural experiences. Quantitatively, the Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Pohan & Aguilar, 1994) was used as a preand post-test measure of self-reported attitudes and beliefs about diversity before and after participation in a diversity course. Qualitatively, data were gathered through written self-refl ective journals and oral di scussions regarding specific attitudes, beliefs and changes in ideologi es and commitments toward diversity. Data analysis indicated a significant difference from pretest to postt est on self-reported personal and professional beliefs after participation in a divers ity course and that changes are not always toward increased diversity beliefs and commitment, quantitatively and specific changes, qualitatively. And Middleton stated, The overall picture seemed to show that regardless of the stages PTs are i n, they can be taught to be more accepting of diversity given time and appropriate in terventions (p.358). Middleton proposed a thematic framework for preparing PTs to work with diverse student populations by increasing their understanding of and commitme nt to multicultural teaching practices as well as facilitating positive multicultural experiences: Approach: Nonthreatening; Cognitively and developmentally appropriate; and relevant to roles as future educators. Authenticity: Credible and approachable presenters/instructors; Relevant experiences; Hands-on activities; and Usable skills for future. Awareness and Assessment: Cognitively consci ous; View self, others, world from a variety of perspectives; Time to become aware and asses new information; and Freedom to choose what to do whit the new information. Accountability: Gently forced to; Exam ine own biases; Take a stand for their beliefs; Do whats best for students (p.351).

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31 Many teacher educators point out that teachers will n eed knowledge to develop curriculum and teaching strategies that addr ess the wide range of learning approaches, experiences, and prior levels of knowledge (Grant & Wieczorek, 2000, p. 913). Wiggings and Follo (1999) investigated the preparation and commitment of preservice teachers to teach in culturally diverse settings. Through questionnaires and interviews, they collected and analyzed data from select groups of students who must complete pre-student teaching field placements in at least two urban settings, at different stages of the elementary education program, and tried to determine the impact of the teacher education program on students' ability to teach in a multi cultural environment. They draw the statements for questionnaires from the work of Powell, Zehm, and Garcia (1996) that divide into three broad categories: factors fostering readiness for teaching in culturally diverse settings (knowledge and skills, pe dagogical issues), factors constraining readiness for teac hing in culturally diverse sett ings (awareness of cultural differences, personal attitude), and prior expe riences relative to multicultural education. In terms of direction and pe rcentage of changed responses all groups had a two-to-one ratio of positive to negative change for first and last categories. Bu t, for second category they found almost as much as negative change as there was positive. As a result of this study they stated that: We must find a way to immerse studen ts in the culture of the school and community. Students must do more than reflec t on what they see; they must also reflect on who they are. If they do not, they will never be able to ask the important questions, the difficult, sometimes tac tless and embarrassing questions about cultural norms and issues they do not unders tand. If they do not reach a level of understanding and appreciation, we cannot e xpect them to reach a comfort level that will allow them to make a commitment to work with and effectively teach diverse student populations (p. 104).

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32 Merryfield conducted a study in 2000 to look at why and how teacher educators are bridging the gap between the fields that ar e commonly called multicultural education and global education to prepare teachers to teach for diversity, equity, and interconnectedness in the local community, nation, and world. He r analysis included 115 personal and/or program profiles and supporting materials (sy llabi, articles, program descriptions, etc.) submitted by 80 teacher educators. For conceptu alizing lived experience within the study, she used Max van Manens (1990) work on the temporal nature of lived experience. She finds significant qualitative differences between those experiences identified by people of color and those who are white in that most of the people of color acquired an experiential understanding of discrimination and outsi der status by growing up in a society characterized by white privilege and racism while many of the middle-class white teacher educators had their most profound experiences while living outside of their own country. It is very difficult to determine how effective multicultural teacher education practices are without examining graduates after they have star ted teaching, especially in schools that serve minorities. Very little research review ed here directly connected teacher education with classroom practice; this connection is an essential part of the idea of multiculturalism. Also race and ethnicity are the main factors that have been studied in the literature described here, and usually disc onnected from social class. More research should focus on class and the interactions be tween class and race w ithin the studies on preparing teachers. Pattnaik and Vold (1998) conducted an ethnographic study to gain a better understanding of the multiple factors invol ved in student teachers multicultural preparation. They employed methodological guidelines as described in Lincoln and

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33 Guba, (1985), and Bogdan and Biklen, (1994), including: a descrip tive and exploratory purpose for the studying teachers beliefs and pr actices, use of the natural setting without any artificial impositions, triangulation th rough multiple data collection procedures across time and contexts, a purposive and small sample study to achieve comprehensiveness and verticality in i nquiry, and inductive data analysis to accommodate evolving categories or themes. Over one-semester they collected data from eight student teachers using a multicultural questionnaire, observations, documents, field notes and interviews. As a result of the study they stated that: our findings have highlighted that no discrete reform agenda standing alone could shoulder the entire weight of the whole unless the whole is reflected in equal passion in all its components. The whole we refer to is the id eology of cultural pluralism, and the components are Scwa bs (1983) four common places: student, teacher, subject, and milieu (p.82). In her descriptive survey study on the academ ic and personal characteristics of inservice teachers taking a graduate course in multicultural education issues, Gonzales (1993) summarizes the descriptions of existing patterns and changes in academic knowledge and attitudinal belief systems on multicultural education. Reflective teaching was used as a psychopedagogical strategy with the in-service teachers for the purpose of increasing their academic knowledge and ch anging their attitudes in this study. Her results suggest that higher levels of academic knowledge occur when students gain an increase in awareness levels of attitu dinal belief systems through self-reflection. Gonzales states that reflective teaching can be used as an effective ethnographic research tool, as well as an effective psychopeda gogical strategy for mu lticultural education. To examine how small private colleges a ddress multicultural issues within teacher education, Hasseler (1998) collected data from 90 coalition education department chairperson members who were asked to re spond to a questionnaire focusing on beliefs

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34 about multicultural teacher education, actual course content, and teaching practices. The study indicates that there was great variety in how multiculturalism was addressed; less than half the departments required course s in multicultural edu cation, though nearly three-quarters integrated it into other subjects; nearly three-quarters of participating departments addressed multiculturalism in th eir philosophy statements; deterrents to effective multicultural education included l ack of minority faculty, lack of time for gaining expertise, lack of fundi ng and lack of minority students. Multicultural education should involve fi eld experience in teacher preparation programs so that preservice teachers can reach an understanding of the relationship between culture and power with learning th rough field experiences Graham and Young (2000) conducted an action research study. They describe and comment on the effort to take advantage of the unique opportunity pr esented in the course when the students returned to the university classroom after their first five weeks of student teaching. Graham and Young draw attention to the co mplexities and tensions that arose for students and instructors alike during these debriefing sessions. The instructors took on an expanded role within the constraints and po ssibilities of the debriefing session as one discursive site in the conceptualization of any program-wide agenda for multicultural teacher education. To understand the factors and process invol ved in developing a commitment to multicultural education, Pacci one (2000) conducted a phenomenological research study utilizing written surveys and open-ended telephone interviews as data collection methods. Paccione uses Moustakas (1994) systematic process of data analysis method for the

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35 analysis of interviews incorpor ates a four-stage process to describe the development of a commitment to multicultural education: Stage One: Contextual Awareness, Stage Two: Emergent Awareness, Stage Three: Transformational Awareness, Stage Four: Committed Action in Advocacy for Diversity/Multicultural Education. Two major findings of the study in dicated that particular life experiences (Initiative from job situation, Influence of family/childhood experiences, Discrimination due to minority status, Interactive/extended cultural imme rsion experience, Influence of training, educational course, or books) contribute to the development of a commitment to multicultural education by those teachers who are already committed and a four-stage process can be used to describe the development of a commitment to multicultural education. Paccione(2000) stated, Preservice teachers have a wide variety of contextual awareness that has been developed through early chil dhood experiences. There is not much that teacher educators can do about that. However, an understanding of the stages of developing a commitment to multicultural education may assist teacher educators as they prepare preservice teachers for a racia lly-culturally divers e student population (p.998). The study supports the importance of cultu ral immersion experiences and course work in multicultural education in evoking a critical analysis of the soci opolitical status quo in U.S. society. The Effects or Impact of a Multicultural Education Course Components or Teacher Preparation Program Components Some study findings showed that after a multicultural education course with specific strategies, positive changes in attitude s begin to occur. Noel (2003) described an art-based approach to the st udy of multicultural education that challenges students to

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36 address critical examinations of society, wh ile enabling an aestheti c understanding of the issues. As the instructor of an Education in a Democratic, Pluralistic Society course, her class engaged in critical multicultural pedagogy, in the examination of how power works in interest of dominant social relations and how such relations can be challenged and transformed (Giroux, p.170). By the end of the semester, she had collected about 50 pieces of artwork produced by the students. She stated that: These acts of creation, undertaken week ly by these students, while perhaps beginning as the individual effort to understand concept, became a socially transformative effort (p.18). Another perspective emerges from th e study of 35 teacher candidates where Levine-Rasky (2001) focused on how pros pective teachers respond to the social difference they encounter in educational disc ourse and in the public schools. Portraying 3 teacher candidates she found 3 signposts indi cative of support for multicultural social reconstructionist education: identification with social ju stice, support for critical pedagogy and multicultural social reconstructioni st education, and the desire to learn more about the effects of social domination. Clark and Medina (2000) conducted a re search study to see how students' understandings of literacy and multiculturalism are mediated through the acts of reading and writing literacy narratives. Narratives and narrative theory were central to their work. The study describes one group of eight stude nts who chose Luis Rodriguez's Always Running (1993) as their focal literacy narrativ e. Their goal was to analyze the students' understandings of some issues in becoming a teacher in a multic ultural society through reading Rodriguez's autobiography on his grow ing up as a son of Me xican immigrants in East Los Angeles, his struggle to acquire an education, and his invol vement in gangs and violence. Clark and Medina were particularly interested in the relationship between the

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37 students' readings of the text and their reflections on their pe rsonal identities and processes of becoming literate. They collected and photocopied all students writing from the course, including students' personal liter acy narratives, their reading logs, responses to Always Running, and their final papers on literacy a nd pedagogy. Also they attended group discussions. The study shows that liter acy narratives may become a powerful tool when used in the process of raising awar eness of diversity among preservice teachers. These narratives hold the potenti al to encourage preservice teachers to enter the dialectic and to develop a consciousness of, or to at least reflect upon, i ssues of literacy and diversity in the classroom. In his research Duesterberg (1998) consid ered questions about culture and cultural identity, which surfaced as st udent teachers in their fulltime practicum in elementary classrooms engaged in efforts to learn about the communities of their students and to use culture in the classroom. He used what Scott (1991) called the Narra tives of experience in order to examine the language (or discour ses) that shaped a nd constructed that experience (p.777). Through the research he illu strated how culture can be used in the classroom to frame and limit children, and how the classroom might be a space in which culture and cultural identity is explored, challenged and recreated. Ference and Bell (2004) described a two-week cross-cultural immersion experience for preservice teachers attending a small liberal arts college. This experience occurred early in preservice teachers teacher trai ning and was designed to positively affect preservice teachers attitudes toward Latino students who did not speak English well. As a result of this short study from the st udents end-of-course papers the immersion experience had positively affected them in s ubstantial ways. The categories that emerged

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38 from the study were: Immigration, matchi ng prior knowledge, cu lture, preconceptions and misconceptions, feelings of isolati on and ESOL methods and curriculum. Preservice Teachers Beliefs, Attitudes, Kn owledge, and Perceptions about Diversity Understanding the nature of beliefs, att itudes and perceptions is a must to understanding future teachers decisions a nd effectiveness regard ing the issues of diversity, equity and social justice. The changes of attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and perceptions of preservice teachers have been studied from various different theoretical perspectives and research methods. For exam ple, Smith (2000) examined the role of preservice teachers backgrounds in the inclus ion of a multicultural education perspective in the teaching of secondary social studies. He used a case study approach involving two social studies preservice teachers with widely different background experiences and beliefs in relation to cultural diversity. The st udy consisted of two main phases: a social study methods course and stude nt teaching. Written papers, a planning unit for student teaching, interviews with the participants, observations of the participant teaching, a videotaped recording of their teaching, and surveys and focus group interviews with the high school students they taught, we re all part of the data collection methods used in the study. He found that background experiences have explanatory value in the preservice teachers receptiveness to a multicultural teaching perspective. The background experiences of college stude nts are important in that they bring their preconceived beliefs, myths and concerns to the college classrooms. Elhoweris, Parameswaran and Alsheikh ( 2004) discussed the myths that they encountered in their personal teaching experiences with coll ege students, and the impact of these myths on student teachers' understandin g of their roles in classrooms. In addition they suggested teaching tips as part of teach er education courses that will help clarify

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39 some of these issues for student teachers in their effort to be effective teachers to underrepresented and marginalized students in their own classrooms. These myths are: Myth 1: Multicultural education reinforces barriers between various cultural groups. Myth 2: Cultures are static, unchanging a nd have core characteristics that can be identified and studied. Myth 3: A discussion of educational inequi ties in multicultural classes is sufficient to create a more just society. Myth 4: Racism ought to be treated th e same as interpersonal prejudice. Myth 5: Specific pedagogical skills are th e major pillars of culturally responsive instruction for diverse learners. Myth 6: The locus of responsibility a nd change for individual underachievement lies within the minority child. Myth 7: Learning styles of children from different culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds must be a core th eme for teacher prep aration programs. Myth 8: Teaching to diversity simply involves helping students from diverse backgrounds achieve traditional goals in education (p.13-17). They concluded: Student teachers often fail to see education as a political enterprise of reproducing the dominant ideology and appropriating a nd legitimizing one type of discourse. They sometimes fail to recognize that they don't teach history, math or reading but they teach a student who comes to sc hool as an ethnic being, cultural-being, gender-being, and religious being. They often overlook the crucial and dynamic relationship between the text and contex t and often fail to recognize the multiple discourses within which schools operate (p.17). There are many educational st udies that used surveys a nd self-questionnaires to assess the undergraduate students belief systems regarding di versity. The following

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40 section of chapter introduces related studies presented unde r survey studies and selfquestionnaires. Survey studies The Quick Discrimination Index developed by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Alan Burkard (1993) consists of 25 items and repor ts a single total score that represents the respondents level of awareness, knowledge, and sensitivity to racial/ethnic minority issues and womens issues. In a case st udy, Garmon (1998) examined how three white preservice teachers were similar and dissimila r in terms of their racial attitudes and beliefs, their prior interracial experiences, and certain personal characteristics. As a part of the larger data collecti on, students completed the Quick Discrimination Index. Results of the case study indicated that multicultural education course s may be most effective for students who already possess more favorable ra cial attitudes and for those who display a quality of openness and an ability to be self-reflective. The Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (Henry, 1986) was designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beli efs, and behavior toward these children. The checklist consists of 28 items to which re spondents may indicate the extent of their agreement or disagreement. Milner, Flower s, Moore, and Flowers (2003) attempted to replicate an earlier study (Larke, 1990) that sought to estimate preservice teachers' general awareness of cultural differences. In the study, data from 99 preservice teachers who completed the Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory were utilized to examine the extent to which teacher education programs helped future teachers to become more multiculturally competent. Using the Larke s study as a foundation, they found preservice teachers were more likely to agree with statem ents that emphasized cultural inclusion and

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41 respect for diversity in the cl assroom and also a large propor tion of preservice teachers reported neutral responses suggesting that they were not quite sure how they felt about integrating their learning environments with curricula, assessments, and programs that support multiculturalism in the classroom. Th e authors evaluated the neutrality of responses: Perhaps this neutrality results from the l ack of experiences preservice teachers had engaging in these activities. It is also likel y that preservice teachers were unsure of their abilities and feelings in this respect because they had not had the opportunity to attempt such strategies (p.68). The 18 item Survey of Multicultural Education Concepts (SMEC) was designed to assess beliefs and attitudes about multicultural education with items representing: racism, sexism, stereotyping, linguistic views, special holidays, and educa tional practices. Moore and Reeves-Kazelskis (1992) conducted a study to determine whether formal instruction into multicultural education would produce chan ges in preservice teachers' beliefs about basic concepts related to the topic. The sample consisted of 31 preservice teachers enrolled in 2 sections of a practicum course in early childhood edu cation. Results of the study suggest that carefully planned and implem ented formal instruction may be used to change preservice teachers' be liefs about cultural diversity. A 7 Point (26 paired items) Semantic Differential Cultural Survey was used by Tran, Young, and DiLella (1994). Students (n=5 5) in a required multicultural education course designed to reduce racism and st ereotyping attitudes among preservice teacher education students completed preand posttest s to determine attitudes toward African Americans, Europeans, and Mexican Ameri cans. Results indicated that the course appeared to have had a signi ficant effect on changing student attitudes toward the three ethnic groups.

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42 Chang (2002) examined whether a divers ity requirement diminishes racial prejudice particularly toward African Am ericans. An eight-item adaptation of the Modern Racism Scale (McCon-ahay, Hardee, & Batts, 1981) was used to assess subjects' level of prejudice toward Blacks. The eight items ar e embedded in a series of other unrelated social and political questions to mask the intentions of the questionnaire. The findings support the necessity of providing undergraduat es with opportunities to critically examine cultural and social groups previ ously marginalized or ignored in the curriculum so that students can challenge their prej udicial views and assumptions. King and Howard-Hamilton (2003) used the Multicultural Competency Questionnaire (MCQ) to assess multicultural experiences and competency levels of graduate students in college student personne l preparation programs, student affairs staff serving as internship supervisors, and divers ity educators. They used Pope and Reynolds' (1997) definition of multicultural competen ce for this project: "the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively and ethically across cultural differences" (p. 270). The following definitions of these three aspects (based on Pope and Reynolds, 1997) were provided to respondents as a frame of reference for completing the MCQ: Multicultural Knowledge: Having an inform ed understanding of cultures that are different from one's own culture, including knowledge of their histories, traditions, values, practices, and so forth. Multicultural Skills: Skills that indivi duals use to engage in effective and meaningful interactions with those who are from different cultural backgrounds than their own. Multicultural Awareness: Awareness of how people's attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and self-awareness affect the ways they interact with those who are culturally different from themselves (p.271).

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43 The study showed that ther e are significant differences by group and by race in respondents' levels of multicu ltural competence: student a ffairs staff members scored significantly higher than did C SP students, and diversity e ducators scored the highest. Students of color scored significantly higher on this measure than did the White students and the staff members. Lee (2002) examined preservice teachers multicultural teaching performance and noted whether preservice teachers' demographic and educational backgrounds would predict their performance. In the st udy, preservice teachers completed the Survey of Preservice Teachers' Multicu ltural Teaching Competency which includes questions about knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of human development and learning, adapting instruction for individual needs, multiple instructional strategies, classroom motivation and management skills, communication skills, in structional planning skills, assessment of student learning, professional commitment, a nd responsibility. Also Lee used two openended questions to examine respondents' leve ls of multicultural education integration. The study showed that preservice teachers' b ackgrounds were an effective predictor of higher scores on multicultural teaching performa nce; the number of multicultural courses preservice teachers take was an effective pr edictor of a high score on their multicultural teaching performance; and there was no corre lation between preservice teachers' high scores on multicultural teaching performa nce and their multicultural education integration levels. Self-questionnaires To measure preservice teachers beliefs on the issue of diversity, many questionnaires were developed on the basis of reviewing of the multicultural education field and interviews with scholars in the area of multicultural education.

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44 Terrill and Mark (2000) developed a 37-it em questionnaire to assess preservice teachers' expectations for schools with child ren of color and second-language learners. The questionnaire was in two sect ions. The first section identifies the preservice teachers' expectations for learners in th ree school settings on nine de pendent variables: curriculum, discipline, parental support, child abuse, mentally and em otionally impaired students, gifted and talented students, motivation, feelings of comfort with stude nts, and feelings of safety in the community. The second section of the survey provided demographic data on the preservice teachers. The results indi cated that the preservice teachers held significantly different expectations for lear ners in different school settings and from different racial and linguisti c backgrounds. For example, preservice teachers expected higher levels of discipline problems, lower leve ls of parental support, higher levels of child abuse, fewer gifted and talented stude nts, and lower levels of motivation in the schools with children of color. On the basis of a review of the literature and on informal interviews with preservice teachers, in-service teachers, and teacher educators, Barry and Lechner (1995) developed a 43-item questionnaire to examine seventy-th ree preservice teachers attitudes about and awareness of aspects of multicultural teachi ng and learning. The study showed that most respondents were aware of many issues relate d to multicultural educ ation and anticipate having culturally diverse stude nts in their classroom. Roper (2004) stated: a diverse campus community will not only add to the social relevance of the education we provide, but also will ma ke for a more dynamic and compelling learning experience. faculty and admi nistrators today design and implement curricula, campus activities, programs, a nd services focused on meeting the needs of a diverse student body and educating for participation in an increasingly diverse world. We do all that we do with the belief that fostering diversity and an

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45 appreciation for it is appropr iate and important to the success of our institutions (p.48). Roper (2004) developed a survey and administ ered it to students at his university to assess students feelings about and perspectives on, divers ity. His analysis indicated three-fourths of the participating students offered strong support for diversity and affirmed that it is important to them persona lly and is an important dimension of their education. On the other side he stated: The bad news is that many of the ways in which we have promoted diversity, offered diversity education, and mana ged the dynamics of campus diversity have fostered skepticism among students about our motives, our commitment to fairness and equity, and our ability to achieve divers ity without diluting our responsibility to deliver high quality academic programs. Even students who support and find value in diversity are confused by our efforts (p.49). He also looked at the differences in responses between minority and majority students and stated: In their responses, students from under-r epresented backgrounds commented on the comfort they receive from our diversity mission, while majority students, who have typically been at the center of our mission, expressed fear about how the focus on diversity will influence their well-being. Stude nts seemed to be asking, Does my university have the capacity to create an institutional culture with space at the center for everyone whom it is committed to serve? (p.51). To assess one hundred and fifty-eight pr eservice teachers attitudes toward diversity both before and after a multic ultural course Weisman and Garza (2002) designed a 36-item survey. The survey items we re divided into thr ee broad categories: Attitudes and beliefs about diversity issues in general, Beliefs about classroom practices relate d to working with diverse populations, Awareness of existing so cietal inequality. The authors stated that, The survey is grounded in the work of theorists who advocate a multicultural approach that promotes social structural equality and cultural

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46 pluralism (Banks, 1994; Bennett, 1999; Sleete r & Grant, 1999) (p.30) Results of the study showed an overall positive or ientation to diversity and the low levels of agreement for certain key items such as minority parents value education, democratic ideals support biculturalism, structure of school system c ould be an obstacle to achievement on both pre and post-surveys. In a similar study Cheri W. Van Hook ( 2002) investigated preservice teachers' perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as they began their teacher education program. Sh e asked 68 preservice teachers to identify the inherent barriers that ma y prevent the integration of anti-bias curriculum. To determine barriers, she analyzed the preservi ce teachers beliefs analyzed and identified the themes. These themes were: Difficulty Discussing Sensitive Topics (including Religion in the Classroom and Creating Contro versy); Policies and Practices Detrimental to Diversity (including Geography and Fede ral State, and School Regulations): Difficulty Implementing Diversity Curricu lum (including Developing Curriculum and Teaching Strategies, Time Constraints, and Financial Constraints); and Inability to Recognize and Accept Divers ity (including Society, Teachers, Parents, and Children). And she stated: Rather real or imagined, the teachers' per ceived barriers are the gr eatest deterrent to the inclusion of diversity. Preservice teacher s need to consider the potential barriers to the implementation of a diverse curriculum. Reflection on one's attitudes and beliefs will have an impact on the percei ved barriers. One goal of teacher education should be the destructio n of these barriers in order for teachers to integrate diversity in the curriculum (p.263). Multicultural education as a field of study has gone through a series of stages developments and expanded its content on th e way as Boyle-Baise (1999) described in her study. There are a large number of studies that define and cl arify its goals and

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47 objectives through the past few decades. Now, researchers on one side of many research studies have shifted their focus to the practi ce of integrating multicultural education into various fields of study in education and other areas, while on the other side, many researchers have selected to work on new th emes that have emerged from the earlier studies and practices. Review of the Theory and Research on Diversity in the Children's Literature Used in Preservice Teacher Education To make it relevant for my study involving st udents in a children s literature class, this section is divided into five categories. These sections are issues in childrens literature, studies in reader re sponse, and studies in critical literacy. All studies in this section focus on teacher education context. All resources are put under th ree categories in this pape r; one might put them under different categories. For example I noted th rough the articles that the authors of the research had different perspectives on ch ildrens literature. Pe rry Nodelman (1981) suggested: Childrens literature is not just literature written with chil dren in mind, nor is it just literature that happens to be read by children. It is a genre, a special kind of literature with its own distinguishin g characteristics. Identifying those characteristics and defining that genre ar e the major tasks immediately confronting serious critics (p.24). Some took a literary perspectiv e and viewed literature as a discipline with its own content. Others viewed literatu re as a vehicle for teaching stud ents to read and write. Also some viewed literature as a means of addr essing social, political and cultural issues.

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48 Issues in Childrens Literature Many studies focused on issues in children s literature classes especially regarding multicultural literature. Ma inly these issues are: The state of children's literature around the world (economic factors; language factors; views of literature) The process of how books get published and brought to other countries (obstacles) The availability of international literature (How do we acquire it?) Translation issues Authenticity of international literature (insider-outsider perspective) Evaluation of international literature (evaluation crit eria outside our culture/language) Trends in international literature Curricular issues in international literature Growing bodies of research focus on child rens literature th rough the use of wellwritten fiction and non-fiction that students can use to learn about and become sensitive to issues of diversity, as well as to see themselves reflected in the literature, and to affirm who they are. The majority of these articles focus on multicultural issues in childrens literature, especially in relation to the ways in which people of color are depicted (Collier, 2000; Duren, 2000; Harris, 1990; Joshua, 2002; Marantz, & Marantz, 1999). Rosenblatt (1938/1995) proposed that when readers encounter books that feature characters with whom they can connect, a l ove of reading will re sult. Also Rosenblatt (1938/1995) acknowledged the role that the t eaching of literature plays in fostering democratic education. She stated that: As the student shares through literary expe rience the emotions and aspirations of other human beings, he can gain heighten ed sensitivity to the needs and problems of those remote from him in temperament, in space, or in social environment; he

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49 can develop a greater imaginat ive and social theories for actual human lives. Such sensitivity and imagination are part of the indispensable equipment of the citizen of a democracy (p.261). Similarly Bishop (1994) reminded us that ch ildren need literature that serves as a window into lives and experiences different from their own, a nd literature that serves as a mirror reflecting themselves and their cultural values, att itudes and behaviors(p.xiv). Other articles addressed social or political issues in ch ildrens literature (Dresang, 2003; Levande, 1989; Serafini, 2003). Levande (1 989) pointed out that the ways in which childrens literature is used in the elementary classroom are directly related to teachers definition of reading, her beliefs about how meaning and knowledge are constructed, the role of the reader in the act of reading, and the context of the reading event. Serafini (2003) described three theoreti cal perspectives associated with reading and literacy education and provides examples of instructiona l practices that align with each. First, the modernist perspective is based on a belief th at meaning resides in the text (Eagleton, 1996) and Serafini described the Accelerate d Reader program that aligns with the modernist perspectives. Lamme (2003) believ ed that AR can blo ck the ability of teachers to transform the program into a lite rature-rich experience for children (p.44). Second, the transactional perspec tive is based on the belief that meaning is constructed in the transaction between a particular reader and a particular text (Rosenblatt, 1938/1995). And last, a critical perspective focused on the ways that texts are c onstructed in social, political, and historical contex t, and on the ways in which these contexts position readers and texts to particular interp retations (McKormic, 1994). There is a range of possibilities for teachers using childrens literature in the classrooms, but in todays classrooms as as McKormic (1994) pointed out responding to political pressures, elementary teachers

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50 frequently are forced to adopt instructiona l practices and commercial programs that focus on decoding and comprehension strategies desi gned to raise standardized test scores. Some of the studies focused on the response of preservice teachers to controversial texts that bring the issue of resistance to the field. These included: Apol, Sakuma, Reynolds, and Rop (2003) ( Sadako by Eleanor Coerr); Bercaw (2003) ( Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone by Rowling); McNair ( The five Chinese brothers by Bishop & Wiese, The wagon by Johnson, and The Indian in the cupboard by Banks, L.R.); Williams (2001) ( Daddys Rommate by Wilhoite). Apol, Sakuma, Reynolds, and Rop (2003) concl uded that there are seven issues that preservice teachers resist: Moving beyond their initial pedagogical preoccupations, seeing literature response as synonymous with moral or cross-cultural lessons. Thinking critically about the ideology and perspectives in a text, imagining in the case of historical fiction that a ny textual representation was true. Talking about troubling issues of ideology in connection with war, opting instead to create happy endings to stories, to focus on less troubling parts of the texts, or to choose texts that did not raise c ontroversial or upsetting issues. Imagining that children could think about and respond to literature in complex ways, believing instead that childrens re sponses would take the form of a craft activity rather than in-depth discussion about the text. The hard work and complication involved in critical reading .Often our students saw critical reading as opposed to pleasure, rather than as a source of pleasure and satisfaction. A critical stance toward U.S. actions An approach to the teaching of critical reading (p.454-457). In addition to the resistance problem, McNair brings up the issue of availability of multicultural books. She stated that:

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51 The challenge is to help students to see th ings that they normally wouldn't see. One activity which I have found particularly helpful is to allo w students to conduct critiques of Trumpet and Scholastic book club order forms spanning a variety of age groups and months of the year. U pon obtaining the order forms, students usually reminisce about receiving them as elementary school students, and they look for books that they recognize. I ask st udents not only to pay attention to which books are advertised but also to pay atte ntion to which books are not advertised since "isms" can also be surfaced in the fo rm of invisibility. Students are quick to point out books by authors we have st udied in class like David Shannon, Gail Gibbons, Kevin Henkes, and Patricia Polacco, but they soon realize that authors of color, whom we have also studied in cla ss, such as Pat Mora, Nikki Grimes, Janet Wong, and Joseph Bruchac are not as likel y to be available for purchase (p.52). Several articles examined the characteristics of texts in isolation from a reader other than the researcher. Many researchers exam ined cultural authenticity (Ducket, & Knox, 2001; Lamme, 2000; Lamme, & Fu, 2001; Lower y, 2003; Miller, 1996) and, availability (Ayala, 1999). Diamond and Moore (1995) provided an outline for selecting and evaluating multicultural childrens books: Characters who authentically reflect the dis tinct cultural experiences, realities, and worldview of specific groups. Character representations portrayed in a true-to-life and balanced manner. Settings representative of an environmen t consistent with a historical or contemporary time, place or situat ion of the specific culture. Themes developed within the story or select ions that are consistent with the values, beliefs, and customs and traditions, needs, and conflicts of the specific culture. Informational literature presented in a detailed and accurate manner. Literature that is free of stereotype s in language, illustrations, behavior, and character traits. Language characteristics of the distinctiv e vocabulary, style, patterns, and rhythm of speech of the spec ific cultural group. Language that reflects a sensibility to the people of the culture; offensive, negative, or degrading vocabulary in de scriptions of characters, th eir customs, and lifestyles is absent.

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52 Gender roles within the culture portrayed accurately and authentically, reflecting the changing status and roles of women and men in many cultures. Ayala (1999) brought the issue of availabi lity of multicultural books about people of disabilities. She indicated that few of the childrens books in languages other than English portray individu als with disabilities. Studies on Reader Response Given the multiple roles, purposes, text types, and contexts, reader response theorists tended to focus on different aspects of these components. Beach (1993) discussed the five perspectives that are ba sed somewhat on the historical development within reader-response crit icism. He stated that: The early theorists, drawing on structur alist linguistics, narrative theory, and aesthetic theory, focused more on the r eaders knowledge of text conventions and/or readers experience. With the increased interest in psychoanalytical and cognitive psychological perspectives in the 1960s and 1970s, theorists attempted, with mixed success, to apply these appro aches to understand response. Then, in the 1980s and early 1990s, the rise of social constructivist, poststructuralist, feminist, and cultural/media studies perspectives led to an increased interest in the transaction as embedded in soci al and cultural contexts (p.9). Recently, there has been a tremendous increa se in research on preservice teachers responses to literature within particular contexts. This cate gory of research is based in literary criticism and reader response theo ries. Although reader response theories and research all focus in some way on the pro cesses by which readers make meaning, they vary in the roles assigned to the reader, the text, and the social context within which the reader experiences a particular text. The majority of research has focused on the significance of discussion, shared interpretations, response journals, and literature logs. Cai (2001) discussed some issues arising fr om the use of transactional theory as a guide for literacy and litera ture education. He formulated these issues in terms of theoretical distinctions between five pairs of concepts: basic and enhanced literacy; literal

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53 comprehension and literary unders tanding; literary texts and in formational texts; aesthetic and efferent stances; and aesthetic reading and critical reading. He pointed to the misconstrued and misapplied interpretations of efferent and aesthetic stances, he wrote: One major misinterpretation is to equate efferent reading with text-centered (textoriented) response and aesthe tic reading with the reade r-centered (reader oriented) response (p.24). Also he pointed to an example of misconstrued interpretation as defining aesthetic reading as reading for only pleasure. Because a literary text can be critiqued from different angles contributions of various cr itical perspectives to the literary transaction are also part of aesthetic responses (Cai, 2001). Because of the large number of studies on reader response, we can organize these studies into three subcategories according to the major focus of the research: influence of text, reader characteristics, instructio nal strategies and response processes. Influence of text The role of the text in reader response has been the focus of numerous studies at all grade levels. This category is defined by thos e studies that investigate the influence of particular aspects of text-g enre, theme, tone, character culture and ethnicity, or illustration-on meaning making process of the reader. Findings from these studies support the power of text to encourag e aesthetic response, discussi on, and critical thinking about readers personal lives as well as the world in which they live. Apol (2002) described the power of text and readers response as a ch ronological progress in her life as textual power as purpose (personal res ponse), textual power as prom ise (text-literary response), textual power as positioning (c ritical response), and textual power as progression (actionto do something in the world).

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54 Reader characteristics Many studies are concerned primarily with the reader and how factors within the reader affect the readers responses to literature (Galda 1998; Giorgis, & Johnson 2000; Sipe, 1999; Spiegel, 1998). Among the factors considered in these studies are age, ethnicity, gender, and physical disabilities. Giorgis and Johnson (2000) stated that: Readers will respond differently to text and illustration due to age, gender, ethnicity, and prior lif e experiences, as well as the exte nt to which they are actively engaged in the meaning making process. A books potential is limited only by the readers themselves-student, te acher, or librarian (p.222). Galda (1998) uses similar descriptions. She wrote: The content of any book is not simply th e words the author put there but those words as they are infused with meaning by their readers, meaning that reflects the various experiences and knowledge that re aders bring to their reading (p.2). Spiegel (1998) reviewed th e literature on reader re sponse theory; including the important role reader response activities can play in the development of readers of all ages. She described the four basic assumpti ons of reader response theory based on Rosenblatts works. These assumptions are: 1. Stance is important: Efferent, Aesthetic Aesthetic: Focus is on what reader feels during reading, what he or she experiences and thinks. Efferent: Focus is on carrying information away from the text, to learn something rather than to experience something. 2. Readers make meaning: The making of meaning from reading is a dynamic, reflective, introspe ctive process. Readers don't "d iscover" meaning in a text. The reader makes meaning. Meaning is constructed, interpreted, and revised by the readers themselves, not by literary cr itics, professors, or even authors. 3. Although meaning is personal, it is grounded in text. Although readers have individual and unique inte rpretations and responses to text, they are still connected to the text; evidence to support their interpretation must be evident in the text.

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55 4. Multiple interpretations of text are c onstructed. Because meaning is constructed by unique individuals, multiple meanings are to be expected and even celebrated. Making meaning is dynamic, re flective, and introspective. As a result, each reader will take something unique and different from the text (p.4243). Instructional strategies and response processes Under the instructional contexts and strategies topic, studies in this area examine how teachers organize and structure clas sroom learning contexts and introduce instructional practices to encourage stude nt response and meaning making (Cai, 2001; Cox & Many, 1992; Lehr & Thompson, 2000). This is a particularly significant area of research, as it has an impact on current literacy and learning theory as well as reader response theory. Also they focus on the proce sses readers use to make meaning as they respond to literature. Most of the studies show the positiv e effects of the interaction among students in an atmosphere that respect s the individuals aest hetic response. These findings support the theoretical framework that meaning is socially constructed. Preservice teachers response to childr ens books has become a popular subject among researchers (Abernathy, 2002; Apol Sakuma, Reynolds, & Rop, 2003; Bean, Valerio, Mallette, & Readence, 1999; Ber caw, 2003; Brindley, & Laframboise, 2002; Dana, & Lynch-Brown, 1992-93; Grisham, 2001; Laframboise, & Griffith, 1997; Lechner, & Barry, 1997; Lehman & Scha rer 1995-96; Lowery, 2002; McNair, 2003; Roberts, 1998; Stasz, & Bennett, 1997; Williams, 2001). Based on Rosenblatts works, Bean, Valerio, Mallette, and Readence (1999) explore pre-service elementary teachers' literature circle discussion of Gary Soto's (1991) multicultural young adult novel, Taking Sides As a result of their research studies, these emphasize the difficulty of simply introducing students to multicultural litera ture without explicitly considering and discussing models of literature response. When they looked at the students backgrounds,

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56 they figured out that students in the reader -based classroom produced significantly more interpretive and personal associations in thei r short story response essays than their counterparts in the teacher-centered classroom. Smith (2001) examined the way two groups of readers respond to a book in a teacher education class. He r study provided a glimpse of meaning making within the context of learning to teach for diversit y. Smith pointed to the importance of two components in these classrooms: a set of pr ofessional readings informed by diverse viewpoints and participation in a multicultural literature di scussion group. She stated that: The childrens literature and book discussion groups fostered emotional engagement, as readers entered into tran sactions with the characters and their stories. The professional ar ticles provided a schema for reading, allowing some readers to pull ideas together a nd reflect on their teaching (p. 61). Metcalf-Turner and Smith (1999) examined the use of multicultural texts as teaching cases with K-12 teachers in a graduate education program. They stated that by reading and reflecting on carefully chosen literature texts, which depict authentic perspectives about different cultures, teach ers can gain an awareness of their own attitudes and belief systems as lenses thr ough which they may acquire new concepts and applied knowledge. Singer and Smith (2003) argued that r eading and discussing multi-cultural young adult and children's literature in reflective soci al contexts has the potential to help teacher education students develop a d eeper understanding of themselv es and of different others. In their study they selected From the Notebooks of Melanin Sun by Jacqueline Woodson (1995) for their teacher education students in both children's literature and the methods course to read. Using Rose nblatts (1978) read er response theory they examined comments from student journals for evidence of conceptual and emotional engagement.

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57 The following questions directed their anal ysis: How do readers respond to issues regarding race and sexual orientation raised by From the Notebooks of Melanin Sun ? Are there differences in the responses of stude nts from different backgrounds regarding the way they think about these issues ? Their findings indicated that: What readers bring to a book is of major c onsequence in determining how they will respond. Students respond to a book with greater emotional engagement when they find themselves in the book. In addition they reported: In journals and in class discussion, we not ed powerful points of resonance with the text by Black readers and readers with ga y relatives. White readers, who did not find themselves well represented in this book, had a tendency to distance themselves from differences of race and sexual orientation (p.22). Many scholars have critiqued reader-res ponse theories. In her book Critical Encounters in High School English: Teaching Li terary Theory to Adolescents Appleman (2000) critiqued the r eader-response theory: A reader-response approach to the teaching of literature allows students to employ a variety of interpretive strategies and encourages students to bring their personal experience to the text. Although the emphasis of this critical approach focuses on the reader rather then the teacher or te xt as the source of literary meaning, the problem of a single dominant theoretical perspective remains. Students may be able to derive a plurality of interpreta tions using the reader-response approach, but they are still not presented with multiple critical approaches, which would enable them to choose and construct their own r eadings from a variety of theoretical perspectives rather than simply the perspective of personal response (p.4). Studies about Critical Literacy Theory Critical literacy has many definitions. All scholars and teachers do not agree about a single definition of what critical literacy is. The need for the plural form critical literacies suggests that diversity of curriculum interventions are in theoretical, practical and political contest with one another (Luke & Freebody, 1996). Sources of critical

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58 literacy and pedagogy can be found in Marx ist, feminist, and post-structuralist approaches and each position has its own set of questions that guide the approach (Green, 2001). Quintero (2004) defined critical literacy as a process of constructing and critically using language (oral and wr itten) as means of expre ssion, interpretation and/or transformation of our lives a nd the lives of those around us (p.7). Similarly Hull (1993) defined critical literacy as the ability to not only read a nd write, but to assess texts in order to understand the relationships betw een power and domination that underlie and inform them. Drawing inspiration from the works of Freire, McLaughlin and DeVoogd (2004) described critical literacy as: not a teaching method but a way of thi nking and a way of being that challenges texts and life as we know it. Critical literacy focuses on issues of power and promotes reflection, transformation and acti on. It encourages readers to be active participants in the reading process: to question, to dis pute, and to examine power relations (p.150). Apple (2004) argued, our aim should not be to create functiona l literacy, (p.179) as posed by the conservative restoration, but critical literacy, powerful literacy, political literacy which enables the growth of genuine understanding and c ontrol of all of the spheres of social life in wh ich we participate (p.179). There are varieties of studies that aim to understand what criti cal literacy theory looks like in practice (OBrien, 2001), how cla ssroom teachers apply c oncepts of critical literacy by choosing childrens literature (Edward & Foss, 2000; McDonald, 2004), and how critical literacy is inco rporated in undergraduate cla sses (Fondrie, 2001; Jewett & Smith, 2003; Ketter & Lewis, 2001; LaFramboise & Griffith, 1997; Lewison, Flint, and Van Sylus, 2002; Lowery, 2003; Saul & Wallace, 2002; Smith, 2002).

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59 Apol (1998) explored the relationship between literary theory and childrens literature in the teacher e ducation classroom, positioning its elf in the gap between books and children, texts and readers, theory a nd practice in literature. She stated that, Examining the relationship between literatur e and the larger world of culture and ideology begins by acknowledging the inhere nt power of literary texts (p.34). Lowery (2003) examined how the issues of race, class, and ideology influence the authors construction and representation of Chinese immigrant subjectivities in the Laurence Yeps (1992) The Star Fisher. She stated: books cannot be taken for granted without close examination without critically examining the authors ideology and frame of reference, it would be difficult to understand why stereotypical images of Chin ese immigrants are still presented in the novel (p.23). After reviewing the professional and research literature over the past thirty years Lewison, Flint and Van Sluys (2002) classified studies into four dimensions of critical literacy in their article, "T aking on critical literacy: Th e journey of newcomers and novices". These four dimensions are interrel ated none stand-alone. These categories are namely: Disrupting the commonplace, Interrogating multiple viewpoints, Focusing on sociopolitical issues, Taking action and promoti ng social justice. Luna, Jos Botelho, Fontaine, French, Iverson & Matos (20 04) in their study, described critical literacy practice and/as professional developmen t as it evolved in a teacher inquiry group investigating critic al literacy within these categories.

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60 Related Dissertations The following section includes an overview of recently publish ed dissertations on topics related to issues of diversity and multicultural childrens literature. These dissertations can be classified under different categories. To classify the dissertations I focused on their methodological orientations wh ich emerged into three groups of studies; qualitative, quantitative and mixed studies. The following section introduces the each group of studies with table (Table 2-1, Tabl e 2-2, and Table 2-3.) format including the information about the studies and followed by preliminary findings of these studies. Qualitative Studies Emerging from a constructivist paradigm in her interpretive study Colabucci (2002) after realizing only a few studies have cont ributed to our knowledge about how adult readers make sense of these texts, wh ile many scholars have considered how young people read and respond to multicultural childre ns literature, invest igated how preservice teachers in an undergraduate childrens li terature class read and responded to multicultural childrens literature. She documen ted the activities of a childrens literature course with 22 students. She found five broad kinds of res ponses the students writings and talk about the texts: (IA) intimate disclosures: life-to-text connections (IB) intimate disclosures: text-to-life connections (II) dialogue and difference: text-and-life collide (IIIA) disconnections and differen ce: intolerance-of-difference (IIIB) disconnections and differe nce: tolerance-of-difference (IV) transcendence-of-difference

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61 Ravitch (2000) used interpretive methods to study both preservice and experienced teachers in a one semester, a graduate teach er education course. Ravitch explored the complex nature of the all-white students experiences of learning in a multicultural education course and complicated the pictur e of white teacher learning about issues central to culturally responsive teaching. She analyzed the participants autobiographies to explore the complex and individualized wa ys that students experienced and positioned themselves in relation to material focused on issues of racism, white privilege, diversity and inequality. She suggested that shifts in white teachers beliefs and self-concepts should not be designated to one domain such as white racial identity development but should be understood as part of more comp lex learning experiences. She also believes that students responses to such material shou ld not be considered th rough the binary lens of engagement and resista nce but rather, through an u nderstanding that student responses to these issues are shaped by the complex intersection be tween their autobiographies and their emerging understandin gs of issues of racism and inequality. In her case study, Garcia (2001) presente d the experiences of four classroom teachers who used a multicultural literature-based, reader response approach to explore multicultural teaching. She discussed each te achers story to show how a teachers classroom practice grows and develops wh en supported and encouraged. The teachers stated that their students r eading interests grew due to re ading meaningful and relevant literature. The students also interacted more discussing their reading with their peers and wrote better, because they saw themselves, their families and their communities in the literature.

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62 In her case study Greenberg (2002) observed 7 randomly selected fifth graders for 12 weeks through the process of engaging sm all groups of students in literature discussions in which cultural elements help ed to heighten the awareness of students towards the human diversity around them. Her findings indicated that students; Were genuinely interested in learning about the culture of othe rs, although they did not necessarily know a great deal about their own. Were highly motivate by well-written stories (primarily fiction) Relied most on their life experiences wh en making intertextual connections, making few connections acr oss text spontaneously. Needed multiple avenues of expressi on to meet their learning styles. In her descriptive, naturalistic study Fo ight-Cressman (2002) investigated five college students multicultural frameworks and stances in a graduate course in multicultural childrens literature taught from a critical perspective. In order to adopt a multicultural philosophy she concluded that teachers required; Access to multicultural picture book s and peritextual resources. A discourse community in which they felt secure co-constructing knowledge and taking risks Reflection/action based assignments, whic h enabled them to contemplate their beliefs and act upon their developing understandings. An engaged teacher educator to guide them. Jewett (2004) examined what happened duri ng a graduate childre ns literature class and in three elementary classrooms the followi ng semester when transactional literary theory and critical literacy theory were us ed as lenses for reading. She found that the ways that each teacher did or did not incorpor ate transactional and cr itical perspectives were consistent with the ideologies that ha d been suggested by their writing and speaking during the observation period and duri ng the childrens literature class.

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63 McDaniel (2004) investigated future elementary school teachers written responses to childrens literatur e in order to describe their curre nt thinking about literature. She concluded that participants believed critic al literacy was important-immediately after learning about in class. However, the majority of participants res ponses before and after in-class discussions and writings about critical literacy did not e xhibit evidence of a questioning stance. To gain an understanding of college student learning in a multicultural education course Hathaway III (1999) conducted a qualita tive research. She suggested that although the students were challenged to think in di fferent ways, they did not retreat from those challenges, but engaged them in an effort to learn about alternative views of American culture and of their social worlds. In her case study DiLucchio (2002) ex amined how four student teachers constructed and reconstructed knowledge a bout race, class, a nd culture as they participated a fifth year pres ervice program in elementary e ducation. She pointed out that how students make sense of these issues is cr itical in determining how they define their roles as teachers and learners. She also stat ed that teacher education programs cannot be politically neutral or marginali ze issues of race, class, and culture; they must keep these issues in front of students, integrated throughout their university coursework and fieldwork. Quantitative Studies Stephens (2002) obtaining pret est and posttest data from the Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment, assessed the effectiveness of training program in increasing teacher education candidates level of cultural tolerance. The study showed the overall attitudes toward dive rsity of the treatment group changed significantly over the

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64 course of the study, while the overall attitu des of the control group remained same. However, the study also indicated that the cultural tolerance and diversity program did not significantly improve teacher education can didates overall attitudes toward diversity compared to those who did not participate in the program. Pointing out that the little knowledge on th e effect that ESOL preservice education has on preservice teachers attitudes toward ELL students Smith (2005) investigated the effect of one semester of ESOL educati on on preservice teachers by examining their perceived knowledge and skill in working with English Language Learner (ELL) students, their attitudes towa rd having ELL students in thei r mainstream classrooms, and what classroom methods they perceive as e ffective in their ESOL preservice education courses. Collecting data from 513 participan ts with preand post-course attitudinal surveys she found significant differences rega rding perception of ESOL knowledge and skills by course and time and regarding percei ved effectiveness of instructional methods, but she did not find differences rega rding attitude toward inclusion. In her study Miklitsch (2005) explored the relationship between multicultural education, multicultural experience, racial identity, and multicultural competence among student affairs professionals working within residence life programs. She collected data from a national web-based survey that soli cited the participati on of 324 residence life professionals, representative of various coll eges and levels within the profession. She found that multicultural edu cation, multicultural experien ce, and racial identity significantly predicted multicu ltural competence scores a bove and beyond the influence of demographics and social desirability. Five demographic variables (race, sexual orientation, current socioeconomic status, id entification as a member of a socially

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65 marginalized group, and highest degree earned ) correlated significantly with multicultural competence. Uches (2004) study on the perceived attit udes and perception of teachers regarding multicultural education and global classroom instruction highlighted the importance of becoming knowledgeable about the usefulness of multicultural-global classroom not only for teachers, but also for the public, parents, school personal and others associated with education. To gain consensus on a definition of multicultural childrens literature, Levinson (2005) conducted a Delphi method research using 25 participants from a childrens literature listserv. The resulting definition stated that a work of quality literature can be labeled multicultural childrens literature if the plot tells a fascinating story; the characters are believable and round; the setting enlarges the view of the re ader; and the point of view reveals the inner world of each character; all the while demonstrating an awareness of multicultural elements such as ag e, class, ethnicity, gender, race, religion, and sexual orientation. To investigate community college faculty perceptions of Culturally Mediated Instruction Durant (2005) applied the Awareness, Relevance and Implementation Survey to 85 community college faculty selected fr om 27 community colleges. She found that gender, age, race/ethnic background, highest degree attained a nd academic discipline have an effect on community college faculty s level of awareness, beliefs in the relevancy, and level of implementation of cu lturally mediated instruction in classroom practices.

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66 Focusing on professionals re sponsible for first-year st udent orientation programs Weigand (2005) explored the relationship between multicultural competence and racial identity, multicultural education and experi ences, and demographic variables. He found that the combination of racial identit y, multicultural education and multicultural experience variables significantly pred icted multicultural competence scores. In a similar study McElroy (2005) examined the preservice teachers perceptions of multicultural education in a public univers ity setting. He found relationships between preservice teachers perceptions based on race, age, gender, and years of multicultural experience. Mixed Studies Using a mixed method of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches Zhou (2002) examined if there was any attit ude change during the program, how the fiveyear teacher education program enhanced the preservice teacher education experience by examining diversity issues from various perspectives and how the program helps preservice teachers to apply what they ha ve learned from the courses to modify instruction appropria tely. He collected quantitativ e data using the "Diversity Questionnaire" and obtained qualitative data through the analysis of the responses from a set of "Cultural Diversity E ssay Questions" and questions of three "Case Studies". From quantitative analysis he f ound that there was no much ev idence showing the students' attitude change between Year 3 and Year 4 groups. From qualitative data he concluded that the multicultural/diversity perspectives that the participants had learned from the courses helped them to understand th eir students' situations better. To understand the factors and process invol ved in developing a commitment to multicultural education Pacci one (1998) used a quantitat ive research methodology of

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67 content analysis to analyze the kind of life experiences that c ontribute to a commitment to multicultural education. She used a qualit ative research methodology of phenomenology to describe the process by which individuals become committed to multicultural education. Comparing the theories of raci al identity development, typologies of multicultural education, and prac tices in teacher preparation for student diversity, she found support for cultural immersion experi ences and coursework in multicultural education that evoke a critical analysis of the sociopolitical status quo in U.S. society. Garmon (1996) investigated the impact of a multicultural education course on the racial attitudes and beliefs of a group of pr ospective teachers. He found that students entering racial attitudes and beliefs appeared to mediate what they learned from the course. More specifically he found that on severa l diversity issues addr essed in the course the beliefs of higher scored students were significantly more likely to change in the desired direction than were the beliefs of low scored students, and most of the low scored students seemed to miss the key messages that the course intended to convey. Using an experimental design with both quantitative and qual itative data Hasslen (1993) compared the effects of teaching stra tegies on the perceptions of monocultural students in a multicultural educ ation course. She found that: A single course in multicultural educa tion for the monocultural student has a definite impact on altering student perceptions of cultural diversity. Various teaching strategies, while not essentially prescribed for overall positive outcomes, result in subtle differences in student perceptions of racism and equity issues. The teaching strategy of pairing monocultu ral students with students of color provides students with interpersonal rela tionships, which lead to a dispelling of myths about members of ethnic groups, a nd a decreasing of fear of difference. Student demographic characte ristics do not limit the effectiveness of a course in multicultural education for altering students perceptions.

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68 Using a mixed method study Siwatu (2005) examined preservice teachers culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy a nd outcome expectancy beliefs. He found that: Preservice teachers culturally respon sive teaching self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs are highly correlated. There are significant relationships between self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs patterns as the number of courses taken that addressed issues of cultural diversity and the number of comp leted practicum requirements. Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs are influenced by variables such as color-blind and racial attitudes, coursework, and teacher education major. In his survey study Jackson (2004) document ed a summer pilot research course in multicultural education to analyze the James A. Banks contributions to the introduction of multicultural education for educators and its implications for teacher educators and curriculum development. He found that; The respondents did not f eel overwhelmingly that race, socio-economic status, ethnicity, or gender infl uence teaching style. Students would be wiling to take an additional multicultu ral education or diversity course to learn about cr oss-cultural differences. Students feel that a course in diversity or multicultural education would enhance their knowledge and awareness of di versity and multicultural education.

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69 Table 2-1. Qualitative studies Pub. date Title of the study Nature of the study University Researcher 2004 Reading and responding to multicultural childrens literature with preservice teachers: A qualitative study of pedagogy and student perspectives Interpretive The Ohio State University Lesley Colabucci 2000 Reading myself between lines: White teachers reading, writing and talking about issue of diversity, inequality and pedagogy Interpretive The University of Pennsylvania Sharon M. Ravitch 2001 Teachers using multicultural literature and reader response to teach children multiculturally Case study The University of New Mexico Donna L. Dow-Anaya y Garcia 2002 Raising cultural consciousness through childrens literature Case study University of Pittsburgh Susan I. Greenberg 2005 Introducing a critical perspective into a graduate course in childrens literature Grounded theory University of Pennsylvania Jennifer E. FoightCressman 2004 Transactional literary theory and critical literacy theory in a graduate childrens literature class Critical theory Arizona State University Pamela Jewett 2004 Getting along in the World: Exploring future teachers responses to childrens literature through a framework of critical literacy Interpretive San Diego State University Cynthia Alleen McDaniel 1999 College students definitions of key concepts and thinking in a multicultural education course Phenomenology, ethnography University of Michigan Russel S. Hathaway III 2002 How student teachers construct and reconstruct knowledge about race, class, and culture Case study The University of Pennsylvania Connie L. DiLucchio

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70 Table 2-2. Quantitative studies Pub. date Title of the study Instrument University Researcher 2002 An examination of the effectiveness of a program on cultural tolerance and diversity for teacher education candidates The pluralism and diversity attitude assessment (Stanley, 1996) The University of Mississippi Earnest B. Stephens 2005 Teaching inclusivity: Preservice teachers perceptions of their knowledge, skills and attitudes toward working with English language learners in mainstream classrooms The ESOL awareness survey instrument (EASI) (Smith, 2004) The University of South Florida Philip C. Smith 2005 The relationship between multicultural education, multicultural experiences, racial identity, and multicultural competence among student affairs professionals Multicultural competence in student affairs (Pope & Mueller, 2000); Racial identity attitude scales (Helms, 1995; Helms & Carter, 2002) The State University of New York at Buffalo Teresa Ann Miklitsch 2004 Multicultural education in a global classroom Self developed questionnaire Union Institute and University of Cincinnati, Ohio Uko Uche 2005 To gain consensus an a definition of multicultural childrens literature: A delphi study Delphi method The University of Maryland at College Park Joan Marie Levinson 2005 Culturally mediated instruction: Awareness, relevance and implementation in community college Self developed survey Morgan State University Tracey Lynette Durant 2005 The relationships between multicultural competence, racial identity, and multicultural education and experiences among student affairs professionals responsible for first-year student orientation programs Multicultural competence in students affairs (Pope & Mueller, 2000) State University of New York at Buffalo Matthew Joseph Weigand 2005 Perceptions and practices: preservice teachers multicultural educational perspectives Self designed questionnaire Capella University George L. McElroy

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71 Table 2-3. Mixed studies Pub. date Title of the study Framework/instrument University Researcher 2002 Students attitudes, knowledge, and commitment to implementation of multicultural education in a teacher education program The diversity questionnaire (Follo & Wiggins, 1999); Case study West Virginia University Pei Jian Zhou 1998 Multicultural perspective transformation: A study of commitment to diversity Open-ended survey (Content analysis); Phenomenology Colorado State University Angela V. Paccione 1996 Missed message: How prospective teachers racial attitudes mediate what they learn from a course on diversity Quick discrimination index (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993); Interviews Michigan State University M. Arthur Garmon 1993 The effects of teaching strategies in multicultural education on monocultural college students perceptions Quasi-experimental The cultural diversity awareness inventory (Henry, 1991), The situational attitude scale (Sedlacek & Brooks, 1972); Course evaluations University of Minnesota Robin Christine Hasslen 2005 Exploring the factors that influence preservice teachers culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs Culturally responsive teaching outcome self efficacy/expectancy scales; Interviews University of Nebraska Kamau Oginga Siwatu 2004 James A. Banks contributions to the introduction of multicultural education for educators: Implications for teacher educators and curriculum development Self developed survey; Course evaluations The Pennsylvania State University Andrew Jackson Sr.

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72 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY In this section, the resear ch design and methodology fo r this study, including the theoretical framework, research questions, ration ale, setting, data colle ction, data analysis procedures, the researchers role and ethical consideration for each phases of research are explained. Design of The Study Bartolome (2004) argued: Given the social class, ra cial, cultural, and language differences between teachers and students, and our societ ys historical predispositi on to view culturally and linguistically diverse students through a de ficit lens that positions them as less intelligent, talented, qualified, and, deservi ng, it is especially urgent that educators critically understand their ideological orient ations with respect to these differences, and begin to comprehend that teaching is not a politically or ideologically neutral undertaking (p.99). Similarly, in her book Walking the Road Cochran-Smith (2004) conceptualized the problem of teacher education. Through the e ssays in her book, we can see that teacher preparation needs to be understood as both l earning (rather than a training-and-testing problem) and a political problem regarding the is sues of equity and so cial justice (p. xix) because learning to teach is a process that occurs across the professional life span (p.12) and teaching is a political activity is animated by several basic premises (p.18). These premises are often associated w ith terms and concepts such as teaching and teacher education for social justice, soc ial change, social responsibility, and teaching and teacher education to change the world (Cochran-Smith p.18-19). As Bartolome (2004) pointed out to ensure that preservice teachers begin to develop and

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73 increase their political and ideological clar ity, students in teache r education classrooms need to explicitly explore how ideo logy functions as it relates to power. Thus, as stated earlier, this research is guided by th e theoretical and pedagogical understanding in critical multicul turalism, and critical theor y. Also, critical, social and political theories, such as critical pedagogy, reader response theory, critical literacy and works of scholars in the field of multicu ltural education examined as fundamental components of understanding the establishment of power relationships in education and the conceptualization of ideological position. Critical research has its roots in several traditions, and, as currently practiced, a variety of approaches. Critical theory calls for a radical restructuri ng (of) society toward the ends of reclaiming historic cultural legaci es, social justice, the redistribution of power and the achievement of truly democratic societies (Lincoln & Denzin, 2000, p.1056). Critical theory research emphasizes the va lue of theory in explaining society and contributing to the emancipation of its participants (Gall, Gall & Borg, 2005). Systematized reflection, collaboration between researcher and part icipants, the exposure of historical conditions, and th e transformation of society ar e integral parts of critical research (Crotty, 1998). Critical-theory research involves a broad range of methods aimed at uncovering the effects of unequal power relationships in cult ures and in the global community. Carr and Kemmis (1995) describe five requirements th at characterize a critical or educational science. They emphasize that any adequate ap proach to educational research and theory must: Reject positivist notions of ra tionality, objectivity, and truth.

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74 Accept the need to employ the interpretive categories of teachers and other participants in educationa l processes. The approach must be based upon the selfunderstanding of practitioners. Provide ways of distinguishing ideol ogically warped interpretations from interpretations that are not, and provid e explanations of how to overcome those distorted self-understandings. Address identification and e xposition of those aspects of the social order that interfere with pursuit of rational goals a nd provide theoretical explanations to practitioners that raise awar eness to how these interferences may be eliminated or conquered. Make a practical approach to educational th eory and research, in the sense that the practice of criticism should always be dire cted toward transformation of ways that participants see themselves and their situations, so that obstacles that stand in the way of attaining their objectives can be identified and overcome. Methodology For this study a mixed method research design was employed. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis me thods were used. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) described mixed method design as: the incorporation of various qualitative or quantitative strategies within a single project that may have either a qualitative or a quantitative theoretical drive. The imported strategies are supplemental to the major or core method and serve to enlighten or provide clues that are followed up within the core method (p.190). Because mixed methods research design often create a multifaced view of the research questions (Minger, 2001), allow for tr iangulation of data sources (Patton, 1990), and potentially facilitate th e creation of stronger infere nces than do single method research studies (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998 ). Similarly, cited in Hanson, Creswell, Clark, Petska, and Creswell (2005) Mertens (2 003) and Punch (1998) stated that mixed method research may provide better understa nding by converging numeric trends from quantitative data and specific details from qualitative data.

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75 This study was guided by what Tassakkori and Teddlie (1998) described as a qualitative theoretical drive with imported quantitative strategies and as a concurrent transformative design described in Hanson, Creswell, Clark, Petska and Creswell (2005). Tassakkori and Teddlie (1998) described a typology of research purposes and its relationship to mixed methods that includes nine general purposes for social science research. Drawing from the th ird purpose (Have a personal, so cial, institutional, and/or organizational impact) the research questions were formed to explore through the study. In their article, Hanson, Creswell, Clark, Petska, a nd Creswell (2005) provided a typology for classifying mixed me thods research designs. This study can be described as Concurrent Transformative Design which uses an explicit advocacy lens and reflected in the purpose of statement, research ques tions, and implications for action and change. For this study critical multiculturalism and cr itical theory reflect the advocacy lens. An equal priority was given to the both forms of data and integration done at the data analysis stage. This methodology was implemented in order to provide multiple data sources for attempting to answer the research questions The survey data, observations, interviews, and written assignments allowed for tr iangulation of the data (Table 3-1). Quantitative Phase In the larger phase of this study, quantita tive research questions a) addressed the political and social aspects of the demogra phy of preservice teachers and its influences on their beliefs on the issue of diversity, b) examined the changing attitudes and beliefs, if any, of preservice teachers views on the issue of diversity over the course of a semester in childrens literature classes.

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76 Research Questions 1. How do the political and social aspect s of the demography of preservice teachers influence their beliefs on issues of diversity? Research findings support the idea that both teacher attitudes and beliefs drive classroom actions (Nespor, 1987; Richards on, 1996). Peoples views of reality are socioculturally constructed and given personal meaning by their sociocultural experiences. They therefore interpret the worl d and their experiences differently. Cobern (1991) described a worldview as the foundati onal belief, i.e., presuppositions, about the world that support both common sense and sc ientific theories (p.7). The personal experiences of teachers help form their educational worldviews, intellectual and educational dispositions, beliefs about self in relation to others ; understanding of the relationship of schooling to society, and other forms of personal, familial and cultural understandings (Richardson, 1996). In addition, ethnic, racial, and social backgrounds, along with gender, geographic location and reli gious affiliations, affect how individuals learn to teach and their ac tual teaching (Richardson, 1996). Teachers reflections on personal and classroom events are examined th rough the lens of their worldviews, beliefs, attitudes, and images (C landinin, 1986; Richardson, 1996). Therefore preservice teachers demographic variables such as gende r, age, race, class standing, multicultural education experiences, foreign and domestic travel, inner-city program experiences, description of student body of their university, religious affiliation and religious denomination, second language and cross-cu ltural friendship involvement and their influences on students beliefs on the issues of diversity explored using demographic information provided from demographic information sheet within survey.

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77 2. What are the changing attitudes and belie fs, if any, of preservice teachers views on the issue of diversity over the course of a semester in chil drens literature classes? Statistical analysis of survey results used as sources of data for addressing the changes related to diversity issues. Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales (Pohan, C. A., & Aguilar, T. E. (1998) items and students scores on these items explored to answer the second research question. The role of preservice teachers beliefs has been the focus of many edu cational studies. There are many surveys used in the field of teachers belief systems regarding divers ity. Under this idea P ohan and Aguilar (1995) state: Clearly, if schools are to be tter serve the needs and in terests of all students, particularly students from gr oups that have not fared well in the U.S. educational system, then low expectations, negative st ereotypes, biases/prejudices, and cultural misconceptions held by teachers must be identified, challenged, and reconstructed (p.159). Survey research generally has the ad vantage that, depending on the research objective; it can serve descriptive, explanator y, as well as exploratory purposes. But more important than anything else, depending on sampling techniques, it can generalize findings to large populations, while the sta ndardization of the questionnaire ensures reliability of the measurement instrument. In addition, many respondents can be researched, relatively many topi cs can be asked about them, a nd statistical techniques can be used to allow accurate analysis. Therefore Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales provide opportunities for an insightful critique of the re search questions. Instrument The Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scale was developed by Pohan, and Aguilar (1994). It consisted of two beliefs scales a bout diversity. For the personal beliefs scale, different issues are posed within the cont ext of one's personal

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78 sphere or worldview (e.g., relationships, raising children, treatment by others, living conditions, and collective stereotypes). The 25-item Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale consists of items measuri ng diversity with respect to (a) race/ethnicity, (b) gender, (c) social class, (d) sexual orientation, (e ) disabilities, (f) langu age, and (g) religion. These areas reflect an evolu tion of topics and contexts throughout the various test development phases. In her study, Pohan (1996) used 492 voluntar y participants from four universities across the United States. In terms of pers onal beliefs scores, results showed that individuals having taken two or more cour ses were significantly different than individuals having taken one or no multicultura l course work. In terms of professional beliefs, individuals having taken four or mo re courses with a multicultural theme or content scored significantly higher (i.e., they were more aware and/or responsive) than individuals having fewer than four courses. Taylor (2000) assessed the beliefs about and sensitivity toward cultural diversity issues of teacher educators and preservice teachers. A group of 78 predominantly white preservice te achers and 45 predominantly white teacher educators completed the Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale in this study. Results indicated that preservice teachers scored at culturally sensitive levels for all subgroup areas except se xual orientation. Teacher educ ators scored at culturally sensitive levels for all subgroup areas. Both groups were positively sensitive in their overall beliefs about diversity, though with statistically signifi cant differences. The demographic data sheet consists of many items th at provide information about demographics and individual characteristics of the participants. Within the Survey, the following data collected under the demographi c data form; Gender, Age, Race, Class

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79 Standing, Number of Multicultural Courses, Travel Experiences, Religious Affiliation, Religious Denomination, Second Language, Cr oss-cultural Experiences, and Current Class Registration. Reliability of the scale Reliability refers to the ratio of true scor e variance to the observed score variance. In other terms it is combination of true scor e and error. Pohan and Aguilar (1998) in their users manual and scoring guide of scales provi de reliability scores that show both scales are reliable. Reliability scores as follows from their guide: The Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .783 (n: 182), and Post-test alpha: .780 (n: 120). The Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-te st alpha: .817 (n: 179), and Post-test alpha: .855 (n: 119) I analyzed the data along with the to tal number of surveys, and sample group surveys to check the reliability of the instrument. Table 3-2 includes each groups reliability scores with the number of survey s and means. As an indication of reliable alpha value over .70 was found for all groups including both pre and post surveys. For the total group, The Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .768 (n: 274), a nd Post-test alpha: .799 (n: 274); The Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test al pha: .790 (n: 274), and Post-test alpha: .801 (n: 274) For the sample group, The Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .733 (n: 32) and Post-test alpha: .763 (n: 31); The Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test al pha: .768 (n: 32), and Post-test alpha: .808 (n: 31)

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80 Procedure Participants were given the Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scales as pre and post surveys. The first surv ey was conducted during the first class session and the second survey done during th e last class session. I informed the preservice teachers that thei r participation was voluntar y and anonymous and also I explained each instructor about the procedure of surveys when I was not able to present in their classroom because of time conflicts between sections of classes. A prepared statement, which explained the nature and purpose of the study, wa s read aloud to the participants and let them read the informed contest form to sign it. Participants took approximately 20-25 minutes to complete the surveys. Upon completion of the surveys, participants returned the survey to the investigator or class instructor. Scoring guide Responses to the 15-item Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and the 25-item Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale are summed to generate a single scale scores for each respondent as well as items scores were examined individually for different statistical purposes. The follo wing procedures were used as scoring guideline for scales; After completion of surveys numerical responses of items 1 through 15 for the Personal Belief About Diversity Scale and 1 through 25 for the Professional Belief About Diversity Scale were placed as Raw Scores. For item numbers, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15 in the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and item numbers, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 18, 23, 25 in the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale numerical values were reversed (1=5; 2=4, etc.) as final scores. The rest of the items same numerical valu es in both scales we re placed as final scores. Final scores were added to generate the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale score and the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale score. Scores can range from the 15 (lowest) to 75 (highest) for the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale

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81 The lowest possible score for the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale is 25, while the highest possible score is 125. It can be drawn from the Table 3-3 that num bers were used to define the different scales for data analysis. The numbers were a pplied the end of each scale scores and item groups to define different scales. For exampl e Scale scores1 presents the participants total scores on the pretest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; Scale scores2 presents the participants total scores on the posttest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; Scale scores3 presents the participants total scores on the pretest Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and, Scale scores4 presents the part icipants total scores on the posttest Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale In a similar way Race1 presents the participants race related items group scores on the pretest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; Race2 presents the participants race related items group scores on the posttest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; Race3 presents the participants race related items group scores on the pretest Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale ; and, Race4 presents the participants race related items group scores on the posttest Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale The same numerical systems were used for all other demographic variables to describe the items groups and survey scores. Population and Sample Overview of teacher education The data for this study were drawn fr om a population of preservice teachers enrolled in a teacher education program in the South. The requirements of undergraduate program courses for students entering fa ll 2005 and later can be found in the appendix section (Appendix D). As a state institution an d land grant college the university offers a broad range of programs in curriculum a nd teaching under the School of Teaching and

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82 Learning. Known as PROTEACH, teacher pr eparation programs in elementary and secondary education consist of five years of intensive study in the arts and sciences and professional education culminating in the Mast er of Arts in Education degree and state certification as a classroom t eacher. In addition to these initial teacher preparation programs, the department offers advanced de gree programs such as Education Specialist, Doctor of Education, and Doctor of Philos ophy. Areas of concentra tion are: curriculum, teaching and teacher education, early childhood education, educational psychology, English education, English for speakers of other languages/bilingua l education, language arts and literature, mathematics education, r eading education, science and environmental education, and social studies education. During each semester of the teacher educa tion program students are organized into cohorts of 25-35 students. Cohort groups take three or four key program courses together each semester, fitting in other classes when th ey fit their schedules as individuals. At the end of each semester cohort groups change to give students the opportunity to interact with different students across the program. A nother important feature of the cohorts is block scheduling. Students must take a design ated block courses in a sequence. Ross, Lane, and McCallum (2005) reported that majori ty of students and faculties have positive opinions on the cohort schedule. Sophomore year Students complete 60 hours of coursework ma inly in liberal arts and sciences in their freshman and sophomore years. Th ese courses include necessary content background to teach the states elementary c ontent standards. 12 students (4%) were in their sophomore year when th ey participated in the study.

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83 Junior year Eighty six percent of total participants (235), and 88 % of qualitative sample group (27) were in their juni or year when they part icipated in this study. Child Development for Inclusive Educati on (EDF 3115), Teachers and Learners in Inclusive Schools (EEX 3070), Family and Co mmunity Involvement in Education (SDS 3430), and Childrens Literature (LAE 3005) are the blocked courses th at students take during first semester of the junior year (Table 3-10). The Child Development for Inclusive Education course provides pre-service elementa ry school teachers with an overview of the principles of cognitive, social, and developmental psychology and their application in the classroom and other educa tion-related fields. This course focuses on ideas about human learning and development, including an examination of individual differences, particularly during the chil dhood years from preschool through early adolescence, the implications of these id eas for the field of education, and their applications to promote learning. The Teach ers and Learners in the Inclusive School course provide information about character istics of, identification of, and teaching practices for exceptional children who are in th e mainstream of education. The course is designed for general education majors, both el ementary and secondary levels. The course also includes examination of psychological theories and rese arch on typical and atypical development and their applica tion in general edu cation classrooms th at include children with sensory, mental, emotional, and lear ning disabilities and gifted and talented children. The Family & Community Involve ment in Education course focuses on examination of existing models and practi ces for enhancing family-school-community interaction with emphasis on communication, conflict resolution and climate-building skill development. Childrens Li terature is an introductory class on genres of childrens

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84 literature, critical response theory, strategies for cri tically evaluating books for instructional and aesthetic pur poses, and strategies for gene rating personal, critical and aesthetic responses to lite rature from diverse and in clusive student populations. Core Teaching Strategies (EEX 3257), Co re Classroom Management Strategies (EEX 3616), Teaching Reading in Primary Grades (RED 3307), and Language Arts for Diverse Learners (LAE 4314) are the blocke d courses that student s take during second semester of the junior year (Table 3-10). Core Teaching Strategies assist students in learning how to apply selected researched-b ased and theoretical information in both general and special educati on classroom settings where tr emendous student diversity exists. Core Classroom Management Strategies c ourse is designed to assist preservice teachers in learning classroom management st rategies to enable them to develop a positive classroom community for students with disabilities and other diverse learners. In Teaching Reading in Primary Grades student s focuses on constructivist theory of how children learn and sociopsycho linguistic theory of language learning. And Language Arts for Diverse Learners is designed to prepar e preservice elementa ry and early childhood teachers in the area of language arts, with a specific fo cus on the teaching of writing. This year, multicultural and so cial justice themes are in troduced with the extension of fieldwork. Bright Futures and Project B ooktalk are the two main field studies, linked to the courses in the blocks, done by student s during these semester s. Cohort 47 was part the Project Booktalk in which they read to children in family day care homes for ten weeks with a partner student and part of the Br ight Futures that examines diversity and its impact on students school experiences (Bondy & Ross, 2005). Both field experiences provide preservice teachers opportunity to wo rk with children from low-income families

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85 and examine the issues of diversity. Bondy a nd Ross (2005) described the first semester of junior year as introduc tion to teaching, families and chil dren in a diverse society, and second semester as an introduction to pedagogy. Senior year Ten percent of the total pa rticipants (27), and 13 % of the qualitative sample group (4) were in their senior year when they part icipated in this study. During the senior year students take methods courses along with field experiences that provide them practical experience with elementary students. Demographic Profile of the Participants From the beginning of Fall 2004 semester th rough Spring 2006 semester I collected surveys from 12 sections of Childrens Lite rature classes. Surveys collected from 12 sections that include 6 teaching assistants (8 sections) and 2 faculty members (4 sections). The following section includes more detail ed demographic descriptions of study participants. Table 3-4 shows the distribution of res pondents by their demographic profiles. Approximately, 90% of respondents were female and 10% were male; 83% of respondents were White, and 17% of the res pondents indicated Non-White and 23% of the respondents were 19 years of age, 47% we re 20 years of age, 21% were 21 years of age, 5% were 22 years of age, .5% were 23 years age, 2% were 24 years and older age, 1.52% were left the age item as blank. Table 3-4 suggests that 86% of the res pondents were juniors, 10% senior, 4% sophomores; 18% of respondents had taken 0-1 courses related to multicultural themes, 56% of respondents had taken 2-3 classes, a nd 20% of respondents had taken 4 or more courses with multicultural themes, and 6% pe rcent of the respondents did not respond to

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86 this item, and 69% of the respondents had foreign travel experience, 29% of the respondents had no foreign travel experien ces and 2% did not respond to the item. The Table 3-4 also shows that 29% of the respondents had inner-city program experiences as a volunteer or staff member, while 57 % of them indicated they had no experiences of any inner-city program, and 14% of them did not respond to this item; 85% of respondents were monolingual and 15% of them stated that they know more than one language; 66% of them stated that they had some cross-cultural friendships while 34% stated they had much; and 15% of the respondents categorized the student body at their university as mainly one racial group, 4% as two major racial groups, 3% did not mark the item and majority of respondents, and 81% categorized their university as having many racial groups. Table 3-4 demonstrates that 54% of respondents were Protestant, 22% were Catholic, 9% Jewish, 2% were described th emselves other than listed groups, and 13% did not choose any options. In addition to religious affiliation, 42% of respondents described themselves, as liberal, 55% as conservative and 3% gave no response. Data Analysis The results of the study are pr esented in the form of desc riptive analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis. Table 3-5 and Table 3-6were utilized to examine statistical relations. As seen on the Table 3-6 the first research question was explored through different statistical procedures. Relationships between nominal level demographic variables were explored through a Pearson Chi-square test, Cross tabulation and either Cramers V for two level tables or Contingency Coeffici ent for three or more level tables.

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87 Cross tabulation is a matrix that shows the distribution of one variable for each category of a second variable. In other words it shows the numbers of cases that have particular combinations of values for two or more variables (Norris, 2000, p.121) and it summarizes the relationship betw een variables. Chi-square is a test of statistical significance appropriate for two nominal variables. More statistical terms it: estimates the probability that associati on between variables is a result of random chance or sampling error by comparing th e actual or observed distribution of responses with the distribution of res ponses we would expect if there were absolutely no association between two va riables p.277 (Babbie, Halley, and Zaino, 2000). For all applications of the Chi-square pro cess .05 or a less value was considered an indication of statistically significant results in this study. Even though Chi-square indicates a relationship between variables as significant or not, it does not tell us the direction and strength of the relationship. After looking at all relationships betw een nominal variables with the Cross tabulation and Chi-square proce ss, I further analyzed the sign ificant results to look at the directions and strengths of relationships between variab les. Using Cramers V and Contingency Coefficient values I tried to de termine whether one variable increases or decreases when the other variable changes values. As Healey, Boli, Babbie, and Halley (1999) stated, direction and strength are in dependent of each other, and a bivariate association may be weak and negative, pos itive and strong, positive and weak, and so forth (p.14). Both Cramers V and Continge ncy Coefficient, measure of association varies from .00 to +1.00. The closer the valu e to either plus or minus 1, the stronger relationship and values close to zero indicate weak relations hips. Also the sign of value tells us whether the overall rela tionship is positive or negative.

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88 The relationships between nominal independe nt demographic variables and interval dependent variables as survey scores were explored through t-tests for two levels of independent variables and ANOVA for more than two levels of independent variables. A T-test is a test for the statistical diffe rence between two samples and ANOVA (analysis of variance) is based on a comparison of di fferences between three or more subgroups and the variance on the same variable within each of the subgroups. To avoid the impression that all students attitudes changed in the same directions, I employed a unique method of analysis not used by other studies of students changes in attitudes toward diversity. Following the an alysis of overall changes, directions of changes were analyzed using both descrip tive and inferential statistical methods. Qualitative Phase Theoretical Framework This research is guided by the theoretical and pedagogical unders tanding in critical multiculturalism (Kincheloe & Steinberg, 1997; Nieto, 1999) and critical theory (Kincheloe & McLaren, 1994). In addition, critic al, social and political theories such as critical pedagogy (Freire, 1970; Giro ux, 1997; hooks, 1994; McLaren, 1989; Wink, 2005), reader response theory (Rosenblatt, 1938/1978), cr itical literacy (Luke & Freebody, 1996; McLaughlin & DeVoogd, 2004) a nd works of scholars in the field of multicultural education (Banks, 2004; Coch ran-Smith, 2004, Gay, 2004; Grant & Sleeter, 1999; Nieto, 2004) examined as fundamental to understanding how they pertain to establishing power relationships in education and to the conceptualization of ideological position.

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89 Critical theory and critical pedagogy Hinchey (2001) said that cr itical theory is about possi bility, and hope, and change. Moreover, she stated that: It calls our attention to places where choi ces have been made, and it clarifies whose goals those choices have serve d. It calls our attention to th e fact that we might have chosen otherwise. Indeed, it proposes a radically differe nt vision of schooling and urges us to make different choices (p. 15). Kincheloe and McLaren (1994) listed seve n basic assumptions that are accepted by criticalists who use their work as a fo rm of social or cultural criticism: Every society systematically gives priv ileges to certain cultural groups and oppresses other cultural groups. The oppression experienced by an individual is an interactive combination of the various oppressions generated in response to all that individuals nonprivileged identities. Cultural texts (including but not limited to language) are probably the most powerful means of expressing and main taining differences in privilege. Every human act, creation, or communication can be interpreted in relation to the cultural context of capitalist production and consumption. All thought is mediated by socially and hi storically constructed power relations. Facts can never be isolated from the doma in of values and prevailing assumptions about what is valued. Mainstream research practices help reproduce systems of oppression that are based on class, race, gender, and other cultural categories. Critical pedagogists, in response to social and critical educationa l theory, examined schools both in their historical context and as part of the existing social and political structure that characterized the dominant so ciety (Carspecken, 1996; McLaren & Giralli, 1995). Wolk (1998) argued: School should be a place that allow one to become empowered, a place that helps people become thoughtful human beings, a pl ace that welcomes critical questions, a

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90 place where people-children and adultswork together as a community of learners to nurture our society, our nation, our world, and our selves (p.6). Giroux (1988) is among those scholars who have played a major role in developing a body of critical theory that is applicab le to education. Giroux (2004) stated: Pedagogy is a public practice largely defined within a range of cultural apparatuses extending from television networks, to prin t media, to the Internet. As a central element of a broad based cultural politics, critical pedagogy, in its various forms, when linked to the ongoing project of de mocratization can provide opportunities for educators and other cultural workers to redefine and transform the connections among language, desire, meani ng, everyday life, and material relations of power as part of a broader social movement to r eclaim the promise and possibilities of a democratic public life (p.46). Therefore critical pedagogies can provide teachers and resear chers with a better means of understanding the ro le that schools actually play within a race-, class-, and genderdivided society (Morrell, 2004). Critical multiculturalism Brady and Kanpol (2000) suggested, The critical version of multiculturalism confronts diversity as a concept, then inve stigates its multifarious difference (p.42). Critical multiculturalism draw s upon the literature and anal ytical methods of cultural studies to gain a deeper understanding of how race, class and gender are represented in various social spheres (Kincheloe & Steinb erg, 1997). Kincheloe and Steinberg stated, Critical multiculturalism is dedicated to th e notion of egalitarianism and the elimination of human suffering (p.24). Niet o (1999) identified six criteria that characterize what has become known as critical multiculturalism. These included: Critical multicultural ed ucation affirms a students culture without trivializing the concept of culture. Critical multicultura l education challenge s hegemonic knowledge. Critical multicultural edu cation complicates pedagogy.

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91 Critical multicultural education probl ematizes a simplistic focus on selfesteem. Critical multicultural education enco urages dangerous discourses. Critical multicultural edu cation admits that multicultural education cannot do it all. Research Question 1. How do larger contextual factors such as power, privilege, and oppression affect the ways in which preservice teachers constr uct beliefs about diversity in childrens literature classes? In light of theoretical and pedagogical unde rstandings of critical, political and social theories (Critical mu lticulturalism, critical theory, reader response, critical pedagogy and critical literacy) as qualitative part of study one section of childrens literature class examined to address the research question, foll owing Hatchs (2002) critical data analysis steps. Childrens Literature (LAE 3005) in PROTEACH in Fall 2005 One seminar class for graduate student s and five undergraduate classes of childrens literature were offered during Fall 2005 by the department. Several weeks prior to the beginning of classes, instruct ors of the LAE 3005 Childrens Literature classes met to discuss issues, to orient new t eaching assistants in addition to their regular training sessions and to overview the course materials. The meeting started with Why and How questions and issues such as; How literature courses differ from reading courses Why literature courses are important Why the genre approach Why the multicultural and social justice focus Underlying philosophies of the literature course

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92 Then conversation moved to the first da y of class as things to announce and remember such as: Childrens literature specialization Professional journals and organizations Project Booktalk Bright Futures Library in room 2215 The public library The next theme of the meeting was on cl assroom structure and teaching strategies. These issues were: Organization of the 3-hour class session Test on readings including midterms final exams and weekly quizzes Reflective note cards Individual and group work and reports Weekly feedback Book sharing Teacher demonstration and lecture Read aloud and other read ing strategies Bring in books Finding books-why good books Sharing books Classroom behaviors, absence Non-COE students Because of limited sources of childrens books and to avoid overwhelming requests from libraries on the same genre from all cl asses a weekly rotation schedule of genres read by the classes was prepared. Course Instructor The course instructor for the qualitative part of the research study was a professor of education in the School of Teaching and Learning. She teaches courses in children's literature and children's literature seminars on African American l iterature, global and international literature, Holocaust literature and other topics. Her main goal is working

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93 with teachers to make literature a central pa rt of the elementary school curriculum. At the time of this study she was serving on the Children's Literature Assembly Board of NCTE and is a member of the Notable Books for a Global Society Committee of the Children's Literature and Reading SIG of th e International Reading Association. Her research focuses upon critical multicultural anal ysis of childrens literature, childrens response to literature literature in the curriculum, genre studies, and classroom applications of literature. Demographics of COHORT 47 in LAE 3005 The demographic data sheet as part of Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scales consisted of sixteen items that provided in formation about demographics and individual characteristics of the participants. These item s include the following areas; gender, age, racial groups, class standing, num ber of course taken related to multicultural themes, foreign travel, domestic travel, work/school in another country, Peace Corps volunteer, Vista volunteer, i nner-city program experience, description of student body, religious affiliation and denomination, sec ond language and cross-cultural friendship. Table 3-7 summarizes the demographic vari ables of cohort 47. The majority (97%) of cohort 47 was female and the cohort rang ed in age from19 to 21 years (M=20.22). For racial status, 81% of the cohort members de scribed themselves as White, and 19% as non-White; Eighty eight point five percent of the cohort members were juniors, and 13% were enrolled as seniors. 78% of students had two or three courses, 16% had four or more courses and 6% had either none or one c ourse experience rela ted to multicultural education before the Fall 2005 semester. Table 3-7 also showed that 63% of th e students had participated in foreign (vacation) travel, 94 % had domestic (vacation) travel, 13% went to work/school in

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94 another country, 6 % had Vista volunteer/sta ff experience, and 25% had some inner-city program volunteer/staff experience. The dem ographic question how would you describe the student body at your uni versity, was reported as ma ny racial groups by 88% of students, whereas 3% reported as two major racial groups, and 9.4% reported as mainly one racial group. As religious denomination 47% described themselves as liberal, and 53% as conservative; 28% of student described their religious affiliation as Catholic, 25% as Protestant, 22% as Other, and 16% did not fill that options. With regard to second language use, 16% percent of the cohort members identified themselves as second language speakers (All Spanish), and 85 % responded that they spoke only English. 72% of students reported their current involvement in meaningful cross-cultural friendships, as none, very little or some, whereas 28% reported much and extensive cross-cultural friendships. Data Collection Marshall and Rossman (1999) stated that qua litative researcher s typically rely on four methods to collect data. These are participation in the setting, direct observation, indepth interviewing and analysis of docume nts and material culture. Interviews, observations and written assignments of the cl assroom served as the qualitative part of the data collection procedures in this study. Interviews There were several reasons why I conduc ted interviews of some students to complement the quantitative data collected in surveys. The interview questions provided an in-depth exploration of the participants experiences in th e childrens literature class. One way in which interviews supported the re search questions was that they provided a

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95 contextual background from which to examin e students identities and demography. The follow-up interviews after class sessions helped to explore students experiences with the exposure and challenges they encountered in childrens literature class. During the semester I conducted open-ended interviews with four students, 30 45 minutes in length, and with two focus groups of six and four students, 45-55 minutes in length. These interviews took place after their regular class time in an office within the college building. All students who participated in in terviews were volunteers. Also after each class session short open-ended interviews we re conducted with the classroom instructor to see what she noticed. Interviews allo w for a better understanding of the context for participants responses (Bogden & Biklen, 1992 ) in addition to supplementing the survey, observations and archival data with in-dep th, detailed informati on (Patton, 1990). There are several advantages to c onducting interviews, particularly as they were employed in this study in combination with surveys, observations and archiv ed documents (class assignments. I followed a logical order on which to build the interviews, starting with reflection of the participants experiences in this cl ass regarding the issues of diversity that participants did not put much emphasis in their archived documents, consideration of controversial issues, and then into and general discussion re garding the surveys, survey items and participants out of class experi ences, and finally part icipants reflection on curricular application for their future classrooms. Below are the questions: I want to you think about your experiences in this class, try to recall some of them, and talk about their relation to is sues of diversity. For example; Social Class? Gender?

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96 Religion? Language? Immigration Curricular connections? Have you ever been silenced in this class because of the topic, issues discussed in the class or something else? Looking at your second survey, what ar e your overall impressions, do you think something changed? (A copy of belief s scale was provided to interviewees) Looking back at your overall experiences in this semester, what kind of experiences have you had such as other classes, campus life, meeting with different people, that might effect your beliefs regard ing the issues of diversity? As a future class teacher what would you do include multicultural issues in your curriculum, regarding what you have learned in this class? Four individuals and two focus groups of four and six students were interviewed, and I transcribed each interview. Similar to written responses (Class assignments), I analyzed the interview transcripts using Ha tchs (2002) data analysis framework for critical research. Observations Another important aspect of this study involved classroom observation. Qualitative data are the detailed descrip tions of situations, events, pe ople, interactions, and observed behaviors, direct quotations from people about their experiences, attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts, and excerpts or entire passages fr om documents, correspondence, records, and case histories (Patton, 1990). I observed every cl ass session from beginning to end for the entire semester of the study. I took field notes by hand. After each session I reread my observations and clarified any confusing data.

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97 Archive-review of documents Students written class assignments were us ed as archival data in this project. Below is a description of the papers that were completed by the pa rticipants during the semester. At the end of each class sessi on I requested the homework papers or class writing from the professor and made copies of them. The following sections include description of each course assignment from th e course syllabus. The course syllabus can be found in the appendix section (Appendix C). Week I: Course Introduction During the first week of class students we re asked to response picture books that were chosen by instructor. They signed up for three literature circle novels that they will read during the semester. These response pa pers were pre-assessments on how students responded to books. The students would review the same books at the end of the semester to demonstrate their growth in reader response. Week II-Reading Identity and Cultural Identity Students were responsible for a twopart paper about their identities. Part I: Reading Identity Students were asked to reflect their devel opment as a reader. The reflection could include: favorite books, why they are the reader or non-reader that they are today, who read to, potential impact of that lack of read aloud experience, teachers throughout their schooling who fostered a love of reading and those who did not, and the strategies that helped them become an avid reader or discou raged avid reading. Part II: Cultural Identity Students were asked to reflect their thought s regarding diversity. Specifically they required examining encounters they have ha d with individuals of different: culture,

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98 ethnicity, regional backgrounds, religion, gender, sexual orient ation and gender identity, disability or difference, social class, age, and family structure and their reactions and comfort in these interactions. Week III-Informational Books The informational book assignment was to find (in the public library) and read a recently published (2000 2006) nonfiction info rmational book on a topic that interested them and to write a response and an eval uation of the book according to a guideline provided in the syllabus. Week IVMulticultural and International Literature The multicultural literature assignment wa s to read the novel for which they had signed up on the first day of class (novels were available for purchase in a local bookstore) and to write a personal an d analytical response to the book. Week V-Poetry and Plays The poetry assignment was to find a recently published narrative poem book from a list of books provided in class and to find a contemporary poet whose work they enjoyed and be prepared to read or perform one of the poems in class. They wrote a short reflective paper on these assignments that wa s analyzed for this research project. Week VI-Picture Books The picture book assignment was to conduct an illustrator repor t on an illustrator they had signed up to research earlier in the semester and to provide a single page handout about the illustrator, the art, and the books that were analyzed. Week VIIRealistic Fiction

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99 The realistic fiction assignment, like the multicultural assignments, was to read the realistic fiction novel for which they had signed up on the first day of class and to write a personal and analytical response to the book. Week VIIITraditional Literature The traditional literature assignment asked the students to read two different kinds of folk literature from two different cultures and to identify cultural and folktale elements that were germane to the culture of the setti ng of each folktale for their written responses. Week IXHistorical Fiction The historical fiction assignment, like the multicultural and realistic fiction assignment, asked students to read the novel fo r which they had signed up and to write a personal and critical analys is response to the book. Week XModern Fantasy The modern fantasy assignment asked st udents to read an award-winning modern fantasy novel or three award-winning fant asy picture books and, write a personal and critical response to th e book(s), including the type of fa ntasy books they selected and the fantasy elements for each book. Week XIA Literature Curriculum The literature assignment asked the student s to find an article in a professional journal about a teacher who taught with literature using one of the following techniques and to write a one-page summary of article. The techniques were home reading programs, classroom libraries, literature circles, book cl ubs, genre studies, read ing logs or reading journals, reading workshop, and literature in th e content areas (science, social studies, art, music, math).

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100 Week XIIUAS Presentation The UAS assignment was to find a partne r and conduct an inquiry study into a topic of diversity in childrens literature and to write a short paper and make a class presentation on the findings. There wa s a detailed handout of procedures. Week XIIIFinal Session Students were continued on their UAS pr esentations and responded post-test on a picture book analysis that first part was done during the first day of class. Data Analysis A framework described by Hatch (2002) was us ed for data analysis procedures in this study. Hatch (2002), proposed a data analysis framework for critical research that builds in analytic integrity so that findi ngs are grounded in data while acknowledging the political nature of the real world and the re search act. As he described, a more specific goal is to give critical resear chers tools for data analysis that fit within the assumptions that characterize thei r perspective. This framework includes eight steps (Hatch, 2002, p.191-201). These steps are: Read the data for a sense of the whole, and review entries previously recorded in research journals and/or bracketed in protocols. Write a self-reflexive statement explicating your ideological positionings and identifying ideological issues you see in the context under investigation. Read the data, marking places where issues related to your ideological concerns are evident. Study marked places in the data, then write generalizations that present potential relationships between your ideological concerns and the data. Reread the entire data set, and code the data based on your generalizations. Decide if your generalizations are supported by the data, and write a draft summary.

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101 Negotiate meanings with participants addressing issues of consciousness raising, emancipation, and resistance. Write a revised summary and identify excerpts that suppor t generalizations. Hatch also provided a set of questions for assessing data analysis adequacy. These questions include: Were ideological positionings explicated and political issues related to the study identified in a self-reflexive statement? Were generalizations written that represent relationships between ideological expecta tions and the data? Are generalizations s upported by the data? Were data-based generalizations written as a draft summary? Was the summary used as a tool for addressing issues of consciousness raising, emancipation, and/or re sistance with participants? Was the summary revised to include in sights shared by participants? (p .210). Recently published dissertations and books were examined to understand the different stages of the critical studies. Following Hatch (2002) data analysis step s for critical resear ch I analyzed all qualitative data including interview transcript s, participants class assignments, and my observation notes through the following order: I read entire data sets including inte rview transcripts, observation notes, and archive documents. I put aside my ideological statements dr awn from critical theory, and critical multiculturalism as theoretic al framework for my study. I read the data and marked the places in all data sets related to my ideological concerns. I studied marked places and I focused on connections between these places and my ideological statements.

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102 I concentrated on data based on connections described in the previous stage and coded data in their relation to issues such as gender, race/ethnicity, social class, religion, immigration, sexual orientati on, language, ability/disability, and monocultural/multicultural education. I checked my generalizati ons and coded data sets. I critiqued my generalizations with part icipants and using follow up interviews, observation notes, participants evaluation notes, survey resu lts, and works of scholars in the field of multicultural education. Based on my critiques, I wrote the final revised summaries. Trustworthiness The issue of trustworthiness is central to the evaluation of any research endeavor. To ensure the trustworthine ss of this study, I utilized several techniques of data triangulation. I used a survey that has b een tested by many researchers with a high reliability scores as well as a high reli ability scores from my study. Also I used questionnaires to identify initial demogra phic information and emerging themes and categories regarding students beliefs on the issue of diversity. Follow-up open-ended and focus group interviews provided a chance to ex plore these initial th emes and categories of information in more depth and to conf irm or contradict my initial conclusions. To guarantee the trustworthiness of the interview protocol I consulted with my doctoral committee members to evaluate for accuracy and clarity. During the interviews, I heavily relied on open-ended questions rather than closed-ended questions in order to elicit richer responses. Classroom observations and st udents class assignments as archival data provided a foundation on which themes and categories may emerge more naturally from the participants experiences. For this study I pa rticipated in the en tire class sessions.

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103 As a part of data analysis, member check ing allowed study partic ipants to test the interpretations, analyses, and conclusions to see if they provided accurate representations of their experiences. In add ition, I used several outside p eer reviewers to ensure the trustworthiness of my analysis of data.

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104 Table 3-1. Methodology matrix Research questions Research Methods How do the political and social aspects of the demography of preservice teachers influence their beliefs on the issue of diversity? What are the changing attitudes and beliefs, if any, of preservice teachers on the issue of diversity over the semester in childrens literature classes? How do larger contextual factors such as power, privilege, and oppression affect the ways in which preservice teachers construct beliefs about diversity in childrens literature classes? Demographic information + + + Survey + + + Observations + + Interviews + + Written assignments + + Table 3-2. Reliability scores and means of scales Total Sample Pre Post Pre Post N 274 274 32 31 Alpha .7676 .7987 .7332 .7626 Personal beliefs about diversity scale Mean 58.5620 60.2409 59.6250 60.7419 N 274 274 32 31 Alpha .7898 .8067 .7679 .8075 Professional beliefs about diversity scale Mean 94.9672 98.9964 95.4688 98.2903

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105 Table 3-3. Numerical values to define different scales Variables Scales Scale scores1 Pretest personal beliefs about diversity scale Scale scores4 Posttest personal beliefs about diversity scale Scale scores3 Pretest professiona l beliefs about diversity scale Scale scores4 Posttest professiona l beliefs about diversity scale Race1 Pretest personal beliefs about di versity scale race related items group Race2 Posttest personal beliefs about di versity scale race related items group Race3 Pretest professional beliefs about diversity scale race related items group Race4 Posttest professional beliefs about diversity scale race related items group Table 3-4. Demographics of participants Gender Race Age F M White Nonwhite 19 20 21 22 23 24+ n/a 247 27 227 47 63 12858 14 1 6 4 Class standing Multicultural course experience Foreign travel Junior Senior Sophomore 0-1 2-3 4+ n/a Yes No n/a 235 27 12 50 153 56 15 189 80 5 Inner-city experience Second language Crosscultural friendship Student body description Yes No N/a YesNo Som e MuchOneTwo Many 80 157 37 41 233 180 94 41 12 221 Religious affiliation Religious denomination Protestant Catholic Jewish Other n/a Liberal Conservative n/a 149 59 24 6 36 116 150 8

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106 Table 3-5. Academic and demographic inde pendent variables used in this study Academic and background variables Description Gender This nominal IV has two levels (male and female Age This nominal IV has six levels (1(19 years old), 2(20 years old), 3(21 years old), 4(22 years old), 5(23 years old), 6(24+ years old)) Racial groups This nominal IV has two levels (White and Non-White) Class standings This nominal IV has four levels (Junior, Senior, Sophomore, Graduate) Multicultural course experiences This nom inal IV has three levels (1(0-1 course), 2(2-3 courses), 3 (4+ courses) Foreign travel experience This nominal IV has two levels (Yes and No) Inner-city experience This nominal IV has two levels (Yes and No) Student body description of university This nominal IV has three levels (Mainly one racial group, two racial groups, and many racial groups) Religious affiliation This nominal IV has four levels (Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and Other) Religious denomination This nominal IV has two levels (Liberal and Conservative) Second language This nominal IV has two levels (Yes and No) Cross-cultural friendship This nominal IV has two levels (Some and Much) Table 3-6. Statistical procedures Levels of variables Statistical procedures Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Pearson chi-square test, cross tabulation, cramers V (for 2x2 tables), contingency (for more than 2x2 tables) Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Interval (Dependent variables-total scores) t-test (for two levels independent variables) ANOVA (for more than two levels independent variables)

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107 Table 3-7. Demographics of cohort 47 Gender Race Religion F M White Nonwhite Protestant Catholic Jewish N/a 30 1 25 6 15 8 3 5 Student body description Age Foreign travel One Two Many 19 20 Yes No 3 1 27 23 8 19 12 Inner-city experience Second language Cross-cultural friendship Yes No N/a Yes No Some Much 8 21 2 5 26 22 9 Religious denomination Multicultural course experience Class standing Liberal Conserva tive n/a 0-1 2-3 4 + Junior Senior 15 14 2 2 24 5 27 4

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108 CHAPTER 4 CONTEXT OF CHILDRENS LITERATURE In this chapter, I report on my obser vation notes, interviews and students assignments to allow readers to get a bette r sense for the context of the childrens literature class. I complement these mate rials with the literature on multicultural childrens literature, critical pedagogy, and critical multiculturalism. For reducing large amounts of data based on observation notes without loosing any essential of components of the class contex t, I discussed with my committee members and I grouped these notes for further analys is. These groups are formed as follows: Course Introduction: Introducti on to Childrens Literature Assigned Readings: Picture Books (Illustra tor Study), Realistic Fiction (Literature Circle Novels), Historical Fiction (Literature Circle Novels), and Multicultural Literature (Literature Circle Novels). Thes e four different assignments were part of students responses to the novels and illustrators that they signed up during first day of class. Self-Selected Reading: Modern Fantasy, Traditional Literature and Nonfiction Literature. These three different assignments are part of students' responses to their own selected picture books or novels. Special Topics: Project Booktalk, Respons es to special topic books (Sexual Orientation), UAS Assignments and, read er and cultural identity papers. To allow readers to get a better sense fo r the actual Childrens Literature class, I start the chapter with a description of th e day of course intr oduction based on my observation notes. Then, I describe four addi tional segments of the class under assigned readings, self-selected readings, spec ial topics, and classroom evaluations.

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109 Each description is followed by a discu ssion of the segments including literature on childrens literature, critical pedagogy, and critical multiculturalism. I focus on the issues brought by both students and instru ctor during each class session in their relation to larger contextual factors such as pow er, privilege, and oppression that affect the ways in which preservice teachers construct be liefs about diversity in ch ildrens litera ture class. Course Introduction Introduction to Childrens Literature When the students came to the first class, they were greeted by the instructor Welcome to this course on childrens literat ure! followed by a short introduction of the course. After spending this first couple minutes getting to know each other and articulating what they will learn about childr ens literature, I administered a survey ( Personal and Professional Be liefs About Diversity Scales Pohan 1998). The professor then asked the students to select a picture book from a collection she brought to class and write a response to it. Set on windowsills a nd blackboard, the covers of the books were visible to students before they made their selections. Students were asked to choose one book among more than forty picture books across a wide variety of genres. The response process ended within 15-20 minutes. After co mpletion of the written responses, students held up their books, one by one, and told the class why they selected the books. The instructor wrote their responses on the bl ackboard: familiar topic, cover, colorful, wonder, color, illustrations, pictures, expe rience, hopeful tone, art-connection, prediction, genre, moral theme, cute, which led the instructor to talk about implications of this list. She talked about what research says on childrens book selection and compared that information with the list on the blackboard.

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110 On the first day, the next activity for th e class was a read-aloud. The instructor chose The Bat Boy and His Violin by Curtis (2001) and explained the reasons why she selected that book (love of music, sports, and history) and told the class she was going to demonstrate how to read aloud a book. Then she talked about the Coretta Scott King Award an emblem on the front jacket of th e book (what professional organization gives the award, why it was given to the book, and the meaning of the awards emblem), the importance of information about the author the importance of information about the publisher and publication date. After completing these introductory activities she read aloud the book, and then asked students for their responses, which included realistic illustrations, wonderful writing. The instructor then asked the class, Why would I pick this book on the first day of the school? and, after getting some responses such as good moral, teach something, good story she e xplained why she would select this book connecting with the whiteness of teaching force and mixed student profile in the elementary classrooms. At the end of the read aloud the class, in cluding the instructor played an I am good at game where each student told thei r names and said what they were good at. Students responses included storyteller, tap dancer, cooking, being neat, golf, gymnastic, organized, packing, arts, photogra phy, dance, painting, music-piano, working with children, managing time, creativity, interior design. The game followed by students responses on where they were from. Realizing one student came from a different college in a different state; the instructor asked the class their suggestions for good places to visit in the town for the newcom er. She placed a restriction on the types of nice places to omit restaurants, bars or shopping place names. Students listed places

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111 including state parks, movie theaters, student organizations within the university, and museums around the town. Before the break inst ructor told the class they should change their seats every week to allow them to know better each other, as this was their first semester in the program. After a short break the instructor passed out the Getting the Know You forms to be filled out by students and distributed the cour se syllabus. She then showed a power point presentation on the historical fiction, multicultural and realistic fiction novels, and asked students to sign up for one book from each genre. The instructor introduced the textbooks for the class after a short discussion of the sy llabus, the nature of the course, and course objectives. Then she explaine d them the importance of su pporting local bookstores to explain where the textbook and novels had been ordered and were located for purchase, or, they could, of course, use their own choices of market places. Segments from Course Introduction: How to find good books & childrens literature awards: The importance of authentic literature is well described by many scholars in the field of childrens literature. Fo r example Hazel Rochman, in her book, Against Borders (1993) explained the overall purpose of multicultural literature. She wrote: A good book can help to break down [barrier s]. Books can make a difference in dispelling prejudice and building community : not with role models and literal recipes, not with noble messages about th e human family, but with enthralling stories that make us imagine the lives of others. A good story lets you know people as individuals in all their particularity and conflict; and once you see someone as a person flawed, complex, striving then you' ve reached beyond stereotype. Stories, writing them, telling them, sharing them, tr ansforming them, enrich us and connect us and help us know each other (p. 19). One of the major book review periodicals, the Horn Book magazine, only reviews half of the childrens books out of more than 10, 000 books published in each year. After

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112 pointing out the impossibility of reviewing all books, the instructor explained how corporate takeovers and buy-out s left only 5 huge major publishing companies as parts of much larger companies, which left the family-owned, small publishing companies struggling to produce a few good books. Then she focused on how these companies courted celebrities to writ e books, advertised products through childrens books, and turned story characters into dolls and toys to explain the goals of publishers to turn a profit. Asking students to think back through th eir lives and how they became an avid readers through reading good books, or not, she stated it is the goal of a childrens literature program to help children become avid readers. Giving an example of her service on committee to select Notable B ooks for a Global Society Committee (of the Childrens Literature and Reading SIG of the International Reading Association (IRA), she explained one way to make sure they ar e selecting good books to read was to search for books that have won awards. Then she in troduced the major childrens literature awards. The instructor provided a chart showing ma jor childrens literatur e awards with the Internet sites, and short information about each award. She pointed if they want to find a good book in a certain area or from certain culture this information can be very helpful. Table 4-1 presents the childre ns literature awards discusse d during the second week of class. The instructors final comment on child rens literature awards and finding good books was, You are far more likely to find good books at independent bookstores than at the mass-market stores, who again are out to make money on books by celebrities or

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113 those with media connections. It is importa nt to support local books tores so that your community always has access to th e best books that are published. Why a multicultural perspective? Many researchers have found that multicultu ral childrens literature provides an influential reading experience and challeng es readers to critica lly examine the world (Enciso, 1994, 2001; Ford, Tyson, Howard, & Harris, 2000; Glenn-Paul, 1998; Tyson, 1999). The class instructor introduced the cultu re gap between students who succeed and students who dont, with an historical overvie w of our societys racist perspectives. The instructor gave examples of how white pe ople are privileged by our ancestors who received free land and labor then explained existing inequities betw een racial groups of our society including examples how whites are holding powerful positions, how public schools have placed large numbers of students of color in special education classes, segregation of school cafeterias, and white s efforts to avoid their children being schooled with minorities in housi ng choices and school choices. She pointed out how it is important for fu ture teachers become aware of their racism and take steps to eradicate it before becoming teachers. She emphasized one way to address racism is to provide minority ch ildren with books by minority author or books that more closely match their experiences. Also she emphasized that future teachers need to learn how to find books by minority authors, with a warning that most people select favorite books that reflect experiences simila r to their own, and th erefore white adults might not naturally gravitat e toward minority authors.

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114 Seating arrangements: Many scholars who focus on K-12 education have pointed out the importance of creating an appropriate physical environment, that teachers must address the critical issues of physical space, appropriate furnitu re, designated areas, seating arrangements, and visual appeal. Many st udies can be found on the eff ects of different seating arrangements, including rows, clusters, and circles on interactions among students identified as highand low-ach ievers and highand low-inte racters. Only a few studies focus on the importance of seating arrangements at college level. Jackson, Engstorm, and Hassenzahl (2005) tested 310 participants ( 151 men and 159 women; M age = 20.0) from a large southwestern U.S. university who were asked to select a leader from among five persons depicted around a rectangul ar table to find the effects of a person's sex on seating arrangement choice. In conflict with prior re search indicating gende r bias against women as leaders, they found that par ticipants chose a person seated at the head of the table as the leader of a group, regardless of that person's sex. The organization of the physical space implic itly reflects certain principles in the classrooms. A recommendation for students to change their seats weekly followed instructors initial arrangements for the ma ny sessions that put the different students together in a group. Literature circle groups, divi ding students into world regions when reading folktales and international children s books, dividing stude nts into different groups by ethnicity when reading multicultural picture books were a few of the strategies used by instructor to mix the students. These strategies might have helped to stop the any informal grouping that appears to be deve loping in the classroom by race, ethnicity, social class or ability.

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115 How to read a book: Rosenblatts theory The instructor introduced Dr. Louise Rose nblatt as the first female professor at New York University and relevancy of her idea s as they were when she first wrote about them. First she explained the Literature Response Theory, then the terms aesthetic and efferent readings. Her comments in cluded; Reader Response Theory requires students personal and critical responses to the books. Instead of testing students on the content of books, teachers can provide literature response journals or literature logs to let students write their impressions of the books that they read. Forming book clubs and literature circles provide st udents opportunities to share their ideas on their reading. Over the last several decades, reade r-response theories have become widely accepted in our classrooms. At all levels, litera ture classes include central tenets of the theory, particularly the notion that learni ng is a constructive and dynamic process in which students extract meaning from texts through experiencing, hypothesizing, exploring, and synthesizing (Mora & Welc h, 2007). As Mora and Welch stated Using reader response in the classr oom can have a profound impact on how students view texts and how they see their ro le as readers. Rather than relying on a teacher or critic to give them a single, st andard interpretation of a text, students learn to construct their own meaning by conn ecting the textual material to issues in their lives and describing what they expe rience as they read. Literature circles, journal writing, and peer writing groups all grew out of the reader-response movement. These teaching strategies value student-initiated analysis over teacherled instruction, promote open-ended discus sion, and encourage students to explore their own thinking and trust their own responses. Read aloud: Reading aloud was a weekly activity for the class. Often the instructor sat on a chair, asked the students to find a space on th e floor where they can see the illustrations in the book, and then modeled how to read al oud using books related to the topic of the week. Also students read aloud to the class or they read aloud to a small number of

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116 audiences in their group. Book se lections for read alouds mostly related to weekly topics as well as issues brought in by the instructor. Read alouds took more time in the early w eeks of semester when the instructor emphasized many things the students could do, and teach children to do, to make the experience richer. These included: Examination of the cover of the books: eff ectiveness of cover, what it stands for Reading about author and illustrator: how author wrote the book, author experiences with the topic, authors cultura l connections with the story characters, author-illustrator connec tion, and publishing process Examination of the endpapers: artwork, relation to the story Studying the title page: What might the title mean, clues about how to read Publisher information: what kind of books do they publish? Verso page: examining the dedica tions for clues about the book Copyright information and cataloging information: genres of the books References, index, glossary; finding helpful information Reading out loud and discussion Serafini and Giorgis stated (2003): If college professors do not demonstrate th e importance of readi ng aloud, if they do not support teacher candidates as they pract ice this important in structional strategy and explain how to use read alouds as the foundation for reading instruction, chances are that teacher candidates will not value these learning experiences once they become certified teachers themselves (p.7). Table 4-2 represents the read aloud book list to which students were exposed throughout the semester.

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117 Assigned Readings Picture Books There are many kinds of picture books be ing published today and for that reason picture books have very divers e functions. At the beginning of the session, the instructor explained how picture books cross genres gi ving examples of fi ction, nonfiction, poetry and prose, realistic and fantasy, and folk tale picture books. Disc ussion on picture books followed including the importance of picture boo ks, awards for picture books, criteria for good picture books and publication of picture boo ks. Then students, one by one, reported their findings on the illustrator whose books they examined, includi ng; the list of the books they read and reviewed, analysis of the me dia, art elements, and artistic style of the illustrator, portrayals of socio cultural i ssues in the books, and short biographies of illustrators. As emphasized by the instructor severa l times, students were exposed reading books by different cultures then their own. Th e illustrator list from which the students could select included many illustrators that represented minority cultures. These included illustrators from different ethnicities; Af rican-American (Don Tate, Floyd Cooper, Shane W. Evans, Pat Cummings, Faith Ringgold, Colin Bootman, Christopher Myers, Bryan Collier), Afro-Puertorican (Eric Velasquez) Latino/a (David Diaz, Lulu Delacre), Chinese American (Ed Young), Japanese Am erican (Allen Say), as well as well known illustrators from mainstream cultures (David Small, Dennis Nolan, Betsy Lewin, David Wiesner, David Wisniewski, Emily A. McCully, Molly Bang, Ted Lewin, David Shannon, Frane Lessac, D. B. Johnson, Paul O. Zelinsky, Ann Grifalconi, and Peter Sis). The following table represents the list of illustrators and students book selections of books for their reports. Their selections de pended upon what was available in the local

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118 public library, the source of books for all of their assignments. Fortunately, over the years the public library has built a strong co llection of multicultural books, in part, as a response to the assignments of childrens l iterature instructors at the University. Realistic Fiction At the beginning of the session on realistic fiction class the class discussed the importance of realistic fiction, criteria for selecting good realistic fiction books, curriculum connections after reading realistic fiction pi cture books selected by the instructor, in addition to regul ar literature circle discussi ons on students readings. The instructor shared a book writt en by Jacqueline Woodson a nd illustrated by James E Ransome Visiting Day, to end the individua l readings. A short in troduction on picture books was followed by whole cla ss discussion on the issues brought by instructor. These issues in questions format were, How will we bring controversial topics like parents in prison, serious illness, death, LGBT parents, religion, and politics into our classroom discourse and at the same time respect all points of view? What is the relative importance of a book on a topic that is sensitive compared to the importance of good writing? How do I determine the age appropriaten ess of realistic fiction literature? Students responses on contr oversial topics reflected th eir concerns with parents and school administrators, and indicated their be lief that the books we re more appropriate for middle school students rather than upper elementary as recommended by professional book reviewers. The following list represents the novels th at students had signed up for during the first class: Johnston, T. (2001). Any small goodness: A novel of the barrio NY: Blue Sky

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119 DAdamo, Francesco (2003). Iqbal Translated by Ann Lenori. NY: Atheneum Ellis, Deborah (2001). The breadwinner NY: Groundwood Lisle, Janet Taylor (2003). The crying rocks NY: Atheneum Ryan, Pam Munoz (2004). Becoming Naomi Leon NY: Scholastic Press. Sheth, Kashmira (2004). Blue Jasmine NY: Hyperion Weeks, Sarah (2004). So b it NY: Laura Geringer Woodson Jacqueline (2000). Miracles boys NY: Putnam. Grindley, Sally (2004). Spilled water NY: Bloomsbury Historical Fiction The purpose of the historical fiction assignment was to broaden students knowledge about American history and to he lp them enjoy a very well written novel about American history, as expl ained by instructor during firs t day of the class. At the beginning of the session the instructor explai ned how they know little about the history of their country other than what they were taught in school, which was mostly about men fighting wars and the settlement of their Na tion to point the narrow perspective in most school curricula on American history. She shar ed and read picture books to show students the examples of multiple perspectives on historical events. Literature circles followed the discussion on the importance of historical fiction and the criteria for selecti ng historical fiction l iterature, on the historic al fiction novels that the students had read for this class assignm ent. The following list represents the novels that students had signed up for during the first class: Chotjewitz, David (2004). Daniel half human: and the good Nazi NY: Simon and Schuster, Inc. Crowe, Chris (2002). Mississippi trial, 1955 NY: Penguin.

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120 Hale Marian (2004). The truth about sparrows NY: Henry Holt. Hill, Kirkpatrick (2005). Dancing at the Odinochka NY: Margaret McElderry. Pearsall, Shelley (2004). Trouble dont last NY: Random House. Patneaude, David (2004). Thin wood walls NY: Houghton Mifflin. Orlev, Uri (2003). Run boy run Translated by Hillel Halkin. NY: Houghton Mifflin. Hughes, Pat (2004). The breaker boys NY: Farrar Straus Giroux. The following list includes picture books shared by the instructor during the historical fiction session. Bunting Eve (1994). Smoky night Ill. David Diaz. NY: Harcourt Brace. Polacco, Patricia (1994). Pink and say NY: Putnam. Yin (2000). Coolies Ill. Chris Soentpiet. NY: Penguin. Stewart, Sarah (1997). The gardener Ill David Small. NY: Farrar Straus & Giroux. Yolen Jane (1992). Encounter Ill. David Shannon. NY: Harcour. Lester, Julius (1998). From slave ship to freedom land Ill. Rod Brown. Dial. Erickson Paul. (1998). Daily life on a southern plantation 1853. New York: Lodestar Books. Multicultural Literature The session on multicultural literature starte d with a discussion of how America became increasingly diverse and how Euro-Ameri can attribution of the dominant society will gradually no longer be the norm. Disc ussion was summarized by instructor on the need to prepare future teachers who are comfortabl e negotiating their way among students and their families from many different cultural traditions and groups and to expose the presently white majority of future school-teachers to literature about cultures other than their own. She informed the class th at is the one way to become familiar about

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121 people of other culture is to read childrens books by authors of those cultures. Before the literature circle discussions on multicultural nove ls, the class examined different kinds of picture books related to the different types of multicultural books including melting pot Social Conscience and Culturally Conscious books (Sims-Bishop, 1982). The following list represents the novels th at students had signed up for during the first class: Park, Linda Sue (2001). A single shard New York: Houghton Mifflin. Kessler, Cristina (2004). Our secret: Siri Aang New York: Philomel. Krishnaswami, Uma (2004). Naming Maya New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Bruchac, Joseph (2004). Hidden roots New York: Scholastic. Whelan, Gloria (2004). Chu Jus house New York: Harper Collins. Lekuton, Joseph Lemasolai (2003). Facing the lion Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. Auch, M.J. (2005). Wing nut New York: Henry Holt. Napoli, Donna Jo (2002). Daughter of Venice New York: Dell. Marsden Carolyn (2004). Silk umbrellas Massachusetts: Candlewick. Segments from Assigned Readings Gender The realistic fiction session a whole cla ss discussion was held on the issue of gender. The instructor explai ned and gave examples of how media portray women as sex objects for men to idolize, and books and ma gazines and schools influence on gender identity. Further examples were related to how these different attit udes toward diversity translated into inequality and discrimination in our soci ety. The following list is a summary of the discussion on H ow can literature help?

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122 Many good books have girl characters who are adventuresome and smart Fewer books portray sensitive males, but there are some that do Find books that counter any stereotypes and place them in your class library Examine the books on your bookshelves and be sure that there are wide range of gender roles in them Add books that were not available until r ecently about LBGT families and children and adults countering gender stereotypes Comment upon stereotypes when you do encount er them in language, literature, or life experiences Holocaust literature The unimaginable human experience The Holocaust was a focus issue during both realistic fiction class se ssion through picture books and th e historical fiction class session through novels. The instru ctor presented the importan ce of Holocaust literature for elementary school students, and criteria for selecting good books about the Holocaust. The following list includes the books either sh ared or mentioned by the instructor to present the Holocaust in childrens books. Bradley, Kimberly B. (2003). For freedom: The story of a French spy New York: Delacorte. Levine, Karen (2003). Hanas suitcase Chicago: Albert Whitman. Lowry, Lois (1989). Number the stars New York: Houghton Mifflin. Mazer, Norma Fox (2000). Good night Maman Orlando: Harcourt. Orlev, Uri (2003). Run, boy, run Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Spinelli, Jerry (2003). Milkweed New York: Alfred Knopf. Warren, Andrea (2002). Surviving Hitler: A boy in the Nazi death camps. New York: Harper Collins. Jung, Reinhardt (2003). Dreaming in black and white Translated by Anthea Bell. New York: Penguin.

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123 Mochizuki, Ken (1997). Passage to freedom: The Sugihara story Ill. by Dom Lee. New York: Lee & Low. Chotjewitz, David (2004). Daniel Half Human: and the good Nazi New York: Simon and Schuster. Multiple perspectives & critical literacy Under the questions guiding our inquiries into the world of childrens literature a section with questions on soci al justice, literature theori es, curriculum, and book quality in the syllabus were guidelines for the st udents to prepare their assignments. These requirements, textbook readings, and instruct ors examples gave opportunity to the students to learn how to look at thei r books from a critic al perspective. The class instructor explained the multiple perspectives using the picture book, Encounter (Yolen, 1992), during the historical fiction sessi on. She started with a statement that even though we are told th at America was discovered by a man named Christopher Columbus, he was not the first person to set foot on this continent. Then she introduced Jane Yolens histor ical fiction picture book, an interpretation of the Taino perspective on Columbuss ar rival with a comment Can you imagine how it would feel to be of Native American heritage today a nd to see a nation celebrate Columbus Day to honor the man who was responsible for slaughteri ng an entire tribe of thousands of Taino people? Cultural authenticity Cultural authenticity is a huge issue wh en it comes to writing and publishing childrens books. Not only for assigned reading but also for the rest of the assignments, students were asked to examine any books a bout minority cultures in terms of their cultural authentic ity. The instructor shared three books to demonstrate an example of each type of multicultural books. She criticized the Ezra Jack Keatss Caldecott Medal

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124 winner book The Snowy Day as an example of a Mel ting Pot book. She shared the illustrations to show how it wiped out culture entirely. The book includes a raceless main character other than his black face. He has no distinct language, apparel or home decorations that might reflect his culture. As an example of social conscience books the instructor shared Elise Carbones Storm Warriors and Deborah Wiless Freedom Summer She asked how each book would have b een written if it were written by a person of the culture of the minority charac ter in the book. Finally she introduced the concept of Culturally conscious books as authentic multicultural books using Jacqueline Woodsons books. Literature circles Researchers to describe the literature circle including literature studies, literature discussion, book clubs, literature circles, and cooperative book discussion groups use many different terms. In the syllabus, the instructor defined students small groups readings and their discussion on their readings using the term literature circle. Daniels (1994) describes a literature ci rcle as intersection of two powerful ideas, independent reading and cooperative learning that come together in the elegant and exciting classroom activity p. 12. Throughout the semest er students read th e novels selected by the instructor, and based on the book choices small temporary groups were formed for historical fiction, realistic fi ction and multicultural literature sessions. Students used their written or drawn notes to guide their discus sion within their group a nd prepared oral or written presentations to share with the class.

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125 Self-Selected Readings Modern Fantasy The importance of fantasy literature and cr iteria for selecting good modern fantasy books were first two themes class started to discuss during the modern fantasy session. To show the class high quality and different types of illustration in modern fantasy books instructor shared picture books published since 1990 that have won Caldecott Awards for their illustrations. These books and their types were: Click, clack, moo: Cows that type by Betsy Lewin (animal fantasy) Olivia by Ian Falconer (animal fantasy) Sector 7 by David Weisner (modern fantasy/wordless) The ugly duckling by Jerry Pinkney (modern folktale) Joseph had a little overcoat by Simms Taback (traditional fantasy) Officer Buckle and Gloria by Peggy Rathman (animal fantasy) Swamp angel by Anne Isaacs and Paul O. Zelinsky (modern folktale) The stinky cheese man and ot her fairly stupid tales by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith. Tuesday by David Weisner (modern fantasy/wordless) Hershel and the Hanukkah goblins by Eric Kimmel and Trina Schart Hyman (modern folktale) The booktalk on award winning fantasy pict ure books was followed by discussion on the ways to study fantasy literature in cla ssrooms. Science fiction as a form of fantasy writing and fantasy connection with the art curr iculum were two topics class discussed as curricular connections. Students group disc ussions on their weekly assignments were followed by an instructor-initiated discussion on how some of the best fantasy literature has been made into movies. Instructors recommendation on fantasy authors with their

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126 books was another part of the class. These recommended authors include; Ursula LeGuin, Philip Pullman, Lloyd Alexander, Susan Cooper, Bruce Coville, Madeleine LEngle, Lois Lowrys The Giver , Sylvia Waughs Space Race , JK Rowlings Harry Potter Series, Edward Eagers Half Magic Series, and Patricia Wredes Dragon Series. Traditional Literature The importance of traditional literature a nd its place in todays classrooms were the beginning topics for the traditional litera ture session. Discussion continued with the criteria for good traditional literature and types of traditional literature. Then the instructor booktalked several folktales that have won the Caldecott Award or honor book since 1990. These books were: There was an old lady who swallowed a fly by Simms Taback Rapunzel by Paul O. Zelinsky Golem by David Wisniewski Tops and bottoms by Janet Stevens John Henry by Julius Lester and Jerry Pinkney Raven: A trickster tale from the Pacific Northwest by Gerald McDermott The talking eggs by Robert San Souci and Jerry Pinkney Pussn boots by Charles Perrault and Fred Marcellino Lon po po: A red-riding hood story from China by Ed Young The next topic of discussion was the role of folk literature in the curriculum, Students mentioned that they could conduct s ub-genre studies of folk literature from different cultures, adding a study of folk lite rature when studying countries in social studies, and asking students gath er stories told by their elde rs. Students met with different groups to discuss the books they read, regr ouping after the first discussion. The first

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127 group discussed the books in spec ific world regions, while th e second group talked about the books by subgenre and cultural origins. Nonfiction Literature The class started the session with a disc ussion on the importan ce of informational books, and criteria for selecting good info rmational books, followed by instructors booktalk on recent Orbis Pictus Award wi nners and honor books. These books were; Emperors silent army: Terraco tta warriors of ancient China by Jane OConner Phineas gage: A gruesome but true story about brain science by John Fleischman Tenement: Immigrant life on the lower east side by Raymond Bial Black potatoes: The story of the Great Irish Famine 1845-1850 by Susan Campbell Bartoletti The cods tale by Mark Kurlansky, Ill by S. D. Schindler Hurry freedom: African Americans in Gold Rush California by Jerry Stanley Osceola: memories of a Sharecroppers daughter by Alan B. Govenar, Ill. by Shane W. Evans Wild and swampy by Jim Arnosky Mapping the World by Sylvia A Johnson The snake scientist by Sy Montgomery, Ill by Nic Bishop The top of the World : Climbing Mount Everest by Steve Jenkins Shipwreck at the bottom of the World: Th e extraordinary true story of Shackleton and the endurance by Jennifer Armstrong Black whiteness: Admiral Byrd Alone in the Antarctic by Robert Burleigh Ill. by Walter Lyon Krudop Fossil feud: The rivalry of the first American dinosaur hunters by Thom Holmes Hottest, coldest, highest, deepest by Steve Jenkins No pretty pictures: A child of war by Anita Lobel

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128 An extraordinary life: The true story of a Monarch Butterfly by Laurence Pringle, Paintings by Bob Marstall A drop of water: A book of science and wonder by Walter Wick A tree is growing by Arthur Dorros Ill. by S. D. Schindler Kennedy assassinated! The World mourns: A reporters story by Wilborn Hampton Full steam ahead: The race to build a transcontinental railroad by Rhoda Blumberg One world, many religions: The way we worship by Mary Pope Osborne Following the booktalk, the instructor made comments such as how childrens book publishing has become a far more sophisti cated business and authors are far more respected than in the past, and the fact th at books exist on just about any subject to interest just about any child. Teachers need to tune in carefu lly to childrens interest and experiences so that they can build upon th ese in helping children become literate. Segments from Self-Selected Readings Censorship During the fantasy class session, the stude nts discussed what books for children should be censored and for what reasons. Th e instructor gave examples of how some families because of their characters, such as witches, devils, ghosts and goblins, objected to fantasy books such as Harry Potter. Not only the reasons for censorship but also how a teacher should compensate for censorship situations was part of the discussion. Disneyfied and Eurocentric folk books Two issues related to childrens litera ture brought by instructor during traditional literature were disneyfied folktales and publicat ion of folktales in the United States. She explained disneyfied folktales are abom inable to pure folklorists because they have sexist images, have softer endings, which leave the evil out there unresolved, and

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129 are therefore more frighten ing, and have watered down the language of the original folktale. She stated that folktales published in the United States favor Euro-American children over African American, Asian American or Hispanic American children because of having European origins, and suggested that teachers seek out folk literature from nonWestern traditions for inclusi on in the classroom library. Literature based curriculum On many occasions the class instructor put huge emphasis on importance of a literature based curriculum as well as gave examples of how students could integrate childrens literature into the elementary school curricu lum. She described how many teachers are required to teach reading usi ng packaged materials or basal reading programs, so they can only supplement their instructional program with literature, while some teachers make childrens literature the primary source material for reading instruction. And she pointed out that teacher s need to be empowered to spend school funds for good literature to support individualized reading programs. The following list includes the topics and number of students for literature curriculum assignments. The students read arti cles from professional journals and then shared what they learned in class. Topics and number of student s included; Storytelling (5), Classroom Libraries (3), Readers Theatre (2), Book Clubs (6), Home Reading (3), Reading Workshop (2), Literature in the Cont ent Areas (2), Genre Studies (2), Reading Logs and Journals (3), and Literature Circle (3). Book talk During each session especially when the cla ss focused on self-selected readings, the instructor gave book talks to address issues and gave examples using many childrens books in their relation to each sessions foci Holding the books up to the class, the

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130 instructor introduced the titles, provided glimps es into the characters or plot elements, and presented issues that were keys to her recommendations. Special Topics Project Booktalk Almost 10 years ago, Project Booktalk was initiated by the Countys Public Library to meet a need for a population that was not being served by the library (Lamme, 2000). There were many children being cared for in day care homes where there was no access to childrens books. To provide these children located mainly in lower socio-economic parts of the town, the Youth Services Di vision designed the project and asked the University to partner to provide volunteers to run th e program. Since 1997 Project Booktalk has been a part of child rens literature classes. In pairs, students in childrens literature classes pick up a bag of ten books at the public library and deliver them to a child care home where from two to six children under the age of five are being cared for. The university students along with the provi der conduct a story hour, reading to the children and babies individuall y on laps and singing songs together. The next week the university students checked out another bag of books from the library and went to the home, returning the first bag of books to the library. This project pr ovided middle class, predominantly white, future teachers the opportun ity to visit on a regular basis and come to know a predominantly African American working class home and children who were often also a different culture. Students responses indicated th eir knowledge about and respect for working class families and thei r dedication to providing good books for all children in their classes we re greatly enhanced by Pr oject Booktalk (Lamme, 2000; Lamme & Russo, 2002).

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131 Responses to Special Topic Books In addition to students self selected readings of books with LGBTQ characters, students were asked to listen four picture books read aloud by the class instructor and to respond them in writing throughout the semester. These books were And Tango Makes Three (Richardson & Parnell, 2005), King & King (deHann & Nijland, 2003), Daddys Roommate (Willhoite, 1990), and Mollys Family (Garden, 2004). The responses of students were evaluated in the chapter 6. Unified Assessment System Key Tasks were designed to assess stude nts mastery of knowledge, skills and dispositions, which the State requires of all entr y-level educators. In this course, the class was required to pay particular attention to the following indicators as indicated in official guideline of their mastery of their practices: 4.1 : Knows and identifies strategies, materi als, and technologies to develop all PK12 students creative a nd critical thinking. 4.2 : Designs activities that develop all PK-12 students critical and creative thinking 5.2 : Demonstrates a repertoire of teachi ng techniques and strategies, including materials selection to effectiv ely instruct all PK-12 students 5.3 : Shows sensitivity, accepta nce and value of all PK12 students from diverse backgrounds (race, ethnicity, gender, soci oeconomic status, language, and special need) To meet the accomplished practices student s were asked to integrate childrens literature into classroom instru ction, but the practice closest li nked to this course was the one on diversity. The following list of topi cs were selected by students for their assignments; The Great Depression, The M aasai Culture, India Culture, Chinese Americans, Contemporary Native Americans (2), Holocaust, Orphan Trains, Adoption

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132 (2), African American women Writers, Ch allenges African American Children Face, Bullying in the Chinese Culture, Italian Cultu re, Anti-Semitism in the Holocaust, Slavery and the Underground Railroad, Jazz Music and African American Culture, The Japanese Internment Camp Experience, Children C oping With Divorce, Chinese Gender Roles, Child Labor, Apache Indians, Mexican American Culture, Children within the Holocaust, Jazz and Its People, Gender Roles in Isla mic Culture, Irish Immigration, Italian Immigration, and Homelessness. Cultural Identity As part of belief scales demographi c information sheet, the second week assignment on cultural identity was analyzed to delve a bit more deeply into cultural identity of the cohort. Critical examination of assignment and demographic data provide an insightful look to see who was in LAE 3005 as well as their entry beliefs regarding the issues of diversity. The second week papers included reflecti on upon students own feelings about and experiences with diversity. Specific areas of th e diversity issues were provided as a guide in the syllabus. These issues were culture, ethnicity, regional bac kgrounds, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, disability or difference, soci al class, age, and family structure. Students reported that school experiences, having pa rents from different ethnic backgrounds, travel within and outside the country, friends and neighborhood were the main reasons that helped them to realize di fferent ethnicities and sometimes inequalities among the ethnic groups. For example one student described her name and its origin as; My first name is German and was given to me after my grandma, and my last name is Danish. My mothers father is Italian, and her mother is Ge rman. My fathers mother is

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133 also German and his father is Danish. Anot her student pointed out the differences within her family as; Within the home environment itself, I have experienced three different backgrounds. My mother is from Nicaragua, my father is from the South, and my step mom is from a very Italian family. Even with in religion, my mother is catholic and my father is Atheist. My mother came from a wealthy childhood, whereas my father came from a poor childhood. Some of the students reflected back on ine qualities that they did not recognize at the time they occurred. For example one student stated that when she was in a school bus; The front 2/3 of the bus was where the white kids sat and the back 1/3 was where the black kids sat. I did not associate this w ith segregation until I got older. The cohorts demographics show that eighty one percent of the cohort members described themselves as White, and 19% as non-White (3% Black, 10% Brown, 6% Bi-racial). On the other hand many students responded that living in segreg ated areas within th eir social class and race did not let them to learn and interact ot her people. For example one student reported Honestly, I havent had many interactions with diversity in school. I mostly associated with people who were like me. This is b ecause the population of students who attended my school was mostly white middle to upper class. There were some groups of students with different racial backgrounds and social status; however, these students were very much apart from the rest of the school. International organizations during high sc hool years reported by many students that they had opportunities to lear n about many differen t cultures and areas of diversity. One student describes these experiences as My high school, for instance, hosted the International Baccalaureate program, so we had students from all over the county. This

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134 meant that we had a wide range of social cl asses, cultures, ethnic ities, and religions. We had a great representation of cultures E nglish, Hispanic, North American, Indian, Chinese, Ethiopian, etc. I was able to learn about their cultures and develop an appreciation for our many differences. Another reported, In high school, I was in a magnet program, Center for International St udies. Therefore, we focused on learning about many different cultures. Summer after my freshman year, I went on a two week trip to Ireland and England. We stayed with families in both of these countries so I had a first hand view of their different cultures and family values. The demographic questionnaire revealed 62.5% foreign (vacation) travel 94 % domestic (vacation) travel, 13% work/school in another country, 6 % vista volunteer/staff, 25% inner-city program volunteer/staff, and not any Peace Corps volunteer/staff experiences. Even though students responded with a high am ount of travel experiences, 72% also described their current involvement in meaningf ul cross-cultural friendship, as none, very little or some, whereas 28% reported much and extensive pres ent-day cross-cultural friendships. It is clear that they do not perceive vacation travel as impacting their cultural awareness in a substantial way. One of the missing areas of diversity issue in students papers was gender, as (97%) of cohort was female. Only a couple of stude nts touched the issue at all, and those discussed single-sex educati on. Their responses were more in favor of single-sex education rather than complaints about it. For instance one student stated that; My elementary school was an all girls sc hool for grades Pre-Kindergarten to 12th grade. Many of my teachers considered themselves to be feminists and always told us that we can do things better than boys. It was nice not having boys around to distract our studies.

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135 .I was glad to leave when I did (before high school) because I f eel that single-sex education is only beneficial for a certain amount of time. Responses to sexual orientation show a wide range of diversity, ranging from lack of understanding and experiences, to respec t and appreciation. Having a friend who has different sexual orientation was the most common way that students were exposed to sexual orientation. Other interactions with pe rson of a different sexual orientation were with family members, camp experiences, a nd school and college. A few students also reported that they knew or heard about lesbians or gays but never had interactions with them. As an example of the lack of understand ing the issue, one of student stated, I am at the complete lack of unde rstanding. I do not understand th ose whose sexual drive is not the way that God originally created it. Its no t that I dont like these pe ople, its just that I dont understand them.I dont agree with their practices and so we usually do not talk about that aspect of their lives. As religious denomination students described themselves, 47% as liberal, 47% as conserva tive, and 6% as fundamentalist. Lack of understandings or oppositions to a different sexu al orientation mostly seemed to originate from religious beliefs. For in stance another student reported that; One thing I was never exposed to until college was gay people. Being raised in a Catholic home, being gay was looked down upon in the Bible. There were no students in my middl e or high school who were gay. I never really understand anything about being gay or lesbian and it was an unspoken thing in school. Students reports indicate th at through travels, college with new friends, and earlier friends, they had chance to learn about diffe rent religions and belief systems. These responses range from a fundamentalist view on religion to liberal view. For instance one

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136 student reported, I am a Christ ian.I believe that Christiani ty is the truth and that the only way to get to heaven is by being a Christ ian. I try not to treat them differently than I do other Christians but of course I will not interact with them exactly as I do with other Christians. If they do not believe the same things as me then they will not be able to understand why I do some of the things that I do. Strong views on religious denominations shows its effect on many different areas of diversity especially on family structures. For example one student stated, I believe that all families should consist of a man, a woman, their children (if they have a ny) and their extended family. I do not agree with divorce except in select cases and I believe that no children should have to suffer because their parents no longer love each othe r. While more liberal students see these religious differences as new discoveries Even within my small group of friends; one is Muslim, one is Jewish, one is Baptist, a nd only two of us are Ca tholic. Before meeting these friends, I was under the no tion that the majority of pe ople I knew were Catholic. Obviously, this is not the case and it was r eally interesting for me to find this out. Additionally, discovering new religions is extr emely fascinating. Ive learned about their customs, beliefs, and the differences betw een their religion and mine. From the questionnaire 26% of students described their religious affiliation as Catholic, 48% as Protestant, 10% as Jewish, and 16% did not fill that option. Most of the students described their soci al status as middle or upper middle class while a few reported economic troubles within their family such as one whose response shows the shift between cla sses in terms of income When I was young my mom, dad, sister, and I lived in a garage with low inco me. Then as I grew my parents divorced and my dad remarried and moved up to a middle cl ass family. As I grew, my dad and step

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137 mom divorced so my sister and I were ra ised in a single parent home in poverty. Eventually, my sister and I moved to Florid a with our aunt and uncle, in an upper class social status and were adopt ed. Students responses show that their experiences in schools, within their neighborhood and own fa mily, staying in different places and volunteer works helped them to become awar e of social class differences around them. Several students reported having substantial experience through families and home, and through life experiences, encountering pe ople with disabil ities. Volunteer work at camps, which were designed for physically or mentally disabled people provided trigger events for developing awareness of disabili ties and differences. For example one student reported I was a Girl Scout for seven year s. During this time I volunteered at many locations, including Give Kids the World, a village for terminally ill children and their families. At this village I saw hundreds of child ren with physical and mental disabilities. I learned how to interact with them in a way that I could not have learned any other way. The second way students reported learning about disabilities was having a family member who had a disability. Students repo rted that they learned a lot from their experiences, including their educational experiences. One student described her experiences as, I have a 14 year old cousin with Down Syndrome. Having her in my life has taught me a lot about patience which I feel is an importan t tool for a teacher whether the classroom is full of diversity or somewhat homogene ous. Another student reported that, my brother who has Au tism was born when I was eleven years old.Obviously, for the last ten years I have learned many things about my brothers disability and seen first-hand the effects of it. This has helped me become a lot more

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138 comfortable around children and even adults, with disabilities. In the case of disabilities nothing surpasses family experiences in pr oviding sensitivity to this population. The demographic question that asked the st udents to describe the student body at your university, was reported as many racial groups by 88% of students, whereas 3% reported as two major racial groups, and 9% reported as ma inly one racial group. These different descriptions also can be found in students written responses. One student reported, College has exposed me a lot of diversity; I have had many experiences with people very different from me. Another repor ted, Coming to the University of Florida has opened my eyes to so many things. Here I have made friends of many different races, cultures and backgrounds. On the other side a few students had opposite description that In coming to UF, I have actually for the first time experienced nondiversity. My ethnicity seems to stick out most because I have always been around multiple cultures, ethnicities, and religions. Al most all of my classes have contained the majority of one race Another experience for a student who came to the south for university study, I never considered myself to have an accent before coming to (UF) there are some serious difference between the Northeast and the South. For example, the racial segregation in th e south is much more apparent then in the north.

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139 Table 4-1. Childrens literature awards Awards Professional organizations Focuses Orbis Pictus Award NCTE (Nati onal council of teachers of English) Informational Caldecott Award ALA (American library association) Illustrations Newbery Award ALA (American library association) Writing Notable Books in Language Arts NCTE (National council of teachers of English) Language arts Outstanding Science Trade Books NSTA (National science teachers associations) Science Notable Books for Social Studies NCSS (National council of social studies) Social studies Pura Belpre Award AASL (Ame rican association of school libraries) Latina/o Coretta Scott King ALA (American libr ary association) African American Teachers Choices IRA (Internationa l reading association) Great books Childrens Choices IRA (International read ing association) Childrens favorites

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140 Table 4-2. Read aloud book list Week # Focus Title Author Illustrator Year 1 Introduction Bat boy and his violin Gavin Curtis E.B. Lewis 2001 3 Nonfiction Tree of life Barbara Bash 2002 5 Multicultural literature Encounter Jane Yolen David Shannon 1996 6 Poetry Love that dog Sharon Creech 2001 7 Realistic fiction Freedom summer Deborah Wiles Jerome Lagarrigue 2001 8 Traditional literature Something from nothing Phoebe Gilman 1993 9 Historical fiction Pink and say Patricia Polacco 1994 Literature curriculum I love my hair Natasha Anastasia Tarpley E.B. Lewis 1998 Literature curriculum Jingle dancer Cynthia Leitich Smith Cornelius Van Wright, and Ying-Hwa Hu 2000 11 Literature curriculum If Nathan were here Mary Bahr Karen A. Jerome 2000 12 UAS presentations Fishing day Andrea Davis Pinkney Shane W. Evans 2003 Special topics Daddys roommate Michael Willhoite 1991 Special topics Mollys family Nancy Garden Sharon Wooding 2004 Special topics King & King Linda de Haan and Stern Nijland 2002 Special topics And tango makes three Peter Parnell and Justin Richardson Henry Cole 2005

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141 CHAPTER 5 DEMOGRAPHICS, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS The first research question examined the relationship within demographic variables, between demographic variable s and pre and post survey results, and relationships between demogra phic variables and survey item s. Table 5-1 represents the statistical procedures used for the first research question. As pr esented in the table first, to determine the directional relationships within demographic variables, Pearson Chisquare, Cramers V and Contingency coeffici ent statistics were used as descriptive analysis, then to determine both whether th e means from all demographic groups differ on their survey results and survey item groups, t-test and ANOVA were applied as bivariate analysis. A Pearson Chi-square test matrix was created using twelve key demographic variables within the demogr aphic information sheet on the survey to determine participants responses on each demographic va riables correlated with their responses to other demographic variables. Overall, the various demographic variables appeared to have statistical relationship w ith one another. Drawn from the matrix table significant results were further analyzed. The correlational analysis w ithin demographic variables significant results from independent t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were further analyzed to show the means differences between survey results a nd levels of each demographic variable. To examine the sources of attitudes and beliefs changes within a multicultural education context and the research data survey items regrouped, following the

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142 comparison of survey results and demogra phic variables means of survey item groups and individual survey items we re analyzed within the levels of demographic variables. Table 5-2 presents the groups and items under each category. Demographic Variables Religious Denomination & Religion Perceptions and attitudes re garding a variety of issues are affected by religious beliefs. The strong connection between religi ous affiliation, religious denomination and issues of diversity can be implemented from statistical analysis of these two variables throughout the data analysis se ction. In addition to conne ction with variety issues, analysis of these variables point that the highe r place of religion in pa rticipants lives. And this place is highly connected with edu cation that religious groups place diverse emphases on the requirements for education as well as have different expectations of what students should be taught and how they should be educated. Gollnick and Chin (2004) reminded us Educators should ne ver underestimate the importance that Americans place on religion.p.233. Simila rly Aiken (2002) stated that: Despite the reputation of the United States as a materialistic, self preoccupied nation, the results of public opinion polls c onducted in this count ry indicate that it is one of the most religiou s countries in the entire world ...The religiosity of Americans is expressed not only in their pr ofessed spiritual beliefs but also in many other characteristics of their ap pearance and behavior (p.218). In his book Attitudes and Related Ps ychological Constructs; Theories, Assessment, and Research Aiken summarizes the research on religious beliefs that: Females are more religious than males, Blacks are more religious than Whites, People of lower socio economic status ar e more religious than those of higher socioeconomic status (Francis & Wilcox, 1996) ; liberals have less traditional views than conservatives, Jews have less traditional views than Protestant Christians on all of the

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143 above (Lottes & Kuriloff, 1992); for right-wing denominations role of women is limited (Heggen, 1996). In addition to these differences, one of the most controversial issu es in this context is attitude toward the different sexual or ientations. Conservati ves and liberals have different views on these issues. Demographic information shows that 54% of respondents were Protestant, 22% were Catholic, 9% Jewish, 2% were descri bed themselves other than listed groups, and 13% did not choose any options. In addition to religious affiliation, 42% of respondents described themselves, as liberal, 55% as conservative and 3% gave no response. Statistical analysis of religious affilia tions, religious denominations, and beliefs scale scores resulted a number of significant relationships. Table 5-3 represents the t-tests results between religious denomination and Pre-Post-tests Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales Religious denomination shows significant differences in three scales. The results from the analysis i ndicate that there are significant differences between liberal and conser vative groups in PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 264)= 6.051, p< .05, in PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df =264)= 5.229, p< .05, and in PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 264)= 3.066, p< .05. The mean values indicate that libera l group have significantly higher scores (M (PrePersonal Belief Ab out Diversity Scale )= 61.224, M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 62.716, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 96.845, than conservative group (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale )= 56.627, M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 58.507, and M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 93.647).

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144 To assess the effects of religious denomi nation on survey item groups independent t-tests were administered. Ta ble 5-4 represents the t-tests results between religious denomination and item groups of the scales. Th e results from the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between liberal and conservative groups in items of race t (df= 264)= 2.193, p< .05, language t (df= 264)= 3.211, p< .05, social class t (df= 264)= 2.059), p< .05, immigration t (df=264)= 1.991, p< .05, and sexual orientation t (df=264)= 7.962, p< .05, of PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale gender t (df= 264)= 2.46, p< .05, and sexual orientation t (df= 264)= 7.897, p< .05, of PostPersonal Belief About Diversity Scale race t (df= 264)= 2.899, p< .05, la nguage t (df= 264)= 3.708, p< .05, multi & mono education t (df= 264)= 2.196, p< .05, and sexual orientation t (df= 264)= 5.245, p< .05, of PreProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale and sexual orientation t (df= 264)= 4.915, p< .05, of PostProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale The mean values indicate that the libera l group have significantly higher scores than conservative group in all item groups. The results from the independent t-test analysis of religious denomination difference on each survey items indicated Liberal group have significantly higher scores on the items 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 4, 5, 12, 13, and 15 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 3, 10, 15, 16, 22, and 23 on the PreProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale ; and items 3, 15, and 23 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Table 5-5 represents the one way-ANOVA results between re ligious affiliations as four levels demographic variables and surv ey results. The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between different religious affiliations in

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145 PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale F (3, 234)= 3.879, p< .05, in PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale F (3, 234)= 2.805, p< .05, and in PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale F (3, 234)= 4.816, p< .05. The m ean values indicate that Protestant group have signifi cantly lower scores (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale )= 57.026, M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 58.959, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 93.496, than other religious affiliations groups (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale )= 59.711 (Catholic), 59.541 (Jewish), 62.5 (Other); M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 61.661 (Catholic), 61.541 (Jewish) 61.333 (Other); M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 97.152 (Catholic), 95.5 (Jewish), 102.5 (Other). To assess the effects of religious affi liations on survey item groups one-way ANOVA tests were administered. Table 56 represents the one-way ANOVA results between religious affiliations and item gr oups of the scale. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences on item groups in, gender (F (3, 234)= 3.919, p< .05), and sexual orientation (F (3, 234)= 8.414, p< .05) of PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale in gender (F (3, 234)= 5.439, p< .05), and sexual orientation (F (3, 234)= 6.333, p< .05) of PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale in race (F (3, 234)= 4.245, p< .05), religion (F (3, 234)= 2.829, p< .05) and sexual orient ation (F (3, 234)= 6.841, p< .05) of PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and sexual orienta tion (F (3, 234)= 6.139, p<.05) of PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale across the four categories of religious affiliations. The results from the one-way ANOVA of religious affiliation difference on each survey items indicated Protestant group have significantly lower scores on the items 5,

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146 11, 12, 13, and 15 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 5, 13, and 15 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 3, 4, 5, and 20 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 3, 6, 7, and 19 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Cross-Cultural Friendship One of the four factor appeared to be influential in initiating positive change that add to preservice teachers' developing great er multicultural awareness and sensitivity reported by Smith, Moallem, and Sherrill ( 1997) was exposure to different cultural backgrounds such as friendships, dating, sports. Similarly in his study Garmon (2004) focu sed on determining whether there are particular factors that may be associated with the development of greater multicultural awareness and sensitivity in preservice teac hers. After conducting ex tensive interviews he identified six factors that appeared to pl ay a critical role in her positive multicultural development. Three of the factors were di spositional (openness to diversity, selfawareness/self-reflectiveness, and commitment to social justice) and the other three factors were experiential (intercultural experiences, support group experiences, and educational experiences). He defines an inte rcultural experience one in which there was opportunity for direct interac tion with one or more individuals from a cultural group different than one's own (p.207). After pointing the importance of intercultural experience he suggested: The implication for teacher educators is that even though prospective teachers may begin their teacher education program with the desired predispositions for learning about diversity, they still need to have actual experiences with individuals from different racial/cultural backgrounds. Along with providing opportunities for mediated intercultural experiences duri ng the teacher education program, it may also be advisable to require some type of intense diversity training experience or

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147 some other meaningful intercultural experiences, perhaps as a condition for admission into the program (p.212). Demographic data indicated that 66% of respondents had some cross-cultural friendships while 34% st ated they had much. Table 5-7 represents the t-tests resu lts between cross cultural friendship involvement and Pre-Post-tests Personal and Professional Beli efs About Diversity Scales The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant di fferences between cross cultural friendship involvement groups that defi ned themselves much or some in PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 272)= -3.923, p< .05, in PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df =272)= -2.342, p< .05, in PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 272)= -3.624, p< .05, and in PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 272)= -2.820, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the much group have significantly hi gher scores (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale )= 60.659, M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 61.563, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 97.51, M (PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )=101.053) than some group (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale )= 57.466, M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 59.55, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 93.638, and M(PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )=97.922). To assess the effects of cross cultura l friendship involvement on survey item groups independent t-tests were administere d. Table 5-8 represents the t-tests results between cross cultural friendshi p involvement and item groups of the scales. The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between some and much groups as cross cultural friendship invo lvement in the items of race t (df= 272)= -

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148 3.816, p< .05, gender t (df= 272)= -2.354, language t (df= 272)= -3.127, p< .05, ability t (df= 272)= -2.685 and sexual orientati on t (df= 272)= -2.829, p< .05, of PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale race t (df= 272)= -2.281, p< .05, language t (df= 272)= 2.464, p< .05,and sexual orientation t (d f= 272)= -2.669, p< .05, of PostPersonal Belief About Diversity Scale race t (df= 272)= -3.092, p< .05, religion t (df= 272)= -3.195, p< .05, language t (df= 272)= -4.647, p< .05, multi & mono education t (df= 272)= -2.506, p< .05, and sexual orientation t (df=272)= -3.545, p< .05, of PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale race t (df= 272)= -3.085, p< .05, gender t (df= 272)= -2.024, p< .05, language t (df= 272)= -2.902, p< .05, multi & mono education t (df= 272)= -2.080, p< .05, and sexual orientation t (d f= 272)= -2.457, p< .05, of PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale The mean values indicate that the much group have significantly higher scores than some group in all item groups. The results from the independent t-test analysis of cross cultural friendship involvement difference on each survey items indicated much group have significantly higher scores on the items 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, and, 14 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 1, 4, 7, 12, 13, and 14 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 14, 16, 20, 21, 23, and 25 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 3, 6, 14, 19, 20, 21, and 25 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Race Many terms come in mind when we ta lk about race and ethnicity. Prejudice, discrimination, racism and identity are just few that many educators put a huge emphasis on in order to describe the importance of r ace and ethnicity issues in an educational

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149 context. Race and ethnicity are becoming more important in educational contexts as the population of United States becomes r acially and ethnically diverse. Race and ethnicity are two different concep ts; the concept of race was developed by anthropologists to describe th e physical characteristics of the people, while ethnicity is defined as an individuals national origin or origins. Prejudice refers to a set of negative attitudes about a group of people and prejudi ce focuses on attitudes while discrimination focuses on behavior (Gollnick & Chinn, 2004). Racism is described by Lorde (1995) as: the belief in the inherent superiority of one race over all others a nd thereby the right to dominancep.192. Demographic profile of respondents indicat ed that 83% of them were White, and 17% of the respondents indicated Non-White. Table 5-9 represents the t-tests results between race and Pretests Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales The result from the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference between the White and Non-White groups in their PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale scores (t (df= 272) = -2.203, p< .05, and in their PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (t (df= 272) = -2.461, p < .05. The mean values indicate that Non-Whites have highe r scores in both scales; M= 60.468 (PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ), and M= 97.744 (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) than White group M= 58.167 (PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ), and M= 94.392 (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ). To assess the effects of race on survey item groups independent t-tests were administered. Table 5-10 represents the t-te sts results between r ace and item groups of the scales. The results from the analysis indi cate that there are si gnificant differences

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150 between White and Non-White groups in th e items of language t (df= 272)= -2.025, p< .05, and immigration t (df= 272)= -3.631, p< .05, of PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale language t (df= 272)= -2.665, ability t (df= 272)= 2.212, p< .05, and immigration t (df=272)= -2.653, p< .05, of PostPersonal Belief About Diversity Scale language t (df= 272)= -2.6, p< .05, multi & mono education t (d f= 272)= -1.976, p< .05, and race t (df= 272)= -3.256, p< .05, of PreProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale and multi & mono education t (df=272) = -2.122, p< .05 of PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale The mean values indicate that the N on-White group have significantly higher scores than White group in all item groups except the ability it ems which White group have higher scores than Non-White group. The result from the independent t-test an alysis of race difference on each survey items indicated Non-Whites significantly have higher scores on the items 1, 2, 7, 12, and 14 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 2, 3, 7, 12, and 14 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 4, 10, 14, 23, and 25 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 10, and 18 the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Inner City Program Experiences Experiences in inner-city settings may pr ovide preservice teache rs to learn first hand of the possible differences as well as observe solutions or resolutions current teacher practice. Mason (1997) explored the impact of urban and suburban field experiences on prospective teachers attitudes toward i nner-city schools. Obtaining data from 176

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151 students he found that the i nner-city experience had an overall positive impact on attitudes toward urban schools. A program under the idea to provide intend ing teachers with a picture of a broader social scenery impacting upon children and informing attitudes and performances in classrooms, a semi-anthropological model pers isted as an option taken by 20% of each year group of teacher education students wa s examined by Batteson and Sixsmith (1995). They pointed the programs importance: The credibility of 'Urban Experience' hinge s on ways in which different participants (school staff and children, teacher educat ors and beginner teachers) measure and record the pay-off and professional benefits derived. As an integral part of a fouryear teacher education course 'Urban E xperience' aims to enhance a richer and authentic understanding of urban and mu lticultural schooling which cannot always be provided in immediate geographical and social hinterlands nor in exotic or optional course units (p.232). Demographic data shows that 29% of th e respondents had inner city program experiences as a volunteer or staff member, while 57 % of them indicated they had no experiences of any inner-city program. Table 5-11 represents the t-tests results between inner city experience and Posttests Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between participants who had inner city program experience or not in PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df =235)= -2.353, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the no group have significan tly higher scores M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 60.675) than yes group, M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 58.525. To assess the effects of i nner city experience on survey item groups independent ttests were administered. Tabl e 5-12 represents the t-tests results between inner city experience and item groups of the scales. The resu lts from the analysis indicate that there

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152 are significant differences betw een inner city experience groups in the items of, gender t (df= 235)= -2.261, and sexual orientation t (df=235)= -2.173, p< .05, of PostPersonal Belief About Diversity Scale The mean values indicate that the group of participants who selected no have significantly higher scores th an yes group as response to inner city experience. The result from the independent t-test anal ysis of inner city experience difference on each survey items indicated No group ha ve significantly higher scores on the items 5, 11, and 13 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 4, 5, and 11 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; item 14 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and item 19 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Yes group had signi ficantly higher score on the item 13 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Age Our behaviors mostly are a function of age and it shows differences from culture to culture. An understanding of various age gr oups through different cultural mosaic help us to provide and learn about the need of ch ildren in educational context. There appeared to be no significant relationship between ag e and scores on the pe rsonal and professional beliefs scales as well as with item groups Statistical analysis of age and other demographic variables resulted a number of significant relationships only with a few of survey items. Demographic data shows that 23% of the respondents were 19 years of age, 47% were 20 years of age, 21% were 21 years of ag e, 5% were 22 years of age, .5% were 23 years age, 2% were 24 years and older age, 1.52% were left the age item as blank.

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153 The results from the one-way ANOVA of age difference on each survey items indicated mixed results between different age groups scores on the items 3, and 24 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 2, 16, and 21 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Gender People hold different views about gender ro les and equality of the sexes. Today many women battle for equality in jobs, pay, schooling, household tasks and national laws. Woman have been gained many rights through the hi story, but these slow changes did not over come the stereotypical views of gender and gender roles in the socialization process as well as educational context. Demographic data shows that 90% of respondents were female and 10% were male. To assess the effects of gender on survey item groups independent t-tests were administered. Table 5-13 represents the t-te sts results between gende r and Item groups of the scales. The results from the analysis indi cate that there are si gnificant differences between male and female groups in the ite ms of gender t (df= 272)= 3.730, p< .05 of PostPersonal Belief About Diversity Scale sexual orientation t (df= 272)= 2.384, p< .05, of PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale and sexual orientation t (df= 272)= 2.020, p< .05 of PostProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale The mean values indicate that the fema le group have significantly higher scores than male group in all item groups. The result from the independent t-test anal ysis of gender difference on each survey items indicated females significantly have higher scores on the items 11 and 14 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 11 and 15 on the PostPersonal Beliefs

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154 About Diversity Scale ; item 3 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and item 4 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Male group had significantly higher scores on the items 15, 17, 22, and 23 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Foreign Travel Experiences A research report (prepared by Greg Richards, 2006) undertaken for the International Student Travel Confederati on provides information impact of travel experiences on the attitudes and behavior of young people. One of the purpose was to measure changes in levels of tolerance, cultu ral understanding as a result of travel. They reported significant changes in travelers pers onal, social and cultural attitudes as a result of travel. They stated that, The social and cultural aspects of the trip were also likely to be seen as more beneficial by the participants than ea rning money, gaining qualifications or professional experience. Travelers had an increased level of cultural tolerance. Cultural tolerance was related to the amount of contact that travelers had with local customs, indicating that practical experiences with cultural difference contribute to an increase in tolerance. On the other hand, cultural toleran ce could be reduced where travelers felt they had been poorly treated by local people, which also shows that intolerance can be bred by certain negative experiences in the destination. Travel also tends to stimulate a broade r view of the world. After travel, an increasing proportion of people begin to iden tify with their contin ent or the idea of a global community, rather than just th eir own nation or region. Those who had more contact with local peopl e were particularly more likely to see themselves as global citizens after the trip. Demographic data shows that 69% of the respondents had foreign travel experience, 29% of the respondents had no fo reign travel experien ces and 2% did not respond to the item. Table 5-14 represents the t-tests results between foreign travel and Pretest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale The result from the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference between students who had foreign travel experiences and those who

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155 did not in their PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale scores t (df= 267) = 2.203, p< .05. The mean values indicate that foreign tr avel experienced group have higher scores, (M= 59.047) than nonexperienced group (M= 57.137). To assess the effects of foreign travel on survey item groups independent t-tests were administered. Table 5-15 represents the t-tests results between foreign travel and item groups of the scales. The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between foreign travel experience status in the items of sexual orientation t (df= 267)= 2.131, p< .05, and language t (df= 267)= 2.272, p< .05, of PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale The result from the independent t-test analysis of foreign travel experience difference on each survey items indicated y es group have significantly higher scores on the items 4, 7, and 14 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; item 15 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and item 9 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Second Language Demographic data shows that 85% of respondents were monolingual and 15% of them stated that they know more than one language. Table 5-16 represents th e t-tests between second language and Pretests Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales The result from the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference between bilingual and monolingual groups in their PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale scores t (df= 272) = 2.634, p< .05 and PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale scores t (df= 272) = 3.011, p< .05. The mean values indicate that bilingual group have hi gher scores in both scales; M= 61.024 (PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ), and M= 98.634 (PreProfessional Beliefs About

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156 Diversity Scale ) than monolingual group M= 58.128 (PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ), and M= 94.321 (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ). The result from the independent t-test an alysis of second language difference on each survey items indicated Yes group have significantly higher scores on the items 1, 2, 7, and 13 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 1, 2, 4, 7, and 12 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 4, 6, 7, 14, 20, 21, 23, and 25 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 4, 6, 14, 19, 20, and 21 on the PostProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale Student Body Description Demographic data indicates that 15% of the respondents categorized the student body at their university as mainly one racial group, 4% as two major racial groups, 3% did not mark the item and majority of res pondents, and 81% categorized their university as having many racial groups. Table 5-17 represents the one wa y-ANOVA results between student body description and Pretests Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant di fferences between partic ipants description of their institution in their PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale F (2, 271) = 4.308, p< .05. The mean values indicate th at respondents who described the their institution as contains of one major raci al group have the highest scores M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 97.756, than followed by many racial groups sample M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 94.714, and two major racial groups sample have the lowest scores M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 90.083.

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157 To assess the effects of university body descriptions on survey item groups oneway ANOVA tests were administered. Ta ble 5-18 represents the one-way ANOVA results between description of university body and item groups of the scale. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences on item groups in, language (F (2, 271)= 4.007, p< .05), of Pre Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale in language (F (2, 271)= 5.663, p< .05), of Post Personal Beliefs Abou t Diversity Scale and in language (F (2, 271)= 5.491, p< .05), and multi & mono education (F (2, 271)= 5.434, p<.05) of Pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale across the three categories of university body descriptions. The mean values indicate that particip ants who described the university body as mainly one racial group had the highest m ean values on all items groups, many racial groups had the second, and mainly two raci al groups had the lowest mean values. The results from the one-way ANOVA of students body description difference on each survey items indicated significant di fferences on the items 7, 12, and 14 on the PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 2, and 14 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 2, 6, and 15 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 2, and 14 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Class Standing Demographic data indicates that 86% of th e respondents were j uniors, 10% senior, and 4% sophomores. To assess the effects of class standi ng on survey item groups one-way ANOVA tests were administered. Ta ble 5-19 represents the one -way ANOVA results between class standing and item groups of the s cales. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences on item groups in, language (F (2, 271) = 3.155, p< .05), of PostPersonal

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158 Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and in ability (F (2, 271) = 3.342, p<. 05), of PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale across the three categorie s of class standings. The mean values indicate that sophomore s had the lowest scores in both item groups, and juniors had the highe st mean score on ability related items group and seniors had the highest mean score on th e language related items group. The results from the one-way ANOVA of class standing difference on each survey items indicated significant differences on the items 2, and 14 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; items 5, 17, and 25 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; and items 5, and 25 on the PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Multicultural Course Experience Demographic data indicates that 18% of respondents had taken 0-1 courses related to multicultural themes, 56% of respondent s had taken 2-3 classes, and 20% of respondents had taken 4 or more courses with multicultural themes, and 6% percent of the respondents did not respond to this item The results from the one-way ANOVA of multicultural course experience difference on each survey items indicated significant differences on the item 2 on the PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ; item 18 on the PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Correlational Results Table 5-20 presents the re lationships between religi ous denomination and gender variables. Table 5-20 indicat es that 41% of female re spondents and 69% of male respondents were liberal while 59% of female respondents and 31% of male respondents were conservative in their religious denomina tion. There is a relationship between gender

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159 and religious denomination that the significance of chi-square is .006 less than .05, so the relationship is statistically significant. The value of Cramers V for gender and religious denomination is .170, so this is a moderate relationship. As indicated by (Francis & Wilcox, 1996) data show the female particip ants are more conservative then male participants. Table 5-21 presents the rela tionships between religious denomination and religion variables. Table 5-21 indicates that 30% of Protestants, 35% of Catholics, 79% of Jewish, and 67% of Others as religious affiliation described themselv es as liberal, while 70% of Protestants, 66% of Catholics, 21% of Jewis h, and 33% of Others as religious affiliation described their religious denomination as c onservative. The value of the Contingency Coefficient for religious denomination and religious affiliation of .300 shows a high moderate relationship between these two variables. And for this statistical significant relationship, the signif icance of chi-square is .000 less then .05. As supported by earlier research (Lottes & Kuriloff, 1992) table indicat es that Protestants and Catholics are more conservatives than Jewish a nd Other religious groups. Table 5-22 presents the relations between description of university body and race variables. Table 5-22 indicate that 12% of White and 30% of Non-White respondents selected Mainly one racial group, 4% of White and 4% of Non-White respondents selected Two major racial groups a nd 84% of White and 66% of Non-White respondents selected Many racial groups to describe the student body at their university. These percentage changes show a relationship between th ese variables. The significance of chi-square for th is relationship is .007 less than .05, so this relationship is statistically significant. The value of Contingency Coefficient is .186, so this is a

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160 moderate relationship. The results indicated Whites see university body as more diverse while Non-Whites more likely describe s it as monocultural environment. Table 5-23 presents the relations between cross cultural friendship involvement and race variables. Table 5-23 indicates that 71% of White respondents and 38% of NonWhite respondents described their cross-cult ural friendship involve ment as some and 29% of White and 62% of Non-White res pondents described th eir cross-cultural friendship involvement as much. There is a relationship between race and crosscultural friendship involvement. The significan ce of chi-square is .000 less than .05, so the relationship between these va riables is significant. The va lue of Cramers V for race and cross-cultural friendship involvement is .263, so this is a moderate relationship. Results indicated more involvement with cross-cultural friendships then among NonWhites, higher rates then Whites. Table 5-24 presents the relations between cross cultural friendship involvement and inner city program experience variables. Ta ble 5-24 shows that 58% of respondents who had inner city program experi ences described their cross-cu ltural friendship involvement as some and rest of them; 42% of describe d as much their cross-cultural friendship involvement. And 71% of respondents who had no inner city program experiences described their cross-cultural friendship involvement as some and rest of them; 29% of described as much their cross-cultural fr iendship involvement. The significance of chisquare is .033 less than .05, so the relations hip between these variab les is statistically significant. The value of Cramers V for inner city experience and cross-cultural friendship involvement is .139, so this is a moderate relationshi p. Results indicated

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161 having inner city program experience was a sign of more cross-cultural friendships involvement. Table 5-25 presents the relations between cross cultural friendship involvement and second language variables. The significance of the chi-square value is .000 less than .05 between the variables of sec ond language and cross-cultural friendship involvement. The high moderate relationship of the value of Cr amers V is .322. The crosstabulation shows that 29% of bilinguals had described their cross-cultural friendshi p as some while 71% of them described as much. On the othe r side 72% of monolinguals described as some and 28% of them described as much their cross-cultural friendship involvement. From the results, bilinguals we re more likely to have cross-cultural friendship involvement. Table 526 presents the relations betw een second language and race variables. Table 5-26 indicates that 7% of White and 55% of Non-White respondents reported that they were bilingual while 93% of White a nd 45% of Non-White re spondents reported that they are monolingual. These percenta ges show a relationshi p between these two variables. The significance of chi-square is .000 less than .05, so th e relationship between race and second language is significant. The value of Cramers V for race and crosscultural friendship involvement is .515, so this is a strong relationship. From the analysis, Non-Whites are more likely to be bilingual. Table 5-27 present the relations between i nner city program experience and number of multicultural course variables. Respondent s indicated numbers of multicultural courses show a moderate relationship with their inner-city program experiences. 11 % of respondents had either no or 1, 62% of res pondents 2 or 3, and 28% of respondents had 4

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162 or more multicultural courses that they had inner-city program experiences. And 25 % of respondents had either no or 1, 57% of res pondents 2 or 3, and 19% of respondents had 4 or more multicultural courses that they had no inner city program experiences. The significance of chi-square for th is relationship is .028 less than .05, so this relationship is statistically significant. Th e value of Contingency Coefficient shows .175 a moderate relationship between these vari ables. The results indicated a yes response to inner city experience is a sign of having more multicultural courses. Table 5-28 presents the relations betw een inner city prog ram experience and foreign travel experience variables. Tabl e 5-28 indicates that 81% of respondents who had inner city program experien ces also had foreign travel experience and rest of them; 19% of had no any foreign travel experien ces. And 61% of respondents who had no inner city program experiences stated that they had foreign travel experien ces and rest of them; 39% of stated they had also no any forei gn travel experiences. The significance of chisquare is .002 less than .05, so the relations hip between these variab les is statistically significant. The value of Cramers V for inner city experience and cross-cultural friendship involvement is .204, so this is a moderate relationship. The results indicated having foreign travel experiences is a sign of having inner city program experiences. Table 5-29 presents the relations between foreign travel and religion variables. Table 5-29 indicates that 66% of Protestant, 72% of Catholic 96% of Jewish, and 67% of Other group of respondents had foreign travel experiences while, 34% of Protestant, 28% of Catholic, 4% of Jewish, and 33% of Other group of re spondents had no any foreign travel experiences. The significance of chi-s quare is .037 less than .05, so the relationship between these variables is statistically signi ficant. The value of Contingency Coefficient

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163 for foreign travel experience and religious affiliation is .186, so this is a moderate relationship. The highest rate of foreign tr avel experience can be found among Jewish as religious affiliation, followed by Catholics a nd lowest rate can be seen among, Others and Protestants.

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164 Table 5-1. The statistical procedures used for the first research question Levels of variables Statistical procedures Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Pearson chi-square test, cross tabulation, cramers V (for 2x2 Tables), contingency (for more than 2x2 tables) Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Interval (Dependent variables-total scores) t-test (for two levels independent variables) ANOVA (for more than two levels independent variables) Nominal (Independent demographic variables) Interval (Dependent variablesitem scores) t-test (for two levels independent variables) ANOVA (for more than two levels independent variables) Table 5-2. Item groups and group contexts Context Personal beliefs scale items Professional beliefs scale items Race/ethnicity 1,7,9 7, 10, 14,20,21 Gender 10,11,15 8,12, 19 Social class 6 2, 17, 22 Sexual orientation 4,5,12,13 3 Language 14 6, 16, 23 Ability & ability tracking 3,8 5, 9, 11, 13 Immigration 2 Religion 4, 24 Multicultural/monocultural education 1, 15, 18, 25 Table 5-3. Summary of t-tests, relig ious denomination beliefs scales Religious denomination N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Total scores1 Liberal 116 61.2241 5.4758 6.051 264 .000 4.5975 Conservative 150 56.6267 6.6156 Total scores2 Liberal 116 62.7155 5.8396 5.229 264 .000 4.2089 Conservative 150 58.5067 6.9839 Total scores3 Liberal 116 96.8448 9.0194 3.066 264 .002 3.1982 Conservative 150 93.6467 7.9589

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165 Table 5-4. Summary of t-tests, re ligious denomination item groups Religious denomination N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Race1 Liberal 116 4.3592 4957 2.193 264 .029 .1392 Conservative 150 4.2200 .5265 Race3 Liberal 116 3.9966 4913 2.899 264 .004 .1632 Conservative 150 3.8333 .4256 Gender2 Liberal 116 3.9167 .6168 2.460 264 .015 .1811 Conservative 150 3.7356 .5784 Socc1 Liberal 116 3.7931 .9647 2.059 264 .040 .2398 Conservative 150 3.5533 .9235 Sexo1 Liberal 116 4.2177 .6021 7.962 264 .000 .7327 Conservative 150 3.4850 .8376 Sexo2 Liberal 116 4.4030 .5334 7.897 264 .000 .7064 Conservative 150 3.6967 .8413 Sexo3 Liberal 116 4.5862 .6733 5.245 264 .000 .5195 Conservative 150 4.0667 .8874 Sexo4 Liberal 116 4.6379 .6514 4.915 264 .000 .4646 Conservative 150 4.1733 .8414 Lang1 Liberal 116 3.1034 1.0416 3.211 264 .001 .4168 Conservative 150 2.6867 1.0564 Lang3 Liberal 116 3.9914 .5116 3.708 264 .000 .2425 Conservative 150 3.7489 .5420 Immig1 Liberal 116 3.9052 .8646 1.991 264 .048 .2052 Conservative 150 3.7000 .8089 Multi3 Liberal 116 3.9677 5006 2.196 264 .029 .1327 Conservative 150 3.8350 .4793 Table 5-5. Summary of ANOVA, religious affiliations beliefs scales N Mean Std. deviationdf F Sig. Total scores1 Protestant 149 57.0268 6.5305 3 3.879 .010 Catholic 59 59.7119 6.5760 234 Jewish 24 59.5417 6.0288 237 Other 6 62.5000 6.5651 Total 238 58.0840 6.6123 Total scores2 Protestant 149 58.9597 7.1195 3 2.805 .040 Catholic 59 61.6610 6.7533 234 Jewish 24 61.5417 5.4452 237 Other 6 61.3333 3.0768 Total 238 59.9496 6.8951 Total scores3 Protestant 149 93.4966 7.6667 3 4.816 .003 Catholic 59 97.1525 8.1660 234 Jewish 24 95.5000 10.6240 237 Other 6 102.5000 5.8907 Total 238 94.8319 8.2889

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166 Table 5-6. Summary of ANOVA, relig ious affiliations item groups N Mean Std. deviation df F Sig. Gender1 Protestant 149 3.6577 .6052 3 3.919 .009 Catholic 59 3.9379 .4484 234 Jewish 24 3.7222 .5170 237 Other 6 4.0000 .6667 Total 238 3.7423 .5736 Gender2 Protestant 149 3.6734 .6157 3 5.439 .001 Catholic 59 4.0169 .4307 234 Jewish 24 3.9028 .7188 237 Other 6 3.9444 .2509 Total 238 3.7885 .5974 Gender4 Protestant 149 3.3982 .6674 3 3.104 .027 Catholic 59 3.6441 .6123 234 Jewish 24 3.2500 .6313 237 Other 6 3.2222 .2722 Total 238 3.4398 .6531 Race3 Protestant 149 3.8309 .4422 3 4.245 .006 Catholic 59 3.9729 .4274 234 Jewish 24 3.9167 .5071 237 Other 6 4.4000 .3347 Total 238 3.8891 .4524 Sexo1 Protestant 149 3.5369 .8594 3 8.414 .000 Catholic 59 3.9661 .7258 234 Jewish 24 4.2292 .6833 237 Other 6 4.2500 .6124 Total 238 3.7311 .8442 Sexo2 Protestant 149 3.7752 .8516 3 6.333 .000 Catholic 59 4.1441 .7659 234 Jewish 24 4.4063 .4223 237 Other 6 4.1667 .7360 Total 238 3.9401 .8222 Sexo3 Protestant 149 4.0738 .9307 3 6.841 .000 Catholic 59 4.4915 .6532 234 Jewish 24 4.7083 .5500 237 Other 6 4.6667 .5164 Total 238 4.2563 .8602 Sexo4 Protestant 149 4.1678 .8807 3 6.139 .000 Catholic 59 4.5932 .5607 234 Jewish 24 4.7083 .7506 237 Other 6 4.5000 .5477 Total 238 4.3361 .8194 Rel3 Protestant 149 4.0537 .5729 3 2.829 .039 Catholic 59 4.2797 .5514 234 Jewish 24 4.2083 .6743 237 Other 6 4.4167 .4916 Total 238 4.1345 .5835

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167 Table 5-7. Summary of t-tests, cross-cultura l friendship involvement beliefs scales Cross cultural friendship N Mean Std. deviation Std. Error Mean t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Total scores1 Some 180 57.4667 6.1111 .4555 -3.923272 .000 -3.1929 Much 94 60.6596 6.9104 .7128 Total scores2 Some 180 59.5500 6.7537 .5034 -2.342272 .020 -2.0138 Much 94 61.5638 6.7642 .6977 Total scores3 Some 180 93.6389 8.0277 .5984 -3.624272 .000 -3.8717 Much 94 97.5106 9.0598 .9345 Total scores4 Some 180 97.9222 8.2783 .6170 -2.820272 .005 -3.1310 Much 94 101.05329.5234 .9823

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168 Table 5-8. Summary of t-tests, cross-cu ltural friendship involvement item groups Cross cultural friendship N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Race1 Some 180 4.1870 .5047 -3.816 272 .000 -.2456 Much 94 4.4326 .5076 Race2 Some 180 4.3259 .5214 -2.281 272 .023 -.1457 Much 94 4.4716 .4622 Race3 Some 180 3.8444 .4442 -3.092 272 .002 -.1790 Much 94 4.0234 .4746 Race4 Some 180 4.0978 .4252 -3.085 272 .002 -.1788 Much 94 4.2766 .5089 Gender1 Some 180 3.6981 .5432 -2.354 272 .019 -.1671 Much 94 3.8652 .5852 Gender4 Some 180 3.3815 .6284 -2.024 272 .044 -.1682 Much 94 3.5496 .6977 Sexo1 Some 180 3.7028 .7914 -2.829 272 .005 -.2946 Much 94 3.9973 .8680 Sexo2 Some 180 3.9083 .8238 -2.669 272 .008 -.2699 Much 94 4.1782 .7347 Sexo3 Some 180 4.1611 .8598 -3.545 272 .000 -.3708 Much 94 4.5319 .7435 Sexo4 Some 180 4.2833 .8069 -2.457 272 .015 -.2486 Much 94 4.5319 .7718 Lang1 Some 180 2.7222 1.0142 -3.127 272 .002 -.4161 Much 94 3.1383 1.1033 Lang2 Some 180 2.9167 .9623 -2.464 272 .014 -.3174 Much 94 3.2340 1.1016 Lang3 Some 180 3.7463 .4912 -4.647 272 .000 -.3069 Much 94 4.0532 .5686 Lang4 Some 180 3.8667 .5666 -2.902 272 .004 -.2043 Much 94 4.0709 .5262 Abil1 Some 180 4.4250 .5350 -2.685 272 .008 -.1814 Much 94 4.6064 .5230 Rel3 Some 180 4.0278 .5357 -3.195 272 .002 -.2329 Much 94 4.2606 .6381 Multi3 Some 180 3.8375 .4811 -2.506 272 .013 -.1572 Much 94 3.9947 .5145 Multi4 Some 180 3.9042 .5482 -2.080 272 .038 -.1437 Much 94 4.0479 .5329

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169 Table 5-9. Summary of t-tests, race beliefs scale Race N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean 1ifference Total scores1 White 227 58.1674 6.3111 -2.203 272 .028 -2.3007 N on-White 47 60.4681 7.4421 Total scores3 White 227 94.3921 8.3481 -2.461 272 .014 -3.3526 N on-White 47 97.7447 9.2159 Table 5-10. Summary of t-te sts, race item groups Race N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean difference Lang1 White 227 2.8062 1.0506 -2.025 272 .044 -.3428 N on-White 47 3.1489 1.0830 Lang2 White 227 2.9515 1.0054 -2.665 272 .008 -.4314 N on-White 47 3.3830 1.0332 Immig1 White 227 3.6960 .8148 -3.631 272 .000 -.4742 N on-White 47 4.1702 .8161 Immig2 White 227 3.7885 .8033 -2.653 272 .008 -.3391 N on-White 47 4.1277 .7694 Abil2 White 227 4.4471 .5619 2.212 272 .028 .2131 N on-White 47 4.2340 .7651 Race3 White 227 3.8652 .4507 -3.256 272 .001 -.2369 N on-White 47 4.1021 .4697 Lang3 White 227 3.8135 .5413 -2.600 272 .010 -.2220 N on-White 47 4.0355 .4877 Multi3 White 227 3.8645 .4786 -1.976 272 .049 -.1567 N on-White 47 4.0213 .5682 Multi4 White 227 3.9218 .5467 -2.122 272 .035 -.1846 N on-White 47 4.1064 .5232 Table 5-11. Summary of ttests, inner city expe rience beliefs scale Inner city experience N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Total scores2 Yes 80 58.5250 6.6026 -2.353 235 .019 -2.1502 N o 157 60.6752 6.6787 Table 5-12. Summary of t-tests, inner city experience item groups Inner city experience N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Gender2 Yes 80 3.6792 .6374 -2.261 235 .025 -.1828 N o 157 3.8620 .5624 Sexo2 Yes 80 3.8219 .8561 -2.173 235 .031 -.2386 N o 157 4.0605 .7692

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170 Table 5-13. Summary of t-test s, gender item groups Gender N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean difference Gender2 Female 247 3.8623 .5742 3.730 272 .000 .4426 Male 27 3.4198 .6831 Sexo3 Female 247 4.3279 .7820 2.384 272 .018 .4020 Male 27 3.9259 1.2066 Sexo4 Female 247 4.4008 .7739 2.020 272 .044 .3267 Male 27 4.0741 .9971 Table 5-14. Summary of t-tests, foreign travel beliefs scale Foreign travel N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Total scores1 Yes 189 59.0476 6.2188 2.203 267 .028 1.9101 N o 80 57.1375 7.1277 Table 5-15. Summary of t-tests, foreign travel item groups Foreign travel N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean difference Sexo1 Yes 189 3.8717 .7870 2.131 267 .034 .2342 N o 80 3.6375 .9061 Lang1 Yes 189 2.9577 1.0611 2.272 267 .024 .3202 N o 80 2.6375 1.0463 Table 5-16. Summary of t-tests, second language beliefs scales Second language N Mean Std. deviation t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean difference Total scores1 Yes 41 61.0244 6.8245 2.634 272 .009 2.8956 N o 23358.1288 6.4327 Total scores3 Yes 41 98.6341 9.6715 3.011 272 .003 4.3123 N o 23394.3219 8.2276 Table 5-17. Summary of ANOVA, student body descri ption beliefs scale N Mean Std. deviation df F Sig. Total scores3 One 41 97.75617.5259 Two 12 90.08338.6913 2 4.308 .014 Many 221 94.71498.6285 271 Total 274 94.96728.5795 273

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171 Table 5-18. Summary of ANOVA, stude nt body description item groups N Mean Std. deviation df F Sig. Lang1 One 41 3.2195 1.1514 2 4.007 .019 Two 12 2.3333 .8876 271 Many 221 2.8281 1.0389 273 Total 274 2.8650 1.0622 Lang2 One 41 3.5122 1.0752 2 5.663 .004 Two 12 2.9167 .9962 271 Many 221 2.9412 .9914 273 Total 274 3.0255 1.0214 Lang3 One 41 4.0569 .5265 2 5.491 .005 Two 12 3.5278 .4597 271 Many 221 3.8311 .5334 273 Total 274 3.8516 .5382 Multi3 One 41 4.0915 .4498 2 5.434 .005 Two 12 3.6250 .6351 271 Many 221 3.8688 .4882 273 Total 274 3.8914 .4975 Table 5-19. Summary of ANOVA, class standing item groups N Mean Std. deviationdf F Sig. Lang2 Junior 235 2.9830 1.0210 2 3.155 .044 Senior 27 3.4815 .8490 271 Sophomore 12 2.8333 1.1934 273 Total 274 3.0255 1.0214 Abil3 Junior 235 3.7904 .4517 2 3.342 .037 Senior 27 3.7315 .4213 271 Sophomore 12 3.4375 .7986 273 Total 274 3.7692 .4721 Table 5-20. Religious denomination gender crosstabulation and chi-square result Gender Total Female Male Religious denomination Liberal Count 98 18 116 % within gender 40.8% 69.2% 43.6% Conservative Count 142 8 150 % within gender 59.2% 30.8% 56.4% Total Count 240 26 266 Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 7.693 1 .006 Value Approx. sig. Cramer's V .170 .006 N of valid cases 266

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172 Table 5-21. Religious denomina tion religion crosstabulatio n and chi-square result Religion Total Protestant Catholic Jewish Other Religious denomination Liberal Count 45 20 19 4 88 % within religion30.4% 34.5% 79.2% 66.7% 37.3% Conservative Count 103 38 5 2 148 % within religion69.6% 65.5% 20.8% 33.3% 62.7% Total Count 148 58 24 6 236 Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 23.408 3 .000 Value Approx. sig. Contingency coefficient .300 .000 N of valid cases 236 Table 5-22. Race student body description cr osstabulation and chi-square result Description of student body Total One Two Many Race White Count 27 10 190 227 % within race 11.9% 4.4% 83.7% 100.0% N on-White Count 14 2 31 47 % within race 29.8% 4.3% 66.0% 100.0% Total Count 41 12 221 274 % within race 15.0% 4.4% 80.7% 100.0% Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 9.853 2 .007 Value Approx. sig. Contingency coefficient.186 .007 N of valid cases 274 Table 5-23. Race cross cultural friendship crosstabulation and chi-square result Cross cultural friendship Total Some Much Race White Count 162 65 227 % within race71.4% 28.6% 100.0% N on-White Count 18 29 47 % within race38.3% 61.7% 100.0% Total Count 180 94 274 Value df Asymp. sig. (2sided) Pearson chisquare 18.892 1 .000 Value Approx. sig. Cramer's V .263 .000 N of valid cases 274

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173 Table 5-24. Inner city experi ence cross-cultural friendshi p crosstabulation and chisquare result Cross cultural friendship Total Some Much Inner city program Yes Count 46 34 80 % within inner city program 57.5% 42.5% 100.0% N o Count 112 45 157 % within inner city program 71.3% 28.7% 100.0% Total Count 158 79 237 % within inner city program 66.7% 33.3% 100.0% Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 4.566 1 .033 Value Approx. sig. Cramer's V .139 .033 N of valid cases 237 Table 5-25. Second language cross-cultural friendship cro sstabulation and chi-square result Cross-cultural friendship Total Some Much Second language Yes Count 12 29 41 % within second language 29.3% 70.7% 100.0% N o Count 168 65 233 % within second language 72.1% 27.9% 100.0% Total Count 180 94 274 Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 28.385 1 .000 Value Approx. sig. Cramer's V .322 .000 N of valid cases 274 Table 5-26. Race second language crosstabulation and chi-square result Second language Total Yes N o Race White Count 15 212 227 % within race 6.6% 93.4% 100.0% N on-White Count 26 21 47 % within race 55.3% 44.7% 100.0% Total Count 41 233 274 Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 72.609 1 .000 Value Approx. sig. Cramer's V .515 .000 N of valid cases 274

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174 Table 5-27. Inner city experi ence multicultural c ourse experience crosstabulation and chi-square result N umber of multicultural courses Total 0-1 2-3 4+ Inner city p rogra m Yes Count 8 47 21 76 % within inner city program 10.5% 61.8% 27.6% 100.0% % within number of multicultural courses 17.8% 35.6% 42.9% 33.6% N o Count 37 85 28 150 % within inner city program 24.7% 56.7% 18.7% 100.0% % within number of multicultural courses 82.2% 64.4% 57.1% 66.4% Total Count 45 132 49 226 % within inner city program 19.9% 58.4% 21.7% 100.0% % within number of multicultural courses 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 7.167 2 .028 Value Approx. sig. Contingency coefficient .175 .028 N of valid cases 226 Table 5-28. Inner city experien ce foreign travel crosstabul ation and chi-square result Foreign travel Total Yes N o Inner city program Yes Count 65 15 80 % within inner city program81.3% 18.8% 100.0% N o Count 96 61 157 % within inner city program61.1% 38.9% 100.0% Total Count 161 76 237 Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 9.832 1 .002 Value Approx. sig. Cramer's V.204 .002 N of valid cases 237

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175 Table 5-29. Foreign travel religious affilia tions crosstabulation and chi-square result Religion Total ProtestantCatholic Jewish Other Foreign travel Yes Count 98 42 22 4 166 % within foreign travel 59.0% 25.3% 13.3% 2.4% 100.0% % within religion 66.2% 72.4% 95.7% 66.7% 70.6% N o Count 50 16 1 2 69 % within foreign travel 72.5% 23.2% 1.4% 2.9% 100.0% % within religion 33.8% 27.6% 4.3% 33.3% 29.4% Total Count 148 58 23 6 235 % within foreign travel 63.0% 24.7% 9.8% 2.6% 100.0% % within religion 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Pearson chi-square 8.468 3 .037 Value Approx. sig. Contingency coefficient .186 .037 N of valid cases 235

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176 CHAPTER 6 CHANGES IN ATTITU DES AND BELIEFS The second research question focused on th e changing attitudes and beliefs of the preservice teachers on the issue of diversity during the span of time when they took a childrens literature class. The first part of the results in this section includes a combination of analysis of survey items as quantitative data and student written responses and interviews as qualitative data to reach a better understanding of attitude and belief changes. Drawing from th eoretical and pedagogical understanding in critical multiculturalism and critical theo ry, also, critical, social and political theories, such as critical pedagogy, reader respons e theory, critical literacy and works of scholars in the field of multicultural education, survey items were regrouped and combined with students responses to examine fundamental components and issues of diversity. The following resources were examined to evaluate the survey items in relation to multicultural education and to evalua te students responses; Banks (1996) Multicultural Education Transformative Knowledge and Action; Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Banks (2001) Multicultural Education; Issues and Perspectives Banks (2004 ) Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education Bennett (1990) Comprehensive Multicultural Education; Theory and Practice Gollnick and Chinn (2004) Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society Grant and Gillette (2006) Learning to Teach Everyones Children; Equity, Empowerment, and Education That is Multicultural Grant and Sleeter (2003) Turning on Learning; Five Approaches for Multicultural Teaching Plans for Race, Class, Gender, and Disability Larkin and

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177 Sleeter (1995) Developing Multicultural Teacher Education Curricula Sleeter and McLaren (1995) Multicultural Education, Critic al Pedagogy, and the Politics of Difference Sleeter and Grant (1999) Making Choices for Multicultural Education; Five Approaches to Race, Class, and Gender and Sleeter (1996) Multicultural Education as Social Activism The second part of this section of the resu lts starts with an item means comparison of each individual survey item. Means comparison presented in a table and results were examined on the basis of the mean differences of pre and post survey results. Then, each survey item was matched with demographic variables where significant differences were found between survey items and demographi c variable levels. And finally, using crosstabulation, paired t-te st, and one-way ANOVA statisti cal procedures, item pairs were compared and changes explained for each item of the surveys. Roots in Changes in Attitudes and Beliefs To examine the sources of attitudes and beliefs changes within a multicultural education context and the rese arch data survey items regrouped. Table 6-1 presents the groups and items under each category. Race/ Ethnicity The race/ethnicity relations in this nation for the last three centuries make the race/ethnicity complicated terms requir es understanding of various theoretical conceptions and sociohistorical ideologies. Arguing that race is neither purely ideological nor purely esse ntial but grounded in sociohi storical ideologies and performances, Duesterberg (1999) explained the importance of understanding of these terms in educational context, especi ally in teacher education programs:

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178 Given the context of schools and society, in which the meanings of race so deeply impact social arrangements and social inte ractions, it is imperative for preservice teachers and teacher educators to engage in efforts to theorize race and understand how constructions of race affect our acti ons and decisions. Requiring that student teachers be committed to teaching every ch ild in their classrooms demands that preservice teachers think through how th ey understand themselves and others through race in a society in which ra ce is both the vehi cle through which oppression is accomplished and the vehicl e through which groups rally to combat that oppression (p.751). These are eight survey items related to race and ethnicity issues that students responded to on pre and posttests. Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 1. There is nothing wrong with peopl e from different racial backgrounds having/raising children. Item 7. People should develop meaningful fr iendships with others from different racial/ethnic groups. Item 9. In general, White people place a higher value on education than do people of color. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 7. Only schools serving students of color need a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse staff and faculty. Item 10. People of color are adequately represented in most textbooks today. Item 14. Students living in racially isol ated neighborhoods can benefit socially from participating in racial ly integrated classrooms. Item 20. Large numbers of students of co lor are improperly placed in special education classes by school personnel Item 21. In order to be effective with all students, teachers should have experience working with students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Table 6-2 presents the pre-post survey relationship within the race ethnicity context. The results from the analysis indi cate that there are significant differences between items related to race/ethnicity issues on the Pre and Post Personal and

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179 Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales In the Personal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -3.843, p<. 05, and in the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -8.372, p< .05. The mean values indi cate that the Posttest item groups have significantly higher scores (M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 4.3759, M (PostProfessional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale ) = 4.1591) than Pretest item groups, (M (PrePersonal Belief Ab out Diversity Scale ) = 4.2713, and M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.9058). Paired t tests on the eight race/ethnicity related scale items i ndicated significant differences between means on pretest and pos ttest on item 1 (t (df= 273) = -3.452, p< .05), and item 7 (t (df = 273) =-5.943, p< .05) of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and item 10 (t (df= 273) = -8.437, p< .05) a nd item 20 (t (df= 273) = -11.047) of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Table 6-12, Table 6-22). Students written responses on their readings in the Childrens Literature class showed a wide variety of differences with regard to race and ethnicity. As Gollnick and Chinn (2004) stated An understanding of r ace and how we have been advantaged or disadvantaged because of our race is importa nt in working with both white students and student of color (p.88). In an educationa l context race can be examined under social class, and ability tracking. For example many educational researchers and theorists interested in issue of equali ty, often center their concentr ation on tracking as one of the most powerful practices in perpetuating soci al, economic, and racial inequality. Oakes (1985, 1986) stated that "the cu rricular and instructional inequalities that accompany tracking may actually foster mediocre classr oom experiences for most students and erect special barriers to the educational success of poor, black, and Hispanic students" (148). In

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180 a collection of related studies Orfield, G., Marin, P. and Ho rn, C.L. (2005) discussed the role of higher education that reinforce th e inequality between white and nonwhite American society rather th an creates an equal opport unity. Similarly in her book, Beyond The Big House Ladson-Billings (2005 ) describes the lives, struggles, hopes, ideas, and triumphs of seven African Amer ican teacher educators who have made significant contributions to teac hing, service and research such as Carl Grant, Jacqueline Jordan Irvine, Geneva Gay, and Lisa Delp it. She used the Big House metaphor to describe how departments, schools, and colleg e of education mirror institutional values that maintain the status quo and impede the academic achievement a nd social growth of African American students from other marginalized groups. Students responses to their novels, pict ure books and other assignments included several comments on the issues of race and ethnicity. Many responses are referring to studen ts lack of knowledge on the topics discussed in their books. For example, as res ponse to one of the historical fiction novel on Native Americans and Vermont Eugenics Program, in Hidden Roots by Joseph Bruchac, a student wrote, I never even knew any of these horrifying thing happened. Others wrote responses to Thin Wood Walls by David Patneaude, a novel on Japanese internment camps: Eventually, the government was able to intern approximately 120,000 Japanese Americans! Two-thirds of the individuals detained were native, United States citizens.In 1944; the Supreme Court finally ruled that the evacuation and internment in fact were constitutional in the landmark Korematsu v. United States case. The government had started to rel ease the internees at that time. In 1988, Congress apologized and paid $20,000 in reparations to each of the 60,000 surviving internees. (MSN Encarta) The story about Joe and his familys e xperience in the internment camps is certainly engaging and never boring. I for one was completely shocked that this took place and that Americans allowed it to take place! The experience reminded

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181 me very much of the Holocaust, and I was shocked and ashamed that this is a part of Americas history. Even though these events happened only couple decades ago many of the students had never learned about these ev ents in United States histor y. Another students response to Thin Wood Walls was: It is hard to believe that the free country I live in today was no different than Nazi, Germany just over 60 years ago While searching I found a lot of the events in this book really happened. For example Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Roosevelt on February 19, 1942. This caused the eviction of 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry who lived in Arizona, California, Oregon and Washington. A civil rights movement novel Mississippi Trail, 1955 a novel based on Holocaust Daniel Half Human and a slavery story Trouble Dont Last had similar responses. One student wrote about Mississippi Trail, 1955 : Throughout my education the name Emmett Till was never brought up and he is basically looked upon as the start of th e civil right movement, which is an important key fact. Throughout schooling, the history that tends to be taught about events before and during the civil rights movement tends to be more sugar coated. Schools tend to teach about Martin Luther King who prea ched and Rosa who sat on the wrong side of the bus, but not the details of the to rturing treatment placed among the blacks. Chris Crowe makes an effort to make sure Emmett Tills story gets told. Crowe is aware of the bias of history taught in sc hool because he himself had never heard of this story until his adult years. another wrote about Daniel Half Human : The events leading up to the Holocaust however, are not nearly as well known. While reading this book, I realized how littl e I actually knew about the Holocaust despite reading many novels about it and studying it se veral times in school. In order to prevent another Holocaust, it is important to understa nd the events that lead up to it. This book is a valuable re source for the classroom because it shows how surprisingly easy it was for an entire c ountry to be brainwashed and for Hitler to come to power. I remember learni ng about the Holocaust and wondering how such a terrible thing could happen. It is so easy to think that you would never get wrapped up in such an immoral thing, but just like Daniel and Armin, I can remember wanting to be involved in things that were cutting edge and rebellious

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182 and the desire to feell like I belonged in something that was making difference. When you are a young person, you do not always look at the issues deeper because you are blinded by the excitement of being involved in something big. and another student wrote about Trouble Dont Last : Through her research she found that many of the ideas most people have about the Underground Railroad are actually miscon ceptions. For example, the Underground Railroad was not an organized network in wh ich slaves traveled from the South to the North. Instead, the railroad consisted of various routes and hiding places that were safe for runaways to travel along.Though not highly structured there was some organization within these routes. I ndividuals guided the runaway slaves from one safe house to another but they did not know any information beyond their two stations. A second group of responses are related to prejudice and discrimination that many students responses indicate they realize th at prejudice is not limited to one ethnic or racial group and how they eas ily translated into harmful behavior. Two students responses to Hidden Roots were: Even during the end of the twentieth cen tury, the Abenaki people still feared admitting their heritage because of the awful things done to them. this novel highlights the stereotypes of Native Americans, which like many groups of people, are inaccu rate and quite damaging. Ma ny people may internalize the images they see on television and in th e movies and truly believe that is how Native Americans are. However, Bruchac addresses the fact that all groups of people are dynmic and cannot be characterized by a few features. This book would work well in a lesson about prejudice and racism. The novel strays from the traditional s ubject of the civil rights movement in America to offer children a new perspective on the topic. and, .Bruchac learned at a young age how the Ab enaki tribe was subject to an awful experiment in the 1930s known as the Vermont Eugenics Program. The program was started by a zoology professor name d Henry Perkins in an attempt to enhance the human race. Part of the plan involved a sterilization bill in Vermont in 1931 (making it the 31st state to have such legislation) in which those classified, as feebleminded would be sterilized so that human species could rid itself of diseased germ plasm. Those identified as having these diseased genes were families with histories of Huntingtons chorea, alcoholism, joblessness, and petty crime (Bruchac, 2004). Unfortunately, the Abenaki and others living below the

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183 poverty line fell victim to the legislat ion, causing thousands of women to be sterilized against their will and many natives to cast-off their cultural ties. the novel also draws parallels to the ethni c cleansing that went on under the Nazi regime in Germany during World War II. This is done in an attempt to inform the reader that the practices many Americans found appalling about the holo caust also occurred, to a lesser degree, here in America.In hist ory books not much is said about the suffering of Native Americans duri ng colonization or le gislation such as The Vermont Eugenics Program. Another enjoyable aspect of the novel wa s its focus on the importance of valuing ones identity how it is impossible to hid e ones roots, as they are the center of who we are and what makes us al l special and unique individuals. Gollnick and Chinn states that: We all face a dilemma, because we have gr own up in a society that has inherently discriminated against persons of color si nce the first European Americans arrived we believe that we have never been di scriminated against, we should not assume that others do not suffer from discrimination (p.92). Many of students of color who resp onded these novels had reported their experiences and connections with the events in the novels. These were also important when these students shared experiences with their classmates in literature circle discussions. One of African Americ an students wrote after reading Thin Wood Walls : As an African-American female, I feel th at it was relatively easy to draw a connection with this novel. Fortunately, I ha ve never been in a situation similar to this but I can understand how difficult the situation must have been. I was born a citizen of the United States. Having to c hoose between pledging allegiance to this country (that would have a complete lack of respect for me in this situation) and Africa (which in all actuality I have little connection to since it was home to very few of my ancestors) would be incredibly difficult. Listening to older members of my culture who had to deal with segregation and racism growing up is hard, and I thank God every day that I did not have to live through these str uggle. I feel drawn to the obstacles that the Hanada family has to face because I understand what it is like to be judged solely on your race or culture and not for the individual and unique person that you are. and a Hispanic student wrote on Trouble Dont Last : I was able to connect to this part of the story because as a Hispanic I have sometimes been looked down upon by others because of who I am and where I come from. My parents have taught me th at we have the same rights as everyone

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184 else and should be treated the same. An example my mom has given me, is that in Gods eyes we all are equal. Another group of responses include persona l connections with events in the books. After reading Run Boy Run one student wrote: Growing up I became sensitive to the Jewi sh faith because my guardian is Jewish and enlightened me to her culture. Run Boy Run explains the actual pain and suffering the Jewish people faced which is relevant in my life because I experience my caregivers pain from the Holocaust first hand. The nightmare of the holocaust is difficult to imagine, the future can only learn form this sick era and remember the Holocaust victims forever. another student wrote about Run Boy Run: This book shows the audience th at one can do whatever one sets their mind to, that no obstacle is too high or too wide. Also, the fact that Ju rek never forgot he was a Jew, is something that I can relate to. Th ere is always something in society that people do not like in others and others often hide that fact as to appease society, but they never forget it. I believe that ev eryone has that something society does not care for, including me. Lastly, I pers onally connected to the book, as my grandmother grew up during the occupation in France during World War II and she has told me first hand accounts of the ho rror of war. Although she was not a Jew, she still faced the ne gatives of the war. Ethnic and racial identity is another area that many students responded how they learned about other cultures through their read ings and through their interactions with other minority cultures, especially w ith children. One student response to Hidden Roots was: Another enjoyable aspect of the novel wa s its focus on the importance of valuing ones identity. How it is impossible to hid e ones roots, as they are the center of who we are and what makes us al l special and unique individuals. Another student wrote afte r reading Toyomi Igus I See the Rhythm a nonfiction picture book, a timeline of social events in African American history border the pages. The timeline begins in the 1500s with origins and ends in the 1990s with HipHop/Rap. Although many landmark events are documented, Igus forgets to include some very important dates in Bl ack history. Examples include the Plessy vs. Ferguson case, The Voting Rights Act of 1965, Thurgood Marshall becoming

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185 the first African American supreme court ju stice and the official creation of Martin Luther King Day in 1986 (PBS, 2002). I See the Rhythm was written from the perspective of a black woman in an atte mpt to instill a sense of pride in young African Americans about the many contribut ions and events in their musical and social history. As a result, lines like In our struggle to find a place in a new land, we created the music that changed the world (Igus, 1999) appear throughout the book. By using the pronoun our when referri ng to certain events in Black history, Igus assumes that the reader is Africa n American. This may discourage some nonAfrican readers from becoming completely absorbed in the b ook because they may feel the book was not intended for them. However, this may have been done to increase the sense of accomplishment that young Black read ers will feel upon finishing a book about the great impact th eir cultural history has had on the United States. And another student response to A Negro League Scrapbook was: A different perspective could come from th e white view, since this story was told through the African-American view. A wh ite persons view might consist of looking at the Negro League as a joke, or ju st something they did to feel important. They might also be following society when it came to how blacks were perceived. Some people most likely did not even hate Af rican-Americans, but acted so just to fit in with society. Whites may have saw the Negro League as an interference with their playing time, and just extra work they had to do to get ready for their own games. When a member from the Negro League became famous, the whites most likely held a lot of resentment toward him, and may blame his fame on pity. Towards the end of segregation, Hi spanic cultures were playing with the Negroes, and eventually Jackie Robins on made the first ever appearance on a white baseball team. Whites among the na tion were devastated by this decision, but soon it was the only way. Finally, ev eryone realized wh at a contribution African-American people have to offer to baseball, society, and life as a whole. As part of this class studen ts were required to do a fiel d experience called Project Booktalk. Run by the local public library, stude nts gathered a bag of ten books from the library to take a low-income childcare hom e once a week for ten weeks. The students conducted an hour-long story hour, reading to th e infants, toddlers, and preschoolers at the home, then leaving the book for the child care provider to shar e during the week. One week later the students brought another bag of books and returned the original one to the library, essentially bringing the library into the homes of these childcare providers. For many of the University students it was the fi rst time they had been in the home or

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186 neighborhood of a low-income African Amer ican. These visits provided many positive experiences for students in terms of interg roup relations that can be found in their responses. Examples of students responses to these interactions were as follow: Childrens literature can be related to a childs cultural background when proper books are selected to be read. I observed children from different cultures such as African American and noticed that they we re very hands on readers. For example, I read Dance Baby and Nicholas, Cameron, and Isaiah darted up and started to dance like the pictures in the book. My experience with Booktalk also exposed me to children of different minorities. In my daycare, there were five children (four boys; one girl). The ages ranged from one to three years. Four of the five ch ildren were African American, and one child was white. I learned how important it is to incorporate diversity and ethnicity into the books I chose to read with the children. Af ter my first visit, I knew that I had to pay close attention to the diversity expr essed in the books I picked out. I spent more time looking for books with African American characters, and books that both genders could enjoy and relate to. I al so looked for books that did not express racial stereotypes, but reflected good themes and moral values. This child care home had African American ch ildren and I learned that at this stage in their lives, there is not much diffe rence between their actions and those of Caucasian children.The difference in cultu res that I noticed was the interaction between the provider and the children. Most Caucasian parents put their children in day care centers where they dont know the providers and the providers seem to exhibit a detached sense of interaction. At this daycare providers home, however, it felt more like a family environment. The provider, Tanya, knew the background of all childrenI have worked with the Early Head Start program and noticed the same thing there too. I think it is because in the African Americ an community, they all look out for each other and their ne ighborhoods seem to have the same appearance of one large family. Kayla is an African American. When I brought in books which had African American people in them, Kayla reacted diffe rently than to the other books. I could see in her face how interested she was. She connected with these books. When I was reading Kayla Rock a-bye Baby, Kayla completely calmed down. She stopped wiggling in my lap and was comp letely listening to the book. Seeing how Kayla reacted to these books reinforced in my mind how important it is to have a multicultural classroom library. Kayla had me read Rock a-bye Baby four times that day. That was definitely her favorit e book of the day because she could relate to the people in the story Finally a few students repor ted what we might expect and many scholars reported resistance and discomfort. Tatum (1992) de scribed the problem when she wrote that

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187 The discomfort associated with these emoti ons can lead students to resist the learning processp.1. The following example shows disc omfort as well as simplification of an event that horrified the w hole world. In response to Run Boy Run by Uri Orlev: Personally, I could relate most to the si tuation between Dani els Mother, Sophie and his Father, Rheinhard.Sophies life, being Jewish was endangered and she wanted to flee and leave Germany in or der for her own safe ty. Rheinhard on the other hand wanted to stay in Germany because he could not one hundred percent know and feel what it was like to be persecuted and ended up putting his familys lives in danger. He was unable to feel the fear and disparity of the Jews and thought that he could protect his family. It is very difficult for one to marry in this situation and be able to truly unders tand the danger and plight that the Jews endured. If Rheinhard was Jewish, Daniel would have most likely escaped persecution and left Germany a lot sooner. That is why I feel it is so important for one to marry into the same religion, because when situations like these present themselves unnecessary problems can and most likely will occur. The novel also discusses the Night of Broken Glass, Kristallnacht and how devastating it was. According to the wikipedia website, these events occurred on November 9, 1938 just as described in th e novel. The novel discusses Vom Raths assassination, which did occur on this day. His assassination led to Kristallnacht, which was a riot, which broke out ag ainst all Jewish people in Germany. Gender The survey items reflect the gender inequali ty within educational context. In order to respond effectively to the need for preser vice teachers awareness to the issue involving gender within multicultural education, teacher education programs must deal with preservice students' attitudes toward such issu es while attempting to search out institutionalized inequities that may be contributing to them. Many people believe that men and woman ar e treated equally but as Gollnick and Chinn (2004) stated Society continues to hold deep rooted assumptions, about how men and women, should think, look, and behave. p.136 These assumptions lead to gender discrimination that is not only practiced by indi viduals but also has been institutionalized in policies.

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188 Students responded to the following survey items. Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 10. Many women in our society continue to live in poverty because males still dominate most of the major social systems in America. Item 11. Since men are frequently the h eads of households, they deserve higher wages than females. Item 15. In general, men make better leaders than women. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 8. The attention girls receive in sc hool is comparable to the attention boys receive. Item 12. Males are given more opportunities in math and science than females. Item 19. More women are needed in administrative positions in schools. Table 6-3 represents the pre-post survey re lationship within the context of gender. The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant di fferences between items related to gender issues on Pre and Post Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales in Personal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -1.987, p< .05, in Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -3.268, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the Pos ttest item groups have significan tly higher scores (M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.8187, M (PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.4392) than Pretest item groups (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale ) = 3.7555, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.3114). Paired t tests on the six gender related s cale items indicated significant differences between means on pretest and posttest on item 10 (t (df= 273) = -5.973, p< .05), and item 15 (t (df = 273) = 2.981, p< .05) of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and item 12 (t

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189 (df= 273) = -3.484, p< .05) and item 19 (t (df= 273) = -2.213) of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Table 6-12, Table 6-22). Students responses reflect th e different view of gender roles in historical context rather then inequalities and st ruggles we face today in our societies. And also many of them refer their readings as source of curricular ideas for classroom use. One student identified the traditional gender roles after reading The Truth About Sparrows by Hale Marian, Mothers and daught ers cook while boys do the more dirty work like hunting, fishing, or building furniture. Another st udent drew an exotic image after reading Daughter of Venice by Donna Jo Napoli, a historical fiction novel: Her free spirit and bravery are what drew me to her. Being half Italian, I feel like I could connect with her love her country a nd wanting to explore and learn all about it. I traveled to Italy three years ago and visited the city of Venice. As I read the book, I could picture the gondola rides that I took and walking along the small narrow streets of the beau tiful city. The book defini tely reaches out to young woman and it amazes me how in those times womens futures were planned out for them and they were discouraged from getting an education. Another student explains her personal connection with the Daughter of Venice and identifies the gender roles within story: Donata is a headstrong girl that fought for what she wanted and I was able to connect to her from my own experiences. I also had a special connection to the book because I, myself, am Italian. I know how authoritative Italian men can be and how Italian women are supposed to be submissive. Reading a story about a girl, who was able to overcome those stereo types in a more strict time, even if it was fictional, gives women hope. Two of the students stated Daughter of Venice would be a good source for a social studies unit. One wrote that: The book Daughter of Venice would be a good book to use for social studies because it focuses on the history of Ve nice by explaining each of the laws and dates. This book provides histor ical facts, such as the decree in 1516 that ordered all of the Jews of Venice to move the Ghetto. And another student suggested using for a history lesson,

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190 I think that this book would be a good tool to use for middle school history lessons on Italy in the 16th century or just a lesson on peoples attitudes during that time period. The book is full of historical facts that can be incorporated into a history or civics lesson. Although in middle school students are taught about American government, it is never a bad id ea to look at governments that may have been the foundation of our own government. To describe the Italian culture with str ong female characters, one student compared one novel and three picture books using Chic ks (2002) article on gender stereotypes through literature. She stated: Even though these stories do not touch on majo r issues, they can be a great tool for observing the characters ro les and responsibilities and pointing out the use of a female character rather than a male. Ch ildren can think about how the story would change if a male was the main characte r or what they liked about the female character. Chick (2002) describes eight important gui delines for selecting books with strong female characters. Th e guideline includes: Selecting high quality books, presenting ch aracters who are positive role models, reading book of different genres showing past and present authentic historical characters, avoiding stereotypes, displayi ng females who have a range of admirable emotions and traits and, females breaking car eer choice barriers, and depi cting woman who meet their goals and dreams. Some of the students see the gender inequa lities in other culture s not in their own. One of the students reported after writing a paper on Chi nese Gender Roles that: It is important for students to learn such issues as the difference in treatment due to gender in other countries. They need to r ealize first how lucky they are to live where being a certain gender is not detrimental Santrock (1997) states that many social behaviors are determined very early by culture about gender. These early behaviors and interest s affect peoples adult relationship and career choices. Brown and Kys ilka (2002) explain that these traditional

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191 societal attitudes discourage men from choosing teaching careers because teaching and caring for young children is seen as womans wo rk to explain one reason that our most teachers are woman. The gender related influenc es are directly related to classroom and school interactions. Brown and Kysilka (2002) explain how sc hool and classroom interactions reflect gender issues with an example, G irls line up here; boys line up there is a common command in elementary classrooms. Sorting st udents out by gender seems to be a be-ning behavior, but it empha sizes differences much in the same way as sorting students by race or religion would do (62). Th erefore learning and using childrens books about gender roles can he lp preservice teachers understand the importance of gender issues and their influe nces on their teaching. Providing books with positive female role models would be one way to break down stereotypical impressions. Students interview responses to gender related questions were addressed by mentioning the instructors read-alouds, specifi c examples from class activities as well as unawareness of the issue. One students co mments on the instructors read alouds in relation to gender issue was S he read us Fishing Day that showed different gender roles, female were the better of also soci al class too African American mother and daughter from middle class and the other father and son from lower class, this is not what you usually assume, and when you see it you thi nk first the African Americans are from lower class. Another student mentioned th e class activities that I dont think we specifically focused on gender or gender role s, but when she saw a young girl she pointed as good character for gender roles. Social Class Income, education, occupation, wealth, and pow er in society are us ed as criteria on the survey to describe individuals and fa milies socioeconomic status. McLaren (1989)

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192 defined social class as "the economic, social, and political relationshi ps that govern life in a given social order" (p. 171). In educationa l context, many scholars pointed out the links between teachers' expectations of students from various social classes and students' academic outcomes. For example Anyon (1980) found that: Differing curricular, pedagogical and pupil evaluation practices emphasize different cognitive and behavioral ski lls in each social setting and thus contribute to the development in the children of certain potential relationships to physical and symbolic capital, to author ity, and to the process of work. School experience... differed qualitatively by social class. Thes e differences may not only contribute to the development in the children in each social class of certain types of economically significant relationships and not others, but woul d thereby help to reproduce this system of rela tions in society. In the cont ribution to the reproduction of unequal social relations lies a theoretical meaning a nd social consequence of classroom practice (p. 225): Later Banks and Banks (1993) wrote: ...social class backgrounds affect where st udents go to school and what happens to them once they are there. As a result, lower-class students are less likely to be exposed to less valued curricula, are taught less of whatever cu rricula they do study and are expected to do less work in the classroom and outside of it. Hence, they learn less and are less well prepared for the next level of education (p. 82). It is clear that knowledge, power, and social class ar e linked and that the best predictor of ones socioeconomic status is governed by the educati on once receives. As Gollnick and Chinn (1994) stated, The resour ces a person starts with, the opportunities open to that person, the circumstances in whic h the person lives, and the way others react to that person all depend to a significant ex tent on the groups of which that person is a member(p. 179). Survey items test the students awarene ss of the socioeconomic structure of our society as well as inequalities among classes. Th ese are the survey items related to social class, Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items

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193 Item 6. The reason people live in poverty is that they lack motivation to get themselves out of poverty. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 2. The traditional classroom has been set up to support the middleclass lifestyle. Item 17. Teachers often expect less from students from the lower socioeconomic class. Item 22. Students from lower socioeconom ic backgrounds typically have fewer educational opportunities than their middle-class peers. Table 6-4 represents the pre-post survey re lationship within the context of social class. The results from the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between items related to social cla ss issues on Pre and Post Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales in Personal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -5.276, p< .05, in Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -6.687, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the Posttest ite m groups have significantly higher scores (M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.9599, M (PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.8783) than Pretest item groups (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale ) = 3.6496, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.6010). Paired t tests on the four social class related scale items indicated significant differences between means on pretest and postt est on item 6 (t (df= 273) = -5.276, p< .05) of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and item 2 (t (df= 273) = -8.601, p< .05) and item 22 (t (df= 273) = -4.523) of Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale (Table 6-12, Table 6-22). Reading books about the Gr eat Depression, novels and picture books that feature families of different socioeconomic status, and daycare visits provided students with opportunities to learn about different levels of existing social class inequities in our

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194 society and perhaps to lead students to think contemplate their beliefs and attitudes with regard to people from different so cial classes from their own. One student response was after a daycare visit: The Booktalk project allowed me to come in contact with children of a different culture than my own. Thr ough the experience with thes e children, I learned that there are ways to reach underprivileged and low-income cultures and groups of people. Although these children are from a lo wer class than I am from, they should still be given the opportunity to learn and to read and succe ed in other areas of their lives. I also learned that because of the environments that many of these children are raised in, it is important to give them the time and attention they deserve and may be lacking in their daily lives. I made sure to spend equal amounts of time with each child during each of my visitsI le arned about cultures different than my own, as well as how to teach children of those cultures. Another student wrote after reading Empire State Building: When New York Reached for the Skies by Elizabeth Mann, about the Great Depression: What would happen, however, if we looked at the buildings construction from the perspective of those New Yorkers not dire ctly involved with the erection of the building? The Empire State Building was being built during the Great Depression. There were many people who were suffering financially and in need of jobs to support their family. Perhaps these people fe lt that the large sum of money needed for this project should have been donated to a better cause. They might have seen those people associated with the Empire State Building as se lf-absorbed and only concerned with flaunting their financial status and power. Therefore, it is apparent that when viewing from an altern ative perspective, there were people that may not have been as excited and impr essed by the idea of the Empire State Buildings construction as th e author seems to support. A few students suggested that social and economic inequiti es were part of history but are not an issue in today s world. One student wrote: Daughter of Venice is about the isol ation of the rich. Throughout the book, we were able to see what this isolation can do. In todays society, this isolation no longer takes place. Everyone is free to be who they are even if they are even if they live in poverty or wealth. This student is obviously unaware of the huge class differences in the United States today and the plight of 35% of our populati on that lives below the poverty line. Perhaps the students think that peopl e choose to be poor? Scholars us e the term underclass to

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195 describe the group of people who suffer the most from lack of enough income or other economic sources. Unfortunately, this group is blamed for their own condition. And historically some of the et hnic groups have had great impact on their socioeconomic status. One student described her grandfather experiences in her re port on homelessness: As a twelve year old boy my grandfathe r faced the streets of New York as a homeless person; he had not brought this upon himself, its was not his fault, he was not a useless, drugged up, drunk, mentally ill, bum, who was too lazy to work as is stereotypically thought. As people grow up they start to develop the prejudice viewpoint that its the homeless mans fa ult for being homeless and that it would never happen to them because they arent lazy like the homeless. People need to realize that the homeless are just like us and that we dont know what their unfortunate circumstances were that led them to the streets, they are just another person like you and I and thats alright. This is the same of my grandfathers case, it wasnt his fault, and he didnt deserve that life but he was dealt it and over time he rose above it and worked his way back into society as we know it. Educational implications of socioeconomic status can be summarized by stating that many schools bring existing social a nd economic inequities in society into classrooms, rather than providing equal e ducational opportunities fo r all. Gollnick and Chinn (2004) describe the teachers expectati on and tracking with their relation to these issues: Too often, a teacher assigns academic expect ations to students on the basis of their membership in class, race ethnic, and gender groups. Students not classified as middle class are often viewed as academica lly inferior. Most of these students are greatly harmed by such expectations. In contrast, students from the upper middle class usually benefit from a teachers j udgments because they are expected to perform in school, are treated more favorably and perform at a hi gher level in most cases. And referring the ability levels they stated: Disproportionately large numb ers of students from lower socioeconomic levels are assigned to low-ability groups beginning very early in their school careers.

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196 Many of the students reported to be in favor to ability grouping when they described their reading identities, perhaps, because they, themselves, were benefited from ability tracking because they were from middle and upper class families. Social class is an area that only a few students mentioned during interviews. As Gollnick and Chinn (2004) and Sleeter and Gr ant (1991) pointed out, most teachers have assumed middle-class standards based on thei r own set of beliefs and values. This perspectives is described as Brown and Kys ilka (2002) stated, Students and families in poverty are too often treated by te achers as willing part icipants in their situations, as if living that way were a choice rather th an a result of comp lex causes (p.59). Students responses on social class reflect their specif ic connections with their literature circle novels, Project Booktalk, and instructors r ead aloud. One student discussed the instructors read aloud and the l iterature circle novels I think she read and brought many books related to social class. Miracles Boys was one book that dealt with social class we read as a group. In re lation to their Project Booktalk experience one student stated Well I think I got more about this through Project Booktalk. Because with the provider, we talked about children, their parents, and their working conditions. Sexual Orientation Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgende r people in our country are currently struggling for their legal rights. In educational settings these struggles turn into low selfesteem and verbal abuse problems that many LGBTQ youth and children of LGBTQ families have to face. The following survey item s are related to sexual orientation used in pre and posttest scales: Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items

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197 Item 4. Accepting many different ways of lif e in America will strengthen us as a nation. Item 5. It is not a good idea for same -sex couples to raise children. Item 12. It is a good idea for people to deve lop meaningful friendships with others having a different sexual orientation. Item 13. Society should not become mo re accepting of gay/lesbian lifestyles. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 3. Gays and lesbians should not be allowed to teach in public schools. Table 6-5 represents the pre-post survey relationship within the sexual orientation context. The results from the analysis indi cate that there are significant differences between items related to sexual or ientation issues on Pre and Post, Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -5.939, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the Posttest item group have significantly higher scores (M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 4.0009) than Pretes t item group (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale ) = 3.8038). Paired t tests on the five sexual orientati on related scale items indicated significant differences between means on pretest and pos ttest on item 5 (t (df= 273) = -5.045, p< .05), item 12 (t (df=273) = -4.295, p< .05), a nd item 13 (t (df = 273) =-3.311, p< .05) of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Table 6-12). In addition to students self selected readings of books with LGBTQ characters, students were asked to listen three picture books read aloud by the class instructor and to respond them writing. The response form asked; how they felt while listening to this book read aloud, rating of the book (1 to 5), w hy they rated the book that way, and would they use this book in their future classroom, and why?

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198 Table 6-6 presents the stude nts ratings and their re sponses the question Would you use this book in your future classroom? Fr om the table, it is clear that And Tango Makes Three got the highest ra tings while King & King got the lowest ratings from students. And King & King was the l east favorite book and And Tango Makes Three was the most favorite book for students future classroom. Students responses to using these books in their future classroom include both positive and negative comments. The concerns reported by students include comments such as: Not comfortable, parents concerns, it no t teachers job present this topic, should discussed and explained at home by pa rents/ not in school, not teachers responsibility, tough subject for classrooms, if subject comes would use it but still not comfortable, not for younger childre n/parents should introduce, for older elementary students, would not use bu t if one student experiencing would. One student put a religious r eason in his report, I do not want to be the one to introduce this topic to my students because I don 't believe that this way of life is what God intended. On the other side another st udent made a strong personal connection with the issue, Well for me, having a gay mom, I wish my teachers would have enlightened my classmates on being gay and what it m eans. I was always humiliated when this subject came up and I wouldnt want any one else to feel that way. Many students stated they would use th ese books in their future classrooms, because they: are an excellent intro to/all people ar e equal/all kinds of love are equal, are a positive image of a gay household, allow children to see different kinds of family and love, are an important topic/easy to relate for children, show children different kinds of families,

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199 have a clear and appropriate message, could breakdown barriers and change minds in class for some children who have same sex parents, teaches tolerance/easy relatable, increase awareness and acceptance Having animal characters rather than act ual people, students gave the book And Tango Makes Three more positive feedback such as: great portrayal of gay couple, teaches that any sex same or not can have family shows the situation from different perspective, both informative and entertaining children can learn to accept gay families, excellent information while informing the audience, talks about a lot of issues, family/love/caring/adoption, good introduction, not preachy/ good information, emotions expand beyond sex, race, species/good intro, appropriate introduce for children. Language All children bring the school their own forms of language. It is the responsibility of educators to ensure the right of each child to learn with th eir own language until they are able to speak well enough in English. Surv ey items reflect the importance of first language as well as import ance of being bilingual. Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 14. It is more important for immigrants to learn English than to maintain their first language. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items

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200 Item 6. All students should be encouraged to become fluent in a second language. Item 16. Whenever possible, second language learners should receive instruction in their first language until they are proficient enough to learn via English instruction. Item 23. Students should not be allowed to speak a language other than English while in school. Table 6-7 represents the pre-post survey relationship within the context of language. The results from the analysis indica te that there are si gnificant differences between items related to langua ge issues on Pre and Post Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales in Personal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = 2.620, p< .05, in Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -2.431, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the Posttest item groups have signi ficantly higher scores (M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.0255, M (PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.9367) than Pretest item groups (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale ) = 2.8650, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.8516). Paired t tests on the four language re lated scale items indicated significant differences between means on pretest and pos ttest on item 14 (t (df= 273) = -2.620, p< .05) of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and item 16 (t (df= 273) = -4.388, p< .05) of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Table 6-12, Table 6-22). Language related items in the personal beli efs scale in both su rveys are still too low for an educator to worry about. Gollnick and Chinn (2004), after referring The Lau decision of 1974, which ensures non-Englishspeaking children the right to an appropriate education that meet their linguistic needs, stated: Even with a legal mandate, appropriate services may not always be delivered because of lack of toleran ce or insensitivity to language or dialects that are not considered standard English (p.269).

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201 Teachers need to analyze their own assump tions and attitudes toward language and language usage to see if they hold biases ag ainst others who do ha ve accents or do not speak Standard English (Brown & Kysilka, 2002). As Gay (2000) stated controversy surrounding African American Ebonics or Black English as a dialect involves not only a classroom practice issue but al so the recognition of and impo rtance of language as a reflection of culture. Students interview responses on language related questions were focused on the class discussion about different dialects and thei r literature circle novels. One student explained how they focused on different di alects and her personal comment was, We talked about different dialects for exampl e Ebonics. She really made a good point that Ebonics is not a low thing, but about a culture we cant take away from them (African Americans), and also English whose sec ond language should be allowed, create opportunities for them to use their language b ecause their culture is as important as American culture. Another student state d, We learned about dialect a lot. How important it was. Always when she read books, historical books we checked the glossary use of the words. Diverse language speakers are often at ri sk in public schools, and educational groups disagree on the effectiveness of the va rious bilingual education models (Brown & Kysilka, 2002). Hernandez (1997) pointed out that lack of linguistic abilities leave teachers ill prepared for working with stude nts and parents who have diverse language experiences. Therefore teachers need to ha ve knowledge of the homes and communities of the English language learners so they can interact with both students and their parents in a culturally sensitive way (Hernandez, 1997). Reading translated books from other

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202 cultures provided students to discuss language issues in more detail in childrens literature class. One student referred to the literature circ le novel as starting point of her comments I was exposed to handful of literature de aling with language mostly Spanish. I read Any Small Goodness. It was also part of th e flavor of language, because when you read a book about different culture, even translated in English, it is really important to keep the flavor of language. I read many books that they cut this part. The way you talk affects the way you think. That is the cultural part of it. Therefore you need the text, even translated, you need too, flavor of la nguage. Rough translation may not be useful. Any Small Goodness includes a glossary at the back that was really important. Implicitly if you are not valuing others, you ar e saying that their language is inferior. That could form biases. Ability Ability related items are reflecting di sability issues (Item 3, Item 8 on Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Item 5, and Item 11 on Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) and ability tracki ng (Item 9, Item 13 on Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ). In a previous section on socioe conomic status, ability tracking was addressed; indicating students favor ability tr acking to their reader identity papers in relation to their socioeconomi c status. Many scholars criti que the overrepresentation of student of color and other disadvantaged groups in special education classes. Tracking can be described the sorting of students into separate classes based on perceived differences in ability levels (MthethwaSommers & Prettyman, 1999) and it is a longheld tradition in American pub lic schools, and studies of this practice represent one of the oldest and most enduring forms of educatio nal research in this country (Mthethwa-

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203 Sommers & Prettyman, 1999). And they argued that tracking frequently mechanism to arrange low-income, minority students into a program that prepares them for low-paying, untrained jobs and wealthier, mostly white stud ents into a program that prepares them for high-paying, dominant careers. It is clear that students ra ted very high on both of the di sability related items on the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale but the ratings were dropped on Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale because of two items on ability tracking. These are the student pre and posttest responses to survey items related to disability and ability tracking issues. Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 3. Making all public facilities accessibl e to the disabled is simply too costly. Item 8. People with physical limitations ar e less effective as leaders than people without physical limitations Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 5. Money spent to educate the severe ly disabled would be better spent on programs for gifted students. Item 9. Tests, particularly standardized test s, have frequently been used as a basis for segregating students. Item 11. Students with physical limitations should be placed in the regular classroom whenever possible. Item 13. Generally, teachers shoul d group students by ability levels. Table 6-8 represents the pre-post survey relationship within the context of ability issues. The results from the analysis indi cate that there are si gnificant differences between items related to gender issues on Pre and Post Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales in Personal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = 2.018, p< .05, in Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale t (df= 273) = -6.605, p< .05. The

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204 mean values indicate th at the Pretest item group on Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale have significantly hi gher scores (M (PrePersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 4.4872) than Posttest item group (M (PostPersonal Belief About Diversity Scale ) = 4.4106) and Posttest item group on Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale have significantly higher scores (M (PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale ) = 3.9745) than Pretest item group (M (PreProfessional Belief A bout Diversity Scale ) = 3.7692). Paired t tests on the six ability and abili ty tracking related scale items indicated significant differences between means on pret est and posttest on item 5 (t (df= 273) = 2.923), item 9 (t (df= 273) = -4.676), a nd item 11 (t (df= 273) = -5.338) of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Table 6-22). Students responses in relati on to disability issues can be found in any of their papers if the readings included a disabled character. Their comments reflect either educational implications or personal conn ections to disabil ities. After reading The Truth About Sparrow one student stated: It is an excellent resource to use wh en discussing a chapter about the Great Depression in American history, or economics. It is also a great introduction to a discussion about disabilities. Sa dies father lives his life without the use of his legs. When Sadie and her family move to Texa s, her father is judged and sometimes looked down upon for being different or disabled. This is a very sensitive issue, and this novel may help younger children ex plore the topic of physical and social differences within our society. This can help build a greater understanding of tolerance and acceptance among students, a nd give hope to those students who may suffer from various disa bilities of their own. Immigration The political debate to close the south bor der for Mexican immigrants was an issue when students completed their surveys. Bu t the survey item on immigration had no significant statistical result, and had a low reliab ility score. It might be the result of the

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205 item itself as validity problem or that only one item did not adequately present the issue. The item on the survey requires an histor ical understanding a bout the issue. Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 2. America's immigrant and refugee policy has led to the deterioration of America. Table 6-9 represents the pre-post survey re lationship within the context of issue of immigration. The results from the analysis indi cate that there is no significant difference between item related to immi gration issue on Pre and Post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Students responses on the immigration issue came from th eir self-selected projects. For example one student wrote about Irish immigration af ter reading books on the issue: America is often referred to as the Land of the Free by people who were born and raised here, but this viewpoint is not n ecessarily shared by those on the outside Although Irish-American cultur e is now accepted, if not cele brated, as part of the great American melting pot, it was not always so. In fact, historically speaking, the Irish in America have endured their fa ir share of hardships; especially discrimination. Another student wrote after reading about Italian immigr ation, first referring to immigrants who sought to make money and th en return their home land, and in a second paper referring to immigrants who longed for a new life: Each of the four analyzed books brings up va rying social injustic e issues, as well as portrayals of immigration. When read separately, immigrat ion seems overtly positive or negative, but when read as a grouping, these books bring immigration to life. These books clearly identified factors of life, survival and morality, which all people believe, including immigrants. Im migration is freedom and struggle, poverty and success. As opposed to how in spectors viewed immigrants, immigrants are not a number, but rather hearts filled with hope and love.

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206 Religion Items on religion reflect the educational implications of the issue rather than personal beliefs. As an educators as many sc holars point, we should re alize that religious groups are sometimes very active in educat ional world while sometimes they play a hidden role behind the many educational issues They can influence the election of school board members as well as curriculum a nd books used in schools (Gollnick & Chinn, 2004). These are two survey items related to reli gion issues that students responded to on pre and posttests. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 4. Students and teachers would bene fit from having a basic understanding of different (diverse) religions. Item 24. It is important to consider re ligious diversity in setting public school policy. Table 6-10 represents the pr e-post survey relationship within the context of religion. The results from the analysis indi cate that there is no significant difference between items related to reli gion issues on Pre and Post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Student responses came when they chose to read a book that presents religious characters or issues. For example after reading What You Will See Inside a Mosque by Khan (2003) a nonfiction book, one student stated: It is refreshing to read that sh e is not using this book as an outlet to push her religion; instead, she is attempting to cl ear possible misconceptions. She attempts to present Muslims as people just like you and I (me) but who have a different way of showing their faith and beliefs. Mo st of what the common American knows about the Muslims is that they were so mehow involved in the destruction of the Twin Towers. Khan is trying to put those stereotypes to rest.

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207 As Gollnick and Chinn (2004) stated many of the values and beliefs implied in U.S schools reflect the influence of dominant Chri stian group. As a reflection of the Christian dominance today most teachers and preservice teachers are Christian. The teachers in the schools and preservice teachers in educationa l programs generally know little about other faiths and special holidays (Brown & Kysilk a, 2002). Even though Eck (2001) stated that the United States is the most religi ously diverse nation on earth (p.4), The students interview responses on religionrelated questions refl ect the their lack of knowledge about other faiths and religious holidays. Students did not mention about their readings that touched on the issue of religion, but they talked about one week when the instructor canceled the class because of multiple religious holiday happening in the same week. One students support for this can cellation and her further evaluation of the issue was I know one week she canceled the class because of religious holidays. Actually it was neat. It show s real world applicability, ope nness. All through my public schools thats never been an issue. That shows she really encourages multiculturalism, and is really willing to celebrate a non-Ch ristian holiday. By at large in a mostly Christian community in US, that makes pr etty good impression. Similarly another student stated, She canceled one week because of Jewish Holiday and another, Ramadan, and one Jewish student expl ained to us about the holiday. It is noteworthy for preservice teachers to realize curricula and activities especially in primary grades reflect the Christian celebrations such as Christmas and Easter. Multicultural & Monocultural Education Items on multicultural education lie behind the fundamental beliefs and assumptions that many scholars pointed in th e field of multicultural education. Gollnick

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208 and Chinn (2004) list some of them in thei r Multicultural Educa tion in a Pluralistic Society: Cultural differences have strength and value. Schools should be models for the expre ssion of human rights respect for cultural differences. Social justice and equality for all people should be of paramount importance in the design and delivery of curricula. Attitudes and values necessary for the con tinuation of a democratic society can be promoted in schools. Schooling can provide the knowledge, disposi tions, and skills fo r the redistribution of power and income among diverse groups. Educators working with families and comm unities can create an environment that is supportive of multiculturalism. These are the survey items related to mu lticultural & monocultural education issues that students responded them on pre and posttests. Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Items Item 1. Teachers should not be expected to adjust their preferred mode of instruction to accommodate the needs of all students. Item 15. Historically, education has been monocultural, reflecting only one reality and has been biased toward the dominant (European) group. Item 18. Multicultural educa tion is most beneficial for students of color. Item 25. Multicultural education is less im portant than reading, writing, arithmetic, and computer literacy Table 6-11 represents the pr e-post survey relationship within the context of monocultural & multicultural educ ation. The results from the analysis indicate that there is no significant difference between item s related to multicultural & monocultural education on Pre and Post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales

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209 Paired t tests on the four multicultural & monocultural related scale items indicated significant differences between means on pret est and posttest on item 15 (t (df= 273) = 2.936), item 18 (t (df= 273) = 2.188), a nd item 25 (t (df= 273) = -3.022) of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Table 6-22). Students responses show a wide range of beliefs on the issue of multicultural & monocultural education, from eye opening e xperiences to lack of understanding the fundamentals of multicultura l education. After reading, Facing the Lion by Joseph Lemasolai-Lekuton (2003) a student stated: This multicultural book opened my eyes up to a new world. I never knew what a nomadic Maasai tribesman life was like until I read this story. Joseph Lemasolai Lekutons story is especially unique because he grew up living as a tribesman and also received an education at schools in Kenya. He lived his life in two different cultures and had to adapt to the practices of each society. Another student responded with an em otional way after reading same book: This book has greatly changed my pers pective on multicultural education and opened my eyes to the Maasai culture. I understand the kind of struggles students of different cultures face and how the United States can be a very intimidating place if a person was not raised with its worl dview in their past.I am interested in contacting the Nomadic Kenyan Children s Educational Fund (NKCEF) and the Maasai Environmental Resource Coalition (MERC) that Lemasolai mentioned on the last page of his auto biography. I truly have enhan ced empathy and compassion for people of minority cultures. I understand th at they need all the help they can get and that I am in a position to do something about it. Many students wrote about how they learne d the importance of integrating cultural elements into the curriculum, two students responses were as follow: I learned the importance of using childrens literature as a way to connect to minority students. If you are a white, female teacher, African American, Asian, and Native American students may feel that you do not understand them or will never relate to them. Choosing books to read al oud in class that showcase these different cultures is an indirect way of letti ng these students know that you care about culture and want to learn more about them. I connected to the powerful themes of fa mily relationships and identity in this book. Like Maya, my own personal identity is greatly influenced by my family.

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210 Much of who I am today is a direct resu lt of my family and my relationships to them. I would incorporate this book into my classroom to help my students explore what has influenced and shaped their pe rsonal identities. Students could map out the people, places, and experiences that have molded and affected them. Many children are not aware of th eir familys histories and this book can help spark a discussion of heritage. Children could inve stigate where their ancestors immigrated from and research the culture, traditi ons and environment of those countries. Students would be learning a bout a foreign country in a way that is relevant and interesting to them. From a Project Booktalk e xperience a student wrote: Kayla is an African American. When I brought in books which had African American people in them, Kayla reacted diffe rently than to the other books. I could see in her face how interested she was. She connected with these books. When I was reading Kayla Rock a-bye Bay, Ka yla completely calm ed down. She stopped wiggling in my lap and was completely listening to the book. Seeing how Kayla reacted to these books reinfo rced in my mind how impor tant it is to have a multicultural classroom library. Kayla had me read Rock a-bye Baby four times that day. That was definitely her favorit e book of the day because she could relate to the people in the story. Even with many positive responses to books with multicultural themes, a few students responses reflect di fferent views. One student st ated after reading a nonfiction book The Fight for Peace by Gottfried (2006): If I ever chose to use th is book in my classroom (whi ch I do not believe I would do), I would use the alternative perspec tives approach to help my students understand which voices were silenced in the retelling of the authors history. Although much of the focus is on anti-war movements, I believe that more information should have been given about the wars and why they began and who we were trying to help. Many great historical figures, as well as our presidents, are made out to be inconsiderate buffoons by th e author. I dont believ e that this is an entirely fair interpre tation of history. This book has yet to win any awards, due to its publication date. I do not feel that this book is worthy of any award, unless it is to the author for at least approaching the idea of peace movements to children. I do not believe, however, that he should be awarded for this book or the informati on that is presented within the pages. I do believe this book may help students to re alize that even if th ey feel they are a minority, there are people somewhere that believe just as strongly, and they may still find support from others. I would use some of the ideas of peace and acceptance in my curriculum, but I would not use this book in my classroom for my students to read.

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211 Many students related to their reading to specific curricular themes and events rather than bringing the multicultural issues to their classrooms. These ideas include food festivals, adding themes if they have st udents from other cultural groups in their classrooms, as well as focusing on issu es during specific time of the year: A teacher can use this book (Naming Maya ) in many different ways. One thing a teacher can do is that after reading the book, the class can have a culture day. Students can bring in food that is made in India and they can bring in the clothes that were talked about in the book. This book (A Single Shard) is a great for a classroom because it is an excellent source of multicultural literature. It is gr eat from children not of Korean descent because they can learn about another culture as I did. It is also great for children of Korean or Asia descent because it shows then and others how great their culture really is. This book (Let It Shine, Stories of Black Women Freedom Fighters) is an excellent book to use during Black History Month. If I were studying the Civil Right movement with my students, I would use this book ( Mississippi Trail, 1955 ) to open their eyes. After searching preservice teachers percei ved barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum, Van Hook (2002) identified following issues, many of which can be found in our students responses: Difficulty Discussing Sensitive Topics (including Religion in the Classroom and Creat ing Controversy); Poli cies and Practices Detrimental to Diversity (including Geogr aphy and Federal, State, and School Regulations); Difficulty Implementing Di versity Curriculum (including Developing Curriculum and Teaching Strategies, Time Cons traints, and Financial Constraints); and Inability to Recognize and A ccept Diversity (including Soci ety, Teachers, Parents, and Children). The course focus on multicultural literatu re can be found in students interview responses as part of their curricular comm ents on the class cont ent. For example one

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212 student stated, I definitely learned the importance of multicultural books, even we are almost all white, we can l earn about different cultures In our classrooms everybody should read them. This class taught me we should learn about other cultures, open our eyes, also showed me range of books about different cultures, not only a focus on white characters Another student stated, We lear ned how to integrate multicultural books into the curriculum. Not only the European views, but from many different perspectives. We have to include other people and other cultures, and they need to be successful inside and outside of the schools. We need to understand them. The students interview responses include mixed results to read alouds. Even though many students stated that they enjoyed the re ad alouds by the instructor, their responses became different when they started to talk about the books on sexual orientation. One student response on the read alouds was, I especially like th e discussion part after read aloud. I like the choices a lot. Bat Boy and His Violin was a very good book to make connection with students. After that class I saw many checked out that book to share with students for Bright Futures. Another students comment on books about sexual orientation was similar to students written responses to these books, Very touchy subject. They were different books. Wasnt lik e that we read book before. For example, I read a book about a homosexual family a dopting a puppy. But the focus was on adopting a puppy. These books directly expose the subject. All books like that way, for example we read books about African Americans. Before I read many books which include African American characters, but these books in this cla ss more focused on subjects. Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale Pohan (1995) stated the importance of pres ervice teachers and classroom teachers sets of entry beliefs based on their prior knowledge and experiences when they go into

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213 schools of education and into th e classrooms. She explained that she came up the idea to develop Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale because she noticed that individual beliefs often determine what teachers act ually do in classrooms. Based on the multicultural and social reconstructionist perspective, the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale items reflect a wide range of multic ultural content. When Pohan (1995) started to develop pilot studies for Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale she reviewed the literature to deci de the key areas and create an item pool. She started with 22 items and finalized the scale with 15 items that I used for this study. When I analyzed the initial development of the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale except for one item, the rest of the content remained same when she finaliz ed it. She eliminated the item related to religion, yet I found that that religion had an huge impact on my study when I looked at the demographic profile of students as well as its influences on students beliefs in both Personal and Professional Be liefs About Diversity Scale s items. Moreover rather than religious affiliation, religious denomination was the area that made differences between denominations on most of the items on both sc ales. Table 6-12 represents the paired ttests comparison of Pre and Post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale items which cover the following key areas of personal belief s; race/ethnicity, gender, social class, sexual orientation, language, ability & ability tracking and immigration. Paired t tests on each of the fifteen Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale items indicated significant differences between m eans on pretest and posttest on items 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 15 (Table 6-12). Table 6-13 represents the st udents ratings on the first item of the pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 1, (There is nothing wrong with people

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214 from different racial backgrounds having/ra ising children), in ge neral participants responses stayed on strongly ag ree, moving toward the upper side of the strongly agree spectrum. On the pretest participants ranked the following percentage s: strongly disagree 2 (.7%), disagree 2 (.7%), undecided 14 (5.1%), agree 75 (27.4%), strongly agree 181 (66.1%). The posttest ranked as follow: strongly disagree 1 (.4%), disagree 3 (1.1%), undecided 9 (3.3%), agree 48 ( 17.5%), strongly agree 213 (77.7%). Table 6-14 represents the students ra tings on the fifth item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 5, (Reversed Item-It is not a good idea for same-sex couples to raise children) partic ipants responses moved toward the disagree statement from middle of the undecided and di sagree statement. At the beginning of the semesters on the pretest, 71 (25.9%) strong ly disagreed, 65 (23.7%) disagreed, 78 (28.5%) undecided, 30 (10.9%) agreed, and 30 (10.9%), strongly agreed. On the posttest, 94 (34.3%) strongly disagree d, 75 (27.4%) disagreed, 60 (21.9%) undecided, 28 (10.2%) agreed, and 17 (6.2%), strongly agreed. Table 6-15 represents the students rati ngs on the sixth item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 6, (Reversed item-The reason people live in poverty is that they lack motivation to get themselves out of poverty) participants responses again, moved toward the disagree statement from middle of the undecided and disagree statement. On the pretest the percenta ges were: strongly disagree 46 (16.8%), disagree 127 (46.4%), undecided 64 (23.4 %), agree 33 (12%), strongly agree 4(1.5%). On the posttest, the following re sults were found: strongly disagree 83 (30.3%), disagree 123 (44.9%), undecided 45 (16.4%), agree (7.3%), strongly agree 3 (1.1%).

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215 Table 6-16 represents the students rati ngs on the seventh item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 7, (People should develop meaningful friendships with others from different raci al/ethnic groups) particip ants responses moved from middle of the agree-str ongly agree statement to a hi gher spectrum of strongly agree statement. On the pretest pa rticipants ranked the following percentages: strongly disagree 1 (.4%), disagree 4 (1.5%), undecided 14 (5.1%), agree 125 (45.6%), strongly agree 130(47.4%). The posttest, ranked as follow: undecided 5 (1.8%), agree (33.6%), strongly agree 177 (64.6%). Table 6-17 represents the students ra tings on the tenth item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 10, (Many women in our society continue to live in poverty because males sti ll dominate most of the major social systems in America) participants responses move d from middle of the disagree-undecided statement to the undecided statement. The pretest presented th e following: strongly disagree 39 (14.2%), disagree 147 ( 53.6%), undecided 51 (18.6%), agree 34 (12.4%), strongly agree 3(1.1%). The findings of the posttest were: strongly disagree 22 (8%), disagree 104 (38%), undecided 87 (31.8%), agree (20.4%), strongly agree 5 (1.8%). Table 6-18 represents the students rati ngs on the twelfth item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 12, (It is a good idea for people to develop meaningful friendships with others having a different sexual orientation) participants responses become more close to the agree statemen t. The participants responded the following way: strongly di sagree 3 (1.1%), disagree 26 (9.5%), undecided 67 (24.5%), agree 130 (47.4%), strongly agree 48(17.5%). On the

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216 posttest they responded the follo wing percentages: strongly disagree 3 (1.1%), disagree 15 (5.5%), undecided 54 (19.7%), agree (47.8%), strongly agree 71 (25.9%). Table 6-19 represents the st udents ratings on the thirt eenth item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 13, (Reversed itemSociety should not become more accepting of gay/lesbian lifestyle s) participants responses become more close to the disagree statement. This item gave the following responses on the pretest: strongly disagree 94 (34.3%), disagree 87 (31.8%), undecided 48 (17.5%), agree 27 (9.9%), strongly agree 18 (6.6%). The responses on the posttest were: strongly disagree 119 (43.4%), disagree 79 (28.8%), undecided 39 (14.2%), agree (9.9%), strongly agree 10 (3.6%). Table 6-20 represents the st udents ratings on the fourt eenth item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 14 (Reversed item-. It is more important for immigrants to learn Eng lish than to maintain their first language) participants responses moved over to the undecided line fr om under the undecided line. The findings on the pretest were: strongly disagree 13 (4.7 %), disagree 78 (28.5%), undecided 63 (23%), agree 99 (36.1%), strongly agree 21(7.7%). The responses on the posttest were: strongly disagree 17 ( 6.2%), disagree 80 (29.2%), undecided 85 (31%), agree (28.1%), strongly agree 15 (5.5%). Table 6-21 represents the st udents ratings on the fifteen th item of pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 15, (Reversed item-In general, men make better leaders than women) participants responses slightly dropped toward to the disagree statement. The results from the pr etest were: strongly disagree 155 (56.6%), disagree 82 (29.9%), undecided 10 ( 3.6%), agree 25 (9.1%), strongly agree

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217 2(.7%). The responses on the posttest were : strongly disagree 135 (49.3%), disagree 91 (33.2%), undecided 20 (7.3%), agree (8%), strongly agree 6 (2.2%). Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Pohan (1995) stated that the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale was developed to measure participants beliefs a bout educational policies and actions as they connected to issues of diversity. She also explained the need for Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale as a separate from Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale that many educational policies, whic h are of ten determined by beliefs, establish educational outcomes for students. Moreover she stated T hese beliefs differed from personal beliefs (although they may be linked to each other) a nd needed to be assessed separately p.46. The five key areas of Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale include; diversity among learners, professional preparat ion, curriculum and educational assessment, policies and practices, and classroom practices. Table 6-22 re presents the paired t-tests comparison of Pre and Post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale items, which covers the key areas of professional beliefs. Paired t tests on each of the twenty five items of the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale indicated significant di fferences between means on pretest and posttest on items, 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, and 25 (Table 6-22). Table 6-23 represents the students rati ngs on the second item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 2, (The traditional classroom has been set up to support the mi ddleclass lifestyle) participan ts responses moved to the agree statement from middle of undecided and agree statement. The response for this item on the pretest was: strongly disagree 2(.7%), disagree 30(10.9%), undecided 72 (26.3%), agree 159 (58%), strongly agre e 11(4%). The responses on the posttest

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218 were: strongly disagree 2 (.7%), disagree 3 (1.1%), undecided 34 (12.4%), agree 193 (70.4%), strongly agree 42 (15.3%). Table 6-24 represents the students ra tings on the fifth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 5, (Reversed itemMoney spent to educate the severely disabled would be be tter spent on programs for gifted students) participants responses become more close to strongly disagr ee statement. Participants reported on the pretest the following: st rongly disagree 116 (42.3%), disagree 128 (46.7%), undecided 24 (8.8%), agree 6 (2.2%). The responses on the posttest were: strongly disagree 133 (48.5%), disagree 123 (44.9%), undeci ded 16 (5.8%), agree 2 (.7%). Table 6-25 represents the students rati ngs on the ninth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 9, (Tests, particularly standardized tests, have frequently been used as a ba sis for segregating students) participants responses slightly moved toward to the agr ee statement. Pretest ra tings were: strongly disagree 8(2.9%), disagree 50 (18.2%), undecided 70 (25.5%), agree 121 (44.2%), strongly agree 25 (9.1%). Postte st ratings were: strongly di sagree 3 (1.1%), disagree 29 (10.6%), undecided 62 (22.6%), agree 137 (50%), strongly agree 43 (15.7%). Table 6-26 represents the students ra tings on the tenth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 10, (Reversed itemPeople of color are adequately represented in most textbooks today) participants responses moved from undecided to disagree statement. The followi ng are percentages on th e pretest: strongly disagree 35 (7.3%), disagree 86 (31.4 %), undecided 75 (27.4%), agree 87 (31.8%), strongly agree 6(2.2%). The re sponses on the posttest were following

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219 percentages: strongly disa gree 37 (13.5%), disagree 152 (55.5%), undecided 46 (16.8%), agree 36 (13.1%), strongly agree 3 (1.1%). Table 6-27 represents the st udents ratings on the eleventh item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 11, (Students with physical limitations should be placed in the regular classroom whenev er possible) participants responses moved toward to strongly agree st atement from agree statement. Findings on the pretest were: strongly disagree 1(.4%), disagree 6 (2.2%), undecided 39 (14.2%), agree 163 (59.5%), st rongly agree 65 (23.7%). Findings on the posttest were as follow percentages: str ongly disagree 3(1.1), disagr ee 3(1.1%), undecided 16 (5.8%), agree 131 (47.8%), st rongly agree 121 (44.2%). Table 6-28 represents the students rati ngs on the twelfth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 12, (Males are given more opportunities in math and science than fema les) participants responses moved from undecided to middle of the undecided and agr ee statement. Findings on the pretest were: strongly disagree 14(5.1%), disagree 80 ( 29.2%), undecided 70 (25.5%), agree 90 (32.8%), strongly agree 20 (7.3 %). Findings on the posttest we re as follow percentages: strongly disagree 8 (2.9%), disagree 60(21.9%), undecided 68 (24.8%), agree 117 (42.7%), strongly agree 21 (7.7%). Table 6-29 represents the st udents ratings on the fifteen th item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 15, (Historically, education has been monocultural, reflecting only one reality and has been biased toward the dominant (European) group) participants responses move d to the agree statement. Participants responded on the pretest as follows: strongly disagree 3(1.1%), disagree 19 (6.9%),

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220 undecided 63 (23%), agree 144 (52.6%), strongly agree 45 (16.4%). Their responses on the posttest were as follow: st rongly disagree 4 (1.5%), disagree 12 (4.4%), undecided 37 (13.5%), agree 163 (5 9.5%), strongly agree 58 (21.2%). Table 6-30 represents the st udents ratings on the sixtee nth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 16, (Whenever possible, second language learners should rece ive instruction in their firs t language until they are proficient enough to learn via E nglish instruction) participan ts responses slightly moved toward to the agree statement. The pretest ga ve the following result s: strongly disagree 4(1.5%), disagree 34 (12.4%), undecided 98 (35.8%), agree 111 (4 0.5%), strongly agree 27 (9.9%). Their responses on the postt est were as follow: strongly disagree 4(1.5%), disagree 21 (7.7%), undecided 60 (21.9%), agree 150 (54.7), strongly agree 39 (14.2%). Table 6-31 represents the st udents ratings on the eightee nth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 18 (Reversed itemMulticultural education is most beneficial for students of color) part icipants responses slightly dropped toward to the middle of undecided a nd disagree statement. The pretest had the following: strongly disagree (18.6%), disa gree 159 (58%), undecided 40 (14.6%), agree 21 (7.7%), strongly ag ree 3 (1.1%). The posttest had the following: strongly disagree 73 (26.6%), disagree 113 ( 41.2%), undecided 31 (11.3%), agree 44 (16.1%), strongly agree 13 (4.7%). Table 6-32 represents the st udents ratings on the nineteenth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 19, (More women are needed in administrative positions in schools) participan ts responses slightly moved toward to the

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221 agree statement. The following responses re ported on the pretest: strongly disagree (.7%), disagree 25 (9.1%), undecided 87 (31.8%), agree 117 (42.7%), strongly agree 43 (15.7%). The posttest had the fo llowing: strongly disagree 7 (2.6%), disagree 24 (8.8%), undecided 64 (23.4 %), agree 107 (39.1%), strongly agree 72 (26.3%). Table 6-33 represents the students rati ngs on the twenty item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 20, (Large numbers of students of color are improperly placed in special education classes by school personnel) participants responses moved toward to ag ree statement from the middle of undecided and agree statement. The results of the pr etest were: strongly disagree 6 (2.2%), disagree 36 (13.1%), undecided 134 (48.9 %), agree 74 (27%), strongly agree 24 (8.8%). The posttest had the following: strongly disagree 3 (1.1%), disagree 9 (3.3%), undecided 48 (17.5%), agree 148 (54 %), strongly agree 66 (24.1%). Table 6-34 represents the students rati ngs on the twenty-second item of pre and post Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale On item 22, (Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds typically have fewer educational opportunities than their middle-class peers) participants responses passed the agree line from a close line under the agree statement. The following is the number of respondents and percentages of responses on the pretest: strongly disagr ee 6 (2.2%), disagree 36 (13.1%), undecided 25 (9.1%), agree 169 (61.7%), strongly agree 38 (13.1%). The posttest had the following: strongly disagree 3 (1.1%), di sagree 13 (4.7%), undecided 20 (7.3%), agree 187 (68.2%), strongly agree 51 (18.6%).

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222 Table 6-35 represents the st udents ratings on the twenty -fifth item of pre and post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale On item 25, (Reversed itemMulticultural education is less important than reading, writing, arithmetic, and computer literacy) participants responses become close to th e disagree statement. The following is the number of respondents and per centages of responses on the pretest: strongly disagree 43 (15.7%), disagree 117 (42.7%), und ecided 67 (24.5%), agree 42 (15.3%), strongly agree 5 (1.8%). The posttest had th e following: strongly disagree 48 (17.5%), disagree 147 (53.6%), undecided 47 (17.2%), agree 27 (9.9%), strongly agree 5 (1.8%). The Unique Analysis of Changes Researchers who use surveys in their st udies usually focus on overall changes. Their reports include overall positive or negative directions. Using overall statistical analysis data can leave the impression that all students attitudes changed in the same directions. Therefore I looke d at the both positive and ne gative changes for individual students in each class and thei r relationship with demographi c variables. This sort of analysis has not been done previ ously and is unique to this study. I have found that some students reacted more negatively on the post survey than they did on the pre survey, while others chan ged their beliefs in positive direction, and a few stayed the same. Table 6-36 shows that 83 (30.3% of participants scores on the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and 78 (28.5%) of partic ipants scores on the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale changed in a negative direction. At the same time 169 (61.7%) of participants scores on the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and 184 (67.1%) of participants scores on the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale changed in a

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223 positive direction. In addition, 22 (8%) of participants scores on the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and 12 (4.4%) of partic ipants scores on the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale remained the same. Table 6-37 presents the all changes sec tion by section. I focused on three of the sections that have unusual patterns. Section 5 in the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale and section 7 in the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale had more negative changes than positive changes in terms of the number of students. Section 12 had very positive changes if we compare them to the other sections. In addition to these sections, unusual patterns can be found on sections 3, 6, 8, and 9 in the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale and sections 2, 3, 5, 10 in the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale I checked on the instructors of these sections and realized that in all cases these instructors taught multiple sections and only these were th e sections with unusual results. The rest of their sections had followed similar patterns with the rest of the ot her sections. In other words, the sections where more students becam e more negative in their responses were not due to the instructor, but ra ther to the individual or the cohort. The students remained in the same classes together throughout th e semester, causing each cohort to develop a distinct demeanor. This cohort factor coul d influence diversity beliefs because the discourse across all classes could have been di fferent from that in other sections of the literature classes. The causes of belief ch anges are difficult to determine, especially when groups of students are taking the same classes, however differences among classes can be due to the instructor, but even more so due to the particul ar configuration of students within the class.

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224 In the following section-by-se ction analysis of changes I compared the means of differences using an inde pendent t-test and one-way ANOVA. I found only two significant results that indicated that demographic variables had an impact on professional and personal beliefs scales. I ndependent t tests on participants score differences on the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale indicated significant differences between male and female groups (t (df= 272) = 2.228), and some and much groups on cross cultural friends hip involvement on the Person al Beliefs About Diversity Scale (t (df= 272) = 2.094). Table 6-38 and Table 6-39 show the cro sstabulations of these two demographic variables and directions of participants scor e changes. Even the significant differences between male and female groups on the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale that found that the female group had more positive change rates, remind us to remember that only 27 of the participants were male out of 274 participants. Th e crosstabulation of cross-cultural friendship involve ment and mean differences on Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale shows that the some group gained more positive changes than the much group on cross-cultural friendship i nvolvement, and thes e changes support the comments that the less experienced with di versity issues group gained more then the other group.

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225 Table 6-1. Beliefs scales item groups Context Personal beliefs scale items Professional beliefs scale items Race/ethnicity 1,7,9 7, 10, 14,20,21 Gender 10,11,15 8,12, 19 Social class 6 2, 17, 22 Sexual orientation 4,5,12,13 3 Language 14 6, 16, 23 Ability&ability tracking 3,8 5, 9, 11, 13 Immigration 2 Religion 4, 24 Multicultural/monocultural education 1, 15, 18, 25 Table 6-2. Summary of t-tests, ra ce paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Mean differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Race1 4.2713 274 .5181 Race2 4.3759 274 .5058 -.1046 -3.843 273.000 Race3 3.9058 274 .4619 Race4 4.1591 274 .4626 -.2533 -8.372 273.000 Table 6-3. Summary of t-tests, ge nder paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Gender1 3.7555 274 .5626 Gender2 3.8187 274 .5991 -6.33E-02 -1.987273 .048 Gender3 3.3114 274 .6891 Gender4 3.4392 274 .6566 -.1277 -3.268273 .001 Table 6-4. Summary of t-tests, social class paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Socc1 3.6496 274 .9461 Socc2 3.9599 274 .9269 -.3102 -5.276 273.000 Socc3 3.6010 274 .6473 Socc4 3.8783 274 .5126 -.2774 -6.687 273.000 Table 6-5. Summary of t-tests, sexual or ientation paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Sexo1 3.8038 274 .8288 Sexo2 4.0009 274 .8034 -.1971 -5.939273 .000 Sexo3 4.2883 274 .8391 Sexo4 4.3686 274 .8024 -8.03E-02 -1.854273 .065

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226 Table 6-6. Ratings for the special topic books Ratings (1-5) Daddys roommate And tango makes three King & King 1 2 2 1 16 3 16 8 4 13 9 2 5 1 22 Would they use this book in their future classroom? Yes 12 28 3 No 15 1 25 Table 6-7. Summaries of t-tests, la nguage paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Lang1 2.8650 274 1.0622 Mean Lang2 3.0255 274 1.0214 -.1606 -2.620 273 .009 Lang3 3.8516 274 .5382 Lang4 3.9367 274 .5606 -8.52E-02 -2.431 273 .016 Table 6-8. Summaries of t-tests, ab ility paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Abil1 4.4872 274 .5369 Abil2 4.4106 274 .6054 7.664E-02 2.018 273 .045 Abil3 3.7692 274 .4721 Abil4 3.9745 274 .4787 -.2053 -6.605 273 .000 Table 6-9. Summaries of t-tests, immi gration paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Immig1 3.7774 274 .8330 Immig2 3.8467 274 .8065 -6.93E-02 1.230273 .220 Table 6-10. Summaries of t-tests, re ligion paired samples statistics Mean N Std. deviation Paired differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Rel3 4.1077 274 .5823 Rel4 4.1788 274 .6383 -7.126E-02 -1.770 273.078 Table 6-11. Summaries of t-tests, multicultu ral/monocultural education paired samples statistics Mean N Std. Deviation Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Multi3 3.8914 274 .4975 Multi4 3.9535 274 .5463 -6.20E-02 -1.691 273 .092

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227 Table 6-12. Summary of paired t test for differences pe rsonal beliefs scale items Pairs Pretest mean Std. deviation Posttest mean Std. deviation Paired differences mean Std. deviation t p -value 1 4.5730 .6928 4.7117 .6179 -.1387 .6650 -3.452 .001 2 3.7774 .8330 3.8467 .8065 -6.9343E-02 .9331 -1.230 .220 3 4.5328 .6636 4.4599 .7414 7.299E-02 .8087 1.494 .136 4 4.3066 .7662 4.3650 .7644 -5.8394E-02 .7239 -1.335 .183 5 3.4270 1.2825 3.7336 1.2098 -.3066 1.0059 -5.045 .000 6 3.6496 .9461 3.9599 .9269 -.3102 .9733 -5.276 .000 7 4.3832 .6868 4.6277 .5207 -.2445 .6810 -5.943 .000 8 4.4416 .6995 4.3613 .7443 8.029E-02 .8348 1.592 .113 9 3.8577 .9861 3.7883 .9903 6.934E-02 .9678 1.186 .237 10 2.3248 .9060 2.7007 .9443 -.3759 1.0418 -5.973 .000 11 4.6168 .6195 4.5620 .6779 5.474E-02 .6524 1.389 .166 12 3.7080 .9031 3.9197 .8775 -.2117 .8159 -4.295 .000 13 3.7737 1.2074 3.9854 1.1418 -.2117 1.0582 -3.311 .001 14 2.8650 1.0622 3.0255 1.0214 -.1606 1.0144 -2.620 .009 15 4.3248 .9647 4.1934 1.0249 .1314 .7295 2.981 .003 Table 6-13. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 1) II1 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I1 1.00 1 1 2 2.00 1 1 2 3.00 5 4 5 14 4.00 2 3 30 40 75 5.00 1 13 167 181 Total 1 3 9 48 213 274 Table 6-14. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 5) II5 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I5 1.00 12 10 2 3 3 30 2.00 3 10 10 7 30 3.00 6 33 30 9 78 4.00 1 1 11 28 24 65 5.00 1 1 4 7 58 71 Total 17 28 60 75 94 274

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228 Table 6-15. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 6) II6 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I6 1.00 1 2 1 4 2.00 9 8 10 6 33 3.00 2 7 20 27 8 64 4.00 1 14 73 39 127 5.00 1 3 13 29 46 Total 3 20 45 123 83 274 Table 6-16. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 7) II7 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I7 1.00 1 1 2.00 1 1 2 4 3.00 11 3 14 4.00 4 62 59 125 5.00 18 112 130 Total 5 92 177 274 Table 6-17. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 10) II10 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I10 1.00 13 14 6 6 39 2.00 7 70 47 21 2 147 3.00 1 14 22 14 51 4.00 6 12 14 2 34 5.00 1 1 1 3 Total 22 104 87 56 5 274 Table 6-18. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 12) II12 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I12 1.00 1 1 1 3 2.00 2 8 7 9 26 3.00 3 28 32 4 67 4.00 3 18 72 37 130 5.00 1 17 30 48 Total 3 15 54 131 71 274

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229 Table 6-19. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 13) II13 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I13 1.00 7 3 3 5 18 2.00 9 7 8 3 27 3.00 1 8 18 15 6 48 4.00 1 7 10 43 26 87 5.00 1 1 13 79 94 Total 10 27 39 79 119 274 Table 6-20. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 14) II14 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I14 1.00 8 10 3 21 2.00 5 49 26 18 1 99 3.00 9 32 17 5 63 4.00 2 8 20 40 8 78 5.00 1 4 5 3 13 Total 15 77 85 80 17 274 Table 6-21. Personal beliefs scale pr e-post crosstabulation (item 15) II15 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I15 1.00 2 2 2.00 3 15 4 3 25 3.00 3 2 4 1 10 4.00 1 3 11 42 25 82 5.00 1 3 42 109 155 Total 6 22 20 91 135 274

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230 Table 6-22. Paired t test for differences professional beliefs scale items Pairs Pretest mean Std. deviation Posttest mean Std. deviation Paired differences mean Std. deviation t p -value 1 4.3978 .7101 4.4270 .8581 -2.9197E-02 1.0721 -.451 .652 2 3.5365 .7706 3.9854 .6229 -.4489 .8640 -8.601 .000 3 4.2883 .8391 4.3686 .8024 -8.0292E-02 .7167 -1.854 .065 4 4.3467 .6349 4.3869 .6546 -4.0146E-02 .7124 -.933 .352 5 4.2920 .7178 4.4124 .6359 -.1204 .6821 -2.923 .004 6 4.1715 .7485 4.1131 .7643 5.839E-02 .7340 1.317 .189 7 4.5328 .5748 4.5036 .7019 2.920E-02 .6733 .718 .474 8 3.2190 .9471 3.2372 .9523 -1.8248E-02 1.0706 -.282 .778 9 3.3832 .9811 3.6861 .8998 -.3029 1.0722 -4.676 .000 10 3.0985 1.0025 3.6715 .9067 -.5730 1.1242 -8.437 .000 11 4.0401 .7073 4.3285 .7324 -.2883 .8941 -5.338 .000 12 3.0803 1.0557 3.3029 .9905 -.2226 1.0577 -3.484 .001 13 3.3613 .9669 3.4708 .9498 -.1095 1.1747 -1.543 .124 14 4.2628 .6436 4.2336 .6548 2.920E-02 .7978 .606 .545 15 3.7628 .8464 3.9453 .8079 -.1825 1.0287 -2.936 .004 16 3.4489 .8849 3.7263 .8526 -.2774 1.0464 -4.388 .000 17 3.5474 .9490 3.6642 .9398 -.1168 1.2554 -1.540 .125 18 3.8540 .8477 3.6898 1.1652 .1642 1.2427 2.188 .030 19 3.6350 .8802 3.7774 1.0153 -.1423 1.0647 -2.213 .028 20 3.2701 .8771 3.9672 .8045 -.6971 1.0445 -11.047 .000 21 4.3650 .6726 4.4197 .6194 -5.4745E-02 .7660 -1.183 .238 22 3.7190 .9364 3.9854 .7411 -.2664 .9751 -4.523 .000 23 3.9343 .8534 3.9708 .8511 -3.6496E-02 .9715 -.622 .535 24 3.8686 .8103 3.9708 .8597 -.1022 .9705 -1.743 .082 25 3.5511 .9904 3.7518 .9201 -.2007 1.0994 -3.022 .003 Table 6-23. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 2) IIII2 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 III2 1.00 1 1 2 2 2.00 1 7 21 1 30 3.00 1 1 11 46 13 72 4.00 1 15 118 25 159 5.00 8 3 11 Total 2 3 34 193 42 274 Table 6-24. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 5) IIII5 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 III5 2.00 1 1 4 6 3.00 7 11 6 24 4.00 1 7 82 38 128 5.00 1 26 89 116 Total 2 16 123 133 274

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231 Table 6-25. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 9) IIII9 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 III9 1.00 1 2 3 1 1 8 2.00 11 16 21 2 50 3.00 1 8 20 37 4 70 4.00 1 6 20 69 25 121 5.00 2 3 9 11 25 Total 3 29 62 137 43 274 Table 6-26. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 10) IIII10 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.005.00 III10 1.00 1 1 3 1 6 2.00 1 22 17 42 5 87 3.00 9 16 42 8 75 4.00 2 4 11 55 14 86 5.00 1 16 18 35 Total 3 36 46 152 37 274 Table 6-27. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 11) IIII11 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.005.00 III11 1.00 1 1 2.00 1 2 3 6 3.00 7 22 10 39 4.00 1 2 7 83 70 163 5.00 2 23 40 65 Total 3 3 16 131 121 274 Table 6-28. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 12) IIII12 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.005.00 III12 1.00 3 7 3 1 14 2.00 3 31 21 24 1 80 3.00 2 13 27 26 2 70 4.00 7 19 56 8 90 5.00 2 1 8 9 20 Total 8 60 68 117 21 274

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232 Table 6-29. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 15) IIII15 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.005.00 III15 1.00 1 2 3 2.00 1 2 2 10 4 19 3.00 4 16 36 7 63 4.00 2 6 17 92 27 144 5.00 1 1 23 20 45 Total 4 12 37 163 58 274 Table 6-30. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 16) II16 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I16 1.00 1 1 1 1 4 2.00 2 7 9 11 5 34 3.00 9 26 58 5 98 4.00 1 5 17 69 19 111 5.00 7 11 9 27 Total 4 21 60 150 39 274 Table 6-31. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 18) II18 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I18 1.00 1 1 1 3 2.00 1 6 4 8 2 21 3.00 11 10 12 7 40 4.00 10 21 13 83 32 159 5.00 1 5 4 10 31 51 Total 13 44 31 113 73 274 Table 6-32. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 19) II19 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I19 1.00 1 1 2 2.00 7 9 4 5 25 3.00 3 9 35 31 9 87 4.00 3 8 15 62 29 117 5.00 1 4 9 29 43 Total 7 24 64 107 72 274

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233 Table 6-33. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 20) II20 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I20 1.00 1 1 1 1 2 6 2.00 4 6 20 6 36 3.00 1 3 31 74 25 134 4.00 1 9 42 22 74 5.00 1 1 11 11 24 Total 3 9 48 148 66 274 Table 6-34. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 22) II22 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I22 1.00 1 1 3 1 6 2.00 1 4 6 24 1 36 3.00 3 3 18 1 25 4.00 5 11 122 31 169 5.00 1 20 17 38 Total 3 13 20 187 51 274 Table 6-35. Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 25) II25 Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 I25 1.00 1 1 1 1 1 5 2.00 1 10 11 17 3 42 3.00 2 7 18 35 5 67 4.00 7 14 72 24 117 5.00 1 2 3 22 15 43 Total 5 27 47 147 48 274 Table 6-36.Pre-post scales comparison Personal beliefs about diversity scale Professional beliefs about diversity scale Negative changes 83 (30.3%) 78 (28.5%) Positive changes 169 (61.7%) 184 (67.1%) No changes 22 (8%) 12 (4.4%) Pre-test mean 58.562 94.967 Posttest mean 60.240 98.996 Mean difference 1.678 4.029

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234 Table 6-37. Section by secti on comparison of changes Personal beliefs scale Professional beliefs scale Section Number of Student Positive changes Negative changes No changes Positive changes Negative changes No changes 1 25 15 7 3 20 5 2 21 12 8 1 15 5 1 3 26 13 11 2 17 8 1 4 25 19 3 3 21 4 5 18 8 8 2 2 13 3 6 28 18 8 2 14 12 2 7 16 6 9 1 12 3 1 8 29 14 8 7 19 10 9 13 10 3 8 4 1 10 31 19 12 22 9 11 13 9 3 1 9 2 2 12 29 26 3 24 3 2 12 274 169 83 22 184 78 12 Table 6-38. Gender Professional beliefs sc ale scores differences crosstabulation Positive changes Negative changes No changes Total Female 170 66 11 247 Male 14 12 1 27 Total 184 78 12 274 Table 6-39. Cross-cultural fr iendship involvement Pers onal beliefs scale scores differences crosstabulation Positive changes Negative changes No changes Total Some 114 49 17 180 Much 55 34 5 94 Total 169 83 22 274

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235 CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to understand how experiences in children's literature classes influence preservice teachers beliefs about diversity. The research concerned the critical examination of preservice teacher s knowledge, attitudes and commitment in childrens literature classes so as to impr ove the multicultural aspect of educational courses. In the process, I examined theories and practices of multicultural education and research findings on multicultural educa tion to examine numerous variables and qualitative data that influenced preser vice teachers beliefs about diversity. The research questions addressed were: How do the political and social aspects of the demography of preservice teachers influence their beliefs on the issue of diversity? What are the changing attitudes and beliefs, if any, of preservice teachers views on the issue of diversity over th e course of a semester in ch ildrens literature classes? How do larger contextual factors such as power, privilege, and oppression affect the ways in which preservice teachers constr uct beliefs about diversity in childrens literature classes? Given the overwhelming body of research addressing the cultural gap between preservice teachers and the students they will ultimately teach, as well as the ineffectiveness of teacher application of multicultural theory to schooling, and shortcomings of multicultural education in teacher training programs, further research was needed to critically examine these issu es. Even though there are several studies and research reports available on undergraduate students beliefs rega rding diversity and multicultural education, I have found only a fe w data-based research reports about the

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236 changing attitudes of students in childrens literature classes. Th is study contributes to this limited body of literature, thus helpi ng to develop a better understanding of how childrens literature classes affect students attitudes toward the issues of diversity. For this study I employed a mixed method research design, using both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. A demographic section of a survey of students attitudes toward diversity pr ovided the preservice teachers demographic variables and their influences on students beliefs on the issues of diversity, I used statistical analyses of survey results as sour ces of data for addressi ng students changes of beliefs related to diversity issues. Inte rviews, observations and students written assignments were part of qualitati ve data collection and analysis. Summary of the Research Questions Summary of Quantitative Sections Table 7-1 represents the Pearson Chi-square results in a matrix format to show the significant relationships between demographic variables. Using the matrix we can draw the students profile as follows: Protestants and Catholics were more conservative, and less foreign travel experiences than Jewish and Othe r groups of religious affiliations. A yes answer to cross-cultural friendship i nvolvement is a sign of more inner city experience, that the person is non-white, bilingual, than those who had fewer crosscultural friendships. Non-Whites describe their university student body as less diverse, are more likely to be bilingual and have more cro ss-cultural friendships than Whites. A yes answer to inner city experience is a sign that the individual has more cross cultural friendships, more foreign trav el experience, and has taken more multicultural courses than those who had no inner city experience. Females are more conservative than males.

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237 Being bilingual is a sign of having more cross cultural friendships and being NonWhite. Describing university body as less dive rse is a sign of being Non-White. Table 7-2 and Table 7-3 summarize the re sults from independent t-test, and the results from analysis of variance (ANOVA). Using these two tables we can summarize the results as follows: Cross-cultural friendship invol vement is the one level of demographic profiles that had impact on both pre and post surveys. St udents who reported that they had much cross cultural friendships had higher scores on all scales than students with some cross-cultural friendships. Religious denomination is another level of demographic profiles that had impact on both pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Students who reported that they belong the Liberal groups had higher scores on all scales than students those who reported conservative groups. The impact of religi ous denomination disappeared on the post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Second language status had impact on the pre Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale with bilinguals having the higher scores. The impact of this variable disappeared on posttests. Foreign travel experience had an impact on only the pre Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale with the yes group recording hi gher scores. The differences between groups disappe ared on the posttest. Race had impact on the pre Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale with Non-Whites having higher scores. The impact of race disappeared on the posttests. Inner city experience ha d impact on only the post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale with no group having higher scores. Religion had an impact on pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale with Other, Jewish, and Catholic groups having higher scores than Protestant group in all scales. The impact of religion disappeared on the post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale The way that students rated the univers ity body had an impact only on the pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale and, its impact disappeared on the posttest.

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238 Table 7-4 and Table 7-5 repr esent only the item groups w ith significant results of an independent t-test or analysis of vari ance (ANOVA) with demographic variables. The table 7-4 includes the item groups of the Pre and Posttests of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and the Table 7-5 includes the items of Pre and Posttests of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Using these two tables we can summarize the results as follows: As a demographic profile, gender had an impact on at one of the scales on item groups, gender, and sexual orientation. In all groups, females had higher scores than males. The race variable had an impact on at leas t on one of the scales on the item groups of race, language, immigration, multicultura l & monocultural education, and ability. Except ability, in all other groups Non-Whites had higher scores than Whites. In ability group Whites had higher scores than Non-Whites. The students educational leve ls had an impact at least on one of the scales on the item groups of language, and ability. In al l groups junior and senior students had higher scores than sophomores. The foreign travel variable had an impact at least on one of the scales on item groups, sexual orientation and language. In all groups the foreign travel experienced group higher scores than t hose who had not experience travel. Students descriptions of their university student body as variable had impact on at least one of the scales on item groups, language, and multicultural & monocultural education. All groups who described university body as a monocultural environment had higher scores than thos e who described the university body as multicultural environment. The religion variable had an impact at least on one of the scales on item groups, race, gender, and sexual orientation. In all groups Other and Jewish had higher scores than Protes tants and Catholics The religious denomination variable had im pact at least on one of the scales on item groups, race, social class, sexual orientation, language, immigra tion, gender, and multicultural & monocultural education. In all groups liberals had higher scores than conservatives. Cross-cultural friendship vari able had an impact at least on one of the scales on item groups, race, sexual orientation, language ability, gender, religion, and multicultural & monocultural education. In all groups students who had more

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239 cross-cultural friendships had higher scor es than students who had fewer crosscultural friendships. Paired sample t-test of item analysis i ndicate that students responses on items 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 15 of Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale significantly changed on post survey. For all items excep t the item 15 participants scores on the on the post survey increased, how ever for the item 15 (15. In general, men make better leaders than women) participants scores decreased on the post survey (Table 7-6). Paired sample t-test of item analysis i ndicate that students responses on items 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, and 25 of Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale significantly changed on post survey. For all items except the item 18 participants scores on the on the post survey increased, however for the item 18 (18. Multicultural education is most beneficial for students of color) partic ipants scores decreased on the post survey (Table 7-7). Summary of Qualitative Section Drawn from the students responses, interviews, and classroom observations, the following section includes the segments in thei r relation to the larger social and political context drawn from the Personal and Professional Beliefs Scales (Table 7-8). Focusing on the Coretta Scott King Awa rd for African-American writers and author, Pura Belpre Awards for Latina/o wr iters and author, and Mildred Batchelder Award for translated books, in addition to other childrens litera ture awards, students had the opportunity to learn a bout different races and ethnici ties, and to use books written and illustrated by these people for their assignments. Asking students to choose recently published and award-winning books definite ly kept students reading good books, and books that dealt with the multicultural issu es. The focus on a multicultural perspective

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240 provided both instructor a nd students opportunities to di scuss many topics along with their readings. Read alouds and class discussion on thes e books provided the class many opportunities to touch many multicultural issues. Reading novels for their literature circle on the Holocaust, such as Run Boy Run (Orlev, 2003), and Daniel Half Human: And the Good Nazi (Chotjewitz, 2004), the instructors booktalk on Holocau st related picture books, in addition to students selfselected books may have helped develop a deeper understanding of the Holocaust and helped students to develop guidelines and to learn teaching strategies. Reading culturally authentic books and examining books cultural authenticity may have helped the students a deeper understanding of other cultures w ithout getting stereotypical images. Looking the books with their presentation of gender role s may have helped students to realize the current and historical gender inequalities within their society. And throughout the semester reading and responding books for their l iterature circle disc ussions, students had opportunities to reflect upon their ideas and le arn about on the issues of race/ethnicity, gender, social class, language, sexual orientation, abilit y, and religion. Discussion on censorship provided students opp ortunities to learn the issues they might face when they start to their teaching career and provided them a guideline about how to deal with these issues. By focusing on how current educational practices present Eurocentric norms, students had the opportuni ty to learn the impact of these norms on minority groups in a multicultural society. The readings from professional journals and sharing their content in class about storytelling, classroom lib raries, readers theatre, book clubs, home reading, reading workshop, literatur e in the content areas, genre studies, reading logs and journals, and literature circles students learned how to implement a

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241 literature based curriculum with the critique of the current educational practices in the classrooms. And booktalk allowed the instruct or to talk, and sometimes elaborate upon on the issues that students may not touch in their papers. Visiting on a regular basis da ycare homes and interactions with children who were often also a different culture from students provided opportuniti es for students to enhance their knowledge about different cultures, a nd to learn the import ance of providing good books for all children. Listening and respondi ng to books related to sexual orientation, students had the chance to lear n about the issues that they might not know or be exposed in any other classes. To meet the requir ement of accomplished practices students chose topics, which included diversity issues su ch as race ethnicit y (Contemporary Native Americans, Slavery and Underground Ra ilroad, Jazz Music and African American Culture, The Maasai Culture, India Culture Italian Culture, Apache Indians, Mexican American Culture, The Japanese Internment Camp Experience), gender (Chinese Gender Roles, Gender Roles in Islamic Culture), so cial class (Challenges African American Children Face, Orphan Trains, The Great Depression, Homelessness, Child Labor), language (African American women Writers), religion (Children with in the Holocaust), and immigration (Irish Immigration, Ita lian Immigration). Refl ecting upon their own feelings about and experiences with diversity provided students the chance to analyze their backgrounds regarding experiences with different cultures, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, disability or di fference, social class, age, and family structures. Discussion We need to know our students initials be liefs when they enter college classrooms to so that we can prepare them well to t each in todays school classrooms with diverse

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242 students. Teacher education students do not co me to college classrooms with a culturally empty mind; rather, they come from a life fu ll of experiences that has impacted the way they think and behave. This is especially important for education majors, because as Adams, N. G., Shea, C. M., Liston, D. D., and Deever, B. (2006) stated: Education has a unique position among the professional fields. Students majoring in education do not begin to study their fiel d with a blank slate. Instead, preservice teachers enter their programs with a pletho ra of preconceived notions about what it means to be a teacher. Knowing so much about the schooling process can be both an advantage and a disadvantage for preservice teachers. The advantages are obvious in that education majors begin with some knowledge of their chosen profession. The disadvantages emerge as education majors discover, once the perspective of a teacher is gained, that some of their ideas about education, which developed from the vantage point of a student, are erroneous (p.1). Statistical analysis of the data indicates that cross-cultural friendship involvement as demographic variable signifi cantly predicted scores on all the surveys. Also statistical analysis of the data indicates that religi ous affiliations and religious denomination as demographic variables significantly predicted scores on three of the four surveys. Religion and religious denomination are becoming an increasingly dominant force in our society (Salili & H oosain 2006)). Even though statistical results show the significant connections between religion, religious denominati on and survey results, and subgroups of surveys, religious and religious denomination is not the central topic in discussion of multicultural education for scholars (Salili & H oosain, 2006). Salili and Hoosain (2006) state that there is no chapter on religion in the Handbook of Multicultural Education (Banks, 2004), no entry on Dictionary of Multicultural Education (Grant & Ladson-Billings, 1997), and the Encyclopedia of Multicultural Education (Mitchell & Salsbury, 1999) only has an entry on religious freedom. The reason for this absence of discussion might be related to what Clark (2006) referred to as a discomfort with open discussion of Christian privilege in our societ y or its tie with the idea of the melting pot

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243 (Jacoby, 2004). Another perspectiv e on the lack of discussion of religious and religious denomination discussion can be found in the spec ial issue of Equity & Excellence in Education (August 2006, 39(3)), which explores the in teractions of ethnic identity with religious oppression in schools and in soci ety. The editor of the issue, Yoshi (2006) states: Despite the crucial importance of these themes and questions, most writers of academic literature, not to mention the popular culture, consider ethnoreligious oppression as a subset of racism in those cas es in which the religious target is also the target of U.S. racism. The religiou s nature of discrimination is overlooked because the visibility of th e target populations ethnic a nd racial identity permits the presumption that the bias is racial/eth nic nature. Only when a target population is racially white, is religious discri mination (e.g., anti-Semitism against white Ashkenazi Jews, or anti-Catholicism against Ir ish, Italians, or Poles) seen for what it is (p.178) Cross-cultural friendship wa s another variable that si gnaled higher scores on all surveys. Smith, Moallem, and Sherrill (1997), and Garmon (2004) point out the importance of cross-cultural friendship invol vement to develop a greater multicultural awareness. The results of our study confirm those of previous studies. Another interesting result co mes from the analysis of pa rticipants description of the student body at their uni versity. Non-Whites describe d the university body as less culturally diverse, while the White participants descriptions draw a different profile, that of a multiracial environment. The latest availa ble demographic profiles of students at this university are presented in the Table 7-9 and Table 7-10. Both tables draw a White-dominated popul ation of university while many of our students described it as a dive rse environment. Undergraduat es who come from isolated white neighborhood and private, sometimes re ligious schools, face for the first time an environment with students from different nati onalities, ethnicities, and religions that might influence their perceptions of the uni versity as a multiracial, diverse group. Other

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244 students, coming from an environment with high minority populations, might view the university as a white populated institution. White students perspective on the university body can be described as a reflection of hegem ony in larger social context. Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci was the first to put forward the concept of hegemony in his analysis of how those in power are able to wi n the consent of the ma sses and lead them in a direction that is often enti rely against their benefit (O livos, 2006). And Olivos stated, Hegemony is the concealed power the ruli ng class has over the masses to not only convince them that the current system is fair legitimate, and commonsensical, but also to have them support and defend the con tinuation of the status quo (p.30). Another important implication of these stat istical results is the closing gap between students who had lower scores and higher scores on the pre surveys. The effects of race, foreign travel, second language and university body descript ion disappeared on the post surveys. The demographic variable religion had an impact on both pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and Pre Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale but its impact disappeared on Post Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale It is likely that the readings and discussions in th e childrens literature classes along with the attention paid to diversity in other classes during the students first semester in the program, helped the students to change thei r beliefs about diversity as measured by the scale. One of the important results of these statistical analyses points to the multi dimension of multicultural concepts and mu lticultural education in both personal and professional contexts. The st udents responses changed significantly on many items; however these changes reflect the multiple dimensions of these concepts. For example

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245 students scored significantly higher on the post survey regarding the tenth item of the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and the twelfth and the nineteenth items of the Post Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale These are all gender related items. The rest of the gender related items did not cha nge significantly. It can be summarized that these items groups such as race/ethnicity, gender, social class, sexual orientation, language, ability/ability tracking, and multicultu ral & monocultural education need to be considered as multifaceted issues. Even though the mean values and paired ttest scores present significant changes on the participants beliefs regarding the issue of diversity, it is note worthy that the actual number of responses are still important for an educator to be con cerned about, especially in a teacher education context. For example students respons es on the ninth item of the P rofessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Tests, particularly st andardized tests, have frequently been used as a basis for segreg ating students) changed from 146 (53.3%) agree and strongly agree to moved to 180 (65.7 %) agree and strongly agree responses on posttest, still 62 (22.6%) students remained unde cided and 32 (11.7%) reported that they disagreed with this statemen t. Beyond the students respon ses on this race/ethnicity related items, many scholars highlighted the complex nature of th e issue of race. For example Olivos (2006) state: Racism in our country is complex. It is denied by many whites in the United States yet experienced by many nonwhites. It is challenged in the courts by many nonwhites yet it is ignored or denied when witnessed by many whites. It is taboo in the public opinion of many white Americans, yet it is hegemonic in that it is reproduced in the publics psyche without much resistance, in both whites and nonwhites. Moreover, racism is seen as a nasty chapter in our history with examples pointing to the enslavement of Blacks and the genocide of the American Indians, yet it is still an ev eryday way of life in our count ry, a pillar of our social structure and its institutions (p.42).

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246 Other item groups can be analyzed in the same way. On the fourteenth item of the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale (It is more important for immigrants to learn English than to maintain their first language), 91 (33.2%) disagree responses on pretest moved to 97 (35.4%) disagree responses on the posttest and on the sixteenth item of the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Whenever possible, second language learners should receive instruction in their first language until they are proficient enough to learn via English instruction), 138 (50.4 %) agree responses on pretes t moved to 189 (69%) agree responses on posttest, and 85 (31%) responses on posttest were either undecided or disagree with this statement. From a larg er contextual view Olivos writes that: the hidden curriculum of assimilation and cl ass inequalities has become even more camouflaged and distorted in much of the neoconservative buzz on teacher professionalization and school accounta bility. Rather than improving the educational conditions within low-income sc hools, the ideology of this rhetoric has ultimately served to distance and obstruct the capacity of teachers to recognize and critically engage with bicultural parent s, as both fellow workers and community members. This separation reinforces hier archical relations of power within public school districts and the imposition of exclusionary knowledge, worldview, and language practices on both bicultural children and their parents (p.x). Therefore in addition to stude nts experiences in childrens literature classes and other classes with multicultural themes, the eff ect of the larger societal, political context of education should be taken into considerati on when we evaluate th e students responses beyond their numerical, written and person to person responses. In her study Pohan (1994, 1998) found that i ndividuals having taken two or more courses with a multicultural theme or content were significantly different than individuals having taken one course or no multicultural course work regarding their survey scores. I did not found any significant differences between these groups in my study. In this study, the participants indicated that 18% of them had taken 0-1 courses related to multicultural themes, 56% of them had taken 2-3 classes, and 20% of them had taken 4 or more

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247 courses with multicultural themes. On the other side 86% of the respondents were juniors, 10% senior, 4% sophomores, The pa rticipants perceptions of courses with multicultural themes might be the result of these different numbers or many of the participants might have put th e their current courses into this category while some did not. Therefore different multicultural course ex perience did not affect their scores on the scales. It is important to note that during the same semest er as they were taking the childrens literature class; the students al so took three other c ourses that touched on diversity issues. It can be drawn from the table 7-8 that l iterature circles, book talks, read aloud and cultural identity assignment related to almost all the issues of diversity. Klassen-Endrizzi and Ruiz (1995) searched how pres ervice teachers construct a multicultural orientation thr ough childrens literature. Th ey found that their students referred to literature circles as the single most powerful cour se experience that promoted change in their multicultural understanding. And they stated More than presenting lectures or leading class discussions on the purpose and content of multicultural education, teacher educators need to create curricular opportunities for classroom teachers to experience and live th e process of an education that is multicultural (p.129). Not only the literature circles themselves, but al so the carefully selected novels in their relation to diversity issues and a framework of reader re sponse and cri tical literacy, helped the students bring these issues and their personal conn ections into their discussion. Many scholars in the field of multicultural education have analyzed cultural identity, identity development and their impor tance in an educational context. Jackson (1995) stated, preservice teachers must firs t confront themselves-their own views of

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248 others and the world. They must also engage in critical reflecti on about difference in terms of journeying to selfhood (p.42). In search of cultural identity, Banks (2006) explained that planning multicultural experiences for students and teachers requires thinking about the cultural characteristics of in dividuals. He describes a six-stage cultural identity development. These stages are: Cultural Psychological Captivity Cultural Encapsulation Cultural Identity Clarification Biculturalism Multiculturalism and Reflective Nationalism Globalism and Competency Hardiman, R and Jackson B. W. (1992) explained how understanding the racial identity development process of Black and White Americans assists educators in making informed responses to challenging racial dyn amics on college classrooms. They used five stages of racial identity development model. These stages are namely; Naive, Acceptance (Passive-Active), Resistance (Passive-Activ e), Redefinition, and In ternalization. They suggested that faculty and ad ministrators respond include; It should be our goal, as edu cators to facilitate developmen t in students, not stifle it or hide from it. As faculty and staff, we should look at th ese stages in the lig ht of our own life experiences. We should not be surprised by the wa ys in which our students interact. We should understand broad differences in social identity perspective. Similarly, Noel (2000) described the cu ltural and ethnic identity throughout a lifetime span: This span include:

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249 Unexamined identity Search for identity Construction of identity based on devaluation of others Clarified identity Expanded sense of identity Use of clarified identity to ach ieve societal change (p.145-168). As many scholars pointed out, it is important to recognize that i ndividuals within these different stages should be exposed to curricular experiences consistent with their levels of cultural identity (Banks, 2006). In our students responses it is clear that many reflect different stages of identity development. Even more advanced stages can be found in their responses, still a critical number of responses indicate what Noel (2000) refers the unexamined identity. Noel (2000) explained that many individuals are unaw are of their own raci al identity in the unexamined stage. He stated, They do not thi nk of themselves as White but rather as normal. They will tend to view racism as individual acts of meanness rather than as an institutionalized system. They will typically not recognize or acknowledge white privilege (p.148). And moreover Sleeter (1992) stated that people who have unexamined identities will tend to see multicultural educati on as irrelevant. It may related to students responses on the survey item that the statis tical analysis reflects the negative changes on the eighteenth item of Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale Multicultural education is most beneficial for students of color, 210 (76.6%) disagree responses on pretest dropped to 186 (67.9) di sagree responses on posttest. The booktalks were powerful strategy for introducing multicultural childrens literature to support students efforts to c onstruct a knowledge base for working with

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250 children from diverse backgrounds The instructor had an oppor tunity to introduce and to guide students on the issues of diversity through childrens books. The differences between self-selected reading books and a ssigned reading books made the booktalks more important. The critical examination of students book selections on self-selected readings indicates that they did not tend to choose books that present diversity issues or controversial subjects. Many scholars anal yzed students resistance to multicultural issues and how they distance themselves fr om controversial topics. For example Apol, Sakuma, Reynolds, and Pope ( 2003) explored a group of pres ervice teachers responses to a set of picture books related to American -Japanese conflict in World War II. They concluded the following about th eir effort to teach critical reading in an undergraduate childrens literature course. Some of their students resistance included: moving their initial peda gogical preoccupations, seei ng literature response as synonymous with moral or cross-curricular lessons. thinking critically about the ideol ogy and perspectives in a text. talking about troubling issues of ideology in connecti on with war, opting instead to create happy endings to stories, to focu s on less troubling parts of the text, or to choose texts that did not raise c ontroversial or upsetting issues. imagining that children could think about and respond to literature in complex ways. a critical resistance toward U.S actions (p.454-457). These findings are quite similar to thos e found in the present study. For example the students interview responses asking for their suggestion for the class brought out the issues of resistance, and discomfort with the multicultural focus on class content. One student stated On our book Essential before I wouldnt realize, but now on the cover the boy is African American. Another students comment on the instructors approach was, Little bit honestly, sh e was little bit hard to expose th em. In some point I thought I have

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251 no culture. I dont think it was in tended. A similar response fr om another student was, I was afraid at first for this semester. B ecause we were ignored, you know because of middle white class background. I grew-up in a white environment and I did not have any stereotypes about other cultu res. But here you cannot forc e people; you cannot change them. They have to come up with their own. A nd in this class, I felt you were appreciated if you have friends from othe r cultures. The stud ents responses also reflected their narrow views on these issues. One student stat ed, We learned them but we do not expect children to know different analysis Read aloud was one of the central activitie s over the semester in this childrens literature class. The students in this class were given a chance to see models of read alouds for their future classes as well as to see the applications of reader response and critical literacies during r ead aloud. For example the class had discussions on different topics after reading aloud of the following books; Bat Boy and His Violin (Curtis, 2001); Race/Ethnicity, Fishing Day (Pinkney, 2003); Gender and Social Class, Daddys Roommate (Willhoite, 1991); Sexual Orientation, Pink and Say (Polacco, 1994); Language, Encounter (Yolen, 1996); Immigration, Something From Nothing (Gilman, 1993); Religion, and I Love My Hair (Tarpley, 1998); Multic ultural & Monocultural Education. The focus on the reader response th eory let the student bring their personal connections with the issues presented in their books, and it was a model for students future classrooms. Student interview responses on changes of their belief throughout the semester reflected positive comments. These comments in clude such as I am definitely more aware of other races and ethnici ties; I realized that all the books; I had read were written

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252 by whites; I am now more aware about divers ity; We are now more knowledgeable and I think I became more tolerant, more knowle dgeable about how many books are out there about different topics. Overall Evaluation of Personal and Profe ssional Beliefs about Diversity Scales Table 7-11 presents the correlations between pre and post survey results, and mean values of each survey. The table shows th e strong correlations between pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale r (274) = .78 p < .01, and the strong correlation between pre and post Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale r (274) = .53. Also strong correlations can be seen between pre Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and pre Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scales r (274) = .52, p< .01, and strong correlations between post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and Post Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale r (274) = .57, p< .01. One of th e important implications of these statistical results is the critical connection between personal and professional beliefs. The results from the paired sample t-te st indicate that there are significant differences between pre and post Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale in the Personal Belief About Diversity Scale t (df= 273)= 6.243, p< .05, in the Professional Beliefs A bout Diversity Scale t (df= 273)= -7.931, p< .05. The mean values indicate that the student s scored significantly higher on post Scales (M (PostPersonal Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 60.240, M (PostProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 98.996) than pre Scales (M (PrePersonal Belief About Diversity Scale )= 58.562, M (PreProfessional Beliefs About Diversity Scale )= 94.967). Pohan and Aguilar (2001) explain the notion of the Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scales two dimensions, that there might be a situation in which

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253 ones personal beliefs about give n issue could be in direct co nflict with his/her beliefs in a professional context(p.160). For example, in a personal c ontext, a preservice teacher believe that being bilingual is an advantag e for a teacher in our increasingly diverse society, but same preservice teacher might be against the bilingual education in schooling as professional context. Therefore it is critical the relationshi p between personal and professional beliefs. My analysis indicates a linear relatio nship between personal and professional beliefs that can be concluded as a persons personal beliefs reflec t his/her professional beliefs. Even though the significant statistical results between pre and post surveys, we should aware of the possible highest scores were 75 for Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and 125 for Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale If we put these results in a five point scale as students rated survey items on the pre and post test we can see that all mean scores would be around f our on the five point scale ( Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale 1= 15, 2=30, 3=45, 4=60, and 5=75, and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale 1=25, 2=50, 3=75, 4=100, and 5=125). The students interview responses on surv eys reflect the importance of larger context such as, When I did this survey I think a second time, I did notice a lot difference. But not only because of this cla ss, I think the whole semester, all classes, volunteering staff. Another students commen t on the survey supported what I found in this study, I think people who have not expe rienced these issues, might change more. Basically I was already open-minded. It was helpful for those who had no experiences with diversity.

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254 Table 6-40 presents the cla ssification of par ticipants scores changes on both scales using the following criteria: + = positive changes = negative changes 0 = no changes The followings can be summarized from the table 6-40: One hundred and twenty one participants (44.2 %) scores on both scales were increased (Line 1) One hundred and forty two participants (51.9%) had positive changes in their scores without any negative cha nges on any scales (Line 1+2+3). Two hundred and forty-two participants (84.7%) had positive changes in their scores at least on one of the sc ales (Line 1+ 2+ 3+ 4+ 5). One hundred and thirty one participants (47.7%) had negative changes in their scores on at least one of th e scales (Line 4+5+6+7+9). Thirty participants (10.9 %) had negative changes on both scores on both scales (Line 9). I have found that solely usi ng the overall statistical da ta can leave the impression that all students' attitudes changed for th e better when they did not (Table 6-40). Therefore we need to look beyond the ove rall results to unders tand the changes, especially changes in attitudes and beliefs. C onfidentiality of ident ities did not allow me to further analyze the changes in a negative direction or to examine the assignments of individuals, and other related data sources to see what happe ned with individual cases in this study. Also there is no guarantee that all of the students gave their true feelings when they filled out the forms at the end of the semester.

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255 Implications and Suggestions Nespor (1987) stated that, beliefs ar e far more influential than knowledge in determining how individuals organize and define tasks and problems and are stronger predictor of behavior (p.311). In order to develop a better understanding of preservice teachers beliefs much more re search needs to take place. Several recommendations that can be made from this study for future resear ch includes both qualita tive and quantitative studies: The clear impact of cross-cultural frie ndship involvement on all surveys gives the direction that we should l ook at the ways to increase our students cross cultural friendship involvement. In the educational context we need to organize programs, projects, especially to involve preservice teachers to gain involvement, understanding and appreciation of persons of different cultures. We need to analyze the source of religi ous beliefs and their impact on education. The significant differences be tween liberal and conservative groups in terms of their scores on the surveys, means that we have to find a way to envision and enlighten the conservative students so that they can em brace and educate all children for successful multicultural education and social justice. The lack of research on the impact of religious denominations on beliefs about diversity issues make the issue of re ligion more critical for future researchers. In teacher education context, we ne ed to place courses with focuses on multicultural themes in the early years of teacher education programs. These courses might help students to close the gap in terms of understanding multicultural issues within their peers, but also provide them a lens to look at the issues fo r the rest of their experiences in teacher education programs.

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256 The issues in multicultural education cannot be viewed from a si ngle point of view. The issues of race/ethnicity, social class, ge nder, religion, sexual or ientation, and others should be viewed from multi perspectives. In teacher education programs these concepts should be clearly defined in terms of their e ducational implications and larger societal context. It is also clear that pers onal and professional beliefs are strongly correlated. Therefore we have to consider the both side s of the beliefs if we intend to make any chances in the beliefs. We need to look at our students personal li fe experiences as well as their professional involvement with educa tion related activities to prepare them as teachers of our future.

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257 Table 7-1. Pearson chi-square results matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gender Age .009 Race .070 .130 Class standing .961 .000 .246 Multicultural course .287 .061 .361 .071 Foreign Travel .989 .431 .141 .718 .320 Inner city experience .485 .649 .099 .200 .028 .002 Student body description .817 .951 .007 .334 .623 .597 .482 Religious affiliations .667 .145 .187 .755 .437 .037 .351 .482 Religious denomination. .006 .230 .336 .721 .280 .304 .458 .246 .000 Second language .093 .132 .000 .608 .577 .477 .954 .343 .406 .115 Cross-cultural friendship .111 .395 .000 .410 .222 .132 .033 .056 .274 .054 .000 Table 7-2. Demographics beliefs scales relations (t-tests) Personal beliefs scale Professional belief scale Demographic profile Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test Gender (male, female) .947 .278 .187 .411 Race (white, non-white) .028 .283 .014 .245 Foreign travel (yes, no) .028 .056 .245 .643 Inner city experience (yes, no) .161 .019 .234 .549 Religious denomination (liberal, conservative) .000 .000 .002 .093 Second language (yes, no) .009 .062 .003 .084 Cross-cultural friendship (some, much) .000 .020 .000 .005

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258 Table 7-3. Demographics beliefs scales relations (One-way ANOVA) Personal beliefs scale Professional belief scale Demographic profile Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test Age (19,20,21,22,23,24+) .630 .128 .517 .321 Class standing (junior, senior, sophomore) .652 .589 .130 .895 Multicultural courses (0-1, 2-3, 4+) .628 .377 .537 .439 Student body (one, two, many) .249 .171 .014 .421 Religion (Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, Other) .010 .040 .003 .237 Table 7-4. Demographics-personal beliefs scale item groups relations Pre personal beliefs scale Post personal beliefs scale t-test ANOVA t-test ANOVA Gender Gender Race Language, immigration, Language, immigration, ability Class standing Language Inner city experience Gender, sexual orientation Foreign travel Sexual orientation, language Student body Language Language Religion Gender, sexual orientation Gender, sexual orientation Religious denomination. Race, social class, sexual orientation, language, immigration Gender, Sexual orientation, Cross-cultural friendship Race, gender, sexual orientation, language, ability Race, sexual orientation, language,

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259 Table 7-5. Demographics-professional beliefs scale item groups relations Pre professional beliefs scale Post professional beliefs scale t-test ANOVA t-test ANOVA Gender Sexual orientation Sexual orientation Race Race, language, multi/mono edu. Multi/mono edu. Class Standing Ability Student body Language, multi/mono edu. Religion Race, sexual orientation, religion Sexual orientation, gender Religious denomination Race, sexual orientation, language, multi/mono edu. Sexual orientation Crosscultural friendship Race, language, sexual orientation, religion, multi/mono edu. Race, language, sexual orientation, gender, multi/mono edu. Table 7-6. Summary of paired t test for differences personal beliefs scale items Pairs Pretest mean Posttest mean Item group t p -value 1 4.5730 4.7117 Race/ethnicity -3.452 .001 5 3.4270 3.7336 Sexual orientation -5.045 .000 6 3.6496 3.9599 Social class -5.276 .000 7 4.3832 4.6277 Race/ethnicity -5.943 .000 10 2.3248 2.7007 Gender -5.973 .000 12 3.7080 3.9197 Sexual orientation -4.295 .000 13 3.7737 3.9854 Sexual orientation -3.311 .001 14 2.8650 3.0255 Language -2.620 .009 15 4.3248 4.1934 Gender 2.981 .003

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260 Table 7-7. Paired t test for differenc es professional beliefs scale items Pairs Pretest mean Posttest mean Item groups T p -value 2 3.5365 3.9854 Social class -8.601 .000 5 4.2920 4.4124 Ability -2.923 .004 9 3.3832 3.6861 Ability -4.676 .000 10 3.0985 3.6715 Race/ethnicity -8.437 .000 11 4.0401 4.3285 Ability -5.338 .000 12 3.0803 3.3029 Gender -3.484 .001 15 3.7628 3.9453 Multi/mono. edu. -2.936 .004 16 3.4489 3.7263 Language -4.388 .000 18 3.8540 3.6898 Multi/mono edu. 2.188 .030 19 3.6350 3.7774 Gender -2.213 .028 20 3.2701 3.9672 Race/ethnicity -11.047 .000 22 3.7190 3.9854 Social class -4.523 .000 25 3.5511 3.7518 Multi/mono edu. -3.022 .003

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261 Table 7-8. Segments from qualitative gr oups and the context of diversity Context Focus/topics Segments Race/ethnicit y Gende r Social class Sexual orientation Lan g ua g e Ability & ability track Immi g ratio n Reli g ion Multi & mono education How to find good books & childrens literature awards + + + Why a multicultural perspective + + + Seating arrangements + + + + Course introduction (Introduction to childrens literature) Read aloud +++ + + + + + + Holocaust literature + + + + Cultural authenticity + + + + Gender + + + + + Assigned readings (Illustrator study, realistic fiction, historical fiction, and multicultural literature) Literature circles +++ + + + + + + Censorship + + Disneyfied and Eurocentric folk books ++ + + + Literature based curriculum + + Self selected readings (Modern fantasy, traditional literature, and nonfiction literature) Booktalk +++ + + + + + Project Booktalk + + + + Response to special topic books + + + + Unified assessment system +++ + + + + Special topics (Project Booktalk, responses to special topic books, UAS assignments, cultural identity papers) Cultural identity +++ + + + + + +

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262 Table 7-9. 2005 Ethnicity and gender of st udent enrollment at the university Ethnicity Female Male Total White 17,791 15,771 33,562 Hispanic 2,983 2,502 5,485 Black 2,361 1,403 3,764 Asian 1,868 1,629 3,497 Non-resident Alien 1,121 1,836 2,957 Not reported 530 552 1,082 American Indian 98 67 165 Total 26,752 23,760 50,512 Table 7-10. 2005 ethnicity of student enro llment at the college of education Ethnicity Number of Students White 1484 African-American 121 Hispanic 150 Other 143 Total 1898 Table 7-11. Correlation results and mean values of the surveys Quantitative groups Qualitative sample Correlations of quantitative group (Pre-post personal and pre-post professional scales) Correlations of quantitative group (Pre personal and professional and post personal and professional scales Pre Post Pre Post r Sig. (0.01 level) r Sig. (0.01 level) N 274 274 31 31 Personal beliefs scale Mean 58. 562 60.240 59.6250 60.7419 .779 .000 .524 .000 N 274 274 32 31 Professional beliefs scale Mean 94.967 98.996 95.4688 98.2903 .534 .000 .574 .000

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263 Table 7-12. Classification of scores differences Line Personal beliefs scale Professiona l beliefs scale Number of students 1 + + 121 (44.2%) 2 0 + 15 (5.5%) 3 + 0 6 (2.2%) 4 + 42 (15.3%) 5 + 48 (17.5%) 6 0 6 (2.2%) 7 0 5 (1.8%) 8 0 0 1 (.4%) 9 30 (10.9%)

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264 APPENDIX A THE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL B ELIEFS ABOUT DIVERSITY SCALES

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271 The scales are copyrighted and printed with permission of authors. Anyone wanting to use them should contact the first author directly. Cathy A. Pohan, Ph.D. Professor of Teache r Education, Dept. of Teacher Education Texas A & M University Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Blvd., Corpus Christi, TX 78412 (361) 825-2860 (361) 825-6076 (fax)

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273 APPENDIX B INSTITUTIONAL RVEVIEW BOARD FORMS

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276 APPENDIX C SYLLABUS FOR LAE 3005 (SECTION 6712) CHILDRENS LITERATURE FALL, 2005 Class : Tuesday, Periods 5-7 (11:45 2:45) Room: 2309 Norman Hall Instructor : Dr. Linda Leonard Lamme Office : 2209 Norman Hall Office Phone : 392-9191 x 251 Email : lammel@coe.ufl.edu Office Hours : Period 8&9 on Mon. and 3&4 on Tu es. or by E-mail or appointment Course Purpose : Welcome to this course on childrens literatur e! The purpose of this course is to provide you with the theoretical knowledge and practical experience for designing an elementary school curriculum for a classroom where inst ruction is based on ch ildrens literature and for cultivating a love of reading. Literature is an authentic resource that can be the foundation of a literacy (reading, writing, sp eaking, listening, and viewing) program, as well as a major resource for other curriculum areas. In this course, with a genre approach to literature study and a focus on social just ice themes, you will learn how to select high quality childrens literature that can serv e classrooms with dive rse student populations. You will learn how to plan for a literature studies curriculum and how to assess your own and childrens analytical responses to literature. Course Objectives: 1.You will grow in your capab ility to critically re ad, analyze, and respond to literature. 2.You will demonstrate your ability to select high quality curr ent, multicultural literature in a wide variety of genres to share with children. 3.You will demonstrate your understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of a critical reader response approach to analyzing and teaching literature. 4.You will use a wide variety of print and Inte rnet resources to find out information about childrens books, authors, illustrators, and curriculum applications. Primary Methods of Instruction: The methods of instruction in this course will be lecture and di scussion, small group discussion, individual inquiry assign ments and cooperative learning. Required Readings & Materials: Books are at Wild Iris Books on the corn er of University Avenue and NW 8th Street. Parking is in the rear.

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277 1. Tomlinson, C. & Lynch Brown, C. (2005). Essentials of Childrens Literature (5th Ed). Boston: Allyn &Bacon. 2. McLaughlin, M. & DeVoogn, G. (2004). Critical Literacy: Enhancing Students Comprehension of Text. New York: Scholastic. 2. Three novels selected during the first class; also available at Wild Iris Books. 3. Professional articles that will be provided or assi gned during the semester. 4. A 3-ring notebook (One-inch is fine) that will adequately house your assignments. Put your name on the binder and attach a pi cture of yourself on the inside of the cover. You will receive this notebook back at the end of the semester. Questions guiding our inquiries into the world of childrens literature : The quality of the book, authors, and illustrators : What makes quality literature in each? What are the literary elements for each genre? Who are outstanding authors and i llustrators in each genre? What artistic media are used to illustrate childrens books? How do the artistic elements impact the cont ribution of illustrations to the overall quality of the book? What awards are given to childrens book authors and illustrators and why? What resources exist to find quality literature to support the curriculum? The social justice perspective: What ideological assumptions are uncovere d through an in depth analysis of the literature? How do author/illustrator intentions and read er assumptions influence readings of and responses to literature? Whose perspective is given in the book? What other perspectives are there? Who is in a position of power, and who takes direction? What subtle stereotypes ar e portrayed in the book? The theories : How can teachers help students generate high levels of res ponse to literature? How can teachers help students to critically analyze literature? What is the difference between e fferent and aesthetic reading? What is the difference between a comprehensio n model, a reader response model, and a critical theory response mode l of reading instruction? What is a transactional theory of reading? The curriculum: What is a literature studies curriculum and how does it operat e in a classroom? What is a literature in the content area s curriculum, and how does it operate in a classroom? How can literature be used to build read ing, writing, speaking, viewing, and thinking skills, and how can teachers get students to think about literature like writers and literary critics?

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278 How can teachers conduct effective book discus sions encompassing literary elements for each genre as well as critical social issues? How can childrens literature suppo rt a social justice curriculum? Students with Disabilities: Students requesting classroom accommodation must first regi ster with the Dean of Students Office. The Dean of Students Offi ce will provide documentation to the student who must then provide this documentation when requesting accommodation. If you have a need for accommodations due to disabilities, please meet with me during office hours. Class Attendance and Participation: Class attendance and particip ation are important elements in your learning. Absence diminishes the quality of this class for ot hers; therefore full attendance and punctuality are requested for all scheduled classes. Please turn cell phones off during class. Attendance means being present in class with class assignments ready to turn in and with your textbooks sticky noted or highlig hted or with accompanying notes on the chapters due. You must actively participate in disc ussions. If you attend a class but are not completely prepared, or if you arrive in class after attenda nce is taken, deduct 1 point One absence for an emergency will be allowed, but deduct 4 points for every class session you miss beyond the one that can be excused. So remember Absences will affect your final grade Be prepared for class Bring assigned writings to the class a nd finish reading assignments before the class Actively participate in class discussion and activities Maintain a professional attitude toward others at all times Complete homework assignments a nd writing projects by due dates. Turn cell phones off during class. Course Assignments: Reading Assignments Each week you will read chap ter(s) from the textbooks to prepare you for the weeks assignment that will include reading childre ns books, responding to them and designing curricular connections. There will be a quiz on the chapter readings each class period. For 3 classes you will read novels that you sign up for on the first day of class. For other classes you will select your own books to r ead either from the library in 2215E, the public library at 401 E. University Avenue (o r a branch library), or your school library. The librarians, especially Be and Debbie, at the downtown library, are very good in helping you find good books to read. Unless othe rwise designated in the syllabus, please confine your selections to recently published books (1999-2005) that are either on award lists or by award-winning authors. Use the Childrens Literature

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279 Comprehensive Database (in our library online and at th e public library) to verify your selections. (At ufl.edu click on libraries, then databases, wr ite child and it will come up.) Another website with reliable informa tion about books and authors is at : http://www.dawcl.com/ Professional Reading Assignments You will have a quiz each week on the textbook readings. Each quiz is worth 2 points toward your final point accumulation (grade). Bring your textbooks to class on the days the reading assignments are due and be prepared for discussion or a test high light, sticky note, or take notes on the readings so that you are prepar ed for class discussions. For reading assignments that involve reading professional articles, use the following publications in the Education Library: Language Arts, Journal of Childrens Literature, The Reading Teacher, Dragon Lode, Childrens Literature in Education, The New Advocate, Florida Reading Quarterly. Writing Assignments On most weeks you will have a written assignment that is worth For each genre that you read, you will co mplete a written assignment, with bibliographic information in APA style Myers, Walter Dean (2003). Blues Journey. Ill. Christopher Myers. New York: Holiday House. (author, year, title, illustrator if any, place of publication, publisher) Check http://www.library.uq.edu.au/tr aining/citation/apa.html for APA style. Please note that all papers written for this class need to be typed, double-spaced with 12-point type and three-hole punched. Plan ahead for computer glitches. At the top of each paper include your name, e-mail address, the title of the assignment, and the date it is due. If you use more than one page of paper for an assignment, number the pages Assignments need to be turned in dur ing class on the day they are assigned Deduct one point for each day (not cla ss meeting) an assignment is late. If you are not in class, e-mail the assi gnment on the day it is due. Remember that copying 3 words together from any source is plagiarism and will result in standard University penalties (ie removal from course and a failing grade. All written assignments must be typed double-spaced with 12-point type and 1 margins. All written assignments must have your name, e-mail address and date in the upper-right hand corner of your paper and the assignment title in the top center of the paper The length of the paper is specified with each assignment. If the assignment says 2 pages, this means two full pa ges. Please number the pages.

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280 Course Schedule and Assignments (Due on Date Listed) August 30: Course Introduction Pre-assessments Signups for books that you will read during the semester Syllabus explanation Introduction to the field of childrens literature Project Booktalk Orientation September 6: Reading Identity and Cultural Identity Read: Essentials Chapter 1, pages 2 23 Critical Literacy Chapter 3, pages 61-72 Written Assignment Part 1 Readers Autobiography : Write autobiographical pa per on your life history with regard to reading. Think about your development as a read er. You might interview your family members on your early r eading experiences and reflec t upon your life as a reader inside and outside of school environments. Try to remember any favorite books. Find at least one book that you can remember enjoying as a child in a school or public library and bring it to class. Mention teachers throughout your schooling who fostered a love of reading and those who did not and why. Discuss the strategies that helped you become an avid reader or discouraged avid reading. Explain why you are the reader or non-reader that you are today. Past 2: Cultural Identity : Think about the cultural pr actices you may assume are normal and may not even pay attention t o. Honestly confront your thoughts regarding diversity. As a public school teacher you will teach children from many different kinds of families and from diverse national origin s and social class. Reflect upon your own feelings about and experiences with divers ity. Specifically examine encounters you have had with individuals of different Culture (foreign countries) Ethnicity (African American, Asian American, Latina/o, Native American) Regional backgrounds (southern, Midw estern, northern, western, etc.) Religion (Christian, Muslim, Judaism, Atheism, Agnostic, Wicca, Hindu, Amish, etc.) Gender (boys, girls) Sexual orientation and gender identity (les bians, gay men, transgender, bisexual, intersexual) Disability or difference (physical, me ntal, height, weight glasses, etc.) Social class (wealthy, middleclass, poverty, low income) Age (elderly, infants, toddlers, teenagers, etc.)

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281 Family structure (divorce, adoption, same gender parents, single parent, family member in prison, extended families, bira cial, etc. and your reactions and comfort in these interactions. You may also wa nt to bring notes for the discussion. September 13: Informational Books Read (and sticky note): Essentials, Chapter 9, pages 163-171 Critical Literacy, pages 4-26 (What is Critical Literacy?) And 35 40 Find an award-winning nonfiction informationa l book on a topic that interests you. Dont be tricked -some of these awards are for both fiction and nonfiction. Be sure your book says Juvenile Literature on th e verso page. (Not a biography) Orbis Pictus (website: http://www.ncte.org/elem/pictus/ ) Coretta Scott King nonfiction winner (ala.org) Pure Belpre nonfiction winner (ala.org) National Science Teachers Association Award (nsta.org) (not all are nonfiction) National Council of Social Studies Award (ncss.org) (not all are nonfiction) Find a quality website on the Internet to find more information about the topic (bring website to class). Written Assignment: Write about the book you select ed responding to these four evaluation components (bullets are fine if you have lists). 1. APA bibliographic information. 2. Assess the quality of the format items (such as Table of Contents, Glossary, Illustrations, Charts, Graphs, Maps, Documentation, quality of writing) 3. Content issues (accurate? How do you know?) (Use website information) 4. How the book meets the criteria from page 167-168 in Essentials. 5. Use the Alternative Pe rspectives strategy w ith the book you read. ( Critical Literacy p. 39-40) 6. Explain why you think this book won the awards and how you might use them (and website information) in an elementary school curriculum. Find another non-award winning book on the same topic and compare (briefly) September 20: Multicultural a nd International Literature Read: Essentials, Chapter 10, pages 184-211: Multicultural and International Literature Read Critical Literacy, pages 89-119. Exploring Identities Read the multicultural novel for which you signe d up on the first day of class. Sticky note pages to which you want to refer in your written paper and in class discussion. Write a personal and analytical response to the book that includes: 1. Bibliographic information. 2. Information about the author and ho w and why the author wrote the book. 3. A very brief personal response ( how you connected to the book). 4. Analytical and critical comments (use Internet or other books) 5. Curricular ideas regarding the book September 27: Poetry Project Pairs and Book selections due (See directions for Nov. 19)

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282 Read: Essentials Chapter 3 on Poetry and Plays Critical Literacy, pages 26-33 Ideology and Becoming Critically Literate Read one narrative poem book and one non-narrative poem book by a poet you think is good for children (NOT Shel Silverstein or Ja ck Prelutsky) and m eets the criteria for good poetry in your textbook. Individually or with others, plan a very short oral reading/poetry performance of that poem or a section of your narrative poem or bring in a video of children performing the poem. Be sure to bring both books to class. Written Assignment For each poem (lyrical and narrative) write examples from the poem to demonstrate why the poem is poetic (ie elements of poetry tell how you might encourage children to share the poems October 4: Rosh Hashanah; Feast of Ramadan: No Class Meeting Read books for your UAS assignment on diversity. (See Nov. 20) October 11: Picture Books Read: Essentials Chapters 2 (Learning about B ooks) and 4 (Picture Books) Critical Literacy pages 73-77 and 124-128 Find at least three picture books by the illustrato r you selected from a list distributed in class for study. Make sure you have at le ast two books that are recently published. Written Assignment Complete an illustrator report handout for each student in the class, on the illustrator you chose to research. Research the illustrato r on the Internet and in Reference Books (librarians are very helpful) to find out what motivates this artists work and how the artist creates the illustrations. Use the info rmation in your textbooks to find out how to present illustrator art information (ie art tec hnique, media, style, etc.) Create a handout for all class members containing illustrator a nd art information with a bibliography of the books you selected to share. Be sure to br ing the books to class fo r your oral report on your illustrator. Notice this assignment is worth more points than the regular weekly assignments (10 points). October 18: Realistic Fiction Read: Essentials Chapter 7on Realistic Fiction. Critical Literacy pages 47-58 and 7787 Assignment: Read a realistic fiction novel that you signed up to read on the first day of class. Bring your book, sticky noted with personal and critical responses, to class to meet with others who read the same book. Look up the author to determine the authors background for writing the book. In class you will share information on the book and how it met the criteria for good realistic fiction. Written Assignment

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283 Write a personal and critical/analytical respon se to the book. In other words, explain how you connected to the book (bri efly) and how the book meets the criteria for good realistic fiction. October 25: Traditional Literature Read: Essentials Chapter 5 on Traditional Literature Critical Literacy pages 41 46 Read two different kinds of folk literature from two different cultures. Note the impact of the setting and culture of the folktale on the story. Note the different style of folk literature as a storytelling vehi cle. Be prepared to read or tell one of your stories to a group of classmates. Written Assignment (for children or adults) Identify folktale elements that are germane to the culture of the setting of each folktale. Consider cultural elements such as la nguage, clothing, housing, education, religion, government, music, art, food, celebrations, a nd any other aspects of culture that are evident. November 1: Historical Fiction Written Assignment due by e-mail; discussion on November 7 Read: Essentials Chapter 8 on Historical Fiction C ritical Literacy pages 135 139 Read the Historical Fiction book you selected at the beginning of the semester. Look up information on the era on the accurate Internet or in another book about the same era. Write a brief personal and critical/analytical response to the book you chose to read. Include the historical information you learned about the era from your information search and how accurately the time period is portrayed in your book. Be sure to incorporate the criteria fo r quality historical fiction in your analysis. Include bibliographic information fo r your historical source and your novel. Class Presentation : Sticky note your book and bring it to class to discuss in a literature circle and then present to the rest of the class. Be sure your presentation includes criteria for historical fiction from your textbook. November 8: Modern Fantasy Read: Essentials Chapter 6 on Modern Fantasy Critical Literacy pages 119-124 Read a fantasy novel, or two picture books suita ble for elementary grades. Be sure to sticky note the book with your personal and cr itical responses and questions. Bring the sticky notes to class in the book. Recommended Fantasy Authors Ursula LeGuin, Philip Pullman, Lloyd Al exander, Susan Cooper, Bruce Coville, Madeleine L'Engle, Lois Lowry (The Giver), Sylvia Waugh (Space Race), Edward Eager (Half Magic Series), Patricia Wrede (Dragon series) Write a personal and analytical response to the book(s) you re ad, including:

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284 Class Assignment Bring a blank piece of paper to class with the bibliographic information from your book(s) on the top, the type of fantasy, and info rmation about the author. Leave the rest of the paper blank. November 15: A Literature Curriculum Read : Essentials, Chapters 11 and 12 on Developi ng Teaching Strategies & Curriculum Find and Read an article ( not a Teaching Ideas piece in RT) in one of the following professional journals about a teacher who teach es with literature in the classroom using one of the following techniques. These journa ls are in the Education Library or you may borrow my copies in class: Journal of Childrens Literature, Dragon Lode, The New Advocate, The Reading Teacher, Childrens Literature in Education, or Language Arts (Home reading programs, Readers Theatre or Drama, Classroom libraries, Genre studies, Literature circles, Storytelling, Book clubs, Reading logs or journals, Reading workshop, Literature in the content areas) Write a one-page summary of the article: what exactly is the pro cedure and why does it work? Bring to class Your article and notes. November 22: Literature Project Due Due: No Class NCTE EAS Literature Project: To pass this course, you must successf ully complete this key task with a rating of met or met with weakness. Th ere are no exceptions to this rule. If the work receives a rating of not met in regard s to the accomplished practices, it will either have to be revised or you will receive a failing grade. This Key Task is for demonstrating competence in the following State required Accomplished Practices: 4.1 The educator knows and identifies stra tegies, materials, and technologies to develop all PreK-12 students creative and critical thinking. 4.2 The educator designs activities that de velop all PreK-12 students critical and creative thinking. 5.2 The educator demonstrates a repertoire of teaching techniques and strategies, including materials selection, to effec tively instruct all PreK-12 students. 5.3 The educator shows sensitivity, accepta nce, and value of all PreK-12 students from diverse backgrounds (race, ethnicity, ge nder, socioeconomic status, language, and special needs). Objectives : To become a more critically analytical reader and to develop competence in professional inquiry. To demonstrate mastery of the knowledge, ski lls, and dispositions of the Accomplished Practices required of all en try-level educators by th e State of Florida. Project Description : You and a partner will conduct an inquiry on a topic of diversity in childrens literature that you wa nt to learn more about. Sele ct a culture or place other than your own and seek out books of award-wi nning quality (CLCD) th at display cultural aspects of the place. Use the Internet a nd/or interview someone of the culture to

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285 determine if the cultural depictions are accu rate and not sensationa lized. You must clear your topic with me by September 27. Directions : With a partner (or alone): Find two published articles each related to your topic. You and your partner will choose different ar ticles and share the information in them with each other. These can be related specifically to childrens literature or to your topi c in general. Turn in a copy of each article. Find at least four childrens books, including one novel, related to your topic (1994-present). Read and analyze these books critically. All books must be read by both partners. With your partner: Create a 10 minute presentation on your findings that uses some public media (overhead, powerpoint, poster, video, et c.). Have a one-page handout with your article and book references listed an d key points from your presentation. Individually: Share one of the picture books you chose with a child (in your field placement). Observe and make notes on the students inte ractions with the book. Try to capture the students responses either by writing down what he/ she says and does or by asking them to respond in writing or by drawi ng. Your goal is to bring out the critical issues in this book and share/ discuss them with the child. Integrate the information you gather about the childs interactions with the book into your paper. You can choose to do this project individually or to have a group of children read and respond to the books and write a paper about their responses. November 29: UAS Presentations Class responses to UAS Presentations December 6 Post-test on analyzing a picture book. Post surveys EAS Project Presentations Evaluation 10 Written Book Response papers (3 each) 30 points or Notebook Review at end of semester Weekly textbook quizzes 2 points each 20 points Illustrator report 15 points EAS paper 20 points Post-assessment 15 points Total 100 points Subtract 4 points for each class missed beyond one for an emergency Subtract 2 points if you are late to class or come unprepared Assignment Grading Criteria Content well conceptualized in re lation to socio-cultural information Use of examples, quotes, and data to support what you are saying

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286 Thoughtful, analytical responses to books Quality of Writing: If you have writing problems we recommend that you go to the Reading/Writing/Teaching Center in the base ment of Broward Hall. Writing will count on all written work for this class. 1. Show your depth of thinking: make connections, raise anal ytical questions, and present thorough discussions. The cont ent discussed in the paper should be well conceptualized. 2. Present your ideas logically and clearly in a well-organized form: use specific examples to support your statements, de velop your thinking logically, present opinions with strong beliefs and passion. Use examples, quotes and data to support your ideas. 3. Demonstrate your writing skills: proper beginning and ending, paragraphs with proper transitions, spellings, sentence structures, gram mar, punctuation, word usage and expressions Grading Scale: A 93 100 B+ 88 92 B 83 87 C+ 78 -82 C 73 -77 D 68 72 E below 68 A Note about Plagiarism Any writing that you do in this course must be entirely your own work. You must document in APA style, all sources of information that you use for every assignment, including those retrieved from the Internet You are strongly advised to purchase a current APA stylebook if you have not already d one so, as APA style is required in most College of Education courses. Develop a note-taking system that works for you when reading information to be used later in a paper. Paraphrase and summarize fr om original sources as you take notes. If your notes are not copied word-for-word from the original source, but are put into your own words instead, you are less likely to plagiari ze. Plagiarism is a criminal offense and will be penalized by failing the course. The Honor Code : We, the members of the University of Florida community, pledge to hold ourselves and our peers to the highest st andards of honesty and integrity.On all work submitted for credit by students at the university, the following pledge is either required or implied: On my honor, I have neither gi ven nor received unauthorized aid in doing this assignment. Information on procedures is located in the Student Guide at www.dso.ufl.edu/stg / and is set forth in Flor ida Administrative Code.

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287 Additional Resources in Childrens Literature Bamford, R. A. & Kristo, J. A. (2003). Making facts come alive: Choosing and using nonfiction literature K-8. Second Edition. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Daniels, H. (1994). Literature circles: Voice and c hoice in the student-centered classroom. York, ME: Stenhouse. Sorenson, M. & Lehman, B. (1995). Teaching with childrens books: paths to literaturebased instruction. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Ammon, R. & Tunnel, M. (1992). The story of ourselves: Teaching history through childrens literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Hoyt, L., Mooney, M. & Parkes, B. (2003). Exploring informational texts: From theory to practice. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Kiefer, B. (1995). The potential of picturebooks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Langer, J. (1995) Envisioning literature: lite rary understanding and literature instruction. New York, NY: Teachers College Press Lehr, S. (1994). Battling dragons: issues and controver sy in childrens literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. McClure, A. & Kristo, J. (1996). Books that invite talk, wonder, and play. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Polette, Nancy (2002). Literature Lures: Using pict ure books and novels to motivate middlschool readers. Morton Grove, IL: Libraries Unlimited. Roser, N. & Martinez, M. (1995). Book talk and beyond: Children and teachers responding to literature. Newark, DE: Internatio nal Reading Association. Sloan, G. (2003). Give them poetry! A guide for sharing poetry with children K-8 NY: Teachers College Press. Vasquez, V. (2003). Getting beyond I like the book: Creati ng space for critical literacy in K-6 classrooms. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Weir, Beth (2000). Introducing children to folk tales Boston, MA: Christopher-Gordon.

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288 APPENDIX D UNIFIED ELEMENTARY PROTEACH UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL 2005 AND LATER (Cohorts 44 -) Semester 1 Credits Semester 2 Credits Composition 3 EDF 1005 Introduction to Education 3 Liberal Arts Math I (MGF 1106) 3 Biological Science 3 Social/Behavioral Science 3 Literature 3 3 Physical Science 3 American History 3 Humanities (HUM 2511 recommended) 3 Statistics (STA 2023) 3 Semester 3 Credits Semester 4 Credits EDG 2701 Teaching Diverse Populations 3 EME 2040 Introduction to Educational Technology 3 Philosophy 3 College Algebra (MAC 1105 or higher) 3 Earth Science 3 Developmental Psychology (DEP 3053) 3 Science Lab 1 Speech 3 General Psychology (PSY 2012) 3 General Education Elective 3 General Education Elective 2 Semester 5 Credits Semester 6 Credits EDF 3115 Child Development for Inclusive Education 3 EEX 3257 Core Teaching Strategies 3 EEX 3070 Teachers and Learners in the Inclusive School 3 EEX 3616 Core Classroom Management Strategies 3 SDS 3430 Family and Community Involvement in Education 3 RED 3307 Teaching Reading in Primary Grades 3 LAE 3005 Children's Literature in Childhood Education 3 LAE 4314 Language Arts for Diverse Learners 3 MUE 3210 Music for the Elementary Child 2 HSC 3301 Health Education in Elementary Schools 3 ARE 4314 Art Education for Elementary Schools 2 MAE 3811 Math Elementary Teachers 3 Field Component: Mentoring (Bright Futures), Field Component: Integrated into SCE

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289 EEX 3070 4310 and MAE 4310, TSL 3526 Bold = Core Courses Semester 7 Credits Semester 8 Credits SCE 4310 Elementary Science Methods for the Inclusive Classroom 3 EEX 4905 Integrated Teaching Seminar 3 MAE 4310 Teaching Mathematics in the Inclusive Elementary School 3 SSE 4312 Social Studies for Diverse Learners 3 TSL 3526 ESOL: Language and Culture in Classrooms 3 RED4324 Reading in the Intermediate Grades 3 EME 4401 Integrating Technology into the Early Childhood Curriculum 3 EDE 4942 Integrated Teaching in Elementary Education 3 LAS #### Social Science (3000 or above) 3 LAS #### Social Science (3000 or above) 3 Field Component: Integrated into SCE 4310 and MAE 431, TSL 3526

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290 LIST OF REFERENCES Abernathy, T.V. (2002). Using a storybook prompt to uncover in-service and pre-service teachers? Dispositions toward struggling students. The Teacher Educator 38(2), 78-98. Adams, N. G., Shea, C. M., Liston, D. D., & Deever, B. (2006). Learning to teach: A critical appr oach to field experiences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ahlquist, R. (1992). Manifest ation of inequality: Overco ming resistance in a multicultural foundations course. In C.A. Grant (Ed.), Research and multicultural education: From the margin to the mainstream (pp. 89-105). Washington, DC: The Falmer Press. Aiken, Lewis R. (2002). Attitudes and related psychos ocial constructs: Theories, assessment, and research. London: Sage. Allington, R.L. (1995). Literacy lessons in the elementary sc hools: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. In R.L. Allington & S.A. Walmsley (Eds.), No quick fix: Rethinking literacy programs in Americas elementary schools (pp. 1-15). New York: Teachers College Press. Anyon, J. (1980). Social class and the hidden curriculum of work. Journal of Education, 162 (1), 67-92. Apol, L. (1998). But what does this have to do with kids?: Literary theory and childrens literature in the teacher education classroom. Journal of Childrens Literature, 24(2), 32-46. Apol, L. (2002). The power of text: What a 19th century periodical taught me about reading and the readers response. Journal of Childrens Literature 28(1), 53-60. Apol, L., Sakuma, A., Reynolds, T.M., & Rop, S.K. (2003). When can we make paper cranes?: Examining pre-service teachers resistance to critical re adings of historical fiction. Journal of Literacy research 34(4), 429-464. Apple, Michael W. (2004). Cultural politics and the text. In Stephen J. Ball (Ed.), The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Sociology of Education. NY: RoutledgeFalmer. Appleman, Deborah (2000). Critical encounters in high school English: Teaching literary th eory to adolescents. New York: Teachers College press. Asimeng-Boahene, L. & Klein, A. M. (2004) Is the diversity issue a non-issue in mainstream academia? Multicultural Education, 12(1), 47-52. Ayala, E. C. (1999). Poor little things a nd brave little souls : The portrayal of individuals with disa bilities in childrens literature. Reading Research Instruction, 39(1), 103-117.

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291 Babbie, E., Halley, F. & Zaino, J. (2000). Adventures in social research: Data analysis using SPSS for windows 95/98. CA: Pine Forge Press. Banks, J.A. (1989). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives (1st ed.) (pp.2-26). Needham Heights, NJ: Allyn & Bacon. Banks, J. A.(1991). Teaching multicultural literacy to teachers. Teaching Education 4(1), 135-144. Banks, J. & Banks, C. M. (1993). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Banks, J. A. (1994). Multiethnic education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Banks, J., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W., Irvin e, J., Nieto, S., Schofield, J., Stephen W. (2001). Diversity within unity: Essential prin ciples for teaching and learning in a multicultural society. Seattle: Center for Multic ultural Education. College of Education, University of Washington Banks, J. (2002). Introduction to multicultural education (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Banks, J.A. (2004). Multicultural education hi storical development, dimensions, and practice. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp 931-975). CA: Jossey-Bass. Banks, J. A. (2006). Cultural diversity and educati on: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching. (5th Ed.). Boston: Pearson. Barry, N. H., & Lechner, J. V. (1995). Preser vice tecahers attitudes about and awareness of multicultural teaching and learning. Teaching & Teacher Education, 11(2), 149-161. Bartolome, L. I. (2004). Critical pedagogy and teacher education: Radicalizing prospective teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly 31(1), 97-122. Batteson, C. & Sixsmith, C. (1995). Reflections on an experiential, inner-city placement for pre-service teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching 21(2), 229-233. Beach, R. (1993). A teachers introduction to reader-response theories. Illinois: National Council of T ecahers of English. Bean, W. T., Valerio and others. (1999). Preser vice teachers discussion of a multicultural young adult novel. Reading Research and Instruction 38 (3), 197-210.

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319 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Hakan Dedeoglu was born in Hatay, Turk ey. He graduated from the Mustafa Kemal University with a bachelors degree in elementary education. He received a master of education degree from Universi ty of Missouri at Columbia. Hakan was previously a primary classroom teacher in Hatay, and Ankara, Turkey. He taught preservice teachers in undergraduate coursework and has worked as a research assistant. Hakan, his wife, and two children resi de in Gainesville, Florida.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020094/00001

Material Information

Title: Changes in Attitudes about Diversity of Preservice Teachers in a Children's Literature Class
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020094:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020094/00001

Material Information

Title: Changes in Attitudes about Diversity of Preservice Teachers in a Children's Literature Class
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020094:00001


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Full Text












CHANGES IN ATTITUDES ABOUT DIVERSITY OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS IN
A CHILDREN'S LITERATURE CLASS















By

HAKAN DEDEOGLU


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2007

































2007 Hakan Dedeoglu
































To all those individuals and groups that embrace, nurture, and work for social justice















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am deeply grateful to those who help me to make this dissertation possible. I wish

to express my gratitude to the people who provided great help and support.

I would like to thank my chair Linda Leonard Lamme for many hours reading the

drafts of each chapter, for her continuous encouragement and patient instruction and for

her kindness and help all these years. Her support and encouragement always give me

strength and courage to do my job better.

I would like to thank to my co-chair Richard L. Allington for sharing his

experience and knowledge with me and guiding me along the way.

I would like to thank the members of my committee, John Cech, Danling Fu, and

Ruth M. Lowery for their insightful suggestions, advice, their kindness and support.

I would like to thanks to all the preservice teachers who participated in this study.

Their contributions were the source of the research.

Thanks to all other professors, staff, friends, and fellow students who contributed in

various ways to my completing this dissertation and who helped in making my years at

the University of Florida so enjoyable.

Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Emine, and my two children, Ahmet Serkan,

and Furkan, who have been supporting and understanding me all these years. Their

support and understanding give me courage to face challenges ahead of me and never

give up in front of difficulties. Without the support of my family, I never would have

made it this far.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST O F TA B LE S ............. ....... ...... .... .. ........ ............. .. .. ....... ............ .. ix

A B S T R A C T .......................................... .................................................. x iii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

State ent of the P problem ............................................................................. ........ 3
Purpose of the Study ............... .................................................7.
Significance of the Study .................................................... .. ........ .... 8
W hy C children's L literature? ............................................... ............................... 9
L im stations of the Study ........................................... ....................................... 12
Personal Involvem ent .................................. .. .. .. ........ ...............12

2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................... 17

Conceptual History and Definition of Multicultural Education ...............................17
Research on Undergraduate Students' Belief Systems Regarding Diversity .............25
The Effectiveness of a Multicultural Education Course on a Teacher
Education Program ................................................... .... ... .. .............. 27
The Effects or Impact of a Multicultural Education Course Components or
Teacher Preparation Program Components .................... ............................35
Preservice Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Perceptions about
D diversity .................................... ................................ ........ 38
Survey stu dies ..................................................................40
S elf-qu estionn aires ................ .. ........ ................... .. ...... ...................... 4 3
Review of the Theory and Research on Diversity in the Children's Literature..........47
U sed in Preservice Teacher Education ............................................ ............... 47
Issues in Children's Literature....................................... .......................... 48
Studies on R eader R esponse.................................................................... ... .. 52
Influence of text .................................... ................. ............ ... .................53
Reader characteristics.................... ........ ............................ 54
Instructional strategies and response processes .......................................55
Studies about Critical Literacy Theory.....................................................57
R elated D issertations ........................................ ................. .... ....... 60
Q u alitativ e Stu dies........... ...... ................................... ................ .. .... ..... 60
Q u antitativ e Studies............ ... ...................................................... .. .... .. .. .. 63









M ix e d S tu d ie s ................................................................................ 6 6

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 72

D design of The Study ........................ .................... ... ............. ......... 72
M methodology ......................................................................................................74
Q uantitative Phase ........................ .................... ... ......... .... ....... 75
R research Q u estion s .............................. ........................ .. ........ .... ............76
Instrum ent ................................................................ .... ... ........ 77
R liability of the scale........................................... .......... .............. 79
P ro cedu re ............................................................................... 8 0
S coring gu ide.....................................................80
Population and Sam ple ......................................................... ............... 81
Overview of teacher education...............................................................81
S op h om ore y ear............. .. ................................. .................. .. .... .. .... .. 82
Junior year ..................................... .............. ......................83
S e n io r y e a r .................. ........................................................................... 8 5
Demographic Profile of the Participants ..........................................................85
D ata A n a ly sis ................................................................................................. 8 6
Q u alitativ e P h ase ..............................................................88
Theoretical Fram ew ork .................................... ....................................... 88
Critical theory and critical pedagogy ................................. ............... 89
C critical m ulticulturalism ........................................ ......................... 90
R research Q question ..................................................... .... .......... .. ......... ..... 9 1
Children's Literature (LAE 3005) in PROTEACH in Fall 2005 ......................91
Course Instructor ........................... ....... ..................... 92
Demographics of COHORT 47 in LAE 3005 ............................................. 93
D ata Collection ............................ ................. ........ .. ... ....... 94
Interview s ............ ...... ...... .. ............... ... ......... .... ....... 94
O observations ................................ .......................... ...............96
Archive-review of docum ents ............................ ...... ....... ............... 97
Data Analysis ......................................................................... ........ ........ .... ........ 100
T rustw orthiness.. .................................................. .... .... ....... ............102

4 CONTEXT OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE................................................... 108

C ourse Introdu action .......... .. ................ ............ .................... .. ................ .. 109
Introduction to Children's Literature........................................... ..........109
Segments from Course Introduction:.....................................................111
How to find good books & children's literature awards: .....................111
W hy a m multicultural perspective? ................................ .... .......... ........ 113
Seating arrangements: ..................................................... ... 114
How to read a book: Rosenblatt's theory ............. ............. ...............115
R e a d a lo u d : ............. ................. .................................................................1 1 5
A signed Readings ......... ....... .......................... .................. .. ..117
Picture Books ................. ............. .........117
Realistic Fiction ...... .................... .......... .........118









H historical Fiction .................. ................. ....... ...... ..... .... .. ........ .. 119
M multicultural L literature ............................................. ............................ 120
Segments from Assigned Readings.......................................................121
Gender .......................................... ................. .... ........ 121
H holocaust literature ................................ ............ .......... .............. 122
Multiple perspectives & critical literacy .......................................... 123
Cultural authenticity ........................................................ ............. 123
L literature circles................ ............. .... ........ ............ .............. 124
Self-Selected Readings .................. .......................... ... ..... ................. 125
M odem Fantasy ..................................... ................... .. ............ 125
T traditional L iterature......... .............................................. ........ ............ 126
N nonfiction L literature ................................................... ................. ............... 127
Segm ents from Self-Selected Readings............................................................128
Censorship .............................................................. ..........128
Disneyfied and Eurocentric folk books.................... ..................................128
Literature based curriculum ............................................ ............... 129
Book talk ......................................... ................... .... ....... 129
S p e c ia l T o p ic s ..................................................................................................... 1 3 0
Project B ooktalk ..................................... ....................... .... 130
R esponses to Special Topic B ooks................................................................ 131
U unified A ssessm ent System ........................................ ......................... 131
C u ltu ral Id entity ............ ... .......................................................... ........ .. ....... .. 132

5 DEMOGRAPHICS, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS .........................................141

D em graphic V ariables ................................................................. ..................... 142
Religious Denomination & Religion......................................................142
Cross-Cultural Friendship ........................................................................... 146
R ace .............................................................. .... ..... ......... 148
Inner City Program Experiences ............................................ ............... 150
A g e .............................................................................1 5 2
G e n d e r ..............................................................1 5 3
Foreign Travel Experiences......................................... .......................... 154
Second Language ............................................. ............. .... ........ 155
Student B ody D escription....................................................... ............... 156
C lass Standing ....................................................................157
Multicultural Course Experience ........................................... ...............158
C orrelational R results .......................................... .................... .. ..... 158

6 CHANGES IN ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS .................... .................................. 176

Roots in Changes in Attitudes and Beliefs .................................... ............... 177
R ace/ E ethnicity .......................................... .................... ........ 177
G e n d e r ...............................................................1 8 7
S o cial C la ss ...............................................................19 1
Sexual Orientation ............................................ ...............196
L angu ag e ........................................................................ 199









A b ility ..................................................................................................... 2 02
Im m migration ......................................................................................... ....... 204
R religion ........................................206
M multicultural & M onocultural Education................... ..... ................... ...............207
Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale......................................... ............... 212
Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale................................... ............... 217
The U nique A analysis of Changes ........................................ ......... ............... 222

7 SUM M ARY AND DISCUSSION ........................................ ........ ............... 235

Summary of the Research Questions............................................... .................. 236
Sum m ary of Quantitative Sections................................................................ 236
Sum m ary of Qualitative Section ............................................ ............... 239
D discussion .................. ................ ................. .. ......... .........................241
Overall Evaluation of Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scales....252
Im plications and Suggestions ............................................................................255

APPENDIX

A THE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL BELIEFS ABOUT DIVERSITY
S C A L E S ............................................................................2 64

B INSTITUTIONAL RVEVIEW BOARD FORMS ...........................................273

C SYLLABUS FOR LAE 3005 (SECTION 6712) CHILDREN'S LITERATURE
F A L L 2 0 0 5 ..............................................................................................................2 7 6

D UNIFIED ELEMENTARY PROTEACH UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL 2005 AND LATER ....................................288

LIST OF REFEREN CES .................................................................... ............... 290

Children's Books .............. .... .................. ........ .... ......... 313

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH .................................... ........... ................. ..................... 19
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pge

2-1 Q ualitative studies .................. ..................................... .. ............ 69

2-2 Quantitative studies .................. .......................... .. .... .................... 70

2 -3 M ix ed stu dies ...................................................... ................ 7 1

3-1 M methodology m atrix .......................................................................... ............... 104

3-2 Reliability scores and means of scales ............... .............................................104

3-3 Num erical values to define different scales ................................. ............... 105

3-4 D em graphics of participants.................................................................... ....... 105

3-5 Academic and demographic independent variables used in this study ................06

3-6 Statistical procedures......... ...................................................... ...... .... ..... 106

3-7 D em graphics of cohort 47 ....................................................... ............... 107

4-1 Children's literature aw ards ............................................................................139

4-2 R ead aloud book list ..................................... .................. .. ....... .... 140

5-1 The statistical procedures used for the first research question.............................164

5-2 Item groups and group contexts ........................................ ......................... 164

5-3 Summary oft-tests, religious denomination beliefs scales ............................. 164

5-4 Summary oft-tests, religious denomination item groups ...............................165

5-5 Summary of ANOVA, religious affiliations beliefs scales ........... .....................165

5-6 Summary of ANOVA, religious affiliations item groups ................................. 166

5-7 Summary oft-tests, cross-cultural friendship involvement beliefs scales........... 167

5-8 Summary of t-tests, cross-cultural friendship involvement item groups .............168









5-9 Summary oft-tests, race beliefs scale.......................................... .................. 169

5-10 Summary oft-tests, race item groups ............. .......................... ....... ........... 169

5-11 Summary oft-tests, inner city experience beliefs scale ............... .................169

5-12 Summary oft-tests, inner city experience item groups.............. ... ...............169

5-13 Summary oft-tests, gender item groups ............. ............................................. 170

5-14 Summary oft-tests, foreign travel -beliefs scale ..............................170

5-15 Summary of t-tests, foreign travel item groups ................................................ 170

5-16 Summary oft-tests, second language beliefs scales ............... ...............170

5-17 Summary of ANOVA, student body description beliefs scale...........................170

5-18 Summary of ANOVA, student body description item groups ............................171

5-19 Summary of ANOVA, class standing item groups ............................................171

5-20 Religious denomination gender crosstabulation and chi-square result ...............171

5-21 Religious denomination religion crosstabulation and chi-square result .............172

5-22 Race student body description crosstabulation and chi-square result...............72

5-23 Race cross cultural friendship crosstabulation and chi-square result ................172

5-24 Inner city experience cross-cultural friendship crosstabulation and chi-square
resu lt ................ ..................................... ........................... 17 3

5-25 Second language cross-cultural friendship crosstabulation and chi-square resultl73

5-26 Race second language crosstabulation and chi-square result ...........................173

5-27 Inner city experience multicultural course experience crosstabulation and chi-
squ are resu lt......................................................................................... .... 174

5-28 Inner city experience foreign travel crosstabulation and chi-square result..........174

5-29 Foreign travel religious affiliations crosstabulation and chi-square result..........175

6-1 B beliefs scales item groups ........... ................. .......... ........... ...............225

6-2 Summary oft-tests, race paired samples statistics.................. ...... ............225

6-3 Summary oft-tests, gender paired samples statistics...............................225









6-4 Summary oft-tests, social class paired samples statistics ................................225

6-5 Summary of t-tests, sexual orientation paired samples statistics.........................225

6-6 Ratings for the special topic books ............................................. ............... 226

6-7 Summaries oft-tests, language paired samples statistics ............. ....................226

6-8 Summaries oft-tests, ability paired samples statistics .............. ... ...............226

6-9 Summaries oft-tests, immigration paired samples statistics .............................226

6-10 Summaries oft-tests, religion paired samples statistics .........................226

6-11 Summaries oft-tests, multicultural/monocultural education paired samples
sta tistic s ......................................................................... 2 2 6

6-12 Summary of paired t test for differences personal beliefs scale items..............227

6-13 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 1) ...................................227

6-14 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 5) ...................................227

6-15 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 6) ...................................228

6-16 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 7) ...................................228

6-17 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 10) ...................................228

6-18 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 12) ...................................228

6-19 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 13) ...................................229

6-20 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 14) ...................................229

6-21 Personal beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 15) ...................................229

6-22 Paired t test for differences professional beliefs scale items..............................230

6-23 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 2) ..............................230

6-24 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 5) ..............................230

6-25 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 9) ..............................231

6-26 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 10) ..............................231

6-27 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 11) ..............................231

6-28 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 12) ............................231









6-29 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 15) .............................232

6-30 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 16) .............................232

6-31 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 18) ..............................232

6-32 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 19) .............................232

6-33 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 20) .............................233

6-34 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 22) .............................233

6-35 Professional beliefs scale pre-post crosstabulation (item 25) .............................233

6-36. Pre-post scales comparison......................................... 233

6-37 Section by section comparison of changes..... .............................234

6-38 Gender Professional beliefs scale scores' differences crosstabulation ...............234

6-39 Cross-cultural friendship involvement Personal beliefs scale scores'
differences crosstabulation......... ...... ......... ...... ............... 234

7-1 Pearson chi-square results m atrix...................................... ......................... 257

7-2 Demographics beliefs scales relations (t-tests) ............................................. 257

7-3 Demographics beliefs scales relations (One-way ANOVA)..............................258

7-4 Demographics-personal beliefs scale item groups' relations.............................258

7-5 Demographics-professional beliefs scale item groups' relations.........................259

7-6 Summary of paired t test for differences personal beliefs scale items...................259

7-7 Paired t test for differences professional beliefs scale items .............................260

7-8 Segments from qualitative groups and the context of diversity ...........................261

7-9 2005 Ethnicity and gender of student enrollment at the university........................262

7-10 2005 ethnicity of student enrollment at the college of education...........................262

7-11 Correlation results and mean values of the surveys..............................................262

7-12 Classification of scores' differences ........................................... ............... 263










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

CHANGES IN ATTITUDES ABOUT DIVERSITY OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS IN
A CHILDREN'S LITERATURE CLASS

By

Hakan Dedeoglu

May 2007

Chair: Linda Leonard Lamme
Cochair: Richard L. Allington
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction

Given the overwhelming body of research addressing the cultural gap between

preservice teachers and the students they will ultimately teach, as well as the

ineffectiveness of teacher application of multicultural theory to schooling, and

shortcomings of multicultural education in teacher training programs, further research

was needed to critically examine these issues.

The purpose of this study was to understand how experiences in children's literature

classes influence preservice teachers' beliefs about diversity. The research concerned the

critical examination of preservice teachers' knowledge, attitudes and commitment to

diversity in children's literature classes so as to improve the multicultural aspect of

educational courses. In the process, I examined theories and practices of multicultural

education and research findings on multicultural education to examine numerous

variables and qualitative data that influenced preservice teachers' beliefs about diversity.

For this study I employed a mixed method research design, using both qualitative

and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. A demographic section of a survey

of students' attitudes toward diversity provided the preservice teachers' demographic









variables and their influences on students' beliefs on the issues of diversity. I used

statistical analyses of survey results as sources of data for addressing students' changes of

beliefs related to diversity issues. Interviews, observations and students' written

assignments in one section of children's literature class comprised the qualitative data

collection and analysis.

Both qualitative and statistical analyses of the data indicate that religious

denomination and cross-cultural friendship involvement as demographic variables

significantly predicted scores on all the surveys. Another important implication of these

analyses is the closing gap between students who had lower scores and higher scores on

the pre surveys.

The implications for multicultural education and, professional development are

discussed. My study contributes to this limited body of literature, helping to develop a

better understanding of how children's literature classes can affect students' attitudes

toward the issues of diversity.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A growing number of American schools enroll students a complex mix of races,

cultures, languages, and religious affiliations. However, the adults who teach this mix of

children remain largely homogeneous white, female, monolingual, Christian adults. The

work of recent scholars and census data reflect growing concern with the cultural gap

between the children in the schools and their teachers (Banks, 2004; Cochran-Smith,

2004; Gay, 1992; Nieto, 2004; Sleeter & Grant, 1999). We must also acknowledge that

this gap is increasing year by year.

From a large quantity of research studies over a number of years, the evidence of

demographic imperative includes information in three areas: diverse student population,

the homogeneous teaching force, and "the demographic divide" (Gay, 2000; Hodghinson,

2001, 2002).

Drawing information from Census 2000, educational demographer Harold

Hodgkinson (2001) points out that 40% of the school population is now from racially and

culturally diverse groups and this varies from 7% to 68% depending on the state. If recent

projections are accurate, the statistical majority of the student population by 2035 will

consist of children of color (Villages & Lucas, 2002).

The most recent information available on the nation's teaching force draws a

profile that is very different from the student profile. White teachers currently represent

86 % of the teaching force and the vast majority (80%-93%) of students enrolled in

teacher education programs are white students. It seems that the teaching force profile









will remain primarily White European American. The educational implications of these

differences between student population and teaching force are far greater than statistical

numbers if we look at the experiences of most teachers who speak only English while

many students speak a first language that is not English (Gay, 1993; Irvine, 1997).

Also conditions of students with and without the advantages of race, culture,

language, and socioeconomic status, as well as the access to resources like equipment,

supplies, physical facilities, books, computer technology, and class size, show huge

differences between urban, suburban and rural schools (Cothran & Ennis, 2000; Darling-

Hammond, 1995; Dilg, 2003; Gould, 1996; Kozol, 1991, 1995).

According to the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future

(NCTAF) (1996), the United States is producing enough teachers as a nation to fill all of

the openings. The problem is that these graduates are not necessarily in the subject areas

where they are needed, and they do not want to go to the schools where they are most

needed. For example Zeichner (2003) stated that in high-poverty schools, classes are 77%

more likely to be assigned an out-of-field teacher than classes in low-poverty schools.

Also he stated that classes in which the majority is non-White students are 40% more

likely to be assigned an out-of-field teacher than those in mostly White schools. What is

harder to ascertain can be figured out from the National Education Association's "Status

of the American public school teacher, 2000-2001" which shows whether all students

have access to the tools, knowledge, and guidance they need to succeed. In many areas

addressed in this report: from teacher quality, to school building conditions, the

indications are that many students do not have the same opportunities to learn, when

compared to those in schools with largely high-income populations or in schools with a









low proportion of ethnic minority students. As Nieto (2002/3) stated, ... the children

who need the most get the fewest funds and resources" (p. 9).

In addition to the clear demographic arguments that support its importance,

multicultural education is strongly associated with the concepts of social justice and

equity. Teachers must be familiar with the principles of multiculturalism in order to

promote a just environment favorable to learning. Nel (1992) is brief in her summation of

multicultural education and its relationship with teachers:

The crucial factor in the ultimate success or failure of multicultural education in our
schools is the teacher... The major task now is to educate the 90% White teacher
corps to become effective and caring educators in schools where minority children
are fast becoming the majority (p.23).

Harbour, Middleton, Lewis and Anderson (2003) reviewed 10 years of

multicultural research (1990 to 2000) to explain why multicultural education is important.

They argue that it counters integration/assimilation tensions that remain unresolved,

specifically, dominant culture privilege, assimilation pressure, acculturative stress,

different definitions of personal and professional success, and equity of access to critical

resources. Some scholars describe multicultural education as a tool to change teacher

thinking to maximize student learning (Bynoe, 1998). By educating preservice teachers

about multiculturalism, these teachers can become advocates for the many culturally

diverse students in our schools.

Statement of the Problem

One of the important implications of the current demographic data is the need for

courses to prepare new teachers for diversity they will encounter in their classrooms.

Beginning in the late 1970s and early 1980s, many teacher education programs across the

country began to include multicultural and diversity issues in the curriculum. Banks









(1989, 2002) described a hierarchy of four curricular models to integrate multiculturalism

into the curriculum. Banks' typology on multicultural curriculum reform is one of the

most widely referenced theoretical frameworks in both academic and practitioner journals

in multicultural education. These levels are:

* The contributions approach,

* The additive approach,

* The transformation approach

* The social action approach.

Rasinski and Padak (1990), Bieger (1996) and Halagao (2004) examine these

models in relation to literature connections and classroom applications. They provide a

framework to address possible response based connections between the reader and

multicultural literature. Many scholars argue that one of the main problems in

classrooms, according to these models, is the teachers' lack of comfort with multicultural

literature, and confidence beyond the first level. Halagao (2004) stated that:

Teacher educators of multicultural education use Banks' (2002) typology to help
pre-service and in-service teachers move from integrating cultural content from a
superficial level to a more socially reconstructive approach in their curriculum. But
to many of these students, these approaches are a theoretical jargon to learn and
memorize, but not to incorporate into their daily teaching.

To implement multicultural education successfully the entire school environment is

required to modify; just modifying one or two areas among these components will not be

sufficient (Banks, 1993; Menkart, 1999; Pullen, 2000). For example, although many

textbooks that are used in classrooms value and identify a broad variety of cultures, they

will not be powerful in the hands of a teacher who does not respect children's different

cultural backgrounds. All essentials of the school surroundings must mirror multicultural

ideas for the reform to be successful.









Focusing on student engagement within diverse school communities, McMahon

(2003) argue for the adoption of an approach to education that combines a form of critical

pedagogy and antiracist multiculturalism, she stated that:

Rather than embrace critical pedagogy, some schools and school boards address the
issue of diversity by offering courses targeting specific groups: such as Black
History, Women's Issues, or Native Studies. ... Instead of providing opportunities
for empowerment, these token gestures toward inclusivity actually serve to further
marginalize peoples' histories and cultures and maintain dominance. (p.263)

Gay (1995) and Sleeter (2001) claimed that application of multicultural theory to

schooling is often inconsistent and ineffective. There is a large quantity of research that

supports the ineffectiveness of application of multicultural education to the current

teacher education programs. Terrill and Mark's (2000) study showed how different

preservice teachers' expectations for schools with children of color and second-language

learners are from the reality. Preservice teachers expected higher levels of discipline

problems, lower levels of parental support, higher levels of child abuse, fewer gifted and

talented students, and lower levels of motivation in the schools with children of color.

Kagan's (1992) observation focused on the preservice teachers' experiences. She stated,

"candidates tend to use the information provided in course work to confirm rather than to

confront and correct their preexisting beliefs" (p. 154). Jordan (1995) described the

resistance problem in suggesting that "Many pre-service teachers resist the painful

process of confronting their own prejudices, and this may be attributed to different levels

of readiness or differences in personal and intellectual development" (p.373).

Finney and Orr (1995) found that although the majority of teacher candidates

learned something positive from a multicultural education course, they still failed to

recognize the economic, political, and sociocultural context that leads to racism and white

privilege. Similarly Ahlquist (1992) indicated that,









Whether unconscious or conscious, intentional or unintentional, prospective
teachers find it difficult to accept that whites have benefited economically, socially
and psychologically from institutional and interactional racism, and males have
benefited from sexism (p.89).

In their article, Asimeng-Boahene and Klein (2004) tried to find the answer to the

question of why educators should be concerned with cultural diversity in the classrooms,

spotlighting on demography, stereotyping, socio-economic class, different learning styles,

and achievement processes. They stated that:

...today's teacher candidates need to know that there is a diverse world in their
future classrooms. This issue should and must be addressed through instruction that
informs teacher candidates about (1) current demographics, (2) legislation to
protect under-represented groups, and (3) antibias instructional tools and practices
(p.51).

Ng (2003) discussed the four particular shortcomings of multicultural education in

teacher training programs. According to Ng, the first problem is related to conceptual

understanding of multicultural education. Separating it from its foundation in historical

and political movements of social change, results in a limited understanding of the

concept of multicultural education. This perspective leads to an emphasis in teacher

training in the use of alternative types of educational materials, activities, and social skills

rather than a fundamental awareness of a lived theory in practice. The second problem

deals with the functions of multicultural education in teacher training programs. Ng

stated, "A lack of attention to the implicit, suggested messages fueling the program can

be of great detriment to a program's overall effectiveness" (p.99). The third problem is

that instruction regarding multicultural education in teacher training too often lacks

insight into the social and psychological situations of the participant as they encounter

various stages of racial identity development. Finally, as Ng stated:

The absence of a sincere critique of White privilege in multicultural education
allows for the continuation of ignorance regarding institutional and societal forms









of oppression, and assures the current status of multicultural education as anything
but revolutionary (p.99).

Multicultural education is more than content; it includes policy, learning climate,

instructional delivery, leadership, and evaluation (Banks, 1994; Bennett, 2003; Gay,

2004; Grant & Gomez, 2000). But it must become an integral part of the teacher

preparation experience instead of just one isolated course. Gay (2003/2004) stated that:

In its comprehensive form, it must be an integral part of everything that happens in
the education enterprise, whether it is assessing the academic competencies of
students or teaching math, reading, writing, science, social studies, or computer
science. Making explicit connections between multicultural education and subject-
and skill-based curriculum and instruction is imperative (p. 31).

One essential component of a teacher education program therefore is to foster the

attitudes, skills, and knowledge preservice teachers will need to work effectively with

diverse students. Because the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of children in schools

today are vastly dissimilar to those who teach them, preservice teachers who have not

developed their awareness, knowledge, and skills for working with diverse populations

will be inadequately prepared to meet the demands of classrooms in the diverse American

society.

Purpose of the Study

Focusing on theories and practices of multicultural education and the importance of

research findings on multicultural education, it is important to critically examine

preservice teachers' knowledge, attitudes and commitment in educational courses such as

children's literature classes so as to improve multicultural aspect of educational courses.

Therefore the purpose of this study is to understand how experiences in children's

literature classes influence preservice teachers' beliefs about diversity. Specifically, this

study addressed the following questions:









* How do the political and social aspects of the demography of preservice teachers'
influence their beliefs on the issue of diversity?

* What are the changing attitudes and beliefs, if any, of preservice teachers' views on
the issue of diversity over the course of a semester in children's literature classes?

* How do larger contextual factors such as power, privilege, and oppression affect
the ways in which preservice teachers construct beliefs about diversity in children's
literature classes?

Significance of the Study

Laubscher and Powell (2003) explored their experiences as professors who teach

about difference and are themselves considered "different" or "other." The authors

describe how society and their students perceive them, and illustrate the unique

pedagogical opportunities that their course offers them and their primarily White, able-

bodied, and socioeconomically advantaged students to struggle not only with the theory,

but also with the experience, of 'difference.' They stated, "We believe that richer

learning is possible through attention to such politics of difference, as opposed to add-on

multiculturalism that 'celebrates' exotic otherness as diversity" (p.221).

After examining international movements regarding preparing teachers for anti-

oppressive education, Kumashiro, Baber, Richardson, Ricker-Wilson and Wong (2004)

stated that:

While theories and recommendations continue to proliferate in the educational
research literature on what it means to teach towards social justice and to prepare
teachers for such teaching, so do concerns that these theories and recommendations
fail to account for the ways that the contexts of teaching--cultural contexts, national
contexts, political contexts--always affect teaching in idiosyncratic, unpredictable
and even contradictory ways (p. 257).

Given the overwhelming body of research addressing the cultural gap between

preservice teachers and students (Banks, 2004; Cochran-Smith, 2004; Gay, 1992; Nieto,

2004; Sleeter & Grant, 1999), ineffectiveness of application of multicultural theory to









schooling (Bieger, 1996; Gay, 2004; Gay, 1995; Rasinsky & Padak, 1990; Sleeter, 2001)

and shortcomings of multicultural education in teacher training programs (Ahlquist,

1992; Asimeng-Boahene & Klein, 2004; Finney & Orr, 1995; Jordan, 1995; Kagan,

1992; Kumashiro, Baber, Richardson, Ricker-Wilson & Wong, 2004; Laubscher &

Powell, 2003; McMahon, 2003; Ng, 2003; Terril & Mark, 2000), further research is

needed to critically examine these findings.

Critical intellectuals is a term used by Giroux and McLaren (1986) to define

teachers but as stated by Haerr (2004):

...teacher education programs do not give preservice teachers the knowledge or the
skills to address issues of social justice or to even critique the curriculum they are
expected to implement. Instead the programs focus on the technical, such as
behavioral management techniques to maintain order and control, and learning to
write lesson plans which cover state mandated course objectives in order to prepare
students to pass state tests. ....Preservice teachers are apparently not expected to
develop curriculum, but only to interpret and implement it (p.141).

This knowledge can have implications for teacher training programs in the

development and integration of multicultural curriculum classes in their programs for

preservice teachers. Even though there are several studies and research reports available

on undergraduate students' beliefs regarding diversity, and multicultural education, I

have found only a few data-based research reports about the changing attitudes of

students in children's literature classes. This study will contribute to the limited body of

literature, thus helping to develop a better understanding of how children's literature

classes affect students' attitudes toward the issue of diversity.

Why Children's Literature?

The National Council of Teachers of English Resolution on preparing and

certifying teachers with knowledge of children's and adolescent literature proposed that:









Teacher education should provide the chance for teachers to study a wide selection
of books for children and adolescents, including texts from diverse cultures, genres
and historical periods. Such preparation should also involve a broad view of the
appropriate and effective uses of this literature in classrooms and an understanding
of the issues associated with such a curriculum (NCTE, 2002).

Allington (1995) critiqued a typical day in an elementary school classroom:

"Children work, teachers correct and grade, no one ever discusses the work, the content,

the thought, or the response" (p. 11). Therefore teacher education programs should

support beginning teachers as they learn what they need to know in order to create

successful classrooms. Teacher education classrooms are places where beginning

teachers take part in experiences that can shape their classroom practices. These classes

help future teachers situate their classroom in the larger social and political context.

Children's literature classes, in particular, become venues for teaching about

multicultural education and children's literature and for developing skills for critical

analysis of learning materials. Through responses to their readings in professional

literature, and in children's books, students have an opportunity to work with their peers

to learn new ways of making meaning that can apply to their future students. As Apol

(1998) stated, "Children's literature is a form of education and socialization, an indication

of a society's deepest hopes and fears, expectations and demands" (p. 34). Beyond being

a requirement of the program, students often attend children's literature classes to learn

what new children's books have been written, what books are popular with children and

teachers and how to integrate children's books into the curriculum rather than focusing

on transactions with literature or readings through critical literacy (Harste, 1989; Pflieger,

1994). This is an indication of what Griffith (2001) described as students coming to

children's literature classes with their own goals and agendas.









Both Brookfield (2005) and Branch (2005) had similar arguments. Inspired by his

students comments like "I still don't see why we had to read all this critical theory.

What's Gramsci got to do with adult education" (p. vii), a teacher of critical theory for

graduate students, Brookfield (2005) drew on the works of Marx, Adorno, Fromm,

Horkheimer, Althusser, Foucault, Marcuse, Habermas, hooks, Gramsci, Davis and others

to illustrate the usefulness of critical theory in helping students understand and then

change the world in "Power of Critical Theory: Liberating Adult Learning and

Teaching". From his experiences in introduction to multicultural education courses with

preservice teachers, Branch (2005) categorized and answered six types of questions that

were pointed out by his students. These questions were related to its importance, target

population, focus, curricular design, relevance to other areas and who's responsibility.

More specifically these questions are "What is the importance of multicultural education?

For whom is multicultural education designed? Will the focus on differences and issues

of racism divide our nation against itself? What is the curricular composition of

multicultural education? How is multicultural education relevant to the "hard sciences,"

e.g., mathematics? Who can accomplish multicultural education?

As sites for cultural, historical, political, and social construction of literary

conversation; places where texts have meaning beyond sign systems, language structures,

and ideologies (Apol, 1998), and areas where reflections of multicultural themes can be

the focus, children's literature classes that utilize critical literacy theory and transactional

theory as a framework, provide an opportunity for students to examine their own beliefs

and attitudes regarding the issue of diversity.









To better understand the potential of children's literature as texts for teacher

preparation Brenner (2003) described the learning constructed by two preservice

teachers, who read and interpreted a children's novel in an introductory teacher education

course. This study showed that reading and talking with others about a children's novel

helps elucidate a set of academic theories about teaching and content. Children's

literature holds potential as a pedagogical tool for helping preservice teachers gain

experience with issues and teaching methods such as the nature of learning and the role

of the teacher.

Thus, an opportunity to explore cultural diversity can be provided within the

context of a children's literature course in teacher education so that preservice teachers

may begin to construct a personal framework to address multiculturalism.

Limitations of the Study

My study is limited to examining students' attitudes toward the issue of diversity in

children's literature courses in the academic semesters of 2004, 2005, and 2006. The

information collected in the qualitative part of this study emerges entirely from the

perceptions and reflections of the participant' experiences in one children's literature

classroom. The findings cannot be generalized to apply to all areas of teaching. Particular

aspects and general themes emerging from the study may be transferable to another

context.

Personal Involvement

Teaching about diversity and helping students who have been traditionally

underrepresented to bring their needs forward and achieve success in schools has always

been important to me. My interest in teaching and learning about diversity comes from

my experiences as a male working class member, who has been both a student (primary









school to graduate school) and a teacher (elementary school teacher for six years and

teaching assistant in a college of education). I am a Turk, born and raised in Turkey, and

my early educational experiences occurred predominantly within public schools and

colleges. Even though Turkey has a mixed cultural setting, in those almost exclusively

Turks-dominated institutions, aspects of cultural identity such as class, gender, ability,

and other social groupings are not valued or addressed in the overall pedagogical

practices and curriculum. At the time that I was going to school, the "banking method"

(Freire, 1970) of education excluded bringing student experiences into the classrooms. I

found no positive representation of my culture in the textbooks. In and out of school, I

had experiences that helped me understand how larger societal issues impacted me. I

have a working-class background. In her book, Where we stand: Class matters, hooks

says about her mother "All her dreams were about changing her material status" (p.13).

My mother' dream was the same, to change her material status, but for her children rather

than herself. Like hooks (2000) describes, my dad had the power over the family because

he was working and making money. hooks says "Being the man and making the money

gave daddy the right to rule, to decide everything, to overthrow mama's authority at any

moment" (p.19).

In Where we stand: Class matters, hooks talks about segregated schools and she

says, "When those children were treated better, we thought it was because they were

prettier, smarter, and just knew the right way to act" (p.21). Not for the racial reason,

hooks describes, I, too, thought the same way because rich and upper class children were

treated better than working class children in our schools. I was living in a small village

and there was no high school. I had to go to the nearest town to attend high school, which









was 6 miles away from home. On the first day of high school, school administrators

divided us into two groups, from villages (mostly working-class and farmers' children)

and those who lived in the town, to place students in classrooms.

hooks (2000) states that, "Slowly I began to understand fully that there was no

place in academe for folks from working-class backgrounds who did not wish to leave the

past behind." (p.36). After working as a classroom teacher, I returned to the university to

take educational administration courses. Technically I became a part of the middle class,

but that was not who I was in reality. When we talked about summer vacation in a group

of friends, I was talking about fishing, reading books, spending time with my parents

while they were talking about visiting many places which I had never even heard of,

skiing even, in summer. Pierre Bourdieu (1990, 2004) introduced the importance of

social and cultural capital, noting that money or economic capital alone does not

determine a person's social standing. Nieto (1999) noted the following:

Most schools are organized to reflect the cultural capital or privileged social and
cultural groups; in the United States that group is middle-class or upper class,
English speaking Whites. As a result of their identity, some children arrive at the
schoolhouse door with a built-in-privilege because they have learned this cultural
capital primarily in the same way as they have learned to walk, that is,
unconsciously and effortlessly (p. 55).

Both Nieto and hooks highlighted the importance of understanding the impact of

class issues on students and their learning styles as well as the inherent classism that

exists in current pedagogical approaches. When school are organized to reflect the

cultural capital of upper-and middle-class individuals, educational structures

automatically set up classroom environments that may limit the achievement of persons

from lower-social-class backgrounds.









During my early years of teaching, I was often overwhelmed with everything that

was incorporated into our curriculum every day. Every subject came with either a

textbook or a workbook. During my first couple years of teaching, I experienced some

parts of Rosenblatt's theory and critical literacy because, as an avid reader myself, I often

made personal connections to the stories I read, and always wanted to talk about my

books with middle grade students, but not with early grade students such as first and

second graders. Even though none of us knew what to call it at the time, we were using

these strategies. I was a new teacher and although I could not theoretically understand

why the language arts curriculum I was given did not seem right, I knew that something

was very wrong.

In time, I realized that the strategies our curriculum recommended did not support

students' literary experiences. Through my years of experience in language arts

classrooms we challenged the characters' behavior and questioned the society in which

we were living. And most importantly I came to realize that not only middle grade

students but also students in early grades could carry on complex discussions about

characters and plot as they interpreted stories from their individual perspectives. Another

important aspect of these experiences was that my students and I started to move from

our individual responses to look at the larger social systems at work.

Over the years my educational background has been a major reason for my wanting

to explore teaching and learning about diversity to enable all students to succeed. My

interest with multicultural education involves helping students and teachers acquire the

knowledge and skills necessary for understanding and working with people from diverse

cultural groups. The idea for this study did not just come with a simple search; it has a






16


history that includes my experiences both living in different cultures and many years of

teaching experience.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Conceptual History and Definition of Multicultural Education

Cochran-Smith et al., (2004) described the early years of the twenty-first century as

the best and worst of times in terms of multicultural education. On one side, they say "it

is a time for celebration and hope-a time of heightened attention to issues of diversity and

schooling" (p.931). Gollnick's (1995) analysis of national and state policy initiatives

regarding multicultural education refers to the requirement of the study of ethnic groups,

cultural diversity, human relations or multicultural education as parts of teacher education

programs in 40 states. On the other hand, they say, the early twenty-first century is

indicative of the worst of times as the federal government funded a major synthesis of the

research on teacher preparation organized around five major questions, none of which

have to do with preparing teachers for diverse populations (Wilson at al., 2001). Indeed,

Cochran-Smith et al., (2004) stated:

Perhaps worst of all, in some states, a significant influence on teacher certification
and/or program approval regulations is the assumption that multicultural education
is a pernicious political agenda that is anti-White, anti-intellectual, and
anticapitalist (p.932).

Multicultural education as an educational philosophy and ideology was born out of

the civil rights movements of the 1960s and the early 1970s. Early studies in the field of

multicultural education commonly challenged the neutrality of knowledge and the

centrality of white men in curriculum. Supporters sought to develop a sense of group

pride and to teach about discrimination against minority groups. Boyle-Baise (1999)









focused on the development of multicultural education since the 1960s, and presented a

framework for viewing the development. Boyle-Baise (1999) conducted a qualitative

study to explore the historical trends in multicultural education. The primary information

came from interviews with scholars who were central in founding the field such as James

A. Banks, Carl Grant, Christine Bennett, Geneva Gay, Carlos Cortes, Donna Gollnick,

Wilma Longstreet, and Christine Sleeter. Based on this research study, the conceptual

history of multicultural education has gone through the following periods:

* Quest for ethnic content,

* Movement from multiethnic to multicultural education,

* The move to greater inclusion,

* Searching for conceptual clarity.

The first generation of scholars in multicultural education came to the field from

ethnic studies. This was during the time period Banks calls 'a quest for ethnic content'.

Banks, Gay and Grant also were interested in strengthening educational access and

achievement for children of color. Many early scholars moved in an evolutionary fashion

from ethnic to multiethnic to multicultural studies (Boyle-Baise, 1999).

Multicultural education, as a field of study contains a multitude of themes. By the

latter 1980s, multicultural education meant different things to different people. In search

of conceptual clarity, Sleeter and Grant (1987) reviewed the literature about multicultural

education. They found five broad categories within the field including:

* Teaching the culturally different,
* Human relations,
* Single group studies,
* Multicultural education,
* Education that is multicultural and social reconstructionist.









In Making Choices for Multicultural Education, they supported an approach called

"education that is multicultural and social reconstructionist." This approach emphasized

educational responsiveness to the social/structural inequality of people of color (Sleeter

& Grant 1999).

Banks (2004) pointed out that a successful implementation of multicultural

education requires institutional change including, changes in the curriculum; the teaching

materials; teaching and learning styles; the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of

teachers and administrators; and the goals, norms, and culture of the school.

He emphasized that many of the educational organizations and practitioners have a

limited conception of multicultural education, viewing it primarily as curriculum reform

that involves only changing or restructuring the curriculum to include content about

ethnic groups, women and other cultural groups.

One important idea that can be drawn from this argument is that various

dimensions of multicultural education must be more clearly described, conceptualized,

and researched. In his literature review, Banks (2004) used five dimensions to

conceptualize multicultural education. These dimensions are:

* Content integration, which describes a teacher's efforts to integrate examples and
content from a variety of cultures and groups when they teach particular subjects

* The knowledge construction process, whereby teachers aid students in
understanding how implicit cultural assumptions, frames of reference, and bias
influence the constructed knowledge within a particular discipline

* Prejudice reduction, which highlights the teacher's focus on the characteristics of
students' racial attitudes

* An equity pedagogy, as a goal of the teacher who priorities the academic
achievement of all students;

* An empowering school culture, which is the attention paid by the entire school to
issues of equity and interactions between members of the school community across









ethnic and racial lines, for the express purpose of developing a school culture of
empowerment for all students.

Even though this typology provides a way to organize and make sense of complex

and disparate data and observations, he stated that like all classification schemas, it has

both strengths and limitations.

Banks (1989) described a hierarchy of four curricular models to integrate

multiculturalism into the curriculum. Banks' (1989) model includes four levels as the

contributions, additive, transformative, and social action approaches. The first two levels

of the model, the contributions and additive approaches, are the levels that have been

focused on the heroes-and-holidays to include multicultural issues. Banks saw these

approaches as superficial because they do not question the basic assumptions of

traditional Eurocentric school curricula. It is only in the transformative and social action

approaches that students are challenged in this direction. These levels provide a

framework for examining how multicultural education can be theorized and implemented

for many researchers. Rasinski and Padak (1990), Bieger (1996) and Halagao (2004)

examined these models in relation to literature connections and classroom applications.

As stated earlier they provide a framework to address possible response based

connections between the reader and multicultural literature. Many scholars mention that

one of the main problems in classrooms, according to these models, is the teachers' lack

of comfort with multicultural literature, and confidence beyond the first level.

Birkel (2000) examined the term "multicultural education" as used in the field of

multicultural education and she points to several misconceptions. She wrote:

The goals of multicultural education are to promote better understanding among
our people, to reduce prejudice, to fulfill the democratic ideal of equality under the
law and freedom of thought and action within established law. It seeks to fashion
unity in diversity through the idea of cultural pluralism. It aims to develop an









appreciation of the contributions to our country and to humankind made by people
from all elements of our society (p.30).

Definitions of multicultural education vary widely depending on the content

selection, methodological focus, and referent group orientations. The following are the

major definitions of multicultural education defined by the influential scholars in this

field.

Banks (1993) identified the major components when he explains that multicultural

education is an idea, an educational reform movement, and a process whose major goal is

to change the structure of educational institutions. Garcia (1982), and Frazier (1977)

stated that multicultural education is a concept, a framework, a way of thinking, a

philosophical viewpoint, a value orientation, and a set of criteria for making decisions

that better serve the educational needs of culturally diverse student populations. As a

concept, idea, or philosophy, multicultural education is a set of beliefs and explanations

that recognizes and values the importance of ethnic and cultural diversity in shaping

lifestyles, social experiences, personal identities, and educational opportunities of

individuals, groups, and nations.

Grant (1977) connected multicultural education to its own value traditions by

defining it as a humanistic concept; establishes it as a condition of quality education for

culturally pluralistic student populations; and suggests that it is based upon the principles

of equality, human rights, social justice, and alternative life choices. The conception of

multicultural education as an alternative way of thinking about how to provide quality

education for diverse groups within the context of democratic ideas is further refined by

Banks (1990), Bennett (1990), Sleeter (1991), and Nieto (2004).









Increasingly, multicultural education is seen as a process instead of a product. As a

process, it is a way of thinking, a decision-making style, and a way of behaving in

educational settings that is pervasive and ongoing (Banks, 1993). It requires long-term

investments of time and resources, and carefully planned and monitored actions.

Sleeter and Grant (1988) captured the essence of this conception when they

explained why they prefer to use "education that is multicultural" to identify the

enterprise instead of"multicultural education". Rather than a specific, discrete education

program (such as social studies, bilingual, or science education), they see multicultural

education as a different approach to the entire educational enterprise in all its forms and

functions.

Probably the most inclusive and eclectic definition of multicultural education is one

by Nieto (2004, 2006). While many other scholars use multiple elements such as content,

process, ideology, and reform in their conceptions of multicultural education, Nieto's is

by far the most comprehensive. She places multicultural education in a sociopolitical

context, and incorporates substantive and procedural components, outcome expectations,

and some interpretive comments. The result is a synergistic composite that includes some

features of most of the various types of definition discussed above. Nieto stated (2006):

Multicultural education is a process of comprehensive school reform and basic
education for all students. It challenges and rejects racism and other forms of
discrimination in schools and society and accepts and affirms the pluralism (such as
ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious, economic, and gender, among others) that
students, their communities, and teachers represent. Multicultural education
permeates the curriculum and instructional strategies used in schools, as well as the
interactions among teachers, students and parents, and the very way that schools
conceptualize the nature of teaching and learning. Because it uses critical pedagogy
as its underlying philosophy and focuses on knowledge, reflection, and action
(praxis) as the basis for social change, multicultural education furthers the
democratic principles of social justice (p.228).









She emphasized seven basic characteristics of multicultural education in her

definition. These are:

* multicultural education is antiracist education.

* multicultural education is basic education

* multicultural education is important for all students.

* multicultural education is pervasive.

* multicultural education is education for social justice.

* multicultural education is a process.

* multicultural education is critical pedagogy (p.228-229).

Banks, Cookson, Gay, Hawley, Irvine, Nieto, Schofield, and Stephan (2001)

reviewed and synthesized the research related to diversity. They organized their findings

under five categories including 12 essential principles. These categories and principles

are:

Teacher Learning
Principle 1. Professional development programs should help teachers understand
the complex characteristics of ethnic groups within U.S. society and the ways in
which race, ethnicity, language, and social class interact to influence student
behavior

Student Learning
Principle 2. Schools should ensure that all students have equitable opportunities to
learn and to meet high standards.

Principle 3. The curriculum should help students understand that knowledge is
socially constructed and reflects researchers' personal experiences as well as the
social, political, and economic contexts in which they live and work.

Principle 4. Schools should provide all students with opportunities to participate in
extracurricular and cocurricular activities that develop knowledge, skills, and
attitudes that increase academic achievement and foster positive interracial
relationships.









Intergroup Relations
Principle 5. Schools should create or make salient superordinate or cross-cutting
groups in order to improve intergroup relations.

Principle 6. Students should learn about stereotyping and other related biases that
have negative effects on racial and ethnic relations.

Principle 7. Students should learn about the values shared by virtually all cultural
groups (e.g., justice, equality, freedom, peace, compassion, and charity).

Principle 8. Teachers should help students acquire the social skills needed to
interact effectively with students from other racial, ethnic, cultural, and language
groups.

Principle 9. Schools should provide opportunities for students from different racial,
ethnic, cultural, and language groups to interact socially under conditions designed
to reduce fear and anxiety.

School Governance, Organization, and Equity
Principle 10. A school's organizational strategies should ensure that decision-
making is widely shared and that members of the school community learn
collaborative skills and dispositions in order to create a caring learning
environment for students.

Principle 11. Leaders should ensure that all public schools, regardless of their
locations, are funded equitably.

Assessment
Principle 12. Teachers should use multiple culturally sensitive techniques to assess
complex cognitive and social skills p. 196-203.

In the context of teacher education Cochran-Smith (2004) designed a conceptual

framework for educators, policy makers, researchers, and others to make sense of the

many instantiations in research, practice, and policy of policy what it means to recruit,

prepare, support, and assess teachers for a multicultural society to understand the multiple

meanings of multicultural education. She explained any instance of research, practice, or

policy related to multicultural teacher education implicitly (or explicitly) answers eight

key questions: the diversity question, the ideology question, the knowledge question, the

teacher learning question, the practice question, the outcome question, and the selection

question (Cochran-Smith, 2004). In addition to these eight key questions she explained









three external forces (institutional capacity, governmental/nongovernmental regulations,

relationships with local communities and schools), and the larger historical and social

contexts related to preparing teachers for diverse populations.

From this review of literature on multicultural education, the definition of

multicultural education can be found in several different ways, and educational practices

described as multicultural are implemented based on several different frameworks. Many

scholars agree on the definition of multicultural education that multicultural education as

a philosophical concept and an educational process (Grant, C. A. & Ladson-Billings G.,

1997), and multiculturalism as a philosophical position and movement that assumes

... the gender, ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of a pluralistic society should be
reflected in all of its institutionalized structures but especially in educational
institutions, including the staff, norms and values, curriculum, and student body
(Banks & Banks, 1993).

Research on Undergraduate Students' Belief Systems Regarding Diversity

Several types of research methods were utilized to examine the undergraduate

students' beliefs regarding diversity using qualitative, quantitative and mixed

methodologies. Qualitative studies included, case studies (Causey, Thomas & Armento

2000; Smith, 2000), ethnographic studies (Davis 1995; Pattnaik & Vold 1998), critical-

theory research (Levine-Rasky 2001; Noel 2003), narrative research (Clark & Medina

2000; Duesterberg 1998), action research (Graham & Young 2000), and

phenomenological research (Merryfield, 2000; Paccione, 2000).

Under the quantitative research methodology, there are many surveys used in the

field of teachers belief systems regarding diversity. These are Quick Discrimination

Index (developed by Joseph G. Ponterotto & Alan Burkard 1993 and used in a case study,

Garmon, 1998), The Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (developed by Henry, 1986;









used by Milner, Flowers, Moore, & Flowers (2003) as replicate an earlier study of Larke,

(1990)), Survey of Multicultural Education Concepts (SMEC) (used by Moore, Reeves-

Kazelskis (1992)), Semantic Differential Cultural Survey (used by Tran, Young, &

DiLella (1994)), Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scale (developed by

Pohan, and Aguilar (1994)), Modern Racism Scale (developed by McCon-ahay, Hardee,

& Batts, (1981) used by Chang (2002)), Multicultural Competency Questionnaire

(MCQ) (used by King, & Howard-Hamilton (2003)). To measure preservice teachers'

beliefs on the issue of diversity, many questionnaires were also developed on the basis of

reviews of the multicultural education field, and interviews with scholars in the area of

multicultural education (Barry & Lechner 1995; Bhargava, A., Hawley, L.D., Scott, C.L.,

Stein, M. & Phelps, A 2004; Hasseler 1998; Terrill & Mark 2000; Weisman & Garza

2002). Another methodological cluster used by many researchers was mixed method

design. Creswell (1995) used distinction in defining four of the mixed method designs:

* Sequential studies: The two phases are separate.

* Parallel/simultaneous studies: Two phases at a same time.

* Equivalent status design: conduct both quantitative and qualitative approaches
equally to understand the phenomenon under study.

* Dominant-less dominant studies: within a single dominant paradigm with a small
component of the overall study drawn from an alternative design.

Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) defined and added a fifth type of mixed method

design "a multilevel use of approaches" (p. 18). A review of literature on preservice

teacher beliefs on diversity shows examples of each type of design: Gonzales (1993); Lee

(2002); Middleton (2002); Moss (2001); Nayda (2003); Wiggings and Follo (1999).

Reviews of the research on multicultural teacher education tend to focus on three

issues; I used these issues as subcategories to review the studies. These issues are:









* The effectiveness of a multicultural education course on a teacher education
program

* The effects or impact of multicultural education course components or of teacher
preparation program components

* Preservice teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions about diversity.

The Effectiveness of a Multicultural Education Course on a Teacher Education
Program

Ngai (2004) stated, "In order to energize K-12 multicultural education, effective

multicultural education must start with teacher education" (p.321). Over the past decades,

multicultural education advocates have proposed various educational strategies and

teaching approaches for teacher education programs to provide preservice teachers

sufficient guidance in developing knowledge, skills, and dispositions dealing with

diversity issues in the classroom. Multicultural approaches and strategies in teacher

education programs can heighten awareness of students to social problems regarding the

issue of diversity and promote more open attitudes toward them, but the benefits range

over various categories. For example in her study Nayda (2003) explored changes in

teacher candidates' multicultural attitudes and knowledge as well as the factors that

contributed positively to those changes. Her findings suggest that teacher candidates'

multicultural attitudes and knowledge changed in a positive direction while the

candidates attended a teacher preparation program. Nayda collected data from two

questionnaires divided conceptually into six scales (curriculum, bilingual education,

stereotypes, culturally related behaviors, building of minority pupils' self-esteem and

assimilation) and semistructured interviews. She followed teacher candidates during their

teacher preparation programs and found that changes seem to be influenced by fieldwork









experiences in culturally/ethnically diverse settings, courses in multicultural and bilingual

education, and classmates.

Causey, Thomas and Armento (2000) examined the effectiveness of an approach on

diversity issues used in an urban university during the final year of a teacher preparation

program. Vosniadou and Brewer's (1987) framework was used in this study to analyze

cognitive schema and cognitive changes in preservice teachers with regard to their

attitudes and beliefs about diversity. Autobiographical and post-experience essays, the

reflection journals, and the diversity plans developed by the students were part of the data

collection procedures. The authors stated that:

Teacher education programs, in collaboration with school system educators, should
address the career needs of teachers as they face the joys and challenges of diverse
classrooms. We must commit to follow-up programs for our graduates if we wish
to support sensitivity to cultural diversity in classroom settings over the career
paths of educators (p.43).

As components of multicultural education, it is important for teachers "to affirm the

cultures and backgrounds of the students" and to create "an integrated framework for the

contextualizing of issues of race, class, and gender" (Van Gunten & Martin, 2001, p.39).

From this perspective in 1995, Davis conducted a 2-year ethnographic study of a teacher

education program that addressed the teachers' adoption of culturally responsive

pedagogy. She collected data from observations in teacher education classes on language

development, multicultural education, and reading and writing methods and interviews of

instructors and preservice teachers. She concluded, "preservice teachers experience and

ultimately adopt a meritocratic and hegemonic system of schooling in which academic

performance is viewed in terms of individual abilities and based on mainstream norms"

(p.553). Therefore she suggested that:









in developing teacher education curriculum and pedagogical strategies, an
understanding is needed of the multiple and complex ways in which preservice
teachers have developed a range of views related to minority schooling, including
the nature of intellectual ability, the purpose of schooling, and the reasons for
student failure (p.560).

Moss (2001) used both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques to

serve as a critical lens for teachers in promoting equity, student voice, and democratic

structure guided by the researcher's interest in understanding the potential of critical

pedagogy (Sleeter & McLaren, 1995). She selected fifteen participants who are K-12

classroom teachers, enrolled in a graduate level education course, Education That Is

Multicultural, included a set of simulation activities such as stereotypes, seal hunt, star

power, decisions, gifted and talented, ghetto, foods across the globe (overpopulation),

balkanization, cultural heritage, and concepts. She examined the translation of

multicultural learning activities in a college classroom into critical pedagogy in the public

school classrooms. Survey responses indicated that there was little transference to the

public school classroom in terms of using the simulated activities. However analysis of

narratives reflected a change Moss (2001) stated, "Most of the teachers were critically

impacted during one or more of the learning activities in a way that resulted in a broader

perspective and critical self-reflection with regard to their teaching practices" (p.9).

She concluded that:

Teachers must engage in the critical pedagogical discourse in scholarship, but more
importantly must apply a critical multicultural lens to teaching practices. Only,
then, can critical pedagogy be translated into public school practice and allow
teachers to participate in the systemic change of education from education that is
monocultural to education that is multicultural (p.10).

Utilizing combined quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the attitudes,

beliefs, and commitments of a predominantly Anglo-American population of preservice

teachers enrolled in a diversity course, Middleton (2002) described preservice teachers'









beginning attitudes, beliefs, and commitments to diversity; changes in attitudes, beliefs,

and commitments after participation in a diversity course; some theoretical underpinnings

for understanding changes; and a framework for facilitating positive multicultural

experiences. Quantitatively, the Beliefs About Diversity Scale (Pohan & Aguilar, 1994)

was used as a pre- and post-test measure of self-reported attitudes and beliefs about

diversity before and after participation in a diversity course. Qualitatively, data were

gathered through written self-reflective journals and oral discussions regarding specific

attitudes, beliefs and changes in ideologies and commitments toward diversity. Data

analysis indicated a significant difference from pretest to posttest on self-reported

personal and professional beliefs after participation in a diversity course and that changes

are not always toward increased diversity beliefs and commitment, quantitatively and

specific changes, qualitatively. And Middleton stated, "The overall picture seemed to

show that regardless of the stages PTs are in, they can be taught to be more accepting of

diversity given time and appropriate interventions" (p.358). Middleton proposed a

thematic framework for preparing PTs to work with diverse student populations by

increasing their understanding of and commitment to multicultural teaching practices as

well as facilitating positive multicultural experiences:

* Approach: Nonthreatening; Cognitively and developmentally appropriate; and
relevant to roles as future educators.

* Authenticity: Credible and approachable presenters/instructors; Relevant
experiences; Hands-on activities; and Usable skills for future.

* Awareness and Assessment: Cognitively conscious; View self, others, world from a
variety of perspectives; Time to become aware and asses new information; and
Freedom to choose what to do whit the new information.

* Accountability: "Gently forced" to...; Examine own biases; Take a stand for their
beliefs; Do what's best for students (p.351).









Many teacher educators point out that teachers will "need knowledge to develop

curriculum and teaching strategies that address the wide range of learning approaches,

experiences, and prior levels of knowledge" (Grant & Wieczorek, 2000, p. 913).

Wiggings and Follo (1999) investigated the preparation and commitment of

preservice teachers to teach in culturally diverse settings. Through questionnaires and

interviews, they collected and analyzed data from select groups of students who must

complete pre-student teaching field placements in at least two urban settings, at different

stages of the elementary education program, and tried to determine the impact of the

teacher education program on students' ability to teach in a multicultural environment.

They draw the statements for questionnaires from the work of Powell, Zehm, and Garcia

(1996) that divide into three broad categories: factors fostering readiness for teaching in

culturally diverse settings (knowledge and skills, pedagogical issues), factors

constraining readiness for teaching in culturally diverse settings (awareness of cultural

differences, personal attitude), and prior experiences relative to multicultural education.

In terms of direction and percentage of changed responses, all groups had a two-to-one

ratio of positive to negative change for first and last categories. But, for second category

they found almost as much as negative change as there was positive. As a result of this

study they stated that:

We must find a way to immerse students in the culture of the school and
community. Students must do more than reflect on what they see; they must also
reflect on who they are. If they do not, they will never be able to ask the important
questions, the difficult, sometimes tactless and embarrassing questions about
cultural norms and issues they do not understand. If they do not reach a level of
understanding and appreciation, we cannot expect them to reach a comfort level
that will allow them to make a commitment to work with and effectively teach
diverse student populations (p. 104).









Merryfield conducted a study in 2000 to look at why and how teacher educators are

bridging the gap between the fields that are commonly called multicultural education and

global education to prepare teachers to teach for diversity, equity, and interconnectedness

in the local community, nation, and world. Her analysis included 115 personal and/or

program profiles and supporting materials (syllabi, articles, program descriptions, etc.)

submitted by 80 teacher educators. For conceptualizing lived experience within the study,

she used Max van Manen's (1990) work on the temporal nature of lived experience. She

finds significant qualitative differences between those experiences identified by people of

color and those who are white in that most of the people of color acquired an experiential

understanding of discrimination and outsider status by growing up in a society

characterized by white privilege and racism while many of the middle-class white teacher

educators had their most profound experiences while living outside of their own country.

It is very difficult to determine how effective multicultural teacher education

practices are without examining graduates after they have started teaching, especially in

schools that serve minorities. Very little research reviewed here directly connected

teacher education with classroom practice; this connection is an essential part of the idea

of multiculturalism. Also race and ethnicity are the main factors that have been studied in

the literature described here, and usually disconnected from social class. More research

should focus on class and the interactions between class and race within the studies on

preparing teachers.

Pattnaik and Vold (1998) conducted an ethnographic study to gain a better

understanding of the multiple factors involved in student teachers' multicultural

preparation. They employed methodological guidelines as described in Lincoln and









Guba, (1985), and Bogdan and Biklen, (1994), including: a descriptive and exploratory

purpose for the studying teachers' beliefs and practices, use of the natural setting without

any artificial impositions, triangulation through multiple data collection procedures

across time and contexts, a purposive and small sample study to achieve

comprehensiveness and verticality in inquiry, and inductive data analysis to

accommodate evolving categories or themes. Over one-semester they collected data from

eight student teachers using a multicultural questionnaire, observations, documents, field

notes and interviews. As a result of the study they stated that:

our findings have highlighted that no discrete reform agenda standing alone could
shoulder the entire weight of the whole unless the whole is reflected in equal
passion in all its components. The whole we refer to is the ideology of "cultural
pluralism," and the components are Scwab's (1983) four common places: student,
teacher, subject, and milieu (p.82).

In her descriptive survey study on the academic and personal characteristics of in-

service teachers taking a graduate course in multicultural education issues, Gonzales

(1993) summarizes the descriptions of existing patterns and changes in academic

knowledge and attitudinal belief systems on multicultural education. Reflective teaching

was used as a psychopedagogical strategy with the in-service teachers for the purpose of

increasing their academic knowledge and changing their attitudes in this study. Her

results suggest that higher levels of academic knowledge occur when students gain an

increase in awareness levels of attitudinal belief systems through self-reflection.

Gonzales states that reflective teaching can be used as an effective ethnographic research

tool, as well as an effective psychopedagogical strategy for multicultural education.

To examine how small private colleges address multicultural issues within teacher

education, Hasseler (1998) collected data from 90 coalition education department

chairperson members who were asked to respond to a questionnaire focusing on beliefs









about multicultural teacher education, actual course content, and teaching practices. The

study indicates that there was great variety in how multiculturalism was addressed; less

than half the departments required courses in multicultural education, though nearly

three-quarters integrated it into other subjects; nearly three-quarters of participating

departments addressed multiculturalism in their philosophy statements; deterrents to

effective multicultural education included lack of minority faculty, lack of time for

gaining expertise, lack of funding and lack of minority students.

Multicultural education should involve field experience in teacher preparation

programs so that preservice teachers can reach an understanding of the relationship

between culture and power with learning through field experiences. Graham and Young

(2000) conducted an action research study. They describe and comment on the effort to

take advantage of the unique opportunity presented in the course when the students

returned to the university classroom after their first five weeks of student teaching.

Graham and Young draw attention to the complexities and tensions that arose for

students and instructors alike during these debriefing sessions. The instructors took on an

expanded role within the constraints and possibilities of the debriefing session as one

discursive site in the conceptualization of any program-wide agenda for multicultural

teacher education.

To understand the factors and process involved in developing a commitment to

multicultural education, Paccione (2000) conducted a phenomenological research study

utilizing written surveys and open-ended telephone interviews as data collection methods.

Paccione uses Moustakas' (1994) systematic process of data analysis method for the









analysis of interviews incorporates a four-stage process to describe the development of a

commitment to multicultural education:

* Stage One: Contextual Awareness,

* Stage Two: Emergent Awareness,

* Stage Three: Transformational Awareness,

* Stage Four: Committed Action in Advocacy for Diversity/Multicultural Education.

Two major findings of the study indicated that particular life experiences (Initiative from

job situation, Influence of family/childhood experiences, Discrimination due to minority

status, Interactive/extended cultural immersion experience, Influence of training,

educational course, or books) contribute to the development of a commitment to

multicultural education by those teachers who are already committed and a four-stage

process can be used to describe the development of a commitment to multicultural

education. Paccione(2000) stated,

"Preservice teachers have a wide variety of contextual awareness that has been
developed through early childhood experiences. There is not much that teacher
educators can do about that. However, an understanding of the stages of developing
a commitment to multicultural education may assist teacher educators as they
prepare preservice teachers for a racially-culturally diverse student population"
(p.998).

The study supports the importance of cultural immersion experiences and course

work in multicultural education in evoking a critical analysis of the sociopolitical status

quo in U.S. society.

The Effects or Impact of a Multicultural Education Course Components or Teacher
Preparation Program Components

Some study findings showed that after a multicultural education course with

specific strategies, positive changes in attitudes begin to occur. Noel (2003) described an

art-based approach to the study of multicultural education that challenges students to









address critical examinations of society, while enabling an aesthetic understanding of the

issues. As the instructor of an "Education in a Democratic, Pluralistic Society" course,

her class engaged in critical multicultural pedagogy, in the examination of "how power

works in interest of dominant social relations, and how such relations can be challenged

and transformed" (Giroux, p.170). By the end of the semester, she had collected about 50

pieces of artwork produced by the students. She stated that:

These acts of creation, undertaken weekly by these students, while perhaps
beginning as the individual effort to understand concept, became a socially
transformative effort (p. 18).

Another perspective emerges from the study of 35 teacher candidates where

Levine-Rasky (2001) focused on how prospective teachers respond to the social

difference they encounter in educational discourse and in the public schools. Portraying 3

teacher candidates she found 3 signposts indicative of support for multicultural social

reconstructionist education: identification with social justice, support for critical

pedagogy and multicultural social reconstructionist education, and the desire to learn

more about the effects of social domination.

Clark and Medina (2000) conducted a research study to see how students'

understandings of literacy and multiculturalism are mediated through the acts of reading

and writing literacy narratives. Narratives and narrative theory were central to their work.

The study describes one group of eight students who chose Luis Rodriguez's "Always

Running" (1993) as their focal literacy narrative. Their goal was to analyze the students'

understandings of some issues in becoming a teacher in a multicultural society through

reading Rodriguez's autobiography on his growing up as a son of Mexican immigrants in

East Los Angeles, his struggle to acquire an education, and his involvement in gangs and

violence. Clark and Medina were particularly interested in the relationship between the









students' readings of the text and their reflections on their personal identities and

processes of becoming literate. They collected and photocopied all students' writing from

the course, including students' personal literacy narratives, their reading logs, responses

to "Always Running," and their final papers on literacy and pedagogy. Also they attended

group discussions. The study shows that literacy narratives may become a powerful tool

when used in the process of raising awareness of diversity among preservice teachers.

These narratives hold the potential to encourage preservice teachers to enter the dialectic

and to develop a consciousness of, or to at least reflect upon, issues of literacy and

diversity in the classroom.

In his research Duesterberg (1998) considered questions about culture and cultural

identity, which surfaced as student teachers in their full-time practicum in elementary

classrooms engaged in efforts to learn about the communities of their students and to use

culture in the classroom. He used what Scott (1991) called the "Narratives of experience"

in order to examine the language (or discourses) that shaped and constructed that

experience (p.777). Through the research he illustrated how culture can be used in the

classroom to frame and limit children, and how the classroom might be a space in which

culture and cultural identity is explored, challenged and recreated.

Ference and Bell (2004) described a two-week cross-cultural immersion experience

for preservice teachers attending a small liberal arts college. This experience occurred

early in preservice teachers' teacher training and was designed to positively affect

preservice teachers' attitudes toward Latino students who did not speak English well. As

a result of this short study from the students' end-of-course papers the immersion

experience had positively affected them in substantial ways. The categories that emerged









from the study were: Immigration, matching prior knowledge, culture, preconceptions

and misconceptions, feelings of isolation and ESOL methods and curriculum.

Preservice Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Perceptions about Diversity

Understanding the nature of beliefs, attitudes and perceptions is a must to

understanding future teachers' decisions and effectiveness regarding the issues of

diversity, equity and social justice. The changes of attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and

perceptions of preservice teachers have been studied from various different theoretical

perspectives and research methods. For example, Smith (2000) examined the role of

preservice teachers' backgrounds in the inclusion of a multicultural education perspective

in the teaching of secondary social studies. He used a case study approach involving two

social studies preservice teachers with widely different background experiences and

beliefs in relation to cultural diversity. The study consisted of two main phases: a social

study methods course and student teaching. Written papers, a planning unit for student

teaching, interviews with the participants, observations of the participant' teaching, a

videotaped recording of their teaching, and surveys and focus group interviews with the

high school students they taught, were all part of the data collection methods used in the

study. He found that background experiences have explanatory value in the preservice

teachers' receptiveness to a multicultural teaching perspective.

The background experiences of college students are important in that they bring

their preconceived beliefs, myths and concerns to the college classrooms.

Elhoweris, Parameswaran and Alsheikh (2004) discussed the myths that they

encountered in their personal teaching experiences with college students, and the impact

of these myths on student teachers' understanding of their roles in classrooms. In addition

they suggested teaching tips as part of teacher education courses that will help clarify









some of these issues for student teachers in their effort to be effective teachers to

underrepresented and marginalized students in their own classrooms. These myths are:

Myth 1: Multicultural education reinforces barriers between various cultural
groups.


Myth 2: Cultures are static, unchanging and have core characteristics that can be
identified and studied.


Myth 3: A discussion of educational inequities in multicultural classes is sufficient
to create a more just society.


Myth 4: Racism ought to be treated the same as interpersonal prejudice.


Myth 5: Specific pedagogical skills are the maj or pillars of culturally responsive
instruction for diverse learners.


Myth 6: The locus of responsibility and change for individual underachievement
lies within the minority child.


Myth 7: Learning styles of children from different culturally and linguistically
diverse backgrounds must be a core theme for teacher preparation programs.


Myth 8: Teaching to diversity simply involves helping students from diverse
backgrounds achieve traditional goals in education (p.13-17).


They concluded:

Student teachers often fail to see education as a political enterprise of reproducing
the dominant ideology and appropriating and legitimizing one type of discourse.
They sometimes fail to recognize that they don't teach history, math or reading but
they teach a student who comes to school as an ethnic being, cultural-being,
gender-being, and religious being. They often overlook the crucial and dynamic
relationship between the text and context and often fail to recognize the multiple
discourses within which schools operate (p.17).

There are many educational studies that used surveys and self-questionnaires to

assess the undergraduate students' belief systems regarding diversity. The following









section of chapter introduces related studies presented under survey studies and self-

questionnaires.

Survey studies

The Quick Discrimination Index developed by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Alan

Burkard (1993) consists of 25 items and reports a single total score that represents the

respondent's level of awareness, knowledge, and sensitivity to racial/ethnic minority

issues and women's issues. In a case study, Garmon (1998) examined how three white

preservice teachers were similar and dissimilar in terms of their racial attitudes and

beliefs, their prior interracial experiences, and certain personal characteristics. As a part

of the larger data collection, students completed the Quick Discrimination Index. Results

of the case study indicated that multicultural education courses may be most effective for

students who already possess more favorable racial attitudes and for those who display a

quality of openness and an ability to be self-reflective.

The Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (Henry, 1986) was designed to help

persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special

needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The

checklist consists of 28 items to which respondents may indicate the extent of their

agreement or disagreement. Milner, Flowers, Moore, and Flowers (2003) attempted to

replicate an earlier study (Larke, 1990) that sought to estimate preservice teachers'

general awareness of cultural differences. In the study, data from 99 preservice teachers

who completed the Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory were utilized to examine the

extent to which teacher education programs helped future teachers to become more

multiculturally competent. Using the Larke's study as a foundation, they found preservice

teachers were more likely to agree with statements that emphasized cultural inclusion and









respect for diversity in the classroom and also a large proportion of preservice teachers

reported neutral responses suggesting that they were not quite sure how they felt about

integrating their learning environments with curricula, assessments, and programs that

support multiculturalism in the classroom. The authors evaluated the neutrality of

responses:

Perhaps this neutrality results from the lack of experiences preservice teachers had
engaging in these activities. It is also likely that preservice teachers were unsure of
their abilities and feelings in this respect because they had not had the opportunity
to attempt such strategies (p.68).

The 18 item Survey of Multicultural Education Concepts (SMEC) was designed to

assess beliefs and attitudes about multicultural education with items representing: racism,

sexism, stereotyping, linguistic views, special holidays, and educational practices. Moore

and Reeves-Kazelskis (1992) conducted a study to determine whether formal instruction

into multicultural education would produce changes in preservice teachers' beliefs about

basic concepts related to the topic. The sample consisted of 31 preservice teachers

enrolled in 2 sections of a practicum course in early childhood education. Results of the

study suggest that carefully planned and implemented formal instruction may be used to

change preservice teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity.

A 7 Point (26 paired items) Semantic Differential Cultural Survey was used by

Tran, Young, and DiLella (1994). Students (n=55) in a required multicultural education

course designed to reduce racism and stereotyping attitudes among preservice teacher

education students completed pre- and posttests to determine attitudes toward African

Americans, Europeans, and Mexican Americans. Results indicated that the course

appeared to have had a significant effect on changing student attitudes toward the three

ethnic groups.









Chang (2002) examined whether a diversity requirement diminishes racial

prejudice particularly toward African Americans. An eight-item adaptation of the Modern

Racism Scale (McCon-ahay, Hardee, & Batts, 1981) was used to assess subjects' level of

prejudice toward Blacks. The eight items are embedded in a series of other unrelated

social and political questions to mask the intentions of the questionnaire. The findings

support the necessity of providing undergraduates with opportunities to critically examine

cultural and social groups previously marginalized or ignored in the curriculum so that

students can challenge their prejudicial views and assumptions.

King and Howard-Hamilton (2003) used the Multicultural Competency

Questionnaire (MCQ) to assess multicultural experiences and competency levels of

graduate students in college student personnel preparation programs, student affairs staff

serving as internship supervisors, and diversity educators. They used Pope and Reynolds'

(1997) definition of multicultural competence for this project: "the awareness,

knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively and ethically across cultural

differences" (p. 270). The following definitions of these three aspects (based on Pope and

Reynolds, 1997) were provided to respondents as a frame of reference for completing the

MCQ:

* Multicultural Knowledge: Having an informed understanding of cultures that are
different from one's own culture, including knowledge of their histories, traditions,
values, practices, and so forth.

* Multicultural Skills: Skills that individuals use to engage in effective and
meaningful interactions with those who are from different cultural backgrounds
than their own.

* Multicultural Awareness: Awareness of how people's attitudes, beliefs, values,
assumptions, and self-awareness affect the ways they interact with those who are
culturally different from themselves (p.271).









The study showed that there are significant differences by group and by race in

respondents' levels of multicultural competence: student affairs staff members scored

significantly higher than did CSP students, and diversity educators scored the highest.

Students of color scored significantly higher on this measure than did the White students

and the staff members.

Lee (2002) examined preservice teachers' multicultural teaching performance and

noted whether preservice teachers' demographic and educational backgrounds would

predict their performance. In the study, preservice teachers completed the Survey ofPre-

service Teachers'Multicultural Teaching Competency, which includes questions about

knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of human development and learning, adapting

instruction for individual needs, multiple instructional strategies, classroom motivation

and management skills, communication skills, instructional planning skills, assessment of

student learning, professional commitment, and responsibility. Also Lee used two open-

ended questions to examine respondents' levels of multicultural education integration.

The study showed that preservice teachers' backgrounds were an effective predictor of

higher scores on multicultural teaching performance; the number of multicultural courses

preservice teachers take was an effective predictor of a high score on their multicultural

teaching performance; and there was no correlation between preservice teachers' high

scores on multicultural teaching performance and their multicultural education

integration levels.

Self-questionnaires

To measure preservice teachers' beliefs on the issue of diversity, many

questionnaires were developed on the basis of reviewing of the multicultural education

field and interviews with scholars in the area of multicultural education.









Terrill and Mark (2000) developed a 37-item questionnaire to assess preservice

teachers' expectations for schools with children of color and second-language learners.

The questionnaire was in two sections. The first section identifies the preservice teachers'

expectations for learners in three school settings on nine dependent variables: curriculum,

discipline, parental support, child abuse, mentally and emotionally impaired students,

gifted and talented students, motivation, feelings of comfort with students, and feelings of

safety in the community. The second section of the survey provided demographic data on

the preservice teachers. The results indicated that the preservice teachers held

significantly different expectations for learners in different school settings and from

different racial and linguistic backgrounds. For example, preservice teachers expected

higher levels of discipline problems, lower levels of parental support, higher levels of

child abuse, fewer gifted and talented students, and lower levels of motivation in the

schools with children of color.

On the basis of a review of the literature and on informal interviews with preservice

teachers, in-service teachers, and teacher educators, Barry and Lechner (1995) developed

a 43-item questionnaire to examine seventy-three preservice teachers' attitudes about and

awareness of aspects of multicultural teaching and learning. The study showed that most

respondents were aware of many issues related to multicultural education and anticipate

having culturally diverse students in their classroom.

Roper (2004) stated:

... a diverse campus community will not only add to the social relevance of the
education we provide, but also will make for a more dynamic and compelling
learning experience. ... faculty and administrators today design and implement
curricula, campus activities, programs, and services focused on meeting the needs
of a diverse student body and educating for participation in an increasingly diverse
world. We do all that we do with the belief that fostering diversity and an









appreciation for it is appropriate and important to the success of our institutions
(p.48).

Roper (2004) developed a survey and administered it to students at his university to

assess students' feelings about, and perspectives on, diversity. His analysis indicated

three-fourths of the participating students offered strong support for diversity and

affirmed that it is important to them personally and is an important dimension of their

education. On the other side he stated:

The bad news is that many of the ways in which we have promoted diversity,
offered diversity education, and managed the dynamics of campus diversity have
fostered skepticism among students about our motives, our commitment to fairness
and equity, and our ability to achieve diversity without diluting our responsibility to
deliver high quality academic programs. Even students who support and find value
in diversity are confused by our efforts (p.49).

He also looked at the differences in responses between minority and majority

students and stated:

In their responses, students from under-represented backgrounds commented on the
comfort they receive from our diversity mission, while majority students, who have
typically been at the center of our mission, expressed fear about how the focus on
diversity will influence their well-being. Students seemed to be asking, Does my
university have the capacity to create an institutional culture with space at the
center for everyone whom it is committed to serve? (p.51).

To assess one hundred and fifty-eight preservice teachers' attitudes toward

diversity both before and after a multicultural course Weisman and Garza (2002)

designed a 36-item survey. The survey items were divided into three broad categories:

* Attitudes and beliefs about diversity issues in general,

* Beliefs about classroom practices related to working with diverse populations,

* Awareness of existing societal inequality.

The authors stated that, "The survey is grounded in the work of theorists who

advocate a multicultural approach that promotes social structural equality and cultural









pluralism (Banks, 1994; Bennett, 1999; Sleeter & Grant, 1999)" (p.30). Results of the

study showed an overall positive orientation to diversity and the low levels of agreement

for certain key items such as minority parents value education, democratic ideals support

biculturalism, structure of school system could be an obstacle to achievement on both pre

and post-surveys.

In a similar study Cheri W. Van Hook (2002) investigated preservice teachers'

perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as

they began their teacher education program. She asked 68 preservice teachers to identify

the inherent barriers that may prevent the integration of anti-bias curriculum. To

determine barriers, she analyzed the preservice teachers' beliefs analyzed and identified

the themes. These themes were: Difficulty Discussing Sensitive Topics (including

Religion in the Classroom and Creating Controversy); Policies and Practices Detrimental

to Diversity (including Geography and Federal State, and School Regulations):

Difficulty Implementing Diversity Curriculum (including Developing Curriculum and

Teaching Strategies, Time Constraints, and Financial Constraints); and Inability to

Recognize and Accept Diversity (including Society, Teachers, Parents, and

Children). And she stated:

Rather real or imagined, the teachers' perceived barriers are the greatest deterrent to
the inclusion of diversity. Preservice teachers need to consider the potential barriers
to the implementation of a diverse curriculum. Reflection on one's attitudes and
beliefs will have an impact on the perceived barriers. One goal of teacher education
should be the destruction of these barriers in order for teachers to integrate diversity
in the curriculum (p.263).

Multicultural education as a field of study has gone through a series of stages

developments and expanded its content on the way as Boyle-Baise (1999) described in

her study. There are a large number of studies that define and clarify its goals and









objectives through the past few decades. Now, researchers on one side of many research

studies have shifted their focus to the practice of integrating multicultural education into

various fields of study in education and other areas, while on the other side, many

researchers have selected to work on new themes that have emerged from the earlier

studies and practices.

Review of the Theory and Research on Diversity in the Children's Literature

Used in Preservice Teacher Education


To make it relevant for my study involving students in a children's literature class,

this section is divided into five categories. These sections are issues in children's

literature, studies in reader response, and studies in critical literacy. All studies in this

section focus on teacher education context.

All resources are put under three categories in this paper; one might put them under

different categories. For example I noted through the articles that the authors of the

research had different perspectives on children's literature. Perry Nodelman (1981)

suggested:

Children's literature is not just literature written with children in mind, nor is it just
literature that happens to be read by children. It is a genre, a special kind of
literature with its own distinguishing characteristics. Identifying those
characteristics and defining that genre are the major tasks immediately confronting
serious critics (p.24).

Some took a literary perspective and viewed literature as a discipline with its own

content. Others viewed literature as a vehicle for teaching students to read and write. Also

some viewed literature as a means of addressing social, political and cultural issues.









Issues in Children's Literature

Many studies focused on issues in children's literature classes especially regarding

multicultural literature. Mainly these issues are:

* The state of children's literature around the world (economic factors; language
factors; views of literature)

* The process of how books get published and brought to other countries (obstacles)

* The availability of international literature (How do we acquire it?)

* Translation issues

* Authenticity of international literature (insider-outsider perspective)

* Evaluation of international literature (evaluation criteria outside our
culture/language)

* Trends in international literature

* Curricular issues in international literature

Growing bodies of research focus on children's literature through the use of well-

written fiction and non-fiction that students can use to learn about and become sensitive

to issues of diversity, as well as to see themselves reflected in the literature, and to affirm

who they are. The majority of these articles focus on multicultural issues in children's

literature, especially in relation to the ways in which people of color are depicted (Collier,

2000; Duren, 2000; Harris, 1990; Joshua, 2002; Marantz, & Marantz, 1999).

Rosenblatt (1938/1995) proposed that when readers encounter books that feature

characters with whom they can connect, a love of reading will result. Also Rosenblatt

(1938/1995) acknowledged the role that the teaching of literature plays in fostering

democratic education. She stated that:

As the student shares through literary experience the emotions and aspirations of
other human beings, he can gain heightened sensitivity to the needs and problems
of those remote from him in temperament, in space, or in social environment; he









can develop a greater imaginative and social theories for actual human lives. Such
sensitivity and imagination are part of the indispensable equipment of the citizen of
a democracy (p.261).

Similarly Bishop (1994) reminded us that "...children need literature that serves as

a window into lives and experiences different from their own, and literature that serves as

a mirror reflecting themselves and their cultural values, attitudes and behaviors"(p.xiv).

Other articles addressed social or political issues in children's literature (Dresang,

2003; Levande, 1989; Serafini, 2003). Levande (1989) pointed out that the ways in which

children's literature is used in the elementary classroom are directly related to teacher's

definition of reading, her beliefs about how meaning and knowledge are constructed, the

role of the reader in the act of reading, and the context of the reading event. Serafini

(2003) described three theoretical perspectives associated with reading and literacy

education and provides examples of instructional practices that align with each. First, the

modernist perspective is based on a belief that meaning resides in the text (Eagleton,

1996) and Serafini described the Accelerated Reader program that aligns with the

modernist perspectives. Lamme (2003) believed that AR can "block the ability of

teachers to transform the program into a literature-rich experience for children" (p.44).

Second, the transactional perspective is based on the belief that meaning is constructed in

the transaction between a particular reader and a particular text (Rosenblatt, 1938/1995).

And last, a critical perspective focused on the ways that texts are constructed in social,

political, and historical context, and on the ways in which these contexts position readers

and texts to particular interpretations (McKormic, 1994). There is a range of possibilities

for teachers using children's literature in the classrooms, but in today's' classrooms as as

McKormic (1994) pointed out responding to political pressures, elementary teachers









frequently are forced to adopt instructional practices and commercial programs that focus

on decoding and comprehension strategies designed to raise standardized test scores.

Some of the studies focused on the response of preservice teachers to controversial

texts that bring the issue of resistance to the field. These included: Apol, Sakuma,

Reynolds, and Rop (2003) (Sadako by Eleanor Coerr); Bercaw (2003) (Harry Potter and

the Sorcerer 's Stone by Rowling); McNair (The five Chinese brothers by Bishop &

Wiese, The wagon by Johnson, and The Indian in the cupboard by Banks, L.R.);

Williams (2001) (Daddy's Rommate by Wilhoite).

Apol, Sakuma, Reynolds, and Rop (2003) concluded that there are seven issues that

preservice teachers resist:

* Moving beyond their initial pedagogical preoccupations, seeing literature response
as synonymous with moral or cross-cultural lessons.

* Thinking critically about the ideology and perspectives in a text, imagining in the
case of historical fiction that any textual representation was "true".

* Talking about troubling issues of ideology in connection with war, opting instead to
create happy endings to stories, to focus on less troubling parts of the texts, or to
choose texts that did not raise controversial or upsetting issues.

* Imagining that children could think about and respond to literature in complex
ways, believing instead that children's responses would take the form of a craft
activity rather than in-depth discussion about the text.

* The hard work and complication involved in critical reading....Often our students
saw critical reading as opposed to pleasure, rather than as a source of pleasure and
satisfaction.

* A critical stance toward U.S. actions ...

* An approach to the teaching of critical reading (p.454-457).

In addition to the resistance problem, McNair brings up the issue of availability of

multicultural books. She stated that:









The challenge is to help students to see things that they normally wouldn't see. One
activity which I have found particularly helpful is to allow students to conduct
critiques of Trumpet and Scholastic book club order forms spanning a variety of
age groups and months of the year. Upon obtaining the order forms, students
usually reminisce about receiving them as elementary school students, and they
look for books that they recognize. I ask students not only to pay attention to which
books are advertised but also to pay attention to which books are not advertised
since "isms" can also be surfaced in the form of invisibility. Students are quick to
point out books by authors we have studied in class like David Shannon, Gail
Gibbons, Kevin Henkes, and Patricia Polacco, but they soon realize that authors of
color, whom we have also studied in class, such as Pat Mora, Nikki Grimes, Janet
Wong, and Joseph Bruchac are not as likely to be available for purchase (p.52).

Several articles examined the characteristics of texts in isolation from a reader other

than the researcher. Many researchers examined cultural authenticity (Ducket, & Knox,

2001; Lamme, 2000; Lamme, & Fu, 2001; Lowery, 2003; Miller, 1996) and, availability

(Ayala, 1999).

Diamond and Moore (1995) provided an outline for selecting and evaluating

multicultural children's books:

* Characters who authentically reflect the distinct cultural experiences, realities, and
worldview of specific groups.

* Character representations portrayed in a true-to-life and balanced manner.

* Settings representative of an environment consistent with a historical or
contemporary time, place or situation of the specific culture.

* Themes developed within the story or selections that are consistent with the values,
beliefs, and customs and traditions, needs, and conflicts of the specific culture.

* Informational literature presented in a detailed and accurate manner.

* Literature that is free of stereotypes in language, illustrations, behavior, and
character traits.

* Language characteristics of the distinctive vocabulary, style, patterns, and rhythm
of speech of the specific cultural group.

* Language that reflects a sensibility to the people of the culture; offensive, negative,
or degrading vocabulary in descriptions of characters, their customs, and lifestyles
is absent.









* Gender roles within the culture portrayed accurately and authentically, reflecting
the changing status and roles of women and men in many cultures.

Ayala (1999) brought the issue of availability of multicultural books about people

of disabilities. She indicated that few of the children's books in languages other than

English portray individuals with disabilities.

Studies on Reader Response

Given the multiple roles, purposes, text types, and contexts, reader response

theorists tended to focus on different aspects of these components. Beach (1993)

discussed the five perspectives that are based somewhat on the historical development

within reader-response criticism. He stated that:

The early theorists, drawing on structuralist linguistics, narrative theory, and
aesthetic theory, focused more on the reader's knowledge of text conventions
and/or reader's experience. With the increased interest in psychoanalytical and
cognitive psychological perspectives in the 1960s and 1970s, theorists attempted,
with mixed success, to apply these approaches to understand response. Then, in the
1980s and early 1990s, the rise of social constructivist, poststructuralist, feminist,
and cultural/media studies perspectives led to an increased interest in the
transaction as embedded in social and cultural contexts (p.9).

Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in research on preservice teachers'

responses to literature within particular contexts. This category of research is based in

literary criticism and reader response theories. Although reader response theories and

research all focus in some way on the processes by which readers make meaning, they

vary in the roles assigned to the reader, the text, and the social context within which the

reader experiences a particular text. The majority of research has focused on the

significance of discussion, shared interpretations, response journals, and literature logs.

Cai (2001) discussed some issues arising from the use of transactional theory as a

guide for literacy and literature education. He formulated these issues in terms of

theoretical distinctions between five pairs of concepts: basic and enhanced literacy; literal









comprehension and literary understanding; literary texts and informational texts; aesthetic

and efferent stances; and aesthetic reading and critical reading. He pointed to the

misconstrued and misapplied interpretations of efferent and aesthetic stances, he wrote:

"One major misinterpretation is to equate efferent reading with text-centered (text-

oriented) response and aesthetic reading with the reader-centered (reader oriented)

response..." (p.24). Also he pointed to an example of misconstrued interpretation as

defining aesthetic reading as reading for only pleasure. Because a literary text can be

critiqued from different angles, contributions of various critical perspectives to the

literary transaction are also part of aesthetic responses (Cai, 2001).

Because of the large number of studies on reader response, we can organize these

studies into three subcategories according to the major focus of the research: influence of

text, reader characteristics, instructional strategies and response processes.

Influence of text

The role of the text in reader response has been the focus of numerous studies at all

grade levels. This category is defined by those studies that investigate the influence of

particular aspects of text-genre, theme, tone, character, culture and ethnicity, or

illustration-on meaning making process of the reader. Findings from these studies support

the power of text to encourage aesthetic response, discussion, and critical thinking about

readers' personal lives as well as the world in which they live. Apol (2002) described the

power of text and reader's response as a chronological progress in her life as textual

power as purpose (personal response), textual power as promise (text-literary response),

textual power as positioning (critical response), and textual power as progression (action-

to do something in the world).









Reader characteristics

Many studies are concerned primarily with the reader and how factors within the

reader affect the reader's responses to literature (Galda 1998; Giorgis, & Johnson 2000;

Sipe, 1999; Spiegel, 1998). Among the factors considered in these studies are age,

ethnicity, gender, and physical disabilities. Giorgis and Johnson (2000) stated that:

Readers will respond differently to text and illustration due to age, gender,
ethnicity, and prior life experiences, as well as the extent to which they are actively
engaged in the meaning making process. A book's potential is limited only by the
readers themselves-student, teacher, or librarian (p.222).

Galda (1998) uses similar descriptions. She wrote:

The content of any book is not simply the words the author put there but those
words as they are infused with meaning by their readers, meaning that reflects the
various experiences and knowledge that readers bring to their reading (p.2).

Spiegel (1998) reviewed the literature on reader response theory; including the

important role reader response activities can play in the development of readers of all

ages. She described the four basic assumptions of reader response theory based on

Rosenblatt's works. These assumptions are:

1. Stance is important: Efferent, Aesthetic

Aesthetic: Focus is on what reader feels during reading, what he or she
experiences and thinks.

Efferent: Focus is on carrying information away from the text, to learn
something rather than to experience something.

2. Readers make meaning: The making of meaning from reading is a dynamic,
reflective, introspective process. Readers don't "discover" meaning in a text.
The reader makes meaning. Meaning is constructed, interpreted, and revised by
the readers themselves, not by literary critics, professors, or even authors.

3. Although meaning is personal, it is grounded in text. Although readers have
individual and unique interpretations and responses to text, they are still
connected to the text; evidence to support their interpretation must be evident in
the text.









4. Multiple interpretations of text are constructed. Because meaning is constructed
by unique individuals, multiple meanings are to be expected and even
celebrated. Making meaning is dynamic, reflective, and introspective. As a
result, each reader will take something unique and different from the text (p.42-
43).

Instructional strategies and response processes

Under the instructional contexts and strategies topic, studies in this area examine

how teachers organize and structure classroom learning contexts and introduce

instructional practices to encourage student response and meaning making (Cai, 2001;

Cox & Many, 1992; Lehr & Thompson, 2000). This is a particularly significant area of

research, as it has an impact on current literacy and learning theory as well as reader

response theory. Also they focus on the processes readers use to make meaning as they

respond to literature. Most of the studies show the positive effects of the interaction

among students in an atmosphere that respects the individual's aesthetic response. These

findings support the theoretical framework that meaning is socially constructed.

Preservice teachers' response to children's books has become a popular subject

among researchers (Abernathy, 2002; Apol, Sakuma, Reynolds, & Rop, 2003; Bean,

Valerio, Mallette, & Readence, 1999; Bercaw, 2003; Brindley, & Laframboise, 2002;

Dana, & Lynch-Brown, 1992-93; Grisham, 2001; Laframboise, & Griffith, 1997;

Lechner, & Barry, 1997; Lehman & Scharer 1995-96; Lowery, 2002; McNair, 2003;

Roberts, 1998; Stasz, & Bennett, 1997; Williams, 2001). Based on Rosenblatt's works,

Bean, Valerio, Mallette, and Readence (1999) explore pre-service elementary teachers'

literature circle discussion of Gary Soto's (1991) multicultural young adult novel, Taking

Sides. As a result of their research studies, these emphasize the difficulty of simply

introducing students to multicultural literature without explicitly considering and

discussing models of literature response. When they looked at the students' backgrounds,









they figured out that students in the reader-based classroom produced significantly more

interpretive and personal associations in their short story response essays than their

counterparts in the teacher-centered classroom.

Smith (2001) examined the way two groups of readers respond to a book in a

teacher education class. Her study provided a glimpse of meaning making within the

context of learning to teach for diversity. Smith pointed to the importance of two

components in these classrooms: a set of professional readings informed by diverse

viewpoints and participation in a multicultural literature discussion group. She stated that:

The children's literature and book discussion groups fostered emotional
engagement, as readers entered into transactions with the characters and their
stories. The professional articles provided a schema for reading, allowing some
readers to pull ideas together and reflect on their teaching (p. 61).

Metcalf-Turner and Smith (1999) examined the use of multicultural texts as

teaching cases with K-12 teachers in a graduate education program. They stated that by

reading and reflecting on carefully chosen literature texts, which depict authentic

perspectives about different cultures, teachers can gain an awareness of their own

attitudes and belief systems as lenses through which they may acquire new concepts and

applied knowledge.

Singer and Smith (2003) argued that reading and discussing multi-cultural young

adult and children's literature in reflective social contexts has the potential to help teacher

education students develop a deeper understanding of themselves and of different others.

In their study they selected From the Notebooks of Melanin Sun by Jacqueline Woodson

(1995) for their teacher education students in both children's literature and the methods

course to read. Using Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory they examined

comments from student journals for evidence of conceptual and emotional engagement.









The following questions directed their analysis: How do readers respond to issues

regarding race and sexual orientation raised by From the Notebooks of Melanin Sun? Are

there differences in the responses of students from different backgrounds regarding the

way they think about these issues? Their findings indicated that:

* What readers bring to a book is of major consequence in determining how they will
respond.

* Students respond to a book with greater emotional engagement when they find
themselves in the book.

In addition they reported:

In journals and in class discussion, we noted powerful points of resonance with the
text by Black readers and readers with gay relatives. White readers, who did not
find themselves well represented in this book, had a tendency to distance
themselves from differences of race and sexual orientation (p.22).

Many scholars have critiqued reader-response theories. In her book "Critical

Encounters in High School English: Teaching Literary Theory to Adolescents" Appleman

(2000) critiqued the reader-response theory:

A reader-response approach to the teaching of literature allows students to employ
a variety of interpretive strategies and encourages students to bring their personal
experience to the text. Although the emphasis of this critical approach focuses on
the reader rather then the teacher or text as the source of literary meaning, the
problem of a single dominant theoretical perspective remains. ... Students may be
able to derive a plurality of interpretations using the reader-response approach, but
they are still not presented with multiple critical approaches, which would enable
them to choose and construct their own readings from a variety of theoretical
perspectives rather than simply the perspective of personal response (p.4).

Studies about Critical Literacy Theory

Critical literacy has many definitions. All scholars and teachers do not agree about

a single definition of what critical literacy is. The need for the plural form 'critical

literacies' suggests that diversity of curriculum interventions are in theoretical, practical

and political contest with one another (Luke & Freebody, 1996). Sources of critical









literacy and pedagogy can be found in Marxist, feminist, and post-structuralist

approaches and each position has its own set of questions that guide the approach (Green,

2001).

Quintero (2004) defined critical literacy as a process of constructing and critically

using language (oral and written) as means of expression, interpretation and/or

transformation of our lives and the lives of those around us (p.7). Similarly Hull (1993)

defined critical literacy as the ability to not only read and write, but to assess texts in

order to understand the relationships between power and domination that underlie and

inform them. Drawing inspiration from the works of Freire, McLaughlin and DeVoogd

(2004) described critical literacy as:

... not a teaching method but a way of thinking and a way of being that challenges
texts and life as we know it. Critical literacy focuses on issues of power and
promotes reflection, transformation and action. It encourages readers to be active
participants in the reading process: to question, to dispute, and to examine power
relations (p. 150).

Apple (2004) argued, "our aim should not be to create "functional literacy," (p. 179)

as posed by the conservative restoration, "but critical literacy, powerful literacy, political

literacy which enables the growth of genuine understanding and control of all of the

spheres of social life in which we participate" (p. 179).

There are varieties of studies that aim to understand what critical literacy theory

looks like in practice (O'Brien, 2001), how classroom teachers apply concepts of critical

literacy by choosing children's literature (Edward & Foss, 2000; McDonald, 2004), and

how critical literacy is incorporated in undergraduate classes (Fondrie, 2001; Jewett &

Smith, 2003; Ketter & Lewis, 2001; LaFramboise, & Griffith, 1997; Lewison, Flint, and

Van Sylus, 2002; Lowery, 2003; Saul & Wallace, 2002; Smith, 2002).









Apol (1998) explored the relationship between literary theory and children's

literature in the teacher education classroom, positioning itself in the gap between books

and children, texts and readers, theory and practice in literature. She stated that,

"Examining the relationship between literature and the larger world of culture and

ideology begins by acknowledging the inherent power of literary texts" (p.34).

Lowery (2003) examined how the issues of race, class, and ideology influence the

author's construction and representation of Chinese immigrant subjectivities in the

Laurence Yep's (1992) The Star Fisher. She stated:

... books cannot be taken for granted without close examination... without critically
examining the author's ideology and frame of reference, it would be difficult to
understand why stereotypical images of Chinese immigrants are still presented in
the novel (p.23).

After reviewing the professional and research literature over the past thirty years

Lewison, Flint and Van Sluys (2002) classified studies into four dimensions of critical

literacy in their article, "Taking on critical literacy: The journey of newcomers and

novices". These four dimensions are interrelated none stand-alone. These categories are

namely:

* Disrupting the commonplace,

* Interrogating multiple viewpoints,

* Focusing on sociopolitical issues,

* Taking action and promoting social justice.

Luna, Jose Botelho, Fontaine, French, Iverson & Matos (2004) in their study,

described critical literacy practice and/as professional development as it evolved in a

teacher inquiry group investigating critical literacy within these categories.









Related Dissertations

The following section includes an overview of recently published dissertations on

topics related to issues of diversity and multicultural children's literature. These

dissertations can be classified under different categories. To classify the dissertations I

focused on their methodological orientations which emerged into three groups of studies;

qualitative, quantitative and mixed studies. The following section introduces the each

group of studies with table (Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3.) format including the

information about the studies and followed by preliminary findings of these studies.

Qualitative Studies

Emerging from a constructivist paradigm in her interpretive study Colabucci (2002)

after realizing only a few studies have contributed to our knowledge about how adult

readers make sense of these texts, while many scholars have considered how young

people read and respond to multicultural children's literature, investigated how preservice

teachers in an undergraduate children's literature class read and responded to

multicultural children's literature. She documented the activities of a children's literature

course with 22 students. She found five broad kinds of responses the students' writings

and talk about the texts:

* (IA) intimate disclosures: life-to-text connections

* (IB) intimate disclosures: text-to-life connections

* (II) dialogue and difference: text-and-life collide

* (IIIA) disconnections and difference: "intolerance"-of-difference

* (IIIB) disconnections and difference: "tolerance"-of-difference

* (IV) transcendence-of-difference









Ravitch (2000) used interpretive methods to study both preservice and experienced

teachers in a one semester, a graduate teacher education course. Ravitch explored the

complex nature of the all-white students' experiences of learning in a multicultural

education course and complicated the picture of white teacher learning about issues

central to culturally responsive teaching. She analyzed the participants' autobiographies

to explore the complex and individualized ways that students experienced and positioned

themselves in relation to material focused on issues of racism, white privilege, diversity

and inequality. She suggested that shifts in white teachers' beliefs and self-concepts

should not be designated to one domain such as white racial identity development but

should be understood as part of more complex learning experiences. She also believes

that students' responses to such material should not be considered through the binary lens

of "engagement" and "resistance" but rather, through an understanding that student'

responses to these issues are shaped by the complex intersection between their

autobiographies and their emerging understandings of issues of racism and inequality.

In her case study, Garcia (2001) presented the experiences of four classroom

teachers who used a multicultural literature-based, reader response approach to explore

multicultural teaching. She discussed each teacher's story to show how a teacher's

classroom practice grows and develops when supported and encouraged. The teachers

stated that their students' reading interests grew due to reading meaningful and relevant

literature. The students also interacted more discussing their reading with their peers and

wrote better, because they saw themselves, their families and their communities in the

literature.









In her case study Greenberg (2002) observed 7 randomly selected fifth graders for

12 weeks through the process of engaging small groups of students in literature

discussions in which cultural elements helped to heighten the awareness of students

towards the human diversity around them. Her findings indicated that students;

* Were genuinely interested in learning about the culture of others, although they did
not necessarily know a great deal about their own.

* Were highly motivate by well-written stories (primarily fiction)

* Relied most on their life experiences when making intertextual connections,
making few connections across text spontaneously.

* Needed multiple avenues of expression to meet their learning styles.

In her descriptive, naturalistic study Foight-Cressman (2002) investigated five

college students multicultural frameworks and stances in a graduate course in

multicultural children's literature taught from a critical perspective. In order to adopt a

multicultural philosophy she concluded that teachers required;

* Access to multicultural picture books and peritextual resources.

* A discourse community in which they felt secure co-constructing knowledge and
taking risks

* Reflection/action based assignments, which enabled them to contemplate their
beliefs and act upon their developing understandings.

* An engaged teacher educator to guide them.

Jewett (2004) examined what happened during a graduate children's literature class

and in three elementary classrooms the following semester when transactional literary

theory and critical literacy theory were used as lenses for reading. She found that the

ways that each teacher did or did not incorporate transactional and critical perspectives

were consistent with the ideologies that had been suggested by their writing and speaking

during the observation period and during the children's literature class.









McDaniel (2004) investigated future elementary school teachers' written responses

to children's literature in order to describe their current thinking about literature. She

concluded that participants believed critical literacy was important-immediately after

learning about in class. However, the majority of participants' responses before and after

in-class discussions and writings about critical literacy did not exhibit evidence of a

questioning stance.

To gain an understanding of college student learning in a multicultural education

course Hathaway III (1999) conducted a qualitative research. She suggested that although

the students were challenged to think in different ways, they did not retreat from those

challenges, but engaged them in an effort to learn about alternative views of American

culture and of their social worlds.

In her case study DiLucchio (2002) examined how four student teachers

constructed and reconstructed knowledge about race, class, and culture as they

participated a fifth year preservice program in elementary education. She pointed out that

how students make sense of these issues is critical in determining how they define their

roles as teachers and learners. She also stated that teacher education programs cannot be

politically neutral or marginalize issues of race, class, and culture; they must keep these

issues in front of students, integrated throughout their university coursework and

fieldwork.

Quantitative Studies

Stephens (2002) obtaining pretest and posttest data from the Pluralism and

Diversity Attitude Assessment, assessed the effectiveness of training program in

increasing teacher education candidates' level of cultural tolerance. The study showed the

overall attitudes toward diversity of the treatment group changed significantly over the









course of the study, while the overall attitudes of the control group remained same.

However, the study also indicated that the cultural tolerance and diversity program did

not significantly improve teacher education candidates' overall attitudes toward diversity

compared to those who did not participate in the program.

Pointing out that the little knowledge on the effect that ESOL preservice education

has on preservice teachers' attitudes toward ELL students Smith (2005) investigated the

effect of one semester of ESOL education on preservice teachers by examining their

perceived knowledge and skill in working with English Language Learner (ELL)

students, their attitudes toward having ELL students in their mainstream classrooms, and

what classroom methods they perceive as effective in their ESOL preservice education

courses. Collecting data from 513 participants with pre- and post-course attitudinal

surveys she found significant differences regarding perception of ESOL knowledge and

skills by course and time and regarding perceived effectiveness of instructional methods,

but she did not find differences regarding attitude toward inclusion.

In her study Miklitsch (2005) explored the relationship between multicultural

education, multicultural experience, racial identity, and multicultural competence among

student affairs professionals working within residence life programs. She collected data

from a national web-based survey that solicited the participation of 324 residence life

professionals, representative of various colleges and levels within the profession. She

found that multicultural education, multicultural experience, and racial identity

significantly predicted multicultural competence scores above and beyond the influence

of demographics and social desirability. Five demographic variables (race, sexual

orientation, current socioeconomic status, identification as a member of a socially









marginalized group, and highest degree earned) correlated significantly with multicultural

competence.

Uche's (2004) study on the perceived attitudes and perception of teachers regarding

multicultural education and global classroom instruction highlighted the importance of

becoming knowledgeable about the usefulness of multicultural-global classroom not only

for teachers, but also for the public, parents, school personal and others associated with

education.

To gain consensus on a definition of multicultural children's literature, Levinson

(2005) conducted a Delphi method research using 25 participants from a children's

literature listserv. The resulting definition stated that a work of quality literature can be

labeled multicultural children's literature if the plot tells a fascinating story; the

characters are believable and round; the setting enlarges the view of the reader; and the

point of view reveals the inner world of each character; all the while demonstrating an

awareness of multicultural elements such as age, class, ethnicity, gender, race, religion,

and sexual orientation.

To investigate community college faculty perceptions of Culturally Mediated

Instruction Durant (2005) applied the Awareness, Relevance and Implementation Survey

to 85 community college faculty selected from 27 community colleges. She found that

gender, age, race/ethnic background, highest degree attained and academic discipline

have an effect on community college faculty's level of awareness, beliefs in the

relevancy, and level of implementation of culturally mediated instruction in classroom

practices.









Focusing on professionals responsible for first-year student orientation programs

Weigand (2005) explored the relationship between multicultural competence and racial

identity, multicultural education and experiences, and demographic variables. He found

that the combination of racial identity, multicultural education and multicultural

experience variables significantly predicted multicultural competence scores.

In a similar study McElroy (2005) examined the preservice teachers' perceptions of

multicultural education in a public university setting. He found relationships between

preservice teachers' perceptions based on race, age, gender, and years of multicultural

experience.

Mixed Studies

Using a mixed method of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches

Zhou (2002) examined if there was any attitude change during the program, how the five-

year teacher education program enhanced the preservice teacher education experience by

examining diversity issues from various perspectives and how the program helps

preservice teachers to apply what they have learned from the courses to modify

instruction appropriately. He collected quantitative data using the "Diversity

Questionnaire" and obtained qualitative data through the analysis of the responses from a

set of "Cultural Diversity Essay Questions" and questions of three "Case Studies". From

quantitative analysis he found that there was no much evidence showing the students'

attitude change between Year 3 and Year 4 groups. From qualitative data he concluded

that the multicultural/diversity perspectives that the participants had learned from the

courses helped them to understand their students' situations better.

To understand the factors and process involved in developing a commitment to

multicultural education Paccione (1998) used a quantitative research methodology of









content analysis to analyze the kind of life experiences that contribute to a commitment to

multicultural education. She used a qualitative research methodology of phenomenology

to describe the process by which individuals become committed to multicultural

education. Comparing the theories of racial identity development, typologies of

multicultural education, and practices in teacher preparation for student diversity, she

found support for cultural immersion experiences and coursework in multicultural

education that evoke a critical analysis of the sociopolitical status quo in U.S. society.

Garmon (1996) investigated the impact of a multicultural education course on the

racial attitudes and beliefs of a group of prospective teachers. He found that students'

entering racial attitudes and beliefs appeared to mediate what they learned from the

course. More specifically he found that on several diversity issues addressed in the course

the beliefs of higher scored students were significantly more likely to change in the

desired direction than were the beliefs of low scored students, and most of the low scored

students seemed to miss the key messages that the course intended to convey.

Using an experimental design with both quantitative and qualitative data Hasslen

(1993) compared the effects of teaching strategies on the perceptions of monocultural

students in a multicultural education course. She found that:

* A single course in multicultural education for the monocultural student has a
definite impact on altering student perceptions of cultural diversity.

* Various teaching strategies, while not essentially prescribed for overall positive
outcomes, result in subtle differences in student perceptions of racism and equity
issues.

* The teaching strategy of pairing monocultural students with students of color
provides students with interpersonal relationships, which lead to a dispelling of
myths about members of ethnic groups, and a decreasing of fear of difference.

* Student demographic characteristics do not limit the effectiveness of a course in
multicultural education for altering students' perceptions.









Using a mixed method study Siwatu (2005) examined preservice teachers'

culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs. He found

that:

* Preservice teachers' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy and outcome
expectancy beliefs are highly correlated.

* There are significant relationships between self-efficacy and outcome expectancy
beliefs patterns as the number of courses taken that addressed issues of cultural
diversity and the number of completed practicum requirements.

* Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs are influenced by variables such as
color-blind and racial attitudes, coursework, and teacher education major.

In his survey study Jackson (2004) documented a summer pilot research course in

multicultural education to analyze the James A. Banks' contributions to the introduction

of multicultural education for educators and its implications for teacher educators and

curriculum development. He found that;

* The respondents did not feel overwhelmingly that race, socio-economic status,
ethnicity, or gender influence teaching style.

* Students would be wiling to take an additional multicultural education or diversity
course to learn about cross-cultural differences.

* Students feel that a course in diversity or multicultural education would enhance
their knowledge and awareness of diversity and multicultural education.





Nature of the
study
Interpretive




Interpretive


Table 2-1. Qualitative studies
Pub. Title of the study
date
2004 Reading and responding to
multicultural children's literature
with preservice teachers: A
qualitative study of pedagogy and
student perspectives
2000 "Reading myself between lines":
White teachers reading, writing and
talking about issue of diversity,
inequality and pedagogy
2001 Teachers using multicultural
literature and reader response to
teach children multiculturally
2002 Raising cultural consciousness
through children's literature
2005 Introducing a critical perspective
into a graduate course in children's
literature
2004 Transactional literary theory and
critical literacy theory in a graduate
children's literature class
2004 Getting along in the World:
Exploring future teachers'
responses to children's literature
through a framework of critical
literacy
1999 College students' definitions of key
concepts and thinking in a
multicultural education course
2002 How student teachers construct and
reconstruct knowledge about race,
class, and culture


University


The Ohio State
University



The University
of
Pennsylvania

The University
of New Mexico

University of
Pittsburgh
University of
Pennsylvania

Arizona State
University

San Diego
State
University


University of
Michigan

The University
of
Pennsylvania


Researcher


Lesley
Colabucci



Sharon M.
Ravitch


Donna L.
Dow-Anaya
y Garcia
Susan I.
Greenberg
Jennifer E.
Foight-
Cressman
Pamela
Jewett

Cynthia
Alleen
McDaniel


Russel S.
Hathaway
III
Connie L.
DiLucchio


Case study


Case study

Grounded theory


Critical theory


Interpretive




Phenomenology,
ethnography

Case study










Table 2-2. Quantitative studies
Pub. Title of the study Instrument University Researcher
date


2002 An examination of the
effectiveness of a program on
cultural tolerance and diversity for
teacher education candidates
2005 Teaching inclusivity: Preservice
teachers' perceptions of their
knowledge, skills and attitudes
toward working with English
language learners in mainstream
classrooms
2005 The relationship between
multicultural education,
multicultural experiences, racial
identity, and multicultural
competence among student affairs
professionals


2004 Multicultural education in a global
classroom



2005 To gain consensus an a definition
of multicultural children's
literature: A delphi study

2005 Culturally mediated instruction:
Awareness, relevance and
implementation in community
college
2005 The relationships between
multicultural competence, racial
identity, and multicultural
education and experiences among
student affairs professionals
responsible for first-year student
orientation programs
2005 Perceptions and practices:
preservice teachers' multicultural
educational perspectives


The pluralism and
diversity attitude
assessment (Stanley,
1996)
The ESOL awareness
survey instrument
(EASI) (Smith, 2004)



Multicultural
competence in
student affairs (Pope
& Mueller, 2000);
Racial identity
attitude scales
(Helms, 1995; Helms
& Carter, 2002)
Self developed
questionnaire



Delphi method



Self developed
survey


Multicultural
competence in
students affairs (Pope
& Mueller, 2000)



Self designed
questionnaire


The
University of
Mississippi

The
University of
South Florida



The State
University of
New York at
Buffalo




Union
Institute and
University of
Cincinnati,
Ohio
The
University of
Maryland at
College Park
Morgan State
University


State
University of
New York at
Buffalo



Capella
University


Earnest B.
Stephens


Philip C.
Smith




Teresa
Ann
Miklitsch






Uko Uche




Joan
Marie
Levinson

Tracey
Lynette
Durant

Matthew
Joseph
Weigand




George L.
McElroy










Table 2-3. Mixed studies
Pub. Title of the study Framework/instrument University Researcher
date


2002 Students' attitudes, knowledge,
and commitment to
implementation of
multicultural education in a
teacher education program
1998 Multicultural perspective
transformation: A study of
commitment to diversity
1996 Missed message: How
prospective teachers' racial
attitudes mediate what they
learn from a course on diversity


1993 The effects of teaching
strategies in multicultural
education on monocultural
college students' perceptions




2005 Exploring the factors that
influence preservice teachers'
culturally responsive teaching
self-efficacy and outcome
expectancy beliefs

2004 James A. Banks' contributions
to the introduction of
multicultural education for
educators: Implications for
teacher educators and
curriculum development


West
Virginia
University


Colorado
State
University
Michigan
State
University


The diversity
questionnaire (Follo &
Wiggins, 1999);
Case study

Open-ended survey
(Content analysis);
Phenomenology
Quick discrimination
index (Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1993);
Interviews

Quasi-experimental
The cultural diversity
awareness inventory
(Henry, 1991), The
situational attitude
scale (Sedlacek &
Brooks, 1972);
Course evaluations
Culturally responsive
teaching outcome self
efficacy/expectancy
scales; Interviews


Self developed survey;
Course evaluations


Pei Jian
Zhou


Angela V.
Paccione

M. Arthur
Garmon


Robin
Christine
Hasslen





Kamau
Oginga
Siwatu



Andrew
Jackson
Sr.


University of
Minnesota







University of
Nebraska




The
Pennsylvania
State
University














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

In this section, the research design and methodology for this study, including the

theoretical framework, research questions, rationale, setting, data collection, data analysis

procedures, the researcher's role and ethical consideration for each phases of research are

explained.

Design of The Study

Bartolome (2004) argued:

Given the social class, racial, cultural, and language differences between teachers
and students, and our society's historical predisposition to view culturally and
linguistically diverse students through a deficit lens that positions them as less
intelligent, talented, qualified, and, deserving, it is especially urgent that educators
critically understand their ideological orientations with respect to these differences,
and begin to comprehend that teaching is not a politically or ideologically neutral
undertaking (p.99).

Similarly, in her book Walking the Road Cochran-Smith (2004) conceptualized the

problem of teacher education. Through the essays in her book, we can see that teacher

preparation needs to be understood as both learning (rather than a training-and-testing

problem) and a political problem regarding the issues of equity and social justice (p. xix)

because "learning to teach is a process that occurs across the professional life span"

(p. 12) and ...teaching is a political activity is animated by several basic premises"

(p.18). These premises are often associated with terms and concepts such as teaching and

teacher education for "social justice," "social change," social responsibility," and

teaching and teacher education "to change the world" (Cochran-Smith p. 18-19). As

Bartolome (2004) pointed out to ensure that preservice teachers begin to develop and









increase their political and ideological clarity, students in teacher education classrooms

need to explicitly explore how ideology functions as it relates to power.

Thus, as stated earlier, this research is guided by the theoretical and pedagogical

understanding in critical multiculturalism, and critical theory. Also, critical, social and

political theories, such as critical pedagogy, reader response theory, critical literacy and

works of scholars in the field of multicultural education examined as fundamental

components of understanding the establishment of power relationships in education and

the conceptualization of ideological position.

Critical research has its roots in several traditions, and, as currently practiced, a

variety of approaches. Critical theory calls for a "radical restructuring (of) society toward

the ends of reclaiming historic cultural legacies, social justice, the redistribution of power

and the achievement of truly democratic societies" (Lincoln & Denzin, 2000, p. 1056).

Critical theory research emphasizes the value of theory in explaining society and

contributing to the emancipation of its participants (Gall, Gall & Borg, 2005).

Systematized reflection, collaboration between researcher and participants, the exposure

of historical conditions, and the transformation of society are integral parts of critical

research (Crotty, 1998).

Critical-theory research involves a broad range of methods aimed at uncovering the

effects of unequal power relationships in cultures and in the global community. Carr and

Kemmis (1995) describe five requirements that characterize a critical or educational

science. They emphasize that any adequate approach to educational research and theory

must:

* Reject positivist notions of rationality, objectivity, and truth.









* Accept the need to employ the interpretive categories of teachers and other
participants in educational processes. The approach must be based upon the self-
understanding of practitioners.

* Provide ways of distinguishing ideologically warped interpretations from
interpretations that are not, and provide explanations of how to overcome those
distorted self-understandings.

* Address identification and exposition of those aspects of the social order that
interfere with pursuit of rational goals and provide theoretical explanations to
practitioners that raise awareness to how these interference may be eliminated or
conquered.

* Make a practical approach to educational theory and research, in the sense that the
practice of criticism should always be directed toward transformation of ways that
participants see themselves and their situations, so that obstacles that stand in the
way of attaining their objectives can be identified and overcome.

Methodology

For this study a mixed method research design was employed. Both qualitative and

quantitative data collection and analysis methods were used. Tashakkori and Teddlie

(2003) described mixed method design as:

... the incorporation of various qualitative or quantitative strategies within a single
project that may have either a qualitative or a quantitative theoretical drive. The
"imported" strategies are supplemental to the major or core method and serve to
enlighten or provide clues that are followed up within the core method (p. 190).

Because mixed methods research design often create a multifaced view of the

research questions (Minger, 2001), allow for triangulation of data sources (Patton, 1990),

and potentially facilitate the creation of stronger inferences than do single method

research studies (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). Similarly, cited in Hanson, Creswell,

Clark, Petska, and Creswell (2005) Mertens (2003) and Punch (1998) stated that mixed

method research may provide better understanding by converging numeric trends from


quantitative data and specific details from qualitative data.









This study was guided by what Tassakkori and Teddlie (1998) described as a

qualitative theoretical drive with imported quantitative strategies and as a concurrent

transformative design described in Hanson, Creswell, Clark, Petska, and Creswell (2005).

Tassakkori and Teddlie (1998) described a typology of research purposes and its

relationship to mixed methods that includes nine general purposes for social science

research. Drawing from the third purpose (Have a personal, social, institutional, and/or

organizational impact) the research questions were formed to explore through the study.

In their article, Hanson, Creswell, Clark, Petska, and Creswell (2005) provided a

typology for classifying mixed methods research designs. This study can be described as

"Concurrent Transformative Design" which uses an explicit advocacy lens and reflected

in the purpose of statement, research questions, and implications for action and change.

For this study critical multiculturalism and critical theory reflect the advocacy lens. An

equal priority was given to the both forms of data and integration done at the data

analysis stage.

This methodology was implemented in order to provide multiple data sources for

attempting to answer the research questions. The survey data, observations, interviews,

and written assignments allowed for triangulation of the data (Table 3-1).

Quantitative Phase

In the larger phase of this study, quantitative research questions a) addressed the

political and social aspects of the demography of preservice teachers' and its influences

on their beliefs on the issue of diversity, b) examined the changing attitudes and beliefs,

if any, of preservice teachers' views on the issue of diversity over the course of a

semester in children's literature classes.









Research Questions

1. How do the political and social aspects of the demography of preservice

teachers' influence their beliefs on issues of diversity?

Research findings support the idea that both teacher attitudes and beliefs drive

classroom actions (Nespor, 1987; Richardson, 1996). People's views of reality are

socioculturally constructed and given personal meaning by their sociocultural

experiences. They therefore interpret the world and their experiences differently. Cobern

(1991) described a worldview as "the foundational belief, i.e., presuppositions, about the

world that support both common sense and scientific theories" (p.7). The personal

experiences of teachers help form their educational worldviews, intellectual and

educational dispositions, beliefs about self in relation to others; understanding of the

relationship of schooling to society, and other forms of personal, familial and cultural

understandings (Richardson, 1996). In addition, ethnic, racial, and social backgrounds,

along with gender, geographic location and religious affiliations, affect how individuals

learn to teach and their actual teaching (Richardson, 1996). Teachers' reflections on

personal and classroom events are examined through the lens of their worldviews, beliefs,

attitudes, and images (Clandinin, 1986; Richardson, 1996). Therefore preservice

teachers' demographic variables such as gender, age, race, class standing, multicultural

education experiences, foreign and domestic travel, inner-city program experiences,

description of student body of their university, religious affiliation and religious

denomination, second language and cross-cultural friendship involvement and their

influences on students beliefs on the issues of diversity explored using demographic

information provided from demographic information sheet within survey.









2. What are the changing attitudes and beliefs, if any, of preservice teachers' views

on the issue of diversity over the course of a semester in children's literature classes?

Statistical analysis of survey results used as sources of data for addressing the

changes related to diversity issues. Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity

Scales (Pohan, C. A., & Aguilar, T. E. (1998) items and students scores on these items

explored to answer the second research question. The role of preservice teachers' beliefs

has been the focus of many educational studies. There are many surveys used in the field

of teacher's belief systems regarding diversity. Under this idea Pohan and Aguilar (1995)

state:

Clearly, if schools are to better serve the needs and interests of all students,
particularly students from groups that have not fared well in the U.S. educational
system, then low expectations, negative stereotypes, biases/prejudices, and cultural
misconceptions held by teachers must be identified, challenged, and reconstructed
(p.159).

Survey research generally has the advantage that, depending on the research

objective; it can serve descriptive, explanatory, as well as exploratory purposes. But more

important than anything else, depending on sampling techniques, it can generalize

findings to large populations, while the standardization of the questionnaire ensures

reliability of the measurement instrument. In addition, many respondents can be

researched, relatively many topics can be asked about them, and statistical techniques can

be used to allow accurate analysis. Therefore Personal and Professional Beliefs About

Diversity Scales provide opportunities for an insightful critique of the research questions.

Instrument

The Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scale was developed by

Pohan, and Aguilar (1994). It consisted of two beliefs scales about diversity. For the

personal beliefs scale, different issues are posed within the context of one's personal









sphere or worldview (e.g., relationships, raising children, treatment by others, living

conditions, and collective stereotypes). The 25-item Professional Beliefs About Diversity

Scale consists of items measuring diversity with respect to (a) race/ethnicity, (b) gender,

(c) social class, (d) sexual orientation, (e) disabilities, (f) language, and (g) religion.

These areas reflect an evolution of topics and contexts throughout the various test

development phases.

In her study, Pohan (1996) used 492 voluntary participants from four universities

across the United States. In terms of personal beliefs scores, results showed that

individuals having taken two or more courses were significantly different than

individuals having taken one or no multicultural course work. In terms of professional

beliefs, individuals having taken four or more courses with a multicultural theme or

content scored significantly higher (i.e., they were more aware and/or responsive) than

individuals having fewer than four courses. Taylor (2000) assessed the beliefs about and

sensitivity toward cultural diversity issues of teacher educators and preservice teachers. A

group of 78 predominantly white preservice teachers and 45 predominantly white teacher

educators completed the Personal and Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale in this

study. Results indicated that preservice teachers scored at culturally sensitive levels for

all subgroup areas except sexual orientation. Teacher educators scored at culturally

sensitive levels for all subgroup areas. Both groups were positively sensitive in their

overall beliefs about diversity, though with statistically significant differences. The

demographic data sheet consists of many items that provide information about

demographics and individual characteristics of the participants. Within the Survey, the

following data collected under the demographic data form; Gender, Age, Race, Class









Standing, Number of Multicultural Courses, Travel Experiences, Religious Affiliation,

Religious Denomination, Second Language, Cross-cultural Experiences, and Current

Class Registration.

Reliability of the scale

Reliability refers to the ratio of true score variance to the observed score variance.

In other terms it is combination of true score and error. Pohan and Aguilar (1998) in their

user's manual and scoring guide of scales provide reliability scores that show both scales

are reliable. Reliability scores as follows from their guide:

The Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .783

(n: 182), and Post-test alpha: .780 (n: 120). The Professional Beliefs About Diversity

Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .817 (n: 179), and Post-test alpha: .855 (n: 119)

I analyzed the data along with the total number of surveys, and sample group

surveys to check the reliability of the instrument. Table 3-2 includes each group's

reliability scores with the number of surveys and means. As an indication of reliable

alpha value over .70 was found for all groups, including both pre and post surveys.

For the total group, The Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were;

Pre-test alpha: .768 (n: 274), and Post-test alpha: .799 (n: 274); The Professional Beliefs

About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .790 (n: 274), and Post-test

alpha: .801 (n: 274)

For the sample group, The Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores

were; Pre-test alpha: .733 (n: 32), and Post-test alpha: .763 (n: 31); The Professional

Beliefs About Diversity Scale alpha scores were; Pre-test alpha: .768 (n: 32), and Post-test

alpha: .808 (n: 31)









Procedure

Participants were given the Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity

Scales as pre and post surveys. The first survey was conducted during the first class

session and the second survey done during the last class session. I informed the

preservice teachers that their participation was voluntary and anonymous and also I

explained each instructor about the procedure of surveys when I was not able to present

in their classroom because of time conflicts between sections of classes. A prepared

statement, which explained the nature and purpose of the study, was read aloud to the

participants and let them read the informed contest form to sign it. Participants took

approximately 20-25 minutes to complete the surveys. Upon completion of the surveys,

participants returned the survey to the investigator or class instructor.

Scoring guide

Responses to the 15-item Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and the 25-item

Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale are summed to generate a single scale scores

for each respondent as well as items' scores were examined individually for different

statistical purposes. The following procedures were used as scoring guideline for scales;

* After completion of surveys numerical responses of items 1 through 15 for the
Personal BeliefAbout Diversity Scale and 1 through 25 for the Professional Belief
About Diversity Scale were placed as "Raw Scores".

* For item numbers, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15 in the Personal Beliefs About
Diversity Scale and item numbers, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 18, 23, 25 in the
Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale, numerical values were reversed (1=5;
2=4, etc.) as final scores.

* The rest of the items' same numerical values in both scales were placed as final
scores.

* Final scores were added to generate the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale
score and the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale score. Scores can range
from the 15 (lowest) to 75 (highest) for the Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale.









The lowest possible score for the Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale is 25,
while the highest possible score is 125.

It can be drawn from the Table 3-3 that numbers were used to define the different

scales for data analysis. The numbers were applied the end of each scale' scores and item

groups' to define different scales. For example Scale scores 1 presents the participants'

total scores on the pretest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale; Scale scores presents

the participants' total scores on the posttest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale; Scale

scores presents the participants' total scores on the pretest Professional Beliefs About

Diversity Scale; and, Scale scores presents the participants' total scores on the posttest

Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale. In a similar way Race presents the

participants' race related items group scores on the pretest Personal Beliefs About

Diversity Scale; Race2 presents the participants' race related items group scores on the

posttest Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale; Race3 presents the participants' race

related items group scores on the pretest Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale; and,

Race4 presents the participants' race related items group scores on the posttest

Professional Beliefs About Diversity Scale. The same numerical systems were used for all

other demographic variables to describe the items' groups and survey scores.

Population and Sample

Overview of teacher education

The data for this study were drawn from a population of preservice teachers

enrolled in a teacher education program in the South. The requirements of undergraduate

program courses for students entering fall 2005 and later can be found in the appendix

section (Appendix D). As a state institution and land grant college the university offers a

broad range of programs in curriculum and teaching under the School of Teaching and









Learning. Known as PROTEACH, teacher preparation programs in elementary and

secondary education consist of five years of intensive study in the arts and sciences and

professional education culminating in the Master of Arts in Education degree and state

certification as a classroom teacher. In addition to these initial teacher preparation

programs, the department offers advanced degree programs such as Education Specialist,

Doctor of Education, and Doctor of Philosophy. Areas of concentration are: curriculum,

teaching and teacher education, early childhood education, educational psychology,

English education, English for speakers of other languages/bilingual education, language

arts and literature, mathematics education, reading education, science and environmental

education, and social studies education.

During each semester of the teacher education program students are organized into

cohorts of 25-35 students. Cohort groups take three or four key program courses together

each semester, fitting in other classes when they fit their schedules as individuals. At the

end of each semester cohort groups change to give students the opportunity to interact

with different students across the program. Another important feature of the cohorts is

block scheduling. Students must take a designated block courses in a sequence. Ross,

Lane, and McCallum (2005) reported that majority of students and faculties have positive

opinions on the cohort schedule.

Sophomore year

Students complete 60 hours of coursework mainly in liberal arts and sciences in

their freshman and sophomore years. These courses include necessary content

background to teach the state's elementary content standards. 12 students (4%) were in

their sophomore year when they participated in the study.









Junior year

Eighty six percent of total participants (235), and 88 % of qualitative sample group

(27) were in their junior year when they participated in this study.

Child Development for Inclusive Education (EDF 3115), Teachers and Learners in

Inclusive Schools (EEX 3070), Family and Community Involvement in Education (SDS

3430), and Children's Literature (LAE 3005) are the blocked courses that students take

during first semester of the junior year (Table 3-10). The Child Development for

Inclusive Education course provides pre-service elementary school teachers with an

overview of the principles of cognitive, social, and developmental psychology and their

application in the classroom and other education-related fields. This course focuses on

ideas about human learning and development, including an examination of individual

differences, particularly during the childhood years from preschool through early

adolescence, the implications of these ideas for the field of education, and their

applications to promote learning. The Teachers and Learners in the Inclusive School

course provide information about characteristics of, identification of, and teaching

practices for exceptional children who are in the mainstream of education. The course is

designed for general education majors, both elementary and secondary levels. The course

also includes examination of psychological theories and research on typical and atypical

development and their application in general education classrooms that include children

with sensory, mental, emotional, and learning disabilities and gifted and talented

children. The Family & Community Involvement in Education course focuses on

examination of existing models and practices for enhancing family-school-community

interaction with emphasis on communication, conflict resolution and climate-building

skill development. Children's Literature is an introductory class on genres of children's









literature, critical response theory, strategies for critically evaluating books for

instructional and aesthetic purposes, and strategies for generating personal, critical and

aesthetic responses to literature from diverse and inclusive student populations.

Core Teaching Strategies (EEX 3257), Core Classroom Management Strategies

(EEX 3616), Teaching Reading in Primary Grades (RED 3307), and Language Arts for

Diverse Learners (LAE 4314) are the blocked courses that students take during second

semester of the junior year (Table 3-10). Core Teaching Strategies assist students in

learning how to apply selected researched-based and theoretical information in both

general and special education classroom settings where tremendous student diversity

exists. Core Classroom Management Strategies course is designed to assist preservice

teachers in learning classroom management strategies to enable them to develop a

positive classroom community for students with disabilities and other diverse learners. In

Teaching Reading in Primary Grades students focuses on constructivist theory of how

children learn and sociopsycholinguistic theory of language learning. And Language Arts

for Diverse Learners is designed to prepare preservice elementary and early childhood

teachers in the area of language arts, with a specific focus on the teaching of writing.

This year, multicultural and social justice themes are introduced with the extension

of fieldwork. Bright Futures and Project Booktalk are the two main field studies, linked

to the courses in the blocks, done by students during these semesters. Cohort 47 was part

the Project Booktalk in which they read to children in family day care homes for ten

weeks with a partner student and part of the Bright Futures that examines diversity and its

impact on students' school experiences (Bondy & Ross, 2005). Both field experiences

provide preservice teachers opportunity to work with children from low-income families









and examine the issues of diversity. Bondy and Ross (2005) described the first semester

of junior year as "introduction to teaching, families and children in a diverse society",

and second semester as "an introduction to pedagogy".

Senior year

Ten percent of the total participants (27), and 13 % of the qualitative sample group

(4) were in their senior year when they participated in this study. During the senior year

students take methods courses along with field experiences that provide them practical

experience with elementary students.

Demographic Profile of the Participants

From the beginning of Fall 2004 semester through Spring 2006 semester I collected

surveys from 12 sections of Children's Literature classes. Surveys collected from 12

sections that include 6 teaching assistants (8 sections) and 2 faculty members (4 sections).

The following section includes more detailed demographic descriptions of study

participants.

Table 3-4 shows the distribution of respondents by their demographic profiles.

Approximately, 90% of respondents were female and 10% were male; 83% of

respondents were White, and 17% of the respondents indicated Non-White and 23% of

the respondents were 19 years of age, 47% were 20 years of age, 21% were 21 years of

age, 5% were 22 years of age, .5% were 23 years age, 2% were 24 years and older age,

1.52% were left the age item as blank.

Table 3-4 suggests that 86% of the respondents were juniors, 10% senior, 4%

sophomores; 18% of respondents had taken 0-1 courses related to multicultural themes,

56% of respondents had taken 2-3 classes, and 20% of respondents had taken 4 or more

courses with multicultural themes, and 6% percent of the respondents did not respond to









this item, and 69% of the respondents had foreign travel experience, 29% of the

respondents had no foreign travel experiences and 2% did not respond to the item.

The Table 3-4 also shows that 29% of the respondents had inner-city program

experiences as a volunteer or staff member, while 57 % of them indicated they had no

experiences of any inner-city program, and 14% of them did not respond to this item;

85% of respondents were monolingual and 15% of them stated that they know more than

one language; 66% of them stated that they had some cross-cultural friendships while

34% stated they had much; and 15% of the respondents categorized the student body at

their university as mainly one racial group, 4% as two major racial groups, 3% did not

mark the item and majority of respondents, and 81% categorized their university as

having many racial groups.

Table 3-4 demonstrates that 54% of respondents were Protestant, 22% were

Catholic, 9% Jewish, 2% were described themselves other than listed groups, and 13%

did not choose any options. In addition to religious affiliation, 42% of respondents

described themselves, as liberal, 55% as conservative and 3% gave no response.

Data Analysis

The results of the study are presented in the form of descriptive analysis, bivariate

analysis, and multivariate analysis. Table 3-5 and Table 3-6were utilized to examine

statistical relations.

As seen on the Table 3-6 the first research question was explored through different

statistical procedures. Relationships between nominal level demographic variables were

explored through a Pearson Chi-square test, Cross tabulation and either Cramer's V for

two level tables or Contingency Coefficient for three or more level tables.