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Grounded Theory of Florida Aquarium Retailers' Acceptance of the GloFish

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020000/00001

Material Information

Title: Grounded Theory of Florida Aquarium Retailers' Acceptance of the GloFish
Physical Description: 1 online resource (182 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: aquaculture, aquarium, danio, economic, fish, ge, genetically, glofish, gm, ornamental, transgenic
Agricultural and Biological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural and Biological Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This research was undertaken to understand Florida ornamental fish retailers' responses to the GloFish exemplified by their decision to stock or not to stock the fish. Twelve interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Interviews continued until saturation and a substantive theory, the economic-cognitive model, was developed. The constant comparative method was used to examine the responses among all previous participants before subsequent interviews were conducted. Saturation was reached rapidly due to the homogeneity of the population of inquiry. Four categories containing more than 150 unique codes were created from the transcribed data. Codes were organized into themes, then families and ultimately categories. These categories emerged: product attributes, economics, ethics, and the Jurassic Park effect. The response of the retailers was simplified into their stocking decisions; the decision to stock the GloFish used all aspects of the manifested categories. First, the retailers' perception of the GloFish's value was captured by the product attributes category. Color, price, personality, and survivability, respectively, were the most valued product attributes. Second, there was considerable dialog about the profitability, margins, and cost of the fish which was placed in the economics category. This category was the most influential in determining retailer stocking decisions. A third category emerged from the transcribed data, ethics. While economics was the driving force behind stocking decisions, ethics served as a stop-gap since retailers would refuse to stock transgenic fish regardless of economic gain. Lastly, the Jurassic Park effect, a fear-based phenomenon created by lack of trust in humanity and perceived consequences influenced retailers' responses. The effect was ancillary, but it could strengthen or weaken retailers? responses. The reaction to the GloFish was multifaceted, and drew from a diverse group of categories which were ultimately governed by ethics and perceived economic value. Color was the primary product attribute customers wanted, but several retailers refused to stock the fish despite its intense coloration because they believed it was morally wrong to genetically modify a fish to make it more marketable. The research indicates that when new technologies are released to the public, there is no simple formula to predict the public's response. However, if there is both economic benefit and no ethical complications, then the likelihood of a positive response would be high.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Leary, James D.
Local: Co-adviser: Lehtola, Carol J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0020000:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020000/00001

Material Information

Title: Grounded Theory of Florida Aquarium Retailers' Acceptance of the GloFish
Physical Description: 1 online resource (182 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: aquaculture, aquarium, danio, economic, fish, ge, genetically, glofish, gm, ornamental, transgenic
Agricultural and Biological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural and Biological Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This research was undertaken to understand Florida ornamental fish retailers' responses to the GloFish exemplified by their decision to stock or not to stock the fish. Twelve interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Interviews continued until saturation and a substantive theory, the economic-cognitive model, was developed. The constant comparative method was used to examine the responses among all previous participants before subsequent interviews were conducted. Saturation was reached rapidly due to the homogeneity of the population of inquiry. Four categories containing more than 150 unique codes were created from the transcribed data. Codes were organized into themes, then families and ultimately categories. These categories emerged: product attributes, economics, ethics, and the Jurassic Park effect. The response of the retailers was simplified into their stocking decisions; the decision to stock the GloFish used all aspects of the manifested categories. First, the retailers' perception of the GloFish's value was captured by the product attributes category. Color, price, personality, and survivability, respectively, were the most valued product attributes. Second, there was considerable dialog about the profitability, margins, and cost of the fish which was placed in the economics category. This category was the most influential in determining retailer stocking decisions. A third category emerged from the transcribed data, ethics. While economics was the driving force behind stocking decisions, ethics served as a stop-gap since retailers would refuse to stock transgenic fish regardless of economic gain. Lastly, the Jurassic Park effect, a fear-based phenomenon created by lack of trust in humanity and perceived consequences influenced retailers' responses. The effect was ancillary, but it could strengthen or weaken retailers? responses. The reaction to the GloFish was multifaceted, and drew from a diverse group of categories which were ultimately governed by ethics and perceived economic value. Color was the primary product attribute customers wanted, but several retailers refused to stock the fish despite its intense coloration because they believed it was morally wrong to genetically modify a fish to make it more marketable. The research indicates that when new technologies are released to the public, there is no simple formula to predict the public's response. However, if there is both economic benefit and no ethical complications, then the likelihood of a positive response would be high.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Leary, James D.
Local: Co-adviser: Lehtola, Carol J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0020000:00001


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GROUNDED THEORY OF FLORIDA AQUARIUM RETAILERS'
ACCEPTANCE OF THE GLOFISH



















By

BRIAN PEDDIE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008



































O 2008 Brian Peddie





























To my wife, Susannah, in memory of her father,
Phillip Herndon.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my supervisory committee, my wife Susannah, my parents, Edward and Pat, and

the ornamental fish retailers who participated in the study.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ............_...... ...............4....


LIST OF TABLES ............ ..... .__ ...............9...


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............10....


GLOSSARY OF TERMS ............_...... ...............11...


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 13...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............15.......... .....


2 MATERIALS AND METHODS .............. ...............21....


Statement of Purpose and Research Questions ................. ...............21...............
Research Questions .................. ..... ...............21
Qualitative Methods: Grounded Theory ................. ...............22................
Grounded Theory Styles............... ...............23.
Statement of Purpose ................. ...............24........... ....
Sam pling ................. ...............24.......... ......
Implementation ................. ...............25.................
Strengths and W weaknesses .................. ........... ............. ...... .........2
Research Design: Quality, Reliability, and Validity .............. ...............28....
Ethical Considerations and Publication Concerns ................. ...............29........... ...


3 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............3.. 1......... ...


Qualitative Research ................. ...............3.. 1..............
Theoretical Framework ............... ...... ... .............3
The Challenge of Social Scientific Research .............. ...............33....
Qualitative Research Issues ................. ...............36........... ....
Grounded Theory............... ...............36.
Present Theories............... ...... .. .. ...........4
Sociocultural and Cognitive Science Theories............... ...............47
Theory of Reasoned Action ................. ...............51................
Decision-Making Theories .............. ...............53....
Diffusion of Innovation Theories ................. ................ ......... ........ ...._56
Conclusions .............. ...............58....


4 RE SULT S .............. ...............64....


Interview 1 (Pilot): The Early Adopter............... ...............65













Overview .............. ...............65....
Location ................. ...............66.................

Emergent Themes ................. ...............66.................
Conclusions .............. ......... .............6

Interview 2: The Well Informed Employee .................._.__._ .......... ...........7
Overview .............. ...............70....

Emergent Themes ................. ...............71........ ......
Conclusions .............. .... ........... ...........7

Interview 3: The Aquarium Manufacturer............... ..............7
Overview .............. ...............77....

Developing Families............... ...............78

"Playing God." ................ ................. 78.............
Ethics............... ................ 79
Product attributes .............. ...... .. ...... .......... 80

Invasive species-Environmental degradation............... .............. 81

Regulation ................. ................. 82..............
Public awareness............... ............... 82
Conclusions ................ .... ...............83.

Interview 4: The Laconic Employee............... ...............84
Overview .............. ...............84....
Fam ilies .............. ...............85....
Painted fish............... ................. 85
Product attributes .............. .................... 86
Ethics............... ................ 88

Comparative Analysis .............. ...............89....
Conclusions ..................... .. ...............9
Interview 5: The Marine Enthusiast .............. ...............91....
Overview ................ .. ...............91..

Product Attributes Family .............. ...............93....
Ethics Family .........._.... ......__. ...............93....
Jurassic Park Effect Family .............. ...............95....

Regul ati on ................. ...............96........... ....
Comparative Analysis ..................... .. ...............97
Interview 6: The Flamboyant GloFishTM Lover ........._.__........_. ...._.__..........9
Overview ................ .. ...............98..

Product Attributes Family .............. ...............99....
Ethics Family .........._.... ......__. ...............100....
Jurassic Park Effect Family ................. ...............101......... .....

Comparative Analysis .............. ...............102....
Interview 7: The Centrist ................. ...............103....... .....
Overview ................ .. ...............103.

Product Attributes Family .............. ...............104....
Ethics Family ........._..... ........... ...............105....
Jurassic Park Effect Family ................. ...............106......... .....

Comparative Analysis .............. ...............107....













Interview 8: The Cost Conscience Laggard ................. ...............110........... ..
Overview .................. ........... ...............110......

Product Attributes Family ................. ...............111...............
Economics Family ................. ...............111......... ......
Jurassic Park Effect Family ................. ...............111......... .....
Ethics Family ................. ...............112......... ......

Regul ati on ................. ...............113................
Comparative Analysis ................. ...............113......... ......
Interview 09: The Pragmatic Retailer ............._. ......... ...._... ...........1
Overview ....._.. ................. ... ......_.__.........11

Product Attributes Category ................. ...............115....... .....
Economics Family ........._.__............ ...............117....
Jurassic Park Effect ................. ...............117...............

Ethics Family ................. ...............118......... ......

Regul ati on ................. ...............120................
Comparative Analysis .............. ...............120....
Interview 10: The Ethics Policeman .........__. ............ ...............122..
Overview ................ ... ...............122.

Product Attributes Category ................. ...............123....... .....
Economics Family ........._.__............ ...............125....
The Jurassic Park Effect ................ ...............126...............

Ethics Category .............. ...............127....

Regul ati on ................. ...............128................
Comparative Analysis ................. .. ..... .............12
Interview 11: The Rational GloFishTM Supporter ................. ...............131.............
Overview ................ ... ...............13 1.

Product Attributes Category ................. ...............13. 1......... ....
Econom ics .............. ...............133....
Jurassic Park Effect .............. ...............134....

Ethics Category .............. ...............136....

Comparative Analysis .............. ...............137....
Interview 12.............. ...............139...
Overview .............. ...............139....
Product Attributes ................. ...............140................
Econom ics .............. ...............141....
Jurassic Park Effect .............. ...............142....

Ethics Category .............. ...............142....


5 CONCLUSIONS .............. ...............146....


Sum m ary ................ .. .............. ...............146......
The Economic-Cognitive Model .............. ...............147....
Ethics .................. ...............148......... ......
Product Attributes ................. ...............150................
Jurassic Park Effect .............. ...............152....
Econom ics .............. ...............153....












6 FUTURE WORK ................. ...............165................


APPENDIX


A FDA STATE1VENT............... ...............16


B INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ................ ...............170................


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............175...............


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............182......... ......











LIST OF TABLES

Table page


3-1. Differences in comparison groups ................. ...............61........... .

5-1. Who sold the GloFishTM............... ...............155....... ...

6-1. Future research ............. .............168.....











LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 The coding hierarchy ................. ...............30......__ ....

3-1 The Wong Baker Scale ................. ...............62........... ..

3-2 Areas of research for aquatic biotechnology ........._.._.._ ...._.. ...._.. ......._.._.....62

3-3 The theory of planned behavior.. ....___ ....._. ....._.._._ .......... ........_.._.....62

3-4 S-Curve: The diffusion process .............. ...............63....

4-1 The Grounded Theory process .............. ...............145....

4-2 Product attributes price and color relationship ....._._._ ..... .._.. ....._..........14

5-1 Economic-cognitive model ........._._ ...... .... ...............155..

5-2 Ethics category .............. ...............156....

5-3 Ethics category network of codes ........._._ ...... .... ...............157.

5-4 Product Attributes Category .............. ...............158....

5-5 Product attributes category network of codes. ....._._._ ..... .._.. ....._..........15

5-6 Product attribute rankings............... ...............16

5-7 The Jurassic Park effect category .............. ...............161....

5-8 The Jurassic Park effect: Risk vs. trust relationship ....._.__._ .... ... ..._. ......_.._........16

5-9 Jurassic Park effect network of codes. .............. ...............162...._._.. ...

5-10 Economics category............... ...............16

5-11 Economics category network of codes ........._._. ...._... ...............163.

5-12 Economic, risk, ethics table ........._._.._......_.. ...............164..









GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Category: The highest level of code organization.

Code: The lowest level of organization of a transcribed interview.

Coding: The process of assigning codes to words, paragraphs, and sentences of transcribed data.

Constant Comparative Method: A process used in Grounded Theory to retroactively compare
the participant responses to interview questions.

Coordinated Framework: The grouping of government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA)
tasked with regulating genetically modified organisms.

Danio rerio: Scientific name of zebra danio

Economic Cognitive Model: Model that explains the aquarium retailers' reaction to the
GloFishTM

Family: The second level of organization of transcribed data.

Gene Construct: A series of genes.

Genetic Marker: An indicator used to mark either the presence or position of a transgene.

Genetically Modified: An organism having a genome altered.

GM: Genetically modified

GMO: Genetically Modified Organism

Grounded Theory: A qualitative inquiry that constantly compares the patterns of responses
among participants.

Hierarchy: The organization of the data from the lowest level, codes, to the most sophisticated,
categories.

Jurassic Park Effect: Phenomenon resulting in fear that contains two parts: trust and perceived
consequences of an action.

Network: Explanation of relationships among codes or categories.

Product Attribute: A characteristic that makes a fish or other product more marketable and
desirable to the consumer.

RFP: Red Fluorescent Protein: Genetic construct coding for the production of red colored
protein.










Saturation: A qualitative term when the researcher has heard all possible responses to the
structured interview questions.

Segrist Farm & 5-d Tropical: Two aquaculture facilities who breed the GloFishTM

Structured Interview: An interview where the questions follow a fixed list of questions.

Theme: The first level of organization to emerge from the grouping of codes that is rapidly
replaced by families.

Transgenic: An organism containing foreign genetic material.

Yorktown Technologies: Austin Texas based start-up that owns the intellectual property rights
to the GloFishTM

Zebra Danio: The common name for Danio rerio









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

GROUNDED THEORY OF FLORIDA AQUARIUM RETAILERS'
ACCEPTANCE OF THE GLOFISHTM

By

Brian Peddie

May 2008

Chair: James Leary
Cochair: Carol Lehtola
Major: Agricultural and Biological Engineering

This research was undertaken to understand Florida ornamental fish retailers' responses to

the GloFishTM exemplified by their decision to stock or not to stock the fish. Twelve interviews

were conducted over a 16-month period. Interviews continued until saturation and a substantive

theory, the economic-cognitive model, was developed. The constant comparative method was

used to examine the responses among all previous participants before subsequent interviews

were conducted. Saturation was reached rapidly due to the homogeneity of the population of

inquiry. Four categories containing more than 150 unique codes were created from the

transcribed data. Codes were organized into themes, then families and ultimately categories.

These categories emerged: product attributes, economics, ethics, and the Jurassic Park

effect. The response of the retailers was simplified into their stocking decisions; the decision to

stock the GloFishTM used all aspects of the manifested categories. First, the retailers' perception

of the GloFish' sTM value was captured by the product attributes category. Color, price,

personality, and survivability, respectively, were the most valued product attributes. Second,

there was considerable dialog about the profitability, margins, and cost of the fish which was

placed in the economics category. This category was the most influential in determining retailer









stocking decisions. A third category emerged from the transcribed data, ethics. While

economics was the driving force behind stocking decisions, ethics served as a stop-gap since

retailers would refuse to stock transgenic fish regardless of economic gain. Lastly, the Jurassic

Park effect, a fear-based phenomenon created by lack of trust in humanity and perceived

consequences influenced retailers' responses. The effect was ancillary, but it could strengthen or

weaken retailers' responses.

The reaction to the GloFishTM was multifaceted, and drew from a diverse group of

categories which were ultimately governed by ethics and perceived economic value. Color was

the primary product attribute customers wanted, but several retailers refused to stock the fish

despite its intense coloration because they believed it was morally wrong to genetically modify a

fish to make it more marketable. The research indicates that when new technologies are released

to the public, there is no simple formula to predict the public' s response. However, if there is

both economic benefit and no ethical complications, then the likelihood of a positive response

would be high.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

The transgenic zebra danio, or GloFishTM, represented the first attempt by the private

sector to capitalize upon a transgenic animal for public use. The GloFishTM was born in the late

1990s when researchers led by Dr. Zhiyuan Gong at the National University of Singapore began

experimenting with zebra danios to monitor water quality in coal mines (Gong et al., 2003). The

concept was to create a fish that would fluoresce in the presence of toxins, and then return to

normal coloration in clean water. Scientists were able to successfully incorporate new genes

coding for the production of colored proteins into the fish's genome, but they were not successful

at inhibiting the production of the protein, leaving the fish permanently colored (Gong et al.,

2003)

In 2001, Yorktown Technologies, a Texas based aquatic biotech start-up led by Alan Blake

and Richard Crockett realized the potential to market the colorful danio in the United States and

entered into a licensing agreement with the Dr. Gong. By 2001, Yorktown Technologies began

selling a genetically modified ornamental Eish under the name GloFishTM. The fish is the first in

a pipeline of third generation biotechnologies derived from not only plants, but animals, that will

have significant social benefits (Marshall, 2006).

The rapid penetration of the GloFishTM into the ornamental fish market can be attributed to

two factors: the prevalence of nongenetically modified (non-GM) danios in aquarium stores, and

the simplicity and prevalence of the transgene in genetic research. Almost every aquarium store

retailing tropical fish sells the non-GM variety of zebra danios. Fluorescent protein constructs, a

genetic sequence that codes for the production of fluorescent proteins, appear in a multitude of

molecular biological applications as genetic markers (Tsien, 1998; Zhang, Campbell, Ting, &

Tsien, 2002). The construct is inserted along with other genes to ensure that the transformation









has occurred successfully. Another marker, resistance to erythromycin, can be used to determine

if the desired transgene had been successfully incorporated, but Red fluorescent protein, RFP,

constructs are considered more environmentally friendly, and do not require an additional culture

step. Agricultural biotechnology has used florescent protein constructs for the development of

golden rice, round-up ready soybeans, and Bt-corn (Lippincott-Schwartz & Patterson, 2003).

The nongenetically modified version of the zebra danio is stocked by many research

institutions as well. The research community uses danios in a variety of capacities due to the

fish's fecundity, resilience, hardiness, and genome. Research institutions have begun to replace

mice and other warm blooded invertebrates in their labs with danios.

Globally, the two most significant barriers to the agricultural biotechnology industry are

environmental risks and waning public opinion (Kearney, 2002; Lewis, 2001). As a subgroup of

agricultural biotechnology, the factors that will determine the success of transgenic ornamental

fish parallel genetically modified foods. Yorktown Technologies received significant public

resistance spearheaded by special interest groups. The company's long-term success lies in its

ability to market transgenic fish to such large retail chains which control the maj ority of the

aquarium hobby market.

While several transgenic food fish have been proposed for commercialization, the Food

and Drug Administration (FDA), the agency tasked with agricultural biotechnology governance,

has never given approval for the commercialization of any genetically modified food fish despite

a 12-year wait. On December 9, 2003, the FDA released a succinct statement to the effect that it

would not regulate the GloFishTM since many of the same concerns that plague food fish

transgenics, such as alergenicity and environmental degradation, were not applicable (Appendix

A; FDA, 2003).









The most common concerns voiced by special interest groups and entities opposed to

genetically modified fish were environmental. Environmental groups opposing the genetic

modification of aquatic species include the Friends of the Earth, Green Peace, and the Sierra

Club. The possibility of natural stock depletion and contamination with transgenic genetic

material through escapee breeding concerned many scientists (Kapuscinski & Hallerman, 1991;

Pew Initiative, 2003; Muir & Howard, 1999; Vandenbergh, 2002). Unlike transgenic salmon,

millions of nongenetically modified danios have been sold by the aquarium industry for decades,

and only two instances of wild populations have been reported (Fuller & Nico, 2003). In

addition, the temperature tolerance and fecundity of the transgenic species has been reduced.

Finally, there has been considerable public concern over the reasons for genetic

modification. Ethical concerns pertain to unnecessarily using the technology to create organism

that offer minimal social benefit beyond aesthetic enj oyment. Since the GloFishTM was

originally created for biomedical and environmental research, many of the ethical concerns are

mitigated. A percentage of all the GloFishTM sales return to the researchers in Singapore to aid

in the development of vaccinations and other genetic research. Already the same laboratory has

used the proceeds to develop an oral Hepatitis B vaccine.

Aquatic biotechnology, specifically the creation of transgenic fish, constitutes the

"bleeding edge" of the broader agricultural biotechnology sector. Under the umbrella of

biotechnology, scientists have been experimenting with zebra danios for two decades. Presently,

the United States leads the world with the number of patents for aquatic species, but other

nations are quickly realizing the benefits of working with fish for developing bioreactors and

improving broodstocks for their food aquaculture sectors (U. S. Department of Agriculture

[USDA], 2004). Few countries have regulatory frameworks in place to govern the technology;









the countries with the most to gain, however, also have the most to lose. In Asia, few or no

governance protocols are in place to protect the industry from abuses that could taint the sector

globally. Unfortunately, countries that would benefit most from improved broodstocks lack

safety nets that are in place in the developed world.

The introduction of the first GM animal in the market sets a new precedence for

biotechnology and was the first instance, outside of biomedical advancements, wherein a

genetically modified product has been geared towards consumer's desires rather than producer's

needs. The GloFishTM experienced widespread media attention. The reaction of aquarium fish

retailers to the new products constitutes an opportunity to examine the public's acceptance of

next generation biotechnologies

In 1999, Florida's aquaculture products totaled $86 million. Tropical Eish accounted for

more than 50% of the total dollars, followed by clams and aquatic plants (Hodges et al., 2001).

The total figure dropped to $75 million in 2005, with a decrease of $10 million in the farm-gate

value of ornamental fish (National Agriculture Statistics Service [NASS], 2006). While the

ornamental fish industry is vital to Florida' s aquaculture sector, the decrease in the number of

farms from 151 to 133 has been attributed to softening in demand in addition to an active

hurricane season in 2004 (NASS, 2006). Most ornamental fish farms are family owned and

operated; however, some larger corporate farms, including Seagrist and 5D, dominate the market

(Hodges, Mulkey, Philapakos, & Adams, 2001). In the United States, 12 of the largest farms

account for 60% of sales (NASS, 2006). Unfortunately, the dropout rate for hobbyist is high

(Tullock, 2003). While the number of people keeping aquarium fish has risen in the last few

years, pressures to innovate and develop more exotic breeds of fish are intense (Lass, 2004).









The GloFishTM derived from zebra danios, a staple in any aquarium store. The GloFishTM

represents the most technologically advanced aquarium organism and holds promises both for

revitalizing the ornamental industry and creating more environmentally friendly and efficient

broodstocks for aquaculture. Before the GloFishTM, new ornamental Eish were introduced from

wild stocks obtained via invasive netting techniques that had deleterious consequences for

delicate tropical ecosystems (Gerstner, Ortega, Sanchez, & Graham, 2006).

Globally, both aquaculture and agriculture biotechnology are under scrutiny by special

interest groups. The Center for Food Safety, Friends of the Earth, GreenPeace, the Sierra Club,

and PETA all oppose aquatic biotechnology (Center for Food Safety, 2004; Friends of the Earth,

2004; Sierra Club, 2004). Already, poor public perception of transgenic agriculture products in

Europe has reduced the research dollars allocated to developing new strains. Unless the

aquaculture industry works in unison with the scientific community to monitor the public's

perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about genetic engineering, aquatic biotechnology may never

deliver its promises. Canada, China, Europe, Cuba, and the United States have all made

significant advances in aquatic biotechnology, but their research will be buried as long as the

sector fails to address public sentiment.

Publications addressing transgenic ornamentals, specifically the GloFishTM, have been

reports rather than research. While there has been considerable qualitative work examining the

public's reaction to the broader biotechnology sector, there has been no research specifically

addressing transgenic ornamentals (Pardo, Midden, & Miller, 2002; Pew Initiative, 2003;

Phillips & Corkindale, 2002). Articles from special interest groups such as Greenpeace and

Center for Food Safety appear in online searches of the web, but lack rigorous methodology, and









are based on parallel studies by Howard and Muir (Center for Food Safety, 2004; Greenpeace

International, 2004; Muir & Howard, 1999).

A qualitative study of the GloFishTM was needed since numerous controversial

technologies will be marketed and capitalized in the near future. Researchers must consider

resistance to these technologies as part of their development (Bauer, 1995/1997b). The human

response to third generation biotechnologies will drive industry's decisions on what technologies

are worthy of investment. The results of the research are applicable to products outside of the

biotechnology arena that the public perceives as dangerous. No theory has been developed to

explain why retailers either choose to rej ect or accept products created using the controversial

technology.









CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Statement of Purpose and Research Questions

When the GloFishTM was introduced, there was a unique phenomenon where some retailers

wanted to be the first to offer the fish to the public while others refused to stock it. The public

outcry that occurred when the product was first introduced in 2001, political maneuvering, and a

strong avoidance of the GloFishTM by some aquarium retailers needed to be examined. The

response did not align with other theories, so a new model needed to be developed. Grounded

theory methodology provided a framework to develop a model using interviews with industry

stakeholders.

Research Questions

The research questions answered by this study were the following:

* How do aquarium retailers perceive transgenic ornamental fish?

* Why have some aquarium retailers refused to stock the product while others have been
eager to purchase the GloFishTM from their supplier?

* What decision making processes do retailers employ to stock new controversial fish?

* What characteristics of the GloFishTM do retailers find either attractive or unattractive for
their customers?

The research questions proposed in this study were ontological and epistemological.

Ontological questions seek to define the obj ects of inquiry that explain theory and seek to

address why actions are performed (Anderson & Baym, 2004). Examples of ontological

questions from this research included why researchers were developing this technology, why this

topic was proposed, and why people have developed the opinions that they have developed.

Ontological questions address why we are examining the phenomenon of rejection or acceptance

of transgenic fish is being conducted. Ontology is the branch of philosophy that deals with









knowledge. Ontological theory describes the knowledge people have about transgenic

ornamentals. Biotechnology surveys address the ontological component by measuring the

knowledge that people have on the issue, but do not ask how or why that knowledge exists.

Examining only the ontological aspect of why retailers' rej ected the GloFishTM would have

provided a one dimensional view of the phenomenon.

Epistemological questions address how we know what we know, such as how opinions and

attitudes develop, and how we come to understand what is around us. Epistemology is the

branch of philosophy that addresses how we know what we know. For this research,

epistemological questions addressed how the stakeholders came to develop their views on

transgenic ornamentals.

Qualitative Methods: Grounded Theory

A qualitative research methodology was superior to develop the theory for the following

reasons. First, there had never been a qualitative inquiry to develop a model that would explain

the public's reaction to transgenic ornamental fish. The population of aquarium retailers held a

wealth of information that was not being investigated. They had the advantage of interacting

with both consumers and producers which provided input into their attitude and knowledge

formulation. Second, since no previous research existed, creating instrumentation would have

been difficult since the ranges of responses were unknown. A survey would have required a

basic understanding of the existing range of opinions to ensure high content and construct

validity. Without qualitative inquiry, the theoretical constructs would have been based on

assumptions rather than data. Third, to fully understand the range of opinions and emotions,

fieldwork had to be conducted. The emotions and opinions examined by this research were

rooted in their contexts and disclosed, since unknown context specific variables might have

influenced the data. Quantitative research would have overlooked valuable information and









could not have provided rich description of the context. Fourth, quantitative research would

have biased the responses by creating an unrealistic control environment that bound the

responses by predefined constructs. Using an instrument with attitude indices would have failed

to examine how or why the attitudes were formulated. The range of responses led to the

development of substantive theory since it tested the instances when the theory failed. Finally,

participant responses were systematically examined and explored rather than taken at face value.

Inductive reasoning was necessary to explore aquarium retailers' responses to the onset of

transgenic fish.

Among the qualitative research traditions, grounded theory was the best choice for the

following reasons. First, it allowed the researcher to develop a model, the desired end-product of

the research. Second, it did not require a bounded system such as a case study. Third, the

methodology assumed that knowledge can be built from interviews and observations, and while

it was context specific, it could be used to build a transferable model. Other research

methodologies could be used to answer the research questions; however, grounded theory

provided the most holistic approach.

Grounded Theory Styles

While the original form of grounded theory is Glaserian-Strausian, the researchers evolved

their methods over time (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999). Subsequently, Corbin and Strauss

published more structured methodological tools such as Ba~sics of Qualitative Research in 1998

(Strauss & Corbin, 1998). The Corbin-Strauss combination provides more rigor and fixed

instruction, while Glaser became more emergent and less structured (Walker & Myrick, 2006).

The methodology used for this research resembles more the methods of Corbin and Strauss

rather than a Glaserian study.









Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the responses of retailers in

the ornamental fish industry to the onset of transgenic products. The central focus was to obtain

local ornamental retailers' opinions about new ornamental fish developed with biotechnology

and to come to understand the basis of their initial disapproval or acceptance of such products

and what contributed to a shift in mindset if one took place. (Creswell, 1998)

The theory developed by this research elucidated the public's impetus to prevent the

capitalization of new biotechnologies. Grounded theory methods generate two types of theory,

substantive and formal. The resulting model constitutes substantive theory since it addressed the

rejection of the technology by retail pet stores (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999).

Sampling

For grounded theory research, a population of interest must be isolated that has the

characteristics that will lead to the development of the theory. For this research, the population

Florida aquarium retailers, were selected as the population based on availability, proximity, and

contact with the end customer, the aquarium hobbyists. For nonsocial scientists this step

appeared to violate the scientific method and reduce generalizability. Rather, the selection of the

right participants was fundamental to the development of the theory since it isolated the sector of

the population deciding to stock or not stock the GloFishTM. A wide range of aquarium retailers

were interviewed, from strictly marine to strictly freshwater. The purpose of the sampling was to

maximize the differences among the participants.

The sampling approximated the theoretical sampling techniques described by Glaser and

Strauss (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999). Purposeful sampling was done from a pool of aquarium

retailers in Florida using the Yellow PagesTM Online. Aquarium stores in Gainesville, Tampa,

Jacksonville, Ocala and Orlando were asked to participate in the research. Subsamples were









created based on metropolitan area, and all participants from their respective metropolitan areas

were interviewed before moving to the next location. The order of the sampling was Gainesville,

Ocala, Jacksonville, Tampa, and Orlando. Interviews were conducted until saturation was

reached which occurred after 12 interviews. Since Orlando was the last location, not all

aquarium retailers were interviewed since saturation had been reached.

While Creswell estimated that approximately 20 interviews were generally required to

reach saturation, fewer interviews were required due to the homogeneity of the aquarium

retailers in Florida (Creswell, 1998). As well, numerous grounded theory studies indicated that

saturation could occur after less than 15 interviews (Becker & Stamp, 2005; Mostafanej ad, 2006;

Wiitavaara, Lundman, Barnekow-Bergvist, & Bruline, 2007; Wisdom & Agnor, 2007). Due to

the variance within the participants, transferability, the ability to apply the findings to other

instances, should be high. However, as a percentage of total sales generated in Florida, the 12

participants probably represented less than 10%.

The next step, coding, required the researcher to analyze the differences among the

participants' responses to the interview questions. The categories became apparent quickly, and

sampling continued based on geographic location. When all the retailers in one area had

participated, a new metropolitan area was targeted. As the categories became populated and

saturated, the researcher verified the common appearance of the categories by maximizing the

diversity of the participants. This step contributed to the reliability of the study. The final result

of this process was a new theory explaining the reluctance of retailers to purchase and sell the

GloFishTM

Implementation

The first step was to contact retailer stores via telephone and inquire if they would be

interested in participating in the current research. An interview time and location was









established for those agreeing to participate. Out of the 12 interviews, 10 were conducted at the

participants' places of business, one at a restaurant, and one at a conference room at the

University of Florida. Four interview protocols were developed during the course of the research

(Appendix B). Given the emergent nature of grounded theory, interview protocols evolved from

subject to subject. All interviews were digitally recorded in MP3 format and fully transcribed by

a professional transcription service, M.R.TTM services in Atlanta, Georgia. Turnaround time per

transcription was two weeks. ATLAS.tiTM software was employed to code, organize, and help

the researcher analyze each interview. The program allowed the researcher to look across all

previous interviews simultaneously as well as creating hierarchies and networks. The software

allowed the researcher to examine groupings of data among all the interviews simultaneously,

but did not perform any analysis.

A preliminary pilot study was conducted in Gainesville to ensure that the structured

interview functioned properly and that the correct questions were posed. The results from the

pilot study were used to evolve the interview protocol, and served as a general litmus test to the

efficacy of using grounded theory to investigate the phenomenon.

The transcribed interviews were imported from Microsoft WordTM into ATLAS.tiTM and

each sentence was assigned a code. The transcriptions were separated by numbered paragraphs

which contained groupings of sentences.

Data was organized by codes, themes, families, and categories which evolved from

interview to interview. Codes were located at the bottom of the data organization hierarchy.

Open coding was completed on the first interview, and fewer additional codes were added with

each subsequent interview. Throughout the process the relevance of each unique code was

examined and, when possible, similar codes were blended. Initially, groupings of codes were










placed into themes. The creation of themes provided the researcher with a preliminary

framework to organize types of codes before either enough data existed to group codes into

families or the relevance of a group of codes could be determined. Preliminary families began to

develop by interview 3, but were more clearly defined after interview 5. Finally, the highest

rung in the hierarchy, categories was developed to explain the GloFishTM phenomenon.

Categories transcended code groupings and had boundaries that appeared in the families and

codes. The creation of categories involved both inductive and deductive reasoning.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The key strength of the research is that the data drove the development of the theory,

which is rooted in the interviews via a traceable line of reasoning. Unlike other forms of

qualitative research, the methodology used a rigorous comparative technique to enhance the

transferability of the findings. The evolution of the model is clear and the conclusions are based

on reasoning.

Some weaknesses of the methods included the reliance on verbal communication conveyed

in the interview process. There was an overwhelming reliance on the interviewer to

communicate clearly and to interpret the responses correctly despite perceived inconsistencies

between intended and actual beliefs. While considerable time and thought was spent during the

coding process and the development of interview questions, it was difficult to minimize the

impact of the researcher on the participant. There was the influence from the Hawthorne effect

(Mayo, 1933). Wherein, the presence of the researcher during the interview and the setting had a

profound influence on the accuracy of the emergent theory. Selecting the environment and

understanding the researchers' impact on the accuracy of the responses was addressed in the

coding and analysis of the interviews.










Quantitative research would have had some benefits. First, the results from the survey

would have been generalizable. Unlike grounded theory, inferential statistics could have been

used to explain how the public perceived transgenic technologies. Second, survey research could

have been done more rapidly and the data collection from all the participants would have taken

place simultaneously rather than as an iterative sequential process. The grounded theory method

was highly time intensive and required the researcher to revisit hundreds of pages of

transcription to draw conclusions from later interviews. The cost of each interview was over

$350.00 after the payment to the participant, transportation costs, and transcription fees. Survey

research is less expensive, can be performed quickly, and the results are retuned and analyzed

simultaneously.

Research Design: Quality, Reliability, and Validity

Of the eight techniques Creswell suggested to enhance the quality of the research, six were

used by the researcher (Creswell, 1998). The two tools that were not employed were member

checking and paid external auditing. Lincoln and Guba (as cited in Creswell, 1998) contended

that member checking would be integral to the credibility of the study. However, member

checks were not performed in this research since the questions were context specific and heavily

influenced by mass media. Creswell also suggested hiring external auditors to validate the

findings. Paid external auditors were not employed in the research due to cost and time

constraints.

Six of Creswell's suggestions for improving quality were integrated into the research.

First there was extensive time spent conducting the interviews and engaging with the

participants. Each interview was 45 minutes, while approximately 40 hours were spent on

coding and analyzing each interview. Over 150 pages of transcribed interview data was used to

anchor the model. Second the findings were triangulated with several sources. Third, the final









model was peer reviewed by representatives from a variety of schools of thought and paradigms.

Feedback was received from the departments of Agricultural and Biological Engineering,

Journalism, and Food and Resource Economics. The peer review provided a forum for the

researcher to strengthen the trustworthiness of his findings as well as interact with peers sharing

similar research interests. Fourth, negative case analyses were completed to test the boundaries

of the emergent theory. Disconfirming evidence was used to modify and evolve the theory to

explain as many cases as possible. Fifth, the researcher clearly stated his biases and sought to

minimize them during the interview process. In addition, he provided the reader with extensive

self introspection and reflexivity in the narrative. Sixth, rich description was provided to capture

a detailed snap shot of the interviews and their analysis. As many details as possible, and all the

reasoning used to arrive at conclusions, were included in the narrative.

Several additional steps were taken to improve the quality of the model from Corbin and

Strauss (1998). The "validity, reliability, and credibility" of the data was scrutinized. Second,

judgments were made on the face validity of the theory development from the data. Finally, the

reasoning employed to draw conclusions and build the theory was evaluated in the narrative.

Ethical Considerations and Publication Concerns

Risks to the participant were minimal. Measures were taken to ensure anonymity since the

transgenic debate had become heated in a number of instances. Participation in the study was

anonymous since some retailers had concerns about potential demonstrations and acts of

vandalism against their stores if they sold the GloFishTM. Finally, informed consent forms were

provided, and the participants received fair financial compensation for their time.














Th101110


Codes


Categories: Highest level of organization that emerged when the research had adequate data
collected to identify nuances among responses to interview questions.
Families: Mid-level organization of codes and themes that identified preliminary patterns of
responses to interview questions.
Themes: Grouping of codes.
Codes: Lowest level of organization assigned to sentences and words.

Figure 2-1. The coding hierarchy









CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE REVIEW

Qualitative Research

Theoretical Framework

Qualitative and quantitative researchers differ philosophically; one believes that the world

has one truth while the other believes there are multiple meanings of the same truth.

Quantitative research resulted from hundreds of years of work translating phenomena into

numerical representations of the real world. Ultimately, the two paradigms have contrasting

underlying assumptions regarding how truth can be known, how measurement is taken, and how

knowledge is generated. According to Creswell,

Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding .. that explores a social or
human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports
detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting. (1998)

Qualitative research is multidisciplinary, drawing from psychology, sociology, education,

journalism, and many other schools. Among these schools, there are frameworks including

positivism, postpositivism, and postmodernism which determine the relationships between

causality and research methods. Positivism is rooted in the scientific method and performs

research to describe a phenomenon and is not qualitative (Anderson & Baym, 2004). Positivists

believe that what can be observed and measured can describe the phenomenon. Postpositivists,

however, acknowledge that all observations are fallible, and therefore the results from research

are not causal. Postpositivism sees a hypothesis as probable until it can be debunked (Denzin &

Lincoln, 2003). Finally, postmodernism challenges the concept of knowing and knowledge. It

employs multiple modes of understanding to arrive at an outcome based on multiple meanings

and interpretations (Cornell, 2005).









Positivism, the idea that the world could be measured and knowledge generated from the

measurement instruments represented the philosophical foundation for hard science. Beginning

in 1907, the Vienna Circle, made up of scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers, analyzed

the creation of scientific knowledge to assess its accuracy given the fallacies of an unknown

world (Byrant & Miron, 2004). The Vienna Circle birthed the concept of Logical Positivism and

proclaimed that knowledge can only be generated from two sources: logical reasoning and

empirical experiences. According to the Positivists, empirical experiences are the only fodder

for scientific theory (Byrant & Miron, 2004).

Likewise, qualitative researchers ground themselves in a variety of other philosophical

paradigms that debunk positivism. From a postpositivistic perspective, there is not one truth, but

many which can be known through non-empirical measures. For postpositivists, reality can be

approximated but if more perceptions of truth exist, then the better our understanding of the

truth. Postmodernism goes a step further and questions the fallacy of creating knowledge.

Ultimately, the philosophical foundations governing how reality is known determine how

researchers measure phenomena and develop instrumentation. Qualitative researchers rely

neither on empirical measures nor representations of abstract phenomenon to build knowledge

(Byrant & Miron, 2004).

Qualitative researchers refuse to conceptualize world in data (Pauly, 1991). As well, the

results are context specific and the researcher is an integral part of the process. Likewise,

quantitative researchers based in a Positivistic paradigm view the world solely in terms of data

and strive to reduce error while enhancing validity and reliability by employing the scientific

method. The quantitative scientist is independent of the research and variables can be held

constant. Quantitative researchers have an outside or etic perspective, and are impartial to the









results, while the researchers' perspectives in qualitative research are emic; they are part of the

research (Cornell, 2005).

Qualitative research can build theories and models while quantitative research must test

theories using the scientific method. Rather than prove or disprove a hypothesis, qualitative

research describes phenomena without using either inferential or descriptive statistics. Through

an analysis of field work, qualitative researchers use inductive reasoning to reach their

conclusions. Quantitative research relies on minimizing error through experimental design to

measure the phenomenon based on preexisting constructs. Quantitative researchers employ

deductive reasoning to either reject or fail to rej ect the null hypothesis. The product of

qualitative research is description rather than abstract text (University of Connecticut, 2005).

Qualitative research is based on the premise that researchers cannot explore phenomena

with preexisting constructs. From a qualitative paradigm, predefined constructs cause

researchers to reduce the range of responses and bias the results. Qualitative research strives to

capture the richness of the context and uses detailed description rather than numeric data to

explain a phenomenon. Finally, qualitative research views the world as having multiple

meanings. For qualitative researchers, there can be multiple truths rather than one immutable

truth that can be empirically known. Underlying quantitative measurement, prediction, and

control is the idea that there is one truth that can be known (Creswell, 1998).

The Challenge of Social Scientific Research

Several aspects of the social sciences make generating theory and conducting research

based on empirical experiences difficult. First, according to social scientists, knowledge is

constructed rather than measured. Second, social phenomena are rooted in a context; removing

the context changes the outcome. Third, social phenomena are not repeatable since all aspects of










the context are subject to change and cannot be held constant. Finally, emotions, feelings, and

nonempirical experiences become bounded by the instruments used to measure them.

Measurement allows for the development of instrumentation, data collection, and analysis.

Instrumentation allows scientists to share and build perspectives. To measure a social

phenomenon, however, requires researchers to construct knowledge and reality based on

predefined constructs. The range of emotions, thoughts, and memories must be limited to the

boundaries set by the researcher. While measurement of nonempirical phenomena, given

predefined constructs for instrumentation, can be repeatable, there are limitations based on the

researchers' attempts to explain the variance of the constructs. Measurement requires translating

phenomenon into a representation of reality and, therefore, the responses are bounded. For

example, the Wong-Baker scale attempts to quantify a child's emotion and bounds the range of

emotions into six choices (Figure 3-1). Thus, the instrument forces participants to select from

the options available, even if the choices do not precisely fit. Likewise, the instrument provides

researchers with a standard for gathering data on emotions and allows for the transference of the

findings across multiple contexts.

In order to conduct research on phenomena that are difficult to measure, researchers must

operate from a philosophical paradigm that is different from the hard sciences. "Qualitative

researchers stress the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the

researcher and what is studied, and the situational constraints that shape their inquiry" (Denzin &

Lincoln, 2003).

Denzin and Lincoln warn social scientists about the risks of quantification and the

development of instruments that show biases that are undisclosed in quantitative research.

Ultimately, there must be a balance between developing instrumentation standards and purely










qualitative context bound research. Instrumentation and measurement allow social science to

develop theories that can be tested and provides foundational research for future inquiry.

Qualitative research uses a variety of tools for data collection including focus groups,

historical research, and interviews. There is a variety of traditions that a researcher can utilize to

examine the data. According to Creswell, there are five traditions of qualitative inquiry:

biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study (Creswell, 1998). A

biography collects data in the form of literature reviews and interviews, and explores human life.

Since the focus of inquiry for this research was the stakeholder' s response to transgenic

ornamentals, neither biography nor ethnography were a logical choice.

The remaining three methodologies, case studies, phenomenologies, and grounded theory

research are used to examine phenomena and events. These methods would have been

applicable to the GloFishTM study depending on the perspective desired. A case study would

have to be bounded by the limits of an entity, such as a corporation, and required a variety of

data collection tools to draw conclusions about the company or policy under investigation. A

GloFishTM case study would also have been an effective research tradition, however the study

would have only examined a time bounded instance, such as the first introduction of the

GloFishTM to pet stores. Examining only the initial response of the stakeholders would not have

provided an accurate model of their evolving sentiments, since many of the retailers began, then

discontinued selling the fish. As well, theoretical sampling, an integral component of grounded

theory research, required a diversity of participants to test the theory's boundaries. Likewise, a

case study would have provided a rigorous examination of only the initial responses, which

would have mimicked innovation adoption theories.










Qualitative Research Issues

Considerable debate has taken place between qualitative and quantitative research camps

required measures of validity and reliability. The two camps address reliability and validity in

fundamentally different ways based on differing perceptions of how truth is known. Thus, a

philosophical difference exists underlying quantitative and qualitative research. Tangible

phenomenon can be evaluated with instruments and with numeric representations of the event.

Phenomenon that cannot be touched, felt, seen, heard, or smelled does not lend itself to a

quantitative representation. For example, personality can be measured using an instrument such

as Myers-Briggs inventory, but the instrument cannot fully encapsulate the broad range of

emotions, thoughts, and actions that constitute personality.

Qualitative research is fundamentally different from quantitative methods in that the results

are not generalizable and the researcher is an integral part of the data collection process.

Another difference is that there is no single correct way to interpret the qualitative results

(Janesick, 2000). Multiple interpretations can be made from the same data given variations in

researcher biases and paradigms. In addition, the researcher accepts that validity and biases are

intertwined with the results and can be revealed, but not removed. Both qualitative and

quantitative researchers must identify, contend, and solve validity issues to enhance the quality

of their research. While some qualitative researchers believe that they do not need to address

validity issues, an effort must be made to enhance the quality and transferability of the study.

Reliability, trustworthiness, quality, verification, and transferability are used to evaluate the

results of a qualitative study.

Grounded Theory

The debate between the validity and importance of qualitative methods reached a head in

the cold-war era when the emphasis was on the scientific method of discovery. Grounded theory









was developed by two sociologists, Glaser and Strauss, while exploring social interactions in

hospitals, specifically death and dying (Glaser, 1965). They developed the methods to lend

credibility to their research. Today, the maj ority of grounded theory research remains in the

health sciences and it has become the qualitative toolset for examining elusive phenomenon in

the medical field.

The ideology driving grounded theory was the development of a systematic process for

developing theory from both quantitative and qualitative data (Walker & Myrick, 2006).

Grounded theory is a postpositivistic structured iterative nonsequential process used to reveal

theories (Figure 2-1). While qualitative research purists question the efficacy of placing

postpositivistic conceptions of reality into a positivistic process for conducting research, the

theories generated from the methodology have withstood the test of time (Denzin & Lincoln,

2003). The primary difference between grounded theory and other qualitative traditions is that

the data reveal the theory in an iterative evolving process. There are no hypotheses formulated,

rather, a statement of purpose directs data collection and preliminary coding.

Two types of theory can be generated using this process: formal theory and substantive

theory. Formal theory explains broad concepts such as death, power, and war. Likewise,

substantive theory is more specific and addresses specific social processes. The type of theory

developed depends on the research question (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999).

A fundamental component of research is creating a sample to study. Sampling allows

quantitative researchers to use inferential statistics to make generalizations to the larger

population. Sampling can be broken into two categories: probability sampling and

nonprobability sampling. Probability sampling attempts to randomly select participants to avoid

the introduction of systematic error that could impact the validity of the findings. Likewise,










nonprobablity sampling selects individuals based on previously defined criteria and therefore has

a nonrandom component. Researchers favor probability sampling since non-probability

sampling increases the risks that the variance measured by the dependent variable is spurious.

Qualitative researchers employ nonprobability sampling techniques, since hypotheses are

not tested. For qualitative inquiry there is no effort to generalize the Eindings since the results are

context specific. Qualitative researchers must explain how the sampling took place using thick

description and the reasoning behind the selection of the participants must be made clear to the

reader.

Grounded theory research, unlike most qualitative traditions, relies on a prescriptive non-

random sampling technique that begins with "theoretical sampling" and ends in "discriminate

sampling" (Corbin & Strauss, 1998). The progression begins by selecting participants with the

most variance to test the boundaries of the theory and ends with selecting participants with the

characteristics that populate the Einal categories.

A key component of building theory requires selecting a population that will reveal

insights. Theoretical sampling requires the isolation of groups which have attributes that

manifest emergent theory when compared. The challenge to the researcher is to maximize the

opportunities to discover variations and inconsistencies among groups. Thus, the comparison

groups are selected based on their theoretical relevance (Corbin & Strauss, 1998). While it is

impossible to state what groups will arise from the research, there are boundaries that can be

placed on the population. The boundaries must be ameliorated by the emergent theory, and then

be moved to further verify the Eindings. The precursor to the theory is the development of

categories. Glaser and Strauss created a rubric to explain the relationship between the amount of

data collected on a category and the difference in groups. (Table 3-1).









Theoretical sampling continues until each category becomes saturated, when no other

participant' s contribution would not be explained by the developed theory (Glaser & Strauss,

1967/1999). Using the more structured formula, theoretical sampling consists of initial

sampling, followed by open sampling, axial sampling, and categorical sampling. The sampling

parallels the coding process and is an iterative process (Corbin & Strauss, 1998). Ultimately,

theoretical sampling is sampling with a purpose, and it is an iterative and deductive process.

For the initial sampling, the researcher is interested only in collecting information to help

begin building categories. When research begins, the drive will be to develop as many

categories as possible. A questionnaire or interview protocol should be developed based on the

literature and previous studies (Corbin & Strauss, 1998). After several interviews, the categories

will begin to appear in most of the interviews. Following the analysis of each preliminary

interview, the subsequent participant will be selected based on the previous results. The initial

sampling rapidly creates categories and leads to open sampling.

During open sampling, the researcher's goal is to name, isolate, and categorize the

phenomenon of study. To begin categorizing the persistent themes, the researcher must probe

while sampling in a way to maintain openness to the emergent categories. The results from each

interview are contrasted with the previous result. Open sampling seeks to verify the relevance of

the categories developed from the initial sampling. In effect, it is the first instance when the data

drives the selection of subsequent participants.

Once the categories have been developed, the next form of sampling, relational and

variation sampling begins. Relational-variation sampling seeks participants that will maximize

the range of variance. The results from the analysis are compared across sites or persons to

uncover similarities and differences.









Finally, discriminate sampling takes place to select participants. The purpose of

discriminate sampling is to sample for participants with the greatest differences. Unlike

relational-variational sampling that samples to saturate categories by maximizing the range of

variance among categories, discriminate sampling seeks to locate outliers. The final sampling

step, discriminate sampling, should integrate categories along dimensions to form a theory.

Discriminate sampling is the most selective and only selects individuals who will demonstrate

the range of samples under which the theory applies.

Theoretical sampling begins with a larger sieve and ends with highly selective criteria.

Probability sampling techniques would result in a limited exploration of the boundaries of the

emergent categories. The process allowed for the development of emergent theory rather than

biasing the theory by creating categories and seeking participants who fi11 the needed roles. As

categories arise from the coding process, the boundaries of those categories must be tested. In

order to establish what criterion makes a category relevant, a sample must be selected to test the

theory. The coding process and sampling process work in unison to develop the theory.

The process is fundamentally different from the scientific method since there are neither

hypotheses generated nor inferential statistics employed to generalize the Eindings to the

population at large. Once the categories have been created by analyzing the interviews, they

must be tested again. In addition to this iterative process, grounded theory requires the

researcher to make meaning of the data. It is the researcher' s role to determine the data that is

relevant to the development of the theory.

Generalizability is not possible in qualitative research; however, the Eindings can be

transferred to similar instances. To increase the transferability of the study, biases and

environmental influences must be revealed. As well, building transferable theory requires









selecting a population that will reveal the diversity of responses to the phenomenon in question.

Theoretical sampling requires the isolation of groups which have attributes that manifest

emergent theory. Qualitative researchers refer to the quality and credibility rather than internal

validity of the study. The quality of the research requires more effort on the part of the audience

than quantitative research. The credibility of the study should be judged by the reader and based

on how the researchers draw their conclusions from the data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999).

There are, however, several threats to quality. First, theoretical sampling might not pull

from the range of opinions and lead to an inaccurate theory. To avoid partially developed

categories, selecting the correct participants is critical. Significant effort must be made to

interview people with the desired attributes that will test the boundaries of the emergent theory.

Secondly, people are heavily influenced by the researcher' s presence, tone of voice, and affect.

The researcher must be introspective, astute, and self-aware to be able to collect high quality

data, and must allocate time to examining his influence in the narrative. Third, while Creswell

estimates that approximately twenty interviews are needed to reach saturation, a sample size too

small could leave categories neither sufficiently tested nor completely saturated (Creswell,

1998). The only criterion for sample size in a grounded theory research is that all categories

have been fully explored. Fourth, the Einal product draws from questions during interviews that

can be leading. The research can reduce the validity of their Eindings by not asking the correct

questions.

Corbin and Strauss (1998) and Lincoln and Guba (1990) utilize the term validity to

describe an evaluation attribute. According to Lincoln and Guba the trustworthiness, validity, of

qualitative research can be judged by four criteria. First is isomorphism, the appearance of the

phenomenon among two or more respondents (Lincoln & Guba). Secondly, the researchers must









state biases to avoid tainting the Eindings with their perceptions. There must be narrative that

explicitly describes the researcher's background, biases and attributes that could influence both

data collection and analysis. The narrative must include insight into the researcher' s paradigm

and mode of thinking and reveal the biases that impact the emergent theory. Third, validity also

must have consistency across multiple instances. Finally, the results must be transferable and

generalizable to other situations.

Corbin and Strauss (1998) recommend triangulation, negative case analysis, and testing for

rival hypotheses to evaluate qualitative research. Triangulation either verifies the data with

current literature and sources, or additional research can be done either quantitative or qualitative

that will either uphold or rej ect the Eindings. Denzin (1978) suggests the research employs four

types of triangulation: (a) data triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory

triangulation, and (d) methodological triangulation. Data triangulation compares data across

multiple studies. Investigator triangulation compares the finding among several different

researchers. Theory triangulation takes place in the form of a literature review to verify that the

theory holds up across multiple disciplines and supports the current theoretical framework.

Finally, methodological triangulation verifies that the methods used to reach the conclusions

have been proven and employed in answering similar research questions.

Present Theories

Like genetically modified ornamental Eish, other innovations, such as woolen mills, coffee,

televisions, nuclear power, automotive manufacturing robots, and microwaves all resulted in

public outcry (Pendergrast, 1999; Randall, 1986). The Atomic Energy Commission

underestimated the public backlash to atomic energy (Juma & Calo, 2002) Historically people

oppose change. To be successful then, innovators must introduce new technology carefully to

avoid backlash (Phillips & Corkindale 2002). The agricultural biotechnology industry failed to









address the public's concerns when they began employing genetic engineering to create new

cultivars for the world food supply (Harries-Rees, 2003; Juma & Calo, 2002; Wolt & Peterson,

2000). Genetic engineers assumed that education through information would lead to the

formulation of positive attitudes toward their products. Because they failed to communicate

effectively with the public, they created an uphill battle in gaining the public's trust (Phillips &

Corkindale 2002).

Beyond simple press releases and public relations efforts, there are social and

psychological forces that determine consumer responses to new technologies. Since mass media

serves an integral role in educating and disseminating information about new technologies to the

public, communication strategies have a heavy impact on consumer sentiments (Shanahan,

Scheufele, & Lee, 2001). Researchers have deconstructed the growing opposition to genetic

engineering using a number of paradigms and theories. While each theory points to the

perception of risk as the driving force of the resistance, they differ in exploring how

communications created the perception.

First and second generation biotechnologies were all plants with attributes benefiting the

producer such as Round-Up ReadyTM Soybeans and Bt Corn and Cotton (Stewart & McLean,

2004). Third generation biotechnologies will begin to provide the public with valuable attributes

and will include both plants and animals (Guynup, 2000; Lewis, 2001). Communication theory

specific to addressing ornamental retailers' responses to transgenic ornamental Eish has not been

developed, however, Sociocultural, Cognitive Science, and Reasoned Action theories all partially

explain why retailers have responded negatively to the introduction of the GloFishTM

Theoretical knowledge on transgenic Hish divides by either academic traditions or business

sectors. While little research has specifically addressed the GloFishTM, extensive research on










public response to the broader biotechnology and aquaculture sectors has been carried out

(Lewis, 2001; Phillips & Corkindale, 2002; Titchener & Sapp, 2002). Most of the information

available comes from mass media sources rather than academic journals. From an academic

perspective, the schools of psychology, business, political science, biology, public relations,

agriculture, journalism and mass communications have examined issues in biotechnology from

the standpoint of various paradigms. From a business sector perspective, research has been

conducted in the aquaculture, biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology, and the pet industries.

The largest body of literature examining the transgenic zebra danio exists in the scientific

community. Thus, the overwhelming majority of the research has been experimental and highly

positivistic in nature. Molecular biologists and geneticists began using the fish for research due

to its survivability and fecundity in the 1990's. In 1997, the National Institute of Health (NIH)

recognized the importance of the zebra danio in understanding human disease and created the

Trans-NIH Zebrafish Coordinating Committee to spearhead and organize international research

(Henken, 1998). The Sanger Institute began sequencing the genome for Danio rerio in 2001 and

is currently more than 60% complete. The Zebrafish Information Network (Zfin) lists over 6500

publications pertaining to the fish.

A large body of research describes bioreactor constructs, fluorescent proteins, and other

potential uses for the fish in biomedical and oncological research (Cheng, Christie, &

Valdimarsson, 2003). Dr. Gong at the University of Singapore is the foremost researcher in

adding fluorescent protein genes to zebra fish genomes. In 1999, Ju and his colleges (1999)

published an article describing the expression of green fluorescent protein in the musculature of

the fish; this was the predecessor to the red fluorescent species, the GloFishTM (Ju et al., 1999).

The publication defined the methodology for inserting fluorescent protein genes used as genetic









markers into the mlyz-2 promoter region, and future research was done to improve the genes'

expression (Ju et al., 2003). Other species and strains have now been developed, including a two

color zebra fish, but no others have been commercialized.

In contrast to the scholarly journals on developmental genetics, molecular biology, and

biochemistry are the applied aquaculture research j ournals. This research is generally applied in

nature and pertains to food fish rather than ornamentals, particularly the maj or food fish species,

such as shrimp, salmon, tilapia, and clams, that represent the bulk of the industry's financial

impact on the fisheries industry. Extensive studies on transgenic salmon and the public

perception of transgenic food fish have been conducted as well as studies analyzing the

environmental impact of the introduction of genetically modified fish into the ecosystem (Carr,

Anderson, Whoriskey, & Dilworth, 1997; Hedrick, 2001; Institute for Social, Economic, and

Environmental Sustainability, 2003; Kapuscinski & Hallerman, 1991; McGinnity et al., 1997;

Muir & Howard, 1999; Pew Initiative, 2004). As well, aquarium hobbyists preferences for

certain fish have been deconstructed in survey research (Alencatro, 2004).

Literature indicating possible environmental degradation delayed the Food and Drug

Administration's approval of transgenic salmon. Muir and Howard's Trojan Gene Hypothesis,

which predicts the collapse of native fish stocks due to the introduction of an escaped transgenic

salmon, has been cited by special interest groups as a potential result of commercializing the

GloFish (Center for Food Safety, 2004). Transgenic ornamental fish inherit the environmental

concerns generated not only from the aquaculture sector, but also from the transgenic food

industry.

Survey research is the most common methodology for examining public response to

agricultural biotechnology. A GoogleTM search revealed 366,000 hits on "GMO Surveys." No









results appeared when "GloFishTM Survey" was entered. A considerable amount of qualitative

work has been done examining the public's reaction to the broader biotechnology sector, but no

research specifically addressing transgenic ornamental fish has been reported (Pardo, Midden, &

Miller, 2002; Phillips & Corkindale, 2002; Pew Initiative, 2003).

Articles from special interest groups such as Greenpeace and the Center for Food Safety

appear in online searches of the web, but these lack rigorous methodology, and are based on

parallel studies by Muir and Howard (Center for Food Safety, 2004; Greenpeace International,

2004; Muir & Howard, 1999).

The five most applicable theoretical ties used to explain the public reaction to third

generation biotechnologies are Sociocultural theories, Social-Cognitive theories, Reasoned

Action theories, Decision-making theories, and Diffusion of Innovation theories. Sociocultural

theories contend that the growing negative sentiments towards biotechnology stem from societal

risk perceptions. The theories are applicable when investigating the impact of invasive species

such as the snake-headed fish on the publics' conscious. Social cognitive theories explain how

the public builds sentiments and beliefs through both cognition as well as societal influences and

is highly applicable given the negative publicity surrounding aquaculture and genetically

modified foods (Bandura, 2002).

The impact of special interest groups can be examined using Social Cognitive as well as

Sociocultural paradigms. Schools of psychology have examined agricultural biotechnology by

studying risk perception in humans and applying social and cognitive theoretical paradigms

(Stewart & McLean, 2004). Reasoned action models have been used to predict consumer

reactions to genetically modified foods (Wolt & Peterson, 2000). Decision-making theories are

relevant to the investigation since the decision to buy or not buy transgenic ornamental fish is at









the heart of the research. The process that potential buyers use to reach a buying decision must

be investigated. Finally, Roger's Diffusion of Innovation theory explains why some retailers are

earlier adopters of the technology, while others shy away from playing a maverick role in their

industry.

Sociocultural and Cognitive Science Theories

Socioculturalists and cognitive scientists examine how people form attitudes and develop

knowledge. The sociocultural camp contends that public attitudes result from discourse in the

risk assessment of the new technologies and the development of public attitude is multifaceted

(Helene, 2003). The discourse includes weighting tangible hazards against the benefits the

consumer receives from the risk, and cultural, political and normative influences (Helene, 2003;

Titchener & Sapp, 2002). The cognitive science perspective examines how knowledge and

objectively defined risks influences people's behaviors. They theorize that people form attitudes

based on a rational model derived from the available information (Titchener & Sapp). Cognitive

scientists support the notion that knowledge itself can promote the acceptance of technologies,

while socioculturists examine the holistic societal process of attitude formulation (Titchener &

Sapp) .

Bandura' s (2002) Social Cognitive Theory uses the model of "triadic reciprocal causation"

and assumes people learn from a variety of sources. Bandura investigated the influence of mass

media on the development of attitudes and opinions and is attributed to linking violence in

children with violence on television (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961). In this theory of

psychological function, the environment, perceptions, and behavioral act bidirectionally and

allow people to exert control over their environments (Bandura, 2002). The perceived ability of

the individual to control his environment heavily influences behavior. "Cognitive processes"









assemble the information available to the individual to determine the desirability of the behavior

(Bandura, 1994).

The Social Cognitive Theory also addresses how mass media constructs knowledge.

Bandura contends that television portrayals influence viewer beliefs. Other mass media outlets,

while not as rich as television, also contribute to the development of beliefs and attitudes. In

addition, the action of others can lead to the reinforcement of these beliefs and potential actions.

Bandura viewed behavior causality as the result of numerous and exhaustive "determinants"

(Bandura, 2002).

Thus, the negative publicity surrounding GM crops in the media, and the efforts of special

interest groups compounded to build negative frames around genetically engineered products.

Because negative media coverage of agricultural biotechnology has increased since 1997, the

resulting public backlash can be explained by Social Cognitive Theory (Shanahan, Scheufele, &

Lee, 2001). The StarlinkTM scare, and other food supply crises, such as Mad Cow, have had a

deleterious impact on the public's perception of new technologies (Uchtmann, 2002). As well,

efforts by special interest groups such as Greenpeace act to create knowledge that impacts future

behaviors. The Atlantic Institute of Market Studies (2004), while examining only aquaculture,

indicated that special interest groups rapidly tainted public opinion regarding the environmental

friendliness of salmon aquaculture. Due to the climate created by anti-GMO groups, Gerber

foods announced it would not use GM products in their foods, and no large retailers would stock

transgenic ornamental fish (Titchner & Sapp, 2002). The knowledge people accumulate serves

as their risk barometer for the unknown. Therefore, if people do not fully understand the science

behind genetically modified foods, they will leverage information accumulated from previous

media sources to determine the risk of consuming the products.









Traditional marketing efforts for GM foods have used models rooted in Cognitive Science

paradigms. Sharpe, however, has demonstrated that knowledge alone does not predict the

publics' positive or negative beliefs pertaining to biotechnology (Sharpe, 2002). Efforts to

reduce smoking and drunk driving have followed this model with limited success and exemplify

the limitations of using a rational model to change behaviors. Yet, when efforts were made to

increase the efficacy of public announcements against drunk driving, people were more likely to

internalize the information (Anderson, 1995). Phillips and Corkindale noted that "education is a

weak force at best," but the agricultural biotechnology sector has relied on this paradigm to

address consumers' negative responses to GM foods (Phillips & Corkindale 2002). Draper and

Green (2002) performed historical research to analyze the evolution of the role of the public in

food policy. They discovered that consumers' risk perceptions transcended a strictly rational

model .

In short, rather than being an "ignorant" and passive obj ect of food policy, the
"sociological" subj ect is a rational individual who is a consumer (in that he/she makes
individual choices), but whose choices are framed by his/her cultural, social, and material
circumstances. (Draper & Green, 2002)

Uses and Gratifications Theory explains the shortcomings of using a cognitive model to

communicate biotechnology concepts to a lay audience. The theory attempts to explain why

people choose certain types of music, internet sites, and newspapers, but also demonstrates how

people build knowledge using different types of media (Blumler & Katz, 1974). Since media

will lead to the development of knowledge in a specific genre, according to Bandura, the

gratification people receive from consuming certain types of media determines the development

of attitudes and beliefs (Bandura, 1994; Ruggiero, 2000). Therefore, media that does not provide

gratification will not lead to the formulation of attitudes and beliefs.









Educating the public about complex scientific issues is challenging since it requires an

interested learner to seek information. From a Uses and Gratification perspective, general

agricultural biotechnology self-education will be rare since there is no immediate gratification

beyond self-affirmation in using the media sources. To understand the risk and benefits of

supporting the technology, a knowledge search is necessary to build a precise and accurate risk

valuation matrix (Wolt & Peterson, 2000). People do not get gratification, however, from

reading public relations materials printed by probiotechnology entities. Thus, the Cognitive

Science model of communication is a poor choice for building public support. Ironically, the

lack of gratification from consuming biotechnology media is an advantage to GloFishTM

proponents since people will not seek out information that would make them unwilling to buy

the fish.

Titchener and Sapp (2002) performed a survey of 10,000 households to determine if

opinions toward biotechnology were influenced more heavily from the Cognitive Science or

Sociocultural perspectives. The researchers discovered that a person's risk assessment

transcends the viewpoint of cognitive scientists and includes societal influences. "Individuals,

rather than experts, ultimately will decide whether to adopt or rej ect new technology" (Titchner

& Sapp). Additionally, a large proportion of the individual's decision is influenced by norms,

attitudes, beliefs, and values. While previous survey results indicated that education and

information are not predictors of biotechnology acceptance, they are the basis upon which

buying decisions are made (Priest, 2000). "Social influences must then be incorporated within

the theoretical approaches to best understand the potential adoption or rej section of complex and

controversial new technologies" (Titchner & Sapp, 2002). These findings reaffirm the concept









that norms and social pressures play a heightened role in the development of attitudes when the

understanding of the technology is reduced.

Theory of Reasoned Action

The Fishbein-Ajzen (1975) theory of reasoned action explained not only the development

of negative attitudes toward biotechnology, but also peoples' behaviors toward genetically

modified products (Figure 3-2). The public's buying decisions with regard to GloFishTM should

have followed the Fishbein-Ajzen theory of Reasoned Action, therefore, people should have

made "systematic use of information available to them" and will use the information as the basis

for the formulation of attitudes (Ajzen, 1991). The theory contended that a large percentage of

human action is predictable if attitudes, norms, beliefs, sociological influences and intentions

were known (Fishbein & Ajzen). The model is highly rational in nature and has been criticized

for its over simplification of human behavior, however, the model potentially could explain some

of the variance involved in the public' s reaction towards biotechnology.

Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) created expectancy value models to predict human behaviors

based on norms, locus of control, and attitudes. The Theory of Planned Behavior examines eight

aspects of human behavior in three categories: beliefs, behaviors, and intentions.

The first grouping addresses the individual's beliefs and attitudes. Beliefs lead to attitudes

and norms which then drive the intention and subsequent behavior. Behavioral beliefs are what

an individual believes will happen as the result of their actions. The attitude toward the behavior

is the positive or negative valuation of the performed behavior. Next, societal consequences and

beliefs are defined. Normative beliefs are societal norms and values, while subjective norms are

the perceived social consequences and pressures of performing a behavior. Fishbein and Ajzen

(1975) were influenced by Bandura and his concept of Locus of Control (Bandura, 1994). The









control beliefs are the ideas that exist regarding what could interfere with the action, and the

perceived behavioral control is the perceived ability of the individual to influence the factors.

Researchers have already linked the public's negative reaction against GM crops to their

perceived consequences of consuming GM products (Castro, 2006; Joffe & Lee, 2004). The

power of special interest groups rests in their ability to alter the perceived consequences of

performing actions and generating attitudes and beliefs that question the safety of new transgenic

products. Poor transparency of the regulatory agencies, past failures, and a general lack of trust

in large multinational businesses add to the cognitive uncertainty of the safety of such

biotechnologies as the GloFishTM. The Reasoned Action Theory demonstrates how the efforts of

special interest groups have significant deleterious consequences for the industry by falsely

elevating the perceived consequence of consuming genetically modified products. The strategy

of special interest groups has been to place doubt in people' s minds about the safety of the

technology, and, ultimately, to change buying behaviors.

Intention is the "immediate antecedent or behavior" and represents a person's readiness to

perform a behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2005). "The intention is based on attitudes toward the

behavior, subj ective norm, perceived behavioral control, with each predictor weighted for its

importance in relation to the behavior and population of interest" (Ajzen, 2005). Finally, the

actual behavioral control refers to the availability of the resources required to perform the

resulting path of best fit behavior.

Behavior represents the final product of the cognitive process. All six categories of beliefs,

norms, and attitudes interact to lead to the behavior. For example, the attitudes of the behavior

are influenced by both society and previously held beliefs. If one area is less developed than the

other, then increased emphasis will be placed on the more established source of knowledge.










According to the Reasoned Action model, behavior results from weighing societal norms,

attitudes, and personal belief that the behavior can be performed with the perceived consequence

of a behavior. Thus, changing any part of the cognitive decision process results in a change in the

potential behavior.

Therefore, the reaction to reject the GloFishTM results from a rational assessment of the

risks, benefits, and perceived control over the situation. Since rej ecting the GloFishTM is the

manifestation of a cognitive process pooling data from information sources, normative beliefs,

and perceived risks, changing the behavior requires a multifaceted approach. If the cognitive

process utilizes the media sources containing anti-GMO information, then the resulting behavior

would reflect the valuation of that information source.

The consequences of purchasing a GloFishTM are not tangible to the consumer, but for

larger retailers the consequences of stocking the fish could result in loss of business in other

departments. The larger retailers, however, are basing the risk on perceived consequences rather

than actual consumer response. In effect, the Reasoned Action model explains the reluctance of

those large retailers who stock other items besides aquarium paraphernalia to perceive the risk to

other aspects of their business too great to justify the profits made from stocking ornamental

transgenic Hish.

Decision-Making Theories

Decision-making research falls into either the descriptive camp or the prescriptive camp.

Descriptive researchers try to understand how decisions are made while prescriptive researchers

attempt to improve the decisions. The area of research that is applicable to this study is the

descriptive branch, which describes how decisions are made. The decision to stock or not stock

the GloFishTM constitutes the essence of this research. Generally people are poor decision

makers and fail to allocate the resources required to reach a quality decision. According to









Simon and March, people have "bounded rationality" and fail to accumulate the information

needed to make high quality decisions (Simon & March, 1958). The small effort dedicated to the

task stems from incorrect assumptions about the positive and negative outcomes, and potential

risks associated with a course of action. The reduction in resources used to make decisions

relates to their scarcity. Simon and March described the concept of"satisficing" versus

"optimizing." "Satisficing" describes the minimal amount of work the decision maker will

undertake to acquire the information to make decision, likewise "optimizing" describes the ideal

due-diligence that should go into the decision making process. The two ends of the "satisficing-

optimizing" continuum explain the increases in efficiency but decreases in quality of decision-

making (Simon & March).

Huber defines decision-making as, "The process through which a course of action is taken"

(Huber, 1981). Decision-making deals with problem definition and diagnosis and the seeking of

alternative solutions. Decision-making collects the information that feeds into the choice-

making process.

Finally, the broadest of the terms is problem solving which includes both choice-making

and decision-making as well as the implementation of the choice. Huber (1981) leverages Simon

and March's (1958) concept that humans have limited intellect and limited information

availability when they make decisions and must use tools to expand their capabilities. Humans

must "satisfice" and select the more efficient process since "optimizing" requires "several orders

of magnitude" more effort. As a result of the limits to human rationality, managers use

inadequate models to make decisions and employ overly simplistic decision strategies.

Information represents the input into the problem solving process. Since the raw material

for management and the problem solving process is information, Huber identifies several types










of information and the sources and uses of each. His identification of the information types

enriches Simon and March's concept and helps management optimize the decision-making

process. Huber categorizes information as "basic information," "elaborating information" or

"performance information" (Huber, 1981).

Retailers must decide to stock or not to stock transgenic ornamental fish using the

information available to them combined with previous beliefs about the safety and economic

viability of the product. The GloFishTM is not consumed and has attributes that the consumer

desires. From a uses and gratification perspective, the risk in consuming genetically engineered

food is tangible and high, while purchasing a GloFishTM presents few perceived risks to the

consumer.

As Simon and March (' 1958) stated, the decision-making surrounding the decision to stock

the fish is based on bounded rationality. People not only want to minimize the time spent

researching facts but also want to categorize biotechnology using previously developed schema.

One of the biggest mistakes and weaknesses of the pro biotech audience is that they try and use

rational approaches to justify the safety and lack of risk in genetically modified products. This is

an advantage to GloFishTM proponents since people will not seek out information that would

make them unwilling to buy the fish. Understanding transgenic technology is not salient to the

basic aquarist's decision to purchase a GloFishTM; the aquarist does not link the colorful fish to

transgenic technology. Consumers don't care enough about the controversy since special interest

groups are unable to create uncertainty and sensationalism around a one-inch ornamental tropical

fish. Independently, they do not provide an adequate explanation for why certain retailers have

refused to carry the product.









Diffusion of Innovation Theories

Diffusion theories attempt to explain how new innovations spread through social entities.

While rooted in sociology, diffusion theories explain paradoxes such as the rej section of

keyboards capable of speeding the pace of typing, atomic energy, and genetically modified crops

(Bauer, 1995/1997a; Juma & Calo, 2002; Rucht, 1995/1997). The theories examine social forces

influencing the rate, extent, and processes of how changes (innovations) are incorporated. The

development of transgenic stocks of ornamental Eish represents a significant innovation for the

aquarium industry. For the retailer, new exotic species can be marketed to tropical Eish

enthusiasts. As well, aquaculturists raising ornamental Eish no longer can breed fish without

paying royalties to patent holders. The ramifications of selling the GloFishTM go beyond

ornamental fish to include the use of genetic engineering to create pets with desirable attributes.

Gabriel Tarde, a French sociologist, pioneered diffusion research. He discovered that new

technologies were adopted according to an S-shaped curve (Figure 3-3). Some new technologies

had steep S curves while others had flatter S curves indicating a slower adoption speed. Thus,

there is a lag at the beginning of the adoption cycle following a rapid rate of acceptance. At the

end of the cycle, the remaining skeptics slowly incorporate the innovation. Tarde's S curve has

been proven to be a viable model explaining the adoption rate of most new technologies (Rogers,

1962/2003).

A study performed at the University of lowa in the 1940's by two Sociologists, Bryce

Ryan and Neal Gross (1943), has a special significance for understanding the adoption of

biotechnologies. Ryan and Gross examined the adoption of hybrid seeds by farmers. They

found that hybrid seed use diffused rapidly from 1936 to 1939, but few farmers used the seeds

exclusively for the first year. Most importantly, the researchers discovered that a neighbor' s

decision to plant the hybrid seed was the largest determinant for adoption. While salesmen










provided information to farmers, it was the interaction and knowledge exchange between

colleagues and neighbors that determined if the farmers accepted the hybrid seed (Ryan & Gross,

1943).

The most influential diffusion of information researcher of the 20th century is Everett

Rogers (2003). In his book, Diffusion of Innovation, he describes the process of diffusion, its

components, and the type of people most likely to adopt technologies first. Rogers' s model of

diffusion of innovation includes four components: the innovation, communication channels,

time, and the social system. The innovation is the technology or change. Communication

channels refer to the information exchange about the technology. Time has three components:

the decision to adopt the technology, the pace of the individual's adoption, and the time elapsed

from the introduction to implementation of the technology. Lastly, the social system refers to the

bounded social unit to receive the new technology. Rogers coined the terms "innovator, early

adopter, early maj ority, late maj ority, and laggards" to describe the time of technology adoption.

Rogers defined Ryan and Gross's "neighbor" as an "opinion leader," someone a potential

adopter views as more informed than they themselves are.

Rogers (1962/2003) outlines five stages of adoption: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial,

and adoption. The awareness stage is marked by first learning that a new technology is

available. After the awareness stage, the potential adopter may gain an interest in learning more

about the innovation. During the interest stage the individual seeks information that will lead to

an evaluation of the risks and benefits assessment of adopting the technology. Following the

assessment, the adopter will trial the new technology and will either accept or rej ect it. If the

individual does not rej ect the technology, they will then move to the final stage, adoption

(Rogers) .









Diffusion of innovation research fails to explain the adoption of genetically modified fish

by aquarium retailers. While the adoption of the technology follows an S-curve regarding the

number of adopters over time, the process of adoption does not follow the Rogerian model. As

well, the largest retailers do not sell GloFishTM. Despite opinion leaders' stamp of approval and

the interest in the tropical fish industry to differentiate from large retailers, some stores refuse to

stock the fish. Rogers (1962/2003) does not examine the morality issues in adopting new

technologies, which do not lend themselves to a risk benefits analysis. While confidence in

social intuitions' abilities to govern the new technologies has had a significant impact on

adoption rates, there are other factors that are influencing the rate of the GloFishTM adoption that

must be examined (Sapp & Korsching, 2004).

Conclusions

The biotechnology industry made false assumptions about the public's ability to evaluate

the safety and desirability of products derived from biotechnology (Harries-Rees, 2003). The

rej section of many retailer chains to stocking the GloFishTM exemplifies the result of a poor

communication strategy. Communication efforts by special interest groups opposing the

GloFishTM utilized tactics from the anti-GMO agriculture debate, but failed to gain support in the

anti-GMO ornamental fish movement. Likewise, probiotechnology groups relied on a cognitive

approach to communicating information to the public that also had shortcomings in convincing

large retailers to stock ornamental transgenics. Unlike other first generation biotechnologies, the

GloFishTM has attributes consumers find desirable, and it is purchased based on its physical

attributes rather than perceived risk.

Ultimately, there are more factors involved in a decision to stock a GloFishTM than can be

captured in previous research. Cognitive science theory fails to explain why people would rej ect

the GloFishTM since it assumes that people think independently of societal norms. The










GloFishTM, however, has desirable attributes. Therefore, from a Cognitive Science paradigm, the

fish should be well received by the public when combined with public trust in the regulatory

agencies.

Using a sociocultural lens does not provide a holistic representation of public reaction

toward transgenic ornamental Eish. The Mad Cow outbreak primed the public for skepticism

about genetically modified foods, but does not influence consumers' buying decisions of

genetically modified ornamental Eish (Uchtmann, 2002). Socioculturists overlook, as well, the

value of purchasing a dangerous product; many aquarists possess an antisocial characteristic that

drives them to buy potentially dangerous, venomous, and violent fish. Already nonindigenous

populations of poisonous Dragon fish have been reported in many locations in the western

Atlantic (Hare & Whitfield, 2003). The demand for piranhas and sharks most likely stems from

their dangerous image rather than beauty attributes. Thus, the efforts of special interest groups

working to create public fear towards GloFishTM could result in increased demand for the fish.

While the sociocultural model explains the efficacy of anti-GMO groups toward transgenic

foods, it fails to explain why retailers who stock fish that are known environmental threats will

not stock the GloFish.TM

The Fishbein-Ajzen (1975) model of Reasoned Action presents a compelling explanation

for the public's reaction, but there are more factors at play than attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

The model explains the variation in the responses of the large retailers, small stores, and

consumers, based on perceived consequences. Since the GloFishTM has an attribute consumers

value, enhanced coloration, and is tiny, appears benign, and is used as a decorative obj ect rather

than food, the perceived risk for consumers is low. Given the rational evaluation of the risks and

benefits, the Reasoned Action model would predict overwhelming consumer acceptance of the










new fish. Nonetheless, some store owners are leery about consumer responses (Alan Blake,

personal communication, February 12, 2004). While the response has been positive, an

overwhelming acceptance has not been observed. Once the FDA approved the GloFishTM for

capitalization, California immediately banned selling the fish, but later recanted the decision

(Associated Press, 2003; Mastrup, 2003).

Finally, the decision-making process used by retailers to stock the fish does not follow a

rational model. Retailers do not adhere to a rational Huberian decision-making process.

However, Simon and March's (1958) theories appear to be valid since the retailers make the best

use of the information available to them and "satisfice" rather than "optimize" their information

collection.

Despite the failings of the broader agricultural biotechnology sector in introducing a new

technology to the public, the GloFishTM is selling, and more genetically modified ornamental fish

are in the pipeline. Researchers examined the public response to agricultural biotechnology

using cognitive processing, societal influences, self-efficacy, and behavioral models, but a

holistic model should be developed that explains the GloFishTM phenomenon.









Table 3-1. Differences in comparison groups
Amount of data collected on category
Difference in groups Similar
Minimized Maximum similarity in data
leads to: (1) Verifying
usefulness of category; (2)
Generating basic properties;
(3) Establishing set of
conditions for a degree of
category. Prediction
(Quadrant 1)
Maximized Spotting fundamental
similarities with the widest
scope of analy si s.(Quadraunt


Diverse
Spotting fundamental differences
under which category and
hypotheses vary. (Quadrant 2)





Maximum diversity in data leads to:
(1) Dense developing of property of
categories; (2) Integrating of
categories and properties; (3)
Delimiting the scope of the theory
developed. (Quadrant 3)


(Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999)
































































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Albemsale
Qidne 0 2


2~3
HURT$ HURT$
LfTLE MORE EVEN MAORE


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Figure 3-1. The Wong Baker Scale (Wong & Baker, 1988)


Figure 3-2. Areas of research for aquatic biotechnology


Copyright Q 2002 Icek Aizen


---- Behavioral
Control


Figure 3-3. The theory of planned behavior (Azjen, 1991)














Figure" 1-2. The.1 DiRllbso ProceOss


Later Adopiers


Innovationl L novationll II i~nnoadn
77% -




10% ile

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Figure 3-4. S-Curve: The diffusion process (Rogers, 1962/2003).









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The data collected could be interpreted a number of ways and should not be generalized to

other sample groups. The results would be difficult to duplicate since creating settings in time

and place to match the interviews would be nearly impossible. In addition, the observations and

transcriptions from interviews were analyzed and interpreted by the researcher, which

contributed to the fallibility to the study. The interpretation is rooted in the investigator and

includes biases. Twelve 45-minute interviews were conducted for a total of 152 single spaced

pages of transcribed data. The constant comparative method was used to investigate the

variances among and between the participants.

Interviews were conducted over an 18-month period, and some variance in the responses

from the beginning to the end can be attributed to the long duration of the research. Initially,

heavy media coverage of the GloFishTM helped boost sales and bring new customers into

participating retailers' stores. By interview 10, the hype had dissipated, and the last retailers' to

participate did not perceive transgenic fish as the wave of the future. Therefore, the long

duration helped ensure that the proper categories were developed to explain the retailers'

reaction.

From the initial list of 80 participants, 12 were used to build the model. The differences

among the participants were significant, and the total ranges of responses to the interview

questions were collected. Participants differed in the type of products offered, geographic

location, store size, education level, age, gender, religion, and previous attitudes toward genetic

engineering. All aquarium retailers in Gainesville, Tampa, Orlando and Jacksonville willing to

participate were exhausted. An effort was made to contact large retailers, but they were unwilling

to participate in the interview process. Several off the record conversations, however, were










conducted with the largest pet retailers. One-hundred fifty-three unique codes were summarized

into four families: ethics, economics, Jurassic Park phenomenon, consumer attributes, and

regulation.

Grounded theory (Figure 4-1) required the investigator to complete each interview, code

the transcribed results, and employ the constant comparative method to analyze patterns from all

previous interviews. Therefore, there was variance from interview to interview with the

categories, codes, and themes that manifested. As well, a semi-structured interview was

employed that allowed for more flexibility to investigate the boundaries of the emergent theory.

From interview to interview, the themes and families were variable until a formalized set of

categories emerged after interview 8.

Interview 1 (Pilot): The Early Adopter

Overview

The first interview was conducted with the owner of an aquarium store in a small side

section of the store among empty aquariums and boxes in Gainesville, FL that sold both marine

and tropic Hish. The staff exhibited a strong eagerness to help, and before the interview began,

preliminary discussions revealed other researchers had inquired about the GloFishTM

Unfortunately, initial dialog was not captured with a recording device.

Before conducting the formal interview, the informed consent form was signed, and

several aspects of the research were divulged. First, the research was pro-GloFishTM and

intended to help the ornamental industry. Second, it was explained that he was the first person

interviewed to test the interview protocol. Finally, it was explained that the technology was safe,

and sustainable, and that retailers who sell the GloFishTM should be supported. This initial

exchange changed the course of the subsequent interview. Once the form was signed,










transcription began. The duration of the interview lasted approximately 25 minutes and was

truncated because the owner had urgent business he could not ignore.

Location

In the course of the interview, the owner mentioned that Gainesville provided a unique

market due to the presence of the University of Florida and a liberal population with "one foot in

the PETA door." Proximity to Tampa, the location of Seagrist and 5-D, the largest ornamental

Eish wholesalers in the United States, allowed him to become one of the early adopters. He

believed that his location in Gainesville gave him a vantage to evaluate new products that other

retailers do not have. His belief that Gainesville was a bell-weather market manifested in his

statement that when the president of a large tropical Eish farm has "some questions in terms of

marketing," he brings him in because "A, we're here in Gainesville, and B, he knows he is going

to get the truth." Clearly his location in Gainesville contributed to his decision to stock the

GloFishTM

Emergent Themes

Innovation. In the opening paragraph, the owner acknowledged that, "I wanted to be the

first one to have 'em, I knew they were coming for about 6 months." The pressure for small

ornamental Eish retailers to carry innovative and unique products is great. Over the last decade,

market growth in the ornamental Eish industry has stagnated. The industry attributed the

stagnation to the plethora of 21st century hobbies such as the internet and video games. He

believed the industry must innovate to compete in this environment, and he contended that

genetic engineering is the innovation needed to rekindle consumer interest. He clearly stated that

his desire to continue to stock innovative products influenced his decision to be the first retailer

in Gainesville to sell GloFishTM









Ethics. Implicitly, the owner admitted that the new technology was more ethical than

previous methods used for making fish more colorful. He appeared to be wallowing in an ethical

quagmire created by consumer demand for painted glass fish, a fish manually inj ected with dye.

In explaining consumer response to painted fish, he admitted that he should probably not carry

the fish, but also indicated that one reason customers come to him is to purchase fish that are not

available anywhere else. He referred to GloFishTM as an "alternative" to the painted fish and

indicates that his staff is eager to sell GloFishTM

Information. The availability of information was the most common theme in the

interview, including not only the lack of positive information supporting the sale of the

GloFishTM, but also the lack of negative propaganda from special interest groups. Developers of

the transgenic salmon spent 5 years awaiting a ruling from the FDA, while GloFishTM became

the first transgenic animal approved for production in a span of a few months. The rapid

approval allowed advocates of the new fish to reach consumers before special interest groups.

The participant wanted to provide full disclosure to the customer, and hoped that, given the

information available, they would make the best choice. He believed the greatest impetus for

customer acceptance of transgenic ornamentals was the availability of information. He noted

that the first generation GloFishTM had a weak market response due, not only to minimal

coloration, but also to lack of information for the consumer.

Hype. The owner stated twice that, "The first generation is not outstanding in terms of

color." As well, he admits that the price, combined with the lack of extreme coloration in the first

generation, did not make the GloFishTM that economically important to his store. He admitted,

however, that an interview on a local television station, which he deemed negative, nonetheless,

had done a great job of creating interest among hobbyists. He stated, "I want them to talk a lot."










Thus, one of the reasons for vending the fish was to stir controversy in a hobby that had become

stagnant.

For an industry that has not grown rapidly in the last decade, the approval of the first

transgenic animal for production has sent new aquarists to the pet store. He realized as well that

the hype and stir are too much for the large retail stores, a decision that he admitted, "breaks his

heart." The niche for controversial products allowed him to differentiate his inventory that

would otherwise be competing against large retail chains.

Economics. The participant stated that the GloFishTM had not been an economic boon for

his store, but admitted that the hype was a boost. He noted that one reason other retailers were

reluctant to be early adopters was the cost. He elaborated, stating that the primary reason

retailers decided not to purchase transgenic stock was due not to the controversial nature of the

product, but the price. The GloFish was far more expensive than the natural version and not

clearly differentiated from its cheaper counterpart.

Safety. The pilot participant was asked to describe the protocol he used to determine if the

GloFishTM was a product he wanted to stock. The process he described proved to be more

emotional than rational. He reasoned that the fish was safe since the gene would be naturally

selected out of the population through predation. Further, once he understood that Hish that

consumed the GloFishTM would not experience any genetic mutations, he was comfortable with

the technology. Ultimately, he did not feel the FDA approval, rulings by a leading population

geneticist, or the US geological survey were reasons to embrace transgenic ornamentals; rather it

was personal reflection that allowed him to be an early adopter.

Conclusions

The tone of the interview was positive. The owner believed developing new strains of

ornamental Eish through genetic engineering will be "the wave of the future" and was eager to










acquire the GloFishTM from his suppliers. The pressure to be innovative manifested with the

ethical dilemma of the painted fish and revealed a relationship between innovation and ethics.

Since there was consumer demand for more color and he had to differentiate from large retail

stores to succeed, he had to stock a product that he believes was unethical, such as the painted

fish. It was evident in the interview that the participant hoped transgenic technology would

make the practice of inj ecting glassfish with dye to create painted fish obsolete.

Product safety emerged several times in the interview. His reasoning for stocking the fish

was simple and bounded by the information available to him. He did not utilize a formal

protocol to assess the risks and benefits of stocking the transgenic Hish, but in this instance came

to the conclusion that the technology was safe because the trans-gene could not move among

species. While he noted that he had never seen information indicating that GloFishTM posed a

risk, he also admitted that the information available to the store and its customers is inadequate.

The lack of special interest propaganda elucidating the risk may have deterred his decision to be

the first store in Gainesville to sell the GloFishTM

Economics were the reason to acquire the technology and cause of concern, since extreme

hype could result in loss of business from his store being picketed. He perceives the delicate

balance of the relationship between hype and economics and is willing to assume the risk to draw

attention to his store. The increased media coverage and hype surrounding the first genetically

modified pet provided an adequate impetus to stock the fish and risk special interest group

backlash. Thus, the categories of hype and economics co-mingle through the interview. If the

special interest groups interfered with his business, then he would "Rue the day" he allowed the

fish into his store. At the same time, he admitted that "I want them to talk a lot."










Interview 2: The Well Informed Employee


Overview

The location of the interview was an industrial mall in Gainesville, Florida. When the

interview began, the participant was in the process of conducting water changes for the fish

tanks. Research interests and common contacts were discussed before the transcription began.

The small talk served to make the participant comfortable and eager to share his opinions. The

participant was well known and respected in the aquaculture community. He was not only

involved in marine ornamentals but also had an aquaculture lease. He indicated that he had been

involved in the ornamental Eish industry for 20 years and had no plans for a career change. He

was young, energetic, and open-minded about hearing both sides of the transgenic ornamental

Eish controversy.

The store sold only marine ornamentals and appeared to be in new condition. The tanks

were well cared for with no signs of equipment neglect or misuse. Per subsequent conversation,

there appeared to be multiple equity owners in the company. While the exact ownership

percentage of the participant was not ascertained, his role in buying product, keeping product

healthy, and strategizing with the other owners was significant.

The participant was highly interested in the research, demonstrated a positive effect, and

was eager to learn about the preliminary findings of the study. After 30 minutes of

miscellaneous communication during the completion of routine aquarium maintenance, the

interview was conducted in a side office free from distractions. There was a change in affect and

tone to a more formal exchange once the digital recorder was turned on.

Overall the interview went well, and it was easy to get the participant to discuss the issues,

however too many leading questions were asked, such as, "So people buy based on color?"

Another leading question was, "Would the reason a person not buy the fish be moral or cost?"









Leading questions and biased responses decreased the reflexivity of the study. The questions

were asked to clarify issues the participant brought up in previous questions but in effect could

have implanted a personal belief in the subj ect.

In addition, there were many yes or no questions that should have been phrased to allow

more open-ended responses. "Do people have concerns about where the fish come from or if

they're damaging to the environment?" Such yes or no questions limit the range of responses and

make saturating the categories of responses challenging. The function of the interview is to get

the participant to talk at length about the subject without forcing any a priori assumptions and

beliefs upon them. Fortunately, the interview was conducted at the early stages of the coding

process, so modification in style could be made for subsequent interviews.

Emergent Themes

Dichotomy. A common theme in the interview was the dichotomy between accepting or

rej ecting products derived from genetic engineering. Participant 2 believed that people have

bipolar attitudes toward the GlofishTM that were similar to "Roe vs. Wade." He used the

landmark case as a metaphor for the GloFishTM debate throughout the interview. He saw

people's beliefs on the issue to be highly polarized and steeped in morality. He explained,

"We're talking about some moral decision that the person has made based on nonquantifiable,

nonvisual .. beliefs .. and the beliefs are delicate like "Roe vs. Wade." Again, he reported,

"And this is another one of those sticky areas where folks are divided because of what they

believe, not because of what I believe is actual knowledge."

He did subscribe to the common misconception that if people had more knowledge and

"facts" they would be less likely to come to an irrational conclusion, but he does recognize that

the decision to purchase the GloFishTM will be based on buying product attributes, such as

coloration, rather than how they "feel" about the fish.









Ethics. Unlike the pilot study, participant 2 was not concerned about the ethical

implications of genetically modifying pets. When describing his customers, he noted, that they

viewed the fish as "an ornament in their living room" rather than a living creature. He admitted

that the common aquarium hobbyist was not concerned about the origin of the fish or the

possibility of environmental degradation stemming from its purchase. In effect, participant 2

believed that ethics had little impact on the decision to buy or not purchase an aquarium fish.

Other than nature lovers, "Ninety-nine percent of the time I get 'I want something with color'."

"No one has been able to even keep it alive. I sell three or four of them a week. Why they're

harvested from the wild I don't know." He described how the color of marine invertebrates can

enhance their marketability: "What is the indigo pink doing to its photosynthetic capacity? You

can imagine, and of course they don't live. But they sell like gangbusters."

The "Playing God" theme appeared once in the interview and was placed in the ethics

category since it is inferred that it is hubristic and therefore unethical to genetically modify pets

to have desirable characteristics. Modifying the fish through other methods, such as dying,

however, is acceptable to the public. He stated, "You're playing God by manipulating. Now if I

add a little food coloring in there I'm being entrepreneurial. I'm making business. But if I

manipulate on a genetic level, I'm Playing God."

The ethical dilemma presented to the consumer and the retailer by the GloFishTM is one

based on feelings rather than hard facts. He stated, "But I think that certainly there are beliefs,

morals in place here that are causing the person to be in favor of it one way or another. Whether

or not that is an informed decision or an uninformed one, or whether or not they even want to

know, I think that people have made a decision based upon what they feel."










Hype. Hype and economics were intertwined in the second interview. Participant 2 did

not discuss the benefits of GloFishTM hype as extensively as participant 1, but there was still

evidence that hype was an added benefit to the smaller retail chains. When asked why someone

would sell or get involved with transgenic fish, he stated, "If the public wants these, and if it is a

scuttlebutt or rumor to raise a stir or to gossip about, it brings people in the door." Subsequently

he stated, "And I think it does help out to have the novelty items." Some of this participant' s

lack of interest in hype might be attributed to his position as a retailer to marine hobbyists rather

than those involved in the struggling tropical ornamental hobby. Neophytes in marine aquarium

husbandry who are motivated through fads such as Disney's Nemo movie are not perceived as

valuable customers, rather one time shoppers lacking the skill and the desire to effectively

maintain their aquariums. He referred to his customers as "advanced hobbyists," but later stated,

"No one can keep an anemone alive, but their kid sees the Nemo movie and wants an anemone."

Economics. As in the pilot study, participant 2 believed that people would get involved in

selling transgenic fish because of the competition. "Having competitors, the [large retail] stores,

we are in business here to make business." He did not, however, believe that the high price of

the GloFishTM would have deleterious consequences on the marketability of the fish. From a

marine paradigm, consumers are willing to pay considerably more than fresh water novice

hobbyists. The natural progression of hobbyists is the small fresh water tank to the larger tank.

Sometimes people progress to keeping marine species. He stated multiple times that the cost of

the fish does not heavily influence the decision to buy the fish. "People come in all day long and

buy $100 fish here without thinking about it." When asked if the higher cost of a GloFishTM

would deter customers, he responded, "I believe it has absolutely nothing to do with the cost.









I've been doing this well over 20 years in a retail environment, selling aquatic organisms. And

cost is absolutely nothing."

Invasive species: Painted fish. Painted fish were referenced throughout the interview.

The participant indicated that painted fish had been well accepted by the industry. As well, it

was obvious that people are linking the genetic modification of the GloFishTM to inj ecting dye

into a fish's musculature. The painted fish was frequently used as a reference and another source

of controversy that has emerged in the aquarium industry. Participant 2 noted that the responses

regarding the painted fish were similar to those regarding the transgenic fish such as, "you

shouldn't be doing that. That' s not right. That' s unnatural."

Rather than viewing the technology as the threat, this participant believed the consumer

was responsible for driving the development of transgenic, tattooed, and dyed fish. The painted

fish concerned him more than altering the genome, but he noted that the public was more willing

to embrace these alterations because it was comprehendiblee .. swallowable, digestible."

Because of the physical harm that results from dying the fish and the reduction in life

expectancy, he claimed, "That is unnatural. It' s also immoral."

Invasive species were alluded to, but the term never manifested in the interview. "Most of

the time in this hobby, there are a number of illegal organisms that we can't buy, such as

piranhas and arowanas and stuff. If they got out into our environment they would of course

compete with our natural organisms." He continued to explain that the GloFishTM could not

possibly be an invasive species and cause harm to the environment because the coloration of the

fish would increase its visibility to predators and decrease its ability to compete with indigenous

species for resources. "A blue heron could pick it off from four miles out of the sky. So I'm not

worried about it becoming in competition for our indigenous or endemic organisms."









Conclusions

The participant clearly stated his biases, "Myself, personally, I'm in favor of any scientific

genetic advancement we can make. I'm fascinated by it." The importance of having colorful fish

as a decorative feature was more important to him than viewing the fish as a pet. It is unknown

how much cognitive effort he gave to his conclusions, but he based his decision on a factual and

tangible statistic: it has been done before, and the chances of the species introducing itself into

the environment are slim. As well, he indicated that the idea of having DNA cause a mutation in

the stomach of a predator was unlikely. "As far as the fish getting eaten and starting a

transmutation in the animal that ate it, I think I'm competent enough to know that the digestive

system of that organism would cancel any genetic mutanogenic activity."

The difference in the customer base between the pilot study and interview 2 influenced the

perception of a customer' s buying attributes as well as the impact of transgenic species on the

industry. Marine ornamentals by and large are harvested from the environment while tropical

fish are farm raised. Over the last few years, those in the tropical aquarium industry have

become concerned about the lack of drive and inspiration in the field. Meanwhile, new species

and techniques are constantly being introduced in the marine sector.

The following issues manifested during the interview. First, the store was inventory

strictly marine and therefore, GloFishTM, a freshwater fish, was not carried. Some variance in the

responses between the pilot participant and participant 2 can be attributed to the difference in

market. In conducting an interview with a marine ornamental shop owner, the theoretical

sampling criterion for the study grew in scope. By increasing the size of the sample population

to include strictly marine aquarium stores, the diversity of responses toward the GloFishTM

became broader. The decision to continue the interview was based on the belief that the

participant could provide insight into the debate a tropic hobbyist would overlook. The









customer' s desire to obtain color at all cost--both economic and moral--reveals a significant

difference in mindsets between marine and tropical hobbyists.

A second limitation to the study is that the role of the participant in buying product was

unknown. The act of purchasing or not purchasing product underlies the moral and ethical

decision to provide the fish to the public. The role of participant 2, as well as the inability of the

store to stock the fish in their strictly marine tanks, makes many of the questions hypothetical.

Other questions, however, such as cost, color, and ethics, can be asked and the responses

extrapolated to the GloFishTM example using the responses toward controversial marine species.

Finally, considerable time was spent waiting for this participant to complete a task. The

small talk that ensued about the department and the research study may have had a significant

priming effect on his subsequent responses. He was of course aware of the interviewer' s

enrollment in the University of Florida. In the future, small talk would be confined to the store' s

business, rather than the research. The impact of the small talk was evident when the technology

question, "Can you explain the technology" was asked and his response had similar language and

word use to the previous untranscribed conversation such as "micropile."

Despite these limitations, the findings from the interview indicate a differing mindset from

tropical ornamental versus marine hobbyists. The economic theme was outweighed by the desire

of the hobbyist to obtain an intense color. While the pilot participant indicated that the

controversy rather than the color sold the GloFishTM, the second participant indicated that the

GloFish' sTM marketability would increase independently of cost if the color was extreme. Given

that the overwhelming maj ority of marine reef fish are harvested using less than stellar

environmental practices, the people involved in the hobby are driven by default to the exotic

colors, personalities, and challenge of a reef tank. The implicit cognitive dissonance about










buying a fish that could be environmentally degrading is not applicable to the marine hobbyist

since all their product is obtained through environmental degradation.

Interview 3: The Aquarium Manufacturer

Overview

The initial contact to participant 3 took place via a telephone conversation. This

participant had a disability that made communicating more difficult. He focused his business on

manufacturing high-end aquarium and filtration units rather than retailing tropical fish, but he

had an intimate knowledge of the aquarium industry. As stated in the interview, his primary

income was derived from manufacturing the acrylic lobster tanks used in Publix SupermarketsTM

Manufacturing aquariums was his second career stemming from his passion for aquariums. The

interview took place in his office adj acent to the main manufacturing facilities in Ocala, Florida.

There were a few telephone distractions, but the impact to the interview was minimal. Overall

the interview was positive. He was interested in participating in the research from a

humanitarian perspective, but showed little desire to discuss preliminary findings. He admitted

that biotechnology frightened him, but the specific aspects of the technology that were

frightening were unclear. A follow-up question should have been asked to clarify his position.

"I do have some hesitation when it comes to genetic engineering." Again, in paragraph 116,

when asked about how he felt about biotechnology, he responded, "Holistically, I am scared to

death of it."

There was evidence in his discussion of sulfur reducing tube worms that he had scientific

knowledge, but he admitted that his training was experiential rather than formal. "So I was

trained by some of the better marine biologists out of California. They did not have it as a school

class. It wasn't available in college. But we had to go out and work right there with them and

that' s how we were educated."









Developing Families

By the third interview, several categories and themes continued to emerge from the

structured interview. While the themes have not evolved into families that are grounded

throughout the data, a higher level organization of codes is required. The following developing

families are not inclusive of all the codes, but serve as a framework for organizing participant

03's responses with the previous data.

"Playing God."

"Playing God" appeared in the first two interviews, but was much more prevalent in the

third interview. While participant 3 admitted that he was highly religious, the affiliation of

religiousness to that of the "Playing God" family is not strong. The second participant was not

religious, but referenced "Playing God" during the interview, and the pilot study gave no

indication that the "Playing God" theme stemmed from the participant' s degree of religiousness.

From the start the "Playing God" family appeared in interview 3. He stated, "but in my

mind things change for a reason or purpose. That' s the evolution of something." Participant 3

views genetic engineering as interfering with the natural evolution of a species that does not fit

into the creator' s concept of the world. He continued, "I mean, who are we to start changing

things around for our particular needs once visually or otherwise." The "who are we" phrase is

synonymous with we should not be "Playing God" and appears again in the middle of the

interview. The participant feels that scientists overstep the bounds of humanity by genetically

modifying organisms. He feels that we are "Playing God" and people should not play God. He

stated, "I do not feel things are there to be manipulated." He continued, "We out here base

ourselves on ethics. .. I begin to wonder how people that are not religious would feel about

some of that." He links ethics and religion again: "Maybe they would just be so gung-ho for it

because they're not religious."










Ethics.

In interview 2, "Playing God" was incorrectly lumped into the broader ethics family.

Unlike the ethics family, "Playing God" involves scientific hubris. "Playing God" can be done

to better humanity and therefore can be ethical or unethical depending on the means and the

ends. The delineation of the two families is obvious in interview 3 when the participant states

that we should not play God. For him it is an ethical issue, but for the first two participants it

refers to the processes of cutting edge scientific advancement. Participant 3 stated, "I don't think

it' s the unsafeness or dangerous as much as it is the--as much as it is should we be doing it?

The ethics of it."

There is an ethical paradox that he is unable to rectify with advancing science to save lives

while potentially harming humanity. On one hand he viewed technology as "screwing things up"

but then subsequently mentioned, "well there's that argument again. Oh but we can find a cure

and save thousands of people because of it." When asked if the profits from the GloFishTM were

used to fund life saving vaccinations he responded, "We always do that. We promise you if

you'll let us bring in the lot of them, this is going to be the benefit." He viewed the GloFishTM

and its escape into the environment as a potential pitfall, but saw the promise of the vaccinations

as "fantastic."

The tone of his response indicated that he was frustrated that scientific advancements came

with potential pitfalls. The cognitive dilemma manifested itself following a negative response

about the GloFishTM. The participant did not embrace the technology, but allowed the ethical

transgression to be justified to serve the greater good. He stated, "They're (scientists) doing

something that' s progressing." While he was not ethically comfortable with the concept of

engineering fish to have desirable attributes, he realized that progress comes with a price. A









subsequent statement, however, indicated that there could be other options that have fewer risks

than genetic engineering, "I think there was probably other ways to .. solve that same

problem."

In addition to the scientific ethics, participant 3 demonstrated concern for the ethics in the

aquarium industry pertaining to harvesting Eish from the Amazon and attempting to keep Hish in

captivity that have a slim chance of survival such as the rockfish and Moorish idols. It was

inferred that he does not feel that the customer cares about the environmental degradation that is

done when they purchase a naturally harvested fish. He asked, "Why do we keep ripping the

waters with that Hish and allowing it?" The participant believes that the industry is not policing

itself effectively and has reservations about other retailers tainting his industry by vending fish

they know will die.

Product attributes

Health. Participant 3 discussed fish health at length. He contended that the health of fish

was related to investment in the right equipment, equipment that many hobbyists could not

afford. The lack of desire to invest in fish health revealed how aesthetics rather than fish health

dictated how consumers spend their money. According to participant 3, buyers not only selected

fish based on color, but also were not willing to spend money for keeping the fish alive. He

noted that salt water tanks were expensive if you did not care for them correctly; however, given

his profession of manufacturing the equipment, he could be biased in his responses. Finally,

survivability questions were pointed since no retailers would admit that a dying fish would be

satisfactory. He noted survivability, "definitely would be at the top of the list for everybody."

Personality. In previous interviews, personality was considered synonymous with

temperament. The third interview expanded the scope of the category to include the human-fish

interactions. The participant believed the personality of marine fish was far better than fresh









water fish--that they were more interactive and human. He noted, "I think everybody would

rather have a saltwater tank. The fish have a better personality." He discussed special

relationships that he had with his marine fish and how he had trained one to eat out of his hand.

Since he believed that freshwater fish lacked personalities, genetically modifying fish to enhance

coloration would not add value.

Economics. Once again the economics of the fish do not appear to impact the buying

decisions of the marine hobbyist. He stated, "And we keep selling that $50 fish to people

knowing that that fish is going to crash and burn." While spending money on the fish was of

little importance, making the one time significant investment was. According to the participant,

people are unwilling to purchase several thousand dollars in equipment to keep their fish alive.

The problem is because they were not educated on how to do that in the first place. By the
time that they have spent hundreds and hundreds of dollars on medications in the
replacement of their fish, but the time they're ready to throw their salt-water tank out the
door. They tell all their friends, 'Oh don't ever do a salt water tank.' So you can
understand why that it gets an extremely bad rap.

His response indicates ethical paradox. While neither a retailer nor a hobbyist wants to

j eopardize the health of their fish, they are bounded by the economic cost of keeping them

healthy. According to the participant, the desire for color outweighs the desire for healthy fish,

however, the economic cost of purchasing the "ideal" marine system is far greater than the cost

of replacing dead fish.

Invasive species-Environmental degradation

Participant 3's greatest concern was the possibility of creating another invasive species that

was genetically modified. "But then again, what are the chances of this being released back into

the wild so to speak, just like we have the problem with snakes, lizards, gators, being bought as

pets." Again, "Bringing in an outside fish that' s ravaging our own supply of our natural habitat.

It' s terrible." Continuing, "But then again how do you control what a kid does when he gets










home and for whatever reason, they're going to move and mom doesn't want to take the fish tank

anymore so she dumps it into the canal. .. I think that there' s got to be regulations there so that

we know something drastic will not change."

After his thoughts were made clear in several paragraphs, a pointed question was asked:

What was his greatest concern for transgenic fish? He responded, "That' s my biggest concern,

yes. Right. I think you probably saw that coming through in my answer." He went on to clarify

that his fear of biotechnology is really a fear about humanity. "We do stupid things. They

brought the Australian pine. .. I think that' s probably where all my feeling' s roots are lying as

far as knowledge comes from the fact that we keep screwing up."

Regulation

An interesting theme that appeared in the interview was the role of government in

regulating technologies and preventing environmental problems. Partcipant 3 believed that

oversight and appropriate regulations could prevent mistakes. When asked about the

government' s role in biotechnology governance and oversight, he indicated that there could be a

safety net created, but "In the meantime, I hope it's not later than sooner." According to the

participant, the government regulates ex-post-facto and attempts to rectify problems rather than

preventing them. He used the example of reef degradation from harvesting live coral to support

his case and then explained how laws were written after a problem had been created by the

aquarium industry. Regarding invasive species, he stated "Or we do something before it has a

set of regulatory rules in place."

Public awareness

The public awareness theme also appeared in the interview, and the participant believed

the public specifically chose to remain naive. With regard to painted fish, "I do think they care.

If they were educated." He continued to elaborate on the public's apathy, "They do not know










and nobody is going to tell them." When asked if the consumer valued the attribute or the health

of the fish more, "But you know, the consumer does not realize what they're buying or how it

got that way." Again, "To be perfectly honest about it, I have to stand with the maj ority of

people that are not in the process of doing that engineering, genetic engineering. I don't think

they would want the fish."

Conclusions

There were limitations to the findings since participant 3 sold neither GloFishTM nor

aquarium fish. He was included in the study after a telephone conversation indicating his

knowledge of the aquarium industry, his willingness to participate, and his proximity (the Ocala

area). The results are included to provide an additional perspective on the subject. Second, too

many leading questions were asked. While this was an attempt to clarify the participant' s

viewpoints, more reflective methods should have been employed.

Unlike the first two interviews, the entire session was transcribed capturing all of the

exchange. Taping the entire session revealed that discussing the statement of purpose with this

participant, coupled with the knowledge of the interviewer' s academic paradigm caused a

significant bias. While participant 3 clearly stated that he did not support genetically modifying

aquarium species, he used significant tact to ensure that his pre-existing beliefs would be

palatable.

The participant was not aware that the GloFishTM was genetically engineered. He first

mentioned that he was unaware that the GloFishTM existed when he stated, "I didn't even know

that they were changing fish for that purpose to be honest with you." Again, halfway through the

interview he admits, "I had no idea that they were engineering fish." Since the concept of genetic

engineering was introduced in the interview, there was not adequate time for the subj ect to

develop opinions and deepen his knowledge of the subj ect. While he did not realize that the









GloFishTM had been created by scientists, he did acknowledge the transgenic Salmon, but asked

for clarification and additional information on the subject. People generally resist change and

attempt to debunk new information which is in conflict with their previous paradigm. Since

there was not adequate time for the participant to develop a cohesive opinion based on the new

information, his responses are a litmus rather than a detailed indication of his opinions.

Finally, the interviewer could have done a better j ob of reducing the digression. Twice,

participant 3 redirected the interview to the immediate. Greater leeway was given to participant

3 to encourage dialoging. Rather than asking pointed and leading questions, the participant was

allowed to lead the interview. Greater effort should have been taken, however, to avoid

unrelated subj ects like PublixTM lobsters or transgenic salmons.

Interview 4: The Laconic Employee

Overview

The fourth interview was the outlier and involved a laconic participant who proved to be

the most challenging participant. He was younger, neither an equity owner nor a senior manager.

As well, he had no buying influence despite having worked in the industry for 8 years. He did

have an understanding of consumers and was aware of the maj or suppliers and producers in the

industry. Introducing an employee to the sampling pool provided an additional perspective to

the study. The interview revealed the dynamics that occur between a nonequity owner employee

who is not compensated for selling the fish and an ornamental fish consumer. While this

deviated from the theoretical sampling strategy, the boundaries of the theory were tested by

including an individual who had no financial incentive to sell the fish.

Other factors could have contributed to the difference in his responses. First, the

participant did not exhibit extensive scientific knowledge of the aquarium industry. The

previous participants had extensive knowledge about species lifecycles, water chemistry, and









taxonomy, while participant 004 was not as articulate and did not spout off scientific names. He

was neither interested in the sciences nor educated beyond a high school degree. The soothing

sound of the aquariums rather than the challenge of keeping fish drew him to the industry.

The interview took place in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering building rather

than the office. The impact of the interview on the participant was profound. He was not eager

to elaborate on the questions and exhibited a negative affect throughout. While in a departmental

conference room, he was guarded and his concerned affect resembled that of a patient in an

experiment. The fact of the stipend contributed to his desire to participate in the study. Unlike

the previous interviewees, the promise of financial compensation influenced his decision to

participate.

Families

Painted fish

Painted fish emerged from the interview without any leading questions. The participant

did not appear to be morally opposed to dye inj section, but believed the product was faulty since

the color faded over time. He explained that one of the first questions that customers asked

about the GloFishTM was if it would lose its color over time. He responded, "They're just worried

about whether or not the colors going to die off or not." Later he shared his sentiment on the

painted fish, "I don't like to carry them because obviously they lose they're color." He

elaborated, "We make it a point to tell the customers that the painted fish are obviously inj ected

with color because we don't want to steer our customers wrong." Ornamental fish consumers are

Machiavellian; the ends justify the means. Customers did not care about how the fish was

created, where it came from, or if it was harmed or harmful, as long as it had attributes, generally

color, that they found desirable.









When a leading question was asked as to whether people were concerned if the fish was

harmed in the dying process, the participant responded, "Well, that's usually their main

concern." It would have been unlikely that he would have specifically stated that his customers

do not care if the fish is harmed. Since a leading question was asked, the response should be

mitigated. A second interpretation of the response could be that survivability, measured in harm

to the fish, could be a secondary desirable trait along with color. Thus, it is the loss of the

desirable attribute, survivability, rather than the knowledge that the fish is harmed, that causes

the customer to question their purchase.

Customers recognized that neither the painted fish nor the GloFishTM occurred in nature, so

the painted fish provided a priming effect since it has been on the market longer. The impact of

the painted fish on the GloFishTM was profound and set a negative stage for the introduction of

future lines of transgenic Hish. When asked to compare or contrast the painted fish and the

GloFishTM, the participant mentioned that people buy the painted fish despite his warnings and

return upset when the colors fades. Similarly, he stated "I haven't had anybody come back yet

with the GloFishTM and tell us that they were disappointed in them."

Product attributes

The impetus for the fourth interview was to populate the consumer attributes categories of

cost, color, and personality and determine the impact of the painted fish to the public' s

perception of the GloFishTM. Numerous questions were asked about what drives a customer to

buy the fish and why the store chose to stock it. Ultimately, the reason appears to be economic:

a product the consumer will purchase. Just as in the previous interviews, color was the primary

product attribute sought by the customer, although, other product attributes such as, survivability

and cost emerged as the impetus for purchasing a fish. When the participant was asked, "When

customers are buying a fish, what attributes are they looking for," the participant responded, "It's









the color." In fact, color appeared throughout the interview in paragraphs 041, 101, 108, 202.

"We had a couple of customers ask how they got their color but they have never really asked.

They wanted them because of that."

An additional product attribute was personality. "Pretty much their main concerns are, if

they can get along with the other fish that they have in the tanks already." Personality, however,

in this instance is in the context of survivability. A follow-up question was asked about

survivability versus personality and he responded that it was the customer's concern for the

survival of the fish rather than personality. He clarified the difference between personality

versus survivability. "Well, we usually have little signs on the tanks and it'll tell you if they're a

community fish, if they're nonaggressive or aggressive." In an attempt to rank the product

attributes in order of importance, a leading question was asked, (Do) you think they would be

more likely to buy a Plocostumus because it won't die, than a fish that has maybe fancier colors,

than a Discus that' s more difficult to take care of!" He responded "Yes," but the phrasing of the

question may have biased his response. Ultimately, consumers are concerned about the loss of

their acquisition and the general health of their aquarium. Tropical fish consumers, unlike

marine consumers, appear to be driven by a survivability component that outweighs the color

attribute.

Like other interviews in the tropical fish sector, this participant viewed the high price of

the fish as a negative characteristic. This could be attributed to the store's focus solely on

tropical rather than marine fish which are considerably more expensive and less commoditized

than tropical fish. Cost issues appeared in multiple paragraphs. The respondent explained that to

make a margin similar to what can be expected of nongenetically altered fish, the price becomes










higher than the tropical Eish market will bare. With close substitutes, such as the nonengineered

danios costing $0.79 rather than $8.00, the GloFishTM is a more difficult sell.

Well, when we buy them, they buy them at $2.00 a piece because we sell all of our fish at
usually three times what we pay for them. That could be a big issue. Obviously it' s
something they take time to make, and usually go for a lot more to sell them. I think if we
sold them at like maybe $3.50 or $4.00 a piece they would go a lot faster, but that means
we would have to buy them at $1.25 a piece.

Ethics

The ethics category also was evident in the interview. Despite the fact that the participant

admitted that he was not very religious, he mentioned that some scientists "Think that they're

God and create what they want to." The participant expressed confidence in the government to

regulate the technology, while having reservations about using the same technology to lend

attributes to higher level vertebrates. When asked why he felt the technology was safe, he

answered, "I know it's safe or else they would not be doing it." Additional follow-up questions

about what makes him feel the governance is adequate should have been asked.

When asked if he was skeptical of the technology he responded, "It bothers me to a point

but it doesn't bother me. They're neat to look at, but there has to be a certain cut off point where

they shouldn't mess with things." Morality issues, however, emerged with higher vertebrates.

Plants, and fish were considered morally acceptable with regard to modification, while "dogs and

stuff like that" were not. He mentioned that Dolly, the cloned sheep, was unacceptable because

sheep had a "heart" meaning sheep are more advanced creatures. This statement resembles the

Belief in Animal Mind (B.A.M.) theories for hunting and meat consumption. According to

B.A.M. theories, people are more reluctant about hunting animals they believe have self-

awareness. Thus, participant 4 was opposed to genetically modifying animals that would be

aware that they were somehow altered. When asked about his overall impression of genetic

engineering, he responded, "It could go either way. It just depends on what they are trying to










create." It can be inferred from this statement that he does not perceive the GloFishTM as socially

beneficial. He would, therefore, be more accepting of genetic engineering if the benefits would

"help us out."

Comparative Analysis

Several categories did not emerge in the interview. First, unlike the previous three

interviews, neither environmental degradation nor invasive species emerged as a theme. When

prompted about invasive species, this participant admitted that it was a concern, but he never

stated that the GloFishTM could cause environmental harm. He used oscars as an example of an

escaped aquarium fish, but placed the blame on the consumer and the retailer for not taking

responsibility for the fish. He viewed invasive species to be a consequence of aquarium retailers

trying to make a "fast buck" and consumers being duped into purchasing a fish that would

outgrow their smaller aquarium. He never mentioned the possibility of environmental

degradation, but when prompted, he acknowledged that the GloFishTM should not be released

into the environment.

Second, the category of economics did not arise in the interview. The previous interviews

involved equity owners and managers, and considerable dialog emerged about how the

GloFishTM impacted business. The economics theme was differentiated from the product price

attribute. While the participant did discuss price, he did not mention the economic impact of the

GloFishTM. Rather than focusing on the business, this participant focused on pleasing the

customer, a characteristic that can be attributed to his position as an employee rather than an

owner. Finally, since there is a relationship between hype and economics, it is not surprising that

hype was never mentioned as being beneficial to the industry. The variance in the participant' s

paradigm as an employee versus an owner accounts for the missing category.










The participant' s reservations towards the GloFishTM and genetic engineering were

emotionally driven. He did not state a clear reason for why he obj ected to genetically modified

fish. The extent of his conviction and the sources of information that he used to develop his

opinion were unclear.

Of the previous three interviews, interview 4 was the weakest due to the difficulty in

prompting the participant to elaborate upon his responses. The participant' s short responses did

not lend themselves to the constant comparative method. As well, leading questions biased the

data and drove the participant to respond based on a-priori assumptions. Mention of the painted

fish and Dolly were the only instances when the participant introduced media themes without

prompting.

Conclusions

The fourth interview indicates that consumers want a colorful Eish. Product attributes,

rather than morality, drive buying decisions. The ornamental fish store carries the GloFishTM as

a function of profitability, and the employees sell the fish without any moral reservations. While

ethics emerged as a category, it appeared that the GloFishTM was acceptable because it already

exi sted. The participant did have concerns about the extent to which genetic modification

should take place and what social benefits could be realized. He mentioned cloning (Dolly) and

expressed concern whether or not scientists should be manipulating the genomes of higher order

vertebrates. The lack of dialog surrounding the business is attributed to the position of the

interviewee. He did provide considerable dialog from the perspective of an employee trying to

provide solid customer service.










Interview 5: The Marine Enthusiast


Overview

The fifth interview was carried out in a marine ornamental shop. Several phone

interruptions and the public location at the front desk of the shop did not impact upon the results

negatively. Overall, the participant was eager to participate in the study and asked numerous

questions. He was knowledgeable about the aquarium industry, but less knowledge about

GloFishTM, biotechnology, and the trends in the tropical ornamentals sub-sector. Participant 5

did not have a strong scientific acumen, but had extensive practical working knowledge of the

marine ornamental industry. His affect was positive and he did not want to accept payment for

his participation.

Although positive in his affect, this respondent possessed an element of skepticism that

stemmed from the researcher's involvement with the university and enrollment in the department

of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. The participant sold only marine ornamentals, but

admits that he would sell genetically modified fish under the right circumstances. While he did

not out rightly obj ect to genetically engineering ornamental fish, he had reservations about the

FDA and the unknown long-term consequences of the practice.

Considerable effort was devoted to assessing the participant's trust in the regulatory

system given his negative feelings toward biotechnology. While several questions were asked

about consumer attitudes and product attributes, additional questions to determine the boundaries

and taxonomy of color, cost, and personality could have been asked.

The fifth interview was marked by the act that the primary force driving the respondent' s

decision to sell or not sell the fish was economic rather than moral. There are instances when

retailers refuse to stock a product independently of the potential profit. The stocking decisions of

ornamental fish retailers are functions of their customers' desires as the stores exist to make a










profit. While there were instances, such as was found in the pilot study, when retailers refused to

stock painted fish because they were morally opposed to a process that causes death, the

GloFishTM does not appear to push the moral boundary. If the fish was injured, died, was

somehow weakened, or in any way harmed by the process, then the retailers would be much

more likely to avoid stocking the fish based upon both moral and quality concerns.

Cost is not linked to business acumen, but can be attributed to variations in customer bases.

While cost was reported as a great concern in the pilot study, it impacts the tropical fish sub-

sector rather than the ornamental fish industry as a whole. The decision to stock or not stock the

fish is not based solely on cost, but a battery of factors that determine the marketability of the

fish.

The interviews show there are subtle differences of opinions regarding what the GloFishTM

represents in the ornamental industry. The range in responses from the previous participants can

be attributed to their sectors in the industry: marine, tropical or mixed. In addition, the impact

of painted fish upon the consumer' s perception of an artificially created fish is significant.

Painted fish have had a significant priming effect on both consumers and retailers. Because they

are harmed during the painting process, the public's immediate assumption is that the GloFishTM

are injured as a result of the intense coloration.

By the fifth interview, the researcher became interested in the sources of information that

were utilized to develop opinions. From the first four interviews, mass media as well as dialog

with other retailers emerged as the primary sources. The involvement of the retailers with

special interest groups with anti-biotechnology agendas needed to be ascertained, so an

additional question was asked about participant involvement with any political action groups









such as Green Peace. The fifth interviewee reported neither being aff61iated with special interest

groups nor a fan or their anti-biotechnology campaigns.

Product Attributes Family

Personality, color, and cost were again the most desirable product attributes. When asked

what characteristics made most marine fish marketable, participant 5 responded, "Mainly color."

Color drives a retailer's decision to stock the fish, secondary to personality. In the marine sector,

color supersedes the health and life expectancy of the fish. While price is a driving force

keeping tropical fish retailers from stocking the fish, price has not yet been mentioned as a factor

in the marine sector. Following the trend, price was not an issue for participant 005. While he

admitted that there were occasions when the price of a fish reduces its marketability, it is an

exception. Regarding price he stated, "Yeah that's a big thing, but then there are people out

there that really don't care about the price of the fish."

He also indicated the importance of personality. When a clarification question was asked,

color and temperament were more valued by the consumer than the cost of the fish. There are

two types of personality: personality in terms of interacting with the owner to form a pet-owner

bond and personality in terms of survivability. Participant 5 focused on both, but his reference to

temperament rather than personality indicates that he is referring to the fish's aggressive

characteristics resulting in loss of life.

Ethics Family

The ethics category emerged immediately. Participant 5 stated that he would not

knowingly sell a fish to a customer if he knew, "that the fish will not survive in their tank." The

tone of his response indicated that he believed competitors would sell anything they could profit

from. The profit versus ethics paradox appeared again when the respondent discussed dying

corals and anemones to provide additional coloration to enhance product attributes. He admitted









that if the market demand was there, and he needed to make a profit, he would sell the fish. He

stated, "If I sold freshwater, if the demand was there, I would probably have to" sell the fish. His

response indicated his reluctance to embrace the new technology, but the desire for profit would

outweigh his ethical concerns. When discussing the roll of larger businesses in stocking the fish,

he stated, "Yeah, I can see that on a business end; that is why I was thinking [big retailers], those

guys, would be all over it. Just in my mind, as a business." He believed larger businesses would

be more inclined to stock the fish because they perceived only profit. That is, big business lacks

morals that smaller stores have against stocking a product that they do not approve of.

All five participants acknowledge that they would sell GloFishTM if the consumer demand

was present. Since selling is a binary function--the fish is sold or not sold--quantifying the

desire to sell is difficult. While participants 3 and 2 had the greatest concerns, all respondents

acknowledged that they would sell the fish to make a profit. Thus, the Business Paradox

emerges: The retailers feel that they must sell a product to survive. Participant I happily sold the

GloFishTM but refused to sell painted fish. However, if the retailers sold the painted fish, there

have been no obj sections to vending a genetically altered product. Participant 2 admitted that if

you dye a fish you are "entrepreneurial," but if you change the genome, then you are "Playing

God." The point where the retailer refuses to stock a product is elusive. Selling a fish that they

know would die seems to be the cutoff.

Finally, participant 5 acknowledges that genetic research for medical advancement must

take place to provide cures for diseases. He understood that many technical advances carry

significant social risks. Like other participants, however, he did not believe the social reward

resulting from taking the risk of genetically modifying an ornamental fish for market purposes

was justifiable. He stated, "Yeah, but then again, it' s all a part of going back to the DNA, and as









a scientist working with DNA, that' s got to be something that needs to be done ... like to lower

the risk of cancers, heart disease, or Alzheimer' s." While participant 5 was not comfortable with

scientists creating the GloFishTM, he recognized the importance of the event for scientific

advancement. His inconsistent perception of the GloFishTM and biotechnology in general can be

summed up by the following response: "Overall I think it is a good thing, and it' s probably

something that has to be done, mainly for the future of our race, and life in general. Some of it is

kind of wishy-washy in ways and I guess you could say a little frightening in other areas."

Jurassic Park Effect Family

When questions were asked to determine the boundaries of his morals with regards to

biotechnology, he was more concerned about the fear of the unknown rather than a moral

quagmire. The Jurassic Park effect refers to the fear of the unknown and scientific hubris. The

phenomenon appeared in the five interviews in various forms with fear of the unknown the most

common. Participant 5 believed there would be scenarios that the scientific community failed to

consider that would result in a biotechnology calamity. Early in the interview, the participant

asked about the long term effects of the fish. While he did not mention an invasive species, he

was concerned about the unknown long term consequences of genetically modifying fish. A

second question could be interpreted as concern for invasive species or the idea that scientists

will lose control over their products. He asked, "So you don't think that they could multiply in

the wild at a rapid pace?" The fear of the unknown, or the Jurassic Park effect is revealed when

participants admit that they have concerns about the long term consequences of manipulating

nature. "Nature will find a way" to cause trouble.

The effect impacts this participant's trust in the regulatory system. When he was asked

what would have to be in place for him to sell the fish, he responded that it would take more time

to rule out other unknown factors before he would be fully comfortable with selling the GloFish.










Regarding selling a transgenic fish he responded, "No, I can't say I wouldn't do it just based

strictly on ethics, but I think [there needs to be] just more research and more time, the longevity

of the genetics going on."

The phenomenon is revealed after responding to his question regarding how long the

technology to genetically modify fish has been in existence. He responded, "For example, 15 to

20 years down the road, one gets in a pond and what happens if they start sprouting little

tentacles .. like the anemone, I mean the possibilities .. everything evolves to environmental

conditions .. we just don't know."

His fear of the unknown also impacts product attributes. The participant expressed his

concern that genetic modification to create one enhanced product attribute, such as color, could

impact upon other such desirable attributes as calm temperament. "It's mainly, for example, we

know about percula~s, we know their temperament, their behavior, how do we know that this

genetic modification is not going to alter any of that."

The Jurassic Park phenomenon exemplifies the role of mass media in priming the

audience. Fear over scientific advancement has existed for millennia; fear over biotechnological

advancement, however, is a recent phenomenon. Close substitutes would be the fear of nuclear

power or the creation of something in a laboratory that could not be controlled.

Regulation

Numerous questions were asked about the participant' s knowledge of the regulatory

system due to his negative perception of biotechnology. While trust in the regulatory agencies

corresponded to a positive perception of biotechnology, there were other factors impacting the

participant' s desire to stock transgenic fish. He did not trust the regulatory system, but the

impact of this lack of trust can be isolated from other moral and product attribute concerns.

When he was informed that the FDA was spearheading the governance of the GloFishTM, he










responded, "Oh well that leaves it wide open." While he could not describe an event that made

him question the efficacy of the FDA, his disapproval of the FDA extended to a dislike for all

government. He believed the government does not do an adequate j ob of policing foods, drugs,

and supplements. He remarked, "No, it's just a lot of things with total government. .. I think

they could do more to regulate."

When he was asked if there was an agency that would do a better j ob, he believed that an

independent board of scientists would be more capable of regulating biotechnologies. His

assumption was that the FDA was political rather than scientific. As well, he believed the FDA

was corrupted by governmental influences while a scientific board would be less biased.

Comparative Analysis

By the close of the fifth interview, enough data existed to merge themes and codes into

families. The ethics, product attributes, regulatory and the Jurassic Park effect families were

created. The ethics family constituted instances where a nonempirical higher purpose drives

reasoning. This includes themes and codes such as "Playing God," environmental concerns, and

morality. The ethics family continued to be a primary driver in retailers' responses toward

transgenic products. The fifth participant understood that scientific advancement comes with

social costs and justified advancements where the benefits to society outweighed the risks. The

ethics family also addressed the moral paradox of selling the painted fish while not selling the

GloFishTM

The family of product attributes was created out of discussion surrounding what make

consumers value a fish such as cost, color, longevity and personality. There was a variance in

the ranking of importance of the attributes, however, for marine and tropical retailers. Tropical

retailers consistently described the price of the fish, following color, to be the most important

attributes. Likewise, marine retailers reported that the customer was seldom concerned about the










price of the fish, but the coloration of the fish was their greatest concern (Table 4-1). Finally, the

Jurassic-Park effect family emerged from codes addressing fear of the scientists, scientific

hubris, fear of consequences, and Hollywood's impact on the public's perception of

biotechnology. All Hyve respondents reported concerns about the unknown regarding genetically

modifying Eish. The invasive species codes were also added to the Jurassic Park effect family.

The fear that a nonindigenous organism can be introduced into an environment and thrive should

be placed at the core of the Jurassic Park effect family.

Interview 6: The Flamboyant GloFishTM Lover

Overview

Participant 6 did not have a storefront, but operated an aquarium service business focusing

on tropical freshwater tanks. His service contracts included routine maintenance and purchasing

Eish for his customers. The interview was conducted at a restaurant in Ocala rather than the

participant' s onfce. The change in venue' s impact on the participant' s responses was minimal.

The restaurant setting was free from distractions and did not add additional biases. Initial contact

was made by telephone and time and place were established. The interview was conducted in

the morning while he was in the process of assisting his clients in downtown Ocala.

Several actions distinguish participant 6 from the others. First, he was the only participant

to offer a gift as a token of his appreciation for being included in the research study. The gift

was an agatized coral, a rock collector' s specimen, not high in monetary value, but meaningful to

the research. The gift indicated his eagerness to participate in the study, and prompted concerns

that he might answer the structured interview questions to please the interviewer. Deciphering

the extent of the interviewer' s impact on the participant was difficult given the pattern of his

responses. It was evident, however, that he was eager to participate in the study and pleasing the

interviewer with correct answers appeared to be important. He was more eager than all the other










participants in preparing for the interview. His positive affect indicated that he enjoyed his work

and had a large amount of intellectual curiosity. After the interview time and location was

established, he asked what he needed to read to prepare for the interview. He was the only

participant to telephone the assistant and make additional inquires as to the types of questions

that would be asked in the interview. This behavior again indicated his eagerness to please the

interviewer.

Overall, the participant was the most avant-garde in the belief that the research was

promising, both in the marine industry and also in the broader agricultural biotechnology sector.

He was highly optimistic about the promise of biotechnology not only toward reinvigorating the

ornamental industry, but also toward helping develop alternative energies and foods. His only

reservations in regard to the ornamental industry were invasive species, but he did not have

concerns about transgenic escapees becoming established in native environments. He opposed

the painted fish, and physically harming animals, and he drew a clear distinction between

tattooing a fish to provide additional coloration and altering a fish's genome to enhance protein

production in the musculature.

Product Attributes Family

Personality and price emerged in the interview without pointed questions. When asked

what people look for when they are buying Eish, he responded, "Personality most of the time.

That's how I sell it." The participant valued personality because his customers often maintained

tanks in business settings, such as doctors' offices. To keep his customers happy, he had to stock

his customers' tanks with Hish that would be visible and move constantly.

While his clients were not interested in the cost of the fish, he did mention price as an

important criterion. He was asked what he had heard about the GloFishTM from other colleagues

and retailers and answered, "Since I've talked to you, is just the price of them. The two pet










shops that I deal with are small mom and pop pet shops and they just don't like spending $2.50

to get it in the shop."

When he was asked to rank the importance of color, price, and personality in a direct

question, he responded, "Color, personality, price." Since he is buying fish for his customers, he

evaluates the characteristics differently. While this ranking varies from the previous tropical Eish

retailers' responses, the ranking was identical to that of marine retailers' responses. The ranking

can be attributed to his unique customer base. Participant 6 could be categorized as a tropical

Eish retailer since he stocked his customers' tanks with Hish, but his customer base could afford to

have a full time service to maintain their tanks, and therefore, would not be influenced by the

price of the fish.

Ethics Family

Unlike the first Hyve participants very little of the transcribed dialog was placed in the

ethics family. While he was a religious man, exemplified by his admission of tithing to the

church, the "playing God" code was never used in coding the interview. He was totally

comfortable with biotechnology and the products developed with the technology. As well,

participant 6 did not have ethical dilemmas stemming from his work. He never mentioned that

genetically modifying a fish would unethical, but the boundaries of his response were unclear.

When asked what his impression of biotechnology was he said, "As much as possible." Implied

in the response was that genetic engineering was a great technology that should be used to better

humanity under every circumstance. The tone of the interview was highly optimistic, with the

exception of describing biotechnology opponents.

He did, however, insinuate that the painted fish was produced by unethical means. He

described how a painted fish is created. "There's actually two ways. They can actually paint

them with a brush .. and you can see it on the outside of the skin or .. they inject it under the









skin .. you have a glass fish 6 to 8 months and then they end up dying." He elaborated on the

limited survivability, "You don't get more than a year out of a painted glassfish. I've never seen

one live over a year. I've never seen the paint last more than 6 or 7 months." While he did

mention the mortality resulting from the procedure, he never explicitly stated that he believed it

to be immoral.

Jurassic Park Effect Family

The Jurassic Park effect family did not appear frequently, except for dialog about invasive

species. Participant 6 perceived people who feared that scientists would create something that

they could not control as unrealistic. "Every time they try something crazy, it usually doesn't

work .. they always think the blob's going to be formed .. and it' s just not going to happen."

When he was specifically asked about the Jurassic Park effect in the context of "nature will find

a way" to survive, he responded that it was highly unlikely if not impossible. He recalled his

experiences at the University of Florida, "I used to mix all kinds of stuff up at UF; you wouldn't

believe some of the stuff that we did with rice and stuff, rice and orchids. Even if it comes out,

it' s not going to be this thing that takes off."

Participant 6 discussed invasive species at length, but did not indicate that they were of

significant concern to him. At one point in the interview, he admitted that he went as far as to

stock his customers' koi ponds with snake headed fish. He believed that invasive species were a

fact of life, and that very little could be done to stop the introduction of nonindigenous species.

When asked if increased regulation could prevent their spread, he responded, "I don't think you

could regulate either .. they could walk in their back yard and dump the aquarium in a pond."

His in-depth discussion of invasive species was not attributed to concern, but resulted from

the increased media coverage in the same period. During a preliminary phone conversation

before the interview was conducted, the participant asked if the study pertained to invasive










species. He began the interview by stating "I've just been doing a lot of research on that down in

the Everglades .. had just watched a whole show on that."

Comparative Analysis

The most significant difference of interview 6 from previous interviews is the level of

confidence in the regulation of biotechnologies. The participant' s responses to the questions

pushed the boundaries of the ethics, and the Jurassic Park families. As well, participant 6 was the

most pro-biotechnology and had faith in scientists and the government to do what was best for

humanity. He firmly believed the risks to the environment and humankind were minimal. As

well, very few of his responses could be placed in the ethics family.

The product attributes he mentioned were in line with other responses. The primary

product attributes continued to be color, personality and price. Unlike the first participant who

believed the GloFishTM was a boon to small retailers, he believed the cost of the fish was a

barrier to entry for "mom and pop" retail stores. While he ranked the product attributes

importance in the same order as a marine ornamental Eish retailer, the difference can be attributed

to a wealthier customer base. Without prompting, he mentioned personality and price to be the

most significant criterion, yet color emerged as the number one product attribute after it was

stated by the interviewer.

Unlike all previous participants, participant 6 did not discuss the GloFishTM in the context

of morality and ethics. He exhibited the least amount of ethical concern about the practice of

genetically engineering plants and animals. Since he believed scientists and the FDA looked out

after the interest of humanity, he had a laissez fire attitude regarding how, what, or when

biotechnology should be used. He was the first participant to place the onerous of establishing

ethical and moral boundaries into the hands of stakeholders. The participant believed scientists

would establish their own boundaries for the technology using their own moral compasses.










The painted fish, a member of the ethics family, was discussed at length by Participant 6.

Participants 2, 3, and 4 had significant concerns selling a fish that they knew would die, but sold

it anyway. While the painted fish concerned him, he never specifically stated that he would

rej ect selling the fish. Thus, it was unclear if participant 006 would stock the fish in his

customers' tanks.

Finally, participant 6 was the least affected by the Jurassic Park effect. He neither

exhibited significant fear in the unknown nor believed that scientists would create something that

they could not control. The minimal influence can be attributed to his trust in humanity as well

as his perception of risk. He understood that there were two components to risk, the probability

of the event happening and the consequences of the event. His trust in scientists, the FDA, and

government along with personal laboratory experiences made him realize that the second part of

risk, the probability of an event happening, was minimal, and therefore biotechnology posed a

small risk to humanity.

Interview 7: The Centrist

Overview

Participant 7 was knowledgeable about the GloFishTM debate, and had 36 years of industry

experience. Considerable effort was made to determine the boundaries on the conditions

determining whether or not he would be willing to sell the GloFishTM. Unlike other participants,

he mentioned that he had customers who specifically requested transgenic fish. "We have had

some, not a lot but people come in looking for them. They call them the GloFish.T""

Participant 7 sold both freshwater and marine fish and routinely read trade journals and

publications. He had a neutral affect throughout the interview, but he did not participate in the

interview solely for the financial stipend. Participant 7 understood the risks and benefits of

creating transgenic fish. He neither embraced nor rejected the technology. He explained, "I









would have to say I'm not for it and I'm not against it. I'm down in the middle. They can build

some things that may help mankind and then they make things that destroy mankind. It's bad

and good. I'm not for it and I'm not against it."

The previous ranking of product attributes, color, price, personality, held in the interview.

While the participant did have some reservations about the extent to which genetic modifications

were made, and reasons for the modifications, he embraced the GloFishTM as providing tropical

fish enthusiasts with an alternative to marine species. The Jurassic Park effect did not have a

deleterious impact on his perception of the GloFishTM. Rather, he viewed it as a self regulating

natural function that retuned anomalies back to stasis. Finally, his ethical limitations were

delimited by the type of organism engineered and what social benefits stemmed from the

modification. He did not perceive genetic engineering as dangerous, but rather unnecessary for

certain products.

Product Attributes Family

Once again, the favored product attributes were color, price, personality and survivability.

The participant mentioned color five times in the interview as the primary sales attributes, but

also noted that survivability factored into the buying decision. Price, however, remained

secondary. When asked if price was an issue, he responded, "Not really, they look at the price

and they accept it. They go more for the look than anything else plus the fact they are very

hearty fish." The product attributes family has become fully saturated at this point and,

therefore, should be considered a category. While there is some variation in the pattern of

responses regarding the importance of cost to the buying decision, the importance directly relates

to the store's consumer base and whether the store offered both marine and tropical ornamentals.

Survivability, while a consideration, was consistently secondary to color.









Participant 7 was asked what attributes should be engineered in the fish and he responded,

"I think if they wanted to do something for animals I think most of it would be color in the retail

aspect. People love color. People go down our last aisle of salt water and are like, whoa, I want

that! I think it is color." While he clearly believed color was the primary sales attribute, the

importance of survivability to the consumer was stated. "They go more for the look than

anything else plus the fact they are very hearty fish."

Ethics Family

Participant 7 had no ethical problems with stocking the GloFishTM. While he admitted that

he was a "fish purist," he understood that the fish was not harmed in anyway. He mentioned,

"Some people are purist. I'm a purist myself. I like pure fish." It was unclear from the interview

whether he would personally own transgenic fish, however, he believed ethics was the driving

force keeping retailers from stocking the fish. He noted,

The big chains will not carry them like PetSmart and Pet Supermarket. I don't know about
Petco because Petco carries saltwater fish but I don't know. PetSmart and Pet Supermarket
won't carry them because they believe it' s an ethics thing. The bigger chains won't carry
it. Some individual stores may not carry it because of the ethics thing and it' s an
aberration. I think most of them won't.

The painted fish was discussed, but not in the usual context of ethical dilemma. He had

little to say about the ethics surrounding the painted fish. He mentioned that the glassfish was a

close substitute for a consumer, "They will go to a neon tetra or plecos or blue gouramis and

some painted glass fish." He did not criticize his customers for buying a glass fish and did not

exhibit any concern for selling a fish.

Participant 7 understood the linkage of the GloFishTM to the broader agricultural

biotechnology debate, and noted the social benefits of using genetic engineering. He accepted

the risks and understood that all new technology comes with potential pitfalls. The boundaries of

what he was willing to modify for social gain were examined. He believed that fish were the










only vertebrate that should be genetically modified. The reason for the concern was unclear, but

could be attributed to the fact that he did not see any potential advantages in using the

technology for such ends. He believed that genetic engineering should stop with Hish. "Most

other animals, they don't need to do anything to them. .. I wouldn't do it. I'd stop at Hish. You

can do Hish like salmon and stuff." Subsequently, a leading question was asked if genetically

modifying a cow to create a vaccine would be acceptable and he responded, "yes." This

response indicated that he was interested in the social benefits from the alteration. Thus, new

products could be created from other animals if the social benefit was great enough to justify the

risk.

Jurassic Park Effect Family

The Jurassic Park Effect had a moderate impact on participant 7. He had a fear of the

scientific community and broader humanity. The participant noted, "I think humans make this

unsafe because you get like a mad scientists. Let' s mix and this and this and see what it does."

His concern about using the technology to harm humans was noted again, "I wouldn't do it or

you will make something worse than it is. We found that out. Dolly was cloned but she fell

apart."

While he did not trust humanity, he did believe that regulatory agencies were empowered

to protect people. When he was asked when it would not be acceptable to genetically modify an

animal, the participant responded, "It would have to be controlled. The FDA would have to do

that. FDA and USDA would have to work with that." The participant did not believe the FDA

was the ideal agency to be tasked with regulating the GloFishTM; he believed the USDA and the

Fish and Wildlife Agency should have the responsibility. This concern did not alter his decision

to stock the fish. He believed that regulation was necessary, but understood that government










agencies would not be able to regulate the release of ornamental fish into nature. Thus, he had

more trust in humanity than he did in the ability of governmental agencies to police hobbyists.

He had a unique perspective on nature's perseverance to survive which mitigated the

impact of the Jurassic Park effect. He viewed nature' s will to survive as a way of regulating

human mistakes. He mentioned the introduction of invasive species in Florida waters and the

Nile perch in Lake Vicotria and the return to the natural equilibrium. He elaborated,

I'm going to quote Jeff Goldblum from Jurassic Park; nature finds a way. Believe it or not,
it will. I think it will survive. I think it could happen. You have fish with wild colors that
do survive. It's the nature of evolution. You have fish that are cave dwelling animals and
lose their pigmentation. They don't survive long in the wild but I'm sure there are some
that do survive. I had an albino squirrel that survived over by my house. He had to fight
for his thing because he wasn't a natural. I haven't seen him this year yet. It' s the thing of
natural selection.

For other participants, the fear of not being able to control nature contributed to their

rej section of genetically modified products. Likewise, participant 7 viewed the nature' s drive to

survive as a way of preventing environmental cataclysms.

Comparative Analysis

Participant 7 was labeled as "The Centrist" due to his moderate conviction towards the

GloFishTM. Participant 7 had several years of college level course work in science, and while he

did not have a degree, he had one of the best understandings of genetic engineering. Out of the

first seven interviews, he was the least polarized in his convictions. Another differentiating

characteristic of the interviewee was his tone of disappointment regarding the GloFishTM

Participant 7 had believed the hype surrounding the GloFishTM would be a boon for the industry;

however, the slow sales of the fish indicated that it did not live up to its promise. While in early

interviews hype was an important criterion in attracting new customers, by the seventh interview,

a year had passed, and the retailer' s tone indicated that the fish failed to meet his expectations.

When he was asked how long he had carried the fish, he responded, "We've been getting them









off and on, Seagrist and 5-D have been on the market for over a year, and we've been carrying

them off and on for just over a year. The reason why that is initially the transgenic fish were

supposedly the revolutionary thing."

The product attributes category remained consistent in interview 7. The participant

discussed the importance of color throughout the interview. Survivability was mentioned in the

interview, but was secondary to the physical attributes of the fish. Unlike participant 005 who

was interested in creating disease resistant fish, participant 7 understood that color was a

superficial attribute, unlike health, that would directly influence the consumers' buying decision.

While color was an acceptable use of genetic engineering, altering personality was not

acceptable to the participant. The product attribute of survivability was added as a dimension,

along with color, price, and personality.

Examining the product attribute of survivability presented unique difficulties, since no

participant would admit that their customers did not value their pets' lives. Without prompting,

survivability was mentioned in interviews 1, 4, 5, and 7 revealing its high ranking as a product

attribute. The prevalence of survivability as a product attribute indicated that the boundaries of

the criterion, outside of the ethics family, should be evaluated. When color was mentioned,

however, there was considerable dialog, but the ranking color related to survivability was

unknown.

The economic theme, while downplayed in the interviews 2 thru 5, should be an additional

family. As in interviews 1 and 3, the distinction had been made between cost and price.

Retailers valued cost which was placed in the economic theme, while customers valued price

which was placed in the product attributes theme. Participant 7 reported that the cost of the fish

was the primary reason retailers would not stock the fish. He reported that after ethics, "I'd have









to say cost next. These cost over $5.00 if we do a mark up. It's not color." During interview 6,

the participant also reported that high cost of the fish prevented its rapid adoption by small

retailers. Participants 2, 3, and 5 specialized in high value product, so the business strategy

focused on the profits rather than the cost of the fish. Participant 7, however, was a tropical fish

retailer and gauged profitability as the percentage markup on each fish. Only tropical fish

retailers reported that the cost of the fish was an impediment to its success.

Participant 7 provided a unique perspective on the Jurassic Park effect. For the previous

interviews, the Jurassic Park effect was believed to inhibit the acceptance of genetically modified

organisms. Participant 7, however, interpreted, "nature will find a way to survive," as a positive

characteristic that allows for species survival despite mankind's mistakes. He was the only

participant that believed the lack of human control over nature could have positive consequences.

The other dimensions of the Jurassic Park effect, scientific hubris and trust did impact the

participant.

During the analysis of interview 7, the regulatory and Jurassic Park families were merged.

The Jurassic Park effect related to the participant' s trust in the regulation of the technologies.

Therefore, the regulatory theme was a component of the Jurassic Park effect instead of a unique

family. The regulatory family addressed participants' trust in governmental agencies to

effectively regulate biotechnologies. In previous interviews, it was believed that a participant's

trust in regulatory agencies directly influenced the impact of the Jurassic Park effect. In

interview 7, however, it was clear that it was trust in humanity, rather than trust in regulatory

agencies, that was the predictor.









Interview 8: The Cost Conscience Laggard


Overview

Participant 8 was the owner and manager of a small aquarium store specializing in African

cichlids. He had 20 years of industry experience and enjoyed his work, but did not dedicate

considerable time to staying abreast of current industry trends. Participant 8 did not sell the fish

for four reasons: cost, customer demand, drop in hype, and dislike of the technology. He took

calls throughout the interview and his tone indicated that he was not interested in learning more

about transgenic fish. When asked if he spoke with other retailers about transgenic fish, he

responded, "I really haven't gotten into that. I have too many other things to worry about." He

described his customer base as fairly advanced and attributed this to his specialization in

cichlids. He told the interviewer, "Because I specialize in cichlids and a lot of people, I mean I

have people from south Florida who make a trip up here every once in a while just because of the

cichlids I carry." Another differentiating characteristic was that he was the only participant to

elaborate on the failing hype of the fish, and believed the GloFishTM was a fad that represented

too much business risk for retailers. When asked if many customers asked for the fish he

responded, "No. .. That' s another one of the reasons too; you can add that on to the list. I

think they're more of a phase and they will dwindle. It' s kind of like the Tickle Me Elmo' s and

everything else, they come up, they spike and then they fall off."

The participant did not possess strong scientific acumen. When asked what the term

transgenic meant to him, he responded, "honestly, it sounds something along the lines of a sex

change, but I've never really thought about it." He was not well informed about the

biotechnology debate and had no impetus to perform an information search to become more

educated on the issues. He decided not to stock the fish, and did not examine the issue further.









Product Attributes Family

After he reaffirmed the ranking of product attributes as color, price and then personality,

little time was spent testing the limitations of the category. Color continued to rank as the

primary buying attribute. In the tropical fish sector, price trumps personality. He remarked, "A

lot of fish do have personalities, but a lot of people like the color." Since he was a cichlids

enthusiast, a question was asked about what attributes made them desirable. He described

cichlids in the following way: "For one, they're hardy, they're extremely colorful, extremely

active and there' s a large variety of them." The description reaffirmed his previous descriptions

of product attributes he felt were important.

Again he emphasized the importance of price and color when describing painted fish. He

noted, "Everybody loves them because they're very colorful and a lot of them are very

reasonable."

Economics Family

Cost was not only a sales attribute, but also a business risk associated with stocking the

GloFishTM. He mentioned that the economic risk was too great for the smaller retailer, "they

tend to be a little expensive from a couple of the suppliers and it' s too much of a risk." While he

did not like the idea of a transgenic fish, the fact that he sold other enhanced fish that were less

expensive indicated that he decided not to stock the fish was for economic reasons.

When asked what would make him want to sell the GloFishTM, he stated that he "was not

the greedy money-driven type. .. I make ends meet and I'm happy with that." And again,

"Like I said, part of it has to do with the altering and cost, they tend to be expensive."

Jurassic Park Effect Family

The Jurassic Park effect did not have an impact on participant 008's decision to not stock

the fish. Few codes constituting the category manifested during the interview. Participants with









strong confidence in the FDA regulation of the technologies also stated that we cannot truly be

able to regulate nature. He stated, "Yeah, because I say to a lot of people, if they outgrow you,

bring them back. Don't release them; one, because you can get caught and get fined; two,

because it's so rampant in south Florida it' s ridiculous..." He believed that policing would be

impossible. Getting people to stop releasing their fish into the wild was not really possible, the

"unfortunate thing with that is it can't be helped."

Ethics Family

Participant 8 believed the only reason a retailer would stock the GloFish was for profits.

Since he was a cichlid enthusiast, it is not surprising that he found the danio to be dull. He

elaborated as to what type of retailer would stock the fish, "No, I mean, I really don't have a lot

of elaboration on that, to me that' s something that somebody is going to do to make money,

that' s what they'd be in it for. I remember a lot of people carried it; a lot of the chains had it

when it first came out." When asked if he would ever consider selling the GloFishTM, he

responded, "No. A lot of those things are messing with Mother Nature."

Ironically, this was the only participant to refuse to sell the GloFishTM, but stocked the

painted fish. The participant' s ethics were a paradox because he stocked a fish that had been

harmed to produce a desirable attribute, but then did not stock the GloFish because it represented

"messing with mother nature." He continued, "No, I mean, I really don't have a lot of elaboration

on that, to me that's something that somebody is going to do to make money, that' s what they'd

be in it for." He delineated between painted fish and genetically modified fish when he stated,

"Well, like I said, it was a phase. And you're messing with Mother Nature, you're altering

something. Granted the dying of the fish, you're altering it, but you're not going in and

physically changing. You're not messing with Mother Nature is what I am trying to say."

Describing the painted fish, he stated, "I keep them; I sell a couple here, and they're the kids like










them. But the stuff wears off." Given his lack of time allocated to researching issues, he

contended that he would be unaware if the fish was harmed," Even the inj ected fish wears off. I

don't know if it' s harming them or not."

Regulation

Participant 8 was not well informed about which governmental agencies were tasked with

governing transgenic fish. He decided not to stock the fish early in its introduction, and never re-

examined the decision. Like participant 7, he claimed that the FDA should not spearhead the

governance of transgenic ornamental fish. He stated,

Food and drug, it doesn't sound like it. To me, it would seem like it' s more like the
Wildlife Commission, actually something along those lines would be more appropriate, not
food and drug. We're not eating it or taking it as a pill, why would they be involved?

When the coordinated frame work was explained, however, he changed his opinion stating,

"That makes sense if they have a little more experience with it. Maybe they need to partner with

somebody or several people." And again, "I guess if they have had the most experience, yeah. It

doesn't seem like they would be the ones, but if they have the most experience with it, from

doing the plants, so that' s how they got their experience." Ultimately the regulation of the

technology does not impact his decision. He admitted, "I am sure they have strict guidelines, for

safety and all that other, so I am sure it's pretty safe."

Comparative Analysis

During the analysis, careful consideration was given to the possibility of adding the

economics category again. Economics was split between the ethics and product attributes

categories after interview 4. This lumping, however, fails to capture the responses surrounding

the business aspects of transgenic fish. While the business versus ethics code relates to both the

ethics and economics families, a differentiation is necessary to explain such responses as, "Okay,









so one, the cost, and two, I don't do a lot of the tropical ornamental Eish. I do keep a supply of

them but I'm bigger into the saltwater and the cichlids, for a couple of varying reasons."

"Interesting. Like I said, I've just never really put a lot of thought into it. It's kind of one of

those things, you make a decision and run with it."

Interview 09: The Pragmatic Retailer

Overview

Participant 9 was the owner and manager of a small retail store in Jacksonville selling both

marine and freshwater fish. He was informed about how, why, and when the GloFishTM was

created and had a cursory understanding of the governmental agencies responsible for the

oversight of transgenic organisms. The GloFishTM had been a topic of conversation with his

colleagues when it was first released; but as the hype decreased, it became another product

offering. Unlike participant 8, participant 9 understood that he needed to sell Eish to make

money. While he was a biotechnology proponent and a fan of the GloFishTM, he had difficulty

making the fish profitable. He was willing to give customers what they wanted, but did not

compromise his morals. He admitted that there would be limitations to what he would be willing

to sell and inferred that creating aesthetically pleasing colored fish was not adequate social utility

from genetic engineering.

The product attributes category was strengthened, and a new dimension on personality

manifested in the interview, desirable carnivorous aggression. Codes constituting the ethics

category appeared frequently in the interview, and the Jurassic Park effect provided a minimal

contribution to the retailers' perception of the GloFishTM. The small contribution of the effect

could be attributed to faith in humanity and governmental oversight of transgenic organisms.

The resurrected economics category also appeared in the interview in the context of business

operations.









Product Attributes Category

The product attributes of color, personality, survivability, and price were mentioned by

the participant. When asked what characteristics make a fish sell, he responded,

The vast maj ority of people, the other 80% are buying Eish because they like the way they
look. Oscars, in a nice, clean tank, are pretty fish. They've got a lot of personality. Like I
said, those people are looking for something that is easy to keep, hardy; hardy is the big
thing for a lot of folks.

Unlike other participants, he mentioned aggressive behavior as a favorable characteristic

that made many fish, like Oscars, more valuable. He noted that people enjoyed watching Eish eat

other fish, and he sold thousands of feeders a month. He was critical, however, of many

customers who feed their fish feeders when it was not in the fish's best interest in terms of

health. He commented, "There are people who buy African cichlids, which are 100% herbivores

in the wild, that feed them almost nothing but feeders." He was the only participant to mention

that carnivorous Hish were more valuable because the owner could watch them eat other fish.

Therefore, while the GloFishTM was colorful, it lacked a desirable personality. Participant 9 was

critical of customers who do not adequately care for their aquarium fish. "When they say 'is this

fish hardy,' they mean if I neglect it, will it stay alive."

Also, like participant 7, he insinuated that the fact the fish were genetically engineered was

a sales attribute. When he was asked if the fact that they were genetically modified sold more

fish he responded, "A few. Most of the fish were sold by us, not really people coming in looking

for them. It was a thing like, oh yeah, I heard about that, and oh yeah, they're really cool, okay

I'll get one. The vast majority were sold, they weren't bought."

The cost of the fish was a significant impetus of fewer sales. Participant 9 did not believe

the GloFishTM provided added value; he did not believe that people were getting a great deal of









value from buying the fish. He admitted that while he stocked them, he did not have any in his

current inventory. When asked if he sold them and if cost was an issue, he responded,

Yeah, we sell it. I don't have any in here right now, but they're $5.00. They're not a thing
where people are, oh gosh, I can't afford that. But they look best when you get a whole
group of them. We haven't done, and I don't know that all that many people have done
that well with them. Seagrest and 5-D tell me they're not moving a whole lot of them.
Even when they first came out we weren't moving a lot of them.

The sales of the fish were lower than expected as a result of two factors: the proximity of a

cheaper substitute, the nongenetically modified danio, and the relative high cost of the fish. He

elaborated,"It' s a five dollar danio. It' s a fish you can normally buy for 99 cents, and it doesn't

look that much different." While five dollars was not too expensive for a fish. He believed the

GloFish was overpriced, and noted "I don't think people are seeing the value of it." Again when

asked for clarification as to whether the price justified the coloration, he responded, "No, not five

times as much, because danios look best in groups, groups of 10 to 12, and the people that are

looking at them aren't going to spend $50 or $60 just to get a little group of fish that are red."

Finally, a hypothetical question about pricing was asked to determine if the participant

believed whether more intense coloration or lower price was the reason for sluggish sales. When

he was asked if he would have been able to sell more fish at a lower price, he answered,

"Possibly, if they could sell for $2, I am sure they would probably sell quite a bit better."

Color continued to be the primary sales attribute; however, there was a valuation placed on

the intensity of the color. Since the coloration was not intense enough in the GloFishTM to

differentiate it from the nonengineered danio, the sales of the fish had been hurt. Further, due to

the small size of the fish, several fish had to be purchased to get the total effect of the coloration

making the cost of the fish greater than other larger species.









Economics Family

The new economics family was captured in extensive dialog addressing the cost of the fish.

Participant 9 viewed the GloFishTM as a function of profitability. The ultimate decision to stock

the fish was based on perceived marketability. When asked why some retailers stock the fish

while others do not, he answered, "The reason I think is that some people will carry this type of

Eish and some people won't is some people are hobbyists and got into the business as a hobby

and will probably be out of the business as a hobbyist and some people are in it as a business."

Like participant 8, he divided retailers into two groups: those who are in it for a business and

those who do it for a hobby. While participant 8 perceived himself as a hobbyist rather than a

businessman, Participant 9 understood that he was running a business and needed to pay his bills.

Jurassic Park Effect

The Jurassic Park effect contributed minimally to the participant' s perception of the

GloFishTM. Since either faith in humanity or governmental regulation mitigates the Jurassic Park

effect, he never mentioned that a cataclysmic event would result from genetic engineering. As

well, he did not have any fear of the unknown consequence of scientific advancement. He did

admit, however, that aquarium fish are able to adapt to their environments. "We've gone out to

do tanks where you can't even see three inches in the tank; the fish somehow adapted." Like

interviewee 7, he viewed the will of a species to survive as a positive rather than a negative.

While he implied that genetic engineering was dangerous and scientific advancements

were not necessarily safe, he believed the government oversight would prohibit natural

abominations. His faith in the governmental entities tasked with regulating biotechnology

influenced the prevalence of the Jurassic Park effect and also impacted the ethics category.

While he mentioned the release of aquarium fish into the environment by owners, he did not

appear bothered by the implication of releasing genetically modified aquarium fish.









The small role of the Jurassic Park effect in influencing the participant' s opinion of the

GloFishTM can also be explained by the physical attributes of the fish. Given that the fish was an

inch long herbivore, and "relatively innocuous," he did not have any fear of the unknown

consequences of developing the fish.

Ethics Family

Considerable dialog was given to the ethical implications of transgenic fish and the broader

aquarium sector. The "Playing God" code did not appear in the interview, but the participant did

define boundaries about what was acceptable to produce through genetic engineering. While he

did not have reservations about experimenting on higher vertebrates, he did have concerns about

the purpose and outcomes of the research.

The ethical quagmire of the painted fish was discussed in the interview. While, he did not

like the painted fish, he was willing to sell it. Participant 9 did not have an ethical problem

selling either the GloFishTM or the painted fish. When asked about his overall impression with

genetic engineering he began discussing the painted fish. He elaborated,

I think it' s a very good thing. I think it' s an extension of what we are. To not do it would
be, I think foolish, because there are so many good things that come from that. The fish
that are altered that I don't like are not genetically altered; they are dyed and things like
that. There are some fish with dye injected into it. I saw a parrot fish yesterday, they
called it a lipstick parrot, where they inj ected dye into the lips of the fish and inj ected a
checker board pattern on the side of the fish, and it might not hurt the fish at all, but to me
it just looked...I didn't like it whatsoever.

He described the painted fish as something he did not approve of, while he was strongly

supportive of technologies used to enhance coloration without harming the fish.

When you have a Dachshund or a Poodle, you've got something that has been genetically
engineered and altered, it is not natural, so to say that you don't want a specific type of fish
for that reason, people are probably hypocrites. Like I said, more than likely they have
something that has been genetically altered; we are genetically altered like that. We select
what we breed. I have a problem with it if you are going to take something that doesn't
have any natural enemies and it can be released in the wild, and normally like that, it' s not









necessarily the fish's fault. People are taking it and putting it in an area where it shouldn't
be, but most of the time that' s naturally occurring fish like snake heads, things like that.

There was also dialog about customer responsibility for ensuring the health of their pets.

According to the participant, people will feed fish the wrong diet for amusement. "In the wild

maybe 15% of their diet is fish, but there' s people that buy them that feed them nothing but

goldfish and they end up with a filthy tank with fish that are obese, it cuts down on the life span."

Again he described how customers would purchase a fish just to watch it consume feeder fish.

He explained, "There are people who buy African cichlids, which are 100% herbivores in the

wild, that feed them almost nothing but feeders. That really annoys me too because it cuts down

on the life span of the fish." Ultimately, he believed that customers did not care about the

welfare of the fish. He noted that people would ask him what fish required the least amount of

work, and he assumed they were asking for something that they could neglect.

The biotechnology cut off point was established when he asked what attributes he would

not buy if they were the result of genetic enhancement. He answered,

If it looked freakish to the point where you are like, that really shouldn't exist, it was
developed just for a side show, like a bodyless head that you can just add, and literally I
am sure they could do that. But like I said, if they just did something just for freak value;
like I said, the glow fish was engineered for a purpose and then they took the technology
from that and said okay, we can make ones that stay red and ones that stay green.

Like participant 6, he believed there needed to be a social benefit to genetic engineering

since there was an inherent risk associated with the innovation. The risk perception manifested

when he drew a parallel with genetic engineering and the manufacturing of dynamite. He said,

"Lots of really good things come from things that are dangerous." Due to the small size of the

fish, he admitted that it did not seem threatening.









Regulation

The participant knew that the FDA was responsible for GloFishTM regulation, and had a

cursory understanding of the coordinated framework used to regulate transgenic organisms. He

had significant faith in governmental regulation of transgenic organisms. He viewed the FDA' s

role as expanding beyond basic oversight to also prohibit the development of either dangerous or

morally reprehensible organisms. When he was asked if he liked the fact that there was

oversight in place, he responded,

Yeah, I think it' s good. There are certain things where I don't think they should do
unlimited research, just like human cloning; because you can take and come up with
something that really shouldn't be there. It is not going to take and assimilate well and I
am sure you could do the same thing, you can come up with an animal that won't be eaten
by other things because of the way it tastes and then they are running rampant and maybe
eat all the vegetation. So it' s not necessarily something that is going to eat all the fish, it
might affect the food chain in another way. So yeah, it shouldn't be something that is
completely unlimited.

Participant 8 did not lack faith in humanity. He believed the FDA was the appropriate

agency to govern the GloFishTM and that regulatory oversight would police the scientific

community. He did not believe that governmental oversight was always effective. He explained

how poorly regulated the harvesting of live corals had become.

Comparative Analysis

Participant 9 shared the most commonalities with the pilot study participant. They were

early adopters, disliked the painted fish, were well informed about the biotechnology debate, and

both had similar customer bases. Both interviews had similar responses to the structured

interview questions, with the primary differences attributed to the decrease in media attention

and hype of transgenic ornamental Eish.

Like the first participant, 9 stocked the fish months before it was officially released. The

reason for stocking the fish was economic; he believed he would make more money. While two









years of time have elapsed between the first and ninth interview, the initial hype surrounding the

release of the GloFishTM to the public manifested in the interview. It was inferred from the

interview, however, that the hype over the GloFishTM had begun to grow dull based on the

pattern of responses, and references to the fish' s lackluster sales.

Secondly, participant 9, like the first participant, also disliked the painted fish. He felt that

the fish was not only harmed during the tattooing procedure, but also felt that the attribute of

survivability was compromised. He drew parallels among the GloFishTM, painted fish, and

corals. For the participant, the GloFishTM was a superior product since its "unnatural" alteration

did not impact the fish's health. He mentioned that animal breeders have been doing the same

thing for hundreds of years and felt that it was important to utilize the technologies to displace

practices such as the production of painted fish. Still, unlike the first participant who was

unwilling to sell them, the ninth participant did stock painted fish.

Thirdly, he was well informed about the biotechnology debate and had dialoged with other

retailers about the GloFishTM when it was first released. The participant was pro-biotechnology

and exhibited a high degree of trust in humanity and the FDA' s ability to govern the

technologies. While he did not explicitly describe invasive species, he did reference

environmental degradation resulting from the release of aquarium fish.

Fourthly, the first and ninth stores had similar products and similar customer bases. Both

stores sold marine and tropical fish and had a moderately advanced hobbyist clientele.

According to participant 9, only about 15% of his customer base was advanced, with about 85%

just trying to keep the fish alive. Finally, like participant 1, he mentioned that his location might

have an impact on the sale of GloFishTM, which he described as slow. He noted, "Yeah, I am

sure there are other parts of the country where they sold much better."










Customer demographics heavily impacted the retailers' perception. If the demand was

there, then the fish would most likely be stocked. The ninth participant' s perception of demand

had changed over the 2 years however. While there were initial brochures and marketing

materials for the GloFishTM, the materials were no longer available, making its differentiation

from nontransgenic danios based on coloration only. He admitted that he did not recognize

much of a difference between the $5 fish and its $.99 relative.

Interview 10: The Ethics Policeman

Overview

Participant 10 did not sell the GloFishTM and was a skeptic about biotechnology. While he

did not fully reject genetic engineering, the social benefits were heavily considered. The

participant did not believe altering a fish for esthetics was ethical, but would have considered

selling a fish that had been genetically altered to be more disease resistant. His decision to not

stock the GloFishTM resulted from the combination of lack of profitability and perceived value.

He specifically opposed the reason why the GloFishTM was marketed, esthetics, rather than the

technology used to create it.

He first learned that the GloFishTM was available while reading trade j ournals and

apparently was influenced by mass media based on his references to human cloning and stem

cell research. While he originally sold both fresh and marine fish, he had made a business

decision to phase out his fresh water offerings. The store catered to more advanced marine

hobbyists who were less cost conscious and more interested in the health and welfare of the fish.

Participant 10 was the only subj ect to acknowledge the internet' s role in promoting certain fish

species, and made references to the importance of hype and mass media in promoting the sales of

certain species.










The participant described the level of knowledge his average consumer had about

aquarium fish as "Basic at best." He viewed his role as store owner as an ambassador for the

aquarium industry. His experience made him arrogant, and he had disdain for novice hobbyists

who were influenced by the color and price of Esh. The participant believed he needed to police

his customers to ensure they purchased ethically produced pets.

Considerable dialog fell into the ethics and product attributes category. For participant 10,

the product attributes caused the ethical quagmires in the aquarium industry. Consumers wanted

aesthetically pleasing Eish, which created a market for species not well suited to the aquarium

industry. He implied that the over-arching attribute of coloration facilitated the production of the

GloFishTM. In the interview, ethics and product attributes were closely interwoven, but,

ultimately, ethics and profitability most heavily impacted his reaction to the GloFishTM

Product Attributes Category

The product attributes category appeared throughout the interview. Coloration,

survivability, and personality were the most important attributes for the customers. Like other

strictly marine stores, cost seldom factored into a customer's buying decision. The category was

explored in detail to ascertain why the participant did not find the GloFishTM marketable.

Questions were asked about how he made stocking decisions and why he had moved to a total

marine format.

Participant 10 viewed his role not only as the store manager, but also as a representative of

the hobby. He believed that he was privy to knowledge that his customer base did not have and

that he was responsible for ethically policing what was sold in his store. When asked how he

decided what to stock in the store he answered,

Most of the time, whatever interests me is what I stock, a very self-centered thing; there are
some things I just outright refuse to because of survivability or that they are not collected









ethically. I do factor in customer wants, but there are things I just will not bring in because
I don't agree with it or don't like it.

His duel roll of catering to the customer while ethically policing their buying decisions

places his responses in both the consumer attribute and ethics categories. He willingly meets

customers' demands until they push him beyond his ethical boundary delineated by selling Eish

that either was "not collected ethically" or that he does not "like."

He "factors in" customer wants, but does not simply select Hish based on perceived

marketability. (Again, his perceived role as an aquarium hobby representative was evident when

he described the responsibility of aquarium retailers of educating the consumer and ensuring the

fish's welfare. He felt he was ethically responsible for giving the fish a chance at survival,

"because we're pulling it out of the wild, for our enj oyment .. we have the responsibility to at

least give it a half-way decent shot at a normal life and its normal life span."

In addition to his role as a benevolent representative, he viewed customers who differed

from his conceptualization of product attributes as inferior. He was an aquarium hobby elitist.

This viewpoint manifested when a specific question was asked about the importance of

coloration. He admitted that, while color was not a primary attribute for him, it was what most

of his customers wanted. He elaborated, "For my consumers, most of it is; a lot of it has to do

with what is showy, flashy and bright and that would be the bulk of the customers." He

mentioned, however, that his savvy "educated" customers were less interested in color, and more

interested in personality and survivability attributes. Ultimately, while the bulk of his customers

desired coloration, his more advanced customers examined a variety of factors when purchasing

a fish.

While he believed that hype increased sales, color, personality, survivability and price

were the greatest contributing factors. He ranked their importance as follows, "coloration first,









survivability next, and then personality and costs. I try to cater more to actual hobbyists; my

client base is a little skewed sometimes. I know for a lot of people, cost is number one; it' s

always about cost."

The participant did not perceive added value in modifying a fish's natural coloration. He

noted, "To me, that doesn't have any beauty; the painted fish or the day-glow fish, they just don't

have any appeal to me. I would rather see a zebra danio in its natural state; I think it's a nice

looking fish. Most people don't, but I do."

Economics Family

While the participant believed that selling either painted fish or the GloFishTM was

immoral, he did understand that his survival in the business world was a function of profitability.

Participant 10's decision to discontinue selling tropical fish exemplifies his clear understanding

of sound business practices. While he perceived himself as an enthusiast, he also wanted to

provide the highest quality product at the best price.

It was inferred from the interview that he neither agreed with using biotechnology to create

aquarium fish with enhanced coloration, nor did he believe that they would be a profitable

product for the industry. The perceived profitability of the fish may have outweighed his general

dislike of the fish, but the weighting of the factors could not be determined from the transcripts.

It can be inferred, however, from his admission that he would sell genetically modified fish with

enhanced survivability characteristics, that survivability was the most influential attribute.

Another economic factor influencing the participant' s perception of the GloFishTM is the

type of consumer it attracts. He implied that people who wanted intense coloration were novices

in the aquarium hobby and were ultimately less willing to pay more for healthy fish (Paragraph

028). He noted, "There is a segment within the marine hobby that is nothing but cost and those

are also the ones that I referenced with their knowledge base being deficient and being resistant










to learning." Ultimately, his key customers would not purchase the GloFishTM, and selling the

GloFishTM would attract cost sensitive novices. While the participant may have professed to

have an ethical dilemma regarding stocking the GloFishTM, based on his responses, he appeared

to be heavily influenced by profitability.

The Jurassic Park Effect

Participant 10 was not heavily influenced by the Jurassic Park effect. There was,

however, one response that indicated that he had a modicum of concern about potential unknown

consequences. When he was asked if genetic engineering was either safe or dangerous, he

explained,

I think we might get some unforeseen problems arise because I don't think we are perfectly
capable of predicting everything that we do. From what little I do know, most of those
genes control multiple things, you turn on off or on, sometimes there will be combinations
that we did not foresee.

The concern was mitigated, however, by his belief that humanity would be able to solve

the mistakes stemming from genetic engineering. Ultimately, the Jurassic Park effect manifested

in the interview, but it had minimal impact on the participant' s reaction toward the GloFishTM

Invasive species were discussed, but not in the context of a reason to not stock transgenic

fish. The release of the GloFishTM into unnatural environments did not have more environmental

repercussions than releasing any other nonindigenous species. He believed invasive species

would empower special interest groups to destroy the industry. In effect, he accepted that

invasive species were a byproduct of the hobby. When he was asked about his perspective on

invasive species, he commented,

I think it' s going to be the doom of the industry eventually. I understand there are times
when things are out of our control, like a natural disaster and somehow some animals get
released in the wild, but I do see a lot of irresponsibility with people who have the wrong
tanks and the fish get too big. They just throw them in a lake or some waterway. I think
the environmental groups will eventually get their way and restrict all exotics.









Ethics Category

There was considerable overlap between the ethics and product attributes categories.

Participant 10 viewed the drive to fill the consumer' s demands to be the cause of the ethical

dilemma inherent in the aquarium industry. Clear ethical boundaries were delineated throughout

the interview. While he was a biotechnology skeptic, he admitted that he would purchase and

sell transgenic fish with enhanced survivability. The roll of ethics in crystallizing his opinions

towards stocking the GloFishTM were apparent when he described his perception of genetic

engineering: "I am for it, but sometimes the ethics concern me; where it might possibly lead us. I

am for it, but I am weary that it might be taken too far."

Participant 010 had clearly defined ethical boundaries delineated by the reasons for

genetically modifying the fish. His perspective, that the social benefit had to justify the genetic

alternation, manifested when he noted when he would be a proponent of a genetic alteration.

The participant explained,

It depends how they are modified and what was the intent of modifying; if it' s for disease
resistance I would be more inclined to purchase that. If they were modified just to change
the color from what I have to a red-flame angel to a neon purple-flame angel, I would not
be inclined to purchase those types of fish.

As noted in the product attributes category, coloration, while desirable to many of his

customers, did not enhance his perceived value of the fish. Therefore, the GloFishTM is ethically

unacceptable to him since changing the coloration is neither a justifiable alteration nor does it

enhance the intrinsic value of the fish. The participant clarified his position against the

GloFishTM,

I am more in it for the natural aspect of the animal, to appreciate the animal for what it is,
not to make it more appealing to human sensibilities. It equates with I would rather go see
an elephant in a natural preserve than seeing them in a circus. I would rather see a more
natural representation of it rather than something that' s been modified to make it more
pleasing to humans, that is the best I can put it.









While he does not want the fish modified for aesthetic reasons, he was willing to sell

genetically modified fish that looked the same as their non-GM relatives, but had enhanced

survivability attributes like salt water fish surviving in fresh water environments. When asked if

he believed the technology would help the industry, he responded, "I hope so; I would really like

to see the survivability aspect addressed if we could." He elaborated, as well, on the justifiable

reasons for genetically modifying a fish. He told the interviewer, "If you were just doing it for

cosmetic reasons, to me I don't find any use or appeal. If it' s making something more

survivable, yeah, I think that would be a good thing."

There was considerable dialog about the ethics of the broader aquarium trade. He

described one of his suppliers as using "cyanide" to "rape an entire environment" and told the

moderator that he was frequently placed in moral dilemmas by his suppliers and customers. He

admitted,

Occasionally we do get some things in that I feel are inappropriate and should not be
collected. We do our best to care for them and if we are going to move them on to
somebody else we try to make sure that the person who is getting them is fully aware of
the difficulty associated with it, the likelihood that it is not going to survive and then we
usually just recoup our costs out of it and move it on to somebody who will hopefully be
able to maintain it for however long they can.

His response also reflects his role as a representative of the aquarium industry. While he

sold the fish that would most likely not survive, providing a caveat to the consumer and making a

best effort to ensure the fish' s welfare mitigated the ethical implications of the transaction. The

heavy influence upon the ethics category is apparent in the interview exemplified by the amount

of time the participant allocated to discussing it.

Regulation

While he was not familiar with the governmental agencies tasked with regulation, he did

mention that oversight was necessary because the "private sector would run amuck if allowed."









When the regulation questions were asked, the influence of governmental oversight did not

appear to heavily influence this retailer's response toward the transgenic fish. The participant

claimed to be a Libertarian, believing in limited government, but felt that oversight was

necessary to keep the private sector regulated. He said, "I don't necessarily trust them with my

libertarian core beliefs; I don't trust industry to govern themselves so I guess the FDA would be

as good a government agency as any if it has to be the government." While he believed that

some regulation was necessary, he did not feel placated by the presence of a governmental entity

providing oversight.

Comparative Analysis

Interview 10 did not push the limits of the categories, but reaffirmed that ethics and

economics drives the stocking decision. The Jurassic Park effect, while creating skeptics, is not

powerful enough to cause a retailer to refuse to stock the fish. In interview 10, like interviews 2,

4, 5, 7, and 8 the order of product attribute importance was color, price, and personality. The

participant, however, was not as eager to sell a genetically modified fish even if it could be

profitable. If survivability could be enhanced and he could make a profit then he would

reluctantly sell it. The ethics category was the most influential in driving the participant' s

decision to not stock the fish, but economics was a close second. Participant 10 had a great deal

in common with participant 3, who was driven by ethics rooted in a religious paradigm.

The product attributes category remained relatively unchanged in interview 10. The

influence of the product attributes category in stocking decisions has become more questionable,

since the only people who have the ability, but refuse to stock the fish, have done so because of

economic or ethical reasons. If the most dominant attribute of the GloFishTM is its color, and the

primary product attribute consumers want is color, the GloFishTM should be stocked in every

store. Since the interviews do no support this deductive reasoning, the category presents a










paradox. None the less, the product attributes category explains a portion of the retailers'

response to transgenic Hish. As well, the product attributes category reveals the elements in fish

that retailers believe make them desirable to consumers. If the GloFishTM did not have any

product attributes that the retailers found desirable, their reaction would have been different. The

GloFishTM, however, provides retailers with the option to stock a highly colorful Eish, that unlike

the painted fish, is healthy and unharmed.

For all other participants, the Jurassic Park effect influenced the retailer' s perception of the

GloFishTM, but the extent of the influence was predictable. The Jurassic Park effect category had

a slight effect on participant 10. Other participants who were minimally influenced by the effect

include 1, 2, 7, and 9. The strength of the effect is related to participants' trust and perceived

consequences. Fear is the outcome of the effect that can be mitigated by high trust and low

perceived consequences

Participant 10, while being driven by ethics in his decision to not stock the fish, also

believed the margins were not adequate. His personal beliefs were also reinforced by his

perception that the GloFishTM was neither a good business decision nor was a likely product to

attract desirable clientele. Ethics were the primary motivations driving the participant' s

perception of the GloFishTM, but economics were also heavily considered. Like participant 2,

and 5, participant 10 had concerns that the smaller retailer stores would be able to stock the fish.

Interview 10 provided the researcher with an instance where economics and ethics

influenced the stocking decision. He did not stock the fish, and the Jurassic Park effect played a

minimal role in that decision. Participant 10 further demonstrated its low significance in

influencing retailer' s stocking decisions.









Interview 11: The Rational GloFishTM Supporter


Overview

Participant 11 was the manager of a pet shop in Tampa that sold both marine and

freshwater species. While she was not the owner of the shop, she had considerable influence in

the buying decisions, and, initially, refused to stock GloFishTM. She successfully lobbied the

owner to delay stocking GloFishTM because of suspicions that the transgenic Hish, like the painted

fish, was harmed during its creation. Her aversion towards creating a fish with intense coloration

transcended painted and glass fish to include the GloFishTM. Upon further consideration,

however, the participant supported the store's decision to stock the fish. She made a rational

decision to stock the fish, but was heavily biased by the painted fish. Considerable effort was

made to understand what information facilitated her change of heart.

Participant 11I's research focused on the health and of the fish rather than the

environmental ramifications resulting from releasing genetically modified organisms into the

environment. After researching information on the GloFishTM, she realized that the fish's health

was not compromised. Ultimately, the GloFishTM was stocked for economic reasons as well as

offering the customers an alternative to the painted fish that they refused to stock.

Product Attributes Category

Participant 11 made stocking decisions based on customers' buying trends. When asked

what customers looked for in a fish, she responded, "Size and color, they want the big colorful

stuff, active stuff." Cost, however, played a significant role in her customers' buying decisions.

Clarification was asked about the order of importance, and she responded, "Cost is always

number one with our customers. It always overweighs color. They look at color first and then

the next thing out of their mouth is how much is it going to cost. Cost, color, size, survivability,

and then personality." In effect, the coloration initiates the buying decision, and based on her









ranking is the premium attribute. It was inferred from the interview that few customers were

concerned about survivability, and most entrusted her to make correct recommendations about

which fish to buy.

She was asked to describe the decision-making process to stock fish, and she focused on

her role of matching the fish' s needs with a customer' s ability to meet them.

What customers ask for, specific things, and then either me or the other manager will do a
little background research on it and see what kind of fish it grows to be, if it a good suit for
what someone asks for. Like the South American red-tail cats; there is a tank-raised one
out there right now and that' s the only one because a customer requested it for a pond at
his big house, and that' s the only reason I got it. So if somebody asks for oddball stuff we
background research it and make sure you are going to take care of it; we're not going to
just buy a fish that you will end up killing in the long run.

Coloration continues to be the primary attribute that drives the perceived value of a fish,

however, cost factors into the final buying decision. Participant 11's efforts to acquire special

order fish revealed that customers demand unique products that they could not find at competing

stores. The "uniqueness" product attribute drove some customers to specifically request the

GloFishTM because it was genetically modified. She noted, "Some asked if we were going to

have them; some asked why we were going to have them. It' s more people requesting them, so

we decided okay, we'll get a couple and see how it goes because right off the bat we weren't'

that wild about it."

The GloFishTM was stocked as an alternative to the painted fish. It provided customers

with the color product attribute without compromising survivability. While the hierarchy of

color, price, and personality remained unchanged in interview 11, the relationship between color

and price became more clear. Customers initially look for color, and then, if the price is right,

they purchase the fish.









Economics

In interview 11 there was considerable overlap between the economics and ethics

categories. The participant always placed ethics before economic profit, but she understood that

she was being paid to make money for the store' s owner. Her aversion of painted fish and her

refusal to stock them, despite economic incentive demonstrates her priorities.

Customer demand drove stocking decisions. When she was asked why the store made the

decision to stock the GloFishTM, she answered, "Basically customers asked for the product."

Economics was the impetus for the adoption of the GloFishTM, but only after the ethical

questions had been answered through an exhaustive research process. She was asked if she

investigated the fish before stocking it. "Yeah, we did. We made sure of why they did it; why

they decided to make a pink fish." As exemplified by the painted fish, she refused to profit from

an organism that had been created through unethical means. "Well, we don't like to carry the

inj ected glass fish; we won't carry those at all. The dyed fish, we won't carry those at all."

Once they verified that the fish was neither harmed nor survivability compromised, the decision

was made to purchase GloFishTM. "We always put up fits when he tried to bring in a dyed fish or

something like that, so we said, no you've got to wait, we've got to figure it out first."

The participant believed that genetic modification had to be justified, and that profits were

never an adequate justification. She was asked about her impression of genetic engineering and

she elaborated,

It depends on what it' s for, what it' s accomplishing. There' s a lot of stuff that I agree with
everyone else that it shouldn't be messed with, but it depends on what your outcome is
trying to do. I will sell the glow fish, but their originality wasn't intended to be what it
turned into anyway and we carry it, but if you're talking altering something just to mass
produce it to make money off it, no.










She had a Machiavellian perspective on genetic engineering. To participant 11, genetic

engineering must have social benefits. The reasons for genetically modifying organisms can be

justified, "it just depends on what you're doing it for."

For participant 11, economic profits did not justify genetic modification. "Why genetically

alter something unless it' s going to make some huge benefit .. Other than just money." She

realized, however, that economic incentive was a necessary impetus. "If it' s genetically altered

to benefit your life, you're not commercializing .. something, but you can't have one without

the other." She noted again that genetic engineering was acceptable for health benefits but not

profits, "but you can't have one without the other."

Jurassic Park Effect

The participant neither feared the unknown consequences of creating transgenic fish nor

distrusted humanity, and, therefore, the impact of the Jurassic Park effect was minimal. She was

in the low consequence high trust quadrant, yet the Jurassic Park effect was present. When she

was asked if there was anything that made her question the safety of the GloFishTM she

answered, "As far as safety as in possible release? Not, really; there is always the possibility that

you don't know of, but just going from customer to customer, no." Despite a large amount of

trust, she remained uncertain about possible unknown consequences to genetically modifying

organism s.

While she had ethical concerns about the reasons for genetic engineering, she was

comfortable with selling the fish. She was asked to elaborate on the paradox and explained that

she did not perceive a risk. "It' s a dano; it's not a harmful, big invasive fish. They're more

likely to be a meal if anything, so while it can live in our waters .. anything can be an invasive

species." She was asked if the size of the fish made her comfortable and she answered "yes."










The participant did realize that governance was difficult and that keeping track of the fish

would be difficult. She admitted that while they gave store credit to customers who brought their

fish back, others would release them into waterways. "Mainly our customers are freshwater fish

so we don't have to worry about stuff like that, but we make a point to tell them if they have a

Eish and they have to get rid of it, to bring it to us and we will take care of it, just don't let it go.

Short of that, it' s really hard to keep track of." The perceived consequences of the releasing

the GloFishTM into nature were low, so the Jurassic Park effect had a minimal impact on

participant 11.

As well, the participant had a high degree of trust. She trusted governmental agencies to

properly regulate transgenic fish. The participant made the assumption that if the GloFishTM was

available to the public under governmental oversight, then it was safe. "We didn't really look at

the agencies in charge; we look more at the aspect of the safety to the fish, not the environmental

side of it. We try to with most things, but that' s when it falls down to the customers." She

bounded her research by assuming that government would perform its appropriate function.

While it was not clearly stated, it was implied that the participant placed a great deal of

regulatory responsibility in the hands of retailers and customers. She assumed that other stores

would make rational decision on what should or should not be stocked in the stores. She

believed it was the retailers' responsibility to protect customers, even from the own actions as

exemplified by refusing to sell a high venomous blue ringed octopus. The question was asked if

she was forced to sell a fish that she was not comfortable selling and she answered, "Not really.

We've had customers ask for some far-fetched things like an octopus and we were like no way."









Ethics Category

Participant 11 initially refused to stock the GloFishTM because she believed it was harmed

in its creation like the painted fish. For ethical reasons, she blocked all painted and all dyed fish

from entering the store regardless of the profits that could be made. She noted,

The manager before wanted to get them just because it would sell and we were like, no, we
don't want you to buy this. We always put up fits when he tried to bring in a dyed fish or
something like that, so we said, no you've got to wait, we've got to figure it out first.

The ethics of creating the painted fish were transferred to the GloFishTM. When she was

asked to why she was not eager to stock the fish when it was first offered, she responded,

Well, we don't like to carry the inj ected glass fish; we won't carry those at all. The dyed
fish, we won't carry those at all. Why that turned into an exception, it' s kind of hard to
explain; it was kind of a store decision on part of all the employees. We have a good say
in why we do or don't carry some things. Those, it was more because it was a genetic
change, therefore you are not harming the fish, you are not inj ecting the fish. You are not
harming the health of the fish.

The reasons for genetically modifying an organism were important to the participant.

When she was asked about her first impression of the GloFishTM, she responded, "It kind of fell

down the line of everybody saying, 'Why did they do that?' There has to be a point but I don't

see it. It makes a pretty fish, but what do you need a pretty fish for?" She vehemently opposed

selling the painted fish. "The inj ected fish, the dyed fish .. that are inj ected with smiley faces

on the side, definitely not, I am not going to condone that."

Her desire to learn and share information with customers transcended the GloFishTM to

include all the fish that she stocked. The question was asked, "Are there species that you would

not stock?" She responded,

The hard-to-take-care-of stuff, that generally shouldn't be taken from the wild because it' s
not a good suit to be in a home aquarium. There's no really suitable sized aquarium to take
care of it properly or just the general public not knowing how to take of it properly. There
is no point in it being taken from the wild if it' s not going to live.









Participant 11 viewed her role as an information provider who could link the demands of

the customer with the demands of a fish. While color, cost, and personality were important, she

viewed her role as a salesperson to meet both the desires of the customer, and the needs of their

pets. Therefore, her ethics were centered on the health and well being of customer' s pets rather

than possible environmental degradation.

Participant 11I's perception of biotechnology was unclear. While she was originally

opposed to the GloFishTM, it was never because she opposed genetic engineering. Participant 11

had clearly defined ethical boundaries that she reinforced through research. She informed the

interviewer that she was opposed to genetically modified organisms, but at the same time,

realized her hypocrisy of selling the GloFishTM

Comparative Analysis

Interview 11 was dominated by ethics and health discussion. Once again, the economic

category remained secondary to ethics. Participants 1, and 2 had the most in common with

participant 11. All three allocated time to researching the GloFishTM before a stocking decision

was made. As well, fish health and profitability, rather than environmental degradation, was the

primary stocking impetus. The pilot participant and participant 11 both considered the painted

fish to be deplorable, but the pilot participant was still willing to stock it. Participant 11

possessed a strong aversion to the ethics driving the creation of the painted fish in the same way

that Participant 4's religious convictions would prohibit him from selling it.

During the comparative analysis following interview 10, the importance of the product

attributes category came into question since the category was poorly defined. Product attributes

and profitability are related; the perceived value of the fish is captured by its product attributes.

The greater the alignment of the product attributes with customers' desires, the more fish are sold

and the greater the profitability. Therefore, a highly colorful fish that is well priced should be in










high demand and be lucrative for the retailer. Since economic profitability drives the stocking

decision and economic profitability results from product attributes, product attributes do drive

the stocking decisions.

The strong correlation between color and price occurs both in marine and tropical Eish

markets; the more colorful the fish the more the fish costs. The ceiling for costs, however,

remains much lower in the tropical Eish market. While marine hobbyists are willing to pay a

premium for intense coloration, they also must factor in the potential for survival due to the

increased value of their product (Figure 4-2). Qualitative methods do not allow for quantitative

description of the relationship, but future research could further elucidate the trend.

Other interviews indicated that size of product selection was important to the customer.

The pilot participant viewed the GloFishTM as a chance to differentiate himself from large retail

chains that had moved into the aquarium retail sector. Interview 4 and interview 10 also

indicated that the GloFishTM was stocked to offer customers variety. While selection was

instrumental in drawing customers in the store, it was a retailer attribute rather than a product

attribute and therefore is outside the scope of inquiry.

This interview continues to support the Jurassic Park effect where risk perception and

trust heavily influence a person's fear of the unknown. Participant 11 was minimally impacted

by the effect due to her lack of fear in the unknown and a basic trust in humanity. The fish' s

small size and herbivorous nature made it appear benign. To her the GloFishTM did not appear

menacing and therefore the environmental risks were minimal. The participant's original

rej section was not attributed to the Jurassic Park effect. The effect did not have a deleterious

consequence to the decision to stock the fish.









Her ethical policing was very similar to participant 10 who also believed that retailers were

empowered to ensure that only ethical and healthy fish were sold to the public. The customer

policing characteristic directly impacts the buying decision since it prohibits stocking fish that

are either dangerous or unhealthy. Policing, however, has always been in the context of fish

health instead of potential environmental degradation. There has not been a participant who

polices the potential for invasive species. Participant 11i's concern for the health of the fish and

the ethical implication of creating an aesthetically pleasing organism were of much greater

concern to her than potential environmental destruction.

The ethics category contains a paradoxical pattern of responses where the participant

realizes the necessity of profit, but also has strong ethical concerns over the creation and

collection of aquarium fish. Participant 11 exemplified the ethics paradox. While she must

maximize profits as a store manager, she must balance the profitability of the store with ethical

boundaries such as her refusal to sell painted fish.

Interview 12

Overview

Interview 12 was performed at the front desk of a marine and tropical aquarium retail store.

The participant, one of two females in this study, had decades of experience in the ornamental

fish sector as a retailer and as a tropical fish farmer. While she had very little scientific

knowledge, the participant had extensive knowledge about the ornamental fish sector.

Participant 12 had grown up on a fish farm and had been the owner of another aquarium retail

store. She did not stock the GloFishTM due to its high price and smaller margin. The tone of the

interview was positive, but the hype of the GloFishTM had faded from the first interview.

Economics was the primary driver in participant 12's decision to not stock the GloFishTM

Overall, stocking decisions were driven by customer demand and product attributes, but ethics










played a secondary role by limiting what she would be willing to stock. Her responses focused

on the economics and morals in the aquarium industry. The participant was interested in

breading healthy fish and maintaining clean tank environments. In the interview, there was a

tone of disapproval of many aquarium retailers' business practices as well as the attitudes that

many aquarists have regarding their responsibility to their aquatic pets.

Product Attributes

Little time was spent assessing the rankings of product attributes. Color, survivability, and

price were the most important to participant 12. Personality was never mentioned as a valuable

product attribute in interview 12. The uniqueness of the fish's physical attributes was inferred to

be an important to the customer. The participant referenced that mutant Hish from China and

Japan, that would have been culled by American fish farmers, had markets in the United States.

Aesthetics, specifically color, were the most important. She was asked what customers

look for in a fish, and she emphasized the importance of coloration and health. She responded,

"[if the] appearance of the product looks good, they're going to buy it." Additional questions

were asked about what unique attribute would make the GloFish more desirable than

nontransgenic zebra danios. She answered, "In other words because it would be attractive to a

customer. The coloration. Instead of a zebra, [it] now has red and green and colors to it, which

would attract the customer." Color continued to be the lead attribute.

Another primary concern for participant 12 was the fishes' health and survivability. She

believed the importation of foreign products, especially fish with mutations and diseases, was

hurting the industry. She stated the importance of survivability in multiple paragraphs, and

contended that selling an unhealthy fish would reduce customer loyalty. While color, and cost

were important factors, her greatest concern was survivability.










Price, while it was a factor, did not significantly impact a customers buying decision.

Participant 12 stated, from that perspective of her customers, that, "If I really want the fish I'll

pay for it." However, it should be noted that it was the cost to the retailer, not the price of the fish

that kept the GloFishTM out of the store. It was the cost of the fish to the retailer, rather than the

price of the fish to the customer that concerned her.

Economics

As a manager, she was focused on customer management and keeping the fish healthy

rather than the Einancial operations of the business. When discussing the cost of the fish, she

immediately pulled on her experiences as a tropical fish farmer. While she did not believe that

customers would be unwilling to pay for the fish, she believed that the retailers would be unable

to afford to carry the GloFishTM. "There's only certain fish farmers that are going to have the

ability to do that, that have the money behind them. I mean a fish farmer like me. A mom and

pop operation is not going to be able to afford to do that." She did believe there would be an

adequate market to stock the fish at pet shows where large inventories are turned over daily.

Her decision to stock new fish was based on consumer demand; however, it was unclear

how much influence she had as a manager. When she was asked to describe the criteria the store

used to decide to stock fish, she responded, "Probably the best one would probably be demand."

She mentioned that some retailers and farmers used surveys, but she used trial and error to see

what was sold or not. She elaborated, "Ifit' s a brand new fish, you would start out with limited

quantities. Maybe you bring in 15-20. If they would sell them, you maybe go back and bring in

maybe 30 more."

While perceived demand was the primary driver of what fish was stocked, she did have

ethical boundaries. When she was first asked what she would be unwilling to sell, she replied,

"Anything that is basically prohibited by law." However, she did refuse to sell a painted fish that









had 'I Love You" tattooed into its side. Not only was she unwilling to stock the fish, but she also

believed that there would be a market for it. She commented, "It will sell. Believe me. I

wouldn't buy it. Put it this way, if I had a pet shop I wouldn't stock them." It was clarified in a

follow-up question that her reasoning was not economic, but that the fish was injured and its

health was jeopardized.

Jurassic Park Effect

The Jurassic Park effect played a minimal role in influencing participant 12. She realized

that invasive species were a problem, but she did not indicate that she had fear of any

environmental cataclysm from selling the GloFishTM. To her the transgenic fish was another

marketing gimmick similar to the painted fish. She was blunt in stating that she was a simple

fish farmer that did not worry about the science behind her work. Her tone indicated that she

trusted humanity, and while she did not know the regulatory agency tasked with GloFishTM

oversight, she believed governance was in capable hands. She trusted the regulatory agencies,

stating, "I think they do a good j ob because I have friends that work out there doing that."

Ethics Category

Participant 12 did not suffer from the ethical paradox faced by many retailers. She

disapproved of marketing deformed fish that would not survive for health reasons, and of painted

fish. She was willing to sell anything that was legal. The painted fish heavily influenced the

participant. When she was asked about the painted fish, she noted that it was unnecessary, but

profitable.

I think it' s stupid. It sells, but to me it's not necessary. You're taking, you're changing,
you're altering the fish' s skin tissue because you're actually taking paint and inj ecting into,
it' s like tattoo, basically same thing a tattoo, you're taking and putting blood, you're
pushing the tissue and coloring the tissue.










Once again, there was some transference of the painted fish to the GloFishTM. When she

was asked to discuss other genetically modified organisms, she immediately began to discuss

painted fish. When she was specifically asked to divulge he thoughts on the painted fish, she

responded, "I think it' s stupid. It sells but to me it' s not necessary" (Paragraph 89). To her, the

GloFish was potentially another way to scam uneducated customers into buying a highly colored

fish. "I don't like anything that [is] a trick because .. [ I do not like] tricking the consumer."

The combination of reduced survivability and the fading of the coloration made the painted fish

an inferior product. The physical pain of the fish was not the primary driver, it was that the

process damaged the fish's health and reduced its survivability.

The fading of the color was her primary concern. She mentioned that customers had

returned to complain that the fish lost its color, but it was unclear from the interview if customers

complained about the painted fish's compromised health.

Well like on a Painted Fish, they don't last. You may get a Painted Fish. Say if it takes
you three to six months to sell this Hish it' s going to lose their color because it' s basically
just dye that' s been dyed into the tissue. A Painted Fish does not maintain its color. If
lucky it may maintain its color for six months.

She also described how the fish's health was compromised. "You're altering the fish's

structure because first you have to knock him out. You're scraping the tissue, you're scrapping

all his scales off, so actually in the long run you're hurting the fish cause you're taking away all

of his natural protection."

The participant placed the GloFishTM in the same group as the painted fish. Before the

interview, she assumed that the transgenic fish had similar short comings to the tattooed fish.

The participant admitted that as long as the GloFishTM was healthy there would be no reason to

refuse to stock it. Thus, it was health concerns, along with cost, that caused her to not stock the

fish.









Participant 12 would be willing to sell any fish that was profitable and likely to survive.

When asked what fish she would not sell, she first said anything that was legal. She went on to

clarify, however, that she would not sell "any fish .. that was naturally deformed automatically

got thrown out. .. That's something I wouldn't sell, to me it' s a deformed fish. I don't care

how colorful you make it." Participant 12 acknowledged foreign competition as a great

concern. Specifically because they would breed "deformed" fish that provided a unique fish for

the markets. While she worked for a fish farm, they worked to remove unhealthy mutations even

though the characteristic made the fish have more desirable product attributes.























Pri~ce-Color Relationship




~- Price Paid




Color Intensity
Figure 4-2. Product attributes price and color relationship


I


~""


Figure 4-1. The Grounded Theory process









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

Summary

There were a variety of factors that influenced retailers' reaction to the onset of transgenic

fish. Ultimately, the profit motive drove stocking decisions, but was limited by ethical

boundaries and influenced by a fear-based phenomenon, the Jurassic Park effect. When the

interviews began, the entire reaction of the retailers' to the introduction of transgenic products

was being investigated. As the research continued, the reaction was explained by the categories

containing more than 150 unique codes. The retailers' reaction was summarized into whether a

retailer stocked or did not stock the GloFishTM. The reaction, encapsulated by stocking

decisions, hypothetical or otherwise, served as the foundation to build the categories.

While stocking or not stocking the fish is binary, the actual attitude towards the stocking

decision was varied. There were several retailers who stocked the fish, but were not enthusiastic

about the fact they were selling a transgenic product. For these retailers, the profit motive was

adequate in overcoming their reluctance to sell the GloFishTM. However, once the threshold of

moral acceptability was broached, the fish would never be sold. If the participant believed that

there was severe moral dilemma with stocking the fish, then no amount of money or desirable

product attribute would justify stocking the fish.

The economic value of the fish was heavily influenced by the product attribute category.

Product attributes explained the retailers' perception of customer demand. While color was the

overwhelming attribute that drove demand in aquarium hobby, price dictated the final buying

decision. Half the retailers who refused to sell the GloFishTM did so for moral reasons while the

other half mentioned the high cost of the fish as the reason to not stock them.









A grid was developed to capture who could sell the GloFishTM (ability) with desire to sell

the GloFishTM (desire) (Table 5-1). Not all participants could stock the GloFishTM such as

strictly marine retailers, therefore, grouping those participants in the same category as the people

who refused to stock the fish would not accurately explain the stocking decision. Quadrant 1

was for the participants who stocked the fish, while quadrant 2 included those retailers who

wanted to stock the fish but could not since they specialized in other products. Quadrant 3

contained retailers that had no ability to sell the fish, but would never sell the fish even if they

could. Quadrant 4, contained those participants who had the ability but no desire to stock the

GloFishTM

Five participants were not able to sell the GloFishTM. Several participants (2, 5, and 8)

were strictly marine retailers, interview 3 was done on an aquarium manufacturer, and

participant 6 owned an aquarium servicing company. Five of the twelve participants stocked the

GloFishTM, and all cited that the decision was economic. Three additional participants would

have stocked the fish if they were able. Therefore, the majority of the participants, 67%,

embraced the GloFishTM as a profitable and ethical product. There was not an interview where

the fish was stocked without any regard to profits. Participant 3 was unable to stock the fish, but

hypothetically would have refused to sell the fish on moral grounds. The closest any participant

was to being purely a hobbyist was interview 8, who only sold one specific type of fish, cichlids.

Finally, while participant 11 mentioned that the transgenic fish was stocked as a more ethical

alternative to the painted fish, ultimately, her primary impetus in stocking the fish was

profitability.

The Economic-Cognitive Model

The economic-cognitive model explains the reaction of Florida aquarium retailers to the

GloFishTM (Figure 5-1). Profit motive drives the economic-cognitive model which is divided









into five categories: economics, product attributes, the Jurassic park effect and ethics. When the

stocking decision was made, the original motivation was to meet customer demands. The

economics category describes the reactions towards the business aspects of selling transgenic

fish. The product attributes category contains codes that constitute the fish's perceived

desirability. Product attributes reflects customer demand which directly impacts the economic

category. Next, the ethics category has codes which enable the retailers to validate or rej ect

stocking the GloFishTM regardless of profit motive. Along with cost, ethics most heavily

influenced stocking decisions. The ethics category was the most sophisticated since the

boundaries and limitations on what participants were comfortable with was highly variable.

Finally, influencing, but not dictating, stocking decisions, the last category, the Jurassic Park

effect is included in the model.

Creating a rigid hierarchy of importance for the categories would be impossible, since

under certain circumstances economics, ethics, or product attributes could more fully explain a

retailer's reaction to suppliers offering transgenic products. Rather, the categories influence each

other. Economics ties closely with the product attributes, and ethical litmus is used to determine

if the fish should be stocked. The Jurassic Park effect, however, does not directly impact the

retailer, but served to strengthen their position for or against the GloFishTM

Ethics

The ethics category was one of the earliest categories to manifest from the interviews and

has a threshold rather than being linear (Figure 5-2). Thus, each participant had a cutoff point

where no new product could be justified. The ethics cutoff point, while varying by participant,

technology, and personal character, was heavily influenced by the perceived social value of the

act. However, any benefit, social or economic, could not be justified if the fish past a

participant' s ethical limit. Social benefit was a maj or contributor to altering a participant' s









ethical limit. This was referred to as a Machiavellian approach, since if the resulting product

benefited society, then the means were less important. However, if the social benefit was not

large, then the means of creating the product became more important to the retailer. No retailer

believed that genetic modification could be justified to enhance the coloration of pets, but since it

was available, the maj ority was willing to sell it.

The ethics category was the most elusive since it addressed participants' feelings and

perceptions about the GloFishTM (Figure 5-3). Codes in this category described the, "I just do

not like it" and "It is something that you should not do" responses. Ethical policing of aquarium

hobbyists appeared in interviews 5, 8, 10 and 11. They perceived their roles as policeman of the

aquarium industry who needed to set examples of what type of fish people should buy and ensure

that the customer was able to meet a fish's demands. Ethical policing manifested in participants

who were heavily influenced by the ethics category.

Playing God, religion, and Mother Nature themes emerged in many earlier interviews, but

were less apparent as the research continued. The reason for the reduction of their appearances

could not be determined from the interviews, but might be related to the more mainstream

acceptance of the GloFishTM eighteen months later. In addition, explaining their relationships in

the ethics category could not be done beyond placing them in the category. Playing God

appeared to be the most influential retailers' initial reaction to the GloFishTM, but subsequently

did not influence stocking decisions. As well, one of the most staunchly opposed participants,

participant 3, attributed his position to his religion. As well, comments such as "you should not

mess with mother nature" appeared throughout the interviews, but their relationship with other

codes and categories remains unknown.









Environmental issues appear in both the ethics and the environmental categories since

several participants believed it was their responsibility to protect the environment. However, the

ethics category was more impacted by elusive moral issues, such as Playing God, than a

retailer' s ethical obligation to protect the environment. While environmental concerns played an

ancillary function in the ethics category, they significantly influenced the Jurassic Park effect.

Finally, the business versus ethics codes appeared frequently in the interviews. An ethical

dilemma, the retailer's paradox, helps explain the relationship between profitability and ethics.

The paradox manifested in the interviews when economic gain trumped pure moral decision

making. For example, mortality rates are highest on fish that may have the greatest profitability,

rare marine fish, and despite knowing that a fish will die, retailers are driven to meet customer

demands. If they are good business people then they must compromise their ethics and if they

compromise their ethics, then they will be unable to stay in business.

The retailer' s paradox is tied to the ethics category since the importance of making money

was variable among participants. The retailer' s paradox became more evident when ethical

boundaries were pushed rather than economic boundaries. The success of the painted fish

exemplifies the paradox. While no retailer embraced the concept of harming a fish to enhance its

marketability, some were willing to sell painted fish.

Product Attributes

The product attributes represent perceived customer demand. The ranking of importance

of the attributes varied from participant to participant, but only participants three and eight

believed that color was not the most valued attribute. Survivability and variety were also

mentioned in several interviews, but were not the characteristics that caught the attention of

perspective buyers. The two characteristics were valued by advanced hobbyists, a small

percentage of all the participants' core business (Figure 5-4).









Survivability themes appeared in both the product attribute and ethics categories.

Survivability was more influential from the ethical rather than economic perspective. Fish health

was always discussed, but not in the context of profitability. Survivability did not appear to be a

primary driver in stocking certain fish exemplified retailers stocking rare marine and painted

fish. While the GloFishTM had a much greater survival rate than the painted fish, participants

were willing to sell the painted fish but not the GloFishTM. As well, marine retailers stocked fish

that had less than ten percent survival rates in captivity. Thus, survivability was not a significant

product attribute.

Several participants also mentioned that they stocked the GloFishTM to provide customers

with a variety of options. Two participants acknowledged that it allowed them to differentiate

their offerings from large retail chains. However, the importance of variety was of much less

importance than profitability. If the GloFishTM was perceived as either not profitable or

immoral, then demand for a variety of fish was mitigated (Figure 5-5).

The product attributes category directly impacted the GloFish'sTM perceived economic

value (Figure 5-6). As well, the cost of the fish directly determines the price that a retailer must

ask for the fish. Thus, there is a reciprocal relationship between the product attributes and

economics categories. Several participants believed the product attributes were not valuable

enough to justify the high cost of stocking the GloFishTM. The intense coloration did not justify

the high price of the fish. Participant 12, and 10 noted that the cost of the fish was the reason

why they would not stock it. Participants who reported slow sales also mentioned the price of

the fish, along with close substitutes for less money, were to blame.

While it was clear from the interviews that customers wanted intense coloration for a

reasonable price, the decision to stock the GloFishTM was not done on product attributes alone.









If fish were stocked based on product attributes alone, then no retailer would have refused to

stock fish that were profitable and good for business. The product attribute category feed the

economics category, which then required ethical approval.

Jurassic Park Effect

By interview 10, the dimensions of the Jurassic Park effect manifested as trust, and risk.

First, trust can be trust in humanity, science, or government. In any form, it can influence if a

person experiences the Jurassic Park effect. Participant 7, while perceiving a risk in the possible

release of the fish, did not have a strong influence from the effect because of a high level of trust

in the federal government. If a participant has a high degree of distrust as in interview 3, 5, and

8, then the likelihood of them being heavily influenced by the Jurassic Park effect is high

(Figure 5-7).

The second dimension, perceived consequences, also influences the effect. Participants

who do not fear the consequences of selling the GloFishTM will never be heavily influenced by

the Jurassic Park effect. Thus, the effect has a minimal impact unless the perceived

consequences are great. Since, he did not perceive either the GloFishTM or another transgenic

fish to represent a significant threat to either the environment of humanity, the impact of the

effect was mitigated.

The importance of the regulatory family had been in question since interview 6. The

regulatory family of codes appeared in the interviews, but it was determined to be driven by

trust. The relevance of the regulatory category to a retailer' s perception of the GloFishTM was

minimal since it was trust that ultimately drove the response. The regulatory codes were rolled

into the Jurassic Park effect category following interview 6, since trust is the influential element

(Figure 5-8).










Participants who do not fear the consequences of selling the GloFishTM, however, will

never be heavily influenced by the Jurassic Park effect, despite their level of trust. Participant 9,

while having a high distrust for government and humanity, did not perceive the consequences of

release as significant. Thus, the effect has a minimal impact unless the perceived consequences

are great. Since, Participant 10 did not perceive the GloFishTM or another transgenic Hish to

represent a significant threat to either the environment or humanity, the impact of the effect was

mitigated.

Neither participant 11 nor participant 12 was heavily influenced by the fear resulting from

the phenomenon. Overall, the phenomenon influenced the stocking decision, but was never cited

as the primary reason to not stock a fish. There is a nonlinear relationship between the two

dimensions trust and risk (Figure 5-3). If perceived risk is great enough, then despite the trust

dimension, the affected party will have a fear response. This can be observed in people who fear

flying, and genetically modified foods.

No retailer claimed "nature will find a way" as justification for refusing to stock the fish.

Participant 5 was the most strongly influence by the effect since he not only had low levels of

trust, but also had a high perceived consequence. He did, however, state that he would sell the

fish out of economic necessity if his core business failed. Ultimately, the ethics and economic

categories are much more significant influences on a retailer' s decision to stock the fish. In the

hierarchy of influence, economics and ethics, in that respective order, play a more significant

role in influencing stocking decisions. Participants 3, 8, and 10 did so out of ethical reasons

(Figure 5-9).

Economics

The economics category emerged as a series of codes addressing the business aspects of

being an aquarium retailer. After interview 4, the differentiation was made between price, a










product attribute, and cost, an economic attribute. Retailers sell fish to make a profit and to stay

in business. As participant 1 noted, "We are all in business to make business" (Figure 5-10).

Codes capturing this sentiment were placed in the economics category (Figure 5-11).

There were numerous factors that contribute to owning and running an ornamental fish

retail business, but no retailer believed that they could operate without paying their bills

(Figure 5-12). Ethics, while cited as a reason to not stock the fish, was secondary to the

profitability. First, the retailer had to pay the bills, and second, they had to be ethically

comfortable with selling the fish. While the economics category generally explained a retailer' s

decision to stock or not to stock the fish, there was an ethical cut-off where no amount of

profitability would be justifiable.
























3 4
No: Ability Yes: Ability
No: Desire No: Desire
No Sell GloFishTM Would Not Sell the GloFishTM if
8,3 could
12, 10


Table 5-1. Who sold the GloFishTM


Ability To Sell GloFishTM


Yes: Ability
Yes: Desire
Sells GloFish'"
1,4,7,9,11


No: Ability
Yes: Desire
Would Sell GloFishTM if Could
2,5,6


Economics Product Attribute












SEthics


I_
Ll _


Jurassic Park Effect


Figure 5-1. Economic-cognitive model


I~
II Cl
I~
': ('
i.......................................
i
:.......................................
















"I think it's an
extension of what we : a
are. To not do it
would e, I thinkC .
fooish, because there
are so many god
things that come from
that "

Somte individual stores mlay
not carry it because of the
ethics thing and it's an
aberration. "


S"Overa~ll think it is
a good thing, and
its probably
something that has
to be done, ma~inly
for the futue of our
race, and lif in
general. Some of it
is kinld of wishy-
washy in ways and
I guess you could
say a little
~Cinhtening in other
dTeaSs.
q\ 497v


Figure 5-2. Ethics category


Ethics Category
"I don? t hink it's the unsafeness or dangerous as much as it is the as much as it is:
should we he doing it? The ethics ofI it"


Ethics
Frlllr


_


~4h~L

















































Sethics b g business {0-2}1


environmental concerns {4-1}


I


Isassociated with


Is assor ated th



moral vs. rest {32











ir .oo gslls wel {1-3}


bus ness vs ethcs {10-4}


otection 0l~ 1}


is cause of





moral Issue not cost {1 2 rnrr;t


vironerrental pr


zontradict


biotech reservat on emotional
lesue {1-0}



{10-0} ~Blotech cutoff {40


Inofrane abliss 4-1 evol

Is part of

tamper ng w th evolution { 1

15 rauseo of

moral ssue to stop b technology
{1-1}


Genetic research necessary evl
{1-1}


Biotech cutoff po nt


ut onary tamper ng {11









-' {2 1}


Ethcs about F sh Origin {6-3}


environmentall degredat on {1 3}


Figure 5-3. Ethics category network of codes















"The vastmajoriiy o
peop/e,00%~ are
buying fIsh because
look."


,-i "4 lot of~sh do
h /ave personalities,
but a lot ofpeaple
like the color"~

"When they say 'is Cthis lish hardy'
th ey mean ifl neglect it, wilitf
stay alive. "


"Ifs a five dollar Oanic. Ifsa
fish you can norma//y buy for
99 cents, and it doesn't look
that much dil~eent."


Product Attributes Category
"Peaple love color &Lople go down our last aisle of salt water and are like, whoa, I
wNant that! I think it is color" --


P~~E~ iniBilHI~
Figure 5-4. Product Attributes Category



























































Figure 5-5. Product attributes category network of codes

































159


survival Issues {4-2}


,, is cause tf-.



customer clernand {1-6}C~i cause of ac l novelty {1-1}



is cabse of is cause of' is cause of




I~cost issue (16-2}1 attribute varlety {3-2} Icolor {31-3}C


Sattribute ease of care {0-1}


Is part of



I 1


Is propertyof is cause of Is cause of



-is cause of I cost not Issue {7-6}






is caube of






attribute personality {13-2}


- CF:Product attribute -


hype {5-1}



























Color Price
Personality Color
Price Peronality

Figure 5-6. Product attribute rankings


1. Color Customers
demanded vivid, intense
coloration
2. Price How much a
customer is willing to pay
3. Personality Movement,
Aggressiveness


coloR



PERSONrALITY


A9ncllan Attributes: Vallr iSurvivabil"y Uni-ueness etc.


Marine Retailers


Tropical Retailers


Product Attribute Rankings

Some variabil/ity depe~nd/ing on type of retailer (tropical vs. marine)














"Every timne they try
something crazy, it
usua//y doesn't work ...
they always think the ('

fo~rmed... and i's just
not going to happen." `
"..nature finds a way. Believe
it or not, it will. I think it will
survive~. I think it could
hiappen"
" I hnk humans m~ake this
unsafe because you get ~ike a
mad scientists. Le's m~ixand
hi~s and this and see what it
dces."


d i "Fbr example, R/te~en
to twenty years down
the road, one gets la
a pond and whtat
happens ilfhey start
sprouting little
tentacles... like the
anemone, I mean the
possibilities ...
everything evolves to
environmental
conditions... we just
don? knowv.


Figure 5-7. The Jurassic Park effect category


- Jurassic Park
Effe ct


Com plete
Trust


Figure 5-8. The Jurassic Park effect: Risk vs. trust relationship


jurassic Park Effect Category


urassic Park Effect


Mode rate Some N o Trust
Trust Trust
















p~mrreglto jcrns{90 psurmc-arierospamibb(1-0}
retn urbuan fers a~bigmr oh


p m... ,., n .....







POn-~` .*** .... n ha- we re












[ip erast s 1td it
e..mand i al
1EC ar th fu le m l {1-2
pigra ynxf f2 1);
i...rla _:/ :9 hr F-- 7)


e.Islan. ep01-1) ~


evokitiry tatmparng (11



erof Changng Greame {l
trurdal.ih -
f aih nhumranty13}1 -


Figure 5-9. Jurassic Park effect network of codes












































162











Economics Category
"We alre in business here to make business."


"ThZe reason I think
il1is that some people
rwilcanry this type
of~sh and somle
people won? is
some people are
hobbyists and got
into the business as
a hobby and will
probably be out of
the business as a
hobbykst and somle
people are in it as a
business."


"Imean a ~ish former
like me A mom and
pop operation is not
going to be able to
a/Fo~rd o do that" ---


"[Itis just the paice of
them. The two pet shop
that I deal with are smal
mom and pop pet shops
and they just dont like
spending $2.50 to get it
in the shop."


Figure 5-10. Economics category

I~hype {5-1}1


9


cost issue {16-2}


is cause of


IOsell glofish {1-1}I is cause o i ro t of
U.nr:...demand {1-7
is,, cas of ~e cost not issue {7-6}1

Economics not important {1-1}I .is part (r- I0d e:.:....:......:5 {3-8}1 -is part o-good for business {2-2} -is cause of- I0 good for little guy {3-1}1
is case ofcontradicts contradicts
~Ino sell glofish {3-2}1 business vs. ethics {10-5} is cause of-- b moral vs. cost {3-3}1
is part of
is associated with is associated with
is case o
I~ethics big business {0-2}1

...rOrat..IB~lr, tropical fishno
profitable {3-2}


Figure 5-11. Economics category network of codes


I~miFs














__ 1


1


High Profit
High Profit
Low Risk
Low Morals


High Profit
High Risk
Low Muorals


High Profit
High Risk
High Morals


High Profits
Low Risk
High Morals


Profit
Risk
Morals


Low
Low
Low


Low Profit
Low Risk
High Morals
Low Profit


Low Profit
High Risk
High Morals


No Sell

I Ma be Sell

I I Sall

Figure 5-12. Economic, risk, ethics table









CHAPTER 6
FUTURE WORK

The economic-cognitive model opens itself to a number of ancillary research questions,

which can be grouped into four categories depending on methods and population selected

(Table 6-1). The first dimension, population, describes research on either the same (specified) or

different (expansion) populations. Expansion research selects populations, other than aquarium

retailers, which would enhance the model's transferability and credibility. Likewise, specified

future research uses the same population, but more participants, and continues to build on the

existing model to explain new phenomenon. The second dimension, methods, describes the

methodology, quantitative or qualitative, used to investigate the population selected. Both

methods, depending on their use, could either build new theory or enhance the transferability of

the existing research.

For the first quadrant, qualitative expansion research could apply the economic-cognitive

model to populations where similar biotechnologies are being introduced such as

xenotransplantation and stem cell research. Elusive phenomenon identified from this research

could be further examined in differing populations using qualitative methods. A grounded

theory of the public' s response to stem cell research could use the methods and interview

questions from this research. Future research could apply the model to hospitals adopting new

biotechnologies, and the similarities and variances could be explained. The economic-ethical

model could be applied to retailers of stem cell derived technologies, and the influence of the

Jurassic Park effect in stem cell research could also be examined. Finally, understand which

populations continue to support the economic-cognitive model would reveal its parameters of

transferability.









For the second quadrant, the population and methods both vary from this research.

Therefore, second quadrant research would be the most powerful in adding support to the

economic-cognitive model. The challenge to the researchers would be creating a quantitative

representation of a qualitative study. The economic-cognitive model could be translated into

quantitative research such as surveys, and the survey questions could be used to triangulate

findings from other populations. If the model continued to function in dissimilar populations

using quantitative tools, the credibility of the findings would increase significantly.

The research in the third quadrant would continue to use aquarium retailers and qualitative

methods. A case study on York Town Technologies would pool information from a variety of

schools to gain a different perspective. Other research in quadrant three could use grounded

theory to continue to further investigate the boundaries of the Jurassic Park effect. Given

resource constraints, no participant was interviewed who did not stock the GloFishTM because of

the Jurassic Park effect. Thus, finding the outlying participant would further strengthen the

model. As well, additional time could be allocated to better understanding the cognitive

processes contributing to the fear of the unknown driving the effect in aquarium retailers.

Finally, the retailer' s paradox could be further researched to gain a better understanding of

selling controversial products. Aquarium retailers provide a unique population to examine the

paradox using qualitative methods.

The fourth quadrant would use quantitative techniques on the aquarium retailer population.

There has been quality survey research done by pet associations, but specific survey research on

the GloFishTM is lacking. From the perspective of enhancing the model and continuing the

research, translating a qualitative phenomenon into quantitative measures continues to pose

unique constraints. However, many economic questions could be addressed in the model using










quantitative methods. Price elasticity and its impact on the economic-cognitive model would be

a helpful addition. Relationships between color and price, and maximum price points could be

determined by analyzing retailers' sales data.

Overall, future research should examine the model's relevance in other populations

experiencing the introduction of a controversial technology. In addition, quantitative measures

from the model must be developed to help triangulate findings. The value of the economic-

cognitive model will be in understanding how similar populations will react to biotechnologies.

Thus, future research should strive to strengthen the model's transferability and triangulate the

finding with quantitative research.










Table 6-1. Future research


Methods


Expansion Research-Qualitative
Methods
Quadrant 1
Questions:
1. Does the economic-cognitive model
appear in hospitals adopting new
biotechnologies?

2. What influence does the Jurassic
Park effect have in stem cell research?

3. What impact does the economic-
ethical model have on stem cell
research derived technologies?

4. What new technologies experience
the economic-cognitive effect when
introduced?



Specified Research Qualitative
Methods
Quadrant 3
Questions:
1. A case study of York Town
Technolgies.

2. When does the Economic
Cognitive model fail?

3. What are the cognitive elements of
the retailer's paradox?


Expansion Research-Quantitative
Methods
Quadrant 2
Questions:
1. Does the economic-cognitive model
appear in hospitals adopting new
biotechnologies?

2. Does the economic-cognitive model
significantly influence the public's
perception of stem cell research?

3. Does the economic-cognitive model
significantly influence the public's
perception of xenotransplantation?

4. Does the Jurassic Park effect occur
more in agribiotechnologies than in
medical biotechnologies?


Specified Research Quantitative
Methods
Quadrant 4
Questions:
1. What is the price point that negates
the economic-cognitive model?

2. How strongly are price and color
related?

3. What is the economic value of
coloration?

4. What is the price elasticity of the
GloFishTM?









APPENDIX A
FDA STATEMENT

FDA Statement Regarding GloFishTM

Because tropical aquarium fish are not used for food purposes, they pose no threat to the
food supply. There is no evidence that these genetically engineered zebra danio fish pose
any more threat to the environment than their unmodified counterparts which have long
been widely sold in the United States. In the absence of a clear risk to the public health, the
FDA finds no reason to regulate these particular fish. (FDA, 2003)









APPENDIX B
INTTERVIEW PROTOCOL

Pilot Interview Protocol I (Interview 1)

interview Protocol
Proj ect: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish

Time of Interview:
Date:
Place:
Interviewer:
Intervi ewee:
Position of interviewee:
Level of Education:
Scientific Background:

Description:

The purpose of this grounded theory study is to understand the responses of stakeholders
(retailers) in the ornamental Eish industry to the onset of transgenic products. At this stage in the
research the central focus will be to obtain stakeholder opinions about new ornamental Eish
developed with biotechnology and to come to understand the basis of their acceptance or
disapproval of such products.

Questions:
Descriptive
1. Tell me about your experiences with the glofish.
2. Why did you decide to get involved with glofish? How did you hear about the glofish?
3. Describe what you think other aquarium retailers felt with the approval of the glofishfish.
4. Describe the range of opinions that you have heard about this technology.
5. Describe the technology used in your terms about how the GloFish was created.
Follow-up :
1. You mention: Special interest group :why?
Large retailer
California
Painted fish
GM~ Crops
Experience:
2. If you were once reluctant to sell the fish, then what made you change your mind?
3. Could you talk about your impression of genetic engineering?
4. Could you talk about your impression of biotechnology?
Structural/Paradigmatic
1. You said the technology is: Safe
Dangerous: what makes it so?










Compare and Contrast:
1. Compare and Contrast an individual for the technology with an individual reluctant to
accept it.

Interview Protocol II (Interviews 2-3)
Interview Protocol
Proj ect: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish

Time of Interview:
Date:
Place:
Interviewer:
Intervi ewee:
Position of interviewee:
Level of Education:
Scientific Background:

Description:

The purpose of this grounded theory study is to understand the responses of stakeholders in the
ornamental fish industry to the onset of transgenic products. At this stage in the research the
central focus will be to obtain stakeholder opinions about new ornamental fish developed with
biotechnology and to come to understand the basis of their acceptance or disapproval of such
products.

Questions:

Descriptive
1. What is it like to raise transgenic fish?
2. Describe an experience you had that made you question the safety of transgenic fish?
3. Why did you decide to get involved with transgenic fish?
4. What are the challenges and rewards to raising transgenic fish? How are they different
from regular fish?
5. Describe how you felt when you learned that the FDA approved transgenic Zebra Danios
for production.
6. Describe what you think other stakeholders felt with the approval of the transgenic fish.
7. Describe the range of opinions that you have heard about this technology.
8. Describe the technology used in your terms about how the GloFish was created.
9. What does the term transgenic mean to you?

Follow-up :
1.You mention: Special interest group :why?
Large retailer
California
Painted fish
GM~ Crops










Experience:
1. Could you talk about an experience you have had with the GloFish?
2. Could you talk about your impression of genetic engineering?
3. Could you talk about your impression of biotechnology?

Structural/Paradigmatic
1. You said the technology is: Safe
Dangerous: what makes it so?

Compare and Contrast:
1. Could you compare the characteristics of the transgenic fish to non-transgenic fish?
2. Compare and Contrast an individual for the technology with an individual reluctant to
accept it.


Interview Protocol III (Interviews 4-9)
Interview Protocol
Proj ect: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish

Time of Interview:
Date:
Place:
Interviewer:
Intervi ewee:
Position of interviewee:
Level of Education:
Scientific Background:

Description:

The purpose of this grounded theory study is to understand the responses of stakeholders in the
ornamental fish industry to the onset of transgenic products. At this stage in the research the
central focus will be to obtain stakeholder opinions about new ornamental fish developed with
biotechnology and to come to understand the basis of their acceptance or disapproval of such
products.

Questions:

Descriptive
1. What is it like to raise transgenic fish?
2. What do customers look for in transgenic fish?
3. Describe the level of knowledge consumers have about the origins of aquarium fish?
4. Describe an experience you had that made you question the safety of transgenic fish?
5. Why did you decide to get involved with transgenic fish?
6. What are the challenges and rewards to raising transgenic fish? How are they different
from regular fish?










7. Describe how you felt when you learned that the FDA approved transgenic Zebra Danios
for production. Did you know we had genetically modified fish?
8. Describe what you think other stakeholders felt with the approval of the transgenic fish.
9. Describe the range of opinions that you have heard about this technology.
10. Describe the technology used in your terms about how the GloFish was created.
11. What does the term transgenic mean to you?

Follow-up :
1. When we spoke on the phone you assumed that I was referring to:
Invasive Species?
Experience:
1. Could you talk about an experience you have had with the GloFish?
2. Could you talk about your impression of genetic engineering?
3. Could you talk about your impression of biotechnology?

Structural/Paradigmatic
1. You said the technology is: Safe
Dangerous: what makes it so?

Compare and Contrast:
1. Could you compare the characteristics of the transgenic fish to non-transgenic fish?
2. Compare and Contrast an individual for the technology with an individual reluctant to
accept it.


Interview Protocol IV (Interviews 9-12)
Interview Protocol
Proj ect: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish

Time of Interview:
Date:
Place:
Interviewer:
Intervi ewee:
Position of interviewee:
Level of Education:
Scientific Background:

Description:

The purpose of this grounded theory study is to understand the responses of stakeholders in the
ornamental fish industry to the onset of transgenic products. At this stage in the research the
central focus will be to obtain stakeholder opinions about new ornamental fish developed with
biotechnology and to come to understand the basis of their acceptance or disapproval of such
products.










Questions:


Ethics:
1. Why did you decide (to/ not) to sell the GloFish?
2. Describe what type of fish you would not stock?
3. Describe how you decide to purchase a fish to stock in your store?
4. Are there fish that you would not stock despite high potential profit? Why?
5. What is your take on invasive species?
6. When we spoke on the phone you assumed that I was referring to:
Invasive Species?
Painted Fish ?
Consumer Attributes:
1. Describe the level of knowledge consumers have about the origins of aquarium fish?
2. What do customers look for in fish? What attributes do they find valuable?
3. Compare and Contrast an individual for the technology with an individual reluctant to
accept it.
4. Could you rank what attributes consumers desire how are they related?

Regulatory Family
1. In your own words describe the regulatory bodies involved in monitoring the GloFish?
2. How much faith do you have in the FDA?
3. Describe how you felt when you learned that the FDA approved transgenic Zebra Danios
for production. Did you know we had genetically modified fish?
4. Describe what you think other stakeholders felt with the approval of the transgenic fish.
Jurassic Park Phenomenon
1. Could you talk about your impression of genetic engineering?
2. Could you talk about your impression of biotechnology?
3. What does the term transgenic mean to you?
4. What have you read in newspapers and heard on TV about the GloFish?
5. Describe an experience you had that made you question the safety of transgenic fish?
6. You said the technology is: Safe
Dangerous: what makes it so?

Science Acumen Indicator

i. Describe the technology used in your terms about how the GloFish was created.










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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Brian Peddie is Ph.D. candidate in the department of Agricultural and Biological

Engineering at the University of Florida. His research interests include biotechnology

management and governance, aquaculture, start-up strategy formulation, and organizational

change.

Brian completed a B.S. in biology from Davidson College in North Carolina, and worked

for Accenture as a consultant for 3 years. In addition, he started three technology companies

between 1998 and 2001 and worked closely with Accenture's .com incubator in Chicago. His

start-up companies include MySkillSet.com, MyHomeLink.com, and Medical Data Consortium.

After the last start-up in the Healthcare sector in 2002, he resumed his academic studies at

Harvard University with a self-designed M.Ed. At Harvard, he specialized in adult development

and enrichment, change management, adult learning theories, and organizational psychology.





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GROUNDED THEORY OF FLORIDA AQUARIUM RETAILERS ACCEPTANCE OF THE GLOFISH By BRIAN PEDDIE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Brian Peddie 2

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To my wife, Susannah, in memory of her father, Phillip Herndon. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my supervisory committee, my wife Susannah, my parents, Edward and Pat, and the ornamental fish retailers w ho participated in the study. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................9 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................10 GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..............................................................................................................11 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................15 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS ...........................................................................................21 Statement of Purpose and Research Questions .......................................................................21 Research Questions .........................................................................................................21 Qualitative Methods: Grounded Theory ..........................................................................22 Grounded Theory Styles ..................................................................................................23 Statement of Purpose .......................................................................................................24 Sampling .................................................................................................................................24 Implementation .......................................................................................................................25 Strengths and Weaknesses ......................................................................................................27 Research Design: Quality, Reliability, and Validity ..............................................................28 Ethical Considerations and Publication Concerns ..................................................................29 3 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................31 Qualitative Research ...............................................................................................................31 Theoretical Framework ...................................................................................................31 The Challenge of Social Scientific Research ..................................................................33 Qualitative Research Issues .............................................................................................36 Grounded Theory .............................................................................................................36 Present Theories ......................................................................................................................42 Sociocultural and Cogni tive Science Theories ................................................................47 Theory of Reasoned Action .............................................................................................51 Decision-Making Theories ..............................................................................................53 Diffusion of Innovation Theories ....................................................................................56 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................58 4 RESULTS ...............................................................................................................................64 Interview 1 (Pilot): The Early Adopter ...................................................................................65 5

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Overview .........................................................................................................................65 Location ...........................................................................................................................66 Emergent Themes ............................................................................................................66 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................68 Interview 2: The Well Informed Employee ............................................................................70 Overview .........................................................................................................................70 Emergent Themes ............................................................................................................71 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................75 Interview 3: The Aquarium Manufacturer ..............................................................................77 Overview .........................................................................................................................77 Developing Families ........................................................................................................78 Playing God. ......................................................................................................78 Ethics .....................................................................................................................79 Product attributes ..................................................................................................80 Invasive speciesEnvironmental degradation .....................................................81 Regulation .............................................................................................................82 Public awareness ...................................................................................................82 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................83 Interview 4: The Laconic Employee .......................................................................................84 Overview .........................................................................................................................84 Families ...........................................................................................................................85 Painted fish ............................................................................................................85 Product attributes ..................................................................................................86 Ethics .....................................................................................................................88 Comparative Analysis .....................................................................................................89 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................90 Interview 5: The Marine Enthusiast ......................................................................................91 Overview .........................................................................................................................91 Product Attributes Family ...............................................................................................93 Ethics Family ...................................................................................................................93 Jurassic Park Effect Family .............................................................................................95 Regulation ........................................................................................................................96 Comparative Analysis .....................................................................................................97 Interview 6: The Flam boyant GloFish Lover .....................................................................98 Overview .........................................................................................................................98 Product Attributes Family ...............................................................................................99 Ethics Family .................................................................................................................100 Jurassic Park Effect Family ...........................................................................................101 Comparative Analysis ...................................................................................................102 Interview 7: The Centrist ......................................................................................................103 Overview .......................................................................................................................103 Product Attributes Family .............................................................................................104 Ethics Family .................................................................................................................105 Jurassic Park Effect Family ...........................................................................................106 Comparative Analysis ...................................................................................................107 6

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Interview 8: The Cost Conscience Laggard ..........................................................................110 Overview .......................................................................................................................110 Product Attributes Family .............................................................................................111 Economics Family .........................................................................................................111 Jurassic Park Effect Family ...........................................................................................111 Ethics Family .................................................................................................................112 Regulation ......................................................................................................................113 Comparative Analysis ...................................................................................................113 Interview 09: The Pragmatic Retailer ...................................................................................114 Overview .......................................................................................................................114 Product Attributes Category ..........................................................................................115 Economics Family .........................................................................................................117 Jurassic Park Effect .......................................................................................................117 Ethics Family .................................................................................................................118 Regulation ......................................................................................................................120 Comparative Analysis ...................................................................................................120 Interview 10: The Ethics Policeman .....................................................................................122 Overview .......................................................................................................................122 Product Attributes Category ..........................................................................................123 Economics Family .........................................................................................................125 The Jurassic Park Effect ................................................................................................126 Ethics Category .............................................................................................................127 Regulation ......................................................................................................................128 Comparative Analysis ...................................................................................................129 Interview 11: The Rational GloFish Supporter .................................................................131 Overview .......................................................................................................................131 Product Attributes Category ..........................................................................................131 Economics .....................................................................................................................133 Jurassic Park Effect .......................................................................................................134 Ethics Category .............................................................................................................136 Comparative Analysis ...................................................................................................137 Interview 12 ..........................................................................................................................139 Overview .......................................................................................................................139 Product Attributes ..........................................................................................................140 Economics .....................................................................................................................141 Jurassic Park Effect .......................................................................................................142 Ethics Category .............................................................................................................142 5 CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................146 Summary ...............................................................................................................................146 The Economic-Cognitive Model ..........................................................................................147 Ethics .............................................................................................................................148 Product Attributes ..........................................................................................................150 Jurassic Park Effect .......................................................................................................152 Economics .....................................................................................................................153 7

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6 FUTURE WORK ..................................................................................................................165 APPENDIX A FDA STATEMENT ..............................................................................................................169 B INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ..................................................................................................170 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................175 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................182 8

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Differences in comparison groups .........................................................................................61 5-1. Who sold the GloFish ......................................................................................................155 6-1. Future research ....................................................................................................................168 9

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 The coding hierarchy ...............................................................................................................30 3-1 The Wong Baker Scale ...........................................................................................................62 3-2 Areas of research for aquatic biotechnology ..........................................................................62 3-3 The theory of planned behavior..............................................................................................62 3-4 S-Curve: The diffusion process ..............................................................................................63 4-1 The Grounded Theory process .............................................................................................145 4-2 Product attributes price and color relationship .....................................................................145 5-1 Economic-cognitive model ...................................................................................................155 5-2 Ethics category .....................................................................................................................156 5-3 Ethics category network of codes .........................................................................................157 5-4 Product Attributes Category .................................................................................................158 5-5 Product attributes ca tegory network of codes ........................................................................159 5-6 Product attribute rankings .....................................................................................................160 5-7 The Jurassic Park effect category .........................................................................................161 5-8 The Jurassic Park effec t: Risk vs. trust relationship .............................................................161 5-9 Jurassic Park effect network of codes ...................................................................................162 5-10 Economics category ............................................................................................................163 5-11 Economics category network of codes ...............................................................................163 5-12 Economic, risk, ethics table .................................................................................................164 10

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS Category: The highest level of code organization. Code: The lowest level of organizati on of a transcribed interview. Coding: The process of assigning codes to words, pa ragraphs, and sentences of transcribed data. Constant Comparative Method: A process used in Grounded Theo ry to retroactively compare the participant responses to interview questions. Coordinated Framework: The grouping of government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) tasked with regulating geneti cally modified organisms. Danio rerio : Scientific name of zebra danio Economic Cognitive Model: Model that explains the aquari um retailers reaction to the GloFish. Family: The second level of organi zation of transcribed data. Gene Construct: A series of genes. Genetic Marker: An indicator used to mark either th e presence or positio n of a transgene. Genetically Modified: An organism having a genome altered. GM: Genetically modified GMO: Genetically Modified Organism Grounded Theory: A qualitative inquiry that constantly compares the patterns of responses among participants. Hierarchy: The organization of the data from the lowest level, codes, to th e most sophisticated, categories. Jurassic Park Effect: Phenomenon resulting in fear that co ntains two parts: trust and perceived consequences of an action. Network: Explanation of relationships among codes or categories. Product Attribute: A characteristic that makes a fish or other product more marketable and desirable to the consumer. RFP: Red Fluorescent Protein: Ge netic construct coding for the production of red colored protein. 11

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Saturation: A qualitative term when the researcher ha s heard all possible responses to the structured interview questions. Segrist Farm & 5-d Tropical: Two aquaculture facilities who breed the GloFish. Structured Interview: An interview where the questions follow a fixed list of questions. Theme: The first level of organization to emerge from the grouping of codes that is rapidly replaced by families. Transgenic: An organism containing foreign genetic material. Yorktown Technologies: Austin Texas based start-up that ow ns the intellectual property rights to the GloFish. Zebra Danio: The common name for Danio rerio 12

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy GROUNDED THEORY OF FLORIDA AQUARIUM RETAILERS ACCEPTANCE OF THE GLOFISH By Brian Peddie May 2008 Chair: James Leary Cochair: Carol Lehtola Major: Agricultural and Biological Engineering This research was undertaken to understand Flor ida ornamental fish retailers responses to the GloFish exemplified by their decision to stock or not to stock the fis h. Twelve interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Interviews continued until saturation and a substantive theory, the economic-cognitive model, was developed. The constant comparative method was used to examine the responses among all previous participants before subsequent interviews were conducted. Saturation was reached rapidly due to the homogeneity of the population of inquiry. Four categories cont aining more than 150 unique codes were created from the transcribed data. Codes were organized into th emes, then families and ultimately categories. These categories emerged: pr oduct attributes, economics, ethi cs, and the Jurassic Park effect. The response of the retailers was simplif ied into their stocking de cisions; the decision to stock the GloFish used all aspects of the manifest ed categories. First, the retailers perception of the GloFishs value was captured by the pr oduct attributes cate gory. Color, price, personality, and survivability, respectively, were the most valued product attributes. Second, there was considerable dialog about the profitabil ity, margins, and cost of the fish which was placed in the economics category. This category wa s the most influential in determining retailer 13

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stocking decisions. A third cat egory emerged from the transc ribed data, ethics. While economics was the driving force behind stocking d ecisions, ethics served as a stop-gap since retailers would refuse to stock tr ansgenic fish regardless of econo mic gain. Lastly, the Jurassic Park effect, a fear-based phenomenon created by lack of trust in humanity and perceived consequences influenced retailers responses. Th e effect was ancillary, bu t it could strengthen or weaken retailers responses. The reaction to the GloFish was multiface ted, and drew from a diverse group of categories which were ultimately governed by ethi cs and perceived economic value. Color was the primary product attribute customers wanted, but several retailers refu sed to stock the fish despite its intense coloration because they believ ed it was morally wrong to genetically modify a fish to make it more marketable. The research indicates that when new technologies are released to the public, there is no simple formula to predict the publics re sponse. However, if there is both economic benefit and no ethical complicati ons, then the likelihood of a positive response would be high. 14

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The transgenic zebra danio, or GloFish, re presented the first attempt by the private sector to capitalize upon a tr ansgenic animal for public use. The GloFish was born in the late 1990s when researchers led by Dr. Zhiyuan Gong at the National University of Singapore began experimenting with zebra danios to monitor wate r quality in coal mine s (Gong et al., 2003). The concept was to create a fish that would fluoresce in the presence of toxins, and then return to normal coloration in clean water. Scientists we re able to successfully incorporate new genes coding for the production of colored proteins into the fishs genome, but they were not successful at inhibiting the production of th e protein, leaving the fish perm anently colored (Gong et al., 2003) In 2001, Yorktown Technologies, a Texas based aquatic biotech startup led by Alan Blake and Richard Crockett realized the potential to mark et the colorful danio in the United States and entered into a licensing agreement with the Dr. Gong. By 2001, Yorktown Technologies began selling a genetically modified ornamental fish und er the name GloFish. The fish is the first in a pipeline of third generation bi otechnologies derived from not only plants, but animals, that will have significant social be nefits (Marshall, 2006). The rapid penetration of the GloF ish into the ornamental fish market can be attributed to two factors: the preval ence of nongenetically modified (non-GM ) danios in aquarium stores, and the simplicity and prevalence of the transgene in genetic research. Almost every aquarium store retailing tropical fish sells th e non-GM variety of zebra danios. Fluorescent protein constructs, a genetic sequence that codes for the production of fluorescent proteins, app ear in a multitude of molecular biological applicati ons as genetic markers (Tsie n, 1998; Zhang, Campbell, Ting, & Tsien, 2002). The construct is inserted along with other genes to ensure that the transformation 15

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has occurred successfully. Anothe r marker, resistance to erythromycin, can be used to determine if the desired transgene had b een successfully incorporated, but Red fluorescent protein, RFP, constructs are considered more environmentally friendly, and do not require an additional culture step. Agricultural biotechnology has used florescen t protein constructs for the development of golden rice, round-up ready soybean s, and Bt-corn (Lippincott-Sc hwartz & Patterson, 2003). The nongenetically modified version of the zebra danio is stocked by many research institutions as well. The research community us es danios in a variety of capacities due to the fishs fecundity, resilience, hard iness, and genome. Research in stitutions have begun to replace mice and other warm blooded invertebrates in their labs with danios. Globally, the two most signifi cant barriers to the agricultural biotec hnology industry are environmental risks and waning public opinion (Kear ney, 2002; Lewis, 2001). As a subgroup of agricultural biotechnology, the factors that will determine the success of transgenic ornamental fish parallel genetically modi fied foods. Yorktown Technol ogies received significant public resistance spearheaded by special interest groups. The companys long-term success lies in its ability to market transgenic fish to such larg e retail chains which control the majority of the aquarium hobby market. While several transgenic food fish have been proposed for commercialization, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the agency tasked with agricultural biotechnology governance, has never given approval for the commercialization of any genetically modified food fish despite a 12-year wait. On December 9, 2003, the FDA released a succinct statement to the effect that it would not regulate the GloFish since many of the same concerns that plague food fish transgenics, such as alergenicity and environmental degradation, were not applicable (Appendix A; FDA, 2003). 16

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The most common concerns voi ced by special interest group s and entities opposed to genetically modified fish were environmenta l. Environmental groups opposing the genetic modification of aquatic species include the Frie nds of the Earth, Green Peace, and the Sierra Club. The possibility of natural stock depleti on and contamination with transgenic genetic material through escapee breeding concerned many scientists (Kapuscinski & Hallerman, 1991; Pew Initiative, 2003; Muir & Howard, 1999; Vandenbergh, 2002). Unlike transgenic salmon, millions of nongenetically modified danios have b een sold by the aquarium industry for decades, and only two instances of wild populations have been reported (Fuller & Nico, 2003). In addition, the temperature tolerance and fecundity of the transgenic species has been reduced. Finally, there has been considerable pub lic concern over the reasons for genetic modification. Ethical concerns pertain to unnece ssarily using the technology to create organism that offer minimal social benefit beyond aesthetic enjoyment. Since the GloFish was originally created for biomedical and environmen tal research, many of th e ethical concerns are mitigated. A percentage of all the GloFish sales return to the researchers in Singapore to aid in the development of vaccinations and other gene tic research. Already the same laboratory has used the proceeds to develop an oral Hepatitis B vaccine. Aquatic biotechnology, specifically the creati on of transgenic fish, constitutes the bleeding edge of the broader agricultural biotechnology sector Under the umbrella of biotechnology, scientists have been experimenting with zebra danios for two decades. Presently, the United States leads the world with the num ber of patents for aquatic species, but other nations are quickly realizing the benefits of working with fish for developing bioreactors and improving broodstocks for their food aquaculture sectors (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2004). Few countries ha ve regulatory frameworks in pl ace to govern the technology; 17

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the countries with the most to gain, however, also have the most to lose. In Asia, few or no governance protocols are in place to protect the industry from abuses that could taint the sector globally. Unfortunately, countries that would benefit most from improved broodstocks lack safety nets that are in place in the developed world. The introduction of the first GM animal in the market sets a new precedence for biotechnology and was the first instance, outsi de of biomedical advancements, wherein a genetically modified product has be en geared towards consumers desires rather than producers needs. The GloFish experienced widespread me dia attention. The reaction of aquarium fish retailers to the new products c onstitutes an opportunity to exam ine the publics acceptance of next generation biotechnologies In 1999, Floridas aquaculture products totale d $86 million. Tropical fish accounted for more than 50% of the total dollars, followed by clams and aquatic plants (Hodges et al., 2001). The total figure dropped to $75 million in 2005, with a decrease of $10 million in the farm-gate value of ornamental fish (National Agricultu re Statistics Service [ NASS], 2006). While the ornamental fish industry is vital to Floridas aquaculture sector, the decrease in the number of farms from 151 to 133 has been attributed to softening in demand in addition to an active hurricane season in 2004 (NASS, 2006). Most ornamental fish farms are family owned and operated; however, some larger corporate farms, including Seagrist and 5D, dominate the market (Hodges, Mulkey, Philapakos, & Adams, 2001). In the United States, 12 of the largest farms account for 60% of sales (NASS, 2006). Unfortunately, the dr opout rate for hobbyist is high (Tullock, 2003). While the number of people keep ing aquarium fish has risen in the last few years, pressures to innovate and develop more e xotic breeds of fish are intense (Lass, 2004). 18

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The GloFish derived from zebra danios, a stap le in any aquarium store. The GloFish represents the most technologica lly advanced aquarium organism and holds promises both for revitalizing the ornamental indus try and creating more environm entally friendly and efficient broodstocks for aquaculture. Before the GloFish new ornamental fish were introduced from wild stocks obtained via invasi ve netting techniques that had deleterious consequences for delicate tropical ecosystems (Gerstner, Ortega, Sanchez, & Graham, 2006). Globally, both aquaculture and agriculture biotechnology are under scrutiny by special interest groups. The Center for Food Safety, Friends of the Earth, GreenPeace, the Sierra Club, and PETA all oppose aquatic biotechnology (Center for Food Safety, 2004; Friends of the Earth, 2004; Sierra Club, 2004). Already, poor public perception of transg enic agriculture products in Europe has reduced the research dollars allo cated to developing new strains. Unless the aquaculture industry works in unison with the scientific community to monitor the publics perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about gene tic engineering, aquatic biotechnology may never deliver its promises. Canada, China, Europe, Cuba, and the United States have all made significant advances in aquatic biotechnology, but their research wi ll be buried as long as the sector fails to address public sentiment. Publications addressing transgenic ornament als, specifically the GloFish, have been reports rather than research. While there has been considerable qualitative work examining the publics reaction to the broader biotechnology sect or, there has been no research specifically addressing transgenic ornamentals (Pardo, Mi dden, & Miller, 2002; Pew Initiative, 2003; Phillips & Corkindale, 2002). Articles from sp ecial interest groups such as Greenpeace and Center for Food Safety appear in online search es of the web, but lack rigorous methodology, and 19

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are based on parallel studies by Howard a nd Muir (Center for Food Safety, 2004; Greenpeace International, 2004; Muir & Howard, 1999). A qualitative study of the GloFish was needed since numerous controversial technologies will be marketed and capitalized in the near future. Researchers must consider resistance to these technologi es as part of their developm ent (Bauer, 1995/1997b). The human response to third generation biotechnologies will drive industrys decisions on what technologies are worthy of investment. The results of the rese arch are applicable to products outside of the biotechnology arena that the public perceives as dangerous. No theory has been developed to explain why retailers either choose to reject or accept products created using the controversial technology. 20

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CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Statement of Purpose and Research Questions When the GloFish was introduced, there wa s a unique phenomenon wh ere some retailers wanted to be the first to offer the fish to the public while others refused to stock it. The public outcry that occurred when the product was firs t introduced in 2001, polit ical maneuvering, and a strong avoidance of the GloFish by some aquarium retailers needed to be examined. The response did not align with other theories, so a new model needed to be developed. Grounded theory methodology provided a framework to deve lop a model using interviews with industry stakeholders. Research Questions The research questions answered by this study were the following: How do aquarium retailers perceive transgenic ornamental fish? Why have some aquarium retail ers refused to stock the produ ct while others have been eager to purchase the GloF ish from their supplier? What decision making processe s do retailers employ to stoc k new controversial fish? What characteristics of the GloFish do retaile rs find either attractive or unattractive for their customers? The research questions proposed in this study were ontological and epistemological. Ontological questions seek to de fine the objects of inquiry that explain theory and seek to address why actions are performed (Anderson & Baym, 2004). Examples of ontological questions from this research included why resear chers were developing th is technology, why this topic was proposed, and why people have develope d the opinions that they have developed. Ontological questions address why we are examining the phenome non of rejection or acceptance of transgenic fish is being conducted. Ontology is the branch of ph ilosophy that deals with 21

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knowledge. Ontological theory describes the knowledge people have about transgenic ornamentals. Biotechnology surveys addre ss the ontological component by measuring the knowledge that people have on the issue, but do not ask how or why that knowledge exists. Examining only the ontological as pect of why retailers rejected the GloFish would have provided a one dimensional view of the phenomenon. Epistemological questions address how we know what we know, such as how opinions and attitudes develop, and how we come to understand what is around us. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that addresses how we know what we know. For this research, epistemological questions addressed how the st akeholders came to develop their views on transgenic ornamentals. Qualitative Methods: Grounded Theory A qualitative research methodology was superior to develop the theory for the following reasons. First, there had never been a qualitative inquiry to de velop a model that would explain the publics reaction to transgenic ornamental fish. The population of aquarium retailers held a wealth of information that was not being invest igated. They had the advantage of interacting with both consumers and producers which provi ded input into their attitude and knowledge formulation. Second, since no pr evious research existed, creati ng instrumentation would have been difficult since the ranges of responses were unknown. A survey would have required a basic understanding of th e existing range of opinions to ensure high content and construct validity. Without qualita tive inquiry, the theoretical constr ucts would have been based on assumptions rather than data. Third, to fully understand the range of opinions and emotions, fieldwork had to be conducted. The emotions and opinions examined by this research were rooted in their contexts and disclosed, since unknown context specific variables might have influenced the data. Quantitative research would have overlooked valuable information and 22

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could not have provided rich desc ription of the context. Four th, quantitative research would have biased the responses by creating an unrealistic cont rol environment that bound the responses by predefined constructs. Using an in strument with attitude indices would have failed to examine how or why the attitudes were form ulated. The range of responses led to the development of substantive theory since it tested the instances wh en the theory failed. Finally, participant responses were systematically examined and explored rather than taken at face value. Inductive reasoning was necessary to explore aqua rium retailers responses to the onset of transgenic fish. Among the qualitative research traditions, gr ounded theory was the best choice for the following reasons. First, it allowe d the researcher to develop a m odel, the desired end-product of the research. Second, it did not require a bounde d system such as a case study. Third, the methodology assumed that knowledge can be built from interviews and observations, and while it was context specific, it could be used to build a transferable m odel. Other research methodologies could be used to answer the research questions; however, grounded theory provided the most holistic approach. Grounded Theory Styles While the original form of grounded theory is Glaserian-Strausian, th e researchers evolved their methods over time (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999). Subsequently, Corbin and Strauss published more structured me thodological tools such as Basics of Qualitative Research in 1998 (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). The CorbinStrauss combination provides more rigor and fixed instruction, while Glaser became more emergent and less structured (Walker & Myrick, 2006). The methodology used for this research resemb les more the methods of Corbin and Strauss rather than a Glaserian study. 23

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Statement of Purpose The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the respon ses of retailers in the ornamental fish industry to the onset of transgenic products. The central focus was to obtain local ornamental retailers opi nions about new ornamental fi sh developed with biotechnology and to come to understand the basi s of their initial disapproval or acceptance of such products and what contributed to a shift in mindset if one took place. (Creswell, 1998) The theory developed by this research eluc idated the publics impetus to prevent the capitalization of new biotechnolog ies. Grounded theory methods generate two types of theory, substantive and formal. The resulting model cons titutes substantive theory since it addressed the rejection of the technolo gy by retail pet stores (Gla ser & Strauss, 1967/1999). Sampling For grounded theory research, a population of interest must be isolated that has the characteristics that will lead to the development of the theory. For this research, the population Florida aquarium retailers, were selected as the population based on avai lability, proximity, and contact with the end customer, the aquarium hobbyists. For nonsocial scientists this step appeared to violate the scientif ic method and reduce generalizabilit y. Rather, the selection of the right participants was fundamental to the developmen t of the theory since it isolated the sector of the population deciding to stock or not stock the GloFish. A wide range of aquarium retailers were interviewed, from strictly marine to stric tly freshwater. The purpos e of the sampling was to maximize the differences among the participants. The sampling approximated the theoretical sa mpling techniques described by Glaser and Strauss (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/199 9). Purposeful sampling was done from a pool of aquarium retailers in Florida using the Yellow Pages Onlin e. Aquarium stores in Gainesville, Tampa, Jacksonville, Ocala and Orlando were asked to part icipate in the research. Subsamples were 24

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created based on metropolitan area and all participants from their respective metropolitan areas were interviewed before moving to the next locat ion. The order of the sampling was Gainesville, Ocala, Jacksonville, Tampa, and Orlando. In terviews were conducted until saturation was reached which occurred after 12 interviews. Since Orlando was the last location, not all aquarium retailers were interviewed since saturation had been reached. While Creswell estimated that approximately 20 interviews were generally required to reach saturation, fewer interviews were required due to the homogeneity of the aquarium retailers in Florida (Creswell, 1998). As well, numerous grounded th eory studies indicated that saturation could occur after less than 15 interviews (Becker & Stamp, 2005; Mostafanejad, 2006; Wiitavaara, Lundman, Barnekow-Bergvist, & Br uline, 2007; Wisdom & Agnor, 2007). Due to the variance within the participants, transferabil ity, the ability to appl y the findings to other instances, should be high. However, as a percenta ge of total sales generated in Florida, the 12 participants probably repr esented less than 10%. The next step, coding, require d the researcher to analy ze the differences among the participants responses to the interview questions. The categories became apparent quickly, and sampling continued based on geographic location. When all the retailers in one area had participated, a new metropolitan area was targ eted. As the categories became populated and saturated, the researcher verified the common appearance of the categories by maximizing the diversity of the participants. This step contributed to the reliability of th e study. The final result of this process was a new theory explaining the reluctance of retailers to purchase and sell the GloFish. Implementation The first step was to contact retailer stores via telephone a nd inquire if they would be interested in participating in the current research. An interview time and location was 25

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established for those agreeing to participate. Out of the 12 interviews, 10 were conducted at the participants places of business, one at a rest aurant, and one at a conference room at the University of Florida. Four interview protocols were developed during the course of the research (Appendix B). Given the emergent nature of gr ounded theory, interview protocols evolved from subject to subject. All interviews were digitally recorded in MP3 format and fully transcribed by a professional transcription serv ice, M.R.T services in Atlant a, Georgia. Turnaround time per transcription was two weeks. ATLAS.ti softwa re was employed to code, organize, and help the researcher analyze each interview. The pr ogram allowed the resear cher to look across all previous interviews simultaneousl y as well as creating hierarchie s and networks. The software allowed the researcher to examine groupings of data among all the inte rviews simultaneously, but did not perform any analysis. A preliminary pilot study was conducted in Ga inesville to ensure that the structured interview functioned properly and that the correc t questions were posed. The results from the pilot study were used to evolve th e interview protocol, and served as a general litmus test to the efficacy of using grounded theory to investigate the phenomenon. The transcribed interviews were imported from Microsoft Word into ATLAS.ti and each sentence was assigned a code. The transcri ptions were separated by numbered paragraphs which contained groupings of sentences. Data was organized by codes, themes, families, and categories which evolved from interview to interview. Codes were located at the bottom of th e data organization hierarchy. Open coding was completed on the first interview, and fewer additional codes were added with each subsequent interview. Throughout the pr ocess the relevance of each unique code was examined and, when possible, similar codes were blended. Initially, groupings of codes were 26

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placed into themes. The creation of themes provided the researcher with a preliminary framework to organize types of codes before either enough data existed to group codes into families or the relevance of a group of codes coul d be determined. Preliminary families began to develop by interview 3, but were more clearly de fined after interview 5. Finally, the highest rung in the hierarchy, categories was devel oped to explain the Gl oFish phenomenon. Categories transcended code groupings and had boundaries that appeared in the families and codes. The creation of categories involv ed both inductive and deductive reasoning. Strengths and Weaknesses The key strength of the research is that th e data drove the development of the theory, which is rooted in the interviews via a tra ceable line of reasoning. Unlike other forms of qualitative research, the methodology used a rigo rous comparative technique to enhance the transferability of the findings. The evolution of the model is clear and the conclusions are based on reasoning. Some weaknesses of the methods included the reliance on verbal communication conveyed in the interview process. There was an overwhelming reliance on the interviewer to communicate clearly and to interpret the response s correctly despite perc eived inconsistencies between intended and actual belief s. While considerable time and thought was spent during the coding process and the development of interv iew questions, it was difficult to minimize the impact of the researcher on the participant. There was the influence from the Hawthorne effect (Mayo, 1933). Wherein, the presence of the resear cher during the interview and the setting had a profound influence on the accuracy of the emerge nt theory. Selecting the environment and understanding the research ers impact on the accuracy of the responses was addressed in the coding and analysis of the interviews. 27

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Quantitative research would have had some benefits. First, the results from the survey would have been generalizable. Unlike grounded theory, inferential stat istics could have been used to explain how the public perceived transgenic technologies. Second, survey research could have been done more rapidly and the data collection from all th e participants would have taken place simultaneously rather than as an iterative sequential process. The grounded theory method was highly time intensive and required the researcher to revis it hundreds of pages of transcription to draw conclusions from later interviews. The cost of each interview was over $350.00 after the payment to the partic ipant, transportation costs, a nd transcription fees. Survey research is less expensive, can be performed qui ckly, and the results are retuned and analyzed simultaneously. Research Design: Quality, Reliability, and Validity Of the eight techniques Creswe ll suggested to enhance the qual ity of the research, six were used by the researcher (Creswell, 1998). The two tools that were not employed were member checking and paid external auditing. Lincoln and Guba (as cited in Creswell, 1998) contended that member checking would be integral to th e credibility of the study. However, member checks were not performed in this research since the questions we re context specific and heavily influenced by mass media. Creswell also suggest ed hiring external aud itors to validate the findings. Paid external audito rs were not employed in the re search due to cost and time constraints. Six of Creswells suggestions for improving qual ity were integrated into the research. First there was extensive tim e spent conducting the interviews and engaging with the participants. Each interview was 45 minutes while approximately 40 hours were spent on coding and analyzing each interview. Over 150 pages of transcribe d interview data was used to anchor the model. Second the findings were tria ngulated with several sources. Third, the final 28

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model was peer reviewed by representatives from a variety of schools of thought and paradigms. Feedback was received from the departments of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Journalism, and Food and Resource Economics. The peer review provided a forum for the researcher to strengthen the trustworthiness of hi s findings as well as inte ract with peers sharing similar research interests. F ourth, negative case analyses were completed to test the boundaries of the emergent theory. Disconfirming evidence was used to modify and evolve the theory to explain as many cases as possible. Fifth, the researcher clearly stated his biases and sought to minimize them during the interview process. In addition, he provided the reader with extensive self introspection and reflexivity in the narrative. Sixth, rich descripti on was provided to capture a detailed snap shot of th e interviews and their analysis. As many details as possible, and all the reasoning used to arrive at conclusion s, were included in the narrative. Several additional steps were ta ken to improve the quality of the model from Corbin and Strauss (1998). The validity, re liability, and credibility of the data was scrutinized. Second, judgments were made on the face validity of the theory development from the data. Finally, the reasoning employed to draw conclu sions and build the theory was evaluated in the narrative. Ethical Considerations and Publication Concerns Risks to the participant were minimal. Measur es were taken to ensure anonymity since the transgenic debate had become heated in a numbe r of instances. Participation in the study was anonymous since some retailers had concerns about potential demonstr ations and acts of vandalism against their stores if they sold the GloFish. Finally, informed consent forms were provided, and the participants received fair financial compensation for their time. 29

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Cate g ories Families Themes Codes Categories: Highest level of organization that emerged when the research had adequate data collected to identify nuances among responses to interview questions. Families: Mid-level organization of codes and th emes that identified preliminary patterns of responses to interview questions. Themes: Grouping of codes. Codes: Lowest level of organizati on assigned to sentences and words. Figure 2-1. The coding hierarchy 30

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CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Qualitative Research Theoretical Framework Qualitative and quantitative researchers differ philosophically; one believes that the world has one truth while the other believes there are multiple meanings of the same truth. Quantitative research resulted from hundreds of years of work translating phenomena into numerical representations of th e real world. Ultimately, the two paradigms have contrasting underlying assumptions regarding how truth can be known, how measurement is taken, and how knowledge is generated. According to Creswell, Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding that explores a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natu ral setting. (1998) Qualitative research is multidisciplinary, drawing from psychology, sociology, education, journalism, and many other schools. Among these schools, there are frameworks including positivism, postpositivism, and postmodernism which determine the relationships between causality and research methods. Positivism is rooted in the scientific method and performs research to describe a phenomenon and is not qualitative (Anderson & Baym, 2004). Positivists believe that what can be observed and measured can describe the phenomenon. Postpositivists, however, acknowledge that all observations are fall ible, and therefore the results from research are not causal. Postpositivism sees a hypothesi s as probable until it can be debunked (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). Finally, postmodernism challenge s the concept of knowing and knowledge. It employs multiple modes of unders tanding to arrive at an outc ome based on multiple meanings and interpretations (Cornell, 2005). 31

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Positivism, the idea that the world could be measured and knowledge generated from the measurement instruments represented the philos ophical foundation for hard science. Beginning in 1907, the Vienna Circle, made up of scientis ts, mathematicians, and philosophers, analyzed the creation of scientif ic knowledge to assess its accuracy given the fallacies of an unknown world (Byrant & Miron, 2004). The Vienna Circle birthed the concept of Logical Positivism and proclaimed that knowledge can only be genera ted from two sources: logical reasoning and empirical experiences. Accordi ng to the Positivists, empirical experiences are the only fodder for scientific theory (Byrant & Miron, 2004). Likewise, qualitative researchers ground themse lves in a variety of other philosophical paradigms that debunk positivism. From a postpositiv istic perspective, there is not one truth, but many which can be known through non-empirical measures. For postpositivists, reality can be approximated but if more perceptions of truth exist, then the better our understanding of the truth. Postmodernism goes a step further a nd questions the fallacy of creating knowledge. Ultimately, the philosophical foundations gove rning how reality is known determine how researchers measure phenomena and develop instrumentation. Qualitative researchers rely neither on empirical measures nor representation s of abstract phenomenon to build knowledge (Byrant & Miron, 2004). Qualitative researchers refuse to conceptuali ze world in data (Pauly, 1991). As well, the results are context specific and th e researcher is an integral part of the process. Likewise, quantitative researchers based in a Positivistic para digm view the world solely in terms of data and strive to reduce error while enhancing vali dity and reliability by employing the scientific method. The quantitative scientis t is independent of the research and variables can be held constant. Quantitative researchers have an outside or etic perspective, and are impartial to the 32

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results, while the researchers perspectives in qualitative research are emic; they are part of the research (Cornell, 2005). Qualitative research can build theories and m odels while quantitative research must test theories using the scientific me thod. Rather than prove or di sprove a hypothesis, qualitative research describes phenomena without using either inferential or descriptive statistics. Through an analysis of field work, qua litative researchers use inducti ve reasoning to reach their conclusions. Quantitative research relies on mi nimizing error through experimental design to measure the phenomenon based on preexisting cons tructs. Quantitative researchers employ deductive reasoning to either reje ct or fail to reject the nul l hypothesis. The product of qualitative research is descripti on rather than abstract text (U niversity of Connecticut, 2005). Qualitative research is based on the premis e that researchers cannot explore phenomena with preexisting constructs. From a qualitati ve paradigm, predefined constructs cause researchers to reduce the range of responses and bias the results. Qualitative research strives to capture the richness of the contex t and uses detailed description rather than numeric data to explain a phenomenon. Finally, qualitative re search views the world as having multiple meanings. For qualitative researchers, there can be multiple truths rather than one immutable truth that can be empirically known. Underlying quantitative measurement, prediction, and control is the idea that th ere is one truth that can be known (Creswell, 1998). The Challenge of Social Scientific Research Several aspects of the social sciences make generating th eory and conducting research based on empirical experiences difficult. First, according to social sc ientists, knowledge is constructed rather than measured. Second, soci al phenomena are rooted in a context; removing the context changes the outcome. Third, social ph enomena are not repeatable since all aspects of 33

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the context are subject to change and cannot be held constant. Finally, emotions, feelings, and nonempirical experiences become bounded by the instruments used to measure them. Measurement allows for the development of in strumentation, data collection, and analysis. Instrumentation allows scientists to share and build perspectives. To measure a social phenomenon, however, requires researchers to construct knowledge and reality based on predefined constructs. The range of emotions, thoughts, and memo ries must be limited to the boundaries set by the researcher. While measurement of nonempirical phenomena, given predefined constructs for instrumentation, can be repeatable, there are limitations based on the researchers attempts to explain the variance of the constructs. Measurement requires translating phenomenon into a representation of reality and, therefore, the re sponses are bounded. For example, the Wong-Baker scale attempts to qua ntify a childs emotion and bounds the range of emotions into six choices (Figure 3-1). Thus, the instrument forces participants to select from the options available, even if the choices do not precisely fit. Likewise the instrument provides researchers with a standard for gathering data on emotions and allows for the transference of the findings across multiple contexts. In order to conduct research on phenomena that are difficult to measure, researchers must operate from a philosophical paradigm that is different from the hard sciences. Qualitative researchers stress the socially c onstructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the situationa l constraints that shape their inquiry (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). Denzin and Lincoln warn soci al scientists about the risks of quantification and the development of instruments that show biases th at are undisclosed in quantitative research. Ultimately, there must be a balance between de veloping instrumentation standards and purely 34

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qualitative context bound research. Instrumentation and measurement allow social science to develop theories that can be tested and provides foundational research for future inquiry. Qualitative research uses a variety of tool s for data collection including focus groups, historical research, and interviews. There is a variety of traditions that a researcher can utilize to examine the data. According to Creswell, there are five traditions of qualitative inquiry: biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, eth nography, and case study (Creswell, 1998). A biography collects data in the form of literature re views and interviews, and explores human life. Since the focus of inquiry for this research was the stakeholders response to transgenic ornamentals, neither biography nor et hnography were a logical choice. The remaining three methodologies, case stud ies, phenomenologies, and grounded theory research are used to examine phenomena a nd events. These methods would have been applicable to the GloFish study depending on th e perspective desired. A case study would have to be bounded by the limits of an entity, su ch as a corporation, a nd required a variety of data collection tools to draw conclusions about the company or policy under investigation. A GloFish case study would also have been an effective research trad ition, however the study would have only examined a time bounded instance, such as the first introduction of the GloFish to pet stores. Examini ng only the initial response of th e stakeholders would not have provided an accurate model of th eir evolving sentiments, since many of the retailers began, then discontinued selling the fish. As well, theore tical sampling, an integral component of grounded theory research, required a divers ity of participants to test the theorys boundaries. Likewise, a case study would have provided a rigorous exam ination of only the initial responses, which would have mimicked innovation adoption theories. 35

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Qualitative Research Issues Considerable debate has taken place between qualitative and quantitat ive research camps required measures of validity and reliability. Th e two camps address reliab ility and validity in fundamentally different ways based on differing perceptions of how truth is known. Thus, a philosophical difference exists underlying quant itative and qualitativ e research. Tangible phenomenon can be evaluated with instruments and with numeric representations of the event. Phenomenon that cannot be touched, felt, see n, heard, or smelled does not lend itself to a quantitative representation. For ex ample, personality can be measur ed using an instrument such as Myers-Briggs inventory, but the instrument cannot fully encapsulate the broad range of emotions, thoughts, and actions th at constitute personality. Qualitative research is fundamentally different from quantitative methods in that the results are not generalizable and the researcher is an in tegral part of the data collection process. Another difference is that there is no single correct way to interpret the qualitative results (Janesick, 2000). Multiple interp retations can be made from the same data given variations in researcher biases and paradigms. In addition, the researcher accepts that validity and biases are intertwined with the results and can be reve aled, but not removed. Both qualitative and quantitative researchers must iden tify, contend, and solve validity issues to enhance the quality of their research. While some qualitative research ers believe that they do not need to address validity issues, an effort must be made to enha nce the quality and transferability of the study. Reliability, trustworthiness, quali ty, verification, and transferabili ty are used to evaluate the results of a qualitative study. Grounded Theory The debate between the validity and importan ce of qualitative methods reached a head in the cold-war era when the emphasis was on the sc ientific method of discovery. Grounded theory 36

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was developed by two sociologists, Glaser and Stra uss, while exploring so cial interactions in hospitals, specifically death and dying (Glaser, 1965). They developed the methods to lend credibility to their research. Today, the major ity of grounded theory research remains in the health sciences and it has become the qualita tive toolset for examining elusive phenomenon in the medical field. The ideology driving grounded theory was the development of a systematic process for developing theory from both quantitative and qualitative data (Walker & Myrick, 2006). Grounded theory is a postpositivis tic structured iterative nonseque ntial process used to reveal theories (Figure 2-1). While qualitative resear ch purists question the efficacy of placing postpositivistic concepti ons of reality into a positivistic process for conducting research, the theories generated from the methodology have w ithstood the test of time (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). The primary difference between grounded theo ry and other qualitative traditions is that the data reveal the theory in an iterative evol ving process. There are no hypotheses formulated, rather, a statement of purpose directs da ta collection and preliminary coding. Two types of theory can be generated using th is process: formal th eory and substantive theory. Formal theory explains broad concepts such as death, power, and war. Likewise, substantive theory is more specifi c and addresses specific social pr ocesses. The type of theory developed depends on the research ques tion (Glaser & Stra uss, 1967/1999). A fundamental component of research is cr eating a sample to study. Sampling allows quantitative researchers to use inferential statis tics to make generalizations to the larger population. Sampling can be broken into tw o categories: probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. Probability sampling attemp ts to randomly select participants to avoid the introduction of systematic error that could impact the validity of the findings. Likewise, 37

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nonprobablity sampling selects individuals based on pr eviously defined criteria and therefore has a nonrandom component. Researchers favor probability sampling since non-probability sampling increases the risks that the variance me asured by the dependent variable is spurious. Qualitative researchers employ nonprobability sampling techniques, since hypotheses are not tested. For qualitative inquiry there is no effort to generalize the findings since the results are context specific. Qualitative researchers must explain how the sampling took place using thick description and the reasoning behind the selection of the participan ts must be made clear to the reader. Grounded theory research, unlike most qualitative trad itions, relies on a prescriptive nonrandom sampling technique that begins with the oretical sampling and ends in discriminate sampling (Corbin & Strauss, 1998). The progressi on begins by selecting pa rticipants with the most variance to test the boundaries of the theory and ends with selecting particip ants with the characteristics that populat e the final categories. A key component of building theory require s selecting a population that will reveal insights. Theoretical sampling re quires the isolation of groups which have attributes that manifest emergent theory when compared. The challenge to the researcher is to maximize the opportunities to discover varia tions and inconsistencies amon g groups. Thus, the comparison groups are selected based on thei r theoretical relevance (Corbin & Strauss, 1998). While it is impossible to state what groups will arise from the research, there are boundaries that can be placed on the population. The boundaries must be ameliorated by the emergent theory, and then be moved to further verify the findings. The pr ecursor to the theory is the development of categories. Glaser and Strauss created a rubric to explain the relationship between the amount of data collected on a category and the difference in groups. (Table 3-1). 38

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Theoretical sampling continues until each ca tegory becomes saturated, when no other participants contribution would not be explaine d by the developed theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999). Using the more structured formula, theoretical sampling consists of initial sampling, followed by open sampling, axial samp ling, and categorical sampling. The sampling parallels the coding process and is an iterative process (Corbi n & Strauss, 1998). Ultimately, theoretical sampling is sampling with a purpose, a nd it is an iterative a nd deductive process. For the initial sampling, the res earcher is interested only in collecting information to help begin building categories. When research begins, the drive will be to develop as many categories as possible. A questi onnaire or interview protocol should be developed based on the literature and previous studies (C orbin & Strauss, 1998). After se veral interviews, the categories will begin to appear in most of the intervie ws. Following the analysis of each preliminary interview, the subsequent participant will be select ed based on the previous results. The initial sampling rapidly creates categories and leads to open sampling. During open sampling, the researchers goal is to name, isolate, and categorize the phenomenon of study. To begin categorizing the pe rsistent themes, the researcher must probe while sampling in a way to maintain openness to th e emergent categories. The results from each interview are contrasted with the previous result. Open sampling seeks to verify the relevance of the categories developed from the initial sampling. In effect, it is the firs t instance when the data drives the selection of subsequent participants. Once the categories have been developed, the next form of sampling, relational and variation sampling begins. Relati onal-variation sampling seeks part icipants that will maximize the range of variance. The results from the analysis are compared across sites or persons to uncover similarities and differences. 39

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Finally, discriminate sampling takes place to select participants. The purpose of discriminate sampling is to sample for partic ipants with the greatest differences. Unlike relational-variational sampling that samples to saturate categories by maximizing the range of variance among categories, discriminate sampling seeks to locate outliers. The final sampling step, discriminate sampling, shoul d integrate categories along dimensions to form a theory. Discriminate sampling is the most selective a nd only selects individual s who will demonstrate the range of samples under which the theory applies. Theoretical sampling begins with a larger siev e and ends with highly selective criteria. Probability sampling techniques would result in a limited exploration of the boundaries of the emergent categories. The process allowed for th e development of emergent theory rather than biasing the theory by creating catego ries and seeking participants w ho fill the needed roles. As categories arise from the coding process, the bounda ries of those categories must be tested. In order to establish what criterion makes a category relevant, a sample must be selected to test the theory. The coding process and sampling proces s work in unison to develop the theory. The process is fundamentally different from the scientific method since there are neither hypotheses generated nor inferen tial statistics employe d to generalize the findings to the population at large. Once the categories have be en created by analyzing the interviews, they must be tested again. In addition to this iterative process, gro unded theory requires the researcher to make meaning of the data. It is the researchers role to determine the data that is relevant to the development of the theory. Generalizability is not possible in qualita tive research; however, the findings can be transferred to similar instances. To increase the transferability of the study, biases and environmental influences must be revealed. As well, building transferable theory requires 40

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selecting a population that will reveal the diversity of responses to the phenomenon in question. Theoretical sampling requires the isolation of groups which have attributes that manifest emergent theory. Qualitative researchers refer to the quality and credibility rather than internal validity of the study. The quality of the research requires more effo rt on the part of the audience than quantitative research. The credibility of the study should be judged by the reader and based on how the researchers draw their conclusions from the data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999). There are, however, several th reats to quality. First, theo retical sampling might not pull from the range of opinions and lead to an in accurate theory. To avoid partially developed categories, selecting the correct participants is critical. Significant effort must be made to interview people with the desired attributes that will test the boundaries of the emergent theory. Secondly, people are heavily influenced by the res earchers presence, tone of voice, and affect. The researcher must be introspective, astute, and self-aware to be able to collect high quality data, and must allocate time to examining his influence in the narrative. Third, while Creswell estimates that approximately twenty interviews ar e needed to reach saturation, a sample size too small could leave categories neither sufficiently tested nor completely saturated (Creswell, 1998). The only criterion for sample size in a gr ounded theory research is that all categories have been fully explored. Fourth, the final pr oduct draws from questions during interviews that can be leading. The research can reduce the validity of their findings by not asking the correct questions. Corbin and Strauss (1998) and Lincoln and Guba (1990) utilize th e term validity to describe an evaluation attribute. According to Lincoln and Guba the trustworthiness, validity, of qualitative research can be judged by four criter ia. First is isomorphism the appearance of the phenomenon among two or more respondents (Lincoln & Guba). Secondly, the researchers must 41

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state biases to avoid tainting the findings with th eir perceptions. There must be narrative that explicitly describes the researchers background, biases and a ttributes that could influence both data collection and analysis. The narrative must include insight into the researchers paradigm and mode of thinking and reveal the biases that impact the emergent theory. Third, validity also must have consistency across multiple instances. Finally, the results must be transferable and generalizable to other situations. Corbin and Strauss (1998) r ecommend triangulation, negative case analysis, and testing for rival hypotheses to evaluate qualit ative research. Triangulation eith er verifies the data with current literature and sources, or additional research can be done either quantitative or qualitative that will either uphold or reject the findings. Denzin (1978) suggests the research employs four types of triangulation: (a) data triangulation, (b) investigator triangu lation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) methodologica l triangulation. Data trian gulation compares data across multiple studies. Investigator triangulati on compares the finding among several different researchers. Theory triangulation ta kes place in the form of a litera ture review to verify that the theory holds up across multiple disciplines and supports the current theoretical framework. Finally, methodological triangulation verifies that the methods us ed to reach the conclusions have been proven and employed in an swering similar research questions. Present Theories Like genetically modified ornamental fish, ot her innovations, such as woolen mills, coffee, televisions, nuclear power, automotive manufact uring robots, and microw aves all resulted in public outcry (Pendergrast, 1999; Randall, 1986). The Atomic Energy Commission underestimated the public backlash to atomic energy (Juma & Calo, 2002) Historically people oppose change. To be successful then, innovators must introduce new technology carefully to avoid backlash (Phillips & Co rkindale 2002). The agricultural biotechnology industry failed to 42

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address the publics concerns when they began employing genetic engine ering to create new cultivars for the world food supply (Harries-R ees, 2003; Juma & Calo, 2002; Wolt & Peterson, 2000). Genetic engineers assumed that education through information would lead to the formulation of positive attitudes toward their products. Because they failed to communicate effectively with the public, they created an uphill battle in gaining the pub lics trust (Phillips & Corkindale 2002). Beyond simple press releases and public relations effort s, there are social and psychological forces that determine consumer re sponses to new technologies. Since mass media serves an integral role in e ducating and disseminating informati on about new technologies to the public, communication strategies have a hea vy impact on consumer sentiments (Shanahan, Scheufele, & Lee, 2001). Researchers have de constructed the growing opposition to genetic engineering using a number of paradigms and theories. While each theory points to the perception of risk as the driv ing force of the resistance, they differ in exploring how communications created the perception. First and second generation biotechnologies were all plants with attributes benefiting the producer such as Round-Up Ready Soybeans a nd Bt Corn and Cotton (Stewart & McLean, 2004). Third generation biotechnologies will begin to provide the publ ic with valuable attributes and will include both plants and animals (G uynup, 2000; Lewis, 2001). Communication theory specific to addressing ornamental retailers responses to transgenic ornamental fish has not been developed, however, Sociocultural, Cognitive Scie nce, and Reasoned Action theories all partially explain why retailers have re sponded negatively to the intro duction of the GloFish. Theoretical knowledge on transgenic fish divide s by either academic traditions or business sectors. While little research has specifically addressed th e GloFish, extensive research on 43

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public response to the broader biotechnology an d aquaculture sectors has been carried out (Lewis, 2001; Phillips & Corkindale, 2002; Titche ner & Sapp, 2002). Most of the information available comes from mass media sources rather than academic journals. From an academic perspective, the schools of psychology, business, political science, bi ology, public relations, agriculture, journalism and mass communications have examined issues in biotechnology from the standpoint of various paradigms. From a bus iness sector perspective, research has been conducted in the aquaculture, biotechnology, agricu ltural biotechnology, and the pet industries. The largest body of literature examining the transg enic zebra danio exists in the scientific community. Thus, the overwhelming majority of the research has been experimental and highly positivistic in nature. Molecular biologists and geneticists began using the fish for research due to its survivability and fecundity in the 1990s. In 1997, the National Ins titute of Health (NIH) recognized the importance of the zebra danio in understanding human di sease and created the Trans-NIH Zebrafish Coordinating Committee to spearhead and orga nize international research (Henken, 1998). The Sanger Institute began sequencing the genome for Danio rerio in 2001 and is currently more than 60% complete. The Zebr afish Information Network (Zfin) lists over 6500 publications pertaining to the fish. A large body of research describes bioreactor constructs, fluorescen t proteins, and other potential uses for the fish in biomedical and oncological research (Cheng, Christie, & Valdimarsson, 2003). Dr. Gong at the University of Singapore is the foremost researcher in adding fluorescent protein genes to zebra fish genomes. In 1999, Ju and his colleges (1999) published an article describing th e expression of green fluorescent protein in the musculature of the fish; this was the predecessor to the red fl uorescent species, the GloFish (Ju et al., 1999). The publication defined the methodology for inserti ng fluorescent protein genes used as genetic 44

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markers into the mlyz-2 promoter region, and fu ture research was done to improve the genes expression (Ju et al., 2003). Other species and strains have now been developed, including a two color zebra fish, but no others have been commercialized. In contrast to the scholarl y journals on developmental genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry are the applied aquaculture research j ournals. This research is generally applied in nature and pertains to food fish rather than ornamentals, particularly the major food fish species, such as shrimp, salmon, tilapia, and clams, that represent the bulk of the industrys financial impact on the fisheries industry. Extensive studies on transgenic salmon and the public perception of transgenic food fish have been conducted as well as studies analyzing the environmental impact of the introduction of geneti cally modified fish into the ecosystem (Carr, Anderson, Whoriskey, & Dilworth, 1997; Hedrick, 2001; Institute for Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability, 2003; Kapuscins ki & Hallerman, 1991; McGinnity et al., 1997; Muir & Howard, 1999; Pew Initiative, 2004). As well, aquarium hobbyists preferences for certain fish have been deconstructed in survey research (Alencatro, 2004). Literature indicating possible environmental degradation delayed the Food and Drug Administrations approval of tr ansgenic salmon. Muir and Howard s Trojan Gene Hypothesis, which predicts the collapse of native fish stocks due to the introduction of an escaped transgenic salmon, has been cited by special interest gr oups as a potential result of commercializing the GloFish (Center for Food Safety, 2004). Transgenic ornamental fish inhe rit the environmental concerns generated not only from the aquaculture sector, but al so from the transgenic food industry. Survey research is the most common me thodology for examining public response to agricultural biotechnolo gy. A Google search revealed 366,000 hits on GMO Surveys. No 45

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results appeared when GloFish Survey was en tered. A considerable amount of qualitative work has been done examining the publics react ion to the broader biotechnology sector, but no research specifically addressing transgenic ornamental fish ha s been reported (Pardo, Midden, & Miller, 2002; Phillips & Corkindale 2002; Pew Initiative, 2003). Articles from special interest groups such as Greenpeace and the Center for Food Safety appear in online searches of the web, but these lack rigor ous methodology, and are based on parallel studies by Muir and Howard (Center for Food Safe ty, 2004; Greenpeace International, 2004; Muir & Howard, 1999). The five most applicable theo retical ties used to explain the public reaction to third generation biotechnologies are Sociocultural theories, Social-Cognitive theories, Reasoned Action theories, Decision-making theories, and Diffusion of Innovation theories. Sociocultural theories contend that the growing negative sentim ents towards biotechnology stem from societal risk perceptions. The theories are applicable wh en investigating the impact of invasive species such as the snake-headed fish on the publics conscious. Social cognitive theories explain how the public builds sentiments and beliefs through both cognition as we ll as societal influences and is highly applicable given th e negative publicity surrounding aquaculture and genetically modified foods (Bandura, 2002). The impact of special interest groups can be examined using Social Cognitive as well as Sociocultural paradigms. Schools of psychol ogy have examined agricultural biotechnology by studying risk perception in humans and applying social and cognitive theoretical paradigms (Stewart & McLean, 2004). Reas oned action models have been used to predict consumer reactions to genetically modifi ed foods (Wolt & Peterson, 2000). Decision-making theories are relevant to the investigation sinc e the decision to buy or not buy tran sgenic ornamental fish is at 46

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the heart of the research. The process that po tential buyers use to reach a buying decision must be investigated. Finally, Rogers Diffusion of Innovation theory e xplains why some retailers are earlier adopters of the technology, while others shy away from play ing a maverick role in their industry. Sociocultural and Cognitive Science Theories Socioculturalists and cognitive scientists examine how people form attitudes and develop knowledge. The sociocultural camp contends that public attitudes result from discourse in the risk assessment of the new technologies and the development of public attitude is multifaceted (Helene, 2003). The discourse includes weigh ting tangible hazards against the benefits the consumer receives from the risk, and cultural, political and normative influences (Helene, 2003; Titchener & Sapp, 2002). The cognitive scien ce perspective examines how knowledge and objectively defined risks influences peoples behavi ors. They theorize that people form attitudes based on a rational model derived from the available information (Titchener & Sapp). Cognitive scientists support the not ion that knowledge itself can prom ote the acceptance of technologies, while socioculturists examine the holistic societal process of attitude formulation (Titchener & Sapp). Banduras (2002) Social Cognitive Theory uses th e model of triadic reciprocal causation and assumes people learn from a variety of source s. Bandura investigated the influence of mass media on the development of attitudes and opinion s and is attributed to linking violence in children with violence on television (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961). In this theory of psychological function, the environment, percepti ons, and behavioral act bidirectionally and allow people to exert control over their environm ents (Bandura, 2002). The perceived ability of the individual to control his environment heav ily influences behavior. Cognitive processes 47

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assemble the information available to the individual to determine the desirability of the behavior (Bandura, 1994). The Social Cognitive Theory also addre sses how mass media constructs knowledge. Bandura contends that television portrayals influence viewer be liefs. Other mass media outlets, while not as rich as television, al so contribute to the development of beliefs and attitudes. In addition, the action of others can lead to the rein forcement of these beliefs and potential actions. Bandura viewed behavior causality as the result of numerous and exhaustive determinants (Bandura, 2002). Thus, the negative publicity surr ounding GM crops in the media, and the efforts of special interest groups compounded to build negative frames around gene tically engineered products. Because negative media coverage of agricultu ral biotechnology has increased since 1997, the resulting public backlash can be explained by So cial Cognitive Theory (Shanahan, Scheufele, & Lee, 2001). The Starlink scare, and other food supply crises, such as Mad Cow, have had a deleterious impact on the publics perception of new technologies (Uchtmann, 2002). As well, efforts by special interest groups such as Gree npeace act to create knowledge that impacts future behaviors. The Atlantic Instit ute of Market Studies (2004), while examining only aquaculture, indicated that special interest groups rapidly tainted public opinion regarding the environmental friendliness of salmon aquacultu re. Due to the climate crea ted by anti-GMO groups, Gerber foods announced it would not use GM products in their foods, and no large retailers would stock transgenic ornamental fish (Titchner & Sapp, 2002). The knowledge people accumulate serves as their risk barometer for the unknown. Therefore, if people do not fully understand the science behind genetically modified foods they will leverage information accumulated from previous media sources to determine the ri sk of consuming the products. 48

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Traditional marketing efforts for GM foods ha ve used models rooted in Cognitive Science paradigms. Sharpe, however, has demonstrat ed that knowledge alone does not predict the publics positive or negative beliefs pertaining to biotechnology (Sharpe, 2002). Efforts to reduce smoking and drunk driving have followed this model with limited success and exemplify the limitations of using a rational model to change behaviors. Yet, when efforts were made to increase the efficacy of public announcements agai nst drunk driving, people were more likely to internalize the information (Ande rson, 1995). Phillips and Corkinda le noted that education is a weak force at best, but the agricultural biotec hnology sector has relied on this paradigm to address consumers negative responses to GM foods (Phillips & Corkindale 2002). Draper and Green (2002) performed historical research to analyze th e evolution of the ro le of the public in food policy. They discovered that consumers ri sk perceptions transcen ded a strictly rational model. In short, rather than being an ignoran t and passive object of food policy, the sociological subject is a ra tional individual who is a cons umer (in that he/she makes individual choices), bu t whose choices are framed by his/he r cultural, social, and material circumstances. (Draper & Green, 2002) Uses and Gratifications Theory explains the shortcomings of using a cognitive model to communicate biotechnology concepts to a lay audien ce. The theory attempts to explain why people choose certain type s of music, internet sites, and ne wspapers, but also demonstrates how people build knowledge using different types of media (Blumler & Katz, 1974). Since media will lead to the development of knowledge in a specific genre, according to Bandura, the gratification people receive from consuming certain types of media determines the development of attitudes and beliefs (Bandura, 1994; Ruggiero, 2000). Therefore, media that does not provide gratification will not lead to the form ulation of attitudes and beliefs. 49

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Educating the public about complex scientific issues is challenging since it requires an interested learner to seek information. From a Uses and Gratification perspective, general agricultural biotechno logy self-education will be rare sin ce there is no immediate gratification beyond self-affirmation in using the media sources To understand the risk and benefits of supporting the technology, a knowledge search is neces sary to build a precise and accurate risk valuation matrix (Wolt & Peterson, 2000). Pe ople do not get gratifi cation, however, from reading public relations materials printed by probiotechnology entities. Thus, the Cognitive Science model of communication is a poor choice for building public support. Ironically, the lack of gratification from consuming biotec hnology media is an a dvantage to GloFish proponents since people will not seek out information that would make them unwilling to buy the fish. Titchener and Sapp (2002) performed a survey of 10,000 households to determine if opinions toward biotechnology were influenced more heavily from the Cognitive Science or Sociocultural perspectives. The researchers discovered that a persons risk assessment transcends the viewpoint of cognitive scientists and includes societal influences. Individuals, rather than experts, ultimately will decide whet her to adopt or reject new technology (Titchner & Sapp). Additionally, a large proportion of the individuals decision is influenced by norms, attitudes, beliefs, and values. While previous survey results indicat ed that education and information are not predictors of biotechnol ogy acceptance, they are the basis upon which buying decisions are made (Priest, 2000). Social influences must then be incorporated within the theoretical approaches to be st understand the potential adopti on or rejection of complex and controversial new technologies (Titchner & Sapp, 2002). These findings reaffirm the concept 50

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that norms and social pressures play a heightened role in the development of attitudes when the understanding of the technology is reduced. Theory of Reasoned Action The Fishbein-Ajzen (1975) theory of reas oned action explained not only the development of negative attitudes toward biotechnology, but also peoples behaviors toward genetically modified products (Figure 3-2). The publics bu ying decisions with regard to GloFish should have followed the Fishbein-Ajzen theory of Reasoned Action, therefore, people should have made systematic use of information available to them and will use the information as the basis for the formulation of attitudes (Ajzen, 1991). The theory contended that a large percentage of human action is predictable if attitudes, norms, beliefs, sociological influences and intentions were known (Fishbein & Ajzen). The model is highl y rational in nature a nd has been criticized for its over simplification of human behavior, ho wever, the model potentia lly could explain some of the variance involved in the public s reaction towards biotechnology. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) created expectancy value models to predict human behaviors based on norms, locus of control, and attitudes. The Theory of Planned Behavior examines eight aspects of human behavior in three categor ies: beliefs, behaviors, and intentions. The first grouping addresses the individuals beliefs and at titudes. Beliefs lead to attitudes and norms which then drive the in tention and subsequent behavior. Behavioral beliefs are what an individual believes will happen as the result of their actions. Th e attitude toward the behavior is the positive or negativ e valuation of the performed behavior Next, societal consequences and beliefs are defined. Normative beliefs are societ al norms and values, while subjective norms are the perceived social consequences and pressures of performing a behavior. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) were influenced by Bandura and his conc ept of Locus of Control (Bandura, 1994). The 51

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control beliefs are the ideas that exist regardi ng what could interfere w ith the action, and the perceived behavioral control is th e perceived ability of the individual to influence the factors. Researchers have already linked the publics negative reaction against GM crops to their perceived consequences of consuming GM pr oducts (Castro, 2006; Joffe & Lee, 2004). The power of special interest groups rests in their ability to alter the perceived consequences of performing actions and generating a ttitudes and beliefs that question the safety of new transgenic products. Poor transparency of the regulatory agenci es, past failures, and a general lack of trust in large multinational businesses add to the cognitive uncertainty of the safety of such biotechnologies as the GloFish. The Reasoned Action Theory demonstrates how the efforts of special interest groups have significant delete rious consequences for the industry by falsely elevating the perceived consequence of consumi ng genetically modified products. The strategy of special interest groups has been to place doub t in peoples minds about the safety of the technology, and, ultimately, to change buying behaviors. Intention is the immediate antecedent or behavior and represents a persons readiness to perform a behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2005). The in tention is based on attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, with each predictor weighted for its importance in relation to the behavior and populat ion of interest (Ajze n, 2005). Finally, the actual behavioral control refers to the availability of the res ources required to perform the resulting path of best fit behavior. Behavior represents the final product of the c ognitive process. All six categories of beliefs, norms, and attitudes interact to l ead to the behavior. For example, the attitudes of the behavior are influenced by both society and pr eviously held beliefs. If one area is less developed than the other, then increased emphasis will be placed on the more established source of knowledge. 52

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According to the Reasoned Action model, behavi or results from weighing societal norms, attitudes, and personal belief that the behavior can be performed with the perceived consequence of a behavior. Thus, changing any part of the cognitive decision process results in a change in the potential behavior. Therefore, the reaction to re ject the GloFish results from a rational assessment of the risks, benefits, and perceived control over the situation. Since rejecting the GloFish is the manifestation of a cognitive pr ocess pooling data from informa tion sources, normative beliefs, and perceived risks, changing the behavior requires a multifaceted approach. If the cognitive process utilizes the media sour ces containing anti-GMO informati on, then the resulting behavior would reflect the valuation of that information source. The consequences of purchasing a GloFish ar e not tangible to the consumer, but for larger retailers the consequences of stocking th e fish could result in loss of business in other departments. The larger retailers, however, ar e basing the risk on perceived consequences rather than actual consumer response. In effect, th e Reasoned Action model explains the reluctance of those large retailers who stock othe r items besides aquarium paraphern alia to perceive the risk to other aspects of their bu siness too great to justify the profits made from stocking ornamental transgenic fish. Decision-Making Theories Decision-making research falls into either the descriptive camp or th e prescriptive camp. Descriptive researchers try to understand how deci sions are made while pr escriptive re searchers attempt to improve the decisions. The area of res earch that is applicable to this study is the descriptive branch, which describe s how decisions are made. The decision to stock or not stock the GloFish constitutes the essence of this research. Generally people are poor decision makers and fail to allocate the resources requir ed to reach a quality decision. According to 53

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Simon and March, people have bounded rationa lity and fail to accumulate the information needed to make high quality decisions (Simon & March, 1958). The small effort dedicated to the task stems from incorrect assumptions about the positive and negative outcomes, and potential risks associated with a course of action. The reduction in res ources used to make decisions relates to their scarcity. Si mon and March described the con cept of satisficing versus optimizing. Satisficing describes the mi nimal amount of work the decision maker will undertake to acquire the information to make d ecision, likewise optimizing describes the ideal due-diligence that should go into the decision maki ng process. The two ends of the satisficingoptimizing continuum explain the increases in ef ficiency but decreases in quality of decisionmaking (Simon & March). Huber defines decision-making as, The process through which a course of action is taken (Huber, 1981). Decision-making deals with prob lem definition and diagnosis and the seeking of alternative solutions. Decision-making collects the information that feeds into the choicemaking process. Finally, the broadest of the terms is problem solving which includes both choice-making and decision-making as well as the implementati on of the choice. Huber (1981) leverages Simon and Marchs (1958) concept that humans have limited intellect a nd limited information availability when they make decisions and must use tools to expand their capabilities. Humans must satisfice and select the more efficient pro cess since optimizing requires several orders of magnitude more effort. As a result of the limits to hum an rationality, managers use inadequate models to make decisions and em ploy overly simplistic decision strategies. Information represents the input into the probl em solving process. Since the raw material for management and the problem solving process is information, Huber identifies several types 54

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of information and the sources and uses of eac h. His identification of the information types enriches Simon and Marchs concept and he lps management optimize the decision-making process. Huber categorizes information as basic information, elaborating information or performance information (Huber, 1981). Retailers must decide to stock or not to stock transgenic ornamental fish using the information available to them combined with pr evious beliefs about the safety and economic viability of the product. The GloFish is not co nsumed and has attributes that the consumer desires. From a uses and gratification perspectiv e, the risk in consuming genetically engineered food is tangible and high, while purchasing a Gl oFish presents few perceived risks to the consumer. As Simon and March (`1958) stated, the deci sion-making surrounding the decision to stock the fish is based on bounded rationality. People not only want to minimize the time spent researching facts but also want to categorize biotechnology using previously developed schema. One of the biggest mistakes and weaknesses of the pro biotech audience is that they try and use rational approaches to justify the safety and lack of risk in genetically modified products. This is an advantage to GloFish proponents since people will not seek out in formation that would make them unwilling to buy the fish. Understandi ng transgenic technology is not salient to the basic aquarists decision to purchase a GloFish; the aquarist doe s not link the colorful fish to transgenic technology. Consumers dont care enough about the contro versy since special interest groups are unable to create uncertainty and se nsationalism around a one-inch ornamental tropical fish. Independently, they do not provide an adeq uate explanation for why certain retailers have refused to carry the product. 55

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Diffusion of Innovation Theories Diffusion theories attempt to explain how new innovations spread through social entities. While rooted in sociology, diffusion theories explain paradoxes such as the rejection of keyboards capable of speeding the pace of typing, atomic energy, and genetically modified crops (Bauer, 1995/1997a; Juma & Calo, 2002; Rucht, 1995/ 1997). The theories examine social forces influencing the rate, extent, and processes of how changes (innovations) are incorporated. The development of transgenic stocks of ornamental fish represents a significant innovation for the aquarium industry. For the retailer, new exotic species can be marketed to tropical fish enthusiasts. As well, aquacultu rists raising ornamental fish no longer can breed fish without paying royalties to patent holders. The ra mifications of selling the GloFish go beyond ornamental fish to include the us e of genetic engineering to create pets with desirable attributes. Gabriel Tarde, a French sociologist, pioneered diffusion research. He discovered that new technologies were adopted according to an S-shap ed curve (Figure 3-3). Some new technologies had steep S curves while others had flatter S cu rves indicating a slower adoption speed. Thus, there is a lag at the beginning of the adoption cy cle following a rapid rate of acceptance. At the end of the cycle, the remaining skeptics slowly incorporate the innovation. Tardes S curve has been proven to be a viable model explaining the adoption rate of most new technologies (Rogers, 1962/2003). A study performed at the University of Iowa in the 1940s by two Sociologists, Bryce Ryan and Neal Gross (1943), has a special significance for understa nding the adoption of biotechnologies. Ryan and Gross examined th e adoption of hybrid seeds by farmers. They found that hybrid seed use diffused rapidly fr om 1936 to 1939, but few farmers used the seeds exclusively for the first year. Most importan tly, the researchers disc overed that a neighbors decision to plant the hybrid seed was the larges t determinant for adoption. While salesmen 56

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provided information to farmers, it was the interaction and knowledge exchange between colleagues and neighbors that determined if the farmers accepted the hybrid seed (Ryan & Gross, 1943). The most influential diffusion of informati on researcher of the 20th century is Everett Rogers (2003). In his book, Diffusion of Innovation, he describes the process of diffusion, its components, and the type of people most likely to adopt technologies first. Rogerss model of diffusion of innovation includes four component s: the innovation, communication channels, time, and the social system. The innovation is the technology or change. Communication channels refer to the information exchange a bout the technology. Time has three components: the decision to adopt the technol ogy, the pace of the individuals adoption, and the time elapsed from the introduction to implementation of the tec hnology. Lastly, the social system refers to the bounded social unit to receive th e new technology. Rogers coin ed the terms innovator, early adopter, early majority, late majority, and laggard s to describe the time of technology adoption. Rogers defined Ryan and Grosss neighbor as an opinion leader, someone a potential adopter views as more informed than they themselves are. Rogers (1962/2003) outlines five stages of adoption: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. The awareness stage is marked by first learning th at a new technology is available. After the awareness st age, the potential adopter may gain an interest in learning more about the innovation. During the interest stage the individual seeks information that will lead to an evaluation of the risks and benefits asse ssment of adopting the te chnology. Following the assessment, the adopter will trial the new technology and will either accept or reject it. If the individual does not reject the technology, they will then move to the final stage, adoption (Rogers). 57

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Diffusion of innovation research fails to explai n the adoption of genetically modified fish by aquarium retailers. While th e adoption of the technology follows an S-curve regarding the number of adopters over time, the process of adoption does not follow the Rogerian model. As well, the largest retailers do not sell GloFish. Despite opin ion leaders stam p of approval and the interest in the tropical fish i ndustry to differentiate from large re tailers, some stores refuse to stock the fish. Rogers (1962/2003) does not ex amine the morality issues in adopting new technologies, which do not lend themselves to a risk benefits analysis. While confidence in social intuitions abilities to govern the ne w technologies has had a significant impact on adoption rates, there are other f actors that are influencing the ra te of the GloFish adoption that must be examined (Sapp & Korsching, 2004). Conclusions The biotechnology industry made false assumpti ons about the publics ability to evaluate the safety and desirability of products derive d from biotechnology (Harries-Rees, 2003). The rejection of many retailer chains to stocking the GloFish exemplifies the result of a poor communication strategy. Comm unication efforts by special interest groups opposing the GloFish utilized tactics from th e anti-GMO agriculture debate, but failed to gain support in the anti-GMO ornamental fish movement. Likewise, probiotechnology groups relied on a cognitive approach to communicating informa tion to the public that also had shortcomings in convincing large retailers to stock ornamental transgenics. Unlike other first generation biotechnologies, the GloFish has attributes consumers find desirable, and it is purchased based on its physical attributes rather than perceived risk. Ultimately, there are more factors involved in a decision to stock a GloFish than can be captured in previous research. Cognitive science theory fails to explain why people would reject the GloFish since it assumes that people th ink independently of societal norms. The 58

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GloFish, however, has desirable attributes. Ther efore, from a Cognitive Science paradigm, the fish should be well received by the public when combined with public trust in the regulatory agencies. Using a sociocultural lens does not provide a holistic representati on of public reaction toward transgenic ornamental fish. The Ma d Cow outbreak primed the public for skepticism about genetically modified foods, but does not influence consumers buying decisions of genetically modified ornamental fish (Uchtm ann, 2002). Socioculturists overlook, as well, the value of purchasing a dangerous product; many aquarists possess an antisocial characteristic that drives them to buy potentially dangerous, venomous, and violent fish. Already nonindigenous populations of poisonous Dragon fish have been reported in many locations in the western Atlantic (Hare & Whitfield, 2003). The demand for piranhas and sharks most likely stems from their dangerous image rather than beauty attributes. Thus, the e fforts of special interest groups working to create public fear towards GloFish c ould result in increased demand for the fish. While the sociocultural model explains the efficacy of anti-GMO groups toward transgenic foods, it fails to explain why re tailers who stock fish that ar e known environmental threats will not stock the GloFish. The Fishbein-Ajzen (1975) model of Reasone d Action presents a compelling explanation for the publics reaction, but there are more factors at play than attitudes, beliefs, and actions. The model explains the variation in the respons es of the large retaile rs, small stores, and consumers, based on perceived consequences. Since the GloFish has an attribute consumers value, enhanced coloration, and is tiny, appears benign, and is used as a decorative object rather than food, the perceived risk for consumers is low. Given the ra tional evaluation of the risks and benefits, the Reasoned Action model would pred ict overwhelming consumer acceptance of the 59

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new fish. Nonetheless, some store owners ar e leery about consumer responses (Alan Blake, personal communication, February 12, 2004). Wh ile the response has been positive, an overwhelming acceptance has not been observed. Once the FDA approved the GloFish for capitalization, California immediately banned selling the fish, but later recanted the decision (Associated Press, 2003; Mastrup, 2003). Finally, the decision-making pro cess used by retailers to stock the fish does not follow a rational model. Retailers do not adhere to a rational Huberian deci sion-making process. However, Simon and Marchs (1958) theories appear to be valid since the retailers make the best use of the information available to them and sa tisfice rather than optimize their information collection. Despite the failings of the broader agricultural biotechnology sector in introducing a new technology to the public, the GloFish is selling, and more genetically modified ornamental fish are in the pipeline. Researchers examined th e public response to ag ricultural biotechnology using cognitive processing, societal influences, self-efficacy, and behavioral models, but a holistic model should be developed th at explains the GloFish phenomenon. 60

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Table 3-1. Differences in comparison groups Amount of data collected on category Difference in groups Similar Diverse Minimized Maximum similarity in data leads to: (1) Verifying usefulness of category; (2) Generating basic properties; (3) Establishing set of conditions for a degree of category. Prediction (Quadrant 1 ) Spotting fundamental differences under which category and hypotheses vary. (Quadrant 2) Maximized Spotting fundamental similarities with the widest scope of analysis.(Quadrant 4) Maximum diversity in data leads to: (1) Dense developing of property of categories; (2) Integrating of categories and properties; (3) Delimiting the scope of the theory developed. (Quadrant 3) (Glaser & Strauss, 1967/1999) 61

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Figure 3-1. The Wong Baker Scale (Wong & Baker, 1988) Aquaculture Research Ornamental Fish Research Biotechnology Research Agricultural Biotechnology Research Public Opinion Research GloFish Research Figure 3-2. Areas of resear ch for aquatic biotechnology Figure 3-3. The theory of pl anned behavior (Azjen, 1991) 62

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Figure 3-4. S-Curve: The diffu sion process (Rogers, 1962/2003). 63

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The data collected could be in terpreted a number of ways and should not be generalized to other sample groups. The results would be diffi cult to duplicate since cr eating settings in time and place to match the interviews would be nearly impossible. In addition, the observations and transcriptions from interviews were analyzed and interpreted by the researcher, which contributed to the fallibility to the study. The interpretation is rooted in the investigator and includes biases. Twelve 45-minute interviews were conducted for a tota l of 152 single spaced pages of transcribed data. The constant comp arative method was used to investigate the variances among and between the participants. Interviews were conducted over an 18-month pe riod, and some variance in the responses from the beginning to the end can be attributed to the long durati on of the research. Initially, heavy media coverage of the GloFish helped boost sales and bri ng new customers into participating retailers st ores. By interview 10, the hype had di ssipated, and the last retailers to participate did not perceive transgenic fish as the wave of the future Therefore, the long duration helped ensure that the proper categories were developed to explain the retailers reaction. From the initial list of 80 participants, 12 were used to build the model. The differences among the participants were signi ficant, and the total ranges of responses to the interview questions were collected. Participants differe d in the type of products offered, geographic location, store size, education leve l, age, gender, religion, and prev ious attitudes toward genetic engineering. All aquarium retailers in Gaines ville, Tampa, Orlando and Jacksonville willing to participate were exhausted. An effo rt was made to contact large re tailers, but they were unwilling to participate in the interview process. Several off the reco rd conversations, however, were 64

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conducted with the largest pet retailers. One-hun dred fifty-three unique codes were summarized into four families: ethics, economics, Jurassic Park phenomenon, consumer attributes, and regulation. Grounded theory (Figure 4-1) required the inve stigator to complete each interview, code the transcribed results, and employ the constant comparative method to analyze patterns from all previous interviews. Therefor e, there was variance from interview to interview with the categories, codes, and themes that manifested. As well, a semi-structured interview was employed that allowed for more flexibility to in vestigate the boundaries of the emergent theory. From interview to interview, the themes and fa milies were variable until a formalized set of categories emerged after interview 8. Interview 1 (Pilot): The Early Adopter Overview The first interview was conducted with the owne r of an aquarium store in a small side section of the store among empty aquariums and boxe s in Gainesville, FL that sold both marine and tropic fish. The staff exhibited a strong eag erness to help, and befo re the interview began, preliminary discussions reveal ed other researchers had i nquired about the GloFish. Unfortunately, initial dialog was not ca ptured with a recording device. Before conducting the formal interview, the informed consent form was signed, and several aspects of the research were divulge d. First, the research was pro-GloFish and intended to help the ornamental industry. Seco nd, it was explained that he was the first person interviewed to test the interview protocol. Fina lly, it was explained that the technology was safe, and sustainable, and that reta ilers who sell the GloFish should be supported. This initial exchange changed the course of the subse quent interview. Once the form was signed, 65

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transcription began. The duration of the interv iew lasted approximately 25 minutes and was truncated because the owner had urge nt business he could not ignore. Location In the course of the interview, the owner mentioned that Gainesville provided a unique market due to the presence of the University of Florida and a liber al population with one foot in the PETA door. Proximity to Tampa, the locati on of Seagrist and 5-D, the largest ornamental fish wholesalers in the United States, allowed h im to become one of the early adopters. He believed that his location in Gain esville gave him a vantage to ev aluate new products that other retailers do not have. His belief that Gainesvi lle was a bell-weather market manifested in his statement that when the president of a large trop ical fish farm has some questions in terms of marketing, he brings him in because A, were he re in Gainesville, and B, he knows he is going to get the truth. Clearly his location in Gain esville contributed to his decision to stock the GloFish. Emergent Themes Innovation In the opening paragraph, the owner ac knowledged that, I wanted to be the first one to have em, I knew they were coming for about 6 months. The pressure for small ornamental fish retailers to carry innovative and unique products is great. Over the last decade, market growth in the ornamental fish industr y has stagnated. The i ndustry attributed the stagnation to the plethora of 21s t century hobbies such as the in ternet and video games. He believed the industry must innovate to compete in this environment, and he contended that genetic engineering is the innovation needed to rekindle consumer inte rest. He clearly stated that his desire to continue to stock innovative products influenced his de cision to be the first retailer in Gainesville to sell GloFish. 66

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Ethics Implicitly, the owner admitted that th e new technology was more ethical than previous methods used for making fish more colorf ul. He appeared to be wallowing in an ethical quagmire created by consumer demand for painted glass fish, a fish manually injected with dye. In explaining consumer response to painted fish he admitted that he should probably not carry the fish, but also indicated that one reason customers come to him is to purchase fish that are not available anywhere else. He re ferred to GloFish as an alternative to the painted fish and indicates that his staff is eager to sell GloFish. Information The availability of information was the most common theme in the interview, including not only the lack of pos itive information supporting the sale of the GloFish, but also the lack of ne gative propaganda from special interest groups. Developers of the transgenic salmon spent 5 years awaiting a ruling from the FDA, while GloFish became the first transgenic an imal approved for production in a span of a few months. The rapid approval allowed advocates of the new fish to re ach consumers before special interest groups. The participant wanted to provide full disclosu re to the customer, and hoped that, given the information available, they would make the best choice. He believed the greatest impetus for customer acceptance of transgenic ornamentals was the availability of information. He noted that the first generation GloF ish had a weak market response due, not only to minimal coloration, but also to lack of information for the consumer. Hype The owner stated twice th at, The first generation is not outstanding in terms of color. As well, he admits that th e price, combined with the lack of extreme coloration in the first generation, did not make the GloFish that econom ically important to his store. He admitted, however, that an interview on a lo cal television station, which he deemed negative, nonetheless, had done a great job of creating inte rest among hobbyists. He stated, I want them to talk a lot. 67

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Thus, one of the reasons for vending the fish was to stir controversy in a hobby that had become stagnant. For an industry that has not grown rapidly in the last deca de, the approval of the first transgenic animal for production has sent new aquarist s to the pet store. He realized as well that the hype and stir are too much for the large reta il stores, a decision that he admitted, breaks his heart. The niche for controve rsial products allowed him to di fferentiate his inventory that would otherwise be competing against large retail chains. Economics. The participant stated that the GloFish had not been an economic boon for his store, but admitted that the hype was a boost. He noted that one reason other retailers were reluctant to be early adopters was the cost. He elaborated, stating that the primary reason retailers decided not to purchase transgenic stock was due not to the controversial nature of the product, but the price. The GloFish was far mo re expensive than the natural version and not clearly differentiated from its cheaper counterpart. Safety The pilot participant was asked to describe the protocol he used to determine if the GloFish was a product he wanted to stock. The process he described proved to be more emotional than rational. He r easoned that the fish was safe since the gene would be naturally selected out of the population th rough predation. Further, once he understood that fish that consumed the GloFish would not experience an y genetic mutations, he was comfortable with the technology. Ultimately, he did not feel th e FDA approval, rulings by a leading population geneticist, or the US geological survey were reas ons to embrace transgenic ornamentals; rather it was personal reflection that allowed him to be an early adopter. Conclusions The tone of the interview was positive. Th e owner believed deve loping new strains of ornamental fish through genetic e ngineering will be the wave of the future and was eager to 68

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acquire the GloFish from his suppliers. The pr essure to be innovative manifested with the ethical dilemma of the painted fish and reveal ed a relationship between innovation and ethics. Since there was consumer demand for more color and he had to differentiate from large retail stores to succeed, he had to st ock a product that he believes wa s unethical, such as the painted fish. It was evident in the interview that the participant hoped tr ansgenic technology would make the practice of injecting glassfish with dye to create painted fish obsolete. Product safety emerged several times in the in terview. His reasoning for stocking the fish was simple and bounded by the information available to him. He did not utilize a formal protocol to assess the risks and benefits of stocki ng the transgenic fish, but in this instance came to the conclusion that the technology was safe because the trans-gene could not move among species. While he noted that he had never seen information indicating that GloFish posed a risk, he also admitted that the information availabl e to the store and its customers is inadequate. The lack of special interest propaganda elucidati ng the risk may have deterred his decision to be the first store in Gainesville to sell the GloFish. Economics were the reason to acquire the tech nology and cause of concern, since extreme hype could result in loss of business from his st ore being picketed. He perceives the delicate balance of the relationship between hype and economics and is willing to assume the risk to draw attention to his store. The in creased media coverage and hype surrounding the first genetically modified pet provided an adequate impetus to stock the fish an d risk special interest group backlash. Thus, the categories of hype and econo mics co-mingle through the interview. If the special interest groups interfered with his business, then he woul d Rue the day he allowed the fish into his store. At the same time, he ad mitted that I want them to talk a lot. 69

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Interview 2: The Well Informed Employee Overview The location of the interview was an industria l mall in Gainesville, Florida. When the interview began, the part icipant was in the process of c onducting water changes for the fish tanks. Research interests and co mmon contacts were discussed be fore the transcription began. The small talk served to make the participant co mfortable and eager to sh are his opinions. The participant was well known and respected in the aquaculture community. He was not only involved in marine ornamentals but also had an aquaculture lease. He indicated that he had been involved in the ornamental fish industry for 20 years and had no plans for a career change. He was young, energetic, and open-minded about hearing both sides of the transgenic ornamental fish controversy. The store sold only marine ornamentals and ap peared to be in new condition. The tanks were well cared for with no signs of equipment ne glect or misuse. Per subsequent conversation, there appeared to be multiple equity owners in the company. While the exact ownership percentage of the participant was not ascertained, his role in buying product, keeping product healthy, and strategizing with th e other owners was significant. The participant was highly interested in the research, demonstrated a positive effect, and was eager to learn about the preliminary findings of the study. After 30 minutes of miscellaneous communication during the comple tion of routine aquarium maintenance, the interview was conducted in a side office free from di stractions. There was a change in affect and tone to a more formal exchange once the digital recorder was turned on. Overall the interview went well, and it was easy to get the participant to discuss the issues, however too many leading questions were aske d, such as, So people buy based on color? Another leading question was, Would the reason a person not buy the fish be moral or cost? 70

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Leading questions and biased responses decreased the reflexivity of the study. The questions were asked to clarify issues the participant broug ht up in previous questions but in effect could have implanted a personal belief in the subject. In addition, there were many yes or no questions that should have been phrased to allow more open-ended responses. Do people have con cerns about where the fish come from or if theyre damaging to the environment? Such yes or no questions limit the range of responses and make saturating the categories of responses chal lenging. The function of th e interview is to get the participant to talk at length a bout the subject without forcing any a priori assumptions and beliefs upon them. Fortunately, the interview wa s conducted at the early stages of the coding process, so modification in style coul d be made for subsequent interviews. Emergent Themes Dichotomy A common theme in the interview was the dichotomy between accepting or rejecting products derived from genetic engineer ing. Participant 2 believed that people have bipolar attitudes toward the Glofish that were similar to Roe vs. Wade. He used the landmark case as a metaphor for the GloFish de bate throughout the interview. He saw peoples beliefs on the issue to be highly polarized and steeped in morality. He explained, Were talking about some mo ral decision that the person ha s made based on nonquantifiable, nonvisual beliefs and the beliefs are deli cate like Roe vs. Wade. Again, he reported, And this is another one of t hose sticky areas where folks are divided because of what they believe, not because of what I believe is actual knowledge. He did subscribe to the common misconception that if people had more knowledge and facts they would be less likely to come to an irrational conclusion, but he does recognize that the decision to purchase the GloFish will be based on buying product attributes, such as coloration, rather than how they feel about the fish. 71

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Ethics Unlike the pilot study, participant 2 was not conc erned about the ethical implications of genetically modifying pets. When describing his customer s, he noted, that they viewed the fish as an ornament in their living room rather than a living creature. He admitted that the common aquarium hobbyist was not concerned about the origin of the fish or the possibility of environmental degradation stemming from its purchase. In effect, participant 2 believed that ethics had little impact on the decision to buy or not purchas e an aquarium fish. Other than nature lovers, Ninetynine percent of the time I get I want something with color. No one has been able to even keep it alive. I sell three or four of th em a week. Why theyre harvested from the wild I dont know. He describe d how the color of marine invertebrates can enhance their marketability: Wha t is the indigo pink doing to its photosynthetic capacity? You can imagine, and of course they dont live. But they sell like gangbusters. The Playing God theme appeared once in the interview and was placed in the ethics category since it is inferred that it is hubristic and therefore unethi cal to genetically modify pets to have desirable characteristics. Modifyi ng the fish through other methods, such as dying, however, is acceptable to the public. He state d, Youre playing God by manipulating. Now if I add a little food coloring in there Im being entrepreneurial. Im making business. But if I manipulate on a genetic leve l, Im Playing God. The ethical dilemma presented to the consum er and the retailer by the GloFish is one based on feelings rather than hard facts. He stat ed, But I think that ce rtainly there are beliefs, morals in place here that are causing the person to be in favor of it one way or another. Whether or not that is an informed deci sion or an uninformed one, or whet her or not they even want to know, I think that people have made a decision based upon what they feel. 72

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Hype Hype and economics were intertwined in the second interview. Participant 2 did not discuss the benefits of GloFish hype as ex tensively as participan t 1, but there was still evidence that hype was an added benefit to the smaller retail chains. When asked why someone would sell or get involved with transgenic fish, he stated, If the public want s these, and if it is a scuttlebutt or rumor to raise a stir or to gossip about, it brings people in the door. Subsequently he stated, And I think it does help out to have the novelty items. Some of this participants lack of interest in hype might be attributed to his position as a re tailer to marine hobbyists rather than those involved in the str uggling tropical ornamental hobby. Neophytes in marine aquarium husbandry who are motivated through fads such as Disneys Nemo movie are not perceived as valuable customers, rather one time shoppers la cking the skill and the desire to effectively maintain their aquariums. He referred to his cu stomers as advanced hobbyists, but later stated, No one can keep an anemone alive, but their kid sees the Nemo movie and wants an anemone. Economics. As in the pilot study, pa rticipant 2 believed that people would get involved in selling transgenic fish because of the competition. Having competitors, the [large retail] stores, we are in business here to make business. He did not, however, believe th at the high price of the GloFish would have deleterious consequen ces on the marketability of the fish. From a marine paradigm, consumers are willing to pa y considerably more than fresh water novice hobbyists. The natural progression of hobbyists is the small fresh wa ter tank to the larger tank. Sometimes people progress to keeping marine species He stated multiple times that the cost of the fish does not heavily influence the decision to buy the fish. People come in all day long and buy $100 fish here without thinking about it. Wh en asked if the higher cost of a GloFish would deter customers, he responded, I believe it has absolutely nothing to do with the cost. 73

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Ive been doing this well over 20 years in a retail environment, selling aquatic organisms. And cost is absolutely nothing. Invasive species: Painted fish Painted fish were referenced throughout the interview. The participant indicated that painted fish had been well accepted by the industry. As well, it was obvious that people are linki ng the genetic modification of the GloFish to injecting dye into a fishs musculature. The painted fish was frequently used as a reference and another source of controversy that has emerged in the aquarium industry. Participant 2 noted that the responses regarding the painted fish were similar to thos e regarding the transgenic fish such as, you shouldnt be doing that. Thats no t right. Thats unnatural. Rather than viewing the technol ogy as the threat, this partic ipant believed the consumer was responsible for driving the de velopment of transgenic, tattooed, and dyed fish. The painted fish concerned him more than altering the genome, but he noted that the public was more willing to embrace these alterations because it was comp rehendible swallowable, digestible. Because of the physical harm that results from dying the fish and the reduction in life expectancy, he claimed, That is unn atural. Its also immoral. Invasive species were alluded t o, but the term never manifested in the interview. Most of the time in this hobby, there are a number of illegal organisms that we cant buy, such as piranhas and arowanas and stuff. If they got out into our environment they would of course compete with our natural organisms. He con tinued to explain that the GloFish could not possibly be an invasive species and cause harm to the environment because the coloration of the fish would increase its visibility to predators an d decrease its ability to compete with indigenous species for resources. A blue he ron could pick it off from four miles out of the sky. So Im not worried about it becoming in competition fo r our indigenous or endemic organisms. 74

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Conclusions The participant clearly stated his biases, Mysel f, personally, Im in favor of any scientific genetic advancement we can make. Im fascinated by it. The importance of having colorful fish as a decorative feature was more important to him than viewing the fish as a pet. It is unknown how much cognitive effort he gave to his conclu sions, but he based his decision on a factual and tangible statistic: it has been done before, and th e chances of the species introducing itself into the environment are slim. As well, he indicate d that the idea of having DNA cause a mutation in the stomach of a predator was unlikely. As far as the fish getting eaten and starting a transmutation in the animal that ate it, I think Im competent enough to know that the digestive system of that organism would cance l any genetic mutanogenic activity. The difference in the customer base between the pilot study and interv iew 2 influenced the perception of a customers buying attributes as we ll as the impact of tr ansgenic species on the industry. Marine ornamentals by and large are harvested from the environment while tropical fish are farm raised. Over the last few years, those in the tropical aquarium industry have become concerned about the lack of drive and inspiration in th e field. Meanwhile, new species and techniques are constantly bei ng introduced in the marine sector. The following issues manifested during the in terview. First, th e store was inventory strictly marine and therefore, GloFish, a freshwater fish, was not carried. Some variance in the responses between the pilot participant and partic ipant 2 can be attributed to the difference in market. In conducting an interview with a ma rine ornamental shop owner, the theoretical sampling criterion for the study grew in scope. By increasing the size of the sample population to include strictly marine aquarium stores, the diversity of responses toward the GloFish became broader. The decision to continue th e interview was based on the belief that the participant could provide insi ght into the debate a tropi c hobbyist would overlook. The 75

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customers desire to obtain color at all co stboth economic and moralreveals a significant difference in mindsets between ma rine and tropical hobbyists. A second limitation to the study is that the ro le of the participant in buying product was unknown. The act of purchasing or not purchasing product underlies th e moral and ethical decision to provide the fish to the public. The role of participant 2, as well as the inability of the store to stock the fish in thei r strictly marine tanks, makes ma ny of the questions hypothetical. Other questions, however, such as cost, color, and ethics, can be as ked and the responses extrapolated to the GloFish example using the re sponses toward controversial marine species. Finally, considerable time was spent waiting fo r this participant to complete a task. The small talk that ensued about th e department and the research study may have had a significant priming effect on his subsequent responses. He was of course aware of the interviewers enrollment in the University of Florida. In the future, small talk would be confined to the stores business, rather than the research. The impact of the small talk was evident when the technology question, Can you explain the t echnology was asked and his response had similar language and word use to the previous untranscribed conversation such as micropile. Despite these limitations, the findings from th e interview indicate a differing mindset from tropical ornamental versus marine hobbyists. The economic theme was outweighed by the desire of the hobbyist to obtain an intense color. While the pilot particip ant indicated that the controversy rather than the color sold the Gl oFish, the second particip ant indicated that the GloFishs marketability would increase independen tly of cost if the color was extreme. Given that the overwhelming majority of marine reef fish are harvested using less than stellar environmental practices, the people involved in the hobby are driven by default to the exotic colors, personalities, and challenge of a r eef tank. The implicit c ognitive dissonance about 76

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buying a fish that could be environmentally degrading is not applicable to the marine hobbyist since all their product is obtained th rough environmental degradation. Interview 3: The Aquarium Manufacturer Overview The initial contact to pa rticipant 3 took place via a te lephone conversation. This participant had a disability that made communica ting more difficult. He focused his business on manufacturing high-end aquarium and filtration units rather than retailing tropical fish, but he had an intimate knowledge of the aquarium industr y. As stated in the interview, his primary income was derived from manufactur ing the acrylic lobster tanks used in Publix Supermarkets. Manufacturing aquariums was his second career st emming from his passion for aquariums. The interview took place in his office adjacent to the main manufacturing facilities in Ocala, Florida. There were a few telephone distractions, but the impact to the interview was minimal. Overall the interview was positive. He was interested in participating in the research from a humanitarian perspective, but showed little desi re to discuss preliminary findings. He admitted that biotechnology frightened him, but the specific aspects of the technology that were frightening were unclear A follow-up question should have b een asked to clarify his position. I do have some hesitation when it comes to genetic engineering. Ag ain, in paragraph 116, when asked about how he felt about biotechnology, he responded, Holistica lly, I am scared to death of it. There was evidence in his discussion of sulfur reducing tube worms th at he had scientific knowledge, but he admitted that his training was experiential rather than formal. So I was trained by some of the better marine biologists out of California. They did not have it as a school class. It wasnt available in college. But we had to go out and work ri ght there with them and thats how we were educated. 77

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Developing Families By the third interview, several categories and themes continued to emerge from the structured interview. While the themes have not evolved into families that are grounded throughout the data, a higher level organization of codes is required. The following developing families are not inclusive of all the codes, but serve as a framework for organizing participant 03s responses with the previous data. Playing God. Playing God appeared in the first two interviews, but was much more prevalent in the third interview. While participant 3 admitted th at he was highly religious, the affiliation of religiousness to that of the Playing God family is not strong. The second participant was not religious, but referenced Playing God during the interview, and the pilot study gave no indication that the Playi ng God theme stemmed from the partic ipants degree of religiousness. From the start the Playing God family appear ed in interview 3. He stated, but in my mind things change for a reason or purpose. That s the evolution of something. Participant 3 views genetic engineering as interfering with the natural evolution of a sp ecies that does not fit into the creators concept of th e world. He continued, I mean, who are we to start changing things around for our particular needs once visual ly or otherwise. The who are we phrase is synonymous with we should not be Playing God and appears again in the middle of the interview. The participant feels that scientists overstep the bounds of humanity by genetically modifying organisms. He feels that we are P laying God and people should not play God. He stated, I do not feel th ings are there to be manipulated. He continued, We out here base ourselves on ethics. I be gin to wonder how people that are not religious would feel about some of that. He links ethics and religion ag ain: Maybe they would just be so gung-ho for it because theyre not religious. 78

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Ethics In interview 2, Playing God was incorrectly lumped into the broader ethics family. Unlike the ethics family, Playing God involves scientific hubris. P laying God can be done to better humanity and therefore can be ethical or unethical depending on the means and the ends. The delineation of the two families is obvio us in interview 3 when the participant states that we should not play God. For him it is an et hical issue, but for the first two participants it refers to the processes of cutting edge scientific advancement. Participant 3 stated, I dont think its the unsafeness or dangerous as much as it is theas much as it is should we be doing it? The ethics of it. There is an ethical paradox that he is unable to rectify with a dvancing science to save lives while potentially harming humanity. On one hand he viewed technology as screwing things up but then subsequently mentioned, well theres that argument again. Oh but we can find a cure and save thousands of people because of it. When asked if the profits from the GloFish were used to fund life saving vaccina tions he responded, We always do that. We promise you if youll let us bring in the lot of th em, this is going to be the be nefit. He viewed the GloFish and its escape into the environment as a potential p itfall, but saw the promise of the vaccinations as fantastic. The tone of his response indica ted that he was frustrated that scientific advancements came with potential pitfalls. The cognitive dilemma manifested its elf following a negative response about the GloFish. The participant did not embrace the technology, but allowed the ethical transgression to be jus tified to serve the greater good. He stated, Theyre (scientists) doing something thats progressing. While he was no t ethically comfortable with the concept of engineering fish to have desirable attributes, he realized that progress comes with a price. A 79

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subsequent statement, however, indicated that ther e could be other options that have fewer risks than genetic engineering, I think there was probably other ways to solve that same problem. In addition to the scientific ethics, participan t 3 demonstrated concern for the ethics in the aquarium industry pertaining to harvesting fish from the Amazon and attempting to keep fish in captivity that have a slim chance of survival such as the rockfish and Moorish idols. It was inferred that he does not feel that the customer cares about the e nvironmental degradation that is done when they purchase a naturally harvested fi sh. He asked, Why do we keep ripping the waters with that fish and allowing it? The part icipant believes that the industry is not policing itself effectively and has reservat ions about other reta ilers tainting his indu stry by vending fish they know will die. Product attributes Health. Participant 3 discussed fish health at leng th. He contended that the health of fish was related to investment in the right equi pment, equipment that many hobbyists could not afford. The lack of desire to invest in fish hea lth revealed how aesthetics rather than fish health dictated how consumers spend their money. Accord ing to participant 3, buyers not only selected fish based on color, but also were not willing to spend money fo r keeping the fish alive. He noted that salt water tanks were expensive if you did not care fo r them correctly; however, given his profession of manufacturing the equipment, he could be bi ased in his responses. Finally, survivability questions were pointed since no reta ilers would admit that a dying fish would be satisfactory. He noted survivabilit y, definitely would be at the t op of the list for everybody. Personality. In previous interviews, personal ity was considered synonymous with temperament. The third interview expanded the sc ope of the category to include the human-fish interactions. The participant believed the person ality of marine fish wa s far better than fresh 80

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water fishthat they were more interactive and human. He noted, I think everybody would rather have a saltwater tank. The fish have a better personal ity. He discussed special relationships that he had with his marine fish and how he had trained one to eat out of his hand. Since he believed that freshwater fish lacked pe rsonalities, genetically modifying fish to enhance coloration would not add value. Economics. Once again the economics of the fish do not appear to impact the buying decisions of the marine hobbyist. He stated, A nd we keep selling that $50 fish to people knowing that that fish is going to crash and burn. While spending mone y on the fish was of little importance, making the one time significant investment was. According to the participant, people are unwilling to purchase several thousand dolla rs in equipment to keep their fish alive. The problem is because they were not educated on how to do that in the first place. By the time that they have spent hundreds and hundreds of dollars on medications in the replacement of their fish, but the time they're ready to throw their salt-water tank out the door. They tell all their friends, Oh don' t ever do a salt water tank. So you can understand why that it gets an extremely bad rap. His response indicates ethical paradox. While neither a retailer nor a hobbyist wants to jeopardize the health of their fish, they are bounded by the ec onomic cost of keeping them healthy. According to the particip ant, the desire for color outweighs the desire for healthy fish, however, the economic cost of purch asing the ideal marine system is far greater than the cost of replacing dead fish. Invasive speciesEnvironmental degradation Participant 3s greatest concern was the possibil ity of creating another invasive species that was genetically modified. But then again, what ar e the chances of this being released back into the wild so to speak, just like we have the pr oblem with snakes, lizards gators, being bought as pets. Again, Bringing in an outside fish thats ravaging our ow n supply of our natural habitat. Its terrible. Continuing, But then again how do you control what a kid does when he gets 81

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home and for whatever reason, they re going to move and mom doesnt want to take the fish tank anymore so she dumps it into the canal . I think that theres got to be regulations there so that we know something drastic will not change. After his thoughts were made clear in severa l paragraphs, a pointed question was asked: What was his greatest concern for transgenic fi sh? He responded, That s my biggest concern, yes. Right. I think you probably saw that coming through in my answer. He went on to clarify that his fear of biotechnology is really a fear about humanity. We do stupid things. They brought the Australian pine. I think thats probably where all my feelings roots are lying as far as knowledge comes from the fact that we keep screwing up. Regulation An interesting theme that appeared in th e interview was the role of government in regulating technologies and preven ting environmental problems. Partcipant 3 believed that oversight and appropriate regulations could prevent mistakes. When asked about the governments role in biotechnology governance and ove rsight, he indicated th at there could be a safety net created, but In the meantime, I hope its not later than sooner. According to the participant, the government regulates ex-post-fact o and attempts to rectify problems rather than preventing them. He used the example of reef degradation from harvesting live coral to support his case and then explained how laws were writ ten after a problem had been created by the aquarium industry. Regarding invasive species, he stated Or we do something before it has a set of regulatory rules in place. Public awareness The public awareness theme also appeared in the interview, and the participant believed the public specifically chose to rema in naive. With regard to painted fish, I do think they care. If they were educated. He continued to elaborate on the publics apathy, They do not know 82

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and nobody is going to tell them. When asked if the consumer valued the attribute or the health of the fish more, But you know, the consumer does not realize what theyre buying or how it got that way. Again, To be perfectly honest abou t it, I have to stand with the majority of people that are not in the process of doing that engineering, gene tic engineering. I dont think they would want the fish. Conclusions There were limitations to the findings since participant 3 sold neither GloFish nor aquarium fish. He was included in the st udy after a telephone conversation indicating his knowledge of the aquarium industry, his willingness to participate, and his proximity (the Ocala area). The results are included to provide an additional perspective on the subject. Second, too many leading questions were asked. While this was an attempt to clarify the participants viewpoints, more reflective methods should have been employed. Unlike the first two interviews, the entire session was transcribed capturing all of the exchange. Taping the entire session revealed that discussing the statemen t of purpose with this participant, coupled with the knowledge of the interviewers academic paradigm caused a significant bias. While participan t 3 clearly stated that he did not support genetically modifying aquarium species, he used signi ficant tact to ensure that hi s pre-existing beliefs would be palatable. The participant was not aware that the GloFis h was genetically engineered. He first mentioned that he was unaware that the GloFish existed when he stated, I didnt even know that they were changing fish for that purpose to be honest with you. Again, halfway through the interview he admits, I had no idea that they were engineering fish. Sinc e the concept of genetic engineering was introduced in the interview, there was not adequate time for the subject to develop opinions and deepen his knowledge of the subject. While he did not realize that the 83

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GloFish had been created by scientists, he di d acknowledge the transgenic Salmon, but asked for clarification and additional information on the subject. People generally resist change and attempt to debunk new information which is in c onflict with their previo us paradigm. Since there was not adequate time for the participant to develop a cohesive opinion based on the new information, his responses are a litmus rather than a detailed indi cation of his opinions. Finally, the interviewer could have done a be tter job of reducing the digression. Twice, participant 3 redirected the interv iew to the immediate. Greater leeway was given to participant 3 to encourage dialoging. Rather than asking pointed and leading questions, the participant was allowed to lead the interview. Greater effort should have been taken, however, to avoid unrelated subjects like Publix lobs ters or transgenic salmons. Interview 4: The Laconic Employee Overview The fourth interview was the outlier and involved a laconic pa rticipant who proved to be the most challenging participant. He was younger, neither an equity owner nor a senior manager. As well, he had no buying influence despite having worked in the industry for 8 years. He did have an understanding of consumers and was awar e of the major suppliers and producers in the industry. Introducing an employee to the sampling pool provided an additional perspective to the study. The interview revealed the dynamics that occur between a nonequity owner employee who is not compensated for selling the fish a nd an ornamental fish consumer. While this deviated from the theoretical sampling strate gy, the boundaries of the theory were tested by including an individual who had no financial incentive to sell the fish. Other factors could have contributed to th e difference in his responses. First, the participant did not exhibit extensive scientif ic knowledge of the aquarium industry. The previous participants had exte nsive knowledge about species li fecycles, water chemistry, and 84

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taxonomy, while participant 004 was not as articulate and did not spout off scientific names. He was neither interested in the sciences nor educated beyond a hi gh school degree. The soothing sound of the aquariums rather than the challenge of keeping fish drew him to the industry. The interview took place in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering building rather than the office. The impact of the interview on the participant was profound. He was not eager to elaborate on the questions and exhibited a nega tive affect throughout. Wh ile in a departmental conference room, he was guarded and his concerne d affect resembled that of a patient in an experiment. The fact of the stipend contributed to his desire to participate in the study. Unlike the previous interviewees, the promise of fina ncial compensation influenced his decision to participate. Families Painted fish Painted fish emerged from the interview wit hout any leading questi ons. The participant did not appear to be morally oppos ed to dye injection, but believed the product was faulty since the color faded over time. He explained that on e of the first questions that customers asked about the GloFish was if it would lose its color over time. He re sponded, Theyre just worried about whether or not the colors going to die off or not. Late r he shared his sentiment on the painted fish, I dont like to carry them becau se obviously they lose theyre color. He elaborated, We make it a point to tell the custom ers that the painted fish are obviously injected with color because we dont want to steer our customers wrong. Ornamental fish consumers are Machiavellian; the ends justify the means. Customers did not care about how the fish was created, where it came from, or if it was harmed or harmful, as long as it had attributes, generally color, that they found desirable. 85

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When a leading question was asked as to whet her people were concerned if the fish was harmed in the dying process, the participant responded, Well, thats usually their main concern. It would have been unlikely that he would have specifically st ated that his customers do not care if the fish is harmed. Since a le ading question was asked, the response should be mitigated. A second interpretation of the response could be that survivability, measured in harm to the fish, could be a secondary desirable tra it along with color. Thus it is the loss of the desirable attribute, survivability, rather than th e knowledge that the fish is harmed, that causes the customer to question their purchase. Customers recognized that neithe r the painted fish nor the GloFish occurred in nature, so the painted fish provided a priming effect since it has been on the market longer. The impact of the painted fish on the GloFish was profound and set a negative stage for the introduction of future lines of transgenic fish. When asked to compare or contrast th e painted fish and the GloFish, the participant mentioned that people buy the painted fish despite his warnings and return upset when the colors fades. Similarly, he stated I havent had anybody come back yet with the GloFish and tell us that th ey were disappointed in them. Product attributes The impetus for the fourth interview was to populate the consumer attr ibutes categories of cost, color, and personality and determine the impact of the painted fish to the publics perception of the GloFish. Numerous questions were asked about what drives a customer to buy the fish and why the store chose to stock it. Ultimately, the reason appears to be economic: a product the consumer will purchase. Just as in the previous interviews, color was the primary product attribute sought by the cust omer, although, other product attri butes such as, survivability and cost emerged as the impetus for purchasing a fish. When the par ticipant was asked, When customers are buying a fish, what at tributes are they looking for, the participant responded, Its 86

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the color. In fact, color appeared thr oughout the interview in paragraphs 041, 101, 108, 202. We had a couple of customers ask how they got their color but they ha ve never really asked. They wanted them because of that. An additional product attribute was personality. Pretty much their main concerns are, if they can get along with the other fish that they have in the ta nks already. Personality, however, in this instance is in the context of surv ivability. A follow-up question was asked about survivability versus pe rsonality and he responded that it wa s the customers concern for the survival of the fish rather than personality. He clarified the difference between personality versus survivability. Well, we usually have littl e signs on the tanks and it ll tell you if theyre a community fish, if theyre nonaggressive or aggressive. In an attempt to rank the product attributes in order of importance, a leading que stion was asked, (Do) yo u think they would be more likely to buy a Plocostumus because it wont di e, than a fish that ha s maybe fancier colors, than a Discus thats more difficult to take care of? He responded Yes, but the phrasing of the question may have biased his response. Ultimat ely, consumers are concerned about the loss of their acquisition and the general health of their aquarium. Tropical fish consumers, unlike marine consumers, appear to be driven by a su rvivability component that outweighs the color attribute. Like other interviews in the tropical fish sector, this partic ipant viewed the high price of the fish as a negative characteristic. This coul d be attributed to the stores focus solely on tropical rather than marine fish which are c onsiderably more expens ive and less commoditized than tropical fish. Cost issues appeared in multip le paragraphs. The respondent explained that to make a margin similar to what can be expected of nongenetically altered fish, the price becomes 87

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higher than the tropical fish market will bare. W ith close substitutes, such as the nonengineered danios costing $0.79 rather than $8.00, the GloFish is a more difficult sell. Well, when we buy them, they buy them at $2.00 a piece because we sell all of our fish at usually three times what we pay for them. That could be a big issue. Obviously its something they take time to make, and usually go for a lot more to sell them. I think if we sold them at like maybe $3.50 or $4.00 a piece they would go a lot faster, but that means we would have to buy them at $1.25 a piece. Ethics The ethics category also was evident in the inte rview. Despite the fact that the participant admitted that he was not very religious, he mentioned that some scientists Think that theyre God and create what they want to. The participant expressed c onfidence in the government to regulate the technology, while havi ng reservations about usi ng the same technology to lend attributes to higher level vertebrates. When asked why he felt the technology was safe, he answered, I know its safe or else they woul d not be doing it. Additional follow-up questions about what makes him feel the governance is adequate should have been asked. When asked if he was skeptical of the techno logy he responded, It bothers me to a point but it doesnt bother me. Theyre neat to look at, but there has to be a certain cut off point where they shouldnt mess with things. Morality is sues, however, emerged with higher vertebrates. Plants, and fish were considered morally accepta ble with regard to modification, while dogs and stuff like that were not. He mentioned that Dolly, the cloned sheep, was unacceptable because sheep had a heart meaning sheep are more advanced creatures. This statement resembles the Belief in Animal Mind (B.A.M.) theories for hunting and meat consumption. According to B.A.M. theories, people are more reluctant about hunting animals they believe have selfawareness. Thus, participant 4 was opposed to genetically modifying animals that would be aware that they were somehow altered. When asked about his overall impression of genetic engineering, he responded, It coul d go either way. It just depends on what they are trying to 88

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create. It can be inferred from this statement that he does not perceive the GloFish as socially beneficial. He would, therefor e, be more accepting of genetic e ngineering if the benefits would help us out. Comparative Analysis Several categories did not emerge in the interview. First, unlike the previous three interviews, neither environmental degradation nor invasive specie s emerged as a theme. When prompted about invasive species, this particip ant admitted that it was a concern, but he never stated that the GloFish could cause environmenta l harm. He used oscars as an example of an escaped aquarium fish, but placed the blame on the consumer and the retailer for not taking responsibility for the fish. He viewed invasive sp ecies to be a consequence of aquarium retailers trying to make a fast buck and consumers be ing duped into purchasing a fish that would outgrow their smaller aquarium. He never mentioned the possibility of environmental degradation, but when prompted, he acknowledg ed that the GloFish s hould not be released into the environment. Second, the category of economics did not arise in the interview. The previous interviews involved equity owners and managers, and considerable dialog emerged about how the GloFish impacted business. The economics them e was differentiated from the product price attribute. While the participant did discuss pri ce, he did not mention the economic impact of the GloFish. Rather than focusing on the busines s, this participant focused on pleasing the customer, a characteristic that can be attributed to his position as an employee rather than an owner. Finally, since there is a relationship between hype and econom ics, it is not surprising that hype was never mentioned as being beneficial to the industry. The variance in the participants paradigm as an employee versus an owner accounts for the missing category. 89

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The participants reservations towards th e GloFish and genetic engineering were emotionally driven. He did not state a clear reason for why he objected to genetically modified fish. The extent of his conviction and the sources of information that he used to develop his opinion were unclear. Of the previous three interviews, interview 4 was the weakest due to the difficulty in prompting the participant to elaborate upon his re sponses. The participants short responses did not lend themselves to the constant comparative method. As well, leading questions biased the data and drove the participant to respond based on a-priori assumptions. Mention of the painted fish and Dolly were the only instances when th e participant introduced media themes without prompting. Conclusions The fourth interview indicates that consumers want a colorful fish. Product attributes, rather than morality, drive buying decisions. The ornamental fish store carries the GloFish as a function of profitability and the employees sell the fish with out any moral reservations. While ethics emerged as a category, it appeared th at the GloFish was acceptable because it already existed. The participant did have concerns about the extent to which genetic modification should take place and what social benefits could be realized. He mentioned cloning (Dolly) and expressed concern whether or not scientists should be manipulat ing the genomes of higher order vertebrates. The lack of dialog surrounding the business is attributed to the position of the interviewee. He did provide cons iderable dialog from the perspective of an employee trying to provide solid customer service. 90

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Interview 5: The Marine Enthusiast Overview The fifth interview was carri ed out in a marine ornamental shop. Several phone interruptions and the pub lic location at the fron t desk of the shop did not impact upon the results negatively. Overall, the partic ipant was eager to participate in the study and asked numerous questions. He was knowledgeable about the aquarium industry, but less knowledge about GloFish, biotechnology, and the tre nds in the tropical ornamental s sub-sector. Participant 5 did not have a strong scientific acumen, but ha d extensive practical working knowledge of the marine ornamental industry. His affect was pos itive and he did not want to accept payment for his participation. Although positive in his affect, this respondent possessed an element of skepticism that stemmed from the researchers i nvolvement with the university and enrollment in the department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. The participant sold only marine ornamentals, but admits that he would sell genetically modified fish under the right circumstances. While he did not out rightly object to genetical ly engineering ornamental fish, he had reservations about the FDA and the unknown long-term consequences of the practice. Considerable effort was devoted to assessi ng the participants trust in the regulatory system given his negative feeli ngs toward biotechnology. While several questions were asked about consumer attitudes and product attributes, additional questions to determine the boundaries and taxonomy of color, cost, and pe rsonality could have been asked. The fifth interview was marked by the act that the primary force driving the respondents decision to sell or not sell the fish was economic rather than moral. There are instances when retailers refuse to stock a product independently of the potential pr ofit. The stocking decisions of ornamental fish retailers are func tions of their customers desires as the stores exist to make a 91

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profit. While there were instances, such as was found in the pilot study, when retailers refused to stock painted fish because they were morally opposed to a process that causes death, the GloFish does not appear to push the moral bounda ry. If the fish was injured, died, was somehow weakened, or in any way harmed by the process, then the retailers would be much more likely to avoid stocking the fish ba sed upon both moral and quality concerns. Cost is not linked to business acumen, but can be attributed to variations in customer bases. While cost was reported as a great concern in the pilot study, it impacts the tropical fish subsector rather than the ornamental fish industry as a whole. The decision to stock or not stock the fish is not based solely on cost, but a battery of factor s that determine the marketability of the fish. The interviews show there are subtle differences of opinions regarding what the GloFish represents in the ornamental indus try. The range in responses from the previous participants can be attributed to their sectors in the industry: marine, tropical or mixed. In addition, the impact of painted fish upon the consumers perception of an artificially created fi sh is significant. Painted fish have had a significant priming effect on both consumers and retailers. Because they are harmed during the painting pr ocess, the publics immediate a ssumption is that the GloFish are injured as a result of the intense coloration. By the fifth interview, the researcher became in terested in the sources of information that were utilized to develop opinions. From the fi rst four interviews, mass media as well as dialog with other retailers emerged as the primary s ources. The involvement of the retailers with special interest groups with anti-biotechnology agendas needed to be ascertained, so an additional question was asked about participan t involvement with any political action groups 92

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such as Green Peace. The fifth interviewee reported neither being affiliated with special interest groups nor a fan or their an ti-biotechnology campaigns. Product Attributes Family Personality, color, and cost were again the most desirable product attributes. When asked what characteristics made most marine fish ma rketable, participant 5 re sponded, Mainly color. Color drives a retailers decision to stock the fish, secondary to personality. In the marine sector, color supersedes the health and life expectancy of the fish. While price is a driving force keeping tropical fish retailers fr om stocking the fish, price has not yet been mentioned as a factor in the marine sector. Following the trend, price was not an issue for participant 005. While he admitted that there were occasions when the price of a fish reduces its marketability, it is an exception. Regarding price he st ated, Yeah thats a big thing, but then there are people out there that really don t care about the price of the fish. He also indicated the importance of personality. When a clarificat ion question was asked, color and temperament were more valued by the c onsumer than the cost of the fish. There are two types of personality: personal ity in terms of interacting with the owner to form a pet-owner bond and personality in terms of survivability. Pa rticipant 5 focused on both, but his reference to temperament rather than personal ity indicates that he is refe rring to the fishs aggressive characteristics resulting in loss of life. Ethics Family The ethics category emerged immediately. Participant 5 stated that he would not knowingly sell a fish to a customer if he knew, t hat the fish will not surv ive in their tank. The tone of his response indicated that he believed competitors would sell anything they could profit from. The profit versus ethics paradox appear ed again when the respondent discussed dying corals and anemones to provide additional colora tion to enhance product at tributes. He admitted 93

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that if the market demand was there, and he needed to make a profit, he would sell the fish. He stated, If I sold freshwater, if the demand was there, I would proba bly have to sell the fish. His response indicated his reluctance to embrace the new technology, but the desire for profit would outweigh his ethical concerns. When discussing th e roll of larger businesses in stocking the fish, he stated, Yeah, I can see that on a business end; that is why I was thinking [big retailers], those guys, would be all over it. Just in my mind, as a business. He believed larger businesses would be more inclined to stock the fish because they perceived only profit. Th at is, big business lacks morals that smaller stores have against stocking a product that they do not approve of. All five participants acknowledge that they would sell GloFish if the consumer demand was present. Since selling is a binary functi onthe fish is sold or not soldquantifying the desire to sell is difficult. While participants 3 and 2 had th e greatest concerns all respondents acknowledged that they would sell the fish to make a prof it. Thus, the Business Paradox emerges: The retailers feel that they must sell a product to survive. Partic ipant 1 happily sold the GloFish but refused to sell painted fish. However, if the retailers sold the painted fish, there have been no objections to vending a genetically altered product. Participant 2 admitted that if you dye a fish you are entrepreneurial, but if you change the genome, then you are Playing God. The point where the retailer refuses to stock a product is elusive. Selling a fish that they know would die seems to be the cutoff. Finally, participant 5 acknowledge s that genetic research for medical advancement must take place to provide cures for diseases. He understood that many technical advances carry significant social risks. Like other participants, howev er, he did not believ e the social reward resulting from taking the risk of genetically m odifying an ornamental fi sh for market purposes was justifiable. He stated, Yeah, but then again, its all a part of going back to the DNA, and as 94

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a scientist working with DNA, thats got to be something that needs to be done like to lower the risk of cancers, heart disease, or Alzheimers While participant 5 was not comfortable with scientists creating the GloFis h, he recognized the importance of the event for scientific advancement. His inconsistent perception of the GloFish and biotechnology in general can be summed up by the following response: Overall I think it is a good thing, and its probably something that has to be done, mainly for the future of our race, and life in general. Some of it is kind of wishy-washy in ways and I guess you coul d say a little frightenin g in other areas. Jurassic Park Effect Family When questions were asked to determine th e boundaries of his morals with regards to biotechnology, he was more concerned about th e fear of the unknown rather than a moral quagmire. The Jurassic Park effect refers to the fear of the unknown and scientific hubris. The phenomenon appeared in the five interviews in various forms with fear of the unknown the most common. Participant 5 believed ther e would be scenarios that the scientific community failed to consider that would result in a biotechnology calamity. Early in the interview, the participant asked about the long term effects of the fish. While he did not mention an invasive species, he was concerned about the unknown long term conse quences of genetically modifying fish. A second question could be interpreted as concern for invasive species or the idea that scientists will lose control over their products. He aske d, So you dont think that they could multiply in the wild at a rapid pace? The fear of the unknown, or the Jurassic Park effect is revealed when participants admit that they ha ve concerns about the long term consequences of manipulating nature. Nature will find a way to cause trouble. The effect impacts this participants trust in the regulatory system. When he was asked what would have to be in place for him to sell the fish, he responded that it would take more time to rule out other unknown factors before he would be fully comfortable with selling the GloFish. 95

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Regarding selling a transgenic fish he responded, No, I cant say I wouldnt do it just based strictly on ethics, but I think [the re needs to be] just more research and more time, the longevity of the genetics going on. The phenomenon is revealed after responding to his question rega rding how long the technology to genetically modify fish has been in existence. He responded, For example, 15 to 20 years down the road, one gets in a pond and what happens if they start sprouting little tentacles like the anemone, I mean the possibi lities everything evolves to environmental conditions we just dont know. His fear of the unknown also impacts product at tributes. The participant expressed his concern that genetic modification to create one enhanced product at tribute, such as color, could impact upon other such desirable at tributes as calm temperament. Its mainly, for example, we know about perculas, we know their temperament, their behavior, how do we know that this genetic modification is not goi ng to alter any of that. The Jurassic Park phenomenon exemplifies th e role of mass media in priming the audience. Fear over scientific advancement has existed for millennia; fear over biotechnological advancement, however, is a recent phenomenon. Cl ose substitutes would be the fear of nuclear power or the creation of something in a labor atory that could not be controlled. Regulation Numerous questions were asked about the participants knowledge of the regulatory system due to his negative perception of biotech nology. While trust in the regulatory agencies corresponded to a positive perception of biotech nology, there were other factors impacting the participants desire to stock tr ansgenic fish. He did not trus t the regulatory system, but the impact of this lack of trust can be isolated from other moral and produc t attribute concerns. When he was informed that the FDA was spearheading the governance of the GloFish, he 96

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responded, Oh well that leaves it wide open. While he could not describe an event that made him question the efficacy of the FDA, his disapproval of the FDA extended to a dislike for all government. He believed the government does not do an adequate job of policing foods, drugs, and supplements. He remarked, No, its just a lot of things with total government. I think they could do more to regulate. When he was asked if there was an agency th at would do a better job, he believed that an independent board of scientists would be mo re capable of regulating biotechnologies. His assumption was that the FDA was po litical rather than scientific. As well, he believed the FDA was corrupted by governmental influences while a scientific board would be less biased. Comparative Analysis By the close of the fifth interview, enough da ta existed to merge themes and codes into families. The ethics, product attributes, regulatory and the Jurassic Park effect families were created. The ethics family c onstituted instances where a non empirical higher purpose drives reasoning. This includes themes and codes such as Playing God, environmental concerns, and morality. The ethics family continued to be a primary driver in retail ers responses toward transgenic products. The fifth participant unders tood that scientific advancement comes with social costs and justified advancements where the benefits to society outweighed the risks. The ethics family also addressed the moral paradox of selling the painted fish while not selling the GloFish. The family of product attributes was create d out of discussion surrounding what make consumers value a fish such as cost, color, longe vity and personality. There was a variance in the ranking of importance of the attributes, however, for marine a nd tropical retailers. Tropical retailers consistently described the price of the fish, following color, to be the most important attributes. Likewise, marine retailers reported th at the customer was seldom concerned about the 97

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price of the fish, but the colorati on of the fish was their greatest concern (Table 4-1). Finally, the Jurassic-Park effect family emerged from codes addressing fear of the scientists, scientific hubris, fear of consequences, and Hollyw oods impact on the publics perception of biotechnology. All five responde nts reported concerns about th e unknown regarding genetically modifying fish. The invasive spec ies codes were also added to th e Jurassic Park effect family. The fear that a nonindigenous organism can be in troduced into an environment and thrive should be placed at the core of the Jurassic Park effect family. Interview 6: The Flamboyant GloFish Lover Overview Participant 6 did not have a storefront, but operated an aquarium service business focusing on tropical freshwater tanks. His service contracts included routine ma intenance and purchasing fish for his customers. The interview was conduc ted at a restaurant in Ocala rather than the participants office. The change in venues imp act on the participants responses was minimal. The restaurant setting was free from distractions and did not add additional bias es. Initial contact was made by telephone and time and place were established. The interview was conducted in the morning while he was in the process of assisting his clients in downtown Ocala. Several actions distinguish partic ipant 6 from the others. First, he was the only participant to offer a gift as a token of his appreciation for being included in the research study. The gift was an agatized coral, a rock collectors specime n, not high in monetary value, but meaningful to the research. The gift indicated his eagerness to participate in the study, and prompted concerns that he might answer the struct ured interview questions to plea se the interviewer. Deciphering the extent of the interviewers impact on the pa rticipant was difficult given the pattern of his responses. It was evident, however, that he was eager to participate in the study and pleasing the interviewer with correct answers appeared to be important. He wa s more eager than all the other 98

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participants in preparing for the interview. His positive affect indicated that he enjoyed his work and had a large amount of intellectual curiosit y. After the intervie w time and location was established, he asked what he n eeded to read to prepare for the interview. He was the only participant to telephone the assistant and make ad ditional inquires as to the types of questions that would be asked in the interview. This be havior again indicated hi s eagerness to please the interviewer. Overall, the participant was the most avantgarde in the belief that the research was promising, both in the marine i ndustry and also in the broader agricultural biot echnology sector. He was highly optimistic about the promise of biotechnology not only toward reinvigorating the ornamental industry, but also to ward helping develop alternative energies and foods. His only reservations in regard to the ornamental industry we re invasive species, but he did not have concerns about transgenic escapees becoming es tablished in native environments. He opposed the painted fish, and physically harming animals, and he drew a clear distinction between tattooing a fish to provide additi onal coloration and altering a fish s genome to enhance protein production in the musculature. Product Attributes Family Personality and price emerged in the interv iew without pointed questions. When asked what people look for when they are buying fish, he responded, Personality most of the time. Thats how I sell it. The partic ipant valued personality because his customers often maintained tanks in business settings, such as doctors offices To keep his customers happy, he had to stock his customers tanks with fish that would be visible and move constantly. While his clients were not interested in the co st of the fish, he di d mention price as an important criterion. He was asked what he had heard about the GloFish from other colleagues and retailers and answered, Since Ive talked to you, is just th e price of them. The two pet 99

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shops that I deal with are small mom and pop pe t shops and they just dont like spending $2.50 to get it in the shop. When he was asked to rank the importance of color, price, and personality in a direct question, he responded, Color, pers onality, price. Since he is buyi ng fish for his customers, he evaluates the characteristics differently. While this ranking varies from th e previous tropical fish retailers responses, the ranking was identical to that of marine re tailers responses. The ranking can be attributed to his unique customer base. Participant 6 could be ca tegorized as a tropical fish retailer since he stocked his customers tanks with fish, but hi s customer base could afford to have a full time service to maintain their tanks, and therefore, would not be influenced by the price of the fish. Ethics Family Unlike the first five participants very little of the transcribed dialog was placed in the ethics family. While he was a religious ma n, exemplified by his admission of tithing to the church, the playing God code was never used in coding the interview. He was totally comfortable with biotechnology and the products developed with the technology. As well, participant 6 did not have ethical dilemmas stem ming from his work. He never mentioned that genetically modifying a fish would unethical, but the boundaries of his response were unclear. When asked what his impression of biotechnology was he said, As much as possible. Implied in the response was that genetic engineering was a great technology that should be used to better humanity under every circumstance. The tone of the interview was highly optimistic, with the exception of describing biot echnology opponents. He did, however, insinuate that the painted fish was produced by unethical means. He described how a painted fish is created. Theres actually two ways. They can actually paint them with a brush and you can see it on the outsid e of the skin or they inject it under the 100

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skin you have a glass fish 6 to 8 months and then they end up dying. He elaborated on the limited survivability, You dont get mo re than a year out of a pain ted glassfish. Ive never seen one live over a year. Ive never seen the paint last more than 6 or 7 months. While he did mention the mortality resulting from the procedure, he never explicitly stated that he believed it to be immoral. Jurassic Park Effect Family The Jurassic Park effect family did not appear frequently, except for dialog about invasive species. Participant 6 perceived people who feared that scientis ts would create something that they could not control as unrealistic. Every time they try something crazy, it usually doesnt work they always think the blobs going to be formed and its just not going to happen. When he was specifically asked about the Jurassic Park effect in the context of nature will find a way to survive, he responded that it was high ly unlikely if not impossible. He recalled his experiences at the University of Florida, I used to mix all kinds of stuff up at UF; you wouldnt believe some of the stuff that we did with rice an d stuff, rice and orchids. Even if it comes out, its not going to be this thing that takes off. Participant 6 discussed invasive species at le ngth, but did not indicate that they were of significant concern to him. At one point in the in terview, he admitted that he went as far as to stock his customers koi ponds with snake headed fish. He believe d that invasive species were a fact of life, and that very lit tle could be done to stop the in troduction of nonindigenous species. When asked if increased regulation could preven t their spread, he responded, I dont think you could regulate either they could walk in their back yard and dump the aquarium in a pond. His in-depth discussion of inva sive species was not attributed to concern, but resulted from the increased media coverage in the same pe riod. During a preliminary phone conversation before the interview was conducted, the particip ant asked if the study pertained to invasive 101

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species. He began the interview by stating Ive just been doing a lot of research on that down in the Everglades had just watched a whole show on that. Comparative Analysis The most significant difference of interview 6 from previous interviews is the level of confidence in the regulation of biotechnologies. The participants respon ses to the questions pushed the boundaries of the ethics, and the Jurassic Park families. As well, participant 6 was the most pro-biotechnology and had fait h in scientists and the government to do what was best for humanity. He firmly believed the risks to th e environment and humankind were minimal. As well, very few of his responses could be placed in the ethics family. The product attributes he mentioned were in line with other re sponses. The primary product attributes continued to be color, personality and price. Unlike the first participant who believed the GloFish was a boon to small retailers, he believed the cost of the fish was a barrier to entry for mom a nd pop retail stores. While he ranked the product attributes importance in the same order as a marine ornamental fish retailer, the difference can be attributed to a wealthier customer base. Without prompti ng, he mentioned personality and price to be the most significant criterion, yet color emerged as the number on e product attribute after it was stated by the interviewer. Unlike all previous participants, participant 6 did not discuss the GloFish in the context of morality and ethics. He exhi bited the least amount of ethical concern about the practice of genetically engineering plants and animals. Sin ce he believed scientists and the FDA looked out after the interest of humanity, he had a laissez faire attitude regarding how, what, or when biotechnology should be used. He was the first participant to place the onerous of establishing ethical and moral boundaries into th e hands of stakeholders. The pa rticipant believ ed scientists would establish their own boundaries for the t echnology using their own moral compasses. 102

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The painted fish, a member of the ethics fam ily, was discussed at length by Participant 6. Participants 2, 3, and 4 had significan t concerns selling a fish that they knew would die, but sold it anyway. While the painted fish concerned him, he never specifically stated that he would reject selling the fish. Thus it was unclear if participant 006 would stock the fish in his customers tanks. Finally, participant 6 was the least affected by the Jurassic Park effect. He neither exhibited significant fear in the unknown nor believed that scientis ts would create something that they could not control. The minimal influence can be attributed to his trust in humanity as well as his perception of risk. He understood that there were two com ponents to risk, the probability of the event happening and the cons equences of the event. His tr ust in scientists, the FDA, and government along with personal laboratory experien ces made him realize that the second part of risk, the probability of an event happening, wa s minimal, and therefore biotechnology posed a small risk to humanity. Interview 7: The Centrist Overview Participant 7 was knowledgeable about the GloFish debate, and had 36 years of industry experience. Considerable effort was made to determine the boundaries on the conditions determining whether or not he would be willing to sell the GloFish. Un like other participants, he mentioned that he had customers who specifi cally requested transgen ic fish. We have had some, not a lot but people come in looking for them. They call them the GloFish. Participant 7 sold both freshwater and marine fish and routinely read trade journals and publications. He had a neutral a ffect throughout the interview, but he did not participate in the interview solely for the financial stipend. Participan t 7 understood the risks and benefits of creating transgenic fish. He neither embraced nor rejected the technology. He explained, I 103

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would have to say Im not for it and Im not agai nst it. Im down in the middle. They can build some things that may help mankind and then they make things that destroy mankind. Its bad and good. Im not for it and Im not against it. The previous ranking of product attr ibutes, color, price, personal ity, held in the interview. While the participant did have some reservations about the extent to whic h genetic modifications were made, and reasons for the modifications, he embraced the GloFish as providing tropical fish enthusiasts with an alternative to marine sp ecies. The Jurassic Park effect did not have a deleterious impact on his percepti on of the GloFish. Rather, he viewed it as a self regulating natural function that retuned anomalies back to stasis. Finally, his ethical limitations were delimited by the type of organism engineered and what social benef its stemmed from the modification. He did not percei ve genetic engineering as dangerous, but rather unnecessary for certain products. Product Attributes Family Once again, the favored product attr ibutes were color, price, personality and survivability. The participant mentioned color five times in the interview as the primary sales attributes, but also noted that survivability factored into the buying decision. Price, however, remained secondary. When asked if price was an issue, he responded, Not really, they look at the price and they accept it. They go more for the look th an anything else plus th e fact they are very hearty fish. The product attributes family has become fully saturated at this point and, therefore, should be considered a category. While there is some variation in the pattern of responses regarding the importance of cost to th e buying decision, the import ance directly relates to the stores consumer base and whether the stor e offered both marine and tropical ornamentals. Survivability, while a consideration, was consistently secondary to color. 104

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Participant 7 was asked what at tributes should be engineered in the fish and he responded, I think if they wanted to do so mething for animals I think most of it would be color in the retail aspect. People love color. Pe ople go down our last aisle of salt water and are like, whoa, I want that! I think it is color. While he clearly be lieved color was the primary sales attribute, the importance of survivability to the consumer was stated. They go more for the look than anything else plus the fact th ey are very hearty fish. Ethics Family Participant 7 had no ethical problems with st ocking the GloFish. While he admitted that he was a fish purist, he understood that the fi sh was not harmed in anyway. He mentioned, Some people are purist. Im a purist myself. I like pure fish. It was unclear from the interview whether he would personally own transgenic fis h, however, he believed ethics was the driving force keeping retailers from stocking the fish. He noted, The big chains will not carry them like PetSma rt and Pet Supermarket. I dont know about Petco because Petco carries saltwater fish but I dont know. PetSmart and Pet Supermarket wont carry them because they believe its an ethics thing. The bigger chains wont carry it. Some individual stores may not carry it because of the ethics thing and its an aberration. I think most of them wont. The painted fish was discussed, but not in th e usual context of ethical dilemma. He had little to say about the ethics su rrounding the painted fish. He me ntioned that the glassfish was a close substitute for a consumer, They will go to a neon tetra or plecos or blue gouramis and some painted glass fish. He did not criticize his customers for buying a glass fish and did not exhibit any concern for selling a fish. Participant 7 understood the linkage of th e GloFish to the broader agricultural biotechnology debate, and noted the social benef its of using genetic engineering. He accepted the risks and understood that all new technology comes with potential pitfalls. The boundaries of what he was willing to modify for social gain we re examined. He believed that fish were the 105

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only vertebrate that should be genetically modifi ed. The reason for the concern was unclear, but could be attributed to the fact that he did not see any poten tial advantages in using the technology for such ends. He believed that gene tic engineering should stop with fish. Most other animals, they dont need to do anything to th em. I wouldnt do it. Id stop at fish. You can do fish like salmon and stuff. Subsequent ly, a leading question was asked if genetically modifying a cow to create a vaccine would be acceptable and he responded, yes. This response indicated that he was interested in the social benefits from the alteration. Thus, new products could be created from other animals if the social benefit was gr eat enough to justify the risk. Jurassic Park Effect Family The Jurassic Park Effect had a moderate imp act on participant 7. He had a fear of the scientific community and broader humanity. The participant note d, I think humans make this unsafe because you get like a mad scientists. Let s mix and this and this and see what it does. His concern about using the technology to harm humans was noted again, I wouldnt do it or you will make something worse than it is. We found that out. Dolly was cloned but she fell apart. While he did not trust humanit y, he did believe that regulato ry agencies were empowered to protect people. When he was asked when it w ould not be acceptable to genetically modify an animal, the participant responded, It would have to be controlled. The FDA would have to do that. FDA and USDA would have to work with that. The participant did not believe the FDA was the ideal agency to be tasked with regula ting the GloFish; he believed the USDA and the Fish and Wildlife Agency should have the responsi bility. This concern did not alter his decision to stock the fish. He believed that regulat ion was necessary, but unde rstood that government 106

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agencies would not be able to re gulate the release of ornamental fi sh into nature. Thus, he had more trust in humanity than he did in the ability of governmental agencies to police hobbyists. He had a unique perspective on natures pe rseverance to survive which mitigated the impact of the Jurassic Park effect. He viewed natures will to survive as a way of regulating human mistakes. He mentioned th e introduction of invasive speci es in Florida waters and the Nile perch in Lake Vicotria and the return to the natural equilibrium. He elaborated, Im going to quote Jeff Goldblum from Jurassic Pa rk; nature finds a way. Believe it or not, it will. I think it will survive. I think it could happen. You have fish with wild colors that do survive. Its the nature of evolution. Y ou have fish that are cave dwelling animals and lose their pigmentation. They dont survive long in the wild but Im sure there are some that do survive. I had an albino squirrel that survived over by my house. He had to fight for his thing because he wasnt a natural. I have nt seen him this year yet. Its the thing of natural selection. For other participants, the fear of not being able to contro l nature contributed to their rejection of genetically modified products. Likewise, participant 7 viewed the natures drive to survive as a way of preventing environmental cataclysms. Comparative Analysis Participant 7 was labeled as The Centrist due to his moderate conviction towards the GloFish. Participant 7 had several years of college level course work in science, and while he did not have a degree, he had one of the best unde rstandings of genetic en gineering. Out of the first seven interviews, he was the least polari zed in his convictions. Another differentiating characteristic of the interviewee was his tone of disappointment regarding the GloFish. Participant 7 had believed the hype surrounding th e GloFish would be a boon for the industry; however, the slow sale s of the fish indicated that it did not live up to its promise. While in early interviews hype was an important criterion in a ttracting new customers, by the seventh interview, a year had passed, and the retailers tone indicated that the fish failed to meet his expectations. When he was asked how long he had carried the fish, he responded, Weve been getting them 107

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off and on, Seagrist and 5-D have been on the ma rket for over a year, and weve been carrying them off and on for just over a year. The reason why that is initially the transgenic fish were supposedly the revolutionary thing. The product attributes category remained c onsistent in intervie w 7. The participant discussed the importance of colo r throughout the interview. Surv ivability was mentioned in the interview, but was secondary to the physical at tributes of the fish. Unlike participant 005 who was interested in creating dis ease resistant fish, participant 7 understood that color was a superficial attribute, unlike h ealth, that would directly influe nce the consumers buying decision. While color was an acceptable use of gene tic engineering, altering personality was not acceptable to the participant. Th e product attribute of survivability was added as a dimension, along with color, price, and personality. Examining the product attribute of survivability presented uni que difficulties, since no participant would admit that thei r customers did not value their pets lives. Without prompting, survivability was mentio ned in interviews 1, 4, 5, and 7 revealing its high ranking as a product attribute. The prevalence of survivability as a product attribute indicate d that the boundaries of the criterion, outside of the ethics family, s hould be evaluated. When color was mentioned, however, there was considerable dialog, but the ranking color re lated to survivability was unknown. The economic theme, while downplayed in the interviews 2 thru 5, should be an additional family. As in interviews 1 and 3, the distinction had been made between cost and price. Retailers valued cost which was placed in the economic theme, while customers valued price which was placed in the product attri butes theme. Participant 7 reported that the cost of the fish was the primary reason retailers woul d not stock the fish. He reporte d that after ethics, Id have 108

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to say cost next. These cost over $5.00 if we do a mark up. Its not color. During interview 6, the participant also reported that high cost of the fish prev ented its rapid adoption by small retailers. Participants 2, 3, and 5 specialized in high valu e product, so the business strategy focused on the profits rather than the cost of th e fish. Participant 7, however, was a tropical fish retailer and gauged profitability as the percentage markup on each fish. Only tropical fish retailers reported that the cost of the fish was an impediment to its success. Participant 7 provided a unique perspective on th e Jurassic Park effect. For the previous interviews, the Jurassic Park effect was believed to inhibit the acceptance of genetically modified organisms. Participant 7, however, interpreted, nature will find a way to survive, as a positive characteristic that allows for species surviv al despite mankinds mistakes. He was the only participant that believed the lack of human cont rol over nature could have positive consequences. The other dimensions of the Jura ssic Park effect, scientific hu bris and trust did impact the participant. During the analysis of interview 7, the regulatory and Jurassic Park families were merged. The Jurassic Park effect related to the participan ts trust in the regulati on of the technologies. Therefore, the regulatory theme was a component of the Jurassic Park eff ect instead of a unique family. The regulatory family addressed par ticipants trust in governmental agencies to effectively regulate biotechnologies. In previous interviews, it was believe d that a participants trust in regulatory agenci es directly influenced the impact of the Jurassic Park effect. In interview 7, however, it was clear that it was trus t in humanity, rather than trust in regulatory agencies, that was the predictor. 109

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Interview 8: The Cost Conscience Laggard Overview Participant 8 was the owner and manager of a small aquarium store sp ecializing in African cichlids. He had 20 years of industry experi ence and enjoyed his wor k, but did not dedicate considerable time to staying abreas t of current industry trends. Pa rticipant 8 did not sell the fish for four reasons: cost, customer demand, drop in hype, and dislike of the technology. He took calls throughout the interview and his tone indicated that he was not interested in learning more about transgenic fish. When asked if he spoke with other retailers about transgenic fish, he responded, I really havent gotten into that. I ha ve too many other things to worry about. He described his customer base as fairly advanced and attributed this to his specialization in cichlids. He told the interviewer, Because I speci alize in cichlids and a lot of people, I mean I have people from south Florida who make a trip up here every once in a while just because of the cichlids I carry. Another differe ntiating characteristic was that he was the only participant to elaborate on the failing hype of the fish, and believed the GloFish was a fad that represented too much business risk for reta ilers. When asked if many customers asked for the fish he responded, No. Thats another one of the re asons too; you can add that on to the list. I think theyre more of a phase and they will dwindle. Its kind of like the Tickle Me Elmos and everything else, they come up, they spike and then they fall off. The participant did not possess strong scien tific acumen. When asked what the term transgenic meant to him, he responded, honestl y, it sounds something along the lines of a sex change, but Ive never really thought about it. He was not well informed about the biotechnology debate and had no impetus to perf orm an information search to become more educated on the issues. He decided not to stock the fish, and did not examine the issue further. 110

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Product Attributes Family After he reaffirmed the ranking of product attrib utes as color, price and then personality, little time was spent testing the limitations of the category. Color continued to rank as the primary buying attribute. In the tropical fish se ctor, price trumps personality. He remarked, A lot of fish do have personalitie s, but a lot of people like th e color. Since he was a cichlids enthusiast, a question was asked about what attr ibutes made them desirable. He described cichlids in the following way: For one, they re hardy, theyre extremely colorful, extremely active and theres a large variety of them. The de scription reaffirmed his previous descriptions of product attributes he felt were important. Again he emphasized the importance of price a nd color when describi ng painted fish. He noted, Everybody loves them because theyre ve ry colorful and a lot of them are very reasonable. Economics Family Cost was not only a sales attribute, but also a business risk associated with stocking the GloFish. He mentioned that the economic risk was too great for the smaller retailer, they tend to be a little expensive from a couple of the suppliers and its too much of a risk. While he did not like the idea of a transgenic fish, the fact that he sold ot her enhanced fish that were less expensive indicated that he decided not to stock the fish was for economic reasons. When asked what would make him want to sell the GloFish, he stated that he was not the greedy money-driven type. I make ends meet and Im happy with that. And again, Like I said, part of it has to do with the al tering and cost, they tend to be expensive. Jurassic Park Effect Family The Jurassic Park effect did not have an im pact on participant 008s decision to not stock the fish. Few codes constituting the category manife sted during the interview. Participants with 111

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strong confidence in the FDA regulation of the technologies also st ated that we cannot truly be able to regulate nature. He stated, Yeah, because I say to a lo t of people, if they outgrow you, bring them back. Dont release them; one, because you can get caught and get fined; two, because its so rampant in south Florida its ri diculous He believed that policing would be impossible. Getting people to stop releasing their fish into the wild was not really possible, the unfortunate thing with that is it cant be helped. Ethics Family Participant 8 believed the only reason a retail er would stock the GloFish was for profits. Since he was a cichlid enthusiast, it is not surp rising that he found the danio to be dull. He elaborated as to what type of retailer would st ock the fish, No, I mean, I really dont have a lot of elaboration on that, to me thats something that somebody is going to do to make money, thats what theyd be in it for. I remember a lot of people carried it; a lot of the chains had it when it first came out. When asked if he would ever consider selling the GloFish, he responded, No. A lot of those things are messing with Mother Nature. Ironically, this was the only pa rticipant to refuse to sell the GloFish, but stocked the painted fish. The participants ethics were a paradox because he stocked a fish that had been harmed to produce a desirable attribute, but then did not stock the GloFis h because it represented messing with mother nature. He continued, No, I mean, I really dont have a lot of elaboration on that, to me thats something that somebody is going to do to make money, thats what theyd be in it for. He delineated between painted fish and genetically modified fish when he stated, Well, like I said, it was a phase. And youre messing with Mother Nature, youre altering something. Granted the dying of the fish, you re altering it, but you re not going in and physically changing. Youre not messing with Moth er Nature is what I am trying to say. Describing the painted fish, he stat ed, I keep them; I sell a couple here, and theyre the kids like 112

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them. But the stuff wears off. Given his lack of time allocated to researching issues, he contended that he would be unaware if the fish was harmed, Even the injected fish wears off. I dont know if its harming them or not. Regulation Participant 8 was not well informed about which governmental agencies were tasked with governing transgenic fish. He decided not to stoc k the fish early in its introduction, and never reexamined the decision. Like participant 7, he claimed that the FDA should not spearhead the governance of transgenic ornamental fish. He stated, Food and drug, it doesnt sound like it. To me, it would seem like its more like the Wildlife Commission, actually something along those lines would be more appropriate, not food and drug. Were not eating it or taking it as a pill, why would they be involved? When the coordinated frame work was explai ned, however, he changed his opinion stating, That makes sense if they have a little more experi ence with it. Maybe they need to partner with somebody or several people. And again, I guess if they have had the most experience, yeah. It doesnt seem like they would be the ones, but if they have the most experience with it, from doing the plants, so thats how they got their experience. Ultimately the regulation of the technology does not impact his decision. He admitted, I am sure they have strict guidelines, for safety and all that other, so I am sure its pretty safe. Comparative Analysis During the analysis, careful consideration was given to the possibility of adding the economics category again. Economics was split between the ethics and product attributes categories after interview 4. This lumping, how ever, fails to capture the responses surrounding the business aspects of transgenic fish. While th e business versus ethics code relates to both the ethics and economics families, a differentiation is necessary to explain such responses as, Okay, 113

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so one, the cost, and two, I dont do a lot of the tropical ornamental fish. I do keep a supply of them but Im bigger into the sa ltwater and the cichlids, for a couple of varying reasons. Interesting. Like I said, Ive ju st never really put a lot of thought into it. Its kind of one of those things, you make a deci sion and run with it. Interview 09: The Pragmatic Retailer Overview Participant 9 was the owner and manager of a small retail store in J acksonville selling both marine and freshwater fish. He was informed about how, why, and when the GloFish was created and had a cursory understanding of the governmental agencies responsible for the oversight of transgenic organisms. The GloFis h had been a topic of conversation with his colleagues when it was first released; but as the hype decreased, it became another product offering. Unlike participant 8, participant 9 under stood that he needed to sell fish to make money. While he was a biotec hnology proponent and a fan of th e GloFish, he had difficulty making the fish profitable. He was willing to give customers what they wanted, but did not compromise his morals. He admitte d that there would be limitations to what he would be willing to sell and inferred that creating esthetically plea sing colored fish was not adequate social utility from genetic engineering. The product attributes category was strength ened, and a new dimension on personality manifested in the interview, desirable carnivor ous aggression. Codes constituting the ethics category appeared frequently in the interview, and the Jurassic Park e ffect provided a minimal contribution to the retailers pe rception of the GloFish. The small contribution of the effect could be attributed to faith in humanity and gove rnmental oversight of transgenic organisms. The resurrected economics category also appeared in the interview in the context of business operations. 114

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Product Attributes Category The product attributes of color, personal ity, survivability, and price were mentioned by the participant. When asked what characteristics make a fish sell, he responded, The vast majority of people, the other 80% are buying fish because they like the way they look. Oscars, in a nice, clean tank, are pretty fi sh. Theyve got a lot of personality. Like I said, those people are looking for something that is easy to keep, hard y; hardy is the big thing for a lot of folks. Unlike other participants, he mentioned aggressi ve behavior as a favorable characteristic that made many fish, like Oscars, more valuable. He noted that people enjoyed watching fish eat other fish, and he sold thousands of feeders a month. He was critical, however, of many customers who feed their fish feeders when it was not in the fishs best interest in terms of health. He commented, There are people who buy African cichlids, which are 100% herbivores in the wild, that feed them almost nothing but feeders. He was the only participant to mention that carnivorous fish were more valuable beca use the owner could watch them eat other fish. Therefore, while the GloFish was colorful, it l acked a desirable personality. Participant 9 was critical of customers who do not adequately care for their aquarium fish. When they say is this fish hardy, they mean if I neglect it, will it stay alive. Also, like participant 7, he insinuated that the fact the fish were gene tically engineered was a sales attribute. When he was asked if the fact that they were genetically modified sold more fish he responded, A few. Most of the fish were sold by us, not really people coming in looking for them. It was a thing like, oh yeah, I heard about that, and oh yeah, theyre really cool, okay Ill get one. The vast majority were sold, they werent bought. The cost of the fish was a significant impetus of fewer sales. Participant 9 did not believe the GloFish provided added value; he did not believe that people were getting a great deal of 115

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value from buying the fish. He admitted that whil e he stocked them, he did not have any in his current inventory. When asked if he sold th em and if cost was an issue, he responded, Yeah, we sell it. I dont have any in here right now, but theyre $5.00. Theyre not a thing where people are, oh gosh, I cant afford that. But they look best when you get a whole group of them. We havent done, and I dont kn ow that all that many people have done that well with them. Seagrest and 5-D tell me theyre not moving a whole lot of them. Even when they first came out we werent moving a lot of them. The sales of the fish were lower than expected as a result of two factors: the proximity of a cheaper substitute, the nongenetically modified dani o, and the relative high cost of the fish. He elaborated,Its a five dollar danio. Its a fish you can nor mally buy for 99 cents, and it doesnt look that much different. While five dollars wa s not too expensive for a fish. He believed the GloFish was overpriced, and noted I dont think people are seeing the value of it. Again when asked for clarification as to whether the price justified the colo ration, he responded, No, not five times as much, because danios look best in gr oups, groups of 10 to 12, and the people that are looking at them arent going to spend $50 or $60 just to get a little group of fish that are red. Finally, a hypothetical question about pricing was asked to determine if the participant believed whether more intense coloration or lower price was the reason for sluggish sales. When he was asked if he would have been able to se ll more fish at a lowe r price, he answered, Possibly, if they could sell for $2, I am sure they would probably sell quite a bit better. Color continued to be the primary sales attri bute; however, there was a valuation placed on the intensity of the color. Since the colora tion was not intense enough in the GloFish to differentiate it from the nonengineered danio, the sale s of the fish had been hurt. Further, due to the small size of the fish, several fish had to be purchased to get the total effect of the coloration making the cost of the fish greater than other larg er species. 116

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Economics Family The new economics family was captured in extens ive dialog addressing the cost of the fish. Participant 9 viewed the GloFish as a function of profitability. The ultimate decision to stock the fish was based on perceived marketability. When asked why some retailers stock the fish while others do not, he answered, The reason I thi nk is that some people will carry this type of fish and some people wont is some people are hobbyists and got into the business as a hobby and will probably be out of the business as a hobbyi st and some people are in it as a business. Like participant 8, he divided retailers into two groups: those who are in it for a business and those who do it for a hobby. While participant 8 perceived himsel f as a hobbyist rather than a businessman, Participant 9 understood that he wa s running a business and needed to pay his bills. Jurassic Park Effect The Jurassic Park effect contributed minima lly to the participants perception of the GloFish. Since either faith in humanity or gov ernmental regulation mitigates the Jurassic Park effect, he never mentioned that a cataclysmic ev ent would result from genetic engineering. As well, he did not have any fear of the unknown cons equence of scientific ad vancement. He did admit, however, that aquarium fish are able to adapt to their environments. Weve gone out to do tanks where you cant even see three inches in the tank; the fish somehow adapted. Like interviewee 7, he viewed the will of a species to survive as a positive rather than a negative. While he implied that genetic engineering was dangerous and scie ntific advancements were not necessarily safe, he believed th e government oversight would prohibit natural abominations. His faith in the governmental entities tasked with regulating biotechnology influenced the prevalence of the Jurassic Park effect and also impacted the ethics category. While he mentioned the release of aquarium fish into the environment by owners, he did not appear bothered by the implication of releasing genetically modified aquarium fish. 117

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The small role of the Jurassic Park effect in influencing the participants opinion of the GloFish can also be explained by th e physical attributes of the fis h. Given that the fish was an inch long herbivore, and relatively innocuous, he did not have any fear of the unknown consequences of developing the fish. Ethics Family Considerable dialog was given to the ethical implications of transgenic fish and the broader aquarium sector. The Playing God code did not appear in the interview, but the participant did define boundaries about what was acceptable to produce through ge netic engineering. While he did not have reservations about experimenting on higher vertebrates, he did have concerns about the purpose and outcomes of the research. The ethical quagmire of the painted fish was di scussed in the intervie w. While, he did not like the painted fish, he was willing to sell it. Participant 9 did not have an ethical problem selling either the GloFish or the painted fis h. When asked about his overall impression with genetic engineering he began discussing the painted fish. He elaborated, I think its a very good thing. I think its an extension of what we are. To not do it would be, I think foolish, because ther e are so many good things that come from that. The fish that are altered that I dont li ke are not genetically altered; they are dyed and things like that. There are some fish with dye injected into it. I saw a parrot fish yesterday, they called it a lipstick parrot, where they injected dye into the lips of the fish and injected a checker board pattern on the side of the fish, a nd it might not hurt the fish at all, but to me it just lookedI didnt like it whatsoever. He described the painted fish as something he did not approve of, while he was strongly supportive of technologies used to enhan ce coloration without harming the fish. When you have a Dachshund or a Poodle, youve got something that has been genetically engineered and altered, it is not natural, so to say that you dont want a specific type of fish for that reason, people are probably hypocrites. Like I said, more than likely they have something that has been genetical ly altered; we are genetically altered like that. We select what we breed. I have a problem with it if you are going to take so mething that doesnt have any natural enemies and it can be released in the wild, and norma lly like that, its not 118

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necessarily the fishs fault. People are taking it and putting it in an area where it shouldnt be, but most of the time thats naturally occu rring fish like snake h eads, things like that. There was also dialog about customer responsibil ity for ensuring the health of their pets. According to the participant, people will feed fi sh the wrong diet for amusement. In the wild maybe 15% of their diet is fi sh, but theres people that buy th em that feed them nothing but goldfish and they end up with a filthy tank with fish that are obese, it cuts down on the life span. Again he described how customers would purchase a fish just to watch it consume feeder fish. He explained, There are people who buy African cichlids, which are 100% herbivores in the wild, that feed them almost nothing but feeders. That really annoys me too because it cuts down on the life span of the fish. Ultimately, he believed that customers did not care about the welfare of the fish. He noted that people would ask him what fish required the least amount of work, and he assumed they were asking for something that they could neglect. The biotechnology cut off point was established when he asked what attributes he would not buy if they were the result of ge netic enhancement. He answered, If it looked freakish to the point where you are like, that really s houldnt exist, it was developed just for a side show, like a bodyless h ead that you can just add, and literally I am sure they could do that. But like I said, if they just did something just for freak value; like I said, the glow fish was engineered fo r a purpose and then th ey took the technology from that and said okay, we can make ones that stay red and ones that stay green. Like participant 6, he believed there needed to be a social benefit to genetic engineering since there was an inherent risk associated with the innovation. The risk perception manifested when he drew a parallel with genetic engineering and the ma nufacturing of dynamite. He said, Lots of really good things come from things that are dangerous. Due to the small size of the fish, he admitted that it did not seem threatening. 119

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Regulation The participant knew that the FDA was res ponsible for GloFish regulation, and had a cursory understanding of the coordinated framework used to regulate transgenic organisms. He had significant faith in governmental regulation of transgenic or ganisms. He viewed the FDAs role as expanding beyond basic overs ight to also prohibit the devel opment of either dangerous or morally reprehensible organisms. When he wa s asked if he liked the fact that there was oversight in place, he responded, Yeah, I think its good. There are certain things where I dont think they should do unlimited research, just like human cloning; because you can take and come up with something that really shouldnt be there. It is not going to take and assimilate well and I am sure you could do the same thing, you can come up with an animal that wont be eaten by other things because of the way it tastes and then they are running rampant and maybe eat all the vegetation. So its not necessarily something that is going to eat all the fish, it might affect the food chain in another way. So yeah, it shouldnt be something that is completely unlimited. Participant 8 did not lack faith in humanit y. He believed the FDA was the appropriate agency to govern the GloFish and that regu latory oversight would police the scientific community. He did not believe that governmental oversi ght was always effec tive. He explained how poorly regulated the harvesting of live corals had become. Comparative Analysis Participant 9 shared the most commonalities with the pilot study participant. They were early adopters, disliked the pain ted fish, were well informed about the biotechnology debate, and both had similar customer bases. Both interv iews had similar responses to the structured interview questions, with the prim ary differences attributed to the decrease in media attention and hype of transgenic ornamental fish. Like the first participant, 9 stocked the fish months before it was officially released. The reason for stocking the fish was economic; he be lieved he would make more money. While two 120

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years of time have elapsed between the first a nd ninth interview, the initial hype surrounding the release of the GloFish to the public manifested in the interview. It was inferred from the interview, however, that the hype over the GloFish had begun to grow dull based on the pattern of responses, and references to the fishs lackluster sales. Secondly, participant 9, like the firs t participant, also disliked the painted fish. He felt that the fish was not only harmed duri ng the tattooing procedure, but also felt that the attribute of survivability was compromised. He drew pa rallels among the GloFish, painted fish, and corals. For the participant, the GloFish was a superior product since it s unnatural alteration did not impact the fishs health. He mentione d that animal breeders have been doing the same thing for hundreds of years and felt that it was important to utilize the technologies to displace practices such as the production of painted fish. Still, unlik e the first participant who was unwilling to sell them, the ninth partic ipant did stock painted fish. Thirdly, he was well informed about the biot echnology debate and had dialoged with other retailers about the GloFish when it was first released. The particip ant was pro-biotechnology and exhibited a high degree of trust in huma nity and the FDAs ability to govern the technologies. While he did not explicitly describe invasive species, he did reference environmental degradation resulting from the release of aquarium fish. Fourthly, the first and ninth stor es had similar products and similar customer bases. Both stores sold marine and tropica l fish and had a moderately ad vanced hobbyist clientele. According to participant 9, only about 15% of hi s customer base was advanced, with about 85% just trying to keep the fish alive. Finally, like participant 1, he mentioned that his location might have an impact on the sale of GloFish, which he described as slow. He noted, Yeah, I am sure there are other parts of the count ry where they sold much better. 121

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Customer demographics heavily impacted th e retailers perception. If the demand was there, then the fish would most likely be stocke d. The ninth participan ts perception of demand had changed over the 2 years however. While there were initial brochures and marketing materials for the GloFish, the materials were no longer available, making its differentiation from nontransgenic danios based on coloration on ly. He admitted that he did not recognize much of a difference between the $5 fish and its $.99 relative. Interview 10: The Ethics Policeman Overview Participant 10 did not sell the GloFish and was a skeptic about biotechnology. While he did not fully reject genetic e ngineering, the social benefits were heavily considered. The participant did not believe altering a fish for es thetics was ethical, but would have considered selling a fish that had been genetically altered to be more disease resistant. His decision to not stock the GloFish resulted from the combination of lack of profitability and perceived value. He specifically opposed the reason why the GloFis h was marketed, esthetic s, rather than the technology used to create it. He first learned that the GloFish was av ailable while reading trade journals and apparently was influenced by mass media based on his references to human cloning and stem cell research. While he originally sold both fresh and marine fish, he had made a business decision to phase out his fresh water offerings. The store cater ed to more advanced marine hobbyists who were less cost conscious and more inte rested in the health and welfare of the fish. Participant 10 was the only subj ect to acknowledge the in ternets role in promoting certain fish species, and made references to the importance of hype and mass media in promoting the sales of certain species. 122

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The participant described the level of knowledge his average consumer had about aquarium fish as Basic at best He viewed his role as stor e owner as an ambassador for the aquarium industry. His experience made him ar rogant, and he had disdain for novice hobbyists who were influenced by the color an d price of fish. The participant believed he needed to police his customers to ensure they purchased ethically produced pets. Considerable dialog fell into the ethics and product attributes categ ory. For participant 10, the product attributes caused the ethical quagmires in the aquarium industry. Consumers wanted esthetically pleasing fish, which created a market for species not well su ited to the aquarium industry. He implied that the ov er-arching attribute of coloration facilitated the production of the GloFish. In the interview, ethics and product attributes were closely interwoven, but, ultimately, ethics and profitability most heav ily impacted his reaction to the GloFish. Product Attributes Category The product attributes category appeared throughout the interview. Coloration, survivability, and personality were the most important attributes for the customers. Like other strictly marine stores, cost seldom factored into a customers buying decision. The category was explored in detail to ascert ain why the participant did not find the GloFish marketable. Questions were asked about how he made stocking decisions and why he had moved to a total marine format. Participant 10 viewed his role not only as the st ore manager, but also as a representative of the hobby. He believed that he was privy to knowledge that his cu stomer base did not have and that he was responsible for ethi cally policing what was sold in his store. When asked how he decided what to stock in the store he answered, Most of the time, whatever interests me is what I stock, a very self-centered thing; there are some things I just outright refuse to because of survivability or that they are not collected 123

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ethically. I do factor in custom er wants, but there are things I just will not bring in because I dont agree with it or dont like it. His duel roll of catering to the customer wh ile ethically policing their buying decisions places his responses in both the consumer attribute and ethics categories. He willingly meets customers demands until they push him beyond hi s ethical boundary delineated by selling fish that either was not collected ethica lly or that he does not like. He factors in customer wants, but does not simply select fish based on perceived marketability. (Again, his perceived role as an aquarium hobby representa tive was evident when he described the responsibility of aquarium reta ilers of educating the consumer and ensuring the fishs welfare. He felt he was ethically respons ible for giving the fish a chance at survival, because were pulling it out of th e wild, for our enjoyment we have the responsibility to at least give it a half-way d ecent shot at a normal life and its normal life span. In addition to his role as a benevolent repr esentative, he viewed customers who differed from his conceptualization of product attributes as inferior. He was an aquarium hobby elitist. This viewpoint manifested when a specific question was asked about the importance of coloration. He admitted that, while color was no t a primary attribute for him, it was what most of his customers wanted. He ela borated, For my consumers, most of it is; a lot of it has to do with what is showy, flashy and bright and that would be the bulk of the customers. He mentioned, however, that his savvy educated custom ers were less interested in color, and more interested in personality and su rvivability attributes. Ultimately, while the bulk of his customers desired coloration, his more advanced customers examined a variety of factors when purchasing a fish. While he believed that hype increased sales, color, personality, su rvivability and price were the greatest contributing factors. He ra nked their importance as follows, coloration first, 124

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survivability next, and then pers onality and costs. I try to ca ter more to actual hobbyists; my client base is a little skewed sometimes. I know for a lot of people, cost is number one; its always about cost. The participant did not perceive added value in modifying a fishs natural coloration. He noted, To me, that doesnt have an y beauty; the painted fish or the day-glow fish, they just dont have any appeal to me. I would rather see a zebra danio in its natural stat e; I think its a nice looking fish. Most people dont, but I do. Economics Family While the participant believed that selling either painted fish or the GloFish was immoral, he did understand that his survival in th e business world was a function of profitability. Participant 10s decision to disc ontinue selling tropical fish ex emplifies his clear understanding of sound business practices. While he perceived hi mself as an enthusiast, he also wanted to provide the highest quality produ ct at the best price. It was inferred from the interview that he ne ither agreed with using biotechnology to create aquarium fish with enhanced coloration, nor did he believe that they would be a profitable product for the industry. The perceived profitability of the fish may have outweighed his general dislike of the fish, but the weigh ting of the factors could not be de termined from the transcripts. It can be inferred, however, from his admission that he would sell genetically modified fish with enhanced survivability characteristics, that surv ivability was the most influential attribute. Another economic factor influencing the par ticipants perception of the GloFish is the type of consumer it attracts. He implied that people who wanted intense coloration were novices in the aquarium hobby and were ultimately less w illing to pay more for healthy fish (Paragraph 028). He noted, There is a segment within th e marine hobby that is not hing but cost and those are also the ones that I referenced with their kno wledge base being defici ent and being resistant 125

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to learning. Ultimately, his key customers would not purchase the GloFish, and selling the GloFish would attract cost sensitive novices. While the participant may have professed to have an ethical dilemma regarding stocking th e GloFish, based on his responses, he appeared to be heavily influe nced by profitability. The Jurassic Park Effect Participant 10 was not heavily influenced by the Jurassic Park effect. There was, however, one response that indicated that he had a modicum of concern about potential unknown consequences. When he was asked if genetic engineering was either safe or dangerous, he explained, I think we might get some unforeseen problems arise because I dont think we are perfectly capable of predicting everything that we do. From what little I do know, most of those genes control multiple things, you turn on off or on, sometimes there will be combinations that we did not foresee. The concern was mitigated, however, by his beli ef that humanity would be able to solve the mistakes stemming from genetic engineering. Ultimately, the Jurassic Park effect manifested in the interview, but it had minimal impact on the participants reaction toward the GloFish. Invasive species were discussed, but not in the context of a reason to not stock transgenic fish. The release of the GloFis h into unnatural environments did not have more environmental repercussions than releasing any other nonindige nous species. He belie ved invasive species would empower special interest groups to destroy the industry. In effect, he accepted that invasive species were a byproduct of the hobby. When he was asked about his perspective on invasive species, he commented, I think its going to be th e doom of the industry eventual ly. I understand there are times when things are out of our control, like a natural disaster and somehow some animals get released in the wild, but I do see a lot of irresponsibility with people who have the wrong tanks and the fish get too big. They just throw them in a lake or some waterway. I think the environmental groups will eventually ge t their way and restrict all exotics. 126

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Ethics Category There was considerable overlap between the et hics and product attr ibutes categories. Participant 10 viewed the drive to fill the cons umers demands to be the cause of the ethical dilemma inherent in the aquarium industry. Cl ear ethical boundaries we re delineated throughout the interview. While he was a biotechnology skeptic, he admitted that he would purchase and sell transgenic fish with enhanced survivability. The roll of ethics in cr ystallizing his opinions towards stocking the GloFish were apparent wh en he described his perception of genetic engineering: I am for it, but sometimes the ethi cs concern me; where it might possibly lead us. I am for it, but I am weary that it might be taken too far. Participant 010 had clearly defined ethical boundaries delineated by the reasons for genetically modifying the fish. Hi s perspective, that the social be nefit had to justify the genetic alternation, manifested when he noted when he would be a proponent of a genetic alteration. The participant explained, It depends how they are modified and what was the intent of modifying; if its for disease resistance I would be more inclin ed to purchase that. If they were modified just to change the color from what I have to a red-flame a ngel to a neon purple-flame angel, I would not be inclined to purchase those types of fish. As noted in the product attributes category, coloration, while desirable to many of his customers, did not enhance his perceived value of the fish. Therefore, th e GloFish is ethically unacceptable to him since changing the coloration is neither a justifiable alteration nor does it enhance the intrinsic value of the fish. The participant clarified hi s position against the GloFish, I am more in it for the natural aspect of the an imal, to appreciate the animal for what it is, not to make it more appealing to human sensibil ities. It equates with I would rather go see an elephant in a natural preserve than seeing them in a circus. I w ould rather see a more natural representation of it rather than someth ing thats been modified to make it more pleasing to humans, that is the best I can put it. 127

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While he does not want the fish modified for aesthetic reasons, he was willing to sell genetically modified fish that looked the same as their non-GM relatives, but had enhanced survivability attributes like salt water fish surviv ing in fresh water environments. When asked if he believed the technology would help the industry, he responded, I hope so; I would really like to see the survivability aspect addressed if we could. He elaborated, as well, on the justifiable reasons for genetically modifying a fish. He to ld the interviewer, If you were just doing it for cosmetic reasons, to me I dont find any use or appeal. If its making something more survivable, yeah, I think th at would be a good thing. There was considerable dialog about the ethi cs of the broader aquarium trade. He described one of his suppliers as using cyanide to rape an en tire environment and told the moderator that he was frequently placed in mora l dilemmas by his suppliers and customers. He admitted, Occasionally we do get some things in that I feel are inappropriate and should not be collected. We do our best to care for them and if we are going to move them on to somebody else we try to make sure that the pe rson who is getting them is fully aware of the difficulty associated with it, the likelihood that it is not going to survive and then we usually just recoup our costs out of it and move it on to somebody who will hopefully be able to maintain it for however long they can. His response also reflects his ro le as a representative of the aquarium industry. While he sold the fish that would most likely not surviv e, providing a caveat to th e consumer and making a best effort to ensure the fishs welfare mitigated the ethical implications of the transaction. The heavy influence upon the ethics category is appare nt in the interview exemplified by the amount of time the participant allocated to discussing it. Regulation While he was not familiar with the governmental agencies tasked with regulation, he did mention that oversight was necessary because the private sector would run amuck if allowed. 128

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When the regulation questions were asked, the influence of governmental oversight did not appear to heavily influence this retailers response toward the tr ansgenic fish. The participant claimed to be a Libertarian, believing in limited government, but felt that oversight was necessary to keep the private sector regulated. He said, I dont necessari ly trust them with my libertarian core beliefs; I dont trust industry to govern themselves so I guess the FDA would be as good a government agency as any if it has to be the government. While he believed that some regulation was necessary, he did not feel placated by the presence of a governmental entity providing oversight. Comparative Analysis Interview 10 did not push the limits of the categories, but reaffirmed that ethics and economics drives the stocking decision. The Jurassi c Park effect, while creating skeptics, is not powerful enough to cause a retailer to refuse to st ock the fish. In interview 10, like interviews 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 the order of product attribute importa nce was color, price, and personality. The participant, however, was not as eager to sell a genetically modifi ed fish even if it could be profitable. If survivab ility could be enhanced and he c ould make a profit then he would reluctantly sell it. The ethics category was the most influential in driving the participants decision to not stock the fish, but economics was a close second. Participant 10 had a great deal in common with participant 3, w ho was driven by ethics rooted in a religious paradigm. The product attributes category remained relatively unchanged in interview 10. The influence of the product attributes category in stocking decisions has become more questionable, since the only people who have the ability, but refuse to stock the fish, have done so because of economic or ethical reasons. If the most dominant attribute of the GloFish is its color, and the primary product attribute consumers want is co lor, the GloFish should be stocked in every store. Since the interviews do no support th is deductive reasoning, the category presents a 129

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paradox. None the less, the product attributes category explains a portion of the retailers response to transgenic fish. As well, the product attributes category reveal s the elements in fish that retailers believe make them desirable to consumers. If the GloFish did not have any product attributes that the retailer s found desirable, their reaction w ould have been different. The GloFish, however, provides retailer s with the option to stock a hi ghly colorful fish, that unlike the painted fish, is he althy and unharmed. For all other participants, the Jurassic Park eff ect influenced the retailers perception of the GloFish, but the extent of the influence was predic table. The Jurassic Park effect category had a slight effect on participant 10. Other participan ts who were minimally influenced by the effect include 1, 2, 7, and 9. The strength of the effect is related to participants trust and perceived consequences. Fear is the outcome of the eff ect that can be mitigated by high trust and low perceived consequences Participant 10, while being driven by ethics in his decision to not stock the fish, also believed the margins were not adequate. His personal beliefs were al so reinforced by his perception that the GloFish was neither a goo d business decision nor was a likely product to attract desirable clientele. Ethics were the primary motivations driving the participants perception of the GloFish, but economics were al so heavily considered. Like participant 2, and 5, participant 10 had concerns that the smaller retailer stores would be able to stock the fish. Interview 10 provided the re searcher with an instance where economics and ethics influenced the stocking decision. He did not stock the fish, and the Jurassic Park effect played a minimal role in that decision. Participant 10 further demonstrated its low significance in influencing retailers stocking decisions. 130

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Interview 11: The Rational GloFish Supporter Overview Participant 11 was the manager of a pet shop in Tampa that sold both marine and freshwater species. While she was not the owner of the shop, she had considerable influence in the buying decisions, and, initially, refused to stock GloFish. She successfully lobbied the owner to delay stocking GloFish because of suspicions that the transgenic fish, like the painted fish, was harmed during its creati on. Her aversion towards creating a fish with intense coloration transcended painted and glass fish to incl ude the GloFish. Upon further consideration, however, the participant supported the stores decision to stock the fish. She made a rational decision to stock the fish, but was heavily biased by the painted fish. Considerable effort was made to understand what information facilitated her change of heart. Participant 11s research focused on the h ealth and of the fish rather than the environmental ramifications resulting from rele asing genetically modified organisms into the environment. After researching information on the GloFish, she realized that the fishs health was not compromised. Ultimately, the GloFish was stocked for economic reasons as well as offering the customers an alternative to the pa inted fish that they refused to stock. Product Attributes Category Participant 11 made stocking decisions ba sed on customers buying trends. When asked what customers looked for in a fish, she responde d, Size and color, they want the big colorful stuff, active stuff. Cost, however, played a sign ificant role in her cust omers buying decisions. Clarification was asked about the order of im portance, and she responded, Cost is always number one with our customers. It always overweighs color. They look at color first and then the next thing out of their mouth is how much is it going to cost. Cost, color, size, survivability, and then personality. In effect, the colorati on initiates the buying decision, and based on her 131

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ranking is the premium attribute. It was inferred from the interview that few customers were concerned about survivability, and most entrus ted her to make correct recommendations about which fish to buy. She was asked to describe the decision-maki ng process to stock fish, and she focused on her role of matching the fishs needs with a customers ability to meet them. What customers ask for, specific things, and th en either me or the other manager will do a little background research on it and see what kind of fish it grows to be, if it a good suit for what someone asks for. Like the South Ameri can red-tail cats; there is a tank-raised one out there right now and thats the only one b ecause a customer requested it for a pond at his big house, and thats the onl y reason I got it. So if so mebody asks for oddball stuff we background research it and make sure you are goi ng to take care of it; were not going to just buy a fish that you will e nd up killing in the long run. Coloration continues to be the primary attribut e that drives the perceived value of a fish, however, cost factors into the fi nal buying decision. Participant 11s efforts to acquire special order fish revealed that custom ers demand unique products that th ey could not find at competing stores. The uniqueness product attribute drove some customer s to specifically request the GloFish because it was genetically modified. She noted, Some asked if we were going to have them; some asked why we were going to have them. Its more people requesting them, so we decided okay, well get a couple and see how it goes because right off the bat we werent that wild about it. The GloFish was stocked as an alternative to the painted fish. It provided customers with the color product attribute without compromising survivabil ity. While the hierarchy of color, price, and personality remained unchange d in interview 11, the re lationship between color and price became more clear. Cust omers initially look for color, a nd then, if the price is right, they purchase the fish. 132

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Economics In interview 11 there was considerable ove rlap between the economics and ethics categories. The participant always placed ethics before economic profit, but she understood that she was being paid to make money for the store s owner. Her aversion of painted fish and her refusal to stock them, despite economic in centive demonstrates her priorities. Customer demand drove stocking decisions. Wh en she was asked why the store made the decision to stock the GloFish, she answered, B asically customers asked for the product. Economics was the impetus for the adoption of the GloFish, but onl y after the ethical questions had been answered through an exhaus tive research process. She was asked if she investigated the fish before stoc king it. Yeah, we did. We made sure of why they did it; why they decided to make a pink fish. As exemplif ied by the painted fish, she refused to profit from an organism that had been created through unethi cal means. Well, we dont like to carry the injected glass fish; we wont carry those at all. The dyed fish, we wont carry those at all. Once they verified that the fish was neither ha rmed nor survivability compromised, the decision was made to purchase GloFish. We always put up f its when he tried to bring in a dyed fish or something like that, so we said, no youve got to wait, weve got to figure it out first. The participant believed that ge netic modification had to be ju stified, and that profits were never an adequate justif ication. She was asked about her im pression of genetic engineering and she elaborated, It depends on what its for, what its accomplis hing. Theres a lot of st uff that I agree with everyone else that it shouldnt be messed w ith, but it depends on what your outcome is trying to do. I will sell the glow fish, but their originality wasnt intended to be what it turned into anyway and we carry it, but if youre talking altering something just to mass produce it to make money off it, no. 133

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She had a Machiavellian perspe ctive on genetic engineering. To participant 11, genetic engineering must have so cial benefits. The reasons for gene tically modifying organisms can be justified, it just depends on what youre doing it for. For participant 11, economic profits did not ju stify genetic modification. Why genetically alter something unless its going to make some huge benefit other than just money. She realized, however, that economic incentive was a necessary impetus. If its genetically altered to benefit your life, youre not commercializing something, but you cant have one without the other. She noted again that genetic engineering was acceptabl e for health benefits but not profits, but you cant have one without the other. Jurassic Park Effect The participant neither feared the unknown consequences of creating transgenic fish nor distrusted humanity, and, therefore, the impact of the Jurassic Park effect was minimal. She was in the low consequence high trust quadrant, yet the Jurassic Park effect was present. When she was asked if there was anything that made her question the safety of the GloFish she answered, As far as safety as in possible release? Not, really; ther e is always the possibility that you dont know of, but just going from customer to customer, no. Despite a large amount of trust, she remained uncertain about possible unknown consequences to genetically modifying organisms. While she had ethical concerns about the reasons for genetic engineering, she was comfortable with selling the fish. She was aske d to elaborate on the para dox and explained that she did not perceive a risk. It s a dano; its not a harmful, bi g invasive fish. Theyre more likely to be a meal if anything, so while it can live in our waters anything can be an invasive species. She was asked if the size of the fish made her comfortable and she answered yes. 134

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The participant did realize that governance was difficult and that keeping track of the fish would be difficult. She admitted that while they gave store credit to customers who brought their fish back, others would release them into waterw ays. Mainly our customers are freshwater fish so we dont have to worry about stuff like that, but we make a point to tell them if they have a fish and they have to get rid of it, to bring it to us and we will take care of it, just dont let it go. Short of that, its really hard to keep track of. The perceive d consequences of the releasing the GloFish into nature were low, so the Jurassic Park effect had a minimal impact on participant 11. As well, the participant had a high degree of trust. She trus ted governmental agencies to properly regulate transgenic fis h. The participant ma de the assumption that if the GloFish was available to the public under govern mental oversight, then it was sa fe. We didnt really look at the agencies in charge; we look more at the aspect of the safety to the fi sh, not the environmental side of it. We try to with most things, but thats when it falls down to the customers. She bounded her research by assuming that government would perform its appropriate function. While it was not clearly stated, it was implied th at the participant pla ced a great deal of regulatory responsibility in the hands of retailers and customers. She assumed that other stores would make rational decision on what should or should not be stocked in the stores. She believed it was the retailers responsibility to pr otect customers, even from the own actions as exemplified by refusing to sell a high venomous bl ue ringed octopus. The question was asked if she was forced to sell a fish that she was not co mfortable selling and she answered, Not really. Weve had customers ask for some far-fetched thi ngs like an octopus and we were like no way. 135

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Ethics Category Participant 11 initially refused to stock th e GloFish because she believed it was harmed in its creation like the painted fish. For ethical reasons, she blocked all painted and all dyed fish from entering the store regardless of the profits that could be made. She noted, The manager before wanted to get them just because it would sell and we were like, no, we dont want you to buy this. We always put up fits when he tried to br ing in a dyed fish or something like that, so we said, no youve got to wait, weve got to figure it out first. The ethics of creating the painted fish were transferred to the GloFish. When she was asked to why she was not eager to stock the fi sh when it was first offered, she responded, Well, we dont like to carry the injected glass fish; we wont carry those at all. The dyed fish, we wont carry those at all. Why that turned into an exception, its kind of hard to explain; it was kind of a store decision on part of all the employees. We have a good say in why we do or dont carry some things. Those, it was more because it was a genetic change, therefore you are not harming the fish, you are not injecting th e fish. You are not harming the health of the fish. The reasons for genetically modifying an orga nism were important to the participant. When she was asked about her first impression of the GloFish, she responded, It kind of fell down the line of everybody saying, Why did they do that? There has to be a point but I dont see it. It makes a pretty fish, but what do you need a pretty fish for? She vehemently opposed selling the painted fish. The injected fish, the dy ed fish that are in jected with smiley faces on the side, definitely not, I am not going to condone that. Her desire to learn and share information with customers transcended the GloFish to include all the fish that she stoc ked. The question was asked, A re there species that you would not stock? She responded, The hard-to-take-care-of stuff, that generally shouldnt be taken from the wild because its not a good suit to be in a home aquarium. Theres no really suitable sized aquarium to take care of it properly or just the general public no t knowing how to take of it properly. There is no point in it being taken from th e wild if its not going to live. 136

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Participant 11 viewed her role as an info rmation provider who could link the demands of the customer with the demands of a fish. While color, cost, and personality were important, she viewed her role as a salesperson to meet both th e desires of the customer and the needs of their pets. Therefore, her ethics were centered on the health and well be ing of customers pets rather than possible environmental degradation. Participant 11s perception of biotechnology was unclear. While she was originally opposed to the GloFish, it was never because sh e opposed genetic engineering. Participant 11 had clearly defined ethical boundaries that she re inforced through research. She informed the interviewer that she was opposed to genetically modified organisms, but at the same time, realized her hypocrisy of selling the GloFish. Comparative Analysis Interview 11 was dominated by ethics and health discussion. Once again, the economic category remained secondary to ethics. Partic ipants 1, and 2 had the most in common with participant 11. All three alloca ted time to researching the GloFish before a stocking decision was made. As well, fish health and profitability rather than environmental degradation, was the primary stocking impetus. The pilot participant and participan t 11 both considered the painted fish to be deplorable, but the pilot participant was still willi ng to stock it. Participant 11 possessed a strong aversion to the et hics driving the creat ion of the painted fish in the same way that Participant 4s religious convict ions would prohibit him from selling it. During the comparative analysis following interview 10, the importance of the product attributes category came into question since the category was poor ly defined. Product attributes and profitability are related; the perceived value of the fish is captured by its product attributes. The greater the alignment of the pr oduct attributes with customers desires, the more fish are sold and the greater the profitab ility. Therefore, a highly colorful fi sh that is well priced should be in 137

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high demand and be lucrative for the retailer. Since economic profitability drives the stocking decision and economic profitability results from product attributes, product attributes do drive the stocking decisions. The strong correlation between co lor and price occurs both in marine and tropical fish markets; the more colorful the fish the more the fish costs. The ceiling for costs, however, remains much lower in the tropical fish mark et. While marine hobbyist s are willing to pay a premium for intense coloration, they also must f actor in the potential for survival due to the increased value of their product (Figure 4-2). Qualitative met hods do not allow for quantitative description of the rela tionship, but future research could further elucidate the trend. Other interviews indicated that size of product selection was important to the customer. The pilot participant viewed the GloFish as a ch ance to differentiate himself from large retail chains that had moved into the aquarium retail sector. Interview 4 and interview 10 also indicated that the GloFish was stocked to o ffer customers variety. While selection was instrumental in drawing customers in the store, it was a retailer attrib ute rather than a product attribute and therefore is outside the scope of inquiry. This interview continues to support the Jura ssic Park effect where risk perception and trust heavily influence a persons fear of th e unknown. Participant 11 was minimally impacted by the effect due to her lack of fear in the unknown and a basic trust in humanity. The fishs small size and herbivorous nature made it appear benign. To her the GloFish did not appear menacing and therefore the environmental risks were minimal. The participants original rejection was not attributed to the Jurassic Park effect. The e ffect did not have a deleterious consequence to the decision to stock the fish. 138

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Her ethical policing was very similar to particip ant 10 who also believed that retailers were empowered to ensure that only et hical and healthy fish were sold to the public. The customer policing characteristic directly impacts the buyin g decision since it prohib its stocking fish that are either dangerous or unhealthy. Policing, howev er, has always been in the context of fish health instead of potential envi ronmental degradation. There ha s not been a participant who polices the potential for invasive species. Partic ipant 11s concern for the health of the fish and the ethical implication of creati ng an aesthetically pleasing orga nism were of much greater concern to her than potential environmental destruction. The ethics category contains a paradoxical pattern of responses where the participant realizes the necessity of prof it, but also has strong ethical concerns over the creation and collection of aquarium fish. Participant 11 ex emplified the ethics paradox. While she must maximize profits as a store manager, she must bala nce the profitability of the store with ethical boundaries such as her refusa l to sell painted fish. Interview 12 Overview Interview 12 was performed at the front desk of a marine and tropical aquarium retail store. The participant, one of two females in this st udy, had decades of experience in the ornamental fish sector as a retailer and as a tropical fi sh farmer. While she had very little scientific knowledge, the participant had extensive knowle dge about the ornamental fish sector. Participant 12 had grown up on a fish farm and ha d been the owner of another aquarium retail store. She did not stock the GloFish due to it s high price and smaller margin. The tone of the interview was positive, but the hype of the Gl oFish had faded from the first interview. Economics was the primary driver in particip ant 12s decision to not stock the GloFish. Overall, stocking decisions were driven by cust omer demand and product attributes, but ethics 139

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played a secondary role by limiting what she woul d be willing to stock. Her responses focused on the economics and morals in the aquarium industry. The participant was interested in breading healthy fish and mainta ining clean tank environments. In the interview, there was a tone of disapproval of many aquarium retailers business practices as well as the attitudes that many aquarists have regarding their res ponsibility to their aquatic pets. Product Attributes Little time was spent assessing the rankings of product attributes. Colo r, survivability, and price were the most important to participant 12. Personality was never mentioned as a valuable product attribute in interview 12. The uniqueness of the fishs physical attributes was inferred to be an important to the customer. The participan t referenced that mutant fish from China and Japan, that would have been cull ed by American fish farmers, ha d markets in the United States. Aesthetics, specifically color, were the most important. She was asked what customers look for in a fish, and she emphasized the impor tance of coloration and health. She responded, [if the] appearance of the product looks good, theyre going to buy it. Additional questions were asked about what unique attribute would make the Gl oFish more desirable than nontransgenic zebra danios. She answered, In ot her words because it would be attractive to a customer. The coloration. Instead of a zebra, [it] now has red and green and colors to it, which would attract the customer. Color c ontinued to be the lead attribute. Another primary concern for participant 12 was the fishes health and survivability. She believed the importation of foreign products, especi ally fish with mutations and diseases, was hurting the industry. She stated the importance of survivability in multiple paragraphs, and contended that selling an unhealt hy fish would reduce customer l oyalty. While color, and cost were important factors, her grea test concern was survivability. 140

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Price, while it was a factor, did not signi ficantly impact a customers buying decision. Participant 12 stated, from that perspective of her customers, that If I really want the fish Ill pay for it. However, it should be noted that it was th e cost to the retailer, not the price of the fish that kept the GloFish out of the store. It was the cost of the fish to the retailer, rather than the price of the fish to the customer that concerned her. Economics As a manager, she was focused on customer management and keeping the fish healthy rather than the financial operations of the busines s. When discussing the cost of the fish, she immediately pulled on her experiences as a tropical fish farmer. While she did not believe that customers would be unwilling to pay for the fish, she believed that the re tailers would be unable to afford to carry the GloFish. Theres only certain fish farmers that are going to have the ability to do that, that have the money behind th em. I mean a fish farmer like me. A mom and pop operation is not going to be able to afford to do that. She did believe there would be an adequate market to stock the fish at pet show s where large inventories are turned over daily. Her decision to stock new fish was based on consumer demand; how ever, it was unclear how much influence she had as a manager. When she was asked to describe the criteria the store used to decide to stock fish, she responded, Pro bably the best one would probably be demand. She mentioned that some retailers and farmers used surveys, but she used trial and error to see what was sold or not. She elaborated, If its a brand new fish, you would start out with limited quantities. Maybe you bring in 15-20. If they would sell them you maybe go back and bring in maybe 30 more. While perceived demand was the primary driver of what fish was stocked, she did have ethical boundaries. When she was first asked wh at she would be unwilling to sell, she replied, Anything that is basically prohibited by law. Howe ver, she did refuse to sell a painted fish that 141

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had I Love You tattooed into its side. Not onl y was she unwilling to stock the fish, but she also believed that there would be a market for it. She commented, It will sell. Believe me. I wouldnt buy it. Put it this way, if I had a pet shop I wouldnt stock them. It was clarified in a follow-up question that her reasoni ng was not economic, but that the fish was injured and its health was jeopardized. Jurassic Park Effect The Jurassic Park effect played a minimal role in influencing particip ant 12. She realized that invasive species were a problem, but sh e did not indicate that she had fear of any environmental cataclysm from selling the GloFish. To her the transgenic fish was another marketing gimmick similar to the painted fish. She was blunt in stating that she was a simple fish farmer that did not worry about the science behind her work. Her t one indicated that she trusted humanity, and while she did not know th e regulatory agency ta sked with GloFish oversight, she believed governance was in capable hands. She trusted the regulatory agencies, stating, I think they do a good job because I have friends that work out there doing that. Ethics Category Participant 12 did not suffer from the et hical paradox faced by many retailers. She disapproved of marketing deformed fish that would not survive for health reasons, and of painted fish. She was willing to sell anything that was legal. The painted fish heavily influenced the participant. When she was asked about the pain ted fish, she noted that it was unnecessary, but profitable. I think its stupid. It sells, but to me its not necessary. Youre taking, youre changing, youre altering the fishs skin tissue because youre actually ta king paint and injecting into, its like tattoo, basically same thing a ta ttoo, youre taking and putting blood, youre pushing the tissue and coloring the tissue. 142

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Once again, there was some transference of th e painted fish to the GloFish. When she was asked to discuss other gene tically modified organisms, sh e immediately began to discuss painted fish. When she was specifically asked to divulge he thoughts on the painted fish, she responded, I think its stupid. It sells but to me its not necessary (Paragraph 89). To her, the GloFish was potentially another way to scam une ducated customers into buying a highly colored fish. I dont like anything that [is] a trick because [ I do not like] tricking the consumer. The combination of reduced surviv ability and the fading of the coloration made the painted fish an inferior product. The physical pain of the fish was not the primary driver, it was that the process damaged the fishs health and reduced its survivability. The fading of the color was her primary c oncern. She mentioned that customers had returned to complain that the fish lost its color, but it was unclear from the interview if customers complained about the painted fishs compromised health. Well like on a Painted Fish, they dont last. You may get a Painted Fish. Say if it takes you three to six months to sell this fish its go ing to lose their color because its basically just dye thats been dyed into the tissue. A Painted Fish does not maintain its color. If lucky it may maintain its color for six months. She also described how the fishs health was compromised. Youre altering the fishs structure because first you have to knock him ou t. Youre scraping the tissue, youre scrapping all his scales off, so actually in the long run you re hurting the fish cause youre taking away all of his natural protection. The participant placed the GloF ish in the same group as the painted fish. Before the interview, she assumed that the transgenic fish had similar short comings to the tattooed fish. The participant admitted that as long as the Gl oFish was healthy there would be no reason to refuse to stock it. Thus, it was health concerns along with cost, that cau sed her to not stock the fish. 143

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Participant 12 would be willing to sell any fish that was profitable and likely to survive. When asked what fish she would not sell, she first said anything that was legal. She went on to clarify, however, that she would not sell any fish that wa s naturally deformed automatically got thrown out. Thats something I wouldnt sell, to me its a deformed fish. I dont care how colorful you make it. Participant 12 acknowledged foreign competition as a great concern. Specifically because they would breed def ormed fish that provided a unique fish for the markets. While she worked for a fish farm, they worked to remove unhealthy mutations even though the characteristic made the fish ha ve more desirable product attributes. 144

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Figure 4-1. The Grounded Theory process Figure 4-2. Product attributes price and color relationship 145

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Summary There were a variety of factors that influenced retailers reaction to the onset of transgenic fish. Ultimately, the profit motive drove stoc king decisions, but was limited by ethical boundaries and influenced by a fear-based pheno menon, the Jurassic Park effect. When the interviews began, the entire reac tion of the retailers to the introduction of transgenic products was being investigated. As the research continued, the reaction was explained by the categories containing more than 150 unique codes. The retailers reaction was summarized into whether a retailer stocked or did not stock the GloFish. The reaction, encapsulated by stocking decisions, hypothetical or othe rwise, served as the foundatio n to build the categories. While stocking or not stocking the fish is binary, the actual attitude towards the stocking decision was varied. There were several retailers who stocked the fish, but were not enthusiastic about the fact they were selling a transgenic pr oduct. For these retail ers, the profit motive was adequate in overcoming their reluctance to sell the GloFish. However, once the threshold of moral acceptability was broached, the fish would neve r be sold. If the participant believed that there was severe moral dilemma with stocking th e fish, then no amount of money or desirable product attribute would justify stocking the fish. The economic value of the fish was heavily in fluenced by the product attribute category. Product attributes explained the retailers percep tion of customer demand. While color was the overwhelming attribute that drove demand in aquarium hobby, price dictated the final buying decision. Half the retailers who refused to sell the GloFish did so for moral reasons while the other half mentioned the high cost of the fish as the reason to not stock them. 146

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A grid was developed to capture who could sell the GloFish (ability) with desire to sell the GloFish (desire) (Table 5-1). Not all participants could stock the GloFish such as strictly marine retailers, theref ore, grouping those participants in the same category as the people who refused to stock the fish would not accurate ly explain the stocking decision. Quadrant 1 was for the participants who stocked the fis h, while quadrant 2 included those retailers who wanted to stock the fish but could not since th ey specialized in other products. Quadrant 3 contained retailers that had no ability to sell the fish, but would never sell the fish even if they could. Quadrant 4, contained those participants who had the ability but no desire to stock the GloFish. Five participants were not able to sell the GloFish. Several part icipants (2, 5, and 8) were strictly marine retail ers, interview 3 was done on an aquarium manufacturer, and participant 6 owned an aquarium servicing company. Five of the twelve pa rticipants stocked the GloFish, and all cited that the decision was ec onomic. Three additional participants would have stocked the fish if they were able. Ther efore, the majority of the participants, 67%, embraced the GloFish as a profitable and ethi cal product. There was not an interview where the fish was stocked without any regard to profits. Participant 3 was unable to stock the fish, but hypothetically would have refused to sell the fish on moral grounds. The closest any participant was to being purely a hobbyist was interview 8, who onl y sold one specific type of fish, cichlids. Finally, while participant 11 mentioned that the tr ansgenic fish was stocked as a more ethical alternative to the painted fish, ultimately, her primary impetus in stocking the fish was profitability. The Economic-Cognitive Model The economic-cognitive model expl ains the reaction of Florida aquarium retailers to the GloFish (Figure 5-1). Profit motive drives the economic-cognitive model which is divided 147

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into five categories: economics, pr oduct attributes, the Jurassic park effect and ethics. When the stocking decision was made, the original motiv ation was to meet customer demands. The economics category describes the reactions toward s the business aspects of selling transgenic fish. The product attributes category contains codes that constitute the fishs perceived desirability. Product attributes reflects customer demand whic h directly impacts the economic category. Next, the ethics category has codes whic h enable the retailers to validate or reject stocking the GloFish regardless of profit motiv e. Along with cost, ethics most heavily influenced stocking decisions. The ethics cat egory was the most sophisticated since the boundaries and limitations on what participants were comfortabl e with was highly variable. Finally, influencing, but not dictating, stocking decisions, the last category, the Jurassic Park effect is included in the model. Creating a rigid hierarchy of importance for the categories would be impossible, since under certain circumstances economics, ethics, or product attributes could more fully explain a retailers reaction to suppliers o ffering transgenic products. Rather the categories influence each other. Economics ties closely w ith the product attributes, and ethi cal litmus is used to determine if the fish should be stocked. The Jurassic Park effect, however, does not directly impact the retailer, but served to strengthen thei r position for or against the GloFish. Ethics The ethics category was one of the earliest categories to manifest from the interviews and has a threshold rather than being linear (Figur e 5-2). Thus, each participant had a cutoff point where no new product could be justified. The ethics cutoff point, while varying by participant, technology, and personal character, was heavily infl uenced by the perceived social value of the act. However, any benefit, social or economic could not be justified if the fish past a participants ethical limit. Social benefit was a major contributor to altering a participants 148

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ethical limit. This was referred to as a Mach iavellian approach, since if the resulting product benefited society, then the means were less importa nt. However, if the social benefit was not large, then the means of creating the product became more important to the retailer. No retailer believed that genetic modification could be justifie d to enhance the colorati on of pets, but since it was available, the majority was willing to sell it. The ethics category was the most elusive sin ce it addressed participants feelings and perceptions about the GloFish (Figure 5-3). Code s in this category described the, I just do not like it and It is so mething that you should not do responses. Ethical policing of aquarium hobbyists appeared in interviews 5, 8, 10 and 11. Th ey perceived their roles as policeman of the aquarium industry who needed to set examples of what type of fish people should buy and ensure that the customer was able to meet a fishs dema nds. Ethical policing manifested in participants who were heavily influenced by the ethics category. Playing God, religion, and Mother Nature them es emerged in many earlier interviews, but were less apparent as the resear ch continued. The reason for the reduction of their appearances could not be determined from the interviews, but might be related to the more mainstream acceptance of the GloFish eighteen months later. In addition, explaining their relationships in the ethics category could not be done beyond pl acing them in the category. Playing God appeared to be the most influe ntial retailers initial reaction to the GloFish, but subsequently did not influence stocking decisi ons. As well, one of the most staunchly opposed participants, participant 3, attributed his position to his re ligion. As well, comments such as you should not mess with mother nature appear ed throughout the interviews, but their relationship with other codes and categories remains unknown. 149

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Environmental issues appear in both the et hics and the environmental categories since several participants believed it was their responsib ility to protect the environment. However, the ethics category was more impacted by elusive moral issues, such as Playing God, than a retailers ethical obligation to protect the environment. While e nvironmental concerns played an ancillary function in the ethics category, they sign ificantly influenced the Jurassic Park effect. Finally, the business versus ethics codes appeared frequently in the interviews. An ethical dilemma, the retailers paradox, helps explain the relationship between profitability and ethics. The paradox manifested in the interviews wh en economic gain trumped pure moral decision making. For example, mortality rates are highest on fish that may have the greatest profitability, rare marine fish, and despite knowing that a fish will die, retailers are driven to meet customer demands. If they are good business people then they must compromi se their ethics and if they compromise their ethics, then they will be unable to stay in business. The retailers paradox is tied to the ethics category since th e importance of making money was variable among participants. The retailer s paradox became more evident when ethical boundaries were pushed rather than economic boundaries. The success of the painted fish exemplifies the paradox. While no retailer embraced the concept of harming a fish to enhance its marketability, some were will ing to sell painted fish. Product Attributes The product attributes represent perceived cu stomer demand. The ranking of importance of the attributes varied from participant to pa rticipant, but only part icipants three and eight believed that color was not the most valued attr ibute. Survivability and variety were also mentioned in several interviews, but were not th e characteristics that caught the attention of perspective buyers. The two ch aracteristics were valued by advanced hobbyists, a small percentage of all the participants core business (Figure 5-4). 150

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Survivability themes appeared in both the product attribute and ethics categories. Survivability was more influential from the ethical rather than econom ic perspective. Fish health was always discussed, but not in th e context of profitability. Survivability did not appear to be a primary driver in stocking certain fish exemp lified retailers stocking ra re marine and painted fish. While the GloFish had a much greater survival rate than the painted fish, participants were willing to sell the painted fish but not the GloFish. As well, marine retailers stocked fish that had less than ten percent survival rates in captivity. Thus, survivability was not a significant product attribute. Several participants also mentioned that th ey stocked the GloFish to provide customers with a variety of options. Two participants acknowledged that it allowed them to differentiate their offerings from large retail chains. Howeve r, the importance of variety was of much less importance than profitability. If the GloFish was perceived as either not profitable or immoral, then demand for a variety of fish was mitigated (Figure 5-5). The product attributes category directly im pacted the GloFishs perceived economic value (Figure 5-6). As well, the cost of the fish directly determines the price that a retailer must ask for the fish. Thus, there is a reciprocal relationship between the product attributes and economics categories. Several participants believed the product attribut es were not valuable enough to justify the high cost of stocking the GloFish. The intense coloration did not justify the high price of the fish. Participant 12, and 10 noted that the cost of the fish was the reason why they would not stock it. Participants who reported slow sales also mentioned the price of the fish, along with close substitute s for less money, were to blame. While it was clear from the interviews that customers wanted intense coloration for a reasonable price, the decision to stock the GloFish was not done on product attributes alone. 151

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If fish were stocked based on pr oduct attributes alone, then no retailer would have refused to stock fish that were profitable and good for busin ess. The product attribute category feed the economics category, which then required ethical approval. Jurassic Park Effect By interview 10, the dimensions of the Jurassic Park effect ma nifested as trust, and risk. First, trust can be trust in huma nity, science, or government. In any form, it can influence if a person experiences the Jurassic Park effect. Participant 7, while perceiving a risk in the possible release of the fish, did not have a strong influence from the effect because of a high level of trust in the federal government. If a pa rticipant has a high degree of di strust as in interview 3, 5, and 8, then the likelihood of them being heavily infl uenced by the Jurassic Park effect is high (Figure 5-7). The second dimension, perceived consequences, al so influences the e ffect. Participants who do not fear the consequences of selling the GloFish will never be heavily influenced by the Jurassic Park effect. Thus, the effect has a minimal impact unless the perceived consequences are great. Since, he did not perc eive either the GloFish or another transgenic fish to represent a significant threat to either the environment of humanity, the impact of the effect was mitigated. The importance of the regulatory family had been in question since interview 6. The regulatory family of codes appeared in the inte rviews, but it was determined to be driven by trust. The relevance of the regulatory category to a retailers percep tion of the GloFish was minimal since it was trust that ultimately drove the response. The regulatory codes were rolled into the Jurassic Park effect category following in terview 6, since trust is the influential element (Figure 5-8). 152

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Participants who do not fear the consequen ces of selling the GloFish, however, will never be heavily influenced by the Jurassic Park eff ect, despite their level of trust. Participant 9, while having a high distrust for government and hu manity, did not perceive the consequences of release as significant. Thus, the effect has a minimal impact unless the perceived consequences are great. Since, Participant 10 did not perceive the GloFish or another transgenic fish to represent a significant threat to ei ther the environment or humanit y, the impact of the effect was mitigated. Neither participant 11 nor participant 12 was h eavily influenced by the fear resulting from the phenomenon. Overall, the phenomenon influen ced the stocking decision, but was never cited as the primary reason to not st ock a fish. There is a nonlinear relationship between the two dimensions trust and risk (Figure 5-3). If per ceived risk is great enough, then despite the trust dimension, the affected party will have a fear res ponse. This can be observed in people who fear flying, and genetically modified foods. No retailer claimed nature will find a way as justification for refusing to stock the fish. Participant 5 was the most strongl y influence by the effect since he not only had low levels of trust, but also had a high perceived consequence. He did, however, state that he would sell the fish out of economic necessity if his core busin ess failed. Ultimately, the ethics and economic categories are much more significant influences on a retailers decision to stock the fish. In the hierarchy of influence, economics and ethics, in that respective order, play a more significant role in influencing stocking deci sions. Participants 3, 8, and 10 did so out of ethical reasons (Figure 5-9). Economics The economics category emerged as a series of codes addressing the business aspects of being an aquarium retailer. After interview 4, the differentiation was made between price, a 153

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product attribute, and cost, an economic attribute. Retailers sell fish to make a profit and to stay in business. As participant 1 noted, We are a ll in business to make business (Figure 5-10). Codes capturing this sentiment were placed in the economics category (Figure 5-11). There were numerous factors that contribute to owning a nd running an ornamental fish retail business, but no re tailer believed that they could operate without paying their bills (Figure 5-12). Ethics, while cited as a reason to not stock the fish, was secondary to the profitability. First, the retail er had to pay the bills, and sec ond, they had to be ethically comfortable with selling the fish. While the eco nomics category generally explained a retailers decision to stock or not to stock the fish, th ere was an ethical cut-off where no amount of profitability would be justifiable. 154

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Table 5-1. Who sold the GloFish Ability To Sell GloFish 1 Yes: Ability Yes: Desire Sells GloFish 1,4,7,9,11 2 No: Ability Yes: Desire Would Sell GloFish if Could 2,5,6 Desire To Sell GloFish 3 No: Ability No: Desire No Sell GloFish 8,3 4 Yes: Ability No: Desire Would Not Sell the GloFish if could 12,10 Product Attribute Economics Ethics Jurassic Park Effect Product Attribute Economics Product Attribute Economics Ethics Jurassic Park Effect Jurassic Park Effect Figure 5-1. Economic-cognitive model 155

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Figure 5-2. Ethics category 156

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Figure 5-3. Ethics catego ry network of codes 157

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Figure 5-4. Product Attr ibutes Category 158

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Figure 5-5. Product attributes ca tegory network of codes 159

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Marine Retailers Tropical Retailers Color Price Personality Color Price Peronality Figure 5-6. Product attribute rankings 160

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Figure 5-7. The Jurassic Park effect category Figure 5-8. The Jurassic Park eff ect: Risk vs. trust relationship 161

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Figure 5-9. Jurassic Park effect network of codes 162

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Figure 5-10. Economics category contradicts is cause of is cause of contradicts is part of is part of is cause of is cause of is cause of is cause of is property of is cause of is part of drives is associated with is associated with business vs. ethics {10-5} cost issue {16-2} cost not issue {7-6} customer demand {1-7} economics {3-8} economics not important {1-1} ethics big business {0-2} good for business {2-2} good for little guy {3-1} hype {5-1} moral vs. cost {3-3} profitability tropical fish not profitable {3-2} sell glofish {1-1} no sell glofish {3-2} Figure 5-11. Economics category network of codes 163

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Figure 5-12. Economic, risk, ethics table 164

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CHAPTER 6 FUTURE WORK The economic-cognitive model opens itself to a number of ancillary research questions, which can be grouped into four categories depending on methods and population selected (Table 6-1). The first dimensi on, population, describes research on either the same (specified) or different (expansion) populations. Expansion re search selects populations other than aquarium retailers, which would enhance th e models transferability and cr edibility. Likewise, specified future research uses the same population, but mo re participants, and c ontinues to build on the existing model to explain new phenomenon. The second dimension, methods, describes the methodology, quantitative or qualitative, used to investigate the population selected. Both methods, depending on their use, could either build new theory or enhance the transferability of the existing research. For the first quadrant, qualitative expansion research could apply the economic-cognitive model to populations where similar biotec hnologies are being introduced such as xenotransplantation and stem cell research. Elus ive phenomenon identified from this research could be further examined in differing popul ations using qualitative methods. A grounded theory of the publics response to stem cell research could use the methods and interview questions from this research. Future research could apply the model to hospitals adopting new biotechnologies, and the similari ties and variances could be e xplained. The economic-ethical model could be applied to retailers of stem cell derived technologies, a nd the influence of the Jurassic Park effect in stem cell research could also be examined. Finally, understand which populations continue to support the economic-cogn itive model would reveal its parameters of transferability. 165

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For the second quadrant, the population and methods both vary from this research. Therefore, second quadrant res earch would be the most power ful in adding support to the economic-cognitive model. The challenge to the researchers would be creating a quantitative representation of a qualitative study. The econo mic-cognitive model could be translated into quantitative research such as surveys, and the survey questions could be used to triangulate findings from other populations. If the model continued to function in dissimilar populations using quantitative tools, the credibility of the findings would increase significantly. The research in the third quadrant would conti nue to use aquarium re tailers and qualitative methods. A case study on York Town Technologie s would pool information from a variety of schools to gain a different perspective. Othe r research in quadrant three could use grounded theory to continue to further investigate the boundari es of the Jurassic Park effect. Given resource constraints, no participant was intervie wed who did not stock the GloFish because of the Jurassic Park effect. Thus, finding the out lying participant would further strengthen the model. As well, additional time could be allocated to better unde rstanding the cognitive processes contributing to the fear of the unknown driving the effect in aquarium retailers. Finally, the retailers paradox could be further researched to gain a better understanding of selling controversial products. Aquarium retailers provide a unique population to examine the paradox using qualitative methods. The fourth quadrant would use quantitative techniques on the aquarium retailer population. There has been quality survey research done by pe t associations, but specif ic survey research on the GloFish is lacking. From the perspec tive of enhancing the model and continuing the research, translating a qualitative phenomenon in to quantitative measures continues to pose unique constraints. However, many economic ques tions could be addressed in the model using 166

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quantitative methods. Price elasticity and its impact on the economic-cognitive model would be a helpful addition. Relationships between color a nd price, and maximum pr ice points could be determined by analyzing retaile rs sales data. Overall, future research should examine th e models relevance in other populations experiencing the introduction of a controversial technology. In addition, quantitative measures from the model must be developed to help triangulate findings. The value of the economiccognitive model will be in unde rstanding how similar populations will react to biotechnologies. Thus, future research should stri ve to strengthen the models tr ansferability and triangulate the finding with quantitative research. 167

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Table 6-1. Future research Methods Expansion ResearchQualitative Expansion ResearchQuantitative Methods Quadrant 1 Questions: 1. Does the economic-cognitive model appear in hospitals adopting new biotechnologies? 2. What influence does the Jurassic Park effect have in stem cell research? 3. What impact does the economicethical model have on stem cell research derived technologies? 4. What new technologies experience the economic-cognitive effect when introduced? Methods Quadrant 2 Questions: 1. Does the economic-cognitive model appear in hospitals adopting new biotechnologies? 2. Does the economic-cognitive model significantly influence the publics perception of stem cell research? 3. Does the economic-cognitive model significantly influence the publics perception of xenotransplantation? 4. Does the Jurassic Park effect occur more in agribiotechnologies than in medical biotechnologies? Specified Research Qualitative Specified Research Quantitative Population Methods Quadrant 3 Questions: 1. A case study of York Town Technolgies. 2. When does the Economic Cognitive model fail? 3. What are the cognitive elements of the retailers paradox? Methods Quadrant 4 Questions: 1. What is the price point that negates the economic-cognitive model? 2. How strongly are price and color related? 3. What is the economic value of coloration? 4. What is the price elasticity of the GloFish? 168

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APPENDIX A FDA STATEMENT FDA Statement Regarding GloFish Because tropical aquarium fish are not used for food purposes, they pose no threat to the food supply. There is no evidence that these gene tically engineered zebra danio fish pose any more threat to the environment than th eir unmodified counter parts which have long been widely sold in the United States. In the ab sence of a clear risk to the public health, the FDA finds no reason to regulate these particular fish. (FDA, 2003) 169

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APPENDIX B INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Pilot Interview Protocol I (Interview 1) Interview Protocol Project: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish Time of Interview: Date: Place: Interviewer: Interviewee: Position of interviewee: Level of Education: Scientific Background: Description: The purpose of this grounded theory study is to understand the responses of stakeholders (retailers) in the ornamental fish industry to the onset of transgenic products. At th is stage in the research the central focus will be to obtain st akeholder opinions about new ornamental fish developed with biotechnology and to come to understand the basis of their acceptance or disapproval of such products. Questions: Descriptive 1. Tell me about your experiences with the glofish. 2. Why did you decide to get invo lved with glofish? How did you hear about the glofish? 3. Describe what you think other aquarium retail ers felt with the approva l of the glofishfish. 4. Describe the range of opinions that you have heard about this technology. 5. Describe the technology used in your te rms about how the GloFish was created. Follow-up: 1. You mention: Special interest group :why? Large retailer California Painted fish GM Crops Experience: 2. If you were once reluctant to sell the fis h, then what made you change your mind? 3. Could you talk about your impre ssion of genetic engineering? 4. Could you talk about your im pression of biotechnology? Structural/Paradigmatic 1. You said the technology is: Safe Dangerous : what makes it so? 170

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Compare and Contrast: 1. Compare and Contrast an indivi dual for the technology with an individual reluctant to accept it. Interview Protocol II (Interviews 2-3) Interview Protocol Project: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish Time of Interview: Date: Place: Interviewer: Interviewee: Position of interviewee: Level of Education: Scientific Background: Description: The purpose of this grounded theory study is to u nderstand the responses of stakeholders in the ornamental fish industry to the ons et of transgenic products. At this stage in the research the central focus will be to obtain st akeholder opinions about new or namental fish developed with biotechnology and to come to understand the basi s of their acceptance or disapproval of such products. Questions: Descriptive 1. What is it like to raise transgenic fish? 2. Describe an experience you had that made you question the safety of transgenic fish? 3. Why did you decide to get invo lved with transgenic fish? 4. What are the challenges and rewards to raisi ng transgenic fish? Ho w are they different from regular fish? 5. Describe how you felt when you learned that the FDA approved transgenic Zebra Danios for production. 6. Describe what you think other st akeholders felt with the approval of the transgenic fish. 7. Describe the range of opinions that you have heard about this technology. 8. Describe the technology used in your te rms about how the GloFish was created. 9. What does the term transgenic mean to you? Follow-up: 1.You mention: Special interest group :why? Large retailer California Painted fish GM Crops 171

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Experience: 1. Could you talk about an experience you have had with the GloFish? 2. Could you talk about your impre ssion of genetic engineering? 3. Could you talk about your im pression of biotechnology? Structural/Paradigmatic 1. You said the technology is: Safe Dangerous : what makes it so? Compare and Contrast: 1. Could you compare the characteristics of the transgenic fish to non-transgenic fish? 2. Compare and Contrast an indivi dual for the technology with an individual reluctant to accept it. Interview Protocol III (Interviews 4-9) Interview Protocol Project: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish Time of Interview: Date: Place: Interviewer: Interviewee: Position of interviewee: Level of Education: Scientific Background: Description: The purpose of this grounded theory study is to u nderstand the responses of stakeholders in the ornamental fish industry to the ons et of transgenic products. At this stage in the research the central focus will be to obtain st akeholder opinions about new or namental fish developed with biotechnology and to come to understand the basi s of their acceptance or disapproval of such products. Questions: Descriptive 1. What is it like to raise transgenic fish? 2. What do customers look for in transgenic fish? 3. Describe the level of knowledge consumers have about the origins of aquarium fish? 4. Describe an experience you had that made you question the safety of transgenic fish? 5. Why did you decide to get invo lved with transgenic fish? 6. What are the challenges and rewards to raisi ng transgenic fish? Ho w are they different from regular fish? 172

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7. Describe how you felt when you learned that the FDA approved transgenic Zebra Danios for production. Did you know we had genetically modified fish? 8. Describe what you think other st akeholders felt with the approval of the transgenic fish. 9. Describe the range of opinions that you have heard about this technology. 10. Describe the technology used in your te rms about how the GloFish was created. 11. What does the term transgenic mean to you? Follow-up: 1. When we spoke on the phone you assumed that I was referring to: Invasive Species? Experience: 1. Could you talk about an experience you have had with the GloFish? 2. Could you talk about your impre ssion of genetic engineering? 3. Could you talk about your im pression of biotechnology? Structural/Paradigmatic 1. You said the technology is: Safe Dangerous : what makes it so? Compare and Contrast: 1. Could you compare the characteristics of the transgenic fish to non-transgenic fish? 2. Compare and Contrast an indivi dual for the technology with an individual reluctant to accept it. Interview Protocol IV (Interviews 9-12) Interview Protocol Project: Stakeholder Response to Transgenic Ornamental Fish Time of Interview: Date: Place: Interviewer: Interviewee: Position of interviewee: Level of Education: Scientific Background: Description: The purpose of this grounded theory study is to u nderstand the responses of stakeholders in the ornamental fish industry to the ons et of transgenic products. At this stage in the research the central focus will be to obtain st akeholder opinions about new or namental fish developed with biotechnology and to come to understand the basi s of their acceptance or disapproval of such products. 173

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Questions: Ethics: 1. Why did you decide (to/ not ) to sell the GloFish? 2. Describe what type of fish you would not stock? 3. Describe how you decide to purchase a fish to stock in your store? 4. Are there fish that you would not stoc k despite high potential profit? Why? 5. What is your take on invasive species? 6. When we spoke on the phone you assumed that I was referring to: Invasive Species? Painted Fish? Consumer Attributes: 1. Describe the level of knowledge consumers have about the origins of aquarium fish? 2. What do customers look for in fish? What attributes do they find valuable? 3. Compare and Contrast an indivi dual for the technology with an individual reluctant to accept it. 4. Could you rank what attributes consumer s desire how are they related? Regulatory Family 1. In your own words describe the regulatory bodies involved in mon itoring the GloFish? 2. How much faith do you have in the FDA? 3. Describe how you felt when you learned that the FDA approved transgenic Zebra Danios for production. Did you know we had genetically modified fish? 4. Describe what you think other st akeholders felt with the approval of the transgenic fish. Jurassic Park Phenomenon 1. Could you talk about your impre ssion of genetic engineering? 2. Could you talk about your im pression of biotechnology? 3. What does the term transgenic mean to you? 4. What have you read in newspapers and heard on TV about the GloFish? 5. Describe an experience you had that made you question the safety of transgenic fish? 6. You said the technology is: Safe Dangerous : what makes it so? Science Acumen Indicator 1. Describe the technology used in your terms about how the GloFish was created. 174

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian Peddie is Ph.D. candidate in the de partment of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at the University of Florida. His research interest s include biotechnology management and governance, aquaculture, star t-up strategy formulation, and organizational change. Brian completed a B.S. in biology from Davids on College in North Carolina, and worked for Accenture as a consultant for 3 years. In addition, he started three technology companies between 1998 and 2001 and worked closely with Accentures .com incubator in Chicago. His start-up companies include MySkillSet.com, MyHo meLink.com, and Medical Data Consortium. After the last start-up in the Healthcare se ctor in 2002, he resumed hi s academic studies at Harvard University with a self-designed M.Ed. At Harvard, he specialized in adult development and enrichment, change management, adult l earning theories, and organizational psychology. 182