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Popular Virtuosity

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019960/00001

Material Information

Title: Popular Virtuosity The Role of the Flute and Flutists in Brazilian Choro
Physical Description: 1 online resource (121 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Witmer, Ruth
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: brazil, callado, carillho, choro, flute, music, pixinguinha, popular, virtuosity
Latin American Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Latin American Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Choro is one of Brazil's most important musical developments and the backbone of the country?s popular instrumental repertoire. Originating in Rio de Janeiro during the belle e acutepoque (1870-1920), choro, as a musical style, was the direct result of the infusion of Afro-Brazilian rhythmic syncopation?and an undeniable panache?into the Europeanized popular salon music of the Brazilian elite. With strong ties to Western art music, choro remains one of the few popular musical traditions that place value and emphasis on instrumental virtuosity. Understanding what it means when we designate something as popular is critical for situating choro. We must keep in mind that whatever is characterized as popular implies particular social and historical contexts as well as perspectives that are never isolated in their realizations and interpretations. Popular music is defined by society, internally categorized by society, and analyzed in relation to the many diverse social functions and practices in which music is situated. Within Brazilian society, choro is considered a popular musical form due to its performance practices, instrumentation, types of venues where it is performed, its relationship to the recording and broadcasting industries, and the formal structure of choro compositions. I argue that historically, it was the earliest composers of choro-style music, the classically-trained flutists that wrote both erudite and popular musical styles, who socially solidified choro as a popular musical genre with erudite tendencies. This categorization of choro remains today. Outside of American jazz, which is credited as an important influence in the evolution of modern Brazilian choro, an emphasis on technical virtuosity?such as that found in erudite music?is rare in the performance of popular music, but it can be found in the performance of choro. The reasons for such are varied and in this paper, factors such as nationalism, race and class, and the fledgling cinematic, broadcasting, and recording industries of the early twentieth century are considered. This thesis will demonstrate how choro?s roots can be found in colonial New World erudite music composed and performed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth century. We will see how it evolved throughout the twentieth century as a primarily instrumental urban popular style often heard in nightclubs and ballrooms, how it continued to develop ?classical? formal structures, and how it ultimately underwent several revivals, including the romanticizing and commercialization of the music with support from the recording industry, to become the important genre we hear today. I also describe how choro has returned full-circle, from European-influenced erudite musical compositions, which were later infused with popular rhythms and sensibilities, back to the virtuosic choro being composed and performed in contemporary Brazilian society. Indeed, choro is now being used to teach in the conservatory style to students of Western art music and is likewise considered a hallmark of instrumental virtuosity within the academy. Some of the best choro musicians teach at universities, perform internationally (often at jazz festivals), and produce numerous recordings, many of them award-winning performances. This paper will also make evident that the preference for the flute as the primary melodic instrument in the choro ensemble played a major role in establishing virtuosity as a defining characteristic of the genre and for increasing its popularity throughout Brazil. I argue that the persistent connection to instrumental virtuosity can be directly linked to choro?s earliest flutist/composer progenitors, and to the flute, one of the first and most important solo melodic instruments within the choro ensemble.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ruth Witmer.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Crook, Larry N.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0019960:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019960/00001

Material Information

Title: Popular Virtuosity The Role of the Flute and Flutists in Brazilian Choro
Physical Description: 1 online resource (121 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Witmer, Ruth
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: brazil, callado, carillho, choro, flute, music, pixinguinha, popular, virtuosity
Latin American Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Latin American Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Choro is one of Brazil's most important musical developments and the backbone of the country?s popular instrumental repertoire. Originating in Rio de Janeiro during the belle e acutepoque (1870-1920), choro, as a musical style, was the direct result of the infusion of Afro-Brazilian rhythmic syncopation?and an undeniable panache?into the Europeanized popular salon music of the Brazilian elite. With strong ties to Western art music, choro remains one of the few popular musical traditions that place value and emphasis on instrumental virtuosity. Understanding what it means when we designate something as popular is critical for situating choro. We must keep in mind that whatever is characterized as popular implies particular social and historical contexts as well as perspectives that are never isolated in their realizations and interpretations. Popular music is defined by society, internally categorized by society, and analyzed in relation to the many diverse social functions and practices in which music is situated. Within Brazilian society, choro is considered a popular musical form due to its performance practices, instrumentation, types of venues where it is performed, its relationship to the recording and broadcasting industries, and the formal structure of choro compositions. I argue that historically, it was the earliest composers of choro-style music, the classically-trained flutists that wrote both erudite and popular musical styles, who socially solidified choro as a popular musical genre with erudite tendencies. This categorization of choro remains today. Outside of American jazz, which is credited as an important influence in the evolution of modern Brazilian choro, an emphasis on technical virtuosity?such as that found in erudite music?is rare in the performance of popular music, but it can be found in the performance of choro. The reasons for such are varied and in this paper, factors such as nationalism, race and class, and the fledgling cinematic, broadcasting, and recording industries of the early twentieth century are considered. This thesis will demonstrate how choro?s roots can be found in colonial New World erudite music composed and performed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth century. We will see how it evolved throughout the twentieth century as a primarily instrumental urban popular style often heard in nightclubs and ballrooms, how it continued to develop ?classical? formal structures, and how it ultimately underwent several revivals, including the romanticizing and commercialization of the music with support from the recording industry, to become the important genre we hear today. I also describe how choro has returned full-circle, from European-influenced erudite musical compositions, which were later infused with popular rhythms and sensibilities, back to the virtuosic choro being composed and performed in contemporary Brazilian society. Indeed, choro is now being used to teach in the conservatory style to students of Western art music and is likewise considered a hallmark of instrumental virtuosity within the academy. Some of the best choro musicians teach at universities, perform internationally (often at jazz festivals), and produce numerous recordings, many of them award-winning performances. This paper will also make evident that the preference for the flute as the primary melodic instrument in the choro ensemble played a major role in establishing virtuosity as a defining characteristic of the genre and for increasing its popularity throughout Brazil. I argue that the persistent connection to instrumental virtuosity can be directly linked to choro?s earliest flutist/composer progenitors, and to the flute, one of the first and most important solo melodic instruments within the choro ensemble.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ruth Witmer.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Crook, Larry N.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0019960:00001


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POPULAR VIRTUOSITY: THE ROLE OF THE FLUTE AND FLUTISTS IN BRAZILIAN
CHORO





















By

RUTH M. SUNNI" WITMER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INT PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENT S FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2009






































O 2009 Ruth M. "Sunni" Witmer





































ParaPPPPP~~~~~~~PPPPPP m is abuelos,
Manuely Maria Margarita Garcia









ACKNOWLEDGMENT S

There are very few successes in life that are accomplished without the help of others.

Whatever their contribution, I would have never achieved what I have without the kind

encouragement, collaboration, and true caring from the following individuals.

I would first like to thank my thesis committee, Larry N. Crook, Kristen L. Stoner, and

Welson A. Tremura, for their years of steadfast support and guidance. I would also like to thank

Martha Ellen Davi s and Charles Perrone for their additional contributions to my academic

development. I also give muitos obrigados to Carlos Malta, one ofBrazil's finest flute players.

What I have learned about becoming a musician, a scholar, and friend, I have learned from all of

you.

I especially want to thank my family my parents, Mr. Ellsworth E. and Dora M. Witmer,

and my sisters Sheryl, Briana, and Brenda- for it was my parent' s vision of a better life for their

children that instilled in them the value of education, which they passed down to us. I am also

grateful for the love between all of us that kept us close as a family and rewarded us with the

happiness of experi encing life' s j oy s together.

I would also like to thank Nichole for being strong enough to suffer the slings and arrows

and still be able to cook dinner. You have my most sincere gratitude.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ........._._.._......_.. ..............._ 4....


LIST OF FIGURE S ............... .................... 7


AB STRACT ................. ................. 9...............


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION................ ............. 12


Statement of Purpose ................................... 12
M ethod ol ogy ............... .. ............ 14
Theoretical Framework ............... .................... 14
Literature Review ............... ............... 21...


2 THE HISTORICAL AND MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHORO ............... ................25


A Brief Hi story of the Flute in Brazilian Erudite and Popular Music ................. ................. 25
Etymological and Musical Origins of Choro................... ...............31...............
Origins of the Term Choro ................. ...............31........... ...
Musical Characteristics of Choro .................... ............... 36
The Organology of Choro Ensembles................ ............... 39
The Terno: Violio, Cavaquinho, and Flute ................. ...............40...............
Conjuntos Regionai s............... ............... 41
Solo Guitar/Violio.............................. 43
Variations in Instrumentation................. ........... 45


3 THE PROGRESSION OF CHORO REPERTORY: FROM STYLE TO FORMAL
GENRE ............... .................... 48


Popular Brazilian Music and the Antecedents of Choro................... .............................48
Lund u ................. ................. 5......... 0.....
M odinha. ................. ................. 5......... 2.....
Maxixe ................. ... ............. ........ ....... .. ........... 5

Important Contributors to the Genre: The Chories ............... .................... 57
Flutists/Com posers ............... .. ........... ........... ........64
Joaquim Antinio da Silva Callado (1848-1880) ................. ................. ........ 64
Patapio Silva (1880-1907) ............... ... .... .... ........... .... ...........6
Pixinguinha Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Junior (1898-1973) ................. ................ 69
Benedicto Lacerda (1903-1958)............... ............... 77
Altamiro Aquino Carrilho (b. 1924) .........._.... ......___ .....__. ...........7
Contemporary Profes si onal C horie s: The Next Generati on ........._._.. .... ..__............ 8 1












4 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION, PERFORMANCE PRACTICES, AND MUSICAL
ANALYSIS ............... .................... 87


Formal Structure of Choro............... ................ 87
Choro Flute Performance Practices............... ............... 92


5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION................. ..............96


APPENDIX


A GLOS SSARY OF TE RMS ............ .......__ .............. 9 9.


B BIBLIOGRAPHY ............... .................... 102


C DISCOGRAPHY ............... .................... 109


D ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............... ....................112


E MUSICAL SCORE S........._...... ................ 115....._.....


F VIDEOGRAPHY ................. ................. 116........ .....


LIST OF REFERENCES CITED ................. ...............117...............


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............... ....................121











LIST OF FIGURES


FiMr page

2-1 Photo of one-key flutes. .............. .................... 25

2-2 Photo of French ebony flute with silver keys ................. ...............26.............

2-3 Photo of Carlos M alta. ................. ................. 29......... ..

2-4 Photo of Pife Muderno with Carlos Malta and Andrea Ernest Dias on pifan2o. .................30O

2-5 Illustration of chores performing in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. .............. ...................32

2-6 Photo of violdo de sete cords; violdo de seis cordas; bandolim; flauta; cavaquinho,
and; pandeiro................. .............. 3 9

2-7 Photo of Regional de Lacerda. .................... ............... 43

2-8 Photo of the Banda do Corpo de B ombeiros do Rio de Janeiro............._. .. ........._._ ...46

3-1 1 83 5 illustration of the lundui by Johann Moritz Rugendas. ........._. ....... ._._.............51

3-2 Syncopated rhythmic pattern characteristic of Afro-Brazilian genres. .............. ..............56

3-3 Photo of Ernesto Nazareth. ........._.__...... .___ ...............58...

3-4 Photo of the Teatro Odeon. ........._.__...... .___ ............... 59..

3-5 Photo of Chiquinha Gonzaga. ........._._.._......_.. ...............60...

3-6 Illustration of Joaquim Ant8nio da Silva Callado. ........................... ........65

3-7 Musical excerpt from "Fl8r Amorosa." ............ ..................... 67

3-8 Photo of Patapio Silva ................. ...............68........... ...

3-9 Photo of Pixinguinha. ........._._.._......_.. ...............70....

3-10 Photo of Os Oito Batutas. ........................... ........72

3-11 Photo ofBenedicto Lacerda on flute and Pixinguinha on saxophone. ............... ............... 78

3-12 Photo of Altamiro Carrilho. ........................... ........80


4-1 Characteristic syncopation pattern in choro..................................... 89

4-2 Afro-Brazilian rhythmic pattern functions in melody and bass. .............. .................... 90











4-3 Characteristic syncopation with tie pattern in choro. .............. .....................91

4-4 Excerpt from "O Gato e o Canario" by Pixinguinha. .............. .....................94

4-5 Excerpt from "Tico-Tico no Fuba" by Zequinha de Abreu..........._.._.. .......__. ..........94









Ab stract of Thesi s Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

POPULAR VIRTUOSITY: THE ROLE OF THE FLUTE AND FLUTISTS IN BRAZILIAN
CHORO

By

Ruth M. Sunni" Witmer

August 2009

Chair: Larry N. Crook
Major: Latin American Studies


Choro is one of Brazil's most important musical developments and the backbone of the

country' s popular instrumental repertoire. Originating in Rio de Janeiro during the belle dpoque

(1870-1920), choro, as a musical style, was the direct result of the infusion of Afro-Brazilian

rhythmic syncopation--and an undeniable panache--into the Europeanized popular salon music

of the Brazilian elite. With strong ties to Western art music, choro remains one of the few

popular musical traditions that place value and emphasis on instrumental virtuosity.

Understanding what it means when we designate something as popular is critical for

situating choro. We must keep in mind that whatever is characterized as popular implies

particular social and historical contexts as well as perspectives that are never isolated in their

realizations and interpretations. Popular music is defined by society, internally categorized by

society, and analyzed in relation to the many diverse social functions and practices in which

music is situated. Within Brazilian society, choro is considered a popular musical form due to its

performance practices, instrumentation, types of venues where it is performed, its relationship to

the recording and broadcasting industries, and the formal structure of choro compositions. I

argue that historically, it was the earliest composers of choro-style music, the classically-trained










flutists that wrote both erudite and popular musical styles, who socially solidified choro as a

popular musical genre with erudite tendencies. This categorization of choro remains today.

Outside of American j azz, which is credited as an important influence in the evolution of

modern Brazilian choro, an emphasis on technical virtuosity-such as that found in erudite

music--is rare in the performance of popular music, but it can be found in the performance of

choro. The reasons for such are varied and in this paper, factors such as nationalism, race and

class, and the fledgling cinematic, broadcasting, and recording industries of the early twentieth

century are considered.

This thesis will demonstrate how choro 's roots can be found in colonial New World

erudite music composed and performed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil beginning in the last decades of

the nineteenth century. We will see how it evolved throughout the twentieth century as a

primarily instrumental urban popular style often heard in nightclubs and ballrooms, how it

continued to develop 'classical' formal structures, and how it ultimately underwent several

revivals, including the romanticizing and commercialization of the music with support from the

recording industry, to become the important genre we hear today.

I also describe how choro has returned fu~ll-circle, from European-influenced erudite

musical compositions, which were later infused with popular rhythms and sensibilities, back to

the virtuosic choro being composed and performed in contemporary Brazilian society. Indeed,

choro is now being used to teach in the conservatory style to students of Western art music and is

likewise considered a hallmark of instrumental virtuosity within the academy. Some of the best

choro musicians teach at universities, perform internationally (often at jazz festivals), and

produce numerous recordings, many of them award-winning performances.










This paper will also make evident that the preference for the flute as the primary melodic

instrument in the choro ensemble played a maj or role in establi shing virtuosity as a defining

characteristic of the genre and for increasing its popularity throughout Brazil. I argue that the

persistent connection to instrumental virtuosity can be directly linked to choro 's earliest

flutist/composer progenitors, and to the flute, one of the first and most important solo melodic

instruments within the choro ensemble.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Statement of Purpose

Life often takes us in directions we would never have imagined. In my case, it was the fall

semester of 2000, and I was happily going about the business of researching the music of Cuba

when my friend and colleague, Welson Tremura, asked me to participate in the Brazilian World

Music Ensemble he was directing at the University of Florida. I agreed, thinking that because

Welson knew that I was a flute player, that he would have me playing a little boss nova or

something like that. During the first rehearsal, Welson thrust an agoga (Brazilian metal bell

instrument) into my hands and said "play!" The next thing I knew, we were playing Brazilian

samba.... sort of. During subsequent rehearsals, I learned to play the surdo (large Brazilian

drum), then a host of other Brazilian percussion instruments, including the pandeiro (Brazilian

hand drum), for which I developed a strong affinity.

As the semesters went by, our ensemble learned to play not only samba, but music from

the many regions of Brazil including the fife and drum traditions from Northeast Brazil (the

banda de pifanos), and the urban popular genres such as choro. Year after year, we learned more

musical styles and genres and had many fortunate opportunities to play with internationally

recognized Brazilian musicians who had been invited to the university as artists-in-residence,

artists who ultimately imparted to us in the best of ways, a knowledge and understanding of

Brazil's interestingly diverse and complex music. It was through this immersion in Brazilian

music that I developed my love for the culture and people of Brazil.

Because I am a flute player, the Brazilian musical genre that captured my attention most

keenly was choro, due to its harmonic and melodic sophistication as well as the virtuosity

required to perform the music. It was also because the flute had historically been the melodic










instrument of choice within the choro ensemble. Hence, I began to diligently practice my flute

in order to be able to play choro well. I also went to work reading about and listening to

recordings of choro, learning as much about it as I could. This, in due course, led me to conduct

fieldwork in Rio de Janeiro, the birthplace of choro, on three different occasions.

During 2003 and 2004, I traveled to Rio de Janeiro to experience first-hand the music that I

had been performing for a number of years. While in Rio, I was able to attend concerts,

interview choro musicians such as guitarist Marco Pereira, bandolim player Hamilton de

Holanda, and the flutists Carlos Malta and Andrea Ernest Dias. I also conducted research on

choro at the National Library of Brazil, the largest library in Latin America. The result of this

research was a realization on my part that the flute played a maj or role in establishing the

popular choro style of music, especially in terms of the level of virtuosity it required of the

performers.

Throughout this thesis, I will show that the early instrumentation of the choro ensemble,

often referred to as the terno, helped to establish the flute as the first melodic instrument to

require virtuosic performance of its players in the choro style. I will also demonstrate that the

earliest composers of choro music were, in fact, also flutists; musicians who through their unique

playing styles and innate sense of what constituted a popular composition, helped to transform

the fashionable style of choro performance into a sophisticated genre of music, replete with ties

to Brazilian nationalist ideology and popular culture. I will further demonstrate, through musical

analysis and a survey of flute techniques, how these flutist/composers helped to create one of the

few popular musical traditions in modern history that place an emphasis on instrumental

virtuosity in the performance of a popular style of music.










Methodology


Theoretical Framework

This thesis claims that choro is a popular music with art-music tendencies, more

specifically, that the popular choro musical genre requires the skill of virtuosity in performance

practice. In order to reconcile these seemingly polemical traits--popularity (replete with the

pej orative implication that it i s inferior and base) and virtuosity (with its links to high-brow,

exclusive, elite, conservatory training)--a more explicit examination of what these

characteristics imply, and how choro has developed historically within Brazilian society, is

necessary for supporting the claim.

First, what makes popular music popular, and why, despite its predominantly depreciatory

connotations from elite artistic sectors of society, is it such a potent cultural construct within

most societies? Related, how is popular music different from art music or folk music and what

do these categories--art, folk, and popular--say about how a society imagines and understands

its music? The example of choro within Brazilian society provides apt substance for discourse

on popular music.

According to Richard Middleton, what must remain foremost when researching the

'popular,' is that all definitions of the term popular, especially when referring to music, are

socially and historically grounded. Understanding what it means when we designate something

as popular implies particular contexts as well as perspectives that are never isolated in their

realizations and interpretations (Middleton 1990). In designating choro as popular, certain social

and historical contexts must be considered including: choro 's relationship to the early recording

and broadcasting industry; the use of popular performance practices emanating from the

underclass (such as improvisation and rhythmic syncopation); the social contexts within which

choro was created, and how it evolved from stylistic musical interpretations into a musical genre,










and; choro 's link to 'the people' by nature of the term 'popular meaning 'of the people' in

Romance languages.

This notion of categorizing something as popular through its association to 'the people' is

best described, Middleton claims, in terms of social essentialism. "Here the 'essence' of the

popular is constant, though whether this is seen as proffered from above [from those at the top of

a society' s hierarchy] or engendered from below [from the masses]... varies" (Middleton 1990:

5). The organizing principle for defining something as popular 'from above' is usually

concerned with such things as the 'masses' or 'commercialized' culture, which often implies a

somewhat pej orative connotation. When something is defined as popular 'from below,'

references are made to concepts such as 'grass-roots,' 'authenticity,' and 'of the people,' and the

connotation is that it is somehow noble, good, real, and honest. "This is because, in a class

society [following a Marxist perspective], the society is internally contradictory. What the term

'popular music' tries to do is to put a finger on that space, that terrain, of contradiction between

'imposed' and 'authentic', 'elite' and 'common', 'predominant' and 'subordinate', then and now,

theirs and ours, and so on and to organize it in particular ways" (Middleton 1990: 7).

Another important thing to consider is that the notion of what is popular is always in

constant temporal motion, never static, always evolving and changing and adjusting to the

current moment. Hence, categorizing something as popular must also be historically located.

This is especially important when considering choro because its popularity has fluctuated for

almost one-hundred and forty years. There have been moments of massive social appeal

interspersed with times of limited popularity, with revivals in popularity occurring approximately

every twenty to thirty years.










Defining what is considered popular by use of the terms 'above' and 'below' to designate

social strata within Brazilian society ventures into areas of analysis that must consider class and

race--and by extension, national identity--as determining factors. Livingston-Isenhour and

Caracas Garcia state that any analysis of Brazilian popular music must take into consideration

the social situation present in nineteenth-century Brazil, especially in terms of the racial

discourse before and after slavery. "The formulation of a national identity based on concepts of

racial blending, or miscegenation, was one of the most important and influential intellectual

currents to develop in postcolonial Brazil.2 By the 1930s, choro was up-held by intellectuals as

the perfect example of musical miscegenation..." due to the blending of European harmonies

and melodies with African and Mfro-Brazilian rhythms (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia

2005: 17).3

What this meant for the underclass of Brazil was validation of their expressive culture and

for the predominately white elite class, as well as the underclass, a symbol of national identity.

Previously marginalized and/or enslaved populations, 'the people,' gradually gained, if not social

acceptance, at least social tolerance. Indeed, "the attitudes of the elite concerning race and class

were most evident in their reactions to popular music" (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia

2005: 22). The elite embraced this popular music. The musical melding of European harmonies

and melodies with African rhythms represented for them the merging of races, making popular

music the site for the negotiation of a Brazilian national identity.

SBrazil was the last New World nation-state to abolish slavery in 1888.

2 The aspect that made miscegenation palatable to the otherwise racist and classist elites was the concept of
branqueamento, or 'whitening,' which was based on the dubious theory that European blood would dilute and
civilize the other races to produce a light-skinned Brazilian race" (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005:
37).
3 In conjunction, another popular music created by Brazil's urban lower and middle classes, samba, rose to the status
of national icon in the 1920s and 1930s, a prime example of the racial harmony of miscegenation as touted by
intellectuals and the elite class (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005).










This musical blending and merging, it can be argued, came about as a result of choro

performance practice. Preferred popular European musical genres such as the waltz and polka

were danced by the white Brazilian elite in ballrooms and salons throughout the country' s urban

centers. Gradually syncretized with European harmonies and melodies were African and Afro-

Brazilian rhythmic structures incorporated into these popular genres by predominantly black and

mulatto musicians. The result was the stylistic creation of popular music that reflected Brazil' s

identity as that of a mixture of cultures and races. These stylistic elements and performance

practices in choro--such as improvisation and rhythmic syncopation, which added an essential

rhythmic 'swing' to Brazil' s now Europeanized popular musical forms-eventually helped to

move choro from a style of playing popular music, to a unique genre, composed and created with

distinctive formal musical characteristics. This evolutionary process was aided by musically-

trained flutists/composers who gradually began to create popular songs clearly designated as

chores, rather than polkas or waltzes performed using stylistic elements of choro.

Another aspect to consider in the situation of choro as popular is the role the nascent

recording industry played in making it so. Indeed, this is perhaps choro 's most important link to

a designation of 'popular.' Before the advent of the mass marketing and commercialization of

musical recordings on a grand scale in the 1920s, music remained locally situated. But even

before the halcyon days of early musical recording, there was a growing commercial and

philosophical process to create the ideology of 'popular' from 'above.' Jose Ramos Tinhorio

maintains that:

...nos uiltimos 100 anos, desde o surgimento da gravagdo de sons, em 18 78, esse lento,
silencioso, ma~s inexord~vel process de control do poder de criagdo e de necessidade de
lazer do povo das cida~des pela md~quina industrial manipulad pela minoria dos que
det~m os meios de produpdo.

...in the last 100 years a process has evolved, since the emergence of the recording of
sounds in 1878, this slow, silent but inexorable process of controlling the power of creation









and recreational needs of urban people by an industrial machine manipulated by the
minority of those who have the means of production (Tinhorio 1978: 10). [My translation.]

What Tinhorio illustrates is that the gradual acceptance of the stylistic musical creations of

the underclass by the elite was one of the aspects that helped to foster the creation of the

recording and broadcasting industries in Brazil. Tinhorio makes the claim that as these

industries were established, the elite moved into the position of appropriating popular musical

production, determining what was to become popular and which musical styles and genres would

fade into obscurity. For choro, this was a good thing. "The birth of the recording industry and

the establishment of live radio shows in Brazil were the two most significant factors in the

professionalization of choro" (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 87).

With the industrialization of music production, choro gained in popularity and recognition.

This popularity evolved from the performance of musical genres played in the choro style--with

its easily recognizable rhythmic swing--to the composition of songs labeled as choro, in

essence, identifying choro as a popular musical genre. Substantiation of choro 's designation as a

popular style and later genre is confirmed in choro 's adherence to, among other factors, the

standards and criteria of the cultural theory of music put forth by Middleton. Choro, if viewed

from 'above,' is certainly popular in that up until the 1920s andl 930Os, it was considered 'for the

masses' and not worthy of attention from the top rungs of Brazil's social hierarchy. Likewise, if

considered from 'below,' choro can still be classified as popular due to its 'authenticity' and

'grass-roots' links to 'the people' and its history as a popular style that originated in the poorer

neighborhoods of Brazil' s urban centers that was later embraced by the elite and used to promote

Brazil's nascent recording and broadcasting industries. Further validation, when analyzed

essentially from 'above' and 'below,' can be found in the way in which choro was used to help

create Brazil's national identity.










A theoretical claim for virtuosity in choro performance is also valid. Jim Samson states

that the notion of virtuosity found its roots during the early nineteenth century--and particularly

in the styles and tendencies of Romanticism and Romantic thought regarding 'the individual'--

precisely when choro was beginning to flourish. It is interesting to note that Paris was

considered the 'capital' of musical virtuosity in the early nineteenth century, and according to

Samson, no doubt due to the set of socio-political circumstances that fostered the recognition of

the 'public man.' It could be argued, that because Brazil was so culturally oriented towards

Europe during this time, especially towards France, that these same ideologies would have been

part of the cosmopolitan milieu of Brazilian urban society and Brazilian political and intellectual

thought.

Samson goes further to state that understanding the concept of virtuosity--and, by

extension, theories on performance practice--provides the necessary basis for understanding the

relationship of performance to the music and the individual (performer) to the audience. 4

Samson also states, however, that the concept of virtuosity has no single meaning and that the

various manifestations of its meaning have existed over time. Indeed, most of the definitions and

connotations of what it means to be virtuosic have always been subj ect to interpretation and

transformation. This makes the concept of virtuosity difficult to analyze but not impossible, and

Samson is able to put forth a number of tangential constructs.

Samson argues that as the concept of virtuosity merged with the Romantic aesthetic, it

generated a dialectical relationship between the music, i.e. the musical work, and the performer,

a relationship that juxtaposed taste (with all its inherent ambiguity of meaning) with ideology.


4 It could also be argued that the practice of virtuosity places the performer in a phase of liminality between self and
composer, between the individual and society's norms. Theories on performance practice are vast in scope and well
beyond the scale of this thesis. This is why they are mentioned but not elaborated. For information on performance
theory, see: (Turner 1988).









"The virtuosity of the first half of the nineteenth century is presumed to have made room for the

affirmation of work character that typified its second half. Virtuosity, in short, gave way to

interpretation" (Samson 2003:4-5). During this time, extremes of display and sentiment were

perceived as violations of taste, itself an elusive attribute, no doubt, but one closely tied to the

status of individuality. When kept within the confines of what a segment of society considers

acceptable taste, individuality--and in this case, individuality as it pertains to virtuosic display-

was highly valued. That same individuality, Samson claims, invoked censure when these

boundaries were breeched, just as it did when individuality courted popularity. Regarding the

concept of the individual, Samson writes:

And if the invention or reinvention of the individual was a potent enabling force in
political and intellectual life, it was even more influential in the cultural domain; indeed it
could almost be described as a primary motivation for the rise of aesthetics. Thus,
virtuosity gained new power, status and dignity, and a new ideological underpinning
(paradoxically resisting idealisation), through the offices of an ascendant individualism
(Samson 2003:74).

The cause of this dialectic between censure and popularity was often the mechanical

musical instrument, certainly one such as the flute. Indeed, "two subtexts of virtuosity are...

suggested here: a surrender to mechanism, and the stigma of the gratuitous" (Samson 2003:4).

And it could be argued that this 'stigma of the gratuitous,' according to Middleton' s theory of

essentialism, was a reaction 'from above' to the notion of popularity and its relationship to the

common man, including the connotation of tastelessness.

Another concept to consider is virtuosity and the performer' s quest for autonomy and

individuality. Samson calls virtuosity the 'magnet' that draws the listener towards the qualities

of the performer and somewhat away from the composed piece. In this case, technique is valued

over substance and the symbiotic relationship between the audience and its need for spectacle

and performative modifications (interpretations, improvisations) is strengthened. It is critical to










note here that Samson is defining these performative qualities as musical 'technique,' and not as

substance. In the case of choro performance, this correlates to choro 's emphasis on virtuosic

technique, especially for the solo melodic instruments such as the flute.

It is easier now to realize how choro developed into a virtuosic form given Samson' s

theoretical observations. Choro came about during a time in European and Brazilian socio-

political history when the concept of the individual was gaining currency. Many early choro

performers sought to gain respectability and social standing by becoming unique in their

interpretations of composed choro music. 5 It must also be noted that competition to perform as a

virtuoso was keen between choro musicians. It was the primary way an individual choro

musician could attain the goal of prestige and popularity. Adding to thi s i s the fact that many

African and African-American musical traditions also frequently value individual virtuosity,

typically in the form of improvisation. These African performance practices, incorporated into

popular musical styles and genres by Brazilian black and mulatto musicians, would have no

doubt made their way into the performance of choro.

Literature Review

It is not an understatement to say that finding literature on choro is easy. There have been

countless books and articles--scholarly and j ournali stic--written in many languages about thi s

popular Brazilian music. What is lacking is literature on choro as it pertains specifically to the

flute.

I have discovered only five scholarly studies on the flute in Brazilian choro music. They

are: Julie B. Koidin' s (2006) dissertation, Benedicto Lacerda and the 'Golden Age of Choro

Flute Playing; Kristen Lia Smith-Stoner' s (2000) dissertation, 7he Influence ofFolk and Popular


SExamples such as the musicians Catulo da Paix~io Cearense and Joio Teixeira Guimaraes de Pernambuco will be
mentioned in Chapter Three.









Music on TMl I'mil'th-Century Flute M~usic ofBrazil; Eliane Corria Salek' s (1999) thesis, A

Felxibilidade Ritmico-M~elodica na Interpretagdo do Choro (7he Rhythmic-M~elodic Flexibility in

the Interpretation of Choro); Jose Benedicto Viana Gomes' (1997) thesis, Pixinguinha: Choro

Presenga e Aplicabilidade no Estudo da Flauta Transversal no Bra~sil (Pixinguinha: Choro

Presence and Applicability in the Study of the Transverse Flute in Brazil), and; Andrea Ernest

Dias'(1996) thesis, A Expressdo da Flauta Popular Brasileira: Uma Escola de Intrepretagdo

(7h2e Expression ofBrazilian Popular Flute: A School oflnterpretation).

Koidin' s dissertation is primarily helpful for understanding the technical aspects of choro

performance on the flute through her analysis of the performance practices of Benedicto Lacerda.

Smith-Stoner' s dissertation focuses on early choro flute history and how choro was an influential

element in Brazilian erudite music. Salek transcribes the solo line of six chores in her work.

Two are performed by flutists Altamiro Carrilho and Benedicto Lacerda. Gomes' thesis is a

biography of Pixinguinha and a hi story of choro, with little emphasis s given to the aspects of flute

performance in choro. Dias presents a performance guide--including tips on articulation,

rhythmic interpretation, tempo, improvisation, and tone--for fourteen chores. She also includes

bri ef bi ographi es of twenty of Brazil' s most important fluti sts.

In addition to these works for flute, there are a number of canonical and well-respected

works on choro in general. For the purposes of this thesis, the selection was limited primarily to

the following.

Most useful was Tamara Elena Livingston-Isenhour' s and Thomas George Caracas

Garcia' s work, Choro: A SocialHistory ofa Brazilian Popular Music. Created by combining

the Ph.D. dissertations of each author, Choro provided information on race and class issues

related to choro, it explained the rise, development, and professionalization of choro, and gave









accounts of choro 's revivals. Livingston-Isenhour' s and Caracas Garcia' s work also describes

choro 's link to twentieth-century nationalist composers such Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959),

Radames Gnattali (1906-1988), and Mozart Camargo Guarnieri (1907-1993).

Musicologist, Ary Vasconcelos, has written several books on choro and popular music in

Brazil. Helpful for the completion of this thesis was his PanoramaPPP~~~~PPP~~~PPP da Mazisica Popular

Brasileira na 'Belle Epoque (Panorama ofBrazilian Popular M~usic in the 'Golden Age '). In

this work, Vasconcelos gives a brief history of choro and then gives a short biography and list of

works for over four-hundred Brazilian musicians of popular music. Also informative was his

Raizes da 2Mzsica Popular Brasileira (Roots ofBrazilian Popular M~usic), and Carinhoso Etc.:

Historia e Inventdrio do Choro (Carinhoso Etc.: History and Inventory of Choro), which i s a

sy stematic account of choro since the 1 920s.

Several books by Jose Ramos Tinhorio were also heavily employed. They are: Pequena

Historia da 2Mzsica Popular: da M~odinha, a Cangdo de Protesto (BriefHistory ofPopular

Music: Th2e M~odinha, the Song ofProtest); M~zsica Popular: Do Gramofone ao Rd~dio e TV

(Popular M~usic: From the Gramophone to the Radio and TV); A M~zsica Popular no Romance

Brasileiro Vol. I: Sdculo XVI7II-Siculo 17X; A M~zsica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. II:

Sdculo XX (la parte), and; A M~zsica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. III: Sdculo XX (2a

parte), (7h2e Popular Mlusic ofBrazilian Romance, Eighteenth, Kineweinhllll and TMI r'mir'th

Century, Vols. I-171). All give well-constructed accounts of generally, the social history of

Brazilian popular music from the eighteenth through the twentieth century.

No work on choro could be considered well-researched if it did not include references by

Gerard Behague. For the purposes of this thesis, the two following works (among his others)









were most useful: Popular M~usical Currents in the Art M~usic of the EarlyE~~~~EEEEE~~~~EEEE Nationalistic Period

in Brazil, Circa 18 70-1920, and 7he Beginnings of2~usical Nationalism in Brazil.

For researching theoretical issues pertaining to popular music, Richard Middleton' s

Studying Popular M~usic provided applicable theories, suitable for explaining why choro is

considered a popular music as stated in the title of this thesis. For theoretical substantiation

regarding the concept of virtuosity, Jim Samson' s Virtuosity and the M~usical Work: The

Transcendental Studies ofLiszt was consulted.









CHAPTER 2
THE HISTORICAL AND MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHORO

A Brief History of the Flute in Brazilian Erudite and Popular Music

Beginning as early as the sixteenth century, there have been accounts--from the first

Iberian colonists--of the presence of the European flute in Brazil. These early flutes were held

transversely, constr-ucted primarily out of ebony or other hard woods, and were made with few, if

any, keys.

















Figure 2-1. Photo of one-key flutes marked FLORIO/LONDON (c. 1795), G. ASTOR &
Co./LONDON (c. 1800), H. GRENSER/DRESDEN (c. 1810), and GRIESSLING &
SCHLOTT (c.1805). The last flute includes a corps de rechan2ge. Photo courtesy of
Richard M. Wilson. Used with permission. (Source: Last accessed March 13, 2009.
http ://www. ol dflutes. com/cl assi cal. htm).

Flutes were played first and foremost for religious services and their role was to perform in

orchestral ensembles as accompaniment for sacred choral works in cathedrals. This history and

role of the flute in Brazilian erudite music remained relatively unchanged until the nineteenth

century when the royal court of Dom Pedro II (1 825-1 89 1), the Emperor of Brazil from 1 840-

1889, began to hire musicians from Paris to entertain the royal family with popular compositions

brought to Brazil from the metropole. Up until that time, erudite, Western art music

SJesuit priests began teaching flute to young colonists circa 1556. See: (Diniz 1979: 46).










predominated in Brazilian urban expressive culture and instrumental music played a secondary

role to sacred vocal music. 2

With the invention of the modern, Boehm-system, silver, keyed flute from Germany,

flutists from Europe and the colonies were then able to perform more technically challenging

erudite and early popular salon music with greater ease, in turn, increasing the popularity of the

instrument and especially the salon genres they performed. Indeed, one of the musicians hired

by Dom Pedro II in 1859 was the Belgian flutist Mathieu-Andre Reichert (1830-1880), and it

was Reichert who has been credited with introducing the Boehm flute to Brazil.3 While in

Brazil, Reichert met Brazilian flutist, Joaquim Antinio da Silva Callado Junior (1848-1880), 'O

Pai dos Chories' ('The Father of Choros'), who was at that time, composing early choro music

and performing on a five-keyed French ebony flute.











Figure 2-2. Photo of French ebony flute with silver keys. Photo courtesy of Berkel Muziek.
Used with permi ssi on. (Source: http://www.b erkelmuzi ek.nl/img/html/ol dflutes. htm.
Last accessed on March 13, 2009).

It was Reichert who was also credited with teaching contemporary European flute

techniques to Callado, who later incorporated them into the choro compositions he was writing. 4



SSee: (Smith-Stoner 2000: 2-20).

SSee: (Erest Dias 1990: 69-92).

SAccording to Andre Diniz, some scholars have written of a rivalry between Reichert and Callado, but in actuality,
this rivalry did not exist. What did happen was that Reichert, perhaps because he was European and not Brazilian
like Callado, caused Callado's fans to develop an animosity towards him at first, but there is no historical evidence
of a personal rivalry between the two flutists. Indeed, they were friends who were known to rival each other only as










This collaboration makes evident the ease with which nineteenth-century Brazilian composers

and performers of the erudite and the popular juxtaposed these two worlds, often making no

distinction between them. Indeed, Callado was classically trained, yet wrote all of his

compositions in the choro style to exhibit his technical virtuosity on the flute. In addition, he

composed all of hi s works with the terno 5 in mind.

In choro, it was the solo melodic instruments (primarily the flute) that made it possible to

build this compositional bridge between the popular and art music worlds. Another important

factor in the role of the flute in the development of choro was the fact that the first notable choro

composers were also flutists (like Callado) who wrote melody lines that called for virtuosic

performance techniques specific to the instrument. Equally important was the fact that it was

often only the flute players who could read music and therefore instr-uct the other choro

musicians in the performance of the song.

Other prominent erudite composers who also composed in the choro style were the

classically-trained pianists Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847-193 5) and Ernesto Nazareth (1863-1934).

The fact that they played the piano is also of importance regarding choro due to the fact that the







virtuosi. It was also true that the Boehm flute (which Reichert espoused) was not immediately embraced by many
flute players in Brazil, but again, most professional flutists then switched to the new flute (as opposed to the
ebony/wooden flute) within a relatively short time. It was perhaps in response to a famous 'duel' between Reichert
and Callado regarding the relative merits of each type of flute (as well as that of themselves as artists) that may have
started the rumor of a rivalry. Another fact to consider is that the first meeting between Reichert and Callado
appeared to go well because Callado was only fourteen years old at the time and no real match for the well-
established Belgian, although by most accounts, Callado did seem to hold his own against the elder master. There is
also evidence that the two flutists performed in public together on a friendly basis. In 1873, a concert was organized
and both Reichert and Callado played "Carnival of Venice" in duet. It is unclear, however, whether Reichert played
the Boehm flute while Callado played an ebony/wooden flute, as he was often perceived of as preferring. See:
(Diniz 2002: 45-52). Also see: (Ernest Dias 1990: 69-92).

SThe terno is a specific choro instrumentation and is explained in detail later in this chapter under the section on the
organology of choro ensembles. The terno consists of the viold~o, the cavaquinho, and the flute.










piano was another notable instrument, beside the flute, that performed both in popular and elite

society.6

In 1847, the composer Francisco Manuel da Silva (1795-1865) founded the first school for

music in Brazil, the Conservat6rio de Musica do Rio de Janeiro. "The Conservat6rio de Musica

was an important resource for young musicians studying both classical and popular music.

Many of the professors would perform both on classical stages and within popular idioms in

cafes, theatres, and even on street corners. Flute was a popular instrument at the conservatory...

(Smith-Stoner 2000: xiv).

There was also a history of individuals teaching music to slaves and it was common

practice for slave masters to arrange musical performances by their slave musicians in order to

increase the masters' income. The musicians were trained in the salon genres--especially the

polca, hmndu, modinha, and maxixe--that were popular at the time. They were also trained to

play European wind instruments--which would have included the flute--for participation in

civic and military bands. Such instruction was important training for the later emergence of

popular bands such as the Banda do Coro de Bombers do Rio de Janeiro, directed by Analects de

Medeiros, one of the first musicians to incorporate choro music into his ensemble. It was this

fusion of European instruments played by Afro-Brazilians and mulattoes--often musically non-

literate musicians, but with irrefutable virtuosic musical flair--that gave rise to the popular styles

of music so sought after by Brazil' s elite in the nineteenth century.

In the twentieth century, the flute continued to play a maj or role in the instrumental genres

ofBrazilian music. Internationally recognized Brazilian flutist Odette Ernest Dias--along with

Brazilian flutist, Tadeu Coelho, of the University of North Carolina School of the Arts--have


6 See: (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 59). Also, see Chapter Three for more information on these
composers.









each made several recording of choro music. Coelho has also published the complete works of

the legendary Brazilian choro flutist, Patapio Silva.

In the late twentieth century, the flute has also been essential to promoting Brazilian jazz

and experimental music such as that of Hereto Pascal's ensemble, O Grupo, of which the multi-

instrumentalist, Carlos Malta, was the flute player for over two decades.


Figure 2-3. Photo of Carlos Malta. (Source: Guido Paterno. Used with permission).

In addition to recording as a soloist, Malta has recently formed two ensembles of his own,

O Coreto Urbano and Pife Muderno, both of whom perform choro as a staple in their repertoire.

In addition, Malta' s performances and recordings--and those of his ensembles--are well known

for the high level of virtuosity they exhibit. The members of Malta' s ensembles are virtuosi in










their own rights, and their superb musicianship exceeds the highest standards of musical

performance in both the popular and erudite music worlds.

Foremost of Malta' s ensembles is Pife Muderno, a modern, urban banda de pifanos (band

of fifes) that blends the Northeast tradition of the zabumba ensemble with improvi station and

reinterpretation of traditional musical works, including choro. Together with Andrea Ernest

Dias7 on flute and pifan2o, Malta brings a twenty-first-century interpretation to choro as well as

the long-standing banda de pifanos tradition. Without a doubt, Malta has become one of

Brazil's most celebrated and important solo flute virtuosi.


Figure 2-4. Photo of Pife Muderno with Carlos Malta and Andrea Ernest Dias on pifano.
(Source: Gal Opido. Used with Permission).

SAndr~a Ernest Dias is also a classically trained flutist and the daughter of legendary Brazilian flutist, Odette Ernest
Dias. Andr~a is a member of Roberto Gnattalli' s Orquesta de Muisica Brasileira, and also performs at the Free Jazz
Festival. She is a solo recording artist as well.

SFor more information on the traditional banda de pifanos, see: (Crook 2005: 70-91).










Etymological and Musical Origins of Choro

Origins of the Term Choro

In an apt description, Thomas Garcia writes that "choro is a general term with divergent

meanings" (Garcia 1997:57). The term choro indeed, describes a number of related ideas. In

each case, however, the term refers to instrumental music.9 More to the point, choro refers to

the instrumental ensemble that plays choro music or it may refer to any number of popular

musical forms called choro. By extension, a choro musician or individual choro ensemble is

called a chordo and the plural chores, signifies groups ofchoro musicians, as well as the

ensembles that play choro music.

The etymology of the word choro is less certain, but scholars have posited several

plausible possibilities. David Appleby and Jose Ramos Tinhorio claim that the word choro

comes from the Portuguese word chorar--to cry or weep--and that the music was called choro

because of its melancholy nature. Appleby thus termed the chores, the weeperss." That would

seem to make good sens --horos were originally instr-umental laments (Appleby 1983: 70;

Tinhorio 1974: 95). In addition, both Appleby and Tinhorio credit Batista Siqueira as the

scholar who originally suggested that the term for choro music could have come from the

phrases chorar no pinho (weeping sound of wood, referring to the violdo, a guitar-like

instr-ument in the choro ensemble) or doce hindzi chorada (sweet, weeping hindzi, referring to a

popular musical style), further substantiating their hypothesis (Siqueira 1969:141). Siqueira also







9 Sung choro is known as seresta (serenade). Although choro remained throughout time primarily an instrumental
genre, the popular vocalist Ademilde Fonseca (b. 1921) began singing choro in 1941 in Rio de Janeiro to a wide
audience in clubs and over the radio, reviving the serenade tradition (Appleby 1983: 72; Squeff and Wisnik 1982:
161).









indicates that chore ensembles were popularly referred to as orquestra~s de p~u e corda~s

(orchestras of woodwind and strings)'" in chore 's early period (Siqueira 1969. 13 8).







tk r
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CU r
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Y Ccy
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,ce

i. I

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f-lt efji.a
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.r ~
.~
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Figure 2-5. Illustration ofchor~es performing in the streets ofRio de Janeiro. (Source:
Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain).

'O A sinnlar ensemble in Pemnambuco is also known by this name.










Gerard Behague suggests that the term is a derivative of xdlo, an Afro-Brazilian word for

the dance concerts that were performed on certain days of the year to honor saints (Behague

1966, p.95). Following Behague, Ary Vasconcelos asserts that the word x6lo does indeed appear

in a verse of Jacques Raimundo's O Negro Brasileiro as the term for music performed at Afro-

Brazilian festivals for Sho Joho (Vasconcelos 1977a: 14 and 1977b: 21).

Vasconcelos mildly refutes Tinhorio, however, claiming that while the tendency to link

the choro's melancholy style of music to the word chorar is seductive, a more definitive source

can be found in the word choromeleiros,"l a term used to describe certain musical fraternities of

Brazil's colonial period. 12 The choromeleiros played only instrumental music, and Vasconcelos

claims that it stands to reason that popular usage of the term choromeleiros would then also refer

to their musical compositions as well as their instrumental ensembles. Popular usage would have

also shortened choromeleiros to 'choros' for simplicity (Vasconcelos 1977a: 14 and 1977b: 21).

As stated, the difficulty in defining the term choro is further complicated by the fact that

choro refers not only to the instrumental ensemble, but also to the broad repertoire of musical

forms played by these ensembles. During this immediate post-colonial period, 13 European

musical styles and forms continued to be performed in Brazil, albeit with certain uniquely

Brazilian stylistic techniques. In fact, during the second half of the nineteenth century, certain

segments of Brazilian society (primarily the cosmopolitan elites) tended to look increasingly to

Europe, especially to France, for cultural orientation. Vasconcelos states that most often, when


11Choromeleiro can also be translated as "sweet music," from the Greek words, chores melos (Garcia 1997: 58).

12 CTher 8TO V8Tious spellings associated with the term 'choromeleiro.' J. Diniz uses the term 'chamaleiros' to
describe these religious brotherhoods (Diniz 1979: 107-108). Crook writes that the terms 'pretos charameleiros
and 'charamelas' were also used to describe these musicians as well as the shawm-like instrument played in their
ensembles in colonial Pemnambuco (Crook 2005: 31-33).

13In nineteenth-century Brazil there was an imperial period with a monarchy (independence from Portugal
recognized in 1825) followed by a republic period (beginning 1889).










one refers to choro, one is referring to the repertoire of the chores; the polkas, waltzes,

mazurkas, xotes schottischess), tango brasileiros, and nzaxixes. He goes further in claiming that

all popular Brazilian instrumental music that contains at least some element of 'Brazilian'

character, may be referred to as choro (Vasconcelos 1984: 10). And as the choro genre

developed, so did the number of choro musical forms, each influenced by choro 's particular

performance and compositional style. There were choro changes, samba changes, samnba

chores, chorinhos, nzaxixes, chorinho nzaxixes, choro ligeiros, choro serenatas, choro

seresteiros, choro nzelodicos, choro tristes, choro vivos, polca chores, choro estilizados, tango

bra~sileiros, chorinhos brasileiros, and baides. 1

The fact that many different musical forms, both erudite and popular, were all referred to

as choro was not a unique situation in Latin America. For instance, in Cuba, ensembles and

musical forms labeled charanga exhibit the same ambiguity. This indicates the dynamic and

vibrant quality of these traditions; traditions that are long-standing as well as emergent and

evolving even in contemporary times. 1

In 1958, in an address to the Club de Trois Centres in Paris, Heitor Villa-Lobos stated that

even European erudite forms could be pointed to as possessing imprecision of definition. He

states:

One could ask of Chopin if he could explain for example, what is the form of a polonaise
or a ballade. Is there a standard form for a Chopin ballade? No. Is there a form for a

14 The term baid~o would not have been common, however, until the 1940s.

15 For example, Alejo Carpentier's Music in Cuba writes about the time in Caribbean colonial history (the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) where people living in the colonies, who were also attuned to European cultural
influences, did not distain popular mass culture. In support, Carpentier wrote that popular music and classical music
were, through theoretical analysis, both complicit and interdependent and secondly, that music should be analyzed
for its social role and not purely by its commercial success. He also revealed popular music's African influences,
thereby legitimizing both. According to Carpentier, it was the African-derived and Afro-Cuban cultural influences
in Cuba that helped erode the distinction between elite and popular music. His innovative genius helped to pioneer
the serious study of popular music in Cuba and lay the foundation for acceptance and respectability for all Cuban
musical genres. See: (Carpentier 1946), or: (Carpentier 2001. Edited by Timothy Brennan: in English).










Chopin bolero? No. Chopin wrote, in his own manner, music according to his own taste, a
music of his own understanding. He has given the title... scherzo... the style of the author.
Something he thought of in a different way... What is a Choro? The Choro is popular
music. The Choro of Brazil, as you could perhaps say about the samba or something else,
but tr-uly the Choro, is always of the musicians that play it, of good and bad musicians who
play for their pleasure, often through the night, always improvising, where the musician
exhibits his talent, his technique. And it is always very sentimental (Villa-Lobos 1976:
Transcription located in the Liner Notes).

Agreeably, resolution of this issue at this point, seems insignificant. What is more

important is to understand that over time, popular musical forms performed in Brazil, especially

those with foundations in European genres, became stylistically less affected by their European

antecedents and more influenced by diverse stylistic elements emanating from other South

Americanl16 and African--and other Brazilian--musical forms.

It is perhaps no coincidence that the years 1870-1920 were the vanguard years for rapid

development of popular musical forms and hence, the period of choro 's greatest popularity.

Immense social interchanges were occurring as rural populations of mixed races and socio-

economic backgrounds moved into Brazil's urban centers. There is little doubt that choro was

influenced by the different regional styles of music brought to the metropolises by the migrating

masses. Vasconcelos goes further to state that during this time, choro "represented the urban

sensibilities of the people of Rio" (1984: 13). Indeed, choro stood at the forefront of Brazil's

transformation from a rural colonial society to a predominantly urban, modern nation. The choro

became a truly urban phenomenon, a marker for the new way of life created by newly acquired

independence and growing urbanization.

This diversity of Brazilian society in newly forming urban centers was manifested in all

aspects of popular music composition and performance. In addition to stylistic variants, the



16 MOst notable was the tango brasileiro. Brazilian musicians created a very popular Brazilian musical genre from
this popular Argentinean dance form.









makeup of popular musical ensembles also underwent transformation. Melodic and harmonic

instruments of primarily European origin fused with Afro-Brazilian and indigenous Amerindian

percussion instruments in various ensembles all over Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere throughout

Brazil. In addition, European-derived instrumental technique was also transformed via Afro-

Brazilian performance aesthetics.

Musical Characteristics of Choro

The first and foremost thing to be said about the musical characteristics of choro is that

they were created at, and evolved from, the intersection of various musical and cultural

traditions. Indeed, the fact that choro was fashioned through the confluence of European erudite

harmonic and melodic structures, Brazilian popular musical forms, and Afro-Brazilian rhythmic

sophistication cannot be understated. What these merging influences created was a musical style

that grew to national prominence, musically defined the emerging Brazilian nation-state, and

continued to be invented and reinvented as a legitimate Brazilian musical genre until today.

The principal musical characteristics of choro identify this genre as a popular style of

music with erudite musical formal structures. Most chores are composed in five- or seven-part

rondo form (ABACA form being the most common). Melodies are supported by sophisticated

harmonies and syncopated rhythmic accompaniment that creates counterpoint against the melody

line. In early choro, homophonic dance forms supported the melody by utilizing a simple,

constant metric structure. As choro evolved, improvisation (primarily in the melody) took on a

greater role and the harmonic/rhythmic structure grew in complexity.

Indeed, the most prominent of choro character stics i s its rhythmic balango, or 'swing.'

Choro 's swing has that intangible quality of remaining somewhat indefinable, certainly not

easily notated, and yet knowledgeable performers and listeners of choro know exactly how

choro 's swing should sound and feel. In early chores, this swing was accomplished by having










the chordophones play rhythmic counterpoint against each other. 17 The violdo played the

baixaria (bass line) Is and steady, usually arpeggiated, rhythmic chords simultaneously, while the

cavaquinho str-ummed syncopated rhythmic chords. Both instr-uments played a syncopated

counter-rhythm against the melody line, which was often comprised of inning sixteenth notes.

When the pandeiro was added to the ensemble circa the 1910s, this syncopated,

characteristic swing in choro 's rhythmic str-ucture was reinforced. While the basic rhythmic

str-ucture for the pandeiro is a constant sixteenth-note pattern in 2/4 meter, the swing in choro

requires a good pandeiro player to emphasize the off-beats in a recognizable stylistic

configuration. Typically, the second or third sixteenth note in each beat will be accented. Stops

are another common feature for the pandeiro, whereby the player will suddenly stop the constant

rhythm at the cadences, and then resume the forward rhythmic push after the break (usually at

the beginning of the next section when the melody returns).

This swing, this interlocking performance technique among the instruments, is perhaps the

most defining characteristic in playing the choro style. Further, what this particular relationship

between the instruments in the ensemble provides is a means of musical interaction that allows

the performers to engage in a "'conversation between instr-uments' that balances personal

expression with social and musical unity. This ideal balance of musical and social forces is the

driving force behind the choro" (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 9).

Regarding the first choro ensembles, Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia write:



17 Choro ensembles consist of a combination of European, and European-derived Brazilian instmmnents. Early
European and European-derived instruments in the choro ensemble include only aerophones and chordophones,
namely: the viold~o (a six-string, guitar-like instrument): the violdo de sete cordas (a seven-string, guitar-like
instrument); the cavaquinho (a ukulele-like instrument); the bandolim (a mandolin-like instrument): and a melody
instrument, usually the flute. For more information on the instrumentation of choro ensembles, see the following
section in this chapter.

1s The baixaria in choro is an improvised bass line that plays an integral role in creating countermelodies.









Late-nineteenth-century choro ensembles typically featured a soloist (usually a flutist or
other wind player) who played highly ornamented versions of familiar melodies. The
other instruments improvised harmonic and rhythmic accompaniment and provided
occasional melodic counterpoint. Bass lines and harmony were provided by the
cavaquinho and violdo... [And] although many flute and wind players were able to read
music and write musical notation... [the other] early choro musicians were musically
illiterate," that is, the string players (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 3).

Indeed, most choro musicians were skilled amateurs who held day-j ob s in industry or

government service (which was also a characteristic of musicians who played other forms of

popular music), and who spent their evenings socializing and engaging in spirited

competitions--in gatherings called rods de choro (choro circles)--to see who could improvise

the most creative accompaniment or virtuosic melody line.

As a result, early choro style emphasized improvisation regardless of the presence of a

musical score, a characteristic that has remained a hallmark of choro performance. And, while

all of the instruments could be played to exhibit great virtuosity using tremendous technical skill,

the flute was more often capable of the kind of flashy showmanship of virtuosic techniques

employed in the art music world, techniques such as the use of a variety of tone colors, flutter

tonguing, double and triple tonguing, glissandos, and vibrato. 19 Stylistically, virtuosic flute

techniques were used to emphasize a lighter style of syncopation, to highlight sophisticated

chord progressions, and to integrate instrumental improvisation and thematic variations into the

composition, as they still do to this day. For further clarification, formal analysis (with musical

examples) of the musical characteristics of choro--especially as they pertain to the flute--will

be addressed in Chapter Four.







19 The viold~o had not yet been established as an art music instrument at this time.






The Organology of Choro Ensembles
Choro ensembles consist of a combination of European, and European-derived Brazilian
instruments. Early European and European-derived instruments in the choro ensemble include
only aerophones and chordophones, namely: the viol~o (a six-string guitar); the viol~o de sete
corda~s (a seven-string guitar); the cavaquinho (a four-string, ukulele-like instrument); the
bandolim (an 8 tol0-string mandolin-like instrument); and a melody instrument, usually the
flute. As choro evolved, other instruments such as the ophecleide (a keyed brass instrument), the
clarinet, the trombone, the tuba, the saxophone, and later, the accordion and piano were added.
And, in the case of the piano, the instrument was also often employed as a solo instrument for
performing choro, especially in venues such as the theatre. During the 1910s, a small Brazilian
hand-drum, a membranophone called the pandeiro (a tambourine-like instrument), was included
and it remains the only percussion instrument in the ensemble.


~L,9


d


Figure 2-6. Photo (Left to right): viol~o de sete cords; violmo de seis corda~s; bandolim; flauta
cavaquinho, and; pandeiro. Photo courtsey of Jose Agusto. Public Domain.










The violdo de seis o sete corda~s, the bandolim, the cavaquinho, the pandeiro, and the flute

(or other melodic instrument), have been the primary choro instruments throughout the history of

the ensemble. These instr-uments fulfill the four basic requirements for the performance of

choro, which are: melody in the top line; harmony in a center voice; the bass line, and; the

rhythmic structure.

In addition, there are historical and class considerations to observe regarding

instrumentation. The modern silver (or ebony) flute is a European instr-ument, initially available

only to the elite upper classes and played in salons and orchestra halls by literate musicians. The

chordophones and the pandeiro have a long history of belonging to the more modest classes, and

were usually played in rural settings or in the urban neighborhoods of the middle and lower

classes. These associations: dichotomies of class str-ucture; musical training (literate/oral -aural),

and; European/New World attitudes, were all embedded into choro instrumentation.

The Terno: Viollio, Cavaquinho, and Flute

The earliest choro ensembles consisted of two violdes de seis cords, a cavaquinho, and a

flute. These ensembles descended from small ensembles that played muisica de barbeiros

(barber' s music)20 (Souza, et al. 1988:48). In early choro ensembles, the violdes played the bass

and harmony, the cavaquinho played the harmonic/rhythmic pattern, and the flute played the

solo melody. These three instr-uments, collectively referred to as the terno, or pau e cord (wood

and strings), constituted the core of the choro ensemble, even after other instruments were added

to the ensemble over time.

One of the first choro ensembles, Choro Carioca, was established in 1870 by Joaquim

Ant8nio da Silva Callado Junior (1848-1880), a virtuoso flutist and teacher at the Imperial


20 Mdsica de barbeiros was performed by small instrumental groups comprised of freed black slaves who worked in
barber shops and were trained in music (Souza, et al. 1988: 48).










Conservatory of Music in Rio de Janeiro. The most popular chordo of the decade, Choro

Carioca' s21 inStr-umentation consisted of flute, cavaquinho, and two violdes de seis corda~s. At

the turn of the century, the addition of the pandeiTO22 to this fundamental instrumental lineup

created a new standard in chordo instrumentation.

Conjuntos Regionais

The rise of the popular ensembles called conjuntos regionais (regional groups) marked the

beginning of the professionalization of choro in the second decade of the twentieth century.

Also during this time, Brazilian artists and intellectuals were seeking to forge a distinct Brazilian

national identity in reaction to the elite's heavy reliance upon European culture. "By the end of

the 1910s, intellectuals had begun to locate the source of Brazilian musical identity in African-

influenced popular music, a position that would have been untenable just a few years earlier"

(Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 80).

Around the 1920s, choro became part of this movement when these same artists and

intellectuals declared it to be a uniquely Brazilian popular music. Indeed, the bricolage of

popular culture created and recognized during the first half of the twentieth century would

ultimately define modern Brazil, including the formulation of Brazil's first radio networks,

which forged a truly nationalist popular culture. As a result, choro musicians were in high

demand, not only for their musical skills, but for their symbolic value as representatives of a

newly emergent national culture.23



21 "The popularity of the Choro Carioca in the 1870s was of great importance to the beginnings of the movement
later known as nationalism..." (Appleby 1983: 72).

22 It has been suggested that the pandeiro was introduced into the chores at the turn of the century by Jac6,
Palmieri, the pandeiro player for Pixinguinha's legendary chord~o, Os Oito Batutas. Verification, however, is
difficult due to limited evidence.

23 One of the most important intellectuals in this process of national identity building was the sociologist Gilberto
Freyre. Freyre writes about his first encounter with popular samba and choro musicians, during a night that also










By the 1930s, the instr-umentation of the traditional choro ensemble, the terno, included the

pandeiro and the violdo de sete cordas, essentially forming a larger ensemble, the conjunto

regional, which essentially served as the workhorse for the budding radio industry. Throughout

the 1930s and 1940s, professional conjuntos regionais-- in effect, all-purpose musicians--were

hired to accompany vocalists and to perform as studio musicians for live radio broadcasts. These

conjuntos regionals codified popular musical styles and repertoires and through the media,

carried the sound of choro to all corners of Brazil, where the regional musical styles of Rio de

Janeiro became synonymous with a unified national and cultural identity.

One of the more popular and important conjuntos was the Regional de Lacerda, led by

fluti st B enedicto Lacerda. 24 Of all the conjuntos regionals employed during thi s time, Lacerda' s

ensemble distinguished itself by performing with a high level of virtuosity. Their sound was

polished and perfectly suited to the professionalism required by radio and the recording industry.

Lacerda, trained in flute and composition at the Instituto Nacional de Musica, was the ideal

ensemble leader, having formed several conjuntos regionals before leading the Regional de

Lacerda. From 1947-1953, at the request of radio host Almirante, Regional de Lacerda--along



included some of Brazil's best art music composers (Vila-Lobos and Gallet), in Rio in 1926. He writes: "Invento
com os nieus amigos Bandeira, Prudente, Rodrigo, Sirgio, unt grupo de personagens dos quais vamos fazer al guns
colaboradores da Revista: J.J. Gomes Sampaio e Esmeraldino Olintpio, entire eles. Sirgio e Prudente conhecent de
fato literature inglesa modern, alin; da francesa. O~tintos. Cont eles ja sai de noite boentiantente. Tanibin com
Vila-Lobos e Gallet. Fomos juntos a unta noitada de viold~o, com algunta cachaga e cont os brasileirissintos
Pixinghinha, Patricio, Donga. I got together with nw friends Bandeira, Prudente, Rodrigo, and S~rgio, a group of
characters we are going to make collaborators for the Journal: J.J. Gomes Sampaio and Esmeraldino Olimpio,
among them. S~rgio and Prudente really know modern English and French literature. They're tops. I went out for a
night of bohemian fun with them. Vila-Lobos and Gallet came too. We went out for an evening of guitar music,
with a little cachaga [cane liquor], and three true Brazilians [my emphasis], Pixinguinha, Patricio, and Donga"
(Freyre 1975: 189). [My translation.]. What this meeting of intellectuals and artists represented was the coming
together of the best representatives of two very distinct social groups: Brazil's elite upper class and the underclass
black and mulatto musicians who would help define musically what the elite were constructing intellectually as
Brazilian identity. The above passage from Freyre's diary shows that these musicians, including the famous choro
musician Pixinguinha, played a part in helping to establish Brazilian national identity (and to reinforce political
ideology such as ;,,.. r .4.;.. ny through their direct interactions with Brazilian intellectuals. Also see: (Vianna 1999).

24For more information on Lacerda, see Chapter Three.









with Pixinguinha-performed a weekly radio program of their own titled, Pessoal da Velha

Guard (People of the Old Guard), where they performed the chores of Pixinguinha and other

choro composers such as Chiquinha Gonzaga.25





























Figure 2-7. Photo of Regional de Lacerda. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public
Domain) .

Solo Guitar/Viollio

Perfect for accompanying, and capable as a solo instrument, the viol~o holds a unique role

in the performance ofchoro. In the choro ensemble, the role of the viol~o is two-fold. It must

function as harmonic accompaniment as well as play the improvised bass line (the baixaria) that

creates countermelodies against the solo melodic lines of the flute. The violdo can also perform

the solo melodic function in the ensemble. As a solo instrument in choro, the viol~o omits the


25 See: (Koidin 2006)










baixaria in performance and rather, plays a more simple bass line that does not compete with the

melodic line. In the early years of choro, solo violmo performers also played the romantic choro-

style compositions such as the modinha.

As choro continued to develop both in the dancehall environment and in the rods de

choro (choro circles)26 as well as the elite salons of Rio, the popularity of the violmo began to

wane in favor of the piano. The viol~o was considered an appropriate instrument for the lower

classes, but it had been practically abandoned by the elite. Most viol~o performers ofchoro in

Rio were adept at accompanying in the choro ensemble, especially in the rods de choro, but it

was the solo viol~o performers that made their mark and rose out of the stigma of lower-class

di sfavor.

One of the most prominent early solo viol~o performers was Joho Teixeira Guimaraes de

Pernambuco (1883-1947). Noted for his compositions (especially of the modinha), Pernambuco

was also credited with being an excellent educator and masterful technician. The virtuosity he

displayed when performing helped to push the limits of the sounds the viol~o could achieve in a

performance setting. Another solo guitarist of note was Annibal Augusto 'Garito' Sardinha

(1915-1955). Adept with violmo, banj o, bandolim, and cavaquinho, Gar~to played with various

chori:es as a young man and became well-known for the challenging harmonies he created. 27

[See page 49 for more information on Joho Pernambuco.]






26 Rodas de choro are informal gatherings of choro musicians, historically, in the poorer neighborhoods of Brazil's
urban centers. Musicians sit either in a circle or some other intimate setting, facing each other to facilitate musical
communication, especially with the melodic soloist who would often improvise. In rodas de choro, choro musicians
gather together to play for their own entertainment and enjoyment. Rodas de choro are now also performed on stage
by professional choro musicians.

27For more information on the solo viold~o see: (Caracas Garcia 1997: 268-273), and: (Swanson 2004).









Variations in Instrumentation

Eventually, the popularity of the choro style of playing allowed it to be incorporated into

larger, more established instrumental ensembles such as the civic and military bands that were

beginning to play these new choro musical forms in public squares. These ensembles included

brass and woodwind reed instruments such as the ophecleide, the clarinet, the trombone, the

tuba, and the saxophone in their instrumentation.

Tinhorio writes that ensembles such as the Corpo de Marinheiros (Sailor' s Band), Corpo

Policial da Provincia do Rio de Janeiro (Police Band of the Province of Rio de Janeiro), Guarda

Nacional (National Guard), and Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro (Firemen' s

Band of Rio de Janeiro) were all playing choro music during the late nineteenth century

(Tinhorio 1974: 98). In addition, these bands were an integral part of Brazil's Carnival

celebrations and combined choro styles and sensibilities with the popular Carnival samnba~s of the

day to create maxixes, choro-samba~s, etc.

Choro 's link to these emerging civic and military bands is logical given the prominent role

of the flute in both ensembles. This link also reinforces the popular nature of the music being

performed. In addition, these ensembles could be characterized as "poor man' s orchestras" and

the musicians who performed choro would most likely be the same as those participating in these

bands.

The Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro was directed by Anacleto de

Medeiros (1886-1907), one of the first musicians to incorporate this new choro style into his

ensemble and repertoire and the first musician to notate arrangements for these civic and military

bands. Anacleto was the son of a freed slave and began his formal musical training in 1884

when he enrolled at the Conservat6rio de Musica, where he studied flute. He also performed in

the Companhia de Menores do Arsenal de Guerra (Company of Children' s Arsenal of War)









ensemble. In addition to his work with the military bands, Anacleto was also performed with his

neighborhood' s local roda de choro (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 69-72).


























Figure 2-8. Photo of the Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro. Anacleto de
Medeiros is seated in the middle. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro.
Public Domain).

In this chapter, evidence has shown that early flutists/composers were instrumental in

helping to establish choro as a prominent Brazilian musical style and for increasing its popularity

through flute performance practices within the choro ensemble. Examination of the musical

character stics of choro--such as syncopation and improvi sation--identified choro as a popular

style of music with erudite tendencies and musical formal structures. Analysis of the role of the

conjuntos regionais and other important ensembles and instrumentations showed their

importance in the history and evolution of choro. In the next chapter, I will explore how

Brazilian musical forms such as the lundui, modinha, and maxixe, as well as the principal










flutists/composers of choro, helped to move choro from a stylistic variant of popular musical

genres into a distinct genre.









CHAPTER 3
THE PROGRESSION OF CHORO REPERTORY: FROM STYLE TO FORMAL GENRE

Popular Brazilian Music and the Antecedents of Choro

The hi storical traj ectory of choro went from a style of playing various genres of popular

music by amateur musicians from the underclass to a unique genre of music in its own right.

How choro moved historically from a style to the genre of music we can identify today as

distinctly choro owes much of the credit for this evolution to its popularity and the virtuosity

required to perform the music. Through historical analysis, we can chart how performance

practices of urban popular salon genres such as the polca, lundui, modinha, maxixe, waltzes,

mazurkas, and xotes schottischess) moved composers and performers towards codifying the

choro style of performance practice into a formal musical genre.

In 1847, the composer Francisco Manuel da Silva (1795-1865) founded the Music

Conservatory of Rio de Janeiro and in 1855, the conservatory was annexed to the newly created

Academy of Fine Arts. In 1857, the Imperial Academy of Music and National Opera was

established and succeeded by the Opera Lirica Nacional in 1860. These centers were instituted

to "promote the cultivation of art" in music (Behague 1979: 111). Through professional

association with these centers, composers began to create works that were increasingly

influenced by local musical styles and literary themes of a nationalist nature. More importantly,

they also learned to develop a "gradual liberation from an exaggerated reverence for things

European" (Appleby 1983: 60). Ant8nio Carlos Gomez (1836-1896), the most successful opera

composer in Brazil in the nineteenth century, composed his famous opera, II Guarany, in 1871.

The final version of his overture tollI Guarany, with its Amerindian heroes and romantic



SIndeed, the establishing of cultural centers that represent the nation-state is a typical characteristic of nationalism
and nation building.










stylization of indigenous dances, became a virtual national anthem for Brazil.2 Through works

likellI Guarany, treatment of Brazilian subj ects maintained "a symbolic value of social

significance in the form of national and racial ideas" (Behague 1979: 1 15).

Equally significant during this period were the folk and popular musical forms that were

being performed in the urban areas and rural towns throughout Brazil. Composers such as

Joaquim Antonio Callado Junior (1 848-18 80), Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847-193 5), Ernesto

Nazareth (1863-1934), and later, Radames Gnattali (1906-1988), "all composed music on the

boundary between sounds of the streets and those of the concert halls... [They] had already built

solid bridges between ethnic and social differences in their music, before those who were

referred to as highbrow artists" (Arauj o 2000: 1 18). These composers were also important in

shaping the hi storical traj ectory of choro .

The popular urban genres in which they composed--especially the European salon genres

such as the polka, waltz, mazurka, schottische, and quadrille--were critical to the process of

nationalizing Brazilian music through the modification of these forms with local stylistic

elements. Two new forms of uniquely Brazilian popular music, in particular-evolutions of

African and Portuguese forms-"provided a mirror for the formation of national elements and

eventually provided a musical language with readily distinguishable national elements..."

(Appleby 1983: 60). They were the hmndu, and the modinha, the precursors of choro.

2 It is interesting note that the libretto forl II uarani was written in Italian, a good indication that the cultural appeal
of European expressive culture--and in this case, Italian opera and European exoticism-was very strong in Brazil
during this time of nation-state building. Related, the Indianist literary, intellectual, and artistic movement in Brazil
was also a factor in the creation of this opera. Indeed, from the late 1700s until the beginning of the nineteenth
century, Brazilian intellectuals and artists celebrated the Amerindian in the most coherent cultural nationalist
movement before Modernism. Brazil's most famous novelist, Machado de Assis, the father of Brazilian
Romanticism, helped to make Indianism the dominant expression of Romanticism in Brazil following independence.
"More than this, under the direct patronage of the Emperor, Dom Pedro II, Indianism was a major pillar of the
Empire's project of state-building, the single most important object of artistic and political reflection to exercise the
minds of its intellectual elite for more than half a century" (Treet 2000:5). The persistence of the Romantic image of
the Indian into the bourgeois culture of the belle 6poque, helped to create the most famous imaginary hero of all, the
Guarani Indian, Peri.









Lundfa

The hindzi is recognized by many scholars as the first truly Brazilian musical form and has

now become--with the nzodinha--the musical symbol of the emergence of a Brazilian national

identity in the nineteenth century. The hindzi was first practiced in the early 1700s as an Afro-

Brazilian dance popular among blacks and mulattoes, and was brought to Brazil by the Bantu

from Angola. The dance was immediately condemned by the Catholic Church because of its

often sexual connotations, especially its use of the unabigada, a dance movement that simulates

intercourse by having dancers 'touch navels.' 3 The unabigada is a choreographic element of

most Afro-Brazilian dances and the use of the unabigada distinguishes these dances as African-

derived (Behague 1966).

At the end of the eighteenth century, a dance salon style of the hindzi emerged and was

characterized by a lively tempo, syncopated rhythms, and comical or satirical themes, products

of its African heritage. The dance salon hindzi was then replaced around the 1860s by the hindzi

song style.4 At this time, both the hindzi and the nzodinha were being refined as verse forms by

Brazilian poets of the nineteenth century.

Mario de Andrade wrote that the hindzi was the first form of African-derived Brazilian

music whose Europeanization is defined by complete acceptance of European harmonic tonality.

He claimed the hindzi (rather than the nzodinha) as the first uniquely Brazilian music due to the

hindzi 's acceptance by white elite society, the transformation it made from African folk dance to

urban song, and the social significance that came with that transformation (Andrade 1944).

Behague claims that thi s transformation and recognition of an African art form by the white elite

3 Despite this condemnation by the Catholic Church, the lundri remained a popular and often-practiced dance genre,
both in Brazil as well as in Portugal.

SThe lundri's popularity as an African-derived dance form, however, remained strong--especially among the rural
population in B ahia, Brazil--until the early twentieth century.










was not so much a matter of acceptance on behalf of the white population as it was a matter of

acculturation and the result of miscegenation during a time when incorporation of African

cultural retentions was rapidly and easily being assimilated into urban life. "The assimilation of

these traditions came about as a social process of accommodation. This social accommodation

had its musical counterpart in the hybrid forms that appeared at the end of the nineteenth

century" (Behague 1966: 46).



















Figure 3-1. 185ilsrto f h udb oan oizRgna.(Suc:Bbitc






NainaRo eJaer .~4~ PulcDmi)

The und as he frst f tese ybri stles o rech atioal sgniicane. lso drin

this ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~C tie motn rdt ui cmoessc sEnsoNzaehwr opsn oua










songs with European and African-derived musical elements to great success. Indeed, Nazareth is

credited with nationalizing the polka in Brazil through his polca-htndzi compositions.

The hindzi then progressed from a dance and song form to the parent form for urban

popular music forms such as the nzaxixe and the samba. Musically, the urbanization of the hindzi

transformed it from an African-derived folk tradition to a style that began to incorporate

primarily the harmonic and melodic notions of the Romantic erudite music composers of Brazil.

Harmonically, modulations became more characteristic. The melodic line of the hindzi, with

ascending and descending phrases of repeated notes, remained stable in the composed, urban

hindzi. Importantly, the hindzi had become the first step toward integrating the stylistic elements

of black Afro-Brazilian music, such as improvisation and syncopation, into popular genres, a

technique choro musicians were soon to follow.

Modinha

Emerging simultaneously in Portugal and Brazil beginning in the late eighteenth century,

the nzodinha is important as the precursor of Brazilian art songs in the vernacular. The product

of a number of influences--such as European art music and the nzoda, a Portuguese folk genre--

the nzodinha is important for the way it influenced Brazilian and Portuguese erudite music

composers of note during the late eighteenth and entire nineteenth centuries. The nzodinha is

also important in that it experienced a 'reverse' transformation, from that of an art song genre,

into an urban popular genre. Indeed, the nzodinha can be categorized as having undergone a

'transmigration' of styles. The European waltz influenced the nzodinha, and then the nzodinha

influenced the popular salon waltz in Brazil, which then became a sentimental song form that




5 Additionally, [in] the case of Brazil the modinha introduced European characteristic elements which became
associated with the national traits of popular music" (B~hague 1966: 48).










evolved into the valsa-charo, which in turn, influenced and was cultivated by art music

composers such as Camargo Guarnieri and Osvaldo Lacerda.

The modinha first emerged as a sentimental art song with an ari cantabile character in the

salons and concert halls of Portugal's and Brazil' s elite classes during Brazil's Second Empire

(1 840-1889). The modinha eventually evolved in and around the cities of Rio de Janeiro and

Salvador Bahia at the beginning of the belle epoque of Brazilian popular music--from about

1870 until 1920--when the 1888 abolition of slavery led to mass migrations from rural areas to

the cities and towns. 6

In the early 1870s, the modinha--with its melodic nature, its romantic spirit, and

influences from Italian opera--began appearing in public settings, often sung as serenades.

Composers of art music began writing modinha~s and nascent choro groups began playing these

popular 'art songs' with greater frequency. The popularity of the modinha then rapidly spread

throughout Brazil via oral/aural transmission as well as through the publication of sheet music.

The nineteenth-cenhtry modinha~s in Brazil then developed along two basic trends. One

trend--elaborate, aria-like modinha~s--reflected their Portuguese origins and Italian aria

cantabile influences. A second trend produced sentimental ballads of a romantic character.

These ballads were suitable for serenades--or serestas as they were called--and serenading

quickly became a performance context and style that appealed to choro musicians.'





6 This period also witnessed the emergence of choro in its earliest forms.
SAccording to B~hague, the exact instrumentation for the performance of these early modinhas is difficult to
ascertain, primarily because modinhas were typically written without accompaniment. Anecdotal accounts claim the
viold~o was the instrument of choice, but B~hague believes that the piano, due to its prominent role in the households
and salons of the elite, was perhaps the most popular instrument, especially given that most modinha performers and
accompanists knew the basic harmonies and rhythmic structures of each piece simply from realizing the melodic
line. Indeed, the modinha was that formulaic (B~hague 1966).










During the 1910s, Catulo da Paixio Cearense (1866-1946)," a composer and violdo player

from the Northeastern interior (the \11 ti th), introduced stylized rural variants of the nzodinha to

the salons of elite society in Rio de Janeiro. 9 Although the social and racial lines were still

clearly delineated at this time, Catulo, known to be a superb musician, was able to overcome

these ob stacles by nature of hi s musical talents and was therefore often invited to perform

nzodinhas in the homes of the cariocalo elite. Catulo introduced the violdo as a socially

respectable native instrument and initiated a trend towards the increasing popularity of Brazilian

pastoral songs and poetry performed in elite settings. Vasconcelos credits Catulo with bringing

the nzodinha to its full splendor through his innovative compositional techniques and claims that

"Catulo produzira alguntas da~s nzais bela~s cangi~es populares brasileira~s de todos os tempos

(Catulo produces some of the most beautiful Brazilian popular songs of all time)" (Vasconcelos

1977a: 23). [My translation.]

Perhaps the most important guitar st and composer of popular nzodinha~s during thi s time

was Joho Teixeira Guimaraes de Pernambuco (1883-1 947). Also residing in Rio de Janeiro after

migrating from the Northeast, Joho de Pernambuco-being musically non-literate--used to give

his compositions to other musicians to transcribe and consequently, many of his compositions

were stolen from him as unscrupulous musicians penned their own names to Pernambuco' s

songs. A notable example is the song "Luar do Sertio," written in 1911 in partnership with

Catulo. The composition became extremely popular and important as the unofficial Brazilian


SSee: (Severiano e Homen de Mello 1997) and (Vasconcelos 1977a).

9 Although he had moved to Rio much earlier, it was not until the 1910s that Catulo had begun to make his
influence.

'0 Carioca is a term used to characterize people who were born and live in Rio de Janeiro.

11 During the colonial period, most composers of art music also composed modinhas and other popular forms--
usually on commission--in the prevailing popular Brazilian styles.









anthem, and during that time, Catulo claimed sole credit for the composition. Only in recent

years has Pernambuco been given the credit he deserved as co-composer. Pernambuco' s

association with Catulo, nonetheless, provided him with access to the salons and theatres of

Rio' s elite at whose soirees Pernambuco was also often invited to play.

In 1914, Pernambuco formed the hugely successful choro ensemble, O Grupo de Caxanga,

which counted Pixinguinha among its members. The ensemble introduced northeastern

percussion and culture into the southeast of Brazil and remained extremely popular until 1919

(Crook 2005). Pernambuco also performed with Pixinguinha's famous choro ensemble, Os Oito

Batutas, and Os Turunas Pernambucanos, for a number of years. With Pixinguinha, Pernambuco

toured Brazil collecting Brazilian folkloric music. He also began recording for the first Brazilian

recording label, Casa Edison. 12

Maxixe

In urban centers such as Rio de Janeiro and Sho Paulo between approximately 1914 and

1922, Brazil experienced the rise of another form of popular music and dance, the nzaxixe. The

nzaxixe is a provocative song and dance style that originated in the dancehalls in Rio de Janeiro

as early as the 1880s. A combination of folk and popular dance styles, the nzaxixe was first

performed primarily by middle- and lower- class Afro-Brazilians in private party settings and

much like the hmndz of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the nzaxixe dance was

frequently considered erotic (Behague 1966).

Wildly controversial, the maxixe dance became a mainstay in the Carnival celebrations in

Rio and gradually evolved into the modern urban samba (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas

Garcia 2005). Behague states that, in fact, the choreographic element of the maxixe is one of its


12 See: (Crook 2005: 235-251).









most important aspects. "Not only does it provide the best example of an authentic Brazilian

urban dance, but it also offers the best illustration of the acculturation process" (Behague 1966:

68). Various international influences-Afro-Cuban, Afro-Brazil, and European dance styles--

went into creating the maxixe. Elements of folk dances such as the batuque, mic (Ilt er, and lundri,

combined with the polca and the habanera to come together in the maxixe .

In its early phase, the title maxixe seems to have been more an indication of tempo rather

than a distinct style probably because Afro-Brazilian aesthetics required that polca-maxixes and

tango-maxixes were to be danced to faster tempos than regular polcas and tangos.

Regarding its musical components, the maxixe offered pleasing melodic lines, but they

were heavily overpowered by the rhythmic vitality in the accompanying lines. Indeed, rhythmic

complexity dominates the style. The Afro-Cuban habanera rhythm is a characteristic feature of

the maxixe, a characteristic it shares with other Latin American popular dance forms, such as the

tango, of the nineteenth century. The Afro-Brazilian rhythm [See Figure 3 -2] was also an

important stylistic element. Tinhorio states that it was the Afro-Brazilian rhythm that was

adopted and adapted to the immensely popular polka that created the maxixe.




Figure 3-2. Syncopated rhythmic pattern characteristic of Afro-Brazilian genres.

A somewhat 'tamed' version of the maxixe eventually evolved and began appearing in the

elite salons in the early twentieth century. Due to its previously pejorative connotation, the style

was then referred to as a tango or a tango brasileiro. Nazareth was famous for composing

maxixes that he then renamed tango-bra;sileiros. These compositions were little more than

highly stylized and slightly more harmonically sophisticated versions of the maxixe, but the

connotation stuck and the works remained identified as tangos. So pervasive was the popularity










of the nzaxixe and its subsequent styles that Tinhorio claims that the nzaxixe was, without

question, the first important contribution to Brazilian popular music by the underclass ofRio de

Janeiro (Tinhorio 1974: 59).

Important Contributors to the Genre: The Choriles

Instrumental choro developed in the last decades of the nineteenth century as somewhat of

a modified successor to the nzodinha, the hmndri, and the nzaxixe. The composers of these popular

forms utilized sixteenth-century western European musical sensibilities and introduced these

harmonic and melodic structures into the salon genres such as the waltz, polka, tango, fox-trot,

schottische, quadrille, etc. Composers in Rio de Janeiro then infused these popular forms with

an African rhythmic vitality, i.e. a unique 'swing' that stemmed from the influence of African

rhythms brought to the New World by enslaved Africans.

At thi s point in hi story, it i s interesting to note that Brazilian composers were making no

real clear distinction between popular and art music. Many of them, such as Ernesto Nazareth,

spent their days composing art music in the conservatories and spent their evenings playing

popular musical forms on the piano in movie theatres and bars.

Ernesto Nazareth was one of Brazil's most important and prolific composers of erudite and

popular music. Influenced by the nineteenth-century virtuoso performer and composer Frederic

Chopin (1810-1849), as well as by the American pianist Louis Moreau Gottshalk (1829-1 869),

Nazareth spent much of his career playing piano in theatres as accompaniment for silent films. It

was while performing in the famous Teatro Odeon--the site of Rio de Janeiro' s first showing of

silent films--that Nazareth composed his homage to the famous landmark, the choro "Odeon." It

was also at the Odeon that Nazareth met the erudite composer Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959),

who was a cellist in the orchestra, and who later based some of his own compositions on

Nazareth' s chores.












































Figure 3-3. Photo of Ernesto Nazareth. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain.
http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/artis/AttsapSts=RTT&Nri
ta=214. Last accessed March 2, 2009).

While many choro composers spent their lives composing and performing for the lower

classes, Nazareth took great pains to distance himself from other choro musicians and members

of the common classes. He chose instead to compose and perform for the elite, often avoiding

the use of popular terminology, such as maxixe and choro, in the naming of hi s compositions.

For Nazareth, a choro was named a polca and a maxixe was named a tango bra~sileiro. The

piece, "Odeon," was labeled a 'tango' by Nazareth.















Rs

e ;i
S
e






















Fiur -4 hooofte etr den (orc: BiloeaNcnlRodJnir.Pbc
Domain).~
In anlyzig th musc of Odeo," i is viden tha theornaentaiono h eldcln
inldstewielas heueo recent n crmtcs tpclo heisrmna
works, inclding the po ular stl aldpla n Oen"w lofndapgitrsi h









bass and the raising of the third of the tonic when in the minor key. Harmonically, the piece

shifts from minor to maj or in a seven-part rondo form, compositional techniques that had

become by this time in Brazil, a national trait. Indeed, Nazareth was, and is still, considered an

important nationalist composer.

Another important choro composer of note was Franci sca Edwiges Neves Chiquinha"

Gonzaga (1847-193 5). Gonzaga is noteworthy not only because she was a woman in the male-

dominated world of music composition, but she gave choro "proof of existence" according to

Tinhorio, with her 1889 composition, "S6 no Choro" ("Only in Choro") (Tinhorio 1974, p.96).


Figure 3-5. Photo of Chiquinha Gonzaga. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain.
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/arti sts/Arti sts.a sp? Statu s= ARTIST A&Nurti s
ta=134. Last accessed March 2, 2009).









Gonzaga, the daughter ofa high-ranking military official and a socialite mother, was

privileged and well educated. Her family married her to a military official at thirteen but the

marriage failed. Gonzaga found herself cut off from family funds after the failure of a second

relationship so she turned to teaching piano and composing as a way to earn a living. Due to her

extensive musical education in art music, Gonzaga quickly developed a keen interest in

composing dramatic and operatic music. She also began to develop stylistic links to Callado as

well as ideological connections to "the new trends of composition with national subjects and

musical style" (Appleby 1983, p.76).

In 1899, Gonzaga was commissioned to write a song for the Cordio Rosa de Ouro for their

Carnaval parade. Gonzaga composed "O Abre Alas" (Make Way), the first registered nzarcha as

well as the first song ever written specifically for Carnaval. The composition of all subsequent

nzarcha~s (or nzarchinhas) has been based on this song form developed by Gonzaga. Gonzaga

was also the first woman in Brazil to conduct a military band.

Not only was Gonzaga a social and musical groundbreaker, she was prolific as a composer

as well. Throughout her life, Gonzaga' s production of popular Brazilian dances such as the

hindui, nodinha, and nzaxixe--along with her compositions of tangos and polkas--is said to

number at almost two thousand. While undoubtedly an exaggeration, none-the-less, Gonzaga' s

contribution to popular Brazilian music is profound.

In 1877, Gonzaga wrote one of her first choro works, "Atraente," a polka in the

improvisational style of the chores. The piece included stylistic elements reminiscent of

Callado, with chromaticism, octave leaps, repeated notes in the melodic line, and alternating

melodic elements between the flute, clarinet, and cavaquinho.









It is worth noting that Brazilian composers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth

centuries were likewise influenced by American composers and performers of jazz and

specifically, ragtime. Because the piano played such a pivotal role in the composition and

performances of these j azz and ragtime pieces, Brazilian composers also used the instrument as a

tool for composing popular songs, as well as employing it as the instrument of choice when

performing from written scores. These written scores were then assimilated aurally by the

musically non-literate string and percussion choro musicians who learned the tunes and then

added their own improvisations.

This relationship between oral/aural traditions versus notated music went both ways. The

influence of the oral/aural traditions of folk and popular forms on the newly notated

compositions of these versatile composers came about through changes in critical socio-cultural

circumstances between 1890 and 1920. During this time, there was a large movement of

populations from the rural to the urban areas in Brazil, primarily as a result of the abolition of

slavery in 1888, when large numbers of newly freed slaves, added to the influx of Europeans

fleeing Napoleon' s invasions, settled in the colonial centers of the New World. This shift in

demographics gave rise to socio-cultural interactions between diverse populations which in turn

led to the eventual acceptance of Afro-Brazilian and rural folk traditions by the elite, which again

in turn facilitated the push to establish a national identity, a maj or concern of the government at

the time. These combined circumstances manifested themselves in the transformation of

European salon genres and African rhythms into uniquely Brazilian compositions.

As mentioned in Chapter Two, the solo melodic instruments, primarily the flute, were the

instruments that made it possible to build thi s compositional bridge between the popular and

erudite music worlds. In addition, the first notable choro composers were also flutists who wrote










melody lines that called for virtuosic performance techniques specific to the instr-ument. Equally

important was the fact that it was often only the flute players who could read music and therefore

instr-uct the other choro musicians in the performance of the song.

For example, the famous samnba-choro, "Tico-Tico no Fuba," ("The Tico Bird in the

Cornmeal") was composed by the famous flutist and prolific composer of Brazilian popular

music, Zequinha de Abreu (1880-1935). "Tico-Tico no Fuba" placed tremendous technical

demands on its performers, and was also immensely popular. A canon in the literature of

popular Brazilian music, "Tico-Tico" is one of the most recorded Brazilian songs of all time. 13

In the 1940s, Carmen Miranda, the 'Brazilian Bombshell,' brought Brazilian popular

music to the rest of the world through her interpretations of popular sambas and chores. 14

Somewhat sanitized, according to Brazilian sources, to appeal to a white North American and

European audience, Miranda made "Tico-Tico" a standard in her repertoire. A darling of

Hollywood, Miranda sang "Tico-Tico" in the 1947 Marx Brothers' film "Copacabana" dressed

in a highly stylized and 'exotic' costume made to bear a resemblance to the clothing worn by

women from the state of Bahia, complete with large hoop earrings, and a basket of fluit on her

head. "Tico-Tico" also appeared in Disney' s animated film "Saludos Amigos" featuring Donald

Duck. It was sung by a parrot by the name of Jose, or Ze Carioca, with a silhouette of Carmen

Miranda dancing in the background. In the case of "Tico-Tico," what was considered one of

most technically demanding virtuosic pieces to perform ultimately became popular nationalist

music.




13 The confirmation of this fact proven by checking just one CD website (allbrazilianmusic.com), where it showed
over 50 different recordings of "Tico-Tico" by various groups and solo performers. Indeed, there is hardly a
compilation of Brazilian music that does not include this well-known song.
14 In Brazil, Miranda was often the singer for the conjunto regional, Banda da Lua.










Flutists/Composers

Joaquim Ant~nio da Silva Callado Jiinior (1848-1880)

Foram convidar um lacedanio
a ir ouvir um home que imitava
com a boca o canto do rouxinol.
'Eu ja ouvi o rouxinol, responded ele.
A mim, quando me falaram de um home
que tocava flauta com as mdos,
respond: 'Eu ja ouvi o Callado.l~~~~1111~~~~111 '

They invited a Lacedonian
to go hear a man who imitated
with his mouth the song of the nightingale.
'I have heard the nightingale,' he replied.
When they spoke to me of this man
who played the flute with his hands,
I replied: 'I have heard Callado.' (Assis 1986: 338-339).
[My translation.]


The most important flutist/composer in the creation of the choro style was Joaquim

Ant8nio da Silva Callado Junior, also known as the Father of Choros. Callado was a

contemporary and friend of Chiquinha Gonzaga and it was her company that he first experienced

popular musical forms. The son of a prominent classical musician, Callado was trained in the

academy as a child and established his solo flute virtuoso career by performing for the Imperial

Court in 1866, when he was just eighteen years of age. His first maj or success as a composer

came one year later with the publishing of his quadrille, "Carnaval de 1867."

Sometime around 1870, Callado formed the group Choro Carioca, using conventional

terno instrumentation. By this time, the flute had become the preferred melodic instrument for

the ternol5 due to its superior range and capacity for dynamic contrast. It was also not

uncommon for the flute player in the terno to assume a leadership position due to the fact that oft


15 The flute replaced the charamela, which was gradually disappearing into obscurity. See: (Livingston-Isenhour
and Caracas Garcia 2005: 61).











times, it was only the flutist who could read music and compose harmonic arrangements for the


ensemble.


Its* de Jalsrrern.188@ U


.1' 2c5L


: eu~rreron ros Anrrro Aca~llnll
~.,o~11,r :- J-.?.,-r


Figure 3-6. Illustration of Joaquim Antinio da Silva Callado. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio
de Janeiro. Public Domain).









What is also important about Callado is that he is credited with using the term choro for

the first time to describe his ensemble. While Callado' s terno was not a new instrumentation--

indeed, the terno had already become the core of instrumental ensembles played by the black

choromeleiro and barbeiros groups located in the underclass neighborhoods of Rio-what was

unique about Grupo Carioca was the fact that Callado was one of the first composers to require

that his violdo player provide a baixaria when the group performed. 16 This essentially changed

not only the roles of the instrumentation, but it affected both the style of the music and the

manner in which the instruments related to one another. In addition, "Callado was one of the

first well-known musicians to play polkas in the new choro style, over which he exerted

considerable influence" (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 67). Besides requiring

the violdo player to provide a baixaria, Callado also wrote out the harmonic progressions for the

pieces Grupo Carioca performed, one of the first composers to do so.

By 1871, Callado was considered the best flute player in Brazil and was appointed to the

Conservat6rio de Musica, a perfect example of how easily and expertly early choro composers

and performers straddled the art and popular music worlds. Callado earned his living by

performing and composing erudite music, but it was his participation in the roda~s de choro and

as leader of Grupo Carioca where he found his calling. He performed choro with all of the most

important performers and composers of popular music in Brazil and he especially enjoyed

performing with solo guitar virtuoso, Saturnino (ca. 1845-1905). 17

In 1867, at the age of nineteen, Callado composed his most famous choro, a polca-choro,

titled "Fl8r Amorosa." "Fl8r Amorosa" is unique in that it foreshadowed the main melodic



16 See: (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 66-68).

17 See: (Livingston-Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 66-68).









characteristics of the mature choro by over thirty years, characteristics such as octave leaps, a

lively and embellished melody, chromaticism, and a fast tempo. "The most notable difference

between other early chores and Callado's music as exemplified in 'Fl8r Amorosa' is the

rhythmic component. The melody is dominated by sixteenth-note runs and the accompaniment

is dominated by the Afro-Brazilian rhythm and variants on that pattern" (Livingston-Isenhour

and Caracas Garcia 2005: 68). [See Figure 3 -2 for an example of the Afro-Brazilian rhythm.]





















Figure 3-7. Musical excerpt from "Fl8r Amorosa." Public Domain.



Pattipio Silva (1880-1907)

Patapio Silva is considered one of the maj or flute virtuosos in the history of Brazilian

popular music and was one of the pioneers of the early recording industry in Brazil. He was

classically trained at the Instituto Nacional de Musica in Rio de Janeiro by Duque Estrada Meyer

(1848-1905), a student of Callado, and the result of thi s extensive conservatory training i s

evident in the recordings he made for the Odeon recording label.











































Figure 3-8. Photo of Patapio Silva. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain. .
http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/artis/AttsapSts=RTT&Nri
ta=455. Last Accessed: March 14, 2009).

For example, 'Primeiro Amor" a waltz-choro recorded in 1906, is accompanied by piano rather

than the full choro ensemble. Is This was a common practice in the salons of the elite, for indeed,

Silva' s audience was the elite of the federal capital. It was as well, a reflection of the way in

which the protocols of art music performance-specifically the use of piano to accompany solo

instrumentalists, as in the sonata-bridged over into the performance of popular styles. The use

of piano as accompaniment also speaks to inherent class distinctions, as the elite were able to


's A recent release of historic recordings by the Biscoito Fino label, Memorias Ahtsicais, features several
performances by Patipio Silva. See: (M~emorias Ahsicais, BF 601-1--BF 601-15).









afford expensive instruments such as a piano, yet the working class relied more on the violdo,

cavaquinho, and pandeiro in the performance of choro.

What is heard in this recording is an excellent example of some of the most difficult and

demanding virtuosic flute techniques, including rapid sixteenth-note phrases, double tonguing,

two-octave arpeggios, and slurred octave leaps. What is also particularly challenging to wind

instrumentalists in performing choro is finding places to breathe (and to swallow) between

phrases. It is certainly more difficult than it would seem and Silva plays the piece seamlessly.

Another notable virtuosic quality is Silva' s fast, deep, and consistent vibrato, another product of

his conservatory training.

Pixinguinha Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Jiinior (1898-1973)

To say that Pixinguinha was a monument in popular Brazilian music is an understatement.

His reputation in the world of conservatory-trained musicians as a virtuoso flutist, as well as a

composer of sophisticated popular music, can also be described through another quote by

contemporary choro flutist, Daniel Dalarossa. He writes, "I perfectly recall the first day of my

flute class with the late Professor Joho Dias Carrasqueira. Right after introducing myself, I was

immediately asked: "Why would you like to learn to play the flute?" [I answered,] "Because I

want to learn to play Pixinguinha, Bach and Vivaldi" (Dalarossa 2009).

Pixinguinha was born Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Filho on April 23, 1898 in Piedade, in

northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He was born into a musical family and learned to play the flute

from his father Alfredo, after whom he was named. As a child, he also learned to play the

cavaquinho. In 1 9 11, at the age of twelve, Alfredo bought Pixinguinha an expensive Italian flute

and contracted Irineu de Alameida to teach his son flute and music theory.











































Figure 3-9. Photo of Pixinguinha. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain. .
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Status= ARTISTA&Nu_Arti
sta=477. Last Accessed: March 14, 2009).

Pixinguinha grew to become a founding father of samba and is often considered the

greatest choro musician of all time. Through his work as an arranger, virtuoso instrumentalist,

conductor, and composer, Pixinguinha revolutionized popular music in Brazil in the twentieth

century. In 7Jhe Mystery ofSamba, Hermano Vianna cites an important episode in the

transformation of samba into a "national" music involving an encounter between Pixinguinha,

anthropologist Gilberto Freyre, and their respective friends (1999). 19 Freyre had become


19 Vianna refers to Pixinguinha throughout the book as a sambista (Vianna 1999).










interested in Pixinguinha via his role as maestro20 Of the Companhia Negra de Revistas (The

Black Revue Company), Brazil's first all-black theatre group from Rio, one of many of

Pixinguinha's landmark achievements.

Pixinguinha was a virtuoso flutist, saxophonist, pianist, and percussionist, and was an

expert improviser on all of these instruments. As a composer, he wrote in almost every style of

popular Brazilian music played during his lifetime: chores, polcas, valsas, samnba~s, samba

cangaes, choro canga~es, maxixes, shottishes, marcha ranchos, choro ligeiros, choro serenatas,

choro seresteiros, choro melodicos, choro tristes, choro vivos, and baides (Carraasqueira 1997).

All in all, Pixinguinha is credited with over 600 compositions.

In 1910, as an eleven-year-old child, Pixinguinha founded Grupo do Pixinguinha. In 1911,

Pixinguinha began to play with the carnival group Gr~mio Filhas da Jardineira. Also during that

year, he composed his first choro, "Lata de Leite" (Can of Milk). Downey lists Pixinguinha's

first recording--unnamed in his article--as occurring sometime in 1910-1911 with the group

Pessoal de Bloco for the Casa de Faulhaber label (Downey 2002). Pixinguinha made his first

recording--an interpretation of Irineu de Alameida's tango bra~sileiro, "Sho Joho debaixo d'agua"

(" St. John under the Water")--in 1915 with the group Choro Carioca (McGowan and Pessanha

1998).

By 1914 Pixinguinha had become a band member and the principal composer of the

Carnaval bloco, Grupo do Caxanga. Most importantly, in 1917, Pixinguinha founded the Choro

Pixinguinha, which two years later became Os Oito Batutas (The Eight Masters). Os Oito





20 Throughout his career, Pixinguinha led a number of important ensembles, among them: Os Oito Batutas; the
Orquestra Tipica Pixinguinha-Donga; the Diabos do C~u; the Guarda Velha; and the Orquestra Columnbia de
Pixinguinha.










Batutas-made up of Pixinguinha and his most talented colleagues from Grupo do Caxanga21

was very important in the history of Brazilian music. 22 Its members all stood at the vanguard of

Brazilian popular music and helped transfer Brazilian popular music into elite musical settings

(Downey 2002).


Figure 3-10. Photo of Os Oito Batutas. Pixinguinha is the first on the left. (Source: Biblioteca
Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain).

Os Oito Batutas played its first engagement at the Cinema Palais movie theatre in Rio in

1919. At the request of the theatre manager, Isaac Prankel, they played chores, maxixes,

21 Pixinguinha's fellow bandmate Donga (Ernesto Joaquim Maria dos Santos, 1889-1974) is credited with
composing the first samba carnavalesco, "Pelo Telefone" in 1916. The piano score was written by Pixinguinha
(Downey 2002).
Os Oito Batutas was the first ensemble of its kind to include the pandeiro, ganzai, and reco-reco with their usual
instrumentation of cavaquinho, mandolin, guitar, piano, and vocals (McGowan and Pessanha 1998).









modinhas, and lunduis in the foyer of the theatre, something black musicians had never before

been allowed to do. Sometimes they were asked to accompany the action on the screen;

however, they were not allowed to play on stage, as the stage was reserved for white musicians.

Os Oito Batutas became so popular that some patrons paid just to hear Pixinguinha and did not

attend the movie. It has been written many times that Ernesto Nazareth, pianist at the Odeon

Theatre, was one of Os Oito Batutas's biggest fans.

Beginning in 1922, Os Oito Batutas took a legendary tour through Europe promoting

Brazilian music. They were taken to Europe by promoter Arnaldo Guinle to accompany Duque

and Gaby, a famous pair of maxixe dancers. Initially, some Brazilian elite were outraged as they

did not want "primitive and barbaric" music representing Brazil.23 Pixinguinha and Os Oito

Batutas, however, were enthusiastically received in Europe, especially in Paris, where they were

so well accepted that they remained in the city and were therefore unable to complete the rest of

their itinerary. On their return trip to Brazil, they made a recording for RCA Victor in Buenos

Aires to much acclaim (Gilman 1996).

While in Europe, Os Oito Batutas became influenced by the European foxtrot orchestras

and jazz bands that were on tour from the United States. As a result, Os Oito Batutas began to

add foxtrots, shimmies, and ragtime to their repertory, as well as adding the clarinet, saxophone,

trumpet, and trombone to the instr-umentation needed to play them (McGowan and Pessanha

1998; Perrone and Dunn 2001). And although Pixinguinha is remembered primarily as a flutist,

he actually recorded more pieces on the tenor sax, an instrument he adopted in the 1920s in an

effort to gain the louder sound and greater sonority needed to play the large halls in Paris. After




23 Os Oito Batutas's most outspoken critic was Gilberto Amando, a writer and member of the Brazilian House of
Representatives (Gilman 1996).










1946, however, Pixinguinha played the saxophone exclusively because he feared that old age

was dulling his "legendary virtuosity" on the flute (Downey 2002).

In 1928, Pixinguinha recorded one of his most famous works, the choro cangdo entitled

"Carinhoso" ("Tenderly"). With this piece, Pixinguinha changed the structure of the choro from

a three-part form to a two-part form with an introduction (Carrasqueira 1997). This rondo-like

structure became the standard for choro composition and is found in the vast maj ority of choro

pieces to this day. Despite its simple structure, the harmonies of "Carinhoso" were very

sophisticated and at first were met with uncertainty and resistance. However, when the piece

was re-recorded almost ten years later by Orlando Silva, no one found the form or harmonic

structure the least bit strange, a testament to Pixinguinha's importance and influence in the

creation of contemporary Brazilian popular music forms and styles.

In 1929, Pixinguinha was hired by the RCA Victor label in Rio de Janeiro to lead the

company' s studio orchestra and to arrange popular musical compositions. This was perhaps the

most influential time in Pixinguinha' s career. The music he wrote during this time was being

shaped by African, European, North American and other international influences and he began to

integrate these influences into his music and incorporate their hybridity as Brazilian stylistic

elements. For example, Pixinguinha had musicians improvise over popular musical forms such

as the hmndu, choro, samba de roda~, and maxixe. He also incorporated other popular European

musical trends into his instrumentation and harmonies. Two of Pixinguinha's earliest recordings

(from 1917), "Rosa" ("Rosa") and Sofres Porque Queres" ("You Suffer Because You Want

To"), are good examples of the complexity of his composing and arranging style. During this

time, Pixinguinha began forming the principles of modern Brazilian harmony, rhythm,

counterpoint--and also importantly, nationalistic identity--in popular music.










As an instrumentalist in the 1930s-1940s, Pixinguinha recorded many works that became

the foundation of the choro repertoire including "Segura Ele," "Ainda Me Recordo," "Um a

Zero," "Proezas de Solon," "Naquele Tempo," "Abragando Jacare," "Os Oito Batutas," "As

Proezas de Nolasco," and "Sofres Porque Queres." "Carinhoso," however, is still considered to

be his most famous song. The decade of thel930s is considered the Golden Era of Brazilian

popular music and it was widely agreed that Pixinguinha was its principal figure.

In 1933, Pixinguinha enrolled in the Instituto Nacional de Musica in Rio de Janeiro in an

effort to improve his composing, arranging, and instrument performance skills. He left after one

semester when his professors admitted that there was nothing more that they could teach him.

In 1940, Pixinguinha was hired by Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959), who had in turn been

hired to select popular Brazilian musicians for an historic recording on the Columbia label, under

the baton of maestro Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977). The recording was to be presented to a

Pan-American congress on folklore. As he had previously recorded many popular arrangements

of fr~evos, chores, and maracatus, Pixinguinha chose to once more perform his arrangements of

these popular genres, making this new recording, Native Brazilian M~usic, a similar and grand

success.

In 1940, Pixinguinha j oined flutist Benedicto Lacerda's regional, presumably for financial

reasons, yet both sides were to gain from the collaboration. Thus began one of the most fertile

periods of popular Brazilian musical composition, bringing with it a perfection of virtuosic

execution previously unknown in Brazilian popular music. Pixinguinha improvised stellar

counterpoint on tenor saxophone beneath Lacerda's flute solos and together they revived the

waning choro tradition by once again catapulting it to the top of Brazilian popular music

recordings. During this period, Pixinguinha, with Lacerda as co-composer, wrote the trendy and









innovative "Segura-ele" ("Hold Him"), and "Ing~nuo" ("Nai've"). Pixinguinha's work was part

of a choro revival during the 1940s that subsided by the early 1950s and choro was not to

experience another surge in popularity again until the 1970s (Roberts 1998). And although

Benedicto Lacerda appears as co-author of these compositions, they were in fact, written by

Pixinguinha alone, who graciously gave partnership to Lacerda because of their collaborative

relationship.

In 1954 Pixinguinha returned to prominence, after four years of inactivity, when he played

in the I Festival da Velha Guarda (First Festival of the Old Guard), an event showcasing the

finest musicians of Pixinguinha's generation and organized for Radio Record in Sho Paulo.

During this time, from 1952 to 1966, Pixinguinha was also a teacher of music and choral song at

the Servigo da EducaCgo Musical e Artistica.

Pixinguinha began to slow down in the late 1960s and early 1970s, primarily because of

health reasons, but he still found time to influence a number of important Brazilian musicians.

For instance, Pixinguinha mentored guitarist and composer Baden Powell who was his protege.

He also collaborated with Clementina de Jesus in the late 1960s. In 1968, on his 70th birthday,

he was honored by the Legislative Assembly, the Municiple Theater of Rio de Janeiro, and the

Museum of Images and Sound for his contributions to Brazilian popular music.

On February 17, 1973, Pixinguinha died in his son's arms in the sacristy of the Igreja de

Nossa Senhora da Paz (Our Lady of Peace Church) in Ipanema, Rio de Janeiro, while awaiting

the bapti sm of hi s godson. There was great mourning at his passing and to this day, Pixinguinha

is still beloved by all Brazilians who continue to hold him up as their national hero.










Benedicto Lacerda (1903-1958)

Benedicto Lacerda24 is another monument in Brazilian choro flute playing. Born to a

wealthy father, Lacerda began to play the flute when he was eight years old, without formal

instruction. At the age of seventeen, Lacerda moved to Rio de Janeiro and began studying flute

with Belarmino de Sousa. He studied flute and composition at the Instituto Nacional de Musica

and began performing with local civic bands. In 1925 he enrolled in the Escola Militar do

Realengo (Military School of Realengo) where he played in the military band and became a

'musician first class.' In 1927, Lacerda began performing in theatres for silent cinema. By

1929, the year he formed his first conjunto regional, Lacerda had already had musical training

from the academy, and performance experience playing with civic and military bands. He had

also acquired experience playing popular music in entertainment venues. All of this training and

experience combined to make Lacerda one of the most important early choro musicians and a

good example of how these musicians used their training, experience, and expertise to create

choro.

Lacerda created a number of conjuntos regionals. [See: Figure 2-7 and Chapter Two,

Conjuntos Regionais.] The first was Os Bodmios da Cidade (The Bohemians of the City), and

with them, he accompanied international stars such as Josephine Baker. His second ensemble, O

Gente do Morro (The People from the Hill), founded in 1930, was created with the goal of

performing popular Brazilian music using newly emerging Brazilian musical styles and rhythms

(as a response to the nationalism movement). Through the popularity of O Gente do Morro,

much of the choro music played during that time began to be performed by conjuntos regionals.





24 It is also conunon to find Lacerda's first name spelled as Benedito.









In 1934, Lacerda modified the personnel of O Gente do Morro and from an elite group of

hand-selected musicians, created the famous Regional de Benedicto Lacerda. The group went

through various personnel changes throughout its history, but none was more important to the

hi storical significance of the ensemble than when Pixinguinha j oined Lacerda' s regional. 25




























Figure 3 -1 1. Photo of Benedicto Lacerda on flute and Pixinguinha on saxophone. (Source:
Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain).

Lacerda, besides being the flute player for his ensemble, was also the composer (as we

have seen was common for other choro flutists). During the late 1930s and early 1940s, the

popularity of choro was already in decline and musicians such as Pixinguinha were having

difficulty finding work. The goal of including Pixinguinha into Lacerda' s regional was

primarily to generate income and to revive the waning popularity of choro. Lacerda and

25 As mentioned in Chapter Two, Lacerda's popularity grew with assistance from the expanding radio and recording
industry.









Pixinguinha decided that the best way to do this was to re-record, on the RCA Victor label, many

of their earlier hits. Most of the compositions were originally Pixinguinha' s, but the deal with

Lacerda found the two musicians sharing the credit as composer. They ultimately recorded

thirty-four chores on a series of eighteen 78 RPM discs.

During the late 1940s, Lacerda continued on as flutist and bandleader for his regional and

performing on the radio and in popular venues such as the Cassino da Urca and the Cassino

Copacabana. In 1949, Lacerda was elected president of the Sociedade Brasileira de Autores,

Compositores, e Escritores de Musica (Brazilian Society of Music Authors, Composers, and

Writers). According to Lacerda' s son Oduvaldo Lacerda, his father remained active in all his

musical pursuits right up until his death in 1958.26

Altamiro Aquino Carrilho (b. 1924)

Altamiro Carrilho is another of the most important choro flutists and prolific composers of

choro of the twentieth century. In close to sixty years as a professional artist, Carrilho has

maintained his astounding virtuosity and an ease for improvisation that has brought him praise

from both the erudite and popular music worlds.

Born in 1924, Carrilho was a young man during the first revival of choro 's popularity in

the latel940s. During this time, he performed with choro greats, Pixinguinha and Benedicto

Lacerda and succeeded Lacerda in the Conjunto Regional de Benedicto Lacerda after Lacerda

retired due to health reasons. As a solo artist, Carrilho has worked with many renowned

Brazilian musicians such as Orlando Silva, Francisco Alves, Caetano Veloso, and Chico

Buarque, among many others.




26 The bulk of the information gathered on Benedicto Lacerda came from Julie Koidin' s Doctoral dissertation on
Lacerda. See: (Koidin 2006: 30-40).









Carrilho began playing a bamboo flute at age five, and by age eleven, he was playing the

transverse Boehm flute in local ensembles. At age twelve, he began to study flute formally, and

by the time he was fifteen, he had recorded his first album.


Figure 3-12. Photo of Altamiro Carrilho, courtesy of Leonardo Aversa. (Source:
http://www. factoriacomuni cacao. com/imprensa2.aspx. Last accessed March 15,
2009. Used with Permission).

In 1956, Carrilho's maxixe "Rio Antigo" sold nearly a million copies, bringing him

national fame. By 2001, Carrilho had made over one-hundred and ten recordings and had










penned over two-hundred compositions. Carrilho was also the host of the highly successful

television program, Em Tempo de Musica. His album Classicos em Choro was awarded the

Villa-Lobos prize as Best Instrumental Album and his Clcissicos em Choro No. 2 went gold with

over one million copies sold. In 1993, he was awarded the Sharp prize for Best Arranger of

Instrumental Music for his work on the album Altamttt~~~~~ttttiro Carrilho: 50 Anos de Choro. In 1997,

Carrilho won again for Best Instrumental Album, Fla.uta2~'aravilhosa..27

According to Koidin, Carrilho states that he was "most influenced by flutists Dante

Santoro and Benedicto Lacerda, but his style emerged from listening to a variety of music,

including American and European jazz, Dixieland, Scott Joplin, and classical, which he

combined into one style he calls his own"(Coelho and Koidin 2005: 3 8-3 9). Indeed, Carrilho' s

playing style can best be described as brincando (playing), i.e., performing in a playful manner.

Carrilho often uses this term to describe his performance philosophy. He states that musicians

must have fun when they play music. Carrilho is perhaps best known for his trademark insertion

of excerpts from art music compositions into his choro performances, and vice versa.

In addition to being a world-class performer and composer, Carrilho is also an educator.

Besides training private students, in 1996, Carrilho published Chorinhos Didcicticos para Flauta,

a compilation of twelve of his choro compositions in an etude book, with a play-along recording,

for flutists. He also holds workshops on choro flute playing.

Contemporary Professional Choriles: The Next Generation

Approximately every twenty to thirty years, choro undergoes a revival.28 Livingston posits

that this is because a choro revival fills "a void in the expressive culture of sectors of the middle


27 See: (41tamiro Carrilho &~ sua flauta maravilhosa. Official Website. 2009)

28For more information on choro revivals, see: (Livingston 1999a), (Livingston 1999b), and (Livingston-Isenhour
and Caracas Garcia 2005).









class, serving as a basi s for reestabli shing their Brazilian identity.... As a musical movement,

[the revival] reinvigorate[s] choro as a musical style by attracting and educating new dedicated

players who continue to explore its musical potential" (Livingston 1999a: iv).

By the end of the 1920s, choro 's popularity had begun to wane. No longer in style, and

increasingly eclipsed by the emergent popular form called samnba, the choro tradition was

vanishing from the mainstream popular music movement. Perhaps not so surprising though,

choro was still being kept alive throughout the 1930s by musicians such as Pixinguinha and the

guitarist Annibal Augusto 'Garito' Sardinha (1915-1955).

During the 1930s and 1940s, the great choro musicians continued to live within an

exclusive sub-culture they created to preserve--and in so doing, resuscitate--their art. The old-

guard chores would often meet at private, all-night saraus29 or roda~s de choro to play their

chores. Membership in these choro brotherhoods was restricted to those of superior

musicianship and inclusion was tightly controlled (Gilman 1996).

In the late 1940s, a brief choro revival occurred in the music of flutist Benedicto Lacerda

(with Pixinguinha). Other chores such as flutist Altamiro Carrilho, bandolim virtuoso Jac6 do

Bandolim, and bandleader Severino Araujo also contributed to this renaissance. But, by the end

of the 1940s, the choro tradition again, was all but over.

Another small choro revival would occur in the mid-1970s, thanks to the efforts of Jac6 do

Bandolim, one of the greatest bandolim players in Brazil. In 1975, the Week of Jac6 do

Bandolim brought the greatest musicians of the genre to Rio de Janeiro' s Museum of Image and

Sound for concerts. Musicians such as Paulo Moura (b. 1933), Hermeto Pascoal (b. 1936), and

Paulinho da Viola (b. 1942) subsequently began including chores on their recordings and


29 Saraus became a form of resistance to the encroaching new styles.










incorporating choro into a variety of other popular styles. Under the leadership ofRadames

Gnattali, this new generation of choro aficionados formed the Escola Camerata Carioca. The

music they produced was erudite and sophisticated and it helped to revive choro 's virtuoso

tradition once again. Mauricio Carrilho and Raphael Rabello were just two of the virtuosi of the

genre involved in the Escola Camerata Carioca.

One of the best choro recordings to be released as a result of the 1970s revival was the

1988 album, Noites Cariocas. The album--named after the famous song by Jac6, do

Bandolim--featured Altamiro Carrilho on flute, Chiquinha on accordion, Joel Nascimento on

bandolim, Paulinho da Viola on cavaquinho, Paulo Moura on clarinet, and Paulo Sergio Santos

on clarinet and saxophone. The recording covered seven choro standards and was, and is still,

considered a monument of the genre.

Choro 's popularity surged once again in the 1990s when U.S. mandolin player David

Grisman released two volumes of Jac6, do Bandolim' s choro music on hi s Acoustic Di sc label.

In 2002, the current grand masters of choro, Conjunto Epoca de Ouro, and New York choro

groups such as The Choro Ensemble began to play in club venues here and abroad, resuscitating

choro 's popularity once again. In addition, there was even a full-scale choro revival occurring in

Rio de Janeiro in 2002. Michelle Mercer of 7he Village Voice writes that even "pubescent

Cariocas with navel rings and tribal tattoos are reportedly bumping and grinding to Brazil's

golden oldies" (Mercer 2002).

Web sites such as Agenda do Samba & Choro: O boteco virtual do samba e do choro,

www. samba-choro. com.br, and periodicals such as Revista Roda de Choro now easily inform

(literally) the world about current information on choro, information such as new CD releases

and up-coming performance dates for many choro ensembles in Brazil and around the globe.










RadioR~~~~RRRRR~~~~RRRR Nacional de Bra~silia regularly airs their radio program Choro Livre to an appreciative

audience .

By personal account, choro has been undergoing this resurgence in popularity for over the

last ten years. Choro ensembles perform regularly to full houses in popular venues throughout

Rio de Janeiro, even on weeknights. The best choro musicians enj oy international acclaim and

travel throughout Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the North America performing for a wide

audience. Sales of choro recordings appear to be on the rise--given the number of recording

that have either been re-mastered or newly recorded--and as evident by the increase in

recordings for sale on websites such as All Brazilian Music (www. allbrazili anmu sic. com),

Kuarup Discos (www.kuarup.com.br), Acari Records (www.acari.com.br), and Revivendo

Musica (www. revivendomu sica s.com.b r).

Today, choro is taught in the conservatory style to students of Western art music and is

likewise considered a hallmark of instrumental virtuosity within the Brazilian music academies.

The best choro musicians teach at universities, perform internationally, and produce numerous

recordings. Musicians such as Marco Pereira (guitar) play choro (and other musical genres)

professionally, and likewise teach in the academy. In addition to performing, arranging, and

composing--not to mention a rigorous touring and recording schedule--Pereira also teaches

functional harmony and holds the position of professor at Universidade Federal no Rio de

Janeiro (The Federal University ofRio de Janeiro). When not teaching, Marco can be found

performing with other choro greats such as Hamilton de Holanda (bandolim) and Toninho

Carrasqueira (flute). 30


30 See: (Swanson 2004).









One of the most popular and successful institutions for instructing young performers in

choro is the Escola Portatil de Musica. Organized and operated by three of choro 's top

musicians--violdo virtuoso, Mauricio Carrilho (the son of Altamiro Carrilho), violdo virtuoso,

Pedro Aragio, and cavaquinho virtuoso, Luciana Rabello--the institute offers workshops and

one- to four-month courses in choro performance, composition, and arranging. Distinguished

choro faculty include: Oscar Bolio, percussdo (percussion); Pedro Amorim, bandolim, and;

Alvaro Carrilho (another son of Altamiro Carrilho), flute. The school is administrated by the

Institute Casa do Choro (House of Choro Institute).

One of Brazil's most important and well-respected contemporary musicians, the multi-

instrumentalist Carlos Malta, performs choro regularly, imbuing choro performances with his

unique perspective on improvisation (from years as a soloist with Hermeto Pascoal), as well as

instilling in younger players the traditions of the genre. In fact, one of the most distinguishing

characteristics about Malta is his willingness and enthusiasm for training young players and

offering them opportunities to practice and perform with him and his ensembles. In an interview

on choro, Malta told me:

Brazilian music has a lot to do with the Brazilian way of life, and because choro comes
from Rio de Janeiro, it is a carioca music that typifies the carioca lifestyle that spread out
to the rest of the country. I consider choro a symbol of popular culture, like the banda~s de
pifanos escolar de samnbas, and capoeira, etc.

And, I think choro is more a way to interpret music than one distinct style, just like j azz.
The way you play means more than what you are playing. There is an accent, a sotaque
(accent) which makes the whole difference.

When I play choro, I always leave places for improvising, and I also like to change many
things in terms of structure and form. But, I must always know the tune very well. Then I
can make the changes.

Choro requires great virtuosity because the composers in choro were themselves great
instrumentalists. Their performances have influenced many generations to be as great as
they were. Choro melodies are very tricky and they require a lot of practice.









In closing, the flute is one of the most traditional instruments in choro. I think this is
because it is a light and cheap instrument, and because of this, flutists have free spirits, like
bohemians who play at the night clubs, dancing clubs and gagieira~s (dives), exactly the
same places where people played this kind of music in times past. Then, and now, the flute
is the main melodic voice in choro.

(Carlos Malta, personal communication, March 6, 2009). [My edits and translation of
some words.]



In conclusion, analysis of early popular Brazilian music and the role of choro musicians

from both the popular and art music worlds shows that the historical traj ectory of choro was such

that it did indeed move from a style of playing various genres of popular music by amateur

musicians from the underclass to a unique genre of music in its own right. How choro moved

historically from a style to the genre of music we can identify today as distinctly choro owes

much of the credit for thi s evolution to its popularity and the virtuosity required to perform the

music. Analysis of performance practices of urban popular salon genres such as the polca,

hmndu, modinha, maxixe, and valsa~s, shows that Brazilian composers and performers moved

towards codifying the choro style of performance practice into a formal musical genre through

an emphasis on virtuosity and through the compositions of the primary progenitors of the genre,

the flutists/composers. How these flutist/composers used the technical capabilities of the flute

and the codification of compositional and performance practices to establish choro as a genre is

the subj ect of the next chapter.









CHAPTER 4
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION, PERFORMANCE PRACTICES, AND MUSICAL
ANALYSIS

Formal Structure of Choro

By the turn of the twentieth century, choro had become more than a style of playing; it had

evolved into an independent musical genre. Although chores were often written, and labeled

stylistically according to the dance rhythms that provided their underlying rhythmic structure--

polka, waltz, mazurka, schottische, tango bra~sileiro, maxixe, etc.--stylistic variants were easily

later identified as choro (the genre) by their unique characteristics. They included: improvisation

by the melodic instrument ; counterpoint in the supporting instruments; rapid, unexpected

modulations; chromaticism; extreme melodic leaps; repeated notes in the melodic line; rhythmic,

harmonic, and melodic syncopation; and often, high-speed tempos. Stylistically, choro music

was often equated with American ragtime or Dixieland j azz.


Most chores are written in a basic rondo str-ucture, ABACA, with the three parts (ABC)

each in different tonalities. The 'A' section is composed in tonic; the 'B' section is composed in

the dominant, tonic, or a closely related key such as the relative or parallel minor (or maj or, if the

choro was in a minor key); and the 'C' section is typically in the sub-dominant or dominant.


Harmonically, early choro was not very complex. Composers used similar harmonic

language to that of the hmndu and modinha; a very basic I-IV-V7-I maj or progression, and a i-III-

VI-ii-V7-i progression in a minor key. Contemporary chores are now being written with much

more intricate harmonic str-uctures with extended harmonies such as 7th, 9th, and 13th chords.

Arrangements of traditional chores also exhibit elements of this move towards more harmonic


SWhile often compared to American jazz in terms of improvisation, choro differed in that typically, only the solo
melody instrument improvised, and not the other instruments. Of course, the role of the viold~o performing the
baixaria is the exception, and in contemporary choro both the pandeiro and the cavaquinho will improvise.










complexity. Extended chords, chord substitutions, and chromaticism have become part of the

choro harmonic language in the twentieth century. Much of this stylistic and formal evolution

can be attributed to American jazz, a musical form with which choro hold many similarities.

Another influence is the harmonic complexity found in boss nova.

Stylistic harmonic fusion is also now more common. Blues riffs and elements of funk and

rock-and-roll have found their way into the modern choro repertory. The addition of non-

traditional instruments such as electric instruments (guitars and keyboards), and Brazilian

folkloric, Amerindian, or Afro-Brazilian instruments (such as the berimbau) is also becoming

more prevalent.

Regarding melodic structure, the vast maj ority of chores begin with pick-up notes.

Typically, these pick-ups consist of an eighth note, and eighth note and sixteenth note, or three

sixteenth notes, in the last beat of the first measure. Caracas Garcia posits that thi s i s done in

order to prepare the accompanying instruments to enter the piece together and to give an

indication of the tempo set by the soloist (Caracas Garcia 1997: 105). My own personal

experience in performing choro confirms that this is indeed the case.

It is also not uncommon to find the melody line supporting the baixaria by creating

counterpoint or by adding an additional element to the rhythmic accompaniment. "In general,

melodies are outlines of the harmonic accompaniment, with chromatic and diatonic scales as

passing-tones" (Coelho and Koidin 2005: 39).

One of the most important defining elements of choro throughout its history has been its

rhythmic structure. The sixteenth-note / eighth-note / sixteenth-note Afro-Brazilian rhythm,









followed by two eighth-notes (or four sixteenth-notes)--a characteristic syncopation pattern in

the melody and/or the bass line--is evident in almost all chores. 2









Figure 4-1. Characteristic syncopation pattern in choro.

This syncopation is "one of the most characteristic elements in the rhythmic formations of

Brazilian urban popular music" and is given its distinguishing quality by two factors: "the

tension between the basic duple meter and the di sturbance of the pulse occasioned by the three-

plus-three-plus-two organization; and the careful control of the length of pauses, which produces

a highly sensuous quality" (Appleby 1983: 80).


Appleby defines this control of rhythmic pauses in Brazilian popular music as a "delay

factor" (Appleby 1983, pg.80). In addition to the three-plus-three-plus-two syncopation, the

"delay factor"-a technique similar to playing rubato--gives each choro style its specific

individual quality, an attribute often transmitted only by oral/aural tradition and not denoted on

scores. Lopes-Cangado further defines five characteristics of this 'delay factor.'


1. There occurs "irregularity and unstableness [in] the performance of the Brazilian popular

rhythms... [and this characteristic] comes from Brazilian blacks" (Lopes-Cangado 1999:

58).

It must be stated here that perhaps the words 'irregular and unstable' might not be the best

adj ectives for characterizing this particular stylistic rhythmic expression. In fact, the rhythmic


SThis rhythmic pattern was found primarily in the polcas and polca-maxixes being composed during the height of
their popularity in Brazil. This classic rhythmic pattern can also be found in the lundui.








































25r

e


pulse of choro is indeed regular and very stable. It is the consistent rhythmic foundation upon

which the melodic instruments depend, and it provides them the necessary rhythmic stability to

perform in a virtuosic and often improvisatory manner. What Lopes-Cangado is actually trying

to describe here is the characteristic stylistic balang~o, the 'swing' with which choro musicians

play; a performance practice of rhythmic fluidity based upon a slight syncopation that serves as

the hallmark of the choro style. This 'swing' is achieved by placing various accents and/or

emphasis on certain notes within the rhythmic pattern (usually beat two and four). Also,

performers will often place a rubato at the ends of phrases causing a feeling of rhythmic

fluctuation, but here again, the rhythmic foundation holds steady while the stylistic 'swing' is

employed.

2. Syncopated rhythms in Brazilian popular music have two different functions. "When the

characteristic syncopation [of the Afro-Brazilian] rhythmic pattern appears followed by

two eighth-notes... they function as accompaniment." When they appear [as just the

Afro-Brazilian rhythmic pattern], "they function as melodic rhythm... in the bass line or

in the top line, always following the melody" (Lopes-Cangado 1999:59).


j


Figure 4-2. Afro-Brazilian rhythmic pattern functions in melody and bass. (Source: Excerpt
from "Vitorioso" by Ernesto Nazareth. Public Domain).

3. "The sequence of the [Afro-Brazilian] rhythm and the characteristic syncopation...

normally... includes a tie between the fourth sixteenth-note of the [Afro-Brazilian]










rhythm (first beat) and the sixteenth-note of the characteristic syncopation (second beat)

or a rest in the first sixteenth-note of the characteristic syncopation. This tie or rest

results in a natural suspension of this rhythmic cell, creating another delay factor"

(Lopes-Cangado 1999: 60).








Figure 4-3. Characteristic syncopation with tie pattern in choro.

4. These syncopated rhythms are repeated in sequence but do not appear in the

accompaniment line.

5. "A strong rhythmic disturbance appears when the characteristic syncopation occurs after

a long sequence of the [Afro-Brazilian] rhythm." (Lopes-Cangado 1999: 61)

Since this characteristic 'delay factor' was not notated in scores, performers of Brazilian

popular musical forms--particularly choro musicians--would have had to have performance

knowledge of these five factors in order to accurately perform Brazilian popular music rhythms.

Choro 's goal of virtuosity in performance required the acquisition of this knowledge.

Another unique formal aspect to choro was the derrubada (drop). Virtuoso choro

musicians would often improvise so expertly in the rods de choro, that they would purposely

cause a derrubada-a breakdown in performance--when the accompanying musicians could no

longer follow the soloist' unpredictable melodic sequences. This was considered the mark of a

true solo virtuoso. The ability to cause a derrubada was held in high esteem by all choro

musicians (Lopes-Cangado 1999).









Choro Flute Performance Practices

It is difficult to determine precise performance practices for early choro flutists such as

Joaquim Callado and Patapio Silva due to the scarcity of extant recordings. There are, however,

some generalizations that can be made from the recordings that do exist. 3 These generalizations,

along with more specific performance techniques recorded by later choro flutists such as

Pixinguinha, Benedicto Lacerda, and Altamiro Carrilho, still hold true in choro flute

performance practice today. Listening to recordings, rather than relying on notated music, is

critical in analyzing choro due to the fact that so much of what gets played in choro is

improvisatory, interpreted, and never written down. [See the discography for resources on

recordings.]

By listening to recordings of early artists, we can hear that chromaticism is evident,

especially when embellishing, and syncopation is carried throughout. The stylistic tendencies of

rhythmic vitality and improvisation play out for the flute just as they do for the other instruments

in the ensemble. There are, however, performance practices unique to the flute such as

articulations and tone color that should be mentioned.

In terms of articulations, long notes are rarely sustained in most chores and flutists tend to

play fast, virtuosic passages. This still holds true today. Choro flutists will almost always vary

their articulations and tend to use soft tonguing and slurs. Their preferred articulation appears to

be legato; a good choice given choro 's sweeping melodic lines and wide octave-plus leaps.

Legato is a preferred articulation because leaps often include porttamentot~~ttt~~tt a technique

similar to a glissando whereby there is continuous jump from one pitch to another without the





3 See: (Joaquim Callado: O Pai dos ( I.. ... CNPJ 03.060.166/0001-9 1).









inner notes sounding discretely. Portamen~~~tttt~~~ttttott is a very common performance practice in choro

flute playing due to its brilliance of sound and the exhibition of virtuosic technique it provides.

Articulation is also highly variable and subj ect to the style of the player. Generally, note

lengths vary, depending on the mood of the piece. A dry, staccato articulation is appropriate for

faster chores such as "Tico-Tico no Fuba," but slower, more romantic chores such as

"Carinhoso" are often articulated with more of a legato triplet feel.

Coelho and Koidin note that choro articulations are similar to baroque flute articulations.

As was the practice in the baroque period, articulations were not notated on the music.

Performers were expected to play in the proper style based on their knowledge and expertise.

The same is true for choro. What are also similar are the actual articulations. Sweeping slurs are

almost never used. In both choro and baroque flute performance practices, running sixteenth-

note passages are typical. Slurring all four notes in each beat or slurring three and tonguing one

is common practice. Changing the articulations on repeated passages is also standard (Coelho

and Koidin 2005: 3 8). In choro, the slurring of two notes and then tonguing two notes, as was

common in flute articulations of the Classical period are also commonly used. Double-tonguing

has been added to the list of acceptable articulations in contemporary choro. This allows the

performer to play even faster while maintaining that characteristic choro 'swing.'

In addition, solo choro flute performers are also not all that concerned with keeping a strict

tempo, and this practice of rhythmic fluidity is certainly in keeping with the general romantic,

emotive nature of choro and its inherent 'swing.' It could be argued that this is because of the

value placed on interpretation and the participatory value placed on the rods de choro.

Related, "the focus on tone quality is not of utmost importance within choro flute playing,

as it is in "classically" trained circles. Instead, the swing and improvisatory inventiveness of the










flutist are held in much higher esteem" (Coelho and Koidin 2005: 38). Tone color is used,

however, to affect certain passages in choro, usually in the dominant-key sections of slower

chores. A wide vibrato is then used to give these slower passages depth and a contrasting tonal

color.

Other idiomatic tendencies of the flute are also called upon when performing choro. Many

performers will use acciaccatteras in conjunction with the anticipation of the downbeat.

Acciaccatura~s are also used to mimic the sounds of birds. In Figure 4-4 below, the

acciaccatura~s create the sound of the canary in Pixinguinha' s choro, "O Gato e o Canario."













Figure 4-4. Excerpt from "O Gato e o Canario" ("The Cat and the Canary") by Pixinguinha.
Public Domain.

Mordents, tremolos, and trills are also idiomatic techniques often used in performing choro

on the flute. Mordents, typically played before the beat, can be used to emphasize a beat. Trills

and tremolos are performed quickly to give a passage a shimmering, brilliant quality. A good

example can be seen in Zequinha de Abreu' s "Tico-Tico no Fuba."






Figure 4-5. Excerpt from "Tico-Tico no Fuba" by Zequinha de Abreu. The mordents are written
in as examples of performance practice. Public Domain.

Depending on the type of flute used to perform choro, these above mentioned techniques

and performance practices will vary. Certainly, if a performer is playing choro on a five-key










French flute, their ability to execute certain techniques will be limited when compared to

performing on the modern Boehm flute. Nonetheless, what is important to bear in mind about

choro flute performance practices is that all treatments must stay within stylistic boundaries in

order to perform choro correctly. While improvisation, interpretation, and artistic license are

certainly encouraged, the basic stylistic tendencies must remain true for all instruments in the

ensemble no matter their function. The flute, as a solo instrument, is responsible for leading the

ensemble in maintaining the characteristic swing critical for the performance of well-played

choro.









CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

O Choro


Conjunto de flautas nzaviosas,
Chir Iill' de cavaquinhos e violdes !
Tereis neste livro as vossas rosas
E do antigo tempo: as tradigaes.
Pistonistas soberbos; Clarinetistas
Ides todos ter aqui vossas acq~es;
Descreverei com antor os bons artists
E tudo o nzais que nos traz~rt~rt~rtrt~rt~rt~ recordagaes.
Grandes astros fulgentes se suntirat,
Rebrilharant nos antigos anabientes,
E as alegrias conanosco repartirant
Evocando nzelodias reft~lgentes.
En; cada chordo, Jindou-se um bahtarte,
Que deixou ent nosso peito unta saudade,
Que a gernzinar, corrie por toda a parte
Desde o nzonento que subira~n a eternidade.
Muzsica, costumes, ent fm todo o prazer
Que floresceu na parssLada geragdo,
Na~spagina~s deste livro hdo de ter
Toda a altivez da grande imll~'l ia, J.
You tentar reviver celebridades,
Fazer dos bons artists ahts~es,
Distinguindo ent cad unt a qualidade
E densonstrando o perfil dos bons chores.


Ensemble of sweet flutes,
Choro groups of cavaquinhos and guitars!
You shall have your roses in this book
And from olden times: the traditions.
Prideful trumpeters; Clarinetists
You will all have here your actions;
I will describe the good artists with love
And everything else that brings us memories.
Big brilliant stars are gone,
They shined anew in the ambiance of old,
And they shared j oy with us
Evoking melodies gleaming.
In each player, ended a bastion
Who left longing in our hearts,
That germinating, erodes throughout
From the moment they rose to eternity.
Music, customs, after all, all pleasures
That flourished in the generation past,
In the pages of this book will be
All the heights of great inspiration.
I will try to relive celebrities,
Making allusions to good artists,
Distinguishing the quality in each
And displaying the profile of good
choro musicians.


~Alexandre Gongalves Pinto4

[My translation. Consultant: Charles Perrone.]

The measure of true worth demands that the marks of longevity, recognition, and

significance be met. Clearly, choro has proven that over the course of more than one-hundred

years, that it can still achieve those marks. And yet for those who know choro, appreciating its

true genius remains a constant and expanding aspiration. Intellectually comprehending the

social, cultural, and historical significance ofchoro is only one step toward understanding its


SSee: (Gongalves Pinto 1978: 8).










beauty, its genius. To really know choro, one must hear choro with the heart. It was with this

intent on-to follow choro from the heart-that thi s thesi s was written.

Throughout the sequences of this thesis, we have seen that choro remains one of the few

popular musical traditions that place an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity. It was

demonstrated how choro 's roots could be traced back to colonial New World erudite music

composed and performed in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth

century, and how it evolved throughout the twentieth century as a primarily instrumental urban

popular style often heard in nightclubs and ballrooms. This thesis explained the role the nascent

cinematic, broadcasting, and recording industries of the early twentieth century had in the

evolution ofchoro, and how choro continued to develop classical formal structures, and

ultimately underwent several revivals.

It was also shown how choro had evolved full-circle, from European-influenced erudite

musical compositions, which were later infused with popular rhythms and sensibilities, back to

the virtuosic choro composed and performed today. The hallmark of this evolution is the fact

that choro is now being used to teach in the conservatory style to students of Western art music

and is considered a distinguished example of instrumental virtuosity.

This thesis also made evident that the preference for the flute as the primary melodic

instrument in the choro ensemble played a major role in establishing virtuosity as a defining

characteristic of the genre. The flute can also be credited with increasing the popularity of choro

throughout Brazil, and it was shown that this inherent connection to virtuosity was directly

linked to choro 's earliest flutist/composer progenitors.

Choro 's tenacity as a genre has been proven time and again over the decades through its

various resurgences of popularity. No doubt, choro has received another boost in popularity










lately from the rise in interest in World Music and its commercial appeal. And, it is probably

safe to assume that an interest in choro will continue as long as there are those musicians and

composers--and audiences--who recognize and value choro 's role in the development of the

popular music styles of Brazil. For choro was, and still is, an important cultural element of

Brazil, manifest in the sophisticated, virtuosic sensibilities of her instrumental musicians and

composers, and their ever-popular music.










APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Baixcaria






Balango

Bandolinz



Barbeiros



Berinabau




Bossa nova





Carioca

Carntaval


(From baixo, meaning: bass). The improvised bass line that creates
countermelodies against the solo melodic instrument, usually the flute, in
early choro performance practice. The baixaria is created by utilizing a
number of improvisatory techniques such as scalar runs, walking bass, and
pedal points.

Rhythmic 'swing.'

The Brazilian mandolin, made with an oval body as resonator, a flat back,
and four double strings. It is played with a pick and is exclusively
associated with choro.

Slave or black freemen barbers of the nineteenth century who, in addition
to cutting hair, organized the first professional popular music ensembles in
Brazil. Their repertory included choro.

A musical bow of African origin played primarily in capoeira. The single
string is struck with a small stick attached to small rattles (caxixi) and the
pitch is altered by applying a stone or coin to the string. A resonator
gourd is attached to the bow.

Literally: new way. A genre of popular music that developed on the
beaches of Rio de Janeiro in the late 1950s. It is characterized by
understated vocals, syncopated samba-inspired rhythms, and sophisticated
harmonies influenced by American j azz.

A person native to Rio de Janeiro.

The pre-Lenten festival celebrated in Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro it is
characterized by the organization of escolas de samba (samba school s)
that hold parades and compete for recognition as the best samba school.

A small, four-string guitar-like instrument (similar to the Hawaiian
ukulele) played in choro ensembles.

A folk, shawm-like instrument originally from the Iberian peninsula and
common in civic and military bands in Brazil in the eighteenth and
nineteenth century.

A choro musician or choro ensemble.

An ensemble of charanzela~s and violdes (guitars) and an antecedent of
early choro ensembles.


Cavaquinho


Charantela



Chor~o

Choronzeleiro










Corpo de bombeiros



Derrubada






Lundd




Modinha


MPB


An early choro ensemble. Literally, the firemen' s corp. Usually referring
to the Corpo de Bombeiros of Anacleto de Medeiros, one of the first choro
ensembles to make choro recordings in 1902.

Literally: drop. An intentional breakdown in choro performance, when
the accompanying musicians can no longer follow the soloist' s
unpredictable melodic sequences. This was considered the mark of a true
virtuoso. The ability to cause a derrubada was held in high esteem by all
choro musicians.

A song and dance genre brought to Brazil by Bantu slaves from Angola in
the late seventeenth century. It is credited with being the first Brazilian
popular music to combine European harmonies and melodies with Afro-
Brazilian rhythms.

The lyrical, sentimental popular salon song genre of the eighteenth and
nineteenth century in Brazil. It is a musical antecedent of choro.

Musica Popular Brasileira (Popular Brazilian Music). A generic term for
almost all types of popular music in Brazil created after the 1960s.

An obsolete brass instrument with keys that played the bass line. It was
eventually replaced by the tuba.

A small hand drum, similar to the tambourine, played in the choro
ensemble. It is also used to play many other types of popular Brazilian
music such as samba and M~PB.

Plural: regionais. A professional choro ensemble known for being the
most important ensemble in the early days of radio and the recording
industry. The ensemble included the terno plus the cavaquinho and the
pandeiro.

Informal gatherings of choro musicians, historically in the poorer
neighborhoods of Brazil' s urban centers. Musicians would sit either in a
circle or some other intimate setting, facing each other to facilitate musical
communication, especially with the melodic soloist who would often
improvise. Choro musicians would gather together to play in roda~s de
choro for their own entertainment and enj oyment.


Ophicleide


Pandeiro



Regional




Rodo de choro


Seresta


A serenade or any type of music performed out of doors.


Tanzgo-brasileiro


The term given to early chores and maxixes due to the pej orative, lower-
class connotations these styles engendered in the elite.

The six-string guitar used in both classical and popular music genres,
including choro.


Violdo









Violdo de sete cordas The seven-string guitar used in the choro ensemble. The extra bass string
is used to play the baixaria.










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Companhia Editora Nacional










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Editora.

.1984. Calrinhoso Etc.: Historia e Inventario do Choro. Rio de Janeiro: Grafica Editora
do Livro.

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Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Villa-Lobos, Heitor. 1976. Qu'est-ce Qu'un Choros? (Lecture at the Club de Trois Centres, Paris,
May 29, 1958) EMI France 7PM 14100 M. [Translation in the Liner Notes.] CD. Paris.

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Scortecci Editora

Worms, Luciana Salles e Wellington Borges Costa. 2002. Brasil Seculo XX: Ao Pe da Letra da
Cangho Popular. Curitiba: Nova Didatica.









APPENDIX C
DISCOGRAPHY

50 Anos de Muzsica. Cyro Pereira e o Orquestra Jazz Sinf~nica do Estado de Sho Paulo. Pau
Brasil PB 008.
Ademilde Fonseca, vol.2. Ademilde Fonseca. RGE Discos 6105 2.
Altamiro Carrilho. Altamiro Carrilho. Millenium 546 118-2.

Ao Jacob, seus Bandolims:~~BBB~~~BB~~~BB Jacob do BandoBB~~~~~BBBBB~~~~lim, sua muisica, seus intirpretes. Jacob do
Bandolim. Biscoito Fino BF 537

As Inidita~s de Pixinguinha. Agua de Moringa. Classicos Brasileiros 2-502762
Benedicto Lacerda e Pixinguinha. Benedicto Lacerda and Pixinguinha. Sony/BMG Import
B0006FV6K2

Brasil, seresta. Carlos Poyares. Marcus Pereira MP10041.
Brasileirinho. Paula Robison. Omega OCD 3016.
Brisil Choro-Samba-Frevo 1914-1945. Various Artists. Fremeaux & Associes FA 077.

Caf Brasil. Conjunto Epoca de Ouro. Electra/Asylum 82368.
Caf Brasil 2. Conjunto Epoca de Ouro. Electra/Asylum B000087RHR.
Chiquinha Gonzaga, 150 anos. Rosaria Gatti, ineditas e celebres com Grupo Nosso Choro.
APOIO Cultural AJINOMOTO 946110

Chiquinha Gonzaga, a maestrina, vols. 1 and 2. Banda da Casa Esison, Almeida Cruz, Bahiano,
Grupo Chiquinha Gonzaga, et al. Revivendo RVCD-138/1-2.
Chiquinha Gonzaga, Classicos e indditos. Talitha Peres. RioArte Digital RD 021.
Choro: 1906-1947. Pixinguinha, Ernesto Nazareth, Jacob do Bandolim, Joho Pernambuco, et al.
Fremeaux & Associes FA 166.

Choro 4 Isto. Altamiro Carrilho, Carlos Poyares, et al. Discos Marcus Pereira 0027 107.091.
Flauta maravilhosa. Altamiro Carrilho. MoviePlay BS 269.
Gente da Antiga. Pixinguinha, Clementina de Jesus, Joho da Bahiana. EMI 522658 2.

Grupo Nosso Choro. Grupo Nosso Choro. CPC-UMES CPC 505.
Jacob do Bandolim:B~~BBB~~~BB~~~BB chores, Valsas, Tangos, e Polcas. Cezar Faria, Carlinhos, Tico-Tico,
Chiquinho. SOARMEC S 005
Jacob do Bandolim:B~~BBB~~~BB~~~BB Original Classic Recordings, vol s. 1 and 2. Jacob do Bandolim. Produced
by Davis Grisman. Acoustic Disc ACD-3.
Jodo Pernamnbuco. Antonio Adolfo e N6 em Pingo D'Agua. Acervo Funarte ATR 32010.

Joaquim Callado: O Pai dos Chordes, vols. 1-5. Various Artists. Acari Records CNPJ
03.060.166/0001-91.
M~emorias usicais, vols. 1-15. Various Artists. Biscoito Fino BF 601-1--BF 601-1 5.










M~ulheres do Choro. Altamiro Carrilho, Andrea Ernest Dias, Luciana Rabello, et al. Acari
Records AR 7.

Naquele tempo: Chors e valsa~s. Pixinguinha, et al. Revivendo. RVCD-016.
Noites cariocas. Various Artists. Kuarup KO40.
O Choro e Sua Histdria: Izaia~s e IsraelEntre Amigos vol. I. Izaias de Almeida e Israel Bueno de
Almeida. CPC-UMES CPC 055 I

O Choro e Sua Histdria: Izaia~s e IsraelEntre Amigos vol. II. Izaias de Almeida e Israel Bueno
de Almeida. CPC-UMES CPC 055 II

O Choro e Sua Histdria: Izaia~s e IsraelEntre Amigos vol. III. Izaias de Almeida e Israel Bueno
de Almeida. CPC-UMES CPC 055 III
Oito Batutas. Oito Batutas. Revivendo RVCD-064.

O Jovem Pixinguinha: Gravagaes de 1919-1920. Pixinguinha. EMI
O melhor de Chiquinha Gonzaga. Chiquinha Gonzaga. Revivendo RVCD 235
Os bamnba~s daflauta. Altimiro Carrilho, et al. Kuarup KCD 180.

Os grande sucessos de Waldir de Azevedo. Waldir Azevedo, et al. EMI 795337 2.
Patapio Silva. Altamiro Carrilho, Luiz Ega, Galo Preto, Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do
Estado de Rio de Janeiro. AtraCgo/Acervo Funarte ATR 32021.
Pixinguinha. Orquestra Brasilia. Kuarup Discos M-KCD-03 5
Pixinguinha. Paulo Moura. Blue Jacket Entertainment BJAC 5019-2.
Pixinguinha. Paulo Moura and Os Batutas. Rob Digital RD 018
Pixinguinha 100 anos. Pixinguinha, et al. RCA/BMG 7432146286 2.
Pixinguinha 70. Conjunto Epoca de Ouro, et al. MIS/Rob Digital 199.001.525.
Pixinguinha, de Novo. Altamiro Carrilho and Carlos Poyares. Discos Marcus Pereira 0031-
107.104.

Pixinguinha: No Tempo Dos Oito Batuta~s. Pixinguinha and Os Oito Batutas. Revivendo RVCD-
064.

Principios do choro 1 (3-CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600-101, BF600-102,
BF600-103.

Principios do choro 2 (3-CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600-104, BF600-105,
BF600-106.

Principios do choro 3 (3-CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600-107, BF600-108,
BF600-109.

Principios do choro 4 (3-CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600-110, BF600-111,
BF600-112.

Principios do choro 5 (3-CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600-113, BF600-114,
BF600-115.










Projeto Com Passo: Samba & Choro, vol. 1. Grupo Rabo de Lagartixa, Cristina Buarque and
Henrique, et al. Biscoito Fino BF502.

Projeto Com Passo: Samba & Choro, vol. 2. Guinga, Luciana Rabello, Mauricio Carrilho, et al.
Biscoito Fino BF503.

Projeto Com Passo: Samba & Choro, vol. 3. Caio Marcio, Trio Madeira Brasil, et al. Biscoito
Fino BF511.

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRadms Gnattali. Tom Jobim, Paulinho da Viola, et al. Acervo Funarte ART 32082.
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRadms interpreta Rada~mis. Radames Gnattali et al. RGE 6100 2.
Raizes do Samba: Pixinguinha. Pixinguinha, Joho da Baiana, Clementina de Jesus. EMI 5226582

RaphaelRabello: todos os tons. Raphael Rabello, et al. BMG 74321-10049-23
Retratos: Jacob e seu Bandolim. Radames Gnattali e Orquestra. Columbia 866.028/2

Sempre Nazareth. Various Artists. Kuarup KCDO95
Sempre Pixinguinha. Various Artists. Kuarup KCDO76
Som Pixinguinha. Pixinguinha. EMI 855290.
Tocata Brasileira para Pinho e Arame. Gisela Nogueira and Gustavo Costa. CPC-UMES CPC
011
Tribute a Garoto. Radames Gnattali and Rafael Rabello. Acervo Funarte ATR 32081.

Uma chorada na casa do Six. Carlos Poyares. Kuarup KCDO86.
V4 se gostas. Ademilde Fonseca, Jacob do Bandolim, Waldir de Azevedo. Revivendo RVCD-
145.

Villa-Lobos: os chores de camera. Various Artists. Kuarup K002.
Viva Garoto. Gravagaes originals. Garoto. Nucleo Contemporineo Memoria Brasileira 107.225.
Vivaldi & Pixinguinha. Radames Gnattali & Camerata Carioca. AtraCgo/Acervo Funarte ATR
32014.









APPENDIX D
ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

A Agenda do Samba & Choro: O boteco virtual do samba e do choro. 2009. http://www.samba-
choro.com.br/ (Last Accessed: February 4, 2009).

Acari Records. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 28,
2009). www.acari.com.br

All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Zequinha de Abreu." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s=ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=6


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Waldir Azevedo." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s= ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=6


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Joaquim Callado." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s= ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=8


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Altamiro Carrilho." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s=ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=1


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Choro." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last
Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www.allbrazilianmusic. com/en/Styles/Styles.asp? Status=MATERIA&NuMateria=8


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Ademilde Fonseca." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s=ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=3

All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Radames Gnattali." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s= ARTISTA&Nurti sta=4


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Chiquinha Gonzaga." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s=ARTISTA&Nurti sta=1
34










All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Benedicto Lacerda." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s= ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=6


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Ernesto Nazareth." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s= ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=2


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Joho Pernambuco." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s=ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=3


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Pixinguinha." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
(Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. allbrazil ianmu sic. com/en/Arti sts/Arti sts.asp? Statu s=ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=4


All Brazilian Music. 2009. "Patapio Silva." Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http: www.allbraz~iliannaus~ic. cont en artists Artists. asp ?Status =ARTISTA &NuArtista=45


Boukas, Richard. 1999. "O Ch8ro Part I: A Perennial Tradition in Brazilian Music." Just Jazz
Guitar. Online articles. (Last Accessed: February 2, 2009).
http://www. bouka s. com/jj garti cl es/jj g8 99.html

.1999. "O Ch8ro Part II: Epoca de Ouro And Beyond." Just JazzJJJJJ~~~~~~~JJJJJJ Guitar. Online articles.
(Last Accessed: February 7, 2009). http://www.boukas.com/jj garticles/jj gll99.html

Carrasqueira, Toninho. "Flauta Brasiliera." (Last Accessed: April 6, 2009.)
http://ensaios. musicodobrasil. com.br/toninhocarrasqueira-flautabrasileirht

Carrilho, Altamiro. 2009. Altaniro Carrilho & sua flauta naravilhosa... Official Homepage.
(Last Accessed March, 2009). http: www.altamirocarrilhot~~t~~ircom. br index.htm

Dalarossa, Daniel. 2009. "About the Project 'Classics of the Brazilian Choro You are the
Soloist!'" Choro M~usic.com. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. choromu sic. com/sobre_proj eto~in.htm

Diniz, Andre. 2007. "A FormaCgo da Musica Popular Carioca." (Last Accessed: April 6, 2009).
http://www. niteroi artes. com. br/cursos/mu spop/index.html and
http://www. niteroi artes. com.br/cursos/mu spop/textos/j oaquimcallado. doc

Downey, Greg, and Center for Black Music Research. 2002. "Pixinguinha." (Last accessed:
March 29, 2009). http://www.colum. edu/CBMR/CBMR Publi cati ons/Pixinguinha.php










Gonzaga, Chiquinha. 1999. Official Website. (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www. chi quinhagonzaga. com/

Gilman, Bruce. 1996. "100 Years of Choro." (Last Accessed: February 7, 2009).
http://www.brazzil. com/musjul96.htm

Hampe & Berkel Muziek. 2009. "Oldest Musical Instrument Shop in the Netherlands." (Last
Accessed: March 3, 2009). http://www.berkelmuziek.nl/

Historical Flutes. 2009. "Historical Flute Information by Richard M. Wilson. (Last Accessed:
March 13, 2009). http://www. oldflutes.com/

Kuarup Discos. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 29,
20 09). http://www.kuarup. com.br/br/i ndex.php? idparceiro=0 &i dioma=ing

Revivendo Musica. 2009. Brazilian recordings and other media online. Recording Label (Last
Accessed: March 29, 2009). http: //www.revivendomusi cas. com.br/

Slipcue Brazilian Music Guide. 2009. "Choro Music." (Last Accessed: February 4, 2009).
http://www. slip cu e.com/mu si c/brazil/aa~styl es~choro/A_01 .html










APPENDIX E
MUSICAL SCORES

Albuquerque, Maria Joho Duries. 1996. Jornal de M~odinha~s, Ano I, Edigio Facsimilada.
Lisboa: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro.

Barbosa-Lima, Carlos. 1994. Pixinguinha (AlfCredo Vianna) 8 Solo Pieces. Music of the
Americas Series. San Francisco: Guitar Solo Publications.

Carrasqueira, Maria J. 1997. O M~elhor de Pixinguinha: M~elodias e Cifras. Rio de Janeiro Sho
Paulo: Irm~os Vitale S.A. Ind. e Com.

Lapiccirella, Roberto, Organiizador. 1996. Antologia musical popular bra~sileira: As marchinha~s
de carnaval. Sho Paulo: Musa Editora.

Lima, Edilson de. 2001. As 2odinha~s do Brasil. Sho Paulo: Editora da Universidade de Sho
Paulo.

Mascarenhas, Mario. 1982. O M~elhor da Muzsica Popular Bra~sileira: Com cifisprasparapino
orgdo, e acordeon, vol. 1. Rio de Janeiro Sho Paulo: Irm~os Vitale S.A. Ind. e Com.

Seve, Mario. 1999. Vocabila~rio do Choro: estuos & composig~es. Edited by Almir Chediak. Rio
de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora.










APPENDIX F
VIDEOGRAPHY

Kaurismaki, Mika. 2002. M~oro No Brasil. [In U.S. 7he Sound ofBrazil]. Brazil. Arte and
Mariana Films.

.2005. Brasileirinho: Grandes Encontros do Choro. [ In U.S. 7he Sound of
Rio: Bra~sileirinho]. Brazil. Mariana Films.

Paes, Cesar. 2000. Saudade do Futuro. Brazil. A.F. Cinema e Video.










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All Brazilian Music. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March
28, 2009). www.allbrazilianmusic. com

Appleby, David P. 1983. Thze Mtusic ofBrazil. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Assis, Machado de. 1986. "Hist6ria de 15 dias." Obra Conspleta (v. III). Rio de Janeiro:
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Behague, Gerard H. 1966. Popular Mtusical Currents in the Art Mtusic of the EarlyE~~~~EEEEE~~~~EEEE Nationalistic
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.1971. Thze Beginnings of2~usical Nationalism in Brazil. Detroit: Information
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.1979. "Nineteenth-Century Antecedents of Nationalism". pp. 1 11-123 in Mtusic in Latin
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Caracas Garcia, Thomas George. Summer, 1997a. "The Choro, the Guitar and Villa-Lobos."
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Carrasqueira, Maria J. 1997. O M~elhor de Pixinguinha: M~elodias e Cifras. Rio de Janeiro Sao
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Coelho, Tadeo and Julie Koidin. Fall 2005. "The Brazilian Choro: Historical Perspectives and
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Crook, Larry N. 2005. Brazilian M~usic: Northeastern Traditions and the Heartbeat ofa M~odern
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Diniz, Andre. 2007. "A FormaCgo da Musica Popular Carioca." (Last Accessed: April 6, 2009).
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Diniz, Jamie C. 1979. Muzsicos Pernambucanos do Passado. Vol. 3. Recife, PE Brazil:
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Freyre, Gilberto. 1975. Tempo M~orto e Outros Tempos: Trechos de um Diarrio de Adoles~ncia
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Ruth M. Sunni" Witmer received her Bachelor of Music in Flute Performance from the

University of Florida and her Master of Music in Flute Performance from Louisiana State

University. She returned to the University of Florida to pursue a Ph.D. in Music with a

concentration in Ethnomusicology. Ms. Witmer is concurrently completing a Master of Arts

degree in Latin American Studies at the University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies.

Her area of focus is the music of the Caribbean and Brazil, primarily early twentieth-century

urban popular genres with an emphasis on Brazilian choro and Cuban charanga.


Choro Regional de Florida. May 22 2008. (Left to Right) Sunni Witmer, flute; Charles Perrone,
cavaquinho; Aaron Croft, pandeiro, and; Welson Tremura, violdo.





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1 POPULAR VIRTUOSITY: THE ROLE OF THE FLUTE AND FLUTISTS IN BRAZILIAN CHORO By RUTH M. SUNNI WITMER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Ruth M. Sunni Witmer

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3 Para mis abuelos, Manuel y Mara Margarita Garca

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are very few successes in life that are accomplished without the help of others. Whatever their contribution, I would have never achieved what I have without the kind encouragement, collaboration, and true caring from the following individuals. I would first like to thank my thesis committee, Larry N. Crook, Kristen L. Stoner, and Welson A. Tremura, for their years of steadfast support and guidance. I would also like to thank Martha Ellen Davis and Charles Perrone for their additional contribution s to my academic development. I also give muitos obrigados to Carlos Malta, one of Brazils finest flute players. What I have learned about becoming a musician, a scholar, and friend, I have learned from all of you. I especially want to thank my family my parents, Mr. Ellsworth E. and Dora M. Witmer, and my sisters Sheryl, Briana, and Brenda for it was my parents vision of a better life for their children that instilled in them the value of education, which they passed down to us. I am also grateful for the love between all of us that kept us close as a family and rewarded us with the happiness of experiencing lifes joys together I would also like to thank Nichol for being strong enough to suffer the slings and arrows and still be able to cook dinner. You have my most sincere gratitude.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 page LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 7 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 12 Statement of Purpose .................................................................................................................. 12 Methodology................................................................................................................................ 14 Theoretical Framework ....................................................................................................... 14 Literature Review ................................................................................................................ 21 2 THE HISTORICAL AND MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHORO ................................ 25 A Brief History of the Flute in Brazilian Erudite and Popular Music ..................................... 25 Etymological and Musical Origins of Choro............................................................................. 31 Origins of the Term Choro .................................................................................................. 31 Musical Characteristics of Choro ....................................................................................... 36 The Organology of Choro Ensembles ........................................................................................ 39 The Terno: Violo, Cavaquinho, and Flute ........................................................................ 40 Conjuntos Regionais ............................................................................................................ 41 Solo Guitar/Violo ............................................................................................................... 43 Variations in Instrumentation .............................................................................................. 45 3 THE PROGRESSION OF CHORO REPERTORY: FROM STYLE TO FORMAL GENRE ........................................................................................................................................ 48 Popular Brazilian Music and the Antecedents of Choro ........................................................... 48 Lund .................................................................................................................................... 50 Modinha ................................................................................................................................ 52 Maxixe .................................................................................................................................. 55 Important Contributors to the Genre: The Chores .................................................................. 57 Flutists/Composers .............................................................................................................. 64 Joaquim Antnio da Silva Callado (1848 1880) ........................................................ 64 Patpio Silva (1880 1907) ........................................................................................... 67 Pixinguinha Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Jnior (18981973) ................................... 69 Benedicto Lacerda (1903 1958) .................................................................................. 77 Altamiro Aquino Carrilho (b. 1924) ........................................................................... 79 Contemporary Professional Chores: The Next Generation............................................. 81

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6 4 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION, PERFORMANCE PRACTICES, AND MUSICAL ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................. 87 Formal Structure of Choro .......................................................................................................... 87 Choro Flute Performance Practices ............................................................................................ 92 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ........................................................................................... 96 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........................................................................................................... 99 B BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................... 102 C DISCOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................... 109 D ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ................................................................................................. 112 E MUSICAL SCORES ................................................................................................................. 115 F VIDEOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................... 116 LIST OF REFERENCES CITED .................................................................................................... 117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................................................... 121

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Photo of one key flutes. ......................................................................................................... 25 2 2 Photo of Fren ch ebony flute with silver keys ....................................................................... 26 2 3 Photo of C arlos Malta. ........................................................................................................... 29 2 4 Photo of Pife Muderno with Carlos Malta and Andra Ernest Dias on pifano. ................. 30 2 5 Illustration of chores performing in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. ................................... 32 2 6 Photo of violo de sete cordas; violo de seis cordas; bandolim; flauta; cavaquinho, and; pandeiro. ......................................................................................................................... 39 2 7 Photo of Regional de Lacerda. .............................................................................................. 43 2 8 Photo of the Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro. ......................................... 46 3 1 1835 illustration of the lund by Johann Moritz Rugendas. ................................................ 51 3 2 Syncopated rhythmic pattern characteristic of Afro -Brazilian genres. ............................... 56 3 3 Photo of Ernesto Nazareth. .................................................................................................... 58 3 4 Photo of the Teatro Odeon. .................................................................................................... 59 3 5 Photo of Chiquinha Gonzaga. ................................................................................................ 60 3 6 Illustration of Joaquim Antnio da Silva Callado. ............................................................... 65 3 7 Musical excerpt from Flr Amorosa. ................................................................................ 67 3 8 Photo of Patpio Si lva. ........................................................................................................... 68 3 9 Photo of Pixinguinha. ............................................................................................................. 70 3 10 Photo of Os Oito Batutas. ...................................................................................................... 72 3 11 Photo of Benedicto Lacerda on flute and Pixinguinha on saxophone. ............................... 78 3 12 Photo of Altamiro Carrilho. .................................................................................................. 80 4 1 Characteristic syncopation pattern in choro. ........................................................................ 89 4 2 Afro Brazilian rhythmic pattern functions in melody and bass. ......................................... 90

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8 4 3 Characteristic syncopation with tie patter n in choro. .......................................................... 91 4 4 Excerpt from O Gato e o Canrio by Pixinguinha. .......................................................... 94 4 5 Excerpt from Tico Tico no Fub by Zequinha de Abreu. ................................................ 94

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts PO PULAR VIRTUOSITY: THE ROLE OF T HE FLUTE AND FLUTISTS IN BRAZILIAN CHORO By Ruth M. Sunni Witmer August 2009 Chair: Larry N. Crook Major: Latin American Studies Choro is one of Brazil's most important musical developments and the backbone of the countrys popular instrumental repertoire. Originating in Rio de Janeiro during the belle poque (18701920), choro as a musical style, was the direct result of the infusion of AfroBrazilian rhythmic syncopation and an undeniable panache into the Europeanized popular salon music of the Brazilian elite With strong t ies to W estern art music, choro remains one of the few popular musical tr aditions that place value and emphasis on instrumental virtuosity. U nderstanding what it means when we designate something as popular is critical for situating choro. W e must keep in mind that what ever is characterized as popular implies particular social and historical contexts as well as perspectives that are never isolated in their realizations and interpretations Popular music is defined by society, internally categorize d by s ociety and analyzed in relation to the many diverse social functions and practices i n which music is situated. Within Brazilian society, choro is considered a popular musical form due to its performance practices, instrumentation, types of venues where i t is performed, its relationship to the recording and broadcasting industries, and the formal structure of choro compositions. I argue that historically, it was the earliest composers of choro-style music, the classically trained

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10 flutists that wrote both erudite and popular musical styles, who socially solidified choro as a popular musical genre with erudite tendencies. This categorization of choro remains today. Outside of American jazz, which is credited as an important influence in the evolution of modern Brazilian choro, an emphasis on technical virtuosity such as that found in erudite music is rare in the performance of popular music, but it can be found in th e performance of choro. The reasons for such are varied and in this paper, factors such as nationalism, race and class, and the fledgling cinematic, broadcasting, and reco rding industries of the early twentieth century are considered This thesis will d emonstrate how choros roots can be found in colonial New World erudite music composed and performed in Rio de Janeiro, Braz il beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth century. We will see how it evolved throughout the twentieth century as a primar ily instrumental urban popular style often heard in nightclubs and ballroom s, how it continued to develop classical formal structures, and how it ultimately underwent several revivals, including the romanticizing and commercialization of the music with s upport from the recording industry, to become the important genre we hear today. I also describe how choro has returned full -circle, from European influenced erudite musical compositions, which were later infused with popular rhythms and sensibilities, b ack to the virtuosic choro being composed and performed in contemporary Brazilian society Indeed, choro is now being used to teach in the conservatory style to students of Western art music and is likewise considered a hallmark of instrumental virtuosity within the academy. Some of the best choro musicians teach at universities, perform internationally (often at jazz festivals), and produce numerous recordings, many of them award -winning performances.

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11 This paper will also make evident that the preference for the flute as the primary melodic instrument in the choro ensemble played a major role in establishing virtuosity as a defining characteristic of the genre and for increasing it s popularity throughout Brazil. I argue that th e persistent connection to instrumental virtuosity can be directly linked to choros earliest flutist/composer progenitors, and to the flute, one of the first and most important solo melodic instruments within the choro ensemble.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of Purpose Life often takes us in directions we would ne ver have imagined. In my case, it was the fall semester of 2000, and I was happily going about the business o f researching the music of Cuba when my friend and colleague Welson Tremura, asked me to participat e in the Brazilian World Music Ensemble he was directing at the University of Florida. I agreed, thinking that because Welson knew that I was a flute player, that he would have me playing a little bossa nova or something like that During the first rehea rsal, Welson thrust an agog (Brazilian metal bell ins trument) into my hands and said play! The next thing I knew, we were playing Brazilian samba sort of. During subsequent rehearsals, I learned to play the surdo (large Brazilian drum), then a host of other Brazilian percussion instruments, including the pandeiro (Brazilian hand drum), for which I developed a strong affinity. As the semesters went by, our ensemble learned to play not only samba but music from the many regions of Brazil including the fife and drum traditions from Northeast Brazil (the banda de pfanos ), and the urban popular genres such as choro. Year after year, we learned more music al styles and genres and had many fortunate opportunities to pla y with internationally recognized Brazilian musicians who had been invited to the univ ersity as artists -in -residence, artists who ultimately imparted to us in the best of ways, a knowledge and understanding of Brazils interestingly diverse and complex mus ic. It was through this immersion in Brazilian music that I developed my love for the culture and people of Brazil. Because I am a flute player, the Brazilian musical genre that captured my attention most keenly was choro, due to its harmonic and melodi c sophistication as well as the virtuosity required to perform the music. It was also because the flute had historically been the melodic

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13 instrument of choice within the choro ensemble. Hence, I began to diligently practice my flute in order to be able to play choro well. I also went to work reading about and listening to recordings of choro, learning as much about it as I could. This, in due course, led me to conduct fieldwork in Rio de Janei ro, the birthplace of choro, on three different occasions. During 2003 and 2004, I travel ed to Rio de Janeiro to experience first -hand the music that I had been perf orming for a number of years. While in Rio, I was able to attend concerts interview choro musicians such as guitarist Mar co Pereira, bandolim player Hamilton de Holanda, and the flutists Carlos Malta and Andrea Ernest Dias I also conducted research on choro at the National Library of Brazil, the largest library in Latin America. The result of this research was a realization on my part that the flute played a major role in establishing the popular choro style of music especially in terms of the level of virtuosity it required of the performers. Throughout this thesis I will show that the ea rly instrumentation of the choro ensemble, often referred to as the terno helped to establish the flute as the first melodic instrument to require virtuosic performance of its players in the choro style. I will also demonstrate that the earliest composers of choro music were, in fact, also flutists; musicians who through their unique playing styles and innate sense of what constituted a popular composition helped to transform the fashionable styl e of choro performance into a sophisticated genre of music, replete with ties to Brazilian nationalist ideology and popular culture. I will further demonstrate through musical analysis and a survey of flute technique s how these flutist/composers helped to create one of the few popular musical traditions in modern history that place an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity in the performance of a popular style of music.

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14 Methodology Theoretical Framework This thesis claims that choro is a popular music with art -music tendencies, more specifically, that the popular choro musical genre requires the skill of virtuosity in performance practice In order to reconcile these seemingly polemical traits popularity (replete with the pejorative implication that it is inferior and base) and virtuosity (with its links to high -brow, exclusive, elite, conservatory training) a more explicit examination of what these characteristics imply and how choro has developed historically within Brazilian society, is necessary for supporting the claim. First, w hat makes popular music popular and why despite its predomina nt ly depreciatory connotations from elite artistic sectors of society is it such a poten t cultural construct within m ost societies? Related, h ow is popular music different from art music or folk music and what do these categories art, folk, and popular say about how a society imagines and understands its music? The example of choro within Brazilian society provides apt substance for discourse on popular music. A ccording to Richard Middleton, what must remain foremost when researching the popular, is that all definitions of the term pop ular, especially when referring to music, are socially and historically grounded. U nderstanding what it means when we designate something as popular implies particular contexts as well as perspectives that are never isolated in their realizations and interpretations (Middleton 1990). In designating choro as popular, certain social and historical contexts must be considered including: choros relationship to the early recording and broadcasting industry; the use of popular performance practices emanating from the underclass (such as improvisation and rhythmic syncopation); the social contexts within which choro was created and how it evolved from stylistic musical interpretations into a musical genre,

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15 and; choros link to the people by nature of the term popular meaning of the people in Romance languages. This noti on of categorizing something as popular through its association to the people is best described, Middleton claims, in terms of social essentialism. Here the essence of the popular is constant, though whether this is seen as proffered from above [from those at the top of a societys hierarchy] or engendered from below [from the masses] varies (Middleton 1990: 5). The organizing principle for defining something as popular from above is usually concerned with such things as the masses or commerci alized culture, which often implies a somewhat pejorative connotation. When something is defined as popular from below, references are made to concepts such as grass roots, authenticity, and of the people, and the connotation is that it is somehow noble, good, real, and honest. This is because, in a class society [following a Marxist perspective], the society is internally contradictory. What the term popular music tries to do is to put a finger on that space, that terrain, of contradiction between imposed and authentic elite and common, predominant and subordinate, then and now, theirs and ours, and so on and to organize it in particular ways (Middleton 1990: 7). Another important thing to consider is that the notion of wha t is popular is always in constant temporal motion, never static, always evolving and changing and adjusting to the current moment. Hence, categorizing something as popular must also be historically located. This is especially important when considering choro because its popularity has fluctuated for almost one -hundred and forty years. There have been moments of massive social appeal interspersed with times of limited popularity, with revivals in popularity occurring approximately every twenty to thirty years.

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16 D efining what is considered popular by use of the terms above and below to designate social strata within Brazilian society ventures into areas of analysis that must consider class and race and by extension, national identity as determining factors. Livingston -Isenhour and Caracas Garcia state that any analysis of Brazilian popular music must take into consideration the social situation present in nineteenth -century Brazil, especially in terms of the racial discourse before and a fter slavery.1 The formulation of a national identity based on concepts of racial blending, or miscegenation, was one of the most important and influential intellectual currents to develop in postcolonial Brazil.2 By the 1930s, choro was up -held by inte llectuals as the perfect example of musical miscegenation due to the blending of European harmonies and melodies with African and Afro -Brazilian rhythms (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 17).3What this meant for the underclass of Brazil was validation of their expressive culture and for the predominately white elite class as well as the underclass a symbol of national identity Previously marginalized and/or enslaved populations, the people, gradually gained if not social acceptance, at least social tolerance. Indeed, the attitudes of the elite concerning race and class were most evident in their reactions to popular music (LivingstonIsenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 22). T he elite embraced this popular music. The musical melding o f European harmonies and melodies with African rhythms represented for them the merging of races, making popular music the site for the negotiation of a Brazilian national identity. 1 Brazil was the last New World nation state to abolish slavery in 1888. 2 The aspect that made miscegenation palatable to the otherwise racist and classist elites was the concept of branqueamento, or whitening, which was based on the dubious theory that European blood would dilute and civilize the other races to produce a li ght skinned Brazilian race (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 37). 3 In conjunction, another popular music created by Brazils urban lower and middle classes, samba rose to the status of national icon in the 1920s and 1930s, a prime example of the racial harmony of miscegenation as touted by intellectuals and the elite class (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005).

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17 This musical blending and merging it can be argued, came about as a resul t of choro performance practice. Preferred popular European musical genres such as the waltz and polka were danced by the white Brazilian elite in ballrooms and salons throughout the countrys urban centers. Gradually s yncretized with European harmonies and melodies wer e African and Afro Brazilian rhythmic structures incorporated into these popular genres by predominantly black and mulatto musicians The result was the stylistic creation of popular music that reflected Brazils identity as that of a mixture of cultures and races. These stylistic elements and performance practices in chorosuch as improvisation and rhythmic syncopation, which added an essential rhythmic swing to Brazils now Europeanized popular musical forms eventually helped to move choro from a style of playing popular music, to a unique genre, composed and created with distinctive formal musical characteristics. Th is evolutionary process wa s aided by musically trained flutists/composers who gradually began to create popular songs clearly designated as choros rather than polkas or waltzes performed using stylistic elements of choro. Another aspect to consider in the situation of choro as pop ular is the role the nascent recording industry played in making it so. Indeed, this is perhaps choros most important link to a designation of popular. Before the advent of the mass marketing and commercialization of musical recordings on a grand scal e in the 1920s, music remained locally situated. But even before the halcyon days of early musical recording, there was a growing commercial and philosophical process to create the ideology of popular from above. Jos Ramos Tinhoro maintains that : ...nos ltim o s 100 anos, desde o surgimento da gravao de sons, em 1878, esse lento, silencioso, mas inexorvel processo de controle do poder de criao e de necessidade de lazer do povo das cidades pela mquina industrial manipulada pela minoria dos que detm os meios de produo. in the last 100 years a process has evolved since the emerg ence of the recording of sounds in 1878, this slow, silent but inexorable process of controlling the power of creation

PAGE 18

18 and recreation al needs of urban people by an ind ustrial machine manipulated by the minority of those w ho have the means of production (Tinhoro 1978: 10). [My translation.] What Tinhoro illustrates is that the gradual acceptance of the stylistic musical creations of the underclass by the elite was one of the aspects that helped to foster the creation of the recording and broadcasting industries in Brazil. Tinhoro makes the claim that as these industries were established, the elite moved into the position of appropriating popular musical production, de termining what was to become popular and which musical styles and genres would fade into obscurity. For choro, this was a good thing. The birth of the recording industry and the establishment of live radio shows in Brazil were the two most significant f actors in the professionalization of choro (LivingstonIsenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 87). W ith the industrialization of music productio n, choro gained in popularity and recognition. This popularity evolved from the performance of musical genres playe d in the choro style with its easily recognizable rhythmic swing to the composition of songs labeled as choro, in essence, identifying choro as a popular musical genre. Substantiation of choros designation as a popular style and later genre is confirmed in choros adherence to among other factors, the standards and criteria of the cultural theory of music put forth by Middleton. Choro, if viewed from above, is certainly popular in that up until the 1920s and 1930s, it was considered for the masses and not worthy of attention from the top rungs of Brazils social hierarchy. Likewise, if considered from below, choro can still be classified as popular due to its authenticity and grass roots links to the people and its history as a popular style that originated in the poorer neighborhoods of Brazils urban centers that was later embraced by the elite and used to promote Brazils nascent recording and broadcasting industries Further validation, when ana lyzed essentially from above and below, can be found in the way in which choro was used to help create Brazils national identity.

PAGE 19

19 A theoretical claim for virtuosity in choro performance is also valid. Jim Samson states that the notion of virtuosity f ound its roots during the early nineteenth century and particularly in the styles and tendencies of Romanticism and Romantic thought regarding the individual precisely when choro was beginning to flourish. It is interesting to note that Paris was considered the capital of musical virtuosity in the early nineteenth century, and according to Samson, no doubt due to the set of socio political circumstances that fostered the recognition of the public man. It could be argued, that because Brazil was so culturally oriented towards Europe during this time, especially towards France, that these same ideologies would have been part of the cosmopolitan milieu of Brazilian urban society and Brazilian political a nd intellectual thought. Samson goes further to state that understanding the concept of virtuosityand, by extension, theories on performance practice provides the necessary basis for understanding the relationship of performance to the music and the indiv idual (performer) to the audienc e.4Samson argues that as the concept of virtuosity merged with the Romantic aesthetic, it generated a dialectical relationship between the music, i.e. the musical work and the performer, a relationship that juxtaposed taste (with all its inherent ambiguity of meaning) with ideology. S amson also states however, that the concept of virtuosity has no single meaning and that the various manifestations of its meaning have existed over time. Indeed, m ost of the definitions and connotations of what it m eans to be virtuosic have always been subject to interpretation and transformation. This makes the concept of virtuosity difficult to analyze but not impossible, and Samson is able to put forth a number of tangential constructs 4 It could also be argued that the practice of virtuosity places the performer in a phase of liminality between self and comp oser, between the individual and societys norms. Theories on performance practice are vast in scope and well beyond the scale of this thesis. This is why they are mentioned but not elaborated. For information on performance theory, see: (Turner 1988).

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20 T he virtuosity of the first half of the nineteenth century is presumed to have made room for the affirmation of work character that typified its second half. Virtuosity, in short, gave way to interpretation (Samson 2003:45). During this time, e xtremes of display and sentiment were perceived as violations of taste, itself an elusive attribute no doubt but one closely tied to the status of individuality. When kept within the confines of what a segment of society considers acceptable taste, individuali ty and in this case, individuality as it pertains to virtuosic display was highly valued. That same individuality, Samson claims invoked censure when these boundaries were breeched, just as it did when individuality courted popularity. Regarding the con cept of the individual, Samson writes: And if the invention or reinvention of the individual was a potent enabling force in political and intellectual life, it was even more influential in the cultural domain; indeed it could almost be described as a prima ry motivation for the rise of aesthetics. Thus, virtuosity gained new power, status and dignity, and a new ideological underpinning (paradoxically resisting idealisation ), through the office s of an ascendant individualism (Samson 2003: 74). The cause of thi s dialectic between censure and popularity was often the mechanical musical instrument, certainly one such as the flute. Indeed, t wo subtexts of virtuosity are suggested here: a surrender to mechanism, and the stigma of the gratuitous (Samson 2003:4) And it could be argued that this stigma of the gratuitous according to Middletons theory of essentialism was a reaction from above to the notion of popularity and its relationship to the common man, including the connotation of tastelessness. Another concept to consider is virtuosity and the performers quest for autonomy and individuality. Samson calls virtuosity the magnet that draws the listener towards the qualities of the performer and somewhat away from the composed piece. In this cas e, technique is valued over substance and the symbiotic relationship between the audience and its need for spectacle and performative modifications (interpretations, improvisations) is strengthened. It is critical to

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21 note here that Samson is defining thes e performative qualities as musical technique, and not as substance. In the case of choro performance, this correlates to choros emphasis on virtuosic technique, especially for the solo melodic instruments such as the flute. It is easier now to realize how choro developed into a virtuosic form given Samsons theoretical observations. Choro came about during a time in European and Brazilian socio political history when the concept of the individual was gaining currency. Many early choro performers sought to gain respectability and social standing by becoming unique in their interpretations of composed choro music.5Literature Review It must also be noted that competition to perform as a virtuoso was keen between choro musicians. It was the primary way an individual chor o musician could attain the goal of prestige and popularity. Adding to this is the fact that many African and African -American musical traditions also frequent ly value individual virtuosity, typically in the form of improvisation These African performan ce practice s, incorporated into popular musical styles and genres by Brazilian black and mulatto musicians would have no doubt made their way into the performance of choro. It is not an understatement to say that finding literature on choro is easy. There have been countless books and articles scholarly and journalistic written in many languages about this popular Brazilian music. What is lacking is literature on choro as it pertains specifically to the flute. I have discovered only five scho larly studies on the flute in Brazilian choro music. They are: Julie B. Koidins (2006) dissertation, Benedicto Lacerda and the Golden Age of Choro Flute Playing ; Kristen Lia Smith Stoners (2000) dissertation, The Influence of Folk and Popular 5 Examples such as the musicians Catulo da Paixo Cearense and Joo Teixeira Guimaraes de Pernambuco will be mentioned in Chapter Three.

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22 Music on Twentieth -Century Flute Music of Brazil; Eliane Corra Saleks (1999) thesis, A Felxibilidade Rtmico Meldica na Interpretao do Choro (The Rhythmic -Melodic Flexibility in the Interpretation of Choro); Jos Benedicto Viana Gomes (1997) thesis Pixinguinha: Choro Presena e Aplicabilidade no Estudo da Flauta Transversal no Brasil ( Pixinguinha: Choro Presence and Applicability in the Study of the Transverse Flute in Brazil ), and; Andra Ernest Dias(1996) thesis, A Expresso da Flauta Popular Brasileira: Uma Escola de Intrepretao (The Expression of Brazilian Popular Flute: A School of Interpretation ). Koidins dissertation is primarily helpful for understanding the technical aspects of choro performance on the flute through her analysis of th e performance practices of Benedicto Lacerda. Smith Stoners dissertation focuses on early choro flute history and how choro was an influential element in Brazilian erudite music. Salek transcribes the solo line of six choros in her work. T wo are perfor med by flutists Altamiro Carrilho and Benedicto Lacerda. Gomes thesis is a biography of Pixinguinha and a history of choro, with little emphasis given to the aspects of flute performance in choro. Dias presents a performance guide including tips on arti culation, rhythmic interpretation, tempo, improvisation, and tone for fourteen choros. She also includes brief biographies of twenty of Brazils most important flutists. In addition to these works for flute, there are a number of canonical and well respec ted works on choro in general. For the purposes of this thesis, the selection was limited primarily to the following Most useful was Tamara Elena Livingston Isenhours and Thomas George Caracas Garcias work, Choro: A Social History of a Brazilian Popular Music Created by combining the Ph.D. dissertations of each author, Choro provided information on race and class issues related to choro, it explained the rise, development, and professionalization of choro, and gave

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23 accounts of choros revivals. Livin gstonIsenhours and Caracas Garcias work also describes choros link to twentieth -century nationalist composers such Heitor Villa Lobos (18871959), Radams Gnattali (1906 1988), and Mozart Camargo Guarnieri (19071993). Musicologist, Ary Vasconcelos, has written several books on choro and popular music in Brazil. H elpful for the completion of this thesis was his Panorama da Msica Popular Brasileira na Belle Epoque ( Panorama of Brazilian Popular Music in the Golden Age ). In this work, Vasconcelos gives a brief history of choro and then gives a short biography and list of works for over four -hundred Brazilian musicians of popular music. Also informative was his Razes da Msica Popular Brasileira (Roots of Brazilian Popular Music ), and Carinhoso Etc.: Histria e Inventrio do Choro (Carinhoso Etc.: History and Inventory of Choro), which is a systematic account of choro since the 1920s. Several books by Jos Ramos Tinhoro were also heavily employed. They are: Pequen a Histria da Msica Popular: da Modinha, Cano de Protesto (Brief History of Popular Music: T he Modinha, the Song of Protest ); Msica Popular: Do Gramofone ao Rdio e TV (Popular Mus ic: From the Gramophone to the Radio and TV ); A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. I: Sculo XVIII -Sculo XIX ; A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. II: Sculo XX (1a parte), and; A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. III: Sculo XX (2a parte) ( The Popular Music of Brazilian Romance, E ighteenth Nineteenth and T wentieth Century, Vols. I -III ). All give well constructed accounts of generally, the social history of Brazilian popular music from the eighteenth through the twentieth century. No work on choro could be considered well researched if it did not include references by Ger ard Bhague. For the purposes of this thesis, the two following works (among his others)

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24 were most useful: Popular Musical Currents in the Art Music of the Early Nationalistic Per iod in Brazil, Circa 1870-1920, and The Beginnings of Musical Nationalism in Brazil For researching theoretical issues pertaining to popular music, Richard Middletons Studying Popular Music provided applicable theories, suitable for explaining why choro is considered a popular music as stated in the title of this thesis. For theoretical substantiation regarding the concept of virtuosity, Jim Samsons Virtuosity and the Musical Work: The Transcendental Studies of Liszt was consulted.

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25 CHAPTER 2 THE HISTORICAL AND M USICAL DEVELOPMENT O F CHORO A Brief History of the Flute in Brazilian Erudite and Popular Music Beginning as early as the sixteenth century, there have been accounts from the first Iberian colonists of the presence of the European flute in Brazil.1 These early flutes were held transversely constructed primarily out of ebony or other hard woods and were made with few if any, keys Figure 2 1. Photo of one key flutes marked FLORIO/LONDON (c.1795), G ASTOR & Co /LONDON (c.1800 ), H. GRENSER/DRESDEN (c.1810), and GRIESSLING & SCHLOTT (c.1805) The last flute includes a corps de rechange Photo courtesy of Richard M. Wilson. Used with permission. (Source: Last accessed March 13, 2009. http://www.oldflutes.com/classical.htm ). F lutes were played first and foremost for religious services and their role was to perform in orchestral ensembles as accompaniment for sacred choral works in cathedrals Th is history and role of the flute in Brazil ian erudite music remained relatively unchanged until the nineteenth century when the royal court of Dom Pedro II (18251891) the Emperor of Brazil from 18 401889, began to hire musicians from Paris to entertain the royal family with popular compositions brought to Brazil from the mtropole Up until that time, erudite, Western art music 1 Jesuit priests began teaching flute to young colonists circa 1556. See: (Diniz 1979: 46).

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26 predominated in Brazilian urban expressive culture and instrumental music played a secondary role to sacred vocal music.2With the invention of the modern, Boehm -system, silver, keyed flute from Germany flutists from Europe and the colonies were then able to perform more technically challenging erudite and early popular salon music with greater ease, in turn, increasing the popularity of the ins trument and especially the salon genres they performed. Indeed, one of the musicians hired by Dom Pedro II in 1859 was the Belgian flutist Mathieu -Andr Reichert (1830 1880) and it was Reichert who has been credited with introducing the Boehm flute to Br azil 3 While in Brazil, Reich ert met Brazilian flutist, Joaqu im Antnio da Silva Callado Jnior (18481880), O Pai dos Chor es (The Father of Choros ), who was at that time, composing early choro music and performing on a five keyed French ebony flute. Figure 2 2. Photo of French ebony flute with silver keys. Photo courtesy of Berkel Muziek. Used with permission. (Source: http://www.berkelmuziek.nl/img/html/oldflutes.htm Last accessed on March 13, 2009). It was Reichert who was also credited with teaching contemporary European flute techniques to Callado, who later incorporated them into the choro composition s he was writing .4 2 See: (Smith Stoner 2000: 220). 3 See: ( Ernest Dias 1990: 6992). 4 According to Andre Diniz, some scholars have written of a rivalry between Reichert and Callado, but in actuality, this rivalry did not exist. What did happen was that Reichert, perhaps because he was European and not Brazilian like Callado, caused Callados fans to develop an animosity towards him at first, but there is no historical evidence of a personal rivalry between the two flutists. Indeed, they were friends who were known to riva l each other only as

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27 T his collaboration makes evident the ease with which ninete enth century Brazilian composers and per formers of the erudite and the popular juxtaposed these two worlds, often making no distinction between them. Indeed, Callado was classically trained, yet wrote all of his compositions in the choro style to exhibit his technical virtuosity on the flute. In addition, he composed all of his works with the terno5In choro, it was the solo me lodic in struments (primarily the flute) that made it possible to build this compositional bridge between the popular and art music worlds. Another important factor in the role of the flute in the development of choro was the fact that the first notable choro composers were also flutists (like Callado) who wrote melody lines that called for virtuosic performance techniqu es specific to the instrument. Equally important was the fact that it was often only the flute player s who could read music and therefore instruct the other choro musicians in the performance of the song. in mind. Other prominent erudite composers who also compose d in the choro style were the classically trained pianists Chiquinha Gonzaga (18471935) and Ernesto Nazareth (18631934). The fact that they played the piano is also of importance regarding choro due to the fact that the virtuosi. It was also true that the Boehm flute (which Reichert espoused) was not immediately embraced by many flute players in Brazil, but again, most professional flutists then switched to the new flute (as opposed to the ebony/wooden flute) within a relatively short time. It was perhaps in response to a famous duel between Reichert and Callado regarding the relative merits of each type of flute (as well as that of themselves as artists) that may have started the rumor of a rivalr y. Another fact to consider is that the first meeting between Reichert and Callado appeared to go well because Callado was only fourteen years old at the time and no real match for the well established Belgian, although by most accounts, Callado did seem to hold his own against the elder master. There is also evidence that the two flutists performed in public together on a friendly basis. In 1873, a concert was organized and both Reichert and Callado played Carnival of Venice in duet. It is unclear, however, whether Reichert played the Boehm flute while Callado played an ebony/wooden flute, as he was often perceived of as preferring. See: (Diniz 2002: 4552). Also s ee: ( Ernest Dias 1990: 69 92). 5 The terno is a specific choro instrumentation and is explained in detail later in this chapter under the section on the organology of choro ensembles. The terno consists of the violo, the cavaquinho, and the flute.

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28 piano was another notable instrum ent beside the flute, that performed both in popular and elite society.6In 1847, t he composer Francisco Manuel da Silva (1795 1865) founded the first school for music in Brazil the Conservat rio de Msica do Rio de Janeiro. The Conservatrio de Msica was an important resource for young musicians studying both classical and popular music. Many of the professors would perform both on classical stages and within popular idioms in cafs, theatres, and even on street corners. Flute was a popular instrument at the conservatory (Smith Stoner 2000: xiv). The re was also a history of individuals teaching music to slaves and i t was common practice for slave masters to arrange musical performances by their slave musicians in order to incr ease the masters income. T he musicians were trained in the salon genres especially the polc a lund, modinha, and maxixe that were popular at the time They were also trained to play European wind instruments which would have included the flute for part icipation in civic and military bands S uch instruction was important training for the later emergence of popular bands such as the Banda do Coro de Bombers do Rio de Janeiro, directed by Analects de Medeiros, one of the first musicians to incorporate cho ro music into his e nsemble. It was this fusion of European instruments played by Afro-Brazilians and mulattoes often musically non literate musicians, but with irrefutable virtuosic musical flair that gave rise to the popular styles of music so sought after by Brazils elite in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century the flute continued to play a major role in the instrumental genres of Brazilian music. Intern ationally recognized Brazilian flutist Odette Ernest Dias along with Brazilian fluti st Tadeu Coelho of the University of North Carolina School of the Arts have 6 See: (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garca 2005: 59). Also, see Chapter Three for more information on these composers.

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29 each made several recording of choro music Coelho has also published the complete works of the legendary Brazilian choro flutist, Patpio Silva. In the late twentieth century, the flute has also been essential to promoting Brazilian jazz and experimental music such as that of Hereto Pascals ensemble, O Grupo, of which the multi instrumentalist, Carlos Malta, was the flute player for over two decades. Figure 2 3. Photo of C arlos Malta. (Source: Guido Paterno. Used with permission). In addition to recording as a soloist, Malta has recently formed t wo ensembles of his own, O Coreto Urbano and Pife Muderno, both of whom perform choro as a staple in their repertoire. In addit ion, Maltas performances and recordings and those of his ensembles are well known for the high level of virtuosity they exhibit. The members of Maltas ensembles are virtuosi in

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30 their own rights, and their superb musicianship exceeds the highest standards of musical performance in both the popular and erudite music worlds. Foremost of Maltas ensembles is Pi fe Muderno, a modern, urban banda de p fanos (band of fifes) that blends the Northeast tradition of the zabumba ensemble with improvisation and reinterpretation of traditional musical works, including choro. Together with Andra Ernest Dias7 on flute and p fano, Malta brings a twenty -first century interpretation to choro as well as the long -standing banda de p fa nos tradition.8 Without a doubt, Malta has become one of Brazils most celebrated and important solo flute virtuosi. Figure 2 4. Photo of Pife Muderno with Carlos Malta and Andra Ernest Dias on pifano. (Source: Gal Opido. Used with Permission). 7 Andra Ernest Dias is also a classically trained flutist and the daughter of legendary Brazilian flutist, Odette Ernest Dias. Andra is a member of Roberto Gnattalli`s Orquesta de Msica Brasileira, and also performs at t he Free Jazz Festival. She is a solo recording artist as well. 8 For more information on the traditional banda de p fanos see: (Crook 2005: 7091)

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31 Etym ological and Musical Origins of Choro Origins of the Term Choro In an apt descript ion, Thomas Garcia writes that choro is a general term with di vergent meanings (Garcia 1997: 57). The term choro indeed, describes a number of related ideas. In each case, h owever the term refers to instrumental music .9The etymology of the word choro is less certain, but scholars have posited several plausible possibilities. David App leby and Jos Ramos Tinhoro claim that the word choro comes from the Portuguese word chorar to cry or weepand that the music was called choro because of its melancholy nature. Appleby thus termed the chores the weepers. That would seem to make good sense choros were originally instrume ntal laments (Appleby 1983: 70; Tinhoro 1974: 95) In addition, both Appleby and Tinhoro credit Batista Siqueira as the scholar who originally suggested that the term for choro music could have come from the phrases chorar no pinho (weeping sound of wood, referring to the violo a guitar like instrument in the choro ensemble ) or doce lund chorada (sweet, weeping lund, referring to a popular musical style ), further s ubstantiating their hypothesis (Siqueira 1969: 141). Siqueira also More to the point, choro refers to the instrumental ensemble that plays choro music or it may refer t o any number of popular musical forms called choro. By extension, a choro musician or individual choro ensemble is called a choro and the plural chores signifies groups of choro musicians, as well as the ensembles that play choro music. 9 Sung choro is known as seresta (serenade). Although choro remained throughout time primarily an instrumental genre, the popular vocalist Ademilde Fonseca (b. 1921) began singing choro in 1941 in Rio de Janeiro to a wide audience in clubs and over the radio, reviving the serenade tradition (Appleby 1983: 72; Sque ff and Wisnik 1982: 161).

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32 indicates that choro ensembles were popularly referred to as orquestr as de pau e cordas (orchestras of woodwind and strings)10 in choro's early period (Siqueira 1969: 138) Figure 2 5 Illustration of chores performing in the streets of R io de Janeiro. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro Public Domain ). 10 A similar ensemble in Pernambuco is also known by this name.

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33 Gerard Bhague suggests that the term is a derivative of xlo an Afro Brazilian word for the dance concerts that were performed on certain days o f the year to honor saints (Bhague 1966, p.95) Following Bhague, Ary Vasconcelos asserts that the word xlo does indeed appear in a verse of Jacques Raimundo's O Negro Brasileiro as the term for music performed at Afro Brazilian festivals for So Joo (Vasconcelos 1977a : 14 and 1977b: 21). Vasconcelos mildly refutes Tinhoro, however, claiming that while the tendency to link the choro's melancholy style of music to the word chorar is seductive, a more definitive source can be found in the word choromele iros ,11 a term used to describe certain musical fraternities of Brazil's colonial period.12As stated, the difficulty in defining the term choro is further complicated by the fact that choro refers not only to the instrumental ensemble, but also to the broad repertoire of musical forms played by these ensembles. During this immediate post -colonial period, The choromeleiros played only instrumental music, and Vasconcelos claims that it stands to reason that popular usage of the term choromeleiros would then also refer to their musical compositions as well as their instrumental ensembles. Popular usage would have also shortened choromeleiros to 'choros' for simplicity (Vasconcelos 1977a : 14 and 1977b: 21) 13 11 Choromeleiro can also be translated as "sweet music," from the Greek words, choros melos (Garcia 1997: 58). European musical styles and forms continued to be performed in Brazil, albeit with certain uniquely Brazilian stylistic techniques. In fact, during the second half of the nineteenth century, certain segments of Brazilian society (primarily the cosmopolitan elites) tended to look increasingly to Europe, especially to France, for cultural orientation. Vasconcelos states that most often, when 12 There are various spellings associated with the term c horomeleiro. J. Diniz uses the term chamaleiros to describe these religious brotherhoods (Diniz 1979: 107108). Crook writes that the terms pretos charameleiros and charamelas were also used to describe these musicians as well as the shawm like ins trument played in the ir ensemble s in colonial Pernambuco ( Crook 2005: 3133). 13 In nineteenth century Brazil there was an imperial period with a monarchy (independence from Portugal recognized in 1825) followed by a republic period (beginning 1889).

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34 one refers to choro, one is referring to the repertoire of the chores ; the polkas, waltzes, mazurkas, xotes (schott isches), tango brasileiros and maxixes He goes further in claiming that all popular Brazilian instrumental music that contains at least some element of 'Brazilian' character, may be referred to as choro (Vasconcelos 1984: 10) And as the choro genre de veloped, so did the number of choro musical forms, each influenced by choros particular performance and compositional style. There were choro canes, samba canes, samba choros, chorinhos, maxixes, chorinho maxixes, choro ligeiros, choro serenatas, choro seresteiros, choro meldicos, choro tristes, choro vivos, polca choros, choro estilizados, tango brasileiros, chorinhos brasileiros, and baies .14The fact that many different musical forms both erudite and popular, were all referred to as choro was not a unique situation in Latin America. For instance, i n Cuba, ensembles and musical forms labeled charanga exhibit the same ambiguity. This indicates the dynamic and vibrant quality of these traditions; traditions that are long -standing as well as emergent and evolving even in c ontemporary times. 15In 1958, in an address to the Club de Trois Centres in Paris, Heitor Villa Lobos stated that even European erudite forms could be pointed to as possessing imprecision of definition. He states: One could ask of Chopin if he could explain for example, what is the form of a polonaise or a ballade. Is there a standard form for a Chopin ballade? No. Is there a form for a 14 The term baio would not have been common, however, until the 1940s. 15 For example, Alejo Carpentier s Music in Cuba writes about the time in Caribbean colonial history (the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) where people living in the colonies, who were also attuned to European cultural influences, did not distain popular mass culture. In support, Carpentier wrote that popular music and classical music were, through theoretical analysis, both complicit and i nterdependent and secondly, that music should be analyzed for its social role and not purely by its commercial success. He also revealed popular musics African influences, thereby legitimizing both. According to Carpentier, it was the African derived an d Afro Cuban cultural influences in Cuba that helped erode the distinction between elite and popular music. His innovative genius helped to pioneer the serious study of popular music in Cuba and lay the foundation for acceptance and respectabilit y for all Cuban musical genres. See: ( Carpentier 1946) or : ( Carpentier 2001. Edited by Timothy Brennan; in English).

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35 Chopin bolero? No. Chopin wrote, in his own manner, music according to his own taste, a music of his own understanding. He has given the title scherzo the style of the author. Something he thought of in a different way What is a Choro? The Choro is popular music. The Choro of Brazil, as you could perhaps say about the samba or something else, but truly the Choro, is always of the musicians that play it, of good and bad musicians who play for their pleasure, often through the night, always improvising, where the musician exhibits his talent, his technique. And it is always very sentimental (Villa Lobos 1976: Transcription located in the Liner Notes). Agreeably, resolution of this issue at this point, seems insignificant. What is more important is to understand that over time, popular musi cal forms performed in Brazil, espec ially those with f oundations in European genres, became stylistically less affected by their European antecedents and more influenced by diverse stylistic elements eman ating from other South American16It is pe rhaps no coincidence that the years 18701920 were the vanguard years for rapid development of popular musical forms and hence, the period of choro's greatest popularity. Immense social interchanges were occurring as rural populations of mixed races and s ocio economic backgrounds moved into Brazil's urban centers. There is little doubt that choro was influenced by the different regional styles of music brought to the metropolises by the migrating masses. Vasconcelos goes further to state that during this time, choro represented the urban sensibilities of the people of Rio (1984: 13). Indeed, choro stood at the forefront of Brazil's transformation from a rural c olonial society to a predominant ly urban, modern nation. The choro be came a truly urban phenomenon, a marker for the new way of life created by newly acquired independ ence and growing urbanization. and African and other Brazilian musical forms. This diversity of Brazilian society in newly forming urban centers was manifested in all aspects of popular music composition and performance. In add ition to stylistic variants, the 16 Most notable was the tango brasileiro. Brazilian musicians created a very popular Brazilian musical genre from this popular Argentinean dance f orm.

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36 makeup of popular musical ensembles also underwent transformation. Melodic and harmonic instruments of primarily European origin fused with Afro -Brazilian and indigenous Amerindian percussion instruments in various ensembl es all over Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere throughout Brazil. In addition, European-derived instrumental technique was also transformed via Afro Brazilian performance aesthetics. Musical Characteristics of Choro The first and foremost thing to be said about the musical characteristics of choro is that they were created at, and evolved from, the i ntersection of various musical and cultural traditions Indeed, the fact that choro was fashioned through the confluence of European erudite harmonic and melodic structures Brazilian popular musical forms and Afro Brazilian rhythmic sophistication cannot be understated. What these merging influences created was a musical styl e that grew to national prominence, musically defined the emerging Brazilian nation -state, and continued to be invent ed and reinvent ed as a legitimate Brazilian musical genre until today The principal musical characteristics of choro identify this genre as a popular style of music with erudite musical formal structures. Most choros are comp osed in five or seven -part rondo form ( ABACA form being the most common ). Melodies are supported by sophisticated harmonies and syncopated rhythmic accompaniment that creates counterpoint against the melody line. In early choro, homophonic dance forms s upported the melody by utilizing a simple, constant metric structure. As choro evolved, improvisation (primarily in the melody) took on a greater role and the harmonic/rhythmic structure grew in complexity. Indeed, the m ost prominent of choro characterist ics is its rhythmic balano, or swing. Choros swing has that intangible quality of remaining somewhat indefinable, certainly not easily notated, and yet knowledgeable performers and listeners of choro know exactly how choros swing should sound and feel. In early choros this swing was accomplished by having

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37 the chordophones play rhythmic c ounterpoint against each other.17 The violo play ed the baixaria (bass line)18When the pandeiro was added to the ensemble circa the 1910s this syncopated, characteristic swing in choros rhythmic structure was reinforced. While the basic rhythmic structure for the pandeiro is a constant sixteenth -note pattern in 2/4 meter, the swing in choro requires a good pandeiro player to emphasize the off-beats in a recognizable stylistic configuration Typically, the second or third sixteenth note in each beat will be accented. Stops are another common feature for the pandeiro, whereby the player will suddenly stop the constant rhythm at the cadences and then resume the forward rhythmic push after the break (usually at the beginning of the next section when the melody returns). and steady usually arpeggiated rhythmic chords simultaneou sly while the cavaquinho strummed syncopated rhythmic chords. Both instruments played a syncopated counter rhythm against the melody line, which was often comprised of running sixteenth notes. This swing this interlocking performance technique among the instruments is perhaps the most defining characteristic in pl aying the choro style Further, what this particular relationship between the instruments in the ensemble provide s is a means of musical interaction that allows the performers to engage in a conversation between instruments that balances personal expre ssion with social and musical unity. This ideal balance of musical and social forces is the driving force behind the choro ( Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 9) Regarding the first choro ensembles, Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia write: 17 Choro ensemb les consist of a combination of European, and Europeanderived Brazilian instruments Early European and Europeanderived instruments in the choro ensemble include only aerophones and chordophones, namely: the violo (a six string, guit ar like instrument); the violo de sete cordas ( a seven string guitar like instrument); the cavaquinho ( a ukulelelike instrument); the bandolim (a mandolinlike instrument); and a melody instrument, usually the flute. For more information on the instrumentation of choro ensembles, see the following section in this chapter. 18 The baixaria in choro is an improvised bass line that plays an integral role in cre ating countermelodies.

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38 Late -nineteenth -century choro ensembles typically featured a soloist (usually a flutist or other wind player) who played highly ornamented versions of familiar melodies. The other instruments improvised harmonic and rhythmic accompaniment and provi ded occasional melodic counterpoint. Bass lines and harmony were provided by the cavaquinho and violo [And] although many flute and wind players were able to read m usic and write musical notation [the other] early choro music ians were musically illiter ate that is, the string players (LivingstonIsenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 3). Indeed, most choro musicians wer e skilled amateurs who held day jobs in industry or government service (which was also a characteristic of musicians who played other form s of popular music) and who spent their evenings socializing and engaging in spirited competitions in gatherings called rodas de choro (choro circles) to see who could improvise the most creative accompaniment or virtuosic melody line. As a result, early choro style emphasized improvisation regardless of t he presence of a musical score, a characteristic that has remained a hallmark of choro performance. And, while all of the instruments could be played to exhibit great virtuosity u sing tremendous technica l skill, the flute was more often capable of the kind of flashy showmanship of virtuosic techniques employed in the art music world, techniques such as the use of a variety of tone colors, flutter tonguing, double and triple tonguing, glissandos, and vibra to.19 19 The violo had not yet been established as an art music instrument at this time. Stylistically, virtuosic flute techniques were used to emphasize a lighter style of syncopation, to highlight sophisticated chord progressions, and to integrate instrumental improvisation and thematic variations into the composition as they still do to this day For further clarification, f ormal analysis (with musical examples) of the musical characteristics of choroespecially as they pertain to the flute will be addressed in Chapter Four.

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39 The Organology of Choro Ensembles Choro ensemb les consist o f a combination of European and European-derived Brazilian instruments Early European and European-derived instruments in the choro ensemble include only aerophones and chordophones, namely: the violo (a six -string guitar ); the violo de sete cordas (a seven -string guitar ); the cavaquinho (a four -string, ukulele like instrument); the bandolim (a n 8 to10 -string mandolinlike instrument); and a melody instrument, usually the flute. As choro evolved, other instruments such as the ophecleide (a keyed brass instrument), the clarinet, the trombone, the tuba, the saxophone, and later, the accordion and piano were added And, in the case of the piano, the instrument was also often employed as a solo instrument for performing choro, especially in venues such as the theatre. During the 1910s a small Brazilian hand -drum a membranophone called the pandeiro (a tambourine like instrument ), was included and it remains th e only percussion instrument in the ensemble. Figure 2 6. Photo (Left to right): violo de sete cordas; violo de seis cordas; bandolim; flauta; cavaquinho, and; pandeiro. Photo courtsey of Jos Agusto. Public Domain.

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40 T he violo de seis o sete cordas the bandolim the cavaquinho, the pandeiro, and the flute (or other melodic instrument) have been the primary choro instruments throughout the history of the ensemble These instruments fulfill the four basic requirements for the performance of choro, which are: melody in the top line; harmony in a center voice; the bass line, a nd; the rhythmic structure. In addition, t here are historical and class consideratio ns to observe regarding instrumentation The modern silver (or ebony) flute is a European instrument, initially available only to the elite upper classes and played in s alons and orchestra halls by literate musicians. The chordophones and the pandeiro have a long history of belonging to the more modest classes, and were usually played in rural settings or in the urban neighborhoods of the middle and lower classes. T hese associations: dichotomies of class structure; musical training (literate/oralaural), and; European/ New World attitudes were all embedded into choro instrumentation The Terno: Violo, Cavaquinho, and Flute The earliest choro ensembles consisted of two vi ol es de seis cordas a cavaquinho, and a flute. These ensembles descended from small ensembles that played msica de barbeiros (barbers music)20One of the first choro ensembles, Choro Carioca, was established in 1870 by Joaquim Antnio da Silva Cal l ado Jnior (18481880), a virtuoso flutist and teacher at the Imperial (Souza, et al. 198 8: 48) In early choro ensembles, the violes played the bass and harmony, the cavaquinho played the harmonic / rhythm ic pattern, and the flute played the solo melody. These three instruments, collectively referred to as the terno or pau e corda (wood and strings), constituted the core of the choro ensemble, even after other instruments were a dded to the ensemble over time. 20 Msica de barbeiros was performed by small instrumental groups comprised of freed black slaves who worked in barber shops and were trained in music (Souza, et al. 1988: 48).

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41 Conservatory of Music in Rio de Janeiro. The most popular choro of the decade, Choro Cariocas21 instrumentation consisted of flute, cavaquinho, and two violes de seis cordas At the turn of the century, the addition of the pandeiro22Conjuntos Regionais to this fundamental instrumental lineup created a new standard in choro instrumentation. The rise of the popular ensembles called conjuntos regionais (regional groups) marked the beginning of the professionalization of choro in the se cond decade of the twentieth century. Also d uring this time, Brazilian artists and intellectuals were seeking to forge a distinct Brazilian national identity in reaction to the elites heavy reliance upon European culture. By the end of the 1910s, intel lectuals had begun to locate the source of Brazilian musical identity in African influenced popular music, a position that would have been untenable just a few years earlier (LivingstonIsenhour and Caracas Garca 2005: 80). Around the 1920s, choro became part of this movement when these same artists and intellectuals declared it to be a uniquely Brazilian popular music. Indeed, t he bricolage of popular culture created and recognized during the first half of the twentieth century would ultimately define mo dern Brazil including the formulation of Brazils first radio networks which forge d a truly national ist popular culture As a result, choro musicians were in high demand, not only for their musical skills, but for their symbolic value as representatives of a newly emergent national culture.23 21 The popularity of the Choro Carioca in the 1870s was of great importance to the beginnings of the movement later known as nationalism (Appleby 1983: 72). 22 It has been suggested that the pandeiro was introduced into the chores at the turn of the century by Jac Palmieri, the pandeiro player for Pixinguinhas legendary choro, Os Oito Batutas. Verification, however, is difficult due to limited evidence. 23 One of the most important intellectuals in this process of nationa l identity building was the sociologist Gilberto Freyre. Freyre writes about his first encounter with popular samba and choro musicians during a night that also

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42 By the 1930s the instrumentation of the traditional choro ensemble, the terno include d the pandeir o and the violo de sete cordas essenti ally forming a larger ensemble, the conjunto regional which essentially served as the workhorse for the budding radio industry. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, professional conjuntos regionais in effect all purpose musicians were hired to accompany vocalists and to perform as studio musicians for live radio broadcasts. These conjuntos regionais codified popular musical styles and repertoires and through the media, carried the sound of choro to all corner s of Brazil, where the regional musical styles of Rio de Janeiro became synonymous with a unified national and cultural identity. One of the more popular and important conjuntos was the Regional de Lacerda led by flutist Benedicto Lacerda.24 included some of Brazils best art music composers (Vila Lobos and Gallet), in Rio in 1926. He writes: Invento com os meus amigos Bandeira, Prudente, Rodrigo, Srgio, um grupo de personagens dos quais vamos fazer alguns colaboradores da Revista: J.J. Gomes Sampaio e Esmeraldino Olmpio, entre eles. Srgio e Prudente conhecem de fato literatura inglesa moderna, alm da francesa. timos. Com eles j sa de noite boemiamente. Tambm com Vila Lobos e Gallet. Fomos juntos a uma noitada de violo, com alguma cachaa e com os brasileirssimos Pixinghinha, Patrcio, Donga. I got together with my f riends Bandeira, Prudente, Rodrigo, and Srgio, a group of characters we are going to make collaborators for the Journal : J.J. Gomes Sampaio and Esmeraldino Olmpio, among them. Srgio and Prudente really know modern English and French literature Theyr e tops. I went out for a night of bohemian fun with them. Vila Lobos and Gallet came too. We went out for an evening of guitar music, with a little cachaa [cane liquor] and three true Brazilians [my emphasis], Pixinguinha, Patrcio, and Donga (Freyre 1975: 189). [My translation.]. What this meeting of intellectuals and artists represented was the coming together of the best representatives of two very distinct social groups; Brazils elite upper class and the underclass black and mulatto musicians w ho would help define musically what the elite were constructing intellectually as Brazilian identity. The above passage from Freyres diary shows that these musicians, including the famous choro musician Pixinguinha, played a part in helping to establish Brazilian national identity (and to reinforce political ideology such as mestiagem ) through their direct interactions with Brazilian intellectuals. Also see: (Vianna 1999). Of all the conjuntos regionais employed during this time, Lacerdas ensemble distinguished itself by performing with a high level of virtuosity. Their sound was polished and perfectly suited to the professionalism required by radio and the recording industry. Lacer da, trained in flute and composition at the Instituto Nacional de Msica, was the ideal ensemble leader, having formed several conjuntos regionais before leading the Regional de Lacerda. From 19471953, at the request of radio host Almirante, Regional de Lacerda along 24 For more information on Lacerda, see Chapter Three.

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43 with Pixinguinha performed a weekly radio program of their own titled, Pessoal da Velha Guarda (People of the Old Guard), where they performed the choros of Pixinguinha and other choro composers such as Chiquinha Gonzaga.25 Figure 2 7. Phot o of Regional de Lacerda. ( Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain). Solo Guitar /Violo Perfect for accompanying, and capable as a solo instrument, the violo holds a unique role in the performance of choro. In the choro ensemble, t he role of the violo is two -fold. It must function as harmonic accompaniment as well as play the improvised bass line (the baixaria) that creates countermelodies against the solo melodic lines of the flute. The violo can also perform the solo melodic f unction in the ensemble. As a solo instrument in choro, the violo omits the 25 See: (Koidin 2006)

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44 baixaria in performance and rather, plays a more simple bass line that does not compete with the melodic line. In the early years of choro, s olo violo performers also played th e romantic chorostyle compositions such as the modinha. As choro continued to develop both in the dancehal l environment and in the rodas de choro (choro circles)26One of the most prominent early solo violo performers was Joo Teixeira Guimaraes de Pernambuco (1883 1947). Noted for hi s compositions (especially of the modinha), Pernambuco was also credited with being an excellent educator and masterful technician. The virtuosity he displayed when performing helped to push the limits of the sounds the violo could achieve in a performance setting Another solo guitarist of note was Annibal Augusto Garto Sardinha (19151955). Adept with violo banjo, bandolim and cavaquinho, Gar to played with various chores as a young man and became well known for the challenging harmonies he created as well as the elite salons of Rio, the popularity of the violo began to wane in favor of the piano. T he violo was considered an appropriate instrument for the lower classes, but it had been practically abandoned by the elite. Most v iolo performers of choro in Rio were adept at accompanying in the choro ensemble, especially in the roda s de choro, but it was the solo violo performers that made their mark and rose out of the stigma of lower -class disfavor. 27 26 R oda s de choro are i nformal gatherings of choro musicians historically in the poorer neighborhoods of Brazils urban centers. Musicians sit either in a circle or some other intimate setting, facing each other to facilitate musical communication, especially with the melodic soloist who would often improvise. In r odas de chor o, choro musicians gather together to play for their own entertainment and enjoyment. R odas de choro are now also performed on stage by professional choro musicians. [See page 49 for more information on Joo Pernambuco.] 27 For more information on the solo violo see: (Caracas Garcia 1997: 268 273), and; (Swanson 2004).

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45 Variations in Instrumentation Eventually, the popularity of the choro style of playing allowed it to be incorporated into larger, more established instrumental ensembles such as the civic and military bands that were beginning to play these new choro musical forms in public squares. These ensembles included brass and woodwind reed instrumen ts such as the ophecleide the clarinet, the trombone, the tuba, and the saxophone in their instrumentation. Tinhoro writes that ensembles such as the Corpo de Marinheiros (Sailors Band), Corpo Policial da Provncia do Rio de Janeiro (Police Band of the Province of Rio de Janeiro), Guarda Nacional (National Guard), and Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Jane iro (Firemens Band of Rio de Janeiro) were all playing choro music during the late nineteenth century (Tinhoro 1974: 98). In addition, these bands were an integral part of Brazils Carni val celebrations and combin ed choro styles and sensibilities with the popular Carnival sambas of the day to create maxixes choro-sambas, etc. Choros link to these emerging civic and military bands is logical given the prominent role of the flute in both ensembles. This link also reinforces the popular nature of the mus ic being performed. In addition, t hese ensembles could be characterized as poor mans orchestras and the musicians who performed choro would most likely be the same as those participating in these bands. The Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro was directed by Anacleto de Medeiros (18861907) one of the first musicians to incorporate this new choro style into his ensemble and repertoire and the first musician to notate arrangements for these civic and military bands. Anacleto was the son of a freed slave and began his formal musical training i n 1884 when he enrolled at the Conservatrio de Msica, where he studied flute. He also performed in the Companhia de Menores do Arsenal de Guerra (Company of Childrens Arsenal of War)

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46 ensemble. In addition to his work with the military bands, Anacleto was also performed with his neighborhoods local roda de choro (Livingston -Isenhour and Caracas Garca 2005: 6972). Figure 2 8. Photo of the Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Rio de Janeiro. Anacl eto de Medeiros is seated in the middle. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain). In this chapter, evidence has shown that early flutists/composers were instrumental in helping to establish choro as a prominent Brazilian musical styl e and for increasing its popularity through flute performance practices within the choro ensemble. Examination of the musical characteristics of chorosuch as syncopation and improvisation identified choro as a popular style of music with erudite tendenci es and musical formal structures. Analysis of the role of the conjuntos regionais and other important ensembles and instrumentations showed their importance in the history and evolution of choro. In the next chapter, I will explore how Brazilian musical forms such as the lund, modinha, and maxixe, as well as the principal

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47 flutists/composers of choro, helped to move choro from a stylistic variant of popular musical genres into a distinct genre.

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48 CHAPTER 3 THE PROGRESSION OF CHORO REPERTORY: FROM STYLE TO FORMAL GENRE Popular Brazilian Music and the Antecedents of C horo T he historical trajectory of choro went from a style of playing various genres of popular music by amateur musicians from the underclass to a unique genre of music in its own righ t. How choro moved historically from a style to the genre of music we can identify today as distinctly choro owes much of the credit for this evolution to its popularity and the virtuosity required to perform the music. Through historical analysis, w e can chart how performance practices of urban popular salon genres such as the polca, lund, modinha, maxixe, waltzes, mazurkas, and xotes (schottisches) moved composers and performers towards codifying the choro style of performance practic e into a formal musical genre. In 1847, the composer Francisco Manuel da Silva (17951865) founded the Music Conservatory of Rio de Janeiro and in 1855, the conservatory was annexed to the newly created Academy of Fine Arts. In 1857, the Imperial Academy of Music and National Opera was established and succeeded by the Opera Lrica Nacional in 1860. These centers were instituted to "promote the cultivation of art" in music (Bhague 1979: 111). Through professional association with these centers, composers began to create works that were increasingly influenced by local musical styles and literary themes of a nationalist nature.1 1 Indeed, the establishing of cultural centers that represent the nationstate is a typical characteristic of nationalism and nation building. More importantly, they also learned to develop a "gradual liberation from an exaggerated reverence for things European" (Appleby 1983: 60). Antnio Carlos Gomez (18361896), the most successful opera composer in Brazil in the nineteenth century, composed his famous opera, Il Guarany in 1871. The final version of his overture to Il Guarany with its Amerindian heroes and romantic

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49 stylization of indigenous dances, became a virtual national anthem for Brazil.2Equal ly significant during this period were the folk and popular musical forms that were being performed in the urban areas and rural towns throughout Brazil. Composers such as Joaquim Antonio Callado Jnior (18481880), Chiquinha Gonzaga (18471935), Ernesto Naz areth (18631934), and later, Rad a m s Gnattali (1906 1988), all composed music on the boundary between sounds of the streets and those of the concert halls [They] had already built solid bridges between ethnic and social differences in their music, be fore those who were referred to as highbr ow artists (Arajo 2000: 118). These composers were also important in shaping the historical trajectory of choro. Through works like Il Guarany treatment of Brazilian subjects maintained a symbolic value of social significance in the form of nation al and racial ideas (Bhague 1979: 115) The popular urban genres in which they composed especially the European salon genres such as the polka, waltz, mazurka, schottische, and quadrille were critical to the process of n ationalizing Brazilian music through t he modification of these forms with local stylistic elements Two new forms of uniquely Brazilian popular music, in particular evoluti ons o f African and Portuguese forms provided a mirror for the formation of national elements and eventually provided a musical language with readily dis tinguishable national elements (Appleby 1983: 60). They were the lund, and the modinha, the precurs ors of choro. 2 It is interesting note that the libretto for Il Guarani was written in Italian, a good indication th at the cultural appeal of European expressive cultureand in this case, Italian opera and European exoticism was very strong in Brazil during this time of nationstate building. Related, the Indianist literary, intellectual, and artistic movement in Brazil was also a factor in the creation of this opera. Indeed, from the late 1700s until the beginning of the nineteenth century, Brazilian intellectuals and artists celebrated the Amerindian in the most coherent cultural nationalist movement before Modernism. Brazils most famous novelist, Machado de Assis, the father of Brazilian Romanticism, helped to make Indianism the dominant expression of Romanticism in Brazil following independence. More than this, under the direct patronage of the Emperor, Dom Pedro II, Indianism was a major pillar of the Empires project of state building, the single most important object of artistic and political reflection to exercise the minds of its intellectual elite for more than half a century (Treet 2000:5). The persistenc e of the Romantic image of the Indian into the bourgeois culture of the belle poque, helped to create the most famous imaginary hero of all, the Guarani Indian, Peri.

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50 Lund The lund is recognized by many scholars as the first truly Brazilian musical form and has now become with the modinhathe musical symbol of the emergence of a Brazilian national identity in the nineteenth century The lund was first practiced in the early 1700s as an AfroBrazilian dance popular among blacks and mulatto e s, and was brought to Brazil by t he Bantu from Angola. The dance was immediately condemned by the Catholic Church because of its often sexual connotations, especially its use of the umbigada, a dance movement that simulates intercourse b y having dancers touch navels.3At the end of the eighteenth century, a dance salon style of the lund emerged and was characterized by a lively tempo, syncopated rhythms, and comical or satirical themes, pro ducts of its African heritage. The dance salon lund was then replaced around the 1860s by the lund song style. T he umbigada is a choreographic element of most Afro Brazilian da nces and the use of the umbigada distinguishes these dances as African derived ( Bhague 1966). 4Mrio de Andrade wrote that the lund was the first form of African derived Brazilian music whose Europeanization is defined by complete acceptance of European harmonic tonality. He claimed the lund (rather than the modinha) as the first uniquely Brazilian music due to the lunds acceptance by white elite society, the transformation it made from African folk dance to urban song, and the social significance that came with that transformation (Andrade 1944). Bhague claims t hat this transformation and recognition of an African art form by the white elite At this time, both the lund and the modinha were being refined as verse forms by Brazilian poets of the n ineteenth century. 3 Despite this condemnation by the Catholic Church, the lund remained a popular and oft en practiced dance genre, both in Brazil as well as in Portugal. 4 The lunds popularity as an Africanderived dance form, however, remained strong especially among the rural population in Bahia, Brazil until the early twentieth century.

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51 was not so much a matter of acceptance on behalf of the white population as it was a matter of acculturation and the result of miscegenation during a time when incorporation of African cultural retentions was rapidly and easily being assimilated into urban life. The assimilation of these traditions came about as a social process of accommodation. This social accommodation had its musical counterpart in the hybrid forms that appeared at the end of the nineteenth century (Bhague 1966: 46). Figure 3 1. 1835 i llustration of the lund by Johann Moritz Rugendas (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain). The lund was the first of these hybrid styles to reach national significance. Also during this time, important erudite music composers such as Ernesto Nazareth were composing popular

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52 songs with European and African -derived musical elements to great success. Indeed, Nazareth is credited with nationaliz ing the polka in Brazil through his polca-lund compositions. The lund then progressed from a dance and song form to the parent form for urban popular music forms such as the maxixe and the samba Musically, the urbanization of the lund transformed it f rom an African -derived folk tradition to a style that began to incorporate primarily the harmonic and melodic notions of the Romantic erudite music composers of Brazil. Harmonically, modulations became more characteristic. The melodic line of the lund, with ascending and descending phrases of repeated notes, remained stable in the composed, urban lund. Importantly, the lund had become the first step toward integrating the stylistic elements of black Afro Brazilian music such as improvisation and syncopation, into popular genres, a technique choro musicians were soon to follow Modinha Emerging simultaneously in Portugal and Brazil beginning in the late eighteenth century, the modinha is important as the precursor of Brazilian art songs in the vernacular The product of a number of influences such as European art music and the moda, a Portuguese folk genr e the modinha is important for the way it influenced Brazilian and Portuguese erudite music composers of note during the late eighteenth and entir e nineteenth centuries. 5 5 Additionally, [in] the case of Brazil the modinha introduced European characteristic elements which became associated with the nat ional traits of popular music (Bhague 1966: 48). The modinha is also important in that it experienced a reverse transformation, from that of an art song genre into an urban popular genre Indeed, the modinha can be categorized as having undergone a transmigration of styles. The European waltz influenced the modinha, and then the modinha influenced the popular salon waltz in Brazil, which then became a sentimental song form that

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53 evolved into the valsa -chro, which in turn, influenced and was cultivated by art music composers such as Camargo Guarnieri and Osvaldo Lacerda. The modinha first emerged as a sentimental art song with an aria cantabile character in the salons and concert halls of Portugals and Br azils elite classes during Brazils Second Empire (18401889). T he modinha eventually evolved in and around the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Salvador Bahia at the beginning of the belle poque of Brazilian popular music from about 1870 until 1920when th e 1888 abolition of slavery led to mass migrations from rural areas to the cities and towns .6In the early 1870s, the modinhawith its melodic na ture, its romantic spirit, and influences from Italian opera began appearing in public settings, often sung as serenades Composers of art music began writing modinhas and nascent choro groups began playing these popular art songs with greater frequency. The popularity of the modinha then rapidly spread throughout Brazil via oral/aural transmission as well as through the publication of sheet music. The nineteenth -century modinhas in Brazil then develop ed along two basic trends. One trend elaborate, aria like modinhas reflected thei r Portuguese origins and Italian aria cantabile influences. A second trend produced sentimental bal lads of a romantic character. These ballads were suitable for serenades or serestas as they were called and serenading quickly became a performance context and style that appealed to choro musicians.7 6 This period also witnessed the emergence of choro in its earliest form s. 7 According to Bhague, the exact instrumentation for the performance of these early modinhas is difficult to ascertain, primarily because modinhas were typically written without accompaniment. Anecdotal accounts claim the violo was the instrument of choice, but Bhague believes that the piano, due to its prominent role in the households and salons of the elite, was perhaps the most popular instrument, especially given that most modinha performers and accompanists knew the basic harmonies and rhythmic structures of each piece simply from realizing the melodic line. Indeed, the modinha was that formulaic (Bhague 1966).

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54 During the 1910s, Catulo da Paixo Cearense (1866 1946) ,8 a composer and violo player from the Northeastern interior (the serto ), introduced stylized rural variants of the modinha to the salons of elite society in Rio de Janeiro.9 Although the social and racial lines were still clearly delineated at this time, Catulo, known to be a superb musician, was able to overcome these obstacles by nature of his musical talents and was therefore often invited to perform modinhas in the homes of the carioca10 elite. Catulo introduced the violo a s a socially respectable native instrument and initiated a trend towards the increasing popularity of Brazilian pastoral songs and poetry performed in elite settings.11Perhaps the most important guitarist and composer of popular modinhas during this time was Joo Teixeira Guimaraes de Pernambuco (1883 1947). Also residing in Rio de Ja neiro after migrating from the N ortheast, Joo de Pernambuco being musically nonliterate used to give his compositions to other musicians to transcribe and consequently, m any of his compositions were stolen from him as unscrupulous musicians p enned their own names to Pernambucos songs. A notable example is the song Luar do Serto, written in 1911 in partnership with Catulo. The composition became extremely popular and important as the unofficial Brazilian Vasconcelos credits Catulo with bring ing the modinha to its full splendor through his innovative compositional techniques and claims that Catulo produzira algumas das mais belas canes populares brasileiras de todos os tempos (Catulo produces some of t he most beautiful Brazilian popular songs of all time ) (Vasconcelos 1977 a : 23) [M y translation.] 8 See: (Severiano e Homen de Mello 1997) and (Vasconcelos 1977a). 9 Although he had moved to Rio much earlier, it was not until the 1910s that Catulo had begun to make his influence. 10 Carioca is a term used to characterize people who were born and live in Rio de Janeiro. 11 D uring the colonial period, most composers of art music also composed modinhas and other popular forms usually on co mmission in the prevailing popular Brazilian styles.

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55 anthem, and during that time, Catu lo claimed sole credit for the composition. Only in recent years has Pernambuco been given the credit he deserved as co-composer. Pernambucos association with Catulo, nonetheless, provided him with access to the salons and theatres of Rios elite at whose soires Pernambuco was also often invited to play. In 1914, Pernambuco formed the hugely successful choro ensemble, O Grupo de Caxang whic h counted Pixinguinha among its mem bers. The ensemble introduced northeastern percussion and culture into the southeast of Brazil and remained extremely popular until 1919 (Crook 2005). Pernambuco also performed with Pixinguinha's famous choro ensemble, Os Oito Batutas and Os Turunas Pernambucanos for a number of years. W ith Pixinguinha Pernambuco toured Brazil colle cting Brazilian folkloric music. He also began recording for the first Brazilian recording label, Casa Edison.12Maxixe In urban centers such as Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo b etween approximately 1914 and 1922, Brazil experienced the rise of another form of popular music and dance, the maxixe. The maxixe is a provocative song and dance style that originated in the dancehalls in Rio de Jane iro as early as the 1880s. A combination of folk and popular dance styles, the maxixe was first performed primarily by middle and lower class Afro Brazil ians in private party settings and much like the lund of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, t he maxixe dance was frequently considered erotic (Bhague 1966) Wildly controversial, the maxixe dance became a mainstay in the Carnival celebrations in Rio and gradually evolved into the modern urban samba (Livingston -Isenhour and Caracas Garci a 2005). Bhague states that in fact, the choreographic element of the maxixe is one of its 12 See: (Crook 2005: 235251)

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56 most important aspects. Not only does it provide the best example of an authentic Brazilian urban dance, but it also offers the best illustration of the accultu ration process (Bhague 1966: 68). Various international influences Afro -Cuban, AfroBrazil, and European dance styles went into creating the maxixe Elements of folk dances such as the batuque cateret and lund, combined with the polc a and the habanera to come together in the maxixe In its early phase, the title maxixe seems to have been more an indication of temp o rather than a distinct style probably because Afro Brazilian aesthetics required that p olca -maxixes and tango-maxixes were to be danced to faster tempos than regular polcas and tangos Regarding its musical components, the maxixe offered pleasing melodic lines, but they were heavily overpowered by the rhythmic vitality in the accompanying lines. Indeed, rhythmic compl exity dominates the style. The Afro Cuban habanera rhythm is a characteristic feature of the maxixe, a characteristic it shares with other Latin American popular dance forms, such as the tango, of the nineteenth century. The Afro Brazilian rhyt hm [ See Fi gure 3 -2 ] was also an important stylistic element Tinhoro states that it was the Afro Brazilian rhythm that was adopted and adapted to the immensely popular polka that created the maxixe. Figure 3 2 Syncopated rhythmic pattern characteristic of Afro Brazilian genres. A somewhat tamed version of the maxixe eventually evolved and began appearing in the elite salons in the early twentieth century. Due to its previously pejorative connotation, the style was then referred to as a tango or a tango brasileiro. Nazareth was famous for composing maxixes that he then renamed tango-brasileiro s These compositions were little more than highly stylized and slightly more harmonically sophisticated versions of the maxixe but the connotati on stuck and the works remained identified as tangos So pervasive was the popularity

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57 of the maxixe and its subsequent styles that Tinhoro claims that the maxixe was, without question, the first important contribution to Brazilian popular music by the underclass of Rio de Janeiro (Tinhoro 1974: 59). Important Contributors to the Genre: The Chores Instrumental choro developed in the last decades of the nineteenth century as somewhat of a modified successor to the modinha, the lund, and the maxixe. The composers of these popular forms utilized sixteenth -century western European musical sensibilities and introduced these harmonic and melodic structures into the salon genres such as the waltz, polka, tango, fox -trot, schottische, quadrille, etc. Composers in Rio de Janeiro then infused these popular forms with an African rhythmic vitality, i.e. a unique swing that stemmed from the influence of African rhythms brought to the New World by enslaved Africans. At this point in history, it is interestin g to note that Brazilian composers were making no real clear distinction between popular and art music. Many of them, such as Ernesto Nazareth spent their days composing art music in the conservatories and spent their evenings playing popular musical for ms on the piano in movie theatres and bars. Ernesto Nazareth was one of Brazils most i mportant and prolific composers of erudite and popular music Influenced by the nineteenth -century virtuoso performer and composer Frdric Chopin (18101849), as well as by the American pianist Louis Moreau Gottshalk (18291869), Nazareth spent much of his career playing piano in theatres as accompaniment for silent films. It was while perfor ming in the famous Teatro Odeonthe site of Rio de Janeiros first showing of silent films that Nazareth composed his homage to the famous landmark, the choro Odeon. It was also at the Odeon that Nazareth met the erudite composer Heitor Villa -Lobos (18871959) who was a cellist in the orchestra, and who later based some of his own compositions on Nazareths choros

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58 Figure 3 3. Photo of Ernesto Nazareth. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain. http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artis ta=214. Last accessed March 2, 2009). W hile many choro composers spent their lives composing and performing for the lower classe s, Nazareth took great pains to distance himself from other choro musicians and members of the common classes. He chose instead to compose and perform for the elite, often avoiding the use of popular terminology, such as maxixe and choro, in the naming of his compositions. For Nazareth, a choro was named a polca and a maxixe was named a tango brasileiro. The piece, Odeon, was labeled a tango by Nazareth.

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59 Figure 3 4. Photo of the Teatro Odeon. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain). In analyzing the music of Odeon, it is evident that t he ornamentatio n of the melodic line includes the wide leaps, the use of grace notes, and chromaticism typical of the instrumental works including the popular style called polca. In Odeon, we also find appoggiaturas in the

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60 bass and the raising of the third of the tonic when in the minor key. Harmonically, the piece shifts from minor to major in a seven -part rondo form, compositional techniques that had become by this time in Brazil, a national trait. Indeed, Nazareth was, and is still, considered an important nationalist composer. Another important choro composer of note was Francisca Edwiges Neves Ch iquinha Gonzaga (18471935). Gonzaga is noteworthy not only because she was a woman i n the maledominated world of music composition, but she gave choro proof of existence according to Tinhoro, with her 1889 composition, S no Choro (Only in Choro) (Tinhoro 1974, p.96). Figure 3 5 Photo of Chiquinha Gonzaga. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain. http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artis ta=134. Last accessed March 2, 2009).

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61 Gonzaga, the daughter of a highranking military official and a socialite mother, was privileged and well educated. Her family married her to a military official at thirteen but the marriage failed. Gonzaga found herself cut off from family funds after the failure of a second relationship so she turned to teaching piano and composing as a way to earn a living. Due to her extensive musical education in art music, Gonzaga quickly developed a keen interest in composing dramatic and operatic music. She also began to develop stylistic links to Callado as well as ideological connections to the new trends of composition with national subjects and musical style (Appleby 1983, p.76). In 1899, Gonzaga was commissioned to write a song for the Cordo Rosa de Ouro for their Carnaval parade. Gonzaga composed Abre Alas (Make Way), the first registered marcha as well as the first song ever written specifically for Carnaval. The composition of all subsequent marchas (or marchinhas ) has been based on this s ong form developed by Gonzaga. Gonzaga was also the first woman in Brazil to conduct a military band. Not only was Gonzaga a social and musical groundbreaker, she was prolific as a composer as well. Throughout her life, Gonzagas production of popular Br azilian dances such as the lund, modinha, and maxixe along with her compositions of tangos and polkas is said to number at almost two thousand. While undoubtedly an exaggeration, none -the -less, Gonzagas contribution to popular Brazilian music is profoun d. In 1877, Gonzaga wrote one of her first choro works, Atraente, a polka in the improvisational style of the chores The piece included stylistic elements reminiscent of Callado, with chromaticism, octave leaps, repeated notes in the melodic line, and alternating melodic elements between the flute, clarinet, and cavaquinho.

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62 It is worth noting that Brazilian composers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were likewise influenced by American composers and performers of jazz and specif ically, ragtime. Because the piano played such a pivotal role in the composition and performances of these jazz and ragtime pieces, Brazilian composers also used the instrument as a tool for composing popular songs, as well as employing it as the instrume nt of choice when performing from written scores. These written scores were then assimilated aurally by the musically non literate string and percussion choro musicians who learned the tunes and then added their own improvisations. This relationship betwe en oral/aural traditions versus notated music went both ways. The influence of the oral/aural traditions of folk and popular forms on the newly notated compositions of these versatile composers came about through changes in critical socio-cultural circumstances between 1890 and 1920. During this time, there was a large movement of populations from the rural to the urban areas in Brazil, primarily as a result of the abolition of slavery in 1888, when large numbers of newly freed slaves, added to the influx of Europeans fleeing Napoleons invasions, settled in the colonial centers of the New World. This shift in demographics gave rise to socio cultural interactions between diverse populations which in turn led to the eventual acceptance of Afro Brazi lian and rural folk traditions by the elite, which again in turn facilitated the push to establish a national identity, a major concern of the government at the time. These combined circumstances manifested themselves in the transformation of European sal on genres and African rhythms into uniquely Brazilian compositions. As mentioned in Chapter Two, the solo me lodic instruments, primarily the flute, were the instruments that made it possible to build this compositional bridge between the popular and erudit e music worlds. In addition, the first notable choro composers were also flutists who wrote

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63 melody lines that called for virtuosic performance techniques specific to the instrument. Equally important was the fact that it was often only the flute player s who could read music and therefore instruct the other choro musicians in the performance of the song. For example, the famous samba -choro, Tico Tico no Fub, ( The Tico Bird in the Cornmeal ) was composed by the famous flutist and prolific composer of Brazilian popular music, Zequinha de Abreu (18801935) Tico Tico no Fub placed tremendous technical demands on its performers, and was also immensely popular A canon in the literature of popular Brazilian music, Tico Tico is one of the most recoded Brazilia n songs of all time.13In the 1940s, Carmen Miranda, the Brazilian Bombshell, brought Brazilian popular music to the rest of the world through her interpretations of popular sambas and choros 14 13 The confirmation of this fact proven by checking just one CD website (allbrazilianmusic.com) where it showed over 50 different recordings of Tico Tico by various groups and solo performers. Indeed, there is hardly a compilation of Brazilian music that does not include this well known song. Somewhat sanitized, according to Brazilian sources, to appeal to a white North American and European audience, Miranda made Tico Tico a standard in her repertoire. A darling of Hollywood, Miranda sang Tico Tico in the 1947 Marx Brothers film Copacabana dressed i n a hi ghly stylized and exotic costume made to bear a resemblance to the clothing worn by women from the state of Bahia, complete with large hoop earrings, and a basket of fruit on her head. Tico Tico also appeared in Disneys animated film Saludos Amigos featuring Donald Duck. It was sung by a parrot by the name of Jos, or Z Carioca, with a silhouette of Carmen Miranda dancing in the background. In the case of TicoTico, what was considered one of most technically demand ing virtuosic pieces to perform ultimately became popular nationalist music. 14 In Brazil, Miranda was often the singer for the conjunto regional Banda da Lua.

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64 Flutists/Composers Joaquim Antnio da Silva Callado Jnior (1848-1880) Foram convidar um lacednio a ir ouvir um homem que imitava com a boca o canto do rouxinol. Eu j ouvi o rouxinol, respondeu ele. A mim quando me falaram de um homem que tocava flauta com as mos, respondi: Eu j ouvi o Callado. They invite d a Lacedonian to go hear a man who imitated with his mouth the song of the nightingale. I have heard the nightingale, he replied. When they spoke to me of this man who played the flute with his hands, I replied: I have heard Callado. (Assis 1986: 338339) [My translation ] The most important flutist/ composer in the creation of the choro style was Joaquim Antnio da Silva Callado Jnior also known as the Father of Choros Callado was a contemporary and friend of Chi quinha Gonzaga and it was her company that he first experienced popular musical forms The son of a prominent classical musician, Callado was trained in the academy as a chi ld and established his solo flute virtuoso career by performing for the Imperial Court in 1866, when he was just eighteen years of age. His first major success as a composer came one year later with the publishing of his quadrille, Carnaval de 1867. Som etime around 1870, Callado formed the group Choro Carioca, using conventional terno instrumentatio n. By this time, the flute had become the preferred melodic instrument for the terno15 15 The flute replaced the charamela, which w as gradually disappearing into obscurity. See: (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 61) due to its superior range and capacity for dynamic contrast. It was al so not uncommon for the flute player in the terno to assume a leadership position due to the fact that oft

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65 times, it was only the flutist who could read music and compose harmonic arrangements for the ensemble. Figure 3 6. Illustration of Joaquim Antnio da Silva Callado. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro Public Domain ).

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66 What is also important about Callado is that he is credited with using the term choro for the first time to describe his ensemble. While Callados terno was not a new i nstrumentation indeed, the terno had already become the core of instrumental ensembles played by the black choromeleiro and barbeiros groups located in the underclass neighborhoods of Rio what was unique about Gr upo Carioca was the fact that Callado was one of the first composers to require that his violo player provide a baixaria when the group performed.16By 1871, Callado was considered the best flute player in Brazil and was appointed to the Conservatrio de Msica, a perfect example of how easily and expertly early choro composers and performers straddled the art and popular music worlds. Callado earned his living by performing and com posing erudite music, but it was his participation in the rodas de choro and as leader of Gr upo Carioca where he found his calling. He performed choro with all of the most important performers and composers of popular music in Brazil and he especially enj oyed performing with solo guitar virtuoso, Saturnino (ca. 18451905) This essentially changed not only the roles of the instrumentation, but it affect ed both the style of the music and the manner in which the instruments related to one another. In addition, Callado was one of the first well known musicians to play polkas in the new choro style, over which he exerted considerable influence (Livingston-I senhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 67). Besides requiring the violo player to provide a baixaria, Callado also wrote out the harmonic progressions for the pieces Gr upo Carioca performed, one of the first composers to do so. 17In 1867, at the age of nineteen, Callado composed his most famous choro, a polc a -choro titled Fl r Amorosa. Fl r Amorosa is unique in that it foreshadowed the main melodic 16 See: (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 6668) 17 See: (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 6668)

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67 charact eristics of the mature choro by over thirty years, characteristics such as octave leaps, a lively and embellished melody, chromaticism, and a fast tempo. The most notable difference between other early choros and Callados music as exemplified in Flr Amorosa is the rhythmic component. The melody is dominated by sixteenth-note runs and the accompaniment is dominated by the Afro-Brazilian rhythm and variants on that pattern (Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005: 68). [See Figure 3 2 for an exa mple of the Afro -Brazilian rhythm.] Figure 3 7. Musical e xcerpt from Flr Amorosa. Public Domain. Patpio Silva (1880-1907) Patpio Silva is considered one of the major flute virtuosos in the history of Brazilian popular music and was one of the pion eers of the early recording industry in Brazil. He was classically trained at the Instituto Nacional de Msica in Rio de Janeiro by Duque Estrada Meyer (18481905), a student of Callado and the result of this extensive cons ervatory training is evident in the recording s he made for the Odeon recording l abel

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68 Figure 3 8. Photo of Patpio Silva. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain. http://www.al lbrazilianmusic.com/en/artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artis ta=455. Last Accessed: March 14, 2009). For example, Primeiro Amor a waltz -choro recorded in 1906, is accompanied by piano rather than the full choro ensemble.18 18 A recent release of historic recordings by the Biscoito Fino label, Memrias Musicais features several performances by Patpio Silva. See: ( Memrias Musicais, BF 6011--BF 601 15). This was a common practice in the salons of the elite, for indeed, Silvas audience was the elite of the federal capital. It was as well, a reflection of the way in which the protocols of art music performance specifically the use of piano to accompany solo instrumentalists as in the sonatabridged over into the performance of popular styles. The use of piano as accompaniment also speaks to inherent class distinctions, as the elite were able to

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69 afford expensive instruments such as a piano, yet the working class relied more on the violo cavaquinho, and pandeiro in the performance of choro. What is heard in this recording is an excellent example of some of the most difficult and demanding virtuosic flut e techniques, including rapid sixteenth-note phrase s, double tonguing, two -octave arpeggios, and slurred octave leaps. What is also particularly challenging to wind instrumentalists in performing choro is finding places to breathe (and to swallow) between phrases. It is certainly more difficult than it w ould seem and Silva plays the piece seamlessly. Another notable virtuosic quality is Silvas fast, deep, and consistent vibrato, a nother product of his conservatory training. Pixinguinha Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Jnior (1898-1973) To say t hat Pixinguinha was a monument in popular Brazilian music is an understatement. His reputation in the world of conservatory trained musicians as a virtuoso flutist, as well as a composer of sophisticated popular music, can also be described through another quote by cont emporary choro flutist Daniel Dalarossa. He writes, I perfectly recall the first day of my flute class with the late Professor Joo Dias Carrasqueira. Right after introducing myself, I was immediately asked: Why would you like to learn to play the fl ute? [I answered,] Because I want to learn to play Pixinguinha, Bach and Vivaldi ( Dalarossa 2009). Pixinguinha was born Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Filho on April 23, 1898 in Piedade, in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He was born into a musical family and learned to play the flute from his father Alfredo, after whom he was named. As a child, he also learned to play the cavaquinho. In 1911, at the age of twelve, Alfredo bought Pixinguinha an expensive Italian flute and contracted Irineu de Alameida to teach his son flute and music theory.

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70 Figure 3 9 Photo of Pixinguinha. (Source: All Brazilian Music. Public Domain. http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Arti sta=477. Last Accessed: March 14, 2009). Pixinguinha grew to become a founding father of samba and is often considered the greatest choro musician of all time Through his w ork as an arranger, virtuoso instrumentalist, conductor, and composer, Pixinguinha revolutionized popular music in Brazil in the twentieth century. In The Mystery of Samba, Hermano Vianna cites an important episode in the transformation of samba into a "national" music involving an encounter between Pixinguinha, anthropologist Gilberto Freyre, and their respective friends (1999).19 19 Vianna refers to Pixinguinha throughout the book as a sambista (Vianna 1999) Freyre had become

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71 interested in Pixinguinha via his role as maestro20Pixinguinha was a virtuoso flutist, saxophonist, pianist, and percussionist, an d was an expert improviser on all of these instruments. As a composer, he wrote in almost every style of popular Brazilian music played during his lifetime : choros polcas valsas sambas samba canes, choro canes, maxixes, shottishes, marcha ranchos, choro ligeiros, choro ser enatas, choro seresteiros, choro meldicos, choro tristes, choro vivos, and baies (Carrasqueira 1997). All in all, Pixinguinha is credited with over 600 compositions. of the Companhia Negra d e Revistas (The Black Revue Company), Brazil's first all -black theatre group from Rio, one of many of Pixinguinha's landmark achievements In 1910, as an eleven-year ol d child, Pixinguinha founded Gr upo do Pixinguinha. In 191 1, Pixinguinha began to play with the carnival group Grmio Filhas da Jardineira. Also during that year, he composed his first choro, Lata de Leite (Can of Milk). Downey lists Pixinguinha's first recording unnamed in his article as occurring sometime i n 19101911 with the group Pessoal de Bloco for the Casa de Faulhaber label ( Downey 2002). Pixinguinha made his first recordingan interpretation of Irineu de Alameida's tango brasileiro, So Joo debaixo d'gua (St. John under the Water) in 1915 with the group Choro Carioca ( McGowan and Pessanha 1998). By 1914 Pixinguinha had become a band member and the principal composer of the Carnaval bloco, Grupo do Caxang. Most importantly, in 1917, Pixinguinha founded the Choro Pixinguinha, which two years lat er became Os Oito Batutas (The Eight Masters). Os Oito 20 Throughout his care er, Pixinguinha led a number of important ensembles, among them: Os Oito Batutas; the Orquestra Tpica Pixinguinha Donga; the Diabos do Cu; the Guarda Velha; and the Orquestra Columbia de Pixinguinha.

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72 Batutas made up of Pixinguinha and his most talented colleagues from Grupo do Caxang21 was very important in the history of Brazilian music.22 Its members all stood at the vanguard of Brazilian popula r music and helped transfer Brazilian popular music into elite musical settings (Downey 2002). Figure 3 10. Photo of Os Oito Batutas Pixinguinha is the first on the left. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain). Os Oito Batutas played its first engagement at the Cinema Palais movie theatre in Rio in 1919. At the request of the theatre manager, Isaac Prankel, they played choros maxixes 21 Pixinguinha's fellow bandmate Donga (Ernesto Joaquim Maria dos Santos, 18891974) is credited with composing the first samba carnavalesco, "Pelo Telefone" in 1916. The piano sc ore was written by Pixinguinha (Downey 2002) 22 Os Oito Batutas was the first ensemble of its kind to include the pandeiro, ganz, and reco reco with their usual instrumentation of cavaquinho, mandolin, guitar, piano, and vocals ( McGowan and Pessanha 1998).

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73 modinhas and lunds in the foyer of the theatre, something black musicians h ad never before been allowed to do. Sometimes they were asked to accompany the action on the screen; however, they were not allowed to play on stage, as the stage was reserved for white musicians. Os Oito Batutas became so popular that some patrons paid just to hear Pixinguinha and did not attend the movie. It has been written many times that Ernesto Nazareth, pianist at the Odeon Theatre, was one of Os Oito Batutas's biggest fans. Beginning in 1922, Os Oito Batutas took a legendary tour through Europe p romoting Brazilian music. They were taken to Europe by promoter Arnaldo Guinle to accompany Duque and Gaby, a famous pair of maxixe dancers Initially, some Brazilian elite were outraged as they did not want primitive and barbaric" music representing Bra zil.23While in Europe, Os Oito Batutas became influenced by the European foxtrot orchestras and jazz bands that were on tour from the United States. As a res ult, Os Oito Batutas began to add foxtrots, shimmies and ragtime to their repertory, as well as adding the clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, and trombone to the instrumentation needed to play them (McGowan and Pessanha 1998; Perrone and Dunn 2001). And altho ugh Pixinguinha is remembered primarily as a flutist, he actually recorded more pieces on the tenor sax, an instrument he adopted in the 1920s in a n effort to gain the louder sound and greater sonority needed to play the large halls in Paris. After Pixinguinha and Os Oito Batutas, however, were enthusiastically received in Europe, especially in Paris, where they were so well accepted that they remained in the city and were therefore unable to complete the rest of their itinerary. On their return trip to Brazil, they made a recording for RCA Victor in Buenos Aires to much acclaim ( Gilman 1996). 23 Os Oito Batutas's most outspoken critic was Gilberto Amando, a writer and member of the Brazi lian House of Representatives (G ilman 1996).

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74 1946, however, Pixinguinha played the saxophone exclusively because he feare d that old age was dulling his leg endary virtuosity on the flute (Downey 2002) In 1928, Pixinguinha recorded one of his most famous works, the choro cano entitled Carinhoso (Tend erly ). With this piece, Pixinguinha changed the structure of the choro from a threepart form to a two -part form with an introduction ( Carrasqueira 1997). This rondo -like structure became the standard for choro composition and is found in the vast major ity of choro pieces to this day. Despite its simp le structure, the harmonies of Carinhoso were very sophisticated and at first were met with uncertainty and resistance. However, when the piece was re recorded almost ten years later by Orlando Silva, no one found the form or harmonic structure the least bit strange, a testament to Pixinguinha's importance and influence in the creation of contemporary Brazilian popular music forms and styles. In 1929, Pixinguinha was hired by the RCA Victor label in Rio de Janeiro to lead the companys studio orchestra and to arrange popular musical compositions. This was perhaps the most influential time in Pixinguinhas career. The music he wrote during this time was being shaped by African, European North American and other international influences and he began to integrate these influences into his music and incorporate their hybridity as Brazilian stylistic elements. For example, Pixinguinha had musicians improvise over popular musical forms such as the lund, choro, samba de roda, and maxixe. He also incorporated other popular European musical trends into his instrumentation and harmonies. Two of Pixinguinha's ea rliest recordings (from 1917), Rosa ( Rosa ) and Sofres Porque Quere s ( You Suffer Because You Want To ), are good examples of the complexity of his composing and arranging style. During this time, Pixinguinha began forming the principles of modern Brazilian harmony, rhythm, counterpoint and also importantly, nationalistic identity in popular musi c.

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75 As an instrumentalist in the 1930s 1940s, Pixinguinha recorded many works that became the foundation of the choro repertoire including Segura Ele, Ainda Me Recordo, Um a Zero, Proezas de Solon, Naquele Tempo, Abraando Jacar, Os Oito Batut as, As Proezas de Nolasco and Sofres Porque Queres Carinhoso, however, is still considered to be his most famous song. The decade of the1930s is considered the Golden Era of Brazilian popular music and it was widely agreed that Pixinguinha was i ts principal figure. In 1933, Pixinguinha enrolled in the Instituto Nacional de Msica in Rio de Janeiro in an effort to improve his composing, arranging, and instrument performance skills. He left after one semester when his professors admitted that the re was nothing more that they could teach him. In 1940, Pixinguinha was hired by Heitor Villa Lobos (18871959), who had in turn been hired to select popular Brazilian musicians for an historic recording on the Columbia label, under the baton of maestro Leopold Stokowski (18821977). The recording was to be presented to a Pan -American congress on folklore. As he had previously recorded many popular arrangements of frevos choros and maracatus Pixinguinha chose to once more perform his arrangements of these popular genres, making this new recording, Native Brazilian Music a similar and grand success. In 1940, Pixinguinha joined flutist Benedicto Lacerda's regional presumably for financial reasons, yet both sides were to gain from the collaboration. Th us began one of the most fertile periods of popular Brazilian musical composition, bringing with it a perfection of virtuosic execution previously unknown in Brazilian popular music Pixinguinha improvised stellar counterpoint on tenor saxophone beneath L acerda's flute solos and together they revived the waning choro tradition by once again catapulting it to the top of Brazilian popular music recordings. During this period, Pixinguinha, with Lacerda as co -composer, wrote the trendy and

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76 innovative Segura -ele (Hold Him), and Ingnuo (Na ve) Pixinguinha's work was part of a choro revival during the 1940s that subsided by the early 1950s and c hor o was not to experience another surge in popularity again until the 1970s ( Roberts 1998). And alt hough Benedicto Lacerda appears as co author of these compositions, they were in fact, written by Pixinguinha alone, who graciously gave partnership to Lacerda because of their collaborative relationship. In 1954 Pixinguinha returned to prominence, after f our years of inactivity, when he played in the I Festival da Velha Guarda (First Festival of the Old Guard), an event showcasing the finest musicians of Pixinguinha's generation and organized for Rdio Record in So Paulo. During this time, from 1952 to 1966, Pixinguinha was also a teacher of music and choral song at the Servio da Educao Musical e Artstica. Pixinguinha began to slow down in the late 1960s and early 1970s, primari ly because of health reasons, but he still found time to influence a numbe r of important Brazilian musicians. For instance, Pixinguinha mentored guitarist and composer Baden Powell who was his protg. He also collaborated with Clementina de Jesus in the late 1960s. In 1968, on his 70th birthday, he was honored by the Legislat ive Assembly, the Municiple Theater of Rio de Janeiro, and the Museum of Images and Sound for his contributions to Brazilian popular music. On February 17, 1973, Pixinguinha died in his son's arms in the sacristy of the Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Paz (Our Lady of Peace Church) in Ipanema, Rio de Janeiro, while awaiting the baptism of his godson. There was great mourning at his passing and to this day, Pixinguinha is still beloved by all Brazilians who continue to hold him up as their national hero.

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77 Benedic to Lacerda (1903-1958) Benedi c to Lacerda24Lacerda created a number of conjuntos regionais [See: Figure 2 7 and Chapter Two, Conjuntos Regionais.] The first was Os Bomios da Cidade (The Bohemians of the City), and with them, he accompanied international stars such as Josephine Baker. His second ensemble, O Gente do Morro (The People from the Hill), founded in 1930, was created with the goal of performing popular Brazilian music usi ng newly emerging Brazilian musical styles and rhythms (as a response to the nationalism movement). Through the popularity of O Gente do Morro, much of the choro music played during that time began to be performed by conjuntos regionais is another monument in Brazilian choro flute playing. Born to a wealthy father, Lacerda began to play the flute when he was eight years old, without formal instruction. At the age of seventeen, Lacerda moved to R io de Janeiro and began studying flute with Belarmino de Sousa. He studied flute and composition at the Instituto Nacional de Msica and began performing with local civic bands. In 1925 he enrolled in the Escola Militar do Realengo (Military School of Re alengo) where he played in the military band and became a musician first class. In 1927, Lacerda began performing in theatres for silent cinema. By 1929, the year he formed his first conjunto regional Lacerda had already had musical training from the academy, and performance experience playing with civic and military bands. He had also acquired experience playing popular music in entertainment venues. All of this training and experience combined to make Lacerda one of the most important early choro m usicians and a good example of how these musicians used their training, experience, and expertise to create choro. 24 It is also common to find Lacerdas first name spelled as Benedito.

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78 In 1934, Lacerd a modified the personnel of O Gente do Morro and from an elite group of hand -selected musicians, created the famous Regional de Benedicto Lacerda. The group went through various personnel changes throughout its history, but none was more important to the historical significance of the ensemble than when Pixinguinha joined Lacerdas regional .25 Figure 3 11. Photo of Benedicto Lacerda on flute and Pixinguinha on saxophone. (Source: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Public Domain). Lacerda, besides being the flute player for his ensemble, was also the composer (as we have seen was common for other choro flutists). During the late 1930s and early 1940s, the popularity of choro was already in decline and musicians such as Pixinguinha were having difficulty finding work. The goal of including Pixinguinha into Lacerdas regional was primarily to generate income and to revive the waning popularity of choro. Lacerda and 25 As mentioned in Chapter Two, Lacerdas popularity grew with assistance from the expanding radio and recording industry.

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79 Pixinguinha decided that the best way to do this was to re -record, o n the RCA Victor label, many of their earlier hits. Most of the compositions were originally Pixinguinhas, but the deal with Lacerda found the two musicians sharing the credit as composer. They ultimately recorded thirty -four choros on a series of eight een 78 RPM discs. During the late 1940s, Lacerda continued on as flutist and bandleader for his regional and performing on the radio and in popular venues such as the Cassino da Urca and the Cassino Copacabana. In 1949, Lacerd a was elected president of the Sociedade Brasileira de Autores, Compositores, e Escritores de Msica (Brazilian Society of Music Authors, Composers, and Writers). According to Lacerdas son Oduvaldo Lacerda, his father remained active in all his musical p ursuits right up until his death in 1958.26Altamiro Aquino Carrilho (b. 1924) Altamiro Carrilho is another of the most important choro flutists and prolific composers of choro of the twentieth century. I n close to sixty years as a professional artist Carrilho has maintained his astounding virtuosity and an ease for improvisation that has brought him praise from both the erudite and popular music worlds. Born in 1924, Carrilho was a young man during the first revival of choros popularity in the late 1940s. During this time, he performed with choro greats, Pixinguinha and Benedicto Lacerda and succeeded Lacerda in the Conjunto Regional de Benedicto Lacerda after Lacerda retire d due to health reasons A s a solo artist Carrilho has worked with many re nowned Brazilian musicians such as Orlando Silva, Francisco Alves, Caetano Veloso, and Chico Buarque, among many others. 26 The bulk of the information gathered on Benedic to Lacerda came from Julie Koidins Doctoral dissertation on Lacerda. See: (Koidin 2006: 3040).

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80 Carrilho began playing a bamboo flute at age five and by age eleven, he was playing the transverse Boehm flute in local ensembles At age twelve, he began to study flute formally and by the time he was fifteen, he had recorded his first album Figure 3 12. Photo of Altamiro Carrilho, courtesy of Leonardo Aversa. (Source: http://www.factoriacomunicacao.com/imprensa2.aspx. Last accessed March 15, 2009. Used with Permission). In 1956, Carrilhos maxixe Rio Antigo sold nearly a million copies, bringing him national fame. By 2001, Carrilho had made over one -hundred and ten recordings and had

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81 penned over two-hundred compositions. Carrilho was also the host of the highly successful television program, Em Tempo de Msica. His album Clssicos em Choro was awarded t he Villa Lobos prize as Best Instrumental Album and his Clssicos em Choro No. 2 went gold with over one million copies sold In 1993, he was awarded the Sharp prize for Best Arranger of Instrumental Music for his work on the album Altamiro Carrilho: 50 A nos de Choro. I n 1997, Carrilho won again for Best Instrumental Album, Flauta Maravilhosa.27According to Koidin, Carrilho states that he was most influenced by flutists Dante Santoro and Benedicto Lacerda, but his style emerged from listening to a varie ty of music, including American and European jazz, Dixieland, Scott Joplin, and classical, which he combined into one style he calls his own ( Coelho and Koidin 2005: 3839) Indeed, Carrilhos playing style can best be described as brincando (playing) i.e., performing in a playful manner Carrilho often uses this term to describe his performance philosophy. He states that musicians must have fun when they play music. Carrilho is perhaps best known for his trademark insertion of excerpts from art musi c compositions into his choro performances, and vice versa. In addition to being a world -class performer and composer, Carrilho is also an educator. Besides training private students, in 1996, Carrilho published Chorinhos Didcticos para Flauta, a compilation of twelve of his choro compositions in an etude book, with a play along recording, for flutists. He also holds workshops on choro flute playing. Contemporary Professional Chores : The Next Generation Approximately every twenty to thirty years, choro undergoes a revival.28 27 See: ( Altamiro Carrilho & sua flauta maravilhosa.Official Website. 2009) Livingston posits that this is because a choro revival fills a void in the expressive culture of sectors of the middle 28 For more information on choro revivals, see: (Livingston 1999a ), (Livingston 1999b), and ( Livingston Isenhour and Caracas Garcia 2005)

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82 class, serving as a basis for reestablishing their Brazilian identity As a musical movement, [the revival] re invigorate[s] choro as a musical style by attracting and educating new dedicated players who continue to explore it s musical potential (Livingston 1999a: iv ). By the end of the 1920s, choros popularity had begun to wane. No longer in style, and increa singly eclipsed by the emergent popular form called samba the choro tradition was vanishing f rom the mainstream po pular music movement Perhaps not so surprising though, choro was still being kept alive throughout the 1930s by musicians such as Pixinguin ha and the guitarist Annibal Augusto Gar to Sardinha (19151955) During the 1930s and 1940s, the great choro musicians continued to live within an exclusive sub-cul ture they created to preserveand in so doing, resuscitate their art. The old guard ch ores would often meet at private, allnight saraus29In the late 1940s, a brief choro revival occurred in the music of flutist Benedicto Lacerda (with Pixinguinha). Other chores such as flutist Altamiro Carrilho, bandolim virtuoso Jac do Bandolim, and ba ndleader Severino Arajo also contributed to this renaissance. But by the end of the 1940s, the choro tradition again, was all but over. or rodas de choro to play their choros Membership in these choro brotherhoods was restricted to those of superior musicianship and i nclusion was tightly controlled (Gilman 1996) Another small choro revival would occur in the mid1970s, thanks to the efforts of Jac do Bandolim, one of the greatest bandolim players in Brazil. In 1975, the Week of Jac do Bandolim brought the great est musicians of the genre to Rio de Janeiros Museum of Image and Sound for concerts. Musicians such as Paulo Moura (b. 1933), Hermeto Pascoal (b. 1936), and Paulinho da Viola (b. 1942) subsequently began including choros on their recordings and 29 Saraus became a form of resistance to the encroaching new styles.

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83 incorporating choro into a variety of other popular styles. Under the leadership of Radams Gnattali, this new generation of choro aficionados formed the Escola Camerata Carioca. The music they produced was erudite and sophisticated and it helpe d to revive choros virtuoso tradition once again. Maurc i o Carrilho and Raphael Rabello were just two of the virtuosi of the genre involved in the Escola Camerata Carioca. One of the best choro recordings to be released as a result of the 1970s revival was the 1988 album, Noites Cariocas The album named after the famous song by Jac do Bandolim featured Altamiro Carrilho on flute, Chiquinha on accordion, Joel Nascimento on bandolim Paulinho da Viola on cavaquinho, Paulo Moura on clarinet, and Paulo Srgio Santos on clarinet and saxophone. The recording covered seven choro standards and was, and is still, considered a monument of the genre. Choros popularity surged once again in the 1990s whe n U.S. mandolin player David Grisman released two volumes of Jac do Bandolims choro music on his Acoustic Disc label. In 2002, the current grand masters of choro, Conjunto poca de Ouro, and New York choro groups such as The Choro Ensemble began to play in club venues here and abroad, resuscitating choros popularity once again. In addition, there was even a full -scale choro revival occurring in Rio de Janeiro in 2002. Michelle Mercer of The Village Voice writes that even pubescent Cariocas with navel rings and tribal tattoos are reportedly bumping and gri nding to Brazil's golden oldies (Mercer 2002). Websites such as Agenda do Samba & Choro: O botec o virtual do samba e do choro, www.samba -choro.com.br and periodicals such as Revista Roda de Choro now easily inform (literally) the world about current information on choro, information such as new CD releases and up -coming performance dates for many choro ensembles in Brazil and around the globe.

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84 Radio N acional de Braslia regularly airs their radio program Choro Livre to an appreciative audience. By personal account, choro has been undergoing this resurgence in popularity for over the last ten years. Choro ensembles perform regularly to full houses in popular venues throughout Rio de Janeiro, even on weeknights. The best choro musicians enjoy international acclaim and travel throughout Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the North America performing for a wid e audience. Sales of choro recordings appear to be on the rise given the number of recording that have either been re-mastered or newly recordedand as evident by the increase in recordings for sale on websites such as All Brazilian Music ( www.allbrazilianmusic.com ), Kuarup Discos ( www.kuarup.com.br ), Acari Records ( www.acari.com.br ), and Revivendo Msica ( www.revivendomusicas.com.br ). Today, c horo is taught in the conservatory style to students of Western art music and is likewise considered a hallmark of instrumental virtuosity within the Brazilian music acad emies The best choro musicians teach at universities, perform internationally, and produce numerous recordings Musicians such as Marco Pereira (guitar) play choro (and other musical genres) professionally, and likewise teach in the academy. In additio n to performing, arranging, and composingno t to mention a rigorous touring and recording schedule Pereira also teaches functional harmony and holds the position of professor at Universidade Federal no Rio de Janeiro (The Federal University of Rio de Janei ro). When not teaching, Marco can be found performing with other choro greats such as Hamilton de Holanda ( bandolim ) and Toninho Carra squeira (flute). 30 30 See: (Swanson 2004).

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85 One of the most popular and successful institutions for instructing young performers in choro is the Es cola Porttil de Msica. Organized and operated by three of choros top musicians violo virtuoso, Mauricio Carrilho (the son of Altamiro Carrilho), violo virtuoso, Pedro Arago, and cavaquinho virtuoso, Luciana Rabello the institute offers workshops and one to four -month courses in choro performance, composition, and arranging. Distinguished choro faculty include: Oscar Bolo, percusso (percussion); Pedro Amorim, bandolim and; lvaro Carrilho ( another son of Altamir o Carrilho), flute. The school is administrated by the Instituto Casa do Choro (House of Choro Institute). One of Brazils most important and well respected contemporary musicians, the multi instrumentalist Carlos Malta, performs choro regularly, imbuing choro performances with his unique perspective on improvisation (from years as a soloist with Hermeto Pascoal), as well as instilling in younger players the traditions of the genre. In fact, one of the most distinguishing characteristics about Malta is hi s willingness and enthusiasm for training young players and offering them opportunities to practice and perform with him and his ensembles. In an interview on choro, Malta told me : Brazil ian music has a lot to do with the B razilian way of life, and becaus e choro comes from Rio de Janeiro, it is a carioca music that typifies the carioca lifestyle that spread out to the rest of the country I consider choro a symbol of popular culture, like the bandas de p fanos escola de samba s and capoeira, etc. And, I think choro is more a way to interpret music than one distinct style, just like jazz. The way you play means more than what you are playing. There is an accent, a sotaque (accent) which makes the whole difference. When I play choro, I al ways lea ve plac es for improvising, and I also like to change many things in t erms of structure and form. But, I must always know the tune very well Then I can make the changes. Choro requires great virtuosity because the composers in choro were th emselves great instru mentalists. Their performances have influenc ed many genera tions to be as great as they were. Choro melodies are very tricky and they require a lot of practice.

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86 In closing, t he flute is one of the most traditional instruments in choro. I thi nk this is because it is a light and cheap instrument, and because of this flutists have free spirit s like bohemians who play at the night clubs, dancing clubs and gafieiras (dives) exactly the same places where people pl ayed this kind of music in times past Then and now, the flute is the main melodic voice in choro. (Carlos Malta, personal communication, March 6, 2009). [My edits and translation of some words .] In conclusion, analysis of early popular Brazilian music and the role of choro musicians from both t he popular and art music worlds shows that the historical trajectory of choro was such that it did indeed move from a style of playing various genres of popular music by amateur musicians from the underclass to a unique genre of music in its own right. How choro moved historically from a style to the genre of music we can identify today as distinctly choro owes much of the credit for this evolution to its popularity and the virtuosity required to perform the music. Analysis of performance practices of urb an popular salon genres such as the polca, lund, modinha, maxixe, and valsa s shows that Brazilian composers and performers moved towards codifying the choro style of performance practice into a formal musical genre through an emphasis on virtuosity and t hrough the compositions of the primary progenitors of the genre, the flutists/composers How these flutist/composers used the technical capabilities of the flute and the codification of compositional and performance practices to establish choro as a genre is the subject of the next chapter.

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87 CHAPTER 4 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION, PERFORMANCE PRACTICES, AND MUSICAL ANALYSIS Formal Structure of Choro By the turn of the twentieth century, choro had become more than a style of playing; it had evolved into an independent musical genre. A lthough choros were often written, and labeled stylistically according to the dance rhythms that provided their underlying rhythmic structure polka, waltz, mazurka, schottische, tango brasileiro maxixe, etc. stylistic variants were easily later identified as choro (the genre) by their unique characteristics. They included: improvisation by the melodic instrument1Most choros are written in a basic r ondo structure, ABACA, with the three parts (ABC) each in different tonalities. The A section is composed in tonic; the B section is composed in the dominant tonic, or a closely related key such as the relative or parallel minor (or major, if the choro was in a minor key) ; and the C section is typically in the sub dominant or dominant ; counterpoint in the supporting instruments; rapid, unexpected modulations; chromaticism; e xtreme melodic leaps; repeated notes in the melodic line; rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic syncopation; and often, high-speed tempos. Stylistically, choro music was often equated with American ragtime or Dixieland jazz. Harmonically, early choro was not very complex. Composers used similar harmonic language to that of the lund and modinha; a very basic I IV -V7-I major progression, and a i III VI -ii -V7i progression in a minor key Contemporary choros are now being written with much more intricate harmonic structures with extended harmonies such as 7th, 9th, and 13th chords Arrangements of traditional choros also exhibit elements of this move towards more harmonic 1 While often compared to American jazz in terms of improvisation, choro differed in that typically only the solo melody instrument improvised, and not the other instruments. Of course, the role of the violo performing the baixaria is the exception, and in contemporary choro both the pandeiro and the cavaquinho will improvise.

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88 complexity. Extended chords, c hord substitutions, and chromaticism have become part of the choro harmonic language in the twentieth century. Much of this stylistic and formal evolution can be attributed to American jazz, a musical form with which choro hold many similarities. Another influence is the harmonic complexity found in bossa nova. Stylistic harmonic fusion is also now mo re common. Blues riffs and elements of funk and rock and -roll have found their way into the modern choro repertory. The addition of nontraditional instruments such as electric instruments ( guitars and keyb oards), and Brazilian folkloric, Amerindian or Afro -Brazilian instruments (such as the berimbau) is also becoming more prevalent. Regarding melodic structure, the vast majority of choros begin with pick up notes. Typically, these pick ups consist of an eighth note, and eighth note and sixteenth note or three sixteenth notes, in the last beat of the first measure. Caracas Garcia posits that this is done in order to prepare the accompanying instruments to enter the piece together and to give an indication of the tempo set by the soloist (Caracas Garc ia 1997: 105). My own p ersonal experience in performing choro confirms that this is indeed the case. It is also not uncommon to find the melody line supporting the baixaria by creating counterpoint or by adding an additional element to the rhythmic accompaniment. In general, melodies are outlines of the harmonic accompaniment, with chromatic and diatonic scales as passing tones (Coelho and Koidin 2005: 39) One of the m ost important defining elements of choro throughout its history has been its rhythm ic structure The sixteenth note / eighth -note / sixteenth -note Afro Brazilian rhythm

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89 followed by two eighth -not es (or four sixteenth -notes) a characteristic syncopation pattern in the melody and/or th e bass line is evident in almost all choros 2 Figure 4 1. Characteristic syncopation pattern in choro. This syncopation is one of the most characteristic elements in the rhythmic formations o f Brazilian urban popular mus ic and is given its distinguishing quality by two factors: the tension between the basic duple meter and the disturbance of the pulse occasioned by the three plus three -plus two organization; and the careful control of the length of pauses, which pro duce s a highly sensuous quality (Appleby 1983: 80) Appleby defines this control of rhythmic pauses in Brazilian popular music as a delay factor (Appleby 1983, pg.80) In addition to the three -plus three -plus two syncopation, the delay factor a technique similar to playing rubatogives each choro style its specific individual quality, an attribute often transmitte d only by oral/ aural tradition and not denoted on scores. Lopes Canado further define s five characteristics of this delay factor. 1 There oc curs irregularity and unstableness [in] the performance of the Brazilian popular rhythms [and this characteristic] comes from Brazilian blacks ( Lopes Canado 1999: 58). It must be stat ed here that perhaps the words irregular and unstable might not be the best adjectives for characterizing this particular stylistic rhythmic expression. In fact, the rhythmic 2 This rhythmic pattern was found primarily in the polcas and polcamaxixes being composed during the height of their popularity in Brazil. This classic rhythmic pattern can also be found in the lund.

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90 pulse of choro is indeed regular and very stable. It is the consistent rhythmic foundation upon which the melodic instruments depend and it provides them the necessary rhythmic stability to perform in a virtuosic and often impr ovisatory manner. W hat Lopes -Canado is actually trying to describe here i s the characteristic stylistic balano, the swing with which choro musicians play; a performance practice of rhythmic fluidity based upon a slight syncopation that serves as the hallmark of the choro style. This swing is achieved by placing various accents and/or emphasis on certain notes within the rhythmic pattern (usually beat two and four). Also performers will often place a rubato at the ends of phrases causing a feeling of rhythmic fluctuation, but here again, the rhythmic foundation holds steady while the stylistic swing is employed. 2 Syncopated rhythms in Brazilian popular m usic have two different functions. When the characteristic syncopation [ of the Afro Brazilian] rhythmic pattern appea rs followed by two eighth notes they function as accompaniment When they appear [as just the Afr o Brazilian rhythmic pattern], they function as melodic rhythm in the bass line or in the top line, always following the melody ( Lopes -Canado 1999: 59). Figure 4 2. Afro Brazilian rhythmic pattern functions in melody and bass (Source: Excerpt fr om Vitorioso by Ernesto Nazareth Public Domain ). 3 The sequence of the [Afro Brazilian] rhythm and the characteristic syncopation normally includes a tie between t he fourth sixteenth note of the [Afro Brazilian]

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91 rhythm (first beat) and the sixteenth-note of the characteristic syncopation (second beat) or a rest in the first sixteenth -note of the characteristic syncopation. This tie or rest results in a natural suspension of this rhythmic cell, creating another delay factor (Lopes Canado 1999: 60) Figure 4 3. Characteristic syncopat ion with tie pattern in choro. 4 These syncopated rhythms are repeated in sequence but do not appear in the accompaniment line. 5 A strong rhythmic disturbance appears when the characteristic syncopation occurs after a long sequence of the [Afro -Brazilian] rhythm. ( Lopes Canado 1999: 61) Since this characterist ic delay factor was not notated in scores, performers of Br azilian popular musical forms particularly choro musicians would have had to have performance knowledge of these five factors in order to accurately perform Brazilian popular music rhythms. Choros goal of virtuosity in performance required the acquisition of this knowledge. Another unique formal aspect to choro was the derrubada (drop). Virtuoso choro musicians would often improvise so e xpertly in the rodas de choro, that they would purposely cause a derrubadaa b reakdown in performance when the accompanying musicians could no longer follow the soloists unpredictable melodic sequences. This was considered the mark of a true solo virtuoso. The ability to cause a derrubada was held in high esteem by all choro musicians (Lopes -Canado 1999).

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92 Choro Flute Performance Practices It is difficult to determine precise performance practices for early choro flutists such as Joaquim Callado and Patpio Silva due to the scarcity of extant recordings. There are, however, some generalizations that can be made from the recordings that do exist.3By listening to recordings of early artists, we can hear that chromaticism is evident, especially when embellishing, and synco pation is carried throughout. The stylistic tendencies of rhythmic vitality and improvisation play out for the flute just as they do for the other instruments in the ensemble. There are, however, performance practices unique to the flute such as articula tions and tone color that should be mentioned. These generalizations, along with more specific performance techniques recorded by later choro fluti sts such as Pixinguinha, Benedicto Lacerda and Altamiro Carrilho, still hold true in choro flute performance practice today. Listening to recordings, rather than relying on notated music, is critical in analyzing choro due to the fact that so much of wha t gets played in choro is improvisatory, interpreted, and never written down. [See the discography for resources on recordings.] In terms of articulations, l ong notes are rarely sustained in most choros and flutists tend to play fast, virtuosic passages. This still holds true today. Choro flutists will almost always vary their articulations and tend to use soft tonguing and slurs. Their preferred articulation appears to be legato ; a good choice given choros sweeping melodic lines and wide octave -plus leaps. Legato is a preferred articu lation because leaps often include portamento, a technique similar to a glissando whereby there is continuous jump from one pitch to another without the 3 See: ( Joa quim Callado: O Pai dos Chores CNPJ 03.060.166/000191)

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93 inner notes sounding discretely. Portamento is a very common performance practice in choro flute playi ng due to its brilliance of sound and the exhibition of virtuosic technique it provides. Articulation is also highly variable and subject to the style of the player. Generally, note lengths vary, depending on the mood of the piece. A dry, staccato articu lation is appropriate for faster choros such as Tico Tico no Fub, but slower, more romantic choros such as Carinhoso are often articulated with more of a legato triplet feel. Coelho and Koidin note that choro articulations are similar to baroque flu te articulations. As was the practice in the baroque period, articulations were not notated on the music. Performers were expected to play in the proper style based on their knowledge and expertise. The same is true for choro. What are also similar are the actual articulations. Sweeping slurs are almost never used. In both choro and baroque flute performance practices, running sixteenth note passages are typical. Slurr ing all four notes in each beat or slurring three and tonguing one is common practice. Changing the articulations on repeated passages is also standard ( Coelho and Koidin 2005: 38). In choro, the slurring of two notes and then tonguing two notes, as was common in flute articulations of the Classical period are also com monly used. Double tonguing has been added to the list of acceptable articulations in contemporary choro. This allows the performer to play even faster while maintaining that characteristic choro swing. In addition, solo choro flute performers are also not all that concerned with keeping a strict tempo, and this practice of rhythmic fluidity is certainly in keeping with the general romantic, emotive nature of choro and its inherent swing. It could be argued that this is because of the value placed on interpretation and the participatory value placed on the rodas de choro. Related, the focus on tone quality is not of utmost importance within choro flute playing, as it is in classically trained circles. Instead, the swing and improvisatory inventi veness of the

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94 flutist are held in much higher esteem (Coelho and Koidin 2005: 38) Tone color is used, however, to affect certain passages in choro, usually in the dominant key sections of slower choros A wide vibrato is then used to give these slower passages depth and a contrasting tonal color. Other idiomatic tendencies of the flute are also called upon when performing choro. Many performers will use acciaccaturas in conjunction with the anticipation of the downbeat Acciaccaturas are also used to mimic the sounds of birds. In Figure 4 4 below, the acciaccaturas create the sound of the canary in Pixinguinhas choro, O Gato e o Canrio. Figure 4 4. Excerpt from O Gato e o Canrio (The Cat and the Canary) by Pixinguinha. Pu blic Domain. Mordents tremolos, and trills are also idiomatic techniques often used in performing choro on the flute. Mordents, typically played before the beat, can be used to emphasize a beat. Trills and tremolos are performed quickly to give a passag e a shimmering, brilliant quality. A good example can be seen in Zequinha de Abreus Tico Tico no Fub. Figure 4 5. Excerpt from Tico Tico no Fub by Zequinha de Abreu The mordents are written in as examples of performance practice. Public Domain. Depending on the type of flute used to perfor m choro, these above mentioned techniques and performance practices will vary. Certainly, if a performer is playing choro on a five key

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95 French flute, their ability to execute certain techniques will be limited when compared to performing on the modern Boehm flute. Nonetheless, what is important to bear in mind about choro flute performance practices is that all treatments must stay within stylistic boundaries in order to perform choro correctly. While improvisation, interpretation, and artistic license are certainly encouraged, the basic stylistic tendencies must remain true for all instruments in the ensemble no matter their function. The flute, as a solo instrument, is responsible for leading the ens emble in maintaining the characteristic swing critical for the performance of wellplayed choro.

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96 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSI ON O Choro Conjunto de flautas maviosas, Chores de cavaquinhos e violes Tereis neste livro as vossas rosas E do antigo tempo: as tradies. Pistonistas soberbos; Clarinetistas Ides todos ter aqui vossas aces; Descreverei com amor os bons artistas E tudo o mais que nos traz recordaes. Grandes astros fulgentes se sumiram, Rebrilharam nos antigos ambientes, E as alegrias comnosco repartiram Evocando melodias refulgentes. Em cada choro, findou-se um baluarte, Que deixou em nosso peito uma saudade, Que a germinar, corre por toda a parte Desde o momento que subiram a eternidade. Msica, costumes, em fim todo o prazer Que floresceu na passada gerao, Nas pginas deste livro ho de ter Toda a altivez da grande inspirao. Vou tentar reviver celebridades, Fazer dos bons artistas aluses, Distinguindo em cada um a qualidade E demonstrando o perfil dos bons chores Ensemble of sweet flutes, Choro groups of cavaquinhos and guitars! You shall have your roses in this book And from olden times: the traditions. Prideful trumpeters; Clarinetists You will all have here your actions; I will describe the good artists wi th love And everything else that brings us memories. Big brilliant stars are gone, They shined anew in the ambiance of old, And they shared joy with us Evoking melodies gleaming. In each player, ended a bastion Who left longing in our hearts, That ge rminating, erodes throughout From the moment they rose to eternity. Music, customs, after all, all pleasures That flourished in the generation past, In the pages of this book will be All the heights of great inspiration. I will try to relive celebrit ies, Making allusions to good artists, Distinguishing the quality in each And displaying the profile of good choro musicians. ~Alexandre Gonalves Pinto4[My translation Consultant: Charles Perrone. ] The measure of true worth demands that the marks of longevity, recognition and significance be met Clearly, choro has proven that over the course of more than one -hundred years, that it can still achieve those marks And yet for those who know choro, appreciating its true genius remains a constant and expanding aspiration I ntellectually comprehending the social, cultural, and historical significance of choro is only one step toward understanding its 4 See: (Gonalves Pinto 1978: 8)

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97 beauty, its genius. To really know choro, one must hear choro with the heart. It was with this intent ion to follow choro from the heart that this thesis was written. Throughout the sequence s of this thesis, we have seen that choro remains one of the few popular musical traditions that place an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity. It was demonstrated how choros roots could be traced back to colonial New World erudite music composed and performed in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth century, and how it evolved throughout the twentieth century as a primarily instrumental urban popular style often he ard in nightclubs and ballrooms. This thesis explained the role the nascent cinematic, broadcasting, and recording industries of the early twentieth century had in the evolution of choro, an d how choro continued to develop classical formal structures, and ultimately underwent several revivals. It was also shown how choro had evolved full -circle, from European -influenced erudite musical compositions, which were later infused with popular rhythms and sensibilities, back to the virtuosic choro composed and performed today. The hallmark of this evolution is the fact that choro is now being used to teach in the conservatory style to studen ts of Western art music and is considered a distinguished example of instrumental virtuosity. This thesis also made evident that the preference for the flute as the primary melodic instrument in the choro ensemble played a major role in establishing virtuosity as a defin ing characteristic of the genre. The fl ute can also be credited with increasing the popularity of choro throughout Bra zil, and it was shown that this inherent connection to virtuosity was directly linked to choros earliest flutist/composer progenitors Choros tenacity as a genre has been prov en time and again over the decades through its various resurgences of popularity. No doubt, choro has received another boost in popularity

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98 lately from the rise in interest in World Music and its commercial appeal. And, it is probably safe to assume that an interest in choro will continue as long as there are those musicians and composers and audiences who recognize and value choros role in the development of the popular music styles of Brazil. For choro was, and still is, an important cultural element of Brazil, manifest in the sophisticated virtuosic sensibilities of her instrumental musicians and composers, and their ever -popular music.

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99 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS Baixaria (From baixo, meaning: bass). The improvised bass line that creates countermelodies against the solo melodic instrument, usually the flute, in early choro performance practice. The baixaria is created by utilizing a number of improvisatory techniques such as scalar runs, walking bass, and pedal points. Balan o Rhythmic swing. Bandolim The Brazilian mandolin, made with an oval body as resonator, a flat back, and four double strings. It is played with a pick and is exclusively associated with choro. Barbeiros Slave or black freemen barbers of the nineteenth century who, in addition to cu tting hair, organized the first professional popular music ensembles in Brazil. Their repertory included choro. Berimbau A musical bow of African origin played primarily in capoeira. The single string is struck with a small stick attached to small rattle s (caxixi) and the pitch is altered by applying a stone or coin to the string. A resonator gourd is attached to the bow. Bossa nova Literally: new way. A genre of popular music that developed on the beaches of Rio de Janeiro in the late 1950s. It is cha racterized by understated vocals, syncopated samba -inspired rhythms, and sophisticated harmonies influenced by American jazz. Carioca A person native to Rio de Janeiro. Carnaval The pre Lente n festival celebrated in Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro it is characterized by t he organization of escolas de samba (samba schools) that hold parades and compete for recognition as the best samba school. Cavaquinho A small, four -string guitar like instrument (similar to the Hawaiian ukulele) played in choro ensembles Charamela A folk, shawm -like instrument originally from the Iberian peninsula and common in civic and military bands in Brazil in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Choro A choro musician or choro ensemble. Choromeleiro An ensemble of charamelas and violes (guitars) and an antecedent of early choro ensembles.

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100 Corpo de bombeiros An early choro ensemble. Literally, the firemens corp. U sually referring to the Corpo de Bombeiros of Anacleto de Medeiros, one of the first choro ensembles to make choro recordings in 1902. Derrubada Literally: drop. An intentional breakdown in choro performance, when the accompanying musicians can no longer follow the soloists unpredictable melodic sequences. This was considered the mark of a true virtuoso. The ability to cause a derrubada was held in high esteem by all choro musicians. Lund A song and dance genre brought to Brazil by Bantu sla ves from Angola in the late seventeenth century. It is credited with being the first Brazilian popular music to combine European harmonies and melodies with AfroBrazilian rhythms. Modinha The lyrical, sentimental popular salon song genre of the eighteent h and nineteenth century in Brazil. It is a musical antecedent of choro. MPB Msica Popular Brasileira (Popular Brazilian Music). A generic term for almost all types of popular music in Brazil created after the 1960s. Ophicleide An obsolete brass instrum ent with keys that played the bass line. It was eventually replaced by the tuba. Pandeiro A small hand drum, similar to the tambourine, played in the choro ensemble. It is also used to play many other types of popular Brazilian music such as samba and MP B Regional Plural: regionais A professional choro ensemble known for being the most important ensemble in the early days of radio and the recording industry. The ensemble included the terno plus the cavaquinho and the pandeiro. Rodo de choro Informal g atherings of choro musicians, historically in the poorer neighborhoods of Brazils urban centers. Musicians would sit either in a circle or some other intimate setting, facing each other to facilitate musical communication, especially with the melodic soloist who would oft en improvise. Choro musicians would gather together to play in rodas de choro for their own entertainment and enjoyment. Seresta A serenade or any type of music performed out of doors. Tango-brasileiro The term given to early choros and maxixes due to the pejorative, lower class connotations these styles engendered in the elite. Violo The six -string guitar used in both classical and popular music genres, including choro.

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101 Violo de sete cordas The seven -string guitar used in the choro ensemble. The extra bass string is used to play the baixaria.

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102 APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Adorno, Theodor W. 2002. Essays on Music Selected, with introduction, commentary, and notes by Richard Leppert. New translations by Susan H. Gillespie. Berk eley, CA.: University of California Press Albin, Ricardo Cravo. 2000. Museu da Imagem e do Som: rastros de memria. Rio de Janeiro: Sextante Artes. ______. 2003. O Livro de Ouro de MPB: A Histria de Nossa Msica Popular de sua Origem at Hoje Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro Publicaes S.A. Alencar, Edigar de. 1979. O fabuloso e harmonioso Pixinguinha. Rio de Janeiro: Ctedra. 1981. Vida e morte gloriosa de Pixinguinha. Juazeiro do Norte, Brazil: Mascote. Alvarenga, Oneyda. 1947. Msica popular brasile a, 1 edicin. Traduccin de Jos Lin Depetre. Mxico: Fondo de Cultura Economica ______. 1950. Msica Popular Brasileira, 2 edio. Rio de Janeiro: Editra Globo Andrade, Mrio de. 1944. Cndido Igncio de Silva e o Lund Revista Brasileira de Msica Vol. 10. Appleby, David P. 1983. The Music of Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press. Arajo, Samuel. 2000. Brazilian Identities and Musical Performances. Diogenes 48(3): 115125. Assis, Machado de. 1986. Histria de 15 dias. Obra Completa (v. III). Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Aguilar. Assuno, Matthias Rhrig. 2005. Brazilian Popular Culture in Historical Perspective: Brazilian Popular Cu lture or the Curse and Blessings of Cultural Hybridism. Bulletin of Latin American Resear ch 24(2): 157166. Azevedo, Luiz H. C. 1956. 150 Anos de Msica no Brasil (1800-1950). Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Jos Olympio, Editora. Barboza da Silva, Marlia Trindade, Coordenao Geral; Projeto 500 Anos de MPB. 2001. 500 Anos da Msica Popular Brasi leira Rio de Janeiro: Governo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Bhague, Gerard H, editor. 1994. Music and Black Ethnicity: The Caribbean and South America New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. Bhague Gerard H. 1966. Popular Musical Currents in the Art Music of the Early Nationalistic Period in Brazil, Circa 1870-1920. Ph.D. Dissertation. New Orleans: Tulane University.

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103 ______. 1968. Biblioteca da Ajuda (Lisbon) Mss 1595 / 1596: Two Eighteenth-Century Anonymous Collections of Modinhas. Annuario 4: 4481. ______. 1971. The Beginnings of Musical Nationalism in Brazil Detroit: Information Coordinators. ______. 1979. NineteenthCentury Antecedents of Nationalism. pp. 111123 in Music in Latin America: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentic e Hall, Inc. Cabral, Srgio. 1997. Pixinguinha: Vida e Obra. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. Caldas, Waldenyr. 1985. Iniciao Msica Popular Brasileira. So Paulo: Editora tica S.A. Camargo, Nelly de. 1997. Culture, Media, and the Music Industry in Brazil. Whose Masters Voice?: the Development of Popular Music in Thirteen Cultures edited by Alison J. Ewbank and Fouli T. Papageorgiou. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press Caracas Garcia, Thomas George. Summer, 1997. The Choro, the Guitar and Villa Lobos. Luso -Brazilian Review 34(1): 5767. ______. 1997. The Brazilian Choro: Music, Politics and Performance. Ph.D. Dissertation. Durham, N.C.: Duke University. Carpentier, Alejo. 1946. La Msica en Cuba. Mx ico : Fondo de Cultura Econmica ______. 2001. Music in Cuba -Edited by Timothy Brennan; in English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Carrasqueira, Maria J. 1997. O Melhor de Pixinguinha: Melodias e Cifras. Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo: Iramaos Vitale S/A Ind. e Com. Cazes, Henrique. 1999. Choro: do quintal ao Municipal So Paulo: Editora 34. Cloonan, Martin and Re ebee Garofalo, editors. 2003. Policing Pop. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Coelho, Tadeo and Julie Koidin. Fall 2005. The Brazilian Choro: Historical Perspectives and Performance Practices. The Flutist Quarterly Royal Oak, MI: National Flute Association Connell, Andrew Mark. 2002. Jazz Brasileiro? Msica Instrumental Brasileira and the Representation of Identity in Rio de Janeiro. Ph.D. Dissertation. Los Angeles: UCLA. Coutinho, Eduardo Granja. 2002. Velhas histrias, memrias futures: O sentido da trado na obra de Paulinho da Viola. Rio de Janeiro: Editora da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janei ro. Crook, Larry N. 2005. Brazilian Music: Northeastern Traditions and the Heartbeat of a Modern Nation Santa Barbara, CA: ABC/CLIO

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104 Crook, Larry N. and Randal Johnson, editors. 1999. Black Brazil: Culture, Identity, and Social Mobilization Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications Dias, Andra Ernest 1996. A Expresso da Flauta Popular Brasileira: Uma Escola de Intrepretao Masters Thesis. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Dias, Odette Ernest. 1990. Mathieu -Andr Reichert, um f lutista belga no corte do Rio de Janeiro Brasilia: Distrito Federal Editora UnB. Diniz, Andr. 2002. Joaquim Callado, o Pai dos Chores Rio de Janeiro: Ourocard. Diniz, Andr. 2003. Almanaque do Choro: A histria do chorinho, o que ouvir, o que le r, onde curtir Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor Ltd. Diniz, Andr and Juliana Lins. 200 2. Pixinguinha. So Paulo: Editora Moderna Ltda. Diniz, Jamie C. 1979. Msicos Pernambucanos do Passado. Vol. 3. Recife, PE Brazil: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Epaminondas, Antnio. 1982. Brasil Brasileirinho: Msica Popular Brasileira Rio de Janero: Livaria Editora Ctedra Freyre, Gilberto. 1963. The Masters and the Slaves (Casa Grande & Senzala). Translated by Samuel Putnam. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ______. 1975. Tempo Morto e Outros Tempos: Trechos de um Dirrio de Adolesncia e Primera Mocidade Rio de Janeiro: Livaria Jos Olimpio Editora. Gomes, Jos Benedicto Viana. 1997. Pixinguinha: Choro Presena e Aplicabilidade no Estudo da Flauta Transversal no Brasil Masters Thesis. Escola de Msica da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Gonalves Pinto, Alexandre. 1978. O Choro: Rimsencias dos Chores Antigos Rio de Janeiro: Edio Funa rte. Horner, Bruce and Thomas Swiss, editors. 1999. Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc. Kiefer, Bruno. 1976. Histria da Msica Brasileira: dos primridos ao incio do sculo XX. Porto Alegre: Editora Movimento K oidin, Julie. 2006. Benedicto Lacerda and the 'G old en Age' of Choro Flute P laying D.M. Dissertation. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. Lewis, George H. 1987. Pattern of Meaning and Choice: Taste Cultures in Popular Music Popular Music and Communication, edited by James Lull. London: Sage Publications Lira, Mariza. 1940 1941. A characteristica brasileira nas interpretaes de Callado. Revista brasilier a de msica 7(3): 217.

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105 Livingston, Tamara E. 1999a. Choro and Music Revialism in Rio de Janeiro, Br azil: 1973-1995. Ph.D. Dissertation. Champagne -Urbana: University of Illinois Champagne -Urbana. Livingston, Tamara E. 1999b. Music Revivals: Towards a General Theory. Ethnomusicology Vol. 43:1, pp. 6685. Liv ingston-Isenhour, Tamara E. an d Thomas G. Caracas Garcia. 2005. Choro: A Social History of a Brazilian Popular Music Bloomington: Indiana University Press Lopes -Canado, T nia M ara 1999. An Investigation of West African and Haitian Rhythms on the Development of Syncopation in Cuban Habanera, Brazilian Tango/Choro, and American Ragtime (1791-1900). Winchester, VA: Shenandoah Conservatory. Loureiro, Maurcio Alves. 1991. The clarinet in the Brazilian chro with an analysis of the Chro para clarineta e orquestra (Chro for clarinet and orchestra) by Camargo Guarnieri. D.M.A. Dissertation. Iowa City: University of Iowa. Lull, James. 1987. Popular Music and Communication: An Introduction. Popular Music and Communication, edited by James Lull. London: Sage Publications. Malm, Krister and Roger Wal lis. 1987. The International Music Industry and Transcultural Communication. Popular Music and Communication, edited by James Lull. London: Sage Publications. Manuel, Peter. 1988. Popular Musics of the NonWestern World: An Introductory Survey New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mariz, Vasco. 1983. Histria da Msica no Brasil 2.a edio, revista e ampliada. Rio de Janeiro: Civilizao Brasileira. Martins, J.B. 1978. Antropologia da Msica Brasileira. So Paulo: Editoria Obelisc o Ltda. McCann, Bryan. 2004. Hello, Hello Brazil: Popular Music in the Making of Modern Brazil Durham: Duke University Press McGowan, Chris, and Ricardo Pessanha. 1998. The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil Philadelphia : Temple University Press. Mercer, Michelle. Regulars. The Village Voice Week of January 16 22, 2002. New York Middleton, Richard. 1990. Studying Popular Music Buckingham: Open University Press. Moehn, Frederick. December 2005. Colonial Era Braz ilian Music: A Review Essay of Recent Recordings. Notes Moore, Allan F., editor. 2003. Analyzing Popular Music Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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106 Moore, Tom. January 2006. Baroque Flute in Brazil: An Interview with Laura Rnai. Flute Talk Nort hfield, IL: The Instrumentalist Company. Moore, Tom. 2004. Brazilian Music: A Core Collection for the Music Library. Music Reference Services Quarterly 9(1): 3766. Murphy, John P. 2006. Music in Brazil: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture New Yor k/Oxford: Oxford University Press. Napolitano, Marcos. Summer 1998. A Inveno da Msica Popular Brasileira: Um Campo de Reflexo para a Histria Social. Latin American Music Review 19(1): 92105. ______. 2002. Histria & Msica: Histria cultural da m sica popular Belo Horizonte: Autntica. Naves, Santuza Cambraia. 1998. O Violo Azul: Modernismo e Msica Popular Rio de Janeiro: Fundao Getulio Vargas. Needell, Jeffrey D. 1987. A Tropical Belle poque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn -of -the Century Rio de Janeiro. Cambridge Latin American studies, 62. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. Perrone, Charles A., and Christopher Dunn. 2001. Chiclete com Banana: Internationalization in Brazilian Popular Music. Bra zilian Popular Music and Globalization, edited by C. A. Perrone, and C. Dunn. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Perrone, Charles A., and Larry N. Crook. 1997. Folk and Popular Music of Brazil Albuquerque, NM: The Latin American Institute, Univers ity of New Mexico. Reily, Suzel Ana. 2000. Introduction: Brazilian Musics, Brazilian Identities. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9(1): 1 10. Roberts, John S. 1998. Black Music of Two Worlds: African, Caribbean, Latin, and AfricanAmerican Tradition s New York: Schirmer Books. Salek, Eliane Corra. 1999. A Felxibilidade Rtmico Meldica na Interpretao do Choro. Masters Thesis. Universidade do Rio de Janeiro. Samson, Jim. 2003. Virtuosity and the Musical Work: The Transcendental Studies of Liszt Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Severiano, Jairo e Zuza Homem de Mello. 1997. A Cano no Tempo: 85 Anos de Msica Brasileiras Vol. 1: 19011957, 4 edio. So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. ______. 1998. A Cano no Tempo: 85 Anos de Msica Brasileiras Vol. 2: 19581985, 2 edio. So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda.

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107 Silva, Marlia T Barboza da, and Arthur L. De Oliveira Filho. 1998. Pixinguinha: Filho de Ogum Bexiguento. Rio de Janeiro: Gryphus. Siqueira, Batista. 1969. Trs Vultos Histo ricos da Msica Brasileira Rio de Janeiro: Ministrio da Educao e Cultura. Skidmore, Thomas E. 1974. Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought New York: Oxford University Press. Smith Stoner, Kristen L. 2000. The Influence of Folk and Popular Music on TwentiethCentury Flute Music of Brazil. D.M.A. Dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati. Souza, Trik de, and Ary Vasconcelos, Roberto M. Moura, Joo Mximo, Roberto Mugg iati, Luiz Carlos Mansur, Turibio Santos, Affonso R. Sant'Anna, Rita Curio. 1988. Brasil Msical: Uma Viagem Pelos Sons e Ritmos Populares Rio de Janeiro: Art Bureau Representaes e Edies de Arte. Squeff, Enio, and Jos Miguel Wisnik. 1982. O Nacional e o Popular na Cultura Brasileira. So Paulo: Editora Brasiliense S.A. Swanson, Brent. 2004. Marco Pereira: Brazilian Guitar Virtuoso. Masters thesis. University of Florida. Taborda, Mrcia. 2002. "The Birth of Choro." Soundboard 29(2): 9 15. Tin horo, Jos Ramos. 1974. Pequena Histria da Msica Popular: da Modinha, Cano de Protesto Petrpolis: Editora Vozes Ltda. ______. 1978. Msica Popular Do Gramofone ao Rdio e TV So Paulo: Editora tica ______. 1992. A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. I: Sculo XVIII -Sculo XIX. Belo Horizonte: Oficina de Livros Ltda. ______. 1997. Msica Popular: Um Tema em Debate, 3 edio revista e ampliada. So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. ______. 2000. A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. II: Sculo XX (1a parte). So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. ______. 2000. A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. III: Sculo XX (2a parte). So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. Treet, David. 2000. Exiles, Allies, Rebels: Brazils Indianist Movement, Indianist Po litics, and the Imperial Nation -State Westport/London: Greenwood Press. Turner, Victor. 1988. The Anthropology of Performance New York: PAJ Publications. Vale, Flausino Rodrigues. 1936. Elementos de Folclore Musical Brasileiro So Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional

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108 Vargens, Joo Baptista M. 1986. Notas Musicais Cariocas Petrpolis: Vozes Vasconcelos, Ary. 1977. Panorama da Msica Popular Brasileira na Belle poque Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Sant'Anna Ltda. ______. 1977. Razes da Msica Popular Br asileira (1500-1889). So Paulo: Livraria Martins Editora. ______. 1984. Carinhoso Etc.: Historia e Inventario do Choro. Rio de Janeiro: Grafca Editora do Livro. Vianna, Hermano. 1999. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Villa Lobos, Heitor. 1976. Qu'est -ce Qu'un Choros? (Lecture at the Club de Trois Centres, Paris, May 29, 1958) EMI France 7PM 14100 M. [Translation in the Liner Notes.] CD. Paris. Vivacqua, Renato. 1992 Msica Popular Brasileira: Cantos e Encantos So Paulo: Joo Scortecci Editora Worms, Luciana Salles e Wellington Borges Costa. 2002. Brasil Sculo XX: Ao P da Letra da Cano Popular. Curitiba: Nova Didtica.

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109 APPENDIX C DISCOGRAPHY 50 Anos de Msica. Cyro Pereira e o Orquestra Jazz Sinfnica do Estado de So Paulo. Pau Brasil PB 008. Ademilde Fonseca vol.2. Ademilde Fonseca. RGE Discos 6105 2. Altamiro Carrilho Altamiro Carrilho. Milleniu m 546 1182. Ao Jacob, seus Band olims : Jacob do Bandolim, sua msica, seus intrpretes Jacob do Bandolim. Biscoito Fino BF 537 As Inditas de Pixinguinha. gua de Moringa. Clssicos Brasileiros 2 502762 Benedicto Lacerda e Pixinguinha. Benedicto Lacerda and Pixinguinha. Sony/BMG Import B0006FV6K2 Brasil, serest a Carlos Poyares. Marcus Pereira MP10041. Brasileirinho Paula Robison. Omega OCD 3016. Brsil Choro -Samba-Frevo 19141945. Various Artists. Frmeaux & Associs FA 077. Caf Brasil. Conjunto poca de Ouro. Electra/Asylum 82368. Caf Brasil 2 Conjunto poca de Ouro. Electra/Asylum B000087RHR. Chiquinha Gonzaga, 150 anos. Ros ria Gatti, in ditas e celebres com Grupo Nosso Choro. APOIO Cultural AJINOMOTO 946110 Chiquinha Gonzaga, a maestrina, vols. 1 and 2. Banda da Casa Esison, Alm eida Cruz, Bahiano, Grupo Chiquinha Gonzaga, et al. Revivendo RVCD 138/12. Chiquinha Gonzaga, Clssicos e inditos. Talitha Peres. RioArte Digital RD 021. Choro: 1906-1947. Pixinguinha, Ernesto Nazareth, Jacob do Bandolim, Joo Pernambuco, et al. Frmeaux & Associs FA 166. Choro Isto. Altamiro Carrilho, Carlos Poyares, et al. Discos Marcus Pereira 0027 107.091. Flauta maravilhosa. Altamiro Carrilho. MoviePlay BS 269. Gente da Antiga. Pixinguinha, Clementina de Jesus, Joo da Bahiana. EMI 522658 2. Grupo Nosso Choro. Grupo Nosso Choro. CPC -UMES CPC 505. Jacob do Bandolim: choros, Valsas, Tangos, e Polcas. Czar Faria, Carlinhos, Tico Tico, Chiquinho. SOARMEC S 005 Jacob do Bandolim: Original Classic Recordings, vols 1 and 2. Jacob do Bandolim Produced b y Davis Grisman. Acoustic Disc ACD 3. Joo Pernambuco. Antonio Adolfo e N em Pingo Dgua. Acervo Funarte ATR 32010. Joaquim Callado: O Pai dos Chores, vols. 1 5. Various Artists. Acari Records CNPJ 03.060.166/000191. Memrias Musicais, vols. 1 15. Vari ous Artists Biscoito Fino BF 601 1 -BF 60115.

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110 Mulheres do Choro. Altamiro Carrilho, Andr a Ernest Dias, Luciana Rabello, et al. Acari Records AR 7. Naquele tempo: Chors e valsas. Pixinguinha, et al. Revivendo. RVCD 016. Noites cariocas. Various Artists. Kuarup K040. O Choro e Sua Histria: Izaas e Israel Entre Amigos vol. I. Izaas de Almeida e Israel Bueno de Almeida. CPC -UMES CPC 055 I O Choro e Sua Histria: Izaas e Israel Entre Amigos vol. II. Izaas de Almeida e Israel Bueno de Almeida. CPC -UMES CPC 055 II O Choro e Sua Histria: Izaas e Israel Entre Amigos vol. III. Izaas de Almeida e Israel Bueno de Almeida. CPC -UMES CPC 055 III Oito Batutas. Oito Batutas Revivendo RVCD 064. O Jovem Pixinguinha: Gravaes de 1919-1920. Pixinguinha. EMI O melhor de Chiquinha Gonzaga. Chiquinha Gonzaga. Revivendo RVCD 235 Os bambas da flauta. Altimiro Carrilho, et al. Kuarup KCD 180. Os grande sucessos de Waldir de Azevedo. Waldir Azevedo, et al. EMI 795337 2. Patpio Silva. Altamiro Carrilho, Luiz Ea, G alo Preto, Banda do Corpo de Bombeiros do Estado de Rio de Janeiro. Atrao/Acervo Funarte ATR 32021. Pixinguinha. Orquestra Braslia. Kuarup Discos M -KCD 035 Pixinguinha. Paulo Moura. Blue Jacket Entertainment BJAC 5019 2. Pixinguinha. Paulo Moura and Os Batutas. Rob Digital RD 018 Pixinguinha 100 anos. Pixinguinha, et al. RCA/BMG 7432146286 2. Pixinguinha 70. Conjunto poca de Ouro, et al. MIS/Rob Digital 199.001.525. Pixinguinha, de Novo. Altamiro Carrilho and Carlos Poyares. Discos Marcus Pereira 00311 07.104. Pixinguinha: No Tempo Dos Oito Batutas Pixinguinha and Os Oito Batutas. Revivendo RVCD 064. Princpios do choro 1 (3 CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600 101, BF600102, BF600103. Princpios do choro 2 (3 CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600 104, BF600105, BF600106. Princpios do choro 3 (3 CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600 107, BF600108, BF600109. Princpios do choro 4 (3 CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600 110, BF600111, BF600112. Princpios do choro 5 (3 CD set). Various artists. Acari/Biscoito Fino BF600 113, BF600114, BF600115.

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111 Projeto Com Passo: Samba & Choro, vol. 1. Grupo Rabo de Lagartixa, Cr istina Buarque and Henrique, et al. Biscoito Fino BF502. Projeto Com Passo: Samba & Choro, vol. 2. Guinga, Luciana Rabello, Maurcio Carrilho, et al. Biscoito Fino BF503. Projeto Com Passo: Samba & Choro, vol. 3. Caio Mrcio, Trio Madeira Brasil, et al. Bi scoito Fino BF511. Radams Gnattali. Tom Jobim, Paulinho da Viola, et al. Acervo Funarte ART 32082. Radams interpreta Radams. Radams Gnattali et al. RGE 6100 2. Razes do Samba: Pixinguinha Pixinguinha, Joo da Baiana, Clementina de Jesus. EMI 5226582 Raphael Rabello: todos os tons Raphael Rabello, et al. BMG 743211004923 Retratos : Jacob e seu Bandolim Radams Gnattali e Orquestra. Columbia 866.028/2 Sempre Nazareth. Various Artists. Kuarup KCD095 Sempre Pixinguinha. Various Artists. Kuarup KCD076 S om Pixinguinha. Pixinguinha. EMI 855290. Tocata Brasileira para Pinho e Arame Gisela Nogueira and Gustavo Costa. CPC -UMES CPC 011 Tributo a Garoto. Radams Gnattali and Rafael Rabello. Acervo Funarte ATR 32081. Uma chorada na casa do Six. Carlos Poyares. Kuarup KCD086. V se gostas. Ademilde Fonseca, Jacob do Bandolim, Waldir de Azevedo. Revivendo RVCD 145. Villa -Lobos: os choros de camera. Various Artists. Kuarup K002. Viva Garoto. Gravaes originais Garoto. Ncleo Contemporneo Memria Brasileira 107.2 25. Vivaldi & Pixinguinha. Radams Gnattali & Camerata Carioca. Atrao/Acervo Funarte ATR 32014.

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112 APPENDIX D ELECTRONIC RESOURCES A Agenda do Samba & Choro: O boteco virtual do samba e do choro. 2009. http://www.samba choro.com.br/ (Last Accessed: February 4 2009). Acari Records. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 28, 2009). www.acari.com.br All Brazilian Music. 2009. Zequinha de Abreu. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=6 35 All B razilian Music. 2009. Waldir Azevedo. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=6 10 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Joaquim Callado. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Ac cessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=8 8 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Altamiro Carrilh o. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=1 9 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Choro. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allb razilianmusic.com/en/Styles/Styles.asp?Status=MATERIA&Nu_Materia=8 94 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Ademilde Fonseca. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=3 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Radams Gnattali. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=4 91 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Chiquinha Gonzaga. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=1 34

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113 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Benedicto Lacerda. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=6 9 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Ernesto Nazareth. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=2 14 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Joo Pernambuco. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Acces sed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=3 00 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Pixinguinha. Cli que Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/Artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&N u_Artista=4 77 All Brazilian Music. 2009 Patpio Silva. Clique Music Editora LTDA., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.allbrazilianmusic.com/en/artists/Artists.asp?Status=ARTISTA&Nu_Artista=45 5 Boukas, R ichard. 1999. O Chro Part I: A Perennial Tradition in Brazilian Music. Just Jazz Guitar Online articles. (Last Accessed: February 2 2009). http://www.boukas.com/jjgarticles/jjg899.html ______. 1999. O Chro Part II: Epoca de Ouro And Beyond. Just Jazz Guitar Online articles. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.boukas.com/jjgarticles/jjg1199.html Carrasqueira, Toninho. Flauta Brasiliera. (Last A ccessed: April 6, 2009.) http://ensai os.musicodobrasil.com.br/toninhocarrasqueira -flautabrasileira.htm Carrilho, Altamiro. 2009. Altamiro Carrilho & sua flauta maravilhosa... Official Homepage. (Last Accessed March, 2009). http://www.altamirocarrilho.com.br/index.htm Dalarossa, Daniel. 2009. About the Project Classics of the Brazilian Choro You are the Soloist! Choro Music.com (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.choromusic.com/sobre_projeto_in.htm Diniz, Andr. 2007. A Formao d a Msica Popular Carioca (Last Accessed: April 6, 2009). http://www.niteroiartes.com.br/cursos/muspop/index.html and http://www.niteroiartes.com.br/cursos/muspop/textos/joaquimcallado.doc Downey, Greg, and Center for Black Music Research. 2002. "Pixinguinha." (Last accessed: March 29, 2009). http://www.colum.edu/CBMR/CBMR_Publications/Pixinguinha.php

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114 Gonzaga, Chiquinha. 1999. Official Website. (Last Acce ssed: February 7 2009). http://www.chiquinhagonzaga.com/ Gilman, Bruce. 1996. 100 Years of Choro. (Last Accessed: February 7 2009). http://www.brazzil.com/musjul96.htm Hampe & Berkel Muziek 2009. Oldest Musical Instrument Shop in the Netherlands. (Last Accessed: March 3 2009). http://www.berkelmuziek.nl/ Historical Flutes. 2009. Histor ical Flute Information by Richard M. Wilson. (Last Accessed: March 13, 2009). http://www.oldflutes.com/ Kuarup Discos. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 29, 2009). http://www.kuarup.com.br/br/index.php?idparceiro=0&idioma=ing Revivendo Msica 2009. Brazilian recordings and other media online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 29, 2009). http://www.revivendomusicas.com.br/ Slip cue Brazilian Music Guide. 2009. Choro Music. (Last Accessed: February 4 2009). http:// www.slipcue.com/music/brazil/aa_styles_choro/A_01.html

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115 APPENDIX E MUSICAL SCORES Albuquerque, Maria Joo Dures. 1996. Jornal de Modinhas Ano I, Edio Facsimilada. Lisboa: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro. Barbosa -Lima, Carlos. 1994. Pixinguinha (Alfredo Vianna) 8 Solo Pieces Music of the Americas Series. San Francisco: Guitar Solo Publications. Carrasqueira, Maria J. 1997. O Melhor de Pixinguinha: Melodias e Cifras Rio de Janeiro So Paulo: Irmos Vitale S.A. Ind. e Com. Lapiccirella, Roberto, Organiizador. 1996. Antologia musical popular brasileira: As marchinhas de carnaval So Paulo: Musa Editora. Lima, Edilson de. 2001. As Modinhas do Brasil So Paulo: Editora da Universidade de So Paulo. Mascarenhas, Mrio. 1982. O Melhor da Msica Popular Brasileira: Com cifras para piano, rgo, e acordeon, vol. 1. Rio de Janeiro So Paulo: Irmos Vitale S.A. Ind. e Com. Sve, Mrio. 1999. Vocabilrio do Choro: estuos & composies Edited by Almir C hediak. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora.

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116 APPENDIX F VIDEOGRAPHY Kaurismki, Mika. 2002. Moro No Brasil [In U.S. The Sound of Brazil]. Brazil. Arte and Mariana Films. ______________. 2005. Brasileirinho: Grandes Encontros do Choro. [In U. S. The Sound of Rio: Brasileirinho ]. Brazil. Mariana Films Paes, Csar. 2000. Saudade do Futuro. Brazil. A.F. Cinema e Video.

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117 LIST OF REFERENCES CITED A Agenda do Samba & Choro: O boteco virtual do samba e do choro. 1996. (Last Accessed: February 4 2009). http://www.samba -choro.com.br/ Acari Records. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 28, 2009). www.acari.com.br All Brazilian Music. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 28, 2009). www.allbrazilianmusic.com Appleby, David P. 1983. The Music of Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press. Assis, Machado de. 1986. Histria de 15 dias. Obra Completa (v. III). Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Aguilar. Bhague Gerard H. 1966. Popular Musical Currents in the Art Music of the Early Nationalistic Period in Brazil, Circa 1870-1920. Ph.D. Disser tation. New Orleans: Tulane University. ______. 1971. The Beginnings of Musical Nationalism in Brazil Detroit: Information Coordinators. ______. 1979. NineteenthCentury Antecedents of Nationalism. pp. 111123 in Music in Latin America: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc. Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro 2009. (Last Accessed, March 29, 2009) http://www.bn.br/portal/ Caracas Garcia, Thomas George. Summer, 1997a The Choro, the Guitar and Villa -Lobos. Luso -Brazilian Review 34(1): 5767. ______. 1997b The Brazilian Choro: Music, Politics and Performance. Ph.D. Dissertation. Durham, N.C.: Duke University. Carpentier, Alejo. 1946. La Msica en Cuba. Mx ico: Fon do de Cultura Econmica. ______. 2001. Music in Cuba -Edited by Timothy Brennan; in English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Carrasqueira, Maria J. 1997. O Melhor de Pixinguinha: Melodias e Cifras. Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo: Iramaos Vitale S/A Ind. e Com. Carrasqueira, Toninho. Flauta Brasiliera. (Last Accessed: April 6, 2009.) http://ensaios.musicodobrasil.com.br/toninhocarrasqueira -flautabrasileira.htm Carrilho, Altamiro. 2009. Altamiro Carrilho & sua flauta maravilhosa... Official Homepage. (Last Accessed March, 2009). http://www.altamirocarrilho.com.br/index.htm

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118 Coelho, Tadeo and Julie Koidin. Fall 2005. The Brazilian Choro: Historical Perspectives and Performance Practices. The Flutist Quarterly Royal Oak, MI: National Flute Association Crook, Larry N. 2005. B razilian Music: Northeastern Traditions and the Heartbeat of a Modern Nation Santa Barbara, CA: ABC/CLIO Dalarossa, Daniel. 2009. About the Project Classics of the Brazilian Choro You are the Soloist! Choro Music.com (Last Accessed: February, 2009). http://www.choromusic.com/sobre_projeto_in.htm Dias, Andra Ernest. 1996. A Expresso da Flauta Popular Brasileira: Uma Escola de Intrepretao Masters Thesis. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Dias, Odette Ernest. 1990. Mathieu -Andr Reichert, um flutista belga no corte do Rio de Janeiro Brasilia: Distrito Federal Editora UnB. Diniz, Andr. 2002. Joaquim Callado, o Pai dos Chores Rio de Janeiro: Ourocard. Diniz, Andr 2007. A Formao d a Msica Popular Carioca (Last Accessed: April 6, 2009). http://www.niteroiartes.com.br/cursos/muspop/index.html and http://www.niteroiartes.com.br/cursos/muspop/textos/joaquimcallado.doc Diniz, Jamie C. 1979. Msicos Pernambucanos do Passado. Vol. 3. Recife, PE Brazil: Universidade Fede ral de Pernambuco. Downey, Greg, and the Center for Black Music Research. 2002. "Pixinguinha." (Last accessed: March 29, 2009). http://www.colum.edu/CBMR/CBMR_Publications/Pixinguin ha.php Freyre, Gilberto. 1975. Tempo Morto e Outros Tempos: Trechos de um Dirrio de Adolesncia e Primera Mocidade Rio de Janeiro: Livaria Jos Olimpio Editora. Gilman, Bruce. 1996. 100 Years of Choro. (Last Accessed: February, 2009). http://www.brazzil.com/musjul96.htm Gomes, Jos Benedicto Viana. 1997. Pixinguinha: Choro Presena e Aplicabilidade no Estudo da Flauta Transversal no Brasil Masters Thesis. Escola de Msica da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Gonalves Pinto, Alexandre. 1978. O Choro: Rimsencias dos Chores Antigos Rio de Janeiro: Edio Funarte. Joaquim Callado: O Pai dos Chores, vols. 1 5. Various Artists. Acari Records CNPJ 03.060.166/000191. CD. Koidin, Julie. 2006. Benedicto Lacerda and the 'G old en Age' of Choro Flute P laying D.M. Dissertation. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.

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119 Kuarup Discos. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: February, 2009). http://www.kuarup.com.br/br/index.php?idparceiro=0&idioma=ing Livingston, Tamara E. 1999a. Choro and Music Revialism in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: 1973-1995. Ph.D. Dissertation. Champa gne -Urbana: University of Illinois Champagne -Urbana. Livingston, Tamara E. 1999b. Music Revivals: Towards a General Theory. Ethnomusicology Vol. 43:1, pp. 6685. Livingston -Isenhour, Tamara E. and Thomas G. Caracas Garcia. 2005. Choro: A Social History of a Brazilian Popular Music Bloomington: Indiana University Press Lopes -Canado, T nia M ara 1999. An Investigation of West African and Haitian Rhythms on the Development of Syncopation in Cuban Habanera, Brazilian Tango/Choro, and American Ragtime ( 1791-1900). Winchester, VA: Shenandoah Conservatory. McGowan, Chris, and Ricardo Pessanha. 1998. The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Memrias Musicais, vols. 1 15. Various Artists. Biscoito Fino BF 601 1 -BF 60115. CD. Mercer, Michelle. Regulars. The Village Voice Week of January 16 22, 2002. New York Middleton, Richard. 1990. Studying Popular Music Buckingham: Open University Press. Perrone, Charles A., and Christopher Dunn. 2001. Chiclete com Banana: Internationalization in Brazilian Popular Music. Brazilian Popular Music and Globalization, edited by C. A. Perrone, and C. Dunn. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Noites cariocas. Various Artists. Kuarup K040. C D. Revivendo Msica. 2009. Brazilian recordings online. Recording Label (Last Accessed: March 28, 2009). www.revivendomusicas.com.br Roberts, John S. 1998. Black Music of Two Worlds: African, Caribbean, Latin, and AfricanAmerican Traditions New York: Schirmer Books. Salek, Eliane Corra. 1999. A Felxibilidade Rtmico Meldica na Interpretao do Choro. Masters Thesis. Universidade do Rio de Janeiro. Samson, Jim. 2003. Virtuosity and the Musical Work: The Transcendental Studies of Liszt Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Severiano, Jairo e Zuza Homem de Mello. 1997. A Cano no Tempo: 85 Anos de Msica Brasileiras Vol. 1: 19011957, 4 edio. So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. Siqueira, Batista. 1969. Trs Vultos Historicos da Msica Brasileira Rio de Janeiro: Ministrio da Educao e Cultura.

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1 20 Smith Stoner, Kristen L. 2000. The Influence of Folk and Popular Music on TwentiethCentury F lute Music of Brazil. D.M.A. Dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati. Souza, Trik de, and Ary Vasconcelos, Roberto M. Moura, Joo Mximo, Roberto Muggiati, Luiz Carlos Mansur, Turibio Santos, Affonso R. Sant'Anna, Rita Curio. 1988. Brasi l Msical: Uma Viagem Pelos Sons e Ritmos Populares Rio de Janeiro: Art Bureau Representaes e Edies de Arte. Squeff, Enio, and Jos Miguel Wisnik. 1982. O Nacional e o Popular na Cultura Brasileira. So Paulo: Editora Brasiliense S.A. Swanson, Brent. 2004. Marco Pereira: Brazilian Guitar Virtuoso. Masters thesis. University of Florida. Tinhoro, Jos Ramos. 1974. Pequena Histria da Msica Popular: da Modinha, Cano de Protesto Petrpolis: Editora Vozes Ltda. ______. 1978. M sica Popular Do Gramofone ao Rdio e TV So Paulo: Editora tica ______. 1992. A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. I: Sculo XVIII -Sculo XIX. Belo Horizonte: Oficina de Livros Ltda. ______. 2000. A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. II: Sculo XX (1a parte). So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. ______. 2000. A Msica Popular no Romance Brasileiro Vol. III: Sculo XX (2a parte). So Paulo: Editora 34 Ltda. Treet, David. 2000. Exiles, Allies, Re bels: Brazils Indianist Movement, Indianist Politics, and the Imperial Nation -State Westport/London: Greenwood Press. Turner, Victor. 1988. The Anthropology of Performance New York: PAJ Publications. Vasconcelos, Ary. 1977a Panorama da Msica Popular Brasileira na Belle poque Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Sant'Anna Ltda. ______. 1977b Razes da Msica Popular Brasileira (1500-1889). So Paulo: Livraria Martins Editora. ______. 1984. Carinhoso Etc.: Historia e Inventario do Choro. Rio de Janeiro: Grafca Editora do Livro. Vianna, Hermano. 1999. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Villa Lobos, Heitor. 1976. Qu'est -ce Qu'un Choros? (Lecture at the Club de Trois Centr es, Paris, May 29, 1958) EMI France 7PM 14100 M. [Translation in the Liner Notes.] CD. Paris.

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121 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ruth M. Sunni Witmer received her Bachelor of Music in Flute Performance from the University of Florida and her Master of Music in Flute Performance from Louisiana State University. She returned to the University of Florida to pursue a Ph.D. in Music with a con centration in E thnomusicology. Ms. Witmer is concurrently completing a Master of Arts degree in Latin American Studies at the University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies. Her area of focus is the music of the Caribbean and Brazil, primarily early twentieth -century urban popular genres with an emphasis on Brazilian choro and Cuban charanga. Choro Regional de Florida. May 22 2008. (Left to Right) Sunni Witmer, flute; Charles Perrone, cavaquinho; Aaron Croft, pandeiro, and; Welson Tremura, violo