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Modeling Sand Ripple Evolution under Wave Boundary Layers


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MODELINGSANDRIPPLEEVOLUTIONUNDERWAVEBOUNDARYLAYERSByALLISONM.PENKOATHESISPRESENTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOLOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAINPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTSFORTHEDEGREEOFMASTEROFSCIENCEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDA2007 1

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c2007AllisonM.Penko 2

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Tomyfamilyandfriends. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTSIgratefullyacknowledgetheOceofNavalResearchforfundingtheRippleDRIproject,aswellasASEEandtheNationalDefenseScienceandEngineeringGraduateResearchFellowshipProgramforfundingmyeducation.Ithankmysupervisorycommitteefortheirsupportandmentoringandmyfellowgraduatestudentsfortheirhelpandencouragement.Last,IthankmyfamilyandfriendsfortheirunwaiveringencouragementandAaronforbeingthereformeeverystepofthewayonthisjourney. 4

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TABLEOFCONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................. 4 LISTOFTABLES ..................................... 7 LISTOFFIGURES .................................... 8 ABSTRACT ........................................ 10 CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION .................................. 11 1.1GeneralIntroduction .............................. 11 1.2Background ................................... 12 1.2.1TypesofBedforms ........................... 13 1.2.2SedimentTransport ........................... 14 1.2.3RippleParameters ............................ 16 1.3LiteratureReview ................................ 17 1.4ResearchProblem ................................ 23 2METHODOLOGY .................................. 28 2.1ModelApproach/Characteristics ........................ 28 2.2Physics ...................................... 28 2.2.1GoverningEquations .......................... 29 2.2.2Non-dimensionalizing .......................... 36 2.2.3BoundaryandInitialConditions .................... 37 2.2.4InputParameters ............................ 38 2.3Numerics .................................... 38 3EXPERIMENTALPLAN .............................. 44 3.1Simulations ................................... 44 3.1.1RippleAmplitudeSimulations ..................... 44 3.1.2RippleWavelengthSimulations ..................... 45 3.2ExperimentalData ............................... 46 4RESULTS ....................................... 51 4.1RippleAmplitudeSimulations ......................... 51 4.1.1RippleHeight .............................. 51 4.1.2RippleShape .............................. 52 4.1.3SuspendedandBedLoadTransport .................. 53 4.1.4Advective,Settling,andDiusiveFluxes ............... 54 4.2RippleAmplitudeFlowVelocitySimulations ................. 56 4.2.1RippleHeight .............................. 56 4.2.2SuspendedandBedLoadTransport .................. 56 5

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4.3TwoRippleWavelengthSimulations ..................... 57 4.3.1RippleWavelength ........................... 57 4.3.2RippleHeight .............................. 58 4.3.3SuspendedandBedLoadTransport .................. 58 4.4OneandThreeRippleWavelengthSimulations ............... 59 4.4.1RippleWavelength ........................... 59 4.4.2RippleHeight .............................. 59 4.4.3SuspendedandBedLoadTransport .................. 60 4.5FlatbedSimulation ............................... 60 4.5.1RippleHeight .............................. 60 4.5.2RippleWavelength ........................... 61 4.5.3SuspendedandBedloadTransport .................. 61 4.6Three-DimensionalSimulation ......................... 61 4.6.1RippleHeight .............................. 62 4.6.2SuspendedandBedLoadTransport .................. 62 4.7SummaryofResults .............................. 62 5SUMMARY ...................................... 85 5.1Applicability ................................... 85 5.2RippleGeometryPredictions .......................... 85 5.2.1RippleShape .............................. 85 5.2.2RippleHeightandLength ....................... 85 5.2.3RippleMorphology ........................... 86 5.2.4ComparisonsofQuasi-Two-andThree-DimensionalSimulations .. 87 5.3SummaryofContributions ........................... 87 5.4FutureResearch ................................. 88 APPENDIX AFLUXCALCULATIONS .............................. 89 REFERENCES ....................................... 93 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH ................................ 100 6

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LISTOFTABLES Table Page 3{1Rippleamplitudesimulationconditions. ...................... 47 3{2Three-dimensionalsimulationconditions. ...................... 47 3{3Ripplewavelengthsimulationconditions. ...................... 48 3{4Modelsimulationparametersandlaboratorydataresults. ............ 49 4{1Summaryoftherippleheightsimulationresults. .................. 82 4{2Summaryoftheripplewavelengthsimulationresults. ............... 83 7

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LISTOFFIGURES Figure Page 1{1Ripplesinasandybed. ................................ 27 2{1Mixturedensityandviscosityrelationships. .................... 40 2{2Forcesonacontrolvolumeinaconcentratedsandbed. .............. 41 2{3Thebedstinesscoecientfunction. ........................ 41 2{4Exampleofathree-dimensionalinitialbedstate. ................. 42 2{5Staggeredgrid. .................................... 43 3{1Initialbedstatesoftherippleamplitudesimulations. ............... 48 3{2Initialbedstateofthethree-dimensionalrippleamplitudesimulation. ...... 49 3{3Initialbedstatesoftheripplewavelengthsimulations. .............. 50 4{1Snapshotsintimeoftherippleamplitudesimulations. .............. 63 4{2Timeevolutionofthemaximumrippleheightintherippleamplitudesimulations. 64 4{3Rippleslopeplotsoftherippleamplitudesimulations. .............. 65 4{4Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortherippleamplitudesimulations. ............................ 66 4{5Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedadvective,diusive,andsettlinguxesfortherippleamplitudesimulations. ........................ 67 4{6Time,x-,andy-averageduxplotsfortherippleamplitudesimulations. .... 68 4{7Snapshotsintimeoftherippleamplitudesimulationswithvaryingmaximumfree-steamvelocities. ................................. 69 4{8Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightintherippleamplitudesimulationswithvaryingmaximumfree-steamvelocities. .................... 70 4{9Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortherippleamplitudesimulationswithvaryingmaximumfree-steamvelocities. .... 71 4{10Snapshotsintimeofthetworipplewavelengthsimulations. ........... 72 4{11Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightintheripplewavelengthsimulations. 73 4{12Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesforthetworipplewavelengthsimulations. ......................... 74 4{13Snapshotsintimeoftheone-andthree-ripplewavelengthsimulations. ..... 75 8

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4{14Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightintheone-andthree-ripplewavelengthsimulations. ...................................... 76 4{15Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortheone-andthree-ripplewavelengthsimulations. ................... 77 4{16Snapshotsintimeoftheatbedsimulation. .................... 78 4{17Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightintheatbedsimulation. ....... 79 4{18Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortheatbedsimulation. .................................. 80 4{19Snapshotsintimeofthethree-dimensionalsimulation. .............. 81 4{20Timeevolutionofrippleheightinthethree-dimensionalsimulation. ....... 82 4{21Instantaneousandcumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesforthethree-dimensionalsimulation. ............................ 84 A{1Rippleproleandhorizontallyaveragedconcentrationplots. ........... 91 A{2Bedloadlayerandmeshgrid. ............................ 92 9

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AbstractofThesisPresentedtotheGraduateSchooloftheUniversityofFloridainPartialFulllmentoftheRequirementsfortheDegreeofMasterofScienceMODELINGSANDRIPPLEEVOLUTIONUNDERWAVEBOUNDARYLAYERSByAllisonM.PenkoMay2007Chair:DonaldN.SlinnMajor:CoastalandOceanographicEngineeringAlive-bedsedimenttransportandripplemorphologymodelispresented.Anexistingsheetowmixturemodelismodiedanditsapplicabilitytoahighlyconcentrated,lowerowShieldsparameterslessthan0.5,rippleregimeistested.Twelvesimulationsarepresentedwithvaryingowconditionsandinitialbedtopographiestodetermineifthebedstatewillequilibratetoapredictedsteady-stateripplegeometry.ThemodelistestedunderarangeofReynoldsnumberowsandbedstates.Itisfoundtopredictrippleswithsimilarshapes,heights,andlengthstothosefoundinthelaboratoryandeld.Thedominantmechanismofrippleevolutionisalsoanalyzed.Itisdeterminedthatrippleevolutioninlaminarandturbulentowregimesoccursthroughbedloadsedimenttransport.Withexperimentalverication,theproposedmixturemodelhasthepotentialtoprovideusefulinformationonthedynamicsoftheow,sedimenttransport,andripplemorphology. 10

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CHAPTER1INTRODUCTION1.1GeneralIntroductionRippleshavemanyimpactsontheenvironment.Theirlengthscalesrangefrommillimeterstometers,dependingontheowandsedimentenvironment,aectingsmall-scalesedimenttransporttolarge-scalebeacherosion.Evenaftermuchpublishedresearchdatingbackasfaras1882onripplesandthesedimenttransportoverthem,abetterunderstandingofthedynamicsofrippledevelopmentandthefeedbackbetweenuid-sedimentinteractionisstillneeded.Alive-bed,three-dimensionalmodelthatpredictsbothsuspendedandbedloadtransportaswellasripplemorphologyhasnotbeendevelopeduntilnow.Presentmodelsarelimitedintheircapabilities.Someonlydescribeoneparticularmodeofsedimenttransportorarespecictoasingleowregimeorsedimentparameter.Whilethesemodelsareusefulinestimatingnettransportratesandprovidinginsighttothemodeledprocessorregime,theyareunabletoexplainthephysicsofthenaturalsystem.Fewthree-dimensionalmodelscorrectlysimulatetheowtogetherwithaccuratelypredictingrippleshapeandsize.Modelsthatdonotresolvesmall-scaleprocesses,butinsteadapproximatethemwithclosureschemes,canintroducenewcomplexities.Historically,thereremainsameasureofdisagreementbetweenthemodeledresultsandeldmeasurementsSections 1.3 and 1.4 .Ripplesareinuentialbecausetheyaectthenear-bedturbulenceandtheboundarylayerstructureoftheow.Thegeometricpropertiesandmorphologicbehaviorsofsandripplesontheinnershelfcansignicantlyimpactsedimenttransport,bottomfriction,andtheacousticalpropertiesoftheseabed.Forexample,ripplemigrationisasignicantmechanismofcoastalsedimenttransport,inuencingbeacherosionandscouraroundobjects.Thebottomfrictionexperiencedbymeanoceancurrents,thedampingeectsfeltbywaves,andthequantityofsuspendedandbedloadtransportgrowswithincreasedbottomroughnessthatoccursduetotheorderofmagnitudedierencebetweengrainsize 11

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andrippleheight.Therefore,whenripplesarepresentontheseaoorFigure 1{1 ,thebottomroughnessmustbeparameterizedbytherippleheightinsteadofthesedimentsize.Bedformproperties,includingheight,wavelength,orientation,slope,shape,andgrainsize,aecttheacousticpenetrationandscatteringcharacteristicsofsonar.Theseeectsbecomeparticularlyimportantwhenacousticsonarisusedtosearchforburiedobjectse.g.,minesundertheseabed.Alackofsucientinformationonripplegeometryprovidesanexplanationforthemisseddetectionofobjectsburiedundertheseaoor Piperetal. 2002 SchmidtandLee 1999 claimthatthespectralcharacteristicsofrippleeldsareassociatedwithareverberationenvironment,whichishighlysensitivetoboththefrequencyandinsonicationaspectrelativetotheripples.Wehavedevelopedathree-dimensionalmodelusinganapproachthathasneverbeforebeenappliedtothemodelingofrippleevolution.Themodelallowsforthepredictionofripplemorphologyandthehydrodynamicsoftheresultingow.Themodelpresentedproducesripplessimilartothoseseeninnatureandallowsfortheexaminationofthedynamicsoftheow,rippleformation,andrippleevolution.Thepropertiesthatcanbeanalyzedincludethetime-dependentconcentrationandvelocityelds,therippleheight,length,shape,andmigration.Theinformationobtainedfromthemodelaboutthehydrodynamicsandsedimenttransportoverripplescancontributetotheoverallunderstandingoftheroleofripplesincoastalmorphology.1.2BackgroundRipplesforminmanydierentenvironmentsandhaveavarietyofcharacteristics.Thebedformtypedependsonthestrengthandnatureoftheow.Asteadycurrent,tidalcurrent,waves,oracombinationofallthreewillinuencethesize,shape,andorientationofthebedforms.Thenonlinearcomplexitiesoftheowpresentchallengesinpredictingripples,andmuchresearchhasbeendoneexaminingbedformsunderdierentowregimese.g., Bagnold 1946 ; Sleath 1984 ; WibergandHarris 1994 ; Nielsen 1992 12

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1.2.1TypesofBedformsThreeofthemostcommontypesofbedformsaredunes,megaripplesoranti-dunes,andripples.Dunesareirregularsandwavesformedundercurrentactioni.e.,innaturalstreams.Theyaregenerallytriangularinshapewithamildlyslopedupstreamsurfaceandadownstreamslopeapproximatelyequaltotheangleofrepose.Theowoverthemseparatesatthecrestandreattachesinthetroughastheymigratedownstream FredseandDeigaard 1992 .Amegaripple,oranti-dune,isalarge,round-crested,unstableripplewithawavelengthrangingfrom1mto10m,andaheightfrom0.1mto1m.Theirscalesofevolutionrangefromhourstodays.Unlikedunes,anti-dunescanmoveupstream,withsandaccumulatingontheupstreamfaceanderodingonthedownstreamslope.Theyformunderenergeticoscillatoryowsandhaveirregularvortexsheddingandunpredictablemigration.Ripplesarethemostcommonbedformsandarethefocusofthisresearch.Theirwavelengthsandheightsvaryfrom0.1mto1.0m,and0.01mto0.1m,respectively.Theirtimescalesofevolutioncanrangefromsecondstohours.Ripplescanbewave-orcurrent-generated,oracombinationofboth. Bagnold 1946 classiedwave-generatedripplesintotwogroups:rolling-grainripplesandvortexripples.Rolling-grainripplesformrstonaninitiallyatbedunderlowwaveaction.Theyaregenerallyformedbyoscillatingwavescreatingacircularstreamlinepathofow.Theorbitalmotiontendstopushsedimentupfromalowtoahighpointonthebed.Astherolling-grainripplesgrow,theirheightcausestheboundarylayerowtoseparatebehindthecrestoftherippleandvorticesareformed.Therolling-grainripplesarenowtransitioningintovortexripples.Vorticescarrysedimentfromthetroughoftherippleuptothecrest.Vortexripplesareusuallytwo-dimensionalandcanbecausedeitherbyrolling-grainripplesalreadypresentoranobstructionontheseaoorsuchasarockorshell.Theycanmigrateslowlyduetowaveasymmetry,butnottothedegreeofcurrent-generatedripples. 13

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Current-generatedripplesexistinrivers,estuaries,andthesea.Theygenerallyhaveagentleupstreamslopeandasteepleeslope.Theripplesmigrateslowlydownstreamandcanrespondquicklytochangesinthecurrentstrengthanddirection.Theyareusuallythree-dimensionalwithirregulargeometries.Ripplesgeneratedfrombothwavesandcurrentshaveacombinationofthepropertiesmentionedpreviously.Thestrengthandtherelativeanglebetweenthewavesandcurrentinuencetheripplecharacteristics.Ifthedirectionofthewavesandcurrentsareparallel,theripplepatternismainlytwo-dimensional.Whenthewaveandcurrentdirectionsareperpendicularoralargeangleapart,theripplepatternisprimarilythree-dimensional Nielsen 1992 ,pg.143-145; Sleath 1984 ,pg.169.Therearetwomoreclassicationswithinthewave-generatedripplecategory:orbitalandanorbital.Orbitalrippleshavewavelengthsproportionaltothenear-bedwaveorbitaldiameterandheightsgreaterthanthewaveboundarylayerthickness.Ripplesinamoreenergeticwaveenvironmentcanhavewavelengthsindependentofthewaveorbitaldiameterandinsteadareproportionaltothegrain-sizediameter.Theseareanorbitalripples.Orbitalripplespredominatelyforminthelaboratory,whereasanorbitalripplesaregenerallyfoundintheeld WibergandHarris 1994 .1.2.2SedimentTransportSedimenttransportisthemechanismfromwhichbedformsevolveandmigrate.Theincipientmotionofgrainsoccurswhenthemobilizingforcesexceedsomecriticalvalue.Atthispoint,thestabilizingforcesarenotstrongenoughtoholdthegrainsinplaceandthesedimentstartstomove.Themodesofsedimenttransportaregenerallyseparatedintothreecategories:bedload,suspendedload,andwashload. Bagnold 1956 denesbedloadassedimentthatissupportedbyintergranularforcesandisinalmostcontinuouscontactwiththebed.Bedloadischaracterizedbygrainsrollingorslidingoverthebed.Heidentiessuspendedloadassedimentsupportedbyuiddragthatismaintainedinsuspensionbyuidturbulence.Washloadisverydilutesuspended 14

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sedimentconcentrationsofneparticulates.Inthiswork,weconcentrateprimarilyonbedandsuspendedload.Manymethodsexisttoseparatebedfromsuspendedloadwhenstudyingsedimenttransport. Einstein 1950 statesthatbedloadisanymovingsedimentinthelayerfromthestationarybeduptotwograindiametersabovethebed. FredseandDeigaard 1992 denedbedloadasthelayerwithavolumetricbedconcentrationgreaterthan35%butlessthan65%fullypackedsand.Becauseagraincanbesupportedbybothintergranularforcesanduiddragatanygiventime,adistinctionbetweenbedandsuspendedloadisvirtuallyimmeasurableinthelaboratoryandeld.Inthisresearch,bedloadisdenedaspartofthetotalloadthatmovesbelowachosenheightabovethestationarybedseeAppendix A fordetails.Ingeneral,bedloadiswithinvegraindiametersofthestationarybed,coincidingwithconcentrationsofapproximately30%;andthestationarybedistypicallydesignatedashavingavolumetricconcentrationof60%orgreater.Suspendedloadtransportoverripplesiscausedmainlybysedimentbeingtransportedbyvorticesthatformabovetherippleleeslope.Thisprocesshappensthroughtwomechanisms.First,sedimentisentrainedinthevortexstructuresthataregeneratedbytheowseparationattheripplecrest.Thesecondmechanismistheconvectionofthesuspendedsedimenttrappedinthevortices.Thevorticesarenolongerclearlydenedstructures;therefore,thesuspendedsedimenttheycontainisdispersedandconvectedbythemeanow Sleath 1984 ,pg.266-269.SuspendedsedimentgetsadvectedtoaheightOabovetheripple vanderWerfetal. 2006 .Thisconvectionprocess,aswellasdiusionandgravity,aremechanismsthatcancauseripplegrowthordecay.Whenthedeterioratingforcesareinbalancewiththegrowingforces,therippleisinequilibriumforthosespecicconditions. 15

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1.2.3RippleParametersSomeimportantsedimenttransportandripplemorphologyparametersincludethemobilitynumber,,frictionfactor,fw,waveorbitalexcursion,a,Shieldsparameter,,andtheperiodparameter,.ThemobilitynumberEquation 1{1 isaratioofthedisturbingforcestothestabilizingforcesonasedimentparticleunderwaves.Itisameasureofasedimentparticle'stendencytomoveduetowaveaction.=a!2 s)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 11.956 0 Td[(1gd{1whereaisthewaveorbitalexcursionEquation 1{2 ,!istheradialfrequencyEquation 1{3 ,sisthespecicgravityofthesedimentforquartzsands=2:65,anddisthemediangrainsizediameter.a=UoT 2{2!=2 T{3whereTistheperiodandUoisthemaximumfree-streamvelocityoftheowoscillation.AsecondparameterusedtomeasureincipientmotionistheShieldsparameterEquation 1{4 .Itisalsoaratioofthedisturbingtostabilizingforces.=u2 s)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(1gd{4whereu=r f{5 16

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whereuisthefrictionvelocityEquation 1{5 ,isthebedshearstress,andfisthewaterdensity.TheShieldsparameterEquation 1{6 canalsobedenedintermsofthemobilitynumberEquation 1{1 andafrictionfactor,fwEquation 1{7 .=1 2fw{6wherefw=exp5:2132:5d a0:194)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(5:977!;{7whichwasproposedby Swart 1974 witharoughnessof2:5dandisvalidforroughturbulentowconditions. MogridgeandKamphuis 1972 claimthatripplegeometrydependsonadimensionlessparameterderivedfromthemobilitynumberandthewaveorbitalexcursionlength,calledtheperiodparameterEquation 1{8 .=d s)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(1gT2:{81.3LiteratureReviewPublishedresearchonripplesdatesbackasfaras1882,when Hunt 1882 describedhisobservationsoftheripple-markinsand.Followingsoonafter, Candolle 1883 statedthatripplesformwhentwoliquidsofdierentviscositiescomeincontactwitheachotherinanoscillatorymanner;and Forel 1883 observedthatinitialripplewavelengthsformedonaatbedareabouthalfaslongastheequilibriumwavelengths.Therstpublishedrippleexperimentswereperformedby Darwin 1883 .Herotatedacirculartublledwithsandandwaterinanoscillatingmotionanddiscoveredthatripplesformedradiallyinthesand.Heand Ayrton 1910 observedthevorticesthataregeneratedinthelee 17

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ofripplesandnotedthattheyerodedrippletroughsandbuiltupthecrests.Theworkof Bagnold 1946 wasthenextmajorcontributiontotheeldofrippledynamics.Hedenedbedformsasvortex"ripplesafterobservingtheseparationofowattheripplecrestandtheformationofavortexintheleeoftheripple.Whentheowreverses,thevortexisejectedupwards,causingthesedimenttobecomesuspended.Healsopresentedthehypothesisthattheripplelengthisproportionaltothewaveorbitalexcursionlength.Othersignicantinvestigationsontheoccurrence,formation,anddevelopmentofripplesinclude CostelloandSouthard 1981 Sleath 1976 ,and Sleath 1984 .Fieldobservationsarecrucialforthecharacterizationofmorphologicphenomena Blondeaux 2001 .Someoftherstsignicantdatasetsofrippleobservationsinclude Inman 1957 Dingler 1974 ,and MillerandKomar 1980a .Thesedataconrmthehypothesisthattheripplewavelengthisproportionaltothewaveorbitalexcursionlength.Otherearlylaboratoryexperimentshavealsocontributedtotheunderstandingofrippledynamicse.g., CarstensandNeilson 1967 ; MogridgeandKamphuis 1972 ; Lofquist 1978 ; MillerandKomar 1980b .Empiricalexpressionstopredictrippleheight,wavelength,andsteepnessunderdierentowconditionshavebeenformulatedfromlaboratoryandeldmeasurements.Theripplepredictorof Nielsen 1981 isoneofthemostwell-knownandveried.Hedevelopedformulasforrippleheight,wavelength,andsteepnessunderdierentowconditions.SeparateexpressionsareusedforlaboratoryandeldripplesSection 3.2 GrantandMadsen 1982 usedumedataofripplespacingandheighttodevelopgeneralexpressionsforrippleheightandsteepness.Aripplepredictorpresentedby Vongvisessomjai 1984 determinesthegeometrybasedonthegrainsizediameterandtheperiodparameter,Equation 1{8 .Then, Mogridgeetal. 1994 and WibergandHarris 1994 eachpresentedaripplepredictormodel. Mogridgeetal. 'smodelpredictedmaximumripplewavelength. WibergandHarris 'modelismorespecicinitspredictionofripplegeometry.Thepredictorisbasedonthetypeofrippleorbitaloranorbital,meangrainsize,andthewaveorbitalexcursionlength.Unlike Nielsen 's 18

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method,thegeneralexpressionsareapplicabletobothlaboratoryandeldripples.Muchresearchhasbeendonetoexamineandexpandthevalidityoftheseripplepredictormethods. LiandAmos 1998 comparedthemethodsof GrantandMadsen 1982 and Nielsen 1981 andproposedamodiedexpressionthatincorporatestheenhancedshearvelocityattheripplecrest. O'DonoghueandClubb 2001 performedoscillatoryowtunnelexperimentsforeld-scaleripplesandappliedthedatatofourexistingripplepredictors.Thecomparisonoftheresultsofthe Nielsen 1981 Mogridgeetal. 1994 Vongvisessomjai 1984 ,and WibergandHarris 1994 methodstotheexperimentsyieldstheauthor'srecommendationofthe Mogridgeetal. 1994 modelforthepredictionofripplegeometriesundereld-scaleoscillatoryows. Doucette 2002 Hanesetal. 2001 ,and ChangandHanes 2004 foundthatthe Nielsen 1981 methodwasthemostaccurateforpredictingripplewavelengthwhencomparedwiththeireldobservationsofrippleheight,length,andsedimentcompositions.Othermodicationstothe Nielsen 1981 equationshavealsobeenproposede.g., FaraciandFoti 2002 ; GrasmeijerandKleinhans 2004 ; O'Donoghueetal. 2006 ; Williamsetal. 2004 .Inadditiontoexaminingripplegeometries,muchworkhasalsoinvestigatedtheowdynamicsoverripples. Blondeaux 1990 predictedtheconditionsandcharacteristicsforrippleformationunderlaminarow.Laterin1990, VittoriandBlondeaux extendedtheworkbyperformingaweaknonlinearanalysisandincludednonlineartermsintothemodel.Theyderivedanamplitudeequationthatdescribedthetimedevelopmentoftheheightofthefastestgrowingbottomperturbationnearthecriticalconditions.Theparameterspacewasdividedintothreeseparateregions:aregionoflowmobilitynumbers,aregioninequilibriumbutnoowseparation,andalargeoscillationregion.Thebedisstableinthelowmobilitynumberregion.Rolling-grainripplesarethesteady-stateconditionintheequilibriumregion.Themodelisnolongervalidinthelargeoscillationregionduetothenonlineardynamicsoftheow. FotiandBlondeaux 19

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1995 extendedthemodelintotheturbulentregimebyperformingalinearstabilityanalysisofaatsandybottomsubjecttooscillatoryow.Morerecently, FaraciandFoti 2001 performedlaboratoryexperimentstoshowthattherolling-grainripplesformedfromaatbedareonlyatransitiontosteady-statevortexripples.Theyalsodeterminedthatthebottomroughnessmustbeparameterizedbytherippleheight,notthegrainsizediameterwhenripplesarepresentontheseaoor.Equilibriumrippleswerecloselyinvestigatedby DoucetteandO'Donoghue 2006 .Theyperformedlaboratoryexperimentstomeasurefull-scalerippleprolesupto1.6minlength.Ripplesformedfromatbedsandtransientrippleswerestudiedandtheresultswereusedtoformulateanempiricalrelationshiptopredictrippleheightevolution.Thehistoryofsedimenttransportmodelsisextensive.Modeldomainsrangefromone-tothree-dimensions.Somemodelsresolvethehydrodynamicsatsmall-scaleswhileotherscoverlargerscalesandapproximatesub-gridscaleprocessesusingadvancedtechniques.Sedimenttransportmodelingdatesbackto1979when GrantandMadsen 1979 describedwaveandcurrentmotionsoveraroughbottomwithaneddy-viscositymodel.Theirmodelpredictedthedistortedowoverripples. TrowbridgeandMadsen 1984 thendevelopedatime-varyingeddy-viscositymodelthatrelatedoscillatingturbulentowoverripplestosteadyturbulentow.Thisrelationallowedtheone-dimensionalboundarylayersolutionstobeapproximated.In1981, Longuet-Higgins numericallydescribedoscillatoryowoverripplesusingadiscrete-vortexmodel.Heapproximatedtheoscillatoryowoversteepripplesbyassumingthatthesand-waterinterfaceinthewavebottomboundarylayerisxed.Theseearlymodelswerethenreplacedbyconvection-diusionmodels.One-dimensionalconvection-diusionmodelse.g., Nielsen 1992 ; LeeandHanes 1996 accountforsmall-andlarge-scalesedimentmixingwithaneddy-diusivitymodel. Nielsen employsatime-invariant,verticallyuniform,eddy-diusivityprole,whereas LeeandHanes usestheeddy-diusivitymodelof Wikramanayake 1993 and Nielsen 's1992pick-upfunction. Ribberink 20

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andAl-Salem 1995 and Dohmen-Janssenetal. 2001 presentedone-dimensionalmodelswithmixinglengthstocalculatethesuspendedloadinunsteadyowoveraplanebedmodeledwithanenhancedbedroughness.Turbulenceismodeledwithaneddy-diusionproportionaltotheeddy-viscosityusedinthemomentequation.Anothernotablesedimenttransportmodelisthatof LiandAmos 2001 .Theirone-dimensionalnumericalmodel,SEDTRANS,predictsbedandsuspendedloadtransportrates,bedformdevelopment,andboundarylayerparametersunderwave,current,andcombinedowsforcohesiveandnon-cohesivesediments.Itusescombinedwaveandcurrentboundarylayertheories GrantandMadsen 1986 todeterminethenear-bedvelocityprolesandsolvesthetime-dependentbedroughnesswithripplepredictors.Themostcommonapproachinresolvingtheturbulentvorticesoverrippledbedsisusingturbulenceclosureschemes.Thetwomostcommonturbulenceclosureschemesarethek)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.119 0 Td[(modelandthek)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.12 0 Td[(!model.Thek)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.12 0 Td[(!modelhasbeenfoundtohandleregionsofadversepressuregradientsbetterthanthemorefamiliark)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.492 0 Td[(model Guizienetal. 2003 .Modelsincorporatingthek)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.293 0 Td[(!turbulenceclosureschemeinclude Wilcox 1998 Andersen 1999 Andersenetal. 2001 ,and ChangandHanes 2004 .Both Wilcox and ChangandHanes solvetheReynoldsAveragedNavier-StokesRANSequations,whereas Andersen 1999 employsaBoussinesqapproach. Andersenetal. 2001 usesamasstransportfunctiontodeterminerippleevolution. Trouwetal. 2000 Eidsvik 2004 ,and Jietal. 2004 employk)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.35 0 Td[(turbulenceschemesfortheirtwo-dimensionalsedimenttransportmodels.Threealternativemethodsformodelingsedimenttransportarepresentedin Haraetal. 1992 Hansenetal. 1994 ,and Andersen 2001 Haraetal. 1992 numericallysolvestheNavier-Stokesequationsusingaseriesmethodexpandedtoveryhighpowersofrippleslope.ItisvalidforowswithsmalltomoderatelylargeReynoldsnumbersandconrmsthepresenceofoscillatingvorticeshighabovetheStokesboundarylayer.In Hansenetal. 1994 ,adiscretevortexandLagrangianmodelisusedtodescribethe 21

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two-dimensionalsedimentconcentrationeldsoverripples.Thediscretevortexmodelsimulatestheowwithacloud-in-cell"conceptandtheLagrangianmodeltrackstheindividualparticles. Andersen 2001 presentsaninterestingapproachformodelingrippleevolutionbytreatingtheripplesasparticles."Eachparticle"isgovernedbyanequationofmotion.Theinteractionsbetweentheparticles"andtheirmigrationthereforecanbeexamined.Continuousprogressisbeingachievedintheareasofhydrodynamics,sedimentology,andbedformmorphology,allowingforconstantimprovementsinsedimenttransportandcoastalmorphologymodels.Three-dimensionalmodelshaveonlyrecentlybeenpossibleduetothegrowingknowledgeofowdynamicsandtheadvancesincomputertechnology.Studiesnowshowe.g., Blondeaux 2001 ; Blondeauxetal. 1999 ; Scanduraetal. 2000 thatvortexdynamicsarehighlythree-dimensionalandthereforeshouldbeexaminedinthree-dimensionsforamorecompleteunderstanding. Watanabeetal. 2003 developedathree-dimensionallarge-eddysimulationLESmodelthatinvestigatedmoderateReynoldsnumberoscillatoryowsoverripples. ZedlerandStreet 2006 presentedahighlyresolvedthree-dimensionalLESmodelthatsolvesthevolumelteredNavier-Stokesequations.Itincludesanadvection-diusionequationwithasettlingtermforsuspendedsedimentandcalculatesthethree-dimensionaltime-dependentvelocity,pressure,andsedimentconcentrationeldsoverlong-waveripples.Theeectofripplesonboundarylayerowwasexaminedby Barretal. in2004.Theycomparedturbulencelevelsanddissipationratesofoscillatoryowsoverrippledandsmoothbeds.Thethree-dimensional,directnumericalsolverDNSmodelallowedfortheexaminationofboundarylayerdynamicsoverripples.Acompletelydierentapproachtakeninsedimenttransportmodelinginvolvestreatingthesedimentandwaterphasesasacontinuousmediawithavaryingviscosity. Einstein publishedtheideaofaneectiveviscosityforparticlesinauidin1906.Hefoundthatamixtureofparticlesanduidbehaveslikeapureuidwithitsviscosity 22

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increased. AtkinandCraine 1976 thenformalizedageneralreviewofthecontinuumtheoryformixtures.Aroundthesametime, SooandTung 1972 Soo 1978 ,and Drew 1975 analyzedthedynamicsoftheparticulatephase. Drew 1975 appliedturbulenceaveragingandmixinglengththeorytoobtaintheresultingReynoldsstresses.Heincludedgravity,buoyancy,andlineardragforces. McTigue 1981 and Drew 1983 developedgoverningowequationsforthemixtureofparticlesinuid.Diusionismodeledbyaveragingtheuid-particleinteractiontermsincludingpressuregradientsanddragforcesinthemomentumbalances.Theturbulentuctuationsofthevelocitiesandconcentrationsareaccountedforwithadecompositionandaveragingscheme. Subiaetal. 1998 numericallymodelssuspensionowsbyincorporating Phillipsetal. 's1992continuumconstitutiveequationdescribingthediusiveux.Themethodincludesashear-inducedmigrationmodelandavaryingviscosityrelationship.Recently, Hsuetal. 2004 proposedasedimenttransportmodelunderfullydevelopedturbulentshearowsoveramobilebed.ThemodelemploysaEuleriantwo-uidapproachtoeachphaseandincludesclosureschemesforuidandsedimentstresses.Therearemanydierentapproachestosedimenttransportandcoastalmorphologymodeling.Thisliteraturereviewisnotexhaustivebutincludesseveralofthemorerelevantworkstothisresearch.1.4ResearchProblemAnaccuratethree-dimensional,hydrodynamicmodelofsedimenttransportandripplemorphologydidnotpreviouslyexist.Currentripplepredictorsincludetheeectofsedimenttransportonripplesthrougharoughnesslengthscale,notfromtheactualowdynamicsandconcentrationeld.MostexistingsedimenttransportmodelsapproximatetheReynoldsstress,andthereforedonotcompletelyresolvetheoweld.Theassumptionsandapproximationsinthesemodelscanleadtoinaccuratepredictionsofsedimenttransport.Itisalsounknownwhichparametersandmechanismshavethemostsignicanteectsonsedimenttransport.Arealisticmodelofripplegeometryandowdynamicsunderarangeofconditionsisnecessaryforabetterunderstandingofsand 23

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ripples.Thisresearchfocusesondevelopingatoolthatcanprovideinformationaboutthemorphologicpropertiesofripples.Therearediscrepanciesbetweenexistingripplepredictormethods,evenwithmuchanalysisoftheirvalidity Doucette 2002 ; GrasmeijerandKleinhans 2004 ; O'DonoghueandClubb 2001 ; LiandAmos 1998 .Theresultsstilldependonthetypeofdatausedforcomparisone.g., FaraciandFoti 2002 ; KhelifaandOuellet 2000 ; O'Donoghueetal. 2006 .Existingmethodsmaynotbereliableenoughtoobtainaccuratedetailedinformationaboutthedynamicsoftheowbecauseofapproximationsorassumptionsmadeand/orempiricalrelations.One-dimensionalvertical1DVmodelscanbebasedoneddy-viscosityandmixinglengthassumptionsorhaveamorecompletetwo-phaseowformulation.Eddy-viscositymodelsarederivedfromsimpleowconditionsandarethereforeinadequateinmodelingcomplexows. Daviesetal. 1997 comparedfourdierent1DVmodelstodetermineiftheysuccessfullypredictedsuspendedsedimentconcentrationproles.Theyfoundthattheeddy-diusivitymodelswereincapableofpredictingtheconvectiveorpick-upeventsduringowreversal.Phaselagsbetweenthemeasuredandcomputedsuspendedsedimentconcentrationproleswerealsoobservedintheupperpartoftheboundarylayer.Mixinglengthmodelse.g., RibberinkandAl-Salem 1995 ; Dohmen-Janssenetal. 2001 arespecictocertainowconditionssincethemixinglengthsaredeterminedfromexperimentaldatabasedonlocalquantities.Someone-dimensionalmodelsrestricttheirpredictionstoaparticularphenomenon,suchastheboundarylayerprole.Whilethesemodelsprovidesimplesolutionsandinsighttotheisolatedprocess,theycannotcontributetotheunderstandingoftheinteractionsbetweenprocesses. LeeandHanes 1996 foundthattheirconvection-diusionmodelissomewhatlimitedinitsrangeofapplicability.Theydeterminedthatpurediusionmodelsworkwellunderhighenergyconditions,whereaspureconvectionmodelsworkwellunderlowenergyconditions.However,acombinedconvection-diusionmodeldidnotperformbetterthanapureconvection 24

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modelunderlowenergyconditions.Theparameterizationofrippleswithabedroughnesscoecientoversimpliessedimenttransportmodelsbyapproximatingtheeectsofthebedtopography.Thebedroughnesspredictionsareimportantbecauseasmallchangeinthebedformdimensionshasalargeeectonthecomputedtransport Daviesetal. 2002 .Modelsutilizingturbulenceclosureschemestoapproximatesmall-scaleprocessescanbeinaccurateandproblematic. ChangandScotti 2004 foundthattheRANSequationsarenotadequatetomodelsedimentsuspensionandtransportintherippleregime.Thisdeciencycanpossiblybeattributedto:thealteringoftheturbulentowpropertiesinthepresenceofsuspendedsediment,theinsucienciesinturbulentsedimentuxmodeling,oraninaccuraterepresentationoftheconcentrationbottomboundarycondition.TheyalsofoundanunderestimationoftheReynoldsstressintheleeoftheripple,anoverestimationoftheverticaloscillationamplitude,andanecessitytotuneparameterstothespecicconditionsofthesimulation.Fromtheseresults, ChangandScotti 2004 concludedthattheentireturbulentowneedstobemodeledcorrectlyinordertoaccuratelypredictsedimenttransport.Additionally,two-dimensionalmodelsdonotincludethethree-dimensionalityofvortexformation.Studiesnowshowtheimportanceofthree-dimensionalvortexstructuresinsedimentsuspensionandtransport Blondeaux 2001 .Thealternativeparticle"modelof Andersen 2001 isonlyapplicabletorolling-grainripplesanddoesnotemployalive-bed.Therefore,newgrains"orripplescannotenterthesystem.Large-eddysimulationmodelsallowthedynamicsofthelargestvortexstructurestobeexplicitlysimulatedinthenumerics,buttheeectsofsmallvorticesontheowareparameterized.Thus,theowisnotsimulatedinitsentirety.Inthethree-dimensionalLESmodelof Watanabeetal. 2003 ,theoscillatoryowamplitudeislimitedtosmallvaluesbecausethecomputationaldomainlengthmustbeanintegralnumberofwavelengths.Althoughthe ZedlerandStreet 2006 modelisthree-dimensional,it 25

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employsaquasi-two-dimensionalvortexformation-ejectionmechanism,whichcouldaecttheresultsofsedimentpick-upinthree-dimensions.Italsoassumesadiluteuid,andthereforeisnotapplicableinthehighlyconcentratedsandbedregion.Themainlimitationoftheowmodelof Barretal. 2004 isthexedbed.Therefore,theeectsontheoweldfromsuspendedsedimentandtheevolvingrippleshapeareneglected.Themodelsof McTigue 1981 Subiaetal. 1998 ,and Hsuetal. 2004 arefairlysuccessfulinmodelingdiluteows,butarelessabletomodelregionsofhighconcentrations. Subiaetal. 'smodelissimilartothemodelpresentedinthisresearch,butdoesnotincludealive-bedmorphologymodel.Therearemanyinadequaciesinexistingsedimenttransportandripplemorphologymodels.Currentmodelshavedicultiesaccuratelypredictingrippleevolutiontogetherwithsedimenttransport.Thepresentedmixturemodelresolvesthelarge-andsmall-scaledynamicsoftheowoveralive-bed,predictingboththeconcentrationandvelocityeldsinconjunctionwiththeripplemorphologyunderoscillatoryow. 26

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Figure1{1.Three-dimensionalripplesinasandyumeattheO.H.HinsdaleWaveResearchLaboratoryatOregonStateUniversity.PhotographtakenbyAllisonPenko. 27

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CHAPTER2METHODOLOGY2.1ModelApproach/CharacteristicsTraditionallyinmodelingsedimenttransport,thesolidandliquidphasesaremodeledseparatelyandcoupledwithempiricallybasedestimatesoftheuid-particleandtheparticle-particlestressinteractions.Thistwo-phaseapproachrequiresaminimumofeightgoverningequationstoclosethesystem.Inaddition,diluteanddenseowsareusuallymodeledseparatelybecauseofthedierencesinthephysicsinvolved.Whenmodelingdiluteows,theparticle-particleinteractionsareusuallyneglectedandtheuidstressesaremodeledusingturbulenceclosureschemes.Indenselyladenows,theparticlestressescannotbeignoredandmodelsusingclosureschemesforthestressesarecurrentlybeingdeveloped.Themixturemodelpresentedapproachestheproblemofsedimenttransportmodelingbytreatingtheuid-particlesystemasacontinuumconsistingoftwointeractingmaterials,orphases.Someofthephysicsofthecoupledsystemarethenapproximatedwithempiricallybasedsubmodels.Thismethodrequiresaconstitutiveequationexpressingthetotalstressasfunctionsofvariouselds.Itincludesthreemixturemomentumequations,anequationdescribinghowthesedimentmoveswithinthemixture,andamixturecontinuityequation.Usingthisapproachtomodelsedimenttransport,weassumethetwophases,sandparticlesandwater,canbeapproximatedbyamixturehavingavariabledensityandviscositydependentonlocalsedimentconcentration.2.2PhysicsThelive-bed,three-dimensional,turbulentwavebottomboundarylayermixturemodeldevelopedby Slinnetal. 2006 forsheetowconditionshasbeenadaptedforsedimentpropertiesandowregimescharacteristicofthegenerationandmorphologyofbedforms.Themodelhaspreviouslyshowntoreasonablypredictthesuspendedsedimentconcentrationprolesatdierentwavephasesforsheetowconditions.Thenitedierencemodelisusedtosimulatetheowcausedbyrealisticwavesovera 28

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three-dimensional,evolvingbedshapeindomainsO03cubiccentimeters.Itimplementsacontrol-volumeschemethatsolvesforthetime-dependentsedimentconcentrationfunctionandthemassandmomentumconservationequationsforthemixturetoasecond-orderapproximationinspaceandthird-orderaccuracyintime.Bothuid-particleandparticle-particleinteractionsareaccountedforthroughavariablemixtureviscosity,aconcentrationspecicsettlingvelocityformulation,andastressinduced,empiricallycalibrated,mixturediusionterm.2.2.1GoverningEquationsThevegoverningequationsforthemixturemodelincludeasedimentcontinuity,amixturecontinuity,andmixturemomentumequations.First,thepropertiesofthemixturearedened.Themixturehasavariabledensityandviscositythatdependonthelocalsedimentconcentration.Themixturedensity,,isderivedfromtherelationstatingthatthedensityofamixturecomposedofnspeciesisthesumofthebulkdensities,n,ofeachspecies:=Xnn=XnCnnwherenistheratioofthemassofspeciesntothetotalvolumeofthemixture,Cnistheconcentrationofspeciesn,andnistheratioofthemassofspeciesntothevolumeofspeciesn.Foratwo-speciesmixture,C1+C2=1,andthereforeC2=1)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.238 0 Td[(C1.Summingtheconcentrationsanddensitiesforatwo-speciesmixtureandsubstitutingforC2,=C11+C22=C11+)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(C12: 29

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Foratwo-speciesmixtureofsedimentinwater,C1and1aredenedasthesedimentconcentrationanddensity,respectively.C2and2aredenedastheconcentrationanddensityofwater,respectively.Thesediment-watermixturedensity,,isshowninEquation 2{1 .=Cs+)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Cf{1wheresisthesedimentdensity,fisthewaterdensity,andCistheconcentrationofsandparticlesinthemixture,rangingfrom0%to60%,whichcorrespondstofullypackedsand.Therefore,)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 12.553 0 Td[(Cistheconcentrationofwaterinthemixture.Figure 2{1a isaplotofthemixturedensityversuslocalsedimentconcentration.Themixtureviscosity,,isalsoafunctionofsedimentconcentrationproposedby LeightonandAcrivos 1987 Equation 2{2 f=1+1:5CCp Cp)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(C2{2wherefistheuidviscosityandCpisthemaximumpackingconcentrationCp=0:615forrandomclosepackingofsandparticlesinwater.Figure 2{1b comparestheratioofthemixtureviscositytotheuidviscositywith Huntetal. 's2002analysisof Bagnold 's1954experiments.Theresultsshowthattheeectofhighconcentrationsofparticlesinwatercanbeparameterizedbyabulkviscosity.Therstgoverningequation,themixturecontinuityequation,isderivedfromthesumoftheuidandsedimentphasecontinuityequations Drew 1983 :@)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Cf @t+@)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Cfufj @xj+@Cs @t+@Csusj @xj=0: 30

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Rearranging,weobtain,@ @t[Cs+)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Cf]+@ @xj[Csusj+)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Cfufj]=0:Notethatthetimederivativeinthersttermisthemixturedensity,Equation 2{1 ,andthespatialderivativeinthesecondtermisthemixtureux,themixturedensitytimesthemixturevelocity,uj.Substitutingforthetwoterms,themixturecontinuityequationbecomes@ @t+@uj @xj=0:{3Themixturemomentumequationisalsoderivedfromthesumoftheindividualphasemomentumequationsresultingin@ui @t+@uiuj @xj=)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 10.494 8.088 Td[(@PM @xi+@ij @xj+Fi1)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(gi3+@PP @xi{4wherePMisthemixturepressure,ijisthemixturestresstensor,FistheexternaldrivingforceEquation 2{8 ,gisthegravitationalconstant,andPPistheparticlepressuredescribedlaterinthissection. Bagnold 1954 andothershavedeterminedthatuid-sedimentmixturesmayfollowNewton'slawofviscosity,therefore,ijcanbegivenbyij=@ui @xj+@uj @xi)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 13.15 8.088 Td[(2 3@uk @xk:{5Theowisdrivenbyanexternaloscillatingforce,F,thatapproximatestheoscillatingvelocityeldinducedbyasurfacegravitywavepropagatingoveraseabed.Itisdescribedbytheforcefromthewaveminusanopposingforceinthefullypackedrigidbed. 31

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Fwave=fUo2 Tcos2 Tt {6 Frigid=Cxz Cm10fUo2 Tcos2 Tt {7 F=Fwave)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Frigid {8 whereUoandTaretheamplitudeandperiodoftheoscillation,respectively,Cxzistheaveragedlocalconcentrationinthex-direction,andCmaxisthemaximumconcentrationofsediment.Whentheaverageconcentrationisapproximatelyequaltothemaximumconcentrationi.e.,inthesandbed,thehighpoweredtermisclosetounity,andthereforetheforcing,F,isapproximatelyequaltozero.Whentheaverageconcentrationislessthanthemaximumconcentrationi.e.,inthewatercolumn,thehighpoweredtermbecomesverysmall,andFequalsFwave.Thisformulationfortheexternalforcepreventsplugow"inthemodelthatcouldoccurduetotheperiodicboundaryconditions.Plugowisthemovementoftheentirebedasaunitthroughthedomain.ThesedimentcontinuityequationEquation 2{9 describeshowthesedimentmoveswithinthemixture NirandAcrivos 1990 .@C @t+@Cuj @xj=)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 10.494 8.088 Td[(@CWt @z+@Nj @xj{9whereWtistheconcentrationspecicsettlingvelocityandNjisthediusiveuxofsedimentEquation 2{13 RichardsonandZaki 1954 foundthatsettlingvelocitycanbecalculatedasafunctionofsedimentconcentrationbyWt=Wt0)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Cq{10 32

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whereWt0isthesettlingvelocityofasingleparticleinaclearuidandqisanempiricalconstantdependentontheparticleReynoldsnumber,Rep,denedasRep=dfjWt0j f{11wheredisthegrainsizediameter.Theempiricalconstantqisthendenedby RichardsonandZaki 1954 asq=8>>>><>>>>:4:35Re)]TJ/F22 7.97 Tf 6.587 0 Td[(0:03p0:2
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whereDj=d2^C@ui @xj{15andwhere^Cisadimensionlesscoecientempiricallydeterminedandapproximatedby LeightonandAcrivos 1986 .^C=^C21+1 2e8:8^C{16where^CisthedimensionlessconcentrationSection 2.2.2 andisanempiricalconstant. LeightonandAcrivos 1986 foundtobeapproximately0:33forlargerShieldsparametervalues:5<<30andstatedalikelyunderestimationofthediusioncoecientwiththisvalue.Inthisresearch,allbutonecasehasaShieldsparametervalueunder0.5.Testingthethree-dimensionalmixturemodelshowedthat=0:4bestapproximatedthediusioncoecientforsmallerShieldsparametersintherippleowregime.Theoriginalsheetowmixturemodelneededamodicationinordertobeapplicableinahighlyconcentrated,lowerowregimeconduciveforsandrippleinitiationandgrowth.Inregionsofhighconcentrations,thecontactforcesbetweentheparticlesbecomesignicant.Theintergranularforcescannotberepresentedsimplybyashearstress,thus,anormalstressmustbeincluded.Considerastillbedwiththesandparticlesatrest.Stressistransmittedfromparticletoparticleattheirpointsofcontact.Atthesepoints,thestressislarge.Thestresswillbeequaltothesurroundinguidstressinareaswhereparticlesarenotincontactwitheachother.Indilutemixtures,theratioofcontactareatototalareaissmallandthecontactstressescanthereforebeneglected.However,inmixturesofhighconcentrationsi.e.,thepackedbedofasandripple,thecontactstressesaresignicantandmustbeaccountedfor Drew 1983 .Thisnormalforceresultingfromparticlesbeingincontactwitheachothercanbereferredtoasaparticlepressure. 34

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Figure 2{2 showstheforcesonacontrolvolumeinthebedandtheparticlepressureopposingthem.Thisresistancetopressurewasnecessaryforarigidbed.Theparticlepressureforceisrepresentedinthemodelthroughabedstinesscoecient.Thebedstinesscoecient,Bs,actsastheparticlepressure,opposingtheforcesonthemixturewhentheconcentrationishigh.Figure 2{3 showsthefunctiondescribingthebedstinesscoecientforvaryingsedimentconcentrations.Theshapeofthefunctionwasmodeledafter JenkinsandHanes 1998 calculationsofparticlepressurewithrespecttoboundarylayerheightandtheviscosity/concentrationrelationshipFigure 2{1b .Theeighthpowerexponentialfunctionwaschosenaftermuchtestingofthebedresponsetoarangeoffunctionpowersandcoecients.Thebedstinessfunctionallowstheforcesonthemixturetobefullyopposedwhentheconcentrationisgreaterthan57%byvolumeandonlyslightlyopposedwhentheconcentrationofsedimentislessthan57%butgreaterthan30%.Previousresearche.g., FredseandDeigaard 1992 ,pg.218statesthattheminimumbedloadconcentrationi.e.,enduringcontactregionisabout35%concentrationbyvolume.Notethebedstinesscoecientdoesnotmakethebedcompletelyrigid,evenatavolumetricconcentrationof60%afullypackedbed.Porepressureandthesphericalgrainshapecausewatertoseepthroughthestationarygrains,producingasmallmixturevelocityinthepackedbed.Therefore,acompletelystationarybedwouldnotberepresentativeofthephysicsinthepackedbedregion.Themodelapproachretainsthisfeature. 35

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2.2.2Non-dimensionalizingThemixturemodelusesnon-dimensionalparametersinitscalculations.Thescaledparametersdenotedwithahatarenon-dimensionalizedbythefollowing: ^xj=xj d^t=tjWtoj d^C=C Cm^= f^= f^uj=uj jWtoj^Dj=Dj jWtojd^P=P fjWtoj2^F=Fd fjWtoj2wherefistheuiddensity,Cmisthemaximumconcentration.6.Substitutinginforthescaledvariables,Equation 2{3 ,Equation 2{4 ,andEquation 2{9 ,become@^ @^t+@^^uj @^xj=0;{17@^^ui @^t+@^^ui^uj @^xj=)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 10.494 8.087 Td[(@^PF @^xi+1 Rep@^ij @^xj+^Fi1)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(Rii3+@^PP @^xi;{18and@^C @^t+@^C^uj @^xj=)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 10.494 8.088 Td[(@^C^Wt @^z+@ @^xj^Dj@^C @^xj!;{19 36

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respectively,whereRi=)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 13.023 0 Td[(^dg jWtoj2:{202.2.3BoundaryandInitialConditionsThemodelisinitializedwithvaryingbedtopographiesrangingfromaatbedtomultiplesinusoidalrippleswithdierentheightsandlengths.Thedesiredinitialbedischosenforthesimulationanddescribedwithafunction.Themodelthensetsallpointsaccordingtothebedfunctiontohaveafullypackedsedimentconcentration^C=1,andallgridpointsabovethebedtohaveaconcentrationofzero.Initially,themixtureisatrestandallvelocitiesarezero.Figure 2{4 showsanexampleofaninitialconcentrationprole.Theinitialtopographyisslightlythree-dimensionaltobreakthesymmetryoftheproblemandallowforthedevelopmentofturbulentthree-dimensionalow.Theinitialconditionsareasfollows:^C=fx;y;z=1asgiveninthemodelruninput^uj=0:Thenatureoftheowandthedomainusedallowsfortheimplementationofperiodicboundaryconditionsinthex-andy-directions.Atthetopofthedomain,afree-slipboundaryconditionisusedfortheuandvvelocities,andano-gradientconditionisimposedforthediusioncoecient,D.Theconcentrationeldandthewvelocityiszeroatthetopoftheboundary.Equation 2{21 givesthespecialboundaryconditionforthe 37

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uidpressureatthetopofthedomainnecessaryforthenumericalimplementationofthepressureprojectionmethodusedinthemodel.@^P @^z=^^w t{21whereuiisequaltotheintegratedtermswithrespecttotimeofthemixturemomentumequationthatdonotincludepressureortheadvancedvelocityterm.Thereisfullypackedsandatthebottomofthedomain,thereforeitisassumedthatthereisnomovement,andno-slipboundaryconditionsareusedforallthevelocities.Itisalsoassumedthereisnoconcentrationordiusiveuxatthebottom.Theboundaryconditionsaresummarizedasfollows: Top Bottom C=0@C @z=0@D @z=0@D @z=0@u @z=0u=0@v @z=0v=0w=0w=0@P @z=w tP=0.2.2.4InputParametersThemodelinputparametersestablishthedomainsize,owoscillationstrengthandfrequency,gridsize,grainsizediameter,andlengthofsimulation.Fromtheseinputs,themodeldeterminesallothervariablesincludingthetimestepanddimensionlessparameterssuchastheparticleReynoldsnumber.Themodelthensolvesforthevelocities,concentration,andpressureusingtheproceduredescribedinSection 2.3 .2.3NumericsAcontrolvolumeapproachonathree-dimensionalstaggeredgridistakentonumericallysolveEquations 2{17 2{18 ,and 2{19 .Figure 2{5 showsthestaggeredgrid, 38

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wherecirclesrepresentconcentrationandpressurepointsandarrowsrepresentmomentumandvelocitypoints.Theshadedareasareghostpoints.Turbulenceismodeleddirectlywiththeequationsbecausethegridspacingissmallerthanthesmallest-eddylengthscale.Spatialderivativesarecalculatedusingone-sideddierences,resultinginsecond-orderaccuracy.Thethird-orderAdams-Bashforthschemeisusedtoadvanceconcentrationandmomentumintime,withexplicitEulerandsecond-orderAdams-Bashforthschemesusedasstartingmethods.Noadjustmentsweremadeintheimplementationofthecontrolvolumeapproachforthemomentumequations,butnon-traditionalux-conservativetechniqueswereemployedinthesolutionofthesedimentcontinuityequationtoensuremassconservation,solutionstability,andpropagationofbedheightasparticlessettleout.Thesetechniquesincludetheuseofaharmonicmeanthatactsasauxlimiterandtheuseofaminimumdiusioncoecientthatactsasalter. 39

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a bFigure2{1.Theamixturedensityversussedimentconcentrationandbtheratioofthemixtureviscositytotheuidviscosityversussedimentconcentration. 40

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Figure2{2.Forcesonacontrolvolumeinaconcentratedsandbed.Theparticlepressureopposesthesumoftheshearstress,uidpressure,andtheweightofthesedimentinthecontrolvolume. Figure2{3.Thebedstinesscoecientfunction.Thecoecientiszerountilthesedimentconcentrationis30%byvolume.Bsthenincreasesasapolynomialfunction. 41

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Figure2{4.Exampleofathree-dimensionalinitialbedstate.Theheightofthesinusoidalripplevariesinthex-andy-directions. 42

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Figure2{5.Staggeredgridusedinthecontrolvolumeapproach.Thecirclesarepointsofconcentrationandpressurecalculations,thearrowsarevelocityandmomentumpointsofcalculation.Theouter-mostpointsshadedregionareghostpoints. 43

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CHAPTER3EXPERIMENTALPLAN3.1SimulationsSimulationstestedthemodel'scapabilitytopredictthesteady-staterippleheightandwavelengthforvariousowconditions.Inmostcases,thesimulationswererununtiltheripplereachedequilibrium,thelimitingfactorbeingthedurationofthecomputations.Twelvedierentmodelsimulationsarepresentedoutofoverone-hundredcasestested.Thecasesdemonstratethemodel'sabilitytopredictrippleshapeundercertainowconditions.Elevenofthecasesarequasi-two-dimensionalandoneisthree-dimensional.Themodelisfullythree-dimensionalbutverycomputationallyexpensiveabout75daysofCPUtimefora10secondthree-dimensionalsimulation.Thesimulationsareruninquasi-two-dimensionstoapproximatethemodel'sthree-dimensionalbehaviorinamorereasonableamountoftimeaboutoneweek.Aquasi-two-dimensionalsimulationhasfulldimensionsinthex-andz-directions,buthasonlytwogridpointsinthey-direction.Thisreductionofgridpointsdecreasesthenumberofcomputationsandultimatelyreducesthecomputationaltimebyafactorofabout32.Becausethequasi-two-dimensionalsimulationsshowedthemodelwasapplicabletotherippleregime,equivalentthree-dimensionalsimulationscouldbeusedforadditionalanalysis.Eachcasetestedwhetherornottherippleamplitudeandwavelengthequilibratedtoasteady-stateheightandlengthasdeterminedby Nielsen 1981 ,whichisfurtherexplainedinSection 3.2 .3.1.1RippleAmplitudeSimulationsRippleamplitudesimulationsillustratethemodel'sabilitytopredictarippleheightneartheexpectedequilibriumrippleheightunderdierentowconditions.Table 3{1 describestheinitialshapeandowconditionsofeachofthetwo-dimensionalrippleamplitudesimulations.Therstthreetwo-dimensionalsimulationswereforcedwiththesameowhavingamaximumfree-streamvelocityof40cm/sanda2secondperiod, 44

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butwereinitializedwithdierentrippleheights.CasesE11,E13,andE20,wereforcedwithowshaving20cm/s,60cm/sand120cm/smaximumfree-streamvelocities,respectively.Figure 3{1 showstheinitialripplestatesforeachofthetwo-dimensionalrippleamplitudesimulations.Thethree-dimensionalcaseisinitializedwitharipple2cminheightsubjectedtoanoscillatoryowwithamaximumfree-streamvelocityof40cm/sanda2secondperiod.ItsinitialripplestateisillustratedinFigure 3{2 anditssimulationconditionsaredescribedinTable 3{2 .Allthesimulationsincludingtheripplewavelengthsimulations,Section 3.1.2 includeasedimentgrainsizeof0.4mm.Thehorizontallengthscaleofthemodelisconstrainedintherippleamplitudesimulationsbecausetheperiodicboundaryconditionsdonotallowtheripplewavelengthtochange.Unlikethewavelengthruns,onlythechangeinrippleamplitudecanbeexaminedinthesesevensimulations.3.1.2RippleWavelengthSimulationsFivesimulationstestedthemodel'sabilitytopredictripplewavelengthinadditiontorippleamplitude.EachsimulationwasforcedwiththesameoscillatoryowandinitializedwithintegralnumbersandsizesofripplesaslistedinTable 3{3 .Therstcase,E05,isinitializedwithtwoslightlymergedsinusoidalripplesinadomainappropriateforonewavelengthoftheassociatedsteady-stateripple.CaseE10isthesameasE05,butinsteadoftwoslightlymergedripples,twofullysinusoidalrippleswereinitialized.IncaseE08,adomainthelengthoftwosteady-staterippleswasinitializedwithonlyonelongrippletotestthemodel'sabilitytopredicttworipples.ThreerippleswereinitializedincaseE09inadomainthelengthoftwosteady-stateripples.CaseE18isinitializedwithaatbedwithjustasmallperturbationinthecenterofthedomain.Figure 3{3 showstheinitialstatesforeachofthesecases.Boththeripplewavelengthandamplitudecanbeexaminedinthesesimulationsbecausetheperiodicitydoesnotpreventthewavelengthfromchanging. 45

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3.2ExperimentalDataFieldandlaboratoryobservationsarecrucialforthecharacterizationofmorphologicphenomena Blondeaux 2001 .Inthisstageofresearchwiththemodel,priorsynthesisofthedataisbeingusedtotestthemodel'sapplicabilitytothesandrippleregime. Nielsen 's1981ripplepredictormethodwaschosentocomparewiththemodeloutput.Hecompiledlaboratorydatasetsofregularwavesoverasandybedandcollapsedthendingsintoformulas.TheequationsdescribetheheightsandlengthsofripplesintheirequilibriumstateintermsofthemobilitynumberEquation 1{1 .Thelaboratorydataincludedgrainsizesrangingfrom0.082mmto1.00mm,andmobilitynumbersrangingfrom0to230.Previousresearchhasshownthat Nielsen 'smethodisoneofthemostaccurateofthecurrentlyexistingripplepredictormethods O'Donoghueetal. 2006 ; FaraciandFoti 2002 ; GrasmeijerandKleinhans 2004 .Theformulaswereusedasaguidelinetodeterminethemodel'sabilitytopredictasteady-staterippleheightandlengthunderdierentowconditions.Forsteady-staterippleheight Nielsen determinedthefollowing:=8><>:a:275)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(0:0220:5<1560>156{1whereaisthewaveorbitalexcursionlengthdescribedinEquation 1{2 ,andisthemobilitynumberEquation 1{1 .Table 3{4 liststhesimulationparametersandformularesultsfortheowregimessimulated.Forsmallmobilitynumbers<20, MogridgeandKamphuis 1972 foundthatEquation 3{2 candescribesteady-stateripplelengthfornumerousowperiods,grainsizes,anddensities.=1:3a20{2 46

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Nielsen thenexpandedthisformulabycompilingripplelengthdataformobilitynumbersrangingfrom2to230.Heformulatedtheequationforsteadystateripplelengthisasfollows=a:2)]TJ/F15 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(0:3450:342<<230:{3 Nielsen 'sripplepredictorformulasarevalidfortheowconditionstestedinthesimulationspresentedinthiswork,andareusedasatestofthemodel'scapabilityofpredictingripplegeometry.Futureworkincludesacomparisonofthemodelresultstoconcentration,velocity,andripplemorphologydata. Table3{1.Therippleamplitudesimulationsandtheirconditions. RunInitialbedshapeInitialInitialDomainDomainUoTnameripplerippleheightlengthheightlengthcmcmcmcmcm/ss E03sinusoidalripple1.012.08.012.040.02.0DC05sinusoidalripple2.012.08.012.040.02.0E04sinusoidalripple3.012.012.012.040.02.0E11sinusoidalripple2.28.08.08.020.02.0E13sinusoidalripple1.616.012.016.060.02.0E20sinusoidalripple1.68.016.08.0120.04.0 Table3{2.Thethree-dimensionalsimulationE14conditions. RunInitialbedInitialInitialDomainDomainDomainUoTnameshaperipplerippleheightlengthwidthheightlengthcmcmcmcmcmcm/ss E14sinusoidal2.012.08.012.06.040.02.0ripple 47

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Figure3{1.Initialbedstatesoftherippleamplitudesimulations.aCaseE03,bcaseDC05,ccaseE04,dcaseE11,eCaseE13,andfcaseE20. Table3{3.Theripplewavelengthsimulationsandtheirconditions. RunInitialbedshapeInitialInitialDomainDomainUoTnameripplerippleheightlengthheightlengthcmcmcmcmcm/ss E05slightlymerged1.412.08.012.040.02.0sinusoidalripplesE08sinusoidalripple0.824.08.024.040.02.0E10sinusoidalripples1.612.08.012.040.02.0E09sinusoidalripples1.624.012.024.040.02.0E18atbed0.00.04.08.020.01.0 48

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Figure3{2.Initialbedstateofthethree-dimensionalrippleamplitudesimulation.Athree-dimensional2cmrippleisinitializedina12cmx6cmx8cmdomain. Table3{4.Modelsimulationparametersandlaboratorydataresults.Thefree-streamvelocity,waveperiod,andthegrainsizediameterareinputstothemodel.Equations 1{2 and 1{1 describetheparticleexcursionandthemobilitynumber,respectively.Thepredictedrippleheightandlengtharefrom Nielsen 'sformulasEquations 3{1 and 3{3 Free-streamWaveGrainParticleMobilityPredictedPredictedvelocityperiodsizeexcursionnumberripplelengthrippleheightUocm/sTsdcmAcmcmcm 20.01.00.043.26.24.00.720.02.00.046.46.27.91.440.02.00.0412.724.712.62.160.02.00.0419.155.615.52.1120.04.00.0476.4222.5N/AN/A 49

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Figure3{3.Initialbedstatesoftheripplewavelengthsimulations.aCaseE05,bcaseE08,ccaseE10,dcaseE18,andecaseE09. 50

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CHAPTER4RESULTSTwelvemodelsimulationsarepresentedinthiswork.Fromthesimulations,wefoundthatthemodelproducesresultssimilartonature.ThemodelhasbeentestedforowswithReynoldsnumbersfrom104to105andisfoundtopredictripplesizeandshapereasonablywellunderthetestedconditions.ForhigherReynoldsnumbersabovetherippleproducingregime,themodelcorrectlyproducesnoripples.Thecasessimulatedforthisworkcanbesplitintothreegroups.Therippleamplitudesimulationsexaminetheeectonrippleheightevolutionfromtheinitiationofdierentrippleheights.Therippleamplitudeowvelocitysimulationsshowtheripplechangeduetovaryingfree-streamvelocities.Thetworippleandthreeripplewavelengthsimulationsillustratehowaripplelengthandheightadjuststowardsequilibriumovertime.Aatbedcaseandathree-dimensionalcasearealsopresentedinthischapter.4.1RippleAmplitudeSimulationsTherstthreecasespresentedhavethesameowconditionsandsedimentpropertiesseeTable 3{1 fordetails.Thesimulationsillustratetheevolvingrippleheightandshape.Figure 4{1 showssnapshotsintimeoftherippleevolutionthroughoutthesimulations.4.1.1RippleHeightThetopfourpanelsofFigure 4{1 showtheprogressionoftherippleincaseE03.Thesimulationisinitializedwithabedform1cminheightand12cminlength.Throughthe16secondsimulation,theinitial1cmripplegrowsto1.5cm.TherippleincaseDC05Figure 4{1b isinitializedat2cmanddecays0.5cmtoaheightof1.5cmafter16seconds.IncaseE04Figure 4{1c ,theinitial3cmrippledecaystoa1.5cmripple.Figure 4{2 isaplotoftheevolutionofmaximumrippleheightmaxforthethreecases.Themaximumrippleheightisthedistancebetweentheminimumpointintherippletroughandthemaximumheightoftheripplecrest.Theripplesinthethreesimulationsequilibrateto1.5cmafterbeinginitializedatdierentheights.Accordingto 51

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Nielsen 'sformula,theequilibriumrippleheightforthegivenowconditionsis2cmeinFigure 4{2 .Computationalconstraintsmadeitexpensivetoconductthesimulationsforlongerthan16seconds,butcontinuingthesimulationfurtherwasdeemedunnecessarysincethethreesimulationsachievedthesamebalancedconditionbythistime.4.1.2RippleShapeThissetofsimulationsisinitializedwithasinusoidalripple,ashapenotrealisticallyseeninnature.Throughoutthesimulations,theripplesineachofthecasespresentedevolvetoamorepeaked,pointed,andsteepershapethantheinitializedsinusoid.Figure 4{3 illustratesthisconceptforcaseE03Figure 4{3 a,DC05Figure 4{3 b,andE04Figure 4{3 c.ThetopthreepanelsofFigure 4{3 showtherippleisosurface,x,att=0secondsandt=16secondsforthethreecases.Theisosurfaceoftherippleisdeterminedastheheightabovethebottomofthedomainwhenthevolumetricconcentrationdropsbelow50%Equation 4{1 .Initially,therippleshavemildlyslopingsidesandroundedpeaks.Asthesimulationprogresses,theripplesbecomemorepeaked.rippleisosurfacex=xjc=0:5{1Toquantifythesideslopesoftheripple,thederivativeoftherippleisosurfaceheightistakenandaveragedovereightgridpoints.Thatquantityisthennormalizedwiththemaximumheightoftherippleatthecurrenttime,max;tEquation 4{2 .ThemiddlethreepanelsofFigure 4{3 showtheeightgridpointaveragedslopeoverthelengthoftherippleattheinitialandnaltimes.Att=0seconds,theslopeissmoothandgradual.Att=16seconds,thedistancebetweenthemaximumandminimumslopeissmallerthanthedistanceintheinitialprole,indicatingamuchlessgradualslopeandmorepeakedapex.rippleslopex=dxjc=0:5 dx1 max;t{2 52

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TheincreasedpeakednessisalsoillustratedinthebottomthreepanelsofFigure 4{3 .TheslopechangeoverthelengthoftherippleEquation 4{3 isplottedinthesegraphs.Theinitialproleslopechangeisrelativelysmallcomparedtotheslopechangeofthenalprole.Att=16seconds,theslopechangeisgreateratthecenteroftheripple,indicatinganincreaseinpeakednessfromtheinitialproles.Alsointhesimulation,theripplepeakswayssidetoside,similartowhatisseeninnature.rippleslopechangex=d dx0@dxjc=0:5 dx1 max;t1A{34.1.3SuspendedandBedLoadTransportDetailsofthemodesofripplegrowthanddecayarecurrentlyunknown.Thespecicdrivingmechanismofripplemorphologyi.e.,bedloadtransport,suspendedloadtransport,oracombinationofbothisdiculttomeasureinthelaboratoryandeld,andalive-bed,sedimenttransportmodelcapableofcloselyexaminingsandrippledynamicshasnotpreviouslyexisted.Fromourmodel,weareabletocalculatethebedandsuspendedloaduxesthatcausethesandrippletoevolve.Inthisstudy,bedloadisdenedtobewithin4:6dofthestationarybed.Figure 4{4 showsatimeseriesofthecalculatedtime-dependent,vertically-,andhorizontally-averagedloadtransportuxesseeAppendix A foranexplanationofthecalculations.Whentheuxisnegative,itiscontributingtorippleamplitudedecay.Apositiveuxcontributestothegrowthoftherippleamplitude.Plotsa,b,andcaretheinstantaneousbedandsuspendedloaduxesforcasesE03,DC05,andE04,respectively.Plotsd,e,andfarethecumulativesumofthebedandsuspendedloaduxesforcasesE03,DC05,andE04,respectively.Asshownpreviously,caseE03hasagrowingripple,caseDC05hasaslightlydecayingripple,andcaseE04hasamorerapidlydecayingripple.InthecaseofthegrowingrippleE03,thesuspendedloaduxesarealmostzeroandthebedloaduxesarepositiveanddominatetheripplechangeFigure 4{4a and 4{4d .Therefore,the 53

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bedloadtransportisthemaincontributortoripplegrowth.FortherapidlydecayingripplecaseE04,thebedloaduxisnegativeandtherefore,bedloadsedimenttransportisalsothecauseofadecreaseinrippleheightFigure 4{4f .Figure 4{4e showstheuxesfortheweaklydecayingripplecase.Again,thebedloaduxesarenegativeandarethecauseoftheslightdecay.However,bothbedandsuspendedloaduxesaresmallincomparisontotheothercases.Similartotheeldandlaboratory,thereisalsoimprecisioninthedivisionsofbedandsuspendedloadwhenanalyzingthemodelresults.Forexample,thesuspendedloadthathasnotyetsettledoutofthewatercolumniscountedascontributingtoripplegrowthintheanalysis.Thisideaisillustratedintherapidlydecayingcase,E04.Inthissimulation,thesuspendedloaduxesarelargeandseemtocontributetoripplegrowth.ThesehighsuspendedloaduxesareduetothetallheightoftherippleincaseE04.Thesimulationisinitializedwitharipplehavingaheightof3cm.Therippleisexposedtomoreoftheforceoftheowthantheothertwocases.Theboundarylayerbecomeslargeandamoreturbulentoweruptsaroundtheripple.Thisturbulencecausesmorevorticestoshedotheleesidesoftherippleandthereforecausesmoresuspendedsediment.Thesesuspendedsedimentuxesarecountedinthegrowthanddecayuxcalculations,eventhoughtheyarestillinthewatercolumnandnotaectingtheripple.Additionally,aslightslumpingoftheunderlyingbedmaterialwassometimesobserved.Finally,theresultsaresomewhatsensitivetotheprecisedenitionoftheconcentrationthresholdchosentodenebedloadandsuspendedloadseeAppendix A fordetails.4.1.4Advective,Settling,andDiusiveFluxesThissectionconcentratesonthetypeofuxesthatcauserippleevolution.refertoAppendix A foradetailedexplanationoftheuxes.Therearethreetypesofuxesthatcanmovesediment.Advectiveuxesareduetotheowcausedbythewaveoscillationsinthewatercolumn.Theripplecausesadisturbanceintheow,whichinturncreatesvorticesthatpickupandmovesediment.Asecondformofsedimentmovementis 54

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bydiusiveux.Diusionisanaturaltendencyforthecomponentsofamixturetomovefromaregionofhighconcentrationtoaregionoflowconcentration.Masscanbetransferredbyrandommolecularmotioninquiescentuids,oritcanbetransferredfromasurfaceintoamovinguid,aidedbythedynamiccharacteristicsoftheow.Settlingisthethirdtypeofux.Thismotionispurelyduetogravitycausingthesettlingofthesediment.Figure 4{5 showstheinstantaneousandcumulativeaverageddiusive,advective,andsettlinguxesforcaseE03,DC05,andE04.Thenegativesettlinguxesindicaterippledecay.Therefore,onecauseofadecreaseinrippleheightisgrainsslidingfromthepeakdownthesidesoftherippleandsettlinginthetrough.Theoppositeoccursforthediusiveuxes.Thesedimentlayerabovetheimmobilebedthickensatthecrestandthinsinthetrough,possiblybecauseoftheshearingoofthepeakfromtheowandthesettlingofgrainsintothetrough.Thisdiusiveuxisacauseofripplegrowth.Thesettlinganddiusiveuxesarenearlyequallybalancedandhaveanon-zerovalueevenwithnoow.ThisbalanceisapparentinthesedimentcontinuitygoverningequationEquation 2{9 asgravitationalsettlingiscounteractedbyanupwarddiusionacrossthethinconcentrationgradientattheripplesurfaceandinthecoreofthesedimentsuspensionplumes.Therefore,theaverageoftheseuxescouldbesubtractedout,leavingtheadvectiveuxesastheprimarycauseofthesedimenttransport.Figure 4{6 showsthethreetypesofuxesaveragedintime,thex-,and,they-directionsforcaseE03,DC05,andE04.Includedontheplotsaretheinitialandnalatt=0secondsandt=16seconds,respectivelyripplecrestandtroughheights.Thegurealsoshowsthebalancebetweenthesettlinganddiusiveuxes.ThegrowingripplecaseFigure 4{6a demonstratesaslightlylargerpositivediusiveuxthansettlinguxandyieldspositiveadvectiveuxesatthecrestandtrough,leadingtoripplegrowth.BoththediusiveandsettlinguxesintheslightlydecayingripplecaseFigure 4{6b arewellbalanced.Theadvectiveuxesareslightlynegative,agreeingwiththesmalldecreaseintherippleamplitude.ThediusiveandsettlinguxesarealsobalancedintherapidlydecayingcaseFigure 4{6c 55

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Thenegativeadvectiveuxescausethedecreaseofthecrestheightandtheslightlymorenegativediusiveuxesproducetheincreasedtroughheight.4.2RippleAmplitudeFlowVelocitySimulationsThefollowingthreesimulationsareinitializedwiththesameoscillationperiodandsimilarinitialrippleheightsbutwithdierentoscillatoryowvelocities.AlowenergycaseE11isinitializedwitha2.2cmsinusoidalrippleandforcedwitha20cm/smaximumfree-streamvelocityow.CaseE13,amid-energysimulation,hasa60cm/smaximumfree-streamvelocityanda2secondperiod.Thehighenergycase,E20,isforcedwithanoscillatoryowwith120cm/smaximumfree-streamvelocity.Therippleisexpectedtoshearounderthisstrongow,evolvingfromtheinitial1.6cmrippleamplitudetonostablerippleform.Figure 4{7 illustratesatimeseriesofrippleevolutionsforthethreecases.Table 3{1 includesdetailedconditionsofthesimulations.4.2.1RippleHeightTherippleheightevolutionmax;tandexpectedequilibriumrippleheighteforallthreecasescanbeseeninFigure 4{8 .ThelowenergycaseE11isshowninpanels 4{7a .Undertheowconditions,a1.4cmrippleheightisexpectedtodevelopinequilibrium.Overthe20secondsimulation,therippledecaysfrom2.2cmto0.8cm,asshowninFigure 4{8 a.Itcanbededucedfromtheresultsthattherippleisnotyetinequilibrium.Forthemidenergycase,E13,theinitial1.6cmrippleshouldgrowtoabout2.1cm.Figure 4{7b showstheripplegrowsfrom1.6cminheightto2cminheightinthreewaveperiods.Thegrowthissteadythroughoutthesimulation.Inthehighenergycase,E20,therippledecaysfroma1.6cmrippletoaroughbedwithnodeniteorstablerippleshape.4.2.2SuspendedandBedLoadTransportFigure 4{9 showsthesuspendedandbedloaduxesforthelow,mid,andhighenergycases.Panelsa,b,andcaretheinstantaneousuxesandpanelsd,e,andfarethecumulativesumoftheuxesforthethreecases.Thelowowcase,E11 56

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Figure 4{9a andd,hasessentiallynosuspendedsedimentandillustratesthatthedeclineinrippleheightoccursduetobedloadsedimenttransport.Atthispointinthesimulation,theheightis0.6cmlessthantheequilibriumrippleheightasdeterminedby Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformula.Aspreviouslymentioned,thisdierenceismostlikelyduetotheripplenotyetbeinginitsequilibriumstate.Figure 4{9d supportsthishypothesis.Thebedloaduxesintheendofthesimulationareincreasing,nowcontributingtoripplegrowth.Timeconstraintspreventedrunningthesimulationfurther.Futureresearchwillexaminealongersimulation.TherippleincaseE13Figure 4{9e grows0.4cmmostlythroughbedloadsedimenttransport.Somesuspendedsedimenttransportdecreasestherippleheight,butnotenoughtoovercomethegrowthduetobedloadtransport.Inthehighenergycase,E20,thereareequalbutoppositeamountsofbedandsuspendedloadtransport,butbedloadtransportcausestherippledecay.Thelargeamountofpositivesuspendedsedimentuxisduetothehighenergyoftheow,andmaynotnecessarilyinduceripplegrowth.4.3TwoRippleWavelengthSimulationsTheremainderofthesimulationspresentedinthisworkexcludingthethree-dimensionalcaseexaminebothrippleheightandwavelengthevolution.CasesE05andE10,showninFigure 4{10 ,areforcedwiththesameoscillatoryow,buthavedierentinitialrippleshapes.CaseE05Figure 4{10a isinitializedwithtwoslightlymergedripples,creatingadouble-crested"ripplethatis1.4cminheightand12cminlength.TwoseparateripplesareinitializedincaseE10Figure 4{10b ,againwithatotallengthof12cm.RefertoTable 3{3 forotherconditionsofthesimulations.4.3.1RippleWavelengthInitializingthemodelwithmultipleripplesinadomainallowsmorefortheevolutionofripplelengthinadditiontorippleheight.Intheoneripplecases,theabilityforthelengthtochangeislimitedbythedomainbecausetherippleisinitializedatitsexpectedequilibriumlengthforthegivenowconditions.Inthesetwocases,tworipples 57

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areinitializedina12cmdomain,whichistheequilibriumlengthofjustonerippleforthesimulationowcharacteristicsaccordingto Nielsen 'sformula.IncaseE05,thepeaksofthedouble-crested"ripplemergetoformoneripplewithalengthof12cmFigure 4{10a .CaseE10isinitializedwithtworipples,each6cminlength.Thetworipplesslowlymergethroughoutthe65secondsimulationtoashapethatresemblesthebeginningstagesofcaseE05.ThissimilaritytothepreviouscasewhoserippleseventuallydidmergetogethertoformoneripplesuggeststhatcaseE10willfollowtheresultsofcaseE05ifthesimulationwasrunlongerthan65seconds.Again,timeconstraintsledtotheinvestigationofotherquestionsratherthanattemptingtoconrmthisdetail.4.3.2RippleHeightFigure 4{11 plotsthemaximumrippleheightevolutionforthedouble-crested"E05andtwo-rippleE10cases.Theheightofthedouble-crested"rippletothemergedsinglerippledecreasesfrom1.4cmto1cm.Theinitialdecreaseissteep,butthentherippleheightsteadiesandslowlyrises,indicatingtherippleshouldcontinuetogrowpastthe30secondsimulation.Inthetwo-ripplecaseE10,therippleheightdecreasesfairlyquickly,thensteadiesasthepeaksofthetworipplesslowlymerge.Similartotheripplewavelengthcomparison,thenalrippleheightincaseE10isaboutthesameasthe16secondpanelofcaseE05.Past65seconds,therippleinthissimulationisexpectedtostarttoslowlyrise,justastherippledoesincaseE05.Bothofthesimulationswereterminatedduetotimeconstraintsandcouldbeexaminedmoreinthefuture.4.3.3SuspendedandBedLoadTransportFigures 4{12a and 4{12c showtheinstantaneousandcumulativeuxes,respectively,forthedouble-crested"ripplecaseE05.Thesuspendedloadtransportisminimalanditseemsthatthebedloadtransportcausesaslightdecaythengrowthoftheripple.Inthetwo-ripplecumulativeuxplotFigure 4{12d ,thepositivebedloaduxesindicatethatthebedloadtransportshouldbecausingripplegrowth,notdecay.Theuxplotforthiscasecontradictstheresultsfromallthepreviouscases.The 58

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discrepancycouldbeduetothemovementofthepeaksoftheripplesandthemergingofthetworipplesintoonethatcausespositivebedloaduxeseventhoughtherippleisnotgrowingseeAppendix A .4.4OneandThreeRippleWavelengthSimulationsThenexttwocasespresentedalsoexaminerippleheightandlengthevolution,butinadomainwheretworipplesareexpectedtodevelopinequilibrium.Bothareforcedwithoscillatoryowswitha40cm/smaximumfree-streamvelocityand2secondperiod.Figures 4{13a and 4{13b aresimulationframesfromcaseE08andE09,respectively.CaseE08isinitializedwithoneripple24cminlengthand0.8cminheight.Threeripples,each8cminlengthand1.6cminheight,areinitializedincaseE09.4.4.1RippleWavelengthTheone-ripplecaseE08hasadomainlengthof24cm,whichisthelengthoftwoequilibriumripples.Asthe41secondsimulationprogresses,foursmallripples,eachabout6cminlength,formandbegintogrow.Althoughweexpecttheretobeonlytworipplesinthedomainatequilibrium,researchhasshown GrantandMadsen 1982 ; O'DonoghueandClubb 2001 thatripplesabouthalftheequilibriumsizeformrstonanalmostatbed,beforereachinganalequilibriumstate.Itisalsointerestingthattheinitiallongripplestillsomewhatexistsandthatthesmallrippleshaveformedonitssurface.Thisisalsoseeninlaboratoryexperiments.Itisnecessaryforthesimulationtoberunfurtherbeforeconrmingthemodelagreeswithpreviousndingsonrippleevolution.Thesamesizedomainisusedinthethree-ripplecaseE09.Afterthe40secondsimulation,thewavelengthsofthethreeripplesareunchanged,buttheripplesarelessdened.Aswiththeone-ripplecase,thesimulationwouldneedtoberunlongerforfurtherexamination.4.4.2RippleHeightFigure 4{14 showstherippleheightevolutionfortheone-andthree-ripplecases.IncaseE08,foursmallripplesformonthelongatripple.Theygrowfromabout0.8cmto1cmandarestillgrowingattheendofthesimulationFigure 4{14 a.The 59

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ripplesarenotsteadyandtheircrestsswaybackandforth.TheripplesonthefarleftandrightaresmallerandlessdenedthanthetwomiddleripplesFigure 4{13a .Alongwiththechangingrippleheight,thisevidencesupportsthatthesimulationisnotyetinitsequilibriumstate.ThethreeripplesincaseE09decayfrom1.6cmto0.7cminthe40secondsimulationFigure 4{14 b.Theleftripplebecomeslessdenedthantheothertworipples,whichsuggeststhethreeripplesmightmergeintotwopast41secondsFigure 4{13b .Again,thiscasewouldneedtoberunlongerinordertoconrmthishypothesis.4.4.3SuspendedandBedLoadTransportThesuspendedandbedloaduxesforcasesE08andE09areshowninFigure 4{15 .Thecumulativeuxplotfortheone-ripplecaseFigure 4{15c indicatesthatthesuspendedloaduxesaresmallcomparedtothebedloaduxes.Therefore,bedloadtransportisthemaincauseofripplegrowthandshapechange.Thisobservationisalsoapparentinthesimulationframeswhereitcanbeseenthatthereisverylittlesuspendedsedimentpresentthroughoutthesimulation.Similartothetwo-ripplecaseE10,theuxplotforthethree-ripplecaseFigure 4{15d iscontradictorytotheothercases.Thelargepositiveincreaseofbedloaduxindicatestheripplesshouldbegrowingduetobedloadsedimenttransport.SeeSection 4.3.3 andAppendix A forfurtherexplanation.4.5FlatbedSimulationThenaltwo-dimensionalcasepresentedexaminestherippleevolutionfromaatbedwithjustasmallperturbation.The41secondsimulationisforcedwithanoscillatoryowwitha20cm/smaximumfree-streamvelocityanda1secondperiod.Figure 4{16 showsthetimeseriesevolutionofthesimulation.Thedomainhasalengthof8cm,twicethelengthoftheexpectedequilibriumripplefortheowconditions.4.5.1RippleHeightThetimeseriesofrippleevolutionfortheatbedcaseisshowninFigure 4{17 .Within10secondsofthesimulation,onesmallrippleformsinthecenterofthedomain. 60

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Ripplessoonstarttoformoneithersideofthecenterripple.After41seconds,threedenedripplesarepresentinthedomain.Theexpectedequilibriumrippleheightforthecurrentowconditionsis0.7cmeonFigure 4{17 .Theripplesgrowfromtheatbedtoaboutaheightof0.3cm.FrompreviousresearchmentionedinSection 4.4.1 ,ripplesformedfromaatbedstartassmallrollinggrainripplesanddevelopintolargervortexripplesaftermanyowperiodsO02.Furtherexaminationofthiscaseisnecessarytodeterminewhethertherippleswillevolveintotheirequilibriumstate.4.5.2RippleWavelengthTheexpectedequilibriumripplewavelengthforthiscaseis4cm,halfaslargeasthedomain.Threeripples,eachabout2.7cminlength,haveformedinsidethedomainafterthe41secondsimulation.Theprevioussimulationshaveexaminedtheresultsofforcingaowoveranexistingripple.Thiscaseshowsthemodel'sabilitytopredicttheformationofripplesfromanalmostcompletelyatbed.4.5.3SuspendedandBedloadTransportTheinstantaneousandcumulativeloaduxesareshowninFigures 4{18a and 4{18b ,respectively.Asseeninthesimulationsnapshots,thereisnosuspendedsedimentinthesimulation.Theseripplesarestillrolling-grainripples;novorticesareformedandtherefore,nosedimentgetssuspended.Theripplesaremadepurelyfrombedloadsedimenttransport.4.6Three-DimensionalSimulationOnefullythree-dimensionalsimulationoutofthreethatwereexaminedwithdierentdomainsizesispresentedhere.Thisisduetothelargeamountofcomputationaltimenecessaryforathree-dimensionalsimulation.Advancesintechnologyandareorganizationofthenumericalcodecouldshortenthecomputationaltimerequired.Furtherresearchwillconcentratemoreonthree-dimensionalsimulations.CaseE14hasadomainof12cmby6cmby8cmandisforcedwithanoscillatoryowmaximumfree-streamvelocityof40cm/switha2secondperiod.Thesimulationis 61

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initializedwitharipple2cminheightand12cminlength.Itsinitialconditionsandowcharacteristicsarethesameasthequasi-two-dimensionalslightlydecayingcaseDC05.AswithcaseDC05,onlytheevolutionoftherippleheightisexamined.4.6.1RippleHeightFigure 4{20 showstherippleheightevolutionthroughoutthesimulation.Therippleisinitializedwithaheightof2cm,thesamesteady-staterippleheightaccordingto Nielsen 'sformula.Insteadoftherippleheightdecreasing0.5cmlikethetwo-dimensionalslightlydecayingcase,itstayssteadyattheequilibriumrippleheightof2cm.Thedierencesbetweenthequasi-two-andthree-dimensionalcaseswillbediscussedinChapter 5 .4.6.2SuspendedandBedLoadTransportThesuspendedandbedloaduxes,showninFigure 4{21 ,arenearlyequalandoppositeinsign.Thesuspendedloaduxesarepositive,contributingtosandripplegrowth.Thebedloaduxesareequallynegative,causingrippledecay.Theequalandoppositetransportmechanismscreateadynamicequilibriumwiththerippleheightrelativelysteadyandunchanging.Notethatthechangeoftherippleshapefromasinusoidtoamorepeakedandsteepshaperequiresasmallnetux.4.7SummaryofResultsAllofthecasespresentedinthisworkshowthepotentialofthismodeltoadvancetheunderstandingofsandripplesandsedimenttransport.Tables 4{1 and 4{2 summarizetheresults.TheconclusionsanddiscussionoftheseresultsarepresentedinChapter 5 62

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a b cFigure4{1.Snapshotsintimeoftherippleamplitudesimulations.agrowingripplecaseE03withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,ando=1cm.bSlightlydecayingripplecaseDC05withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=2cm.cRapidlydecayingripplecaseE04withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=3cm. 63

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Figure4{2.Timeevolutionofthemaximumrippleheightmax;tfortheagrowingripplecaseE03,bslightlydecayingripplecaseDC05,andcrapidlydecayingripplecaseE04.edenotestheequilibriumheightresultingfrom Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformulasforthesimulationconditions. 64

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a b cFigure4{3.Plotsoftheinitialandnalrippleisosurface,slope,andslopechangefortheagrowingripplecaseE03,bslightlydecayingripplecaseDC05,andcrapidlydecayingripplecaseE04. 65

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a b c d e fFigure4{4.InstantaneousaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortheagrowingE03,bslightlydecayingDC05,andcrapidlydecayingE04cases.CumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesforthedgrowingE03,eslightlydecayingDC05,andfrapidlydecayingE04cases. 66

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a b c d e fFigure4{5.Instantaneousaveragedadvective,diusive,andsettlinguxesfortheagrowingE03,bslightlydecayingDC05,andcrapidlydecayingE04cases.Cumulativeaveragedadvective,diusion,andsettlinguxesforthedgrowingE03,eslightlydecayingDC05,andfrapidlydecayingE04cases. 67

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a b cFigure4{6.Time,x-,andy-averagedadvective,diusive,andsettlinguxplotsfortheagrowingE03,bslightlydecayingDC05,andcrapidlydecayingE04cases. 68

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a b cFigure4{7.Snapshotsintimeoftherippleamplitudesimulationswithvaryingmaximumfree-streamvelocities.aLowenergycaseE11withUo=20cm/s,T=2s,o=2:2cm.bMid-energycaseE13withUo=60cm/s,T=2s,o=1:6cm.cHighenergycaseE20withUo=120cm/s,T=4s,o=1:6cm. 69

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Figure4{8.Timeevolutionofthemaximumrippleheightmax;tforthealowenergycaseE11,bmid-energycaseE13,andchighenergycaseE20.edenotestheequilibriumheightresultingfrom Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformulasforthesimulationconditions. 70

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a b c d e fFigure4{9.InstantaneousaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesforthealowenergyE11,bmidenergyE13,andchighenergyE20cases.CumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesforthedlowenergyE11,emidenergyE13,andfhighenergyE20cases. 71

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a bFigure4{10.Snapshotsintimeofthetworipplewavelengthsimulations.aDouble-crested"ripplecaseE05withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=1:4cm.bTwo-ripplecaseE10withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=1:6cm. 72

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Figure4{11.Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightmax;tfortheadouble-crested"rippleE05,andbtwo-rippleE10cases.edenotestheequilibriumheightresultingfrom Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformulasforthesimulationconditions. 73

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a b c dFigure4{12.Instantaneousaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortheadouble-crested"rippleE05,andbtwo-rippleE10cases.Cumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesforthecdouble-crested"rippleE05,anddtwo-rippleE10cases. 74

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a bFigure4{13.Snapshotsintimeoftheone-andthree-ripplewavelengthsimulations.aOne-ripplecaseE08withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=0:8cm.bThree-ripplecaseE09withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=1:6cm. 75

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Figure4{14.Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightmax;tfortheaone-rippleE08,andbthree-rippleE09cases.edenotestheequilibriumheightresultingfrom Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformulasforthesimulationconditions. 76

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a b c dFigure4{15.Instantaneousaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortheaone-rippleE08,andbthree-rippleE09cases.Cumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxesfortheaone-rippleE08,andbthree-rippleE09cases. 77

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aFigure4{16.SnapshotsintimeoftheatbedsimulationE18withUo=20cm/s,T=1s,o=0cm. 78

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Figure4{17.Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightmax;tfortheatbedcaseE18.edenotestheequilibriumheightresultingfrom Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformulasforthesimulationconditions. 79

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a bFigure4{18.FluxesfortheatbedsimulationE18,whereaaretheinstantaneousbedandsuspendedloaduxesandbarethecumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxes. 80

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aFigure4{19.Snapshotsintimeofthethree-dimensionalsimulationE14withUo=40cm/s,T=2s,o=2cm. 81

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Figure4{20.Timeevolutionofmaximumrippleheightmax;tforthethree-dimensionalcaseE14.edenotestheequilibriumheightresultingfrom Nielsen 'ssteady-stateformulasforthesimulationconditions. Table4{1.Theinitial,nal,andequilibriumrippleheightsforallofthepresentedcases. RunSimulationInitialFinalEquilibrium%ofequilibriumnamedescriptionheightheightheightheightatendofsimulationcmcmcm% E03Growing1.01.52.075DC05Slightlydecaying2.01.52.075E04Rapidlydecaying3.01.52.075E11Lowenergy2.20.81.457E13Midenergy1.62.02.195E20Highenergy1.60.80.0N/AE05Double-crested"1.41.02.070E10Two-ripple1.60.62.030E08One-ripple0.81.02.050E09Three-ripple1.60.72.035E18Flatbed0.00.30.742E14Three-dimensional2.02.02.0100 82

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Table4{2.Theinitial,nal,andequilibriumripplewavelengthsforallofthepresentedcases. RunSimulationInitialFinalEquilibrium%ofequilibriumnamedescriptionlengthlengthlengthlengthattheendofsimulationcmcmcm% E05Double-crested"6.012.012.0100E10Two-ripple6.07.012.058E08One-ripple24.06.012.050E09Three-ripple8.09.012.075E18Flatbed0.02.74.067 83

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a bFigure4{21.Fluxesforthethree-dimensionalsimulationE14,whereaaretheinstantaneousbedandsuspendedloaduxesandbarethecumulativeaveragedbedandsuspendedloaduxes. 84

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CHAPTER5SUMMARY5.1ApplicabilityTheresultsofthesimulationsconcludethatthemodiedmixturemodelof Slinnetal. 2006 isapplicabletothehighlyconcentrated,lowow,rippleregime.ThemodelpredictsrealisticripplebehaviorforthetestedowswithReynoldsnumbersrangingfrom104to105.Themodelresolvestheturbulentowoveralive-bedinthree-dimensions.Thelive-bedallowsforthecoupledowelds,sedimenttransport,andbedmorphologytobeanalyzed.Thesmallgridsize,largenumberofgridpoints,andhighresolutionoftheowcausethemodeltobecomputationallyexpensive.Thecomputationaltimerequiredforafullythree-dimensionalsimulationlimitsthesimulationdomainsizeandduration.Furtherresearchtodevelopaparallelversionofthecodewouldpossiblyreducethetimenecessaryforthecomputations.Runningthecodeonasupercomputerwouldalsospeedupthemodelruntime.5.2RippleGeometryPredictions5.2.1RippleShapeTheripplesinthesimulationsareinitializedwithasinusoidalshapenotcharacteristicofthoseseeninnature HaqueandMahmood 1985 .Ripplesobservedinthelaboratoryunderpurelyoscillatoryowaregenerallysymmetric,withnarrowcrestsandat,broadtroughs WibergandHarris 1994 .Almostimmediatelyafterthesimulationsbegin,thesinusoidalripplechanges;thetroughsbecomeatterandthecrestsbecomemorepeaked.Asthesimulationprogresses,thepeaksswaybackandforth,similartolaboratoryandeldobservations.5.2.2RippleHeightandLengthThesimulatedrippleheightsandlengthswerecomparedwith Nielsen 'sripplepredictormethodwithfairlygoodresults.Whentheripplereachesitssteady-statecasesE03,DC05,E04,E13,E20,andE14,thesimulatedrippleheightcomeswithin75%of 85

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thepredictedheightTable 4{1 .Whenthesimulationisstoppedbeforetheripplecanreachasteady-statecasesE05andE11,thesimulatedrippleheightcomeswithin60%ofthepredictedheight.Thedouble-crestedripplesimulationE05isinitializednearitsexpectedsteady-statelengthandthesimulatedlengthequilibratesto100%ofthepredictedlengthTable 4{2 .Thesimulationsthathavenotyetreachedasteady-statecasesE11,E05,E08,E09,E10,andE18showatrendtowardstheequilibriumheightandlength.Theresultsillustratethemodel'sabilitytopredictasteady-stateripplethatisindependentoftheinitialbedmorphology.ResultsfromtheatbedE18andthelongatrippleE08simulationagreewithpreviousndingse.g., Forel 1883 ; FaraciandFoti 2001 thatthewavelengthsofripplesinitiallyformingonaatbedareabouthalfaslongastheequilibriumwavelengths.Theripplegeometryinthesecasesisnotconstant,illustratingthatitisnotyetinequilibrium.Ithasbeenfoundthatasmanyasthree-hundredcyclescouldbenecessaryforaatbedtoreachitsequilibriumstate FaraciandFoti 2001 andpossiblymoreiftheripplesmusttransitionfromanotherstateasincasesE05,E08,E09,andE10.Thesesimulationswouldneedtoberunlongerinordertomakeanynalconclusions,althoughcurrently,theresultsareencouraging.5.2.3RippleMorphologyBedandsuspendedloadtransportandtheircontributionstoripplemorphologyareanalyzedforeachsimulation.Itisfoundthatbedloadtransportisthedominantmechanisminripplegrowthanddecay.ThisconclusionisshownnotonlyinthelaminarowsimulationcaseE18,butinallbuttwooftheothercases.Intheatbedcase,smallripplesformontheinitiallyatbedwithasmallperturbation.Thegrowthoftheripplesischaracterizedbytherollingandslidingofgrainsontheleesideoftheripplewhichagreeswithlaboratoryndings FaraciandFoti 2001 .Itwasalsofoundthattheadvectiveuxesarethesignicantforcesmovingsediment.Thediusiveandsettlingforcesareinmostlyinbalancewitheachother. 86

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5.2.4ComparisonsofQuasi-Two-andThree-DimensionalSimulationsItwasfoundthatthequasi-two-dimensionalrippleamplitudesimulationsequilibratedtoabout75%ofthesteady-staterippleheightfortheowconditions.Whenthesameinitialowandbedconditionsweresimulatedinthree-dimensions,therippleheightequilibratedtowithin99%ofthesteady-stateheight.Thedierencesbetweenthequasi-two-andthree-dimensionalsimulationscanprobablybeattributedtoincreasedturbulence.Inthethree-dimensionalsimulation,theturbulenceisabletofullydevelopinthey-direction.Ithasbeenfoundthatthree-dimensionalvortexstructuresplayanimportantroleinthetransportofsediment,andhigherReynoldsnumberowsarestronglythree-dimensional ZedlerandStreet 2006 .Thethree-dimensionalvortexstructuressignicantlyaectparticletrajectoriesandcreaterelevantdispersioneects Blondeauxetal. 1999 ; Scanduraetal. 2000 .Fromthisevidence,dierencesbetweenthetwo-andthree-dimensionalsimulationsareexpected.Wecanconcludethatinordertocapturethefullyresolvedow,thesimulationmustberuninthree-dimensions.However,wecanusethequasi-two-dimensionalsimulationstoapproximatetheripplemorphologyuntiltheproblemofcomputationalruntimeisresolved.5.3SummaryofContributionsThepurposeofthisresearchwastodetermineifthesheetowmixturemodelof Slinnetal. 2006 couldbemodiedtosimulatesedimenttransportandrippleevolutioninarippleowregime.Itisnowknownthatthemodelhasthecapabilitytobeusefulinanalyzingsedimenttransportandripplemorphologyunderowslowerthanthosetypicalofsheetow.Themodelexaminesthelive-beddynamicsofrippleevolutionwhilefullyresolvingtheow.Althoughuncertaintiesassociatedwithturbulenceclosureschemesareavoidedduetothedirectsolutionofthegoverningequations,moreworkmustbedonetoexperimentallyverifytheempiricalsubmodelsforthesedimenttransportdynamics.Wehavesucceededincreatingatoolthathasthepotentialtoadvancethepresentknowledgeofcoastalsedimenttransportandmorphology. 87

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5.4FutureResearchThecomputationalexpenseofthemodelmustrstbeminimizedbyparallelizingthecodeorusingfastercomputingpower.Oncethesimulationscanberuntoreachthebed'sequilibriumstate,theoutputcanbebetteranalyzedandcomparedtolaboratoryandeldresults.Onepossiblecomparisonis DoucetteandO'Donoghue 's2006empiricalmodeloftimetorippleequilibrium.Theyformulatedanempiricalrelationshipdependentonthemobilitynumber,initialrippleheight,andequilibriumrippleheightthatdeterminedthetimedependentrippleheightevolution.Unfortunately,thetimescalesintheformulaaremuchlongerthanthosecurrentlyobtainedinthemodel.Inthefuture,thismodelcouldalsobeappliedtothree-dimensionalrippleelds,scouraroundobjects,orbedformsinriverswiththeadditionofameancurrent. 88

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APPENDIXAFLUXCALCULATIONSThemassuxofsedimentinauidoccursthroughthreemechanisms:thebulkmotionoftheuid,theconcentrationgradient,andthesettlingduetogravity.AsedimentcontinuityequationEquation A{1 thatdescribesthemovementofsedimentwithinauidisderivedusingamassbalanceofthesethreetypesofuxes.@C @t=)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 10.494 8.088 Td[(@Cuj @xj| {z }advective)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 10.494 8.088 Td[(@CWt @z| {z }settling+@ @xjDj@C @xj| {z }diffusion A{1 whereCisthesedimentconcentration,ujisthemixturevelocity,Wtisthesettlingvelocitydenedby RichardsonandZaki 1954 ,andDjisthediusioncoecientdenedby NirandAcrivos 1990 .Thersttermontherightsideistheuxduetothebulkmotionoftheuid,oradvectiveux,thesecondtermistheuxduetosettling,andthelasttermistheuxduetotheconcentrationgradienti.e.,diusion.Beforecalculatingwhichuxescontributetorippleevolution,theprocessesofhowaripplegrowsordecaysmustbeexamined.Physically,whenarippledecays,sedimentgetsshearedothepeakandllsupintothetrough.Becauseofthesephysicalprocesses,bothpositiveandnegativeuxescontributetorippledecay,andripplegrowth,dependingwheretheyoccurontherippleFigure A{1a .TherapidlydecayingripplecaseE04willbeusedasanexampletoshowhowtheuxesarecalculated.InordertodeterminewhichuxescontributetotherippledecayincaseE04,thehorizontallyaveragedconcentrationprolesattwodierenttimeswereplottedFigure A{1b .ThetotalcontributionoftheuxestothechangeinconcentrationbetweenthetwotimesisfoundbyintegratingthesedimentcontinuityequationEquation A{1 withrespecttotime.Ztfti@C @tdt=Cf)]TJ/F23 11.955 Tf 11.955 0 Td[(CiA{2TheresultoftheintegrationisthedierencebetweenthenalandtheinitialconcentrationproleEquation A{2 .ThisdierenceisplottedinFigure A{1c .Asshownintheplot,thedierencebetweenthenalandinitialconcentrationprolesisnegativeabovetheintersectingpointofthetwohorizontallyaveragedconcentrationprolesshownonFigure A{1b asthecrossgridpoint,andpositivebelowtheintersectingpoint.Therefore,apositiveuxbelowtheproleintersectingpointcausesrippledecay.Abovetheintersectingpoint,negativeuxescontributetotherippledecay.Figure A{1a illustratesthisideabythearrowsdenotingthedirectionofthedecayinguxes.Thisconceptisalsoappliedtoagrowingrippleandisoppositeofthedecayingripple.Ripplegrowthiscausedbynegativeuxesbelowtheintersectingpointandpositiveuxesabovetheproleintersectingpoint. 89

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Thedivisionbetweenbedandsuspendedloadisdenedasasetdistanceabovetheimmobilebedasperpreviousresearch Einstein 1950 .Inthisresearch,theimmobilebedisdenedashavingavolumetricconcentrationof57%orgreater.Thebedloadlayerwidthisthendenedtobeaboutfourgraindiametersthick,orendingabout0.18cmabovetheimmobilebed.ThisdenitionwasbasedonvisualinspectionofmanyconcentrationeldsSeeFigure A{2 foranexample.Thesuspendedloadregionistherestofthedomainabovethebedloadlayer.Theprocedureforcalculatingwhichuxesadvective,settling,ordiusive,andbed,orsuspendedloadcontributetoripplegrowthanddecayiscarriedoutasfollows: 1. Theinitialandnalaveragedconcentrationprolesarecalculatedandtheintersectingpointbetweenthemisdetermined. 2. Eachuxtermatallgridpointsiscalculatedateverytimestepfromthevelocityandconcentrationoutputofthemodel. 3. Theuxesateachgridpointarecategorizedintobedmaterial,bedload,orsuspendedloaddependingontheirlocationabovetheimmobilebedasdescribedpreviously. 4. Theuxesateachgridpointarethendeterminedtobecontributingtoripplegrowthordecaydependingontheirsignandlocationrelativetotheintersectingconcentrationprolepoint.Growthuxesaremadepositiveanddecayuxesaremadenegative. 5. Theuxesatthegridpointsinthebedandsuspendedloadregionsalongtheripplearesummedtogether.Thesestepsyieldaquantityofeachoftheadvective,diusive,andsettlinguxesforboththebedandsuspendedloadregions.Theuxesareplottedsopositivevaluesindicateripplegrowthandnegativevaluesindicaterippledecay.Thismethodforcalculatinguxesmaynotbeappropriateforsimulationswithsignicantlychangingrippleshapesormulti-ripplesimulations.Thereareuxesassociatedwiththechangingoftherippleshapethatdonotnecessarilycausetherippleheighttoincreaseordecrease,butarecountedinthegrowthanddecayuxcalculations.Thereisalsosomeimprecisioninthecategorizationofthegrowthanddecayuxesinrelationtotheproleintersectionpoint.Theintersectingprolepointiscalculatedbyaveragingtheinitialandnalconcentrationprolesofthesimulation.Iftheconcentrationprolesarecomplex,ortheripplesasymmetrical,thecalculationoftheintersectingprolepointmaynotbeaccurate.Inaddition,thechangeinshapebetweenthetwotimesdoesnotaectthepositionofthecrossingpoint.Forthesereasons,themethodisusedtoapproximatelydeterminetheripplegrowthanddecayuxes. 90

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a b cFigureA{1.Rippleproleandhorizontallyaveragedconcentrationplots.aTherippleprolesatt=0secandt=16secwiththearrowsrepresentingtherippledecayinguxes.bThehorizontallyaveragedconcentrationprolesatt=0secandt=16sec,andcthedierencebetweenthenalandinitialconcentrationsfromtherapidlydecayingripplecaseE04. 91

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FigureA{2.Azoomedportionoftheripplesurfaceandmeshgrid.ThewhiterepresentstheimmobilebedC>57%byvolume.Thebedloadlayerissixgridpointsthickor4:6donaverage. 92

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REFERENCES Andersen,K.H.,1999.Ripplesbeneathsurfacewavesandtopicsinshellmodelsofturbulence.Ph.D.thesis,TechnicalUniversityofDenmark. 1.3 Andersen,K.H.,2001.Aparticlemodelofrollinggrainripplesunderwaves.PhysicsofFluids13,58{64. 1.3 1.4 Andersen,K.H.,Chabanol,M.-L.,vanHecke,M.,2001.Dynamicalmodelsforsandripplesbeneathsurfacewaves.PhysicalReviewEStatistical,Nonlinear,andSoftMatterPhysics63,066308{1{066308{8. 1.3 Atkin,R.J.,Craine,R.E.,1976.Continuumtheoriesofmixtures-Basictheoryandhistoricaldevelopment.QuarterlyJournalofMechanicsandAppliedMathematics29,209{244. 1.3 Ayrton,H.,1910.Theoriginandgrowthofripple-mark.ProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyofLondon,SeriesA-ContainingPapersofaMathematicalandPhysicalCharacter84571,285{310. 1.3 Bagnold,R.A.,1946.Motionofwavesinshallowwater:Interactionbetweenwavesandsandbottoms.ProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyofLondon,SeriesA187,1{15. 1.2 1.2.1 1.3 Bagnold,R.A.,1954.Experimentsonagravity-freedispersionoflargesolidspheresinaNewtonianuidundershear.ProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyofLondon,SeriesA22560,49{63. 2.2.1 2.2.1 Bagnold,R.A.,1956.Theowofcohesionlessgrainsinuids.PhilosophicalTransactionsoftheRoyalSocietyofLondon,SeriesA24964,235{297. 1.2.2 Barr,B.C.,Slinn,D.N.,Pierro,T.,Winters,K.B.,2004.Numericalsimulationofturbulent,oscillatoryowoversandripples.JournalofGeophysicalResearch109C9,1{19. 1.3 1.4 Blondeaux,P.,1990.Sandripplesunderseawaves1.Rippleformation.JournalofFluidMechanics218,1{17. 1.3 Blondeaux,P.,2001.Mechanicsofcoastalforms.AnnualReviewofFluidMechanics33,339{370. 1.3 1.4 3.2 Blondeaux,P.,Scandura,P.,Vittori,G.,1999.Alagrangianapproachtodescribesedimentdynamicsoverarippledbed:preliminaryresults.In:InternationalAssociationofHydraulicResearchSymposiumofRiver,Coastal,andEstuaryMorphodynamics.Univ.Genova,DepartmentofEnvironmentalEngineering,Genova,Italy,pp.185{194. 1.3 5.2.4 Candolle,M.C.,1883.Ridesformeesarchivesdessciencesphysiquesetnaturelles.ArchivesdesSciencesPhysiquesetNaturelles9. 1.3 93

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Schmidt,H.,Lee,J.Y.,1999.Physicsof3-Dscatteringfromrippledseabedsandburiedtargetsinshallowwater.JournaloftheAcousticalSocietyofAmerica1053,1605{1617. 1.1 Sleath,J.,1984.SeaBedMechanics.Wiley,NewYork. 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 Sleath,J.F.A.,1976.Onrollinggrainripples.JournalofHydraulicResearch141,69{81. 1.3 Slinn,D.,Hesser,T.,Burdick,G.,2006.Modelingsedimenttransportinoscillatoryboundarylayersusingamixtureapproach.In:EosTrans.AGU.Vol.87ofOceanSciencesMeetingSupplement,AbstractOS44N-01. 2.2 5.1 5.3 Soo,S.L.,1978.Diusioninmulitphaseow.IranianJournalofScienceandTechnology7,31{35. 1.3 Soo,S.L.,Tung,S.K.,1972.Depositionandentrainmentinpipe-owofasuspension.PowderTechnology65,283{294. 1.3 Subia,S.R.,Ingber,M.S.,Mondy,L.A.,Altobelli,S.A.,Graham,A.L.,1998.Modellingofconcentratedsuspensionsusingacontinuumconstitutiveequation.JournalofFluidMechanics373,193{219. 1.3 1.4 Swart,D.H.,1974.Oshoresedimenttransportandequilibriumbeachproles.DelftHydraulicsPublication,vol.131.DelftHydraulics,TheNetherlands. 1.2.3 Trouw,K.,Williams,J.J.,Rose,C.P.,2000.Modellingsandresuspensionbywavesoverarippledbed.EstuarineCoastalandShelfScience50,143{151. 1.3 Trowbridge,J.,Madsen,O.S.,1984.Turbulentwaveboundary-layers1.Modelformulationand1st-ordersolution.JournalofGeophysicalResearch89C5,7989{7997. 1.3 vanderWerf,J.J.,Ribberink,J.S.,O'Donoghue,T.,Doucette,J.S.,2006.Modellingandmeasurementofsandtransportprocessesoverfull-scaleripplesinoscillatoryow.CoastalEngineering53,657{673. 1.2.2 Vittori,G.,Blondeaux,P.,1990.Sandripplesunderseawaves2.Finite-amplitudedevelopment.JournalofFluidMechanics218,19{39. 1.3 Vongvisessomjai,S.,1984.Oscillatoryripplegeometry.JournalofHydraulicEngineering110,247{266. 1.3 Watanabe,Y.,Matsumoto,S.,Saeki,H.,2003.Three-dimensionalboundarylayerowoverripples.In:ProceedingsfromCoastalSediments2003.CD-ROM. 1.3 1.4 Wiberg,P.L.,Harris,C.K.,1994.Ripplegeometryinwave-dominatedenvironments.JournalofGeophysicalResearch99,775{789. 1.2 1.2.1 1.3 5.2.1 98

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Wikramanayake,P.,1993.Velocityprolesandsuspendedsedimenttransportinwave-currentows.Ph.D.thesis,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology. 1.3 Wilcox,D.,1998.TurbulenceModelingforCFD,2ndEdition.DCWIndustries,LaCa~nada,California. 1.3 Williams,J.J.,Bell,P.S.,Thorne,P.D.,Metje,N.,Coates,L.E.,2004.Measurementandpredictionofwave-generatedsuborbitalripples.JournalofGeophysicalResearch109C2,C02004. 1.3 Zedler,E.A.,Street,R.L.,2006.Sedimenttransportoverripplesinoscillatoryow.JournalofHydraulicEngineering132,180{193. 1.3 1.4 5.2.4 99

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BIOGRAPHICALSKETCHIgrewupontheshoresofLakeErieinEuclid,Ohio,asuburbofCleveland,Ohio.Livingnearalakeinducedafascinationwithwaterandbeacheswhichhasgrownintomylifelongcareer.Iplayedonthebeach,swam,orsailedonLakeEriealmosteverydayduringthesummerfromtheageoftwountilhighschool.IngradeschoolIwasdrawntothesubjectsofmathandscience,althoughIenjoyedallaspectsofmyeducation.Mytendencytowardquantitativeanalysisincreasedinhighschoolandwasthebasisofmypursuitofengineeringincollege.IgraduatedValedictorianinaclassof500fromEuclidHighSchoolinJuneof2000andenrolledatTheOhioStateUniversitythreemonthslater.Ideclaredmymajorasengineering,aspecializationundecided,butquicklyfoundaninterestincivilengineeringanduiddynamics.Oneofmyprofessors,Dr.DianeFoster,introducedmetocoastalengineeringinawaterresourceengineeringclass.In2003,Ireceivedafullscholarshipandstipendtodoundergraduateresearchintheareaofmychoice.Ibeganstudyingsmall-scalesedimenttransportmodelingwithDr.Fosterthesummerof2003.Shebecameaveryimportantmentorandwasthefundamentalinspirationinmygoaltobecomeacollegeprofessor.InSeptemberof2003,IhadtheopportunitytoparticipateinNCEX,anextensiveeldexperimentatScrippsInstitutionofOceanographyinSanDiego,California.Theexperienceshowedmetheeldaspectofcoastalengineering.Inadditiontoparticipatingincoastalresearchandschoolwork,IwasalsoanocerinOhioState'sSocietyofWomenEngineeringchapter,anactivememberofWomeninEngineering,anundergraduateteachingassistant,andwasinductedintonumeroushonor'ssocietiesthroughoutmyundergraduatecareer.Mydesiretoworktowardanadvanceddegreewasmotivatedbyadreamofworkinginacademia.InAugustof2004,Ipackedupmylife,lefttheonlyhomeIhadeverknown,andmadethe900milemovedowntoGainesville,whereIwouldattendgraduateschoolattheUniversityofFlorida.IhavehadmanyincrediblecareeropportunitiesatUF.MyrstsemesterIparticipatedintworesearchcruisestoinvestigatesandripplesfortheRipple 100

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DRIproject.InJune2005,ItraveledtoOregonfor2weekstotakepartinCROSSTEX,alargelaboratoryexperimentattheO.H.HinsdaleResearchLaboratoryatOregonStateUniversity.IhavecontinuedmyresearchinsedimenttransportthepasttwoyearsworkingwithDr.DonSlinn.Afternishingmymaster'sresearch,IplantocontinueandworktowardaPh.D.incoastalengineeringattheUniversityofFlorida. 101


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MODELING SAND RIPPLE EVOLUTION UNDER WAVE BOUNDARY LAYERS


By
ALLISON M. PENK(O



















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007




































S2007 Allison M. Penko



































To my family and friends.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I gratefully acknowledge the Office of N i.- I1 Research for funding the Ripple DRI

project, as well as ASEE and the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate

Research Fellowship Program for funding my education. I thank my supervisory

committee for their support and mentoring and my fellow graduate students for their

help and encouragement. Last, I thank my family and friends for their unwaivering

encouragement and Aaron for being there for me every step of the way on this journey.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACK(NOWLEDGMENTS .......... . .. .. 4

LIST OF TABLES ......... ..... .. 7

LIST OF FIGURES ......... .... .. 8

ABSTRACT ............ .............. 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ......... .. .. 11

1.1 General Introduction ......... . .. 11
1.2 Background ......... ... .. 12
1.2.1 Types of Bedfornis ....... ... .. 1:3
1.2.2 Sediment Transport ....... .. .. 14
1.2.3 Ripple Parameters ....... ... .. 16
1.3 Literature Review ........ ... .. 17
1.4 Research Problem ........ ... .. 2:3

2 METHODOLOGY . ..._.. ..... 28

2.1 Model Approach/C'!I. II :.teristics . . .. .. .. 28
2.2 Physics. ............ ............ 28
2.2.1 Governing Equations ........ ... .. 29
2.2.2 Non-dintensionalizing ...... ... .. :36
2.2.3 Boundary and Initial Conditions ... .. .. .. :37
2.2.4 Input Parameters ........ ... .. :38
2.3 Nunterics ........ ... .. :38

:3 EXPERIMENTAL PLAN . ...... ... 44

:3.1 Simulations ........ .. .. .. 44
:3.1.1 Ripple Amplitude Simulations .... ... . 44
:3.1.2 Ripple Wavelength Simulations .... .... . 45
:3.2 Experimental Data ........ . .. 46

4 RESULTS ........... ............ 51

4.1 Ripple Amplitude Simulations . .... .. 51
4.1.1 Ripple Height ........ .. .. 51
4.1.2 Ripple Shape ........ .. .... .. 52
4.1.3 Suspended and Bed Load Transport ... .. .. 5:3
4.1.4 Advective, Settling, and Diffusive Fluxes ... .. . .. 54
4.2 Ripple Amplitude Flow Velocity Simulations ... . .. 56
4.2.1 Ripple Height ......... .. .. .. .. 56
4.2.2 Suspended and Bed Load Transport .... .... .. 56









4.3 Two Ripple Wavelength Simulations
4.3.1 Ripple Wavelength
4.3.2 Ripple Height
4.3.3 Suspended and Bed Load Transport.
4.4 One and Three Ripple Wavelength Simulations
4.4.1 Ripple Wavelength
4.4.2 Ripple Height
4.4.3 Suspended and Bed Load Transport.
4.5 Flatbed Simulation.
4.5.1 Ripple Height
4.5.2 Ripple Wavelength
4.5.3 Suspended and Bed load Transport
4.6 Three-Dimensional Simulation.
4.6.1 Ripple Height
4.6.2 Suspended and Bed Load Transport.
4.7 Summary of Results

5 SUMMARY


5.1 Applicability. ........
5.2 Ripple Geometry Predictions ...
5.2.1 Ripple Shape
5.2.2 Ripple Heigfht and Lengfth
5.2.3 Ripple Morphology ...
5.2.4 Comparisons of Quasi-Two- and
5.3 Summary of Contributions ....
5.4 Future Research .. .....

APPENDIX

A FLUX CALCULATIONS

REFERENCES ..... .....

BIOGRAPHICAL SK(ETCH ......


Three-Dimensional Simulations










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

3-1 Ripple amplitude simulation conditions. ...... .. . 47

3-2 Three-dimensional simulation conditions. ...... .. . 47

3-3 Ripple wavelength simulation conditions. ...... .. . 48

3-4 Model simulation parameters and laboratory data results. .. .. .. 49

4-1 Summary of the ripple height simulation results. .... .. .. 82

4-2 Summary of the ripple wavelength simulation results. ... .. .. 83










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Pagfe

1-1 Ripples in a sandy bed. ......... .. .. 27

2-1 Mixture density and viscosity relationships. ..... .. . 40

2-2 Forces on a control volume in a concentrated sand bed. .. .. .. 41

2-3 The bed stiffness coefficient function. . ..... .. 41

2-4 Example of a three-dimensional initial bed state. ... ... .. 42

2-5 S1 I__- red grid. ......... .. .. 43

3-1 Initial bed states of the ripple amplitude simulations. ... .. .. 48

3-2 Initial bed state of the three-dimensional ripple amplitude simulation. .. .. 49

3-3 Initial bed states of the ripple wavelength simulations. ... .. .. 50

4-1 Snapshots in time of the ripple amplitude simulations. ... .. .. 63

4-2 Time evolution of the maximum ripple height in the ripple amplitude simulations. 64

4-3 Ripple slope plots of the ripple amplitude simulations. ... .. .. 65

4-4 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged bed and suspended load fluxes for the
ripple amplitude simulations. ......... ... .. 66

4-5 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged advective, diffusive, and settling fluxes
for the ripple amplitude simulations. . ...... .. .. 67

4-6 Time, x-, and y-averaged flux plots for the ripple amplitude simulations. .. 68

4-7 Snapshots in time of the ripple amplitude simulations with varying maximum
free-steam velocities. ......... .. .. 69

4-8 Time evolution of maximum ripple height in the ripple amplitude simulations
with varying maximum free-steam velocities. ..... .. . 70

4-9 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged bed and suspended load fluxes for the
ripple amplitude simulations with varying maximum free-steam velocities.. .. 71

4-10 Snapshots in time of the two ripple wavelength simulations. .. .. .. .. 72

4-11 Time evolution of maximum ripple height in the ripple wavelength simulations. 73

4-12 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged bed and suspended load fluxes for the
two ripple wavelength simulations. . ...... .. 74

4-13 Snapshots in time of the one- and three-ripple wavelength simulations. .. .. 75











4-14 Time evolution of nmaxiniun ripple height in the one- and three-ripple wavelength
simulations. ......... ... .. 76

4-15 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged bed and suspended load fluxes for the
one- and three-ripple wavelength simulations. .... ... .. 77

4-16 Snapshots in time of the flathed simulation. ..... .. . 78

4-17 Time evolution of nmaxiniun ripple height in the flathed simulation. .. .. .. 79

4-18 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged bed and suspended load fluxes for the
flathed simulation. ......... . .. 80

4-19 Snapshots in time of the three-dintensional simulation. ... .. .. 81

4-20 Time evolution of ripple height in the three-dintensional simulation. .. .. .. 82

4-21 Instantaneous and cumulative averaged bed and suspended load fluxes for the
three-dintensional simulation. ......... ... .. 84

A-1 Ripple profile and horizontally averaged concentration plots. .. .. .. .. 91

A-2 Bed load lI oa c and niesh grid. ......... ... .. 92










Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

MODELING SAND RIPPLE EVOLUTION UNDER WAVE BOUNDARY LAYERS

By

Allison M. Penko

M li- 2007

Cl.! ny~: Donald N. Slinn
Major: Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering

A live-bed sediment transport and ripple morphology model is presented. An existing

sheet flow mixture model is modified and its applicability to a highly concentrated,

lower flow (Shields parameters less than 0.5), ripple regime is tested. Twelve simulations

are presented with varying flow conditions and initial bed topographies to determine if

the bed state will equilibrate to a predicted steady-state ripple geometry. The model

is tested under a range of Reynolds number flows and bed states. It is found to predict

ripples with similar shapes, heights, and lengths to those found in the laboratory and

field. The dominant mechanism of ripple evolution is also analyzed. It is determined that

ripple evolution in laminar and turbulent flow regimes occurs through bed load sediment

transport. With experimental verification, the proposed mixture model has the potential

to provide useful information on the dynamics of the flow, sediment transport, and ripple

morphology.










CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Introduction

Ripples have many impacts on the environment. Their length scales range from

millimeters to meters, depending on the flow and sediment environment, affecting

small-scale sediment transport to large-scale beach erosion. Even after much published

research dating back as far as 1882 on ripples and the sediment transport over them, a

better understanding of the dynamics of ripple development and the feedback between

fluid-sediment interaction is still needed. A live-bed, three-dimensional model that

predicts both suspended and bed load transport as well as ripple morphology has not

been developed until now. Present models are limited in their capabilities. Some only

describe one particular mode of sediment transport or are specific to a single flow regfime

or sediment parameter. While these models are useful in estimating net transport rates

and providing insight to the modeled process or regime, they are unable to explain the

physics of the natural system. Few three-dimensional models correctly simulate the flow

together with accurately predicting ripple shape and size. 1\odels that do not resolve

small-scale processes, but instead approximate them with closure schemes, can introduce

new complexities. Historically, there remains a measure of disagreement between the

modeled results and field measurements (Sections 1.3 and 1.4).

Ripples are influential because they affect the near-bed turbulence and the boundary

1 we cr structure of the flow. The geometric properties and morphologic behaviors of sand

ripples on the inner shelf can significantly impact sediment transport, bottom friction,

and the acoustical properties of the seabed. For example, ripple migration is a significant

mechanism of coastal sediment transport, influencingf beach erosion and scour around

objects. The bottom friction experienced by mean ocean currents, the damping effects

felt by waves, and the quantity of suspended and bed load transport grows with increased

bottom roughness that occurs due to the order of magnitude difference between grain size










and ripple height. Therefore, when ripples are present on the sea floor (Figure 1-1), the

bottom roughness must he paranleterized by the ripple height instead of the sediment

size. Bedfornt properties, including height, wavelength, orientation, slope, shape, and

grain size, affect the acoustic penetration and scattering characteristics of sonar. These

effects become particularly important when acoustic sonar is used to search for buried

objects (e.g., mines) under the seabed. A lack of sufficient information on ripple geometry

provides an explanation for the missed detection of objects buried under the sea floor

(Piper et al., 2002). Schmidt and Lee (1999) claint that the spectral characteristics of

ripple fields are associated with a reverberation environment, which is highly sensitive to

both the frequency and insonification aspect relative to the ripples.

We have developed a three-dintensional model using an approach that has never

before been applied to the modeling of ripple evolution. The model allows for the

prediction of ripple morphology and the hydrodynamics of the resulting flow. The model

presented produces ripples similar to those seen in nature and allows for the examination

of the dynamics of the flow, ripple formation, and ripple evolution. The properties that

can he analyzed include the tinte-dependent concentration and velocity fields, the ripple

height, length, shape, and migration. The information obtained front the model about

the hydrodynamics and sediment transport over ripples can contribute to the overall

understanding of the role of ripples in coastal morphology.

1.2 Background

Ripples form in many different environments and have a variety of characteristics.

The bedfornt type depends on the strength and nature of the flow. A steady current, tidal

current, waves, or a combination of all three will influence the size, shape, and orientation

of the bedfornis. The nonlinear complexities of the flow present challenges in predicting

ripples, and much research has been done examining bedfornis under different flow regimes

(e.g., Bagnold, 1946; Sleath, 1984; Wiberg and Harris, 1994; Nielsen, 1992).










1.2.1 Types of Bedforms

Three of the most common types of bedforms are dunes, megaripples (or anti-dunes),

and ripples. Dunes are irregular sandwaves formed under current action (i.e., in natural

streams). They are generally triangular in shape with a mildly sloped upstream surface

and a downstream slope approximately equal to the angle of repose. The flow over them

separates at the crest and reattaches in the trough as they migrate downstream (Fredsee

and Deigaard, 1992). A megaripple, or anti-dune, is a large, round-crested, unstable

ripple with a wavelength ranging from 1 m to 10 m, and a height from 0.1 m to 1 m.

Their scales of evolution range from hours to d -.-- Unlike dunes, anti-dunes can move

upstream, with sand accumulating on the upstream face and eroding on the downstream

slope. They form under energetic oscillatory flows and have irregular vortex shedding and

unpredictable migration.

Ripples are the most common bedforms and are the focus of this research. Their

wavelengths (A) and heights (rl) vary from 0.1 m to 1.0 m, and 0.01 m to 0.1 m,

respectively. Their timescales of evolution can range from seconds to hours. Ripples

can be wave- or current-generated, or a combination of both. Bagnold (1946) classified

wave-generated ripples into two groups: rolling-grain ripples and vortex ripples. Rolling-grain

ripples form first on an initially flat bed under low wave action. They are generally formed

by oscillating waves creating a circular streamline path of flow. The orbital motion tends

to push sediment up from a low to a high point on the bed. As the rolling-grain ripples

grow, their height causes the boundary 1i-;- r flow to separate behind the crest of the ripple

and vortices are formed. The rolling-grain ripples are now transitioningf into vortex ripples.

Vortices carry sediment from the trough of the ripple up to the crest. Vortex ripples are

usually two-dimensional and can be caused either by rolling-grain ripples already present

or an obstruction on the sea floor such as a rock or shell. They can migrate slowly due to

wave .I-i-mmetry, but not to the degree of current-generated ripples.










Current-generated ripples exist in rivers, estuaries, and the sea. They generally have

a gentle upstream slope and a steep lee slope. The ripples migrate slowly downstream and

can respond quickly to changes in the current strength and direction. They are usually

three-dimensional with irregular geometries.

Ripples generated from both waves and currents have a combination of the properties

mentioned previously. The strength and the relative angle between the waves and current

influence the ripple characteristics. If the direction of the waves and currents are parallel,

the ripple pattern is mainly two-dimensional. When the wave and current directions are

perpendicular or a large angle apart, the ripple pattern is primarily three-dimensional

(Nielsen, 1992, pg. 143-145, Sleath, 1984, pg. 169).

There are two more classifications within the wave-generated ripple category: orbital

and anorbital. Orbital ripples have wavelengths proportional to the near-bed wave orbital

diameter and heights greater than the wave boundary 1.v-;r thickness. Ripples in a

more energetic wave environment can have wavelengths independent of the wave orbital

diameter and instead are proportional to the grain-size diameter. These are anorbital

ripples. Orbital ripples predominately form in the laboratory, whereas anorbital ripples are

generally found in the field (Wiberg and Harris, 1994).

1.2.2 Sediment Transport

Sediment transport is the mechanism from which bedforms evolve and migrate.

The incipient motion of grains occurs when the mobilizing forces exceed some critical

value. At this point, the stabilizing forces are not strong enough to hold the grains in

place and the sediment starts to move. The modes of sediment transport are generally

separated into three categories: bed load, suspended load, and wash load. Bagnold (1956)

defines bed load as sediment that is supported by intergranular forces and is in almost

continuous contact with the bed. Bed load is characterized by grains rolling or sliding

over the bed. He identifies suspended load as sediment supported by fluid drag that

is maintained in suspension by fluid turbulence. Wash load is very dilute suspended










sediment concentrations of fine particulates. In this work, we concentrate primarily on bed

and suspended load.

II Imy: methods exist to separate bed from suspended load when studying sediment

transport. Einstein (1950) states that bed load is any moving sediment in the lIns-cr

from the stationary bed up to two grain diameters above the bed. Fr-edsee and Deigaard

(1992) defined bed load as the lIn-;-r with a volumetric bed concentration greater than

35'.~ but less than Ill.'. (fully packed sand). Because a grain can be supported by both

intergranular forces and fluid drag at any given time, a distinction between bed and

suspended load is virtually immeasurable in the laboratory and field. In this research,

bed load is defined as part of the total load that moves below a chosen height above the

stationary bed (see Appendix A for details). In general, bed load is within five grain

diameters of the stationary bed, coinciding with concentrations of approximately t1Il' and

the stationary bed is typically designated as having a volumetric concentration of
greater.

Suspended load transport over ripples is caused mainly by sediment being transported

by vortices that form above the ripple lee slope. This process happens through two

mechanisms. First, sediment is entrained in the vortex structures that are generated by

the flow separation at the ripple crest. The second mechanism is the convection of the

suspended sediment trapped in the vortices. The vortices are no longer clearly defined

structures, therefore, the suspended sediment they contain is dispersed and convected by

the mean flow (Sleath, 1984, pg. 266-269). Suspended sediment gets advected to a height

O(rl) above the ripple (van der Werf et al., 2006). This convection process, as well as

diffusion and gravity, are mechanisms that can cause ripple growth or decay. When the

deteriorating forces are in balance with the growing forces, the ripple is in equilibrium for

those specific conditions.









1.2.3 Ripple Parameters

Some important sediment transport and ripple morphology parameters include the

mobility number, ~, friction factor, f,, wave orbital excursion, a, Shields parameter,

8, and the period parameter, X. The mobility number (Equation 1-1) is a ratio of the

disturbing forces to the stabilizing forces on a sediment particle under waves. It is a

measure of a sediment particle's tendency to move due to wave action.


(aw)2
(1-1)
(S 1)gd

where a is the wave orbital excursion (Equation 1-2), w is the radial frequency (Equation

1-3), s is the specific gravity of the sediment (for quartz sand a = 2.65), and d is the

median grain size diameter.


UoT
a = (1-2)
2xr



2xr
W = (1 3)


where T is the period and Uo is the maximum free-stream velocity of the flow oscillation.

A second parameter used to measure incipient motion is the Shields parameter (Equation

1-4). It is also a ratio of the disturbing to stabilizing forces.



0 (1-4)
(S 1)gd

where



u,- = (1-5)









where u, is the friction velocity (Equation 1-5), -r is the bed shear stress, and pf is the

water density. The Shields parameter (Equation 1-6) can also be defined in terms of the

mobility number (Equation 1-1) and a friction factor, f, (Equation 1-7).



0 = nfat (1-6)


where


2.5d -597(7
fw= X3(, ( ) i0.194


which was proposed by Swart (1974) with a roughness of 2.5d and is valid for rough
turbulent flow conditions.

Mogridge and K~amphuis (1972) claim that ripple geometry depends on a dimensionless

parameter derived from the mobility number and the wave orbital excursion length, called

the period parameter (Equation 1-8).


y = (1-8)
(8 1) T2


1.3 Literature Review

Published research on ripples dates back as far as 1882, when Hunt (1882) described

his observations of the ripple-mark in sand. Following soon after, Candolle (1883) stated

that ripples form when two liquids of different viscosities come in contact with each other

in an oscillatory manner, and Forel (1883) observed that initial ripple wavelengths formed

on a flat bed are about half as long as the equilibrium wavelengths. The first published

ripple experiments were performed by Darwin (1883). He rotated a circular tub filled

with sand and water in an oscillating motion and discovered that ripples formed radially

in the sand. He and Ayrton (1910) observed the vortices that are generated in the lee









of ripples and noted that they eroded ripple troughs and built up the crests. The work

of Bagnold (1946) was the next 1!n I inr~~ contribution to the field of ripple dynamics. He

defined bedforms as i.-.~~Ib::' ripples after observing the separation of flow at the ripple

crest and the formation of a vortex in the lee of the ripple. When the flow reverses, the

vortex is ejected upwards, causing the sediment to become suspended. He also presented

the hypothesis that the ripple length is proportional to the wave orbital excursion length.

Other significant investigations on the occurrence, formation, and development of ripples

include Costello and Southard (1981), Sleath (1976), and Sleath (1984).

Field observations are crucial for the characterization of morphologic phenomena

(Blondeaux, 2001). Some of the first significant data sets of ripple observations include

Inman (1957), Dingler (1974), and Miller and K~omar (1980a). These data confirm the

hypothesis that the ripple wavelength is proportional to the wave orbital excursion length.

Other early laboratory experiments have also contributed to the understanding of ripple

dynamics (e.g., Carstens and Neilson, 1967; Mogridge and K~amphuis, 1972; Lofquist, 1978;

Miller and K~omar, 1980b). Empirical expressions to predict ripple height, wavelength,

and steepness under different flow conditions have been formulated from laboratory and

field measurements. The ripple predictor of Nielsen (1981) is one of the most well-known

and verified. He developed formulas for ripple height, wavelength, and steepness under

different flow conditions. Separate expressions are used for laboratory and field ripples

(Section 3.2). Grant and Madsen (1982) used flume data of ripple spacing and height to

develop general expressions for ripple height and steepness. A ripple predictor presented

by Vongvisesscon.1 .1 (1984) determines the geometry based on the grain size diameter

and the period parameter, X (Equation 1-8). Then, Mogridge et al. (1994) and Wiberg

and Harris (1994) each presented a ripple predictor model. Mogridge et al.'s model

predicted maximum ripple wavelength. Wiberg and Harris' model is more specific in

its prediction of ripple geometry. The predictor is based on the type of ripple (orbital

or anorbital), mean grain size, and the wave orbital excursion length. Unlike Nielsen's









method, the general expressions are applicable to both laboratory and field ripples. Much

research has been done to examine and expand the validity of these ripple predictor

methods. Li and Amos (1998) compared the methods of Grant and Madsen (1982) and

Nielsen (1981) and proposed a modified expression that incorporates the enhanced shear

velocity at the ripple crest. O'Donoghue and Clubb (2001) performed oscillatory flow

tunnel experiments for field-scale ripples and applied the data to four existing ripple

predictors. The comparison of the results of the Nielsen (1981), Mogridge et al. (1994),

Vongvisesscon.) .1 (1984), and Wiberg and Harris (1994) methods to the experiments yields

the author's recommendation of the Mogridge et al. (1994) model for the prediction of

ripple geometries under field-scale oscillatory flows. Doucette (2002), Hanes et al. (2001),

and C'I I1.; and Hanes (2004) found that the Nielsen (1981) method was the most accurate

for predicting ripple wavelength when compared with their field observations of ripple

height, length, and sediment compositions. Other modifications to the Nielsen (1981)

equations have also been proposed (e.g., Faraci and Foti, 2002; Cl I-in, lier and K~leinhans,

2004; O'Donoghue et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2004).

In addition to examining ripple geometries, much work has also investigated the flow

dynamics over ripples. Blondeaux (1990) predicted the conditions and characteristics

for ripple formation under laminar flow. Later in 1990, Vittori and Blondeaux extended

the work by performing a weak nonlinear analysis and included nonlinear terms into

the model. They derived an amplitude equation that described the time development

of the height of the fastest growing bottom perturbation near the critical conditions.

The parameter space was divided into three separate regions: a region of low mobility

numbers, a region in equilibrium but no flow separation, and a large oscillation region.

The bed is stable in the low mobility number region. Rolling-grain ripples are the

steady-state condition in the equilibrium region. The model is no longer valid in the

large oscillation region due to the nonlinear dynamics of the flow. Foti and Blondeaux










(1995) extended the model into the turbulent regime by performing a linear stability

an~ llh--;-; of a flat sandy bottom subject to oscillatory flow.

More recently, Faraci and Foti (2001) performed laboratory experiments to show

that the rolling-grain ripples formed from a flat bed are only a transition to steady-state

vortex ripples. They also determined that the bottom roughness must he parameterized

by the ripple height, not the grain size diameter when ripples are present on the sea floor.

Equilibrium ripples were closely investigated by Doucette and O'Donoghue (2006). They

performed laboratory experiments to measure full-scale ripple profiles (up to 1.6 m in

length). Ripples formed from flat beds and transient ripples were studied and the results

were used to formulate an empirical relationship to predict ripple height evolution.

The history of sediment transport models is extensive. Model domains range from

one- to three-dimensions. Some models resolve the hydrodynamics at small-scales while

others cover larger scales and approximate sub-grid scale processes using advanced

techniques. Sediment transport modeling dates back to 1979 when Grant and Madsen

(1979) described wave and current motions over a rough bottom with an eddy-viscosity

model. Their model predicted the distorted flow over ripples. Trowbridgfe and Madsen

(1984) then developed a time-varying eddy-viscosity model that related oscillating

turbulent flow over ripples to steady turbulent flow. This relation allowed the one-

dimensional boundary 1.,-<7r solutions to be approximated. In 1981, Longuet-Hi_~-col

numerically described oscillatory flow over ripples using a discrete-vortex model. He

approximated the oscillatory flow over steep ripples by assuming that the sand-water

interface in the wave bottom boundary 1.i;<7r is fixed. These early models were then

replaced by convection-diffusion models. One-dimensional convection-diffusion models

(e.g., Nielsen, 1992; Lee and Hanes, 1996) account for small- and large-scale sediment

mixing with an eddy-diffusivity model. Nielsen employs a time-invariant, vertically

uniform, eddy-diffusivity profile, whereas Lee and Hanes uses the eddy-diffusivity

model of Wil:1 Il.. Ilr li .110 (1993) and Nielsen's (1992) pick-up function. Ribberink










and Al-Salem (1995) and Dohmen-Janssen et al. (2001) presented one-dimensional

models with mixing lengths to calculate the suspended load in unsteady flow over a

plane bed modeled with an enhanced bed roughness. Turbulence is modeled with an

eddy-diffusion proportional to the eddy-viscosity used in the moment equation. Another

notable sediment transport model is that of Li and Amos (2001). Their one-dimensional

numerical model, SEDTR ANS, predicts bed and suspended load transport rates, bedform

development, and boundary 111-< v- parameters under wave, current, and combined flows for

cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. It uses combined wave and current boundary 1.>-< c

theories (Grant and Madsen, 1986) to determine the near-bed velocity profiles and solves

the time-dependent bed roughness with ripple predictors.

The most common approach in resolving the turbulent vortices over rippled beds is

using turbulence closure schemes. The two most common turbulence closure schemes are

the k e model and the k w model. The k w model has been found to handle regions

of adverse pressure gradients better than the more familiar k e model (Guizien et al.,

2003). Models incorporating the k w turbulence closure scheme include Wilcox (1998),

Andersen (1999), Andersen et al. (2001), and ('I! I1.; and Hanes (2004). Both Wilcox and

('I! I1.; and Hanes solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (R ANS) equations, whereas

Andersen (1999) employs a Boussinesq approach. Andersen et al. (2001) uses a mass

transport function to determine ripple evolution. Trouw et al. (2000), Eidsvik (2004),

and Ji et al. (2004) employ k e turbulence schemes for their two-dimensional sediment

transport models.

Three alternative methods for modeling sediment transport are presented in Hara

et al. (1992), Hansen et al. (1994), and Andersen (2001). Hara et al. (1992) numerically

solves the T l.-;1 r-Stokes equations using a series method expanded to very high powers

of ripple slope. It is valid for flows with small to moderately large Reynolds numbers

and confirms the presence of oscillating vortices high above the Stokes boundary 111-< v.

In Hansen et al. (1994), a discrete vortex and Lagrangian model is used to describe the










two-dimensional sediment concentration fields over ripples. The discrete vortex model

simulates the flow with a "cloud-in-cell" concept and the Lagrangian model tracks the

individual particles. Andersen (2001) presents an interesting approach for modeling ripple

evolution by treating the ripples as p articles." Each pI I.ticle" is governed by an equation

of motion. The interactions between the pI rI~; 1 and their migration therefore can he

examined.

Continuous progress is being achieved in the areas of hydrodynamics, sedimentology,

and bedform morphology, allowing for constant improvements in sediment transport and

coastal morphology models. Three-dimensional models have only recently been possible

due to the growing knowledge of flow dynamics and the advances in computer technology.

Studies now show (e.g., Blondeaux, 2001; Blondeaux et al., 1999; Scandura et al., 2000)

that vortex dynamics are highly three-dimensional and therefore should be examined in

three-dimensions for a more complete understanding. Watanabe et al. (2003) developed a

three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) model that investigated moderate Reynolds

number oscillatory flows over ripples. Zedler and Street (2006) presented a highly resolved

three-dimensional LES model that solves the volume filtered T l.-;. r-Stokes equations.

It includes an advection-diffusion equation with a settling term for suspended sediment

and calculates the three-dimensional time-dependent velocity, pressure, and sediment

concentration fields over long-wave ripples. The effect of ripples on boundary 1.0-- c fow

was examined by Barr et al. in 2004. They compared turbulence levels and dissipation

rates of oscillatory flows over rippled and smooth beds. The three-dimensional, direct

numerical solver (DNS) model allowed for the examination of boundary 1.w-;r dynamics

over ripples.

A completely different approach taken in sediment transport modeling involves

treating the sediment and water phases as a continuous media with a varying viscosity.

Einstein published the idea of an effective viscosity for particles in a fluid in 1906. He

found that a mixture of particles and fluid behaves like a pure fluid with its viscosity










increased. Atkin and Craine (1976) then formalized a general review of the continuum

theory for mixtures. Around the same time, Soo and Tung (1972), Soo (1978), and Drew

(1975) analyzed the dynamics of the particulate phase. Drew (1975) applied turbulence

averaging and mixing length theory to obtain the resulting Reynolds stresses. He included

gravity, buois ma1y, and linear drag forces. AleTigue (1981) and Drew (1983) developed

governing flow equations for the mixture of particles in fluid. Diffusion is modeled by

averaging the fluid-particle interaction terms (including pressure gradients and drag

forces) in the momentum balances. The turbulent fluctuations of the velocities and

concentrations are accounted for with a decomposition and averaging scheme. Subia

et al. (1998) numerically models suspension flows by incorporating Phillips et al.'s (1992)

continuum constitutive equation describing the diffusive flux. The method includes a

shear-induced migration model and a varying viscosity relationship. Recently, Hsu et al.

(2004) proposed a sediment transport model under fully developed turbulent shear flows

over a mobile bed. The model employs a Eulerian two-fluid approach to each phase

and includes closure schemes for fluid and sediment stresses. There are many different

approaches to sediment transport and coastal morphology modeling. This literature

review is not exhaustive but includes several of the more relevant works to this research.

1.4 Research Problem

An accurate three-dimensional, hydrodynamic model of sediment transport and

ripple morphology did not previously exist. Current ripple predictors include the

effect of sediment transport on ripples through a roughness length scale, not from the

actual flow dynamics and concentration field. Most existing sediment transport models

approximate the Reynolds stress, and therefore do not completely resolve the flow field.

The assumptions and approximations in these models can lead to inaccurate predictions

of sediment transport. It is also unknown which parameters and mechanisms have the

most significant effects on sediment transport. A realistic model of ripple geometry and

flow dynamics under a range of conditions is necessary for a better understanding of sand










ripples. This research focuses on developing a tool that can provide information about the

morphologic properties of ripples.

There are discrepancies between existing ripple predictor methods, even with much

>.1, lli--is of their validity (Doucette, 2002; Cl~ I-in~ ;ier and K~leinhans, 2004; O'Donoghue

and Clubb, 2001; Li and Amos, 1998). The results still depend on the type of data used

for comparison (e.g., Faraci and Foti, 2002; K~helifa and Ouellet, 2000; O'Donoghue

et al., 2006). Existing methods may not he reliable enough to obtain accurate detailed

information about the dynamics of the flow because of approximations or assumptions

made and/or empirical relations.

One-dimensional vertical (1DV) models can he based on eddy-viscosity and mixing

length assumptions or have a more complete two-phase flow formulation. Eddy-viscosity

models are derived from simple flow conditions and are therefore inadequate in modeling

complex flows. Davies et al. (1997) compared four different 1DV models to determine

if they successfully predicted suspended sediment concentration profiles. They found

that the eddy-diffusivity models were incapable of predicting the convective or pick-up

events during flow reversal. Phase lags between the measured and computed suspended

sediment concentration profiles were also observed in the upper part of the boundary

1.:;-. c.1\ixing length models (e.g., Ribberink and Al-Salem, 1995; Dohmen-Janssen et al.,

2001) are specific to certain flow conditions since the mixing lengths are determined from

experimental data based on local quantities. Some one-dimensional models restrict their

predictions to a particular phenomenon, such as the boundary 1... -r profile. While these

models provide simple solutions and insight to the isolated process, they cannot contribute

to the understanding of the interactions between processes. Lee and Hanes (1996) found

that their convection-diffusion model is somewhat limited in its range of applicability.

They determined that pure diffusion models work well under high energy conditions,

whereas pure convection models work well under low energy conditions. However, a

combined convection-diffusion model did not perform better than a pure convection










model under low energy conditions. The parameterization of ripples with a bed roughness

coefficient oversimplifies sediment transport models by approximating the effects of the

bed topography. The bed roughness predictions are important because a small change in

the bedform dimensions has a large effect on the computed transport (Davies et al., 2002).

1\odels utilizing turbulence closure schemes to approximate small-scale processes

can he inaccurate and problematic. OnI sIng and Scotti (2004) found that the RANS

equations are not adequate to model sediment suspension and transport in the ripple

regime. This deficiency can possibly be attributed to: the altering of the turbulent flow

properties in the presence of suspended sediment, the insufficiencies in turbulent sediment

flux modeling, or an inaccurate representation of the concentration bottom boundary

condition. They also found an underestimation of the Reynolds stress in the lee of the

ripple, an overestimation of the vertical oscillation amplitude, and a necessity to tune

parameters to the specific conditions of the simulation. From these results, Chang and

Scotti (2004) concluded that the entire turbulent flow needs to be modeled correctly in

order to accurately predict sediment transport. Additionally, two-dimensional models

do not include the three-dimensionality of vortex formation. Studies now show the

importance of three-dimensional vortex structures in sediment suspension and transport

(Blondeaux, 2001).

The alternative II Irticle" model of Andersen (2001) is only applicable to rolling-grain

ripples and does not employ a live-bed. Therefore, new ,i I! m-" or ripples cannot enter

the system.

Large-eddy simulation models allow the dynamics of the largest vortex structures to

be explicitly simulated in the numerics, but the effects of small vortices on the flow are

parameterized. Thus, the flow is not simulated in its entirety. In the three-dimensional

LES model of Watanabe et al. (2003), the oscillatory flow amplitude is limited to

small values because the computational domain length must he an integral number

of wavelengths. Although the Zedler and Street (2006) model is three-dimensional, it










employs a quasi-two-dimensional vortex formation-ejection mechanism, which could

affect the results of sediment pick-up in three-dimensions. It also assumes a dilute fluid,

and therefore is not applicable in the highly concentrated sand bed region. The main

limitation of the flow model of Barr et al. (2004) is the fixed bed. Therefore, the effects on

the flow field from suspended sediment and the evolving ripple shape are neglected. The

models of 1\kTigue (1981), Subia et al. (1998), and Hsu et al. (2004) are fairly successful

in modeling dilute flows, but are less able to model regions of high concentrations. Subia

et al.'s model is similar to the model presented in this research, but does not include a

live-bed morphology model.

There are many inadequacies in existing sediment transport and ripple morphology

models. Current models have difficulties accurately predicting ripple evolution together

with sediment transport. The presented mixture model resolves the largfe- and small-scale

dynamics of the flow over a live-bed, predicting both the concentration and velocity fields

in conjunction with the ripple morphology under oscillatory flow.



















































Figure 1-1.


Three-dimensional ripples in a sandy flume at the O. H. Hinsdale Wave
Research Laboratory at Oregon State University. Photograph taken by Allison
Penko.









CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY

2.1 Model Approach/Characteristics

Traditionally in modeling sediment transport, the solid and liquid phases are modeled

separately and coupled with empirically based estimates of the fluid-particle and the

particle-particle stress interactions. This two-phase approach requires a minimum of

eight governing equations to close the system. In addition, dilute and dense flows are

usually modeled separately because of the differences in the physics involved. When

modeling dilute flows, the particle-particle interactions are usually neglected and the fluid

stresses are modeled using turbulence closure schemes. In densely laden flows, the particle

stresses cannot be ignored and models using closure schemes for the stresses are currently

being developed. The mixture model presented approaches the problem of sediment

transport modeling by treating the fluid-particle system as a continuum consisting of

two interacting materials, or phases. Some of the physics of the coupled system are then

approximated with empirically based submodels. This method requires a constitutive

equation expressing the total stress as functions of various fields. It includes three mixture

momentum equations, an equation describing how the sediment moves within the mixture,

and a mixture continuity equation. Using this approach to model sediment transport,

we assume the two phases, sand particles and water, can be approximated by a mixture

having a variable density and viscosity dependent on local sediment concentration.

2.2 Physics

The live-bed, three-dimensional, turbulent wave bottom boundary 1 u. ;r mixture

model developed by Slinn et al. (2006) for sheet flow conditions has been adapted for

sediment properties and flow regimes characteristic of the generation and morphology

of bedforms. The model has previously shown to reasonably predict the suspended

sediment concentration profiles at different wave phases for sheet flow conditions. The

finite difference model is used to simulate the flow caused by realistic waves over a










three-dimensional, evolving bed shape in domains O(103) cubic centimeters. It implements

a control-volume scheme that solves for the time-dependent sediment concentration

function and the mass and momentum conservation equations for the mixture to a

second-order approximation in space and third-order accuracy in time. Both fluid-particle

and particle-particle interactions are accounted for through a variable mixture viscosity,

a concentration specific settling velocity formulation, and a stress induced, empirically

calibrated, mixture diffusion term.

2.2.1 Governing Equations

The five governing equations for the mixture model include a sediment continuity, a

mixture continuity, and mixture momentum equations. First, the properties of the mixture

are defined. The mixture has a variable density and viscosity that depend on the local

sediment concentration. The mixture density, p, is derived from the relation stating that

the density of a mixture composed of a species is the sum of the bulk densities, p,, of each

species:










where p, is the ratio of the mass of species a to the total volume of the mixture, C, is the

concentration of species n, and p, is the ratio of the mass of species a to the volume of

species n. For a two-species mixture, C1 + 02 = 1, and therefore C2 = 1. Summing

the concentrations and densities for a two-species mixture and substituting for C2,




p = Ci pl + C2 2

=Cypl + (1 Cl)p2*









For a two-species mixture of sediment in water, C1 and pi are defined as the sediment

concentration and density, respectively. C2 and p2 are defined as the concentration

and density of water, respectively. The sediment-water mixture density, p, is shown in

Equation 2-1.



p = Op, + (1 C) p (2-1)


where p, is the sediment density, pf is the water density, and C is the concentration of

sand particles in the mixture, ranging from OI' to Iun' which corresponds to fully packed

sand. Therefore, (1 C) is the concentration of water in the mixture. Figure 2-1(a) is

a plot of the mixture density versus local sediment concentration. The mixture viscosity,

p-, is also a function of sediment concentration proposed by Leighton and Acrivos (1987)

(Equation 2-2).



= 1 (2-2)


wherelt p, is ~ltheI' fl Cuid~ vicoityU an C is the maximum packing concentration (C, = 0.615

for random close packing of sand particles in water). Figure 2-1(b) compares the ratio of

the mixture viscosity to the fluid viscosity with Hunt et al.'s (2002) analysis of Bagnold's

1954 experiments. The results show that the effect of high concentrations of particles in

water can be parameterized by a bulk viscosity.

The first governing equation, the mixture continuity equation, is derived from the

sum of the fluid and sediment phase continuity equations (Drew, 1983):


8(1 C) pf 8(1 C) pfuj dCps dCpsusj
+ + + =0.









Re 1 Illl~isliv we obtain,


8 8
Bt[Cps + (1 C)pf] + 8 [Cpsusy + (1 C)pfufj] = 0.


Note that the time derivative in the first term is the mixture density, p (Equation 2-1),

and the spatial derivative in the second term is the mixture flux, the mixture density

times the mixture velocity, sy. Substituting for the two terms, the mixture continuity

equation becomes


8ip 8 ipay
+= 0. (2-3)


The mixture momentum equation is also derived from the sum of the individual phase

momentum equations resulting in



+ + + Fba-, .+(24
dt 8xj 8xi 8xj 8xi


where P3, is the mixture pressure, nyj is the mixture stress tensor, F is the external

driving force (Equation 2-8), g is the gravitational constant, and Pp is the particle

pressure (described later in this section). Bagnold (1954) and others have determined that

fluid-sediment mixtures may follow Newton's law of viscosity, therefore, nyj can be given

by


Bui Bu 2 duk
nyj =x p + (2-5)


The flow is driven by an external oscillating force, F, that approximates the

oscillating velocity field induced by a surface gravity wave propagating over a seabed.

It is described by the force from the wave minus an opposing force in the fully packed

rigid bed.












2xr 2xr
F,,,e = pflUo cos -t (2-6)
T T
(C,() to2x 2xr
Frigia = pyX)o cos -t (2-7)
Cm T T
F = F,,,e Frigia (2-8)



where Uo and T are the amplitude and period of the oscillation, respectively, C,(z) is the

averaged local concentration in the x-direction, and Cmax is the maximum concentration

of sediment. When the average concentration is approximately equal to the maximum

concentration (i.e., in the sand bed), the high powered term is close to unity, and therefore

the fc~ll in: F, is approximately equal to zero. When the average concentration is less

than the maximum concentration (i.e., in the water column), the high powered term

becomes very small, and F equals F,,,e. This formulation for the external force prevents

"plug fl.0i.- in the model that could occur due to the periodic boundary conditions. Plug

flow is the movement of the entire bed as a unit through the domain.

The sediment continuity equation (Equation 2-9) describes how the sediment moves

within the mixture (Nir and Acrivos, 1990).


aCt iiCuj iiCt 8N.
+ + (2-9)
iit 8ixj 8z~ 8ixj


where Wt is the concentration specific settling velocity and Nyj is the diffusive flux of

sediment (Equation 2-13).

Richardson and Zaki (1954) found that settling velocity can be calculated as a

function of sediment concentration by



W = to (1 C)V (2-10)









where Wt o is the settling velocity of a single particle in a clear fluid and q is an empirical

constant dependent on the particle Reynolds number, Rel,, defined as



Rel, =(2-11)


where d is the grain size diameter. The empirical constant q is then defined by Richardson

and Zaki (1954) as


4.35Re-o0o: 0.2 < Re, < 1,

9 = 41.35Re-o~lo 1 < Re, < 500: (2 12)

2.39 500 < Rez>-


In the mixture model, the diffusive flux in Equation 2-9 is approxiniated by Leighton

and Acrivos (1986). Sediment diffusion depends on collisional frequency, the spatial

variation of viscosity, and Brownian diffusion such that



Nv = Nv, + Nv, + Ns (2-13)


where NV, is the flux due to collisions, N,, is the flux due to the variation of viscosity, and

NsB is the flux to due Brownian diffusion. NsB is very small in comparison with the other

terms and can therefore he neglected (Phillips et al., 1992). Leighton and Acrivos (1986)

developed the expression for diffusive flux for sediment flow on an inclined surface that

accounts for the flux due to collisions only. It includes a variable diffusion coefficient that

is a function of particle size, concentration, and mixture stresses, and is given by


ac
NVj = D, (2-14)









where


Dj = dsp(C) dxi(2-15)


and where P(C) is a dimensionless coefficient empirically determined and approximated by

Leighton and Acrivos (1986).


(C)= C2 1 + 8ej (2-16)



where C is th~e dimncsionlesc s con~celtntraion (Sction? 2.2.2) and aLi is an epirica~l con~stant.

Leighton and Acrivos (1986) found a~ to be approximately 0.33 for larger Shields

parameter values (0.5 < 0 < 30) and stated a likely underestimation of the diffusion

coefficient with this value. In this research, all but one case has a Shields parameter

value under 0.5. Testing the three-dimensional mixture model showed that a~ = 0.4 best

approximated the diffusion coefficient for smaller Shields parameters in the ripple flow

regime.

The original sheet flow mixture model needed a modification in order to be applicable

in a highly concentrated, lower flow regime conducive for sand ripple initiation and

growth. In regions of high concentrations, the contact forces between the particles become

significant. The intergranular forces cannot be represented simply by a shear stress, thus,

a normal stress must be included. Consider a still bed with the sand particles at rest.

Stress is transmitted from particle to particle at their points of contact. At these points,

the stress is large. The stress will be equal to the surrounding fluid stress in areas where

particles are not in contact with each other. In dilute mixtures, the ratio of contact area

to total area is small and the contact stresses can therefore be neglected. However, in

mixtures of high concentrations (i.e., the packed bed of a sand ripple), the contact stresses

are significant and must be accounted for (Drew, 1983). This normal force resulting

from particles being in contact with each other can be referred to as a particle pressure.










Figure 2-2 shows the forces on a control volume in the bed and the particle pressure

opposing them. This resistance to pressure was necessary for a rigid bed.

The particle pressure force is represented in the model through a bed stiffness

coefficient. The bed stiffness coefficient, B,, acts as the particle pressure, opposing the

forces on the mixture when the concentration is high. Figure 2-3 shows the function

describing the bed stiffness coefficient for varying sediment concentrations. The shape of

the function was modeled after Jenkins and Hanes (1998) calculations of particle pressure

with respect to boundary 1 ca -r height and the viscosity/concentration relationship

(Figure 2-1(b)). The eighth power exponential function was chosen after much testing of

the bed response to a range of function powers and coefficients. The bed stiffness function

allows the forces on the mixture to be fully opposed when the concentration is greater

than 5;' hv volume and only slightly opposed when the concentration of sediment is

less than 5;'. but greater than ::Il'. Previous research (e.g., Fredsoe and Deigaard, 1992,

pg. 218) states that the nxininiun bedload concentration (i.e., enduring contact region)

is about ;::"' concentration by volume. Note the bed stiffness coefficient does not make

the bed completely rigid, even at a volumetric concentration of Iall'. (a fully packed bed).

Pore pressure and the spherical grain shape cause water to seep through the stationary

grains, producing a small mixture velocity in the packed bed. Therefore, a completely

stationary bed would not he representative of the physics in the packed bed region. The

model approach retains this feature.









2.2.2 Non-dimensionalizing

The mixture model uses non-dimensional parameters in its calculations. The scaled

parameters (denoted with a hat) are non-dimensionalized by the following:










Pc





Dj
Dj

P,=
pf | wo 12
Fd
pf | wo 12

where pf is the fluid density, Cm is the maximum concentration (0.6). Substituting in for

the scaled variables, Equation 2-3, Equation 2-4, and Equation 2-9, become



+)p = 0, (2-17)



8,1,2i)P 8,t P 1 87j~ aP,
+ + +F6ii Ribi3 (2-18)
dt 80,j Bi e 0iig~

and


ac aicuj aicwt a ac
+ + 3jj (2-19)










respectively, where


(1 p)dg
Ri =(2-20)



2.2.3 Boundary and Initial Conditions

The model is initialized with varying bed topographies ranging from a flat bed to

multiple sinusoidal ripples with different heights and lengths. The desired initial bed is

chosen for the simulation and described with a function. The model then sets all points

according to the bed function to have a fully packed sediment concentration (C = 1), and

all grid points above the bed to have a concentration of zero. Initially, the mixture is at

rest and all velocities are zero. Figure 2-4 shows an example of an initial concentration

profile. The initial topography is slightly three-dimensional to break the symmetry of the

problem and allow for the development of turbulent three-dimensional flow. The initial

conditions are as follows:




C =f (x, y, z) = 1 as given in the model run input





The nature of the flow and the domain used allows for the implementation of periodic

boundary conditions in the x- and y-directions. At the top of the domain, a free-slip

boundary condition is used for the u and v velocities, and a no-gradient condition is

imposed for the diffusion coefficient, D. The concentration field and the w velocity is zero

at the top of the boundary. Equation 2-21 gives the special boundary condition for the










fluid pressure at the top of the domain necessary for the numerical implementation of the

pressure projection method used in the model.


aP (pth~)*
(2-21)


where (, e, )* is equal to the integrated terms (with respect to time) of the mixture

momentum equation that do not include pressure or the advanced velocity term.

There is fully packed sand at the bottom of the domain, therefore it is assumed that

there is no movement, and no-slip boundary conditions are used for all the velocities. It

is also assumed there is no concentration or diffusive flux at the bottom. The boundary

conditions are summarized as follows:
Top Bottom





=u 0 u= 0



w=0 w=0

aP P = 0

2.2.4 Input Parameters

The model input parameters establish the domain size, flow oscillation strength and

frequency, grid size, grain size diameter, and length of simulation. From these inputs,

the model determines all other variables including the time step and dimensionless

parameters such as the particle Reynolds number. The model then solves for the

velocities, concentration, and pressure using the procedure described in Section 2.3.

2.3 Numerics

A control volume approach on a three-dimensional -r I__- red grid is taken to

numerically solve Equations 2-17, 2-18, and 2-19. Figure 2-5 shows the -r I---- red grid,










where circles represent concentration and pressure points and arrows represent momentum

and velocity points. The shaded areas are ghost points. Turbulence is modeled directly

with the equations because the grid spacing is smaller than the smallest-eddy length scale.

Spatial derivatives are calculated using one-sided differences, resulting in second-order

accuracy. The third-order Adams-Bashforth scheme is used to advance concentration and

momentum in time, with explicit Euler and second-order Adams-Bashforth schemes used

as starting methods.

No adjustments were made in the implementation of the control volume approach for

the momentum equations, but non-traditional flux-conservative techniques were emploi-x &

in the solution of the sediment continuity equation to ensure mass conservation, solution

stability, and propagation of bed height as particles settle out. These techniques include

the use of a harmonic mean that acts as a flux limiter and the use of a minimum diffusion

coefficient that acts as a filter.

































0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Sediment Concentration (C) [cm /cm ]


Figure 2-1. The (a) mixture density versus sediment concentration and (b) the ratio of
the mixture viscosity to the fluid viscosity versus sediment concentration.







































Figure 2-2. Forces on a control volume in a concentrated sand bed. The particle pressure
opposes the sum of the shear stress, fluid pressure, and the weight of the
sediment in the control volume.





Bs =0.2*(C/0.6)8
201 r


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I


O 10


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Sediment Concentration (C) [cm3/cm3]


0.5 0.6


Figure 2-3. The bed stiffness coefficient function. The coefficient is zero until the sediment
concentration is t:I by volume. B, then increases as a polynomial function.







































































Figure 2-4. Example of a three-dimensional initial bed state. The height of the sinusoidal

ripple varies in the x- and y-directions.


C/Crn
0.98

O 90

0.83

O 75


O 60

0 53

0 45

O 38

0 30

0 23

0.15





7/


T


Concentration


rir


----------+----------~


C----?------------~


s


LI '


~----'-----~


j
L----~-----~


Figure 2-5.


St I__- red grid used in the control volume approach. The circles are points
of concentration and pressure calculations, the arrows are velocity and
momentum points of calculation. The outer-most points (shaded region)
are ghost points.


Ghost points


Velocitie









CHAPTER :3
EXPERIMENTAL PLAN

3.1 Simulations

Simulations tested the model's capability to predict the steady-state ripple height

and wavelength for various flow conditions. In most cases, the simulations were run until

the ripple reached equilibrium, the limiting factor being the duration of the computations.

Twelve different model simulations are presented out of over one-hundred cases tested.

The cases demonstrate the model's ability to predict ripple shape under certain flow

conditions. Eleven of the cases are quasi-two-dimensional and one is three-dimensional.

The model is fully three-dimensional but very computationally expensive (about 75

d we~ Of CPU time for a 10 second three-dimensional simulation). The simulations are

run in quasi-two-dimensions to approximate the model's three-dimensional behavior

in a more reasonable amount of time (about one week). A quasi-two- dimensional

simulation has full dimensions in the x- and z-directions, but has only two grid points

in the v-direction. This reduction of grid points decreases the number of computations

and ultimately reduces the computational time by a factor of about :32. Because the

quasi-two-dimensional simulations showed the model was applicable to the ripple regime,

equivalent three-dimensional simulations could be used for additional analysis. Each case

tested whether or not the ripple amplitude and wavelength equilibrated to a steady-state

height and length as determined by Nielsen (1981), which is further explained in Section



3.1.1 Ripple Amplitude Simulations

Ripple amplitude simulations illustrate the model's ability to predict a ripple height

near the expected equilibrium ripple height under different flow conditions. Table :31

describes the initial shape and flow conditions of each of the two-dimensional ripple

amplitude simulations. The first three two-dimensional simulations were forced with the

same flow having a maximum free-stream velocity of 40 cm/s and a 2 second period,










hut were initialized with different ripple heights. Cases E11, E13, and E20, were forced

with flows having 20 cm/s, 60 cm/s and 120 cm/s maximum free-stream velocities,

respectively. Figure :31 shows the initial ripple states for each of the two-dimensional

ripple amplitude simulations. The three-dimensional case is initialized with a ripple 2 cm

in height subjected to an oscillatory flow with a maximum free-stream velocity of 40 cm/s

and a 2 second period. Its initial ripple state is illustrated in Figure :32 and its simulation

conditions are described in Table :32. All the simulations (including the ripple wavelength

simulations, Section :3.1.2) include a sediment grain size of 0.4 mm. The horizontal length

scale of the model is constrained in the ripple amplitude simulations because the periodic

boundary conditions do not allow the ripple wavelength to change. Unlike the wavelength

runs, only the change in ripple amplitude can he examined in these seven simulations.

3.1.2 Ripple Wavelength Simulations

Five simulations tested the model's ability to predict ripple wavelength in addition to

ripple amplitude. Each simulation was forced with the same oscillatory flow and initialized

with integral numbers and sizes of ripples as listed in Table :3-3. The first case, E05, is

initialized with two slightly merged sinusoidal ripples in a domain appropriate for one

wavelength of the associated steady-state ripple. Case E10 is the same as E05, but instead

of two slightly merged ripples, two fully sinusoidal ripples were initialized. In case E08,

a domain the length of two steady-state ripples was initialized with only one long ripple

to test the model's ability to predict two ripples. Three ripples were initialized in case

EO9 in a domain the length of two steady-state ripples. Case E18 is initialized with a

flat bed with just a small perturbation in the center of the domain. Figure :33 shows the

initial states for each of these cases. Both the ripple wavelength and amplitude can he

examined in these simulations because the periodicity does not prevent the wavelength

from changing.










3.2 Experimental Data

Field and laboratory observations are crucial for the characterization of morphologic

phenomena (Blondeaux, 2001). In this stage of research with the model, prior synthesis

of the data is being used to test the model's applicability to the sand ripple regime.

Nielsen's (1981) ripple predictor method was chosen to compare with the model output.

He compiled laboratory data sets of regular waves over a sandy bed and collapsed the

findings into formulas. The equations describe the heights and lengths of ripples in their

equilibrium state in terms of the mobility number (Equation 1-1). The laboratory data

included grain sizes ranging from 0.082 mm to 1.00 mm, and mobility numbers ranging

from 0 to 2:30. Previous research has shown that Nielsen's method is one of the most

accurate of the currently existing ripple predictor methods (O'Donoghue et al., 2006;

Faraci and Foti, 2002; Cl~ mIn. H~er and K~leinhans, 2004).

The formulas were used as a guideline to determine the model's ability to predict

a steady-state ripple height and length under different flow conditions. For steady-state

ripple height Nielsen determined the following:



rl = a(0.275 0 1I1lle, 0 ) ( < 156 (:31)
0 > 156


where a is the wave orbital excursion length described in Equation 1-2, and d' is the

mobility number (Equation 1-1). Table :34 lists the simulation parameters and formula

results for the flow regimes simulated.

For small mobility numbers (~ < 20), 1\ogridge and K~amphuis (1972) found that

Equation :32 can describe steady-state ripple length for numerous flow periods, grain

sizes, and densities.



A = 1.:3a < 20 :3-2










Nielsen then expanded this formula by compiling ripple length data for mobility

numbers ranging front 2 to 2:30. He formulated the equation for steady state ripple length

is as follows


A = a(2.2 0.34r5e, ')


(:33)


2 < ( < 2:30.


Nielsen's ripple predictor formulas are valid for the flow conditions tested in the

simulations presented in this work, and are used as a test of the model's capability of

predicting ripple geometry. Future work includes a comparison of the model results to

concentration, velocity, and ripple morphology data.


Table :3
Run
name


EO:$
DCO5
EO4
E11
E1:3
E20


1. The ripple amplitude simulations and their conditions.
Initial bed shape Initial Initial Domain Domain U,, T
ripple ripple height length


height
(cm>)
1.0
2.0
:3.0
2.2
1.6
1.6


length
(cm>)
12.0
12.0
12.0
8.0
16.0
8.0


(cm>)
8.0
8.0
12.0
8.0
12.0
16.0


(cm>)
12.0
12.0
12.0
8.0
16.0
8.0


(ent/s)
40.0
40.0
40.0
20.0
60.0
120.0


(1) sinusoidal ripple
(1) sinusoidal ripple
(1) sinusoidal ripple
(1) sinusoidal ripple
(1) sinusoidal ripple
(1) sinusoidal ripple


Table :3
Run
name


E14


-2. The three-dintensional simulation
Initial bed Initial Initial
shape ripple ripple
height length
(mi) (cm>)
(1) sinusoidal 2.0 12.0
ripple


(E14) conditions.
Domain Domain
height length


Domain
width


U,, T


(cm>)


(cm>)
12.0


(mi) (ent/s)
6.0 40.0
















EO3


~I DCO5


E04


x (cm) x (cm)


x (cm)


E 20


E1i3


I I


x (cm)


x!m (cm)4 x(cm),


Figure 3-1. Initial bed states of the ripple amnplitude simulations. (a) Case EO3, (b) case
DC05, (c) case EO4, (d) case E11, (e) Case E13, and (f) case E20.


Table
Run
name



EO5


3-3. The ripple wavelength simulations and their conditions.
Initial bed shape Initial Initial Domain Domain
ripple ripple height length
height length
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm)
(2) sligfhtly merged 1.4 12.0 8.0 12.0


Uo T


(cm/s)
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
20.0


sinusoidal ripples
EO8 (1) sinusoidal ripple
E10 (2) sinusoidal ripples
EO9 (3) sinusoidal ripples
E18 flat bed


24.0
12.0
24.0
0.0


8.0
8.0
12.0
4.0


24.0
12.0
24.0
8.0


D

E11



































Figure 3-2. Initial bed state of the three-dimensional ripple amplitude simulation. A
three-dimensional 2 cm ripple is initialized in a 12 cm x 6 cm x 8 cm domain.







Table 3-4. Model simulation parameters and laboratory data results. The free-stream
velocity, wave period, and the grain size diameter are inputs to the model.
Equations 1-2 and 1-1 describe the particle excursion and the mobility
number, respectively. The predicted ripple height and length are from Nielsen's
formulas (Equations 3-1 and 3-3).
Free-stream Wave Grain Particle Mobility Predicted Predicted
velocity period size excursion number ripple length ripple height
Uo (cm/s) T (s) d (cm) A (cm) x (cm) rl (cm)
20.0 1.0 0.04 3.2 6.2 4.0 0.7
20.0 2.0 0.04 6.4 6.2 7.9 1.4
40.0 2.0 0.04 12.7 24.7 12.6 2.1
60.0 2.0 0.04 19.1 55.6 15.5 2.1
120.0 4.0 0.04 76.4 222.5 N/A N/A
























E05 I ~EO8







Sx (cm) 8 10 12 2 q 6 0 1n x 4 (cm is 2n is


EiE






x ( cm) E
D N
E18



'. x(cm), 1 x (&m) 1 a 2


Figure 3-3. Initial bed states of the ripple wavelength simulations. (a) Case E05, (b) case
E08, (c) case E10, (d) case E18, and (e) case EO9.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Twelve model simulations are presented in this work. Fr-om the simulations, we found

that the model produces results similar to nature. The model has been tested for flows

with Reynolds numbers from 104 to 10s and is found to predict ripple size and shape

reasonably well under the tested conditions. For higher Reynolds numbers above the

ripple producing regime, the model correctly produces no ripples.

The cases simulated for this work can be split into three groups. The ripple

amplitude simulations examine the effect on ripple height evolution from the initiation of

different ripple heights. The ripple amplitude flow velocity simulations show the ripple

change due to varying free-stream velocities. The two ripple and three ripple wavelength

simulations illustrate how a ripple length and height adjusts towards equilibrium over

time. A flatbed case and a three-dimensional case are also presented in this chapter.

4.1 Ripple Amplitude Simulations

The first three cases presented have the same flow conditions and sediment properties

(see Table 3-1 for details). The simulations illustrate the evolving ripple height and shape.

Figure 4-1 shows snapshots in time of the ripple evolution throughout the simulations.

4.1.1 Ripple Height

The top four panels of Figure 4-1 show the progression of the ripple in case EO3.

The simulation is initialized with a bedform 1 cm in height and 12 cm in length. Through

the 16 second simulation, the initial 1 cm ripple grows to 1.5 cm. The ripple in case

DCO5 (Figure 4-1(b)) is initialized at 2 cm and decays 0.5 cm to a height of 1.5 cm

after 16 seconds. In case EO4 (Figure 4-1(c)), the initial 3 cm ripple decays to a 1.5 cm

ripple. Figure 4-2 is a plot of the evolution of maximum ripple height (rim,,) for the

three cases. The maximum ripple height is the distance between the minimum point in

the ripple trough and the maximum height of the ripple crest. The ripples in the three

simulations equilibrate to 1.5 cm after being initialized at different heights. According to










Nielsen's formula, the equilibrium ripple height for the given flow conditions is 2 cm (rle

in Figure 4-2). Computational constraints made it expensive to conduct the simulations

for longer than 16 seconds, but continuing the simulation further was deemed unnecessary

since the three simulations achieved the same balanced condition by this time.

4.1.2 Ripple Shape

This set of simulations is initialized with a sinusoidal ripple, a shape not realistically

seen in nature. Throughout the simulations, the ripples in each of the cases presented

evolve to a more peaked, pointed, and steeper shape than the initialized sinusoid.

Figulre 4-3 illustrates this concept for case EO3 (Figure 4-3(a)), DCO5 (Figure 4-3(b)),

and EO4 (Figure 4-3(c)). The top three panels of Figure 4-3 show the ripple isosurface,

(2, at t = 0 seconds and t = 16 seconds for the three cases. The isosurface of the

ripple is determined as the height above the bottom of the domain when the volumetric

concentration drops below 50' (Equation 4-1). Initially, the ripples have mildly sloping

sides and rounded peaks. As the simulation progresses, the ripples become more peaked.



ripple isosulr ia = (2 .= .s (4-1)


To quantify the side slopes of the ripple, the derivative of the ripple isosurface height

is taken and averaged over eight grid points. That quantity is then normalized with the

maximum height of the ripple at the current time, rlma,,t (Equation 4-2). The middle

three panels of Figure 4-3 show the eight grid point averaged slope over the length of the

ripple at the initial and final times. At t = 0 seconds, the slope is smooth and gradual. At

t = 16 seconds, the distance between the maximum and minimum slope is smaller than

the distance in the initial profile, indicating a much less gradual slope and more peaked

apex.


d (2 .= 0. 1
ripple slope, c (4-2)










The increased peakedness is also illustrated in the bottom three panels of Figure 4-3.

The slope change over the length of the ripple (Equation 4-3) is plotted in these graphs.

The initial profile slope change is relatively small compared to the slope change of the

final profile. At t = 16 seconds, the slope change is greater at the center of the ripple,

indicating an increase in peakedness front the initial profiles. Also in the simulation, the

ripple peak E'-- 0-< Side to side, similar to what is seen in nature.



ripple slope change, =r d(d -) (4-:3)



4.1.3 Suspended and Bed Load Transport

Details of the modes of ripple growth and decay are currently unknown. The

specific driving niechanisni of ripple morphology (i.e., bed load transport, suspended

load transport, or a combination of both) is difficult to measure in the laboratory and

field, and a live-bed, sediment transport model capable of closely examining sand ripple

dynamics has not previously existed. Front our model, we are able to calculate the bed

and suspended load fluxes that cause the sand ripple to evolve. In this study, bed load

is defined to be within 4.6d of the stationary bed. Figure 4-4 shows a time series of the

calculated tinte-dependent, vertically-, and horizontally-averaged load transport fluxes

(see Appendix A for an explanation of the calculations). When the flux is negative, it

is contributing to ripple amplitude decay. A positive flux contributes to the growth of

the ripple amplitude. Plots (a), (b), and (c) are the instantaneous bed and suspended

load fluxes for cases EO:$, DCO5, and EO4, respectively. Plots (d), (e), and (f) are the

cumulative sunt of the bed and suspended load fluxes for cases EO:$, DCO5, and EO4,

respectively. As shown previously, case EO:$ has a growing ripple, case DCO5 has a slightly

decaying ripple, and case EO4 has a more rapidly decaying ripple. In the case of the

growing ripple (EO:$), the suspended load fluxes are almost zero and the bed load fluxes

are positive and dominate the ripple change (Figure 4-4(a) and 4-4(d)). Therefore, the










hed load transport is the main contributor to ripple growth. For the rapidly decaying

ripple case (EO4), the bed load flux is negative and therefore, bed load sediment transport

is also the cause of a decrease in ripple height (Figure 4-4(f)). Figure 4-4(e) shows the

fluxes for the weakly decaying ripple case. Again, the bed load fluxes are negative and are

the cause of the slight decay. However, both bed and suspended load fluxes are small in

comparison to the other cases.

Similar to the field and laboratory, there is also intprecision in the divisions of bed

and suspended load when analyzing the model results. For example, the suspended load

that has not yet settled out of the water colunin is counted as contributing to ripple

growth in the analysis. This idea is illustrated in the rapidly decaying case, EO4. In this

simulation, the suspended load fluxes are large and seem to contribute to ripple growth.

These high suspended load fluxes are due to the tall height of the ripple in case EO4. The

simulation is initialized with a ripple having a height of 3 cm. The ripple is exposed to

more of the force of the flow than the other two cases. The boundary 1 oa c hrconies large

and a more turbulent flow erupts around the ripple. This turbulence causes more vortices

to shed off the lee sides of the ripple and therefore causes more suspended sediment.

These suspended sediment fluxes are counted in the growth and decay flux calculations,

even though they are still in the water colunin and not affecting the ripple. Additionally,

a slight slumping of the underlying bed material was sometimes observed. Finally, the

results are somewhat sensitive to the precise definition of the concentration threshold

chosen to define bed load and suspended load (see Appendix A for details).

4.1.4 Advective, Settling, and Diffusive Fluxes

This section concentrates on the type of fluxes that cause ripple evolution. (refer to

Appendix A for a detailed explanation of the fluxes). There are three types of fluxes that

can move sediment. Advective fluxes are due to the flow caused by the wave oscillations

in the water column. The ripple causes a disturbance in the flow, which in turn creates

vortices that pick up and move sediment. A second form of sediment movement is










by diffusive flux. Diffusion is a natural tendency for the components of a mixture to

move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Mass can be

transferred by random molecular motion in quiescent fluids, or it can be transferred from

a surface into a moving fluid, aided by the dynamic characteristics of the flow. Settling

is the third type of flux. This motion is purely due to gravity causing the settling of

the sediment. Figure 4-5 shows the instantaneous and cumulative averaged diffusive,

advective, and settling fluxes for case EO3, DC05, and EO4. The negative settling fluxes

indicate ripple decay. Therefore, one cause of a decrease in ripple height is grains sliding

from the peak down the sides of the ripple and settling in the trough. The opposite occurs

for the diffusive fluxes. The sediment 1 u. -r above the immobile bed thickens at the crest

and thins in the trough, possibly because of the shearing off of the peak from the flow

and the settling of grains into the trough. This diffusive flux is a cause of ripple growth.

The settling and diffusive fluxes are nearly equally balanced and have a non-zero value

even with no flow. This balance is apparent in the sediment continuity governing equation

(Equation 2-9) as gravitational settling is counteracted by an upward diffusion across

the thin concentration gradient at the ripple surface and in the core of the sediment

suspension plumes. Therefore, the average of these fluxes could be subtracted out, leaving

the advective fluxes as the primary cause of the sediment transport. Figure 4-6 shows the

three types of fluxes averaged in time, the x-, and, the y-directions for case EO3, DC05,

and EO4. Included on the plots are the initial and final (at t=0 seconds and t=16 seconds,

respectively) ripple crest and trough heights. The figure also shows the balance between

the settling and diffusive fluxes. The growing ripple case (Figure 4-6(a)) demonstrates

a slightly larger positive diffusive flux than settling flux and yields positive advective

fluxes at the crest and trough, leading to ripple growth. Both the diffusive and settling

fluxes in the slightly decaying ripple case (Figure 4-6(b)) are well balanced. The advective

fluxes are slightly negative, agreeing with the small decrease in the ripple amplitude. The

diffusive and settling fluxes are also balanced in the rapidly decaying case (Figure 4-6(c)).









The negative advective fluxes cause the decrease of the crest height and the slightly more

negative diffusive fluxes produce the increased trough height.

4.2 Ripple Amplitude Flow Velocity Simulations

The following three simulations are initialized with the same oscillation period

and similar initial ripple heights but with different oscillatory flow velocities. A low

energy case (E11) is initialized with a 2.2 cm sinusoidal ripple and forced with a 20 cm/s

maximum free-stream velocity flow. Case E13, a mid-energy simulation, has a 60 cm/s

maximum free-stream velocity and a 2 second period. The high energy case, E20, is

forced with an oscillatory flow with 120 cm/s maximum free-stream velocity. The ripple

is expected to shear off under this strong flow, evolving from the initial 1.6 cm ripple

amplitude to no stable ripple form. Figure 4-7 illustrates a time series of ripple evolutions

for the three cases. Table 3-1 includes detailed conditions of the simulations.

4.2.1 Ripple Height

The ripple height evolution (rlma,,t) and expected equilibrium ripple height (rle)

for all three cases can be seen in Figure 4-8. The low energy case (E11) is shown in

panels 4-7(a). Under the flow conditions, a 1.4 cm ripple height is expected to develop in

equilibrium. Over the 20 second simulation, the ripple decays from 2.2 cm to 0.8 cm, as

shown in Figure 4-8(a). It can be deduced from the results that the ripple is not yet in

equilibrium. For the mid energy case, E13, the initial 1.6 cm ripple should grow to about

2.1 cm. Figure 4-7(b) shows the ripple grows from 1.6 cm in height to 2 cm in height in

three wave periods. The growth is steady throughout the simulation. In the high energy

case, E20, the ripple decays from a 1.6 cm ripple to a rough bed with no definite or stable

ripple shape.

4.2.2 Suspended and Bed Load Transport

Figure 4-9 shows the suspended and bed load fluxes for the low, mid, and high

energy cases. Panels (a), (b), and (c) are the instantaneous fluxes and panels (d), (e),

and (f) are the cumulative sum of the fluxes for the three cases. The low flow case, E11










(Figure 4-9(a) and (d)), has essentially no suspended sediment and illustrates that the

decline in ripple height occurs due to bed load sediment transport. At this point in the

simulation, the height is 0.6 ent less than the equilibrium ripple height as determined by

Nielsen's steady-state formula. As previously mentioned, this difference is most likely due

to the ripple not yet being in its equilibrium state. Figure 4-9(d) supports this hypothesis.

The bed load fluxes in the end of the simulation are inl i. .I-;! now contributing to ripple

growth. Time constraints prevented running the simulation further. Future research will

examine a longer simulation. The ripple in case E1:3 (Figure 4-9(e)) grows 0.4 ent mostly

through bed load sediment transport. Some suspended sediment transport decreases the

ripple height, but not enough to overcome the growth due to bed load transport. In the

high energy case, E20, there are equal but opposite amounts of bed and suspended load

transport, but bed load transport causes the ripple decay. The large amount of positive

suspended sediment flux is due to the high energy of the flow, and may not necessarily

induce ripple growth.

4.3 Two Ripple Wavelength Simulations

The remainder of the simulations presented in this work (excluding the

three-dintensional case) examine both ripple height and wavelength evolution. Cases

E05 and E10, shown in Figure 4-10, are forced with the same oscillatory flow, but have

different initial ripple shapes. Case E05 (Figure 4-10(a)) is initialized with two slightly

merged ripples, creating a "double-crested" ripple that is 1.4 cm in height and 12 cm in

length. Two separate ripples are initialized in case E10 (Figure 4-10(b)), again with a

total length of 12 cm. Refer to Table :33 for other conditions of the simulations.

4.3.1 Ripple Wavelength

Initializing the model with multiple ripples in a domain allows more for the evolution

of ripple length in addition to ripple height. In the one ripple cases, the ability for

the length to change is limited by the domain because the ripple is initialized at its

expected equilibrium length for the given flow conditions. In these two cases, two ripples










are initialized in a 12 ent domain, which is the equilibrium length of just one ripple

for the simulation flow characteristics according to Nielsen's formula. In case E05, the

peaks of the "double-crested" ripple merge to form one ripple with a length of 12 ent

(Figure 4-10(a)). Case E10 is initialized with two ripples, each 6 cm in length. The two

ripples slowly merge throughout the 65 second simulation to a shape that resembles the

beginning stages of case E05. This similarity to the previous case whose ripples eventually

did merge together to form one ripple elo_~- -;- that case E10 will follow the results of case

E05 if the simulation was run longer than 65 seconds. Again, time constraints led to the

investigation of other questions rather than attempting to confirm this detail.

4.3.2 Ripple Height

Figure 4-11 plots the nmaxiniun ripple height evolution for the "double-crested"

(E05) and two-ripple (E10) cases. The height of the "double-crested" ripple to the merged

single ripple decreases from 1.4 cm to 1 cm. The initial decrease is steep, but then the

ripple height steadies and slowly rises, indicating the ripple should continue to grow past

the 30 second simulation. In the two-ripple case (E10), the ripple height decreases fairly

quickly, then steadies as the peaks of the two ripples slowly merge. Similar to the ripple

wavelength comparison, the final ripple height in case E10 is about the same as the 16

second panel of case E05. Past 65 seconds, the ripple in this simulation is expected to

start to slowly rise, just as the ripple does in case E05. Both of the simulations were

terminated due to time constraints and could be examined more in the future.

4.3.3 Suspended and Bed Load Transport

Figures 4-12(a) and 4-12(c) show the instantaneous and cumulative fluxes,

respectively, for the "double-crested" ripple case (E05). The suspended load transport

is nmininial and it seems that the bed load transport causes a slight decay then growth

of the ripple. In the two-ripple cumulative flux plot (Figure 4-12(d)), the positive bed

load fluxes indicate that the bed load transport should be causing ripple growth, not

decay. The flux plot for this case contradicts the results front all the previous cases. The










discrepancy could be due to the movement of the peaks of the ripples and the merging of

the two ripples into one that causes positive bed load fluxes even though the ripple is not

growing (see Appendix A).

4.4 One and Three Ripple Wavelength Simulations

The next two cases presented also examine ripple height and length evolution, but

in a domain where two ripples are expected to develop in equilibrium. Both are forced

with oscillatory flows with a 40 ent/s nmaxiniun free-streant velocity and 2 second period.

Figures 4-13(a) and 4-13(b) are simulation frames front case E08 and EO9, respectively.

Case E08 is initialized with one ripple 24 cm in length and 0.8 cm in height. Three

ripples, each 8 cm in length and 1.6 cm in height, are initialized in case EO9.

4.4.1 Ripple Wavelength

The one-ripple case (E08) has a domain length of 24 cm, which is the length of two

equilibrium ripples. As the 41 second simulation progresses, four small ripples, each about

6 cm in length, form and begin to grow. Although we expect there to be only two ripples

in the domain at equilibrium, research has shown (Grant and 1\adsen, 1982; O'Donoghue

and Clubb, 2001) that ripples about half the equilibrium size form first on an almost flat

bed, before reaching a final equilibrium state. It is also interesting that the initial long

ripple still somewhat exists and that the small ripples have formed on its surface. This is

also seen in laboratory experiments. It is necessary for the simulation to be run further

before confirming the model agrees with previous findings on ripple evolution. The same

size domain is used in the three-ripple case (E09). After the 40 second simulation, the

wavelengths of the three ripples are unchanged, but the ripples are less defined. As with

the one-ripple case, the simulation would need to be run longer for further examination.

4.4.2 Ripple Height

Figure 4-14 shows the ripple height evolution for the one- and three-ripple cases.

In case E08, four small ripples form on the long flat ripple. They grow front about 0.8

cm to 1 cm and are still growing at the end of the simulation (Figure 4-14(a)). The










ripples are not steady and their crests sway back and forth. The ripples on the far left

and right are smaller and less defined than the two middle ripples (Figure 4-13(a)). Along

with the changing ripple height, this evidence supports that the simulation is not yet

in its equilibrium state. The three ripples in case EO9 decay from 1.6 cm to 0.7 cm in

the 40 second simulation (Figure 4-14(b)). The left ripple becomes less defined than the

other two ripples, which -II---- -r- the three ripples might merge into two past 41 seconds

(Figure 4-13(b)). Again, this case would need to be run longer in order to confirm this

hypothesis.

4.4.3 Suspended and Bed Load Transport

The suspended and bed load fluxes for cases E08 and EO9 are shown in Figure 4-15.

The cumulative flux plot for the one-ripple case (Figure 4-15(c)) indicates that the

suspended load fluxes are small compared to the bed load fluxes. Therefore, bed load

transport is the main cause of ripple growth and shape change. This observation is also

apparent in the simulation frames where it can he seen that there is very little suspended

sediment present throughout the simulation. Similar to the two-ripple case (E10), the flux

plot for the three-ripple case (Figure 4-15(d)) is contradictory to the other cases. The

large positive increase of bed load flux indicates the ripples should be growing due to bed

load sediment transport. See Section 4.:3.:3 and Appendix A for further explanation.

4.5 Flatbed Simulation

The final two-dintensional case presented examines the ripple evolution front a flat

bed with just a small perturbation. The 41 second simulation is forced with an oscillatory

flow with a 20 ent/s nmaxiniun free-streant velocity and a 1 second period. Figure 4-16

shows the time series evolution of the simulation. The domain has a length of 8 cm, twice

the length of the expected equilibrium ripple for the flow conditions.

4.5.1 Ripple Height

The time series of ripple evolution for the flathed case is shown in Figure 4-17.

Within 10 seconds of the simulation, one small ripple forms in the center of the domain.










Ripples soon start to form on either side of the center ripple. After 41 seconds, three

defined ripples are present in the domain. The expected equilibrium ripple height for the

current flow conditions is 0.7 cm (rle on Figure 4-17). The ripples grow from the flat bed

to about a height of 0.3 cm. From previous research (mentioned in Section 4.4.1), ripples

formed from a flat bed start as small rolling grain ripples and develop into larger vortex

ripples after many flow periods O(102). Further examination of this case is necessary to

determine whether the ripples will evolve into their equilibrium state.

4.5.2 Ripple Wavelength

The expected equilibrium ripple wavelength for this case is 4 cm, half as large as the

domain. Three ripples, each about 2.7 cm in length, have formed inside the domain after

the 41 second simulation. The previous simulations have examined the results of forcing a

flow over an existing ripple. This case shows the model's ability to predict the formation

of ripples from an almost completely flat bed.

4.5.3 Suspended and Bed load Transport

The instantaneous and cumulative load fluxes are shown in Figures 4-18(a) and

4-18(b), respectively. As seen in the simulation snapshots, there is no suspended sediment

in the simulation. These ripples are still rolling-grain ripples, no vortices are formed

and therefore, no sediment gets suspended. The ripples are made purely from bed load

sediment transport.

4.6 Three-Dimensional Simulation

One fully three-dimensional simulation (out of three that were examined with

different domain sizes) is presented here. This is due to the large amount of computational

time necessary for a three-dimensional simulation. Advances in technology and a

reorganization of the numerical code could shorten the computational time required.

Further research will concentrate more on three-dimensional simulations.

Case E14 has a domain of 12 cm by 6 cm by 8 cm and is forced with an oscillatory

flow (maximum free-stream velocity of 40 cm/s) with a 2 second period. The simulation is










initialized with a ripple 2 cm in height and 12 cm in length. Its initial conditions and flow

characteristics are the same as the quasi-two-dimensional slightly decaying case (DCO5).

As with case DCO5, only the evolution of the ripple height is examined.

4.6.1 Ripple Height

Figure 4-20 shows the ripple height evolution throughout the simulation. The ripple

is initialized with a height of 2 cm, the same steady-state ripple height according to

Nielsen's formula. Instead of the ripple height decreasing 0.5 cm like the two-dimensional

slightly decaying case, it stays steady at the equilibrium ripple height of 2 cm. The

differences between the quasi-two- and three-dimensional cases will be discussed in



4.6.2 Suspended and Bed Load Transport

The suspended and bed load fluxes, shown in Figure 4-21, are nearly equal and

opposite in sign. The suspended load fluxes are positive, contributing to sand ripple

growth. The bed load fluxes are equally negative, causing ripple decay. The equal and

opposite transport mechanisms create a dynamic equilibrium with the ripple height

relatively steady and unchanging. Note that the change of the ripple shape from a

sinusoid to a more peaked and steep shape requires a small net flux.

4.7 Summary of Results

All of the cases presented in this work show the potential of this model to advance

the understanding of sand ripples and sediment transport. Tables 4-1 and 4-2 summarize

the results. The conclusions and discussion of these results are presented in OsI Ilpter 5.



















































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Figure 4-17. Time evolution of nmaxiniun ripple height (ilm,,.4) for the flathed case (E18).
rle denotes the equilibrium height resulting from Nielsen's steady-state
formulas for the simulation conditions.

















- Suspended load fluxes
Bed load fluxes


20


~15


10


5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
time [s]


7x104
Suspended load fluxes
OLBed load fluxes


4


1

0- - -- - -- - -


25 30 35 40


Figure 4-18. Fluxes for the flathed simulation (E18), where (a) are the instantaneous
bed and suspended load fluxes and (b) are the cumulative averaged bed and
suspended load fluxes.


5 10 15 20
time [s]





























n






01















o






O





O











cb


*H


81

















0 2 4 6 8 10 12
time [s]

Figure 4-20. Time evolution of maximum ripple height (rlma,,t) for the three-dimensional
case (E14). rle denotes the equilibrium height resulting from Nielsen's
steady-state formulas for the simulation conditions.



Table 4-1. The initial, final, and equilibrium ripple heights for all of the presented cases.
Run Simulation Initial Final Equilibrium of equilibrium
name description height height height height at end
of simulation
(cm) (cm) (cm)
EO3 Growing 1.0 1.5 2.0 75
DCO5 Slightly decaying 2.0 1.5 2.0 75
EO4 Rapidly decaying 3.0 1.5 2.0 75
E11 Low energy 2.2 0.8 1.4 57
E13 Mid energy 1.6 2.0 2.1 95
E20 High energy 1.6 0.8 0.0 N/A
EO5 "Double-crested" 1.4 1.0 2.0 70
E10 Two-ripple 1.6 0.6 2.0 30
EO8 One-ripple 0.8 1.0 2.0 50
EO9 Three-ripple 1.6 0.7 2.0 35
E18 Flatbed 0.0 0.3 0.7 42
E14 Three-dimensional 2.0 2.0 2.0 100







































"Double-crested"
Two-ripple
One-ripple
Three-ripple
Flathed


Table 4-2.

Run
name



E05
E10
E08
EO9
E18


The initial, final, and equilibrium ripple wavelengths for all of the presented
cases.
Simulation Initial Final Equilibrium of equilibrium
description length length length length at the el


of simulation

100
58
50
75
67


nd


(cm)
6;.0
6;.0
24.0
8.0
0.0


(cm)
12.0
7.0
6;.0
9.0
2.7


(cm)


12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
4.0




















on


- -Suspended load flue
Bed load fluxes



i t1 I I
II I r Il I


I I
I I
I I
I I I\
I I II
I Ilr
I I I I II
I Il I II
I
\I I
I I
I
I \I I
I I


2 4 6 8 10 12
time [s]


2 x 104
Suspended load fluxes --'"--
2 Bed load fluxes.


2 4 6 8 10 12
time [s]



(b)



Figure 4-21. Fluxes for the three-dimensional simulation (E14), where (a) are the

instantaneous bed and suspended load fluxes and (b) are the cumulative

averaged bed and suspended load fluxes.









84









CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY

5.1 Applicability

The results of the simulations conclude that the modified mixture model of Slinn

et al. (2006) is applicable to the highly concentrated, low flow, ripple regime. The model

predicts realistic ripple behavior for the tested flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from

104 to 105. The model resolves the turbulent flow over a live-bed in three-dimensions. The

live-bed allows for the coupled flow fields, sediment transport, and bed morphology to be

an k. .1The small grid size, large number of grid points, and high resolution of the flow

cause the model to be computationally expensive. The computational time required for a

fully three-dimensional simulation limits the simulation domain size and duration. Further

research to develop a parallel version of the code would possibly reduce the time necessary

for the computations. Running the code on a supercomputer would also speed up the

model run time.

5.2 Ripple Geometry Predictions

5.2.1 Ripple Shape

The ripples in the simulations are initialized with a sinusoidal shape not characteristic

of those seen in nature (Haque and Mahmood, 1985). Ripples observed in the laboratory

under purely oscillatory flow are generally symmetric, with narrow crests and flat, broad

troughs (Wiberg and Harris, 1994). Almost immediately after the simulations begin, the

sinusoidal ripple changes; the troughs become flatter and the crests become more peaked.

As the simulation progresses, the peaks sway back and forth, similar to laboratory and

field observations.

5.2.2 Ripple Height and Length

The simulated ripple heights and lengths were compared with Nielsen's ripple

predictor method with fairly good results. When the ripple reaches its steady-state (cases

E03, DCO5, EO4, E13, E20, and E14), the simulated ripple height comes within T' .~; of










the predicted height (Table 4-1). When the simulation is stopped before the ripple can

reach a steady-state (cases E05 and E11), the simulated ripple height comes within I'II .

of the predicted height. The double-crested ripple simulation (E05) is initialized near

its expected steady-state length and the simulated length equilibrates to 1011I' of the

predicted length (Table 4-2). The simulations that have not yet reached a steady-state

(cases E11, E05, E08, EO9, E10, and E18) show a trend towards the equilibrium height

and length. The results illustrate the model's ability to predict a steady-state ripple that

is independent of the initial bed morphology. Results from the flat bed (E18) and the

long flat ripple (E08) simulation agree with previous findings (e.g., Forel, 1883; Faraci

and Foti, 2001) that the wavelengths of ripples initially forming on a flat bed are about

half as long as the equilibrium wavelengths. The ripple geometry in these cases is not

constant, illustrating that it is not yet in equilibrium. It has been found that as many

as three-hundred cveles could be necessary for a flat bed to reach its equilibrium state

(Faraci and Foti, 2001) and possibly more if the ripples must transition from another state

(as in cases E05, E08, EO9, and E10). These simulations would need to be run longer in

order to make any final conclusions, although currently, the results are encouraging.

5.2.3 Ripple Morphology

Bed and suspended load transport and their contributions to ripple morphology

are analyzed for each simulation. It is found that bed load transport is the dominant

mechanism in ripple growth and decay. This conclusion is shown not only in the laminar

flow simulation (case E18), but in all but two of the other cases. In the flat bed case,

small ripples form on the initially flat bed with a small perturbation. The growth of the

ripples is characterized by the rolling and sliding of grains on the lee side of the ripple

which agrees with laboratory findings (Faraci and Foti, 2001). It was also found that the

advective fluxes are the significant forces moving sediment. The diffusive and settling

forces are in mostly in balance with each other.










5.2.4 Comparisons of Quasi-Two- and Three-Dimensional Simulations

It was found that the quasi-two-dimensional ripple amplitude simulations equilibrated

to about T.~' of the steady-state ripple height for the flow conditions. When the same

initial flow and bed conditions were simulated in three-dimensions, the ripple height

equilibrated to within 90I' .' of the steady-state height. The differences between the

quasi-two- and three-dimensional simulations can probably be attributed to increased

turbulence. In the three-dimensional simulation, the turbulence is able to fully develop

in the y-direction. It has been found that three-dimensional vortex structures pll li an

important role in the transport of sediment, and higher Reynolds number flows are

strongly three-dimensional (Zedler and Street, 2006). The three-dimensional vortex

structures significantly affect particle trajectories and create relevant dispersion effects

(Blondeaux et al., 1999; Scandura et al., 2000). From this evidence, differences between

the two- and three-dimensional simulations are expected. We can conclude that in

order to capture the fully resolved flow, the simulation must be run in three-dimensions.

However, we can use the quasi-two-dimensional simulations to approximate the ripple

morphology until the problem of computational run time is resolved.

5.3 Summary of Contributions

The purpose of this research was to determine if the sheet flow mixture model of

Slinn et al. (2006) could be modified to simulate sediment transport and ripple evolution

in a ripple flow regime. It is now known that the model has the capability to be useful in

analyzing sediment transport and ripple morphology under flows lower than those typical

of sheet flow. The model examines the live-bed dynamics of ripple evolution while fully

resolving the flow. Although uncertainties associated with turbulence closure schemes are

avoided due to the direct solution of the governing equations, more work must be done to

experimentally verify the empirical submodels for the sediment transport dynamics. We

have succeeded in creating a tool that has the potential to advance the present knowledge

of coastal sediment transport and morphology.










5.4 Future Research

The computational expense of the model must first he nxinintized by parallelizing the

code or using faster computing power. Once the simulations can he run to reach the bed's

equilibrium state, the output can he better analyzed and compared to laboratory and field

results. One possible comparison is Doucette and O'Donoghue's (2006) empirical model of

time to ripple equilibrium. They formulated an empirical relationship dependent on the

mobility number, initial ripple height, and equilibrium ripple height that determined the

time dependent ripple height evolution. Unfortunately, the time scales in the formula are

much longer than those currently obtained in the model. In the future, this model could

also be applied to three-dintensional ripple fields, scour around objects, or bedfornis in

rivers with the addition of a mean current.









APPENDIX A
FLUX CALCULATIONS

The mass flux of sediment in a fluid occurs through three mechanisms: the bulk
motion of the fluid, the concentration gradient, and the settling due to gravity. A
sediment continuity equation (Equation A-1) that describes the movement of sediment
within a fluid is derived using a mass balance of these three types of fluxes.


iiC iiCuj 8iCWe

advective settling di ffusion


where C is the sediment concentration, uj is the mixture velocity, Wt is the settling
velocity defined by Richardson and Zaki (1954), and Dj is the diffusion coefficient defined
by Nir and Acrivos (1990). The first term on the right side is the flux due to the bulk
motion of the fluid, or advective flux, the second term is the flux due to settling, and the
last term is the flux due to the concentration gradient (i.e., diffusion). Before calculating
which fluxes contribute to ripple evolution, the processes of how a ripple grows or decays
must be examined. Physically, when a ripple decays, sediment gets sheared off the peak
and fills up into the trough. Because of these physical processes, both positive and
negative fluxes contribute to ripple decay, and ripple growth, depending where they occur
on the ripple (Figure A-1(a)). The rapidly decaying ripple case (EO4) will be used as
an example to show how the fluxes are calculated. In order to determine which fluxes
contribute to the ripple decay in case EO4, the horizontally averaged concentration profiles
at two different times were plotted (Figure A-1(b)). The total contribution of the fluxes
to the change in concentration between the two times is found by integrating the sediment
continuity equation (Equation A-1) with respect to time.


S t? Bdi =Ci C, (A-2%)

The result of the integration is the difference between the final and the initial
concentration profile (Equation A-2). This difference is plotted in Figure A-1(c). As
shown in the plot, the difference between the final and initial concentration profiles is
negative above the intersecting point of the two horizontally averaged concentration
profiles (shown on Figure A-1(b) as the cross grid point), and positive below the
intersecting point. Therefore, a positive flux below the profile intersecting point causes
ripple decay. Above the intersecting point, negative fluxes contribute to the ripple decay.
Figure A-1(a) illustrates this idea by the arrows denoting the direction of the decaying
fluxes. This concept is also applied to a growing ripple and is opposite of the decaying
ripple. Ripple growth is caused by negative fluxes below the intersecting point and
positive fluxes above the profile intersecting point.










The division between bed and suspended load is defined as a set distance above the
immobile bed as per previous research (Einstein, 1950). In this research, the immobile
bed is defined as having a volumetric concentration of 5;' or greater. The bed load
LI .-;r width is then defined to be about four grain diameters thick, or ending about 0.18
cm above the immobile bed. This definition was based on visual inspection of many
concentration fields (See Figure A-2 for an example). The suspended load region is the
rest of the domain above the bed load 1 war.~
The procedure for calculating which fluxes (advective, settling, or diffusive, and bed,
or suspended load) contribute to ripple growth and decay is carried out as follows:
1. The initial and final averaged concentration profiles are calculated and the
intersecting point between them is determined.
2. Each flux term at all grid points is calculated at every time step from the velocity
and concentration output of the model.
3. The fluxes at each grid point are categorized into bed material, bed load, or
suspended load depending on their location above the immobile bed as described
previously.
4. The fluxes at each grid point are then determined to be contributing to ripple
growth or decay depending on their sign and location relative to the intersecting
concentration profile point. Growth fluxes are made positive and decay fluxes are
made negative.
5. The fluxes at the grid points in the bed and suspended load regions along the ripple
are summed together.
These steps yield a quantity of each of the advective, diffusive, and settling fluxes
for both the bed and suspended load regions. The fluxes are plotted so positive values
indicate ripple growth and negative values indicate ripple decay.
This method for calculating fluxes may not he appropriate for simulations with
significantly changing ripple shapes or multi-ripple simulations. There are fluxes
associated with the changing of the ripple shape that do not necessarily cause the ripple
height to increase or decrease, but are counted in the growth and decay flux calculations.
There is also some imprecision in the categorization of the growth and decay fluxes in
relation to the profile intersection point. The intersecting profile point is calculated by
averaging the initial and final concentration profiles of the simulation. If the concentration
profiles are complex, or the ripples .I-i-mmetrical, the calculation of the intersecting profile
point may not he accurate. In addition, the change in shape between the two times does
not affect the position of the crossing point. For these reasons, the method is used to
approximately determine the ripple growth and decay fluxes.



































































































































LDLDLDbLDmLD
LD d m ~u

[U13] Z


88
o~o
c J
O
m
b
c O
8 m
c c
o c
O
o
8



x


n
(I,


U


~___j


Staa












~ot




at










































8 o
aa




On










a


``
.d`






.J`
``


to to
d


d m
m

[U13] Z


m m


~U to


O(D
II"
m






`
`
``
``

~











C/C m
0.98

0.90

0.83

0.75

0.68

0.60

0.53

0.45

., 0.38

0.30

0.23

0.15

0.08

-0.00






Figure A-2. A zoomed portion of the ripple surface and mesh grid. The white represents
the immobile bed (C > 57' by volume). The bed load 1.v-r is six grid points
thick (or 4.6d) on average.










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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

I grew up on the shores of Lake Erie in Euclid, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland, Ohio.

Living near a lake induced a fascination with water and beaches which has grown into

my lifelong career. I phI i-- d on the beach, swam, or sailed on Lake Erie almost every dui

during the summer from the age of two until high school.

In grade school I was drawn to the subjects of math and science, although I enjoi-n I1

all aspects of my education. My tendency toward quantitative analysis increased in high

school and was the basis of my pursuit of engineering in college. I graduated Valedictorian

in a class of 500 from Euclid High School in June of 2000 and enrolled at The Ohio

State University three months later. I declared my 1!! linr~~ as engineering, a specialization

undecided, but quickly found an interest in civil engineering and fluid dynamics. One of

my professors, Dr. Diane Foster, introduced me to coastal engineering in a water resource

engineering class. In 200:3, I received a full scholarship and stipend to do undergraduate

research in the area of my choice. I began studying small-scale sediment transport

modeling with Dr. Foster the summer of 200:3. She became a very important mentor and

was the fundamental inspiration in my goal to become a college professor. In September

of 200:3, I had the opportunity to participate in NCEX, an extensive field experiment at

Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego, California. The experience showed me

the field aspect of coastal engineering. In addition to participating in coastal research and

schoolwork, I was also an officer in Ohio State's Society of Women Engineering chapter,

an active member of Women in Engineering, an undergraduate teaching assistant, and was

inducted into numerous honor's societies throughout my undergraduate career.

My desire to work toward an advanced degree was motivated hv a dream of working

in academia. In August of 2004, I packed up my life, left the only home I had ever known,

and made the 900 mile move down to Gainesville, where I would attend graduate school at

the University of Florida. I have had many incredible career opportunities at ITF. My first

semester I participated in two research cruises to investigate sand ripples for the Ripple