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Ambient Light and Sleep in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019744/00001

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Title: Ambient Light and Sleep in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Physical Description: 1 online resource (64 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

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Subjects / Keywords: Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Psychology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Research has shown overall ambient light relates to various aspects of objective nighttime sleep. However, less research has been conducted examining the relationship between daytime ambient light exposure and subjective sleep. The present study will look more closely at ambient light (lux and exposure) and how it relates to objective (as measured by actigraphy) and subjective (as measured by sleep diaries) nighttime sleep variables in older adults. A secondary data analysis was conducted using two weeks of actigraphic and sleep diary data collected from 103 community-dwelling older adults (M=72.81, SD=7.12). Overall, all participants received greater than 3000 lux of light. Correlational analyses revealed that greater ambient light was significantly related to less subjective total wake time. Linear regression analyses revealed that ambient light accounted for a small amount of the variance in subjective total wake time (4.9%). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that ambient light did predict a significant amount of the variance in sleep although not 'over and above' that accounted for by age, health, and daytime functioning. These findings demonstrate ambient light is related to sleep; however, not over and beyond other variables that are more commonly used in sleep research and assessment. Several components of the ambient light--sleep relationship in older adults have been overlooked in previous research. The present study is innovative, because it is the first to: 1) examine ambient light's influence on both concurrently collected objective and subjective sleep; 2) implement a longer data collection period; 3) use a novel way to collect ambient; and 4) examine ambient light in the southeastern United States. Although the current study provides many innovations, many components of the ambient light-sleep relationship have yet to be explored (i.e., time of day of light and daytime activity). Considering that the current findings demonstrated that ambient light is related to sleep in older adults, although not over and beyond the other sleep-related variables examined, future research examining ambient light as a potential intervention for late-life insomnia appears warranted. In particular, such research should focus on subpopulations of older adults likely to receive much lower levels of ambient light than the sample of community-dwelling older Floridians examined in the present study (i.e., nursing home residents, older adults in more northern geographical locations).
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: McCrae, Christina S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0019744:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019744/00001

Material Information

Title: Ambient Light and Sleep in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Physical Description: 1 online resource (64 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Psychology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Research has shown overall ambient light relates to various aspects of objective nighttime sleep. However, less research has been conducted examining the relationship between daytime ambient light exposure and subjective sleep. The present study will look more closely at ambient light (lux and exposure) and how it relates to objective (as measured by actigraphy) and subjective (as measured by sleep diaries) nighttime sleep variables in older adults. A secondary data analysis was conducted using two weeks of actigraphic and sleep diary data collected from 103 community-dwelling older adults (M=72.81, SD=7.12). Overall, all participants received greater than 3000 lux of light. Correlational analyses revealed that greater ambient light was significantly related to less subjective total wake time. Linear regression analyses revealed that ambient light accounted for a small amount of the variance in subjective total wake time (4.9%). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that ambient light did predict a significant amount of the variance in sleep although not 'over and above' that accounted for by age, health, and daytime functioning. These findings demonstrate ambient light is related to sleep; however, not over and beyond other variables that are more commonly used in sleep research and assessment. Several components of the ambient light--sleep relationship in older adults have been overlooked in previous research. The present study is innovative, because it is the first to: 1) examine ambient light's influence on both concurrently collected objective and subjective sleep; 2) implement a longer data collection period; 3) use a novel way to collect ambient; and 4) examine ambient light in the southeastern United States. Although the current study provides many innovations, many components of the ambient light-sleep relationship have yet to be explored (i.e., time of day of light and daytime activity). Considering that the current findings demonstrated that ambient light is related to sleep in older adults, although not over and beyond the other sleep-related variables examined, future research examining ambient light as a potential intervention for late-life insomnia appears warranted. In particular, such research should focus on subpopulations of older adults likely to receive much lower levels of ambient light than the sample of community-dwelling older Floridians examined in the present study (i.e., nursing home residents, older adults in more northern geographical locations).
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: McCrae, Christina S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0019744:00001


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1 AMBIENT LIGHT AND SLEEP IN COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS By ASHLEY MAE STRIPLING A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 200 8

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2 2008 Ashley Mae Stripling

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3 To all who light up life

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my chair Dr. Christina McCrae for her intellectual guidance and constant mentoring; my supervisor y committee members for their time and recommendations; the Sleep Research Lab for their support, Amanda Ross, Natalie Dautovich, Joseph MacNamara, and Joseph Dzierze w ski; my parents, Richard and Rozann Stripling for their unconditional love and unvarying support through my entire educational process; and Rome Cagnina for editing countless copies of this work.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 4 LI ST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 11 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 Ambient Light ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 Biological Underpinning s of the Ambient Light Sleep Relationship ................................ ...... 15 Empirical Support in Animals ................................ ................................ ............................ 15 Empirical Support in Humans ................................ ................................ ............................. 16 Empirical Support in Older Adults ................................ ................................ ..................... 18 Naturalistic Studies of Ambient Light and Sleep in Older Adults ................................ ... 19 Sleep Measurement ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 22 Objective (Actigraphy) Measurement of Sleep ................................ ................................ 22 Subjective Measurement in the Study of S leep ................................ ................................ 24 Factors Influencing the Older Adult Ambient Light/Sleep Relationship ................................ 26 Endogenous Factors ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 26 Physical Health ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 27 Mental Health ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 28 Exogenous Factors ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 29 Summary of the Innovations of the Present Study ................................ ................................ .... 30 PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 34 Specific Aim 1: to E xplore the Relationships between Age, Health, Daytime Functioning, Ambient Light, and Sleep (Objective and Subjective). ................................ .. 34 Hypothesis 1 Relationships between the Age, Health, Daytime Functioni ng, Ambient Light, and the Sleep Variables: ................................ ................................ ....... 34 Specific Aim 2: to Examine the Amount of Variance in Sleep Accounted for by Ambient Light. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 Hypothesis 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 Specific aim 3: What Are the Incremental Contributions of Age, Health, Daytime Functioning, and Ambient Light (in that Order) to the Prediction of Sleep? ...................... 35 Hypothesis 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 36 Participants and Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 36

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6 Measures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 37 Objective Sleep ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 37 Subjective Sleep ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 39 Ambient Light ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 39 Health and Daytime Functioning ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 Demographics and Health Survey ................................ ................................ ...................... 40 Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition ................................ ................................ ...... 40 Stait Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y1 ................................ ................................ .......... 40 Fatigue Severity Scale ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 41 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 41 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 43 Specific Aim 1: to Explore the Relationships between Age, Health, Daytime Functioning, Ambient Light, and Sleep (Objective and Subjective). ................................ .. 43 Specific Aim 2: to Examine the Am ount of Variance in Sleep Accounted for by Ambient Light. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 43 Linear Regressions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 43 Specific aim 3: What Are the Incremental Cont ributions of Age, Health, Daytime Functioning, and Ambient Light (in that Order) to the Prediction of Sleep? ...................... 44 Hierarchical Block Regressions ................................ ................................ .......................... 44 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 48 Review of Study Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 48 Specific Aim 1: to Explore the Relationships between Age, Health, Da ytime Functioning, Ambient Light, and Sleep (Objective and Subjective). ................................ .. 48 Specific Aim 2: to Examine the Amount of Variance in Sleep Accounted for by Ambient Light. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 50 Specific aim 3: What Are the Incremental Contributions of Age, Health, Daytime Functioning, and Ambient Light (in that Order) to the Prediction of Sleep? ...................... 51 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 52 Implications and Future Directions ................................ ................................ ............................ 52 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 53 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 54 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 64

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Sample Characteristics ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 42 5 1 Pearson Correlations between Subjective (Sleep Diary), Objective (Actigraphy) Sleep Variables, and Age, Health, Daytime Functioning Variables, and Am bient Light ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 46 5 2 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Subjective Total Wake Time ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 47

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Visual representation of Mesor, Acrophase and Amplitude. ................................ ............. 33

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Flori da in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science AMBIENT LIGHT AND SLEEP IN COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS By Ashley Mae Stripling May 200 8 Chair: Christina McCrae Major: Psychology Research has shown overall ambient light r elates to various aspects of objective nighttime sleep. However, less research has been conducted examining the relationship between daytime ambient light exposure and subjective sleep. The present study will look more closely at ambient light (lux and exp osure) and how it relates to objective (as measured by actigraphy) and subjective (as measured by sleep diaries) nighttime sleep variables in older adults. A secondary data analysis was conducted using two weeks of actigraphic and sleep diary data collec ted from 103 community dwelling older adults ( M=72.81, SD=7.12 ). Overall, all participants received greater than 3000 lux of light Correlational analyses revealed that greater ambient light was significantly related to less subjective total wake time. L inear regression analyses revealed that ambient light accounted for a small amount of the variance in subjective total wake time (4.9%). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that ambient light did predict a significant amount of the variance in sleep and daytime functioning. These findings demonstrate ambient light is related to sleep; however, not over and beyond other variables that are more commonly used in sleep research and assessm ent.

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10 Several components of the ambient light sleep relationship in older adults have been overlooked in previous research. The present study is innovative, because it is the first to: 1) both concurrently collected o bjective and subjective sleep; 2) implement a longer data collection period; 3) use a novel way to collect ambient; and 4) examine ambient light in the southeastern United States Although the current study provides many innovations, many components of th e ambient light sleep relationship have yet to be explored (i.e., time of day of light and daytime activity). Considering that the current findings demonstrated that ambient light is related to sleep in older adults, although not over and beyond the other sleep related variables examined, future research examining ambient light as a potential intervention for late life insomnia appears warranted. In particular, such research should focus on subpopulations of older adults likely to receive much lower levels of ambient light than the sample of community dwelling older Floridians examined in the present study (i.e., nursing home residents, older adults in more northern geographical locations).

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A number of natural changes occur alo ng with the aging process, many of which can lead to sleep disturbances and insomnia (Kamel & Gammack, 2006) defined as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or poor quality (nonrestorative) sleep for at least one month (American Psychiatric Associat ion, 2000) These problems ha ve been associated with many ill effects such as impaired daytime functioning increased napping decreased quality of life increased likelihood for accidents high health care costs difficulty with attention, memory, and res ponse time as well as psychiatric diseases, especially depression and anxiety ( Ancoli Israel, 2005; Ancoli Israel & Cooke, 2005 ; Leger, 2000; Walsh, 2004 ). Fortunately, poor sleep is not a natural consequence of age. Instead, many age and non age related factors combine to affect sleep (i.e., declines in daytime functioning, and increases in pain, and health conditions) and contribute to sleep disruption in later life ( Bliwise, 2004; Drewes, 1999; Drewes, et al., 2000; Foley et al., 1999; Gislason, & Almq vist, 1987; Mallon, et al., 2002; McCrae et al., 2003; Renko, et al., 2005; Schwartz, et al., 1999; Thorpy, 2004; Whitney et al., 1997; Wilcox, et al., 2000 ). A nother factor that can affect sleep i s the amount of ambient light received Previous research h as shown that overall ambient light relates to various aspects of objective sleep, including sleep consolidation and total wake time ( Hood, 2004; Sakuai & Saski, 1998; Wallace Guy, et al., 2002; Youngstedt, et al. 1999 ) However, very little research has examined the relationship between daytime ambient light exposure and subjective sleep. Similarly, very few studies have examined the light / sleep relationship in community dwelling older adults (Shochat et al., 2000). Therefore the purpose of this stud y is to examine the relationship between ambient light and sleep behavior in older adults.

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12 The present study is innovative because it is the first to : influence on both concurrently collected objective and subjective sleep; 2) i mplement a longer data collection period (12 days) compared to previous studies (2 7 days only), thus provid ing a method to collect ambient light which includes duration and exposure; and 4) examine ambient light in the southeastern United States, a novel geographical location, which has unique conditions that influence light (i.e., milder winters allow individuals to spend more time outdoors raising their light exposure.) Findings re garding the impact of ambient light on sleep could translate into empirically valid ambient light interventions to improve sleep in later life. The subsequent chapters provide an overview of the relevant ambient light and sleep literature. Following this overview, the specific aims, hypotheses, measurements, statistical

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13 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE on adaptation to the 24 hour light/dark cycle which governs the planet. Sunlight plays a particularly important role in this adaptation, because it directly influences the endogenous circadian clock that maintains and organizes our daily biological rhythms including the sleep wake cycle. Although sunlight exerts the most powerful influence on the sleep wake cycle, other sources of ambient light (i.e., artificial light sources) are influential as well. Considering that both physical and cognitive restorati on occurs during sleep, a well regulated sleep wake cycle is essential for optimal functioning. Conversely, poor sleep is detrimental and has been associated with impaired daytime functioning, difficulty with attention, memory, and response time, increase d napping, decreased quality of life, greater likelihood for accidents and psychiatric diseases, especially depression and anxiety (Ancoli Israel, 2005; Ancoli Israel & Cooke, 2005; Leger, 2000; Walsh, 2004) Although t hese consequences impact individuals of all ages, they are frequently more severe for older individuals because these diseases can increase the number of falls (Hill et al., 2007), the likelihood of institutionalization (Ohayon, Caulet & Lemoine, 1996), and the incidences of dementia diagnos e (Kayukawa et al., 1998). Considering that sleep plays such a critical role in human functioning, it is imperative to study factors influencing sleep. Ambient light is one factor influencing sleep. As we age both the amount of ambient light received and the quality of sleep are altered (Campbell et al., 1988 ; Swaab et al., 1985; Swaab et al., 1992 ) Therefore, ambient light sleep patterns boratory conditions has been well established ( Ancoli Israel et al., 2003; Campbell, Dawson, & Anderson, 1993; Loving et al., 2005 ; Youngstedt et al., 2005). However, the relationship between ambient light and sleep

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14 and the factors influencing that relati onship in community dwelling populations has received less attention. Ambient Light Before examining the relationship between ambient light and sleep it is helpful to define ambient light. Ambient light refers to environmental illumination and include s both natural (i.e., sunlight) and artificial light sources (i.e., overhead fluorescent bulbs). Ambient light is endogenous circadian rhythms (Aschoff, 1960). Wh en examining light researchers employ a standard measurement called a lux, which is defined as the illumination from one candle one meter away. Indoor lighting typically ranges from 50 400 lux. Additionally, outdoor light typically ranges from 400 lux at sunrise/sunset to 100,000 lux at noon on an average day. Current literature holds that exposure to 1,000 lux is considered moderately bright light (Kohsaka et al., 1999), 2500 3000 lux is bright light ( Lack & Wright, 1993; Youngstedt, Kripke & Elliott, 200 1), and 10,000 lux is very bright light (Montgomery & Dennis, 2002). The distinction between moderately bright light, bright light, and very bright light is important given that lux above 2,500 3,000, or bright light, is required to entrain sleep changes ( Lack & Wright, 1993; Youngstedt, Kripke & Elliot, 2002). on sleep it is necessary to recognize the underlying mechanism of this process, namely circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are defi ned as the routine physical and mental changes that occur over the course of an approximately 24 hour day. Ambient light regulates our circadian rhythms as a result of its influence on the suprachiasamatic nucleus (SCN). Specifically, ambient light passe s through a direct retina hypothalamic tract (RHT) to the SCN, which is located in the anterior

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15 Eichler, 1972; Stephan & Zucker, 1972), maintains and organizes our phys iological, hormonal, and behavioral rhythms. These rhythms temporally partition our environment into segments of approximately 24 hours and have allowed for adaptations to changes in our environment Under normal exposure to 24 hour cyclic patterns in the our circadian rhythms synchronize to exactly a 24 hour cycle. Biological U nderpinnings of the Ambient Light Sleep Relationship The circadian rhythm cycle is the biological mechanism underlying ambient lig on sleep. Evidence of the biological underpinning has been confirmed in animal models, and is shown produce sleep phase adjustments. E mpirical Support in Animals As previously mentioned, the ambient light governed SCN is the mechanism that underlies the 24 hour circadian rhythm cycle and that controls behavioral rhythms such as the sleep wake cycle The function ian clock or circadian behavioral rhythms generator, is supported by combined lesion and transplantation studies (Ralph et al., 1990; Sujino et al., 2003) During these studies both normal fetal SCN tissue and genetically mutant fetal SCN tissue w ere tr ansplanted into previously SCN lesioned animals The particular genetic mutation used in these studies has been previous found to ca u se the absence of circadian rhythm behaviors, shown through a complete lack of sleep wake patterns. After the transplantati on, the normal fetal SCN tissue restored the circadian rhythm behaviors of the SCN mutant animals and the SCN mutant tissue caused the previously normal SCN lesioned animals to no longer display circadian rhythms behaviors In other words, the cells of the SCN region appear to determine the basic period of the endogenous circadian rhythm which controls behavioral rhythms such as sleep

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16 Under normal expos ure to a 24 hour cyclic pattern in the environment (such as light and darkness), an organism s endogenou s circadian rhythms, and thus behavioral rhythms such as sleep, synchronize exactly to the 24 hour cycle However, when placed in constant darkness, organisms sift to rhythms in which they are forced to rely only on endogenous cue s (Zhang, et al, 2006) These free running circadian rhythm s may be shorter or longer than 24 hours and result in phase advances or phase delays in sleeping patterns Therefore, light exposure is highly important in maintaining 24 hour rhythms. Empirical Support in Humans S sleep wake behavioral rhythms On a neural level, t he SCN regulates a system of interconnected but neurochemically distinct cells dedicated to sleep fun ctions including the initiation and maintenance of arousal, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non REMS (Mistlberger, 2005). A mbient light exposure employs the SCN to induce shifts from sleep to wake and wake to sleep (Dijk & Lockley, 2002), as well as t o adjust sleep phases. For example, ambient light received earlier in the day can result in a circadian phase advance shift, causing an individual to fall asleep and wake up at an earlier time Conversely, ambient light received later in the day can result in a phase delay shift, causing the individual to fall asleep and wake up at a later time (Duffy, Zeitzer & Czeisler, 2006). Thus, in humans ambient light exposure can alter the timing of wake to sleep. In humans, the measurement of ambient light is mul tifaceted. Given the various ways ambient light can be measured d escriptions of different light measurement s may clarify the following section Light measures include below are as follows: the light mesor, mean amplitude, light acrophase and threshold lim its (Figure 2 1) The light mesor is the average value around which light and darkness oscillates. The light mesor represents the average amount of light received over a 24 hour cycle and includes both daytime and night time light The use of the

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17 mesor pr esents a problem, because it includes time when the participants were asleep or not receiving light. As a result, the mesor can not accurately reflect either daytime or nighttime light but rather creates a variable blending daytime and nighttime light whic h leads to a very low estimate of light as seen in Youngstedt and colleagues discussed below. The mean amplitude (Figure 2 maximum disturbance in the medium (a degree near the middle of a range) during one wave cycle or the average of the highest light peaks for each 24 hour period. The acrophase (Figure 2 ) is the time at which the peak of a rhythm occurs. Although innovative, the mean amplitude and acrophase are limited measures of light as well. The amplitude provides only the average of the peaks, so it is unable to distinguish duration and amount of time spent under this particular lux. Thus, an individual may be receiving light over a 2,500 3,000 lux threshold but may not be spending the necessary 30 to 240 minutes to induce changes in sleep (Campbell & Dawson, 1991; Campbell et al., 1993; Kohsaka et al, 1998; Lack & Scumacher, 1993; Sakakibara, et al, 1999). The acrophase is also limited as a measure because it only provides the time at which the a mplitude occurs and does not contribute information about the duration that light was received. The last light measurement is a threshold limit which assesses the mean number of minutes in 24 hours spent over a certain period of lux The threshold approac h examines light received during the active period of the day instead of over an entire 24 hour day because sunlight is generally the only light that reaches the minimum threshold of effective lux 2,500 3,000 lux. However, the threshold limits used in the Youngstedt and colleagues study of which the largest was 2,000 lux may be too low. Literature suggests that sleep is affected by a minimum of bright light at 2,500 3,000 lux (Lack & Wright, 1993; Youngstedt, Kripke & Elliot, 2002) and by the brightness recommended by researche r s and clinicians for most people is very

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18 bright light at 10,000 lux (Montgomery & Dennis, 2002). Consequently, Youngstedt and colleagues (1999) examined threshold limits that do not take into account bright light. Thus, an accurate measure is also limited in that it only measures duration above a threshold and not duration though specific levels of lux. The current study employs a measure, Total Expos ure, which gives such a measurement. Empirical Support in Older Adults R esearch in older adults has demonstrated induce sleep shift s in both the wake and sleep phase s the ability of controlled amounts of ambient light to impro ve sleep and the association between low exposure to ambient light and increased sleep disturbances Experimental studies have been conducted in controlled settings in order to determine the effects of high intensity bright light on older adults These br ight light treatment studies revealed that light exposure does have an effect on specific nighttime sleep parameters in older adults. Specifically, studies have found exposure to bright light is associated with better objective sleep (Campbell & Dawson, 1 991; Campbell et al., 1993; Kohsaka et al, 1999; Kohsaka et al., 2000; Lack & Scumacher, 1993 ; Sakakibara et al., 1999 ) and better subjective sleep (Kobayashi et al., 1999; Lack & Scumacher, 1993) Conversely, older adults who receive insufficient ambien t light exposure show sleep disturbance (Wallace Guy et al., 2002). However, evidence of the relationship between insufficient ambient light exposure and poor sleep in community dwelling older adults is scant (Shochat et al., 2000). To date, there have on ly been four studies ( Hood, 2004; Sakuai & Saski, 1998; Wallace Guy, et al., 2002; Youngstedt, et al.,1999 ) which have explored this relationship. Those four studies and their limitations are discussed in the following section. The following

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19 section also makes distinctions between objective and subjective sleep. Objective sleep measures, unlike subjective sleep measure s do not include an Further discussion of this distinction may be found in the Measurements of Sleep sec tion. Naturalistic Studies of Ambient Light and Sleep in Older Adults Sakuai and Saski (1998) studied older Japanese men and found associations between decreased light exposure and poor objective sleep This study is noteworthy; because it was the fi rst to provide baseline information for the average s of the entire rhythm s of both sleep and light 1) Unfortunately, interpreting the results of this study is complicated, because the researchers d id not provide a clear definition of their light exposure variable. Additionally, there are limitations associated with using the mesor to measure sleep and light exposure For example, the sleep mesor consists of both the sleep and the wake periods of t he sleep cycle, and the light mesor consists of both the light and the dark periods of the daylight cycle. Thus, the sleep mesor is the average value around which sleep and wake oscillate. As a result, the sleep mesor contributes broad 24 hour informatio n about the sleep wake rhythm, but does not take into account idiosyncrasies of these rhythms. Idiosyncrasies of these rhythms include sleep fragmentation and nighttime awakenings, which often occur more frequently in older adults and only occur during the sleep section of the rhythm. Since these idiosyncrasies only occur during the sleep portion of the sleep mesor this information is averaged out and lost. The light mesor as described above, is the average value around which light and darkness oscillates. As such, the light mesor measure is limited and likely results in a value that does not accurately reflect either daytime or nighttime light but rather creates a variable blending daytime and nighttime light. Additional limitations of the Sakuai and Sask i (1998) study include a short data collection period of 3 4 days, absence of a subjective measure of sleep, and restriction of the sample to men.

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20 Youngstedt and colleagues (1999) examined independently living older adults in San Diego and found associat ions between decreased illumination levels, greater objective nighttime wakefulness, and longer objective sleep onset latency The study examined two groups: 1) those with complaints of insomnia or depression who were interested in a bright light treatment study and 2) 24 volunteers selected by phone. The researchers choose to use only objective measures of light and sleep for the 5 7 day data collection. The study looked at characteristics of sleep (i.e., wakefulness during the night and sleep onset latenc y) which is an improvement on the sleep mesor used in the Sakuai and Saski (1998) study. However, the study was limited in the selection of the light measure s The study used a 24 hour light mesor as well as a measure of mean amplitude an acrophase, and a threshold measure, which assessed the mean number of minutes in the 24 hours spent over 100 200 1,000 and 2,000 lux. To clarify the previously discussed results, the acrophase and amplitude were not significantly related to sleep, the 100 lux thresho ld was related to longer objective sleep onset latency and the light mesor was associated with greater objective nighttime wakefulness, and longer objective sleep onset latency Although the mean amplitude acrophase, and threshold measures are improvement s in the measurement of light, the use of the mesor remains a limitation. As a result, the average mesor value of 447 lux in this study is very likely an underestimation of the amount of bright light received by the participants. Wallace Guy and colleag ues (2002) studied postmenopausal women and found associations between greater overall ambient light and reduced objective time to fall asleep and reduced objective wake time during sleep (Wallace Guy et al., 2002) The study used a convenience sample from women aged 51 to 81 (mean age = 66.7). Similar to the studies by Youngstedt and colleagues

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21 (1999) and Sakuai and Saski (1998), Wallace Guy and colleagues used the light mesor, which, as previo usly discussed, is likely an underestimate of the amount of bright light received. Other limitations of this study include the use of a female only sample, a short seven day collection period, and only an objective measure of sleep. Most recently, H ood (2004) examined light in Australian older adults and found that light exposure over 3000 lux was associated with better objective sleep consolidation It is important sholds of 500 lux, 1,000 lux, and 3,000) represents an improvement over previous studies threshold analyses because this approach examines light received over a bright light threshold of 3,000. As discussed above, bright light has been shown to affect sle ep once it reaches 2,500 3,000 lux ( Lack & Wright, 1993; Youngstedt, Kripke & Elliot, 2002). As discussed above, the use of thresholds to measure light, although an improvement over the mesor, does not account for a full picture of the overall total expos ure to light received by an individual. The overall total exposure provides an exact measurement of the duration of the amount of light received. study was innovative in that the assessment of the relationship between ambient light and sleep includ ed both objective and subjective measures of sleep. Hood used nocturnal immobility as a measure of objective sleep. Nocturnal immobility is defined as the number of zero mobility epochs (epoch = a 16 second interval) and provides an indication of sleep co nsolidation (i.e., the extent to which sleep is not interrupted by bouts of wakefulness). Subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; Buysse et al., 1989), which is a retrospective, self report questionnaire that assesses sleep quality and disturbance over a one month period. Although the inclusion of a subjective sleep measure was innovative, the PSQI provides only a global measure of sleep quality. Additionally, the PSQI is

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22 a retrospective measure and, therefore, is sub ject to recall bias. Another limitation of this study is that Hood was not able to make any direct objective versus subjective sleep comparisons, because the objective and subjective sleep variables covered different time periods (i.e., a 3 day period for nocturnal immobility versus the past 30 days for the PSQI) Sleep Measurement adults has concentrated on the relationship between ambient light and objective sleep However, the addition of subjective sleep, as seen in the aforementioned Hood study, is extremely important for a myriad of reasons. These include discrepancies in objective and subjective of sleep, and the implication of this inclusion for the current study. There are well documented discrepancies between subjective and objective measurements of sleep ( Broman et al., 1992; Kushida et al., 2001; Morin, 2003; Vignola et al., 2000). More specifically, actigraphy has been found to significantly overestimate total sleep time and sleep efficiency compared to subjective sleep measures (Kushida et al., 2001). Additionally, subjective measurements have been found to be less sensitive than acti graphy a measure of objective sleep, for documenting nighttime awakenings (Broman et al., 1992; Kushida et al., 2001 ; Vignola et al., 2000 ). These discrepancies stem from the fact that objective and subjective assessments measure different aspects of slee p experience (Coates et al., 1982). Objective (Actigraphy) Measurement of Sleep (2004) study, researchers focused solely on objectively measured sleep when examining the relationship between ambient light and sleep in older adults Obje ctive sleep measurements allow for the observation of sleep behaviors without inclusion of an

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23 of sleep and thus do not experience decay due to recall. Decay du e to recall involves misestimating the length of time taken to fall asleep or the number and length of awakenings during the night due to recording the information the following morning. Thus, objectively measured sleep can detect the influence of ambient light on sleep behaviors and has implications for the underlying biological nature of this relationship. Actigraphy is the most commonly used objective measure. An actigraph is a small lightweight, limb worn device that contains an accelerometer that al lows it to detect activity (i.e., limb movements). The activity information is used to determine whether an individual is asleep or awake (little/no movement = sleep, movement = wake). Another objective sleep measure, polysomnography (PSG or sleep EEG), is objective assessment of sleep; however, it is too expensive for naturalistic, longitudinal data collection. Thus, actigraphy is the preferred method for such data collection for a number of reasons in cluding: it is less expensive than PSG; it environments; it provides concurrent ambient light information (on models that are equipped with a light sensor); and it distinguishes between sleep/wake cycles (Ancoli Israel e t al., 2003). Additionally, because participants can wear an actigraph while engaging in their normal daily activities, actigraphy can be used throughout both day and night, providing data otherwise unobtainable with night only PSG recordings (Ancoli Israe l et al., 2003). Currently, there are only 2 available actigraphs Actiwatch L (Mini Mitter, Inc) and Actillume (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc ), which are capable of collecting both activity and light information. Unfortunately, direct comparison of the lig ht analysis properties of these two devices has not yet been conducted so reliability comparisons cannot be reported. However, comparisons of these devices in terms of their ability to record sleep properties have shown that they provide similar

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24 overall performance (Benson et al., 2004). The present study utilizes the Actiwatch L (Mini Mitter, Inc) to measure both light and objective sleep over a 12 day period in community dwelling older adults. Subjective Measurement in the Study of Sleep Even thoug h objective sleep assessments provide important information regarding the ambient light and sleep relationship; this relationship does not occur in isolation subjective perception of sleep which is removed from measurements of objective s leep, may also alter the ambient light sleep relationship. An i important given that those who sleep poorly may have developed cognitive processes which result in perceive d poor sleep when they sleep well and ove restimat ion of the impact of actual sleep loss (Harvery, 2002; Semler & Harvey, 2005). The se perceptions and overestimations of poor sleep are associated with impaired daytime functioning (i.e. excessive worry, distress, and fatigue) as well as a tendency to engage in behaviors (i.e. staying in bed to catch up on sleep) that may alter the amount of ambient light received (Morin, 1993; Semler & Harvey, 2005). It appears that the actual amount of sleep, as obtained by objective measures, is no t only a different aspect of the sleep experience but also differently affects daytime functioning and behaviors In relation to the ambient light and sleep relationship i ndividuals that engage in altered daytime behaviors such as spending time in bed to c atch up on sleep may be increasing exposure to artificial light or choos ing to spend more time without receiving any exposure to sun light at all This adjustment in ambient light could mean that individuals are not receiving the lux needed to produce phase shift changes in sleep. Poor perceptions of sleep tend to be chronic in older adults. Insomnia, which is defined as subjective complaints of poor sleep (i.e. difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or poor quality sleep) for at least six months (Am erican Psychiatric Association, 2000), tend s to last an average

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25 of 7 to 12 years in older adults (McCrae, 2003 ; McCrae, 2006) ). It is not only the chronic nature of this disorder that is a concern in older adults but also the prevalence rate, which more than doubles from 1 10% in the general adult population to 25% in the older adult population (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Other studies show even higher prevalence rates in older adults, up to 50%, for poor sleep complaints, which can only be measured subjectively (Vitiello, 2000). In fact, insomnia is the most common sleep disturbance affecting older adults (Kamel & Gammack, 2006). The issue of high prevalence rates and the chronic nature of sleep disorders in older adults are made salient when examining the consequences of these sleep disorders P oor sleep perceptions, particularly in the case of insomnia, ha ve been associated with impaired daytime functioning difficulty with attention, memory, and response time increased napping decre ased quality of life greater likelihood for accidents and psychiatric diseases, especially depression and anxiety (Ancoli Israel, 2005; Ancoli Israel & Cooke, 2005 ; Leger, 2000; Walsh, 2004 ). The consequences for the individual are compounded by the econ omical consequence of insomnia. The estimated direct costs of insomnia are $13.9 billion annually (Walsh, 2004). Consequently, it is of importance both for the individual and for society to discover how perception of sleep affects the ambient light and sl eep relationship in older adults. Given these consequences, which may be uniquely linked to subjective sleep perception, the addition of subjective measurement to the study of the ambient light and sleep relationship is warranted. Previous inclusion of a subjective sleep measure (occurring in the Hood [2004] study) was limited in that the measure selected was a monthly retrospective measure of subjective sleep that was not directly comparable to the objective sleep measurement. The current study addresses this limitation by measuring objective and subjective sleep concurrently over 12 days. Given that

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26 sleep has been shown to fluctuate considerably from night to night concurrent measure s as well as an increased data collection period are important when asse ssing both objective and subjective sleep. Sleep diaries are a measurement of subjective sleep that have become a staple of sleep assessment for a myriad of reasons including: practicality and ease of training for home use; clinical utility for capturing change over time; reliability for assessing sleep patterns when compared to PSG; validity in the quantification of the sleep complaint; representation of qualitative information; measurement of daytime sleep activities (napping); and relevance for monitori ng treatment progress (Lichstein & Morin, 2000). Sleep diaries are the recommended method for assessing insomnia and are more widely used in research and practice than actigraphy (McCrae et al., 2005). Therefore, sleep diaries were employed to measure sub jective sleep in the current study (Lichstein et al., 1999). Factors Influencing the Older Adult Ambient Light/Sleep Relationship Examining the impact of ambient light on the sleep wake cycle in older adults is particularly challenging because endogenous age related changes in the SCN combine with other age related changes (both physical and mental) and the weakening of exogenous cues to affect the sleep wake cycle Endogenous Factors The ability of light to regulate the sleep wake cycle decreases wit h age. This can be attributed to several factors, including decreased neuronal activity of the SCN, decreased ophthalmic functioning, and poor physical and mental health As individuals age, their ability to synthesize vasopressin, one of the main pepti des in the SCN, is reduced As a result, there is an overall decrease in the neuronal activity of the SCN (Swaab et al., 1985; Swaab et al., 1992). As a result both the amplitude and the length of the

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27 sleep wake cycle decline. Additionally, reduced SCN activity is associated with an increased propensity for internal desynchronization of the sleep wake cycle with other circadian rhythms ( Brock, 1991; Monk, 1989; Richardson, 1990; Touitou & Haus, 1992). When internal desynchronization of the sleep wake cyc le occurs, the sleep wake cycle is no longer in harmony with other circadian rhythms such as locomotor activity (skeletal and muscular movement), body temperature, and feeding rhythms. This internal desynchronization results in various consequences for ph ysiological and psychological well being, such as sleep disorders, gastrointestinal complaints, respiratory problems, and psychological disturbance ( Aanonsen, 1959; Akerstedt & Gillberg, 1981; di Pietralata, et al., 1990; Moore Ede, et al., 1982; Reinberg & affect sleep and optimal functioning may be diminished through an altered SCN. Other age related endogenous changes also affect the regulation of the sleep wake cycle. Ophthalmic functioning, for example, decreases with age Specifically, there is a reduction in pupil diameter as well as a yellowing of the lens (Hughes & Neer, 1981; Teresi et al., 1994) which attenuates light transmission though the eye. Th e pigmentation of the lens specifically decreases shortwave light transmission to the retina. The circadian clock mechanism is most sensitive to shortwave or blue light, so decreases in transmission of this type of light may be particularly detrimental. T hus, with age, a reduction in various ophthalmic functions combine s wake cycle Physical Health In addition to decreased ophthalmic functioning and an altered SCN, aging is al so associated with an increase in medical and health conditions. Previous research demonstrates a relationship between increased chronological age and decreased organ functioning (Durakovic & Misigoj Durakovic, 2006). Poor health in general may also be a factor influencing the ambient

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28 light and sleep relationship. Not only do those with poorer health spend less time outdoors engaging in activity, thus decreasing possible exposure to ambient light, but poor health has been associated with poor sleep. In fac t, many medical conditions contribute to objective sleep disruption in later life, including osteoarthritis (Wilcox, et al., 2000) rheumatoid arthritis (Drewes, et al., 2000) and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (Thorpy, 2004) and Alzhe imer's disease (Bliwise, 2004). Medical conditions such as coronary artery disease (Mallon, et al., 2002) and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Renko, et al., 2005; Gislason, & Almqvist, 1987) can also contribute to subjective sleep disruptions in later life Due to medical conditions' known impact on sleep and the increase in medical conditions with increased age, it is important to control for medical conditions when examining the ambient light and sleep relationship in older adults. Mental Health Po orer daytime functioning is another factor influencing the ambient light and sleep relationship Associations have been found between individuals' perception of sleep and impaired daytime functioning (i.e. excessive worry, distress, and fatigue) as well a s a tendency to engage in behaviors (i.e. staying in bed to catch up on sleep) that will reduce the amount of ambient light received and impact future sleep (Morin, 1993; Semler & Harvey). Factors affecting daytime functioning such as depression and anxi ety may uniquely affect the ambient light and sleep relationship An estimated two million older adults have a depressive illness and another five million may have depressive symptoms (Narrow, 1998). Additionally, anxious and depressive symptoms are often comorbid in all age groups (Feldman, 1993; Master & Cloninger, 1990) and may be even more correlated in older adults (Lawton, Kleban, & Dean, 1993). Previous research has shown associations between higher levels of depressive symptomatology and low exposur e to ambient light ( Espiritu et al., 1994; Jean Louis et al., 2005;

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29 Kripke et al., 2004; Oren et al., 1994 ; Youngstedt et al., 1999). Symptoms of depression include psychomotor retardation, fatigue and diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all activities Those experiencing these symptoms may spend less time active and outdoors, thus decreasing possibly exposure to ambient light. There is also evidence to support the association between depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms (Foley et al., 1999; McCrae et al., 2003). Thus, due to the effects of depression and anxiety on sleep, it is important to control for these above and beyond these daytime funct ioning variables. Fatigue is another specific daytime functioning factor which affects the ambient light and sleep relationship through lower activity thus decreasing exposure to ambient light. The lower activity level brought on by fatigue may also contribute to poor sleep. This is shown by previous research finding an association between fatigue and insomnia symptoms (Whitney et al., 1997). Thus, just as recommended for the dayti me functioning variables of anxiety and depression, it is important fatigue. Exogenous Factors In addition to the endogenous reduction in SCN efficiency, ophthal mic function, and other age related changes in both physical and mental health research has shown that exogenous cues, such as lower exposure to ambient light and lower physical activity, influence circadian rhythm regulation ight exposure, an exogenous cue, might be insufficient for maintaining optimal circadian rhythm regulation One study found that on average, independent older adults receive only one hour of natural light a day, or only 59 minutes above 2000 lux

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30 (Campbell et al., 1988). Indoor lighting typically ranges from 50 400 lux and outdoor light typically ranges from 400 lux at sunrise/sunset to 100,000 lux at noon on an average day. Therefore, according to the study by Campbell and colleagues (1988), older adults ar e experiencing decreased exposure to outdoor ambient light. An additional exogenous factor includes lifestyle changes that may reduce bright light exposure Older adults tend to engage in less vigorous daily physical activity (Van Someren et al., 1994), which can be related to less outdoor activity. In summation, both endogenous and exogenous cues affect light and the lifestyle choices we make as we age Thus, in order to fully understand the relationship between sleep and light in older adults, a nat exposure during their normal daily lives is absolutely essential. Summary of the Innovations of the Present Study Previous research has examined the connection between objectively measured sleep and ambient light However, gaps still remain in the existing research. The current study holds specific innovations over previous research. These innovations include the inclusion of a subjective measurement of sleep, use of an extended m easurement period, use of a novel measure of light, and conducting observations in a new geographical area. The first innovation of the current study is the use of a subjective, as well as an objective, in depth analysis of the relationship between lig ht and sleep in a sample of older adults As described more fully above, there are well documented discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep. These discrepancies stem from the fact that objective and subjective sleep measures assess different as pects of sleep. Previous research through both controlled and

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31 sleep, which is used in diagnosing sleep disorders prevalent in older adults. Thus, the combination of measures of both objective and subjective sleep allow researchers the opportunity to more fully understand the ambient light sleep relationship in olde r adults by taking into account the perception of sleep. The second innovation of the present study involves significantly extending the measurement periods used in previous research As discussed earlier, existing studies have examined ambient light a nd sleep over periods ranging from 2 7 days. The present study examines ambient light and sleep over a period of almost two weeks. The two week data collection is almost twice as long as the longest period of data collection in previous studies. This is of particular importance given that sleep and light exposure show variability across time. Thus, the extended data collection period in the present study will provide a more representative view of the amount of ambient light and sleep obtained by older ind ividuals because it includes more instances (days) during which to account for variability. Another innovation of the current study is the method of measurement of ambient light Previous research has used the light mesor, mean amplitude, acrophase, and threshold measurements to examine light. As discussed above, the light mesor represents the average amount of light received over a 24 hour cycle and includes both daytime and nighttime light. The mesor presents a problem, because it includes time when the participants were asleep or not receiving light. As a result, the mesor leads to a very low estimate of light. The mean amplitude provides the average of the highest light peaks for each 24 hour period and the acrophase is the time at which this peak occ urs. These measurements are limited due to an inability to distinguish duration, amount of time, spent under this particular lux. As a result, individuals may be receiving enough light ; however, they may not be receiving light for a long enough duration to

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32 induce changes in sleep. The threshold approach does provide duration, minutes received over a threshold set by the researcher; however, minutes over a certain threshold does not provide a full picture of the light received. Although the information provi ded allows for an idea of the duration of effective light, it does not allow for an exact measurement of the duration of the amount of light received. The current study employs a measure, Total Exposure, which provides such a measurement. Finally, the pres ent study extends our knowledge of the ambient light and sleep relationship to a new geographical area the southeastern United States Previous studies have collected data in Japan, Australia, and San Diego. Geographic location, seasons, and behavior (e. g. choice of indoor vs. outdoor environment) have been found to strongly influence human ambient light exposure (Cole et al., 1995). Data collection in the southeastern United States is important due to its unique regional weather conditions, as well as t older adults. These regional conditions include the seasonal and geographic circumstances (average annual temperature of 68.4F) that culminate in milder winters. Mild southeastern winters may cause older adults to increase the a mount of daytime hours spent outdoors throughout the year and thus increase exposure to light. In conclusion, the present study addresses the limitations of and extends previous research, by naturalistically observing the relationship between ambient ligh t and both objective and subjective sleep over a two week period in community dwelling older individuals in the southeastern United States.

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33 Figure 2 1. Visual representation of Mesor, Acrophase and Amplitude.

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34 CHAPTER 3 PURPOSE AND HYPOTHES ES The g eneral goal of the current study is to examine the relationship between ambient light : Specific Aim 1: to Explore the R elationships between Age, H ealth, Daytime Functioning A mbient L ight, and Sleep (Objective and S ubjective). Hypothes is 1 Relationships between the Age, H ealth, Daytime Functioning, Ambient L ight, and the Sleep V ariables: Age will be negatively correlated with objective and subjective sleep. Specifically i ncreased age will be positively correlated to total wake time o/s and negatively correlated to total sleep time o/s Poorer health will be associated with poorer objective and subjective sleep. Specifically, number of medical conditions will be positively co rrelated to total wake time o/s and negatively correlated to total sleep time o/s Measures of d aytime functioning including depression, anxiety, and fatigue, will be associated with both objective and subjective sleep. Specifically, these daytime functioni ng measures will be negatively correlated with total sleep time o/s and positively correlated to total wake time o/s Greater ambient light (total exposure) will be associated with better objective and subjective sleep. Specifically, ambient light (total exp osure) will be negatively correlated with total wake time o/s and positively correlated with total sleep time o/s Additional regression analys e s will then be performed on all variables that showed significant bivariate correlations. Sp ecific Aim 2: to Exa mine the Amount of Variance in Sleep A ccounted for by Ambient L ight. Hypothesis 2 Ambient light is expected to account for a significant amount of the variance in both objective and subjective sleep. Specifically, greater ambient light (total exposure) wi ll positively

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35 predict total sleep time o/s and negatively predict total wake time o/s We will perform linear regression analysis on all variables that showed significant bivariate correlations in Aim 1. Aim 2 will examine how much variance in sleep is acco unted for by ambient light alone. T his analysis will allow for a comparison to the results of Aim 3, which examines how much variance in sleep is accounted for by ambient light when the other variables that were associated with sleep in Aim 1 are also cons idered. Specific aim 3: What A re the Incremental C ontributions of Age, H ealth, D aytime Functioning, and A mbient Light (in that Order) to the Prediction of S leep? Hypothesis 3 Considering the effects of ambient light, medical conditions, depression, anxie ty, and fatigue on sleep, it is important to control for these particular daytime functioning factors in H ierarchical block regression analys e s will be performed for all variables that showed significant bivariate correlations in Aim 1. It is expected that a mbient light will account for a significant increase in for by age, heal th, and daytime functioning.

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36 CHAPTER 4 METHODS Participants and Procedure A secondary data analysis was performed with data previously collected by McCrae and colleagues (2005). A convenience sample of 116 adults, aged 60 years and older, residing in Nor th Central Florida were recruited through media advertisements, community groups, and flyers to participate in a study of sleep patterns in older adults Interested individuals were screened in two phases: a brief telephone interview (15 20 minutes) follow ed by a 1 1.5 hr in person interview conducted either in the individual's home (76%) or at a local continuing care retirement center (24%). Exclusionary criteria included: a. younger than 60 years; b. self report of sleep disorder diagnoses other than inso mnia (e.g., sleep apnea, narcolepsy); c. self report of symptoms suggestive of other sleep disorders (e.g., heavy snoring, gasping for breath, leg jerks, daytime sleep attacks); d. severe psychiatric disorders (e.g., thought disorders, depression); e. cogn itive impairment (i.e., scoring in the impaired range on 3 or more subtests of the Cognistat (Kiernan et al., 1987) ; f. psychotropic or other medications (e.g., beta blockers) known to alter sleep; and g. medical conditions that impaired ability to be com pletely independent in normal daily functions. Thirteen individuals were ineligible for reasons including age, dementia diagnosis, medication, sleep apnea diagnosis, and suspected sleep apnea. Thus, the final sample consisted of 103 participants. All were living in their own homes during the study. The majority of the sample was Caucasian (96%), female (64%), and married (71%). See Table 4 1 for other sample characteristics. All participants read and signed an informed consent form approved by the Univers ity of Florida Institutional Review Board. Afterwards, the Cognistat, a sleep history interview, and the demographics and health survey were administered and both the sleep diaries and the Actiwatch

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37 L were explained to the participants. At the end of the first week of the study, the sleep diaries were collected from the participants, and data was downloaded from the Actiwatch L Then, at the end of the second week, the sleep diaries and Actiwatch L data were collected and the Beck Depression Inventory Se cond Edition (BDI II, Beck, Steer & Garbin, 1996) State Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y1 (STAI Y1, Spielberger et al., 1983) and the Fatigue Severity Scale ( FSS, Krupp et al., 1989) were administered. Measures Objective Sleep This method involved the plac ement of the Actiwatch L a device roughly resembling a wrist watch, on the non dominant wrist. The Actiwatch L which monitors gross motor activity, consists of an omnidirectional, piezoelectric accelerometer with a sensitivity of 0.01 g force. The acc elerometer located within the device collected peak value samples 32 times per second for each 30 second epoch and then compared across multiple samples to assess whether the ak activity count (i.e., the sum of the peak values) was then downloaded to a PC and analyzed by the software Actiware Sleep vol. 3.0 (Mini Mitter, 2001) using a validated algorithm to identify the epoch as sleep or wake (Oakley, 1997). The software provid ed three default sensitivity settings (high, medium, low). We utilized high sensitivity because it provides excellent correlation with PSG for total sleep time (.95) in healthy older adults (Colling et al., 2000) and for total sleep time (.73) and sleep on set latency (.93) in individuals with insomnia (Cook et al., 2004). The threshold for high sensitivity is 20 activity counts. If the peak activity count for an epoch was > 20, it was scored as wake. If the peak activity was, < 20, the determination of slee p/wake was made by examining the activity in the surrounding 2 minutes using the following equation: Total Activity Epoch A

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38 = E A 4 (.04) + E A 3 (.04) + E A 2 (.20) + E A 1 (.20) + E A (2) + E A+1 (.20) + E A+2 (.20) + E A+3 (.04) + E A+4 (.04 ), where A = activity count for the epoch being scored, and E A+/ 1 4 = activity count in adjacent epochs. If Total Activity Epoch A (i.e., weighted sum of activity counts) exceeded the threshold of 20, then Epoch A was scored as wake; otherwise, it was sc ored as sleep. In summary, wrist movement wa s collected, downloaded into a computer program and analyzed to determine if an individual wa s experiencing wake or sleep for each 30 second epoch. From this movement data, a computer program mathematically assig n ed a time period as either wake or sleep T he information collected was used to calculate the following sleep variables: 1. total wake time o [ TWT o ]: sum of all wake epochs within the sleep period; and 2. total sleep time o [ TST o ]: sum of all sleep epochs w ithin the sleep period. Means were computed for each variable for the 12 days for which there was both ambient light and concurrent sleep information. Actigraphy has valid criterion validity when compared to PSG (.80) and high test retest reliability (0.92 ; Ancoli Israel et al., 2003). There were no equipment failures and data loss was minimal. In regards to compliance, a few participants (n = 3) removed their Actiwatch L during the day. Although the duration was less than 3 hours, and all participants rep laced the watch several hours before bedtime, these days were removed from the analysis. The removal of this data was due to the need to analyze light data collected during the day It reduced the data of these participants to 11 days of data instead of 12 A few other participants (n = 3) left their watches off for an entire day (24 hours). These participants wore their watches and completed their sleep diaries an additional day immediately following the study period (e.g., day 15). This additional day w as substituted for the watch off day when averaging the daytime variable of ambient light. Finally, a single participant neglected to wear the watch during week 2, and was dropped from the analysis.

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39 Thus, for all but three participants, as described above, we have concurrent sleep diary and actigraphy data for 12 days. Subjective Sleep Sleep dairies (Lichstein et al., 1999) were completed each morning for 12 consecutive days and provided the following variables : 1. total wake time s [ TWT s ]: time spent awak e from entrance into bed to time out of bed in the morning; and 2. total sleep time s [ TST s ]: computed by subtracting total wake time from time in bed The mean value for each variable over the 12 day recording period was calculated. Compliance with diary c ompletion was exceptionally high. Of the 2,472 possible data cells (2 sleep diary variables x 12 days x 103 participants), only 70 were absent (2.83%). Ambient Light The Actiwatch L (Mini Mitter Co. Inc) also provided data on ambient light The Actiware S leep v. 5.0 light analysis program (Mini Mitter, 2005) was used to examine ambient light. The start of the daytime period was defined as reported out of bed time and the end was defined as the reported in bed time according to the sleep diaries. The actog ram was also examined to detect any inconsistencies in reported in and out of bed times and activity levels. When inconsistencies were detected, they were generally minor (i.e., 45 minutes on average, range 10 60 minutes). In those cases, the in and ou t of bed times were adjusted by the researcher to match the actogram. Similar to the nighttime sleep analysis, a 30 second epoch was used. The light variable provided by the software was total exposure [TotExp]: total daytime exposure in lux multiplied by 0.5 minutes. This light variable provides the amount of lux received each 30 second epochs multiplied by the number of 30 second epochs the individual was exposed to the light.

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40 Health and Daytime Functioning Demographics and Health Survey (Lichstein et al., 2003) is a two page questionnaire with 13 items on demographics, sleep disorders symptoms, physical health, and mental health For the purpose of this study, one item was taken from the demographics and health survey medical conditions. Medical c onditions were defined as the number reported from the following list: heart attack, other heart problems, (asthma, emphysema, allergies), urinary problems (kidne y disease, prostate problems), diabetes, pain (arthritis, back pain, migraines), and gastrointestinal disorders (stomach, irritable bowels, ulcers, gastric reflux). Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI II; Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996) is a 21 item measure assessing the severity of depressive symptoms. Respondents were asked to describe themselves based on the previous two weeks. The 21 BDI II items are scored on a 4 point scale with item scores ranging from 0 3 and total scores range from 0 63. The BDI II has demonstrated sufficient internal consistency reliability (.90) and concurrent validity ( .69 .76) The BDI II total scores ranging from 0 to 13 28 represent 1996). Stait Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y1 (STAI Y1; Spielberger et al., 1983) contains 20 self descriptive statements indicating how the respondent felt "right n ow, at this moment" on a 4 point scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 4 (very much so). Total scores range from 20 to 80. STAI Y1 demonstrates test retest reliability exceeding .7 and reliably distinguishes patient and normal groups, higher scores

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41 indicate greater maladjustment ( Novy, et al., 1993; Spielberger et al., 1983) Sample items Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS; Krupp et al., 1989) is a 9 item questionnaire used to measure subjective severity of fatigue. The respondents were asked to indicate agreement with questionnaire items on a 7 point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). Responses were averaged across the 9 items, yielding a possible score range of 1 to 7. Higher scores indicate higher le vels of fatigue. The FSS showed high internal consistency (.88; Laberge et al., 2005), taps multiple dimensions and estimates general fatigue (Schwartz et al., 1993) and appears to measure fatigue separate from daytime sleepiness (Lichstein et al., 1997). Statistical A nalysis Bivariate correlations were used to explore the relationships between ambient light, age, health, daytime functioning, and sleep (objective and subjective). Next, two sets of regression analyses were performed based on the resultin g associations between the variables of interest identified in the bivariate correlations First, linear regressions were conducted to examine the amount of variance in sleep accounted for by ambient light alone. Second, hierarchical multiple regression an alyses were conducted to determine the incremental contributions of age, health, daytime functioning, and ambient light (in that order) to the prediction sleep. The incremental n the assessment of sleep was of primary interest.

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42 Table 4 1. Sample Characteristics Total Sample N = 103 Mean ( Standard Deviation ) Age 72.90 (6.86) Education (years) 16.16 (3.02) Conditions 2.00 (1.59) Daytime Functioni ng FSS 3.45 (1.42) STAI 39.98 (8.55) BDI II 5.28 (4.75) Sleep Variables (minutes) TST s 414.87 (59.63) TWT s 50.38 (36.68) TST o 392.16 (50.91) TWT o 77.32 (29.14) Ambient Light, lux X .5 minutes T otExp 1064661.42 (690949.85) TotExp Percentiles 25 477272.70 50 909545.75 75 1475993.00 Note. TST=Total Sleep Time, TWT=Total Wake Time, FSS= Fatigue Severity Scale, ST AI= State Trait Anxiety Inventory, BDI II=Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition, TotExp= Total Exposure. Total number of medical conditions : P articipants were asked to indicate whether they had experienced each of the following conditions: heart attac k, other heart problems, cancer, AIDS, hypertension, neurological disorder, breathing disorder, urinary problems, diabetes, pain and gastrointestinal disorder This variable reflects the total number of these conditions reported from this list. Note: Sub

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43 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between ambient light their associated results are presented below : Specific Aim 1: t o Explore the R elationships between A g e, Health, D aytime F unctioning, A mbient L ight, and Sleep (Objective and S ubjective). Before analyzing these relationships, each variable was examine d to determine whether or not it conformed to a normal distribution (see table 4 1) TotExp, TST o and TST s contained one outlier each and TWT s contained two outliers. Thus, the strategy that was adopted to correct for these deviations from normality was to replace these two cases with a value equal to the mean plus two standard deviations (Field, 2005). Bivariate correlations were conducted to examine the relationships of TotExp, Age, Health conditions, FSS, STAI and BDI II and these TWT s TST s TWT o an d TST o sleep variables (Table 5 1). As expected TotExp was significantly negatively associated with TWT s As hypothesized h ealth conditions, FSS, and BDI II were significantly positively associated with TWT s and significantly negatively associated with TS T s Surprisingly, TotExp was not significantly associated with TST s TWT o and TST o. Specific Aim 2: to Examine the Amount of Variance in Sleep Accounted for by Ambient L ight. Linear Regressions The second goal of the study was to determine how much v ariance in sleep is predicted by ambient light alone. A linear regression analysis was conducted on Total Exposure and the significant correlated sleep variable (Table 5 1). Thus a linear regression analysis was conducted between TotExp and TWT s to examin e how much variance in subjective sleep is accounted for

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44 by ambient light. The linear regression analysis revealed that TotExp significantly predicted subjective total wake time Specifically, TotExp significantly predicted TWT s accounting for 4.9% of the .22, p <.05). The effect size of .22 is considered a small effect (Cohen, 1988a, 1992b). Specific aim 3: What Are the I ncremental C ontributions of A ge, H ealth, D aytime Functioning, and Ambient L ight (in that O rder) to the P rediction of S leep? Hierarchical Block Regressions The third goal of the study was to first determine the incremental contributions of age, health, daytime functioning, and ambient light, in that order to predict sleep A mbient light was of particular interest in th e study, so demographics, health, and daytime functioning was of particular interest. A hierarchical block regression analysis was preformed on only significant variables (Table 5 1). Thus a hi erarchal block regression analysis was conducted on TWT s to examine how much variance in sleep is accounted for by health, daytime functioning, and ambient light. All predictor variables were selected based on their reported connections with sleep as outl ined in the literature review in Chapter 2. The predictor variables were entered into the equation in three blocks: (1) health, (2) daytime functioning, and (3) total exposure. The ordering of the blocks was determined by the theoretical relevance of eac recommendation that static predictor variables (health) should enter the models prior to dynamic predictors variables (daytime functioning, total exposure; Cohen & Cohen, 1983). The regression res ults are reported using unstandardized betas, standard error of the betas, standardized betas, their significance values, the R 2 for each bloc 2 (See Tables 5 2).

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45 All predictors combined accounted for a small amount of variance (19%) in TWT s Because the incremental contributions of each block were of particular interest, they are described in more detail below. Health accounted for a significant increase in the variance for TWT s (4%). Daytime TWT s (13%). Finally, the addition of ambient light to the that accounted for by health, and daytime functioning for TWT s (2%).

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46 Table 5 1. Pearson Correlations between Subjective (Sleep Diary), Objective (Actig raphy) Sleep Variables, and Age, Health, Daytime Functioning Variables, and Ambient Light Subscale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. TWT o 2. TST o .15 3. TWT s .34** .04 4. TST s .18 .69** .46** 5. Age .02 .16 .0 8 .11 6. Conditions .01 .09 .22* .22* .29** 7. FSS .05 .03 .22* .21* .27** .32** 8. STAI .04 .10 .24* .20* .06 .17 .38 ** 9. BDI II .08 .08 .34** .35** .24* .21* .52** .61** 10. Total Exposur e .06 .07 .22* .13 .33** .17 .23* .09 .12 Note. TWT=Total Wake Time, TST=Total Sleep Time, FSS= Fatigue Severity Scale, STAI= State Trait Anxiety Inventory, BDI II=Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition. Total number of medical conditions : P a rticipants were asked to indicate whether they had experienced each of the following conditions: heart attack, other heart problems, cancer, AIDS, hypertension, neurological disorder, breathing disorder, urinary problems, diabetes, pain and gastrointestina l disorder This variable reflects the total number of these conditions reported from this list. *p < .05; ** p < .01.

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47 Table 5 2. Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Subjective Total Wake Time Variable B SE B R Step 1 .04 .04* Conditions 5.58 2.80 .21 Step 2 .17** .13** Conditions 2.32 2.88 .09 FSS .74 3.25 .03 STAI .20 .56 .05 BDI II 2.95 1.13 .38** Step 3 .19** .02 Conditions 1.65 2.89 .06 FSS .36 3.30 .01 STAI 14 .5 6 .0 3 BDI II 2.94 1.12 .38** Total Exposure .00 .00 .16 Note. FSS= Fatigue Severity Scale, STAI= State Trait Anxiety Inventory, BDI II=Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition. Total number of medical conditions : P articipants were asked to indicate whether they had experienced each of the following conditions: heart attack, other heart problems, cancer, AIDS, hypertension, neurological disorder, breathing disorder, urinary problems, diabetes, pain and gastrointestinal disorder This variable reflects the total number of these conditions re ported from this list. *p<.05, ** p < .01

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48 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION The main purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between ambient light and sleep behavior in a sample of community dwelling older adults Previous research has shown tha t ambient light relates to various aspects of objective sleep, such as objective sleep onset latency, and objective wake time within sleep ( Hood, et al., 2004; Shochat, et al., 2000; Wallace Guy, et al., 2002). However, less research has been conducted exa mining the relationship between daytime ambient light exposure and objective and subjective sleep. The both objective and subjective sleep collected currently; 2) implement a longer data collection period (12 days) compared to previous studies (2 7 days only), which provides a more representative includes duration and ex posure; and 4) examine ambient light in the southeastern United States, a novel geographical location, which has unique conditions that influence light (i.e., milder winters allowing individuals to spend a greater amount of time outdoors and raising their light exposure.) Review of Study Findings Specific Aim 1: to Explore the Relationships between Age, Health, Daytime Functioning, Ambient L ight, and Sleep (Objective and S ubjective). Heath conditions were positively associated with subjective total wake time and negatively associated with subjective total sleep time. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses and understandable given chronic health conditions have been shown to contribute to sleep disruption in later life ( Bliwise, 2004; Drewes, 19 99; Drewes, et al. 2000 ; Gislason, & Almqvist, 1987 ; Mallon, et al. 2002; Renko, et al. 2005; Schwartz, et al. 1999; Thorpy, 2004; Wilcox, et al. 2000 ). The failure to find associations with objective total wake time and total sleep time may be

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49 due to the small number, o nly four participants, in the current study to report the medical conditions which previous contribute to objective sleep disruption in later life, such as osteoarthritis (Wilcox, et al., 2000), and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (Thorpy, 2004) and Alzheimer's disease (Bliwise, 2004). Where as approximately twenty three participants in the current study reported the medical conditions that have been shown to contribute to subjective sleep disruptions in later life such as coronary artery disease (Mallon, et al., 2002) and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Renko, et al., 2005; Gislason, & Almqvist, 1987) included. T hus, t he failure of health conditions to be associated with the objective sleep variables of total wake time and total sleep time may be due to the health types of conditions participants in the study Several interesting relationships between daytime functioning and sleep emerged. As hypothesized, poorer daytime functioning was associated with poorer sleep. Sp ecifically, fatigue, anxiety, and depression, were positively related to subjective total wake time and negatively to subjective total sleep time. These findings are also consistent with previous research showing daytime functioning factors, such as fatigu e, may contribute to sleep complaints (Whitney et al., 1997). In addition, depression has been linked to insomnia symptoms (Foley et al., 1999; McCrae et al., 2003), and sleep complaints have been linked to age related risk factors including anxiety (Ficht en et al., 1995). The objective sleep variables of total wake time and total sleep time however faile d to be associated with measures of daytime functioning This may be explained by previous research in poor sleepers that found poor daytime functioning is maintained by a subjective perception of an insufficient amount of sleep regardless of the actual sleep amount (Harvey, 2002).

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50 Associations were found between ambient light and sleep. Among the sleep variables measured a mbient light was significantly n egatively related to subjective total wake time. This indicates that greater ambient light is related to better perceptions of nocturnal sleep. These findings were consistent with the hypothesis that greater ambient light would be associated with subjectiv e total wake time. The discovery that ambient light is related to subjective and not objective sleep variables is interesting to note, particularly because past research has shown light to be related to objective sleep variables (objective sleep onset late ncy, and objective wake within sleep; Hood, et al., 2004; Shochat, et al., 2000; Wallace Guy, et al., 2002). Th e differential findings of the current study may be due to the difference in measures used. The light measure employed in this study, Total Expos ure, takes both duration and exposure of ambient light into account through a multiplicative relationship. Although this allows for a more thorough study of ambient light, it may average out time of day effects which may be more important to the objectivel y measured biological relationship between sleep and light than to the relationship between light and subjective perception of sleep Thus, the current study suggests that ambient light is associated with perception of sleep in a different way th a n with ob jective sleep. Given that the classification for insomnia uses subjective measurements of sleep quantity (McCrae et al., 2005), these results may indicate that increased ambient light affects sleep through more than just a biological pathway and suggests t he possibility that ambient light interventions may decrease levels of insomnia and improve perceptions of sleep. Specific Aim 2: to Examine the Amount of Variance in Sleep Accounted for by Ambient L ight. Ambient light accounted for roughly five percent of the variance in subjective total wake time. These results partially confirm the hypothesis that ambient light would account for a significant amount of the variance in objective and subjective sleep. Although ambient light

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51 accounted for a seemingly smal l amount of variance in this variable, this could be the result of the light measure used, the population sampled, or the consistently high amount of light received in the study location (the southeastern US). Additionally, the small amount of variance in sleep accounted for in this normal population may translate to larger amounts in other subpopulations of older adults, particularly those who receive less light. For example, there are reasons to suspect that light therapy may improve sleep in breast canc er patients (Liu, et al, 2005), nursing home residents, and individuals with insomnia (Moller, et al., 2004). Specific aim 3: What Are the Incremental Contributions of Age, H ealth, Daytime Functioning, and A mbient Light (in that Order) to the P rediction of S leep? Hierarchical block regression results revealed that health, daytime functioning, and ambient light combined accounted for a small amount of variance (19%) in subjective total wake time. The incremental contributions of each block were of parti cular interest and are discussed below. Regarding the incremental changes, depression was significant for subjective total wake time. There are many factors that may influence the current findings that show ambient light did not contribute to sleep over a nd beyond the other sleep related variables examined. These findings may be the result of the conservative placement of ambient light in the final block of the analyses, given that aim 2 reports ambient light alone does predict sleep. There is a possibilit y that based on research findings regarding circadian rhythms ( Dijk & Lockley, 2002) the time of day of ambient light, instead of overall light, may play a role on sleep. The current study also lacks the addition of activity (due to the naturalistic desig n of the study) which could be an important component to the ambient light sleep relationship. The geographical location could also be contributing to the nonsignificant results. The participants in the current study received greater amount of light (1138 lux) than reported by other studies (554 lux; Jean Louis, et al.,

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52 2000). This could indicate that community dwelling Florida residents are likely to receive the amount of light needed to influence sleep; thus, few if any received levels low enough to dis tinguish differences. If this is true, recommendations for increased ambient light may be more effective for those in other locations and settings. For example, research indicates nursing home residents typically only receive 19 minutes over 2,000 lux and 26% never reach this threshold (Shochat, et al. 2000) This stands in stark contrast to the present study of community dwelling participants in which all participants spent time over the critical 3,000 lux threshold for an average of 57 minutes Thus, nursing home residences may benefit from increased ambient light. The current study also used a normative sample and an analysis focusing strictly on individuals with insomnia may have yield different results for this subpopulation Limitations of the St udy Due to the correlational study design, causality cannot be assigned. The ecological validity that comes from a community dwelling sample may be lowered because a majority of the participants were white, female, college educated, married, and living at home. Although controlled for, it is possible that sleep disorders other than insomnia may have been present in some of the participants. Although a self report screening for primary sleep disorders was conducted, future research should used polysomnograp hy to screen out other sleep disorders (i.e., sleep apnea, periodic limb movements disorder). The use of a convenience sample means that the sample might contain an excess of individuals who perceived their sleep to be either exceptionally good or exceptio nally poor, restricting the diversity of the sample. Implications and Future Directions The potential theoretical and clinical implications for this study are as follows. Many components in the relationship between ambient light and sleep have been overl ooked and require further examination (i.e. time of day of light and daytime activity). Considering that the

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53 current findings show ambient light did impact sleep, although not over and beyond other variables that typically influence sleep, ambient light t reatment interventions should still be considered for nursing home residents, older adults in more northern geographical locations, and individuals with insomnia. Future studies should be conducted to test the validity of these assumptions. In addition, a hierarchical block regression was preformed when a multivariate analysis may have been more appropriate to track daily ambient light and sleep changes. S uch techniques were beyond the scope of the current paper, but should be considered in future research Conclusion In community dwelling older adults, greater ambient light is significantly related to less subjective total wake time. Ambient light also accounts for a small amount of the variance in subjective total wake time. These findings demonstrate however, not over and beyond other variables that typically influence sleep.

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH interest in aging began during her life story lab at the University of Florida. Since begi nning graduate school she has work ed in the Sleep Research Lab and been closely mentored by Dr. McCrae which allowed her to narrow her research interests and complete her her thesis were accepted into one of the competitive oral presentation slots at the Associated Professional Sleep th annual conference (SLEEP) and a poster presentation at 2006 Gerontological society of America (GSA) Conference. Ashley has also been acc epted into the Aging Training program at UF and had the pleasure of fostering new interest in aging through co mentoring a senior project Psi Chi, the national psychology honor society, recently recognized her and the student for work on this project. Alt hough interests span research, mentoring, and clinical work, they all focus on aging. She hopes to continue to illuminate new areas in aging and spark interest in others.