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Curriculum Components of Classroom Management Training for School Counselors: A Delphi Study


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1 CURRICULUM COMPONENTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TRAINING FOR SCHOOL COUNSELORS: A DELPHI STUDY By JILL A. GELTNER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Jill A. Geltner

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3 To my husband, Ted, for your love, support and encouragement

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I would like to th ank all the school counselors and counselor educators who participated in the study. Wit hout who’s participation, this study would have not been possible. I appreciate the time spent toward building a se t of ideas to assist fu ture school counselors. I want to thank my advisor, Dr. Larry C. Loesch for his guidance, support, encouragement and expertise. Without this gu idance, I am not sure this would have been possible. I was encouraged to be confident, my mistakes gently guided, along with the push forward with a gentle nudge. It was easy to know I could accomplish this with him as my advisor. Thanks go out to Dr. Loesch for the time and dedication to me. Special appreciation goes to Dr. Mary Ann Cl ark both as a mentor and friend. Thanks go out to her for helping me understand how to ma ke the transition from school counselor to counselor educator. The guidan ce provided from beginning to e nd has been so valuable both professionally and personally. I have felt the support at each stag e of this process. Appreciation also goes to Dr. Linda Behar-H orenstein for helping me to know this was possible. Dr. Behar-Horenstein encouraged me at times that I needed it most. The positive outlook and belief in my potential has meant so much. Thanks go out to Dr. Paul George for helping me see my role through the eyes of an early adolescent. Dr. George taught me what is possible for school counselors and for me. I know now to dream big and expect the best from myself and others. Thanks go also to Dr. Michael Garrett for jo ining in my journey at a time when others might not. The generosity and kindness shown are much appreciated. To my husband, Ted, I know all that has been sacrificed to help me in this endeavor. Your love, patience, support, and humor helped sustain me throughout this process. I know this is one more accomplishment we have made together toward achieving the life of our dreams. I

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5 know the value of someone always supporting my dreams. And, I love the way you help me to see the humor and fun in every day. To my daughters, Cassie and Bethany, please know I appreciate a ll the support given to me when I needed it most. My girls always show me what my most impor tant work is. Cassie’s admiration helps me to be my best. And, Bethany’s sweet spirit helps me remember how to enjoy life. It has been clear both my da ughters understand that I can have it all. Special appreciation goes to both my parents wh o encouraged me to always believe in the power of education. My father, Richard Adams, taught me how im portant each individual is and how to help others through a car eer in service. My mother, Ma ry Ellen Petcavage, modeled for me how to be a wonderful mother and student wit hout sacrificing one for th e other. I have felt the support at every step. And, thanks go out to both for teaching me that I can accomplish anything if I believe in myself. Finally, I want to extend my deepest appreciation to all the students and professionals who have helped me to be the person I am today. From conferences about students having difficulty to studying for statistics exams, I know this accomplishment is much bigger than I and those mentioned here. For all those who have contributed through your s upport, I thank you all. I am grateful beyond measure for the amount I have been blessed in my lifetime.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER ....................................................................................................................... .............10 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .10 Scope.......................................................................................................................... .............11 Need for the Study............................................................................................................. .....13 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... .14 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....15 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....16 Definition of Terms............................................................................................................ ....16 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE..............................................................................17 School Counselors’ Prof essional Competencies....................................................................17 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... .22 Classroom Guidance and the Pr ofessional School Counselor................................................27 The Knowledge Base for Classroom Management................................................................29 The Skills Set for Classroom Management............................................................................33 The Delphi Technique........................................................................................................... .36 Summary of the Related Literature.........................................................................................39 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................4 1 Population..................................................................................................................... ..........41 Sampling Procedures............................................................................................................ ..43 Resultant Sample............................................................................................................... .....44 Survey Development............................................................................................................. .46 Research Procedures............................................................................................................ ...46 Data Analyses.................................................................................................................. .......49 Methodological Limitations....................................................................................................5 0 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........52 Demographic Characteristics..................................................................................................52 Round I........................................................................................................................ ...........53 Round II....................................................................................................................... ...........56 Round III...................................................................................................................... ...........58 Post Hoc Analyses.............................................................................................................. ....60

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7 5 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ......67 Generalizability Limitations................................................................................................... 67 Evaluation of Research Questions..........................................................................................68 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........70 Implications................................................................................................................... .........72 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...75 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........78 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................... .............80 A INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE .......................................................................................80 B INITIAL CORRESPONDENCE ...........................................................................................84 C INFORMED CONSENT........................................................................................................85 D PARTICIPATION REMINDER............................................................................................86 E INITIAL SURVEY............................................................................................................... ..87 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................... .........98 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................105

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4–1. Summary of Panelists’ De mographic Characteristics.........................................................533 4–2. Possible Classroom Management Curric ulum Components Ordered by Response Item Means Following Round One..........................................................................................544 4–3. Possible Classroom Management Curric ulum Components Ordered by Response Item Means Following Round Two.........................................................................................577 4–4. Possible Classroom Management Curric ulum Components Ordered by Response Item Means Following Round Three.......................................................................................588 4–5. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Professional Specialization........................................610 4–6. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Educational Level......................................................622 4–7. Round Three Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test by Respondent Gender.............................64 4–8. Summary of Simple Linear Regression Anal ysis of Mean Item Ratings and Years of Experience for Total Sample (N = 35).............................................................................655 5–9. Final Item Rankings Or dered by Respondent Group..........................................................688

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CURRICULUM COMPONENTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TRAINING FOR SCHOOL COUNSELORS: A DELPHI STUDY By Jill A. Geltner May 2007 Chair: Larry C. Loesch Major: School Counseling and Guidance A Delphi study was conducted to determin e the curriculum components recommended to train school counselors in classroom management necessary to conduct classroom guidance in schools. Nationally certified school counselor practitioners and prominent school counselor educators were the two respondent groups includ ed. Eighty-nine initial curriculum items were identified, both knowledge and skill items were in cluded. After three rou nds of the survey, the 40 items remaining were the final recommendations of the expert panel. In further analyses, no statistically significant differe nces were found when examining responses by expert group, gender, years of experience, or educational leve l. These recommendations have the potential to make a significant contribution to the school counseling profession.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Continuing a trend that began in the United States in the 1970s, ever increasing numbers of education professionals not pr eviously credentialed or experienced as classroom teachers are achieving state-level certif ication as school counselors. In co ncert with this trend, most states have eliminated or are now eliminating policies that required prospectiv e school counselors to have teaching experience before they enter school counseling prepara tion programs (Sweeney, 1995). One part of the rationale for this trend is that school counselor pr eparation is provided at the post-baccalaureate level only, and therefore, that any valid baccalaureate degree is sufficient regardless of the student’s academic major. Su pporting and in line with this trend, the Council for the Accreditation of Counse ling and Related Educational Pr ograms (CACREP), which is the primary national program accreditation agency fo r school counselor preparation programs, has accredited approximately 170 school counselor pr eparation programs at 169 institutions of higher education in the United St ates and/or its territorial possessions (CACREP, retrieved January 20, 2006). Among the CACREP (2001) specialty standards of preparation for school counseling programs is the requirement that program graduate s be able to provide effective delivery of the guidance curriculum, specifica lly including use of classroo m (i.e., large-group) guidance activities (hereafter classroom gui dance). Similar mandate for effective (as well as frequent) classroom guidance activities by school counsel ors comes from the American School Counselor Association (ASCA). The ASCA requirements for effective school counseling programs are delineated in The ASCA National Model : A framework for school counseling programs (2005). In particular, it is recommended that classroom guidance be a central component of the school

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11 counselor’s duties and activities and be allocated as much as 45% of school counselors’ professional work time (ASCA, 2005). The emphasis on school counselors being co mpetent in classroom guidance activities derives from the widely-held belief that classr oom guidance is the most efficient delivery mode for school counseling services because it allows school counselors to provide services for the greatest numbers of students with the most effi cient use of their time (Dahir, 2004). Yet while school counselor classroom guidance activities are widely and strongl y advocated, neither applicable school counselor preparati on program standards (e.g., the CACREP Standards of Preparation ) nor professionally endorsed models of school counselor functioning (e.g., the ASCA National Model ) delineate specific skills, abilities, or associ ated preparation experiences that school counselors should have or have had to deliver classroom guidance activities effectively and successfully. Presumably, creden tialed and/or experienced teachers have had specific, focused preparation in working with en tire classrooms of children. Given that most school counselors are now achie ving state certificati on without having a teaching credential and/or experience, of concern is how should scho ol counselors be prepared to deliver classroom guidance activities? Specifically, unknown are the professionally endorsed preparation activities and modalities intended to enable school counselors to be proficient and competent in delivery of classroom guidance activities. Scope In the 2003–2004 academic year, more than 48.5 million students were enrolled in public schools in the United States and approximate ly 99,395 school counselors were employed in public schools (United States Department of Education, 2003–2004). The number of school counselors in public schools is expected to increa se. For example, the United Stated Department of Labor projects that school counselor positions will increase by 18–26% w ithin the next decade

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12 as student enrollments increase and more states adopt requirements fo r school counselors in elementary schools (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006–07). Professional school counselors have evolved from being “vo cational guides” to a select few students in schools at the beginning of the twen tieth century to being essential members of a school’s “educational team” at the beginning of the twenty-first century (Myrick, 2003). As such, they are charged to support and enhance the academic achievement of all students. To contribute to a school’s primary academic mission, school counselors are expected to address the academic, career and personal/social development of all students in the school through provision of a comprehensive school counseling (guidanc e) program. A comprehensive and presumably effective school counseling progr am should include at least six student service delivery methods: individual counseling, small gr oup counseling, large-group/classr oom instruction, consultation and collaboration with parents and school perso nnel, crisis interventi on, and student appraisal (ASCA, 2005). Per assigned dutie s, school counselors also may coordinate testing programs, student placement procedures, and other student matriculation procedures. In general, school counselors have many responsibilities beyond thos e endorsed by profession al organizations and are expected to serve al l students as needed. With increasing numbers of students in schools and the concomitant need for school counselor activities to be both as effective and efficient as possi ble, school counselor preparation programs must provide education and training that allow progra m graduates to develop skills commensurate with current and future job demand s. In particular, because classroom guidance activities serve the greatest number of students in the least amount of time (i.e., are efficient use of the school counselor’s time), it is essential th at future school counselors have well-developed skills to provide classroom guidance activ ities successfully and effectively.

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13 Need for the Study Achievement of knowledge of the requis ite and desirable components of school counselor preparation to engage in classroom guidance activities effectively and efficiently has implications for school counselor professional prep aration and practice, and also for associated future research and theory development. For ex ample, if school counselor s are to be proficient and effective in delivering classr oom guidance activities, then concentrated and specific attention to knowledge and skills requisite to such se rvice delivery in school counselor preparation programs is essential. Knowing what school counse lors should know and be able to do in regard to classroom guidance activities also will allow determination of what should, and concomitantly should not, be incorporated into school counselor preparation. The effective practice of school coun seling requires extens ive knowledge and a comprehensive skill set. The primary means through which school counsel ors obtain (at least minimum) professional knowledge and skills is through completion of a school counselor preparation program. The potential value of “on-the-job training” and “continuing education” in any profession, including school co unseling, is undeniable. Howe ver, such learning and skill development is achieved unsystematically among members of a profession and is contingent upon local circumstances, opportun ities, and resources and personal motivations. Thus, if the school counseling profession as a whole is to be enhanced and improved, the basis for advancements must begin in school counselor preparation programs. A wide variety of theories of education a nd learning have been used in school counselor preparation programs and are manifest in an ev en larger number of educational activities in school counselor education curricula. Unfo rtunately, investiga tion and/or thoughtful consideration of the applicability and/or suitab ility of any theory as applied within school counselor preparation is rare. Su ch evaluation necessarily must be tied to what is being taught,

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14 and indeed can only be made effectively if the theory-content associa tion is well founded and understood. Therefore, knowledge of the important components of school counselor preparation has implications for theory evaluation and development. Evaluation of and research on school counsel or preparation and/or practice also is necessarily and integrally linked to what is to be known and what is to be done (i.e., which skills are to be applied) (Carey & Dimmitt, 2006). Th erefore, better understa nding of the knowledge and skills that school counselor s should have for the effective delivery of classroom guidance services will provide focus and direction for future research, including research focused upon school counselor education and practice applications. Theoretical Framework A “profession,” by definition, requires sp ecialized education and training, i.e., educational preparation and/or trai ning that is intensive and specific to the practice of a particular occupation or vocation. Without exception, tr ue professional preparation necessitates a comprehensive preparatory curriculum. A wide and diverse variety of curriculum development and implementation models and resources for prof essional preparation programs are available. Among them, however, Tyler’s (1949) model (originally presented in Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction ) is one of the most widely resp ected resources (Ornstein & Hunkins, 1998; Wiles & Bondi, 1998; Wiles, 2005). Tyler’s approach to curricu lum development is centered on addressing four fundamental questions effectively: 1. What educational purposes should the school (educational institution) seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provide d that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experien ces be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purpos es are being attained? (Tyler, 1949, p.1)

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15 Application of Tyler’s mode l requires identification of curriculum components through examination of specific (event ual learner/practitioner) needs and the learning experiences necessary to fulfill those needs. Input from practicing professionals (as subject matter specialists) is crucial to effective needs identification. Afte r needs have been established and appropriate learning (educational) experiences identified, the imp lied curriculum is organized into a set of (presumably well-organized) experiences for learners. The last question posed by Tyler refers to eval uation of a curriculum. After the first three criteria are achieved, the educati onal experiences must be evaluated to verify that learners have acquired the requisite knowledge and skills from their curricular experiences. Because this criterion can be evaluated pos t curriculum development and implementation only, it is not addressed in this study. Rather, only the first three elements of Tyler’s curriculum development model will be incorporated. Purpose of the Study There are many resources for education profe ssionals, including school counselors, that present activities that can be used with classrooms of students. There also are an extremely large number of resources specifically advocated fo r use by school counselors for classroom guidance activities. However, lacking is congruence of opinion about how school counselors should be prepared to use selections from this multitude of resources or to develop and use their own classroom guidance activities. Therefore, the pr imary purpose of this study is to determine the components of school counselor preparation in re gard to classroom management for large-group guidance activities that are endorsed with a relatively high degree of congruence by school counseling professionals. Also to be determined are variatio ns in professional preparation component endorsements based on selected char acteristics of the responding school counseling professionals. The data from which these determ inations will be made will be obtained through

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16 use of the Delphi technique with carefully se lected school counseling professionals, nationally certified school counselors, a nd school counselor educators.. Research Questions The following research questions are addressed in this study: 1. What are school counseling professionals’ respective endo rsement levels of various counselor preparation curricu lum components for classroom management for large-group guidance activities? 2. What is the order of endorsement pr iorities among school counselor preparation program curriculum components for classroom management for large-group guidance activities? 3. What are the differences in endorsemen ts of school counselor preparation program curriculum components for classroom manage ment for large-group guidance activities based on selected characteristics of th e responding school counseling professionals? Definition of Terms Following are definitions of selected terms as they are used in this study. CLASSROOM GUIDANCE. “The systematic delivery of age-appropriate preventative guidance concepts to units or groups of students which usua lly contain more than 10 to 15 members.” (Cuthbert, 2000, p.123) CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT. The process of successfully directing student groups while imparting information ( Cuthbert, 2000 ) CURRICULUM. An organized, usually highly structur ed set of instructional (learning) experiences that constitute academic prepar ation for future academic or vocational activities (Wiles & Bondi, 1998) DELPHI TECHNIQUE / MODEL. A research method in which a panel of experts is polled in an iterative process to gain consensus of group opinion about a specif ic topic (Dimitt, C., Carey, J.C., McGannon, W., Henningson, I., 200 5; Linstone & Turtoff,, 1975; Moore, 1986) PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL COUNSELOR. a state-certified school (guidance) counselor SCHOOL COUNSELOR PREPARATION CURRICULUM. set of knowledge components and training experiences in a school counselor training program designed to prepare school counselors-in-training at th e post-baccalaureate level

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17 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Presented in this chapter is a review of the literature relevant to this study. This review includes attention to school counselors’ profes sional competencies in general and classroom management skills in particular, a theoretical m odel for curriculum development, and the Delphi methodology. School Counselors’ Prof essional Competencies School counseling as a profession had its beginnings in the early 1900s as education professionals sought to help st udents find appropriate and satis fying work. The activities of those education professionals were in effect rudimentary vocational guidance programs (Coy, 1999; Gysbers, 2001; Myrick, 2003). Emphasis on helping students with career and vocational concerns remained the focus of school “guidance” counselor activities for most of the first four decades of the twentieth century. However, in the 1950s, individual states began to develop and implement standards for “professional regulation” (i.e, certification and/or other forms of credentialing) of school guidance counselors (Coy, 1999). Su ch regulation was the beginning school counseling as a true and distinct profession. The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958, a federal respons e to the launch of the Sputnik satellite by the then Soviet Union, provided substantial funding to train guidance counselors (Myrick, 2003; Tang & Erford, 2004; Wittmer, 2000). The most immediate and obvious impact of this funding was a substantia l increase in the number of guidance counselors in the United States. More importantly, however the NDEA “gave credibility to the idea that a specialist in guidance and couns eling was needed in schools” (Myrick, 2003, p. 8). Continuing the existing emphasis, the guidance counselor’s primary role during the 1950s and 1960s was assumed to be to provide caree r/vocational counseling “directly” to students in middle and high

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18 schools into careers. Existing guidance counselor training programs were focused on student career/vocational development and guidance. Although intensive, the NDEA training and preparation for guidance counsel ors was narrow in scope and br ief in duration. Therefore, unfortunately, “school guidance counselors ofte n were trained too quickly and in a sub-par fashion” during this period (Wittmer, 2000, p. 3). The acceptance and reputation of the school c ounseling profession advanced substantially during the 1970s and early 1980s, primarily as a result of the placement of school counselors in elementary schools. Likely the most significant result of these placements was increased recognition that school counselors we re more than just “(career) guidance counselors;” that is, that school counselors could and should do more than just help middle and high school students find jobs. Thus, it was during this period that the title “guidance couns elor” was dropped (at least within the school c ounseling profession) in favor of th e title “school counselor” and, more importantly, school counselors came to be vi ewed as integral me mbers of the school’s educational team that was focused on all aspects of student’s lives as they affected academic performance. This latter change in particular necessitated that school counselors have a broad range of skills and abilities, w ith commensurate underlying knowledge. This time period also was when “classroom (large-group) guidance” came to be viewed as an efficient method of delivery of school couns eling services to stude nts in schools (Myrick, 2003). Specifically, classroom guidance is the primary and most efficient means by which school counselors provide developmental, preventa tive services to stude nts in schools (Dahir, 2004; Myrick, 2003; Wittmer, 2000); that is, to help students acquire skills to cope with life problems and issues before they encountered them. In larg e part, classroom guidance activities are instructional in nature and in fact approxi mate regular classroom teaching. Good instruction

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19 requires good classroom management. That is, the in structor must be able to maintain students’ attention, interest, and appropria te behavior during the classroom activity in order for the students to achieve intended gains from the activity (Geltner & Clark, 2005) Therefore, a school counselor must have effective classroom mana gement skills in order to provide classroom guidance services successfully. Counselor preparation in general and school counselor preparation in particular in the United States currently is guided primarily by th e (counselor education) program accreditation standards of the Council for th e Accreditation of Counseling a nd Related Educational Programs (CACREP). The CACREP Standards include minimum preparati on criteria deem ed necessary for all counselors as well as preparation criteria specific to school counselor s. However, even in light of these Standards it has been suggested that schoo l counselor preparation curricula “varied considerably from one graduate schoo l counseling program to another” (DeVoss, 2004, p.25). Further, even though the CACREP Standards for school counselor preparation are highly valued and widely accepted, they lack functiona l specificity. That is, although school counseling skill application statements are included in the CACREP school counselor preparation standards, they are too general in nature to indicate or even suggest the highly specific skills that need to be developed by school counseling program gradua tes. Thus, the CACR EP school counselor preparation standards id entify broad categories of necessary school counselor skill competencies, but how education and training for those competen cies should be conducte d is not evident in them. As Sears (1999) noted, “[school] counsel ing and training programs provide a core of counseling courses but (they) do not provide counselors with th e specific knowledge and skills they need to be eff ective in schools” (p.49).

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20 Leadership in defining the appropriate ro les and functions of school counselors comes from the American School Counselor Asso ciation (ASCA). ASCA released its National Standards for School Counseling Programs in 1997 (Campbell & Dahi r, 1997). This resource gave school counselor educati on program faculty further gui dance in structuring school counselor education programs (Perusse, 2001). However, similar to the CACREP Standards this resource lacks presentation of specific co mpetencies to be held and used by school counselors. Thus it too does not identify or s uggest specifically how sc hool counselors are to be prepared to fulfill their various roles and functions. Subsequently, ASCA created the National Model for Schoo l Counseling Programs to suggest how school counseling programs should be structured and implemented (ASCA, 2003; 2005). The ASCA National Model presents school counselor pe rformance standards, but again does not provide specific guidance about how school counselors are to be prepared to perform their various functions effectively. Dahir, Sheldon and Valiga (1998) and Campbell and Dahir (1997), among others, established school counselor comp etencies such that school couns elors would be able to aid students’ academic, personal/socia l and career developments effec tively. However, again, there is no direct connection presented as to how these sets of competen cies are to be developed during school counselor preparation. Thus, although ASCA and a variety of school counseling authorities have made important contributions to the nature of the sc hool counseling profession in regard to school counselor functioning (M urphy, 2004; Schwallie-Giddis, ter Maat, & Pak, 2003), counselor education programs continue to be disparate in their approaches to school counselor preparation for lack of specific dir ection of how school counselors should be educated and/or trained.

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21 Professional credentialing practi ces also have done little to cl arify the specific nature of effective school counselor preparation. Th e most common (and necessary) credential for professional school counselors is state-level certification, and a ll states have school counselor certification academic and process requirements. Course content for individual counselor education programs are of course influenced by th e respective and applicable state requirements. However, “there is still wide va riability across all [school counsel or preparation] programs” in regard to program foci, content, and met hods (Perusse, Goodnough & Noel, 2001, p.261). Snow and Jackson (2004) presented an overview of di sparities in state-le vel school counselor certification requirements: An overview of state cer tification requirements in school counseling as of 2000 can be summarized as follows (ACA, 2000); all states required graduate education in guidance and counseling with 39 requiri ng a master’s degree in guidance and counseling; 12 states required supplement al graduate education in addition to counseling; 28 states required comple tion of a school based practicum or internship; 21 states required previous teaching or related experience; 23 states utilized standardized examination as part of the certification pr ocess; and 35 states required a criminal background check. (p. 66) Again, given these disparities across states, state-level sc hool counselor certification requirements provide little sp ecific direction as to how school counselors should be prepared to fulfill their functions effectively. At the national level, the National Board for Certified Counselor s (NBCC) provides the National Certified School Counselor (NCSC) cr edential (Paisley & Borders, 1995) while the National Board for Professional Teaching Standa rds (NBPTS) “certifies” that school counselors credentialed by them exhibit “accomplished pract ice” (Glathar, 2005). The NBCC and NBPTS goals seem similar but in practice are not. The lack of unified perspective in national credentialing processes t hus continues to make it difficult to create a set of agreed upon

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22 competencies for school counselors, and theref ore to determine how best to prepare school counselors. Of particular interest here is the exte nt to which school counselors are prepared effectively for classroom management skills Again, classroom gui dance activities are for the most part instructional (i.e., “teaching” ) activities. Therefor e, part of the school counselor competence debate is whether sc hool counselors should have prior teaching experience (Baker, 2000; Snow & Jackson, 2004) Although some states require prior teaching experience for certification as a school counselor (Myrick, 2003), most counselor educators (i.e., facu lty of school counselor prepar ation programs) believe such experience is unnecessary (Baker, 1994, 2001; Smith, 2001). Similarly, some school counseling authorities have suggested that professional school counselors need to be provided (only) “classroom management” sk ills as opposed to the full set of teaching skills (Baker, 2000; Henington & Doggett, 2004; Myrick, 2003; Wittmer, 2000). Unfortunately, neither a required teaching credential nor generalized training in classroom management skills is sufficient to enable school counselors to be proficient and effective in delivery of classroom guidance activities. More importantly here, neither allows determination of appropriate and sp ecific school counselor preparation program curricular experiences that will enable school counselors to be successful at classroom management. To be effective in the cl assroom, school counselors need skills in classroom management specifically desi gned for delivery of large-group guidance activities. Theoretical Framework Writing in regard to the effectiveness of service delivery by memb ers of a profession, Gartner (1976) asserted “that the training and education of practiti oners is the predominant factor

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23 influencing the nature of the se rvice” provided (p.27). He not ed that the central issue in professional education and training is “how to make that preparation most effective” (p. 28). In turn, Gartner (1976) asserted th at the primary factors influe ncing professional preparation effectiveness include (a) curricu lar content, (b) faculty expe rtise and pedagogical skill, (c) teaching methods employed, (d) relationship of curriculum to both theory and practice, (e) location of training, and (f) how th e training is related to profe ssional practice as well as the larger societal developments. It follows that integration of Gartner’s recommendations necessitates highly focused curriculum compone nts, ones based on widely endorsed training content and practices for the various skill se ts to be developed by preparation program participants. Presumably, effective and appropriate attenti on to the preparation factors identified by Gartner requires uniform training of aspiring professionals. Unfort unately, there is clearly lack of uniformity in the professional preparation of school counselors in regard to classroom management despite national counselor prepara tion standards, nationa l organization practice recommendations, and state certific ation requirements. Certainly it is difficult in any profession to achieve large-scale agreement on training practices. However, ju st as certainly, greater degree of consensus about training practic es than usually exists can be achieved. In particular, greater agreement can be reached about how school c ounselors should be trained in regard to development of classroom management skills. Ho wever, such concurrenc e of opinion must be considered in view of sound curriculum development theory and practices. Tyler’s curriculum development mo del, as originally described in Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949), is widely respected (O rnstein & Hunkins, 1998; Wiles & Bondi, 1998; Wiles, 2005). Tyler’s approach be gins with “identifying four fundamental

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24 questions which must be answered in developing a ny curriculum and plan of instruction” (Tyler, 1949, p.1): 1. What educational purposes should the school [educational agency] seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be pr ovided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experien ces be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? The first three of these questions can be readily app lied to creation of the curriculum component of counselor education programs for training school counselors to have classroom management skills. The final question rela tes to evaluation of curriculum implementation and is beyond the scope of this study. The first of Tyler’s curriculum developmen t question relates to instructional objectives. If an educational program is to be planned and if efforts for continued improvement are to be made, it is very necessary to have some conception of the goals that are being aimed at. These educational objectives become the criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed and tests and examinations are prepared . Hence, if we are to study an educational program systematically and intelligently, we must first be sure as to the educational objectives aimed at [sic] (Tyler, 1949, p.3). Tyler believed that (previous a nd/or current) learners themse lves should be a source of information for development of curricular objec tives. Understanding of the “gap” between student-as-learner need and the norm for post-instruction, effectiv e understanding helps to build the objectives. Studies of the learner suggest educational obj ectives. .when the information about the learner is compared with some desirable sta ndards, some conception of acceptable norms, so that the difference between the present condition of the learner and the acceptable norm can be identified. This difference or gap is what is generally referred to as a need (Tyler, 1949, p. 6).

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25 It is clear from extant professi onal standards and models that sc hool counselors need to conduct developmental classroom guidance activities, and that they must have specific knowledge and skills (and especially classroom management skil ls) to conduct those activities effectively. Therefore, professional education should help “students [in school counselor education programs] acquire special competencies for. .and taking appropriate action” (Hoberman & Mailick, eds., 1994). It follows that at leas t one source of information about the needed knowledge and skills can be obtained from thos e who already have it, i.e., well-qualified, practicing professional school counselors. Ho wever, an additional good resource is those educators who have been successful in delivering the informati on. For school counselors, that resource would be experienced and a ccomplished school counselor educators. Tyler (1949) supported collecting data through scientific methods, such as using surveys to determine student needs. In particular, the use of survey methods decreases subjectivity in curriculum development. Tyler (1949) also empha sized that subject specia lists are an important source for gathering data about student learning needs. Subject specialists can…make an important c ontribution, because, presumably, they have a considerable knowledge of th e specialized field and many of them have had opportunity to see what this subject has done for them and for those with whom they work. They ought to be able to suggest possible contributions, knowing th e field as well as they do, that it might make to others in terms of its discipline, its content and the like. (Tyler, 1949, p. 26–27) Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) not ed that “personal philosophy” is an important starting point in curriculum development. For exam ple, school counselor ed ucation subject matter specialists should approach curriculum development thr ough their respective personal philosophies. These philosophies are inherent in their beliefs and evident in the experiences they present to students for learning. Similar to Tyler (1949), Ornstein and Hunkins (1998)

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26 acknowledged that a personal philo sophy reflects personal values a nd beliefs which, in turn, are reflected in curriculum and cour se content and teaching methods. Tyler (1949) also wrote about the nature of learning. Curricular objectives, shaped for a primary learning experience, often result in seco ndary learning. Tyler (1949, p. 41) wrote that, “In practically every educational experience two or more kinds of educational outcomes may be expected” (i.e., primary, intended learning and sec ondary, unanticipated or unexpected learning) This duality suggests that using multiple methods of instruction is to th e educator’s advantage because they can design integrated experiences intended to reinforce each other and create greater experiences for the learner. Tyler’s second question refers to this issue, how to attain the desired ends. Learning experiences are shap ed by the teacher, but the student acquires knowledge and skills th rough active behavior. Wiles and Bondi (1998) stressed the importance of teacher characteristics and behavior in teaching to achieve curricular objectives; the te acher is “the final filter in curriculum work” (p.109). Teachers plan the instructional framew ork and deliver the information. The teacher matches learning activities that will help the stud ents attain the desired objectives and “selects techniques and plans activities believed to be effective fo r these purposes” (Wiles & Bondi, 1998). The education process may vary in experiences, but must specify unambiguous objectives. The final question Tyler addressed was, “How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction?” That is, how can possi ble learning experiences be best aligned and implemented to achieve desired educational goals? Tyler proposed that educational experiences be “clustered” to produce a cumulative effect. “In planning the curriculum for any school or any field, it is necessary to decide on the types of elements which most effectively serve as threads to

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27 use in the organization” (Tyl er, 1949, p.87). Again, inputs from experienced school counselor educators and school counseling practitioners are the best source for determining both elements of a classroom management trai ning curriculum and important aspe cts of associated preparatory activities. Classroom Guidance and the Prof essional School Counselor The focus of school counselor training progr ams for the past few decades has been on the developmental guidance model (e.g., Baker, 2000; Gysbers, 1997; Gysbers & Henderson, 1999; Myrick, 2003; Sink & MacDonald, 1998; Vernon 2004; Wittmer, 2000). “In the developmental approach, students have an opportunity to learn mo re about themselves and others in advance of problem moments in their lives” (Wittmer, 2000, p.6) The school counselor is presumed to be the leader of a school counseling program that in volves all school personnel, is available to all students, has an organized and planned curricu lum, is sequential and flexible, and is an integrated part of the total e ducational process (Myrick, 2003; Wittmer, 2000). In addition, the developmental guidance model is concentrated on academic improvement to help students learn more effectively and efficiently (Myrick, 2003). The well-trained schoo l counselor “provides specialized counseling services and interventions” within the to tal educational program (Myrick, 2003, p. 46). The direct services the school counselor provides include but are not limited to: individual counseling, small gr oup counseling, and large group gui dance (ASCA, 2005; Baker, 2000; Benshoff, 1994; Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Da hir et al., 1998; Myrick, 2003; Vernon, 2004; Wittmer 2000). Through interventions such as th ese, the school counselor identifies problem areas and implements a comprehensive plan to assi st all students to prevent or resolve them. Classroom guidance, sometimes known as la rge-group guidance, is the most efficient intervention because it provides di rect services to the largest numbers of students at one time (Baker, 2000; Myrick, 2003; Snyder, 2000; W ittmer, 2000). A large group is generally a

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28 classroom size group of 25–30 students (Cuthbert 2000). Classroom guidance as a school counseling intervention is becoming increasingly important as professional school counselors struggle to find time to address all students’ ne eds. The recommended st udent-to-counselor ratio appropriate to implementing a comprehensive deve lopmental program is one school counselor to every 250 students (ASCA, 2005). However, mo st school counselors operate under a much higher ratio (ASCA, 2005). Gerler and Anderson (1986) noted that “group guidance may positively influence children’s classroom behavior, attitudes toward school, and ultimately their academic success” (p. 78). For example, Brigman and Campbell ( 2003) studied the impact of small-group and classroom guidance to improve st udent achievement. It was found that the combined effects of the interventions were positively associated with improved student achievement and behavior. Similarly, Lapan, Gyspers and Petroski (2003) examined developmental guidance programs in middle schools. They found that implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs, including classroom guidance activ ities, were associated consiste ntly with higher levels of student academic success. In general, there is considerable support for the observation that developmental guidance delivered in large groups is an effective means to teach students ideas and skills (Wittmer, Thompson, & Loesch, 1997). Although there are numerous res ources available for classroo m guidance activities, there is little information available to assist school counselors to “manage” classroom size groups (i.e., regulate student behavior to maxi mize learning effectiveness). Bake r (2000) asserted that “it is important to train them [school counselors] as competent instructors as well as competent [school] counselors” [emphasis adde d] (p.153). Similarly, The ASCA National Model (2003) indicates that, “It is important fo r school counselors to receive tr aining in student learning styles,

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29 classroom behavior management (and) cu rriculum and instruction” (p. 16). Thus, extensive classroom management knowledge and good skills, as important co mponents of general teaching expertise, are needed in combination with c ounseling and group facilita tion skills to impact large groups positively (Henington & Doggett, 2004). Unfo rtunately, the exact classroom management knowledge and skills needed remain undetermined. The Knowledge Base for Classroom Management ASCA identifies small and large group c ounseling as integral parts of both school counselor training and professi onal responsibilities (ASCA, 2003; Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Dahir et al., 1998). “Group counsel ing is one of the professional school counselor’s most highly specialized skills” (Goodnough & Lee, 2004, p.173). Tr aining in group processes and leadership allows school counselors to conduct group counseling differently from individual counseling. However, many of the skills used in small-group counseling also are applicable to large-group guidance activities (Myrick, 2003). Small-group counseling training for school counselors typically includes exposure to principles of group dynamics, group process, gr oup stage theories, group member roles and behaviors, therapeutic factors of group work, gr oup leadership styles and approaches, theories and methods of group counseli ng, ethical and legal consider ations for group work, and evaluation of group processes (CACREP, 2001). Presumably, some small-group knowledge and skills transfer and gene ralize to application in large-group guidance activities. For example, knowledge of group dynamics and interacting forces within a group is important for understanding interpersonal dynamics in the classroom guidance context. Each of these general information clusters can be subdivided further, an d thus can be used to elaborate more specific, (potentially) appropriate elements or components of the knowledge base of effective classroom management. Shown below are some of the more specific knowledge components of various

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30 (counseling-related) knowledge clusters. The el ements shown are deemed specific to classroom management within the large-group guidance co ntext and potentially necessary for school counselors in performing large-group guidance ac tivities. Also presented are references for the elements cited. Note these elements are not presented in any particular order. GROUP DYNAMICS. Interacting forces within a group (Yalom, 1995). GROUP CULTURE. Shared perceptions of how the gr oup interaction system is to be organized (Wheelan, 1994). TASK/WORK GROUP. Groups designed to improve progr am planning and evaluation within organizations (Corey, 2004). EXPERIENTIAL CLASSROOM TRAINING GROUPS OR PROCESS GROUPS. A group of individuals who meet to learn more about groups, group processes and interactions, and themselves (also known as T-, sensitiv ity-training, or encounter groups) (Yalom, 1995). SELF-HELP GROUPS. Groups constituted to enable pe ople with a common problem or life predicament to create a support system and change their lives (Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995). GUIDANCE/PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL GROUP. Groups structured by some central theme and generally used to impart information, address specific needs, and/or develop certain skills (Corey, 2004). COUNSELING GROUP. An interpersonal process to address group members’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that is problem-oriented and led by a counselor or ps ychotherapist (Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995). GROUP TIME ORIENTATION. The time orientation for the purpo se of the group, such as to address immediate concerns or to develop strategies to cope with potential problems in the future (Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995). HOMOGENEOUS VERSUS HETEROGENEOUS GROUP. A homogeneous group is composed of people similar in age and gender, or based upon a common interest whereas a heterogeneous group is composed of members different for a specific category or trait (Corey, 2004). INVOLUNTARY VERSUS VOLUNTARY MEMBERSHIP. An involuntary group is composed of members forced to attend whereas a volunt ary group is composed of people attending by choice (Corey, 2004). SHORT-TERM VERSUS LONG-TERM GROUPS. Duration of the group process dependent upon the topic (i.e., time needed to achieve group goal) (Corey, 2004).

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31 GROUP FORMATION. The process of constituting a gr oup with attenti on to practical considerations relate d to composition, formation, stru cture, and duration of a group (Shechtman, 2004). SOCIAL IDENTITY. The social categorization of self and others. Categories define individuals in terms of their similarities w ith members of certain social categories in contrast to other social ca tegories (Turner & Haslam, 2001). SOCIAL COMPARISON. The process in which an indivi dual uses cues from others to understand appropriate behavior s, beliefs, and/or attit udes expected in the group environment (Tindale, Meisenhelder, Dykema-Engblade & Hogg, 2001). GROUP DEVELOPMENT. The natural maturing of a gr oup over time (Schmuck & Schmuck, 1997). SOCIAL LOAFING. The tendency for group members to work below maximum abilities on a specified task (Wheelan, 1994). GROUP PROCESS. The group interactio n statuses including conformity, deviation, cohesion, and conflict (Burlingame, Fuhrim an & Johnson, 2004). Alternatively, four process components including stru cture, verbal interaction, therapeutic relationship, and therapeutic factors. CONFORMITY. The extent to which a group memb er’s behaviors conform to group behavior norms (Corey, 2004). DEVIATION. The extent to which a group member’s behavior differs fr om group behavior norms (Corey, 2004). GROUP CONFLICT. The extent to which group member s are oppositional to one another (Corey, 2004). GROUP IDENTIFICATION. The degree to which an individual sees him/herself as part of a group (Kramer, Hanna, Su, & Wei, 2001). GROUP COHESIVENESS. The degree to which individuals so cially identify with the group (Karau & Williams, 2001). Group cohesion invo lves a sense of belonging, inclusion, and solidarity. Cohesiveness is th e result of all the forces ac ting on the members that make them want to remain in the group. (Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995). GROUP INITIAL STAGE. The group process period of orie ntation and exploration that includes determining group structure, ge tting acquainted, exploring members’ expectations, defining goals, clarifying expect ations, and looking for a place in the group. (Corey, 2004). GROUP TRANSITION STAGE. The group process period of deali ng with resistance, including when members experience anxiety, defensiveness, and conflict, and begin to learn how to work on the concerns that brought them to the group (Corey, 2004).

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32 GROUP WORKING STAGE. The group process period of cohesion and productivity, including more in-depth expl oration of significant problems and effective action to bring about desired behaviors. (Corey, 2004). GROUP FINAL STAGE. The group process period of consolidation and termination, including time for summarizing, pulling t ogether loose ends, and integrating and interpreting the group expe rience (Corey, 2004). POST-GROUP ISSUES. The evaluation and follow-up pro cess in which the group leader evaluates outcomes of the group (Yalom, 1995). GROUP MEMBER ROLES. The organization of members to perform different tasks within the group, including a set of expectations sh ared by members about behavior of an individual who occupies a given position in the group (Wheelan, 1994). GROUP TASKS. The work that a group must do to accomplish its goal (Wheelan, 1994). GROUP LEADERSHIP STYLE. The group leader’s personal ap proach to facilitating groups based on theoretical orientation, values, beli efs, and personal characteristics (Corey, 2004). INSTILLATION OF HOPE. Increasing patients’ belief and confidence in the efficacy of the group mode (Yalom, 1995). UNIVERSALITY. The disconfirmation of a patient’s feeling of uniqueness (Yalom, 1995). DIDACTIC INSTRUCTION. The formal instruction or ps ycho-educational component of a group (Yalom, 1995). DIRECT ADVICE. The suggestions from group member s to another group member (Yalom, 1995). ALTRUISM. An increase in perceived self-efficac y resulting from helping other group members (Yalom, 1995). SOCIALIZING TECHNIQUES. Methods of achieving socially acceptable behaviors through social learning (Yalom, 1995), including addressing factors that promote change in groups (Forsyth, 2001). VICARIOUS LEARNING. Social skills developed through observation and interaction with others (Yalom, 1995). INTERPERSONAL LEARNING. Social skills developed from interactions with others (Yalom, 1995). GROUP MEMBER GUIDANCE. The acceptance of advice and suggestions from other group members (Yalom, 1995). GROUP COHESION. The experience of group members feeling accepted by others in the group (Yalom, 1995).

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33 SELF-DISCLOSURE. The revelation of personal info rmation to others (Yalom, 1995). CATHARSIS. The release of pent-up emotions (Yalom, 1995). INSIGHT. The attainment of a deeper unders tanding of oneself (Yalom, 1995). THEORIES OF GROUP COUNSELING. The theoretical bases for understanding and/or guiding group processes (Yalom, 1995). ETHICAL AND LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUP WORK. The legal and philosophical boundaries for group processes and interactions (Yalom, 1995). EVALUATION OF GROUP PROCESSES. Measurement used to determine the effectiveness of the group (Corey, 2004). MULTICULTURAL DIVERSITY. The cultural-based differen ces among individuals (Corey, 2004). HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. The natural process of human physical and mental change (Myrick, 2003). RESOURCES. The human, physical, or other source s of assistance for group processes (Wittmer, 2000). MEMBER SELECTION. The procedures used to choose members of a group (Corey, 2004). EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING. The achievement of knowle dge through physical behavior (Corey, 2004). The Skills Set for Classroom Management Skills related to group leadership in genera l and for school counseling applications in particular have been presented by Corey ( 2004), Geltner and Clark (2005), Hennington and Doggett (2004), Myrick (2003), and Riva, Wa tchel and Lasky (2004), among others. “An essential component related to th e effectiveness of therapeutic gr oups is the leadership” (Riva et al., 2004, p.37). Indicated in gr oup treatment research is that more favorable outcomes evolve from group leaders proficient in the use of positive group leadership skills (Morran et al., 2004). Group leadership skills are used to guid e and direct interac tions between school counselors and classroom groups. The school couns elor typically relies upon a self-created combination of counseling skills, classroom management strategies and instructional methods to

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34 impart important developmen tal information. Shown below are some of the specific skills potentially appropriate to effective classroom management in the context of large-group guidance. The reference source for each skill li sted also is provided. Again, these elements are not presented in any particular order. RULE SETTING. Establishing and communi cating clear guidelines and procedures for the group interaction (Henin gton & Doggett, 2004). ACTIVE LISTENING. Paying attention and interpreting both verbal and nonverbal messages in the communication (Corey, 2004). RESTATING. Verbal paraphrasing (Corey, 2004). CLARIFYING. Restating the group member’s message in different words to evaluate meaning accuracy (Corey, 2004; Myrick, 2003). SUMMARIZING. Pulling together the important elem ents of a group interaction (Corey, 2004). OPEN ENDED QUESTIONING. Proposing questions that explor e issues in greater depth for the group members (Corey, 2004). INTERPRETING. Group leader explaining of participan t’s thoughts, feelings or behaviors (Corey, 2004). CONFRONTING. Specifying differences between be havior and verbal or nonverbal messages (Corey, 2004). REFLECTING FEELINGS. Mirroring the verbal and nonverb al messages (Corey, 2004). SUPPORTING. Providing group members with encour agement and reinforcement (Corey, 2004). EMPATHIZING. Verbalizing sensitive f eelings that grasp the subjective world of the participant (Corey, 2004). FACILITATING. Opening direct communication am ong the participants (Corey, 2004). INITIATING. Directing members to focus on doing meaningful work within the group (Corey, 2004). GOAL SETTING. Helping group members create and clarify productiv e goals (Corey, 2004). EVALUATING. Ongoing process of self-appraisal fo r group leader and members (Corey, 2004).

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35 SIMPLE ACKNOWLEDGMENT. The interpersonal acknowledgment of a group member (Myrick, 2003). GIVING FEEDBACK. The group leader process of givi ng specific information based on observation of behaviors w ithin the group (Corey, 2004). SUGGESTING. Encouraging group members to look at a situation from a different perspective (Corey, 2004). PROTECTING. Safeguarding members from unnecessary psychological or physical risks of being in a group (Corey, 2004); also, the gr oup leader intervening to protect group members from damaging experiences in th e group (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004). MODELING. Demonstrating skills, attitudes, and ot her characteristics the leader hopes to engender in group members (Morra n, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004). LINKING. Promoting interaction between group members by connecting through a common theme (Corey, 2004; Morran, St ockton & Whittingham, 2004); also, using statements that accentuate relationships by pairing information from one person to another (Myrick, 2003; Wittmer & Myrick, 1989, p.82). REINFORCEMENT. The verbal or nonverbal messages from the group leader to a group member to convey approval (Cooper & Sim onds, 2003); also, establishing trust (Corey, 2004). BLOCKING. Intervening by the group leader to stop counterproductive behavior within the group (Corey, 2004). TERMINATING. Ending a group session or process (Corey, 2004). USING PROXEMICS. Moving around to spread influence to all group members (Cooper & Simonds, 2003). SUPPORTING. The leader intervening to reassure members, and encourage and reinforce appropriate participation (Mor ran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004). DRAWING OUT. The leader inviting comments fr om one (or more) group members to encourage participation from less involve d members (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004). PROCESSING. Identifying and using significant happeni ngs to help a group member reflect on the meaning of the experi ence; understand thoughts, feelings, and actions; and generalize what is learned to situation outside of the group (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004). NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION. The non-spoken language used to send messages to the group (Wiles & Bondi, 1998).

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36 LEARNING STYLES. The cognitive and/or affective style acquire and use to process information (Cooper & Simonds, 2003). ENTHUSIASM. The group leader’s positive, optimistic approach to the topic and/or group members (Geltner & Clark, 2005). WAIT TIME. The duration of time before a response is made after a question is asked (Wong & Wong, 2005). TOPIC SELECTION. The process in which school counsel ors select appropriate themes or subjects for a school guidance program or lesson (Wittmer, 2000). COOPERATIVE LEARNING. The use of collaborative inte ractions among group members to achieve learning (Wong & Wong, 2005). The Delphi Technique The Delphi Technique is an iterative pro cess designed to bring a bout the highest level group consensus possible about ideas and/or opinions deemed important to a relatively specific purpose and/or activity. The De lphi Technique typically in cludes use of a series of questionnaires to compile judgments from expert s (Moore, 1986). The Delphi Technique is the method of choice for this study because it pr ovides a mechanism through which to achieve subject matter expert consensus through feedback loops (Clayton, 1997). It allows opportunity “to harness the knowledge, expertise and abilitie s of an entire group of people” (Corporate Partnering Institute, 1997). In the Delphi Technique, the respondent gr oup is selected carefully from among experts in an identified (professional) field. Thus, the ex pertise of the experts ch osen to participate is crucial to the validity of the results (Linstone & Turtoff, 1975). An expe rt is someone who has specific and extensive knowledge, skills, and experience relevant to the particular subject (Clayton, 1997). Desirable characteristics for participants should be identified prior to application of the technique. In general, nom inees should include respected members of the profession. The invitation to par ticipate should be presented as flattering and motivating to potential participants (Cla yton, 1997; Scheele, 1975).

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37 The Delphi process includes dissemination of a questionnaire and proceeds through ten stages (Moore, 1986): 1. Decide to administer the questionnaire. 2. Select a respondent group. 3. Design the questionnaire. 4. Give advance notice to respondents (optional). 5. Pilot test questionn aire (optional). 6. Produce questionnaire. 7. Distribute questionnaire. 8. Send reminder or another copy of the questionnaire (optional). 9. Receive completed questionnaire. 10. Analyze completed questionnaire. Return to step 3 for next round of questionnaire dissemination. The selection of the participant panel and th e construction of the questionnaire have great impact on the validity of the results applicati on of the Delphi Techni que. Experts recommend careful construction of the questi onnaire to ensure adequate res ponse and inclusion of relevant options for consideration (Dillman, 2000; Moore, 1986). A thorough search of the literature should be completed to include all relevant issues to decision making on the topic. Tyler (1949) supports the use of subject specia lists to determine curriculum content for a specified field and the Delphi Technique is well-s uited to determination of curricular objectives. The collective expertise allows collective decisi on making that would not otherwise be possible because of geography or interpersonal issues Linstone and Turtoff (1975, p.4) outlined additional criteria to employ Delphi Technique: The problem does not lend itself to precise an alytical techniques, but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis.

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38 More individuals are needed than who can inte ract efficiently and effectively in a face-toface exchange. Disagreements among individuals are such th at the communication process must be “refereed.” The heterogeneity of the particip ants must be preserved to as sure validity of the results, i.e., avoidance of domination by quantity or by strength of personality. These criteria illustrate the potential usefulness of the Delphi Technique to create a curriculum among diverse members of a group who cannot othe rwise meet for group discussions. It is a scientific method that allows each individual to respond and participate, further, personal subjectivity is directed into group response. The technique “attempts to overcome the weaknesses implicit in relying on a single expe rt, a one-shot group aver age, or round table discussion” (Clayton, 1997, p. 375). The genera lly accepted number of participants for a (relatively) homogeneous group is 15 to 30 (Clayton, 1997; Moore, 1986). Once the questionnaire has been construc ted and the participants selected, the questionnaires are distributed to be completed. The results are th en interpreted and analyzed to determine an appropriate cut-off point of the nu mber of elements to be retained (Scheibe, Skutsch, & Schofer, 1975). Generally, there is a “gap” pointing the rank-ordered item means after each round. The scores below the gap are deleted and the remaining items are reintroduced in the next round. The process ends when the cr iteria for consensus is reached (usually by the number of rounds allowed), resulting in the fina l list of items. Linstone and Turtoff (1975) recommended three rounds as “sufficient to attain stability in the responses” (p.229). The Delphi Technique was us ed by Cabaniss (2002) to determine appropriate uses of technology in counseling. The author sought to determine how much counselors and counselor educators relied on computer-related technol ogy, for which counselor-related tasks were counseling professionals using computer-related technology, whic h job-related tasks required

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39 computer-related technology, and how would comput er-related technology be used in the next ten years. Strong agreement on the importan ce of computer-related technology in counseling and provision of more training in use of co mputer-related technology in counselor training programs was found. Dimmitt, Carey, McGannon, and Henningson (2005) used the Delphi Technique to inquire about the future of the school counselor research agenda. An expert panel of 21 members was chosen from among national schoo l counseling leaders, practitioners, and counselor educators. The result was a list of the research ques tions that the experts thought ought to be addressed in school counseling re search. Wittinghill (2000) used the Delphi Technique to identify the initial curriculum components necessary for the preparation of graduate-level substance abuse counselors. An expert panel of 28 members responded to three rounds of an evolving questionnaire rating 198 work behaviors on level of importance in training substance abuse counselors. The result was a lis t of 89 curriculum items deemed as the most important to be included in training programs. Thus the De lphi Technique has been used successfully for various purposes in the c ounseling profession, including curriculum development. Summary of the Related Literature Professional school counselors are being trained in vary ing ways across programs. Unfortunately, differential traini ng has led to confusion about sc hool counselor roles, which in turn has affected school counsel or education program developm ent. Although there is some agreement about applicable training standards an d foci, there remains considerable lack of agreement about which skills are important to teach. Tyler (1949) outlined steps for creating a curr iculum and supported using systematic data collection to identify curricular objectives and components. In regard to classroom management

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40 specifically, training in group proce sses and interpersonal interactions is helpful but insufficient. This study is intended to address this shortcoming.

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41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to achieve as high as possible consensus among selected practicing school counselors and counselor educators about curri culum components necessary to prepare students in school counselor educat ion programs to lead and manage large-group classroom guidance activities effectively. Pres ented in this chapter are the population, sampling procedures, resultant sample, questionnaire development, research procedures, and methodological limitations for this study. Population The population for this study included two groups of professionals, both associated with the school counseling profession: (a) school coun selors working in public and/or private K-12 schools and (b) school counselor ed ucators working in university or college settings. All fifty states require school counselors to hold state-level school coun seling certification and to have completed (at least some) graduate course work, with the majority of states requiring achievement of a master’s degree (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006–07). In the 2003-04, approximately 99,000 school counselors were employe d in public schools in the United States (U.S. Dept. of Education, 2003–04). Among practicing school counselors are the approximately 2000 who currently hold the National Certified School Counselor (NCSC) credential (NBCC, 2006). The NCSC is a specialty certification credentia l in the school counseling prof ession for those who choose to apply and are able to qualify. The NCSC credenti al is a result of joint efforts by the American Counseling Association (ACA), American School Counselin g Association (ASCA), and National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) the major professiona l associations and organizations for the counseling and school counse ling professions (Bureau of Labor Statistics,

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42 2006–07). The NCSC requirements included achi evement of a master’s degree in school counseling, specialty coursework in school c ounseling, successful comp letion of a national examination, and a minimum of three years su pervised experience working as a school counselor. The advantages of becoming an NCSC included (a) recognition for and identification as having achieve d one of the highest credenti als in the school counseling profession, (b) possible base salary increase (i n some states and school systems), and (c) demonstration of a continuing commitment to pr ofessional excellence in the school counseling profession. The NCSC has been offered since 1991 (NBCC, 2006). The second group from which a sample was dr awn was counselor educators, specifically school counselor educators. C ounselor educators hold a doctoral degree in counselor education (or a very closely related field such as couns eling psychology), are employed by a college or university, and are teaching or supervising (school) counselors-in-training. Currently, there are forty-two doctoral-level counselor educati on programs accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Edu cational programs (CACREP) (2006). CACREP is the primary national accreditation agency for school counselor education programs (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006–07; Clawson, 2000). Counselor educators included in this study had an earned doctoral degree, were employed at a college or university having a CACREP-accredited program in school counseling, and had instructional and/or supervisory assignment for school counselors-in-training. They also were members of ACA, ASCA, and the Associat ion for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES). At the time of the study, there we re approximately 45,000 members of ACA (ACA, 2006), over 18,000 members of ASCA (ASCA, 2006), and 2079 members of ACES (J. Macdonald, personal communication, May 5, 2006).

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43 The ACES membership roster is partitione d across five geographical regions. For this study, effort was made to include individuals from each of the five regions of ACES. A list of school counselor educators was designed specifica lly for this study and acquired from ACA (M. Griffith, personal communication, July 18, 2006) There were 776 members of ACES who identified themselves as working in a univers ity setting. The list included each potential participant’s name, university affiliation, and email address. Sampling Procedures Following procedural guidelines suggested by Tyler (1949) and others, representative participants (i.e., panelists) from the two pr ofessional groups (i.e., pr acticing school counselors and school counselor educators) were sought for this study. Because “expertise…is the desired goal for panel [member] selection” (Clayton, 1997, p. 377), the panelists were selected based on application of criteri a germane to the purpose of the st udy, such as evident history of involvement in the preparation of school couns elors and in the school counseling profession. Practicing school counselors i nvited to participate were identified from among those who held the NCSC credential, had completed a pr eparation program that met the CACREP school counseling program accreditation standards, and ha d a minimum of three years of professional (i.e., employed) experience as a school counselor. The essential criteria for selection of counselor educator s included that they must have been currently employed in an institution of highe r education as a faculty member in a master’slevel (or higher) school counselor prepar ation program accredite d by the CACREP. Additionally, each counselor educator selected was a member of ASCA, ACA, and ACES, (b) had published at least two (2) ar ticles pertinent to the preparation of school counselors in a professional journal within the last five years and (c) had made at least two (2) professional presentations pertinent to school counselor preparat ion at a state, regional, or national conference

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44 for (school) counselors and/or couns elor educators within the last five years. In addition, a few individuals were invited to pa rticipate who held national lead ership positions in school counseling or were known for their school couns eling research. These latter individuals’ qualifications in all other areas exceeded the requirements liste d above, but were either not a member of one of the professional organizati ons (ACA or ACES) or were not currently employed by a CACREP-accredited program. Only one person from this latter group actually participated in the study. In order to maximize representation of a ppropriate school counselor educators, attempt was made to have proportionate membership re presentation of the five ACES’s regions. Similarly, attempt was made to have appropr iate, diverse representation of the ASCA membership for the participating school counselor s. Although not applied as sampling criteria, additional factors of representation such as gender and race/ethnicity were given consideration in the sampling procedures. In general, every atte mpt was made to include panelists who were as representative as possible of their respective primary professional affiliations and also as diverse as possible. All individuals eligible according to these criteria were invited to participate in the study. Continued participation by panel members is an issue in any re search necessitating repeated response to a survey. Therefore, potenti al participants were informed (as part of the invitation to participate) as to th e nature of complete participati on (i.e., three rounds of ratings). Only those who committed to the entire process we re initially included as panel members. Resultant Sample Attempt was made to enlist the participation of 30 pract icing school counselors and 30 school counselor educators through the procedures described. Sc hool counselor educators were selected for potential inclusion so as to be proportionately repres entative of the memberships of

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45 the five ACES’ regions. From the ACES’ list, 45 individuals were id entified who met all qualifications. These 45 school c ounselor educators were invited to participate in the study; 22 replied affirmatively to the request asking fo r inclusion in the study. However, continual participation for all three rounds was necessary for inclusion in the study. Therefore the number of school counselor educators who pa rticipated as panelists was 18. NCSC does not subdivide its membership into regional categories. However, from the list of NCSCs generated by NBCC, attempt was made to include nationally certified school counselors from each state to parallel the schoo l counselor educator pa rticipants across the ACES’ regions. After 120 NCSCs were contacted with an invitation to participate, 29 school counselors requested they be included in the stud y. However, continual pa rticipation for all three rounds was necessary for inclusion in the st udy. Therefore, the actual number of school counselors who participated as panelists was 15. In addition, 2 individuals identified them selves in both the school counselor group and the school counselor educator group. One was or iginally identified from the school counselor (NCSC) list and one from the school counselor educator (ACES) list. Ultimately, the procedures yielded a group of 15 school counselors and 18 sc hool counselor educator s as well as 2 who identified in both groups, for a total of 35 initial participants (panelists). There is not a generally agreed upon guideline for minimum panel size for effective use of the Delphi technique. However, “a ge neral rule-of-thumb [is] 15–30 people for a homogeneous population that is, experts coming from the same discipline and 5–10 people for a heterogeneous population” (Clayton, 1997, p. 378). Therefore, a minimum of 15 school counselors and 15 school counselor educators wa s proposed to be considered sufficient for

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46 effective conduct of the study. The final group of 35 participants who comp leted all three rounds of the survey was thus consider ed sufficient and satisfactory. Survey Development Moore (1986) noted that, “The questionnair e is the essential tool in the Delphi [technique]” (p. 53). The initia l survey used for this study had two subsections. The first subsection solicited demographic information from the panelists, including (a) professional position (i.e., practicing school coun selor or school counselor educat or), (b) race/ethnicity (i.e., Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian, Native Am erican or Multiracial), (c) highest degree achieved (i.e., Master’s, Educationa l Specialist (EdS) or Certificat e of Advanced Studies (CAS), or Doctorate), and (d) years of experience in cu rrent professional positio n (i.e., as a practicing school counselor or as a school c ounselor educator). The demogr aphic information subsection of the survey was not presented for th e second and third rounds of ratings. The second subsection for round one included 89 items to be rated. The rating scale for each item had a range of from 1 (not at all impor tant) to 7 (extremely important). The survey was web-based. Each response scale was presented in “radio button” format to disallow more than one rating per item. The second round of the survey had 56 items to be rated and the third round had 43 items to be rated. For the second and third rounds, th e immediately previous round item mean scores were presented along with each item to be rated. Research Procedures After the potential participants in each group we re identified, a letter of invitation to participate (Appendix A) was sent to each of them via e-mail. The letter included an overview of the study and why it was needed professionally, co mmented that their i ndividual participation would be a valuable contribution to the school counseling profession, and requested a reply to

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47 inform whether they were willing to participat e. These potential partic ipants had a period of three (3) weeks in which to reply. It was proposed that thereafter succeeding potential participants on the respective lists would be contacted and invited to participate until either a minimum of 20 participants for each group had been identified or the list of potential participants has been exhausted. However, all potential partic ipants were contacted in itially for both groups and all those that requested partic ipation were included in the study. The second correspondence (Appendix B) was sent via e-mail to professionals in each group who had agreed to participat e as panelists in the study. It included the link to the URL for the study. Note that the informed consent form for the study (Appendix C) was the first webpage of the study’s URL. Therefore, participating pane lists had to give informed consent to continue to the actual survey. It also should be noted that panelist particip ation was anonymous after agreement to participate (i.e., after continuing pa st the initial page of the first round survey). For each round, participants were contacted via e-mail when the survey was open and available for responding. From that time, partic ipants had three weeks to respond to the current form of the survey. After two weeks, a second participation remi nder was sent via e-mail. At the beginning of the final week the survey was to be open, a final reminder was sent via e-mail. Unfortunately, three days after the initial su rvey was sent to participants, an error was identified on one page of the survey; there wa s an additional (eighth) column with a heading “No.” How this error occurred could not be de termined; presumably it was a fault in the webbased system used for the survey process. Th e survey was immediately closed and participants notified of the temporary closing and error. Beca use the survey process wa s mid data collection, the error could not be corrected on line. Theref ore, participants who ha d not yet completed the survey were notified to disregar d the unnecessary respons e column. The 22 participants who had

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48 already completed the survey were redirected to a one-page update surv ey to respond to the 14 items having had an extra response column. Th e updated responses were entered manually when that round of the survey was closed. Respondents were requested to rate each item in the survey in each round. After panelists completed ratings for the first round, the individu al item means were calculated. The survey item means were then ordered from highest to lo west item response mean. Linstone and Turoff (1975) noted that generally there usually is a “gap” in the ordered item mean s for a Delphi study, and that that gap is the appr opriate point below which to eliminate items from subsequent consideration. A gap was evident for the round on e item response means in this study and items having means below the “gap” were discarded from subse quent item presentations. Therefore, the second round included 56 items. The respec tive item wordings were not changed and remained the same across rounds. Feedback is an important element of the De lphi process because it allows respondents to examine and possibly reevaluate their item rati ngs from the previous round (Dalkey, 1972; Linstone & Turoff, 1975). Th erefore, in the second round, th e panelists were provided the respective item means from the fi rst round for the 56 items that ha d been retained. They were not given the item means for the di scarded items. They were re quested to rate the items again as was done in the first round. When the second round of ratings were completed, the individual item means were calculated again, the items were ordered by item mean as they were after the first round, and item means below the “gap” were removed from consideration. In the third round, respondents were provide d the respective item means from the second round for the 43 items that had been retained. Th ey were not given the item means for the items that were discarded. They were then requested to make their final ratings.

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49 Data Analyses The primary data for this study were the it em rating response values and means for the items retained for the third round. Note that inspection of the third round means revealed (another) gap in the item response means. Item s having means below 5.80 were not considered further in regard to data analys es and therefore data from 40 items were entered into the data analyses. A series of quantitative da ta analyses were conducted to allow evaluation of the third research question for the study. An alpha level of p = .05 was used as the criterion for statistical significance for all quantitative analyses. A series of independent t -tests were computed to determine if there were significant differences between the respective, included third round item means based on the panelists’ professional position (i.e., practici ng school counselor or school c ounselor educator). It was proposed an independent t -test also would be computed to de termine if there were significant differences between the respective item means based on panelists’ ge nder (i.e., male or female). However, because of insufficient sample sizes (males = 8), the Wilc oxon Rank Sum Test was computed for this analysis. The first analysis was for all panelists combined. The second and third analyses were for each group separately. A two-way (2 x 5), factorial analysis of va riance was proposed to determine if there were significant differences among the respective it em means based on professional position by race/ethnicity (i.e., Caucasian, African, Hispanic Asian, Native American, Multiracial or Other). However, it was not computed because approximately 87% of participants were Caucasian. Another two-way (2 x 3) factoria l analysis of variance was proposed to determine if there were significant differences among the respective it em means based on professional position by highest degree level achieved (i.e., Masters, E ducational Specialist/CAS, or Doctorate).

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50 However, only 8.6% of respondents indicated th e EdS/CAS category. Therefore, the three degree-level categories were collapsed into tw o (Masters’/ EdS/ CAS and Doctorate) and an independent t -test was conducted. Finally, a series of correlation matrices were proposed to allow evaluation of the significance of relations hips among panelists’ years of experience in current professional position and th e respective item ratings. However, simple linear regression analyses were conducted in its place to achieve more specific examination of those relationships. Methodological Limitations The effectiveness of the De lphi technique is contingent primarily upon the quality and expertise of the panelists because their backgrounds, experiences, and expertise directly impact their ratings (Clayton, 1997). In th is study, panelist select ion criteria were applied such that each panelist was well-qualified for the task. Ther efore, although panelist expertise could be a limitation, it was not be a signifi cant limitation in this study. The necessity for panelists to make three sets of ratings raised the issue of to what extent is sustained motivation a limitation? To counteract this potential limitation, strategies proven to maximize participation for intern et surveys (e.g., continued comm unications with panelist) were used (Dillman, 2000). In addition, panelists knew the nature and extent of requested participation prior to agreeing to serve as pane lists. Presumably, the pa nelists had appropriate and sufficient motivation throughout the study because there was not any indication that they did not (e.g., all responded in a timely manner during each round). Finally, the panelists were provided a lis t of possible curriculum components for classroom management training fo r school counselors and were not allowed to add their personal suggestions. It is possible that some paneli sts may have reacted to the list not containing components they might have believed important. However, the initial list was extensive and was a broad-scale representation of suggestions extant in the professional literature. Importantly,

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51 there was not any feedback from the panelists as to insufficient content in the lists provided. Therefore, personal reactions to the list of items apparently were not a limitation for this study.

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52 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The Delphi technique was used in this study to achieve convergence of opinions among selected school counselors and school counselor educators about pref erred components of a curriculum for classroom management for largegroup guidance activities. Presented in this chapter are the demographic characteristic data fo r the participants; results of their ratings for rounds one, two, and three; and result s of the various data analyses. Demographic Characteristics Panelist demographic information was collected in round one of the survey process and the resultant data are shown in Table 4–1. Fi fteen (42.9%) of the pa rticipants identified themselves as school counselors and eighteen (51.4 %) identified themselves as school counselor educators. Two of the panelists (5.7%) iden tified themselves as both school counselors and school counselor educators. The racial / ethn ic identifications of the participants was homogeneous in that thirty-one (88.6%) identified themselves as Caucasian. Two identified themselves as Hispanic (5.7%), one as Nativ e American (2.9%), and one as Caucasian and Native American (2.9%). No participants identified themselves as African American, Asian American, or multiracial. Approximately 23% of participants were male (N = 8) and 77% were female (N = 27). Nineteen (54.3%) panelists reported having a doctoral de gree, three (8.6%) reported having an Educational Specialist (EdS) or Certif icate of Advanced Studies (CAS) degree, and 13 (37.1%) reported having a Maste r’s degree. Because of the ho mogeneity of the educational preparations of the participants, data from pa rticipants having Doctorate and EdS/CAS degrees were combined. Years of experience among the panelists was similar for each group. Years of experience for school counselors ranged from 4 to 31 years (mean = 11.80; s.d. = 7.79). Years of

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53 experience for school counselor educators ranged from three to 28 years (mean = 11.22; s.d. = 6.90). For the combined sample, years of expe rience ranged from three to 31 years (mean = 11.49; s.d. = 7.04). Table 4–1. Summary of Panelists ’ Demographic Characteristics FrequencyPercent Professional Position School Counselor 15 42.9 School Counselor Educator 18 51.4 Both 2 5.7 Gender Female 27 77.0 Male 8 23.0 Racial / Ethnic Identification Caucasian 31 88.6 Hispanic 2 5.7 Native American 1 2.9 Caucasian and Native American 1 2.9 Highest Degree Attained Doctorate 19 54.3 Educational Specialist or Certificate of Advanced Studies3 8.6 Master’s 13 37.1 Years of Experience School Counselors Range: 4–31 years Mean: 11.80 years s.d.: 7.79 School Counselor Educators Range: 3–28 years Mean: 11.22 years s.d.: 6.9 Round I In round one of the study, 45 initial particip ants rated the initial 89 possible curriculum component items in regard to importance for in clusion in a classroom management training / education for school counselors using a sevenpoint scale (1= not important and 7=extremely important). Note that ten of th e initial panelists did not partic ipate throughout all three rounds.

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54 The item rating means for round one are shown in Table 4–2 Item rating means for this round ranged from 4.42 to 6.69. Items having a first round item rating mean 5.96 were eliminated from further consideration. It should be noted that adequate dispersion was found in respondent ratings for all rounds. Table 4–2. Possible Classroom Management Cu rriculum Components Ordered by Response Item Means Following Round One Item number Abbreviated desc ription Item meanDifference 38 long-term group 4.42 4 social loafing 4.93 0.51 1 self-help groups 5.04 0.11 22 homogeneous group 5.07 0.03 67 altruism 5.11 0.04 24 catharsis 5.22 0.11 9 group time orientation 5.40 0.18 28 voluntary group membership 5.47 0.07 7 social identity 5.49 0.02 18 task / work group 5.51 0.02 47 direct advice 5.52 0.01 25 involuntary group membership 5.53 0.01 29 interpreting 5.53 0.00 17 member selection 5.56 0.03 27 heterogeneous group 5.60 0.04 71 group member guidance 5.60 0.00 34 experiential / training (process) group 5.62 0.02 84 suggesting 5.62 0.00 21 counseling group 5.64 0.02 46 deviation from group 5.67 0.03 39 social comparison 5.69 0.02 43 conformity to group 5.71 0.02 6 didactic instruction 5.71 0.00 14 group formation 5.71 0.00 32 insight 5.73 0.02 62 group member roles 5.73 0.00 15 resources 5.78 0.05 37 self-disclosure 5.82 0.04

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55 Table 4–2. Continued Item number Abbreviated desc ription Item meanDifference 45 universality 5.82 0.00 23 group culture 5.84 0.02 2 enthusiasm 5.87 0.03 19 experiential learning 5.96 0.00 54 human development 5.96 0.00 36 short-term group 6.02 0.06 44 theories of group counseling 6.02 0.00 53 group transition stage 6.04 0.02 70 vicarious learning 6.04 0.00 33 group identification 6.07 0.03 42 socializing techniques 6.07 0.00 12 topic selection 6.09 0.02 51 using proxemics 6.09 0.00 26 linking 6.13 0.04 65 learning styles 6.16 0.03 88 blocking 6.16 0.00 56 group tasks 6.17 0.01 57 interpersonal learning 6.17 0.00 58 group working stage 6.17 0.00 31 group initial stage 6.18 0.01 40 group development 6.18 0.00 49 group conflict 6.20 0.02 68 goal setting 6.20 0.00 11 instillation of hope 6.22 0.02 60 post-group issues 6.22 0.00 64 restating 6.24 0.02 85 protecting 6.24 0.00 59 group final stage 6.26 0.02 3 group cohesion 6.27 0.01 41 group process 6.29 0.02 20 rule setting 6.29 0.00 66 drawing out 6.29 0.00 80 initiating 6.29 0.00 50 group cohesiveness 6.30 0.01 35 nonverbal communication 6.31 0.01 69 clarifying 6.33 0.02 75 reflecting feelings 6.33 0.00 8 supporting 6.36 0.03

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56 Table 4–2. Continued Item number Abbreviated desc ription Item meanDifference 13 cooperative learning 6.38 0.02 72 summarizing 6.38 0.00 55 confronting 6.39 0.01 61 evaluation of group 6.40 0.01 78 showing empathy 6.44 0.04 82 acknowledging 6.44 0.00 48 legal considerations for group work6.46 0.02 76 supporting 6.47 0.01 10 multicultural diversity 6.49 0.02 74 wait time 6.49 0.00 77 processing 6.49 0.00 87 reinforcing 6.49 0.00 81 evaluating 6.51 0.02 89 terminating 6.51 0.00 16 group dynamics 6.53 0.02 63 active listening 6.53 0.00 73 open-ended questioning 6.53 0.00 52 group leadership style 6.57 0.04 5 guidance / psychoeducational group 6.58 0.01 30 ethical considerations for group work 6.60 0.02 86 modeling 6.60 0.00 83 giving feedback 6.62 0.02 79 facilitating group interactions 6.69 0.07 Round II For the second round, a revised survey in cluded the retained 56 possible curriculum component items and the item rating means from r ound one. Forty-one of the original panelists responded in the second round. The item rating means for round one are shown in Table 4–3 and ranged from 5.46 to 6.59. Items having a second-round item rating mean 5.93 were eliminated from further consideration.

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57 Table 4–3. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response Item Means Following Round Two Item number Abbreviated description Item meanDifference 51 using proxemics 5.46 12 topic selection 5.59 0.13 44 theories of group counseling 5.76 0.17 53 group transition stage 5.76 0.00 33 group identification 5.80 0.04 36 short-term group 5.80 0.00 42 socializing techniques 5.80 0.00 56 group tasks 5.80 0.00 58 group working stage 5.80 0.00 40 group development 5.85 0.05 60 post-group issues 5.85 0.00 70 vicarious learning 5.85 0.00 11 instillation of hope 5.88 0.03 55 confronting 5.93 0.05 3 group cohesion 5.95 0.02 65 learning styles 5.95 0.00 57 interpersonal learning 5.98 0.03 41 group process 6.00 0.02 88 blocking 6.02 0.02 31 group initial stage 6.05 0.03 59 group final stage 6.05 0.00 49 group conflict 6.07 0.02 52 group leadership style 6.07 0.00 66 drawing out 6.07 0.00 5 guidance / psychoeducational group 6.10 0.03 26 linking 6.10 0.00 72 summarizing 6.10 0.00 76 supporting 6.10 0.00 80 initiating 6.10 0.00 8 supporting 6.12 0.02 13 cooperative learning 6.12 0.00 50 group cohesiveness 6.12 0.00 74 wait time 6.12 0.00 81 evaluating 6.12 0.00 68 goal setting 6.15 0.03

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58 Table 4–3. Continued Item number Abbreviated description Item meanDifference 69 clarifying 6.15 0.00 82 acknowledging 6.17 0.02 87 reinforcing 6.17 0.02 35 nonverbal communication 6.20 0.03 64 restating 6.20 0.00 75 reflecting feelings 6.20 0.00 77 processing 6.22 0.02 85 protecting 6.22 0.00 10 multicultural diversity 6.24 0.02 89 terminating 6.27 0.03 48 legal considerations for group work 6.29 0.02 78 showing empathy 6.32 0.03 73 open-ended questioning 6.37 0.05 83 giving feedback 6.39 0.04 16 group dynamics 6.41 0.02 20 rule setting 6.41 0.00 61 evaluation of group 6.44 0.03 86 modeling 6.44 0.00 79 facilitating group interactions 6.46 0.02 30 ethical considerations for group work 6.59 0.13 63 active listening 6.59 0.00 Round III In the third (final) round, the survey in cluded 43 items and the item rating means from round two. Thirty-five pane lists responded in the thir d iteration of the survey process. The item rating means for round three are shown in Table 4–4 and ranged from 5.51 to 6.54. Items having a third-round item mean 5.80 were not included in subsequent data analyses, resulting in analyses for 40 classroom ma nagement curriculum items. Table 4–4. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response Item Means Following Round Three Item number Abbreviated desc ription Item mean Difference 55 confronting 5.51

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59 Table 4–4. Continued Item number Abbreviated desc ription Item mean Difference 57 interpersonal learning 5.57 0.06 65 learning styles 5.63 0.06 35 nonverbal communication 5.80 0.17 59 group final stage 5.80 0.00 49 group conflict 5.83 0.03 3 group cohesion 5.89 0.06 31 group initial stage 5.89 0.00 75 reflecting feelings 5.89 0.00 41 group process 5.91 0.02 68 goal setting 5.91 0.00 74 wait time 5.91 0.00 81 evaluating 5.91 0.00 50 group cohesiveness 5.94 0.03 64 restating 5.94 0.00 66 drawing out 5.94 0.00 52 group leadership style 5.97 0.03 69 clarifying 5.97 0.00 13 cooperative learning 6.00 0.03 82 acknowledging 6.00 0.00 10 multicultural diversity 6.03 0.03 72 summarizing 6.03 0.00 80 initiating 6.03 0.00 8 supporting 6.06 0.03 87 reinforcing 6.06 0.00 88 blocking 6.06 0.00 26 linking 6.09 0.03 48 legal considerations for group work 6.09 0.00 76 supporting 6.09 0.00 83 giving feedback 6.09 0.00 77 processing 6.11 0.02 16 group dynamics 6.14 0.03 73 open-ended questioning 6.20 0.06 78 showing empathy 6.20 0.00 89 terminating 6.23 0.03 85 protecting 6.29 0.06 86 modeling 6.29 0.00 79 facilitating group interactions 6.31 0.02 5 guidance / psychoeducational group 6.34 0.03

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60 Table 4–4. Continued Item number Abbreviated desc ription Item mean Difference 61 evaluation of group 6.37 0.03 63 active listening 6.40 0.03 30 ethical considerations for group work 6.43 0.03 20 rule setting 6.54 0.11 Post Hoc Analyses The third research question for this study was investigated through post hoc analyses of the interrelationships among the respondents’ demographic characteristics and preferred curriculum components (items). Specifically, analyses were conducted to determine the statistical significance of the differences in endorsement of school counselor preparation program curriculum components for classroom ma nagement for large-gr oup guidance activities based on respective respondents’ professional position, gender, or educational level. Additionally, the relation ship between respondents’ years of experience and item preference levels was examined. The Bonferroni correction was applied; a Bonferroni -corrected alpha of p =.0012 was used as the criterion fo r statistical significance for all quantitative analyses. Possible differences in endorsement of school counselor preparation pr ogram curriculum components for classroom management for large-group guidance ac tivities based on racial / ethnic identification was not examined because of the racial / ethnic homogeneity among the respondents. A series of independent t -tests were computed to determine if there were significant differences between the third round item means based on the panelists’ professional position (i.e., practicing school counselor or school counsel or educator). Presented in Table 4–5 are the respective item means and standa rd deviations for the school counselor and school counselor educator respondent groups and the t values for each item. No statistically significant differences were found for any of the items.

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61 Table 4–5. Round Three t-tests by Res pondent Professional Specialization Item number Item mean Item mean Item s.d. Item s.d. t value School Counselors1 Counselor Educators2 School Counselors Counselor Educators 3 6.000 5.780 1.000 1.003 0.635 5 6.270 6.390 0.704 0.698 -0.499 8 6.000 6.060 0.845 0.802 -0.192 10 5.800 6.170 0.941 0.924 -1.124 13 6.000 6.000 0.756 0.970 0.000 16 6.070 6.170 0.884 0.924 -0.317 20 6.600 6.440 0.737 0.616 0.650 26 6.070 6.060 0.704 0.725 0.045 30 6.330 6.440 0.976 0.984 -0.325 31 6.270 5.440 0.799 1.199 2.350 35 5.800 5.720 0.862 0.826 0.263 41 5.930 5.830 0.884 1.043 0.298 48 6.070 6.060 1.163 1.162 0.027 49 5.670 5.940 0.816 0.873 -0.943 50 5.930 5.890 0.799 0.758 0.163 52 6.070 5.890 0.961 0.758 0.581 55 5.470 5.500 1.246 1.150 -0.079 57 5.600 5.500 1.121 0.985 0.269 59 5.800 5.720 0.862 1.127 0.224 61 6.070 6.610 0.799 0.502 -2.290 63 6.330 6.390 0.617 0.778 -0.229 64 5.800 6.060 1.014 0.873 -0.767 65 5.670 5.500 0.816 1.505 0.404 66 5.870 5.940 0.834 0.998 -0.244 68 5.730 6.000 0.799 0.970 -0.866 69 5.870 6.060 0.915 0.873 -0.603 72 5.870 6.110 0.915 0.900 -0.770 73 6.270 6.110 0.704 1.023 0.515 74 5.930 5.830 0.799 1.043 0.312 75 5.870 5.830 0.834 1.150 0.096 76 6.000 6.110 0.845 0.900 -0.365 77 5.930 6.220 0.704 0.878 -1.049 78 6.270 6.110 0.704 1.023 0.515 79 6.270 6.330 0.799 0.840 -0.233 80 5.870 6.110 0.834 1.132 -0.713

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62 Table 4–5. Continued Item number Item mean Item mean Item s.d. Item s.d. t value School Counselors1 Counselor Educators2 School Counselors Counselor Educators 81 5.670 6.060 1.175 0.938 -1.036 82 5.930 6.000 0.961 1.029 -0.192 83 5.930 6.170 0.884 1.043 -0.696 85 6.470 6.110 0.640 1.231 1.065 86 6.470 6.170 0.516 0.924 1.175 87 6.000 6.000 0.799 1.085 0.203 88 6.000 6.110 0.655 0.963 -0.393 89 6.270 6.170 0.799 0.985 0.322 1NCSC N = 15 for all analyses 2ACES N = 18 for all analyses Differences in item means based on paneli sts’ highest academic degree attained (Masters/EDS/CAS versus PHD) were examin ed through a similar series of independent t -tests.. Presented in Table 4–6 are th e respective item means and st andard deviations for the Masters/EDS/CAS and PHD respondent groups and the t values for each item. No statistically significant differences were found for any of the items based on educational level. Table 4–6. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Educational Level Item number Item mean Item mean Item s.d. Item s.d. t value Masters/ EDS/CAS1 PHD2 Masters/ EDS/CAS PHD 3 6.06 5.74 0.998 0.933 0.990 5 6.19 6.47 0.750 0.612 -1.222 8 6.06 6.05 0.854 0.780 0.035 10 5.75 6.26 0.931 0.872 -1.672 13 6.00 6.00 0.730 0.943 0.000 16 6.06 6.21 0.854 0.918 -0.494 20 6.63 6.47 0.719 0.612 0.664 26 6.00 6.16 0.730 0.688 -0.654 30 6.38 6.47 0.957 0.964 -0.303 31 6.31 5.53 0.793 1.219 2.294 35 5.81 5.79 0.834 0.855 0.080 41 5.88 5.95 0.885 1.026 -0.224

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63 Table 4–6. Continued Item number Item mean Item mean Item s.d. Item s.d. t value Masters/ EDS/CAS1 PHD2 Masters/ EDS/CAS PHD 48 6.13 6.05 1.147 1.129 0.187 49 5.63 6.00 0.806 0.882 -1.313 50 5.94 5.95 0.772 0.780 -0.038 52 6.06 5.89 0.929 0.737 0.584 55 5.44 5.58 1.209 1.121 -0.356 57 5.56 5.58 1.094 0.961 -0.047 59 5.88 5.74 0.885 1.098 0.412 61 6.06 6.63 0.772 0.496 -2.541 63 6.38 6.42 0.619 0.769 -0.196 64 5.88 6.05 1.025 0.848 -0.552 65 5.56 5.68 0.892 1.455 -0.303 66 5.81 6.05 0.834 0.970 -0.787 68 5.69 6.11 0.793 0.937 -1.429 69 5.88 6.05 0.885 0.911 -0.584 72 5.88 6.16 0.885 0.898 -0.936 73 6.25 6.16 0.683 1.015 0.319 74 5.88 5.95 0.806 1.026 -0.234 75 5.81 5.95 0.834 1.129 -0.406 76 6.06 6.11 0.854 0.875 -0.146 77 5.94 6.26 0.680 0.872 -1.240 78 6.31 6.11 0.704 0.994 0.719 79 6.31 6.32 0.793 0.820 -0.012 80 5.88 6.16 0.806 1.119 -0.867 81 5.69 6.11 1.138 0.937 -1.172 82 5.81 6.16 1.047 0.898 -1.037 83 5.88 6.26 0.885 0.991 -1.223 85 6.50 6.11 0.632 1.197 1.246 86 6.44 6.16 0.512 0.898 1.152 87 6.06 6.05 0.772 1.079 0.031 88 6.06 6.05 0.680 0.911 0.037 89 6.31 6.16 0.793 0.958 0.522 1 N = 16 for all analyses 2 N = 19 for all analyses

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64 The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test was used to examine differences in item response means based on gender. Presented in Table 4–7 are th e respective item medians for male and female respondent groups and the Ws and z values for each item. No stat istically significant differences were found for any of the items based on gender of the respondent. Table 4–7. Round Three Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test by Respondent Gender Item number Item median Item median Wilcoxon W z Males1 Females2 3 6.0 6.0 128.0 -0.658 5 6.5 6.0 481.5 -0.195 8 6.0 6.0 111.0 -1.393 10 6.0 6.0 122.0 -0.912 13 5.5 6.0 109.0 -1.485 16 6.0 6.0 135.5 -0.358 20 6.0 7.0 077.5 -3.061 26 6.0 6.0 133.5 -0.452 30 6.5 7.0 125.0 -0.888 31 5.0 6.0 094.5 -2.044 35 5.5 6.0 135.0 -0.378 41 5.5 6.0 132.5 -0.482 48 6.0 7.0 122.0 -0.929 49 6.0 6.0 140.0 -0.169 50 6.0 6.0 125.0 -0.798 52 6.0 6.0 117.5 -1.134 55 5.5 6.0 137.5 -0.265 57 6.0 6.0 472.0 -0.572 59 5.5 6.0 123.0 -0.861 61 7.0 6.0 459.5 -1.171 63 6.5 6.0 140.5 -0.155 64 6.0 6.0 485.5 -0.021 65 5.0 6.0 119.0 -1.024 66 6.0 6.0 483.0 -0.124 68 6.5 6.0 466.0 -0.846 69 6.5 6.0 478.0 -0.332 72 6.5 6.0 471.5 -0.604 73 6.5 6.0 136.0 -0.340 74 6.5 6.0 475.5 -0.437

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65 Table 4–7. Continued Item number Item median Item median Wilcoxon W z Males1 Females2 75 6.5 6.0 464.5 -0.884 76 6.5 6.0 475.5 -0.438 77 7.0 6.0 470.0 -0.670 78 6.0 6.0 116.0 -1.189 79 6.5 7.0 139.0 -0.215 80 7.0 6.0 473.5 -0.520 81 7.0 6.0 450.0 -1.484 82 6.5 6.0 472.0 -0.580 83 7.0 6.0 477.5 -0.359 85 6.0 7.0 108.5 -1.543 86 6.0 6.0 116.0 -1.210 87 6.5 6.0 486.0 0.000 88 6.0 6.0 134.0 -0.422 89 6.0 6.0 138.0 -0.259 1 N = 8 for all analyses 2 N = 27 for all analyses A linear regression analysis was computed to examine how thir d round item responses were related to respondents’ respective years of experience in current professional position. The data for this analysis are pres ented in Table 4–8. No significant differences were found for any of the items based on respondent’s years of experience in current position. Table 4–8. Summary of Simple Lin ear Regression Analysis of Mean Item Ratings and Years of Experience for Total Sample (N = 35) Predictor variable: Years of experience Response variable: Item number B SE B 3 .043 .023 .312 5 -.020 .017 -.207 8 .046 .018 .401 10 -.006 .023 -.047 13 .011 .021 .094 16 .012 .022 .098 20 .055 .016 .056

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66 Table 4–8. Continued Predictor variable:Years of experience Response variable: Item number B SE B 26 .001 .017 .009 30 .044 .022 .329 31 .024 .027 .151 35 .036 .020 .308 41 .031 .023 .226 48 .043 .027 .270 49 0.00 .021 .000 50 .011 .019 .104 52 .001 .020 .013 55 .014 .028 .088 57 .036 .024 .250 59 .010 .025 .069 61 -.013 .017 -.129 63 .030 .016 .308 64 .032 .022 .242 65 -.034 .029 -.198 66 .002 .022 .014 68 -.013 .022 -.106 69 .008 .022 .063 72 .015 .022 .120 73 -.006 .021 -.045 74 -.028 .022 -.211 75 .004 .025 .025 76 .022 .021 .179 77 .006 .020 .053 78 .032 .021 .263 79 .025 .019 .219 80 .028 .024 .197 81 .028 .025 .187 82 -.003 .024 -.022 83 .018 .023 .134 85 .025 .024 .178 86 .020 .018 .190 87 .019 .023 .143 88 .017 .020 .151 89 .023 .021 .181

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67 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This study investigated school counselor and school counselor educator recommended curriculum components to prepare school counsel ors in classroom management for large-group guidance activities. Although regulatory guidelin es are provided by states and within the profession for general training of school counsel ors, specific recommen dations for curriculum components for training school counselors in classroom management for large-group guidance activities do not exist. Therefore, this study used the Del phi consensus building technique to identify needed, specific curriculum components. Generalizability Limitations The Delphi method is a process intended to achieve opinion consensus through iterative surveying of topic/subject matter experts. Panelists from two prof essional groups, school counselors and school counselor ed ucators, participated in th is study. The panelists were selected based on germane professional criteria, including each panelist having had a history in involvement in preparation of school counselor s and in the school c ounseling profession. Effort was made to secure an as large as possible number of school counselors and school counselor educators who met the sampling criteria, with intenti on to have 30 in each panelist group. There is not a generally agreed upon guide line for minimum panel size for effective use of the Delphi technique. However, “a genera l rule-of-thumb is 15–30 people for a homogeneous population that is, experts coming from the same discipline and 5–10 people for a heterogeneous population” (Clayton, 1997, p. 378) A total of 29 school counselors and 22 school counselor educators indicated initial interest in participation in the study. However, the actual sample of 35 panelists who completed all three rounds of the process included 16 school counselor and 19 school c ounselor educators.

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68 Although the respondent sample was not as larg e as desired, the actua l participants were representative of the respectiv e school counselor and school c ounselor educator populations in regard to the sampling criteria applied. Indeed, th e professional credentials of the vast majority of the panelists exceeded the mi nimum participation criteria set for the study. Therefore, the resultant panelist sample was sufficient a nd suitable for the purposes of the study. Evaluation of Research Questions The first two research questions investigat ed related to school counselors’ and school counselor educators’ respectiv e levels of endorsement and priority among the curriculum components deemed (minimally) requisite for school counselor preparation for classroom management for large-group guidance activities. Shown in Table 5–9 are the items resulting from the completed Delphi process and the it em rating means for both school counselor and school counselor educator panelists. It can be seen that the respective item means are highly similar across respondent groups; in deed, no statistically signifi cant differences in item means between respondent groups were found. There were, however, a few minor differences across groups in the various item pr iorities as reflected in the specific item mean rankings. Table 5–9. Final Item Rankings Ordered by Respondent Group School Counselors School Counselor Educators Item number Item description Item mean Ranking Item mean Ranking 20 rule setting 6.600 1 6.440 2.5 85 protecting 6.470 2.5 6.001 16 86 modeling 6.470 2.5 6.170 10 30 ethical considerations for group work 6.330 4.5 6.440 2.5 63 active listening 6.330 4.5 6.390 4.5 5 guidance / psychoeducational group 6.270 6.7 6.390 4.5 31 group initial stage 6.270 6.7 5.440 40

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69 Table 5–9. Continued School Counselors School Counselor Educators Item number Item description Item mean Ranking Item mean Ranking 73 open-ended questioning 6.270 6.7 6.110 16 78 showing empathy 6.270 6.7 6.110 16 79 facilitating group interactions 6.270 6.7 6.330 6 89 terminating 6.270 6.7 6.170 10 16 group dynamics 6.070 14 6.170 10 26 linking 6.070 14 6.060 22.5 48 legal considerations for group work 6.070 14 6.060 22.5 52 group leadership style 6.070 14 5.890 32.5 61 evaluation of group 6.070 14 6.610 1 3 group cohesion 6.000 19.5 5.780 37 8 supporting (leader intevening to reassure members, encourage and reinforce participation) 6.000 19.5 6.060 22.5 13 cooperative learning 6.000 19.5 6.000 27.5 76 supporting (the act of attempting to provide encouragement to a group member) 6.000 19.5 6.110 16 87 reinforcing 6.000 19.5 6.000 27.5 88 blocking 6.000 19.5 6.110 16 41 group process 5.930 25.5 5.830 35 50 group cohesiveness 5.930 25.5 5.890 32.5 74 wait time 5.930 25.5 5.830 35 77 processing 5.930 25.5 6.220 7 82 acknowledging 5.930 25.5 6.000 27.5 83 giving feedback 5.930 25.5 6.170 10 66 drawing out 5.870 31 5.940 30.5 69 clarifying 5.870 31 6.060 22.5 72 summarizing 5.870 31 6.110 16 75 reflecting feelings 5.870 31 5.830 35 80 initiating 5.870 31 6.110 16 10 multicultural diversity 5.800 35.5 6.170 10 35 nonverbal communication 5.800 35.5 5.720 38.5 59 group final stage 5.800 35.5 5.720 38.5

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70 Table 5–9. Continued School Counselors School Counselor Educators Item number Item description Item mean Ranking Item mean Ranking 64 restating 5.800 35.5 6.060 22.5 68 goal setting 5.730 38 6.000 27.5 49 group conflict 5.670 39.5 5.940 30.5 81 evaluating 5.670 39.5 6.060 22.5 It can be noted that there was substan tial consensus among the panelists throughout the Delphi process conducted. In the first round, nine items received a mean rating below 5.50. However, in the second and third rounds, no item received a mean rating below 5.50, which suggests that panelists generally believed the remaining items were either im portant or extremely important. The third research question in this study addressed differences in levels of endorsement based on selected personal and professional characteristics of th e respondents. The statistical analyses conducted examined possible item resp onse mean difference s or relationships by gender, educational level, year s of experience in current prof essional position, and group. No statistically significant differences based on these characteristics were found for any of the final 40 curriculum items. Conclusions The Delphi technique is an iterative process designed to achieve the highest possible level of group consensus about id eas and/or opinions deemed impor tant to a relatively specific purpose and/or activity. Because it is an itera tive process, the degree of consensus achieved following each round can be examined, specifically in regard to the research questions posed for the study.

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71 The first research question addressed school counseling professionals’ respective endorsement levels of curriculum components deem ed (minimally) requisite for school counselor preparation for classroom manage ment. A wide range of endorse ments levels for the possible curriculum components was evident initially. Ho wever, movement toward consensus was rapid across rounds. In particular, fewer items were eliminated across the second and third rounds. The initial item set included 89 items, the sec ond included 56 items (33 items eliminated), and the final one 43 items (13 items eliminated). Furt her, most final item means were high relative to the top of the rating scale; pa nelists apparently held relatively strong opinions about the (final) items they endorsed. For example, the lowest item mean among those in round three was 5.51. The second research question addressed the respective panelists’ item endorsement priorities. The difference between the largest and smallest item means for the final round was .48. With such a small difference in ratings, the importance of the order of the item mean rankings is negligible. However, it is interesting to note that some items that were consistently rated higher or lower than other ite ms by the panelists. For example, rule setting was the highest rated item on the final list (mean = 6.54). This item was rated .11 higher than the second item, ethical consideration for group work This difference of .11 was the greatest difference between any consecutive items on the final li st of 40 curriculum items. Clearly, the panelists, as a group, believed this item was of greater importance in comparison to the other items included. The final research question addressed differe nces in endorsement of school counselor classroom management curriculum component items ba sed on selected criteri a of the panelists. No significant differences or relationship s were found based on respondents’ group, gender, educational level, or years of experience. Notably, rule setting was the highest rated item for both groups and the highest ranked item for school counselors. The school counselor educator

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72 group item mean score for rule setting ranked it in the top three items, second with ethical considerations for group work and below evaluation of group Overall, school counselor educators consistently rated evaluation-rela ted items higher than did practicing school counselors. Other interes ting differences between groups in the rankings included group initial stage ranked seventh by school coun selors but fortieth (last) by school counselor educators. Also, multicultural diversity was ranked thirty-fourth by scho ol counselors but tenth by school counselor educators. Implications Knowledge of the requisite and desirable co mponents of school counselor preparation to engage in classroom guidance activities effectiv ely and efficiently has implications for school counselor professional preparati on and practice, and also for a ssociated future research and theory development. Importantly, knowing what school counselors should know and be capable of in regard to classroom management fo r large-group guidance act ivities allows for determination of what should and should not be included in school counsel or training programs. The first step in Tyler’s curriculum developmen t model (1949) is to identify the “educational purposes” the “school seek(s) to attain” (p.1). The identificati on of these items is the first necessary step to developing a curriculum and thus a standard for the profession. The final list of curriculum co mponent items is of course the most significant result of the study because it suggests what school counselors should know and be able to do in order to manage classroom groups effectively and successf ully in the context of classroom guidance activities. In addition, the relatively high degree of consensus achieved for the items recommended for inclusion in classroom mana gement preparation for school counselors is noteworthy. In particular, the general absence of differences based on re spondent characteristics points to substantive agreement about the com ponents endorsed. Thus, the final list of

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73 curriculum components for classroom management endorsed by the panelists could serve as a preparation paradigm for use in school counselor training programs and consequently, for future school counseling practice. Following Tyler’s curriculum development model (1949), the 40 curriculum items identified lead to the organization of course objectives, to attain the purpose of efficient and productive instruction in cl assroom management for large-group guidance activities. The original list of 89 items included both knowledge and skill component items. Of the 89 items, 55 were (pre-classified as) knowledge items and 34 as skill items, a knowledge-to-skill items ratio of approximately 1.62:1. The final list of 40 items include d a much smaller number of knowledge items (13) and a somewhat sma ller number of skill items (27), a ratio of approximately .48:1. Thus it became evident acr oss rounds that both school counselors’ and school counselor educators’ emphasis was on skills for actual practice of classroom management rather than on the knowledge unde rlying classroom management. It appears that many of the items discarded were those that otherwise would be included in group counseling training. For example, theories of group counseling and group transition stage were two of the lowest scoring items in round two of the survey. Although these were rated as important (mean rating of 5.76 for both item s), neither were rated nearly as high as, for example, giving feedback (6.62) or facilitating group interactions (6.69), the highest rated items in round one. Again, items related to the practice of classroom manageme nt were rated highest for inclusion for training school counselors. Opinion convergence notwithstanding, th ere was one evident differential in the endorsements: school counselor educators re latively consistently placed higher value on evaluation-related preparation components than did practicing school counselors. A strong,

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74 general emphasis on evaluation of professional functioning in (school) counselor preparation programs is evident in the profe ssional literature (e .g., Baker & Gerler, 2004). In addition, there is a strong emphasis on evaluation of profe ssional functioning evident in the ASCA National Model (2005). Apparently, that emphasis has been embraced far more by school counselor educators than by practicing schoo l counselors. The basis for th is differential may lie in the contrast between school counselor educators’ focus on “what sc hool counseling should be” and practicing school counselors’ focus on “what school counseling is.” Unfortunately, there is some evident disconnect between what school counselor s are being taught and admonished to do and what they actually do on the job. Ethical considerations for group work and rule setting were ranked high by both groups, indicating consensus on the impor tance of conducting classroom ma nagement in accord with high professional standards of conduct. These items may have been viewed as important in both practical and theoretical senses. From a practic al perspective, both items can be viewed as applicable to both group counseling and a cl assroom (i.e., large-group guidance) setting. Ethical considerations are of course important and appropriate for all aspects of counseling preparation and practice and rule setting is also an essential practice in both contexts. From a theoretical perspective, these items may be viewed as thos e that simply must be included for large group / classroom guidance because they are paramount to success in the profession in general. The Delphi process used in this study was apparently a us eful and successful way to identify desired curriculum components of classroom management preparation for school counselors. Therefore, the results of this study support the curriculum development model presented by Tyler (1949), Ornstein and Hunkins (1998), and others. Ho wever, it is a method that is not without limitations, not the least of which was the relatively small numbers of

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75 participating professionals and th e relatively unique perspectives they represented. Thus while the Delphi technique can be presumed to be an effective method for obtaining opinion information for the school counselin g profession, its applic ation is limited to situations in which opinion consensus from estab lished experts is desired. The final list of curriculum component items of course has direct implications for school counselor preparation (and thus practice). Specifi cally, the 40 retained items should be included in school counselor preparati on given that school counselors are supposed to engage in classroom management in the larger context of classroom guidance (e.g., ASCA, 2003; Baker, 2000; Geltner & Clark, 2005). Recommendations The panelists for this study agreed upon 40 specific curriculum components for training school counselors in classroom management. Howe ver, the panelists were not asked to suggest specific methods of instruction for the reco mmended curricular components. Several possibilities exist for how thes e items could be included in a school counselor education curriculum. A model will be presented here that addresses both how to best cluster these items and how they should be incorporated in to a school counseling training program. There are two evident groupings among the 40 items recommended: knowledge items and skill items. All the knowledge items appear to be related to group (counselin g) work. Therefore, these items would be best covered in the ba sic group counseling course required for school counselor trainees in CACREP-accr edited programs. In the context of this study, it would be advisable and necessary, however, to point out specifically their significance to classroom guidance and classroom management for school couns elors. Such prepar ation would be best accomplished through a group counseling course sp ecifically and solely for school counselorsin-training. However, few programs are suffici ent in student numbers for such a course.

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76 Therefore, integrating these items into a gene ral group work course a nd also addressing their specific importance to school counselors would ac complish the same goal. Further, these items could be reconsidered and stressed in sc hool counseling program students’ practica and internship experiences. The 26 skill items are focused upon specific clas sroom management actions and/or behaviors that a school counselor should utilize in delivering classroom guidance. Thus, these items can be viewed as classroom management techniques, and would be more appropriately placed in a school counseling course. For exampl e, these techniques might be inserted into a core school counseling course such as counsel ing children. Because the composition of such courses differs across universities, the specific course would have to be determined by the particular counselor education de partment. However, the integrit y of the items could and should be maintained as a curricular grouping of skill items to train school counselor in classroom management for the purposes of classroom guida nce. As above, these items should again be reviewed as the student proceeds through practica and internship experiences to allow evaluation of the skills in actual practice. Two items, evaluating (the process of assessing and asso ciating value(s) with individual and/or group behaviors) and evaluation of group (the process of m easuring group outcomes), merit additional consideration. Th ese particular items should be addressed in more than one area of school counselor preparation. For example, ev aluation in general is covered extensively in assessment courses, a core course for school co unselors. In addition, evaluating group process and/or result should be include d in any group (counseling) wo rk course. However, again, specific attention would need to be paid to school counselors evaluating classroom guidance

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77 activities and to assessing outco mes of those activities. And yet again, these evaluation items could and should be reviewed during student s’ practica and internship experiences. In general, the knowledge and skills to evalua te classroom guidance activities are crucial to creating a successful school counseling program because eval uation can inform whether the skills and knowledge are being implemented appr opriately, effectively, and/or successfully. Recommendations for future research include conducting a larger study that encompasses a greater number of school counsel or practitioners. For example, such a study could examine the opinions of the school counselor practitioners in regard to the items recommended in this study. Basically, it would allow determination of whet her larger numbers of school counselors concur with the recommendations of the expert panel. It also would be appropr iate to investigate the extent to which practicing school counselors already possess the knowledge and skill items presented in the final list of items. That is, it would be im portant to determine if school counselors believe that they already have the knowl edge and skills but are just not using them or if they believe that they have not been provi ded such knowledge and skills in their school counselor preparation programs. Because school counselor preparation progr ams nationwide are removing the “prior teaching experience” requirement for program admission, determination of school counselors’ effectiveness in classroom guidance activities is warranted to ascertain need for further or additional training. Specificall y, it is important to determine whether school counselors who have the knowledge and exhibit the skills identified herein are actually more effective in the classroom than those who do not. Another important area to st udy is the difference between pr acticing school counselors’ and school counselor educators’ perceptions related to evaluation specifically. The emphasis on

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78 evaluation items by school couns elor educators was much st ronger than it was for school counselors. Both groups rated th e evaluation items as important, but school counselor educators rated them much higher. It is important to determine if this issue is problematic. Through examination of these differences, ways to bridge the divide could be suggested. Finally, it would be important to examine the perceptions of others in the school system in regard to school counselors’ effectiveness in classroom guidan ce activities. Determining if, for example, school administrators and teach ers agree with the knowledge and skill items recommended could effect how the school c ounselors actually conduc t classroom guidance activities as well as how their act ivities are perceived. Both teach ers and administrators may be more supportive of school counselors being in classrooms if they concur with the recommendations derived from this study. An alternative approach to knowledge transm ission and skill devel opment for practicing school counselors is continui ng education. For example, the basic knowledge and skills necessary for effective classroom management c ould be introduced at an initial inservice workshop and followed by more intensive workshops. Such a process would allow practicing school counselors adequate time for accumulation and self-evaluation of knowledge and skills. Summary Ostensibly, there are many school counselors in schools without the requisite knowledge and skills to provide classroom guidance activi ties successfully and effectively. One of the major causes of lack of effectiveness in this c ontext is school counselors’ lack of knowledge and skills specifically for classr oom management. Such knowledge and skills must be made available to those who want to complete a sc hool counselor preparati on program and become effective school counselors.. Id entified in this stu dy were 40 curriculum components that experts believed essential for such preparation. School counselors will be be tter able to deliver

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79 classroom guidance activities when they ha ve sound knowledge and skills in classroom management.

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80 APPENDIX A INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN A DELPHI STUDY DATE Dear ___________________: Because of your recognized expertise and expe rience in school counseling, you are invited to participate in a Delphi study to examine one part of school counselor tr aining. Your individual participation would be a valuable contri bution to the school counseling profession. Classroom (large-group) guidance is an impor tant component of a ny comprehensive school counseling program and therefore it is important th at school counselors receive training for it that is as effective as possible. Good skills in cl assroom management are e ssential to delivery of successful classroom guidance serv ices. Obviously, the most eff ective training results from a sound, well-grounded curriculum. Unfortunately, a set of agr eed upon, professionally endorsed curriculum components for classroom management training for school c ounselors has not yet been developed. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify primary curriculum components important to effective teaching of classroom management skills to school counselors-in-training. Your participation in the study would incl ude rating potential curriculum components for classroom management training for school counsel ors on three occasions. You would make your ratings on a web-based survey. If you are willin g to participate, you would be given an access code for the survey. You would be asked to make your first set of ratings with in the next three weeks, and approximately three weeks will be al lowed to make ratings for the second and third rounds. The second and third rounds w ill have fewer items to be rated. I appreciate your consideration of this request. If you are willing to participate in this research, please send a brief response to me at the e-mail address below. Sincerely, Jill Geltner, Ed.S., NCC Larry C. Loesch, Ph.D., NCC Doctoral candidate Professor, Counselor Education University of Florida University of Florida jillgeltner@bellsouth.net

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81 APPENDIX B INITIAL CORRESPONDENCE TO PARTICIPANTS September 3, 2006 Dear School Counseling Expert, Thank you for your willingness to participate in my study entitled, “Curriculum Components of Classroom Management Training for School Counselors: A Delphi Study”. Please click on the link below to connect to URL for the first page of the study, which is the informed consent form and acknowledgment. U pon selecting “I agree to participate in the study,” you will be moved to the actual survey. Instructions for providing some demographic information and making ratings are provided on the survey. Please feel free to contact me if you have any que stions or problems connecting to the survey. Jill Geltner University of Florida Doctoral candidate Department of Counselor Education jillgeltner@bellsouth.net (link to URL for the study was placed here)

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82 APPENDIX C INFORMED CONSENT (Appeared as the first webpage of the study) Dear _____________, I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Counsel or Education at the University of Florida. For my doctoral dissertation, I am conducting research to iden tify the counselor preparation program curriculum components best suited to teach school counselors-in -training effective classroom management. Your participation has been requested because you ar e an experienced, knowle dgeable, and professionally involved school counseling professional. Your participation in this study involves serving as an expert panelist in a three round Delphi procedure. In the first round, you are asked to provide some demographic information. Please know that only aggregate demographic description of the participants will be included in this study. In each round you are requested to rate the importance of potentia l curriculum components. The first round includes approximately 90 items. Subsequent ro unds will include fewer items to be rated. In addition, you will be given feedback about mean item rati ngs after the first and second rounds. Confidentiality will be maintained within the limits of law. Your name also will not be revealed in any subsequent dissemination of the results of this stud y, including presentations at professional meetings or publication in professional journals. Your name will not be identified in my dissertation. There are no anticipated risks, compensation or direct benefits to you as a participant in this study. You are entirely free to withdraw your consent to participat e and/or to discontinue participation in the study at any time without any consequence to you. If you have further questions rega rding this study, please feel free to contact me at (352) 373–2799 or my faculty advisor, Dr. Larry C. Loesch at (352) 392–0731. Questions regarding the rights of research participants may be directed to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board at (352) 392–0433. Thank you very much for helping with this important study. Sincerely, Jill Geltner Doctoral Candidate University of Florida I have read the preceding description about Jill Ge ltner’s study of recommended curriculum components for teaching classroom management to school counselors-in -training. I voluntarily agree to participate in the study. Clicking on the “agree” link below indicates your voluntary and informed consent participation in this research.

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83 APPENDIX D PARTICIPATION REMINDER Dear __________________, Several weeks ago, you agreed to be an expert panelist for my study of desired curriculum components for training school c ounselors about classroom mana gement. If you have already completed this round for the research, please know that I appreciate your participation. If you have not yet completed this round, I would apprecia te it if you would do so as soon as possible. The survey link is: (inser t link to survey here). Thank you for your time and assistance. Jill Geltner University of Florida Doctoral candidate Department of Counselor Education jillgeltner@bellsouth.net

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84 APPENDIX E INITIAL SURVEY Note : Response choices for items 1 – 4 were pr esented as mutually exclusive, “radio” buttons 1. What is your current professional position? School counselor School counselor educator 2. Which of the following best represen ts your racial / ethn ic identification? Caucasian African Asian Hispanic Native American Multiracial Other 3. What is the highest academic degree you have achieved? Master’s Educational Specialist (EdS) or Ce rtificate of Advanced Studies (CAS) Doctorate Note : Response choice for item 4 will be on a drop down menu ranging from 1 – 50 4. How many years of experience do you have in your current professional position? years

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85Please rate each of the following items for importance for inclusion in a classroom management tr aining / education for school counselors using a scale of one to seven in whic h 1 = not important to 7 = extremely important. Not Extremely Important Important 1. Self-help groups (a supportive group for individuals with common problems) 2. Enthusiasm (the expression of positive reaction to what is happening in a group) 3. Group cohesion (the level of group members’ feeling of acceptance among one another) 4. Social loafing (the tendency for group members to work below individual ability levels) 5. Guidance/psychoeducational group (a large group to which specific knowledge or skills are taught) 6. Didactic instruction (a formal process of teac hing, including lecture and leader-focused presentations)

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86 Not Extremely Important Important 7. Social identity (the categorization of self in relation to others in a group) 8. Supporting (leader intervening to reassu re members, encourage and reinforce participation) 9. Group time orientation (a focus on the past, present, or future in group) 10. Multicultural diversity (the culture-based differences among individuals) 11. Instillation of hope (the process of increasing memb ers’ support of and confidence in the efficacy of the group process) 12. Topic selection (the process of deciding what will be discussed in a group) 13. Cooperative learning (the use of collaborative interactions among group members to achieve learning) 14. Group formation (the process of selecting group members)

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87 Not Extremely Important Important 15. Resources (the human, physical, or other sources of assistance for group processes) 16. Group dynamics (the interactive processes among individuals in a group) 17. Member selection (the procedures used to choose members of a group) 18. Task/work group (a group trying to accomplish a pre-defined task) 19. Experiential learning (the achievement of knowledge through physical behavior) 20. Rule setting (the establishment and communication of guidelines for appropriate behavior in the group) 21. Counseling group (a problem-resolution-oriented group led by a counselor) 22. Homogeneous group (a group in which members are similar in an important regard)

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88 Not Extremely Important Important 23. Group culture (group member perceptions about how the group is organized and conducted) 24. Catharsis (a process of release of pent-up emotions) 25. Involuntary group membership (a group in which members did not have a choice about joining the group) 26. Linking (group leader promoting interaction between group members by connecting through a common theme) 27. Heterogeneous group (a group in which members are relatively different from one another) 28. Voluntary group membership (a group in which members had a choice about joining the group) 29. Interpreting (the act of attempting to explain verbally a group member’s thoughts, feelings or behaviors)

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89 Not Extremely Important Important 30. Ethical consideratio ns for group work (the value-based boundaries for appropriate group member behavior) 31. Group initial stage (the beginning stage of a group in which the structure, goals, expectations, and roles are defined) 32. Insight (the achievement of new, often suppressed, knowledge of oneself) 33. Group identification (the degree to which members view themselves as an integral part of the group) 34. Experiential / training (process) group (a group constituted to learn about group processes and dynamics) 35. Nonverbal communication (the transmission and/or r eceipt of messages among group members without the use of words) 36. Short-term group (a group process that lasts less than 15 weeks)

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90 Not Extremely Important Important 37. Self-disclosure (a group member’s revelation of personal information to the group) 38. Long-term group (a group process that lasts longer than 15 weeks) 39. Social comparison (the use of cues from others to understand expected behavior in the group) 40. Group development (the process of change among group members over time) 41. Group process (the set of behaviors members of a group exhibit over group sessions) 42. Socializing techniques (the process of engaging in socially acceptable behaviors as a result of social learning) 43. Conformity to group (the extent to which a group member’s behaviors conform to group behavior norms) 44. Theories of group counseling (the theoretical bases for understanding and guiding group processes)

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91 Not Extremely Important Important 45. Universality (a group member’s belief in the commonalities of human experience) 46. Deviation from group (the extent to which a group member’s behavior differs from group behavior norms) 47. Direct advice (a suggestion from one group member to another group member about how to behave) 48. Legal considerations for group work (the legal boundaries for group member behaviors) 49. Group conflict (the extent to which group members are oppositional to one another) 50. Group cohesiveness (group members’ sense of belonging and inclusion in the group) 51. Using proxemics (the use of physical movement or placement of group members to influence the group process)

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92 Not Extremely Important Important 52. Group leadership style (a group leader’s approach to facilitating groups based on her/his theoretical orientation, values, beliefs and personal style) 53. Group transition stage (the group process period character ized by group member resistance, anxiety, and conflict) 54. Human development (the natural processes of human physical and mental change) 55. Confronting (the act of attempting to point out the differences between a group member’s expressed thoughts and behaviors) 56. Group tasks (the specific work a group must do to accomplish its goal) 57. Interpersonal learning (the social skills learned from interactions with others) 58. Group working stage (the group process period marked by cohesion and productivity)

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93 Not Extremely Important Important 59. Group final stage (the group process period that includes accomplishment, summarization, and group termination) 60. Post-group issues (the evaluation and follow-up process conducted by the group leader) 61. Evaluation of group (the process of measuring group outcomes) 62. Group member roles (the expectations for group members to perform differentiated tasks and/or functions in the group) 63. Active listening (the process of attending to and interpreting verbal and nonverbal messages in the group) 64. Restating (the act of attempting to verbally paraphrase another group member’s communication) 65. Learning styles (the preferential cognitive and/or affective modality in which a group member becomes informed in a group)

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94 Not Extremely Important Important 66. Drawing out (a group leader verbalization or action intended to encourage a group member to be more participatory in the group process) 67. Altruism (a feeling of being magnanimous from helping another group member) 68. Goal setting (the process of deciding upon ultimate potential group accomplishments) 69. Clarifying (the act of restating a group memb er’s words in different words to attempt to convey accurate understanding) 70. Vicarious learning (the learning that results from observation of the behaviors of others) 71. Group member guidance (a group member’s provision of advice and suggestions to other group members) 72. Summarizing (the act of attempting to summarize what has been said or happened in a group process)

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95 Not Extremely Important Important 73. Open-ended questioning (the act of attempting to pose questions that call for other than dichotomous responses) 74. Wait time (the time between a questio n and a response to it) 75. Reflecting feelings (the act of attempting to point out the emotional content underlying a group member’s communications) 76. Supporting (the act of attempting to provide encouragement to a group member) 77. Processing (the discussion among group members of what has been said and/or happened during preceding group process) 78. Showing empathy (the attempt to use verbal and nonverbal communications to convey emotional sensitivity to a group member) 79. Facilitating group in teractions (the process of encouragin g group members to communicate openly with one another)

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96 Not Extremely Important Important 80. Initiating (the act of directing group discussion and behavior toward a particular topic) 81. Evaluating (the process of assessing and associating value(s) with individual and/or group behaviors) 82. Acknowledging (the act of acknowledging a group member’s contributions within the group) 83. Giving feedback (the process a group member uses to inform a group member about the impact of a verbalization or behavior within the group) 84. Suggesting (the act of encouraging a group member to adopt a new perspective on a topic or behavior) 85. Protecting (the act of attempting to safeguard a group member from emotional harm in the group) 86. Modeling (group leader demonstrating skills, attitudes or other characteristics s/he hopes to engender in group members)

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97 Not Extremely Important Important 87. Reinforcing (the attempt to encourage a group member to continue to speak or behave in the same way) 88. Blocking (the act of attempting to st op a group member’s specific verbalizations or behaviors in a group) 89. Terminating (the process of ending the group process

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98 REFERENCES American Counseling Association. (2006). Resources Retrieved May 5, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.counseling.org American School Counselor Association (2006). Welcome to ASCA Retrieved May 5, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://schoolcounselor.org American School Counselor Association (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs Alexandria, VA: Author. American School Counselor Association (2003). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs Alexandria, VA: Author American School Counselor Asso ciation. (2002). ASCA examines counselor-to-student ratios. ASCA School Counselor, 39(5), 50. Baker, B.B. (2000). Middle school counseli ng in the new millennium: A practitioner’s perspective. In J. Wittmer (Ed.). Managing your school counseling program: K-12 developmental strategies (pp. 49–55). Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation. Baker, S (1994). Mandatory teaching experien ce for school counselors: an impediment to uniform certification standards for school counselors. Counselor Education & Supervision, 33, 314–326. Baker, S. (2000). School counseling for th e twenty-first century (3rd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Baker, S. (2001). Reflections on forty years in th e school counseling professi on: is the glass half full or empty? Professional school counseling, 5(2), 75–84. Baker, S. & Gerler, E. (2004). School counseling for th e twenty-first century (4rd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Benshoff, J.M. (1994). School discipline progr ams: Issues and implications for school counselors. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 28(3), 163–170. Brigman, G. & Campbell, C. (2003). Helping students improve academic achievement and school success behavior. Professional School Counseling, 7(2), 91–98. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2006-07) Occupational Outlook Handbook (2006-07 edition), Counselors Retrieved February 3, 2006, from the World Wide Web: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm

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99 Burlingame, G.M., Fuhriman, A.J. & Johns on, J. (2004). Process and outcome in group counseling and psychotherapy; A perspectiv e. In Delucia-Waack, J.L., Gerrity, D.A., Kalodner, C.R. & Riva, M.T. (Eds .). Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy (pp.49–62). London: Sage. Cabaniss, K. (2002). Computer-related technolo gy use by counselors in the new millennium; a delphi study. Journal of Technology in Counseling 2(2). Retrieved October 12, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://jtc.colstate.edu/ vol2_2/cabaniss/cabaniss.htm Campbell, C.A. & Dahir, C.A. (1997). The national standards for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association Press. Carey, J.E. & Dimmitt, C. (2006). Resources for sc hool counselors and counselor educators: The Center for School Couns eling Outcome Research. Professional School Counseling, 9(5), 416–420. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2006). Retrieved January 20, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.cacrep.org. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2001). 2001 Standards Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.cacrep.org/2001Standards.html Clayton, M.J. (1997). Delphi: A technique to harn ess expert opinion for cr itical decisionmaking tasks in education. Educational Psychology, 17(4), 373–389. Clawson, T (2000). The school counselor and credentialing In J. Wittmer (Ed.). Managing your school counseling program: K-12 developmental strategies (pp. 330–336). Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation. Cooper, P.J., Simonds, C.J. (2003). Communication for the classroom teacher (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Corey, G. (2004). Theory and practice of group counseling (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole -Thomson Learning. Corporate Partnering Institute. (1997). The Delphi method Skokie, IL: Author Coy, D. R. (1999). The role and training of the school counselor: background and purpose. NAASP Bulletin Cuthbert, M.I. (2000). Large group developmental guidance. In J. Wittmer (Ed.). Managing your school counseling program: K-12 developmental strategies (pp. 123–134). Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation

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100 Dahir, C. A. (2004) Why implement a national standards-based school counseling program? In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.227–234). Dahir, C.A., Sheldon, C.B. & Valiga, M.J. (1998). Vision into action: Im plementing the national standards for school counseling programs Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association Press. Dalkey, N.C. (1972). Studies in the quality of li fe: Delphi and decision making Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Dillman, D.A. (2000). Mail and internet surveys; The tailored design method (2nd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Dimmitt, C., Carey, J.C., McGannon, W., & Henn ingson, I. (2005). Identifying a school counseling research agenda: A delphi study. Counselor Education & Supervision, 44(3), 215–228 DeVoss, J.A. (2004). Current and future perspectives on school counseling In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.25– 34). Forsyth, D.R. (2001). Therapeutic groups. In M.A. Hogg & Tindale, R.S. (Eds.). Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Group process Malden: MA: Blackwell. (pp. 328–659). Gartner, A. (1976). The preparation of human service professionals New York, NY: Human Sciences Press. Geltner, J. A. & Clark, M.A. (2005). Engaging students in classroom guidance: Management strategies for middle school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9(2), 164–166. Gerler, E.R. & Anderson, R.F. (1986). The eff ects of classroom guida nce on children’s success in school. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 78–81. Glathar, K. (2005). Certification by the book, School Counselor, 42(4), 30–33. Goodnough, G.E. & Lee, V.V. (2004). Group counse ling in schools. In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.173– 182). Gyspers, N.C.(1997). Comprehensive guidance programs that work Greensboro, NC: ERIC Counseling and Personnel Services Clearinghouse. Gyspers, N. (2001). School gui dance and counseling in the 21st century: remember the past into the future. Professional School Counseling, 5 (2), 96–106

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101 Gyspers, N.C. & Henderson, P. (1999). Developing and managing your school guidance program (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Counseling Association. Henington, C. & Doggett, R.A. (2004). Setting up and managing a classroom. In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.287–301). Hoberman, S. & Mailick, S. (Eds.) (1994). Professional education in the United States; experiential learning, issues, and prospects Westport, CT: Praeger. Karau, S.J. & Williams, K.D. (2001 ). Understanding individual motivation in groups: The collective effort model. In M. E. Turner (Ed.). (2001). Groups at work: theory and research (pp. 113–141). Mahwah, NJ: Lawr ence Erlbaum Associates. Kramer, R.M., Hanna, B.A., Su, S., Wei, J. ( 2001). Collective identity, collective trust, and social capital: Linking group identification and group cooperation. In M. E. Turner (Ed.). (2001). Groups at work: theory and research (pp. 173–196). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lapan, R. T., Gyspers, N.C. & Petroski, G.F. (2003). Helping seventh graders be safe and successful: A statewide study of the im pact of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 6 (3), 186–198. Linstone, H.A. & Turtoff, M. (Eds.) (1975). The Delphi method; Techniques and applications Reading, MS: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Morran, D.K., Stockton, R. & Whittingham, M.H. (2004). Effective lead er intervention for counseling and psychotherapy groups. In De lucia-Waack, J.L., Gerrity, D.A., Kalodner, C.R. & Riva, M.T. (Eds .). Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy (pp.91– 103). London: Sage. Moore, C.M. (1986). Group techniques for idea building Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Murphy, S. (2004). Professional training and regula tion in school counseling. In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.71–77). Myrick, R.D. (2003 ). Developmental guidance and counseling: A practical approach (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Educa tional Media Corporation. National Board of Certified Counselors (2005). Statistics Retrieved November 27, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nbcc.org/stats National Board of Certified Counselors (2006). The nationally certified school counselor credential Retrieved April 14, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nbcc.org/ncsc

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102 Ornstein, A.C. & Hunkins, F.P. (1998). Curriculum foundations, principles, and issues (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Paisley, P.O. & Borders, L.D. (1995). Sc hool counseling: an evolving specialty. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 150–153. Perusse, R. (2001). Use of the national st andards for school counseling programs in preparing school counselors. Professional School Counseling 5(1), 49–55. Perusse, R., Goodnough, G.E. & Noel, C.J. (2001). C ounselor preparation: A national survey of school counselor programs: Sc reening methods, faculty experi ences, curricular content, and fieldwork experiences. Counselor Education & Supervision, 40, 252–262. Riva, M.T., Watchel, M. & Lasky, G.B. (2004). Effective leadership in group counseling and psychotherapy: Research and practice. In Delucia-Waack, J.L., Gerrity, D.A., Kalodner, C.R. & Riva, M.T. (Eds .). Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy (pp.37–48). London: Sage. Scheele, D.S. (1975). Reality construction as a product of Delphi interaction. In H. A. Linstone & M. Turtoff (Eds.). The Delphi method; Techniques and applications (pp.37–71). Reading, MS: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. Scheibe, M., Skutsch, M. & Schofer, J. (1975). Experiments in Delphi methodology. In H. A. Linstone & M. Turtoff (Eds.). The Delphi method; Techniques and applications (pp.262–287). Reading, MS: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. Schmuck, R.A. & Schmuck, P.A. (1997). Group processes in the classroom (7th ed.). Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark. Schwallie-Giddis, P., ter Maat, M. & Pak, M. (2 003). Initiating leadership by introducing and implementing the ASCA national model. Professional School Counseling 6 (3), 170– 174. Sears, S. (1999) Transforming school couns eling: making a difference for students. NAASP Bulletin 47–53. Sink, C. A. & MacDonald, G. (1998). The status of comprehensive guidance and counseling in the United States. Professional School Counseling 2 (2), 88–94. Smith, S.L. (2001). Teaching experience for sc hool counselors: Counselor educators’ perceptions. Professional School Counseling, 4 (3), 216–315. Snow, B.M. & Jackson, C.M. (2004) Professiona l credentials in school counseling. In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.65–70).

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103 Snyder, B.A (2000). Managing an elementary sc hool developmental counseling program: The role of the counselor In J. Wittmer (Ed.). Managing your school counseling program: K12 developmental strategies (pp. 37–48). Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation. Sweeney, T.J. (1995). Accredita tion, credentialing, professionalization: the role of specialties. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 117–125. Tang, M & Erford, B (2004). The history of sc hool counseling. In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.11–21). Tindale, R.S., Meisenhelder, H.M., Dykema-E ngblade, A.A. & Hogg, M.A. (2001). Shared cognition in small groups. In M. A. Hogg & R.S. Tindale (Eds.). Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Group processes Malden, MA: Blackwell. Turner, J.C. & Haslam, S. A. (2001). Social id entity, organization and leadership. In M. E. Turner (Ed.). (2001). Groups at work: theory and research (pp. 25–65). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Tyler, R. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. U.S. Department of Education; National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data; Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2003–04 Retrieved February 3, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/ content.asp?contentid=459 Vernon, A. (2004) Designing developmental guidance lessons. In B.T. Erford (Ed.). Professional school counseling: a handbook of theories, programs & practices (pp.279–286). Wheelan, S.A. (1994). Group processes; A developmental perspective Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Wiles, J. (2005). Curriculum essentials: a resource for educators (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Wiles, J. & Bondi, J. (1998). Curriculum development; A guide to practice. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wittinghill, D. (2000). Identification of the init ial curriculum components fo r the preparation of graduate-level substance abuse counselors Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida.

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104 Wittmer, J. (2000). Managing your school counseling program: K-12 developmental strategies Minneapolis, MN: Educa tional Media Coporation. Wittmer, J.,& Myrick, R. (1989). The teacher as facilitator Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation. Wittmer, J., Thompson, D., & Loesch, L. (1997). Classroom guidance activities: A sourcebook for elementary school counselors Minneapolis, MN: Educati onal Media Corporation. Wong, H.K. & Wong, R.T. (2005). The first days of school: How to be an effective teacher Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications. Yalom, I. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (4th ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.

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105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania Decembe r 10, 1970, Jill A. Geltner always dreamed of teaching. In 1992, she graduate d with honors from Lehigh Universi ty with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology. After a post-ba chelor year of working with children, in 1993 she returned to school to pursue a teaching degree at the Univers ity of Florida. She enrolled in the highly respected Department of Counselor Educa tion at the University of Florida. In 1996, she graduated with concurrent degrees fr om the University of Florida, a Master of Education and a Specialist in Education majori ng in school counseling an d guidance and mental health counseling. In addition, Geltner was aw arded the University of Florida Presidential Recognition Award. After her training as a school and mental health counselor, she worked in a variety of settings with special focus on middle schools and early adolescents. Working in both rural, city and private school se ttings as a school couns elor provided a variety of experiences. In 2003, she returned to the University of Florida to pursue a doctorate in counselor education at the University of Florida studying under nationally recognize d counselor educator, Larry C. Loesch. In 2005, she was awarded the Chi Sigma Iota, Outstanding Service to Chapter Award and in 2006, the Dr. Robert O. Stripling Scholarship Award. Geltner graduated in May 2007, her dissertation titled Curriculum Components of Clas sroom Management Training for School Counselors: A Delphi Study


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019666/00001

Material Information

Title: Curriculum Components of Classroom Management Training for School Counselors: A Delphi Study
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0019666:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019666/00001

Material Information

Title: Curriculum Components of Classroom Management Training for School Counselors: A Delphi Study
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0019666:00001


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CURRICULUM COMPONENTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TRAINING FOR SCHOOL
COUNSELORS: A DELPHI STUDY
















By
JILL A. GELTNER




















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007




























2007 Jill A. Geltner

































To my husband, Ted, for your love, support and encouragement









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I would like to thank all the school counselors and counselor educators who

participated in the study. Without who's participation, this study would have not been possible.

I appreciate the time spent toward building a set of ideas to assist future school counselors.

I want to thank my advisor, Dr. Larry C. Loesch for his guidance, support,

encouragement and expertise. Without this guidance, I am not sure this would have been

possible. I was encouraged to be confident, my mistakes gently guided, along with the push

forward with a gentle nudge. It was easy to know I could accomplish this with him as my

advisor. Thanks go out to Dr. Loesch for the time and dedication to me.

Special appreciation goes to Dr. Mary Ann Clark both as a mentor and friend. Thanks go

out to her for helping me understand how to make the transition from school counselor to

counselor educator. The guidance provided from beginning to end has been so valuable both

professionally and personally. I have felt the support at each stage of this process.

Appreciation also goes to Dr. Linda Behar-Horenstein for helping me to know this was

possible. Dr. Behar-Horenstein encouraged me at times that I needed it most. The positive

outlook and belief in my potential has meant so much.

Thanks go out to Dr. Paul George for helping me see my role through the eyes of an early

adolescent. Dr. George taught me what is possible for school counselors and for me. I know

now to dream big and expect the best from myself and others.

Thanks go also to Dr. Michael Garrett for joining in my journey at a time when others

might not. The generosity and kindness shown are much appreciated.

To my husband, Ted, I know all that has been sacrificed to help me in this endeavor.

Your love, patience, support, and humor helped sustain me throughout this process. I know this

is one more accomplishment we have made together toward achieving the life of our dreams. I









know the value of someone always supporting my dreams. And, I love the way you help me to

see the humor and fun in every day.

To my daughters, Cassie and Bethany, please know I appreciate all the support given to

me when I needed it most. My girls always show me what my most important work is. Cassie's

admiration helps me to be my best. And, Bethany's sweet spirit helps me remember how to

enjoy life. It has been clear both my daughters understand that I can have it all.

Special appreciation goes to both my parents who encouraged me to always believe in the

power of education. My father, Richard Adams, taught me how important each individual is and

how to help others through a career in service. My mother, Mary Ellen Petcavage, modeled for

me how to be a wonderful mother and student without sacrificing one for the other. I have felt

the support at every step. And, thanks go out to both for teaching me that I can accomplish

anything if I believe in myself.

Finally, I want to extend my deepest appreciation to all the students and professionals

who have helped me to be the person I am today. From conferences about students having

difficulty to studying for statistics exams, I know this accomplishment is much bigger than I and

those mentioned here. For all those who have contributed through your support, I thank you all.

I am grateful beyond measure for the amount I have been blessed in my lifetime.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IST O F T A B L E S .............................................................................................

ABSTRAC T .........................................................................................

C H A P T E R ........................................................................................................ ...... ...... 10

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ................................................................................ 10

Scope............................................................. ...............11
Need for the Study ..................................................................... ........ 13
T h eoretical F ram ew ork ..................................................................................................... 14
P u rp o se o f th e S tu d y ...................................................................................................15
R e se arch Q u e stio n s .................................................................................................................16
D efin itio n o f T erm s ................................................................................................................ 16

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ....................................... ..........................17

School Counselors' Professional Competencies .............................................. ......17
T theoretical F ram ew ork ............................... ... .............................................................22
Classroom Guidance and the Professional School Counselor.................... ............... 27
The Knowledge Base for Classroom M management ....................................................29
The Skills Set for Classroom Management ............................... ...............33
The D elphi Technique ..................... ......... .................. ........... 36
Summary of the Related Literature ..................................... ........................ .... 39

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ........................................ .........................................................4 1

Population ........... ................................. .. ...... .... ......... ......... ... ... 41
Sampling Procedures ..................................... .. ..... ..... .. ............43
Resultant Sam ple .............................................. ..................... 44
Survey D evelopm ent ......................................................................46
R research P rocedu res..............................................................................4 6
D ata A naly ses ......... ......................................................................49
M ethodological Limitations............ ............................................................. ......... 50

4 RESULTS ...................................................52

D em graphic C haracteristics..... ....................................................... .............................52
R found I ............................................ .................... .. .............. ... .... 53
Round II ................................. ......... .. .. .. .......... ................ 56
R ou n d III .... ....... ............................................... .. ............... ........ .. 5 8
P o st H oc A n aly ses ............................................................................................. .. ....60


6









5 D IS C U S S IO N ........................................................................................................6 7

G eneralizability L im stations .......................................................................... ....................67
Evaluation of Research Questions ........................................................... ...............68
C onclu sions..... .........................................................70
Implications ....................................... 72
R ecom m endations........ ........................................ .. .. .. ................. .. 75
S u m m ary ................... ...................7...................8..........

A P P E N D IX ............................................................................80

A INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE ............................................................................. 80

B IN ITIA L C O R R E SPO N D EN CE ........................................... ...........................................84

C IN F O R M E D C O N SE N T ........... ................. .......................................... .............................85

D PARTICIPATION REMINDER .............................................. ........ ......................... 86

E INITIAL SURVEY.................. ..................................... ............. .......... .... 87

R E F E R E N C E S ..........................................................................98

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................... ............... ..... 105






























7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1. Summary of Panelists' Demographic Characteristics...................................................... 533

4-2. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response Item
M eans Following Round One ............................................. .......... ...............544

4-3. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response Item
M eans F ollow ing R ound Tw o .............................................................. .....................577

4-4. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response Item
M eans Follow ing R ound Three .............................................. ............................. 588

4-5. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Professional Specialization............ ............. 610

4-6. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Educational Level................................ ................622

4-7. Round Three Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test by Respondent Gender ...........................64

4-8. Summary of Simple Linear Regression Analysis of Mean Item Ratings and Years of
Experience for Total Sample (N = 35)..................... ......... ................................. 655

5-9. Final Item Rankings Ordered by Respondent Group............................... ............... 688









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


CURRICULUM COMPONENTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
TRAINING FOR SCHOOL COUNSELORS: A DELPHI STUDY

By

Jill A. Geltner

May 2007

Chair: Larry C. Loesch
Major: School Counseling and Guidance


A Delphi study was conducted to determine the curriculum components recommended to

train school counselors in classroom management necessary to conduct classroom guidance in

schools. Nationally certified school counselor practitioners and prominent school counselor

educators were the two respondent groups included. Eighty-nine initial curriculum items were

identified, both knowledge and skill items were included. After three rounds of the survey, the

40 items remaining were the final recommendations of the expert panel. In further analyses, no

statistically significant differences were found when examining responses by expert group,

gender, years of experience, or educational level. These recommendations have the potential to

make a significant contribution to the school counseling profession.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Continuing a trend that began in the United States in the 1970s, ever increasing numbers

of education professionals not previously credentialed or experienced as classroom teachers are

achieving state-level certification as school counselors. In concert with this trend, most states

have eliminated or are now eliminating policies that required prospective school counselors to

have teaching experience before they enter school counseling preparation programs (Sweeney,

1995). One part of the rationale for this trend is that school counselor preparation is provided at

the post-baccalaureate level only, and therefore, that any valid baccalaureate degree is sufficient

regardless of the student's academic major. Supporting and in line with this trend, the Council

for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), which is the

primary national program accreditation agency for school counselor preparation programs, has

accredited approximately 170 school counselor preparation programs at 169 institutions of

higher education in the United States and/or its territorial possessions (CACREP, retrieved

January 20, 2006).

Among the CACREP (2001) specialty standards of preparation for school counseling

programs is the requirement that program graduates be able to provide effective delivery of the

guidance curriculum, specifically including use of classroom (i.e., large-group) guidance

activities (hereafter classroom guidance). Similar mandate for effective (as well as frequent)

classroom guidance activities by school counselors comes from the American School Counselor

Association (ASCA). The ASCA requirements for effective school counseling programs are

delineated in The ASCA National Model: A frameworkfor school counseling programs (2005).

In particular, it is recommended that classroom guidance be a central component of the school









counselor's duties and activities, and be allocated as much as 45% of school counselors'

professional work time (ASCA, 2005).

The emphasis on school counselors being competent in classroom guidance activities

derives from the widely-held belief that classroom guidance is the most efficient delivery mode

for school counseling services because it allows school counselors to provide services for the

greatest numbers of students with the most efficient use of their time (Dahir, 2004). Yet while

school counselor classroom guidance activities are widely and strongly advocated, neither

applicable school counselor preparation program standards (e.g., the CACREP Standards of

Preparation) nor professionally endorsed models of school counselor functioning (e.g., the

ASCA NationalModel) delineate specific skills, abilities, or associated preparation experiences

that school counselors should have or have had to deliver classroom guidance activities

effectively and successfully. Presumably, credentialed and/or experienced teachers have had

specific, focused preparation in working with entire classrooms of children. Given that most

school counselors are now achieving state certification without having a teaching credential

and/or experience, of concern is how should school counselors be prepared to deliver classroom

guidance activities? Specifically, unknown are the professionally endorsed preparation activities

and modalities intended to enable school counselors to be proficient and competent in delivery of

classroom guidance activities.

Scope

In the 2003-2004 academic year, more than 48.5 million students were enrolled in public

schools in the United States and approximately 99,395 school counselors were employed in

public schools (United States Department of Education, 2003-2004). The number of school

counselors in public schools is expected to increase. For example, the United Stated Department

of Labor projects that school counselor positions will increase by 18-26% within the next decade









as student enrollments increase and more states adopt requirements for school counselors in

elementary schools (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006-07).

Professional school counselors have evolved from being "vocational guides" to a select

few students in schools at the beginning of the twentieth century to being essential members of a

school's "educational team" at the beginning of the twenty-first century (Myrick, 2003). As

such, they are charged to support and enhance the academic achievement of all students. To

contribute to a school's primary academic mission, school counselors are expected to address the

academic, career and personal/social development of all students in the school through provision

of a comprehensive school counseling (guidance) program. A comprehensive and presumably

effective school counseling program should include at least six student service delivery methods:

individual counseling, small group counseling, large-group/classroom instruction, consultation

and collaboration with parents and school personnel, crisis intervention, and student appraisal

(ASCA, 2005). Per assigned duties, school counselors also may coordinate testing programs,

student placement procedures, and other student matriculation procedures. In general, school

counselors have many responsibilities beyond those endorsed by professional organizations and

are expected to serve all students as needed.

With increasing numbers of students in schools and the concomitant need for school

counselor activities to be both as effective and efficient as possible, school counselor preparation

programs must provide education and training that allow program graduates to develop skills

commensurate with current and future job demands. In particular, because classroom guidance

activities serve the greatest number of students in the least amount of time (i.e., are efficient use

of the school counselor's time), it is essential that future school counselors have well-developed

skills to provide classroom guidance activities successfully and effectively.









Need for the Study

Achievement of knowledge of the requisite and desirable components of school

counselor preparation to engage in classroom guidance activities effectively and efficiently has

implications for school counselor professional preparation and practice, and also for associated

future research and theory development. For example, if school counselors are to be proficient

and effective in delivering classroom guidance activities, then concentrated and specific attention

to knowledge and skills requisite to such service delivery in school counselor preparation

programs is essential. Knowing what school counselors should know and be able to do in regard

to classroom guidance activities also will allow determination of what should, and concomitantly

should not, be incorporated into school counselor preparation.

The effective practice of school counseling requires extensive knowledge and a

comprehensive skill set. The primary means through which school counselors obtain (at least

minimum) professional knowledge and skills is through completion of a school counselor

preparation program. The potential value of "on-the-job training" and "continuing education" in

any profession, including school counseling, is undeniable. However, such learning and skill

development is achieved unsystematically among members of a profession and is contingent

upon local circumstances, opportunities, and resources and personal motivations. Thus, if the

school counseling profession as a whole is to be enhanced and improved, the basis for

advancements must begin in school counselor preparation programs.

A wide variety of theories of education and learning have been used in school counselor

preparation programs and are manifest in an even larger number of educational activities in

school counselor education curricula. Unfortunately, investigation and/or thoughtful

consideration of the applicability and/or suitability of any theory as applied within school

counselor preparation is rare. Such evaluation necessarily must be tied to what is being taught,









and indeed can only be made effectively if the theory-content association is well founded and

understood. Therefore, knowledge of the important components of school counselor preparation

has implications for theory evaluation and development.

Evaluation of and research on school counselor preparation and/or practice also is

necessarily and integrally linked to what is to be known and what is to be done (i.e., which skills

are to be applied) (Carey & Dimmitt, 2006). Therefore, better understanding of the knowledge

and skills that school counselors should have for the effective delivery of classroom guidance

services will provide focus and direction for future research, including research focused upon

school counselor education and practice applications.

Theoretical Framework

A "profession," by definition, requires specialized education and training, i.e.,

educational preparation and/or training that is intensive and specific to the practice of a particular

occupation or vocation. Without exception, true professional preparation necessitates a

comprehensive preparatory curriculum. A wide and diverse variety of curriculum development

and implementation models and resources for professional preparation programs are available.

Among them, however, Tyler's (1949) model (originally presented in Basic Principles of

Curriculum andInstruction) is one of the most widely respected resources (Omstein & Hunkins,

1998; Wiles & Bondi, 1998; Wiles, 2005).

Tyler's approach to curriculum development is centered on addressing four fundamental

questions effectively:

1. What educational purposes should the school (educational institution) seek to attain?
2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? (Tyler, 1949, p. 1)









Application of Tyler's model requires identification of curriculum components through

examination of specific (eventual learner/practitioner) needs and the learning experiences

necessary to fulfill those needs. Input from practicing professionals (as subject matter

specialists) is crucial to effective needs identification. After needs have been established and

appropriate learning (educational) experiences identified, the implied curriculum is organized

into a set of (presumably well-organized) experiences for learners.

The last question posed by Tyler refers to evaluation of a curriculum. After the first three

criteria are achieved, the educational experiences must be evaluated to verify that learners have

acquired the requisite knowledge and skills from their curricular experiences. Because this

criterion can be evaluated post curriculum development and implementation only, it is not

addressed in this study. Rather, only the first three elements of Tyler's curriculum development

model will be incorporated.

Purpose of the Study

There are many resources for education professionals, including school counselors, that

present activities that can be used with classrooms of students. There also are an extremely large

number of resources specifically advocated for use by school counselors for classroom guidance

activities. However, lacking is congruence of opinion about how school counselors should be

prepared to use selections from this multitude of resources or to develop and use their own

classroom guidance activities. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to determine the

components of school counselor preparation in regard to classroom management for large-group

guidance activities that are endorsed with a relatively high degree of congruence by school

counseling professionals. Also to be determined are variations in professional preparation

component endorsements based on selected characteristics of the responding school counseling

professionals. The data from which these determinations will be made will be obtained through









use of the Delphi technique with carefully selected school counseling professionals, nationally

certified school counselors, and school counselor educators..

Research Questions

The following research questions are addressed in this study:

1. What are school counseling professionals' respective endorsement levels of various
counselor preparation curriculum components for classroom management for large-group
guidance activities?

2. What is the order of endorsement priorities among school counselor preparation
program curriculum components for classroom management for large-group guidance
activities?

3. What are the differences in endorsements of school counselor preparation program
curriculum components for classroom management for large-group guidance activities
based on selected characteristics of the responding school counseling professionals?

Definition of Terms

Following are definitions of selected terms as they are used in this study.

CLASSROOM GUIDANCE. "The systematic delivery of age-appropriate preventative
guidance concepts to units or groups of students which usually contain more than 10 to
15 members." (Cuthbert, 2000, p.123)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT. The process of successfully directing student groups while
imparting information (Cuthbert, 2000).

CURRICULUM. An organized, usually highly structured set of instructional (learning)
experiences that constitute academic preparation for future academic or vocational
activities (Wiles & Bondi, 1998)

DELPHI TECHNIQUE / MODEL. A research method in which a panel of experts is polled in
an iterative process to gain consensus of group opinion about a specific topic (Dimitt, C.,
Carey, J.C., McGannon, W., Henningson, I., 2005; Linstone & Turtoff,, 1975; Moore,
1986)

PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL COUNSELOR. a state-certified school (guidance) counselor

SCHOOL COUNSELOR PREPARATION CURRICULUM. set of knowledge components and
training experiences in a school counselor training program designed to prepare school
counselors-in-training at the post-baccalaureate level










CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Presented in this chapter is a review of the literature relevant to this study. This review

includes attention to school counselors' professional competencies in general and classroom

management skills in particular, a theoretical model for curriculum development, and the Delphi

methodology.

School Counselors' Professional Competencies

School counseling as a profession had its beginnings in the early 1900s as education

professionals sought to help students find appropriate and satisfying work. The activities of

those education professionals were in effect rudimentary vocational guidance programs (Coy,

1999; Gysbers, 2001; Myrick, 2003). Emphasis on helping students with career and vocational

concerns remained the focus of school "guidance" counselor activities for most of the first four

decades of the twentieth century. However, in the 1950s, individual states began to develop and

implement standards for "professional regulation" (i.e, certification and/or other forms of

credentialing) of school guidance counselors (Coy, 1999). Such regulation was the beginning

school counseling as a true and distinct profession.

The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958, a federal response to the launch of

the Sputnik satellite by the then Soviet Union, provided substantial funding to train guidance

counselors (Myrick, 2003; Tang & Erford, 2004; Wittmer, 2000). The most immediate and

obvious impact of this funding was a substantial increase in the number of guidance counselors

in the United States. More importantly, however, the NDEA "gave credibility to the idea that a

specialist in guidance and counseling was needed in schools" (Myrick, 2003, p. 8). Continuing

the existing emphasis, the guidance counselor's primary role during the 1950s and 1960s was

assumed to be to provide career/vocational counseling "directly" to students in middle and high









schools into careers. Existing guidance counselor training programs were focused on student

career/vocational development and guidance. Although intensive, the NDEA training and

preparation for guidance counselors was narrow in scope and brief in duration. Therefore,

unfortunately, "school guidance counselors often were trained too quickly and in a sub-par

fashion" during this period (Wittmer, 2000, p. 3).

The acceptance and reputation of the school counseling profession advanced substantially

during the 1970s and early 1980s, primarily as a result of the placement of school counselors in

elementary schools. Likely the most significant result of these placements was increased

recognition that school counselors were more than just "(career) guidance counselors;" that is,

that school counselors could and should do more than just help middle and high school students

find jobs. Thus, it was during this period that the title "guidance counselor" was dropped (at

least within the school counseling profession) in favor of the title "school counselor" and, more

importantly, school counselors came to be viewed as integral members of the school's

educational team that was focused on all aspects of student's lives as they affected academic

performance. This latter change in particular necessitated that school counselors have a broad

range of skills and abilities, with commensurate underlying knowledge.

This time period also was when "classroom (large-group) guidance" came to be viewed as

an efficient method of delivery of school counseling services to students in schools (Myrick,

2003). Specifically, classroom guidance is the primary and most efficient means by which

school counselors provide developmental, preventative services to students in schools (Dahir,

2004; Myrick, 2003; Wittmer, 2000); that is, to help students acquire skills to cope with life

problems and issues before they encountered them. In large part, classroom guidance activities

are instructional in nature and in fact approximate regular classroom teaching. Good instruction









requires good classroom management. That is, the instructor must be able to maintain students'

attention, interest, and appropriate behavior during the classroom activity in order for the

students to achieve intended gains from the activity (Geltner & Clark, 2005). Therefore, a school

counselor must have effective classroom management skills in order to provide classroom

guidance services successfully.

Counselor preparation in general and school counselor preparation in particular in the

United States currently is guided primarily by the (counselor education) program accreditation

standards of the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs

(CACREP). The CACREP Standards include minimum preparation criteria deemed necessary

for all counselors as well as preparation criteria specific to school counselors. However, even in

light of these Standards, it has been suggested that school counselor preparation curricula

"varied considerably from one graduate school counseling program to another" (DeVoss, 2004,

p.25). Further, even though the CACREP Standards for school counselor preparation are highly

valued and widely accepted, they lack functional specificity. That is, although school counseling

skill application statements are included in the CACREP school counselor preparation standards,

they are too general in nature to indicate or even suggest the highly specific skills that need to be

developed by school counseling program graduates. Thus, the CACREP school counselor

preparation standards identify broad categories of necessary school counselor skill competencies,

but how education and training for those competencies should be conducted is not evident in

them. As Sears (1999) noted, "[school] counseling and training programs provide a core of

counseling courses but (they) do not provide counselors with the specific knowledge and skills

they need to be effective in schools" (p.49).









Leadership in defining the appropriate roles and functions of school counselors comes

from the American School Counselor Association (ASCA). ASCA released its National

Standards for School Counseling Programs in 1997 (Campbell & Dahir, 1997). This resource

gave school counselor education program faculty further guidance in structuring school

counselor education programs (Perusse, 2001). However, similar to the CACREP Standards,

this resource lacks presentation of specific competencies to be held and used by school

counselors. Thus it too does not identify or suggest specifically how school counselors are to be

prepared to fulfill their various roles and functions.

Subsequently, ASCA created the National Modelfor School Counseling Programs to

suggest how school counseling programs should be structured and implemented (ASCA, 2003;

2005). The ASCA National Model presents school counselor performance standards, but again

does not provide specific guidance about how school counselors are to be prepared to perform

their various functions effectively.

Dahir, Sheldon and Valiga (1998) and Campbell and Dahir (1997), among others,

established school counselor competencies such that school counselors would be able to aid

students' academic, personal/social and career developments effectively. However, again, there

is no direct connection presented as to how these sets of competencies are to be developed during

school counselor preparation. Thus, although ASCA and a variety of school counseling

authorities have made important contributions to the nature of the school counseling profession

in regard to school counselor functioning (Murphy, 2004; Schwallie-Giddis, ter Maat, & Pak,

2003), counselor education programs continue to be disparate in their approaches to school

counselor preparation for lack of specific direction of how school counselors should be educated

and/or trained.









Professional credentialing practices also have done little to clarify the specific nature of

effective school counselor preparation. The most common (and necessary) credential for

professional school counselors is state-level certification, and all states have school counselor

certification academic and process requirements. Course content for individual counselor

education programs are of course influenced by the respective and applicable state requirements.

However, "there is still wide variability across all [school counselor preparation] programs" in

regard to program foci, content, and methods (Perusse, Goodnough & Noel, 2001, p.261). Snow

and Jackson (2004) presented an overview of disparities in state-level school counselor

certification requirements:

An overview of state certification requirements in school counseling as of 2000
can be summarized as follows (ACA, 2000); all states required graduate education
in guidance and counseling with 39 requiring a master's degree in guidance and
counseling; 12 states required supplemental graduate education in addition to
counseling; 28 states required completion of a school based practicum or
internship; 21 states required previous teaching or related experience; 23 states
utilized standardized examination as part of the certification process; and 35 states
required a criminal background check. (p. 66)

Again, given these disparities across states, state-level school counselor certification

requirements provide little specific direction as to how school counselors should be

prepared to fulfill their functions effectively.

At the national level, the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) provides the

National Certified School Counselor (NCSC) credential (Paisley & Borders, 1995) while the

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) "certifies" that school counselors

credentialed by them exhibit "accomplished practice" (Glathar, 2005). The NBCC and NBPTS

goals seem similar but in practice are not. The lack of unified perspective in national

credentialing processes thus continues to make it difficult to create a set of agreed upon









competencies for school counselors, and therefore to determine how best to prepare school

counselors.

Of particular interest here is the extent to which school counselors are prepared

effectively for classroom management skills. Again, classroom guidance activities are

for the most part instructional (i.e., "teaching") activities. Therefore, part of the school

counselor competence debate is whether school counselors should have prior teaching

experience (Baker, 2000; Snow & Jackson, 2004). Although some states require prior

teaching experience for certification as a school counselor (Myrick, 2003), most

counselor educators (i.e., faculty of school counselor preparation programs) believe such

experience is unnecessary (Baker, 1994, 2001; Smith, 2001). Similarly, some school

counseling authorities have suggested that professional school counselors need to be

provided (only) "classroom management" skills as opposed to the full set of teaching

skills (Baker, 2000; Henington & Doggett, 2004; Myrick, 2003; Wittmer, 2000).

Unfortunately, neither a required teaching credential nor generalized training in

classroom management skills is sufficient to enable school counselors to be proficient

and effective in delivery of classroom guidance activities. More importantly here, neither

allows determination of appropriate and specific school counselor preparation program

curricular experiences that will enable school counselors to be successful at classroom

management. To be effective in the classroom, school counselors need skills in

classroom management specifically designed for delivery of large-group guidance

activities.

Theoretical Framework

Writing in regard to the effectiveness of service delivery by members of a profession,

Gartner (1976) asserted "that the training and education of practitioners is the predominant factor









influencing the nature of the service" provided (p.27). He noted that the central issue in

professional education and training is "how to make that preparation most effective" (p. 28). In

turn, Gartner (1976) asserted that the primary factors influencing professional preparation

effectiveness include (a) curricular content, (b) faculty expertise and pedagogical skill, (c)

teaching methods employed, (d) relationship of curriculum to both theory and practice, (e)

location of training, and (f) how the training is related to professional practice as well as the

larger societal developments. It follows that integration of Gartner's recommendations

necessitates highly focused curriculum components, ones based on widely endorsed training

content and practices for the various skill sets to be developed by preparation program

participants.

Presumably, effective and appropriate attention to the preparation factors identified by

Gartner requires uniform training of aspiring professionals. Unfortunately, there is clearly lack

of uniformity in the professional preparation of school counselors in regard to classroom

management despite national counselor preparation standards, national organization practice

recommendations, and state certification requirements. Certainly it is difficult in any profession

to achieve large-scale agreement on training practices. However, just as certainly, greater degree

of consensus about training practices than usually exists can be achieved. In particular, greater

agreement can be reached about how school counselors should be trained in regard to

development of classroom management skills. However, such concurrence of opinion must be

considered in view of sound curriculum development theory and practices.

Tyler's curriculum development model, as originally described in Basic Principles of

Curriculum andInstruction (1949), is widely respected (Ornstein & Hunkins, 1998; Wiles &

Bondi, 1998; Wiles, 2005). Tyler's approach begins with "identifying four fundamental









questions which must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction" (Tyler,

1949, p.1):

1. What educational purposes should the school [educational agency] seek to attain?

2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these
purposes?

3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?


The first three of these questions can be readily applied to creation of the curriculum component

of counselor education programs for training school counselors to have classroom management

skills. The final question relates to evaluation of curriculum implementation and is beyond the

scope of this study.

The first of Tyler's curriculum development question relates to instructional objectives.
If an educational program is to be planned and if efforts for continued improvement are
to be made, it is very necessary to have some conception of the goals that are being aimed
at. These educational objectives become the criteria by which materials are selected,
content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed and tests and examinations are
prepared ... Hence, if we are to study an educational program systematically and
intelligently, we must first be sure as to the educational objectives aimed at [sic] (Tyler,
1949, p.3).

Tyler believed that (previous and/or current) learners themselves should be a source of

information for development of curricular objectives. Understanding of the "gap" between

student-as-learner need and the norm for post-instruction, effective understanding helps to build

the objectives.

Studies of the learner suggest educational objectives. .when the information about the
learner is compared with some desirable standards, some conception of acceptable norms,
so that the difference between the present condition of the learner and the acceptable
norm can be identified. This difference or gap is what is generally referred to as a need
(Tyler, 1949, p. 6).









It is clear from extant professional standards and models that school counselors need to conduct

developmental classroom guidance activities, and that they must have specific knowledge and

skills (and especially classroom management skills) to conduct those activities effectively.

Therefore, professional education should help "students [in school counselor education

programs] acquire special competencies for. .and taking appropriate action" (Hoberman &

Mailick, eds., 1994). It follows that at least one source of information about the needed

knowledge and skills can be obtained from those who already have it, i.e., well-qualified,

practicing professional school counselors. However, an additional good resource is those

educators who have been successful in delivering the information. For school counselors, that

resource would be experienced and accomplished school counselor educators.

Tyler (1949) supported collecting data through scientific methods, such as using surveys

to determine student needs. In particular, the use of survey methods decreases subjectivity in

curriculum development. Tyler (1949) also emphasized that subject specialists are an important

source for gathering data about student learning needs.

Subject specialists can... make an important contribution, because, presumably, they have
a considerable knowledge of the specialized field and many of them have had opportunity
to see what this subject has done for them and for those with whom they work. They
ought to be able to suggest possible contributions, knowing the field as well as they do,
that it might make to others in terms of its discipline, its content and the like. (Tyler,
1949, p. 26-27)

Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) noted that "personal philosophy" is an important starting

point in curriculum development. For example, school counselor education subject matter

specialists should approach curriculum development through their respective personal

philosophies. These philosophies are inherent in their beliefs and evident in the experiences they

present to students for learning. Similar to Tyler (1949), Ornstein and Hunkins (1998)









acknowledged that a personal philosophy reflects personal values and beliefs which, in turn, are

reflected in curriculum and course content and teaching methods.

Tyler (1949) also wrote about the nature of learning. Curricular objectives, shaped for a

primary learning experience, often result in secondary learning. Tyler (1949, p. 41) wrote that,

"In practically every educational experience two or more kinds of educational outcomes may be

expected" (i.e., primary, intended learning and secondary, unanticipated or unexpected learning)

This duality suggests that using multiple methods of instruction is to the educator's advantage

because they can design integrated experiences intended to reinforce each other and create

greater experiences for the learner. Tyler's second question refers to this issue, how to attain the

desired ends. Learning experiences are shaped by the teacher, but the student acquires

knowledge and skills through active behavior.

Wiles and Bondi (1998) stressed the importance of teacher characteristics and behavior in

teaching to achieve curricular objectives; the teacher is "the final filter in curriculum work"

(p.109). Teachers plan the instructional framework and deliver the information. The teacher

matches learning activities that will help the students attain the desired objectives and "selects

techniques and plans activities believed to be effective for these purposes" (Wiles & Bondi,

1998). The education process may vary in experiences, but must specify unambiguous

objectives.

The final question Tyler addressed was, "How can learning experiences be organized for

effective instruction?" That is, how can possible learning experiences be best aligned and

implemented to achieve desired educational goals? Tyler proposed that educational experiences

be "clustered" to produce a cumulative effect. "In planning the curriculum for any school or any

field, it is necessary to decide on the types of elements which most effectively serve as threads to









use in the organization" (Tyler, 1949, p.87). Again, inputs from experienced school counselor

educators and school counseling practitioners are the best source for determining both elements

of a classroom management training curriculum and important aspects of associated preparatory

activities.

Classroom Guidance and the Professional School Counselor

The focus of school counselor training programs for the past few decades has been on the

developmental guidance model (e.g., Baker, 2000; Gysbers, 1997; Gysbers & Henderson, 1999;

Myrick, 2003; Sink & MacDonald, 1998; Vernon, 2004; Wittmer, 2000). "In the developmental

approach, students have an opportunity to learn more about themselves and others in advance of

problem moments in their lives" (Wittmer, 2000, p.6). The school counselor is presumed to be

the leader of a school counseling program that involves all school personnel, is available to all

students, has an organized and planned curriculum, is sequential and flexible, and is an

integrated part of the total educational process (Myrick, 2003; Wittmer, 2000). In addition, the

developmental guidance model is concentrated on academic improvement to help students learn

more effectively and efficiently (Myrick, 2003). The well-trained school counselor "provides

specialized counseling services and interventions" within the total educational program (Myrick,

2003, p. 46). The direct services the school counselor provides include but are not limited to:

individual counseling, small group counseling, and large group guidance (ASCA, 2005; Baker,

2000; Benshoff, 1994; Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Dahir et al., 1998; Myrick, 2003; Vernon, 2004;

Wittmer 2000). Through interventions such as these, the school counselor identifies problem

areas and implements a comprehensive plan to assist all students to prevent or resolve them.

Classroom guidance, sometimes known as large-group guidance, is the most efficient

intervention because it provides direct services to the largest numbers of students at one time

(Baker, 2000; Myrick, 2003; Snyder, 2000; Wittmer, 2000). A large group is generally a









classroom size group of 25-30 students (Cuthbert, 2000). Classroom guidance as a school

counseling intervention is becoming increasingly important as professional school counselors

struggle to find time to address all students' needs. The recommended student-to-counselor ratio

appropriate to implementing a comprehensive developmental program is one school counselor to

every 250 students (ASCA, 2005). However, most school counselors operate under a much

higher ratio (ASCA, 2005).

Gerler and Anderson (1986) noted that, "group guidance may positively influence

children's classroom behavior, attitudes toward school, and ultimately their academic success"

(p. 78). For example, Brigman and Campbell (2003) studied the impact of small-group and

classroom guidance to improve student achievement. It was found that the combined effects of

the interventions were positively associated with improved student achievement and behavior.

Similarly, Lapan, Gyspers and Petroski (2003) examined developmental guidance programs in

middle schools. They found that implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs,

including classroom guidance activities, were associated consistently with higher levels of

student academic success. In general, there is considerable support for the observation that

developmental guidance delivered in large groups is an effective means to teach students ideas

and skills (Wittmer, Thompson, & Loesch, 1997).

Although there are numerous resources available for classroom guidance activities, there

is little information available to assist school counselors to "manage" classroom size groups (i.e.,

regulate student behavior to maximize learning effectiveness). Baker (2000) asserted that "it is

important to train them [school counselors] as competent instructors, as well as competent

[school] counselors" [emphasis added] (p.153). Similarly, The ASCA National Model (2003)

indicates that, "It is important for school counselors to receive training in student learning styles,









classroom behavior management (and) curriculum and instruction" (p. 16). Thus, extensive

classroom management knowledge and good skills, as important components of general teaching

expertise, are needed in combination i/th counseling and group facilitation skills to impact

large groups positively (Henington & Doggett, 2004). Unfortunately, the exact classroom

management knowledge and skills needed remain undetermined.

The Knowledge Base for Classroom Management

ASCA identifies small and large group counseling as integral parts of both school

counselor training and professional responsibilities (ASCA, 2003; Campbell & Dahir, 1997;

Dahir et al., 1998). "Group counseling is one of the professional school counselor's most highly

specialized skills" (Goodnough & Lee, 2004, p.173). Training in group processes and leadership

allows school counselors to conduct group counseling differently from individual counseling.

However, many of the skills used in small-group counseling also are applicable to large-group

guidance activities (Myrick, 2003).

Small-group counseling training for school counselors typically includes exposure to

principles of group dynamics, group process, group stage theories, group member roles and

behaviors, therapeutic factors of group work, group leadership styles and approaches, theories

and methods of group counseling, ethical and legal considerations for group work, and

evaluation of group processes (CACREP, 2001). Presumably, some small-group knowledge and

skills transfer and generalize to application in large-group guidance activities. For example,

knowledge of group dynamics and interacting forces within a group is important for

understanding interpersonal dynamics in the classroom guidance context. Each of these general

information clusters can be subdivided further, and thus can be used to elaborate more specific,

(potentially) appropriate elements or components of the knowledge base of effective classroom

management. Shown below are some of the more specific knowledge components of various









(counseling-related) knowledge clusters. The elements shown are deemed specific to classroom

management within the large-group guidance context and potentially necessary for school

counselors in performing large-group guidance activities. Also presented are references for the

elements cited. Note these elements are not presented in any particular order.

GROUP DYNAMICS. Interacting forces within a group (Yalom, 1995).

GROUP CULTURE. Shared perceptions of how the group interaction system is to be
organized (Wheelan, 1994).

TASK/WORK GROUP. Groups designed to improve program planning and evaluation within
organizations (Corey, 2004).

EXPERIENTIAL CLASSROOM TRAINING GROUPS OR PROCESS GROUPS. A group of individuals
who meet to learn more about groups, group processes and interactions, and themselves
(also known as T-, sensitivity-training, or encounter groups) (Yalom, 1995).

SELF-HELP GROUPS. Groups constituted to enable people with a common problem or life
predicament to create a support system and change their lives (Corey, 2004; Yalom,
1995).

GUIDANCE/PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL GROUP. Groups structured by some central theme and
generally used to impart information, address specific needs, and/or develop certain skills
(Corey, 2004).

COUNSELING GROUP. An interpersonal process to address group members' thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors that is problem-oriented and led by a counselor or psychotherapist
(Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995).

GROUP TIME ORIENTATION. The time orientation for the purpose of the group, such as to
address immediate concerns or to develop strategies to cope with potential problems in
the future (Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995).

HOMOGENEOUS VERSUS HETEROGENEOUS GROUP. A homogeneous group is composed of
people similar in age and gender, or based upon a common interest whereas a
heterogeneous group is composed of members different for a specific category or trait
(Corey, 2004).

INVOLUNTARY VERSUS VOLUNTARY MEMBERSHIP. An involuntary group is composed of
members forced to attend whereas a voluntary group is composed of people attending by
choice (Corey, 2004).

SHORT-TERM VERSUS LONG-TERM GROUPS. Duration of the group process dependent upon
the topic (i.e., time needed to achieve group goal) (Corey, 2004).









* GROUP FORMATION. The process of constituting a group with attention to practical
considerations related to composition, formation, structure, and duration of a group
(Shechtman, 2004).

* SOCIAL IDENTITY. The social categorization of self and others. Categories define
individuals in terms of their similarities with members of certain social categories in
contrast to other social categories (Turner & Haslam, 2001).

* SOCIAL COMPARISON. The process in which an individual uses cues from others to
understand appropriate behaviors, beliefs, and/or attitudes expected in the group
environment (Tindale, Meisenhelder, Dykema-Engblade & Hogg, 2001).

* GROUP DEVELOPMENT. The natural maturing of a group over time (Schmuck & Schmuck,
1997).

* SOCIAL LOAFING. The tendency for group members to work below maximum abilities on
a specified task (Wheelan, 1994).

* GROUP PROCESS. The group interaction statuses including conformity, deviation,
cohesion, and conflict (Burlingame, Fuhriman & Johnson, 2004). Alternatively, four
process components including structure, verbal interaction, therapeutic relationship, and
therapeutic factors.

* CONFORMITY. The extent to which a group member's behaviors conform to group
behavior norms (Corey, 2004).

* DEVIATION. The extent to which a group member's behavior differs from group behavior
norms (Corey, 2004).

* GROUP CONFLICT. The extent to which group members are oppositional to one another
(Corey, 2004).

* GROUP IDENTIFICATION. The degree to which an individual sees him/herself as part of a
group (Kramer, Hanna, Su, & Wei, 2001).

* GROUP COHESIVENESS. The degree to which individuals socially identify with the group
(Karau & Williams, 2001). Group cohesion involves a sense of belonging, inclusion, and
solidarity. Cohesiveness is the result of all the forces acting on the members that make
them want to remain in the group. (Corey, 2004; Yalom, 1995).

* GROUP INITIAL STAGE. The group process period of orientation and exploration that
includes determining group structure, getting acquainted, exploring members'
expectations, defining goals, clarifying expectations, and looking for a place in the group.
(Corey, 2004).

* GROUP TRANSITION STAGE. The group process period of dealing with resistance, including
when members experience anxiety, defensiveness, and conflict, and begin to learn how to
work on the concerns that brought them to the group (Corey, 2004).









* GROUP WORKING STAGE. The group process period of cohesion and productivity,
including more in-depth exploration of significant problems and effective action to bring
about desired behaviors. (Corey, 2004).

* GROUP FINAL STAGE. The group process period of consolidation and termination,
including time for summarizing, pulling together loose ends, and integrating and
interpreting the group experience (Corey, 2004).

* POST-GROUP ISSUES. The evaluation and follow-up process in which the group leader
evaluates outcomes of the group (Yalom, 1995).

* GROUP MEMBER ROLES. The organization of members to perform different tasks within
the group, including a set of expectations shared by members about behavior of an
individual who occupies a given position in the group (Wheelan, 1994).

* GROUP TASKS. The work that a group must do to accomplish its goal (Wheelan, 1994).

* GROUP LEADERSHIP STYLE. The group leader's personal approach to facilitating groups
based on theoretical orientation, values, beliefs, and personal characteristics (Corey,
2004).

* INSTILLATION OF HOPE. Increasing patients' belief and confidence in the efficacy of the
group mode (Yalom, 1995).

* UNIVERSALITY. The disconfirmation of a patient's feeling of uniqueness (Yalom, 1995).

* DIDACTIC INSTRUCTION. The formal instruction or psycho-educational component of a
group (Yalom, 1995).

* DIRECT ADVICE. The suggestions from group members to another group member (Yalom,
1995).

* ALTRUISM. An increase in perceived self-efficacy resulting from helping other group
members (Yalom, 1995).

* SOCIALIZING TECHNIQUES. Methods of achieving socially acceptable behaviors through
social learning (Yalom, 1995), including addressing factors that promote change in
groups (Forsyth, 2001).

* VICARIOUS LEARNING. Social skills developed through observation and interaction with
others (Yalom, 1995).

* INTERPERSONAL LEARNING. Social skills developed from interactions with others (Yalom,
1995).

* GROUP MEMBER GUIDANCE. The acceptance of advice and suggestions from other group
members (Yalom, 1995).

* GROUP COHESION. The experience of group members feeling accepted by others in the
group (Yalom, 1995).









SELF-DISCLOSURE. The revelation of personal information to others (Yalom, 1995).

CATHARSIS. The release of pent-up emotions (Yalom, 1995).

INSIGHT. The attainment of a deeper understanding of oneself (Yalom, 1995).

THEORIES OF GROUP COUNSELING. The theoretical bases for understanding and/or guiding
group processes (Yalom, 1995).

ETHICAL AND LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUP WORK. The legal and philosophical
boundaries for group processes and interactions (Yalom, 1995).

EVALUATION OF GROUP PROCESSES. Measurement used to determine the effectiveness of
the group (Corey, 2004).

MULTICULTURAL DIVERSITY. The cultural-based differences among individuals (Corey,
2004).

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. The natural process of human physical and mental change
(Myrick, 2003).

RESOURCES. The human, physical, or other sources of assistance for group processes
(Wittmer, 2000).

MEMBER SELECTION. The procedures used to choose members of a group (Corey, 2004).

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING. The achievement of knowledge through physical behavior
(Corey, 2004).

The Skills Set for Classroom Management

Skills related to group leadership in general and for school counseling applications in

particular have been presented by Corey (2004), Geltner and Clark (2005), Hennington and

Doggett (2004), Myrick (2003), and Riva, Watchel and Lasky (2004), among others. "An

essential component related to the effectiveness of therapeutic groups is the leadership" (Riva et

al., 2004, p.37). Indicated in group treatment research is that more favorable outcomes evolve

from group leaders proficient in the use of positive group leadership skills (Morran et al., 2004).

Group leadership skills are used to guide and direct interactions between school

counselors and classroom groups. The school counselor typically relies upon a self-created

combination of counseling skills, classroom management strategies, and instructional methods to









impart important developmental information. Shown below are some of the specific skills

potentially appropriate to effective classroom management in the context of large-group

guidance. The reference source for each skill listed also is provided. Again, these elements are

not presented in any particular order.

RULE SETTING. Establishing and communicating clear guidelines and procedures for the
group interaction (Henington & Doggett, 2004).

ACTIVE LISTENING. Paying attention and interpreting both verbal and nonverbal messages
in the communication (Corey, 2004).

RESTATING. Verbal paraphrasing (Corey, 2004).

CLARIFYING. Restating the group member's message in different words to evaluate
meaning accuracy (Corey, 2004; Myrick, 2003).

SUMMARIZING. Pulling together the important elements of a group interaction (Corey,
2004).

OPEN ENDED QUESTIONING. Proposing questions that explore issues in greater depth for
the group members (Corey, 2004).

INTERPRETING. Group leader explaining of participant's thoughts, feelings or behaviors
(Corey, 2004).

CONFRONTING. Specifying differences between behavior and verbal or nonverbal
messages (Corey, 2004).

REFLECTING FEELINGS. Mirroring the verbal and nonverbal messages (Corey, 2004).

SUPPORTING. Providing group members with encouragement and reinforcement (Corey,
2004).

EMPATHIZING. Verbalizing sensitive feelings that grasp the subjective world of the
participant (Corey, 2004).

FACILITATING. Opening direct communication among the participants (Corey, 2004).

INITIATING. Directing members to focus on doing meaningful work within the group
(Corey, 2004).

GOAL SETTING. Helping group members create and clarify productive goals (Corey,
2004).

EVALUATING. Ongoing process of self-appraisal for group leader and members (Corey,
2004).









* SIMPLE ACKNOWLEDGMENT. The interpersonal acknowledgment of a group member
(Myrick, 2003).

* GIVING FEEDBACK. The group leader process of giving specific information based on
observation of behaviors within the group (Corey, 2004).

* SUGGESTING. Encouraging group members to look at a situation from a different
perspective (Corey, 2004).

* PROTECTING. Safeguarding members from unnecessary psychological or physical risks of
being in a group (Corey, 2004); also, the group leader intervening to protect group
members from damaging experiences in the group (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham,
2004).

* MODELING. Demonstrating skills, attitudes, and other characteristics the leader hopes to
engender in group members (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004).

* LINKING. Promoting interaction between group members by connecting through a
common theme (Corey, 2004; Morran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004); also, using
statements that accentuate relationships by pairing information from one person to
another (Myrick, 2003; Wittmer & Myrick, 1989, p.82).

* REINFORCEMENT. The verbal or nonverbal messages from the group leader to a group
member to convey approval (Cooper & Simonds, 2003); also, establishing trust (Corey,
2004).

* BLOCKING. Intervening by the group leader to stop counterproductive behavior within the
group (Corey, 2004).

* TERMINATING. Ending a group session or process (Corey, 2004).

* USING PROXEMICS. Moving around to spread influence to all group members (Cooper &
Simonds, 2003).

* SUPPORTING. The leader intervening to reassure members, and encourage and reinforce
appropriate participation (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham, 2004).

* DRAWING OUT. The leader inviting comments from one (or more) group members to
encourage participation from less involved members (Morran, Stockton & Whittingham,
2004).

* PROCESSING. Identifying and using significant happenings to help a group member reflect
on the meaning of the experience; understand thoughts, feelings, and actions; and
generalize what is learned to situation outside of the group (Morran, Stockton &
Whittingham, 2004).

* NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION. The non-spoken language used to send messages to the
group (Wiles & Bondi, 1998).









LEARNING STYLES. The cognitive and/or affective style acquire and use to process
information (Cooper & Simonds, 2003).

ENTHUSIASM. The group leader's positive, optimistic approach to the topic and/or group
members (Geltner & Clark, 2005).

WAIT TIME. The duration of time before a response is made after a question is asked
(Wong & Wong, 2005).

TOPIC SELECTION. The process in which school counselors select appropriate themes or
subjects for a school guidance program or lesson (Wittmer, 2000).

COOPERATIVE LEARNING. The use of collaborative interactions among group members to
achieve learning (Wong & Wong, 2005).

The Delphi Technique

The Delphi Technique is an iterative process designed to bring about the highest level

group consensus possible about ideas and/or opinions deemed important to a relatively specific

purpose and/or activity. The Delphi Technique typically includes use of a series of

questionnaires to compile judgments from experts (Moore, 1986). The Delphi Technique is the

method of choice for this study because it provides a mechanism through which to achieve

subject matter expert consensus through feedback loops (Clayton, 1997). It allows opportunity

"to harness the knowledge, expertise and abilities of an entire group of people" (Corporate

Partnering Institute, 1997).

In the Delphi Technique, the respondent group is selected carefully from among experts

in an identified (professional) field. Thus, the expertise of the experts chosen to participate is

crucial to the validity of the results (Linstone & Turtoff, 1975). An expert is someone who has

specific and extensive knowledge, skills, and experience relevant to the particular subject

(Clayton, 1997). Desirable characteristics for participants should be identified prior to

application of the technique. In general, nominees should include respected members of the

profession. The invitation to participate should be presented as flattering and motivating to

potential participants (Clayton, 1997; Scheele, 1975).









The Delphi process includes dissemination of a questionnaire and proceeds through ten

stages (Moore, 1986):

1. Decide to administer the questionnaire.

2. Select a respondent group.

3. Design the questionnaire.

4. Give advance notice to respondents (optional).

5. Pilot test questionnaire (optional).

6. Produce questionnaire.

7. Distribute questionnaire.

8. Send reminder or another copy of the questionnaire (optional).

9. Receive completed questionnaire.

10. Analyze completed questionnaire. Return to step 3 for next round of questionnaire
dissemination.


The selection of the participant panel and the construction of the questionnaire have great

impact on the validity of the results application of the Delphi Technique. Experts recommend

careful construction of the questionnaire to ensure adequate response and inclusion of relevant

options for consideration (Dillman, 2000; Moore, 1986). A thorough search of the literature

should be completed to include all relevant issues to decision making on the topic.

Tyler (1949) supports the use of subject specialists to determine curriculum content for a

specified field and the Delphi Technique is well-suited to determination of curricular objectives.

The collective expertise allows collective decision making that would not otherwise be possible

because of geography or interpersonal issues. Linstone and Turtoff (1975, p.4) outlined

additional criteria to employ Delphi Technique:

The problem does not lend itself to precise analytical techniques, but can benefit from
subjective judgments on a collective basis.









More individuals are needed than who can interact efficiently and effectively in a face-to-
face exchange.

Disagreements among individuals are such that the communication process must be
"refereed."

The heterogeneity of the participants must be preserved to assure validity of the results,
i.e., avoidance of domination by quantity or by strength of personality.


These criteria illustrate the potential usefulness of the Delphi Technique to create a curriculum

among diverse members of a group who cannot otherwise meet for group discussions. It is a

scientific method that allows each individual to respond and participate, further, personal

subjectivity is directed into group response. The technique "attempts to overcome the

weaknesses implicit in relying on a single expert, a one-shot group average, or round table

discussion" (Clayton, 1997, p. 375). The generally accepted number of participants for a

(relatively) homogeneous group is 15 to 30 (Clayton, 1997; Moore, 1986).

Once the questionnaire has been constructed and the participants selected, the

questionnaires are distributed to be completed. The results are then interpreted and analyzed to

determine an appropriate cut-off point of the number of elements to be retained (Scheibe,

Skutsch, & Schofer, 1975). Generally, there is a "gap" pointing the rank-ordered item means

after each round. The scores below the gap are deleted and the remaining items are reintroduced

in the next round. The process ends when the criteria for consensus is reached (usually by the

number of rounds allowed), resulting in the final list of items. Linstone and Turtoff (1975)

recommended three rounds as "sufficient to attain stability in the responses" (p.229).

The Delphi Technique was used by Cabaniss (2002) to determine appropriate uses of

technology in counseling. The author sought to determine how much counselors and counselor

educators relied on computer-related technology, for which counselor-related tasks were

counseling professionals using computer-related technology, which job-related tasks required









computer-related technology, and how would computer-related technology be used in the next

ten years. Strong agreement on the importance of computer-related technology in counseling

and provision of more training in use of computer-related technology in counselor training

programs was found.

Dimmitt, Carey, McGannon, and Henningson (2005) used the Delphi Technique to

inquire about the future of the school counselor research agenda. An expert panel of 21

members was chosen from among national school counseling leaders, practitioners, and

counselor educators. The result was a list of the research questions that the experts thought

ought to be addressed in school counseling research. Wittinghill (2000) used the Delphi

Technique to identify the initial curriculum components necessary for the preparation of

graduate-level substance abuse counselors. An expert panel of 28 members responded to three

rounds of an evolving questionnaire rating 198 work behaviors on level of importance in training

substance abuse counselors. The result was a list of 89 curriculum items deemed as the most

important to be included in training programs. Thus the Delphi Technique has been used

successfully for various purposes in the counseling profession, including curriculum

development.

Summary of the Related Literature

Professional school counselors are being trained in varying ways across programs.

Unfortunately, differential training has led to confusion about school counselor roles, which in

turn has affected school counselor education program development. Although there is some

agreement about applicable training standards and foci, there remains considerable lack of

agreement about which skills are important to teach.

Tyler (1949) outlined steps for creating a curriculum and supported using systematic data

collection to identify curricular objectives and components. In regard to classroom management









specifically, training in group processes and interpersonal interactions is helpful but insufficient.

This study is intended to address this shortcoming.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to achieve as high as possible consensus among selected

practicing school counselors and counselor educators about curriculum components necessary to

prepare students in school counselor education programs to lead and manage large-group

classroom guidance activities effectively. Presented in this chapter are the population, sampling

procedures, resultant sample, questionnaire development, research procedures, and

methodological limitations for this study.

Population

The population for this study included two groups of professionals, both associated with

the school counseling profession: (a) school counselors working in public and/or private K-12

schools and (b) school counselor educators working in university or college settings. All fifty

states require school counselors to hold state-level school counseling certification and to have

completed (at least some) graduate course work, with the majority of states requiring

achievement of a master's degree (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006-07). In the 2003-04,

approximately 99,000 school counselors were employed in public schools in the United States

(U.S. Dept. of Education, 2003-04).

Among practicing school counselors are the approximately 2000 who currently hold the

National Certified School Counselor (NCSC) credential (NBCC, 2006). The NCSC is a

specialty certification credential in the school counseling profession for those who choose to

apply and are able to qualify. The NCSC credential is a result of joint efforts by the American

Counseling Association (ACA), American School Counseling Association (ASCA), and

National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), the major professional associations and

organizations for the counseling and school counseling professions (Bureau of Labor Statistics,









2006-07). The NCSC requirements included achievement of a master's degree in school

counseling, specialty coursework in school counseling, successful completion of a national

examination, and a minimum of three years supervised experience working as a school

counselor. The advantages of becoming an NCSC included (a) recognition for and

identification as having achieved one of the highest credentials in the school counseling

profession, (b) possible base salary increase (in some states and school systems), and (c)

demonstration of a continuing commitment to professional excellence in the school counseling

profession. The NCSC has been offered since 1991 (NBCC, 2006).

The second group from which a sample was drawn was counselor educators, specifically

school counselor educators. Counselor educators hold a doctoral degree in counselor education

(or a very closely related field such as counseling psychology), are employed by a college or

university, and are teaching or supervising (school) counselors-in-training. Currently, there are

forty-two doctoral-level counselor education programs accredited by the Council for the

Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational programs (CACREP) (2006). CACREP is

the primary national accreditation agency for school counselor education programs (Bureau of

Labor Statistics, 2006-07; Clawson, 2000).

Counselor educators included in this study had an earned doctoral degree, were

employed at a college or university having a CACREP-accredited program in school counseling,

and had instructional and/or supervisory assignment for school counselors-in-training. They also

were members of ACA, ASCA, and the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision

(ACES). At the time of the study, there were approximately 45,000 members of ACA (ACA,

2006), over 18,000 members of ASCA (ASCA, 2006), and 2079 members of ACES (J.

Macdonald, personal communication, May 5, 2006).









The ACES membership roster is partitioned across five geographical regions. For this

study, effort was made to include individuals from each of the five regions of ACES. A list of

school counselor educators was designed specifically for this study and acquired from ACA (M.

Griffith, personal communication, July 18, 2006). There were 776 members of ACES who

identified themselves as working in a university setting. The list included each potential

participant's name, university affiliation, and email address.

Sampling Procedures

Following procedural guidelines suggested by Tyler (1949) and others, representative

participants (i.e., panelists) from the two professional groups (i.e., practicing school counselors

and school counselor educators) were sought for this study. Because "expertise... is the desired

goal for panel [member] selection" (Clayton, 1997, p. 377), the panelists were selected based on

application of criteria germane to the purpose of the study, such as evident history of

involvement in the preparation of school counselors and in the school counseling profession.

Practicing school counselors invited to participate were identified from among those who

held the NCSC credential, had completed a preparation program that met the CACREP school

counseling program accreditation standards, and had a minimum of three years of professional

(i.e., employed) experience as a school counselor.

The essential criteria for selection of counselor educators included that they must have

been currently employed in an institution of higher education as a faculty member in a master's-

level (or higher) school counselor preparation program accredited by the CACREP.

Additionally, each counselor educator selected was a member of ASCA, ACA, and ACES, (b)

had published at least two (2) articles pertinent to the preparation of school counselors in a

professional journal within the last five years and (c) had made at least two (2) professional

presentations pertinent to school counselor preparation at a state, regional, or national conference









for (school) counselors and/or counselor educators within the last five years. In addition, a few

individuals were invited to participate who held national leadership positions in school

counseling or were known for their school counseling research. These latter individuals'

qualifications in all other areas exceeded the requirements listed above, but were either not a

member of one of the professional organizations (ACA or ACES) or were not currently

employed by a CACREP-accredited program. Only one person from this latter group actually

participated in the study.

In order to maximize representation of appropriate school counselor educators, attempt

was made to have proportionate membership representation of the five ACES's regions.

Similarly, attempt was made to have appropriate, diverse representation of the ASCA

membership for the participating school counselors. Although not applied as sampling criteria,

additional factors of representation such as gender and race/ethnicity were given consideration in

the sampling procedures. In general, every attempt was made to include panelists who were as

representative as possible of their respective primary professional affiliations and also as diverse

as possible. All individuals eligible according to these criteria were invited to participate in the

study.

Continued participation by panel members is an issue in any research necessitating

repeated response to a survey. Therefore, potential participants were informed (as part of the

invitation to participate) as to the nature of complete participation (i.e., three rounds of ratings).

Only those who committed to the entire process were initially included as panel members.

Resultant Sample

Attempt was made to enlist the participation of 30 practicing school counselors and 30

school counselor educators through the procedures described. School counselor educators were

selected for potential inclusion so as to be proportionately representative of the memberships of









the five ACES' regions. From the ACES' list, 45 individuals were identified who met all

qualifications. These 45 school counselor educators were invited to participate in the study; 22

replied affirmatively to the request asking for inclusion in the study. However, continual

participation for all three rounds was necessary for inclusion in the study. Therefore the number

of school counselor educators who participated as panelists was 18.

NCSC does not subdivide its membership into regional categories. However, from the

list ofNCSCs generated by NBCC, attempt was made to include nationally certified school

counselors from each state to parallel the school counselor educator participants across the

ACES' regions. After 120 NCSCs were contacted with an invitation to participate, 29 school

counselors requested they be included in the study. However, continual participation for all three

rounds was necessary for inclusion in the study. Therefore, the actual number of school

counselors who participated as panelists was 15.

In addition, 2 individuals identified themselves in both the school counselor group and

the school counselor educator group. One was originally identified from the school counselor

(NCSC) list and one from the school counselor educator (ACES) list. Ultimately, the procedures

yielded a group of 15 school counselors and 18 school counselor educators as well as 2 who

identified in both groups, for a total of 35 initial participants (panelists).

There is not a generally agreed upon guideline for minimum panel size for effective use

of the Delphi technique. However, "a general rule-of-thumb [is] 15-30 people for a

homogeneous population that is, experts coming from the same discipline and 5-10 people for

a heterogeneous population" (Clayton, 1997, p. 378). Therefore, a minimum of 15 school

counselors and 15 school counselor educators was proposed to be considered sufficient for









effective conduct of the study. The final group of 35 participants who completed all three rounds

of the survey was thus considered sufficient and satisfactory.

Survey Development

Moore (1986) noted that, "The questionnaire is the essential tool in the Delphi

[technique]" (p. 53). The initial survey used for this study had two subsections. The first

subsection solicited demographic information from the panelists, including (a) professional

position (i.e., practicing school counselor or school counselor educator), (b) race/ethnicity (i.e.,

Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian, Native American or Multiracial), (c) highest degree

achieved (i.e., Master's, Educational Specialist (EdS) or Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS),

or Doctorate), and (d) years of experience in current professional position (i.e., as a practicing

school counselor or as a school counselor educator). The demographic information subsection of

the survey was not presented for the second and third rounds of ratings.

The second subsection for round one included 89 items to be rated. The rating scale for

each item had a range of from 1 (not at all important) to 7 (extremely important). The survey

was web-based. Each response scale was presented in "radio button" format to disallow more

than one rating per item.

The second round of the survey had 56 items to be rated and the third round had 43 items

to be rated. For the second and third rounds, the immediately previous round item mean scores

were presented along with each item to be rated.

Research Procedures

After the potential participants in each group were identified, a letter of invitation to

participate (Appendix A) was sent to each of them via e-mail. The letter included an overview of

the study and why it was needed professionally, commented that their individual participation

would be a valuable contribution to the school counseling profession, and requested a reply to









inform whether they were willing to participate. These potential participants had a period of

three (3) weeks in which to reply. It was proposed that thereafter succeeding potential

participants on the respective lists would be contacted and invited to participate until either a

minimum of 20 participants for each group had been identified or the list of potential participants

has been exhausted. However, all potential participants were contacted initially for both groups

and all those that requested participation were included in the study.

The second correspondence (Appendix B) was sent via e-mail to professionals in each

group who had agreed to participate as panelists in the study. It included the link to the URL for

the study. Note that the informed consent form for the study (Appendix C) was the first webpage

of the study's URL. Therefore, participating panelists had to give informed consent to continue

to the actual survey. It also should be noted that panelist participation was anonymous after

agreement to participate (i.e., after continuing past the initial page of the first round survey).

For each round, participants were contacted via e-mail when the survey was open and

available for responding. From that time, participants had three weeks to respond to the current

form of the survey. After two weeks, a second participation reminder was sent via e-mail. At

the beginning of the final week the survey was to be open, a final reminder was sent via e-mail.

Unfortunately, three days after the initial survey was sent to participants, an error was

identified on one page of the survey; there was an additional (eighth) column with a heading

"No." How this error occurred could not be determined; presumably it was a fault in the web-

based system used for the survey process. The survey was immediately closed and participants

notified of the temporary closing and error. Because the survey process was mid data collection,

the error could not be corrected on line. Therefore, participants who had not yet completed the

survey were notified to disregard the unnecessary response column. The 22 participants who had









already completed the survey were redirected to a one-page update survey to respond to the 14

items having had an extra response column. The updated responses were entered manually when

that round of the survey was closed.

Respondents were requested to rate each item in the survey in each round. After panelists

completed ratings for the first round, the individual item means were calculated. The survey

item means were then ordered from highest to lowest item response mean. Linstone and Turoff

(1975) noted that generally there usually is a "gap" in the ordered item means for a Delphi study,

and that that gap is the appropriate point below which to eliminate items from subsequent

consideration. A gap was evident for the round one item response means in this study and items

having means below the "gap" were discarded from subsequent item presentations. Therefore,

the second round included 56 items. The respective item wordings were not changed and

remained the same across rounds.

Feedback is an important element of the Delphi process because it allows respondents to

examine and possibly reevaluate their item ratings from the previous round (Dalkey, 1972;

Linstone & Turoff, 1975). Therefore, in the second round, the panelists were provided the

respective item means from the first round for the 56 items that had been retained. They were

not given the item means for the discarded items. They were requested to rate the items again

as was done in the first round. When the second round of ratings were completed, the individual

item means were calculated again, the items were ordered by item mean as they were after the

first round, and item means below the "gap" were removed from consideration.

In the third round, respondents were provided the respective item means from the second

round for the 43 items that had been retained. They were not given the item means for the items

that were discarded. They were then requested to make their final ratings.









Data Analyses

The primary data for this study were the item rating response values and means for the

items retained for the third round. Note that inspection of the third round means revealed

(another) gap in the item response means. Items having means below 5.80 were not considered

further in regard to data analyses and therefore data from 40 items were entered into the data

analyses.

A series of quantitative data analyses were conducted to allow evaluation of the third

research question for the study. An alpha level ofp = .05 was used as the criterion for statistical

significance for all quantitative analyses.

A series of independent t-tests were computed to determine if there were significant

differences between the respective, included third round item means based on the panelists'

professional position (i.e., practicing school counselor or school counselor educator). It was

proposed an independent t-test also would be computed to determine if there were significant

differences between the respective item means based on panelists' gender (i.e., male or female).

However, because of insufficient sample sizes (males = 8), the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test was

computed for this analysis. The first analysis was for all panelists combined. The second and

third analyses were for each group separately.

A two-way (2 x 5), factorial analysis of variance was proposed to determine if there were

significant differences among the respective item means based on professional position by

race/ethnicity (i.e., Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian, Native American, Multiracial or Other).

However, it was not computed because approximately 87% of participants were Caucasian.

Another two-way (2 x 3) factorial analysis of variance was proposed to determine if there were

significant differences among the respective item means based on professional position by

highest degree level achieved (i.e., Masters, Educational Specialist/CAS, or Doctorate).









However, only 8.6% of respondents indicated the EdS/CAS category. Therefore, the three

degree-level categories were collapsed into two (Masters'/ EdS/ CAS and Doctorate) and an

independent t-test was conducted. Finally, a series of correlation matrices were proposed to

allow evaluation of the significance of relationships among panelists' years of experience in

current professional position and the respective item ratings. However, simple linear regression

analyses were conducted in its place to achieve more specific examination of those relationships.

Methodological Limitations

The effectiveness of the Delphi technique is contingent primarily upon the quality and

expertise of the panelists because their backgrounds, experiences, and expertise directly impact

their ratings (Clayton, 1997). In this study, panelist selection criteria were applied such that each

panelist was well-qualified for the task. Therefore, although panelist expertise could be a

limitation, it was not be a significant limitation in this study.

The necessity for panelists to make three sets of ratings raised the issue of to what extent

is sustained motivation a limitation? To counteract this potential limitation, strategies proven to

maximize participation for internet surveys (e.g., continued communications with panelist) were

used (Dillman, 2000). In addition, panelists knew the nature and extent of requested

participation prior to agreeing to serve as panelists. Presumably, the panelists had appropriate

and sufficient motivation throughout the study because there was not any indication that they did

not (e.g., all responded in a timely manner during each round).

Finally, the panelists were provided a list of possible curriculum components for

classroom management training for school counselors and were not allowed to add their personal

suggestions. It is possible that some panelists may have reacted to the list not containing

components they might have believed important. However, the initial list was extensive and was

a broad-scale representation of suggestions extant in the professional literature. Importantly,









there was not any feedback from the panelists as to insufficient content in the lists provided.

Therefore, personal reactions to the list of items apparently were not a limitation for this study.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The Delphi technique was used in this study to achieve convergence of opinions among

selected school counselors and school counselor educators about preferred components of a

curriculum for classroom management for large-group guidance activities. Presented in this

chapter are the demographic characteristic data for the participants; results of their ratings for

rounds one, two, and three; and results of the various data analyses.

Demographic Characteristics

Panelist demographic information was collected in round one of the survey process and

the resultant data are shown in Table 4-1. Fifteen (42.9%) of the participants identified

themselves as school counselors and eighteen (51.4%) identified themselves as school counselor

educators. Two of the panelists (5.7%) identified themselves as both school counselors and

school counselor educators. The racial / ethnic identifications of the participants was

homogeneous in that thirty-one (88.6%) identified themselves as Caucasian. Two identified

themselves as Hispanic (5.7%), one as Native American (2.9%), and one as Caucasian and

Native American (2.9%). No participants identified themselves as African American, Asian

American, or multiracial. Approximately 23% of participants were male (N = 8) and 77% were

female (N = 27).

Nineteen (54.3%) panelists reported having a doctoral degree, three (8.6%) reported

having an Educational Specialist (EdS) or Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS) degree, and 13

(37.1%) reported having a Master's degree. Because of the homogeneity of the educational

preparations of the participants, data from participants having Doctorate and EdS/CAS degrees

were combined. Years of experience among the panelists was similar for each group. Years of

experience for school counselors ranged from 4 to 31 years (mean = 11.80; s.d. = 7.79). Years of









experience for school counselor educators ranged from three to 28 years (mean = 11.22; s.d. =

6.90). For the combined sample, years of experience ranged from three to 31 years (mean =

11.49; s.d. = 7.04).

Table 4-1. Summary of Panelists' Demographic Characteristics
Frequency Percent
Professional Position
School Counselor 15 42.9
School Counselor Educator 18 51.4
Both 2 5.7

Gender
Female 27 77.0
Male 8 23.0

Racial / Ethnic Identification
Caucasian 31 88.6
Hispanic 2 5.7
Native American 1 2.9
Caucasian and Native American 1 2.9

Highest Degree Attained
Doctorate 19 54.3
Educational Specialist or Certificate of Advanced Studies 3 8.6
Master's 13 37.1

Years of Experience
School Counselors
Range: 4-31 years
Mean: 11.80 years
s.d.: 7.79
School Counselor Educators
Range: 3-28 years
Mean: 11.22 years
s.d.: 6.9

Round I

In round one of the study, 45 initial participants rated the initial 89 possible curriculum

component items in regard to importance for inclusion in a classroom management training /

education for school counselors using a seven-point scale (1= not important and 7=extremely

important). Note that ten of the initial panelists did not participate throughout all three rounds.









The item rating means for round one are shown in Table 4-2. Item rating means for this round

ranged from 4.42 to 6.69. Items having a first round item rating mean < 5.96 were eliminated

from further consideration. It should be noted that adequate dispersion was found in respondent

ratings for all rounds.

Table 4-2. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response
Item Means Following Round One
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference

38 long-term group 4.42
4 social loafing 4.93 0.51
1 self-help groups 5.04 0.11
22 homogeneous group 5.07 0.03
67 altruism 5.11 0.04
24 catharsis 5.22 0.11
9 group time orientation 5.40 0.18
28 voluntary group membership 5.47 0.07
7 social identity 5.49 0.02
18 task / work group 5.51 0.02
47 direct advice 5.52 0.01
25 involuntary group membership 5.53 0.01
29 interpreting 5.53 0.00
17 member selection 5.56 0.03
27 heterogeneous group 5.60 0.04
71 group member guidance 5.60 0.00
experiential / training (process)
34 group 5.62 0.02
84 suggesting 5.62 0.00
21 counseling group 5.64 0.02
46 deviation from group 5.67 0.03
39 social comparison 5.69 0.02
43 conformity to group 5.71 0.02
6 didactic instruction 5.71 0.00
14 group formation 5.71 0.00
32 insight 5.73 0.02
62 group member roles 5.73 0.00
15 resources 5.78 0.05
37 self-disclosure 5.82 0.04









Table 4-2. Continued
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference
45 universality 5.82 0.00
23 group culture 5.84 0.02
2 enthusiasm 5.87 0.03
19 experiential learning 5.96 0.00
54 human development 5.96 0.00
36 short-term group 6.02 0.06
44 theories of group counseling 6.02 0.00
53 group transition stage 6.04 0.02
70 vicarious learning 6.04 0.00
33 group identification 6.07 0.03
42 socializing techniques 6.07 0.00
12 topic selection 6.09 0.02
51 using proxemics 6.09 0.00
26 linking 6.13 0.04
65 learning styles 6.16 0.03
88 blocking 6.16 0.00
56 group tasks 6.17 0.01
57 interpersonal learning 6.17 0.00
58 group working stage 6.17 0.00
31 group initial stage 6.18 0.01
40 group development 6.18 0.00
49 group conflict 6.20 0.02
68 goal setting 6.20 0.00
11 instillation of hope 6.22 0.02
60 post-group issues 6.22 0.00
64 restating 6.24 0.02
85 protecting 6.24 0.00
59 group final stage 6.26 0.02
3 group cohesion 6.27 0.01
41 group process 6.29 0.02
20 rule setting 6.29 0.00
66 drawing out 6.29 0.00
80 initiating 6.29 0.00
50 group cohesiveness 6.30 0.01
35 nonverbal communication 6.31 0.01
69 clarifying 6.33 0.02
75 reflecting feelings 6.33 0.00
8 supporting 6.36 0.03









Table 4-2. Continued
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference
13 cooperative learning 6.38 0.02
72 summarizing 6.38 0.00
55 confronting 6.39 0.01
61 evaluation of group 6.40 0.01
78 showing empathy 6.44 0.04
82 acknowledging 6.44 0.00
48 legal considerations for group work 6.46 0.02
76 supporting 6.47 0.01
10 multicultural diversity 6.49 0.02
74 wait time 6.49 0.00
77 processing 6.49 0.00
87 reinforcing 6.49 0.00
81 evaluating 6.51 0.02
89 terminating 6.51 0.00
16 group dynamics 6.53 0.02
63 active listening 6.53 0.00
73 open-ended questioning 6.53 0.00
52 group leadership style 6.57 0.04
guidance / psychoeducational
5 group 6.58 0.01
ethical considerations for group
30 work 6.60 0.02
86 modeling 6.60 0.00
83 giving feedback 6.62 0.02
79 facilitating group interactions 6.69 0.07


Round II

For the second round, a revised survey included the retained 56 possible curriculum

component items and the item rating means from round one. Forty-one of the original panelists

responded in the second round. The item rating means for round one are shown in Table 4-3 and

ranged from 5.46 to 6.59. Items having a second-round item rating mean < 5.93 were eliminated

from further consideration.









Table 4-3. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response
Item Means Following Round Two
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference

51 using proxemics 5.46
12 topic selection 5.59 0.13
44 theories of group counseling 5.76 0.17
53 group transition stage 5.76 0.00
33 group identification 5.80 0.04
36 short-term group 5.80 0.00
42 socializing techniques 5.80 0.00
56 group tasks 5.80 0.00
58 group working stage 5.80 0.00
40 group development 5.85 0.05
60 post-group issues 5.85 0.00
70 vicarious learning 5.85 0.00
11 instillation of hope 5.88 0.03
55 confronting 5.93 0.05
3 group cohesion 5.95 0.02
65 learning styles 5.95 0.00
57 interpersonal learning 5.98 0.03
41 group process 6.00 0.02
88 blocking 6.02 0.02
31 group initial stage 6.05 0.03
59 group final stage 6.05 0.00
49 group conflict 6.07 0.02
52 group leadership style 6.07 0.00
66 drawing out 6.07 0.00
guidance / psychoeducational
5 group 6.10 0.03
26 linking 6.10 0.00
72 summarizing 6.10 0.00
76 supporting 6.10 0.00
80 initiating 6.10 0.00
8 supporting 6.12 0.02
13 cooperative learning 6.12 0.00
50 group cohesiveness 6.12 0.00
74 wait time 6.12 0.00
81 evaluating 6.12 0.00
68 goal setting 6.15 0.03









Table 4-3. Continued
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference
69 clarifying 6.15 0.00
82 acknowledging 6.17 0.02
87 reinforcing 6.17 0.02
35 nonverbal communication 6.20 0.03
64 restating 6.20 0.00
75 reflecting feelings 6.20 0.00
77 processing 6.22 0.02
85 protecting 6.22 0.00
10 multicultural diversity 6.24 0.02
89 terminating 6.27 0.03
48 legal considerations for group work 6.29 0.02
78 showing empathy 6.32 0.03
73 open-ended questioning 6.37 0.05
83 giving feedback 6.39 0.04
16 group dynamics 6.41 0.02
20 rule setting 6.41 0.00
61 evaluation of group 6.44 0.03
86 modeling 6.44 0.00
79 facilitating group interactions 6.46 0.02
ethical considerations for group
30 work 6.59 0.13
63 active listening 6.59 0.00

Round III

In the third (final) round, the survey included 43 items and the item rating means from

round two. Thirty-five panelists responded in the third iteration of the survey process. The item

rating means for round three are shown in Table 4-4 and ranged from 5.51 to 6.54. Items having

a third-round item mean < 5.80 were not included in subsequent data analyses, resulting in

analyses for 40 classroom management curriculum items.

Table 4-4. Possible Classroom Management Curriculum Components Ordered by Response
Item Means Following Round Three
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference

55 confronting 5.51









Table 4-4. Continued
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference
57 interpersonal learning 5.57 0.06
65 learning styles 5.63 0.06
35 nonverbal communication 5.80 0.17
59 group final stage 5.80 0.00
49 group conflict 5.83 0.03
3 group cohesion 5.89 0.06
31 group initial stage 5.89 0.00
75 reflecting feelings 5.89 0.00
41 group process 5.91 0.02
68 goal setting 5.91 0.00
74 wait time 5.91 0.00
81 evaluating 5.91 0.00
50 group cohesiveness 5.94 0.03
64 restating 5.94 0.00
66 drawing out 5.94 0.00
52 group leadership style 5.97 0.03
69 clarifying 5.97 0.00
13 cooperative learning 6.00 0.03
82 acknowledging 6.00 0.00
10 multicultural diversity 6.03 0.03
72 summarizing 6.03 0.00
80 initiating 6.03 0.00
8 supporting 6.06 0.03
87 reinforcing 6.06 0.00
88 blocking 6.06 0.00
26 linking 6.09 0.03
48 legal considerations for group work 6.09 0.00
76 supporting 6.09 0.00
83 giving feedback 6.09 0.00
77 processing 6.11 0.02
16 group dynamics 6.14 0.03
73 open-ended questioning 6.20 0.06
78 showing empathy 6.20 0.00
89 terminating 6.23 0.03
85 protecting 6.29 0.06
86 modeling 6.29 0.00
79 facilitating group interactions 6.31 0.02
5 guidance / psychoeducational group 6.34 0.03









Table 4-4. Continued
Item number Abbreviated description Item mean Difference
61 evaluation of group 6.37 0.03
63 active listening 6.40 0.03
30 ethical considerations for group work 6.43 0.03
20 rule setting 6.54 0.11


Post Hoc Analyses

The third research question for this study was investigated through post hoc analyses of

the interrelationships among the respondents' demographic characteristics and preferred

curriculum components (items). Specifically, analyses were conducted to determine the

statistical significance of the differences in endorsement of school counselor preparation

program curriculum components for classroom management for large-group guidance activities

based on respective respondents' professional position, gender, or educational level.

Additionally, the relationship between respondents' years of experience and item preference

levels was examined. The Bonferroni correction was applied; a Bonferroni-corrected alpha of p

=.0012 was used as the criterion for statistical significance for all quantitative analyses. Possible

differences in endorsement of school counselor preparation program curriculum components for

classroom management for large-group guidance activities based on racial / ethnic identification

was not examined because of the racial / ethnic homogeneity among the respondents.

A series of independent t-tests were computed to determine if there were significant

differences between the third round item means based on the panelists' professional position

(i.e., practicing school counselor or school counselor educator). Presented in Table 4-5 are the

respective item means and standard deviations for the school counselor and school counselor

educator respondent groups and the t values for each item. No statistically significant

differences were found for any of the items.










Table 4-5. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Professional Specialization
Item Item Item Item
Item number mean mean s.d. s.d. t value
School Counselor School Counselor
Counselors' Educators2 Counselors Educators
3 6.000 5.780 1.000 1.003 0.635
5 6.270 6.390 0.704 0.698 -0.499
8 6.000 6.060 0.845 0.802 -0.192
10 5.800 6.170 0.941 0.924 -1.124
13 6.000 6.000 0.756 0.970 0.000
16 6.070 6.170 0.884 0.924 -0.317
20 6.600 6.440 0.737 0.616 0.650
26 6.070 6.060 0.704 0.725 0.045
30 6.330 6.440 0.976 0.984 -0.325
31 6.270 5.440 0.799 1.199 2.350
35 5.800 5.720 0.862 0.826 0.263
41 5.930 5.830 0.884 1.043 0.298
48 6.070 6.060 1.163 1.162 0.027
49 5.670 5.940 0.816 0.873 -0.943
50 5.930 5.890 0.799 0.758 0.163
52 6.070 5.890 0.961 0.758 0.581
55 5.470 5.500 1.246 1.150 -0.079
57 5.600 5.500 1.121 0.985 0.269
59 5.800 5.720 0.862 1.127 0.224
61 6.070 6.610 0.799 0.502 -2.290
63 6.330 6.390 0.617 0.778 -0.229
64 5.800 6.060 1.014 0.873 -0.767
65 5.670 5.500 0.816 1.505 0.404
66 5.870 5.940 0.834 0.998 -0.244
68 5.730 6.000 0.799 0.970 -0.866
69 5.870 6.060 0.915 0.873 -0.603
72 5.870 6.110 0.915 0.900 -0.770
73 6.270 6.110 0.704 1.023 0.515
74 5.930 5.830 0.799 1.043 0.312
75 5.870 5.830 0.834 1.150 0.096
76 6.000 6.110 0.845 0.900 -0.365
77 5.930 6.220 0.704 0.878 -1.049
78 6.270 6.110 0.704 1.023 0.515
79 6.270 6.330 0.799 0.840 -0.233
80 5.870 6.110 0.834 1.132 -0.713









Table 4-5. Continued
Item Item Item Item
Item number mean mean s.d. s.d. t value
School Counselor School Counselor
Counselors1 Educators2 Counselors Educators
81 5.670 6.060 1.175 0.938 -1.036
82 5.930 6.000 0.961 1.029 -0.192
83 5.930 6.170 0.884 1.043 -0.696
85 6.470 6.110 0.640 1.231 1.065
86 6.470 6.170 0.516 0.924 1.175
87 6.000 6.000 0.799 1.085 0.203
88 6.000 6.110 0.655 0.963 -0.393
89 6.270 6.170 0.799 0.985 0.322


'NCSC
2ACES


15 for all analyses
18 for all analyses


Differences in item means based on panelists' highest academic degree attained

(Masters/EDS/CAS versus PHD) were examined through a similar series of independent t-tests..

Presented in Table 4-6 are the respective item means and standard deviations for the

Masters/EDS/CAS and PHD respondent groups and the t values for each item. No statistically

significant differences were found for any of the items based on educational level.

Table 4-6. Round Three t-tests by Respondent Educational Level
Item Item Item Item
Item number mean mean s.d. s.d. t value
Masters/ Masters/
EDS/CAS' PHD2 EDS/CAS PHD
3 6.06 5.74 0.998 0.933 0.990
5 6.19 6.47 0.750 0.612 -1.222
8 6.06 6.05 0.854 0.780 0.035
10 5.75 6.26 0.931 0.872 -1.672
13 6.00 6.00 0.730 0.943 0.000
16 6.06 6.21 0.854 0.918 -0.494
20 6.63 6.47 0.719 0.612 0.664
26 6.00 6.16 0.730 0.688 -0.654
30 6.38 6.47 0.957 0.964 -0.303
31 6.31 5.53 0.793 1.219 2.294
35 5.81 5.79 0.834 0.855 0.080
41 5.88 5.95 0.885 1.026 -0.224










Table 4-6. Continued
Item Item Item Item
Item number mean mean s.d. s.d. t value
Masters/ Masters/
EDS/CAS1 PHD2 EDS/CAS PHD
48 6.13 6.05 1.147 1.129 0.187
49 5.63 6.00 0.806 0.882 -1.313
50 5.94 5.95 0.772 0.780 -0.038
52 6.06 5.89 0.929 0.737 0.584
55 5.44 5.58 1.209 1.121 -0.356
57 5.56 5.58 1.094 0.961 -0.047
59 5.88 5.74 0.885 1.098 0.412
61 6.06 6.63 0.772 0.496 -2.541
63 6.38 6.42 0.619 0.769 -0.196
64 5.88 6.05 1.025 0.848 -0.552
65 5.56 5.68 0.892 1.455 -0.303
66 5.81 6.05 0.834 0.970 -0.787
68 5.69 6.11 0.793 0.937 -1.429
69 5.88 6.05 0.885 0.911 -0.584
72 5.88 6.16 0.885 0.898 -0.936
73 6.25 6.16 0.683 1.015 0.319
74 5.88 5.95 0.806 1.026 -0.234
75 5.81 5.95 0.834 1.129 -0.406
76 6.06 6.11 0.854 0.875 -0.146
77 5.94 6.26 0.680 0.872 -1.240
78 6.31 6.11 0.704 0.994 0.719
79 6.31 6.32 0.793 0.820 -0.012
80 5.88 6.16 0.806 1.119 -0.867
81 5.69 6.11 1.138 0.937 -1.172
82 5.81 6.16 1.047 0.898 -1.037
83 5.88 6.26 0.885 0.991 -1.223
85 6.50 6.11 0.632 1.197 1.246
86 6.44 6.16 0.512 0.898 1.152
87 6.06 6.05 0.772 1.079 0.031
88 6.06 6.05 0.680 0.911 0.037
89 6.31 6.16 0.793 0.958 0.522
N = 16 for all analyses
2 N = 19 for all analyses










The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test was used to examine differences in item response means

based on gender. Presented in Table 4-7 are the respective item medians for male and female

respondent groups and the Ws and z values for each item. No statistically significant differences

were found for any of the items based on gender of the respondent.


Table 4-7. Round Three


Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test by Respondent Gender


Item number


Item
median


Item
median


Wilcoxon
W


Males' Females2
3 6.0 6.0 128.0 -0.658
5 6.5 6.0 481.5 -0.195
8 6.0 6.0 111.0 -1.393
10 6.0 6.0 122.0 -0.912
13 5.5 6.0 109.0 -1.485
16 6.0 6.0 135.5 -0.358
20 6.0 7.0 077.5 -3.061
26 6.0 6.0 133.5 -0.452
30 6.5 7.0 125.0 -0.888
31 5.0 6.0 094.5 -2.044
35 5.5 6.0 135.0 -0.378
41 5.5 6.0 132.5 -0.482
48 6.0 7.0 122.0 -0.929
49 6.0 6.0 140.0 -0.169
50 6.0 6.0 125.0 -0.798
52 6.0 6.0 117.5 -1.134
55 5.5 6.0 137.5 -0.265
57 6.0 6.0 472.0 -0.572
59 5.5 6.0 123.0 -0.861
61 7.0 6.0 459.5 -1.171
63 6.5 6.0 140.5 -0.155
64 6.0 6.0 485.5 -0.021
65 5.0 6.0 119.0 -1.024
66 6.0 6.0 483.0 -0.124
68 6.5 6.0 466.0 -0.846
69 6.5 6.0 478.0 -0.332
72 6.5 6.0 471.5 -0.604
73 6.5 6.0 136.0 -0.340
74 6.5 6.0 475.5 -0.437









Table 4-7. Continued
Item Item Wilcoxon
Item number median median W z
Males' Females2
75 6.5 6.0 464.5 -0.884
76 6.5 6.0 475.5 -0.438
77 7.0 6.0 470.0 -0.670
78 6.0 6.0 116.0 -1.189
79 6.5 7.0 139.0 -0.215
80 7.0 6.0 473.5 -0.520
81 7.0 6.0 450.0 -1.484
82 6.5 6.0 472.0 -0.580
83 7.0 6.0 477.5 -0.359
85 6.0 7.0 108.5 -1.543
86 6.0 6.0 116.0 -1.210
87 6.5 6.0 486.0 0.000
88 6.0 6.0 134.0 -0.422
89 6.0 6.0 138.0 -0.259
1N = 8 for all analyses
2 N = 27 for all analyses


A linear regression analysis was computed to examine how third round item responses

were related to respondents' respective years of experience in current professional position. The

data for this analysis are presented in Table 4-8. No significant differences were found for any

of the items based on respondent's years of experience in current position.

Table 4-8. Summary of Simple Linear Regression Analysis of Mean Item Ratings and Years of
Ex erience for Total Sample (N= 35)
Predictor
variable: Response
Years of variable:
experience Item number B SE B
3 .043 .023 .312
5 -.020 .017 -.207
8 .046 .018 .401
10 -.006 .023 -.047
13 .011 .021 .094
16 .012 .022 .098
20 .055 .016 .056










Table 4-8. Continued
Predictor Response
variable:Years variable:
of experience Item number B SEB
26 .001 .017 .009
30 .044 .022 .329
31 .024 .027 .151
35 .036 .020 .308
41 .031 .023 .226
48 .043 .027 .270
49 0.00 .021 .000
50 .011 .019 .104
52 .001 .020 .013
55 .014 .028 .088
57 .036 .024 .250
59 .010 .025 .069
61 -.013 .017 -.129
63 .030 .016 .308
64 .032 .022 .242
65 -.034 .029 -.198
66 .002 .022 .014
68 -.013 .022 -.106
69 .008 .022 .063
72 .015 .022 .120
73 -.006 .021 -.045
74 -.028 .022 -.211
75 .004 .025 .025
76 .022 .021 .179
77 .006 .020 .053
78 .032 .021 .263
79 .025 .019 .219
80 .028 .024 .197
81 .028 .025 .187
82 -.003 .024 -.022
83 .018 .023 .134
85 .025 .024 .178
86 .020 .018 .190
87 .019 .023 .143
88 .017 .020 .151
89 .023 .021 .181









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

This study investigated school counselor and school counselor educator recommended

curriculum components to prepare school counselors in classroom management for large-group

guidance activities. Although regulatory guidelines are provided by states and within the

profession for general training of school counselors, specific recommendations for curriculum

components for training school counselors in classroom management for large-group guidance

activities do not exist. Therefore, this study used the Delphi consensus building technique to

identify needed, specific curriculum components.

Generalizability Limitations

The Delphi method is a process intended to achieve opinion consensus through iterative

surveying of topic/subject matter experts. Panelists from two professional groups, school

counselors and school counselor educators, participated in this study. The panelists were

selected based on germane professional criteria, including each panelist having had a history in

involvement in preparation of school counselors and in the school counseling profession.

Effort was made to secure an as large as possible number of school counselors and school

counselor educators who met the sampling criteria, with intention to have 30 in each panelist

group. There is not a generally agreed upon guideline for minimum panel size for effective use

of the Delphi technique. However, "a general rule-of-thumb is 15-30 people for a homogeneous

population that is, experts coming from the same discipline and 5-10 people for a

heterogeneous population" (Clayton, 1997, p. 378). A total of 29 school counselors and 22

school counselor educators indicated initial interest in participation in the study. However, the

actual sample of 35 panelists who completed all three rounds of the process included 16 school

counselor and 19 school counselor educators.









Although the respondent sample was not as large as desired, the actual participants were

representative of the respective school counselor and school counselor educator populations in

regard to the sampling criteria applied. Indeed, the professional credentials of the vast majority

of the panelists exceeded the minimum participation criteria set for the study. Therefore, the

resultant panelist sample was sufficient and suitable for the purposes of the study.

Evaluation of Research Questions

The first two research questions investigated related to school counselors' and school

counselor educators' respective levels of endorsement and priority among the curriculum

components deemed (minimally) requisite for school counselor preparation for classroom

management for large-group guidance activities. Shown in Table 5-9 are the items resulting

from the completed Delphi process and the item rating means for both school counselor and

school counselor educator panelists. It can be seen that the respective item means are highly

similar across respondent groups; indeed, no statistically significant differences in item means

between respondent groups were found. There were, however, a few minor differences across

groups in the various item priorities as reflected in the specific item mean rankings.

Table 5-9. Final Item Rankings Ordered by Respondent Group
School School Counselor
Counselors Educators
Item Item Item
number Item description mean Ranking mean Ranking

20 rule setting 6.600 1 6.440 2.5
85 protecting 6.470 2.5 6.001 16
86 modeling 6.470 2.5 6.170 10
ethical considerations for
30 group work 6.330 4.5 6.440 2.5
63 active listening 6.330 4.5 6.390 4.5
guidance /
5 psychoeducational group 6.270 6.7 6.390 4.5
31 group initial stage 6.270 6.7 5.440 40









Table 5-9. Continued
School School Counselor
Counselors Educators
Item Item Item
number Item description mean Ranking mean Ranking
73 open-ended questioning 6.270 6.7 6.110 16
78 showing empathy 6.270 6.7 6.110 16
facilitating group
79 interactions 6.270 6.7 6.330 6
89 terminating 6.270 6.7 6.170 10
16 group dynamics 6.070 14 6.170 10
26 linking 6.070 14 6.060 22.5
legal considerations for
48 group work 6.070 14 6.060 22.5
52 group leadership style 6.070 14 5.890 32.5
61 evaluation of group 6.070 14 6.610 1
3 group cohesion 6.000 19.5 5.780 37
supporting (leader
intevening to reassure
members, encourage and
8 reinforce participation) 6.000 19.5 6.060 22.5
13 cooperative learning 6.000 19.5 6.000 27.5
supporting (the act of
attempting to provide
encouragement to a group
76 member) 6.000 19.5 6.110 16
87 reinforcing 6.000 19.5 6.000 27.5
88 blocking 6.000 19.5 6.110 16
41 group process 5.930 25.5 5.830 35
50 group cohesiveness 5.930 25.5 5.890 32.5
74 wait time 5.930 25.5 5.830 35
77 processing 5.930 25.5 6.220 7
82 acknowledging 5.930 25.5 6.000 27.5
83 giving feedback 5.930 25.5 6.170 10
66 drawing out 5.870 31 5.940 30.5
69 clarifying 5.870 31 6.060 22.5
72 summarizing 5.870 31 6.110 16
75 reflecting feelings 5.870 31 5.830 35
80 initiating 5.870 31 6.110 16
10 multicultural diversity 5.800 35.5 6.170 10
35 nonverbal communication 5.800 35.5 5.720 38.5
59 group final stage 5.800 35.5 5.720 38.5









Table 5-9. Continued
School School Counselor
Counselors Educators
Item Item Item
number Item description mean Ranking mean Ranking
64 restating 5.800 35.5 6.060 22.5
68 goal setting 5.730 38 6.000 27.5
49 group conflict 5.670 39.5 5.940 30.5
81 evaluating 5.670 39.5 6.060 22.5

It can be noted that there was substantial consensus among the panelists throughout the

Delphi process conducted. In the first round, nine items received a mean rating below 5.50.

However, in the second and third rounds, no item received a mean rating below 5.50, which

suggests that panelists generally believed the remaining items were either important or extremely

important.

The third research question in this study addressed differences in levels of endorsement

based on selected personal and professional characteristics of the respondents. The statistical

analyses conducted examined possible item response mean differences or relationships by

gender, educational level, years of experience in current professional position, and group. No

statistically significant differences based on these characteristics were found for any of the final

40 curriculum items.

Conclusions

The Delphi technique is an iterative process designed to achieve the highest possible

level of group consensus about ideas and/or opinions deemed important to a relatively specific

purpose and/or activity. Because it is an iterative process, the degree of consensus achieved

following each round can be examined, specifically in regard to the research questions posed for

the study.









The first research question addressed school counseling professionals' respective

endorsement levels of curriculum components deemed (minimally) requisite for school counselor

preparation for classroom management. A wide range of endorsements levels for the possible

curriculum components was evident initially. However, movement toward consensus was rapid

across rounds. In particular, fewer items were eliminated across the second and third rounds.

The initial item set included 89 items, the second included 56 items (33 items eliminated), and

the final one 43 items (13 items eliminated). Further, most final item means were high relative

to the top of the rating scale; panelists apparently held relatively strong opinions about the (final)

items they endorsed. For example, the lowest item mean among those in round three was 5.51.

The second research question addressed the respective panelists' item endorsement

priorities. The difference between the largest and smallest item means for the final round was

.48. With such a small difference in ratings, the importance of the order of the item mean

rankings is negligible. However, it is interesting to note that some items that were consistently

rated higher or lower than other items by the panelists. For example, rule setting was the highest

rated item on the final list (mean = 6.54). This item was rated .11 higher than the second item,

ethical considerationfor group work. This difference of. 11 was the greatest difference between

any consecutive items on the final list of 40 curriculum items. Clearly, the panelists, as a group,

believed this item was of greater importance in comparison to the other items included.

The final research question addressed differences in endorsement of school counselor

classroom management curriculum component items based on selected criteria of the panelists.

No significant differences or relationships were found based on respondents' group, gender,

educational level, or years of experience. Notably, rule setting was the highest rated item for

both groups and the highest ranked item for school counselors. The school counselor educator









group item mean score for rule setting ranked it in the top three items, second with ethical

considerationsfor group work and below evaluation of group. Overall, school counselor

educators consistently rated evaluation-related items higher than did practicing school

counselors. Other interesting differences between groups in the rankings included group initial

stage, ranked seventh by school counselors but fortieth (last) by school counselor educators.

Also, multicultural diversity was ranked thirty-fourth by school counselors but tenth by school

counselor educators.

Implications

Knowledge of the requisite and desirable components of school counselor preparation to

engage in classroom guidance activities effectively and efficiently has implications for school

counselor professional preparation and practice, and also for associated future research and

theory development. Importantly, knowing what school counselors should know and be capable

of in regard to classroom management for large-group guidance activities allows for

determination of what should and should not be included in school counselor training programs.

The first step in Tyler's curriculum development model (1949) is to identify the "educational

purposes" the "school seek(s) to attain" (p.1). The identification of these items is the first

necessary step to developing a curriculum and thus a standard for the profession.

The final list of curriculum component items is of course the most significant result of the

study because it suggests what school counselors should know and be able to do in order to

manage classroom groups effectively and successfully in the context of classroom guidance

activities. In addition, the relatively high degree of consensus achieved for the items

recommended for inclusion in classroom management preparation for school counselors is

noteworthy. In particular, the general absence of differences based on respondent characteristics

points to substantive agreement about the components endorsed. Thus, the final list of









curriculum components for classroom management endorsed by the panelists could serve as a

preparation paradigm for use in school counselor training programs, and consequently, for future

school counseling practice. Following Tyler's curriculum development model (1949), the 40

curriculum items identified lead to the organization of course objectives, to attain the purpose of

efficient and productive instruction in classroom management for large-group guidance

activities.

The original list of 89 items included both knowledge and skill component items. Of the

89 items, 55 were (pre-classified as) knowledge items and 34 as skill items, a knowledge-to-skill

items ratio of approximately 1.62:1. The final list of 40 items included a much smaller number

of knowledge items (13) and a somewhat smaller number of skill items (27), a ratio of

approximately .48:1. Thus it became evident across rounds that both school counselors' and

school counselor educators' emphasis was on skills for actual practice of classroom management

rather than on the knowledge underlying classroom management.

It appears that many of the items discarded were those that otherwise would be included

in group counseling training. For example, dilh, ie, of group counseling and group transition

stage were two of the lowest scoring items in round two of the survey. Although these were

rated as important (mean rating of 5.76 for both items), neither were rated nearly as high as, for

example, giving feedback (6.62) orfacilitating group interactions (6.69), the highest rated items

in round one. Again, items related to the practice of classroom management were rated highest

for inclusion for training school counselors.

Opinion convergence notwithstanding, there was one evident differential in the

endorsements: school counselor educators relatively consistently placed higher value on

evaluation-related preparation components than did practicing school counselors. A strong,









general emphasis on evaluation of professional functioning in (school) counselor preparation

programs is evident in the professional literature (e.g., Baker & Gerler, 2004). In addition, there

is a strong emphasis on evaluation of professional functioning evident in the ASCA National

Model (2005). Apparently, that emphasis has been embraced far more by school counselor

educators than by practicing school counselors. The basis for this differential may lie in the

contrast between school counselor educators' focus on "what school counseling should be" and

practicing school counselors' focus on "what school counseling is." Unfortunately, there is some

evident disconnect between what school counselors are being taught and admonished to do and

what they actually do on the job.

Ethical considerationsfor group work and rule setting were ranked high by both groups,

indicating consensus on the importance of conducting classroom management in accord with

high professional standards of conduct. These items may have been viewed as important in both

practical and theoretical senses. From a practical perspective, both items can be viewed as

applicable to both group counseling and a classroom (i.e., large-group guidance) setting. Ethical

considerations are of course important and appropriate for all aspects of counseling preparation

and practice and rule setting is also an essential practice in both contexts. From a theoretical

perspective, these items may be viewed as those that simply must be included for large group /

classroom guidance because they are paramount to success in the profession in general.

The Delphi process used in this study was apparently a useful and successful way to

identify desired curriculum components of classroom management preparation for school

counselors. Therefore, the results of this study support the curriculum development model

presented by Tyler (1949), Ornstein and Hunkins, (1998), and others. However, it is a method

that is not without limitations, not the least of which was the relatively small numbers of









participating professionals and the relatively unique perspectives they represented. Thus while

the Delphi technique can be presumed to be an effective method for obtaining opinion

information for the school counseling profession, its application is limited to situations in which

opinion consensus from established experts is desired.

The final list of curriculum component items of course has direct implications for school

counselor preparation (and thus practice). Specifically, the 40 retained items should be included

in school counselor preparation given that school counselors are supposed to engage in

classroom management in the larger context of classroom guidance (e.g., ASCA, 2003; Baker,

2000; Geltner & Clark, 2005).

Recommendations

The panelists for this study agreed upon 40 specific curriculum components for training

school counselors in classroom management. However, the panelists were not asked to suggest

specific methods of instruction for the recommended curricular components. Several

possibilities exist for how these items could be included in a school counselor education

curriculum. A model will be presented here that addresses both how to best cluster these items

and how they should be incorporated into a school counseling training program.

There are two evident groupings among the 40 items recommended: knowledge items and

skill items. All the knowledge items appear to be related to group (counseling) work. Therefore,

these items would be best covered in the basic group counseling course required for school

counselor trainees in CACREP-accredited programs. In the context of this study, it would be

advisable and necessary, however, to point out specifically their significance to classroom

guidance and classroom management for school counselors. Such preparation would be best

accomplished through a group counseling course specifically and solely for school counselors-

in-training. However, few programs are sufficient in student numbers for such a course.









Therefore, integrating these items into a general group work course and also addressing their

specific importance to school counselors would accomplish the same goal. Further, these items

could be reconsidered and stressed in school counseling program students' practice and

internship experiences.

The 26 skill items are focused upon specific classroom management actions and/or

behaviors that a school counselor should utilize in delivering classroom guidance. Thus, these

items can be viewed as classroom management techniques, and would be more appropriately

placed in a school counseling course. For example, these techniques might be inserted into a

core school counseling course such as counseling children. Because the composition of such

courses differs across universities, the specific course would have to be determined by the

particular counselor education department. However, the integrity of the items could and should

be maintained as a curricular grouping of skill items to train school counselor in classroom

management for the purposes of classroom guidance. As above, these items should again be

reviewed as the student proceeds through practice and internship experiences to allow evaluation

of the skills in actual practice.

Two items, evaluating (the process of assessing and associating values) with individual

and/or group behaviors) and evaluation of group (the process of measuring group outcomes),

merit additional consideration. These particular items should be addressed in more than one area

of school counselor preparation. For example, evaluation in general is covered extensively in

assessment courses, a core course for school counselors. In addition, evaluating group process

and/or result should be included in any group (counseling) work course. However, again,

specific attention would need to be paid to school counselors evaluating classroom guidance









activities and to assessing outcomes of those activities. And yet again, these evaluation items

could and should be reviewed during students' practice and internship experiences.

In general, the knowledge and skills to evaluate classroom guidance activities are crucial

to creating a successful school counseling program because evaluation can inform whether the

skills and knowledge are being implemented appropriately, effectively, and/or successfully.

Recommendations for future research include conducting a larger study that encompasses

a greater number of school counselor practitioners. For example, such a study could examine the

opinions of the school counselor practitioners in regard to the items recommended in this study.

Basically, it would allow determination of whether larger numbers of school counselors concur

with the recommendations of the expert panel. It also would be appropriate to investigate the

extent to which practicing school counselors already possess the knowledge and skill items

presented in the final list of items. That is, it would be important to determine if school

counselors believe that they already have the knowledge and skills but are just not using them or

if they believe that they have not been provided such knowledge and skills in their school

counselor preparation programs.

Because school counselor preparation programs nationwide are removing the "prior

teaching experience" requirement for program admission, determination of school counselors'

effectiveness in classroom guidance activities is warranted to ascertain need for further or

additional training. Specifically, it is important to determine whether school counselors who

have the knowledge and exhibit the skills identified herein are actually more effective in the

classroom than those who do not.

Another important area to study is the difference between practicing school counselors'

and school counselor educators' perceptions related to evaluation specifically. The emphasis on









evaluation items by school counselor educators was much stronger than it was for school

counselors. Both groups rated the evaluation items as important, but school counselor educators

rated them much higher. It is important to determine if this issue is problematic. Through

examination of these differences, ways to bridge the divide could be suggested.

Finally, it would be important to examine the perceptions of others in the school system

in regard to school counselors' effectiveness in classroom guidance activities. Determining if,

for example, school administrators and teachers agree with the knowledge and skill items

recommended could effect how the school counselors actually conduct classroom guidance

activities as well as how their activities are perceived. Both teachers and administrators may be

more supportive of school counselors being in classrooms if they concur with the

recommendations derived from this study.

An alternative approach to knowledge transmission and skill development for practicing

school counselors is continuing education. For example, the basic knowledge and skills

necessary for effective classroom management could be introduced at an initial inservice

workshop and followed by more intensive workshops. Such a process would allow practicing

school counselors adequate time for accumulation and self-evaluation of knowledge and skills.

Summary

Ostensibly, there are many school counselors in schools without the requisite knowledge

and skills to provide classroom guidance activities successfully and effectively. One of the

major causes of lack of effectiveness in this context is school counselors' lack of knowledge and

skills specifically for classroom management. Such knowledge and skills must be made

available to those who want to complete a school counselor preparation program and become

effective school counselors.. Identified in this study were 40 curriculum components that experts

believed essential for such preparation. School counselors will be better able to deliver










classroom guidance activities when they have sound knowledge and skills in classroom

management.









APPENDIX A
INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN A DELPHI STUDY


DATE

Dear


Because of your recognized expertise and experience in school counseling, you are invited to
participate in a Delphi study to examine one part of school counselor training. Your individual
participation would be a valuable contribution to the school counseling profession.

Classroom (large-group) guidance is an important component of any comprehensive school
counseling program and therefore it is important that school counselors receive training for it that
is as effective as possible. Good skills in classroom management are essential to delivery of
successful classroom guidance services. Obviously, the most effective training results from a
sound, well-grounded curriculum. Unfortunately, a set of agreed upon, professionally endorsed
curriculum components for classroom management training for school counselors has not yet
been developed. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify primary curriculum
components important to effective teaching of classroom management skills to school
counselors-in-training.

Your participation in the study would include rating potential curriculum components for
classroom management training for school counselors on three occasions. You would make your
ratings on a web-based survey. If you are willing to participate, you would be given an access
code for the survey. You would be asked to make your first set of ratings within the next three
weeks, and approximately three weeks will be allowed to make ratings for the second and third
rounds. The second and third rounds will have fewer items to be rated.

I appreciate your consideration of this request. If you are willing to participate in this research,
please send a brief response to me at the e-mail address below.

Sincerely,

Jill Geltner, Ed.S., NCC Larry C. Loesch, Ph.D., NCC
Doctoral candidate Professor, Counselor Education
University of Florida University of Florida
jillgeltner@bellsouth.net









APPENDIX B
INITIAL CORRESPONDENCE TO PARTICIPANTS



September 3, 2006

Dear School Counseling Expert,

Thank you for your willingness to participate in my study entitled, "Curriculum Components of
Classroom Management Training for School Counselors: A Delphi Study".

Please click on the link below to connect to URL for the first page of the study, which is the
informed consent form and acknowledgment. Upon selecting "I agree to participate in the
study," you will be moved to the actual survey. Instructions for providing some demographic
information and making ratings are provided on the survey.

Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or problems connecting to the survey.

Jill Geltner
University of Florida
Doctoral candidate
Department of Counselor Education

jillgeltner@bellsouth.net


(link to URL for the study was placed here)










APPENDIX C
INFORMED CONSENT

(Appeared as the first webpage of the study)


Dear

I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida. For my
doctoral dissertation, I am conducting research to identify the counselor preparation program curriculum
components best suited to teach school counselors-in-training effective classroom management. Your
participation has been requested because you are an experienced, knowledgeable, and professionally
involved school counseling professional.

Your participation in this study involves serving as an expert panelist in a three round Delphi procedure.
In the first round, you are asked to provide some demographic information. Please know that only
aggregate demographic description of the participants will be included in this study. In each round you
are requested to rate the importance of potential curriculum components. The first round includes
approximately 90 items. Subsequent rounds will include fewer items to be rated. In addition, you will be
given feedback about mean item ratings after the first and second rounds.

Confidentiality will be maintained within the limits of law. Your name also will not be revealed in any
subsequent dissemination of the results of this study, including presentations at professional meetings or
publication in professional journals. Your name will not be identified in my dissertation.

There are no anticipated risks, compensation or direct benefits to you as a participant in this study. You
are entirely free to withdraw your consent to participate and/or to discontinue participation in the study at
any time without any consequence to you.

If you have further questions regarding this study, please feel free to contact me at (352) 373-2799 or my
faculty advisor, Dr. Larry C. Loesch at (352) 392-0731. Questions regarding the rights of research
participants may be directed to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board at (352) 392-0433.

Thank you very much for helping with this important study.

Sincerely,

Jill Geltner
Doctoral Candidate
University of Florida

I have read the preceding description about Jill Geltner's study of recommended curriculum components
for teaching classroom management to school counselors-in-training. I voluntarily agree to participate in
the study.

Clicking on the "agree" link below indicates your voluntary
and informed consent participation in this research.









APPENDIX D
PARTICIPATION REMINDER



Dear

Several weeks ago, you agreed to be an expert panelist for my study of desired curriculum
components for training school counselors about classroom management. If you have already
completed this round for the research, please know that I appreciate your participation. If you
have not yet completed this round, I would appreciate it if you would do so as soon as possible.
The survey link is: (insert link to survey here).

Thank you for your time and assistance.

Jill Geltner
University of Florida
Doctoral candidate
Department of Counselor Education

jillgeltner@bellsouth.net









APPENDIX E
INITIAL SURVEY

Note: Response choicesfor items 1 4 were presented as mutually exclusive, "radio"
buttons


1. What is your current professional position?

O School counselor

O School counselor educator

2. Which of the following best represents your racial / ethnic identification?

O Caucasian

O African

O Asian

O Hispanic

O Native American

O Multiracial

O Other

3. What is the highest academic degree you have achieved?

O Master's

O Educational Specialist (EdS) or Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS)

O Doctorate



Note: Response choice for item 4 will be on a drop down menu ranging from 50.


4. How many years of experience do you have in your current professional position?

D years









Please rate each of the following items for importance for inclusion in a classroom management training /
counselors using a scale of one to seven in which 1 = not important to 7 = extremely important.


Not
Important


education for school


Extremely
Important


1. Self-help groups
(a supportive group for individuals with common problems)


2. Enthusiasm
(the expression of positive reaction to what is happening in a group)


3. Group cohesion
(the level of group members' feeling of acceptance among
one another)


4. Social loafing
(the tendency for group members to work below individual
ability levels)


5. Guidance/psychoeducational group
(a large group to which specific knowledge or skills are taught)


6. Didactic instruction
(a formal process of teaching, including lecture and
leader-focused presentations)


0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


7. Social identity
(the categorization of self in relation to others in a group)


8. Supporting
(leader intervening to reassure members, encourage and
reinforce participation)


9. Group time orientation
(a focus on the past, present, or future in group)


10. Multicultural diversity
(the culture-based differences among individuals)


11. Instillation of hope
(the process of increasing members' support of and confidence
in the efficacy of the group process)


12. Topic selection
(the process of deciding what will be discussed in a group)


13. Cooperative learning
(the use of collaborative interactions among group members
to achieve learning)


14. Group formation
(the process of selecting group members)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


15. Resources
(the human, physical, or other sources of assistance for
group processes)


16. Group dynamics
(the interactive processes among individuals in a group)


17. Member selection
(the procedures used to choose members of a group)


18. Task/work group
(a group trying to accomplish a pre-defined task)


19. Experiential learning
(the achievement of knowledge through physical behavior)


20. Rule setting
(the establishment and communication of guidelines for appropriate
behavior in the group)


21. Counseling group
(a problem-resolution-oriented group led by a counselor)


22. Homogeneous group
(a group in which members are similar in an important regard)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


23. Group culture
(group member perceptions about how the group is
organized and conducted)


24. Catharsis
(a process of release of pent-up emotions)


25. Involuntary group membership
(a group in which members did not have a choice about
joining the group)


o 26. Linking
(group leader promoting interaction between group members by
connecting through a common theme)


27. Heterogeneous group
(a group in which members are relatively different from one another)


28. Voluntary group membership
(a group in which members had a choice about joining the group)


29. Interpreting
(the act of attempting to explain verbally a group member's
thoughts, feelings or behaviors)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


30. Ethical considerations for group work
(the value-based boundaries for appropriate group member behavior)


31. Group initial stage
(the beginning stage of a group in which the structure, goals,
expectations, and roles are defined)


32. Insight
(the achievement of new, often suppressed, knowledge of oneself)


33. Group identification
(the degree to which members view themselves as an integral
part of the group)


34. Experiential / training (process) group
(a group constituted to learn about group processes and dynamics)



35. Nonverbal communication
(the transmission and/or receipt of messages among group
members without the use of words)


36. Short-term group
(a group process that lasts less than 15 weeks)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


37. Self-disclosure
(a group member's revelation of personal information to the group)


38. Long-term group
(a group process that lasts longer than 15 weeks)


39. Social comparison
(the use of cues from others to understand expected behavior
in the group)


40. Group development
(the process of change among group members over time)


41. Group process
(the set of behaviors members of a group exhibit over group sessions)


42. Socializing techniques
(the process of engaging in socially acceptable behaviors
as a result of social learning)


43. Conformity to group
(the extent to which a group member's behaviors conform to
group behavior norms)

44. Theories of group counseling
(the theoretical bases for understanding and guiding group processes)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


45. Universality
(a group member's belief in the commonalities of human experience)


46. Deviation from group
(the extent to which a group member's behavior differs from
group behavior norms)


47. Direct advice
(a suggestion from one group member to another group
member about how to behave)


\ 48. Legal considerations for group work
(the legal boundaries for group member behaviors)


49. Group conflict
(the extent to which group members are oppositional to one another)


50. Group cohesiveness
(group members' sense of belonging and inclusion in the group)


51. Using proxemics
(the use of physical movement or placement of group members to
influence the group process)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


52. Group leadership style
(a group leader's approach to facilitating groups based on her/his
theoretical orientation, values, beliefs and personal style)


53. Group transition stage
(the group process period characterized by group member resistance,
anxiety, and conflict)


54. Human development
(the natural processes of human physical and mental change)


55. Confronting
(the act of attempting to point out the differences between a group
member's expressed thoughts and behaviors)


56. Group tasks
(the specific work a group must do to accomplish its goal)



57. Interpersonal learning


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O


(the social skills learned from interactions with others)


58. Group working stage
(the group process period marked by cohesion and productivity)


0 0 0 0 0 0 0










Not
Important


59. Group final stage
(the group process period that includes accomplishment,
summarization, and group termination)


60. Post-group issues
(the evaluation and follow-up process conducted by the group leader)


61. Evaluation of group
(the process of measuring group outcomes)


62. Group member roles
(the expectations for group members to perform differentiated
tasks and/or functions in the group)


63. Active listening
(the process of attending to and interpreting verbal and nonverbal
messages in the group)


64. Restating
(the act of attempting to verbally paraphrase another group
member's communication)


65. Learning styles
(the preferential cognitive and/or affective modality in which a
group member becomes informed in a group)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


66. Drawing out
(a group leader verbalization or action intended to encourage a group
member to be more participatory in the group process)


67. Altruism
(a feeling of being magnanimous from helping another group member)


68. Goal setting
(the process of deciding upon ultimate potential group
accomplishments)


x 69. Clarifying
(the act of restating a group member's words in different words to
attempt to convey accurate understanding)


70. Vicarious learning
(the learning that results from observation of the behaviors of others)


71. Group member guidance
(a group member's provision of advice and suggestions to
other group members)


72. Summarizing
(the act of attempting to summarize what has been said or
happened in a group process)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


73. Open-ended questioning
(the act of attempting to pose questions that call for other than
dichotomous responses)


74. Wait time
(the time between a question and a response to it)


75. Reflecting feelings
(the act of attempting to point out the emotional content underlying
a group member's communications)


76. Supporting
(the act of attempting to provide encouragement to a group member)


77. Processing
(the discussion among group members of what has been said and/or
happened during preceding group process)


78. Showing empathy
(the attempt to use verbal and nonverbal communications to
convey emotional sensitivity to a group member)


79. Facilitating group interactions
(the process of encouraging group members to communicate
openly with one another)


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O













80. Initiating
(the act of directing group discussion and behavior toward
a particular topic)


81. Evaluating
(the process of assessing and associating values) with individual
and/or group behaviors)


82. Acknowledging
(the act of acknowledging a group member's contributions
within the group)


83. Giving feedback
(the process a group member uses to inform a group member about
the impact of a verbalization or behavior within the group)


84. Suggesting
(the act of encouraging a group member to adopt a new
perspective on a topic or behavior)


85. Protecting
(the act of attempting to safeguard a group member from
emotional harm in the group)


86. Modeling
(group leader demonstrating skills, attitudes or other characteristics
s/he hopes to engender in group members)


Not
Important
0


Extremely
Important
0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O









Not
Important


87. Reinforcing
(the attempt to encourage a group member to continue to
speak or behave in the same way)


88. Blocking
(the act of attempting to stop a group member's specific
verbalizations or behaviors in a group)


89. Terminating
(the process of ending the group process


Extremely
Important


0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O O O O O O O










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