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Differentiated Reading Instruction and Classroom Management Structures that Promote Reading Development

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PAGE 1

D I F F E R E N T I A T E D R E A D I N G I N S T R U C T I O N A N D C L A S S R O O M M A N A G E M E N T S T R U C T U R E S T H A T P R O M O T E R E A D I N G D E V E L O P M E N T B y M E L I S S A A M I L L E R A D I S S E R T A T I O N P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2007

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2 2007 M e l i s s a A M i l l e r

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3 F or J e d a nd M a i s y T hi s w oul d not ha ve be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout your l ove a nd s uppo r t

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4 A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w oul d l i ke t o e xpr e s s m y s i nc e r e gr a t i t ude t o a l l t hos e w ho be l i e ve d i n m e a nd e nc our a ge d m e t o pl unge i nt o t h i s di s s e r t a t i on. T h i s c oul d ha ve ne ve r be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout m y S e ve n K i nds of S m oke F i r s t m y c om m i t t e e a nd e s pe c i a l l y m y a dvi s or D r H ol l y L a ne w ho p r ovi de d a f un, m ot i va t i ng, a nd s uppor t i ve a c a de m i c e nvi r onm e nt unde r w hi c h I c oul d t h r i ve T ha nks a l s o t o D r T e r r y S c ot t w ho p r ovi de d w i t h m e m o r e oppo r t uni t i e s f or pr o f e s s i ona l gr ow t h t ha n I c oul d e ve r c ount D r N a nc y C or be t t w ho pr ovi de d m e w i t h hour s of gui da nc e a nd di a l ogue t ha t a l w a ys he l pe d m e t o ponde r t he r e a l l y t ough que s t i ons A nd f i na l l y, t ha nks t o D r D a vi d M i l l e r w ho c ha l l e nge d m e t o f i gur e out m y ow n s t a t s a nd he l pe d m e t o s e e t he l i ght ( I C A N do i t m ys e l f ) S e c ond, t he l ove a nd s uppor t of m y f a m i l y pr ovi de d e ndl e s s s t r e ngt h. I w oul d e s pe c i a l l y l i ke t o a c know l e dge m y pa r e nt s M a r k a nd C a r ol S ha f f e r w ho a l w a ys be l i e ve d i n m e a nd ne ve r t hought I c oul d f a i l Y ou t a ught m e t he m os t va l ua bl e l i f e l e s s ons but m os t i m por t a nt l y t he va l ue of ha r d w or k I a l s o a m gr a t e f ul f or m y br ot he r B r e t t w ho he l pe d m e ke e p t hi ngs i n pe r s pe c t i ve a nd t he s i s t e r of m y he a r t K i m w ho w a s i s a nd a l w a ys w i l l be t he r e f or m e A nd t ha nks t o a l l m y a unt s unc l e s a nd c ous i ns w ho a r e not j us t a n e xt e ns i on o f m y f a m i l y but a n e xt e ns i on of m ys e l f T hi r d, t he f a c ul t y a nd s t a f f of t he D e pa r t m e nt of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on r e a l l y t a ught m e w ha t t he F ounda t i on o f t he G a t o r N a t i on i s a l l a bout W i t hout T he P i t w he r e w oul d w e a l l be ? Y ou ha ve t r ul y he l pe d s ha pe t he t e a c he r I w i l l be F our t h, t he f un ki nd of s m oke m a de t he t i m e f l y b y! T ha nks t o a l l m y f e l l ow doc t o r a l s t ude nt s bot h a t U F a nd a r ound t he c ount r y, w ho I ha ve f or ge d f r i e nds hi ps a nd p r of e s s i on a l r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t ha t w i l l l a s t l ong pa s t our doc t o r a l pr ogr a m s

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5 T he f i f t h ki nd of s m oke I t ha nk m y I c hi ba n G r a nd m a w ho t a ught m e hum i l i t y, honor a nd pe r s e ve r a nc e Y ou ha ve a l w a ys be l i e ve d i n m e a nd l i f t e d m e up w he n I ne e de d i t m os t S i xt h, I w oul d l i ke t o a c know l e dge a l l t he s t ude nt s I t a ught i n t he pa s t W i t hout ha vi ng ha d you t ouc h m y l i f e i n t he w a ys t ha t you di d, I w oul d ne ve r ha ve w a nt e d t o f i nd w a ys t o m a ke l i f e be t t e r f or a l l s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds A l s o, t o m y A unt B e t t y, w ho i ns pi r e d m e t o be a t e a c he r a nd t o a c hi e ve N a t i ona l B oa r d C e r t i f i c a t i o n. S e ve nt h, a nd t he m os t pow e r f ul ki nd of s m oke t he r e i s t ha t I s a ve d t he B E S T f or l a s t ; I w oul d l i ke t o a c know l e dge t he l ove a nd s uppor t of m y hus ba nd, J e d, a nd m y be a ut i f ul da ught e r M a i s y. Y ou m a de c ount l e s s s a c r i f i c e s s o t ha t I c o ul d pur s ue a d r e a m I c a nnot i m a gi ne l i f e w i t hout you, a nd I c a nnot i m a gi ne e ve r m a ki ng i t t hough t hi s pr oc e s s w i t hout your e nc our a ge m e nt

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6 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 L I S T O F F I G U R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 S t a t us of R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt i n t he U S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 C onne c t i on B e t w e e n R e a di ng D e f i c i t s a nd B e ha vi or P r ob l e m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 E f f e c t i ve I ns t r uc t i on R e qui r e s E f f e c t i ve C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on i n T oda y s C l a s s r oom s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 P ur pos e of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 M e t hods t o S e l e c t R e vi e w e d S t udi e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 R e vi e w of t he L i t e r a t ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 E f f e c t i ve T e a c he r s a r e C r i t i c a l t o S t ude nt A c hi e ve m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 E f f e c t i ve T e a c he r s a r e E xe m pl a r y R e a di ng I ns t r uc t or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 E f f e c t i ve T e a c he r s D i f f e r e nt i a t e R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 E f f e c t i ve T e a c he r s a r e C l a s s r oom M a na ge r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 S um m a r y a nd C onc l us i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 R a t i ona l e f or t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 H ypot he s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 M e t hods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 S e t t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 M e a s ur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 T e a c he r D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 O bs e r va t i on D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 D i f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on m e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 C l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 R e a di ng m e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

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7 P r oc e dur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 C ons e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 O bs e r v a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 P i l ot P ha s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 D a t a C ol l e c t i on P ha s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 I nt e r obs e r ve r A gr e e m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 S t ude nt R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 D e s i gn a nd A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 L i m i t a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 I nt e r na l T hr e a t s t o V a l i di t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 E xt e r na l T hr e a t s t o V a l i di t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4 R E S U L T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 D e s c r i pt i ve a nd I nf e r e nt i a l S t a t i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s of A l l V a r i a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 I nf e r e nt i a l S t a t i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s on C he c kl i s t I ndi c a t or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 I nt e r obs e r ve r A gr e e m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 5 D I S C U S S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 S um m a r y of R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 H ypot he s i s 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 H ypot he s i s 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 H ypot he s i s 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 H ypot he s i s 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 H ypot he s i s 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 I nt e r pr e t a t i on o f F i ndi ngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 L i m i t a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 I ns t r um e nt a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 T i m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 G e ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 I m pl i c a t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 C onduc t i ng T e a c he r I nt e r v i e w s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 I nc r e a s i ng S t udy D ur a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 I nc l udi ng A ddi t i ona l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 C onduc t i ng A ddi t i ona l D a t a A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 I m pl i c a t i ons f or F ut ur e P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 P r e S e r vi c e T e a c he r E duc a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 I n S e r vi c e T e a c he r E duc a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

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8 T e a c he r P r a c t i c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 P hone m i c a w a r e ne s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 P honi c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 F l ue nc y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 V oc a bul a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 C om pr e he ns i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 C onc l us i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 T e a c he r s D i f f e r e nt i a t e R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on B a s e d on S t ud e nt N e e d . . . . . . . . 117 P r a c t i c e s t ha t C ont r i but e t o P r og r e s s i n R e a di ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 A P P E N D I X A S U M M A R Y O F R E V I E W E D S T U D I E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 B O B S E R V A T I O N C H E C K L I S T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 C O P E R A T I O N A L D E F I N I T I O N S F O R C H E C K L I S T I N D I C A T O R S . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 D T E A C H E R F O R M S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 E I N S T I T U T I O N A L R E V I E W B O A R D D O C U M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

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9 L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e pa ge 3 1 D e m ogr a phi c da t a f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng s c hool s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3 2 D e m ogr a phi c da t a f or pa r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3 3 R e gr e s s i on m ode l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4 1 D e s c r i pt i ve da t a of e xpl a na t or y a nd out c om e va r i a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4 2 C or r e l a t i ona l s t a t i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4 3 F ul l r e gr e s s i on m ode l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4 4 A dj us t e d r e gr e s s i on m ode l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4 5 S um m a r y of m ode l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4 6 C D I a nd C M C i ndi c a t or a na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4 7 F r e que nt pr a c t i c e s obs e r ve d dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4 8 D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s f or i nt e r obs e r ve r a g r e e m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

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10 L I S T O F F I G U R E S T a bl e pa ge 1 1 C om bi ne d r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or pr e ve nt i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1 2 M ode l of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5 1 M ode l of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5 2 S um m a r y of r e gr e s s i on m ode l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

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11 A bs t r a c t of D i s s e r t a t i on P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he D e g r e e of D oc t o r of P hi l os o phy D I F F E R E N T I A T E D R E A D I N G I N S T R U C T I O N A N D C L A S S R O O M M A N A G E M E N T S T R U C T U R E S T H A T R E A D I N G D E V E L O P M E N T B y M e l i s s a A M i l l e r M a y 2007 C ha i r : H ol l y L a ne M a j or : S pe c i a l E duc a t i on T e a c hi ng r e a di ng i nvol ve s m uc h m or e t ha n e xpe r t know l e dge ; a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r m us t t e a c h i n s uc h a w a y a s t o e nga ge t he s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t c ha l l e nge t he m a nd s pa r k t he i r i m a gi na t i on. T o m e e t t he s e pe da gogi c a l c ha l l e nge s t e a c he r s m us t ha ve a n a w a r e ne s s of t he di ve r s e a bi l i t i e s a nd ba c kgr ounds of s t ude nt s i nc l u di ng t hos e w i t h l e a r ni ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s T e a c he r s w ho e f f e c t i ve l y m a na ge t he i r c l a s s r oom s not onl y de m ons t r a t e a n a w a r e ne s s of t he i r s t ude nt s di ve r s e ne e ds but a l s o pos s e s s a s e t of s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o m e e t t hos e ne e ds T he r e i s a l a c k of r e s e a r c h t ha t e xa m i ne s s pe c i f i c a l l y how c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c a n be a ppl i e d t o di f f e r e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l c ont e xt s e s pe c i a l l y t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on T he pu r pos e of m y s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he w a ys e f f e c t i ve di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng r e l a t e s t o c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd how t he t w o w or k t og e t he r t o he l p s t ude nt s de ve l op r e a di ng s ki l l s i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs C l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons w e r e c onduc t e d us i ng t w o c he c kl i s t s t ha t m e a s ur e d t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i n s t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i de nt i f i e d by t he l i t e r a t u r e a s be s t pr a c t i c e s D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a va r i e t y o f m e t hods i nc l udi ng c or r e l a t i ona l a nd m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s

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12 T he r e s ul t s of t he c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t h a t t he r e i s a s i gni f i c a nt ne ga t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom a ve r a ge s on t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r s a s s e s s m e nt s of t he D I B E L S O r a l R e a di ng F l ue nc y s ubt e s t T he ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on i ndi c a t e d t ha t w he n t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t he y do s o i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h t he m os t s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a nd t ha t di f f e r e nt i a t i on i s ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d M ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s us e d i n t hi s s t udy di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt i ndi c a t or s of c l a s s a ve r a ge s on D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s F u r t he r m o r e t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s e na bl e s s t ud e nt s t o m a ke t he s a m e ga i ns i n f l ue nc y r e ga r dl e s s of r e a di ng a bi l i t y. T e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt t he s e s t r a t e gi e s a r e l e ve l i ng t he pl a yi ng f i e l d, a nd i n e s s e nc e m a i nt a i n t he ga p be t w e e n s t r uggl i ng a nd p r of i c i e nt r e a de r s

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13 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N T e a c hi ng r e a di ng i nvol ve s m uc h m or e t ha n e xpe r t know l e dge ; a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r m us t t e a c h i n s uc h a w a y a s t o e nga ge t he s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t c ha l l e nge t he m a nd s pa r k t he i r i m a gi na t i on. T o m e e t t he s e pe da gogi c a l c ha l l e nge s t e a c he r s m us t ha ve a n a w a r e ne s s of t he di ve r s e a bi l i t i e s a nd ba c kgr ounds of s t ude nt s i nc l u di ng t hos e w i t h l e a r ni ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s I n a ddi t i on t o be i ng e xpe r t s i n r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, t oda y s t e a c he r s m us t pos s e s s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s A c om bi na t i on of r e s e a r c h ba s e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s e ns ur e s s uc c e s s f or t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s S t at u s o f R e ad i n g A c h i e ve m e n t i n t h e U S W hi l e c onduc t i ng a l ongi t udi na l s t udy a t a n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n T e xa s r e s e a r c he r C onni e J ue l c a m e t o a s t a r t l i ng c onc l us i on. O f t he f our t h g r a de r s s he i nt e r vi e w e d, 40% w oul d c hoos e t o c l e a n t he i r r oom ove r r e a di ng. I n f a c t o ne c hi l d a dm i t t e d, I d r a t he r c l e a n t he m o l d a r ound t he ba t ht ub t ha n r e a d ( J ue l 1988 ) C oi nc i de nt a l l y, i n t he i r 2005 r e por t a N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P ) pa ne l ( P e r i e G r i gg, & D ona hue 2005) f o und t ha t 38% of f our t h gr a de r s w e r e una bl e t o r e a d ba s i c pa s s a ge s a nd c or r e c t l y a ns w e r a s s oc i a t e d c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons T hi r t y e i ght pe r c e nt of a l l f our t h gr a de r s ha ve r e a di ng s ki l l s be l ow t he ba s i c l e ve l a nd s t ude nt s w ho r e a d be l ow t he ba s i c l e ve l c a nnot r e a d w e l l e nough t o c om pl e t e c l a s s w or k a t g r a de l e ve l ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2001) W i t h onl y 33 % of t he na t i on s f our t h gr a d e r s r e a di ng a t t he ba s i c l e ve l a nd 30% r e a di ng a t p r of i c i e nt o r a bove w e a r e t r ul y a na t i on a t r i s k. T he good ne w s i s t ha t r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y de m ons t r a t e s m os t r e a di ng f a i l u r e i s pr e ve nt a bl e a nd s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s hi gh r i s k c a n i m pr ove t he i r r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt w i t h

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14 qua l i t y i ns t r uc t i on ( A da m s 1990) F i ndi ng a w a y t o ge t c hi l dr e n t o not onl y w a nt t o r e a d, but a l s o be c om e pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s i s a ve r y c om pl i c a t e d pr oc e s s T o ge t s t ude nt s t o r e a d w e l l t he y m us t r e a d f r e que nt l y but t o ge t t he m t o r e a d f r e qu e nt l y, t he y m us t be a bl e t o r e a d w e l l ( A da m s 1990) P ut R e adi ng F i r s t a publ i c a t i on ba s e d on t he w or k of t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( N R P ) ( A r m br us t e r L e h r a nd O s bor ne 2001 ) a dvoc a t e s f or t he us e of s c i e nt i f i c a l l y ba s e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd s t r a t e gi e s i n t he c l a s s r oom i n or d e r t o i m pr ove c hi l d r e n s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt U nf or t una t e l y, t he pr ognos i s f o r c hi l d r e n w ho e xp e r i e nc e r e a di ng de f i c i t s i s g r i m A c hi l d w ho l e a ve s f i r s t g r a de a s a s t r uggl i ng r e a de r w i l l m os t l i ke l y b e c om e a poor r e a de r i n t hi r d gr a de ( J ue l 1988; T o r ge s e n & B ur ge s s 1998) E v e n w or s e a c hi l d w ho doe s not l e a r n t o r e a d a nd ge t m e a ni ng f r om t e xt by f our t h gr a de ha s a 8 8 pr oba bi l i t y of ne ve r l e a r ni ng t o r e a d de s pi t e t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons ( J ue l 1988; T or ge s e n & B ur ge s s 1998) T o f ur t he r c om pl i c a t e m a t t e r s r e a di ng f a i l ur e s b r i ng a bout ne ga t i ve l ong t e r m c ons e que nc e s f or c hi l dr e n s s e l f c onf i de nc e m ot i va t i on t o l e a r n a nd ove r a l l s c hool pe r f or m a nc e a nd a f f e c t pos t s c hool out c om e s a s w e l l ( N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt [ N I C H D ] 2000) F or s t ude nt s w ho a r e una bl e t o r e a d f l ue nt l y by t hi r d gr a de i t i s i m pr oba bl e t ha t t he y w i l l e a r n a hi gh s c hool di pl om a ( N a t i ona l L ong i t udi na l T r a ns i t i on S t udy 2 200 ; S l a vi n K a r w e i t W a s i k, M a dde n & D ol a n, 1994; U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 1998) C on n e c t i on b e t w e e n R e ad i n g D e f i c i t s an d B e h avi or P r ob l e m s A c c or di ng t o B os a nd V a ughn ( 1998) m os t s t ude n t s r e f e r r e d f or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng di f f i c u l t i e s I n a ddi t i o n t o poor a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng pr obl e m s a r e of t e n a t r i s k f or c onduc t a nd be ha vi or a l di s or de r s ( B e nne t t B r ow n, B oyl e R a c c i ne & O f f o r d, 2003) W he n c oupl e d w i t h r e a di ng de f i c i t s be ha vi o r pr ob l e m s m a ni f e s t t he m s e l v e s i n t he c l a s s r oom r e s ul t i ng i n of f i c e di s c i pl i ne r e f e r r a l s f or nonc om pl i a nt be ha vi or

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15 dur i ng a c a de m i c t a s ks ( S c ot t N e l s on, & L i a ups i n, 2001) W he n t he s e a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or de f i c i t s pe r s i s t i nt e r ve nt i ons be c om e l e s s e f f e c t i ve f u r t he r r e s ul t i ng i n s c hool f a i l ur e t hus pr oduc i ng a c yc l e of a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l f a i l u r e t ha t l e a ds t o ne ga t i ve s c hool a nd l i f e out c om e s W i t h t he gr ow i ng num be r of s t ude nt s w ho a r e a t r i s k f or a c a de m i c f a i l u r e not be i ng i de nt i f i e d a s e l i gi bl e f or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r v i c e s m a ny s t ude nt s ne ve r r e c e i ve t he a c a de m i c or be ha vi or a l i nt e r ve nt i ons ne c e s s a r y f or s c hool s uc c e s s ( B os & V a ughn, 1998) U nf or t una t e l y t he m a j or i t y of t he s t ude nt s w i t h be ha vi or a l a nd a c a de m i c pr obl e m s a r e no t i de nt i f i e d a s e l i gi bl e f or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s unt i l t hi r d o r f ou r t h g r a d e t he un f or t una t e poi n t a t w hi c h t he pr oba bi l i t y of s uc c e s s f ul i nt e r ve nt i on ha s s ubs t a nt i a l l y di m i ni s he d. F oor m a n, F r a nc i s S ha yw i t z S ha yw i t z a nd F l e t c he r ( 1997 ) ha ve f ound t ha t 82 % of s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s w e r e a b l e t o i m pr ove t he i r r e a di ng a bi l i t y t o w i t hi n a ve r a ge r a nge w he n t he y w e r e pr ovi de d w i t h i nt e r ve nt i ons i n t he e a r l y gr a de s T hi s pe r c e nt a ge de c r e a s e d t o 42 % w he n r e m e di a t i on w a s pr ovi de d i n t he i nt e r m e di a t e gr a de s W he n r e m e di a t i on w a s pr ovi de d i n t he m i ddl e s c hool gr a de s a nd be yond t he pe r c e nt a ge f e l l t o 15% I t ha s be c om e i nc r e a s i ngl y e vi de nt t ha t t he l onge r a c a de m i c f a i l ur e s pe r s i s t w i t hout e f f e c t i ve i n t e r ve nt i on, t he l e s s l i ke l y i t i s t he i nt e r ve nt i ons c a n be s uc c e s s f ul ( S now B ur ns & G r i f f i n, 1998 ) B ui l t upon t he unde r l yi ng a s s um pt i on t ha t e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i s ke y t o pr e ve nt i ng e a r l y r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or f a i l ur e S c ot t a nd L a ne ( 2001 ) de ve l ope d a s ys t e m f o r c om bi ni ng e a r l y r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or pr e ve nt i on t ha t f oc us e s on pr e ve nt i on a c r os s s t ude nt s a t t he s c hool w i de l e ve l R e c ogni z i ng t ha t s om e s t ude nt s r e qui r e m o r e i nt e ns e a nd i ndi vi dua l i z e d i nt e r ve nt i on f o r r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s S c ot t a nd L a ne ( 2 001) de ve l ope d a t h r e e t i e r e d m ode l of e a r l y pr e ve nt i on ba s e d on t he w o r k of S uga i a nd H o r ne r ( 2000) w hos e m ode l of pos i t i ve be ha vi or

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16 s uppor t s i nc l ude d t hos e pr i m a r y s e c onda r y, a nd t e r t i a r y p r e ve nt i ons t ha t oc c ur s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o be ha vi or a l i s s ue s S c ot t a nd L a ne a da pt e d t hi s m ode l i n r e c ogni t i on of t he ove r l a p ne e ds f or uni ve r s a l pr e ve nt i on e f f o r t s i n t he a r e a s of a c a de m i c s a nd be ha vi or i s s ue s P r i m a r y pr e ve nt i on s ys t e m s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d a c r os s a l l s t u de nt s w i t h 80 90 % o f t hos e s t ude nt s e xpe c t e d t o m a i nt a i n a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l s uc c e s s w he n pr ovi de d t he s e uni ve r s a l p r e ve nt i ons S e c onda r y s ys t e m s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h 5 15% o f s t ude nt s f or w hom p r i m a r y s ys t e m s ha ve pr ove n uns uc c e s s f ul T he t hi r d l e ve l of pr e ve nt i on oc c ur s a t t he t e r t i a r y l e ve l w hi c h f oc us e s on i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t a r e r e s e r ve d f or t he ne e di e s t 1 5 % of s t ude nt s f or w hom bot h pr i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y s ys t e m s ha ve be e n i ns uf f i c i e nt W i t h t h e a ppr opr i a t e c l a s s r oom s uppor t s a nd e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on ha s be e n s how n t o pr ovi de s t ude nt s a t r i s k f or r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s a n oppo r t uni t y t o m a i n t a i n a l e ve l of a c a de m i c s uc c e s s c om pa r a bl e t o t ha t of t he i r pe e r s ( G unt e r H um m e l & C onr oy 1998; S c ot t e t a l 2001) F i gur e 1 1 C om bi ne d r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or pr e ve nt i on 1 5% T e r t i a r y P r e ve nt i on 5 15% S e c onda r y P r e ve nt i on 80 90% P r i m a r y P r e ve nt i on R e a di ng B e ha vi or

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17 E f f e c t i ve I n s t r u c t i on R e q u i r e s E f f e c t i ve C l as s r oom M an age m e n t T he r e e xi s t s a n a s s um pt i on t ha t e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng c a nnot be de f i ne d ( D a r l i ng H a m m ond 1997) but i nt e r e s t i ngl y r e c e nt r e s e a r c h on e f f e c t i v e t e a c he r s de m ons t r a t e s ot he r w i s e I n t he s e a r c h t o de f i ne e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng, r e s e a r c he r s be ga n i de nt i f yi ng e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng p r oc e s s e s a s e a r l y a s t he 1970s B r ophy ( 1973) D unki n a nd B i ddl e ( 1974) a nd S oa r a nd S oa r ( 1979) be ga n r e s e a r c hi ng t he pr oc e s s t ha t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s e ng a ge i n t o p r om ot e hi gh s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt I n c l a s s r oom s w i t h a c c om pl i s he d t e a c he r s s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt i s hi gh, a nd oc c ur s a s a r e s ul t o f a c om bi na t i on of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s a nd e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l t e c hni que s ( T a yl o r P e a r s on, C l a r k & W a l pol e 1998 ; P r e s s l e y, 1998; T a yl or P r e s s l e y & P e a r s on, 2000) T e a c he r s w ho e f f e c t i ve l y m a na g e t he i r c l a s s r oom s not onl y de m ons t r a t e a n a w a r e ne s s of t he i r s t ude nt s di ve r s e ne e ds but a l s o pos s e s s a s e t of s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o m e e t t hos e ne e ds ( M a r z a no, 2003) E f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s f a l l unde r t hr e e c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t or s ( b ) i ns t r uc t i ona l va r i a bl e s a nd ( c ) t e a c he r be ha vi or s E nvi r onm e nt a l c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s r e l a t e t o c l a s s r oom a r r a nge m e n t s t ude nt g r oupi ng, a nd t he phys i c a l a t t r i but e s of t he c l a s s r oom ( E ve r t s on, E m m e r & W or s ha m 2 003) I ns t r uc t i ona l va r i a bl e s c ons t i t ut e t he t e a c hi ng of r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s a s w e l l a s pl a nni ng, de l i ve r y a nd m e t hods of i ns t r uc t i on. T e a c he r be ha vi or s a r e r e l a t e d t o us e o f r e i n f or c e m e nt a nd pr a i s e r e l a t i ons hi ps of t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r a c t i ons ( E m m e r E ve r t s o n, a n d W or s ha m 2003 ) W he n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s i m pl e m e nt e d e f f e c t i ve l y a n i nc r e a s e i n s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt oc c ur s di s r upt i ve be ha vi or s de c r e a s e a nd us e of i ns t r uc t i ona l t i m e i nc r e a s e s a l l r e s ul t i ng i n i m pr ove d a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( W a ng, H a e r t e l a nd W a l be r g 1993) W he n t e a c he r s a r e a bl e t o s pe nd m or e t i m e on i ns t r uc t i on a nd l e s s t i m e de a l i ng w i t h di s c i pl i ne pr obl e m s s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt i m pr ove s

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18 C l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s a ke y e l e m e nt i n p r om o t i ng a n e nvi r onm e nt c onduc i ve t o s t ude nt l e a r ni ng ( M a r z a no, M a r z a no, & P i c ke r i ng, 2003) A l t hough t he r e i s l i t t l e de ba t e on t he c om o r bi di t y of a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or de f i c i t s i n s t ude nt s ( K a uf f m a n, 1997 ) t he c a us a l na t ur e o f e a c h de f i c i t i s unc l e a r M a ny r e s e a r c he r s pos i t t ha t r e a di ng de f i c i t s r e s ul t i n p r obl e m be ha vi o r s ( M a a g, 1999; W a l ke r C ol vi n & R a m s e y, 1995; W i l l i a m s & M c G e e 1994) w hi l e ot he r s s ugge s t t h a t i t i s p r obl e m be ha vi or s t ha t l e a d t o de f i c i t s i n r e a di ng ( C or nw a l l & B a w de n, 1992; G unt e r & D e nny, 1998) R e ga r dl e s s of t he i r pos i t i on r e s e a r c he r s ( e g. L e w i s S uga i & C ol vi n 1998; N e l s on, S c ot t & P ol s gr ove 1999; S ki ba & P e t e r s on, 2000) a gr e e t ha t bot h r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or a l de f i c i t s i nt e r f e r e w i t h s t ude nt l e a r ni ng F or s t ude nt s w i t h c ha l l e ngi ng be ha vi or s r e duc i ng pr obl e m be ha vi or i s a pr i o r i t y but a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on, s pe c i f i c a l l y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ne e d n ot be ove r l ooke d i n t he pr oc e s s R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t i nt e r ve nt i ons t a r ge t i ng a c a de m i c s ki l l s m a y a l s o r e duc e pr obl e m be ha vi or s ( B a r t on A r w ood, W e hby, & F a l k, 2005; C oi e & K r e hbi e l 1984; D uP a ul E r v i n, H ook, & M c G oe y, 1998) J us t a s e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e s c oul d be di s t i ngui s he d i nt o t h r e e c a t e gor i e s e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c a n be c ha r a c t e r i z e d by s i m i l a r c a t e gor i e s r e l a t e d t o ( a ) e nvi r onm e nt a l ( b) i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd ( c ) t e a c he r r e l a t e d va r i a bl e s E nvi r onm e nt a l va r i a bl e s r e l a t e t o de s k a r r a nge m e nt e xi s t e nc e of l i t e r a c y c e nt e r s or c l a s s l i br a r i e s a nd l e a r ni ng a i ds f ound on di s pl a y ( M or r ow e t a l 1999) I ns t r uc t i ona l va r i a b l e s c onc e r n t he m a nne r i n w hi c h s ki l l s a r e t a ught a nd t he ba l a nc e of i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hods ( P r e s s l e y, 2002; P r e s s l e y, A l l i ngt on W ha r t on M c D ona l d, B l oc k, & M or r ow 2001) T e a c he r r e l a t e d va r i a bl e s f oc us on c om pone nt s s uc h a s t e a c he r r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h s t ude nt s a nd us e of pr a i s e or f e e d ba c k ( P r e s s l e y, 2002)

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19 A c c or di ng t o W e hby, L a ne a nd F a l k ( 2003 ) a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on f o r s t ude nt s w i t h c ha l l e ngi ng be ha vi or s i s of t e n de s e r t e d i n a n e f f or t t o f oc us a t t e nt i on of t he r e duc t i on of pr obl e m be ha vi or s D e s pi t e t he l i m i t e d f oc us on r e a di ng i n s t r uc t i on f or s t ude nt s w i t h be ha vi or a l de f i c i t s r e s e a r c he r s a ddr e s s i ng t hi s i s s ue ha ve f ound pr om i s i ng i m pr ove m e nt s i n t he r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of t hi s popul a t i on of s t ude nt s ( B a bya k, K oor l a nd & M a t he s 2000; F a l k & W e hby, 2001; W e hby, F a l k B a r t on A r w oo d, L a ne & C ool e y, 2003) W i t h r e c e nt r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t i ng r e a d i ng de f i c i t s s ugge s t i ng t ha t e a r l y r e m e di a t i on i s ne c e s s a r y t o i m p r ove a c a de m i c out c om e s ( A da m s 1990; S now B ur ns & G r i f f i n 1998; T or ge s e n & B ur ge s s 1998) i t m a y be s a f e t o c onc l ude t ha t e xa m i ni ng t he c om bi ne d e f f e c t s of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w oul d s he d l i ght on t he ke y e l e m e nt s t ha t pr om ot e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt f o r s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s W i t h t e a c he r s i n i nc l u s i ve s e t t i ngs i nc r e a s i ngl y pr o vi di ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i o n t o s t ude nt s w i t h a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l de f i c i t s r e s e a r c he r s a r e f i ndi ng t ha t e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s of t e n be i ng ove r l ooke d r a t he r t ha n p r om ot e d ( M c I nt os h, V a ughn, S c hum m H a a ge r & L e e 1993; V a ughn & K l i ngne r 1998; Z i gm ond & B a k e r 1995 ) O ne e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s of t e n do not ha ve t he know l e dg e s ki l l s o r de s i r e t o pr ovi de s pe c i a l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng or be ha vi or p r obl e m s ( D e nt on, V a ughn & F l e t c he r 2003) A not he r r e a s on w hy r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he s e s e t t i ngs f a i l s i s t ha t be ha vi o r pr ob l e m s i n t he c l a s s r oom m a ke i t di f f i c ul t f or i ns t r uc t i on t o oc c ur ( C a r r T a yl or & R obi ns on, 1991; W e hby, S ym ons & C a na l e 1998 ) I n t he i r r e s e a r c h of e x e m pl a r y f i r s t gr a de l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on, M or r ow T r a c e y, W oo a nd P r e s s l e y ( 1999) f ound t ha t ou t s t a ndi ng c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ys t e m s c ont r i but e d t o s t ude nt l e a r ni ng a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt I n f a c t W a ng H a e r t e l a nd W a l be r g ( 1993) c onduc t e d a n

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20 e xt e ns i ve l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w a nd c onc l ude d t ha t s t ud e nt a c hi e ve m e nt w a s m os t a f f e c t e d by c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt L e a r ni ng c a nnot oc c ur i n a c l a s s r oom t ha t i s gove r ne d by c ha os W i t h a n a l a r m i ng 12 % t o 22% o f a l l s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc i ng e m ot i ona l or be ha vi or a l d i s or d e r s ( A de l m a n & T a yl or 2002) a nd 18 % of s t ude nt s w i t h c om bi ne d a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l de f i c i t s r e qui r i ng s pe c i a l i z e d i nt e r ve nt i ons ( D unn & B a ke r 2002) c l a s s r oom s a r e bu r s t i ng w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h di ve r s e ne e ds m a ki ng a t e a c he r s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s m or e i m por t a nt t ha n e ve r I t i s no s ur pr i s e t ha t m a ny t e a c he r s r e por t f e e l i ng i nunda t e d a nd de f i c i e nt i n t he s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o e f f e c t i ve l y m e e t t he ne e ds of a l l t he i r s t ude nt s ( G r e k, 2000; V a ughn & S c hum m 1995) C ons e que nt l y, due t o t he r e c e nt m ove m e nt t ow a r d i nc l us i on a nd t he de ve l opm e nt o f ne w r e a di ng i ni t i a t i ve s a t t he l oc a l a nd na t i ona l l e ve l r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w i l l be de l i ve r e d t o s t ude nt s w i t h bot h a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s i n r e gu l a r e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom s ( C ol e m a n & V a ughn, 2000) A ddi t i ona l l y t he l a c k of a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e i n r e a di ng a nd ot he r c ont e nt a r e a s ha s ga i ne d a dde d i m por t a nc e w i t h t he hi gh a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds i m pos e d by t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( 2001) a nd t he r e a ut hor i z a t i on of t he I ndi vi dua l s w i t h D i s a bi l i t i e s E duc a t i on A c t ( 1997) w hi c h s t a t e s t ha t s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s m us t pa r t i c i pa t e i n s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt s S t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng a nd be ha vi or de f i c i t s r e qui r e e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n f or m e d by r e s e a r c h ba s e d pr a c t i c e s i f t he y a r e t o m e e t t he s t a nda r ds i m pos e d by t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s D i f f e r e n t i at e d R e ad i n g I n s t r u c t i o n i n T od ay s C l as s r oom s T o e f f e c t i ve l y m e e t t he s t a nda r ds i m pos e d by na t i o na l a nd s t a t e w i de i ni t i a t i ve s a nd t o m e e t t he ne e ds of a di ve r s e gr oups of s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom m a ny t e a c he r s a r e i m pl e m e nt i ng s t r a t e gi e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on W e bs t e r s N i nt h C ol l e gi a t e D i c t i ona r y ( 1984) de f i ne s di f f e r e nt i a t e a s t o m a ke s om e t hi ng di f f e r e nt or s pe c i a l i z e d by m odi f yi ng i t or t o be c om e di f f e r e nt o r s pe c i a l i z e d by be i ng m odi f i e d ( p. 205) A c c or di ng t o T om l i ns on ( 2001)

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21 di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o ha ve a c c e s s t o a c a de m i c c ont e nt t hr ough a va r i e t y of i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s gr oupi ngs us e s of m a t e r i a l s a nd pr e s e nt a t i ons T e a c he r s us e a ba l a nc e of w hol e c l a s s s m a l l g r oup, a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i on de pe ndi ng on t he ne e ds of t he s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom D i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on a l l ow s t e a c he r s t o pr ovi de a c c e s s of t he s a m e c or e c ur r i c ul um t o a l l s t ude nt s s o t ha t a l l c hi l dr e n c a n m a ke a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s T om l i ns on ( 1999 ) de f i ne s di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on not by t he s t uf f t ha t ki ds l e a r n but t he how t he y l e a r n. T he c ont e nt t ha t s t ude nt s l e a r n r e m a i ns c ons t a nt ; i t i s h ow t he y l e a r n ( i e l e ve l of d i f f i c ul t y s e a t i ng a r r a nge m e nt s m e t hods of pr e s e nt a t i on, a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s ) t ha t va r i e s t r e m e ndous l y. B y di f f e r e nt i a t i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t e a c he r s a r e a bl e t o pr om ot e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w hi l e t a ki ng t he di f f e r e nt a bi l i t y l e ve l s of s t ude nt s i nt o c ons i de r a t i on, t hus a voi di ng t he one s i z e f i t s a l l m e t hod of i ns t r uc t i on t ha t doe s not w o r k f or a l l s t ude nt s ( S c hum m 1999; T om l i ns on, 2001) A c c or di ng t o T om l i ns on, i ns t r uc t i on c a n be di f f e r e nt i a t e d a c c or di ng t o t hr e e e l e m e nt s : c ont e nt ( t he m a t e r i a l s or c ur r i c ul um us e d) pr oc e s s ( t he a c t i vi t i e s or i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d) a nd pr oduc t ( t he m a nne r i n w hi c h s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e l e a r ni ng) T w o of t he ba s i c pr e m i s e s be hi nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d i n s t r uc t i on l i e w i t hi n t he ke y e l e m e nt s of s t ude nt unde r s t a ndi ng a nd e nga ge m e nt F or s t ude nt s t o unde r s t a nd w ha t t he y a r e l e a r ni ng t he y ha ve t o be e nga ge d. I n or de r t o e f f e c t i ve l y i m p l e m e nt di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng a nd e nga ge s t ude nt s t hr oughout t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r ne e ds t o know e a c h c hi l d s s ki l l l e ve l a nd ha ve a n i de a of w he r e t he c hi l d s houl d be s o t ha t he or s he c a n r e a c h t he c hi l d w he r e t he y a r e t o m ove t he m on ( T om l i ns on, 1999 ) S uc c e s s f ul di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on de pe nds gr e a t l y on t he r e c i pr oc a l na t ur e of unde r s t a ndi ng a nd e nga ge m e nt T o pr om ot e e qui t a bl e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or a l l s t ude nt s T or g e s e n ( 2002) s uppor t s t he us e o f di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or s t ude nt s of di f f e r e nt a bi l i t i e s w i t hi n t he s a m e c l a s s r oom

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22 W he n done c or r e c t l y, di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on c a n be us e d a s a t ool f or e f f e c t i ve e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on a nd pr e ve nt i on of r e a di ng pr obl e m s ( F oor m a n & M oa t s 2004 ) F l e xi bl e gr oupi ng i s ke y t o e f f e c t i ve di f f e r e nt i a t i on o f i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng be c a us e gr oups c a n be c r e a t e d a nd m odi f i e d a t a ny t i m e a c c or di ng t o s t ud e nt pr ogr e s s a nd ne e d. F o r f l e xi b l e gr oupi ng t o be e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s m us t e nga ge i n c ont i nuous pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng s o t ha t s t ude nt s c a n be pl a c e d i n gr oups ba s e d on i n f or m a l r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt s or c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e s T hr ough pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng a nd f l e xi bl e gr ou pi ng pr i nc i pl e s of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c a n be i m pl e m e nt e d i n r e a di ng c l a s s r oom s s o t ha t a l l s t ud e nt s ha ve a c c e s s t o t he s a m e c ur r i c ul um ( H a a ge r & K l i ngne r 2005 ) I n t he i r r e s e a r c h of e f f e c t i ve di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on, V a ughn a nd S c hum m ( 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001) f ound ba r r i e r s t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of d i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on. O ne of t he ba r r i e r s t o s uc c e s s f ul di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng i s t i m e a t e a c he r s e ne m y. M a ny t e a c he r s r e por t t ha t t i m e f o r pl a nni ng a c t i vi t i e s t h a t di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f o r bot h m a i ns t r e a m e d a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s i s vi r t ua l l y none xi s t e nt ( S c hum m V a ughn, & H a r r i s 1997) I n f a c t a s t udy c onduc t e d by S c hu m m a nd V a ughn ( 1992) f ound t ha t onl y 39% o f t he 60 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s s ur ve ye d r a t e d t h e i r pl a nni ng f or s t ude nt s i n i nc l us i ve e nvi r onm e nt s a s a c c e pt a bl e A not he r ba r r i e r r e por t e d by t e a c he r s w a s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt ( M oody & V a ughn, 1997; V a ughn H ughe s S c hum m & K l i ngne r 1998 ) T e a c he r s r e po r t e d not ha vi ng t he s ki l l s or r e s our c e s ne c e s s a r y t o ke e p t he r e s t of t he s t ude nt s e nga ge d w hi l e t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s i n s m a l l gr oups T he y a l s o r e por t e d t ha t t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s us i ng a w hol e c l a s s f or m a t w a s e a s i e r t o m a na ge F i na l l y t e a c he r s r e po r t e d no t ha vi ng t he s ki l l s o r r e s our c e s ne c e s s a r y t o t e a c h t a r ge t e d r e a di ng s ki l l s t o e nha nc e t he l e a r ni n g of s t ude nt s w i t h va r yi ng a bi l i t y l e ve l s ( V a ughn, H ughe s S c hum m & K l i ngne r 1998)

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23 S c hum m V a ughn, a nd L e a ve l l ( 1994 ) de ve l ope d a f r a m e w or k f or pl a nni ng i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s T h e i r P l a nni ng P yr a m i d e na bl e s t e a c h e r s t o f oc us on w ha t t he y e xpe c t a l l m os t o r s om e of t he i r s t ude nt s t o l e a r n A t t he bo t t om o f t he pyr a m i d i s w ha t a l l s t ude nt s m us t l e a r n a bout a c onc e pt ; t he ba s i c s of w ha t i s pr e s e nt e d un i ve r s a l l y t o s t ude nt s I n t h e m i ddl e s e c t i on of t he pyr a m i d, t e a c he r s f oc us on w ha t t he y t hi nk m o s t s t ude nt s s houl d gr a s p a bout t he c onc e pt pr e s e nt e d. T he s e a r e i de a s t ha t e xt e nd be yond t he ba s i c i de a s a nd m a y i nc l ude m or e c om p l e x c onc e pt s r e l a t e d t o t he t opi c T he t op of t he py r a m i d c ont a i ns i nf or m a t i on t ha t r e pr e s e nt s w ha t w i l l be l e a r ne d by a s m a l l nu m be r o f s t ude nt s a nd i s ba s e d on i nt e r e s t a nd ba c kgr ound know l e dge t ha t s t ude nt s m a y ha ve on t he t opi c T h e or e t i c al F r am e w or k B y ove r l a yi ng t he f r a m e w or k c r e a t e d by S c hum m V a ughn, a nd L e a ve l l ( 1994) on t o t ha t s ys t e m of pr e ve nt i on pos i t e d by S c ot t a nd L a ne ( 2 001) a M ode l of D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on i s c r e a t e d, t a ki ng i n t o c ons i de r a t i on c o m pone nt s of e a r l y r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt / be ha vi or i nt e r ve nt i ons a n d pl a nni ng. R e c ogni z i ng t ha t di f f e r e nt s ki l l s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ne e d t o be t a r ge t e d t o di f f e r e nt gr oup s of s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c a n be pl a nne d f or a nd i m pl e m e nt e d f o r s t ude nt s w i t h a d i ve r s e gr oup o f ne e ds W i t h t he M ode l of D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on ( F i gur e 1 2) pl a nni ng, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a r e a l l w or k ha nd i n ha nd; no s i ngl e e nt i t y c a n s t a nd a l one w i t hout t he ot he r s s uppor t E f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt r e qui r e s e f f e c t i ve pl a nni ng a nd s t ude nt gr oupi ng a s e vi de n c e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( E ve r t s on, E m m e r & W or s ha m 2003; M oody & V a ughn, 1997; M or r o w T r a c e y, W oo, & P r e s s l e y, 1999; V a ughn, H ughe s S c hum m & K l i ngne r 1998 ) F r om t hi s m ode l how e ve r t he que s t i on a r i s e s : F or s t ude nt s w i t h c ha l l e ngi ng be ha vi or s a nd a c a de m i c de f i c i t s c a n a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r w ho

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24 di f f e r e nt i a t e s i ns t r uc t i on us i ng s ound c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c oupl e d w i t h e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ? F i gur e 1 2 M ode l of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on ( A da pt e d f r om S c ot t & L a ne 2001 a nd S c hum m V a ughn, & L e a ve l l 1994) P u r p os e of t h e S t u d y R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s ne c e s s a r y i n or de r f or l e a r ni ng t o t a ke pl a c e but c a n not s t a nd on i t s ow n. I ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m us t go ha nd i n ha nd i n or de r f or s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt t o oc c ur ( E ve r t s o n & H a r r i s 1992 ) T he r e i s a l a c k of r e s e a r c h t ha t e xa m i ne s s pe c i f i c a l l y how c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c a n be a ppl i e d t o di f f e r e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l c ont e xt s e s pe c i a l l y t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, a nd how t he t w o va r i a bl e s a f f e c t s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt or g r ow t h i n r e a di ng. T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o e xa m i ne c l a s s r oom r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s w hi c h f or t he pu r pos e of t h i s s t udy, w i l l be r e pr e s e nt e d by s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w i l l be a ddr e s s e d 1 5% o f s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s w i l l r e qui r e m or e i nt e ns i ve one on one r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or i nt e r ve nt i ons T hi s i s w ha t s om e not a l l s t ude nt s w i l l l e a r n 5 15% o f s t ude nt s w i l l r e qui r e s e c onda r y r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or i nt e r ve nt i ons pos s i bl y i n s m a l l g r oups T hi s i s w ha t m os t but no t a l l s t ude nt s w i l l l e a r n 80 90% o f s t ude nt s w i l l r e s pond t o t he uni ve r s a l i n s t r uc t i on a nd pr e ve nt i on pr ov i de d t o t he w hol e c l a s s T he s e a r e t he s ki l l s t ha t a l l s t ude nt s m us t l e a r n R e a di ng B e ha vi or P l a nni ng

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25 1. D o t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd i f s o, i s di f f e r e nt i a t i on ba s e d on s t ud e nt s ne e ds ? 2. I s t he r e a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y? I n C ha pt e r 2 a r e vi e w of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t ur e i s pr e s e nt e d t o pr ov i de t he or e t i c a l a nd e m pi r i c a l s uppor t f or d i f f e r e nt i a t i ng r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng r e s e a r c h ba s e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s t o pr om ot e r e a di ng gr ow t h i n e l e m e nt a r y a ge d s t ude nt s A n ove r vi e w of t he m e t hods us e d i n t h i s s t udy t o a ns w e r t he s e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i s pr ovi de d i n C ha pt e r 3. T he r e s ul t s f r om t he s t udy a r e pr e s e nt e d i n C ha pt e r 4 F i na l l y C ha pt e r 5 c ont a i ns a di s c us s i on of r e s ul t s f or c l a s s r oom pr a c t i c e a nd f ut ur e r e s e a r c h.

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26 C H A P T E R 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W T he pur pos e of t hi s r e vi e w i s t o e xpl o r e t he r e s e a r c h ba s e d va r i a bl e s i nc l ude d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e on e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd qua l i t y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s t he y r e l a t e t o s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt B y f i r s t e xa m i ni ng w ha t r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y a s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng t e a c he r s a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o pr om ot e s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t he n e xa m i ni ng t he va r i a bl e s of e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on, a nd f i na l l y i de nt i f yi ng c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e s t ha t pr om ot e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt s t r a t e gi e s c a n be i de nt i f i e d a s e f f e c t i ve t ow a r d s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng. M e t h od s t o S e l e c t R e vi e w e d S t u d i e s A t hor ough r e vi e w of publ i c a t i ons f r om 1970 t o p r e s e nt w a s e va l ua t e d t hr ough e l e c t r oni c da t a ba s e s s uc h a s E B S C O H os t t hr ough A c a de m i c S e a r c h P r e m i e r F i r s t S e a r c h, a nd W i l s onW e b. T he f ol l ow i ng de s c r i pt or s w e r e us e d f or s t udi e s on e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on : r e adi ng i ns t r uc t i on, c l as s r oom t e ac he r s and r e adi ng ac hi e v e m e nt e l e m e nt ar y r e adi ng i ns t r uc t i on, e f f e c t i v e r e adi ng t e ac he r s di f f e r e nt i at e d i ns t r uc t i on, and di f f e r e nt i at i ng i ns t r uc t i on. F o r c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t udi e s de s c r i pt or s i nc l ude d: c l as s r oom m anage m e nt c l as s r oom e nv i r onm e nt c l as s r oom c ont e x t and c l as s r oom m anage m e nt and ac ade m i c s T he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a w e r e e s t a bl i s he d f or i nc l us i on i n t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w : ( a ) s t udi e s w e r e c onduc t e d i n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s e t t i ngs ; ( b) s t udi e s t ook pl a c e i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs ( w i t h t he e xc e pt i on o f t w o s t udi e s t ha t w e r e f ol l ow up s t udi e s ) ; ( c ) s t udi e s oc c ur r e d be t w e e n 1980 a nd 2005; a nd ( d) l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w s w e r e c onduc t e d be t w e e n 1970 a nd 2005 A t ot a l of 13 doc um e nt s t ha t a dd r e s s e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i nc l udi ng di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, w e r e e l e c t r oni c a l l y r e t r i e ve d F r om t he s e 13 doc um e nt s s i x

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27 a ddi t i ona l a r t i c l e s w e r e f ound t hr ough a n a nc e s t r a l s e a r c h of t he e l e c t r oni c a l l y r e t r i e ve d doc um e nt s F i na l l y, a ha nd s e a r c h o f E l e m e nt ar y Sc hool J our nal R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y and Sc i e nt i f i c St udi e s of R e adi ng da t i ng ba c k t o 19 90 yi e l de d t w o a r t i c l e s A t ot a l of 21 r e s e a r c h s t udi e s w e r e f ound t o r e pr e s e nt t he l i t e r a t ur e on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on R e vi e w of t h e L i t e r at u r e J ohn D e w e y ( 1960) w r o t e E ve r yt hi ng t he t e a c he r doe s a s w e l l a s t he m a nne r i n w hi c h he doe s i t i nc i t e s t he c hi l d t o r e s pond i n s om e w a y or a not he r ( p 59 ) T e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s ha s be e n i nve s t i ga t e d i n t he c ont i nui ng de ba t e a s t o w he t he r i t i s a r e l i a bl e i ndi c a t or of s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt R e s e a r c he r s ( B r ophy, 1986; P or t e r & B r ophy, 1988; S c ha l oc k & S c ha l oc k, 1993) ha ve i de nt i f i e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s ba s e d on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt da t a a nd nom i na t i ons f r om s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t or s E f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s pe r f or m t hr e e f unc t i ons : ( a ) t he y us e e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s ( b) t he y us e e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a nd ( c ) t he y de s i gn c ur r i c ul um t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s s t ude nt l e a r ni ng ( M a r z a no, M a r z a no, & P i c ke r i ng 2003) F or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w t he f oc us w i l l be on t he i de nt i f i e d i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e s t ha t m a ke di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on s uc c e s s f ul W i t h t he a c c ount a bi l i t y m e a s ur e s i m pos e d by t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( 2001) c u r r i c ul um i s m a nda t e d a t t he s t a t e or l oc a l l e ve l l e a vi ng t e a c he r s l i t t l e r oom t o de s i gn c ur r i c ul um t ha t m e e t s t he ne e ds of t he i r di ve r s e c l a s s r oom s T o de a l w i t h t he de m a nds of s t ude nt di ve r s i t y a nd s t a t e t e s t i ng m a nda t e s t e a c he r s a da pt or m od i f y r e qu i r e d c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s a nd r e l y on s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s di f f e r e nt i a t i on o f i ns t r uc t i on t o m e e t t he i r s t ude nt s ne e ds D e s pi t e t hi s l i m i t a t i on, e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s s t i l l ha ve l ong r e a c hi ng e f f e c t s on s t ude nt be ha vi or a nd a c hi e ve m e nt I n f a c t

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28 a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r i n f l ue nc e s s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt t w i c e a s m uc h a s c ur r i c ul um pol i c i e s o r a s s e s s m e nt gui de l i ne s ( M a r z a no, 2003) E f f e c t i ve T e ac h e r s ar e C r i t i c al t o S t u d e n t A c h i e ve m e n t I n a s t udy c onduc t e d by W r i ght H o r n, a nd S a nde r s ( 1997) r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w e r e e f f e c t i ve w i t h s t ude nt s r e g a r dl e s s of w he t he r t hos e s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d l ow or hi gh a bi l i t y l e ve l s a nd t ha t c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s ha d t he gr e a t e s t i m pa c t on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt U s i ng t he T e nne s s e e V a l ue A dde d A s s e s s m e nt S ys t e m ( T V A A S ) t o m e a s ur e t he e f f e c t s of t e a c he r s on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s g r a de s 2 8, ove r 60 000 T e nne s s e e s t ude nt s a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s c or e da t a w e r e a na l yz e d. A l t ho ugh a va r i a nc e i n t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s w a s f ound ( r a ngi ng f r om l e a s t e f f e c t i ve t o m os t e f f e c t i ve ) t e a c he r s pl a ye d a s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt i n m a t he m a t i c s r e a di ng, l a ngua ge a r t s s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd s c i e nc e A f t e r a na l yz i ng s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s c or e s c om pi l e d f r om 19 90 t o 1996 a nd c or r e l a t i ng t hos e da t a w i t h s c hool pr i nc i pa l s r a t i ngs of t e a c he r s on a s c a l e of l ow a ve r a ge t o hi gh i n e f f e c t i ve ne s s W r i ght e t a l f ound t ha t t he m os t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w e r e a bl e t o r a i s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s dur i ng one a c a de m i c s c hool ye a r A ddi t i ona l l y, t he y di s c ove r e d t ha t r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r s t ude nt s w e r e r a nke d l ow a ve r a ge a nd hi gh i n a bi l i t y l e ve l hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s c oul d s t i l l a f f e c t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt O ne l i m i t a t i on o f t hi s s t udy w a s t ha t t he r e s e a r c he r s r e l i e d s ol e l y on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt da t a t o i de nt i f y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s D i r e c t obs e r va t i ons of t e a c he r qua l i t y w e r e not us e d t o de t e r m i ne how qua l i t y i ns t r uc t i on a f f e c t e d s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt T e a c he r obs e r va t i ons a l ong w i t h s t ude nt da t a w oul d a l l ow f or a m or e t hor ough unde r s t a ndi ng of how t e a c he r s a f f e c t s t ud e nt a c hi e ve m e nt H a yc oc k ( 1998) c om pa r e d t he T e nne s s e e s t ude nt da t a c om pi l e d by W r i g ht e t a l ( 1997) w i t h s i m i l a r f i ndi ngs f r om i nde pe nde nt r e s e a r c he r s i n t he D a l l a s I nde pe nde nt S c hool D i s t r i c t a nd

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29 t he B os t on P ubl i c S c hool S ys t e m W he n s he e xa m i ne d t he s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt da t a c om pi l e d on t e a c he r s c l a s s i f i e d a s m os t e f f e c t i ve or hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve H a yc oc k f ou nd t ha t s t ude nt s c l a s s i f i e d a s l ow a c hi e vi ng i nc r e a s e d t he i r a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l by a s m uc h a s 53 pe r c e nt i l e poi nt s w he n t a ught by a hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r ove r a o ne ye a r pe r i od I n c ont r a s t s t ude nt s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h l e s s e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s ga i ne d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 14 pe r c e nt i l e poi nt s ove r a pe r i od of one ye a r T he s e r e s ul t s a r e r e m a r ka bl e w he n c ons i de r i ng t ha t s t ude nt s na t ur a l l y ga i n a n a ve r a ge of s i x pe r c e nt i l e poi nt s due t o m a t ur a t i on a l one ove r a pe r i od of one ye a r ( H a t t i e 1992; C ohe n & D a vi s 1987) A ddi t i ona l l y t he s t udy a d dr e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of ha vi ng a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r ove r a pe r i od of t hr e e ye a r s H a yc oc k s e x a m i na t i on of t he da t a r e ve a l e d t ha t f o r a g r oup of l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a s s i gne d t o hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s i n gr a de s f ou r t hr oug h s i x, a ve r a ge r e a di ng s c or e s f r om t he 59 t h pe r c e nt i l e t o t he 76 t h pe r c e nt i l e ove r t he c ou r s e of t h r e e ye a r s C onve r s e l y, a gr oup of l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s a s s i gne d t o l e s s e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s f or t he s a m e t hr e e ye a r pe r i od e xpe r i e nc e d a dr op i n r e a di ng s c or e s f a l l i ng f r om t he 60 t h pe r c e nt i l e i n r e a di ng t o t he 42 n d ove r a pe r i od of t hr e e ye a r s F r om t he r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d on t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s H a yc oc k ( 1998) poi nt s out t ha t r e s e a r c he r s ne e d t o go one s t e p be yond m a ki ng t he l i nk be t w e e n t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt S pe c i f i c t e a c he r qua l i t i e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ne e d t o be i de nt i f i e d s o t ha t t he y m a y be a ddr e s s e d i n t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on a nd pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt pr ogr a m s A l t hough H a yc oc k i de nt i f i e s t he s t a nda r ds f or r a i s i ng t e a c he r qua l i t y ( a c c ount a bi l i t y i n t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s qua l i f i e d t e a c he r s f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s pa r e nt e duc a t i on, a nd be t t e r r e c r ui t m e nt ) s pe c i f i c m e t hods f or a c hi e vi ng t he s e s t a nda r ds w hi l e s t i l l m e e t i ng t he t e a c he r s hor t a ge a r e not a ddr e s s e d. O ne of t he ba r r i e r s t o i de nt i f y i ng t he s e t e a c he r qua l i t i e s i s t he va r i a t i on of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom va r i a bl e s t ha t c a n be f ound i n c l a s s r oom s a c r os s t h e c ount r y. P i a nt a L a P a r o, P a yne

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30 C ox, a nd B r a dl e y ( 2002) c onduc t e d r e s e a r c h w i t h 223 K i nde r ga r t e n c l a s s r oom s i n t h r e e s t a t e s O ne c hi l d w a s obs e r ve d i n e a c h c l a s s r oom us i ng t h e C l a s s r oom O bs e r va t i on S ys t e m f or K i nde r ga r t e n ( C O S K ) w hi c h s c r e e ne d f or s u c h v a r i a bl e s a s m a na ge m e nt of t i m e t e a c he r s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons a nd c l a s s r oom c l i m a t e A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r s r a t e d t he i r s t ude nt s s oc i a l a nd a c a de m i c out c om e s a nd pr ovi de d de s c r i pt i ve i nf or m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he i r ow n e duc a t i ona l a nd t e a c hi ng ba c kgr ound s D e m ogr a phi c i nf o r m a t i on on t he c l a s s r oom a nd s c hool w a s a l s o c ol l e c t e d. F i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t t he r e i s s i gni f i c a nt va r i a bi l i t y i n t he qua l i t y o f i ns t r uc t i on s t ude nt s r e c e i ve i n K i nde r ga r t e n c l a s s r oom s T he a ve r a ge K i nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt w a s i nvol ve d i n t e a c he r di r e c t e d a c t i vi t i e s dur i ng 44% o f t he obs e r ve d i nt e r va l c e nt e r t i m e du r i ng 18 % o f i nt e r va l s s e a t w or k dur i ng 17% t r a ns i t i on t i m e dur i ng 11% of i nt e r va l s a nd f r e e t i m e du r i ng 8 % o f t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d ( P i a nt a e t a l 2002 ) E ve n m or e di s t ur b i ng, t he s e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t i n t he 223 c l a s s r oom s obs e r ve d, t he a ve r a ge K i nde r ga r t e n c hi l d w a s e xpos e d t o a c a de m i c t e a c hi ng dur i ng 21% of t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d w i t h w hol e gr oup i ns t r uc t i on t a ki ng up 44% o f t he i nt e r va l s a nd onl y 18 % r e s e r ve d f or s m a l l gr oup a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i on A l a r m i ngl y 71 of t he K i nde r ga r t e ne r s obs e r ve d w e r e ne ve r r e a d a l ou d t o dur i ng t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d, t e a c hi ng of s oc i a l r ul e s oc c ur r e d dur i ng onl y 1 % o f t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d, a nd 140 of t he c hi l dr e n obs e r ve d w e r e ne ve r e xpos e d t o t he t e a c hi ng of s oc i a l r ul e s I t s houl d be not e d, how e ve r t ha t a l t hough t he s e f i ndi ngs a r e s t a r t l i ng di r e c t obs e r va t i ons l a s t e d onl y 3 hou r s i n e a c h o f t he 223 ki nde r ga r t e n c l a s s r oom s obs e r ve d. T he f a c t t ha t t hi s l i m i t e d a m ount o f t i m e c oul d s a m pl e t ypi c a l i ns t r uc t i on i s de ba t a bl e V a r i a t i ons i n w ha t c ons t i t ut e s e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i o n w e r e a l s o f ound i n a na t i ona l s t udy c onduc t e d by t he N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt E a r l y C hi l d C a r e

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31 R e s e a r c h N e t w or k ( N I C H D E C C R N 2005) w he r e i n 780 t hi r d gr a de r s f r om m or e t ha n 250 s c hool di s t r i c t s i n c i t i e s l oc a t e d a r ound 10 da t a c ol l e c t i on s i t e s w e r e obs e r ve d. O bs e r ve r s us e d t he C l a s s r oom O bs e r va t i on S ys t e m f or T hi r d G r a d e ( C O S 3) t o i de nt i f y s pe c i f i c e xpe r i e nc e s of c hi l dr e n i n t he s e c l a s s r oom s a nd f e a t ur e s s uc h a s t he s e t t i ng, a c t i vi t i e s t e a c he r be ha vi or a nd s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt O bs e r va t i ons be ga n w i t h t he s t a r t of t he s c hool da y a nd l a s t e d f or a bout 6 hour s br oke n dow n i nt o e i ght 25 m i nut e i n t e r va l s T e a c he r s a l s o c om pl e t e d a que s t i onna i r e a bout t he i r t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e e duc a t i on, a nd pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt e xpe r i e nc e s T he T e a c he r S e l f E f f i c a c y S c a l e w a s a l s o us e d t o m e a s ur e t e a c he r be l i e f s a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y. B a s e d on t he i r obs e r va t i ons t he N I C H D E C C R N ( 2005 ) r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t t he a ve r a ge c l a s s r oom w a s e nga ge d i n w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on f o r 53% of i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d w hi l e i nde pe nde nt s e a t w or k a c t i vi t i e s m a de up 39% of i n t e r va l s obs e r ve d. T he s t ude nt s w e r e e xpos e d t o va r i e d i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s w i t h 48% of t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d s pe nt on s ubj e c t m a t t e r r e l a t i ng t o l i t e r a c y, 24% s pe nt on m a t h, a nd t r a ns i t i ons or m a na ge m e nt t a ki ng up 18 % of i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d. I n e xa m i ni ng t e a c he r be ha vi or s dur i ng t he obs e r va t i ons t he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t t e a c he r s i nt e r a c t e d w i t h s t ude nt s dur i ng 10% of t he i nt e r va l s a nd e nga ge d i n ba s i c s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on dur i ng 37% o f t he i nt e r va l s A l t h ough s t ude nt s w e r e e nga ge d f or ne a r l y 67 % of t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d, e nga ge d t i m e of t e n oc c ur r e d dur i ng ba s i c s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on D u r i ng onl y 5% of t he i nt e r va l s obs e r ve d di d s t ude nt s ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o c ol l a bor a t e w i t h pe e r s a nd i n onl y 7% o f t he i nt e r va l s w e r e s t ude nt s e nga ge d i n a c t i vi t i e s t ha t pr om ot e d h i ghe r o r de r t h i nki ng s ki l l s s uc h a s a na l ys i s or i nf e r e nc e T he s e da t a s ugge s t t ha t t he r e i s va r i a t i on not onl y i n t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e f f e c t i ve pr a c t i c e s but a l s o t he qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on f or c hi l dr e n i n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t ha t c hi l d r e n a r e not a s s ur e d a hi gh qua l i t y e duc a t i on dur i ng t he s e ye a r s ( N I C H D

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32 E C C R N 2005) T he f i nd i ng t ha t t ypi c a l t hi r d gr a de r s a r e not o f f e r e d a va r i e t y o f i ns t r uc t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s t hr oughout t he da y a nd t ha t i ns t r uc t i o n a ppe a r s t o f oc us on ba s i c s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on i ndi c a t e s t he ne e d f or m or e de t a i l e d di s c us s i ons of w ha t c ons t i t ut e s qua l i t y t e a c hi ng a nd i ns t r uc t i on i n t he e l e m e nt a r y g r a de s D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t r e s e a r c he r s f ound l i m i t e d a c a de m i c e nga ge m e nt i n c l a s s r oom obs e r ve d, qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on w a s not not e d, t he r e by l i m i t e d t he a bi l i t y t o m a ke c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n t ype a nd qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on ve r s us s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt E f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s pr ov i de e xe m pl a r y c l a s s r oom i n s t r uc t i on a nd de m ons t r a t e c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s t ha t c ont r i but e t o s t ude nt l e a r ni ng. W r i ght e t a l ( 1997) a nd H a yc oc k ( 1998) f ound t ha t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s a f f e c t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt r e ga r dl e s s of s t ude nt a bi l i t y l e ve l a nd hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s c a n r a i s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt by a s m a ny a s 53 pe r c e nt i l e poi nt s ove r a pe r i od of one ye a r I n c ont r a s t P i a nt a e t a l ( 2002 ) a nd t he N I C H D E C C R N ( 2005) f ound t ha t t e a c he r us e of e xe m pl a r y p r a c t i c e s va r i e s a nd t ha t m os t t e a c he r s f oc us on ba s i c s ki l l s pr a c t i c e a s a r e s ul t of f e de r a l a nd s t a t e t e s t i ng m a nda t e s A s u m m a r y of t he s e s t udi e s i s i nc l ude d i n A ppe ndi x A E f f e c t i ve T e ac h e r s ar e E xe m p l ar y R e ad i n g I n s t r u c t or s M i c ha e l P r e s s l e y a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s c onduc t e d a s e r i e s of s t udi e s t o i de nt i f y t e a c he r qua l i t i e s t ha t c ont r i but e t o s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt ( M or r ow T r a c e y, W oo, & P r e s s l e y, 1999; P r e s s l e y, R a nki n & Y okoi 1996; P r e s s l e y, W ha r t o n M c D on a l d, A l l i ngt on, e t a l 2001; P r e s s l e y, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, & E c he va r r i a 1998 ; P r e s s l e y, Y okoi R a nki n W ha r t on M c D ona l d, & M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, 1997; W ha r t on M c D ona l d, P r e s s l e y & M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, 1998) T he s e s t udi e s yi e l d pr a c t i c e s t h a t r e l a t e d t o s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a nd t e a c he r s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons T he s e s t udi e s f oc us on s pe c i f i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t e a c he r s f r om c l a s s r oom s w i t h hi gh r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt S e ve r a l of

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33 t he s e s t udi e s not on l y i de nt i f i e d qua l i t i e s of e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s but a l s o f oc us e d on i ns t r uc t i ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t c ont r i but e d t o s t ud e nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt I n t hi s s e r i e s of s t udi e s c onduc t e d, P r e s s l e y a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s e xa m i ne d e l e m e nt a r y t e a c he r s l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on t o i de nt i f y t hos e e l e m e nt s t ha t w e r e c ons i s t e nt a c r os s c l a s s r oom s w i t h hi gh s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt I n t he i r 1996 a nd 1997 s t udi e s t he r e s e a r c he r s i ni t i a t e d que s t i onna i r e s of 83 K 2 a nd 33 f i f t h gr a de t e a c he r s t o l e a r n how t e a c he r s t he m s e l ve s c ha r a c t e r i z e t he i r l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on. I n bot h s t udi e s t e a c he r s w e r e nom i na t e d by t he i r s upe r vi s or s a s e xc e l l e nt be i ng r e a di ng t e a c he r s a n d w e r e a s ke d t o r e s pond t o t w o que s t i onna i r e s T he f i r s t que s t i onna i r e w a s de s i gne d t o e l i c i t r e s pons e s ba s e d on w ha t t he t e a c he r s c ons i de r e d t o be e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt s of l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on f or a ve r a ge a nd s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s ( P r e s s l e y, R a nki n & Y okoi 1996; P r e s s l e y, Y okoi R a nki n, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, & M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, 1997) F r o m t hi s l i s t r e s e a r c he r s ge ne r a t e d a s e c ond que s t i onna i r e t ha t a s ke d r e s ponde nt s t o r a t e t he l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s on a s e ve n poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e r a ngi ng f r om ne ve r t o s e ve r a l t i m e s da i l y. B ot h pr i m a r y a nd i nt e r m e di a t e e l e m e nt a r y t e a c he r s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he i r pr a c t i c e s i nc l ude d pr i nt r i c h e nvi r onm e nt s di ve r s e i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t h ods a ba l a nc e of w hol e l a ngua ge a nd s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on, m i xe d gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s ( w hol e a nd s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on a s w e l l a s i ndi vi dua l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on) a nd i n t e gr a t i on o f r e a di ng i nt o ot he r c ont e nt a r e a s ( P r e s s l e y, R a nki n & Y okoi 1996; P r e s s l e y, Y okoi R a nki n, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, & M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, 1997) C ont r a r y t o t he w a t e r e d dow n a c a de m i c a ppr oa c h of t e n t a ke n w i t h s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e a c a de m i c di f f i c ul t i e s ( A l l i ngt on 1991 ) t he s e e xe m pl a r y r e a di n g t e a c he r s r e por t e d t ha t t he y pr ovi de d t he s a m e i ns t r uc t i on f or s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s but a da pt e d m e t hods t o m e e t t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds T he s e s t udi e s ha ve l i m i t a t i ons i n t ha t t he i r s a m pl e i nc l ude d onl y

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34 e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s nom i na t e d by s upe r vi s or s w ho a r e m e m be r s of t he I nt e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. T he r e s e a r c he r s a c know l e dge t ha t t he i r s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a w a s bi a s e d a nd t ha t m os t s t ude nt s do not r e c e i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i o n f r om t e a c he r s de e m e d a s e xe m pl a r y. W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l ( 1998) s t udi e d ni ne f i r s t gr a de t e a c he r s w ho w e r e nom i na t e d by l a ngua ge a r t s c oor di na t or s a s be i ng e i t he r out s t a ndi ng or t yp i c a l l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t or s O bs e r va t i ons a nd i nt e r vi e w s c onduc t e d i n t he c l a s s r oom s of t he m os t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s r e ve a l e d t ha t s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w a s hi ghe s t w he n t he t e a c he r p r ovi de d a ba l a nc e d a ppr oa c h t o r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng w i t h ba s i c s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on. S pe c i f i c a l l y, t e a c he r s bl e nde d di r e c t s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on w i t h w hol e l a ngua ge a c t i vi t i e s p r ovi de d a l i t e r a t u r e r i c h e nvi r onm e nt f or s t ude nt s w i t h a va r i e t y of book ge nr e s pr e s e nt a nd us e d di f f e r e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l gr oupi ngs a c c or di ng t o t he l e s s ons t a ught A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h hi gh a c hi e ve m e nt w e r e a bl e t o m i ni m i z e pr obl e m be ha vi or s by us i ng s ys t e m s of b e ha vi or m a na ge m e nt T e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom be ha vi or s ys t e m s a nd e f f e c t i ve t i m e m a na ge m e nt l e d t o i nc r e a s e d s t ude nt e nga ge d t i m e w hi c h i s l i nke d t o hi gh r a t e s of a c hi e ve m e nt O ne e xpl a na t i on of t he s e e f f e c t s a nd c oi nc i de nt a l l y one l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t udy, i s t ha t t he s a m pl e of t e a c he r s i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy a l l t a ught i n s ubur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t s w i t h s i m i l a r po pul a t i ons T hi s w oul d l i m i t t hi s s t udy s ge ne r a l i z a bl i t y t o m o r e di ve r s e popul a t i ons o f s t ud e nt s T he r e s e a r c he r s a c know l e dge d t ha t i nc l udi ng t e a c he r s t ha t t e a c h s t ude nt s w i t h di ve r s e ba c kgr ounds m a y yi e l d di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s P r e s s l e y e t a l ( 1998) c ont i nue d t he i r r e s e a r c h of e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s by obs e r vi ng a nd i nt e r vi e w i ng f our t h a nd f i f t h gr a de t e a c he r s f r om f ou r s c hool d i s t r i c t s i n U ps t a t e N e w Y or k. A t ot a l of 10 t e a c he r s w e r e no m i na t e d by l a ngua ge a r t s c oor di na t or s ba s e d on t he i r s t ude nt s a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t r e s ul t s e nt hus i a s m f or t e a c hi ng, s a m pl i ng of s t ude nt s w or k p r oduc t s us e of c ur r e nt t r e nds i n t he f i e l d of r e a di n g, a nd pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s E a c h

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35 t e a c he r w a s obs e r ve d f or 90 m i nut e s t w i c e pe r m o nt h dur i ng hi s or he r s c he dul e d l a ngua ge a r t s bl oc k. O bs e r ve r s ga t he r e d f i e l d not e s on i ns t r uc t i o na l pr oc e dur e s t e a c he r s t ude nt i n t e r a c t i ons a nd t he l a yout o f t he c l a s s r oom I nt e r vi e w s t ook p l a c e t w i c e dur i ng t he s t udy a nd l a s t e d f o r 60 t o 90 m i nut e s e a c h, w i t h i nt e r vi e w e r s c l a r i f yi ng i n s t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s obs e r ve d i n t he c l a s s r oom D a t a f r om t he obs e r va t i ons a nd i nt e r vi e w s w a s a na l yz e d a nd c ode d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e w e r e c om m on t he m e s i n t he c l a s s r oom s s t udi e d. P r e s s l e y e t a l ( 1998 ) f ound t ha t t he s e e xe m pl a r y t e a c he r s ba l a nc e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w i t h s ki l l s pr a c t i c e a nd a ut he nt i c l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s F ur t he r t he y pr ovi de d l i t e r a t ur e r i c h e nvi r onm e nt s w i t h m a ny oppo r t uni t i e s t o c ol l a bor a t e w i t h pe e r s a nd m a na ge d c l a s s r oom s us i ng a va r i e t y of g r oupi ng m e t hods C l a s s r oom s va r i e d i n r e l a t i on t o t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h s t ude nt s w e r e e nc our a ge d t o s e l f r e gul a t e t he i r t i m e a nd a s s i gnm e nt s a s w e l l a s t he t e a c he r s us e of be ha vi or m a na ge m e nt pl a ns T e a c he r s w e r e a l s o va r i e d i n t he w a y t ha t s t ude nt s w e r e m ot i va t e d t o l e a r n. I n s om e c l a s s r oom s s t ude nt s l e a r ni ng w a s e nc our a ge d a s a m e a ns t o e xc e l on s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s w hi l e i n ot he r c l a s s r oom s t he f oc us of l e a r ni ng w a s pr om ot e d a s a n i nt r i ns i c r e w a r d. T hr o ughout t he i r f i ndi ngs P r e s s l e y e t a l s t r e s s e d t ha t f our t h a nd f i f t h gr a de c l a s s r oom s of f e r c om pl i c a t e d l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt s a nd t ha t t e a c he r s a r e f a c e d w i t h t he c ha l l e nge s of not onl y m a na gi ng a di ve r s e gr o up of l e a r ne r s w i t h va r yi ng ba c kgr ounds but a l s o ke e pi ng up w i t h t he c ur r e nt t r e nds i n r e a di ng r e s e a r c h a nd a ppl yi ng t hos e m e t hods i n t he i r c l a s s r oom pr a c t i c e A l t hough t he s t udy s s a m pl e s i z e w a s s m a l l ( onl y t e n t e a c he r s w e r e i nc l ude d) t he r e s e a r c he r s i nc l ude d t e a c he r s f r om s c hool s i n di s t r i c t s t ha t w e r e c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s l ow m i ddl e a nd uppe r m i ddl e c l a s s t o i m pr ove on t he i r pr e vi ous s t udy. I n a n e f f or t t o i de nt i f y e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r qua l i t i e s M or r ow e t a l ( 199 9) c onduc t e d s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h i n f i r s t g r a de c l a s s r oom s i n N e w J e r s e y. S i x f i r s t gr a de c l a s s r oom s

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36 w e r e obs e r ve d a c r os s t hr e e s c hool di s t r i c t s S c hool a dm i ni s t r a t or s nom i na t e d t e a c he r s ba s e d on s t ude nt s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s ound e duc a t i ona l phi l os ophy, s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt a nd pos i t i v e f e e dba c k f r om c ol l e a gue s E a c h c l a s s r oom w a s obs e r ve d f or 25 hour s ove r e i ght s e pa r a t e vi s i t s dur i ng t he t e a c he r s l a ngua ge a r t s bl oc ks T he obs e r ve r s r e c or de d i nf o r m a t i on r e ga r di ng l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on t ha t w a s t a ki ng pl a c e pa yi ng c l os e a t t e nt i on t o f e a t ur e s s uc h a s i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hods a nd gr oupi ngs s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i ons of t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s a s s e s s m e nt c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt a nd t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r on m e nt A ddi t i ona l l y, e a c h of t he t e a c he r s w a s i nt e r vi e w e d r e ga r di ng t he i r l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s a nd p hi l os ophi e s T he obs e r va t i ons a nd i nt e r vi e w s c onduc t e d yi e l de d va l ua bl e i nf or m a t i on a bout w ha t e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s do du r i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. E a c h of t he c l a s s r oom s f oc us e d on l i t e r a c y r i c h e nvi r onm e nt s a va r i e t y o f r e a d i ng e x pe r i e nc e s r a ngi ng f r om i nde pe nde nt r e a di ng t o w hol e c l a s s r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, m ul t i pl e oppo r t uni t i e s t o e nga ge i n w r i t i ng, e xpl i c i t s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on, c r os s c ur r i c ul a r r e a di ng c onne c t i ons a nd e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt ( M or r ow e t a l 1999) O ve r a l l t e a c he r s w ho de m ons t r a t e e xe m pl a r y l i t e r a c y p r a c t i c e s e nga ge i n ba l a nc e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o m e e t t he di ve r s e ne e ds of t he c hi l dr e n i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s T he r e s e a r c he r s a l s o f ound t ha t w i t hou t i m pl e m e nt i ng s uc c e s s f ul c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hn i que s r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c a nnot oc c ur T hi s s t udy i de nt i f i e d s pe c i f i c t e a c he r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t s uppor t e d s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd de s c r i be d how t e a c he r s m e e t t he ne e ds of t he di ve r s e popul a t i on of t he s t ude nt s s e r ve d. I n o r de r t o ge ne r a l i z e t hi s s t udy s r e s ul t s a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne s c hool di s t r i c t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd va r i a bi l i t y of t he s t ude nt popul a t i on a t t he s c hool s obs e r ve d. P r e s s l e y a nd a s s oc i a t e s ( 2001) c ont i nue d t he i r s t ud y of f i r s t g r a de l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on by e xt e ndi ng t he r e s e a r c h f r o m t w o of t he i r p r e vi ous s t udi e s : P r e s s l e y e t a l ( 1996 ) a nd W ha r t on

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37 M c D ona l d e t a l ( 1998 ) R e s e a r c he r s e xt e nde d t he i r r e s e a r c h be yond U ps t a t e N e w Y or k t o i nc l ude N e w J e r s e y, W i s c ons i n, T e xa s a nd C a l i f o r ni a A ddi t i ona l l y t he ne w e r s t udy i nc l ude d pa i r s of t e a c he r s nom i na t e d by a dm i ni s t r a t or s w i t h one i de nt i f i e d a s e f f e c t i ve a t pr ovi di ng hi gh qua l i t y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd t he ot he r s e l e c t e d a s a t ypi c a l r e a di ng t e a c he r B ot h t e a c he r s t a ught s t ude nt s of di ve r s e ba c kgr oun ds a nd a bi l i t y l e ve l s T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d du r i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or 15 t o 30 hour s a t e a c h s i t e w i t h obs e r ve r s pa yi ng c l os e a t t e nt i on t o m e t hods of i ns t r uc t i on s t ude nt g r oupi ngs t e a c he r s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons a nd m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s F or m a l i nt e r vi e w s t ook p l a c e w i t h e a c h pa i r of t e a c he r s w i t h t he f oc us be i ng on c l a r i f i c a t i on of pr a c t i c e s obs e r ve d dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. B a s e d on t he obs e r va t i ons t e a c he r s w e r e r a nke d i n o r de r f r om m os t e f f e c t i ve t o l e a s t e f f e c t i ve R e s e a r c he r s t he n c om pi l e d a l i s t of t e a c hi ng be ha vi or s obs e r ve d f r om t he f i ve m os t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s r e s ul t i ng i n 221 t e a c hi ng be ha vi or s t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z e d e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on ( P r e s s l e y e t a l 2001) T he m os t e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom s w e r e m a na ge d e f f e c t i ve l y, pr ovi de d a p os i t i ve e nvi r onm e nt i nc l ude d ba l a nc e d s ki l l s a nd w hol e l a ngua ge i ns t r uc t i on, pr ovi de d s c a f f ol de d i ns t r uc t i on, e nc our a ge d s e l f r e gul a t i on i n s t ude nt s a nd c onne c t e d r e a di ng t o ot he r c ont e nt a r e a s ( P r e s s l e y e t a l 2001) E xc e l l e nt c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w a s t he m os t c o m m onl y obs e r ve d t e a c he r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c i n t he m os t e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom s R e s e a r c he r s s t r e s s e d t ha t t hi s s t udy di d no t pl a c e e m pha s i s or s uppor t t he us e of a ny one t ype o f l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on ove r a not he r a nd t ha t ba l a nc e d l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on i s s uppor t e d by t hi s a nd pr e vi ous s t udi e s A l t houg h r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y qua l i t y l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on, i n f or m a t i on i s not p r ovi de d on how t he s e t e a c he r s be c a m e e xe m pl a r y c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s I f t he r e c ont i nue s t o be a f oc us on how t o c r e a t e e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s r e s e a r c h ne e ds t o

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38 i nc l ude i nf or m a t i on a bout how t he s e t e a c he r s w e r e pr e pa r e d a nd w ha t t he y do t o be c om e e xe m pl a r y. I n a c a s e s t udy c onduc t e d by W a l pol e J us t i c e a nd I nve r ni z z i ( 2004) a s m a l l e l e m e nt a r y s c hool of 320 s t ude nt s w a s t he f oc us o f r e s e a r c h f o r i t s a bi l i t y t o i m pl e m e nt r e s e a r c h ba s e d l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s w i t h i t s di ve r s e gr oup o f s t ude nt s T he t e a c he r s a t t hi s s c hool w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s e xe m pl a r y ba s e d on t he i r a bi l i t y t o i nt e gr a t e c u r r i c ul a r m a nda t e s w i t h a ut he nt i c l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s m a ke i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons ba s e d on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt da t a a nd m a ke e f f e c t i ve us e of s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on. T he s e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t t e a c he r s w e r e s uc c e s s f ul w he n t he y di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on t o a dd r e s s t he m a ny s ki l l l e ve l s of t he i r di ve r s e s t ude nt s S m a l l g r oup a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i on w a s pr ovi de d i n a ddi t i on t o w hol e g r oup i ns t r uc t i on s o t ha t e a c h s t ude nt s ne e ds c oul d be m e t E f f i c i e nt pr ovi s i on of s uppor t i n s m a l l g r oup a nd i nd i vi dua l i ns t r uc t i ona l s e t t i ngs a l ong w i t h e f f e c t i ve m a n a ge m e nt w e r e vi e w e d a s e s s e nt i a l i ngr e di e nt s of t e a c he r s uc c e s s A l t hough e f f e c t i ve m a na ge m e nt w a s a ddr e s s e d a s ke y t o di f f e r e nt i a t i on o f i ns t r uc t i on, s pe c i f i c t e c hni que s w e r e not a ddr e s s e d a l ong w i t h m e t hods f or how t e a c he r s m a na ge t he i r c l a s s r oom s dur i n g s m a l l g r oup r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on. I n t he s t udi e s r e vi e w e d by P r e s s l e y a nd c ol l e a gue s a nd W a l pol e e t a l r e s e a r c he r s c ons i s t e nt l y f ound t ha t e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t o r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on by p r ovi di ng a va r i e t y of i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hods a nd gr ou pi ng m e t hods P r e s s l e y e t a l ( 1996 ) a nd W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l ( 1998 ) f ound t ha t e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t or s a l s o c ons i s t e nt l y us e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t s uppor t e d i n s t r uc t i on a nd r e s ul t e d i n hi ghe r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w a s e nga gi ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s w e r e us e d, pr ob l e m be ha vi or s w e r e r e duc e d

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39 ( P r e s s l e y, 1998; W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l 1998 ) S e e A ppe ndi x A f o r a s um m a r y of t he s e s t udi e s E f f e c t i ve T e ac h e r s D i f f e r e n t i at e R e ad i n g I n s t r u c t i on C hi l dr e n e nt e r s c hool w i t h a va r i e t y of ba c kgr ound e xpe r i e nc e s a nd a r a nge o f a bi l i t y l e ve l s S t ude nt s w ho ha ve l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o books or ot he r l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s a t hom e a r e of t e n a t r i s k f or r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s w he n t he y e nt e r s c hool A l t hough a l l c l a s s r oom s c ont a i n s om e r a nge of s t ude nt a bi l i t y t he ga p i n a t r i s k s t ude nt s r e a di ng a bi l i t y doe s not di s a ppe a r e ve n a f t e r t he f i r s t ye a r i n s c hool ( O r ns t e i n, 1995 ) I f not d i a gnos e d t hr ough e a r l y a s s e s s m e nt or a dd r e s s e d t hr ough a ppr op r i a t e i ns t r uc t i on i n t he f i r s t ye a r s a t s c hool t hi s ga p i n r e a di ng know l e dge w i de ns r e s ul t i ng i n w ha t ha s be e n c a l l e d t he M a t t he w E f f e c t i n r e a di ng ( R a yne r F oo r m a n, P e r f e t t i P e s e s ky, & S e i de nbe r g, 2002; S t a novi c h, 1986 ) W i t hout e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on, t he M a t t he w E f f e c t c ont i nue s t o c a us e a ddi t i ona l r e a di ng de f i c i t s unt i l t he s e s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s r e a c h a n a ge w he r e t he odds of e ve r de ve l opi ng l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a r e s hoc ki ngl y l ow E ve nt ua l l y, t hi s c a n l e a d t o a ga p i n a c hi e ve m e nt on s t a t e a nd l oc a l s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s ( M c G i l l F r a nz e n, Z m a c h, S ol i c & Z e i g, 2006 ) T hi s ga p i n t he r e a di ng a bi l i t i e s of s t ude nt s f r om di ve r s e ba c kgr ounds ha s be e n t he f oc us of m a ny r e s e a r c he r s a nd e duc a t or s e s pe c i a l l y w i t h t he pa s s i ng of t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( U S D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2001) t he l a t e s t na t i ona l r e f or m e f f o r t t o a ddr e s s l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on a nd t he ga p i n a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s be t w e e n hi gh a nd l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s S t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d e xa m i ni ng e xe m pl a r y l i t e r a c y t e a c he r s p r a c t i c e s t ha t he l pe d r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s i nc l udi ng s m a l l gr oup di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. R e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t t he m os t e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng t e a c he r s f oc us e d m or e on s m a l l gr oup t ha n w hol e g r oup i ns t r uc t i on ( T a yl or P e a r s on, C l a r k, & W a l pol e 2000; T a yl o r P e t e r s on,

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40 P e a r s on, & R odr i gue z 2002b) T he r e s e a r c h of P r e s s l e y a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s de m ons t r a t e d t ha t out s t a ndi ng t e a c he r s of l i t e r a c y us e d a c om bi na t i o n of w hol e gr oup, s m a l l gr oup a nd i ndi vi dua l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on. T he s e t e a c he r s a l s o a da pt e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o m e e t i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt ne e ds I n ot he r w o r ds t he s e t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on ba s e d on t he ne e ds of t he i r s t ude nt s ( P r e s s l e y e t a l 1998; P r e s s l e y, R a nki n, & Y okoi 1996) A c c or di ng t o T o m l i ns on ( 1999 ) a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r w ho di f f e r e nt i a t e s i ns t r uc t i on kn ow s w he r e e a c h s t ude nt i n t he c l a s s r oom i s on l e ve l s of know l e dge s ki l l a nd unde r s t a ndi ng a s w e l l a s w he r e e a c h c hi l d ne e ds t o pr og r e s s D i f f e r e nt i a t i ng i ns t r uc t i on i s no t a m e t hod or a s t r a t e gy but a w a y of t hi nki ng a bout i ns t r uc t i on i n t he c l a s s r oom W he n t hought of a s a phi l os ophy of t e a c hi ng ( how ) r a t he r t ha n a pr e s c r i be d m e t hod f o r doi ng t hi ngs ( w ha t ) di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c a n pr ovi de a w a y f or e ve r y s t ude nt t o ha ve a c c e s s t o t he c or e r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um i n e ve r y c l a s s r oom D i f f e r e nt i a t i on i nc l ude s a va r i e t y of t e a c hi ng m e t hods i nc l udi ng w hol e c l a s s s m a l l gr oup, a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i on, but i t doe s not r e qui r e i ndi vi dua l i z i ng i ns t r uc t i on f or e ve r y s t ude nt i n t he c l a s s A l t hough s t ude nt s c a n w or k i ndi vi dua l l y i n t he c l a s s r oom di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on s houl d not be t hought of a s i ndi v i dua l i z i ng i ns t r uc t i on. R a t he r i t e m bodi e s a s e t of be l i e f s t ha t e na bl e s t he t e a c he r t o a ddr e s s t he uni q ue s ki l l s a nd c ha l l e nge s of di ve r s e s t ude nt popul a t i ons D i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on doe s not p r om ot e a one s i z e f i t s a l l i ns t r uc t i on no r doe s i t r e qui r e i ndi vi dua l i z e d p l a nni ng. I ns t e a d, di f f e r e nt i a t i on r e qui r e s t ha t t e a c he r s pl a n a nd a c c ount f or bot h t he di f f e r e nc e s a nd t he c om m ona l i t i e s of s t ude nt s I n t he i r 1993 s t udy o f 60 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s M c I nt os h, V a ughn, S c hum m H a a ge r a nd L e e e xa m i ne d t he w a y i n w hi c h t e a c h e r s a c c om m oda t e d s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 6 0 ge ne r a l e d uc a t i on t e a c he r s of gr a de s K 12 f r om a l a r ge s out he a s t e r n s c hool di s t r i c t T he r e w e r e 20 t e a c he r s f r o m e a c h of t hr e e g r a de l e ve l

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41 gr oupi ngs : e l e m e nt a r y, m i ddl e a nd hi gh s c hool l e ve l s E a c h t e a c he r i de nt i f i e d one s t ude nt w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s f r om t h e i r c l a s s r oom s t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd pa r e nt a l pe r m i s s i on w a s obt a i ne d f or i nc l us i on i n t he s t udy T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d f or 50 m i nu t e s dur i ng e a c h o f t he t hr e e c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons t ha t t ook pl a c e us i ng t he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e a n obs e r va t i on t ool t ha t w a s de ve l ope d by t he r e s e a r c he r s f or t hi s s t ud y. T he t oo l w a s c r e a t e d t o m e a s ur e t e a c he r be ha vi or s s t ude nt be ha vi or s s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on, a nd ove r a l l c l a s s r oom c l i m a t e ( M c I nt os h e t a l 1993 ) A ddi t i ona l l y t he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e ( C C S ) w a s pi l o t e d i n t h r e e s t a ge s t hr oughout t he s t udy s o t ha t i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y c o ul d be e s t a bl i s he d. I n a ddi t i on t o t e a c he r a nd s t ude nt be ha vi or s r e s e a r c he r s w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he w a y t e a c he r s m odi f i e d a s s i gnm e nt s a r r a nge m e nt s gr o upi ng, a nd o t he r c l a s s r oom r e l a t e d e l e m e nt s f or s t ude nt s w i t h d i s a bi l i t i e s O ve r a l l t he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t m a i ns t r e a m e d s t ude nt s r e c e i ve d t he s a m e a t t e nt i on, a s s i gnm e nt s s e a t i ng, m a t e r i a l s a nd a c t i vi t i e s a s t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s ( M c I nt os h e t a l 1993 ) T he t r oubl e s om e pa r t of t hi s f i ndi ng how e ve r i s t ha t no m odi f i c a t i ons w e r e m a de f or t he s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s W hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on w a s t he nor m a nd m a i ns t r e a m e d s t ude nt s w e r e r a r e l y e nga ge d or pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he a c t i vi t i e s or l e s s ons be i ng pr ovi de d by t h e t e a c he r B e c a us e t he pr i m a r y m ode of i ns t r uc t i on w a s l a r ge gr oup a nd t he m a t e r i a l w a s not a da pt e d t o m e e t t he ne e ds of di f f e r e nt s t ude nt s m os t o f t he s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s w e r e not e nga ge d i n t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s i n t he s e c l a s s r oom s A l t hough t he s e f i ndi ngs s pur r e d f ut ur e r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a of s t ude nt gr oupi ng a nd di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on by V a ughn, S c hum m a nd a s s oc i a t e s l i m i t a t i ons a nd una ns w e r e d que s t i ons c ont r i but e d t o s t udi e s t ha t i n f or m e d t he f i e l d i n t hi s a r e a of r e s e a r c h. F o r e xa m pl e t he obs e r va t i ons t ha t t ook pl a c e oc c ur r e d dur i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd s c i e nc e c ont e nt a r e a i ns t r uc t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c he r s di d not e xa m i ne s t ude nt l e a r ni ng ga i ns t hr oughout t he s t udy. F ut ur e

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42 r e s e a r c h w oul d f oc us on how m uc h s t ude nt s a r e l e a r ni ng i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom s w he r e di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on i s not oc c ur r i ng a nd h ow t e a c he r s e m ba r k on di f f e r e nt i a t i ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he a r e a of r e a di ng f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di f f i c ul t i e s T e a c he r s pe r c e pt i on of s t ude nt gr oup i ng dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w a s t he t op i c of a s t udy c onduc t e d by M oody a nd V a ughn ( 1997) A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c he r s w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n t he w a y i n w hi c h t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on f or s t ude nt s i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs P a r t i c i p a nt s w e r e 29 3 rd gr a de ge ne r a l e d uc a t i on t e a c he r s a nd t he 20 s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s w ho pr ovi de s uppor t f or t he m on a da i l y b a s i s T he s t udy t ook pl a c e i n a l a r ge ur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t l oc a t e d i n t he s out he a s t e r n U ni t e d S t a t e s R e s e a r c he r s c onduc t e d 60 m i nut e i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s a nd he l d 75 m i nut e f oc us g r o ups di s c us s i on s w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s R e s e a r c he r s s e r ve d a s t he m ode r a t or s of t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd f oc us g r oup di s c us s i ons a nd bot h w e r e a udi o t a pe d f o r t r a ns c r i pt i on T hr ough t he i n t e r vi e w s a nd f oc us gr oup d i s c us s i on s t he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t ( a ) m os t t e a c he r s r e por t e d us i ng w hol e c l a s s gr oupi ng f or r e a di ng i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs ( b) ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s w e r e di vi de d on w he t he r t o us e hom oge ne ou s or he t e r oge ne ous gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s a nd ( c ) t e a c h e r s r e por t e d t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pl a ye d a r ol e i n t he i r de c i s i on t o us e w hol e c l a s s r a t he r t ha n s m a l l g r oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. W he n di s c us s i ng a bi l i t y gr oupi ng, t e a c he r s f e l t t ha t hi gh a c hi e ve r s be ne f i t e d m or e f r om he t e r oge ne ous a bi l i t y gr oupi ng a nd t ha t hom oge n e ous gr oupi ng di d no t m a ke t he l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s f e e l a s i na de qua t e ( M oody & V a ughn, 1997) A ddi t i ona l s i gni f i c a nt f i ndi ngs r e ve a l e d t ha t t he t e a c he r s i nt e r vi e w e d r e p or t e d t ha t t he y s houl d be t he one s t o de c i de how t o gr oup s t ude nt s a nd t ha t t he y w oul d be ne f i t f r om r e s e a r c h t ha t f oc us e s on i ns t r uc t i ona l

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43 s t r a t e gi e s f or w or ki ng w i t h s m a l l gr oups a s w e l l a s s t r a t e gi e s t o m a na ge t he r e s t o f t he i r s t ude nt s w he n i m pl e m e nt i ng s m a l l g r oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i o n. T hi s s t udy yi e l de d i m po r t a nt i n f or m a t i on r e ga r di n g w ha t t e a c he r s ne e d t o s uc c e s s f ul l y di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n i nc l us i ve s e t t i ng s O ne i m po r t a nt p i e c e m i s s i ng, how e ve r w a s t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons I t i s w i t h e xt r e m e c a ut i o n t ha t r e s e a r c he r s s houl d r e l y pur e l y o n t e a c he r r e por t s a nd di s c us s i ons t o i nf or m e duc a t i o na l r e s e a r c h. I n a s ubs e que nt s t udy, S c hum m M oody a nd V a ughn ( 2000) f ound t ha t a l t hough t e a c he r s r e por t e d us i ng s m a l l gr oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, obs e r va t i ons r e ve a l e d t ha t w a s not t he c a s e S t ude nt s de s ks w e r e a r r a nge d i n gr oups of f ou r but s m a l l g r oup i ns t r uc t i on di d not t a ke pl a c e i n t he c l a s s r oom A l t hough t e a c he r s r e c ogni z e d t ha t s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on w a s be t t e r t ha n w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on, t he y r e por t e d us i ng s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on s i m pl y ba s e d on ho w s t ude nt s de s ks w e r e or ga ni z e d. T e a c he r s R e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f i e d i m por t a nt e l e m e nt s t o a dd r e s s i n f ut ur e r e s e a r c h s t udi e s one of w hi c h i nc l udi ng pr ovi di ng t e a c he r s w i t h p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s t ha t w oul d i nvol ve t e a c hi ng e l e m e nt s of s m a l l gr oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. I n r e s pons e t o t he i r pr e vi ous s t udi e s V a ughn H ug he s S c hum m a nd K l i ngne r ( 1998) i m pl e m e nt e d a t w o ye a r s t udy i n w hi c h t e a c he r s w e r e t a ught f ou r i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s t o a s s i s t t he m i n t he t e a c hi ng of r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng i n t he i r e l e m e nt a r y i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e ve n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s w ho t a ught i n t w o publ i c e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i n a l a r ge ur ba n s out he a s t e r n s c hool di s t r i c t T he s c hool s ha d r e c e nt l y a dopt e d a c ons ul t a t i on/ c ol l a bor a t i on m ode l o f i nc l us i on i n w hi c h c e r t i f i e d s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s w e r e a s s i gne d t o ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s f or 60 t o 90 m i nu t e s pe r da y du r i ng r e a di ng a nd m a t he m a t i c s i ns t r uc t i on. T e a c he r s i de nt i f i e d s pe c i f i c r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t w oul d he l p t he m w i t h i ns t r uc t i on. T e a c he r s w e r e t r a i ne d on t he us e of t h e s e s t r a t e gi e s t hr ough pr of e s s i ona l

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44 de ve l opm e nt s e m i na r s t ha t w e r e of f e r e d onc e pe r n i ne w e e k bl oc k. D ur i ng e a c h ni ne w e e k bl oc k, t e a c he r s a t t e nde d a da y l ong w or ks hop r e ga r di ng e a c h t opi c ( T he W r i t i ng P r oc e s s C ol l a bor a t i ve S t r a t e gi c R e a di ng, C l a s s W i de P e e r T ut or i ng a nd M a ki ng W o r ds ) a nd t he n r e c e i ve d t w o f ol l ow up m e e t i ngs t ha t l a s t e d t hr e e hour s e a c h. T e a c he r s us e d t ha t t i m e t o a s k que s t i ons r e ga r di ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd p r ovi de e nc our a ge m e nt t o ot he r t e a c he r s by di s c us s i ng s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on pr oc e dur e s T hr ough t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s va l i di t y c he c kl i s t s i m pl e m e nt a t i on ba r r i e r c he c kl i s t s a nd r e s e a r c he r l ogs of t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons f or da t a c ol l e c t i on, r e s e a r c he r s f ound t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s ( a ) w a nt e d i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s t ha t c ou l d be us e d i n w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on f or e a s y i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd pl a nni ng ( b ) l e a r ne d a bout t h e i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s but d i d not know how t o e f f e c t i ve l y d i f f e r e nt i a t e t hos e pr a c t i c e s w i t h s t r u ggl i ng r e a de r s or w r i t e r s ( c ) m odi f i e d t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s t o i nc l ude t hos e s ki l l s de e m e d a s i m por t a nt f or s uc c e s s on upc om i ng s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s ( d) c ont i nue d t o us e w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i ona l gr oup i ng e ve n w i t h t he s uppor t of a n a ddi t i ona l t e a c he r ( t he s pe c i a l e duc a t i on r e s our c e t e a c he r ) i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd ( e ) r e por t e d l a c k of t i m e a s m a i n c a us e f or not i m pl e m e nt i ng t h e i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s l e a r ne d be c a us e t he y s pe nd t oo m uc h t i m e w i t h t r a ns i t i ons a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s ( V a ughn e t a l 1998 ) T he m os t i m po r t a nt f i ndi ng t ha t c a m e f r om t hi s s t u dy w a s t ha t e ve n t hough t e a c he r s r e por t know i ng ve r y f e w i ns t r uc t i ona l p r a c t i c e s t o e nha nc e t he s ki l l s of s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s onc e t a ught a nd pr ovi de d t h os e s t r a t e gi e s t he y s t i l l do n ot know w ha t i t l ooks l i ke t o i m pl e m e nt t hos e s t r a t e gi e s T e a c he r s w e r e una bl e t o m a ke m odi f i c a t i ons a l t e r gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s or pr ovi de a ddi t i ona l s uppor t t o di ve r s e l e a r ne r s a f t e r be i ng t a ught t he s t r a t e gi e s O f a ddi t i ona l i m por t a nc e w a s t he f i ndi ng t ha t t i m e a nd c l a s s r oo m m a na ge m e nt w e r e r e po r t e d a s ba r r i e r s t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he s t r a t e gi e s t a ught t o di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng i ns t r uc t i on,

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45 e ve n w i t h t he s uppor t of t he s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r i n t he c l a s s r oom N o di s c us s i on w a s m a de on how t o us e t he c ol l a bor a t i on of t he s e t w o t e a c he r s a s a t ool t o he l p t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng i ns t r uc t i on o r of t he g r oupi ng pr a c t i c e s of t e a c he r s w i t h w ho a r e t r a i ne d t o w or k w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s T he n e xt t w o a r t i c l e s f oc us on t he p r e va l e nc e of s m a l l gr oup di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on by t e a c he r s w ho a r e c e r t i f i e d i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on. I n a s e r i e s of s t udi e s V a ughn, M oody, a nd S c hum m ( 1998) a nd M oody, V a ughn, H ughe s a nd F i s c he r ( 2000 ) e xa m i ne d t he w a ys t h a t s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n e l e m e nt a r y r e s our c e r oom s e t t i ngs P a r t i c i pa nt s i n f i r s t s t udy w e r e 14 s pe c i a l e duc a t i on r e s our c e r oom t e a c he r s a nd t he i r s t ude nt s w ho a t t e nde d a n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n a l a r ge ur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he s out he a s t e r n U ni t e d S t a t e s A t ot a l of 82 s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy a nd qua l i f i e d f o r s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a c c or di ng t o t he i r di s t r i c t s pr ot oc ol S t a nf o r d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t s c or e s w e r e c ol l e c t e d on e a c h of t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s bot h f r om t he p r e vi ous s c hool ye a r a nd a t t he e nd of t he ye a r dur i ng w hi c h t he s t udy t ook pl a c e T e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s obs e r va t i ons us i ng t he C C S a nd t e a c he r s e l f r e por t s w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne w ha t r e a di n g i ns t r uc t i on l ooke d l i ke i n t he s pe c i a l e duc a t i on r e s our c e r oom F r om t he pr e vi ous t hr e e s t udi e s t he r e s e a r c he r s e x pe c t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o l ook m uc h di f f e r e nt t ha n w ha t w a s obs e r ve d i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom s G e ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s r e por t e d not ha vi ng t he s ki l l s or t r a i ni ng t o i m pl e m e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l or c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s f or s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds ( M oody & V a ughn, 1997; V a ughn e t a l 1998) C ons i de r i ng t ha t t e a c he r s w ho a r e c e r t i f i e d t o t e a c h s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds m us t ha ve t r a i ni ng t ha t f oc us e s on di f f e r e nt i a t i ng i ns t r uc t i on f or di ve r s e l e a r ne r s a nd m a na gi ng s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds r e s ul t s w e r e qui t e di s h e a r t e ni ng. F i r s t 11 o f t he 14 t e a c he r s us e d w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on f ol l ow e d by i nde pe nde nt s e a t w or k dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on S e c ond,

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46 de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t e a c he r s di s c us s e d t he i m por t a nc e of a t t e ndi ng t o t he l e a r ni ng s t yl e s of s t ude nt s a nd pr ovi di ng t he m w i t h di f f e r e nt m ode s of i ns t r uc t i on di f f e r e nt i a t i on t ook pl a c e i n onl y a f e w c a s e s i n w hi c h d i f f e r e nt m a t e r i a l s w e r e pr ovi de d f or s t ude nt s dur i ng i nde pe nde nt s e a t w or k a c t i vi t i e s A ddi t i ona l l y a f t e r r e po r t i ng on t h e i m por t a nc e of de c odi ng a nd phoni c s i ns t r uc t i on f e w t e a c he r s w e r e r e por t e d e xpl i c i t l y t e a c hi ng t he s ki l l s N ot onl y w a s phoni c s a nd de c odi ng i ns t r uc t i on none xi s t e nt f r om t he 41 t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons t ha t t ook pl a c e c om pr e he ns i on s t r a t e gy i ns t r uc t i on w a s onl y obs e r ve d onc e F i na l l y, w he n c om pa r i ng s t ude nt S A T s c or e s f r om t he e nd of t he pr e vi ous s c hool ye a r t o t he e nd of t he s t udy ye a r s t ude nt s i n t he s t udy m a de ve r y l i t t l e or no g r ow t h i n r e a di ng. A s a f ol l ow up M oody, V a ughn, H ughe s a nd F i s c he r ( 2000) r e s e a r c he r s r e c r ui t e d s i x of t he 14 t e a c he r s f r om t he i r pr e vi ous s t udy t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a s t udy t ha t e xa m i ne d t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s i n r e a di ng, a s w e l l a s t he r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt o f t he s t ude nt s i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s T he y s ought t o di s c o ve r how t he s e t e a c he r s pr a c t i c e s c ha nge d s i nc e t he pr e vi ous s t udy a nd w ha t t he i r pe r s pe c t i ve s w e r e on s pe c i a l e duc a t i on f or s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s T e a c he r i nt e r v i e w s obs e r va t i ons us i ng t he C C S a nd s e l f r e por t s w e r e onc e a ga i n us e d i n t he s a m e m a nne r a s t he pr e vi ous s t ud y. A ddi t i ona l l y, s t ude nt s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t he T e s t of R e a di ng F l ue nc y ( T O R F ) a nd s ubt e s t s of t he W oodc oc k J ohns on T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e nt R e vi s e d ( W J R ) i n pl a c e of t he S t a nf or d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t s c or e s T hr ough f our t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons a nd t he c he c kl i s t s t ha t t e a c he r s c om pl e t e d pr i or t o e a c h obs e r va t i on, a s w e l l a s t he i n t e r vi e w s r e s e a r c he r s f o und t ha t onl y ha l f of t he t e a c he r s i n t he f ol l ow up s t udy us e d l e s s w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on a nd r e l i e d m o r e on s m a l l gr oup a nd pe e r t ut or i ng du r i ng r e a di ng. T he s e t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s a nd i ns t r uc t i on t o m a t c h s t ude nt s ne e ds T hos e t e a c he r s w ho c ont i nue d t o r e l y on w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on r e por t e d t ha t

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47 s m a l l gr oup a nd i n di vi dua l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on m a de i t t oo di f f i c ul t t o m a na ge t he r e s t o f t he c l a s s I ns t r uc t i on w a s not di f f e r e nt i a t e d be c a us e t he y r e por t e d t ha t i t s houl d be e m be dde d w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on. S a dl y, t he i nc o ns i s t e nc y i n i ns t r uc t i on a t t he s e t w o s c hool s w a s r e f l e c t e d i n s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s S t ud e nt s i n t he s e c l a s s r oom s m a de ve r y l i t t l e r e a di ng ga i ns i n f l ue nc y on t he pa s s a ge c om pr e he ns i on s ubt e s t of t he W J R de s pi t e a a ve r a ge ga i n of 19 36 w o r ds pe r m i nu t e dur i ng t he s t udy. T he s e s t ude nt s s houl d ha ve m a de ga i ns of 30 or m or e w or ds pe r m i nut e i ndi c a t i ng t he y m a de l i t t l e gr ow t h i n f l ue nc y O ne l i m i t a t i on t o t he f i ndi ngs of t he s e s t ude nt s s c or e s how e ve r i s t ha t t he s c or e s w e r e a ve r a ge d t oge t he r m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o c om pa r e t he a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s f r om c l a s s r oom s i n w hi c h t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on w i t h t hos e t ha t di d not F ut ur e r e s e a r c h w oul d be ne f i t t he f i e l d i f a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s c oul d be c om pa r e d be t w e e n c l a s s r oom s i n w hi c h r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s di f f e r e nt i a t e d a nd t hos e t ha t i t i s not I n bot h o f t he s e s t udi e s r e s e a r c he r s e xpe c t e d t o f i n d s om e t hi ng di f f e r e nt i n r e a di ng c l a s s r oom s w he r e t e a c he r s a r e e xpe c t e d t o be f ul l y t r a i ne d t o m e e t t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s w i t h di ve r s e l e a r ni ng ne e ds W ha t t he y f ound r e i t e r a t e s r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs of B a ke r a nd Z i g m ond ( 1990) a nd G ood a nd B r ophy ( 1994 ) i n w hi c h di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on w a s vi r t ua l l y none xi s t e nt i n bot h r e gul a r a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom s a nd t e a c he r s r e por t e d t he s a m e i s s ue s a s ba r r i e r s t o i m pl e m e nt a t i on: l a c k of t i m e l i t t l e know l e dge of s t r a t e gy i ns t r uc t i on a nd l i m i t e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s S c hum m M oody, a nd V a ughn ( 2000) r e por t da t a f r om t w o s t udi e s i n w hi c h t he y e xa m i ne d f i r s t t he r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s of 29 t hi r d gr a de t e a c he r s a nd s e c ond, t he a c a de m i c a nd s oc i a l out c om e s of t he i r s t ude nt s S t udy 1 c ons i s t e d of a s e r i e s of i nt e r vi e w s obs e r va t i ons us i ng t he C C S a nd t e a c he r s e l f r e por t c he c kl i s t s F i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t de s pi t e t he

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48 f a c t t ha t t e a c he r s r e por t e d us i ng s m a l l g r oups ( m i x e d a bi l i t y a nd a bi l i t y) obs e r va t i ons r e ve a l e d t ha t 21 of t he t e a c he r s us e d w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on dur i ng r e a di ng. M a t e r i a l s w e r e not di f f e r e nt i a t e d f or s t ude nt s a nd a l l s t ude nt s w e r e e x pe c t e d t o us e t he s a m e ba s a l r e ga r dl e s s of l e ve l I n t h r e e c l a s s r oom s w he r e s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on t ook pl a c e m a t e r i a l s w e r e di f f e r e nt i a t e d. I n f our of t he c l a s s r oom s w he r e s m a l l gr oups w e r e us e d, di f f e r e nt i a t i on o f m a t e r i a l s di d not oc c ur a s gr oupi ng w a s us e d onl y a s a m e a ns of l ow e r i ng t he s t ude nt t o t e a c he r r a t i o. I n c l a s s r oom s w he r e w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on dom i na t e d, a n a ddi t i ona l a dul t ( r e s our c e t e a c he r or pa r a pr o f e s s i ona l ) w a s i n t he r oom du r i n g m or e t ha n ha l f o f t he obs e r va t i ons ( S c hum m e t a l 2000) I n i nt e r vi e w s t e a c he r s r e po r t e d t he y c ont i nue d t o us e w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on be c a us e of ( a ) s c hool / di s t r i c t po l i c y, ( b) l a c k of r e s our c e s ( c ) c onve ni e nc e of w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on i n pl a nni ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt W i t h onl y f o ur o f t he 29 t e a c he r s us i ng di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s r e s e a r c he r s s ought t o f i nd t he i m p l i c a t i ons of t h i s pr a c t i c e on t he i r s t ude nt s E a c h t e a c he r w a s a s ke d t o i de nt i f y t w o c hi l dr e n f r om e a c h of t he f ol l ow i ng i d e nt i f yi ng c a t e gor i e s : h i gh a c hi e ve r ( H A ) a ve r a ge a c hi e ve r ( A A ) l ow a c hi e ve r ( L A ) a nd l e a r ni ng di s a bl e d ( L D ) U s i ng t he K a uf m a n T e s t of E duc a t i ona l A c hi e ve m e nt ( K T E A ) de c odi n g a nd c om pr e he ns i on s ubt e s t s t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t he P i e r s H a r r i s C hi l d r e n s S e l f C onc e pt S c a l e t o m e a s ur e s e l f c onc e pt a nd t he E l e m e nt a r y R e a di ng A t t i t ude S ur ve y ( E R A S ) r e s e a r c he r s obt a i ne d i nt e r e s t i ng r e s ul t s H i gh a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s m a de s ubs t a nt i a l pr ogr e s s i n bot h de c odi ng a nd c om p r e he ns i on w hi l e a ve r a ge a c hi e ve r s m a de ga i ns onl y i n de c odi ng L ow a c hi e ve r s a nd s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s m a de l i t t l e or no ga i ns on bot h m e a s ur e s O n t he s e l f c onc e pt s c a l e none of t he s t ude nt s i n a ny of t he a c hi e ve m e nt gr oups m a de s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge s i n s e l f c onc e pt f r om f a l l t o s pr i ng du r i ng t he s t udy. F i na l l y ove r a l l s t ude nt s f r om a l l a c hi e ve m e nt gr oups de m ons t r a t e d a

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49 de c l i ne i n t he i r a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng a t s c hool a nd a t hom e f r om f a l l t o s pr i ng ( S c hum m e t a l 2000 ) I n s um m a r y, t he r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s r e vi e w e d on di f f e r e nt i a t i on of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on yi e l de d i m por t a nt f i ndi ngs a nd i m pl i c a t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. A l t hough t he f i ndi ngs w e r e s i gni f i c a nt t o i n f or m i ng t he f i e l d of r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or s t ude nt s w i t h di ve r s e a bi l i t i e s i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs t h e r e s e a r c he r s c ons i s t e nt l y f a i l e d t o m a ke c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n t he s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom s w he r e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w a s di f f e r e nt i a t e d c ons i s t e nt l y a nd t hos e w he r e w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on w a s t he nor m R e s e a r c h ne e ds t o f oc us on pr ovi di ng c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s w i t h a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on m e t hods c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a nd i ns t r uc t i on a l pr a c t i c e s f or d i f f e r e nt gr oupi ng m e t hods A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r s c ont i nue t o voi c e t he i r opi ni ons a nd ne e d f or r e a d i ng p r a c t i c e s t ha t a r e i nf or m e d by r e s e a r c h but a r e e a s y t o i m pl e m e nt ou t s i de t he r e s e a r c h s e t t i ng ( S c hum m e t a l 2000) T e a c he r s r e po r t t ha t t he y know w ha t i s goo d f or t he i r s t ude nt s but do not know how t o pr ovi de i t S e e A ppe ndi x A f o r a s um m a r y of t h e s e s t udi e s E f f e c t i ve T e ac h e r s ar e C l as s r oom M an age r s D uke ( 1979) de f i ne d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a s t he pr ovi s i ons a nd pr oc e dur e s ne c e s s a r y t o e s t a bl i s h a nd m a i nt a i n a n e nvi r onm e n t i n w hi c h i ns t r uc t i on a nd l e a r ni ng c a n oc c ur ( p. xi i ) I n c l a s s r oom s w i t h e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w h o pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt r e s e a r c he r s ( e g. M or r ow e t a l 1999 ; P r e s s l e y e t a l 1996 1997 ; W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l 1998) f ound t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w a s a ne c e s s a r y c om pone nt of e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. I n a ddi t i on t o t he a r r a y of i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s t he y e m pl oy, e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e i ns t r uc t i on not o nl y by pr ovi di ng a ba l a nc e of ba s i c s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on a nd a ut he nt i c l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s but a l s o by us i ng w hol e g r ou p, s m a l l g r oup, a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i ona l

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50 m e t hods t o i nc r e a s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt ( M or r ow e t a l 1999; P r e s s l e y e t a l 2001; P r e s s l e y e t a l 1996 1997 ; W a l pol e e t a l 2004; W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l 1998) T hos e t e a c he r s i de nt i f i e d a s e f f e c t i ve a l s o pr ovi de d l i t e r a t ur e r i c h c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt s i n t e r a c t e d w i t h s t ude nt s pos i t i ve l y, a nd pr o vi de d a ba l a nc e d a ppr oa c h t o gr oupi ng s t ude nt s t hr ough di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on. I n or de r f o r di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i o n t o t a ke pl a c e t he e l e m e nt s of e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng m us t be pr e s e nt a l ong w i t h t he pa r a l l e l c o m pone nt s of e f f i c i e nt c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s i ns t r uc t i on a nd s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt T he f ol l ow i ng r e vi e w of r e s e a r c h on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a ddr e s s e s s t udi e s t ha t i de nt i t y e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom p r a c t i c e s t ha t t e a c he r s us e t o f a c i l i t a t e t he s uc c e s s of di f f e r e nt i a t i on o f i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng. P r a c t i c e s s uc h a s t e a c hi ng r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s e s t a bl i s hi ng c l e a r e xpe c t a t i o ns a nd c ons e que nc e s a r r a ngi ng t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt a nd m a i nt a i ni ng s t ude nt e ng a ge m e nt a r e di s c us s e d. T e a c he r s ha ve be e n us i ng e l e m e nt s of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s i nc e t he da ys of t he one r oom s c hool hous e T he 1970s b r ought a bout a t r e nd t ow a r d m o r e s ys t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s K ouni n ( 1970) c onduc t e d t he f i r s t l a r ge s c a l e s t udy of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt U s i ng 49 v i de ot a pe s of f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de c l a s s r oom s K ouni n ( 1970) e xa m i ne d d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n e f f e c t i ve a n d i ne f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o de a l w i t h di s c i pl i ne pr obl e m s i n t he c l a s s r oom W ha t h e di s c ove r e d w a s e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s di d m or e t o pr e v e nt pr obl e m be ha vi or s be f or e t he y oc c ur r e d a nd t ha t e f f e c t i ve a nd i ne f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s di d not di f f e r i n t he s ki l l s t he y us e d onc e p r obl e m be h a vi or s oc c ur r e d ( K ouni n 1970 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, he i de nt i f i e d f our c r i t i c a l e l e m e nt s of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt F i r s t w i t hi t ne s s w a s obs e r ve d i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h t he m os t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s W i t hi t ne s s r e f e r s t o t e a c he r s a w a r e ne s s of pr obl e m be ha vi or a nd t he i m m e di a t e a t t e nt i on t he t e a c he r pa ys t o t ha t be ha vi or ( K ouni n, 1970 ) S e c ond e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w e r e a bl e t o de l i ve r i ns t r uc t i ona l l e s s ons s m oot hl y,

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51 w hi l e ke e pi ng t he m om e nt um of t he l e s s on goi ng t o m a i nt a i n s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt T hi r d s t ude nt s w e r e a w a r e of be ha vi or a l e xpe c t a t i ons a t a l l t i m e s F i na l l y e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s pr ovi de d c ha l l e ngi ng i nde pe nde nt t a s ks f or s t ude nt s a nd va r i e d t a s ks t o ke e p s t ude nt s m ot i va t e d. K ouni n s ( 1970) f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e e xi s t a s e t of m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e s t ha t c a n hi ghl y pr e di c t s t ude nt be ha vi or i n t he c l a s s r oom I m por t a nt l y, t he s e c onc l us i ons a r e c or r e l a t i ona l i n na t ur e a nd i t c a nnot be s a i d f or s ur e t ha t t he s e t e a c he r va r i a bl e s s ol e l y a f f e c t e d s t ude nt be ha vi or S t ude nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e no t c ons i de r e d i n t hi s s t udy, m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne i f t hi s s t udy s r e s ul t s c a n be ge ne r a l i z e d t o ot he r c l a s s r oom s t e a c he r s or s t ude nt s D e s pi t e t he s e l i m i t a t i ons K ouni n s ( 1 970) s t udy s e t t he s t a ge f or f ut u r e r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a o f c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt C a r ol yn E ve r t s on be ga n s t udyi ng e l e m e nt s of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i n 1976 w i t h J e r e B r ophy. T he y c om pa r e d e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w i t h a ve r a ge t e a c he r s i n t he i r s t udy of 30 e l e m e nt a r y t e a c he r s w hos e s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d c ons i s t e nt a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd 38 t e a c he r s of s t u de nt s w i t h a t ypi c a l a c a de m i c pe r f o r m a nc e T he r e s ul t s of t he i r s t udy w e r e publ i s he d i n a book L e ar ni ng f r om T e ac hi ng : A D e v e l opm e nt al P e r s pe c t i v e i n w hi c h t he y c onc l ude d t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt t o m e a s ur i ng t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd a r e ne c e s s a r y c ont r i but or s t o s t ude nt l e a r ni ng ( B r ophy & E ve r t s on, 1976 ) T hi s r e s e a r c h w a s j us t t he f i r s t of m a ny s t udi e s c onduc t e d by E ve r t s on a nd he r c ol l e a gue s w ho e ve nt ua l l y l a i d t he gr oundw or k f o r m a ny of t he r e s e a r c h ba s e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s e m pl oye d by t e a c he r s a c r os s t he c ount r y. I n a s e r i e s of s t udi e s c onduc t e d a t t he R e s e a r c h a nd D e ve l opm e nt C e nt e r f o r T e a c he r E duc a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of T e xa s a t A us t i n, E v e r t s on a nd he r c ol l e a gue s be ga n r e s e a r c hi ng

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52 how c r i t i c a l e l e m e nt s of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a f f e c t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt I n t he i r 1980 s t udy, E m m e r E ve r t s on, a nd A nde r s on obs e r ve d 27 e l e m e nt a r y t e a c he r s i n e i ght s c hool s U s i ng t he C l as s r oom N ar r at i v e R e c or d a f o r m us e d t o r e c or d obs e r va t i ons i n na r r a t i ve f or m obs e r ve r s f oc us e d on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s s uc h a s c l a s s r ul e s r oom a r r a nge m e nt us e of m a t e r i a l s t r a ns i t i ons be ha vi or a l c ons e que nc e s gr oupi ng pa t t e r ns p r oc e dur e s f e e dba c k, a nd t e a c he r r e s pons e s I n a ddi t i on t o na r r a t i ve r e c or ds obs e r ve r s m e a s ur e d s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt us i ng t he St ude nt E ngage m e nt R at i ng ( S E R ) T hi s t ool m e a s ur e d s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt i n 15 m i nut e i nt e r va l s a nd a l l ow e d obs e r ve r s t o r e c or d t he num be r of s t ude nt s w ho w e r e o f f t a s k dur i ng a pa r t i c ul a r a c t i vi t y. A f i na l m e a s ur e t he C om pone nt R at i ngs w a s us e d t o c om pa r e gr oups of t e a c he r s on a l i s t of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e s de ve l ope d by r e s e a r c he r s U s i ng s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t da t a f r om t he pr e vi ous ye a r a nd t he da t a c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he obs e r va t i ons E m m e r e t a l ( 1980) s e pa r a t e d t h e t e a c he r s i nt o t w o g r oups : m o r e e f f e c t i ve a nd l e s s e f f e c t i ve T he s e t w o gr oups e xhi bi t e d s t r i ki ng di f f e r e nc e s i n bot h m a na ge m e nt s t yl e s a nd s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt F r om t he f i r s t da y of s c hool t he m or e e f f e c t i ve m a na ge r s ( a ) ha d a s ys t e m of r ul e s a nd p r oc e dur e s i n pl a c e a nd t a ught t hos e r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s e xpl i c i t l y, ( b) a ddr e s s e d pr obl e m be ha vi or s a s s oon a s t he y oc c ur r e d, a nd ( c ) pr ovi de d i ni t i a l a c a de m i c a c t i vi t i e s t ha t e ns ur e d s t ude nt s uc c e s s T he s e pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t e d hi gh r a t e s of s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt c oupl e d w i t h l ow r a t e s of o f f t a s k be ha vi or i n t he s e c l a s s r oom s B e yond t he f i r s t da ys of s c hool t he m or e e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s ( a ) ha d w e l l a r r a nge d c l a s s r oom s t o f a c i l i t a t e m ove m e nt a nd a c c e s s t o m a t e r i a l s a nd ha d pr oc e dur e s i n pl a c e f or de a l i ng w i t h unpl a nne d s i t ua t i ons T he s t udy s f i ndi ngs de m ons t r a t e t he i m po r t a nc e of ha vi ng a s ys t e m of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i n p l a c e a t t he be gi nni ng of t he s c hool ye a r but r e s e a r c he r s a c know l e dge d t ha t a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h s houl d be

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53 c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne how t e a c he r s m a i nt a i n a p r e c i s e s ys t e m of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t hr oughout t he s c hool ye a r A s a f ol l ow up E ve r t s on, E m m e r S a nf or d a nd C l e m e nt s ( 1983) c onduc t e d r e s e a r c h i n t w o ur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t s l oc a t e d i n t he s out hw e s t e r n U S a s pa r t of t he C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt I m pr ove m e nt S t ud y ( C M I S ) t o de t e r m i ne i f t e a c he r s w ho r e c e i ve d a c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m a nua l a nd w or ks hops w oul d de m ons t r a t e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s m o r e s o t ha n t hos e w ho di d no t r e c e i ve t he i nt e r ve nt i on T e a c he r s w e r e a s s i gne d t o e xpe r i m e nt a l ( n= 23) a nd c ont r ol ( n= 18) g r oups a nd obs e r ve d a t t he ons e t of t he s t udy t o de t e r m i ne t he i r l e ve l of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt e xpe r t i s e I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t s e ve r a l t e a c he r s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup de m ons t r a t e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r o om m a na ge r s T he i n t e r ve nt i on r e c e i ve d by t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup c ons i s t e d of a m a na ge m e nt m a nua l or ga ni z e d a r ound 11 c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s : ( 1) pr e pa r i ng t he c l a s s r oom ( 2 ) pl a nni ng f o r r u l e s a nd pr oc e dur e s ( 3) de a l i ng w i t h c ons e que nc e s ( 4) t e a c hi ng r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s ( 5) i ni t i a l a c t i vi t i e s f o r t he be gi nni ng of s c hool ( 6 ) de a l i ng w i t h pot e nt i a l pr o bl e m s ( 7) m oni t or i ng s t ude nt s ( 8) de a l i ng w i t h i na ppr opr i a t e be ha vi or ( 9) i ns t r uc t i ona l or ga ni z a t i on, ( 10 ) hol di ng s t ude nt s a c c ount a bl e a nd ( 11) pr ovi di ng c l e a r di r e c t i ons du r i ng i ns t r uc t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y t e a c he r s i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup a t t e nde d t w o t hr e e hour w or ks hops a t t he be gi nni ng of t he ye a r a nd one f o l l ow up s i x w e e ks l a t e r T e a c he r s i n t he c ont r ol g r oup r e c e i ve d t he m a nua l a nd w o r ks hops dur i ng t he m i ddl e of t he s c hool ye a r A s i n t he pr e vi ous s t udy, s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he S t ude nt E nga ge m e nt R a t e s ( S E R ) i ns t r um e nt i n w hi c h on t a s k r a t e s w e r e r e c or de d i n 15 m i nut e i nt e r va l s A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r s w e r e r a t e d us i ng a c om pone nt r a t i ng s ys t e m t ha t c ons i s t e d of a s e r i e s of m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e s i n c he c kl i s t f o r m R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t ( a ) t e a c he r s w ho

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54 pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup us e d t he r e c om m e nde d pr a c t i c e s m or e t ha n t hos e i n t he c ont r ol gr oup ( b) c l a s s r oom s t a ught by t e a c he r s i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup ha d hi ghe r r a t e s of s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt a nd l ow r a t e s of s t ude nt m i s be ha vi or a nd ( c ) t e a c he r s w ho r e c e i ve d t he i nt e r ve nt i on w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o m a na ge t he i r c l a s s r oom s t ha n t hos e i n t he c ont r ol gr oup ( E v e r t s on e t a l 1983) O ne l i m i t a t i on t o t hi s s t ud y i s t ha t i t m a y be di f f i c ul t t o ge ne r a l i z e i t s r e s ul t s due t o t he s pe c i f i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he s c h ool di s t r i c t a t t he t i m e of t he s t udy. M a nda t or y bus i ng w a s i m pl e m e nt e d a t t he be gi nni ng of t he s c hool ye a r br i ngi ng di ve r s e s t ude nt popul a t i ons t o c l a s s r oom s t ha t w e r e pr e vi ous l y he t e r oge ne ous i n na t ur e T e a c he r s be ga n us i ng hom oge ne ous gr oupi ng m e t hods t o pl a c e s t ude nt s w i t h s i m i l a r a c a de m i c a bi l i t i e s i n t he s a m e c l a s s r oom s A s a r e s ul t t e a c he r s w e r e e xpos e d t o t r a i ni ng w or ks hops de s i gne d t o m a ke t he m m or e a w a r e of m a na ge m e nt a nd di s c i pl i ne i s s ue s D e s pi t e t hi s l i m i t a t i on t he va r i a bl e s i de nt i f i e d i n t hi s s t udy a s e s s e nt i a l t o c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a r e c ur r e nt l y pa r t of t he c ur r i c ul um de s i gne d by E v e r t s on, E m m e r a nd W o r s ha m ( 2003) a nd us e d t o pr e pa r e p r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s a c r os s t he c ount r y. E ve r t s on s ( 1989) s t udy r e pl i c a t e d a s i m i l a r s t udy c onduc t e d i n 1985 w i t h s e c onda r y t e a c he r s onl y t hi s t i m e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 29 t e a c he r s f r om f i r s t t h r oug h s i xt h g r a de s I n t hi s r a ndom i z e d s t udy, t he t r e a t m e nt g r oup ( n= 15) r e c e i ve d a c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m a nua l t ha t w a s or ga ni z e d a r ound t he 11 pr a c t i c e s de s c r i be d i n t he E ve r t s on e t a l ( 1983 ) s t udy, a s w e l l a s i nf or m a t i on i nc l ude d i n a m a nua l publ i s he d by t he R e s e a r c h a nd D e ve l opm e nt C e nt e r f or T e a c he r E duc a t i on, ba s e d on t he pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h of E ve r t s on a nd c ol l e a gue s ( e g. E ve r t s on, E m m e r C l e m e nt s S a nf o r d & W or s ha m 1 981; E m m e r e t a l 1980) B e f or e t he s c hool ye a r be ga n, t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a one da y w or ks hop w he r e t he y r e c e i ve d t he m a nua l a nd ot he r r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s T he r e s e a r c he r s t r a i ne d di s t r i c t pe r s onne l t o c onduc t t he w or ks hops

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55 a nd a f ol l ow up w or ks hop t ook pl a c e i n O c t obe r f or t e a c he r s i n t he t r e a t m e nt g r oup. T e a c he r s i n t he c ont r ol g r oup r e c e i ve d t he m a nua l a nd w or ks hop a t t he e nd of t he s c hool ye a r T e a c he r s i n bot h g r oups w e r e obs e r ve d f or 30 t o 5 0 m i nut e s s i x t i m e s t h r oughout t he ye a r O bs e r ve r s us e d na r r a t i ve r e c or ds t o r e c or d i n s t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s t e a c he r s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons a nd l e ngt h of i ns t r uc t i on. O bs e r va t i o ns t ha t t ook pl a c e i n t he be gi nni ng of t he ye a r f oc us e d on t e a c he r s i ns t r uc t i on o f r u l e s a nd pr oc e dur e s m oni t or i ng, a nd f e e dba c k. S t ude nt e nga ge m e nt da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d i n t e n m i nut e i nt e r va l s t o de t e r m i ne i f s t ude nt s w e r e on t a s k dur i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l pe r i ods O bs e r ve r s pr ovi de d a s um m a r y r a t i ng of e a c h t e a c he r a f t e r t he s i xt h obs e r va t i on, w hi c h i nc l ude d c om pa r i s ons i n s t ude nt e nga ge d t i m e f r om t he be gi nni ng t o e nd o f t he s c hool ye a r i m pr ove m e nt s i n t r a ns i t i on t i m e s a nd s t r a t e gi e s s t ude nt s us e d t o ge t he l p f r om t he t e a c he r ( E ve r t s on, 1989 ) F r om t hi s s t udy E ve r t s on ( 1989 ) f ound t ha t t e a c he r s i n t he t r e a t m e nt g r oup ( a ) pr ov i de d be t t e r i ns t r uc t i ona l m a na ge m e nt t hr ough c l e a r di r e c t i ons a nd e xpl a na t i ons a t t he ons e t of l e s s ons e l i c i t e d s t ude nt f e e dba c k t o e ns ur e unde r s t a ndi ng; ( b) t a ught r ul e s a nd p r oc e dur e s m or e e xpl i c i t l y f r om t he be gi nni ng of t he s c hool ye a r w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n i nc r e a s e d a c a de m i c e nga ge d t i m e ; ( c ) i m pl e m e nt e d r out i ne s m or e e f f i c i e nt l y t h a n t e a c he r s i n t he c ont r o l gr oup; ( d ) w e r e m or e i n t une w i t h s t ude nt s ne e ds a t t e nt i on l e ve l s a nd a bi l i t i e s ; a nd ( e ) di d m or e t o pr e ve nt p r obl e m be ha vi or be f or e i t oc c ur r e d a nd de a l t w i t h m i s be ha vi or i m m e di a t e l y O ne of t he l i m i t a t i ons f ound i n t hi s s t udy r e l a t e s t o i t s e xt e r na l va l i d i t y. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he t r e a t m e nt a nd c ont r o l gr oups kne w e a c h ot he r w e l l a nd of t e n vi s i t e d e a c h ot he r s c l a s s r oom s c r e a t i ng t he pe r f e c t e nvi r onm e nt f o r t r e a t m e nt di f f us i on. A l t hough pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he c ont r o l g r oup c l a i m e d t he y di d not s ha r e i nf or m a t i on pr ov i de d i n t he w or ks hops o r m a t e r i a l s c ont r ol gr oup t e a c he r s be ga n t o t a ke a nd i m pl e m e nt i de a s f ound i n c l a s s r oom s of t e a c he r s f r om t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup m a ki ng i t

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56 di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne i f c ha nge s i n t he c ont r o l gr o up w e r e due t o e xpos ur e t o t he t r e a t m e nt R e ga r dl e s s of t hi s l i m i t a t i on, t he s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t f i ndi ngs f r om pr e vi ous s t udi e s c onc l udi ng t ha t e s t a bl i s hi ng r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s a t t he be gi nn i ng of t he s c hool ye a r r e s ul t s i n i nc r e a s e d i ns t r uc t i ona l t i m e a nd s t ude nt t i m e on t a s k ( E m m e r e t a l 1980; E ve r t s on e t a l 1983, E ve r t s on, E m m e r C l e m e nt s S a nf o r d & W or s ha m 1 981) S e e A ppe ndi x A f o r a s um m a r y of t he s e s t udi e s S u m m ar y a n d C on c l u s i on s I n t he f i r s t s e c t i on of t hi s r e vi e w t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s w i t h r e s pe c t t o s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt w a s di s c us s e d. S t udi e s by W r i ght e t a l ( 1997 ) H a yc oc k ( 1998) P i a nt a e t a l ( 2002) a nd t he N I C H D E C C R N ( 2005) r e ve a l e d t ha t t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s va r i e s a c r os s t e a c he r s a nd c l a s s r oom s a nd t ha t t he r e i s a ga p be t w e e n w h a t e f f e c t i ve a nd t yp i c a l t e a c he r s do i n t he c l a s s r oom C ons i s t e nt l y, how e ve r t he r e vi e w e d s t udi e s s how e d t ha t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt f or s t ude nt s of a l l a bi l i t y l e ve l s ba c kgr ounds a nd ne e ds E xe m pl a r y t e a c he r s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s e f f e c t i ve l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t or s a nd out s t a ndi ng c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s R e s e a r c he r s s t r e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of i m p r ovi ng t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s s o t ha t qua l i t y t e a c he r s be c om e t he m a i n s t a y i n c l a s s r oom s a c r os s t he c ount r y. I n a n e f f or t t o de s c r i be how e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s pr ov i de e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, s e ve r a l s t udi e s c onduc t e d by P r e s s l e y a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s f r om 1997 t o 2001 w e r e pr e s e nt e d. T he c um ul a t i ve f i ndi ngs of t he s e s t udi e s i ndi c a t e t ha t e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng t e a c he r s pr ovi de i ns t r uc t i on t ha t i s ba l a nc e d w i t h e xpl i c i t s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on a nd a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e e xpe r i e nc e s A ddi t i ona l l y, e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng t e a c he r s de m ons t r a t e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e d s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt A va r i e t y of s t ude nt g r oupi ngs a nd t he us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a l s o w e r e f ound t o s uppor t s uc c e s s f ul di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng, w hi c h i n t u r n c ont r i bu t e s t o s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt i n r e a di ng

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57 W he n e xpl or i ng how t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng, M c I nt os h e t a l ( 1993) M oody a nd V a ughn ( 1997) V a ughn e t a l ( 1998 ) M oody e t a l ( 2000) V a ughn e t a l ( 1998) a nd S c hum m e t a l ( 2000 ) e xpl o r e d how t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng. T e a c he r s c ont i nue d t o i de nt i f y t i m e r e s our c e s a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a s ba r r i e r s t o s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i o n. A ddi t i ona l l y, r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt o f s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s i s l ow c om pa r e d t o t he i r pe e r s w he n t a ught us i ng w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i ona l f o r m a t s i n i nc l us i ve s e t t i ngs F ur t he r m or e e ve n w he n t e a c he r s a r e gi ve n t he s t r a t e gi e s a nd r e s our c e s t o i m pl e m e nt f l e xi bl e gr ou pi ng a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, t he y c ons i s t e nt l y r e l y on w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on d ue t o c onve ni e nc e a nd m a na ge m e nt c ons i de r a t i ons I t i s a ppa r e nt t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c ont i nue s t o be a c onc e r n of t e a c he r s a s t he y t r y t o m e e t t he ne e ds of s t ude nt s w i t h d i ve r s e l e a r ni ng a bi l i t i e s a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s i n i nc l us i ve s e t t i ngs F i na l l y, e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s w e r e i de nt i f i e d t hr ough a s e r i e s of s t udi e s c onduc t e d by E ve r t s on a nd c ol l e a gue s ( E m m e r e t a l 1980; E ve r t s on e t a l 1983; E ve r t s on, 1989 ) S uc c e s s f ul c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s t e a c h r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s a nd pr ov i de d c l e a r e xpe c t a t i ons w i t h c ons e que n c e s f or s t ude nt s a t t he be gi nni ng of t he s c hool ye a r C l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi g h s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt i nc l ude d pr ovi d i ng c l e a r di r e c t i ons dur i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l t a s ks a nd e l i c i t i ng s t ude nt f e e dba c k t o c he c k f o r unde r s t a ndi ng J us t a s e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i n r e a di ng ha s be e n s t r e s s e d by r e a di ng r e s e a r c he r s ( A da m s 1990; S now B ur ns & G r i f f i n, 1998; T or ge s e n & B ur ge s s 1998) c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d a t t he be gi nni ng of t he ye a r c ont r i but e t o i nc r e a s e d a c a de m i c e nga ge d t i m e f o r s t ude nt s a nd a r e duc t i on i n di s r upt i ve be ha vi or s t h r oughout t he s c hool ye a r ( E m m e r e t a l 1980; E ve r t s on e t a l 1983; E ve r t s on, 1989)

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58 R at i on al e f or t h e S t u d y G i ve n t ha t w e now know t ha t i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m us t go ha nd i n ha nd i n or de r f o r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt t o oc c ur ( E v e r t s on & H a r r i s 1992) w e a r e r e a dy t o e xa m i ne s pe c i f i c a l l y how c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c a n be a ppl i e d t o di f f e r e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l c ont e xt s e s pe c i a l l y t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. T o a ddr e s s t he l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a t hi s s t udy a ddr e s s e s t w o que s t i ons F i r s t do t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, a nd i f s o, i s i t ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d? S e c ond, how a r e t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s r e l a t e d t o i m p r ovi ng t he r e a di ng s ki l l s of e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s ? S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s s t udy w i l l a ddr e s s i f a nd how t e a c he r s c a n i m p r ove r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd i f i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s a r e s uppor t e d by c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s T o a ns w e r t he s e que s t i ons i t w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o obs e r ve c l a s s r oom s i n w hi c h di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng oc c ur s a nd t he n i de nt i f y t hos e c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s uc c e s s f ul i m pl e m e nt a t i on. B y a ddr e s s i ng t he s e que s t i ons a nd i de nt i f yi ng i m po r t a nt va r i a bl e s t ha t pr om ot e r e a di n g de ve l opm e nt pe r ha ps c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng w i l l no l onge r be pl a gue d w i t h t he i nc on s i s t e nc y w i t h t ha t w a s obs e r ve d i n t he va r i ous c l a s s r oom s i nvol ve d i n t he s t udi e s i nc l ude d i n t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w A d di t i ona l l y, pr ovi di ng t e a c he r s w i t h a r e s e a r c h ba s e d f r a m e w or k w oul d l e ve l t he pl a yi ng f i e l d f o r a l l s t ude nt s t o r e c e i ve qua l i t y i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng

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59 C H A P T E R 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y I n t r od u c t i on R e s e a r c he r s ha ve s how n t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s ne c e s s a r y i n or de r f or l e a r ni ng t o t a ke pl a c e but c a nnot s t a nd on i t s ow n. I ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m us t c oe xi s t i n or de r f o r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt t o oc c ur ( E ve r t s on & H a r r i s 1992) V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e xi s t s t ha t e xa m i ne s s pe c i f i c a l l y how c l a s s r oo m m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s a r e a ppl i e d i n va r i ous i ns t r uc t i ona l c ont e xt s e s pe c i a l l y t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd ho w t he t w o va r i a bl e s a f f e c t gr ow t h i n r e a di ng. T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons r e ga r di ng di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs : 1 D o t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd i f s o, i s di f f e r e nt i a t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt s ne e ds ? 2 I s t he r e a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y? H yp ot h e s e s B a s e d on t he s t a t e m e nt of t he p r obl e m t ha t e xi s t s w i t h r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons f or m ul a t e d t o a d dr e s s t he s e pr obl e m s f i ve nul l hypot he s e s w e r e ge ne r a t e d f or t hi s s t udy: H ypot he s i s 1 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e H ypot he s i s 2 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i r us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e n t s t r uc t ur e s H ypot he s i s 3 T e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e H ypot he s i s 4 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e

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60 H ypot he s i s 5 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s w i l l not r e s ul t i n a n i nc r e a s e i n f l ue nc y be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt p e r i ods I nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s w e r e us e d t o a dd r e s s H ypot he s e s 1 t hr ough 3, w hi l e m u l t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s w a s us e d t o a ns w e r H y pot he s e s 4 a nd 5. T he m e t hods e m pl oye d t o a ns w e r e a c h nul l hypot he s i s a s w e l l a s R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons 1 a nd 2 w i l l be f ur t he r de s c r i be d i n de t a i l I n t he r e m a i nde r o f C ha pt e r 3 t he r e s e a r c h m e t hods a r e de s c r i be d, i nc l udi ng t he s e t t i ng, pa r t i c i pa nt s m e a s u r e s da t a c ol l e c t i on p r oc e dur e s a nd m e t hods of da t a a na l ys i s us e d i n t he s t udy. M e t h od s S e t t i n g N i ne s c hool s i t e s i n t w o nor t h c e nt r a l F l or i da s c hool di s t r i c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d f or t hi s s t udy. T he s c hool s w e r e s e l e c t e d us i ng pur pos i ve s a m pl i ng pr oc e dur e s ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n 1994 ) t o i de nt i f y s c hool s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he R e a di ng F i r s t I ni t i a t i ve a s t a t e g r a nt p r ogr a m c r e a t e d t o e ns ur e t he us e of s c i e nt i f i c a l l y ba s e d r e s e a r c h a s t h e f ounda t i on f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n K i nde r ga r t e n t hr ough t hi r d gr a de s T he goa l of R e a di ng F i r s t i s t o e ns ur e t ha t a l l s t ude nt s a r e pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s by t hi r d gr a de t he r e by f oc us i ng r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on e f f or t s on t he p r i m a r y gr a de s R e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t s t ude nt s ne e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 90 m i nut e s o f t e a c he r di r e c t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o f a c i l i t a t e s t ude nt s uc c e s s a nd s ki l l m a s t e r y ( C oope r S l a vi n, & M a dde n, 1997; S l a vi n e t a l 1994 ) O ne o f t he i nt e gr a l pa r t s of R e a di ng F i r s t i s a de di c a t e d 90 m i nut e r e a di ng bl oc k t ha t pr om ot e s s ys t e m a t i c e xpl i c i t r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on us i ng c o m bi ne d w hol e a nd s m a l l gr oup f o r m a t s S c hool s a nd t e a c he r s a t pa r t i c i pa t i ng R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s w e r e s e l e c t e d on t he ba s i s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s i ni t i a t i ve r e qu i r e s t he m t o d i f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t hr ough t he us e o f s m a l l g r oup i ns t r uc t i o n a nd l i t e r a c y c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s ( G um m & T ur ne r 2004 )

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61 i n or de r t o m e e t t he ne e ds of t he i r s t ude nt s t he r e f o r e e xe m pl a r y us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on s houl d be obs e r ve d i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s B a s e d on t e a c he r r e po r t s a nd s c hool da t a t he de m ogr a phi c a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us of e a c h s c hool w a s r e c or de d a s f ol l ow s ( T a bl e 3 1) T a bl e 3 1 D e m ogr a phi c da t a o f pa r t i c i pa t i ng s c hool s S c hool S t ude nt E nr ol l m e nt W hi t e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n* H i s pa ni c A s i a n* O t he r F r e e / R e duc e d L unc h* 1 853 66 11 16 3 6 60 2 752 43 44 7 4 5 69 3 451 40 38 17 2 4 78 4 468 60 29 6 1 4 72 5 1037 34 17 38 2 8 70 6 559 52 28 16 1 4 71 7 310 53 35 4 1 5 66 8 506 13 77 3 1 6 89 9 359 3 92 1 1 3 89 *P e r c e nt a ge s P ar t i c i p an t s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 32 s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s f r om t w o s c hool di s t r i c t s i n no r t h c e nt r a l F l or i da S e c ond g r a de t e a c he r s w e r e c hos e n due t o t he na t ur e of i ns t r uc t i on t ha t t a ke s pl a c e pr i or t o a dm i ni s t r a t i on f or F l or i da s C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) w hi c h i s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o s t ude nt s i n g r a de s 3 11 a nd a l i gne d t o t he s t a t e s S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds a c r i t e r i on us e d f o r m e a s ur i ng s t ude nt be nc hm a r ks i n m a t he m a t i c s r e a di ng, s c i e nc e a nd w r i t i ng ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003) I ni t i a l c ont a c t w i t h pr i n c i pa l s a t t he i de nt i f i e d R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s i n e a c h of t he t w o s c hool di s t r i c t s e na bl e d t he r e s e a r c he r t o i de nt i f y 3 2 s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s w ho w e r e w i l l i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy a nd w ho w e r e r e s pons i bl e f or c onduc t i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. A pow e r a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne s a m pl e s i z e f or t hi s s t udy ba s e d on e f f e c t s i z e of t he va r i a bl e s s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t be i ng pr opos e d, a nd s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l of t he s t udy ( R ude s t a m & N e w t on, 2001) A c c or di ng t o C ohe n ( 1988) t he a c c e pt e d pow e r s houl d be no l e s s t ha n 80

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62 be c a us e t he pr oba bi l i t y of m a ki ng a T ype I I E r r or s houl d be no gr e a t e r t ha n 20 ( W e l kow i t z E w e n & C ohe n, 1991) U s i ng t he c om put e r pr og r a m G *P ow e r ( B uc hne r F a ul & E r d f e l de r 1997) i t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t a pow e r of 80 a l pha l e ve l of 05 a nd e f f e c t s i z e of 35 t he t ot a l s a m pl e s i z e ne e de d w a s 31. T o a c c ount f o r pa r t i c i pa nt a t t r i t i on 32 s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s w e r e r e c r ui t e d f o r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy ( T a bl e 3 2) T a bl e 3 2 D e m ogr a phi c da t a f or pa r t i c i pa nt s V a r i a bl e s ( n= 32) F r e qu e nc y P e r c e nt a ge G e nde r M a l e F e m a l e 1 31 3 1 96. 9 R a c e W hi t e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r H i s pa ni c 16 12 0 4 50. 0 37. 5 0 0 12. 5 D e gr e e H e l d B a c he l or s M a s t e r s 22 10 68. 8 31. 3 S pe c i a l C e r t i f i c a t i on R e a di ng S pe c i a l E duc a t i on O t he r 3 1 3 9 4 3 1 9 4 T e a c hi ng E xpe r i e nc e 1 5 6 10 11 15 16 20 21+ 10 7 6 3 6 31. 3 21. 9 18. 8 9 4 18. 9 M e as u r e s D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d be gi nni ng i n A ugus t 2006 a nd e ndi ng i n J a nua r y 2007. T he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r a s s um e d t he r e s pons i bi l i t y of c o nduc t i ng obs e r va t i ons a nd c om pi l i ng t e a c he r da t a T w o unde r g r a dua t e s t ude nt s w e r e r e c r ui t e d t o a s s i s t w i t h t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons ove r t he c our s e of t he s t udy, a nd a l s o he l pe d t o e s t a bl i s h i nt e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt f o r us i ng t he s t udy r e l a t e d c he c kl i s t s : C he c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on a nd C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t

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63 ( A ppe ndi x B ) O bs e r ve r s r e c r ui t e d by t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r w e r e t r a i ne d on t he us e a nd c om pl e t i on of e a c h c he c kl i s t by a s s i s t i ng w i t h pi l ot i ng t he i ns t r um e nt pr i or t o t he s t udy s i ni t i a l c ol l e c t i on pe r i od. T e ac h e r d at a N om i na t e d t e a c he r s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a c he c kl i s t de s i gne d t o pr ovi de i de nt i f yi ng a nd de m ogr a phi c i nf or m a t i on a bou t t he m s e l ve s a s pa r t i c i pa nt s ( A ppe ndi x C ) I nf or m a t i on ga t he r e d i nc l ude d ge nde r r a c e de gr e e s c e r t i f i c a t i ons a nd ye a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e A ddi t i ona l l y t he que s t i onna i r e a s ke d t e a c he r s t o c a t e gor i z e t he i r s c hool a s ur ba n, s ubur ba n, o r r ur a l i de n t i f y how m a ny s t ude nt s i n t he i r c l a s s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d w i t h a r a nge of di s a bi l i t i e s a nd i de nt i f y t he r e a di ng pr ogr a m c ur r e nt l y i n us e i n t he c l a s s r oom P r i or t o e a c h obs e r va t i on, t e a c he r s ha d t he opt i on of c om pl e t i ng a P r e O bs e r va t i on C he c kl i s t pr i or t o t he i r s c he dul e d obs e r va t i on. T hi s c he c kl i s t a ddr e s s e d pot e nt i a l i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c oul d not be i de nt i f i e d by t he obs e r v a t i on t ool s s uc h a s ba s i s f or gr oupi ng dur i ng t he r e a di ng l e s s on, m e t hod of g r oupi ng ( he t e r oge n e ous or hom oge ne ous ) ba s i s f o r r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i on, a nd t ype s o f i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t e d f or di f f e r e nt gr oups ( A ppe ndi x B ) I nf o r m a t i on p r ovi de d i n t hi s c he c kl i s t w a s i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he obs e r va t i on t oo l s l i s t e d i n t he O bs e r v at i on D at a s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r O b s e r vat i on d at a D i f f e r e n t i at e d r e ad i n g i n s t r u c t i on m e as u r e T h r e e 60 t o 90 m i nut e c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons pe r t e a c he r oc c ur r e d be t w e e n A ugus t 2006 a nd J a nua r y 2007. D a t a c ol l e c t or s w e r e s c he dul e d t o obs e r ve i n e a c h c l a s s r oom f or t he du r a t i on of t he r e a d i ng b l oc k, w hi c h w a s t ypi c a l l y a de di c a t e d 90 m i nu t e r e a di ng b l oc k. D u e t o c ha nge s i n s c he dul i ng or t e a c he r pl a nni ng, m os t obs e r va t i ons of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on oc c ur r e d be t w e e n 60 90 m i nut e s i n e a c h

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64 c l a s s r oom T he t hr e e obs e r va t i ons w e r e c onduc t e d ove r t h e c our s e of t he s e m e s t e r ( M c I nt os h, V a ughn, S c hum m H a a ge r & L e e 1993; M oody, V a ughn, H ughe s & F i s c he r 2000 ; V a ughn, H ughe s S c hum m & K l i ngne r 1998 ) us i ng t he C h e c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on ( C D I ) a c he c kl i s t c r e a t e d by t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r a nd a da pt e d f r om t he f ol l ow i ng m e a s ur e s : C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e ( ) a nd E v al uat i on of C e nt e r E nv i r onm e nt ( M c I nt os h e t a l 1993; O w oc ki 2005) T he C l as s r oom C l i m at e C he c k l i s t w a s s e l e c t e d f or us e a s pa r t o f t he obs e r va t i on t ool be c a us e i t w a s de ve l ope d t o p r ovi de a m e t hod f or w hi c h t e a c he r a nd s t ude nt be ha vi or s c oul d be obs e r ve d dur i ng a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on ( M c I nt os h e t a l 1993 ) C ons i s t i ng of f our c om pone nt s ( T e a c he r i ni t i a t e d be ha vi or s s t ude nt i n i t i a t e d be ha vi or s s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd i n t e r a c t i on, a nd ove r a l l c l a s s r oom c l i m a t e ) t he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e pr ovi de s a w a y i n w hi c h r e s e a r c he r s c a n m e a s ur e t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e i ns t r uc t i on. T he E v al uat i on of C e nt e r E nv i r onm e nt f or m w a s c r e a t e d s o t ha t t e a c he r s w ho di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c oul d e va l ua t e t he us e of c e nt e r s i n t he i r c l a s s r oom B y a da pt i ng a nd c om bi ni ng t he s e t w o i ns t r um e nt s t o f or m t he C he c kl i s t f o r D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on ( C D I ) t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r w a s a bl e t o e va l ua t e t he m a nne r i n w hi c h di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on oc c ur s dur i ng r e a di ng. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he C D I w a s de s i gne d t o p r ovi de i nf or m a t i on r e ga r di ng how t e a c he r s c a r r y ou t r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o m e e t t he ne e ds of a d i ve r s e popul a t i on of s t ude nt s dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. T he C D I c ont a i ns f ou r s pe c i f i c dom a i ns : t e a c he r be ha vi or s s t ude nt be ha vi or s m a t e r i a l s a n d l i t e r a c y c e nt e r us e E a c h do m a i n c ont a i ns obs e r va bl e i ndi c a t or s r e l a t e d t o t he dom a i n t ha t c a n be a ns w e r e d w i t h a Y e s N o or U nc l e a r r e s pons e by t he o bs e r ve r S e e T a bl e C 1 i n A ppe ndi x C f or i ndi c t or de f i ni t i ons A c c or di ng t o T om l i ns on ( 2001 ) di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o ha ve a c c e s s t o a c a de m i c c ont e nt t hr ough a va r i e t y of i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s gr oupi ngs us e of m a t e r i a l s a nd

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65 pr e s e nt a t i ons T e a c he r s us e a ba l a nc e of w hol e c l a s s s m a l l gr oup, a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i on de pe ndi ng on t he ne e ds of t he s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom D i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on a l l ow s t e a c he r s t o pr ovi de t he a c c e s s t o t he s a m e c ur r i c ul um t o a l l s t ude nt s s o t ha t a l l c hi l dr e n c a n m a ke a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s T he C D I c he c kl i s t a l l ow s t he o bs e r ve r t o e xa m i ne t e a c he r s us e of t he s e i ns t r uc t i ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i nc l udi ng i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s gr oupi ngs a nd m a t e r i a l us e C l as s r oom m an age m e n t m e as u r e D uke ( 19 7 9) de f i ne d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a s t he pr ovi s i ons a nd pr oc e dur e s ne c e s s a r y t o e s t a bl i s h a nd m a i nt a i n a n e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h i ns t r uc t i on a nd l e a r ni ng c a n oc c ur ( p. xi i ) I n c l a s s r oom s w i t h e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w ho pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt r e s e a r c he r s ( e g. M or r ow e t a l 1999; P r e s s l e y e t a l 1996; W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l 1998) f ound t ha t c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w a s a ne c e s s a r y c om pone nt of e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. T o a d dr e s s t he que s t i on r e ga r di ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd r e a di ng gr ow t h, obs e r ve r s us e d a n a da pt a t i on of t he B e s t P r ac t i c e s C l as s r oom M anage m e nt C he c k l i s t c r e a t e d by F l or i da s P os i t i ve B e ha vi or S uppor t s P r oj e c t f o r t he C e nt e r f or P os i t i ve B e ha vi or I nt e r v e nt i ons a nd S uppor t s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l or i da T he C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t ( C M C ) w a s de s i gne d f or t hi s p r opos e d s t udy t o a s s i s t obs e r ve r s i n i de nt i f yi ng be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt T he C M C c ove r s f our dom a i ns o f be s t pr a c t i c e s i nc l udi ng c l a s s r oom a r r a nge m e nt s c he du l i ng, i ns t r uc t i ona l pl a nni ng a nd de l i ve r y, a nd c l a s s r oom di s c i pl i ne pl a n. E a c h dom a i n c ont a i ns obs e r va bl e i ndi c a t or s r e l a t e d t o t he dom a i n t ha t c a n be a ns w e r e d w i t h a Y e s N o or U nc l e a r r e s pons e by t he obs e r ve r S e e T a bl e C 2 i n A ppe ndi x C f or ope r a t i ona l de f i ni t i ons of e a c h i ndi c t or T he C D I a nd C M C w e r e c om bi ne d i nt o one c he c kl i s t t ha t w a s c om pl e t e d by e a c h obs e r ve r i n e a c h c l a s s r oom t hr oughout t he c our s e of t he s t u dy. T he s e i ns t r um e nt s w e r e pi l ot e d i n t he

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66 c l a s s r oom of t e n t e a c he r s not pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy a nd a l l obs e r ve r s w e r e t a ught t o us e t he C D I a nd C M C dur i ng pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons i n t he s e s a m e c l a s s r oom s O bs e r ve r t r a i ni ng i s de s c r i be d i n de t a i l i n t he P r oc e dur e s s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r A ddi t i ona l l y, i nt e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt w i l l be e s t a bl i s he d on t hi s m e a s ur e R e ad i n g m e as u r e S t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y w a s m e a s ur e d by a n a l yz i ng e a c h c l a s s r oom s c or e s on t he D y nam i c I ndi c at or s of B as i c E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l s ( D I B E L S G ood & K a m i ns ki 2002 ) D I B E L S i s a pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng t ool de s i gn e d t o a s s i s t s c hool s i n de t e r m i ni ng w hi c h s t ude nt s a r e m e e t i ng be nc hm a r ks i n de ve l opm e nt o f s pe c i f i c e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s T he m e a s ur e s w e r e de ve l ope d ba s e d on r e s e a r c h r e vi e w e d by bot h t he N a t i ona l R e s e a r c h C ounc i l ( 1998) a nd t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) a nd i nc l ude s a s s e s s m e nt of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e a nd f l ue nc y. D I B E L S i s us e d a s a n e va l ua t i ve t ool t ha t i nf or m s i ns t r uc t i ona l p r a c t i c e f or s t ude nt s w ho do not de m ons t r a t e pr of i c i e nc y o f t he e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s a nd yi e l ds s c or e s a nd i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt r e por t s t ha t i ndi c a t e w he t he r a s t ude nt i s pe r f or m i ng a t be nc hm a r k, s t r a t e gi c or i nt e ns i ve s t a t us A t be nc hm a r k, s t ude nt s s c or i ng i n t hi s r a nge a r e c ons i de r e d t o be l ow r i s k a nd a r e a t g r a de l e ve l f o r i ni t i a l c or e r e a di ng p r og r a m i ns t r uc t i on. I n t he s t r a t e gi c r a nge s t ude nt s a r e c ons i de r e d i n t he m ode r a t e r i s k r a nge a nd a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s ne e di ng s t r a t e gi c or a ddi t i ona l i nt e r ve nt i ons i n r e a di ng i n a ddi t i on t o t he c or e r e a di ng pr ogr a m S t ude nt s s c or i ng i n t he i nt e ns i ve c a t e gor y a r e de e m e d hi gh r i s k a nd c ons i d e r e d e l i gi bl e f o r r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t f oc us on one on one i nt e r ve nt i ons be yond t he c or e r e a di ng pr og r a m ( G ood, S i m m ons K a m e e nui K a m i ns ki & W a l l i n 2002) T he D I B E L S O r a l R e a di ng F l ue nc y ( O R F ) m e a s ur e w a s s e l e c t e d f or us e i n t hi s s t udy be c a us e i t i s a s t a nda r di z e d t e s t of a c c ur a c y a nd f l u e nc y t ha t us e s c onne c t e d t e xt A ddi t i ona l l y

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67 D I B E L S O R F w a s de s i gne d t o ( a ) i de nt i f y c hi l dr e n w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s w ho m a y r e qui r e a ddi t i ona l i ns t r uc t i ona l s uppor t s i n r e a di ng a nd ( b) m oni t or pr ogr e s s t ow a r d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i ona l goa l s E a c h r e a di ng pa s s a ge i s c a l i br a t e d f or t he gr a de l e ve l r e a di ng goa l F u r t he r m or e s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e i s m e a s ur e d by ha vi ng s t ude nt s r e a d t hr e e s pe c i f i e d pa s s a ge s a l oud f or one m i nut e a r e s c or e d a s e r r or s T he num be r o f c or r e c t w or ds r e a d pe r m i nut e m i nus e r r or s ( w o r ds om i t t e d, s ubs t i t ut e d, a nd he s i t a t i ons of m o r e t ha n t hr e e s e c onds ) f r om t he pa s s a ge i s c ons i de r e d t he or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y r a t e A c c or di ng t o O s bor n, L e hr a nd H i e be r t ( 2003 ) f l ue nc y c a n be t hought of a s a br i dge be t w e e n w or d r e c ogni t i on a nd c om pr e h e ns i on. W he n f l ue nt r e a de r s a r e a bl e t o i de nt i f y w or ds a c c ur a t e l y a nd a ut om a t i c a l l y, t he y a r e a bl e t o not onl y c onc e nt r a t e a nd f oc us t he i r a t t e nt i on on c om pr e he ndi ng t e xt but a l s o m a ke c onne c t i ons t o t he t e xt ba s e d on t he i r ba c kgr ound know l e dge F l ue nt r e a de r s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o r e c ogni z e w or ds a nd c om p r e he nd a t t he s a m e t i m e w hi l e l e s s f l ue nt r e a de r s m us t f oc us m uc h of t he i r a t t e nt i on on w o r d r e c ogni t i on r e s ul t i ng i n poo r c om pr e he ns i on D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt s oc c ur t hr e e t i m e s pe r ye a r i n t he F a l l W i nt e r a nd S p r i ng. R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s a r e r e qui r e d t o us e D I B E L S a s a n on goi ng pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng t ool a nd t o a s s i s t t e a c he r s i n i m pl e m e nt i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s t h a t w i l l m ove s t ude nt s f r om i nt e ns i ve or s t r a t e gi c t o be nc hm a r k s t a t us R e a di ng F i r s t gui de l i ne s s ugge s t r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t s houl d be i m pl e m e nt e d f o r s t ude nt s a t e a c h r i s k l e ve l F o r e xa m pl e s t ude nt s s c or i ng a t t he i n t e ns i ve or s t r a t e gi c l e ve l i n s e c ond gr a de on t he O R F w ou l d be ne f i t f r om r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t ha t i nc l ude s f l ue nc y bui l di ng a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s r e pe a t e d r e a di ngs w i t h a n a dul t pa i r e d r e a di ng w i t h a m o r e pr of i c i e nt r e a de r or t a pe a s s i s t e d r e a di ng c oul d i m pr ove r e a di ng f l ue nc y. T e a c he r s w ho us e D I B E L S r e por t s t o i nf o r m c l a s s r oom r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd s ki l l r e vi e w a l s o pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h pr a c t i c e oppor t un i t i e s dur i ng c e nt e r w or k a nd i nde pe nde nt r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s

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68 D I B E L S s c or e s w e r e r e vi e w e d us i ng t he C l a s s S t a t us R e por t t o c a l c ul a t e m e a n s c or e s on O R F m e a s ur e s t ha t a r e r e por t e d f or e a c h t e a c he r d ur i ng t he a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods T e a c he r s r e c e i ve d c l a s s r e por t s f ol l ow i ng e a c h a s s e s s m e nt of D I B E L S a nd p r ovi de d t he r e s e a r c he r w i t h c opi e s w i t h a C l a s s S t a t us R e por t s o t ha t a c l a s s a ve r a ge c oul d be c a l c ul a t e d. C l a s s a ve r a ge s w e r e r e c or de d f o r bot h D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt s c ha n ge s i n or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y w e r e r e c or de d, a nd a ve r a ge s c or e s on e a c h c he c kl i s t w e r e r e c or de d. C l a s s a ve r a ge s of D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt s w e r e obt a i ne d be c a us e t he y r e pr e s e nt a w hol e c l a s s m e a s ur e of r e a di ng f l ue nc y. B e c a us e t he C D I a nd C M C a r e w hol e c l a s s m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a e qua l m e a s ur e of w hol e c l a s s r e a di ng f l ue nc y ha d t o be c a l c ul a t e d f or c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys i s P r oc e d u r e s C on s e n t T he doc t or a l s t ud e nt r e s e a r c he r obt a i ne d I ns t i t ut i o na l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a pp r ova l t o c onduc t r e s e a r c h i n t he t w o N or t h C e nt r a l F l o r i da s c hool di s t r i c t s ( A ppe ndi xE ) A f t e r s c hool s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s R e a di ng F i r s t pa r t i c i pa nt s pr i nc i pa l s r e c e i ve d l e t t e r s de l i ne a t i ng t he n a t u r e of t he r e s e a r c h t o be c onduc t e d a nd r e que s t i ng pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he r e s e a r c h s t udy ( A ppe ndi x E ) C ons e nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy w a s obt a i ne d f r om e a c h of t he t e a c he r s r e c r ui t e d ( A ppe ndi x E ) A f t e r c ons e nt w a s obt a i ne d, t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r be ga n c r e a t i ng a s c he dul e f or obs e r va t i ons s o t ha t e a c h t e a c he r w a s not i f i e d o f t h e i r r e s pe c t i ve obs e r va t i on pe r i od O b s e r vat i on s P i l ot p h as e T he r e s e a r c he r a l ong w i t h s e ve r a l da t a c ol l e c t or s c onduc t e d a l l c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons D a t a c ol l e c t or s w e r e t r a i ne d on t he us e of t he C D I a nd C M C i ns t r um e nt dur i ng t he pi l ot pha s e of t h i s s t udy. D a t a c ol l e c t or s a c c om pa ni e d t he r e s e a r c he r on e a c h of t e n obs e r va t i ons i n r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i n one s c hool di s t r i c t i n N or t h C e nt r a l F l o r i da P r i or t o

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69 e a c h c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i on, da t a c ol l e c t or s r e vi e w e d t he ope r a t i ona l de f i ni t i ons a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or s a nd a s ke d c l a r i f yi ng que s t i ons r e ga r di ng i ndi c t o r s t ha t w e r e unc l e a r T he c he c kl i s t s w e r e c om pl e t e d s e pa r a t e l y t he s t ud e nt r e s e a r c he r a nd t he da t a c ol l e c t or du r i ng t he pi l ot pha s e T he da t a c ol l e c t or w a s e nc our a ge d t o m a ke not e of a ny c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or t ha t w a s unc l e a r or c onf us i ng t o t he m dur i ng t he obs e r va t i o n. A f t e r t he c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i on w a s c om pl e t e t he r e s e a r c h a nd da t a c ol l e c t or c onduc t e d a m e e t i ng t o c om pa r e c he c kl i s t i t e m s a nd i t e m s t ha t w e r e de e m e d a s unc l e a r T he r e s e a r c he r poi nt e d out s pe c i f i c e xa m pl e s of t he i ndi c a t or i f i t w a s obs e r ve d dur i ng t he obs e r va t i on. D at a c ol l e c t i on p h as e O bs e r va t i ons w e r e c on duc t e d us i ng t he c om bi ne d C he c kl i s t f o r D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on ( C D I ) a nd t he C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t ( C M C ) a s de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on. C l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons t o ok pl a c e dur i ng t he 90 m i nut e r e a di ng bl oc k i n e a c h t e a c he r s c l a s s r oom E a c h t e a c he r w a s obs e r ve d f or 60 90 m i nut e s dur i ng e a c h of t hr e e obs e r va t i ons t hr oughout t he s t udy pe r i od. A l t houg h t he r e a di ng bl oc k w a s s c he dul e d f or 90 m i nut e s i n e a c h c l a s s r oom t he a m oun t of t i m e s pe nt on r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on r a nge d be t w e e n 60 a nd 90 m i nut e s i n m os t pa r t i c i pa t i ng c l a s s r oom s T he f i r s t r ound of obs e r va t i ons be ga n t w o w e e ks a f t e r s c hool s t a r t e d i n e a c h s c hool di s t r i c t O bs e r va t i ons w e r e s t a gge r e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y s i x w e e ks a pa r t w i t h a l l obs e r va t i ons c om pl e t e d b y t he e nd o f J a nua r y 2007 W he n us i ng t he C D I a nd C M C a s a m e a s ur e m e nt t ool dur i ng t he c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons obs e r ve r s m a r ke d Y e s w he n a n i ndi c a t or on t he c he c kl i s t i s obs e r ve d, N o w he n i t w a s not obs e r ve d, or U nc l e a r w he n i t t he obs e r ve r w a s n ot s ur e t he i ndi c a t o r w a s a c c ur a t e l y r e pr e s e nt e d dur i ng t he obs e r va t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y t he obs e r ve r s w e r e e nc our a ge d t o t a ke a ne c dot a l not e s of l e s s ons t he y obs e r ve d, m a ki ng not e of s pe c i f i c c l a s s r oom r u l e s pos t e d, s t r a t e gi e s i m pl e m e nt e d, or ot he r p r oc e dur e s t ha t oc c ur r e d dur i ng t h e obs e r va t i on

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70 P r i or t o e a c h obs e r va t i on, pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s w e r e gi ve n t he opt i on of c om pl e t i ng a P r e O bs e r va t i on C he c kl i s t w hi c h pr ovi de d i ns i ght s i nt o i ndi c a t or s t ha t c oul d not be di r e c t l y obs e r ve d by t he da t a c ol l e c t or s T he i nf or m a t i on t h e t e a c h e r s pr ovi de d w a s i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he a ns w e r s on t he c he c kl i s t s A f t e r e a c h obs e r va t i on, t he r e s e a r c he r t ot a l e d t he Y e s r e s pons e s f or e a c h i ndi c a t or a nd a s s i gne d e a c h c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i on f or e a c h t e a c he r a num e r i c a l s c or e A t t he c onc l us i on of t he s t udy, t he m e di a n s c or e f o r t he t hr e e obs e r va t i ons w a s us e d a s t he t e a c he r s t ot a l s c or e f or t he C D I a nd t he C M C A ddi t i ona l l y m e di a n s c or e s w e r e obt a i ne d on e a c h c he c kl i s t s e pa r a t e l y, s o t ha t t he r e s e a r c he r c oul d d e t e r m i ne i f di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on o r c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s ha d uni que i nf l ue nc e s on s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s I n t e r ob s e r ve r A gr e e m e n t T o de t e r m i ne t he c ons i s t e nc y of obs e r ve r s dur i ng c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons us i ng t he C D I a nd C M S i nt e r obs e r ve r a g r e e m e nt da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d ( K e nne dy, 2005) P r i or t o t he obs e r va t i on pe r i od, t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r r e c r ui t e d a s s i s t a nc e f r om unde r gr a dua t e s t ude nt s t o a i d i n da t a c ol l e c t i on pr oc e dur e s E a c h obs e r ve r w a s t r a i ne d on t he us e of e a c h obs e r va t i on t ool a nd pa r t i c i pa t e d i n obs e r va t i ons t o e s t a bl i s h i nt e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt i n t he c l a s s r oom s of non pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s T he c he c kl i s t s w e r e pi l ot e d ove r a pe r i od of 10 s e s s i ons dur i ng t he pi l ot pha s e of t h i s s t udy. A r e l i a bi l i t y of 80 or h i ghe r w a s de e m e d a c c e pt a bl e ( K a z di n, 1982, K e nne dy, 2005 ) R e l i a bi l i t i e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d us i ng t he oc c ur r e nc e / non oc c ur r e nc e m e t hod of e s t i m a t i ng. E a c h t i m e a n i ndi c a t or w a s obs e r ve d by bot h t he pr i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y obs e r ve r a s a Y e s r e s pons e a n oc c ur r e nc e w a s t a l l i e d. R e l i a bi l i t y w a s c a l c ul a t e d by di vi di ng t he t ot a l num be r of Y e s r e s pons e s t a l l i e d by t he t ot a l num be r of oc c ur r e nc e s pos s i bl e A ddi t i ona l l y, i nt e r obs e r ve r r e l i a bi l i t y w a s obt a i ne d on 25 out of 96 o r 20% of t he t ot a l obs e r va t i ons

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71 S t u d e n t R e ad i n g A s s e s s m e n t D at a T he r e s e a r c he r c ol l e c t e d c l a s s r oom da t a on s t ude nt s D I B E L S s c or e s f or t he F a l l ( D I B E L S 1) a nd W i nt e r ( D I B E L S 2) a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods U s i ng t he C l as s St at us R e por t c r e a t e d a t t he c onc l us i on of e a c h a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od, t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r c om pi l e d s c or e s f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r ba s e d on t he m e a n D I B E L S s c or e i n O R F f or a l l s t ude nt s D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 a s s e s s m e nt s w e r e c om pa r e d t o de t e r m i ne ove r a l l i nc r e a s e i n w o r ds pe r m i nut e f o r a l l s t ude nt s a nd e a c h t e a c he r w a s a s s i gne d a num e r i c a l s c or e r e pr e s e nt i ng t he i r c l a s s a ve r a ge a nd a s e pa r a t e s c or e r e pr e s e nt i ng t he c ha nge i n O R F be t w e e n D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 a s s e s s m e nt s D e s i gn an d D at a A n al ys i s T he St at i s t i c al P ac k age f or t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s V e r s i on 11. 0 ( S P S S ) w a s us e d f or a l l da t a a na l ys i s T o a ns w e r t he f i r s t r e s e a r c h que s t i on, ( D o t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd i f s o, i s di f f e r e nt i a t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt s ne e ds ? ) bi va r i a t e c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys i s w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f c or r e l a t i ons e xi s t e d be t w e e n c l a s s r oom D I B E L S o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ( O R F ) s c or e s a nd t e a c he r s r a t i ngs on t he C D I a nd C M C E a c h t e a c he r s s c or e on t he C D I a nd C M C w a s e nt e r e d i nt o t he S P S S da t a ba s e a l ong w i t h t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c l a s s r oom a ve r a ge s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e T o a ns w e r t he s e c ond r e s e a r c h que s t i on ( I s t he r e a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y? ) t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m e t hods a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o pr e di c t o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s i n s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s w a s de t e r m i ne d us i ng s i m ul t a ne ous m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s T w o m ode l s w e r e us e d t o t e s t H ypot he s e s 4 a nd 5. T he f i r s t m ode l r e pr e s e nt s t he f ul l m ul t i p l e r e gr e s s i on m ode l w i t h a l l va r i a bl e s p r e s e nt w hi l e t he s e c ond m ode l r e pr e s e nt s t he a dj us t e d m ode l w i t h t he pos t t e s t r e m ove d f r om t he e qua t i on ( T a bl e 3 3 ) M ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on w a s us e d t o e s t a bl i s h or pr e di c t

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72 t he por t i on of t he va r i a nc e i n t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s t ude nt r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e by t he s e t of i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a t a p r e de t e r m i ne d s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l U s i ng s i m ul t a ne ous m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on, a l l t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s w e r e c ons i de r e d a t t he s a m e t i m e ( H uc k, 2004) A ddi t i ona l l y, a s e c ond m ode l w a s i nt r oduc e d, r e m ovi ng t he pos t t e s t D I B E L S 2 O R F ( w i nt e r ) s c or e s t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s of t he c om bi ne d C D I a nd C M C on t he D I B E L S 1 O R F ( f a l l ) a s s e s s m e nt T a bl e 3 3 R e gr e s s i on m o de l s M ode l E qua t i on V a r i a bl e D e f i ni t i ons M ode l 1 Y = a + b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + b 3 X 3 + e Y = s t ude nt r e a di ng s c or e s pr e D I B E L S a = t he c ons t a nt w he r e t he r e gr e s s i on l i ne i nt e r c e pt s t he y a xi s a nd r e pr e s e nt s t he a m ount t he de pe nde nt y w i l l be w he n a l l t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s a r e 0. b= r e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt s r e p r e s e nt i ng t he a m ount t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( y) c ha nge s w he n t he c or r e s pondi ng i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( x) c ha nge s one uni t ; X 1 = s t ude nt r e a di ng s c or e s pos t D I B E L S ; X 2 = s c or e on C he c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on; X 3 = S c or e on C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t ; a nd e = t he e r r or t e r m M ode l 2 Y = a + b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + e Y = s t ude nt r e a di ng s c or e s pr e D I B E L S a = t he c ons t a nt w he r e t he r e gr e s s i on l i ne i nt e r c e pt s t he y a xi s a nd r e pr e s e nt s t he a m ount t he de pe nde nt y w i l l be w he n a l l t h e i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s a r e 0 b= r e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt s r e p r e s e nt i ng t he a m ount t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( y) c ha nge s w he n t he c or r e s pondi ng i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( x) c ha nge s one uni t X 1 = s c or e on C he c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on X 2 = s c or e on C l a s s r o om M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t e = t he e r r or t e r m

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73 S t ude nt r e a di ng s c or e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s w e r e c ol l e c t e d a s pr e a nd pos t t e s t s c or e s f or t he F a l l ( D I B E L S 1) a nd W i nt e r ( D I B E L S 2 ) a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods r e s pe c t i ve l y. T he pos t t e s t da t a w e r e e nt e r e d i n f i r s t a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e S e c ondl y t he s c or e s f or t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s of t he C he c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e n t i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on a nd C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t w e r e e nt e r e d i nt o t he r e gr e s s i on e qua t i on. C or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s w e r e r e po r t e d a s m u l t i pl e c or r e l a t i ons or R 2 w hi c h i s t he pe r c e nt o f s ha r e d va r i a nc e i n t he de pe nde nt or out c om e va r i a bl e e xpl a i ne d c ol l e c t i ve l y by a l l t he i nde pe nd e nt or e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s U s i ng SP SS s of t w a r e t he r e s e a r c he r hope d t o de m ons t r a t e t ha t t he s c or e s obt a i ne d on t he C D I a nd C M C ( e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s ) c a n p r e di c t r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s f or s t ude nt s i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on oc c ur s L i m i t at i on s I n t e r n al T h r e at s t o V al i d i t y T hi s s t udy e m pl oye d a p r e t e s t / pos t t e s t de s i gn, w hi c h m a ke s i t s ubj e c t t o t hr e a t s t o i nt e r na l va l i di t y s pe c i f i c a l l y t i m e a nd hi s t or y e f f e c t s T he r e w e r e no obs e r ve d e ve nt s e xt e r na l t o t he c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons or s t ude nt a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods t ha t m i ght ha ve ha d a n e f f e c t on e i t he r t he c he c kl i s t s c or e s or s t ude nt r e a di ng out c om e s T he s t udy l a s t e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y f ou r m on t hs w hi c h i s ha l f t he s c hool ye a r w hi c h i nt r oduc e d t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t he s t ude nt s i n e a c h of t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng c l a s s r oom s w oul d not de m ons t r a t e s i gni f i c a nt r e a di ng g r ow t h ove r t he c ou r s e of t hi s s t udy, t he r e f o r e m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o de m ons t r a t e t he pr e di c t i ve na t ur e o f di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s on r e a di ng gr ow t h. M or t a l i t y r a t e s w e r e no t a c onc e r n i n t hi s s t udy due t o t he s t a bi l i t y of t he t e a c he r popul a t i ons a t t he s c hool s s e l e c t e d, a s w e l l a s t he c ons t r i c t e d t i m e f r a m e o f t he s t udy. A l l t e a c he r s r e m a i ne d i nvol ve d t hr oughout t he dur a t i on of t he s t udy, a nd none w e r e t r a ns f e r r e d.

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74 E xt e r n al T h r e at s t o V al i d i t y A l t hough t he s a m pl e c ont a i ne d onl y one m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt t he r e w a s va l i d r e pr e s e nt a t i on by r a c e a nd ye a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e M or e t e a c he r s pos s e s s e d a ba c he l or s de gr e e t ha n a ny ot he r de gr e e a nd onl y 22% o f t e a c he r pa r t i c i pa nt s pos s e s s e d s pe c i a l c e r t i f i c a t i on of s om e ki nd. A l l a t t e m pt s w e r e m a de t o c ont r ol f o r t he i nt e r a c t i on of s e l e c t i on a nd t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t s by e ns ur i ng t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy w a s vol unt a r y, a nd t ha t t e a c he r s w e r e not a w a r e of t he c he c kl i s t i t e m s pr i or t o a ny obs e r va t i ons W i t hout know l e dge of t he c he c kl i s t i t e m s t h e r e w a s not t hr e a t t ha t t e a c he r s w oul d di s c us s t he c l a s s r oom be ha vi or s t o be obs e r ve d a nd r e c or de d on t he c he c kl i s t s D e s pi t e t he s e l i m i t a t i ons a ny c or r e l a t i ons m a de be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt / gr ow t h i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on oc c ur s a l ong w i t h t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c oul d pr ovi de f ut ur e r e s e a r c he r s w i t h t he r e s e a r c h ne e de d t o c r e a t e ne w i nt e r ve nt i o ns T e a c he r s c r y out f or oppor t uni t i e s t o l e a r n ne w s t r a t e gi e s a nd i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t he l p t he m p r o m ot e s t ude nt s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd he l p t he m m a na ge t he i r c l a s s r oom s ( M oody e t a l 2000 ; V a ughn e t a l 1998) A ddi t i ona l l y T e a c he r s of t e n r e por t t ha t s m a l l gr oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s e f f e c t i ve a nd i m po r t a nt t o s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( P r e s s l e y e t a l 1998; W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l 1998 ) but s t a t e t ha t t i m e l a c k know l e dge of i ns t r uc t i ona l s ki l l s a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s pr e ve nt t he m f r om a de qua t e l y m e e t i ng t he ne e ds of a l l t he i r s t ude nt s t hr ough di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( S c hum m e t a l 2000; V a ughn e t a l 1998) T hi s pr opos e d s t udy ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o de m ons t r a t e t he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t hos e pi vot a l c l a s s r oom c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o pr e di c t s t ude nt s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt

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75 C H A P T E R 4 R E S U L T S I n t r o d u c t i on T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : 1. D o t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd i f s o, i s di f f e r e nt i a t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt s ne e ds ? 2. I s t he r e a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y? T he f ol l ow i ng nul l hypot he s e s w e r e t e s t e d i n t hi s s t udy: H ypot he s i s 1 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s o n t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e H ypot he s i s 2 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i r us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e n t s t r uc t ur e s H ypot he s i s 3 T e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e H ypot he s i s 4 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e H ypot he s i s 5 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s w i l l not r e s ul t i n a n i nc r e a s e i n f l ue nc y be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt p e r i ods T he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs i n t hi s c ha pt e r a r e p r e s e nt e d i n f our s e c t i ons T he f i r s t s e c t i on pr e s e nt s de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s on t he s a m pl e T he s e c ond s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r pr e s e nt s t he i nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s D a t a f r om t he c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys e s c onduc t e d t o a ns w e r R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 1 a nd H yp ot he s e s 1, 2 a nd 3 w i l l be pr e s e nt e d. T hi r d t he r e s ul t s of t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s a r e pr e s e nt e d t o a ns w e r R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons 2 a nd H ypot he s e s 4 a nd 5.

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76 F i na l l y, de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a r e pr e s e nt e d on t he i t e m a na l ys i s c onduc t e d on t he c he c kl i s t s of t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s a s w e l l a s i nt e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt da t a t ha t w e r e c om p i l e d. D e s c r i p t i ve an d I n f e r e n t i al S t a t i s t i c s S am p l e D e s c r i p t i on T he s a m pl e i n t h i s s t udy c ons i s t e d of 32 s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s i n ni ne e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i n t w o nor t h c e nt r a l F l o r i da s c hool di s t r i c t s A l l pa r t i c i pa t i ng s c hool s w e r e R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s w e r e r e por t e d a s e i t he r s ubur ba n or r u r a l a nd c ons i de r e d hi gh pove r t y s c hool s D e m ogr a phi c da t a f or a l l t e a c he r pa r t i c i pa nt s i s s h ow n i n T a bl e 3 3 O f t he 32 pa r t i c i pa nt s ne a r l y 97% w e r e f e m a l e w i t h on l y one m a l e t e a c he r pa r t i c i pa t i ng T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e ve nl y di s t r i but e d w i t h r e ga r d t o r a c e w i t h 50 % r e s pondi ng a s w hi t e a nd 50% r e po r t i ng be i ng e i t he r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n o r H i s pa ni c M os t t e a c he r s i n t he s a m pl e he l d a ba c he l or s de gr e e a nd on l y 22% pos s e s s e d s om e ki nd of a ddi t i ona l c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n e i t he r r e a di ng, s pe c i a l e duc a t i on, o r s om e ot he r c a t e gor y. Y e a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e yi e l d e d w i de l y di s t r i but e d r e s ul t s a s w e l l w i t h 31% r e por t i ng 1 5 ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e ne a r l y 20% r e por t i ng 6 10 a nd 11 15 ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e 10% r e por t i ng 16 20 ye a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd a l m os t 20% w i t h ove r 21 ye a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e D e s c r i p t i ve S t at i s t i c s of A l l V ar i ab l e s T a bl e 4 1 r e pr e s e nt s t he m e a ns s t a nd a r d de vi a t i on s a nd m i ni m um / m a xi m um s c or e s on e a c h va r i a bl e m e a s ur e d f or a l l 32 pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s T e a c he r s r e c e i ve d t ot a l s c or e s on e a c h of t hr e e obs e r va t i ons us i ng t he C D I a nd C M C T h e s c or e s f or a l l t hr e e obs e r va t i ons w e r e t he n a ve r a ge d a nd r e pr e s e nt e d by t he O bs e r va t i on A ve r a ge T he t ot a l a ve r a ge s c or e w a s f ur t he r br oke n dow n by c he c kl i s t r e pr e s e nt e d by C D I A v e r a ge a nd C M C a ve r a ge C l a s s a ve r a ge s w e r e r e por t e d f o r e a c h D I B E L S O R F s c or e f o r e a c h t e a c he r r e p r e s e nt i ng t he f a l l ( D I B E L S 1) a nd

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77 w i n t e r ( D I B E L S 2) a s s e s s m e nt s A ddi t i ona l l y, a v e r a ge O R F s c or e s w e r e r e por t e d, a s w e l l a s t he c ha nge or i nc r e a s e i n w or ds pe r m i nut e f r o m t he f a l l a s s e s s m e nt t o t he w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt T he m e a n s c or e s f or t he c he c kl i s t s w e r e 38. 63 f o r t he a ve r a ge s c or e s 1 8. 72 f or t he C D I a ve r a ge a l one a nd 19 97 f or t he C M C a ve r a ge A c c or di ng t o t he s e r e s ul t s t e a c he r s s c or e d a bout t he s a m e on t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on of i ns t r uc t i on c he c k l i s t a s t he y di d on t he c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c he c kl i s t W he n e xa m i ni ng t he m e a ns of t he o ut c o m e va r i a bl e D I B E L S O R F c l a s s a ve r a ge s w e r e a bout 54 w o r ds pe r m i nut e ( W P M ) on t he f a l l a s s e s s m e nt a nd i nc r e a s e d t o a ppr oxi m a t e l y 77 W P M a t t he w i n t e r a s s e s s m e nt T he s e da t a i ndi c a t e t ha t c l a s s e s a ve r a ge d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 23 W P M i nc r e a s e be t w e e n t he t w o a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods T a bl e 4 1 D e s c r i pt i ve da t a of e xpl a na t or y a nd out c om e va r i a bl e s M e a s ur e ( n= 32) M e a n S D M i ni m um M a xi m um E xpl a na t or y V a r i a bl e s O bs e r va t i on A ve r a ge C D I A ve r a ge C M C A ve r a ge 38. 63 18. 72 19. 97 6 45 4 24 3 02 22 9 13 49 25 25 O ut c om e V a r i a bl e s D I B E L S 1 D I B E L S 2 D I B E L S A ve r a ge D I B E L S C ha nge 54. 53 77. 75 66. 38 23. 22 11. 95 14. 55 12. 66 8 27 32 46 39 4 84 108 96 42 I n f e r e n t i al S t a t i s t i c s T a bl e 4 2 r e pr e s e nt s s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s us e d t o a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i on a nd a ddr e s s t he l i s t e d hypot he s e s : Q ue s t i on 1 D o t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd i f s o, i s di f f e r e nt i a t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d? H ypot he s i s 1 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e H ypot he s i s 2 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i r us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e n t s t r uc t ur e s

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78 H ypot he s i s 3 T e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e T a bl e 4 2 C or r e l a t i ona l s t a t i s t i c s M e a s ur e ( n= 32) C D I A ve r a ge C M C A ve r a ge D I B E L S 1 D I B E L S 2 D I B E L S C ha nge C D I A ve r a ge 1. 000 0. 601 p< 001 0. 720 p < 001 0. 532 p= 002 0. 104 p = 572 C M C A ve r a ge 0. 601 p< 001 1. 000 0. 300 p= 096 0. 047 p= 798 0. 350 p = 049 D I B E L S 1 0. 720 p = < 001 0. 300 p= 096 1. 000 0. 823 p < 001 0. 002 p = 990 D I B E L S 2 0. 532 p= 002 0. 047 p= 798 0. 823 p < 00 1 1. 000 0. 570 p = 001 D I B E L S C ha nge 0. 104 p = 572 0. 350 p = 049 0. 002 p = 990 0. 570 p = 001 1. 000 C or r e l a t i on i s s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 0 01 l e ve l ( 2 T a i l e d) C or r e l a t i ons w e r e c om put e d t o t e s t t he r e l a t i ons hi p of t he c he c kl i s t s us e d i n t he s t udy w i t h t he out c om e s a s s e s s e d on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e A n e xa m i na t i on of t he c or r e l a t i ons r e ve a l s t ha t w he n t e a c he r s do di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, i t i s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h l ow e r m e a s ur e s on D I B E L S O R F a s r e f l e c t e d i n t he s t r o ng ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t ( C D I ) a nd bot h D I B E L S 1 a nd 2 c l a s s r oom a ve r a ge s ( r = 0. 720, p < 01; r = 0 532, p < 01 ) C onve r s e l y, i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on doe s not t a ke pl a c e a s c ons i s t e nt l y, D I B E L S s c or e s w e r e hi ghe r T hi s m e a ns t ha t t he r e i s a s t r ong pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on t he m os t w he n t he y ha ve s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s a nd t ha t t he s e t e a c he r s a r e di f f e r e nt i a t i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d, w hi c h a ns w e r s r e s e a r c h que s t i on one A t t he 0. 01 l e ve l o f s i gni f i c a nc e t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, a s m e a s ur e d by t he C D I yi e l de d a ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on ( r = 0 720, p < 01; r = 0. 532 p < 01) l e a di ng t o a r e j e c t i on of H ypot he s i s 1. I t c a n be c onc l ude d t ha t di f f e r e nt i a t i on of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s

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79 I n t e s t i ng H ypot he s i s 2, t ha t t he C D I a nd C M C s c or e s w e r e not a s s oc i a t e d, c or r e l a t i ona l da t a r e ve a l e d t ha t s c or e s on t he C D I a nd C M C w e r e s t r ongl y r e l a t e d ( r = 0 601, p < 01 ) T hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t w he n t e a c he r s s c or e d hi gh on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t ( C D I ) t he i r us e of be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w a s hi gh, a s w e l l D ue t o t he s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of t hi s da t a H ypot he s i s 2 w a s r e j e c t e d, i ndi c a t i ng t ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t he c he c kl i s t s w e r e s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d, a nd t he C D I w a s s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h D I B E L S O R F f a l l a nd w i nt e r m e a s ur e s t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t he C M C a nd D I B E L S w a s not s t r ong ( r = 0. 300 p = 096; r = 0 0 47, p= 798) A l t hough t he r e i s a m ode r a t e a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t he C M C a nd D I B E L S 1, t he r e a ppe a r s t o be no c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he C M C a nd D I B E L S 2 s c or e s B a s e d on t hi s da t a t he r e s e a r c he r f a i l e d t o r e j e c t H ypot he s i s 3, i ndi c a t i ng t ha t i t c a nnot be c onc l ude d t ha t t he r e i s s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd s t ude nt s s c or e s on t he D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt s M u l t i p l e R e gr e s s i on A n al ys i s A m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d t o e xa m i ne t he de gr e e of a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s ( t e a c he r s us e o f di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s m e a s ur e d by t he C D I a nd t e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a s m e a s ur e d by t he C M C ) a nd t he out c om e va r i a bl e s ( D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s on t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt s ) T he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s w a s a l s o c onduc t e d t o t e s t t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i on a nd hypot he s e s : Q ue s t i on 2: I s t he r e a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y?

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80 H ypot he s i s 4 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s w i l l not r e s ul t i n a n i nc r e a s e i n f l ue nc y be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt p e r i ods H ypot he s i s 5 T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S O R F pr e t e s t m e a s ur e T w o r e gr e s s i on m ode l s w e r e t e s t e d t o i nve s t i ga t e t he i nf l ue nc e of t he C D I a nd C M C on t he i nc r e a s e i n D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s f r om t he f a l l t o w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt s T he da t a i n t he s t udy w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng t he c l a s s a ve r a ge on t he D I B E L S O R F W i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt C D I a ve r a ge s c or e s a nd C M C a ve r a ge s c or e s a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s f or t he f i r s t m ode l a nd t he C D I a ve r a ge s c or e s a nd C M C a ve r a ge s c or e s a l one a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s f or t he s e c ond m ode l T he s e c ond m ode l w a s i nt r oduc e d t o r e m ove t he e f f e c t s of t he D I B E L S pr e t e s t s c or e s on t he pos t t e s t s c or e s s o t ha t t he i nf l ue nc e o f t he p r a c t i c e s m e a s ur e d by t he c he c kl i s t s c oul d be de t e r m i ne d. U s i ng S P S S R E G R E S S I O N t he f i r s t r e gr e s s i on m od e l w a s a na l yz e d w i t h a l l va r i a bl e s pr e s e nt ( T a bl e 4 3) R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t a n R 2 of 722 w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt F ( 3, 28 ) = 24. 298 p < 001 T he f ul l r e gr e s s i on m ode l i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s a r e j oi nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h 72% o f t he s ha r e d va r i a nc e i n D I B E L S O R F s c or e s W he n e xa m i ni ng t he i nf l ue nc e of e a c h va r i a bl e on D I B E L S O R F s c or e s t he g r e a t e s t pr e di c t or of t he pos t t e s t s c or e ( D I B E L S 2) w a s t he pr e t e s t s c or e on D I B E L S 1. T hi s i s i ndi c a t e d by t he l a r ge s t a nda r di z e d be t a c oe f f i c i e nt ( = 843) be c a us e a uni t of c ha nge ( one w or d pe r m i nut e ) on t he D I B E L S 1 pr e t e s t w oul d ha ve a l a r ge e f f e c t on t he D I B E L S 2 po s t t e s t s c or e A ddi t i ona l l y D I B E L S 1 ha s t he l a r ge s t a bs ol ut e t va l ue a nd s m a l l e s t s i gni f i c a nc e ( t = 5. 713, p < 001) w hi c h s u gge s t s t ha t D I B E L S 1 ha s a l a r ge i m pa c t on t he s c or e s pr e di c t e d f or D I B E L S 2 I t w oul d s e e m t ha t w i t h t he D I B E L S 1 s c or e i n t he e qua t i on, t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt

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81 pr a c t i c e s di d not ha ve p r e di c t i ve va l ue on t he D I B E L S O R F pos t t e s t s c or e s w i t h s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s of p= 669 a nd p = 060 ( a t t he 05 l e ve l of s i gni f i c a nc e ) m a ki ng D I B E L S 1 a ppe a r t o be t he s t r onge r of t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s i n t he m ode l T a bl e 4 3 F ul l r e gr e s s i on m ode l O ut c om e V a r i a bl e E xpl a na t or y V a r i a bl e b t S i gni f i c a nc e Z e r o O r de r C or r e l a t i ons D I B E L S 2 ( P os t T e s t ) D I B E L S 1 C D I C M C 1. 027 261 1. 210 843 076 251 5. 713 433 1. 961 p < 001 p= 669 p= 060 823 532 047 A ga i n us i ng S P S S R E G R E S S I O N t he s e c ond r e gr e s s i on m ode l w a s a na l yz e d. C ons i s t i ng of t w o e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s ( C D I a nd C M C ) a nd one out c om e va r i a bl e ( D I B E L S 1) t he r e s e a r c he r de m ons t r a t e d t he p r e di c t i ve va l ue of t he c he c kl i s t s on s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s w i t h t he a bs e nc e of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s a va r i a bl e B y e l i m i na t i ng t he pos t t e s t da t a t he p r e di c t i ve va l ue of t he c he c kl i s t s c a n be t t e r be e va l ua t e d. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t a n R 2 of 545 w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt F ( 2 29) = 17 37 4, p < 001 T a bl e 4 4 A dj us t e d r e gr e s s i on m ode l O ut c om e V a r i a bl e E xpl a na t or y V a r i a bl e b t S i gni f i c a nc e Z e r o O r de r C or r e l a t i ons D I B E L S 1 ( P r e T e s t ) C D I C M C 2. 375 818 844 207 5. 387 1. 321 p < 001 p= 197 720 300 T hi s a dj us t e d m ode l i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s a r e j oi nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h 55% of t he s ha r e d va r i a nc e i n D I B E L S 1 O R F s c o r e s W he n e xa m i ni ng t he i nf l ue nc e o f e a c h va r i a bl e on D I B E L S 1 O R F s c or e s t he gr e a t e s t pr e di c t or of s t ude nt s pr e t e s t s c or e s ( D I B E L S 1) w a s C D I ( di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t ) T hi s i s i nd i c a t e d by t h e l a r ge s t a nda r di z e d be t a c oe f f i c i e nt ( = 844 ) be c a us e a uni t of c ha nge on t he C D I w oul d ha ve a l a r ge e f f e c t on t he D I B E L S 1 pr e t e s t s c or e A ddi t i ona l l y, t he C D I ha d t he l a r ge s t a bs ol ut e t va l ue a nd s m a l l e s t s i gni f i c a nc e ( t = 5. 387 p < 001) w hi c h s u gg e s t s t ha t t he C D I i s a be t t e r pr e di c t o r of s t ude nt s D I B E L S O R F s c or e s f or t he f a l l a s s e s s m e nt A s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s t he C D I a nd

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82 C M C a r e good pr e di c t or s of s t ude nt s r e a di ng s c or e s on D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s but t he C D I a c c ount e d f or m o r e of t he va r i a nc e i n t he s e s c or e s t ha n di d t he C M C B a s e d on t he m ul t i pl e r e g r e s s i on a na l ys i s c onduc t e d t o a ns w e r R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons 2, i t i s a ppa r e nt t ha t t he C D I i s s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s c or e s on bot h D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 a s s e s s m e nt s a nd t ha t s c or e s on t he C D I a r e hi ghl y pr e di c t i ve of s c or e s on D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s ( T a bl e 4 5) T a bl e 4 5 S um m a r y of m ode l s R R S qua r e A dj us t e d R S qua r e M ode l 1: P r e di c t or s ( D I B 2) D I B 1 P r e di c t or s ( D I B 2) D I B 1 C D I A V G P r e di c t or s ( D I B 2) D I B 1, C D I A V G C M C A V G 823 827 850 677 684 722 666 663 693 M ode l 2: P r e di c t or s ( D I B 1) C D I A V G P r e di c t or s ( D I B 1) C D I A V G C M C A V G 720 738 518 545 502 514 D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t he C D I a nd C M C a r e hi gh l y c or r e l a t e d, t he C M C i s not a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s c or e s o n D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s a nd a c c ount s f or a pp r oxi m a t e l y 3% of t he va r i a nc e w he n a dde d t o t he r e gr e s s i on e qua t i on i n bo t h m od e l s T he r e s ul t s of t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s a l s o i ndi c a t e t ha t t he m ode l us e d w a s a good f i t f or t he out c om e va r i a bl e ( D I B E L S 2 ) i n t he s t udy, w i t h a r a nge o f R 2 a d j = 666 t o R 2 a d j = 693 f o r t he m ode l H ypot he s e s 4 w a s r e j e c t e d be c a us e t he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he C D I C M C a nd D I B E L S 1 yi e l de d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e s ul t s w i t h a n R 2 of 722 a nd F ( 3, 28 ) = 24. 298 p < 0 01. W i t h t he r e j e c t i on of t he nul l f or H ypot he s i s 4, i t c a n be c on c l ude d t ha t t he C D I a nd C M C w he n t a ki ng i nt o a c c ount t he p r e t e s t s c or e s on D I B E L S 1 a r e hi ghl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he D I B E L S 2 pos t t e s t

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83 s c or e s H ypot he s i s 5 w a s r e j e c t e d s i nc e t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t he C D I a nd C M C a c c ount e d f or 54 % of t he s ha r e d va r i a nc e i n t he D I B E L S 1 s c or e s W i t h t he a bs e nc e of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s a va r i a bl e a nd by e l i m i na t i ng t he pos t t e s t da t a t he pr e di c t i ve va l ue o f t he c he c kl i s t s w e r e s pe c i f i c a l l y e va l ua t e d. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t a n R 2 of 545 w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt F ( 2, 29 ) = 17. 374 p < 001. I t c a n be c onc l ude d t ha t t he C D I a nd C M C w i l l c ont r i but e t o a n i nc r e a s e i n D I B E L S O R F p r e t e s t s c or e s D e s c r i p t i ve S t at i s t i c s on C h e c k l i s t I n d i c at or s T r e nds i n be s t p r a c t i c e s w e r e c om pi l e d i n T a bl e 4 6. T a bl e 4 6 C D I a nd C M C i ndi c a t or a na l ys i s I t e m # H i gh P e r f o r m e r s C D I H i gh P e r f o r m e r s C M C I t e m # L ow P e r f or m e r s C D I L ow P e r f or m e r s C M C 1 100 100 1 88 100 2 100 88 2 63 31 3 75 100 3 25 100 4 100 100 4 81 100 5 100 94 5 88 88 6 100 94 6 94 94 7 100 81 7 94 13 8 94 100 8 75 69 9 100 100 9 94 94 10 100 75 10 63 25 11 100 100 11 69 75 12 100 88 12 88 94 13 81 100 13 13 94 14 81 100 14 25 100 15 88 94 15 44 94 16 31 100 16 0 100 17 100 100 17 94 100 18 100 94 18 100 25 19 100 69 19 50 31 20 100 88 20 50 25 21 81 100 21 0 81 22 94 81 22 38 63 23 94 38 23 50 0 24 100 100 24 38 100 25 7 5 94 25 25 94 *P e r c e nt a ge s

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84 A f t e r t he obs e r va t i ons w e r e c om pl e t e d, t he c he c kl i s t s w e r e a na l yz e d f or a ny t r e nds i n be s t pr a c t i c e s t ha t w e r e r e c or de d du r i ng t he obs e r v a t i ons T hi s i nc l ude d r e c or d i ng r e s pons e s on e a c h of t he c he c kl i s t i t e m s T he r e s e a r c he r s e l e c t e d t he c he c kl i s t t ha t c ont a i ne d t he m e di a n s c or e f or e a c h t e a c he r a nd r e c or de d t he oc c ur r e nc e of a Y e s f or e a c h of t he c he c kl i s t i t e m s T he c he c kl i s t s w e r e di vi de d i nt o t w o c a t e gor i e s : hi gh pe r f or m e r s ( 40/ 50 o r hi ghe r on t he c he c kl i s t ) or l ow pe r f or m e r s ( 39 / 50 or be l ow on t he c he c kl i s t ) I t e m num be r s w e r e t he n m a t c he d w i t h t he i ndi c a t or s l i s t e d on t he c he c kl i s t t he a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t a l l t e a c he r s ( a ) pl a c e i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s on w a l l s or bul l e t i n boa r ds ( b ) m a i nt a i n t he phys i c a l a r r a nge m e nt of t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt ( c ) r e m ove di s t r a c t i ng i t e m s f r om vi e w or r e a c h of s t ude nt s ( d) pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h a de qua t e s pa c e f or s t or a ge ( e ) pr ovi de i ns t r u c t i ona l a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t a r e r e l e va nt t o s t ude nt s ( f ) pr ovi de non puni t i ve p r ov i s i ons f or s t ude nt s ne e di ng m or e t i m e t o f i ni s h w or k ( g) t e a c h s ki l l s i n t he na t ur a l s e t t i ng, a nd ( h) de l i ve r c ons e que nc e s i n a c ons i s t e nt a nd t i m e l y m a nne r T e a c he r s w ho w e r e c ons i de r e d hi gh i m pl e m e nt e r s on t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on c he c kl i s t s c or e d l ow on t w o i ndi c t or s : t he y di d not m a ke c ol l a bor a t i on or i nde pe nde nt w or k de pe nde nt on s t ude nt c hoi c e a nd t he y i nc ons i s t e nt l y pos t e d c ons e que nc e s t o r ul e vi ol a t i ons L ow pe r f o r m i ng t e a c he r s de m ons t r a t e d pr obl e m s w i t h ( a ) i m pl e m e nt i ng s t ude nt pa i r i ng ( b) us i ng i ndi vi dua l i z e d a s s i gnm e nt s or a c t i vi t i e s ( c ) pr ovi di ng di f f e r e nt a s s i gnm e nt s t o s t ude nt s ( d) pr ovi di ng a di f f e r e nt s e que nc e of a c t i vi t i e s ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d, ( e ) pr ovi di ng s t ude nt s w i t h t he c hoi c e t o c ol l a bor a t e or w o r k i nde pe nde nt l y, ( f ) i m pl e m e nt i n g a l l a s pe c t s of c e nt e r s i nc l udi ng m a t e r i a l s pos t i ng r ul e s a nd di r e c t i ons a t c e nt e r s c r e a t i ng a r ot a t i on pl a n f o r c e nt e r s pr ovi di ng a de qua t e t i m e a nd m a t e r i a l s f or c e nt e r s a nd a l l ow i ng c hoi c e a t c e nt e r s ( g) pos t i ng r ul e s a nd p r oc e dur e s i n t he c l a s s r o om ( h) pos t i ng s t ude nt w or k pr om i ne nt l y, ( i ) r e vi e w i ng t r a ns i t i ons r e gul a r l y, ( j )

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85 a s pe c t s of c l a s s r ul e s i nc l udi ng s t a t i ng r ul e s pos i t i v e l y, l i m i t i ng r u l e s t o f i ve or l e s s a nd pr ovi di ng r u l e s t ha t a r e obs e r va bl e / m e a s ur a bl e a n d ( k) pos t i ng c ons e que nc e s f or r ul e vi ol a t i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom F or a c om pl e t e l i s t i ng of c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or s by i t e m num be r s e e A ppe ndi x B I n a ddi t i on t o e xa m i ni ng e a c h c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or a ne c dot a l not e s r e c or de d by t he da t a c ol l e c t or s w e r e a na l yz e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e w e r e c ons i s t e nt f r e que nt pr a c t i c e s e m pl oye d by bot h t he hi gh a nd l ow pe r f or m i ng gr oups ( T a bl e 4 7) M os t t e a c he r s i m pl e m e nt e d a va r i a t i on of c hor a l r e a di ng w he n i nt r oduc i ng a ne w s t or y t o s t u de nt s a nd i nc or por a t e d s m a l l g r oup i ns t r uc t i on i nt o t he i r r e a di ng p r ogr a m M a ny t e a c he r s us e d t e c hnol ogy dur i ng t he i r r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w hi c h i nc l ude d t he us e of a udi o c a s s e t t e t a pe s a nd pl a ye r s f or books on t a pe L e a p P a d s t or y s ys t e m s m i c r ophone s w i t h c l a s s r oom a m pl i f i c a t i o n s ys t e m s a nd M y R e a di ng C oa c h or R e a d N a t ur a l l y c om put e r s of t w a r e T he hi ghe s t pe r f o r m i ng t e a c he r s i m pl e m e nt e d pr a c t i c e s s uc h a s r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng, s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on f o r m a t s l i t e r a c y c e nt e r s a nd va r i e d gr oupi ng f or m a t s f or s t ude nt s T a bl e 4 7 F r e que nt p r a c t i c e s obs e r ve d dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on P r a c t i c e O bs e r ve d P e r c e nt a ge of T e a c he r s R e c i pr oc a l T e a c hi ng 38 M y R e a di ng C oa c h 59 V a r i e t y of G r oupi ng F or m a t s 63 R ound R obi n R e a di ng 66 R e a d N a t ur a l l y 75 L i t e r a c y C e nt e r s 75 S m a l l G r oup I ns t r uc t i on 81 L e a p P a d R e a di ng 84 C hor a l R e a di ng 91 I n t e r ob s e r ve r A gr e e m e n t D a t a on i nt e r obs e r ve r a g r e e m e nt ( I O A ) w e r e c ol l e c t e d t hr oughout t h i s s t udy. F i r s t I O A w a s c a l c ul a t e d dur i ng t he pi l ot i ng pha s e of t he s t u dy, i n w hi c h t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t ( C D I ) w a s us e d i n t e n c l a s s r oom s t ha t w e r e r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r om a

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86 s a m pl e of 10 e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i n a nor t h c e nt r a l F l or i da s c hool di s t r i c t I O A s c or e s r a nge d be t w e e n 88 a nd 100, w i t h a m e a n of 94. 8 W hi l e d a t a w e r e be i ng c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons I O A da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f or 25 s e s s i ons or 26 % o f t he t ot a l obs e r va t i ons c onduc t e d. I O A r a nge d f r om 86 t o 100, w i t h a m e a n of 94 8 a nd a s t a nda r d de vi a t i on o f 3 786 ( T a bl e 4 8 ) T a bl e 4 8 D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s f or i nt e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt R a nge M i ni m um M a xi m um M e a n S t d. D e vi a t i on I O A 14 86 100 94. 80 3. 786 C ha pt e r 4 c ont a i ne d t he r e s ul t s of t he da t a a na l ys e s pr e s e nt e d i n f i ve s e c t i ons F i r s t de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s on t he s a m pl e w e r e pr e s e nt e d. T he s e c ond s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r pr e s e nt e d t he i nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s us e d t o a ns w e r t he f i r s t r e s e a r c h que s t i on, a l ong w i t h H ypot he s e s one t w o, a nd, t hr e e T o a ns w e r t he s e que s t i ons t he r e s ul t s of t he c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys e s w e r e pr e s e nt e d. T h i r d, t he r e s ul t s of t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s w e r e pr e s e nt e d t o a ns w e r r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t w o a nd t hr e e a nd H ypot he s e s 4 a nd 5. F i na l l y, de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s w e r e pr e s e nt e d on t he i t e m a na l ys i s c onduc t e d on t he c h e c kl i s t s of t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s T r e nds i n be s t pr a c t i c e s of hi gh s c or i ng t e a c he r s w e r e a na l yz e d. A ddi t i ona l l y t hi s s e c t i on i nc l ude d a de s c r i pt i on of t he da t a on i n t e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt t ha t w a s c om pi l e d dur i ng t hi s s t udy.

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87 C H A P T E R 5 D I S C U S S I O N I n t r od u c t i on R e s e a r c he r s ha ve f ound t ha t of t he 20% of c hi l dr e n i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w ho e xpe r i e nc e s e r i ous r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s a m a j o r i t y t e nd t o s t r u ggl e w i t h t hos e di f f i c ul t i e s ove r t i m e a nd t ha t s t ude nt s i n e a r l y e l e m e nt a r y g r a de s w ho s t r uggl e w i t h r e a di ng a r e m or e l i ke l y t o ha ve r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s w e l l i n t o t he i r s e c onda r y ye a r s ( G r o s s e n, 1997; J ue l 1988; T o r ge s e n & B ur ge s s s 1998) A s a r e s ul t m a ny i ni t i a t i ve s ha ve be e n m a de a t t he l oc a l s t a t e a nd na t i ona l l e ve l s t o not onl y i de nt i f y r e l i a bl e i ndi c a t o r s of s t ude nt s a t r i s k f or e a r l y r e a di ng f a i l ur e but a l s o t o de ve l op e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s t ha t w i l l he l p s t ude nt s de ve l op t he s ki l l s t he y ne e d t o l e a r n t o r e a d ( S now e t a l 1998; T or ge s e n a nd B ur ge s s 1998 ) R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy yi e l de d s i m i l a r c onc l us i ons t o t hos e r e vi e w e d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e on r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s i n C ha pt e r 2 of t hi s s t udy. F i r s t t hi s s t udy f ound t ha t r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w e r e r e l a t e d a s pos t ul a t e d by P r e s s l e y, R a nki n a nd Y okoi ( 1996) P r e s s l e y, Y okoi R a nki n, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, a nd M i s t r e t t a ( 1997 ) a nd W a l pol e J us t i c e a nd I nve r ni z z i ( 2004 ) T e a c he r s w ho e m pl oye d be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w e r e hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t or s w ho w e r e a bl e t o i m pr ove t he r e a di ng f l ue nc y o f e ve n t he l ow e s t of r e a de r s S e c ond, t hi s s t udy f ound t h a t t he hi ghe s t pe r f or m i ng t e a c he r s t a ught c l a s s r oom r ul e s a nd p r oc e dur e s a nd us e d r out i ne s t o f a c i l i t a t e s uc c e s s f ul us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on w hi c h w a s a l s o f ound by E m m e r a nd W or s ha m ( 2003) E ve r t s on ( 1989 ) a nd E ve r t s on, E m m e r S a nf or d a nd C l e m e nt s ( 1983 ) F i na l l y, t hi s s t udy yi e l de d f i ndi ngs s i m i l a r t o t hos e of M oody, V a ughn, a nd F i s c he r ( 2000) V a ughn, H ughe s S c hum m a nd K l i ngne r ( 1998) a nd V a ughn M ood y, a nd S c hum m ( 1998 ) i n t ha t t e a c he r s r e l i e d on w hol e gr oup i ns t r uc t i on f or a m a j or i t y o f r e a di n g i ns t r uc t i on; how e ve r t hi s s t udy f ound t ha t

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88 hi gh pe r f or m i ng t e a c he r s a l s o i nc or po r a t e d s m a l l g r oup i ns t r uc t i on s t ude nt pa i r i ng, a nd c ol l a bor a t i ve gr oup w o r k m o r e of t e n t ha n l ow pe r f or m i ng t e a c he r s A ddi t i ona l l y t hi s s t udy f ound t ha t s t ude nt s d i d m a ke ga i ns i n f l ue nc y i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on oc c ur r e d m os t of t e n. R e c ogni z i ng t ha t di f f e r e nt s ki l l s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ne e d t o be t a r ge t e d t o di f f e r e nt gr oups o f s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i o n c a n be p l a nne d f or a nd i m pl e m e nt e d f or s t ude nt s w i t h a di ve r s e gr oup of ne e ds W i t h t he M ode l of D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on ( F i gur e 5 1) pl a nni ng c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a l l w or k ha nd i n ha nd; no s i ngl e e nt i t y c a n s t a nd a l one w i t hout t he ot he r s s uppor t E f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt r e qui r e s e f f e c t i ve pl a n ni ng a nd s t ude nt gr oup i ng, a s e vi de nc e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( E ve r t s on, E m m e r & W or s ha m 2003; M oody & V a ughn, 1997; M or r ow T r a c e y, W oo, & P r e s s l e y 1999; V a ughn, H ughe s S c hum m & K l i ngne r 1998 ) F i gur e 5 1 M ode l of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on 1 5% o f s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s w i l l r e qui r e m or e i nt e ns i ve one on one r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or i nt e r ve nt i ons T hi s i s w ha t s om e not a l l s t ude nt s w i l l r e s pond t o 5 15% o f s t ude nt s w i l l r e qui r e s e c onda r y r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or i nt e r ve nt i ons pos s i bl y i n s m a l l g r oups T hi s i s w ha t m os t but no t a l l s t ude nt s w i l l r e s pond t o 80 90% o f s t ude nt s w i l l r e s pond t o t he uni ve r s a l i n s t r uc t i on a nd pr e ve nt i on pr ov i de d t o t he w hol e c l a s s T he s e a r e t he s ki l l s t ha t a l l s t ude nt s s uc c e s s f ul l y m a s t e r R e a di ng B e ha vi or P l a nni ng

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89 T hi s s t udy us e d c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons of 32 s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s T he s t udy t ook pl a c e i n ni ne r e a di ng f i r s t s c hool s f ound i n t w o s c hool di s t r i c t s i n N or t h C e nt r a l F l o r i da T w o c he c kl i s t s w e r e us e d t o i de nt i f y ke y i ndi c a t or s o f t e a c he r s us e of be s t pr a c t i c e s i n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt T he s e c he c kl i s t s c ont a i ne d i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd m a na ge m e nt dom a i ns t ha t r e p r e s e nt be s t pr a c t i c e s a s i de nt i f i e d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng ( E ve r t s on e t a l 2003; P r e s s l e y e t a l 1999; V a ughn e t a l 1998) T e a c he r s s c or e s on t he c he c kl i s t s w e r e t he n c om pa r e d w i t h c l a s s a ve r a ge s of D I B E L S O r a l R e a di ng F l ue nc y s c or e s f r om t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods D a t a f r om t he c he c kl i s t s a nd D I B E L S O R F m e a s u r e s w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng bot h c or r e l a t i ona l a nd m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s t o t e s t f i ve nul l hypot h e s e s T hi s c ha pt e r pr ov i de s a n ove r vi e w o f t he c u r r e nt s t udy a nd s um m a r i z e s t he r e s ul t s f ound i n C ha pt e r 4. F i r s t c onc l us i ons r e l a t e d t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd nul l hyp ot he s e s a r e di s c us s e d. N e xt c onc l us i ons of t hi s s t udy a r e di s c us s e d i n r e l a t i on t o e a c h o f t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons pos e d i n t hi s s t udy. A di s c us s i on of t he l i m i t a t i ons of t h i s s t udy i s pr e s e nt e d f ol l ow e d by i m pl i c a t i ons f o r f ut u r e r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e b a s e d on t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs S u m m ar y o f R e s u l t s T w o c he c kl i s t s t he C he c kl i s t f o r D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I n s t r uc t i on ( C D I ) a nd t he C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t ( C M C ) w e r e c om pl e t e d d ur i ng t hr e e c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons of 32 t e a c he r s T he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e t he t e a c he r s a ve r a ge of t hr e e s c or e s on t he C D I a nd t he C M C a s w e l l a s c l a s s r oom a ve r a ge s on t he D I B E L S O R F f a l l a s s e s s m e nt T he D I B E L S O R F w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt w a s t he out c om e va r i a bl e i n t hi s s t udy F i r s t c or r e l a t i ons w e r e a na l yz e d t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h va r i a bl e s ha d t he s t r o nge s t r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t he D I B E L S O R F

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90 m e a s ur e s bot h D I B E L S 1 ( f a l l a s s e s s m e nt ) a nd D I B E L S 2 ( w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt ) T he n, t w o r e gr e s s i on m ode l s w e r e us e d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i o ns hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s a nd t he i r a bi l i t y t o pr e di c t s t ude nt s f l ue nc y m e a s ur e s us i ng D I B E L S a s t he a s s e s s m e nt t ool T he c or r e l a t i ons ( T a bl e 4 2) a na l yz e d i n t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t t e a c he r s us e o f di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, a s m e a s ur e d by t he C D I yi e l de d a s t r ong ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on w i t h bot h D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 ( r = 0. 720 p < 001; r = 0. 532 p < 001 ) I n t he f i r s t r e gr e s s i on m ode l ( T a bl e 4 3) t he f ul l m ode l t he F s t a t i s t i c r e ve a l e d t ha t t he m ode l w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt f or D I B E L S 2 i n t hi s s t udy w i t h R 2 = 722, F ( 3, 28) = 24 298, p < 001 T he f ul l r e g r e s s i on m ode l i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s a r e j oi nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h 72% of t he va r i a nc e i n D I B E L S O R F s c or e s f or t he w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od. I n t he s e c ond r e gr e s s i on m ode l ( T a bl e 4 4) r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t a n R 2 = 545 F ( 2, 29 ) = 17. 374 p < 001 i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt w i t h t he C D I a nd C M C be i ng j oi nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h 55% of t he va r i a nc e i n t he D I B E L S 1 O R F s c or e s ( f a l l a s s e s s m e nt ) R e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt s f or a l l va r i a bl e s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 4 5. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e pr e s e nt e d i n r e l a t i on t o e a c h of t he nul l hyp ot he s e s f or m ul a t e d i n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r H yp ot h e s i s 1 H ypot he s i s 1: T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a d i ng i ns t r uc t i on i s no t s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s T hi s hypot he s i s w a s f or m ul a t e d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n bot h D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 ( f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt s r e s pe c t i ve l y) a nd t he C D I a s t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e H ypot he s i s 1 w a s r e j e c t e d. T he r e i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on p r a c t i c e s a nd s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s bo t h a t

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91 t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt s T he r e s ul t s r e ve a l e d a ne ga t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p ( r = 0 720, p < 001; r = 0. 532 p < 001) m e a ni ng t ha t w he n t e a c he r s s c or e d hi gh on t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on c he c kl i s t c l a s s r oom s c or e s on D I B E L S w e r e l ow O ne i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t hi s i s t ha t t e a c he r s w ho ha ve s t r uggl i ng r e a d e r s i n t he i r c l a s s r oom t e nd t o us e m or e di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on p r a c t i c e s t ha n t e a c he r s w ho ha ve r e a de r s w ho a r e m or e pr of i c i e nt W he n t e a c he r s us e D I B E L S a s a pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng t ool t o a s s i s t i n de t e r m i ni ng w hi c h s t ude nt s a r e i n ne e d o f e xpl i c i t i ns t r uc t i on t o de ve l op e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s c a n be i nc or por a t e d t o i nc l ude be s t pr a c t i c e s i n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t ha t f oc us on r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t s uppor t t he c or e r e a di ng pr ogr a m ( G ood e t a l 2002 ) T e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt t he s e pr a c t i c e s f r e que nt l y do s o i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h t he l ow e s t of r e a de r s a s e vi de nc e d by t he r e s ul t s f ound i n t hi s s t udy. I n a ns w e r t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 1, t e a c he r s do di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d. C or r e l a t i ons a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 4 2. H yp ot h e s i s 2 H ypot he s i s 2: T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a d i ng i ns t r uc t i on i s no t s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i r us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s T hi s hypot he s i s e na bl e d t he r e s e a r c he r t o de t e r m i n e i f t e a c he r s s c or e s on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t ( C D I ) w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i r s c or e on t he c he c kl i s t t ha t e va l ua t e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s ( C M C ) R e s e a r c h c onduc t e d by P r e s s l e y ( 1998) a nd W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l ( 1998) f ound t ha t e xe m p l a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s c ons i s t e nt l y us e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t s uppor t e d i n s t r uc t i on, r e s ul t e d i n hi ghe r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a nd r e duc e d pr ob l e m be ha vi or s B a s e d on t he a na l ys i s c onduc t e d, t he c or r e l a t i on w a s c om put e d a t r = 601 p < 001, i ndi c a t i ng a s t r on g pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he t w o va r i a bl e s H ypot he s i s 2 w a s r e j e c t e d. T e a c he r s u s e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on

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92 pr a c t i c e s a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d. T hi s m e a ns t ha t t e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt d i f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on p r a c t i c e s i n t he c l a s s r oom r e l y on be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t o s uppor t i ns t r uc t i on. T hi s w a s f ur t he r s uppor t e d by t he da t a f r om t he c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or s t ha t w e r e a na l yz e d f or c om m ona l i t i e s a c r os s t e a c he r s T e a c he r s w ho s c or e d hi ghe s t on bot h c he c kl i s t s us e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s s uc h a s t r a ns i t i on i ns t r uc t i on, pos t i ng r ul e s a nd c ons e que nc e s i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd s t r uc t ur i ng t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt s o t ha t s t ude nt s ha ve a c c e s s t o a l l a r e a s of t he c l a s s r oom C or r e l a t i ons a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 4 2. H yp ot h e s i s 3 H ypot he s i s 3: T e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s not s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t ude nt out c om e s on D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s T hi s hypot he s i s w a s f or m ul a t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ve s t r e ngt h of t he c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt va r i a bl e on bot h D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 a s s e s s m e nt s B a s e d on t he r e s e a r c h of E ve r t s on e t a l ( 1980, 1989, 2003) t e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s l e a r ne d t hr ough a s e r i e s of p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o pr ovi de i ns t r uc t i ona l m a na ge m e nt dur i ng l e s s ons w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n i m pr ove d a c a de m i c e nga ge d t i m e a nd i nc r e a s e d a t t e nt i on t o s t ude nt ne e ds I t w a s no t de t e r m i ne d, how e ve r i f t he us e of t he s e pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t e d i n i m pr ove d s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt T o t e s t t hi s t he or y c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s c or e s on D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s B a s e d on t he c or r e l a t i ons c om put e d a t t he 01 s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l H ypot he s i s 3 f a i l e d t o be r e j e c t e d be c a us e w i t h w e a k c or r e l a t i ons ( r = 0 300, p = 096 f o r D I B E L S 1 a nd r = 047, p = 798 f or D I B E L S 2 ) no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e w a s f ound. A l t hough t he r e w a s a w e a k ne ga t i ve c o r r e l a t i on w i t h D I B E L S 1 i t c a nnot be c onc l ude d t ha t

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93 t e a c he r s us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s C or r e l a t i ons a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 4 2 H yp ot h e s i s 4 H ypot he s i s 4: T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s w i l l not r e s ul t i n a n i nc r e a s e i n f l ue nc y be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods T hi s hypot he s i s a l l ow e d t he r e s e a r c he r t o de t e r m i n e t he e f f e c t s of D I B E L S 1 ( f a l l a s s e s s m e nt pr e t e s t ) t he C D I a nd t he C M C a s e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s on D I B E L S 2 ( w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt pos t t e s t ) U s i ng t he f ul l m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on m ode l t he a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t R 2 i s s i gni f i c a nt a t p < 001 a nd s ubs t a nt i a l a t 722 T hi s f ul l m ode l i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s ( D I B E L S 1, C D I a nd C M C ) a r e j o i nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h 72% of t he va r i a nc e i n D I B E L S 2 pos t t e s t s c or e s U pon f u r t he r e xa m i na t i on, i t i s a ppa r e nt t ha t D I B E L S 1 ha s t he gr e a t e s t i nf l ue nc e on D I B E L S 2 s c or e s T hi s i s c o ns i s t e nt w i t h t he c or r e l a t i on f ound i n T a bl e 4 2, i n w hi c h D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d a t r = 823, p < 001. H ypot he s i s 4 w a s r e j e c t e d. I t c a n be c onc l ude d t h a t di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on p r a c t i c e s a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s i n c onj unc t i on w i t h s t ude nt s s c or e s on t h e D I B E L S 1 p r e t e s t a r e s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h D I B E L S 2 pos t t e s t da t a I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t t he f ul l r e gr e s s i on m ode l t a ke s i nt o c ons i de r a t i on s t ude nt l e a r ni ng t ha t oc c ur s be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt s T ypi c a l l y, pr e t e s t i ng i s u s e d t o f a c t or out t he i ni t i a l l e ve l o f know l e dge t ha t s t ude nt s pos s e s s i n t he a bs e nc e of i ns t r uc t i on s o t ha t c om pa r i s ons c a n be m a de t o de t e r m i ne t he a m ount of s t ude nt l e a r ni ng a nd d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n gr oups T he p r obl e m w i t h t hi s a c c or di ng t o B ona t e ( 20 00) i s t ha t c e i l i ng e f f e c t s c a n c a us e pos t t e s t s c or e s t o a ppe a r hi ghe r f or s t ude nt s w i t h hi gh pr e t e s t s c or e s F u r t he r e xa m i na t i on of t he

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94 r e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt s ( T a bl e 4 5) f or M ode l 1 a l l ow f or a na l ys i s of t he c ont r i but i on t ha t e a c h va r i a bl e m a ke s t o t he e qua t i on w he n a dde d t o t he m ode l D I B E L S 1 a l one a c c ount s f or a l m os t 67. 7% o f t he va r i a nc e i n t he D I B E L S 2 pos t t e s t s c or e s W he n t he C D I i s a dde d t o t he e qua t i on i t c ont r i but e s l e s s t ha n 1% t o t he va r i a nc e W he n t he C M C i s e nt e r e d i nt o t he r e gr e s s i on m ode l i t c ont r i but e s 3 8% o f t he va r i a nc e i n D I B E L S 2 s c or e s T he r e a r e t w o i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t hi s da t a t ha t c a n be hypot he s i z e d. F i r s t i t m a y be da nge r ous t o i nt e r pr e t t ha t t he c ha nge i n s t ude nt s D I B E L S s c or e s be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods i s not ba s e d on t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t i on o f i ns t r uc t i on or us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s W i t hout j um pi ng t o t h i s c onc l us i on f i r s t i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o e xa m i ne t he da t a on t he c ha nge i n t he c l a s s a ve r a ge s be t w e e n D I B E L S 1 a nd 2 c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t hi s s t udy A na l ys i s of t he c ha nge s be t w e e n D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 ( T a bl e 4 2) r e ve a l s t ha t t he onl y va r i a bl e t ha t w a s c or r e l a t e d w i t h i nc r e a s e d or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s w a s t he c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c he c kl i s t w hi c h w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l w i t h r = 350, p = 049 T he C D I w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gn i f i c a nt a nd ha d a ve r y w e a k c o r r e l a t i on w i t h t he c ha nge i n D I B E L S s c or e s S e c ondl y, a na l ys i s of t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on da t a r e ve a l s t ha t a l t hough t he C D I a nd C M C c ont r i but e ve r y l i t t l e t o t he va r i a nc e i n t he D I B E L S 2 pos t t e s t a n i nt e r e s t i ng c onc l us i on m a y be dr a w n. R e c a l l t ha t t e a c he r s us e of d i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on w a s s t r ongl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h bot h D I B E L S 1 a nd D I B E L S 2 s c or e s i ndi vi d ua l l y. T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t s t ude nt s O R F s c or e s i nc r e a s e d, r e ga r dl e s s of t he di f f e r e nc e s i n p e r f or m a nc e on D I B E L S 1. I n ot he r w or ds s t ude nt s m a de a bout t he s a m e ga i ns i n f l ue nc y a c r os s c l a s s r oom s r e ga r dl e s s of i ni t i a l l e ve l I n f a c t t he c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n D I B E L S 1 a nd t he c h a nge i n D I B E L S s c or e s w a s 002 i ndi c a t i ng a

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95 ve r y w e a k r e l a t i ons hi p. T e a c he r s s c or e s on t he C D I ha d ve r y l i t t l e c or r e l a t i on w i t h i nc r e a s e s i n f l ue nc y be c a us e t he O R F s c or e s w e r e s i m i l a r a c r os s c l a s s r oom s H yp ot h e s i s 5 H ypot he s i s 5: T e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a r e not s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h out c om e s on t he D I B E L S 1 O R F m e a s ur e T hi s hypot he s i s e na bl e d t he r e s e a r c he r t o i s ol a t e s c or e s on t he C D I a nd C M C t o de t e r m i ne t he i r a bi l i t y t o pr e di c t c l a s s r oo m a ve r a ge s on t he D I B E L S O R F pr e t e s t m e a s ur e or D I B E L S 1. U s i ng t he a dj us t e d m ode l t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t t he C D I a nd C M C a c c ount f or 55% o f t he va r i a nc e i n t he D I B E L S 1 s c or e s a nd t ha t t he C D I a l one c ont r i but e s 52% o f t he va r i a nc e a l one T he a dj us t e d m ode l w a s c r e a t e d t o e xa m i ne t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s on s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l u e nc y, pr i or t o be gi nni ng i ns t r uc t i on B y e xa m i ni ng t hi s a s s oc i a t i on, i t m a y be pos s i bl e t o p r e di c t a t e a c he r s a bi l i t y t o i m p r ove r e a di ng f l ue nc y i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s F i g ur e 5 2 e xa m i ne s t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n t he va r i a bl e s e xa m i ne d i n H ypot he s e s 4 a nd 5 F i gur e 5 2 S um m a r y of r e gr e s s i on m ode l s C D I C M C D I B E L S 1 D I B E L S 2

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96 T he s ol i d l i ne a r r ow s i ndi c a t e va r i a bl e s w i t h s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi ps w hi l e da s he d l i ne s i ndi c a t e t ha t no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e w a s f ound I n t e r p r e t at i on of F i n d i n gs T hi s s t udy yi e l de d p r om i s i ng out c om e s i n t hr e e i m por t a nt w a ys e a c h r e l a t e d t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons pos e d i n t hi s s t udy. F i r s t o f a l l R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 1 a s ke d, D o t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, a nd i f s o, i s di f f e r e nt i a t i on ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d? B a s e d on t he r e s ul t s f ound i n t hi s s t udy, t e a c he r s w ho w e r e hi gh i m pl e m e nt e r s di d di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, a nd m os t i m por t a nt l y, di f f e r e nt i a t i on w a s ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d. T hi s w a s e vi de nc e d f i r s t by t he ne ga t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he C he c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on ( C D I ) s c or e s a nd s c or e s on bot h D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e s T e a c he r s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h t he l ow e s t r e a de r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d t he m os t be c a us e t he i r s t ude nt s w oul d be ne f i t f r om t he m yr i a d o f i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s a nd i nt e r ve nt i ons us e d w he n di f f e r e nt i a t i on t a ke s pl a c e T e a c he r s i n t he s e c l a s s r oom s c on s i s t e nt l y us e d e vi de nc e d ba s e d pr a c t i c e s l i ke r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng, i n w hi c h t he t e a c he r e nga ge s i n a di a l ogue w i t h s t ude nt s dur i ng r e a di ng a nd us e s f our s t r a t e gi e s : s um m a r i z i ng, que s t i on ge ne r a t i ng c l a r i f yi ng, a nd pr e di c t i ng ( P a l i nc s a r 1986) R e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng pr ovi de s t e a c he r s w i t h a s t r a t e gy t ha t he l p s s t ude nt s ge t m e a ni ng f r om t e xt by m a ki ng s ur e t he y unde r s t a nd w ha t t he y r e a d. A not he r c om m on p r a c t i c e a m ong t e a c he r s w ho di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t he m os t w a s t he us e of l i t e r a c y c e nt e r s i n t he c l a s s r oom L i t e r a c y c e nt e r s f oc us on r e a di ng s pe c i f i c c ont e nt a nd a r e r e l a t e d t o s pe c i f i c r e a di ng s ki l l s t h a t w e r e a ddr e s s e d dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. L i t e r a c y c e nt e r s pr ovi de a m e a ns of di f f e r e nt i a t i ng m a t e r i a l s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ba s e d on va r i ous l e ve l s of s t ude nt know l e dge ( F l or i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h, 2005; T om l i ns on, 1999 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he us e of l i t e r a c y c e nt e r s i n t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d c l a s s r oom pr ovi de s t he t e a c he r w i t h

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97 a n oppor t uni t y t o us e s m a l l gr oup i n s t r uc t i on t o w or k w i t h g r oups of s t ude nt s on f oc us e d i nt e r ve nt i ons C oi nc i de nt a l l y t e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt e d l i t e r a c y c e nt e r s a l s o us e d s m a l l g r oup, t e a c he r gui de d i ns t r uc t i on m o r e t ha n t e a c he s w ho di d not di f f e r e nt i a t e T hi s f i ndi ng i s s i gni f i c a nt i n t ha t i t de m ons t r a t e d t he pow e r of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on w he n a ppl i e d i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s I n c l a s s r oom s w i t h s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s t e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt t he r e s e a r c h ba s e d pr a c t i c e s t ha t w e r e obs e r ve d dur i ng t hi s s t udy w e r e a bl e t o m a i nt a i n t he ga p i n r e a di ng f l ue nc y, r a t he r t he n a l l ow i ng t he ga p t o c ont i nue t o w i de n R e s e a r c he r s ( e g. M c I nt os h, V a ughn, S c hum m H a a ge r & L e e 1993; M oody, V a ughn, H ughe s & F i s c he r 2000 ; P r e s s l e y, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, A l l i ngt on, B l oc k, M or r ow T r a c e y, e t a l 2001 ) ha ve e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng i n s t r uc t i on a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n e l e m e nt a r y c l a s s r oom s w i t hout e xa m i ni ng t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n i ns t r uc t i on a nd t he r e a di ng pr ogr e s s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s K no w i ng t ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c a n pos i t i ve l y i nf l ue nc e s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y, t e a c he r s m a y be gi n t o i m pl e m e nt t hos e s t r a t e gi e s i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h t he l ow e s t of r e a de r s S e c ondl y, R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 2 a s ke d, I s t he r e a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y? A na l ys i s of t he da t a r e ve a l e d t ha t t e a c he r s s c or e s on t he C D I w e r e s t r ongl y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h bot h D I B E L S m e a s ur e s a nd t he m u l t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s yi e l de d r e s ul t s t ha t i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s O R F s c or e s i nc r e a s e d r e ga r dl e s s of t he di f f e r e nc e s i n pe r f o r m a nc e on t he D I B E L S 1 pr e t e s t I nt e r e s t i ngl y, s t ude nt s m a de a bout t he s a m e ga i ns i n f l ue nc y a c r os s c l a s s r oom s r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r i ni t i a l l e ve l T e a c he r s s c or e s o n t he C D I ha d ve r y l i t t l e c or r e l a t i on w i t h i nc r e a s e s i n f l ue nc y be c a us e t he O R F s c or e s w e r e s i m i l a r a c r os s c l a s s r oom s C oul d i t be t ha t t e a c he r s us e of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng pr a c t i c e s i s l e ve l i ng t he pl a yi ng f i e l d f or s t ude nt s w ho

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98 s t r uggl e t he m os t ? S t a novi c h ( 1986) w oul d a r gue t ha t w i t h t he M a t t he w E f f e c t i n r e a di ng, i n w hi c h t he ga p be t w e e n s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a nd p r of i c i e nt r e a de r s w i de ns a s a r e s ul t of poor i ns t r uc t i on, t he s e s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s t ypi c a l l y w oul d not be r e c e i vi ng t he i ns t r uc t i on ne c e s s a r y f or ga i ns i n r e a di ng t o be s i m i l a r t o t hos e of p r of i c i e nt r e a de r s T he t e a c he r s i n t hi s s t udy, how e ve r s e e m t o be pr ovi di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s t ha t e na bl e s t he m t o m a ke ga i ns t ha t a r e e qua l t o t hos e m a de b y pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s T hi s i s pr oba bl y t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt f i ndi ng of t h i s s t udy, s i nc e i t de m ons t r a t e s t ha t w he n done c or r e c t l y, d i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c a n m a i nt a i n t he ga p i n r e a di ng f l ue nc y be t w e e n pr of i c i e nt a nd s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s r a t he r t ha n a l l ow i ng t he M a t t he w E f f e c t t o c a us e t he ga p t o w i de n. F uc hs a nd F uc hs ( 1993) s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s i n s e c ond gr a de s houl d m a ke o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ga i ns of be t w e e n 1 5 t o 2. 0 w or ds pe r w e e k. W i t h t hi s s t a nda r d f or w e e kl y gr ow t h c l a s s e s i n t hi s s t udy s houl d ha ve a ve r a ge d a n i nc r e a s e of a t l e a s t 23 w o r ds on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e be t w e e n t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt s w hi c h a r e s e pa r a t e d by a ppr oxi m a t e l y 15 w e e ks of i ns t r uc t i on. O f t he 32 t e a c he r s i n t he s t udy, 17 ha d c l a s s a ve r a ge s on D I B E L S 2 t ha t de m ons t r a t e d a 23 w or d pe r m i nut e i nc r e a s e f r om D I B E L S 1, w i t h i nc r e a s e s r a ngi ng f r om 23 t o 42 w or ds O f t hos e 17 t e a c he r s 10 w e r e t e a c he r s w ho s c or e d hi ghe s t on t he d i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t T hi s pr ov i de s a ddi t i ona l e vi de nc e t ha t t e a c he r s w ho di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on c a n m a i nt a i n t he ga p be t w e e n s t r uggl i n g a nd pr o f i c i e nt r e a de r s R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 2 a l s o e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y. T hi s pa r t of t h e a ns w e r t o Q ue s t i on 2 p r ove d t o be c om pl i c a t e d. A l t hough s c or e s on t he C M C w e r e n ot s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt w he n c or r e l a t e d w i t h or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e s t e a c he r s w ho s c or e d hi ghe s t on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t a l s o s c or e d hi gh on t he c l a s s r oom m a na g e m e nt c he c kl i s t w hi c h w e r e hi gh l y c or r e l a t e d.

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99 A l t e r na t e l y, e ve n w he n t e a c he r s s c or e d l ow on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t t he y di d not a l w a ys s c or e l ow on t he c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c he c kl i s t T he m i n i m um a nd m a xi m um s c or e s on t he C D I w e r e 9 a nd 24 r e s pe c t i ve l y, w hi l e t he m i ni m um a nd m a xi m u m s c or e s on t he C M C w e r e 15 a nd 25, r e s pe c t i ve l y. T e a c he r s t e nd t o c ons i s t e nt l y i m pl e m e nt be s t p r a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt r e ga r dl e s s of i ns t r uc t i ona l de l i ve r y. F or m a ny t e a c he r s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr ovi de s t he s t r uc t ur e f or i ns t r uc t i on a nd w i t hout i t e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on c a nnot t a ke pl a c e ( E ve r t s on, 2003) C l a s s r oom s t r uc t ur e s t ha t w e r e c om m onl y i m pl e m e nt e d a c r os s m a ny of t he c l a s s r oom s i n t he s t udy w e r e pos t i ng o f r u l e s / c on s e que nc e s e xpl i c i t i ns t r uc t i on o f p r oc e dur e s a nd t r a ns i t i ons a nd t he us e of a va r i e t y o f r e i nf or c e r s i n t he c l a s s r oom P r e s s l e y e t a l ( 2001 ) a nd W ha r t on M c D ona l d e t a l ( 1998 ) f ound t ha t e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng t e a c he r s pr ovi de l i t e r a t ur e r i c h c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt s i nt e r a c t e d w i t h s t ude nt s i n a pos i t i ve m a nne r a nd pr ovi de d a ba l a nc e d a ppr oa c h t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t hr ough va r i e d g r oupi ng f or m a t s M os t i m por t a nt l y, t he y f ound t ha t t he s e e l e m e nt s c oul d not be i n pl a c e w i t hout t he pa r a l l e l c om pone nt s of e f f i c i e nt c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s E f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m us t go ha nd i n ha nd i n or de r f or l e a r ni ng t o oc c ur a s e vi de nc e d by t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy. L i m i t at i on s I n t hi s s e c t i on, t he l i m i t a t i ons of t he s t udy w i l l be a ddr e s s e d, s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o i ns t r um e nt a t i on a nd t i m e l i m i t a t i ons a nd ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of t he s t udy. I n s t r u m e n t at i on O ne of t he f i r s t l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy r e l a t e s t o t he obs e r va t i on t ool us e d t o s c or e t e a c he r s on t he i r us e of bot h d i f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s A l t hough t he s e c he c kl i s t s w e r e pi l ot e d t o pr ovi de f or c l e a r ope r a t i ona l de f i ni t i ons o f

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100 e a c h i ndi c a t or t he i ndi c a t or s w e r e no t t e s t e d f o r r e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y on a l a r ge s a m pl e o f c l a s s r oom s S om e of t he i ndi c a t o r s on e a c h c he c kl i s t ove r l a ppe d a c r os s c he c kl i s t s s o t he num be r of t e s t i t e m s us e d c oul d be a dj us t e d t o i m p r ove t he c ons t r uc t va l i d i t y of t he i n di c a t or s A ddi t i ona l l y, us e of a ne c dot a l not e s va r i e d a m ong da t a c ol l e c t or s a s t o r e c or di ng o f obs e r ve d pr a c t i c e s m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h pr a c t i c e s w e r e be i ng us e d c ons i s t e nt l y a c r os s c l a s s r oom s a nd t e a c he r s A m or e s t a nda r di z e d f or m a t f or r e c or di ng a ne c dot a l not e s w oul d ha ve m a de a na l ys i s of be s t pr a c t i c e s m or e e f f e c t i ve A not he r l i m i t a t i on of t he c he c kl i s t s w a s t he i r i na bi l i t y t o c a pt u r e s pe c i f i c a s pe c t s of i ns t r uc t i on. I t w a s di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne i f r ul e s a n d pr oc e dur e s ha d be e n t a ught f r o m t he be gi nni ng s i nc e obs e r va t i ons di d not be gi n f r om t h e f i r s t da ys of s c hool T he na t ur e o f t e a c he r / s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i ons w e r e not m e a s ur e d by t he c he c kl i s t m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne t he f r e que nc y of que s t i ons a s ke d t o s pe c i f i c s t ude nt s t he oppor t uni t i e s f or s t ude nt s t o r e s pond t o t he t e a c he r s que s t i ons a nd w he t he r s t ude nt s a r e a c t i ve l y e nga ge d i n l e a r ni ng ve r s us pa s s i ve l y t a ki ng i n t he i nf or m a t i on pr ov i de d by t he t e a c he r B y i nc l udi ng w a ys t o m e a s ur e t he na t ur e a nd f r e que nc y of que s t i oni ng t ha t goe s on i n t he c l a s s r oom a s w e l l a s t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he t e a c he r i m pa r t s know l e d ge ont o hi s / he r s t ude nt s t he c he c kl i s t w oul d be t t e r be a bl e t o c a pt ur e s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ona l c om pone nt s t ha t ha ve be e n p r ove n a s e f f e c t i ve i n he l pi ng s t ude nt s r e t a i n know l e dge ( K i r s c hne r S w e l l e r a nd C l a r k, 2006) T i m e T hi s s t udy t ook p l a c e ove r t he c our s e of 16 w e e ks m a ki ng t i m e one of t he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy. T hi s c r e a t e d a n i s s ue w i t h obs e r ve d r e a di ng gr ow t h f or s t ude nt s on t he D I B E L S O R F m e a s ur e R e s ul t s m a y ha ve be e n m or e s i gni f i c a nt i f i nc r e a s e s i n w or ds pe r m i nut e on t he o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e c oul d ha ve be e n a na l yz e d ove r t he c our s e of a n e nt i r e s c hool ye a r

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101 A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons t ook pl a c e onl y one m ont h a pa r t m a ki ng i t c l e a r t ha t s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge i n c l a s s r oom s t r uc t ur e s or m odi f i c a t i ons i n i ns t r uc t i on m a y not b e obs e r ve d a t a l l or m a y be s o ne gl i gi bl e t ha t va r i a t i on f r om one obs e r va t i on t o t he ot he r w oul d not be obs e r ve d. F u r t he r m or e t he l e ngt h of t he obs e r va t i ons 90 m i nut e s di d no t a l w a ys a l l ow f o r e nt i r e r e a di ng bl oc ks t o be obs e r ve d, e s pe c i a l l y w he n t e a c he r s a dj us t e d t he i r r e a di ng s c he dul e s a c c or di ng t o s c hool f unc t i ons o r c l a s s r oom e ve nt s G e n e r al i z ab i l i t y o f t h e S t u d y A not he r l i m i t a t i on of t he s t udy r e l a t e s t o ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of t he r e s ul t s t o ot he r popul a t i ons B e c a us e pur pos i ve s a m pl i ng t e c hni q ue s w e r e us e d, onl y R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s w e r e s e l e c t e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy, m a ki n g i t di f f i c ul t t o d r a w c onc l us i ons a bout w ha t t ypi c a l t e a c he r s do dur i ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on A l t hough t he s c hool s w e r e di ve r s e i n r a c e a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us ( S E S ) s e l e c t i ng s c hool s w i t hi n onl y t w o s c hool di s t r i c t s i n nor t h c e nt r a l F l or i da m a y ha ve a n i nf l ue nc e on s t ude nt r e a di ng s c or e s on D I B E L S O R F F ur t he r m o r e R e a di ng F i r s t t a r ge t s s c hool s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng p opul a t i ons of s t ude nt s w i t h l ow S E S m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne i f s c hool s not pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he R e a di ng F i r s t m ode l w oul d yi e l d s i m i l a r r e s ul t s t o t hos e f ound i n t hi s s t udy. A ddi t i ona l l y, onl y s e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s w e r e r e c r ui t e d a s pa r t i c i pa nt s f o r t he s t udy, a nd t e a c he r s vol unt e e r e d f o r t he s t udy ba s e d on r e c om m e nda t i ons f r om t he i r p r i nc i pa l s B e c a us e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e not s e l e c t e d r a ndom l y t he t e a c he r s i n t he s a m pl e a r e not r e f l e c t i ve of t he va r i a nc e t ha t w oul d be f ound i n t ypi c a l e l e m e nt a r y c l a s s r oom s a c r os s F l or i da or a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T hi s pos e s a t h r e a t t o t he e xt e r na l va l i di t y o f t he s t udy i n t ha t t he s a m pl e do e s not a c c ur a t e l y r e pr e s e nt t he popul a t i on t o w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r i nt e nde d t o ge ne r a l i z e t he s t u dy s r e s ul t s T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy m a y onl y be ge ne r a l i z a bl e t o ot he r R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s

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102 I m p l i c at i on s f or F u t u r e R e s e ar c h T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy pr ov i de s e ve r a l i m pl i c a t i o ns f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. R e a s ona bl e s t e ps f or f ut u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l be pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s s e c t i on i nc l udi ng c onduc t i ng t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s i nc r e a s i ng s t udy dur a t i on a nd i nc l udi n g a ddi t i ona l r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt s C on d u c t i n g T e ac h e r I n t e r vi e w s A l t hough t hi s s t udy s he d l i ght on w ha t t e a c he r s do a nd do not do t o di f f e r e nt i a t e i ns t r uc t i on, i t i s unc l e a r w hy t he y c hos e t he p r a c t i c e s t he y di d. S t r uc t ur e d t e a c he r i n t e r vi e w s or f oc us gr oup i nt e r v i e w s w oul d ha ve he l pe d de t e r m i ne t he ba s i s f or t e a c he r s s e l e c t i on of i nt e r ve nt i ons us e d t o di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. I nt e r vi e w s w oul d a l s o pr ovi de ba c kgr ound know l e dge i nt o t he ki nds of pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s t ha t t e a c he r s r e c e i ve t o pr e pa r e t he m t o d i f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n R e a di ng F i r s t c l a s s r oom s R e a di ng F i r s t pr ovi de s oppor t uni t i e s f o r p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s K 3 R e a di ng A c a de m i e s t ha t t a r ge t e f f e c t i ve e a r l y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on s t r a t e gi e s f or a l l K 3 s t ude nt s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e w ho a r e ha vi ng di f f i c ul t y l e a r ni ng t o r e a d T he s e a c a de m i c s pr ovi de t e a c he r s w i t h pr a c t i c a l oppor t uni t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t he s t ude nt books a n d r e a di ng pr og r a m s t ha t a r e a dopt e d by t he i r s c hool di s t r i c t s a nd t e a c h t he m how t o a ppl y t he m a t e r i a l s t o t he i r s pe c i f i c s t ude nt popul a t i ons K now i ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t e a c he r s ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s e a c a de m i e s w oul d be be ne f i c i a l i n de t e r m i ni ng how t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s he l p t he m d e ve l op a c t i vi t i e s i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s F ur t he r m or e s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s w oul d a s s i s t r e s e a r c he r s i n de t e r m i ni ng t e a c he r s s pe c i f i c know l e dge of e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s i n r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, know l e dge of i nt e r ve nt i ons t o a s s i s t s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s t he us e o f t he s e i nt e r ve nt i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd ba r r i e r s t o d i f f e r e nt i a t i on M oody a nd V a ughn ( 19 97) us e d f oc us gr oup i nt e r vi e w s t o de t e r m i ne pr e va l e nc e of gr oupi ng f o r m a t s t e a c he r s know l e d ge of t he be ne f i t s of a va r i e t y of g r oupi ng

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103 f or m a t s a nd ba r r i e r s t o t he us e o f di f f e r e nt i a t e d i n s t r uc t i on. C onduc t i ng i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t e a c he r s c oul d pr ovi de va l ua bl e i n f or m a t i on r e ga r d i ng w ha t t e a c he r s ne e d t o s uc c e s s f ul l y di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or di ve r s e l e a r ne r s I n c r e as i n g S t u d y D u r at i o n A l t hough s t ud e nt s de m ons t r a t e d f l ue nc y ga i ns r e g a r dl e s s of r e a di ng a bi l i t y ( bot h pr of i c i e nt a nd s t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s m a de a ve r a ge ga i ns of 20 w o r ds pe r m i nut e or m or e ) t he di f f e r e nc e s i n s c or e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d a f t e r onl y ha l f t he s c hool ye a r ha d pr og r e s s e d. I nc r e a s i ng t he dur a t i on o f t he s t udy t o l a s t t he e nt i r e s c hool y e a r w oul d a l l ow m or e oppo r t uni t y t o obs e r ve gr ow t h i n s t ude nt r e a di ng s c or e s a f t e r one ye a r o f i ns t r uc t i on. S c or e s c oul d be e va l ua t e d pr e a nd pos t t e s t ba s e d on t he f i r s t D I B E L S a s s e s s m e n t w hi c h t a ke s pl a c e i n t he be gi nni ng of t he s c hool ye a r a nd t he t hi r d a s s e s s m e nt w hi c h t a ke s pl a c e a t t he e nd o f t he s c hool ye a r T h i s w oul d not onl y t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t he e f f e c t s of a n e nt i r e ye a r o f i ns t r uc t i on on s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y, bu t a l s o w o ul d a l l ow r e s e a r c he r s t o de t e r m i ne i f s t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on ove r t he c our s e of t he s c h ool ye a r a r e a bl e t o c a t c h up w i t h m or e pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s L ongi t udi na l l y s t ude nt s c oul d a l s o be f ol l ow e d be gi nni ng i n K i nde r ga r t e n a nd t he n t hr ough t hi r d gr a de t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s of s e ve r a l ye a r s of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on on or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y. I nc r e a s i ng t he s t udy dur a t i on t o i nc l ude one s c hool ye a r w oul d a l s o be m or e be ne f i c i a l f or t e a c he r obs e r va t i ons i n t ha t c ha nge s i n t e a c he r be ha vi or a nd c l a s s r oom s t r uc t ur e s m a y be m or e e vi de nt ove r t he c our s e o f one s c hool ye a r a s oppos e d t o one s e m e s t e r I n t he i r r e s e a r c h of t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s V a ug hn e t a l ( 1998 ) i m pl e m e nt e d a t w o ye a r s t udy t ha t i nc l ude d obs e r va t i ons p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt i n i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s a nd t e a c he r

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104 i nt e r vi e w s E xt e ndi ng t he l e ngt h o f t he s t udy w oul d a l l ow f o r a ddi t i ona l t i m e t o a s s e s s t e a c he r s know l e dge a nd pr ovi de s uppor t t o he l p t he m di f f e r e nt i a t e s uc c e s s f ul l y i n t he c l a s s r oom I n c l u d i n g A d d i t i on al R e ad i n g A s s e s s m e n t s T hi s s t udy r e l i e d o n t he us e o f D I B E L S O r a l R e a di ng F l ue nc y s c or e s t o de t e r m i ne i f s t ude nt s m a de r e a di ng ga i ns I nc or por a t i ng a ddi t i ona l r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt s t o e va l ua t e s t ude nt s r e a di ng s ki l l s w oul d pr ov i de a m o r e c om pr e he ns i v e pi c t ur e of t he s ki l l de f i c i t s s t ude nt s f a c e be yond f l ue nc y m e a s ur e s I n a r e l a t e d s t udy, M oody e t a l ( 2000 ) us e d t he T e s t s of O r a l R e a di ng F l ue nc y ( T O R F ) a nd s pe c i f i c s ubt e s t s of t he W oodc oc k J ohns on T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e nt R e vi s e d ( W J R ) t o de t e r m i ne i f i nt e r ve nt i ons t a ught t o t e a c he r s ha d a ny e f f e c t s on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s I nc l udi ng a s s e s s m e nt s t ha t m e a s ur e e a c h a r e a of r e a di ng a ddr e s s e d by t he R e a di ng F i r s t I ni t i a t i ve ( phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s phoni c s f l ue nc y, voc a bul a r y, a n d c om p r e he ns i on) w oul d a s s i s t t e a c he r s i n de ve l opi ng c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c onc e nt r a t e on s ki l l de ve l opm e nt U s i ng t he s e i ns t r um e nt s a s pr e a nd pos t t e s t m e a s ur e s w oul d h e l p r e s e a r c he r s de t e r m i ne t he na t ur e of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t ha t t a ke s pl a c e i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd i t s a bi l i t y t o m e e t s t ude nt s ne e ds A s pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d, t e a c he r s w ho s c or e d hi ghe s t on t he d i f f e r e nt i a t i on c he c kl i s t i nc or por a t e d t he us e of r e c i p r oc a l t e a c hi ng i n t he i r r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. I nc l udi ng a c om pr e he ns i on m e a s ur e w oul d pr ovi de a n oppor t uni t y t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t s of t hi s s t r a t e gy on s t ude nt s r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on. F ur t he r m or e a va r i e t y of a s s e s s m e nt s w oul d a s s i s t r e s e a r c he r s i n de ve l opi ng e f f e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i ons t o i m pl e m e nt i n c l a s s r oom s s o t ha t e xpe r i m e nt a l r e s e a r c h c a n be done t o de t e r m i ne i f e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s di r e c t l y i n f l ue nc e de ve l opm e nt of r e a di ng s ki l l s F i na l l y e xa m i ni ng s t ude nt s c or e s on t he S t a nf or d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t 1 0 ( S A T 10) w oul d a l s o a l l ow r e s e a r c he r s t o

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105 de t e r m i ne how s t ude nt s f a r e on a c hi e ve m e n t t e s t s a s a r e s ul t of d i f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w hi c h a l s o s uppor t s t he ne e d t o i nc r e a s e t he dur a t i on of t he s t udy. C on d u c t i n g A d d i t i o n al D at a A n al ys i s T hi s s t udy us e d w hol e c l a s s obs e r va t i ons a nd a ve r a ge s t o a na l yz e t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n t he va r i a bl e s of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s a nd s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y. F ut u r e da t a a na l ys i s s houl d f oc us on e xa m i ni ng t he e f f e c t s of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on on i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s E m pl oyi ng da t a a na l ys i s s uc h a s m ul t i l e ve l m ode l i ng or hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l i ng a l l ow t he r e s e a r c he r t o e xa m i ne va r i a t i on a t t he di f f e r e nt s t ude nt l e ve l s w i t hi n a c l a s s r oom F o r e x a m pl e va r i a t i on i n t he l ow e s t or hi ghe s t r e a de r s ove r t he r e pe a t e d D I B E L S m e a s ur e s c oul d be a na l yz e d. R e s e a r c he r s s uc h a s B r yk a nd R a ude nbus h ( 1992) a nd L ong f or d ( 1987) f ound t h a t e xa m i ni ng t he hi e r a r c hi c a l s t r uc t ur e s of da t a a l l ow e d f or e xa m i ni ng t he va r i a t i on be t w e e n gr oups ne s t e d w i t hi n a s t udy. T he a dva nt a ge of e xa m i ni ng t he da t a t o c om pa r e g r oup s i n t hi s s t udy w oul d a l l ow t he r e s e a r c he r t o de t e r m i ne ga i ns i n f l ue nc y f o r t a r ge t e d gr oups o f r e a de r s s uc h a s t he l ow e s t gr oup s o t ha t r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n i ns t r uc t i on a nd r e a di ng f l ue nc y c oul d be d e t e r m i ne d f or t ha t s pe c i f i c g r oup o f s t ude nt s I m p l i c at i on s f or F u t u r e P r ac t i c e S e ve r a l i m pl i c a t i ons f o r f u t ur e p r a c t i c e a r os e a s a r e s ul t of t hi s s t udy. K e y a r e a s f or de ve l opm e nt a ddr e s s t he a r e a s of pr e s e r vi c e a nd i n s e r vi c e t e a c he r e duc a t i on, a nd f or t e a c he r pr a c t i c e s P r e S e r vi c e T e ac h e r e d u c at i on T e a c he r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy va r i e d i n t he i r i n s e r vi c e t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on a nd c e r t i f i c a t i on. W hi l e pa r t i c i pa nt s c om pl e t e d t he T e a c he r I nf o r m a t i on F o r m t ha t w a s c ol l e c t e d w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e c r ui t e d f or t he s t udy i nf or m a l c onve r s a t i ons oc c ur r e d w he r e i n t e a c he r s

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106 di s c us s e d t he i r l e ve l of pr e pa r a t i on i n r e a di ng. M a ny c om m e nt e d t ha t t he y ha d l i t t l e e xpe r i e nc e w i t h r e a di ng c our s e w or k w hi l e i n c ol l e ge a nd t ha t m a ny c our s e s w e r e not r e qui r e d o r o f f e r e d. O ne t e a c he r s t a t e d, I ha d t o ge t m y r e a di ng e ndor s e m e nt t hr ough t he c ount y t o ge t m or e r e a di ng c our s e s A be gi nni ng t e a c he r r e por t e d t ha t s he w a s a bl e t o t a ke s e ve r a l c our s e s but s he a t t e nde d a pr ogr a m t ha t r e qui r e d a M a s t e r s de gr e e f or gr a dua t i on. O f t he 32 pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s 22 he l d ba c he l or s de gr e e s 10 he l d m a s t e r s de gr e e s a nd t h r e e r e c e i ve d s pe c i a l c e r t i f i c a t i ons or e ndo r s e m e nt s i n r e a di ng. T hi s va r i a bi l i t y i n t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i ons i s s i m i l a r t o t ha t f ound i n t he r e s e a r c h on t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on i n m a ny w a ys F i r s t t he c ou r s e w or k r e qui r e d of m a ny p r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s va r i e s f r om pr og r a m t o pr ogr a m ( H of f m a n & R ol l e r 2001) B e gi nni ng t e a c he r s r e por t ha vi ng a s f e w a s s i x c r e di t hour s i n r e a di ng o r l a ngua ge a r t s c our s e w or k, w hi l e ot he r s r e por t ha vi ng 15 or m or e hour s of r e a di ng r e l a t e d c our s e w or k ( M a l oc h, F i ne & S e e l y F l i n t 2002) I m pl e m e nt i ng a di f f e r e nt i a t e d c ur r i c ul um i n r e qui r e s i n de pt h know l e dge of t he r e a di ng pr oc e s s a s w e l l a s know l e dge of a s s e s s m e nt s o t ha t t e a c he r s c a n m a ke i nf or m e d de c i s i ons r e ga r di ng r e a di ng i ns t r u c t i on f or a l l s t ude nt s T e a c he r s w ho gr a dua t e d f r om pr ogr a m s de e m e d by t he N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on a n d S i t e s of E xc e l l e nc e i n R e a di ng T e a c he r E duc a t i on ( S E R T E ) a s e xe m pl a r y a t pr e pa r i ng pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s t o t e a c h r e a di ng a l l f e l t t he y w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o r e s pond t o t he ne e ds of t he i r s t ude nt s a nd m or e i m por t a nt l y f e l t t he y w e r e a bl e t o he l p s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s t ha t no one ha d be e n a bl e t o he l p be f or e ( M a l oc h e t a l 2002) B y pr ovi di ng e xt e ns i ve c our s e w or k t ha t i nc l ude s a t l e a s t 15 hour s of c l a s s e s r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, p r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s w oul d m os t l i ke l y be a r m e d w i t h t he know l e dge ne c e s s a r y t o m a ke i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d. S e c ondl y, t e a c he r s i n t h i s s t udy va r i e d i n t he i r i m p l e m e nt a t i on of bot h r e a di ng pr a c t i c e s a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s A s e vi de nc e d by c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons a m a j o r i t y o f

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107 t he t e a c he r s us e d c l a s s r ul e s a nd r out i ne s t o s e t e xp e c t a t i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom T e a c he r s w ho s c or e d hi ghe s t i ns t r uc t e d s t ude nt s r e gul a r l y on m a ki ng s m oot h t r a ns i t i ons be t w e e n a c t i vi t i e s a nd m a de c ons e que nc e s f or r u l e i nf r a c t i ons c l e a r t o a l l s t ude nt s T he s e pr a c t i c e s w e r e obs e r ve d by ve t e r a n t e a c he r s a s w e l l a s by be gi nni ng t e a c he r s w i t h one r e m a r k i ng t ha t s he us e d w ha t he r s upe r vi s i ng t e a c he r us e d a t f i r s t but t he n m a de m y ow n ga m e pl a n C ons e que nt l y, M a l oc h, F l i nt E l dr i dge H a r m on, L ove n, F i ne B r ya nt S ha nkl i n, a nd M a r t i ne z ( 2003) f ound t ha t w he n f i e l d e xpe r i e nc e s pr ovi de pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s w i t h e xt e ns i ve c l a s s r oom c ont a c t i t e ns ur e s t ha t t he y ha ve f i r s t ha n d know l e dge of w ha t r e a di ng i n s t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt l ooks l i ke M a ny be gi nni ng t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e di f f i c u l t y t r a ns f e r r i ng w ha t t he y l e a r ne d i n uni ve r s i t y c our s e s t o r e a l l i f e pr a c t i c a l c l a s s r oom s i t ua t i ons onc e t he y e nt e r t he i r ow n c l a s s r oom s T e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s t ha t f oc us on e xt e ns i ve a ppr e n t i c e s hi p oppor t uni t i e s pr oduc e t e a c he r s t ha t a r e be t t e r a bl e t o t r a ns f e r r e s e a r c h i nt o pr a c t i c e B y pr ovi di ng pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s w i t h m ul t i pl e oppor t uni t i e s t o ga i n r e a l l i f e c l a s s r oom e xp e r i e nc e be gi nni ng t e a c he r s c a n us e t he i nt e r ve nt i ons t he y l e a r ne d i n un i ve r s i t y c our s e s i n t he i r ow n c l a s s r oom s e s pe c i a l l y w he n t he y ha ve s e e n t he pr a c t i c e pe r f or m e d s uc c e s s f ul l y dur i ng s e ve r a l of t he i r f i e l d e xpe r i e nc e s N e xt m a ny o f t he t e a c he r s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e be gi nni ng t e a c he r s w i t h f e w e r t ha n f i ve ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e O f t he 10 w ho r e por t e d ha vi n g f e w e r t ha n f i ve ye a r s o f e xpe r i e nc e s i x w e r e hi gh pe r f o r m e r s on t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c he c kl i s t s I n l i ght o f t he f a c t t ha t r e s e a r c h s how s t ha t ne w t e a c he r s a r e o f t e n pr e oc c upi e d w i t h i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s o t he y r e l y on us i ng c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s t o he l p t he m e s t a bl i s h s t a nda r ds i n t he c l a s s r oom ( V e e nm a n, 1984 ) t he b e gi nni ng t e a c he r s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e a bl e t o ut i l i z e s e ve r a l i ns t r uc t i ona l r e s our c e s t o a l l ow s t ud e nt s t o be s uc c e s s f ul bot h be ha vi or a l l y a nd a c a de m i c a l l y. T hi s w a s e vi de nc e d not onl y t hr oug h t he i r us e o f t he r e s our c e s pr ovi de d w i t h t he i r

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108 t e xt books but a l s o by t he i r c l e ve r us e of m a t e r i a l s pr ovi de d a t R e a di ng F i r s t a c a de m i e s W he n a s ke d w he r e t he y got t he i r c e nt e r i de a s s i x of t he be gi nni ng t e a c he r s r e por t e d us i ng t he bi nde r s gi ve n t o t he m t hr ough t he F l o r i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h a t a s um m e r a c a de m y. F i na l l y, s e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve s how n t ha t ne w t e a c he r s w a nt m a t e r i a l s a nd i de a s t ha t t he y c a n i m pl e m e nt e a s i l y s o m a ny r e l y on t e xt books a nd t e a c he r s gui de s e ve n t hough t he y ha ve ne ga t i ve i de a s a bout t he m ( B a l l & F e i m a n N e m s a r 1988; G r os s m a n & T ho m ps on, 2004 ) T hi s w a s a l s o f ound t hr oughout m a ny c l a s s r oom s i n t hi s s t udy w he n t e a c he r s r e l i e d on a c t i vi t i e s a nd t e c hnol ogi e s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e d gr e a t e r e a s e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s F or e xa m pl e s e ve r a l t e a c he r s i m pl e m e nt e d t he us e of L e a p P a d s t or y s ys t e m s or A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r c e nt e r s b e c a us e t he y r e qui r e d l i t t l e t o no t e a c he r m oni t o r i n g, but w e r e not c onne c t e d t o s ki l l s be i ng t a ught dur i ng s m a l l gr oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on T e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s c oul d be t t e r p r e pa r e pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s on w a ys t o s uppl e m e nt or i nt e r a c t w i t h t he c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he y a r e a bl e t o i ns e r t t he i r ow n know l e d ge a bout t he c ont e nt w hi l e s t i l l a dhe r i ng t o t he i r pe da gogi c a l be l i e f s ( G r os s m a n & T hom ps on, 2004) I n S e r vi c e T e ac h e r P r e p ar at i on M a ny t e a c he r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy s e e m e d t o c ons t a nt l y s e e k gui da nc e a nd i de a s a s t o how t o he l p t he i r s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s D ur i ng t he i nf or m a l r e c r ui t m e nt m e e t i ngs t e a c he r s di s c us s e d f e e l i ng f r us t r a t e d by t he c om bi na t i on of a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi o r pr ob l e m s i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s S e ve r a l i m por t a nt s i m i l a r i t i e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd t he r e s e a r c h on p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt f or i n s e r vi c e t e a c he r s F i r s t of a l l t he s e t e a c he r s r e por t e d ha vi ng a c c e s s t o m a ny m a t e r i a l s pr ovi de d t hr ough R e a di ng F i r s t a c a de m i e s w hi c h a r e t ypi c a l l y a t t e nde d dur i ng s um m e r b r e a ks or on t e a c he r w or kda ys M a ny t e a c he r s f e l t t ha t t he R e a di ng F i r s t pr ogr a m r e qui r e m e nt s w e r e dr oppe d on us w i t h ve r y l i t t l e gui da nc e a s t o how t o

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109 us e t he m a t e r i a l s T hi s i s s uppor t e d by t he f a c t t h a t m uc h i s know n a bout hi gh qua l i t y pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt f or t e a c he r s ( D a ni e l s on, 1996) but l i t t l e i s know n a bout how t o t r a ns l a t e i t i nt o be s t pr a c t i c e s f or r e a di ng t e a c he r s ( M a z z oni & G a m br e l l 2003 ) S e c ondl y, c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons r e ve a l e d t ha t t e a c he r s s e e m e d t o be a w a r e of s t ude nt r e a di ng a bi l i t i e s ba s e d on D I B E L S s c or e s but m a n y de m ons t r a t e d pr obl e m s c r e a t i ng c ont e nt s pe c i f i c a c t i vi t i e s f or s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s W i t h t he pr e va l e nt us e of p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng t ool s s uc h a s D I B E L S t e a c he r s a r e be c om i ng a w a r e of how t o us e da t a t o i nf o r m i ns t r uc t i on W ha t i s m i s s i ng, how e ve r i s w a ys i n w hi c h t e a c he r s c a n u s e t he da t a f r om ye a r t o ye a r t o de t e r m i ne t he a r e a s of pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt w he r e t he y e xp e r i e nc e or pe r c e i ve t ha t t he r e i s a w e a kne s s M a ki ng p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s a va i l a bl e ba s e d not onl y on i nt e r e s t but on s t ude nt ne e d m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve e s pe c i a l l y w he n t e a c he r s l i ke t he one s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy, a r e s o a t t une d t o s t ude nt s ne e ds ( A nde r s H of f m a n, & D uf f y, 2000) O ne a ddi t i ona l s ugge s t i on f or pr of e s s i ona l de ve l op m e nt t ha t a r os e f r om t he s e r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs r e l a t e s t o c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s D ur i ng s e ve r a l obs e r va t i ons t e a c he r s a ppr oa c he d t he da t a c ol l e c t or s t o r e m a r k a bout t he s t ude nt be ha vi or i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd how i t i m pe de d t he i r a bi l i t y t o c onduc t t he r e a di ng l e s s on. T e a c he r s e s pe c i a l l y t hos e i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t udy, c ont i nue t o i de nt i f y s t ude nt be ha vi or a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s a s a ba r r i e r t o e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on. P r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s r e l a t e d t o be s t pr a c t i c e s i n c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c a n he l p t e a c he r s r e ne w t he i r phi l os ophi e s r e ga r di ng s t ude nt be ha vi or t hr ough t e a c he r l e d di s c us s i ons a nd ne t w or ki ng oppor t uni t i e s w hi c h ha ve pr ove n t o be e f f e c t i ve i n he l pi ng t e a c he r s r e f l e c t o n i ndi vi dua l c l a s s r oom p r a c t i c e s ( P ut na m & B or ko 2000 ) T e a c he r s a l s o e xpr e s s e d c onc e r ns a bout t he l a c k of s uppor t pr ov i de d i n i m pl e m e nt i ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd us i ng c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s pr e s e nt e d a t pa s t pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt

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110 oppor t uni t i e s S i m i l a r l y, V a ughn e t a l ( 1998) e nc ount e r e d t he s a m e pr obl e m w i t h t e a c he r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n da y l ong w or ks hops t ha t i nc l ude d f ol l ow up m e e t i ngs t o di s c us s i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i ons t he y l e a r ne d T e a c he r s i de nt i f i e d f our pr a c t i c e s t ha t t he y kne w l i t t l e a bo ut but w a nt e d t o i m pl e m e nt i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s ( W r i t i ng P r oc e s s C ol l a bor a t i ve S t r a t e gi c R e a di ng, C l a s s W i de P e e r T ut or i ng a nd M a ki ng W o r ds ) P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve d w or kbooks a nd m a t e r i a l s t o i m pl e m e nt t he s t r a t e gi e s l e a r ne d, but di d not i m pl e m e nt t he s t r a t e gi e s w he n t he y r e t ur ne d t o t he c l a s s r oom T he m os t c om m onl y i de nt i f i e d ba r r i e r t o i m pl e m e nt a t i on w a s not know i ng w ha t t he s t r a t e gy l ooke d l i ke w he n i t w a s us e d w i t h s t ude nt s a nd be i ng una bl e t o m odi f y t he s t r a t e gy t o m e e t t he ne e ds of di ve r s e g r oup s of s t ude nt s T h i s i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs of F oor m a n a nd M oa t s ( 2004 ) i n t ha t p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt i n r e a di ng i s m os t e f f e c t i ve w he n a c ont i nuous pr e s e nc e i s pr ovi de d t o t e a c he r s t h r oug h m ont hl y vi s i t s de m ons t r a t i on l e s s ons i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd r e gul a r i nf or m a l m e e t i ngs w i t h t e a c he r s t o di s c us s pr ogr a m i m pl e m e nt a t i on i s s ue s T e a c he r s r e qui r e ongoi ng s uppor t a f t e r p r o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d, ot he r w i s e i m pl e m e nt a t i on be c om e s bot he r s om e t o t he poi nt t ha t t he y r e t u r n t o t he t r i e d a nd t r ue m e t hods t ha t w or ke d be f o r e T e ac h e r P r ac t i c e s T he R e a di ng F i r s t I ni t i a t i ve f oc us e s on r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he f i ve c om pone nt s of r e a di ng i de nt i f i e d by t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) : phone m i c a w a r e ne s s phoni c s f l ue nc y, v oc a bul a r y, a nd c om p r e he ns i on. T he s e c om pone nt s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d a s e s s e nt i a l t o t he pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng t o r e a d i n young c hi l d r e n. T he t e a c he r s w ho s c or e d hi gh on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t c ons i s t e nt l y i m pl e m e nt e d t he s a m e s t r a t e gi e s or pr a c t i c e s t ha t c ont r i but e d t o s t ude nt l e a r ni ng. T he s e s t r a t e gi e s w e r e br oke n do w n i nt o t he f i ve c om pone nt s o f r e a di ng de s c r i bi ng t he s t r a t e gi e s obs e r ve d or not obs e r ve d w i t hi n e a c h c om pone nt

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111 P h on e m i c aw ar e n e s s P hone m i c a w a r e ne s s i s t he a bi l i t y t o a t t e nd t o t he i ndi vi dua l s ounds i n s poke n w or ds ( A da m s 1990) P hone m i c a w a r e ne s s i s a good p r e di c t or of e a r l y r e a di ng a bi l i t y ( S t a novi c h, 1994) a nd i s a n e a r l y pr e di c t or of f ut ur e r e a di ng d i f f i c ul t y ( A da m s 1990; B a l l & B l a c hm a n, 1991) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t e a c hi ng phone m i c a w a r e ne s s t o young c hi l dr e n i nc r e a s e s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( C unni ngha m 1990; F oo r m a n F r a nc i s F l e t c he r S c ha t s c hne i de r & M e ht a 1998) a nd t ha t s om e c hi l d r e n r e qui r e s ys t e m a t i c e xpl i c i t i ns t r uc t i on i n phone m i c a w a r e ne s s i n or de r t o m a ke t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n i ndi vi dua l s ounds a nd w or ds ( S now B ur ns & G r i f f i n, 1998) P r a c t i c e s obs e r ve d t ha t s uppor t phone m i c a w a r e ne s s i ns t r uc t i on i nc l ude d a c t i vi t i e s t ha t f oc us e d on s e gm e nt i ng a nd bl e ndi ng s ounds A l t h ough phone m i c a w a r e ne s s i ns t r u c t i on t ypi c a l l y oc c ur s f or be gi nni ng r e a de r s i t w a s obs e r ve d dur i ng s m a l l g r oup i ns t r uc t i on i n f our c l a s s r oom s t ha t ha d hi gh num be r s of s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s T he s e t e a c he r s us e d s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s or a l l a ngua ge a c t i vi t i e s t ha t i nvol ve d s i ngi ng r hym i ng poe m s or c ha nt s A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r s us e d s t r a t e gi e s s ugge s t e d by r e s e a r c he r s s uc h a s Y opp ( 1992) t ha t i nc l ude d ( a ) e xpl i c i t i ns t r uc t i on of s ounds t hr ough s e gm e nt i ng, ( b) s ound i s ol a t i on us i ng w or ds t ha t ha ve t he s a m e be gi nni ng, m i ddl e o r e ndi ng s ounds o r ( c ) s e gm e nt i ng w or ds i nt o ons e t s a nd r i m e s a nd t he n i nt o i ndi vi dua l s ounds T he s e a c t i vi t i e s w e r e pr e s e nt e d dur i ng s m a l l g r oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w he r e s t ude nt s r e c e i ve d i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k f r o m t he t e a c he r a nd obs e r ve d ot he r s pe r f or m i ng t he s a m e t a s ks P h on i c s P honi c s i ns t r uc t i on f oc us e s on a c hi l d s a bi l i t y t o u nde r s t a nd t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e or l e t t e r s ound know l e dge A c hi l d w ho unde r s t a nds t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e de m ons t r a t e s a n

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112 a w a r e ne s s of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a w r i t t e n l e t t e r or w or d a nd t he s ound( s ) i t r e pr e s e nt s ( F oor m a n e t a l 1998) R e s e a r c he r s ( A da m s 1990; C ha l l 1967; F oor m a n e t a l 1998) f ound t ha t s ys t e m a t i c i ns t r uc t i on i n phoni c s t ha t oc c ur r e d dur i ng be gi nni ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on l e a d t o s i gni f i c a nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt E vi de nc e ba s e d p r a c t i c e s obs e r ve d by hi gh pe r f or m i ng t e a c he r s i nc l ude d t he us e w or d w o r k a nd i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng. T e a c he r s us e d w or d w or k b y us i ng m a ni pul a t i ve l e t t e r s t o i m p r ove c hi l dr e n s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e ( P i nne l l & F ount a s 1998 ) D ur i ng a w o r d w or k a c t i vi t y, s t ude nt s t ypi c a l l y e nga ge d i n e nc odi ng a n d de c odi ng of w or ds m a ni pul a t i ng t he s ounds t o f or m ne w w or ds a nd w or ki ng w i t h ons e t s a nd r i m e s i n w or d f a m i l i e s T hi s a c t i vi t y t ypi c a l l y oc c ur r e d dur i ng l i t e r a c y c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s w i t h s t ude nt s w or ki ng e i t he r i ndi vi dua l l y o r i n pa i r s t o f or m w o r ds T e a c he s a l s o e nc our a ge d t he us e of i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng i n w r i t i ng c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s I nve nt e d s pe l l i ng a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o us e t he i r know l e dge of l e t t e r s a nd s ounds t o i nve nt t he i r ow n s pe l l i ngs of w or ds W he n i m pl e m e nt i ng i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng w i t h c hi l dr e n phone m i c a w a r e ne s s i s r e i nf or c e d w hi l e phoni c s know l e dge a nd w or d r e c ogni t i on i s de ve l ope d ( C l a r ke 1989; S t a hl & M ur r a y, 1998) F l u e n c y A not he r pr a c t i c e t ha t de s e r ve s m or e a t t e nt i on i n c l a s s r oom s i s t he us e of va r i ous r e pe a t e d or a l r e a di ng m e t hods t ha t a r e i m pl e m e nt e d dur i ng w hol e c l a s s r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. F l ue nc y i s de f i ne d a s t he a bi l i t y t o r e a d w i t h a c c ur a c y, s pe e d, a nd pr os ody ( A da m s 1990 ) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t r e pe a t e d or a l r e a di ng i s e f f e c t i ve a t i m pr ovi ng f l ue nc y ( N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000) E a c h o f t he c l a s s r oom s obs e r ve d, ove r a pp r oxi m a t e l y 97% of 96 obs e r va t i ons i nc or por a t e d gr oup r e a di ng f or m a t s i nt o t he i r w hol e c l a s s r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. C hor a l r e a di ng, t e a m r e a di ng, a nd r ound r obi n r e a di ng w e r e t he m os t obs e r ve d pr a c t i c e s D ur i ng c hor a l r e a di ng,

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113 t he e nt i r e c l a s s r e a d t he t e xt t oge t he r a l oud. I n s om e i ns t a nc e s t he t e a c he r r e a d f i r s t a nd s t ude nt s r e a d a f t e r S om e t e a c he r s r e a d a l oud w i t h s t ude nt s w hi l e o t he r s s i m pl y w a l ke d a r ound t he r oom m oni t or i ng s t ude nt s w i t h i n t he i r pr oxi m i t y. M a ny t e a c he r s ( bot h hi gh a nd l ow pe r f o r m i ng on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t ) i nc or po r a t e d r ound r obi n r e a di ng i nt o t he i r w hol e c l a s s r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. D ur i ng r ound r obi n r e a di ng, s t ude nt s t a ke t ur ns r e a di ng pa r t s of a t e xt a l oud A c c or di ng t o t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) a nd A s h, K uhn, a nd W a l pol e ( 2003) m a ny t e a c he r s r e l y s ol e l y on r oun d r obi n r e a di ng t o de ve l op or a l f l ue nc y; unf o r t una t e l y r ound r obi n r e a di ng doe s not i nc r e a s e f l ue nc y be c a us e s t ude nt s t ypi c a l l y ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o r e a d s m a l l a m ount s of t e xt us ua l l y onl y ge t t o r e a d t ha t l i m i t e d a m ount a nd a r e f or c e d t o r e a d t he s a m e t e xt a s t he r e s t of t he c l a s s r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r r e a di ng l e ve l I n f a c t A s h e t a l ( 2003) f ound t ha t de s pi t e know i ng t ha t r ound r obi n r e a di ng doe s not pr om ot e f l ue nc y, t e a c he r s s t i l l us e i t a s t he i r pr i m a r y w hol e c l a s s r e a di ng a c t i vi t y T e a c he r s ne e d t o be i n f or m e d o f t he m a ny ot he r f o r m s of r e pe a t e d or a l r e a di ng t ha t ha ve s t r ong e vi de nc e t o s uppor t t he i r a bi l i t y t o i m pr ove s t ude nt s r e a di ng f l ue nc y. T he s e i nc l ude r e r e a di ng t e xt a t l e a s t f our t i m e s us i ng a udi ot a pe s pa i r e d r e a di ng, m e nt or r e a di ng or t e a m r e a di ng. V oc ab u l ar y O ne pr a c t i c e t ha t w a s obs e r ve d ve r y l i t t l e w a s s ys t e m a t i c voc a bul a r y i ns t r uc t i on. R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t voc a bul a r y know l e dge c ont r i but e s t o s t ude nt s a bi l i t y t o c om pr e he nd t e xt ( B a um a nn, K a m e e nui & A s h, 2003 ) A c c or d i ng t o S t a hl ( 2005 ) t o pl a c e a w or d i nt o t he i r l ong t e r m m e m o r y, s t ude nt s ha ve t o s e e a w or d m or e t ha n onc e but not a s m e r e r e pe t i t i on i n t he s e ns e of dr i l l a nd pr a c t i c e of t he w or d I ns t e a d, t h e y m us t s e e t he w or d e m be dde d i n di f f e r e nt c ont e xt s F or t hi s r e a s on, i t i s i m po r t a nt t ha t voc a bul a r y i ns t r uc t i on p r ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h s e ve r a l oppor t uni t i e s t o e nc ount e r w or ds r e pe a t e dl y a nd i n m ul t i pl e c ont e xt s S t a novi c h ( 1986)

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114 de s c r i be s t he M a t t he w E f f e c t a nd how i t a ppl i e s t o voc a bul a r y know l e dge S t ude nt s w ho ha ve e xt e ns i ve voc a bul a r y know l e dge t e nd t o r e a d m or e c ont i nuous l y de ve l opi ng t he i r w o r d know l e dge w hi l e t hos e w ho ha ve ve r y l i m i t e d voc a bul a r y know l e dge f i nd r e a di ng di f f i c ul t ( S now 2002 ) T e a c he r s ne e d t o i nc or por a t e voc a bul a r y i ns t r uc t i on i nt o r e a di ng l e s s ons a nd c a n do s o us i ng a c t i vi t i e s t ha t m a i nt a i n s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt i nc r e a s i ng s t ude nt m ot i va t i on t o l e a r n m or e a nd m o r e w or ds W i t hi n t he s t a t e o f F l o r i da w he r e t hi s s t udy t ook pl a c e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t s t ude nt s w ho ha d m or e ve r ba l know l e d ge a nd r e a s oni ng s ki l l s ( voc a bul a r y know l e dge ) de m ons t r a t e d i nc r e a s e d s c or e s on t he F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) a c r os s t hr e e gr a de l e ve l s ( S c ha t s hne i de r B uc k, T or ge s e n, W a gne r H a s s l e r H e c ht & P ow e l l S m i t h 2004) S om e pr a c t i c e s t ha t ha ve be e n pr ove n t o i m pr ove s t ude nt s voc a bul a r y know l e dge a r e T e xt T a l k ( B e c k & M c K e ow n, 200 1) W o r d W i z a r d ( B e c k, P e r f e t t i & M c K e ow n, 1982) s e m a nt i c m a ps o r ot he r gr a phi c or ga ni z e r s a nd S ha r e d S t or ybook R e a di ngs ( C oyne S i m m ons & K a m e e nui 2003 ) I t i s i m po r t a nt f or t e a c he r s t o not on l y know w ha t w or ds t o t e a c h, bu t how t o s e l e c t s t r a t e gi e s t ha t r e s ul t i n e f f e c t i ve voc a bul a r y i ns t r uc t i on. A c c or di ng t o G r a ve s ( 2000) t he r e a r e f our c om pone nt s of a n e f f e c t i ve voc a bul a r y p r ogr a m : ( a ) e xt e ns i ve i nde pe nde nt r e a di ng t o e xpa nd w or d know l e dge ( b) t a r ge t e d w o r d i ns t r uc t i on t o e nha n c e c om pr e he ns i on o f t e xt s c ont a i ni ng t hos e w or ds ( c ) i ns t r uc t i on i n i nde pe nde nt w or d l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd ( d) w o r d c ons c i ous ne s s or w or d pl a y a c t i vi t i e s t ha t m ot i va t e a nd e nha nc e voc a bul a r y de ve l opm e nt C om p r e h e n s i on A not he r pr a c t i c e t ha t w a s i m pr e s s i ve l y i m pl e m e nt e d by pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s w a s r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng. C om pr e he ns i on i s t he goa l o f r e a di ng; w i t hout i t s t ude nt s c oul d not ga i n m e a ni ng f r om t e xt ( A da m s 1990; B l oc k & P r e s s l e y, 2002) P hone m i c a w a r e ne s s phoni c s

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115 f l ue nc y, a nd voc a bul a r y de ve l opm e nt a l l c ont r i but e t o c om pr e he ns i on of t e xt R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t good r e a de r s w ho c om pr e he nd w ha t t h e y r e a d a r e a c t i ve i n t ha t t he y t hi nk a bout w ha t t he y r e a d by us i ng m e t a c ogni t i ve s t r a t e gi e s t o c or r e c t pr obl e m s w i t h unde r s t a ndi ng ( B l oc k & P r e s s l e y, 2002) T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d us i ng c ue c a r ds pr ovi de d w i t h m a t e r i a l s f r om t he F l or i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h ( F C R R ) a nd f r om t he i r ba s a l r e a di ng pr ogr a m s t o f a c i l i t a t e s t ude nt c om pr e he ns i on us i ng r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s R e s e a r c h s how s t ha t r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng i s e f f e c t i ve a t he l pi ng s t ude nt s ge t m e a ni n g f r om t e xt by e nga gi ng t he m i n ongoi ng di a l ogue w i t h t he t e a c he r by us i ng s um m a r i z i ng q ue s t i on ge ne r a t i ng, c l a r i f yi ng, a nd pr e di c t i ng ( P a l i nc s a r 1986) D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t i m pl e m e nt a t i on of r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng w a s i nc ons i s t e nt a c r os s t e a c he r s s t ude nt s w e r e e nga ge d i n t he r e a di ng pr oc e s s a nd w e r e a bl e t o a ns w e r c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons f r om t he s t or y a f t e r us i n g t hi s s t r a t e gy. C on c l u s i on s T e a c hi ng r e a di ng i nvol ve s m uc h m or e t ha n e xpe r t know l e dge ; a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r m us t t e a c h i n s uc h a w a y a s t o e nga ge t he s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t c ha l l e nge t he m a nd s pa r k t he i r i m a gi na t i on. T o m e e t t he s e pe da gogi c a l c ha l l e nge s t e a c he r s m us t ha ve a n a w a r e ne s s of t he di ve r s e a bi l i t i e s a nd ba c kgr ounds of s t ude nt s i nc l u di ng t hos e w i t h l e a r ni ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s I n a ddi t i on t o be i ng e xpe r t s i n r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, t oda y s t e a c he r s m us t pos s e s s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s T hi s i s no e a s y t a s k w i t h 38% of a l l f our t h gr a de r s pos s e s s i ng r e a di ng s ki l l s be l ow t he ba s i c l e ve l una bl e t o r e a d w e l l e nough t o c om pl e t e c l a s s w or k a t g r a de l e ve l ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2001) T o ge t s t ude nt s t o r e a d w e l l t he y m us t r e a d f r e que nt l y but t o ge t t he m t o r e a d f r e que nt l y t he y m us t be a bl e t o r e a d w e l l ( A da m s 1990 )

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116 W i t hout e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i n r e a di ng, t he p r ognos i s f or c hi l d r e n w ho e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng de f i c i t s i s gr i m R e s e a r c h ha s f ound t ha t pe r s i s t e nt r e a di ng f a i l u r e s br i ng a bout ne ga t i ve l ong t e r m c ons e que nc e s f or c hi l dr e n s s e l f c on f i de nc e m ot i va t i on t o l e a r n, a nd ove r a l l s c hool pe r f or m a nc e a nd a f f e c t pos t s c hool ou t c om e s a s w e l l ( N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt [ N I C H D ] 2000) T o f ur t he r c om pl i c a t e m a t t e r s s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng pr obl e m s of t e n di s pl a y i na pp r opr i a t e be ha vi or s t o e s c a pe t he da unt i ng t a s k of r e a di ng ( B e nne t t B r ow n, B oyl e R a c c i ne & O f f or d 2003) A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e on c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on a nd m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s r e ve a l e d f i r s t t ha t e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s e m pl oy a c om bi na t i on of r e s e a r c h ba s e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s t o e ns ur e s uc c e s s f or s t ude nt s S e c ond, e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s pr ovi de ba l a nc e d i ns t r uc t i on t ha t i nc l ude s a va r i e t y of g r oupi ng f or m a t s f a c i l i t a t e d by e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r o om m a na ge m e nt N e xt r e s e a r c h on di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on r e ve a l e d t ha t t e a c he r s f r e que nt l y s t r uggl e w i t h i m pl e m e nt i ng di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s due t o c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr obl e m s F i na l l y, e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s t e a c h r ul e s a nd r out i ne s f r e que nt l y, but t he s e c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s a r e of t e n i m pl e m e nt e d i nc ons i s t e nt l y. B a s e d on t he r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e i t be c a m e c l e a r t ha t i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m us t go ha nd i n ha nd i n or de r f or s t u de nt a c hi e ve m e nt t o oc c ur ; t he r e f or e t hi s s t udy s ought t o e xa m i ne t he w a ys c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s c a n be a ppl i e d t o d i f f e r e nt i ns t r uc t i ona l c ont e xt s e s pe c i a l l y t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s s t udy a dd r e s s e d how t e a c he r s i m pr ove d r e a di ng f l ue nc y, a n d i f i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s w e r e s uppor t e d by c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s F or t hi s s t udy, obs e r va t i o ns of 32 t e a c he r s oc c ur r e d us i ng t w o c he c kl i s t s a s m e a s ur e s of di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt

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117 s t r uc t ur e s T he s e c he c kl i s t s w e r e c or r e l a t e d w i t h s t ude nt s D I B E L S or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s t o e xa m i ne t he i r pr e di c t i ve va l ue D a t a w e r e a na l y z e d us i ng de s c r i pt i ve a nd i nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s a s w e l l a s m ul t i pl e r e g r e s s i on a na l ys i s t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t u r e s a nd r e a di ng f l ue nc y. T hi s s t udy pr ovi de s i m por t a nt c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t s o f di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on on s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd i nf o r m a t i on r e ga r di ng be s t p r a c t i c e s i n r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t ha t j oi nt l y c ont r i but e t o s t ude nt r e a di ng pr ogr e s s T e ac h e r s D i f f e r e n t i at e I n s t r u c t i on B as e d on S t u d e n t N e e d C hi l dr e n e nt e r s c hool w i t h a va r i e t y of ba c kgr ound e xpe r i e nc e s a nd a r a nge o f a bi l i t y l e ve l s A l t ho ugh a l l c l a s s r oom s c ont a i n s om e r a nge of s t ude nt a bi l i t y t he ga p i n a t r i s k s t ude nt s r e a di ng a bi l i t y doe s not di s a ppe a r e ve n a f t e r t he f i r s t ye a r i n s c hool ( O r ns t e i n, 1995 ) W i t hout a s s e s s m e nt e a r l y di a gnos i s or a pp r opr i a t e i ns t r uc t i on dur i ng t he f i r s t ye a r s a t s c hool t hi s ga p i n r e a di ng know l e dge w i de ns r e s ul t i ng i n w ha t ha s be e n c a l l e d t he M a t t he w E f f e c t i n r e a di ng ( R a yne r F oo r m a n, P e r f e t t i P e s e s ky, & S e i de nbe r g, 2002; S t a novi c h, 1986) W i t hout e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on, t he M a t t he w E f f e c t c ont i nue s t o c a us e a ddi t i ona l r e a di ng de f i c i t s unt i l t he s e s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s r e a c h a n a ge w he r e t he odds of e ve r de ve l opi ng l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a r e s hoc ki ngl y l ow E ve nt ua l l y t hi s c a n l e a d t o a ga p i n a c hi e ve m e nt on s t a t e a nd l oc a l s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s ( M c G i l l F r a nz e n, Z m a c h, S ol i c & Z e i g, 2006) T hi s ga p i n t he r e a di ng a bi l i t i e s of s t ude nt s f r om di ve r s e ba c kgr ounds ha s be e n t he f oc us of m a ny r e s e a r c he r s a nd e duc a t or s e s pe c i a l l y w i t h t he pa s s i ng of t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( U S D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2001) S t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d e xa m i ni ng e xe m pl a r y l i t e r a c y t e a c he r s pr a c t i c e s t ha t he l pe d r e s e a r c he r s i de nt i f y e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s i nc l udi ng s m a l l gr oup di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. R e s e a r c he r s ha ve de m ons t r a t e d t ha t out s t a ndi ng

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118 t e a c he r s of l i t e r a c y us e d a c om bi na t i on of gr oupi n g m e t hods a nd i ndi vi dua l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on a nd a da pt e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on by us i ng di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on ba s e d on t he ne e ds of t he i r s t ude nt s ( P r e s s l e y, R a nki n, & Y okoi 1996; P r e s s l e y, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, & E c he va r r i a 1998 ) A c c or di ng t o T om l i ns on ( 19 99) a n e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r w ho di f f e r e nt i a t e s i ns t r uc t i on know s w he r e e a c h s t ude nt i n t he c l a s s r oom i s on l e ve l s o f know l e dge s ki l l a nd unde r s t a ndi ng a s w e l l a s w he r e e a c h c hi l d ne e ds t o pr ogr e s s C ons i s t e nt w i t h t hi s r e s e a r c h, t he c ur r e nt s t udy a l s o r e ve a l e d t ha t ( a ) t he r e i s a ga p be t w e e n s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a nd p r of i c i e nt r e a de r s a s m e a s ur e d by s t ude nt s or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s ( b) t e a c he r s w ho s c or e d h i gh on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t w e r e i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h t he m os t s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a nd ( c ) hi gh pe r f or m i ng t e a c he r s w e r e a bl e t o r a i s e or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y s c or e s of s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s a s m uc h a s t e a c he r s w i t h pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s A m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a s t r o ng r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ( O R F ) a nd t h a t s t ude nt s O R F s c or e s i nc r e a s e d r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r di f f e r e nc e i n pe r f or m a nc e be t w e e n t he p r e a nd pos t t e s t s c or e s T a ki ng i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t he M a t t he w E f f e c t s i n r e a di ng, i t w oul d be e xpe c t e d t ha t s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s w i t h l i t t l e o r no di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on w oul d m a i nt a i n t he s a m e l ow f l ue nc y s c or e s w hi l e t he i r pe e r s w i t h pr of i c i e nt r e a di ng s ki l l s i nc r e a s e or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y by a r a t e o f 1 5 w o r d s pe r w e e k ( F uc hs & F uc hs 1993) I n t h i s s t udy, t he t e a c he r s w ho di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t he m os t us e d s t r a t e gi e s t ha t i nc r e a s e d or a l r e a di ng f l u e nc y of s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s by t he s a m e r a t e a s pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s ( a ppr oxi m a t e l y 1 5 w o r ds pe r w e e k) T he p r obl e m how e ve r i s t ha t t he s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s s t i l l ha d f l ue nc y r a t e s t ha t w e r e be l ow t ha t of t he i r m or e p r of i c i e nt pe e r s W i t h i m pr ove d d i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on, i t i s s ugge s t e d t ha t t he ga p be t w e e n s t r uggl i ng a nd pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s w oul d d i s a ppe a r ( S t a novi c h 198 6)

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119 P r ac t i c e s t h at C on t r i b u t e t o P r ogr e s s i n R e ad i n g D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n a c a de m i c s a nd be ha vi or ha s l ong be e n e s t a bl i s he d ( S c ot t N e l s on, & L i a ups i n, 2001) e du c a t or s s t r uggl e w i t h w a ys t o i m pl e m e nt bot h i n s t r uc t i ona l a nd be ha vi or a l i nt e r ve nt i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom I n t hi s s t udy, t e a c he r s w ho w e r e hi gh i m pl e m e nt e r s on t he di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on c he c kl i s t us e d a num be r o f r e a di ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t c ont r i but e d t o s t ude nt s gr ow t h i n r e a di ng; m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y. N ot onl y di d t he s e t e a c he r s us e t he s e pr a c t i c e s w i t h t he l ow e s t of r e a de r s w ho ne e de d t he i nt e r ve nt i ons m os t but t he y a l s o w e r e a bl e t o m a ke t he s a m e ga i ns i n or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y a s t hos e m a de i n c l a s s r oo m s w i t h m or e p r of i c i e nt r e a de r s R e s e a r c h c onduc t e d by P r e s s l e y ( 1998) a nd W ha r t on M c D o na l d e t a l ( 1998 ) f ound t ha t e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s c ons i s t e nt l y us e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s t ha t s uppor t e d i ns t r uc t i on r e s ul t e d i n hi ghe r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a nd r e duc e d pr obl e m be ha vi o r s B a s e d on t he r e s e a r c h of E m m e r E ve r t s on, a nd A nde r s on ( 1980) E ve r t s on, E m m e r S a nf o r d, a nd C l e m e nt s ( 1983) a nd E ve r t s on ( 1989 ) t e a c he r s w ho i m pl e m e nt e d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s l e a r ne d t hr ough a s e r i e s of pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a c t i vi t i e s w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o pr ovi de i ns t r uc t i ona l m a na ge m e nt dur i ng l e s s ons w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n i m p r ove d a c a de m i c e nga ge d t i m e a nd i nc r e a s e d a t t e nt i on t o s t ude nt ne e ds R e s e a r c he r s ha ve be e n s e a r c hi ng f or a s e t of i ndi c a t or s t ha t c a n p r e di c t s uc c e s s i n r e a di ng s o t ha t e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on a nd p r e ve nt i on of r e a di n g di f f i c ul t i e s w i l l r e s ul t C ons i s t e nt w i t h pr i or r e s e a r c h, c or r e l a t i ona l a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on i s s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt a nd t ha t t he s e t w o va r i a bl e s a r e s i gni f i c a nt i ndi c a t or s of or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y. T he s e r e s ul t s pa r t i c ul a r l y de m ons t r a t e t ha t a c om bi na t i on of be s t p r a c t i c e s i n di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, c oupl e d w i t h e f f e c t i ve us e of c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt

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120 s t r uc t ur e s r e s ul t s i n i nc r e a s i ng t he r e a di ng f l ue nc y r a t e s of s t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s a t a r a t e c om pa r a bl e t o t ha t o f p r of i c i e nt r e a de r s S ur p r i s i ngl y, di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng w a s m or e p r e di c t i ve of r e a di ng f l ue nc y t ha n us e o f c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s t r uc t ur e s but i t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t he t w o, w he n w or ki ng ha nd i n ha nd p r oduc e d t he s t r onge s t r e s ul t s A n a na l ys i s of c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or s us e d i n t h i s s t udy r e ve a l e d t ha t a m a j or i t y of pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s ( a ) pl a c e d i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s on w a l l s or bul l e t i n boa r ds ( b) m a i nt a i ne d t he phys i c a l a r r a nge m e nt o f t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt ( c ) r e m ove d di s t r a c t i ng i t e m s f r om v i e w or r e a c h of s t ude nt s ( d ) p r ovi de d s t ude nt s w i t h a de qua t e s pa c e f or s t or a ge ( e ) pr ovi de d i ns t r uc t i ona l a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t a r e r e l e va nt t o s t ude nt s ( f ) pr ovi de d non puni t i ve pr ovi s i ons f or s t ude nt s ne e di ng m o r e t i m e t o f i ni s h w or k, ( g) t a ught s ki l l s i n t he na t u r a l s e t t i ng, a nd ( h) de l i ve r e d c ons e que nc e s i n a c ons i s t e nt a nd t i m e l y m a nne r A ddi t i ona l l y hi gh pe r f or m i ng t e a c he r s s c or e d l ow on t w o i ndi c t or s : t he y di d not m a ke c ol l a bor a t i on or i nde pe nde nt w or k de pe nde nt on s t ude nt c hoi c e a n d t he y i nc ons i s t e nt l y pos t e d c ons e que nc e s t o r ul e vi ol a t i ons C ons e que nt l y, l ow pe r f o r m i ng t e a c he r s de m ons t r a t e d pr obl e m s w i t h ( a ) i m pl e m e nt i ng s t ude nt pa i r i ng ( b) us i ng i ndi vi dua l i z e d a s s i gnm e nt s or a c t i vi t i e s ( c ) pr ovi di ng di f f e r e nt a s s i gnm e nt s t o s t ude nt s ( d) p r ovi di ng a d i f f e r e nt s e que nc e of a c t i vi t i e s ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d, ( e ) pr ovi di ng s t ude nt s w i t h t he c hoi c e t o c ol l a bor a t e o r w or k i nde pe nde nt l y, ( f ) i m pl e m e nt i ng a l l a s pe c t s of c e nt e r s i nc l udi ng m a t e r i a l s pos t i ng r ul e s a nd di r e c t i ons a t c e nt e r s c r e a t i ng a r ot a t i on pl a n f or c e nt e r s pr ovi di n g a de q ua t e t i m e a nd m a t e r i a l s f or c e nt e r s a nd a l l ow i ng c hoi c e a t c e nt e r s ( g) pos t i ng r ul e s a nd pr oc e dur e s i n t he c l a s s r oom ( h) pos t i ng s t ude nt w or k pr om i ne nt l y ( i ) r e vi e w i ng t r a ns i t i ons r e gul a r l y, ( j ) a s pe c t s of c l a s s r ul e s i nc l udi ng s t a t i ng r ul e s pos i t i ve l y, l i m i t i ng r ul e s t o f i ve or l e s s a nd p r ovi di ng r u l e s t ha t a r e obs e r va bl e / m e a s ur a bl e a nd ( k) pos t i ng c ons e que nc e s f or r ul e v i ol a t i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom

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121 I n a ddi t i on t o e xa m i ni ng e a c h c he c kl i s t i ndi c a t or a ne c dot a l not e s r e c or de d by t he da t a c ol l e c t or s w e r e a na l yz e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e w e r e c ons i s t e nt f r e que nt pr a c t i c e s e m pl oye d by bot h t he hi gh a nd l o w pe r f or m i ng gr oups M os t t e a c he r s i m pl e m e nt e d a va r i a t i on o f c hor a l r e a di ng w he n i nt r oduc i ng a ne w s t or y t o s t ude nt s a nd i nc or por a t e d s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on i nt o t he i r r e a di ng p r ogr a m M a ny t e a c he r s us e d t e c hnol ogy dur i ng t he i r r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on w hi c h i nc l ude d t he us e of a udi oc a s s e t t e t a pe s a nd pl a ye r s f or books on t a pe L e a p P a d s t or y s ys t e m s m i c r ophone s w i t h c l a s s r oom a m pl i f i c a t i on s ys t e m s a nd M y R e a di ng C oa c h or R e a d N a t ur a l l y c om put e r s of t w a r e T he hi ghe s t pe r f o r m i ng t e a c he r s i m pl e m e nt e d pr a c t i c e s s uc h a s r e c i pr oc a l t e a c hi ng, s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on, l i t e r a c y c e nt e r s a nd va r i e d gr oupi ng f o r m a t s f or s t ude nt s T hi s s t udy yi e l de d i m po r t a nt f i ndi ngs i n bot h t he f i e l ds of r e a di ng r e s e a r c h a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i ns t r uc t i on. B y c r e a t i ng a c om pr e he n s i ve s e t of i ndi c a t or s t ha t i nc l ude s m a ny of t he pr a c t i c e s l i s t e d a bove a s w e l l a s t hos e p r ovi de d i n t he I m pl i c a t i ons f o r F ut ur e P r a c t i c e s s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r a f r a m e w or k c a n be de s i gne d t o i m p r ove bot h i n s e r vi c e a nd p r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r e duc a t i on T he m os t p r om i s i ng f i ndi ngs f o c us e d on t he s t ude nt s ga i ns i n f l ue nc y a c r os s c l a s s r oom s r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r i ni t i a l l e ve l T e a c he r s us e of d i f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng p r a c t i c e s s e e m s t o be l e ve l i ng t he pl a yi ng f i e l d f or s t ude nt s w ho s t r uggl e t he m os t D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t S t a novi c h ( 1986) w oul d a r gue t ha t t he ga p be t w e e n s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a nd pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s w i l l c ont i nue t o w i de n a s a r e s ul t of poor i ns t r uc t i on ( t h e M a t t he w E f f e c t ) a nd t ha t s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s t ypi c a l l y do not r e c e i ve t he i ns t r uc t i on ne c e s s a r y t o m a ke ga i ns i n r e a di ng s i m i l a r t o t hos e of pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s t he t e a c he r s i n t hi s s t udy s e e m t o be p r ovi di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s t ha t e na bl e s t he m t o m a ke ga i n s t ha t a r e e qua l t o t hos e m a de by pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s

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122 A ppe ndi x A S um m a r y of R e vi e w e d S t udi e s

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123 A 1. E f f e c t i ve T e a c he r s A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s W r i ght H or n & S a nde r s 1997 60, 000 + s t ude nt s i n 2 n d 8 t h gr a de s i n T e nne s s e e s c hoo l di s t r i c t s C or r e l a t i on N / A T e nne s s e e V a l ue A dde d A s s e s s m e nt S ys t e m ( T V A S S ) w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e t he e f f e c t s of t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt R e ga r dl e s s of s t ude nt a bi l i t y, hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w e r e a bl e t o r a i s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt H a yc oc k, 1998 2 n d 8 t h gr a de r s i n T e nne s s e e B os t on, a nd D a l l a s ( uns pe c i f i e d num be r ) C or r e l a t i on N / A C om pa r e d da t a f r om W r i ght e t a l ( 1997) w i t h s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt da t a i n B os t on a nd D a l l a s H i ghl y e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s c a n r a i s e s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a n a ve r a ge of 53 pe r c e nt i l e poi nt s ove r a pe r i od of one ye a r c om pa r e d w i t h l e s s e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s w ho r a i s e s c or e s onl y 14 pe r c e nt i l e poi nt s P i a nt a L a P a r o, P a yne C ox & B r a dl e y, 2002 223 K i nde r ga r t ne r s a nd t he i r t e a c he r s a c r os s t he s t a t e s of V i r gi ni a N or t h C a r ol i na a nd A r i z ona C or r e l a t i on O bs e r va t i on N / A C l a s s r oom O bs e r va t i on S ys t e m f or K i nde r ga r t e n ( C O S K ) us e d t o de t e r m i ne c l a s s r oom va r i a bl e s t ha t c or r e l a t e w i t h qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on T he r e i s m a r ke d va r i a bi l i t y i n t he qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on pr ovi de d t o K i nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s a c r os s t he c ount r y.

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124 A 1. C ont i nue d A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l dhood H e a l t h a nd D e ve l opm e nt E a r l y C hi l d C a r e R e s e a r c h N e t w or k ( N I C H D E C C R N ) 2005 780 3 rd gr a de r s f r om 250 s c hool di s t r i c t s i n 10 c i t i e s a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s O bs e r va t i on N / A C l a s s r oom O bs e r va t i on S ys t e m f or T hi r d G r a de ( C O S 3) w a s us e d t o de s c r i be e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi r d gr a de r s i n t ypi c a l c l a s s r oom a c r os s t he c ount r y 67% of ob s e r ve d i nt e r va l s i nc l ude d s t ude nt s e nga ge d i n ba s i c s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on. T he r e i s va r i a bi l i t y i n bot h i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e f f e c t i ve pr a c t i c e s a nd qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on f or c hi l dr e n i n t hi r d gr a de

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125 A 2 E f f e c t i ve R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s P r e s s l e y, R a nki n & Y okoi 1996 83 K i nde r ga r t e n t hr ough 2 n d gr a de t e a c he r s i de nt i f i e d a s out s t a ndi ng by t he i r s upe r vi s or s f r om 23 s t a t e s a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s S ur ve y N / A T e a c he r s r e s ponde d t o a s e r i e s o f que s t i onna i r e s de s i gne d t o i de nt i f y qua l i t y l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s P r a c t i c e s of e xe m pl a r y K 2 t e a c he r s w e r e : pr ovi di ng pr i nt r i c h e nvi r onm e nt s ba l a nc e d i ns t r uc t i on, m i xe d gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s a nd i nt e gr a t i ng r e a di ng i nt o ot he r c ont e nt a r e a s P r e s s l e y, Y okoi R a nki n, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, & M i s t r e t t a 1997 33 t e a c he r s nom i na t e d a s out s t a ndi ng by t he i r s upe r vi s or s S ur ve y N / A T e a c he r s r e s ponde d t o a s e r i e s of que s t i onna i r e s de s i gne d t o i de nt i f y qua l i t y l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s P r a c t i c e s of e xe m pl a r y 5 t h gr a de t e a c he r s w e r e : pr ovi di ng pr i nt r i c h e nvi r onm e nt s ba l a nc e d i ns t r uc t i on, m i xe d gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s a nd i nt e gr a t i ng r e a di ng i nt o ot he r c ont e nt a r e a s W a l pol e J us t i c e & I nve r ni z z i 2004 320 s t ude nt s a t one e l e m e nt a r y s c hool C a s e S t udy N / A T e a c he r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s a t t hi s s c hool r e por t e d on l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s us e d w i t h K 2 n d gr a de s t ude nt s a t t hi s s c hool T e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on by us i ng s m a l l a nd w hol e gr oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s w e l l a s e xc e l l e nt m a na ge m e nt pr oc e dur e s

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126 A 2. C ont i nue d A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s W ha r t on M c D ona l d, P r e s s l e y & M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, 1998 9 f i r s t g r a de t e a c he r s r e c ogni z e d a s out s t a ndi ng by pr i nc i pa l O bs e r va t i on I nt e r vi e w s N / A T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d f or 1 2 hour s t w i c e pe r m ont h. O ve r t w o i nt e r vi e w s t e a c he r s a s ke d t o i de nt i f y hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s B a l a nc e d l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on c oupl e d w i t h out s t a ndi ng c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt s ki l l s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s ne c e s s a r y t o br i ngi ng a bout pos i t i ve a f f e c t s i n a c hi e ve m e nt P r e s s l e y, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, M i s t r e t t a H a m ps t on, & E c he va r r i a 1998 10 f our t h a nd f i f t h g r a de t e a c he r s i n U ps t a t e N e w Y or k O bs e r va t i on I nt e r vi e w s N / A T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d f or 1 2 hour s t w i c e pe r m ont h a nd t w o i nt e r vi e w s e xa m i ni ng w a ys i n w hi c h t e a c he r s m ot i va t e s t ude nt s T e a c he r s pr ovi de d ba l a nc e d l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt s but w e r e va r i e d i n t he a m ount of s e l f r e gul a t i on a nd e nc our a ge m e nt pr ovi de d t o s t ude nt s M or r ow T r a c e y, W oo & P r e s s l e y, 1999 6 f i r s t g r a de t e a c he r s f r om s i x di s t r i c t s i n N e w J e r s e y O bs e r va t i on I nt e r vi e w s N / A T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d f or a t ot a l of 25 hour s ove r e i ght vi s i t s a nd i nt e r vi e w e d t w i c e t o de t e r m i ne f e a t ur e s t ha t c ont r i but e t o a c hi e ve m e nt T e a c he r s pr ovi de d s t ude nt s w i t h m ul t i pl e oppor t uni t i e s t o r e a d a nd w r i t e e xp l i c i t s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on, a nd e f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt t e c hni que s P r e s s l e y, W ha r t on M c D ona l d, A l l i ngt on, B l oc k, M or r ow T r a c e y, e t a l 2001 30 f i r s t g r a de t e a c he r s f r om N e w Y or k, N e w J e r s e y, W i s c ons i n, T e xa s a nd C a l i f or ni a O bs e r va t i on I nt e r vi e w s N / A P a i r s of t e a c he r s ( 1 hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve a nd 1 t ypi c a l ) w e r e obs e r ve d f or 15 30 hour s e a c h a nd i nt e r vi e w e d t w i c e C l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt ba l a nc e d l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on, s c a f f ol di ng, s e l f r e gul a t i on, a nd c onne c t i on t o c ont e nt a r e a s w e r e pr a c t i c e s i de nt i f i e d

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127 A 3. D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s M c I nt os h, V a ughn, S c hum m H a a ge r & L e e ( 1993) 60 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s a nd 60 s t ude nt s w i t h L D O bs e r va t i on N / A U s i ng t he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sur v e y r e s e a r c he r s obs e r ve d t e a c he r s i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s t o de t e r m i ne how t he y i ns t r uc t i on w a s m odi f i e d f o r s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds I ns t r uc t i on w a s not di f f e r e nt i a t e d t o m e e t a l l s t ude nt s ne e ds S t ude nt s w e r e not e nga ge d i n t he t a s ks be i ng t a ught W hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on w a s t he m os t c om m onl y us e d m e t hod of i ns t r uc t i on. M oody & V a ughn ( 1997) 49 3 rd g r a de ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on c ol l a bor a t o r s O bs e r va t i on N / A I nt e r vi e w s a nd F oc us G r oup di s c us s i on s w e r e c ode d t o f i nd c om m on t he m e s r e ga r di ng s t ude nt gr oupi ng i n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs P r e dom i na nt us e of w hol e c l a s s gr oupi ng i n r e a di ng, t e a c he r s w e r e di vi de d on w he t he r t o us e he t e r oge ne ous or hom oge nous gr oupi ng, a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i nf l ue nc e t e a c he r s de c i s i ons t o r e l y on w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on dur i ng r e a di ng

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128 A 3 C ont i nue d A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s V a ughn, H ughe s S c hum m & K l i ngne r ( 1998) 7 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s O bs e r va t i on W or ks hop i n w r i t i ng s t r a t e gi c r e a d i ng, pe e r t ut or i ng, a nd w or d s t udy T e a c he r I nt e r vi e w s V a l i di t y C he c kl i s t s t e a c he r c he c kl i s t s a nd obs e r va t i ons w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t e a c he r s us e d w or ks hop i nt e r ve nt i ons T e a c he r s di d not a l t e r gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s due t o t i m e a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt f a c t or s a nd t e a c he r s i ns t r uc t i on f oc us e d on pr e pa r a t i on f o r s t a nda r di z e d t e s t i ng V a ughn, M oody & S c hum m ( 1998) 14 s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s a nd t he i r 82 s t ude nt s O bs e r va t i on P r e / P os t of s t ude nt s us i ng S A T N / A T e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s obs e r va t i ons a nd t e a c he r s e l f r e por t s w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he r e s our c e r oom w a s di f f e r e nt t ha n i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom s 11 out of 14 t e a c he r s us e d w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on f ol l ow e d by s e a t w or k a s m a i n m ode of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. T e a c he r s us e d l e s s s t r a t e gy i ns t r uc t i on. S t ude nt s i n t he s e c l a s s r oom s m a de ve r y l i t t l e ga i ns M oody, V a ughn, H ughe s & F i s c he r ( 2000) 6 s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s f r om pr e vi ous s t udy a nd t he i r 49 s t ude nt s O bs e r va t i on of T e a c he r s ; P r e / P os t t e s t of s t ude nt s us i ng W J R P C a nd T O R F N / A T e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s obs e r va t i ons a nd t e a c he r s e l f r e por t s w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t e a c he r s be ga n t o di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a f t e r l e a r ni ng of pr e vi ous s t udy r e s ul t s H a l f of t e a c he r s us e d l e s s w hol e c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on. S t ude nt s w e r e by a b i l i t y. T e a c he r s w ho di d not us e s m a l l gr oup i ns t r uc t i on s a i d c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s w e r e t he c a us e S t ude nt s m a de no ga i ns i n c om pr e he ns i on or f l ue nc y

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129 A 3. C ont i nue d A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s S c hum m M oody, & V a ug hn ( 2000) S t udy 1: 29 3 rd gr a de t e a c he r s S t udy 2: 147 s t ude nt s c a t e gor i z e d a s hi gh, a ve r a ge l ow a nd L D S t udy 1: O bs e r va t i o n S t udy 2: P r e / P os t T e s t K T E A P i e r s H a r r i s C hi l dr e n s S e l f C onc e pt & E l e m e nt a r y R e a di ng A t t i t ude S ur ve y N / A S t udy 1: T e a c he r s w e r e obs e r ve d us i ng t he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e a nd i nt e r vi e w e d r e ga r di ng gr oupi ng pr a c t i c e s a nd di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. S t udy 2: S t ude nt s w e r e t e s t e d on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s e l f pe r c e pt i on a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng f r om f a l l t o s pr i ng. S t udy 1: C l a s s r oom t e a c he r s r e por t e d ne e di ng be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on pr a c t i c e s c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt c ol l a bor a t i on, r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt a nd gr oupi ng. T e a c he r s c ont i nue d t o r e l y on w hol e gr oup r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s pr i m a r y m ode of pr e s e nt a t i on. S t udy 2: F r o m f a l l t o s pr i ng, hi gh a nd a ve r a ge a c hi e ve r s m a de m ode r a t e ga i ns w hi l e l ow a c hi e ve r s a nd s t ude nt s w i t h L D m a de l i t t l e or no ga i ns A c r os s a l l a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s t he r e w e r e no c ha nge s i n s e l f c onc e pt a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng a t hom e a nd s c hool de c l i ne d.

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130 A 4. E f f e c t i ve C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s K ouni n, 1970 49 vi de ot a pe s of f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s O bs e r va t i on N / A 49 vi de ot a pe s of c l a s s r oom s a c r os s t he c ount r y w e r e e xa m i ne d t o de t e r m i ne t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n e f f e c t i ve a nd i ne f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s E f f e c t i ve c l a s s r oom m a na ge r s s e t up t he i r c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt s t o pr e ve nt pr obl e m be ha vi or s be f or e t he y oc c ur I de nt i f i e d f ou r c r i t i c a l c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt e l e m e nt s E m m e r E ve r t s on & A nde r s on 1980 27 e l e m e nt a r y c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s i n e i ght s c hool s i n T e xa s O bs e r va t i on N / A U s i ng t he C l a s s r oom N a r r a t i ve R e c or d a nd S t ude nt E nga ge m e nt S c a l e obs e r ve r s f oc us e d on pr a c t i c e s t ha t l e d t o hi gh s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt M or e e f f e c t i ve t e a c he r s t a ught r ul e s / pr oc e dur e s e xpl i c i t l y, i m m e di a t e l y a ddr e s s e d pr obl e m be ha vi or s a nd pr ovi de d a c a de m i c a c t i vi t i e s E ve r t s on, E m m e r S a nf or d & C l e m e nt s 1983 41 t e a c he r s i n t w o s c hool di s t r i c t s i n t he s out hw e s t E xpe r i m e nt a l C ont r ol n= 18 T r e a t m e nt n= 23 C l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt m a nua l a nd w or ks hops he l d a t be gi nni ng of s c hool ye a r T r e a t m e nt a nd c ont r ol gr oups T r e a t m e nt gr oups r e c e i ve d m a nua l a nd w or ks hops C ont r ol t e a c he r s r e c e i ve d t r e a t m e nt a t m i ddl e of s c hool ye a r T r e a t m e nt gr oup t e a c he r s us e d pr a c t i c e s m or e t ha n t hos e i n c ont r ol gr oup T r e a t m e nt gr oup t e a c he r s ha d hi ghe r r a t e s of e nga ge m e nt a nd be t t e r m a na ge d c l a s s r oom s

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131 A 4. C ont i nue d A ut hor ( s ) & Y e a r S a m pl e D e s c r i pt i on D e s i gn I nt e r ve nt i on M e t hod R e s ul t s E ve r t s on, 1989 29 t e a c he r s i n 1 s t 6 t h gr a de s E xpe r i m e nt a l C ont r ol n= 14 T r e a t m e nt n= 15 O ne D a y c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt w or ks hop w i t h m a nua l T e a c he r s i n t r e a t m e nt gr oup pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a w or ks hop a nd r e c e i ve d m a t e r i a l s T r e a t m e nt gr oup t e a c he r s pr ovi de d be t t e r m a na ge m e nt a nd i m pl e m e nt e d r ul e s a nd r out i ne s m or e e f f i c i e nt l y

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132 A P P E N D I X B O B S E R V A T I O N C H E C K I S T S

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133 D i f f e r e n t i at e d I n s t r u c t i on an d C l as s r oom M an age m e n t C h e c k l i s t T e a c he r : _____________________________S c h ool : __________________________ __ D a t e : _______________________________ O bs e r ve r : ______________ ____________ C h e c k l i s t f or D i f f e r e n t i at e d I n s t r u c t i on D om ai n I n d i c at or Y e s N o U / C 1. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e w hol e c l a s s a c t i vi t i e s ? T h e e n t i r e c l a s s i s i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s a m e a c t i v i t y / a s s i g n m e n t I n v o l v e s o n l y f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s a r r a n g e d b y t h e t e a c h e r 2. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e gr oup a c t i vi t i e s ? A l t h o u g h s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t m a y b e a f f e c t e d b y g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s t h i s i t e m r e l a t e s t o s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n i n a g r o u p n o t s e a t a s s i g n m e n t T h e c l a s s i s w o r k i n g i n t w o o r m o r e g r o u p s w i t h t h r e e o r m o r e s t u d e n t s i n e a c h g r o u p T h e t e a c h e r i s w o r k i n g w i t h a g r o u p o f t h r e e o r m o r e s t u d e n t s f o r m o r e t h a n 5 m i n u t e s 3. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e s t ude nt pa i r i ng? T h e c l a s s i s d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s o f t w o s t u d e n t s O n e c h i l d a c t s a s p e e r t u t o r t o a n o t h e r s t u d e n t M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g i n p a i r s S t u d e n t s a r e i n g r o u p s o f t w o t o s h a r e n o t e s t u t o r o r w o r k o n a n a c t i v i t y o r a s s i g n m e n t 4. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e i nde pe nde nt a c t i vi t i e s ? S t u d e n t s a r e e n g a g e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o n a n a c t i v i t y / a s s i g n m e n t l i k e t h e r e s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s 5. D oe s t he t e a c he r r e s pond t o t he ne e ds of t he s t u de nt s ? T e a c h e r r e t e a c h e s o r e x p l a i n s n e w c o n c e p t s i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y I n c o r r e c t i t e m s c a n b e r e d o n e w i t h t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n T e a c h e r p r o v i d e s c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k ( r e e x p l a i n s m o d e l s t h e c o r r e c t p r o c e s s p r o v i d e s c u e s o r p r o v i d e s f e e d b a c k r e g a r d i n g p a r t s o f a s s i g n m e n t s t h a t w e r e i n c o r r e c t ) 6. D oe s t he t e a c he r m oni t o r on go i ng s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e ? T h e t e a c h e r c h e c k s i n w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g a n a c t i v i t y t o b e s u r e t h e y a r e p e r f o r m i n g c o r r e c t l y T h e t e a c h e r a s k s s t u d e n t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e w h a t t h e y a r e d o i n g T h e t e a c h e r h a s s t u d e n t s r e p e a t d i r e c t i o n s T h e t e a c h e r c h e c k s u n t i l p r a c t i c e i t e m s a r e c o r r e c t T h e t e a c h e r c a l l s o n s t u d e n t s d u r i n g c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s T h e t e a c h e r a s k s s t u d e n t s t o e x p l a i n t h e i r w o r k T e a c he r B e ha vi or s 7. D oe s t he t e a c he r c om m uni c a t e e xpe c t a t i ons ? T h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s c l e a r a n d e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t T h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w h y a n a s s i g n m e n t i s i m p o r t a n t T h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s s t e p b y s t e p d i r e c t i o n s t e l l i n g s t u d e n t s w h a t i s t o b e d o n e a n d h o w T h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s o f e x p e c t e d s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e

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134 D om ai n I n d i c at or Y e s N o U / C 8. D o t he s t ude nt s a ppe a r e nga ge d i n t a s k r e l a t e d be ha vi or ? T h e s t u d e n t s w o r k s p e n d i n g l i t t l e t i m e w a i t i n g f o r h e l p g e t t i n g o r g a n i z e d o r t a l k i n g a b o u t p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s T h e s t u d e n t s s e e k h e l p f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s o t h e y c a n c o n t i n u e t o w o r k o n a n a s s i g n m e n t T h e s t u d e n t s s e e k h e l p f r o m o t h e r s t u d e n t s o t h e y c a n c o n t i n u e t o w o r k o n t a s k s S t u d e n t s a p p e a r i n v o l v e d i n a n a s s i g n m e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r p r o j e c t 9. D o s t ude nt s a s k t e a c he r f o r he l p? S t u d e n t s r a i s e h a n d s o r c a l l o u t f o r a s s i s t a n c e S t u d e n t s r e q u e s t a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t e a c h e r 10. D o s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t w i t h ot he r s t ude nt s ? S t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o b e t a l k i n g a b o u t o r w o r k i n g o n a s i m i l a r a s s i g n m e n t S t u d e n t s m a k e e y e c o n t a c t a n d o t h e r g e s t u r e s t h a t d e n o t e s t r i v i n g t o w o r k o n s i m i l a r g o a l s a s o t h e r s t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s s h a r e m a t e r i a l s o r w o r k o n t h e s a m e a s s i g n m e n t w i t h o t h e r s 11. D o s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t w i t h t he t e a c he r ? S t u d e n t s e n g a g e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r r e g a r d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s S t u d e n t s c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g o n g o i n g p r o j e c t s o r a s s i g n m e n t s S t ude nt B e ha vi or s 12. D o s t ude nt s a ppe a r t o know how t o c om pl e t e t a s ks ? S t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a s k a n d i t s p u r p o s e S t u d e n t s u s e b o d y l a n g u a g e t h a t i n d i c a t e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d m o t i v a t i o n t o c o m p l e t e w o r k S t u d e n t s s a y t h i n g s s u c h a s I k n o w h o w t o d o t h i s o r T h i s i s n o t h a r d S t u d e n t s c a n c o m p l e t e t a s k f r o m s t a r t t o f i n i s h w i t h l i t t l e o r n o h e l p 13. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e i ndi vi dua l i z e d a s s i gnm e nt s or a c t i vi t i e s ? S t u d e n t s a r e n o t i n v o l v e d i n p a i r i n g o r g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s a n d a r e w o r k i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a s s i g n m e n t s I n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g o n i n d i v i d u a l / d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a s s i g n m e n t s T h e t e a c h e r w o r k s i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h a s t u d e n t f o r 5 m i n u t e s o r l o n g e r 14. I s t he c l a s s w or ki ng on di f f e r e nt a s s i gnm e nt s / a c t i vi t i e s ? S t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g u s i n g d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s S t u d e n t s m a y s e l e c t d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s t o w o r k w i t h 15. D oe s t he t e a c he r pr ovi de a di f f e r e nt s e que nc e of a c t i vi t i e s f o r di f f e r e nt s t ude nt s ? S t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g o n a s s i g n m e n t s a t t h e i r o w n p a c e a n d a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t l e v e l T h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s f l e x i b l e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t a s s i g n m e n t s b a s e d o n s t u d e n t n e e d 16. D oe s t he t e a c he r pr ovi de m a t e r i a l s t ha t bot h i n s pi r e s t ude nt s t o c ol l a bor a t e or w o r k i nde pe nde nt l y de pe ndi ng on s t ude nt c hoi c e ? S t u d e n t s h a v e o p t i o n s f o r c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s o n t a s k s S t u d e n t s c a n w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y M a t e r i a l s s e l e c t e d p r o m o t e s t u d e n t c o l l a b o r a t i o n 17. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e m a t e r i a l s t ha t a pp e a l t o di f f e r e nt l e a r ni ng s t yl e s ? M a t e r i a l s e n c o u r a g e t h e u s e o f v i s u a l a u d i o h a n d s o n a n d m o v e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s M at e r i al s 18. A r e t he r e i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s on t he w a l l s or bul l e t i n boa r ds ? W o r d w a l l s A B C c h a r t s s o u n d c h a r t s s p e l l i n g r u l e s p r o o f r e a d i n g m a r k s a n d o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s d i s p l a y e d f o r a l l s t u d e n t s t o s e e T e a c h e r u s e s i n s t r u c t i o n a l c h a r t s t o r e i n f o r c e s k i l l s t a u g h t d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n

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135 D om ai n I n d i c at or Y e s N o U / C 19. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e c e nt e r s i n t he c l a s s r oom ? S t u d e n t s w o r k i n g r o u p s a t s p e c i f i e d a r e a s t o r e v i e w p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t s k i l l s o r e n g a g e i n c r e a t i v e p r o j e c t s S t u d e n t s c o l l a b o r a t e o r w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o c o m p l e t e c e n t e r t a s k s 20. D o c e nt e r s i nc l ude a c t i vi t i e s t ha t a r e a t a n a pp r opr i a t e l e ve l f or a l l s t ude nt s ? A v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l s k i l l l e v e l s S t u d e n t s d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e f r u s t r a t e d o r c o n f u s e d a b o u t t a s k s a t c e n t e r s A l l s t u d e n t s c a n p a r t i c i p a t e a t t h e c e n t e r s 21. A r e r u l e s a nd di r e c t i ons pos t e d a t e a c h c e nt e r ? T e a c h e r p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r e a c h c e n t e r S t e p b y s t e p d i r e c t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d a t e a c h c e n t e r S t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o k n o w w h a t t o d o a t e a c h c e n t e r 22. I s t he r e a r ot a t i on pl a n i n pl a c e f o r s t ude nt s t o m ove a bout t h e c e nt e r s ? S t u d e n t s a r e i n p r e d e t e r m i n e d g r o u p s f o r c e n t e r s S t u d e n t s k n o w w h e r e t o g o f o r e a c h c e n t e r T e a c h e r p o s t s a s c h e d u l e f o r s t u d e n t s t o f o l l o w f o r c e n t e r m o v e m e n t 23. D o s t ude nt s ha ve a m pl e t i m e t o c om pl e t e c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s ? S t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e t a s k s w h i l e a t c e n t e r s S t u d e n t s d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e r u s h e d w h i l e c o m p l e t i n g w o r k 24. D o c hi l dr e n ha ve a de qua t e m a t e r i a l s t o c om pl e t e c e nt e r t a s ks ? S u p p l i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e c e n t e r s f o r t a s k c o m p l e t i o n S t u d e n t s k n o w w h e r e t o o b t a i n m a t e r i a l s f o r c e n t e r t a s k s i f n o t l o c a t e d a t c e n t e r M a t e r i a l s a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r c e n t e r a c t i v i t i e s C e nt e r s 25. D o s t ude nt s ha ve c hoi c e s t ha t a l l ow t he m t o d i f f e r e nt i a t e c e nt e r t a s ks f or t he m s e l ve s ? S t u d e n t s m a y s e l e c t f r o m a v a r i e t y o f t a s k s a t t h e c e n t e r T h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h v a r i o u s o p t i o n s f o r t a s k c o m p l e t i o n w h i l e a t c e n t e r s A da pt e d f r om T he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e ( M c I nt os h e t a l 1993) a nd E v al uat i on of C e nt e r E nv i r onm e nt s ( O w oc ki 2005)

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136 C l as s r oom M an age m e n t C h e c k l i s t D om ai n I n d i c at or Y e s N o U / C 1. A r e t he w a l l s f l oo r s a nd f ur ni t ur e c l e a n a nd i n good r e pa i r a nd a dj us t e d t o t he pr ope r s i z e f or s t ude nt s ? D e s k s t a b l e s a n d s h e l v e s a r e i n w o r k i n g o r d e r T h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s s a f e f o r c h i l d r e n S t u d e n t s c a n w o r k a t d e s k s a n d t a b l e s w i t h e a s e 2. A r e r u l e s r out i ne s a nd p r oc e dur e s pos t e d i n a m a nne r t ha t i s e a s y t o s e e ? S i g n s w i t h r u l e s r o u t i n e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e r o o m S t u d e n t s c a n v i e w t h e s e p o s t i n g s f r o m a n y l o c a t i o n i n t h e r o o m W r i t i n g / p r i n t i s l e g i b l e P i c t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r n o n r e a d e r s 3. A r e unne c e s s a r y a nd di s t r a c t i ng i t e m s r e m ove d f r om vi e w or r e a c h? I t e m s u n r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n o r a c t i v i t y h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d o r s t o r e d S t u d e n t s h a v e l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t e a c h e r i t e m s 4. D o s t ude nt s ha ve s e c ur e a nd a de qua t e s pa c e f or pe r s ona l s t or a ge ? S t u d e n t s h a v e i n d i v i d u a l c u b b i e s o r s h e l v e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t e m s S t u d e n t s h a v e s t o r a g e i n t h e i r d e s k s 5. H a s f ur ni t u r e be e n pl a c e d t o de c r e a s e t r a f f i c f l o w c ha l l e nge s ? S t u d e n t s c a n m o v e a b o u t t h e r o o m f r e e l y w i t h o u t h a r m S t u d e n t s c a n a c c e s s n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m 6. D o i ns t r uc t i ona l a r e a s of t he c l a s s r oom ha ve c l e a r vi s ua l bounda r i e s f o r s t ude nt s ? T e a c h e r s d e s k s p a c e i s c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a s D i v i d e r s / c a r p e t s / s h e l v e s s e p a r a t e d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g a r e a s P hys i c a l S e t t i ng 7. I s s t ude nt w or k pos t e d or di s pl a ye d pr om i ne nt l y? A v a r i e t y o f s t u d e n t w o r k c a n b e f o u n d o n t h e w a l l s o r b u l l e t i n b o a r d s A l l l e v e l s o f s t u d e n t w o r k a r e d i s p l a y e d 8. I s t he da i l y s c he dul e of a c t i vi t i e s pos t e d a nd r e v i e w e d r e gul a r l y. T e a c h e r p o s t s a n a g e n d a w h e r e s t u d e n t s c a n s e e T e a c h e r p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h a n a g e n d a / p l a n n e r o f a s s i g n m e n t s o r a c t i v i t i e s T e a c h e r r e v i e w s a g e n d a w i t h s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e s s o n / d a y 9. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e pr oc e dur e s r e pe t i t i ons a n d r i t ua l s t o f os t e r g r e a t e r e a s e of t r a ns i t i ons ? S t u d e n t s a r e a w a r e o f h o w t o m o v e b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s A s y s t e m i s i n p l a c e t o e a s e s p e e d a n d s m o o t h n e s s o f t r a n s i t i o n s ( b e a t t h e c l o c k m u s i c d u r i n g t r a n s i t i o n t i m e s o r r e m i n d e r b e l l ) 10. A r e t r a ns i t i ons a nd non i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s pos t e d a nd r e gul a r l y r e vi e w e d? S t u d e n t s k n o w w h a t t o d o d u r i n g t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n a c t i v i t i e s o r g r o u p i n g c h a n g e s T e a c h e r p o s t s t h e s c h e d u l e f o r n o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e g u l a r l y 11. I s t he r e a m e t hod f or pos t i ng c ha nge s t o t he s c he dul e ? T e a c h e r u s e s a p r o c e d u r e f o r i n d i c a t i n g a c h a n g e i n t h e s c h e d u l e t o s t u d e n t s T e a c h e r m a k e s a l l s t u d e n t s a w a r e o f s c h e d u l e c h a n g e s S c he dul i ng 12. D oe s e a c h s t ude nt s pe nd m os t of hi s / he r t i m e e nga ge d i n a c t i ve l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no uns t r uc t ur e d do w nt i m e ? S t u d e n t s c o n v e r s e a b o u t a c a d e m i c t a s k s a n d n o t p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s S t u d e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s a r e f o c u s e d o n a s s i g n m e n t s o r t a s k s L i t t l e t i m e i s s p e n t o n t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n a c t i v i t i e s

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137 D om ai n I n d i c at or Y e s N o U / C 13. A r e l e s s on obj e c t i ve s de ve l ope d ba s e d on s t ude nt s f unc t i oni ng l e ve l s ? T e a c h e r s e t s g o a l s a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t s s k i l l l e v e l s T e a c h e r t a k e s s t u d e n t s k i l l l e v e l s i n t o a c c o u n t w h e n p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s 14. A r e a s s i gnm e nt s r e l e va nt a nd m e a ni ngf ul t o s t ude nt s ? S t u d e n t s s e e t h e p u r p o s e f o r t a s k s T a s k s t e a c h m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t t o s t u d e n t s 15. I s t he pa c e o f i ns t r uc t i on a ppr opr i a t e f or t he n e e ds of a l l s t ude nt s ? S t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n a m p l e t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t a s k s T a s k t i m e a l l o c a t i o n i s b a s e d o n s t u d e n t n e e d 16. A r e non pun i t i ve pr ov i s i ons m a de f or s t ude nt s ne e di ng m or e t i m e ? S t u d e n t s a r e n o t p u n i s h e d f o r i n c o m p l e t e w o r k S t u d e n t s d o n o t h a v e t o m i s s o u t o n o t h e r c o n t e n t i n s t r u c t i o n t o c o m p l e t e w o r k I ns t r uc t i on a l P l a nni ng a nd D e l i ve r y 17. A r e s ki l l s t a ught i n t he s e t t i ngs a nd s i t ua t i ons f or w hi c h t he y w oul d na t ur a l l y oc c ur ? S t u d e n t s r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t S t u d e n t s a r e n o t r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n 18. A r e c l a s s r oom r ul e s pos i t i ve l y s t a t e d? T e a c h e r s t a t e s w h a t s h e w o u l d l i k e s t u d e n t s t o d o r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g N o l a n g u a g e 19. I s t he num be r of r ul e s l i m i t e d t o no m o r e t ha n 5? R u l e s a r e n o m o r e t h a n f i v e i n l e n g t h R u l e s a r e s h o r t a n d d o n o t u s e e x c e s s i v e w o r d i n g 20. A r e t he r ul e s w or de d i n obs e r va bl e a nd m e a s u r a bl e t e r m s ? T e a c h e r c a n c l e a r l y o b s e r v e b e h a v i o r s l i s t e d i n r u l e s S u b j e c t i v e l a n g u a g e s u c h a s n i c e g o o d o r c l e a n a r e n o t u s e d 21. A r e r e i n f or c e r s a va i l a bl e f o r a l l s t ude nt s t o e a r n? A l l s t u d e n t s h a v e a c c e s s t o v e r b a l n o n v e r b a l t a n g i b l e i t e m s a n d a c t i v i t y r e i n f o r c e r s 22. A r e r e i nf o r c e r s va r i e d a nd i ndi vi dua l i z e d? R e i n f o r c e r s a r e s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t n e e d S t u d e n t s c a n c h o o s e b e t w e e n a v a r i e t y o f r e i n f o r c e r s 23. A r e c ons e que nc e s f or r ul e vi ol a t i ons pos t e d? T e a c h e r p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h v i s u a l r e m i n d e r s o f c o n s e q u e n c e s o f r u l e i n f r a c t i o n s C o n s e q u e n c e s a r e c l e a r l y p o s t e d f o r a l l s t u d e n t s t o s e e r e a d a n d u n d e r s t a n d 24. A r e c ons e que nc e s de l i ve r e d c ons i s t e nt l y a nd i n a t i m e l y m a nne r ? T e a c h e r d e l i v e r s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e s a m e r u l e i n f r a c t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e r u l e i n f r a c t i o n o c c u r s T e a c h e r p r o v i d e s a l l s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e s a m e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r r u l e i n f r a c t i o n s C l a s s r oom D i s c i pl i ne P l a n 25. A r e s t ude nt s r e m i nde d o f t he i r c hoi c e s a nd c o ns e que nc e s pr i or t o de l i ve r y? T e a c h e r r e m i n d s s t u d e n t s o f r u l e s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s b e f o r e r u l e i n f r a c t i o n s o c c u r T e a c h e r p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h p r o m p t s A da pt e d f r om B e s t P r ac t i c e s C l as s r oom M anage m e nt C he c k l i s t ( F l or i da s P os i t i ve B e ha vi or S uppor t s P r oj e c t f or t he C e nt e r f o r P os i t i ve B e ha vi or I nt e r ve nt i ons a nd S uppor t s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l o r i da )

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138 A P P E N D I X C O P E R A T I O N A L D E F I N I T I O N S F O R C H E C K L I S T I N D I C A T O R S

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139 C 1. C he c kl i s t f or D i f f e r e nt i a t e d I ns t r uc t i on: I ndi c a t or s a nd O pe r a t i ona l D e f i ni t i ons D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 1. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e w hol e c l a s s a c t i vi t i e s ? T he e nt i r e c l a s s i s i nvol ve d w i t h t he s a m e a c t i vi t y/ a s s i gnm e nt I nvol ve s onl y f o r m a l s t r uc t ur e s a r r a nge d by t he t e a c he r 2. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e gr oup a c t i vi t i e s ? A l t hough s e a t i ng a r r a nge m e nt m a y be a f f e c t e d by gr oup a c t i vi t i e s t hi s i t e m r e l a t e s t o s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i on i n a gr oup not s e a t a s s i gnm e nt T he c l a s s i s w or ki ng i n t w o o r m or e gr oups w i t h t h r e e or m or e s t ude nt s i n e a c h gr oup T he t e a c he r i s w or k i ng w i t h a gr oup of t hr e e o r m o r e s t ude nt s f or m o r e t ha n 5 m i nut e s 3. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e s t ude nt pa i r i ng? T he c l a s s i s di vi de d i nt o gr oups of t w o s t ude nt s O ne c hi l d a c t s a s pe e r t ut or t o a not he r s t ude nt M os t of t he s t ude nt s a r e w or ki ng i n pa i r s S t ude nt s a r e i n g r oups of t w o t o s ha r e not e s t ut or or w or k on a n a c t i vi t y or a s s i gnm e nt 4. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e i nde pe nde nt a c t i vi t i e s ? S t ude nt s a r e e nga ge d i ndi vi dua l l y on a n a c t i vi t y/ a s s i gnm e nt l i ke t he r e s t of t he s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s T e a c he r B e ha vi or s 5. D oe s t he t e a c he r r e s pond t o t he ne e ds of t he s t ude nt s ? T e a c he r r e t e a c he s o r e xpl a i ns ne w c onc e pt s i n a di f f e r e nt w a y. T e a c he r pr ovi de s c or r e c t i ve f e e dba c k ( r e e xpl a i ns m ode l s t he c or r e c t p r oc e s s pr ovi de s c ue s or pr ov i de s f e e dba c k r e ga r di ng pa r t s o f a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t w e r e i nc or r e c t )

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140 C 1. C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 6. D oe s t he t e a c he r m oni t o r on goi ng s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e ? T he t e a c he r c he c ks i n w i t h t he s t ude nt s dur i ng a n a c t i vi t y t o be s ur e t he y a r e pe r f or m i ng c or r e c t l y. T he t e a c he r a s ks s t ude nt s t o de m ons t r a t e w ha t t he y a r e doi ng. T he t e a c he r ha s s t ude nt s r e pe a t di r e c t i ons T he t e a c he r c he c ks unt i l pr a c t i c e i t e m s a r e c or r e c t T he t e a c he r c a l l s on s t ude nt s dur i ng c l a s s di s c us s i ons T he t e a c he r a s ks s t ude nt s t o e xpl a i n w or k. 7. D oe s t he t e a c he r c om m uni c a t e e xpe c t a t i ons ? T he t e a c he r pr ovi de s c l e a r a nd e xpl i c i t i ndi c a t i ons of t he goa l s a nd obj e c t i ve s of t he a s s i gnm e nt T he t e a c he r pr ovi de s i nf or m a t i on a bout w hy a n a s s i gnm e nt i s i m por t a nt T he t e a c he r pr ovi de s s t e p by s t e p di r e c t i ons t e l l i ng s t ude nt s w ha t i s t o be done a nd how T he t e a c he r pr ovi de s c l e a r i ndi c a t i ons of e xpe c t e d s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e S t ude nt B e ha vi or s 8. D o t he s t ude nt s a ppe a r e nga ge d i n t a s k r e l a t e d be ha vi or ? T he s t ude nt s w or k s pe ndi ng l i t t l e t i m e w a i t i ng f o r he l p ge t t i ng or ga ni z e d, or t a l ki ng a bout pe r s ona l m a t t e r s T he s t ude nt s s e e k he l p f r om t he t e a c he r s o t he y c a n c ont i nue t o w or k on a n a s s i gnm e nt T he s t ude nt s s e e k he l p f r om ot he r s t ude nt s o t he y c a n c ont i nue t o w or k on t a s ks S t ude nt s a ppe a r i nvol ve d i n a n a s s i gnm e nt de m ons t r a t i on, or pr oj e c t

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141 C 1 C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 9. D o s t ude nt s a s k t e a c he r f o r he l p? S t ude nt s r a i s e ha nds or c a l l o ut f or a s s i s t a nc e S t ude nt s r e que s t a s s i s t a nc e f r om t he t e a c he r 10. D o s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t w i t h ot he r s t ude nt s ? S t ude nt s a ppe a r t o be t a l ki ng a bout or w o r ki ng on a s i m i l a r a s s i gnm e nt S t ude nt s m a ke e ye c ont a c t a nd ot he r ge s t ur e s t ha t de not e s t r i vi ng t o w o r k on s i m i l a r goa l s a s ot he r s t ude nt s S t ude nt s s ha r e m a t e r i a l s or w or k on t he s a m e a s s i gnm e nt w i t h ot he r s 11. D o s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t w i t h t he t e a c he r ? S t ude nt s e nga ge i n c onve r s a t i o ns w i t h t he t e a c he r r e ga r di ng a s s i gnm e nt s S t ude nt s c onf e r e nc e w i t h t e a c he r s r e ga r di ng ongoi ng pr oj e c t s or a s s i gnm e nt s 12. D o s t ude nt s a ppe a r t o know how t o c om pl e t e t a s ks ? S t ude nt s unde r s t a nd t he t a s k a nd i t s pur pos e S t ude nt s us e body l a ngua ge t ha t i ndi c a t e s unde r s t a ndi ng a nd m ot i va t i on t o c om pl e t e w or k S t ude nt s s a y t hi ngs s uc h a s I know how t o do t hi s or T hi s i s not ha r d S t ude nt s c a n c om pl e t e t a s k f r om s t a r t t o f i n i s h w i t h l i t t l e or no he l p. M a t e r i a l s 13. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e i ndi vi dua l i z e d a s s i gnm e nt s or a c t i vi t i e s ? S t ude nt s a r e not i n vol ve d i n pa i r i ng or gr oup a c t i vi t i e s a nd a r e w or ki ng i nd i vi dua l l y on di f f e r e nt i a t e d a s s i gnm e nt s I ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s a r e w or ki ng on i ndi vi dua l / di f f e r e nt i a t e d a s s i gnm e nt s T he t e a c he r w or ks i nd i vi dua l l y w i t h a s t ude nt f o r 5 m i nut e s or l onge r

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142 C 1. C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 14. I s t he c l a s s w or ki ng on di f f e r e nt a s s i gnm e nt s / a c t i vi t i e s ? S t ude nt s a r e w or ki ng us i ng di f f e r e nt m a t e r i a l s S t ude nt s m a y s e l e c t di f f e r e nt m a t e r i a l s t o w or k w i t h. 15. D oe s t he t e a c he r pr ovi de a di f f e r e nt s e que nc e of a c t i vi t i e s f or di f f e r e nt s t ude nt s ? S t ude nt s a r e w or ki ng on a s s i gnm e nt s a t t he i r ow n pa c e a nd a c c or di ng t o s t ude nt l e ve l T he t e a c he r pr ovi de s f l e xi bl e t i m e a l l oc a t i ons f or di f f e r e nt a s s i gnm e nt s ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d. 16. D oe s t he t e a c he r pr ovi de m a t e r i a l s t ha t bot h i ns pi r e s t ude nt s c ol l a bor a t e or w or k i nde pe nde nt l y de pe ndi ng on s t ude nt c hoi c e ? S t ude nt s ha ve opt i ons f or c ol l a bor a t i ng w i t h ot he r s on t a s ks S t ude nt s c a n w or k i nde pe nde nt l y M a t e r i a l s s e l e c t e d pr om ot e s t ude nt c ol l a bor a t i on. 17. D oe s t he t e a c he r m a t e r i a l s t ha t a ppe a l t o di f f e r e nt l e a r ni ng s t yl e s ? M a t e r i a l s e nc our a ge t he us e of vi s ua l a udi o, ha nds on, a nd m ove m e nt a c t i vi t i e s 18. A r e t he r e i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s on t he w a l l s o r bul l e t i n boa r ds ? W or d w a l l s A B C c ha r t s s ound c ha r t s s pe l l i ng r ul e s pr oof r e a di ng m a r ks a nd o t he r i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s di s pl a ye d f or a l l s t ude nt s t o s e e T e a c he r us e s i ns t r uc t i ona l c ha r t s t o r e i nf or c e s ki l l s t a ught dur i ng c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on. C e nt e r s 1 9. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e c e nt e r s i n t he c l a s s r oom ? S t ude nt s w or k i n gr oups a t s pe c i f i e d a r e a s t o r e vi e w pr e vi ous l y t a ught s ki l l s or e nga ge i n c r e a t i ve pr oj e c t s S t ude nt s c ol l a bor a t e or w or k i nde pe nde nt l y t o c om pl e t e c e nt e r t a s ks

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1 43 C 1. C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 20. D o c e nt e r s i nc l ude a c t i vi t i e s t ha t a r e a t a n a ppr opr i a t e l e ve l f o r a l l s t ude nt s ? A va r i e t y of a c t i vi t i e s a r e a va i l a bl e f or a l l s ki l l l e ve l s S t ude nt s do not a ppe a r t o be f r us t r a t e d or c onf us e d a bout t a s ks a t c e nt e r s A l l s t ude nt s c a n pa r t i c i pa t e a t t he c e nt e r s 21. A r e r u l e s a nd di r e c t i ons pos t e d a t e a c h c e nt e r ? T e a c he r pr ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h be ha vi or a l e xpe c t a t i ons f or e a c h c e nt e r S t e p by s t e p di r e c t i ons a r e pr ovi de d a t e a c h c e nt e r S t ude nt s a ppe a r t o know w ha t t o do a t e a c h c e nt e r 22. I s t he r e a r ot a t i on pl a n i n pl a c e f or s t ude nt s t o m ove a bout t he c e nt e r s ? S t ude nt s a r e i n p r e de t e r m i ne d gr oups f or c e nt e r s S t ude nt s know w he r e t o go f or e a c h c e nt e r T e a c he r pos t s a s c he dul e f or s t ude nt s t o f ol l ow f or c e nt e r m ove m e nt 23. D o s t ude nt s ha ve a m pl e t i m e t o c om pl e t e c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s ? S t ude nt s c om pl e t e t a s ks w hi l e a t c e nt e r s 24. D o c hi l dr e n ha ve a de qua t e m a t e r i a l s t o c om pl e t e c e nt e r t a s ks ? S uppl i e s a r e a va i l a bl e a t t he c e nt e r s f or t a s k c om pl e t i on S t ude nt s know w h e r e t o obt a i n m a t e r i a l s f or c e nt e r t a s ks i f not l oc a t e d a t c e nt e r M a t e r i a l s a r e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e f o r c e nt e r a c t i vi t i e s 25. D o s t ude nt s ha ve c hoi c e s t ha t a l l ow t he m t o di f f e r e nt i a t e c e nt e r t a s ks f or t he m s e l ve s ? S t ude nt s m a y s e l e c t f r om a va r i e t y of t a s ks a t t he c e nt e r T he t e a c he r pr ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h va r i ous opt i ons f or t a s k c om pl e t i on w hi l e a t t he c e nt e r A da pt e d f r om T he C l as s r oom C l i m at e Sc al e ( M c I nt os h e t a l 1993) a nd E v al uat i on of C e nt e r E nv i r onm e nt s ( O w oc ki 2005)

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144 C 2. C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt C he c kl i s t : I ndi c a t or s a nd O pe r a t i ona l D e f i ni t i ons D om a i n I ndi c a t or O pe r a t i ona l D e f i ni t i on 1. A r e t he w a l l s f l oo r s a nd f ur ni t ur e c l e a n a nd i n good r e pa i r a nd a dj us t e d t o t he p r ope r s i z e f or s t ude nt s ? D e s ks t a bl e s a nd s he l ve s a r e i n w or ki ng or de r T he e nvi r onm e nt i s s a f e f or c hi l dr e n. S t ude nt s c a n w or k a t de s ks a nd t a bl e s 2. A r e r u l e s r out i ne s a nd pr oc e dur e s pos t e d i n a m a nne r t ha t i s e a s y t o s e e ? S i gns w i t h r ul e s r out i ne s a nd pr oc e dur e s c a n be f ound i n t he r oom S t ude nt s c a n vi e w t he s e pos t i ngs f r om a ny l oc a t i on i n t he r oo m W r i t i ng/ pr i nt i s l e gi bl e P i c t ur e r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a r e p r ovi de d f or non r e a de r s 3. A r e unne c e s s a r y a nd di s t r a c t i ng i t e m s r e m ove d f r om vi e w or r e a c h? I t e m s unr e l a t e d t o i ns t r uc t i on o r a c t i vi t y ha ve be e n r e m ove d o r s t or e d. S t ude nt s ha ve l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t e a c he r i t e m s 4. D o s t ude nt s ha ve s e c ur e a nd a de qua t e s pa c e f or pe r s ona l s t or a ge ? S t ude nt s ha ve i ndi vi dua l c ubbi e s or s he l ve s f or pe r s ona l i t e m s S t ude nt s ha ve s t or a ge i n t he i r de s ks 5. H a s f u r ni t u r e be e n pl a c e d t o de c r e a s e t r a f f i c f l ow c ha l l e nge s ? S t ude nt s c a n m ove a bout t he r oom f r e e l y w i t hout ha r m S t ude nt s c a n a c c e s s ne c e s s a r y a c t i vi t i e s i n t he c l a s s r oom P hys i c a l S e t t i ng 6. D o i ns t r uc t i ona l a r e a s of t he c l a s s r oom ha ve c l e a r vi s ua l bounda r i e s f or s t ude n t s ? T e a c he r s de s k s pa c e i s c l e a r l y s e pa r a t e f r om t he i ns t r uc t i ona l a r e a s D i vi de r s / c a r pe t s / s he l ve s s e pa r a t e di f f e r e nt l e a r n i ng a r e a s 7. I s s t ude nt w or k pos t e d or di s pl a ye d pr om i ne nt l y? A va r i e t y of s t ude nt w or k c a n be f ound on t he w a l l s or bul l e t i n b oa r ds A l l l e ve l s of s t ude nt w o r k a r e di s pl a ye d.

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145 C 2. C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on S c he dul i ng 8. I s t he da i l y s c he dul e of a c t i vi t i e s pos t e d a nd r e vi e w e d r e gul a r l y. T e a c he r pos t s a n a ge nda w he r e s t ude nt s s e e T e a c he r pr ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h a n a ge nda / pl a nne r of a s s i gnm e nt s or a c t i vi t i e s T e a c he r r e vi e w s a ge nda w i t h s t ude nt s t hr oughout t he l e s s on/ da y. 9. D oe s t he t e a c he r us e pr oc e dur e s r e pe t i t i ons a nd r i t ua l s t o f os t e r g r e a t e r e a s e of t r a ns i t i ons ? S t ude nt s a r e a w a r e of how t o m ove be t w e e n i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s A s ys t e m i s i n pl a c e t o e a s e s pe e d a nd s m oot hne s s of t r a ns i t i ons ( be a t t he c l oc k, m us i c dur i ng t r a ns i t i on t i m e s or be l l ) 10. A r e t r a ns i t i ons a nd non i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s pos t e d a nd r e gul a r l y r e vi e w e d? S t ude nt s know w ha t t o do dur i ng t r a ns i t i ons be t w e e n a c t i vi t i e s or gr oupi ng c ha nge s T e a c he r pos t s t he s c he dul e f or non i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s r e gul a r l y. 11. I s t he r e a m e t hod f or pos t i ng c ha nge s t o t he s c he dul e ? T e a c he r us e s a pr oc e dur e f o r i ndi c a t i ng a c ha nge i n t he s c he dul e t o s t ude nt s T e a c he r m a ke s a l l s t ude nt s a w a r e of c ha nge s i n t he s c he dul e 12. D oe s e a c h s t ude nt s e nd m os t of hi s / he r t i m e e nga ge d i n a c t i ve l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no uns t r uc t ur e d dow nt i m e ? S t ude nt s c onve r s e a bout a c a de m i c t a s ks a nd not pe r s ona l m a t t e r s S t ude nt c onve r s a t i ons w i t h t e a c he r s a r e f oc us e d on a s s i gnm e nt s or t a s ks L i t t l e t i m e i s s pe nt on t r a ns i t i ons

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146 C 2. C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 13. A r e l e s s on obj e c t i ve s de ve l o pe d ba s e d on s t ude nt s f unc t i oni ng l e ve l s ? T e a c he r s e t s goa l s a c c or di ng t o s ki l l l e ve l s T e a c he r t a ke s s t ude nt s ki l l l e ve l s i nt o a c c ount w he n pl a nni ng l e s s ons 14. A r e a s s i gnm e nt s r e l e va nt a nd m e a ni ngf ul t o s t ude nt s ? S t ude nt s s e e t he pur pos e f or t a s ks T a s ks t e a c h m a t e r i a l r e l e va nt t o s t ude nt s 15. I s t he pa c e o f i ns t r uc t i on a ppr opr i a t e f o r t he ne e ds of a l l s t ude nt s ? S t ude nt s a r e gi ve n a m pl e t i m e t o c om pl e t e t a s ks T a s k t i m e a l l oc a t i on i s ba s e d on s t ude nt ne e d. 16. A r e non pun i t i ve pr ov i s i ons m a de f or s t ude nt s ne e di ng m o r e t i m e ? S t ude nt s a r e not pun i s he d f or i nc om pl e t e w or k. S t ude nt s do not ha ve t o m i s s out on ot he r c ont e nt i ns t r uc t i on t o c om pl e t e w or k. I ns t r uc t i ona l P l a nni ng a nd D e l i ve r y 17. A r e s ki l l s t a ught i n t he s e t t i ngs a nd s i t ua t i ons f or w hi c h t he y w oul d na t ur a l l y oc c ur ? S t ude nt s r e c e i ve i ns t r uc t i on i n t he c l a s s r oom e nvi r onm e nt S t ude nt s a r e not r e m ove d f r om t he c l a s s r oom f or a ddi t i ona l i ns t r uc t i on. 18. A r e c l a s s r oom r ul e s pos i t i ve l y s t a t e d? T e a c he r s t a t e s w ha t s he w oul d l i ke s t ude nt s t o do r a t he r t ha n us i ng N o l a ngua ge 19. I s t he num be r of r ul e s l i m i t e d t o no m o r e t ha n 5? R ul e s a r e no m or e t ha n f i ve i n l e ngt h. R ul e s a r e s hor t a nd do no t us e e xc e s s i v e w or di ng. C l a s s r oom D i s c i pl i ne P l a n 20. A r e t he r ul e s w or de d i n obs e r va bl e a nd m e a s ur a bl e t e r m s ? T e a c he r c a n c l e a r l y obs e r ve be ha vi or s l i s t e d S ubj e c t i ve l a ngua ge s uc h a s ni c e good, or c l e a n a r e not us e d.

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147 C 2. C ont i nue d D om a i n I ndi c a t or D e f i ni t i on 21. A r e r e i n f or c e r s a va i l a bl e f o r a l l s t ude nt s t o e a r n? A l l s t ude nt s ha ve a c c e s s t o ve r ba l nonve r ba l t a ngi bl e i t e m s a nd a c t i vi t i e s 22. A r e r e i nf o r c e r s va r i e d a nd i ndi vi dua l i z e d? R e i nf or c e r s a r e s e l e c t e d a c c or di ng t o i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt ne e d. S t ude nt s c a n c hoos e be t w e e n a va r i e t y of r e i nf o r c e r s 23. A r e c ons e que nc e s f or r ul e vi ol a t i ons pos t e d? T e a c he r pr ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h vi s ua l r e m i nde r s of c ons e que nc e s of r ul e i nf r a c t i ons C ons e que nc e s a r e c l e a r l y pos t e d f or a l l s t ude nt s t o s e e r e a d a nd unde r s t a nd. 24. A r e c ons e que nc e s de l i ve r e d c ons i s t e nt l y a nd i n a t i m e l y m a nne r ? T e a c he r de l i ve r s t he c ons e que nc e s f or t he s a m e r u l e i nf r a c t i ons i m m e di a t e l y a f t e r t he r ul e i n f r a c t i on oc c ur s T e a c he r pr ovi de s a l l s t ude nt s w i t h t he s a m e c ons e que nc e s f or r ul e i nf r a c t i ons 25. A r e s t ude nt s r e m i nde d o f t he i r c hoi c e s a nd c ons e que nc e s pr i or t o de l i ve r y? T e a c he r r e m i n ds s t ude nt s of r ul e s a nd c ons e que nc e s be f or e r ul e i nf r a c t i ons oc c ur T e a c he r pr ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h pr om pt s A da pt e d f r om B e s t P r ac t i c e s C l as s r oom M anage m e nt C he c k l i s t ( F l or i da s P os i t i ve B e ha vi or S uppor t s P r oj e c t f or t he C e nt e r f or P os i t i ve B e ha vi or I nt e r ve nt i ons a nd S uppor t s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da )

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148 A P P E N D I X D T E A C H E R F O R M S

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149 T e ac h e r I n f or m at i on F or m P l e a s e a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons a bout you r s e l f a nd a s pe c t s of your c l a s s r oom : 1. N am e ______ ___________________________ _______________ 2. G e n d e r ( C i r c l e O n e ) : M a l e F e m a l e 3. R ac e ( C i r c l e O n e ) : W hi t e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r H i s pa ni c O t he r _________________ 4. D e gr e e h e l d ( C i r c l e O n e ) : B a c he l or s M a s t e r s S pe c i a l i s t s D oc t or a t e 5. S p e c i al C e r t i f i c at i o n ( s ) ( C i r c l e on e ) : R e a di ng S pe c i a l E duc a t i on O t he r __________________ __ 6. Y e ar s t e ac h i n g ( C i r c l e O n e ) : 1 5 6 10 11 15 16 20 21+ 7. H ow w o u l d you c l as s i f y you r s c h ool ? U r ba n S ubur ba n R ur a l H i gh P ove r t y 8. H ow m a n y s t u d e n t s i n you r c l as s h ave b e e n i d e n t i f i e d as L i m i t e d E n gl i s h P r of i c i e n t ( L E P ) l e ar n i n g d i s ab l e d ( L D ) e m o t i on al h an d i c ap p e d ( E H ) gi f t e d or o t h e r h e al t h i m p ai r e d ?_______ __ 9. Wh i c h r e ad i n g p r ogr am d o yo u c u r r e n t l y u s e as you r C or e R e ad i n g P r ogr am ? ____________________________________________ 10. D o you u s e an y s u p p l e m e n t ar y r e ad i n g p r ogr am s i n you r c l as s r oom ? I f s o, w h i c h on e s ? L i s t b e l ow :

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150 T e ac h e r P r e O b s e r vat i on C h e c k l i s t 1. W ha t w a s your ba s i s f o r gr oup i ng s t ude nt s f or your r e a di ng l e s s on t oda y? F ol l ow i ng r e a di ng ba s a l s ugge s t i ons f or gr oupi ng N e e ds of s t ude nt s M oni t or i ng s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e O t he r ____________________________________________________ 2. W ha t w a s t he c om pos i t i on o f your gr oups ? S a m e a bi l i t y gr oup i ng M i xe d a bi l i t y gr oupi ng O t he r ____________________________________________________ 3. W ho s e l e c t e d t he m a t e r i a l s us e d i n di f f e r e nt gr o ups ? T e a c he r A dm i ni s t r a t or S t ude nt s R e a di ng C oa c h O t he r _______ ______________________________________________ 4. W ha t t ype s of m a t e r i a l s di d you us e f o r t he d i f f e r e nt gr oups ? I nde pe nde nt w or ks he e t s S uppl e m e nt a l w or kbooks f o r c or e r e a di ng p r ogr a m T r a de books M a ni pul a t i ve s T e a c he r c r e a t e d m a t e r i a l s O t he r ______________ _______________________________________

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151 A P P E N D I X E I N S T I T U T I O N A L R E V I E W B O A R D D O C U M E N T S

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152 1. T I T L E O F P R O T O C O L : D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on a nd C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt P r a c t i c e s t ha t P r om ot e R e a di ng G r ow t h i n S e c ond G r a de S t ude nt s 2. P R I N C I P A L I N V E S T I G A T O R ( s ) : M e l i s s a A M i l l e r M E d. P hone : ( 352) 392 0701 e xt 246 D oc t or a l C a ndi da t e E m a i l a dd r e s s : m e m i l l e r @ uf l e du D e pa r t m e nt of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on F a x: ( 352) 392 2665 P O B ox 117050 G a i ne s vi l l e F L 32 611 7050 3. S U P E R V I S O R ( I F P I I S S T U D E N T ) : ( N am e c am pus addr e s s phone #, e m ai l & f ax ) H ol l y L a ne P h. D P O B ox 117050 G 315 N or m a n H a l l G a i ne s vi l l e F L 32 611 7050 O f f i c e T e l e phone : ( 352) 392 0701 e xt 246 E m a i l a dd r e s s : hl a ne @ c oe uf l e d u F a x: ( 352) 392 2665 4. D A T E S O F P R O P O S E D P R O T O C O L : F r om A ugus t 1, 2006 A ugus t 1 2007 5. S O U R C E O F F U N D I N G F O R T H E P R O T O C O L : N one 6. S C I E N T I F I C P U R P O S E O F T H E I N V E S T I G A T I O N : T he s c i e nt i f i c pur pos e o f t hi s s t udy i s t o unde r s t a n d how di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s pr e di c t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt 7. D E S C R I B E T H E R E S E A R C H M E T H O D O L O G Y I N N O N T E C H N I C A L L A N G U A G E O bs e r ve r s w i l l c onduc t 90 m i nu t e obs e r va t i ons i n 32 s e c ond gr a de c l a s s r oom s t hr e e t i m e s be t w e e n A ugus t 7, 20 06 a nd D e c e m be r 15 20 06. W hi l e c onduc t i ng a l l obs e r va t i ons t he r e s e a r c he r w i l l us e t he a t t a c he d c he c kl i s t t o m e a s ur e how t e a c he r s di f f e r e nt i a t e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd m a na ge t he i r c l a s s r oom s . A c c or d i ng t o T om l i ns on ( 2001 ) di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i o n a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o ha ve a c c e s s t o a c a de m i c c ont e nt t hr ough a va r i e t y of i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s gr oupi ngs us e of m a t e r i a l s a nd pr e s e nt a t i ons T e a c he r s us e a ba l a nc e of w hol e c l a s s s m a l l gr oup, a nd i ndi vi dua l i ns t r uc t i on de pe ndi ng on t he ne e ds of t h e s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s r oom D i f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on a l l ow s t e a c he r s t o pr ovi de t he a c c e s s t o t he s a m e c ur r i c ul um t o a l l s t ude nt s s o t ha t a l l c hi l dr e n c a n m a ke a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s T om l i ns on ( 1999 ) de f i ne s di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on not by t he s t uf f t ha t ki ds l e a r n but t he how t he y l e a r n. T e a c he r s w i l l c om pl e t e t he a t t a c he d P r e obs e r va t i o n c he c kl i s t pr i or t o a l l obs e r va t i ons A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c he r s w i l l c om pl e t e t he i nf or m a t i on s he e t a t t a c he d, a nd nom i na t e t w o s t ude nt s f r om e a c h o f t h r e e a c hi e ve m e n t l e ve l s ( hi gh, a ve r a ge a nd l ow ) us i ng t he a t t a c he d nom i na t i on f or m T he s e s t ude nt s w i l l c om pl e t e t he a t t a c he d E l e m e nt ar y R e adi ng A t t i t ude Sur v e y t o de t e r m i ne i f r e a di ng a t t i t ude i m pr ove s i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s di f f e r e nt i a t e d.

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153 E a c h o f t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s w i l l be f r om R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s i n A l a c hua a nd M a r i on C ount y. T he s e R e adi ng F i r s t s c hool s r e gul a r l y a s s e s s t he i r s t ude nt s us i ng t he D y nam i c I ndi c at or s of B as i c E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l s ( D I B E L S ) f our t i m e s pe r ye a r U s i ng t he c l a s s r oom r e por t s t ha t a r e m a de a va i l a bl e t o e a c h t e a c he r f r o m t he f i r s t t w o a s s e s s m e nt pe r i ods t ha t oc c ur be t w e e n A ugus t 7 a nd D e c e m be r 15, 2006, t he doc t or a l s t ude nt r e s e a r c he r w i l l e xa m i ne t he c l a s s r oom da t a f r om t he s e r e po r t s t o c om pa r e t he r e a di ng gr o w t h of s t ude nt s i n c l a s s r oom s w he r e di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on oc c ur s C l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt f a c t or s w i l l a l s o be c or r e l a t e d us i ng t he St a t i s t i c al P ac k age f or t he Soc i al Sc i e nc e s t o pr e di c t how w e l l di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt f a c t or s c a n pr e di c t r e a di ng gr ow t h i n s e c ond gr a de r s 8. P O T E N T I A L B E N E F I T S A N D A N T I C I P A T E D R I S K N o m or e t ha n m i ni m a l r i s k i s i nvol ve d i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t h i s pr oj e c t W e do no t a nt i c i pa t e t he pa r t i c i pa nt be ne f i t i ng di r e c t l y by pa r t i c i pa t i n g i n t hi s s t udy. 9. D E S C R I B E H O W P A R T I C I P A N T ( S ) WI L L B E R E C R U I T E D T H E N U M B E R A N D A G E O F T H E P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D P R O P O S E D C O M P E N S A T I O N ( i f an y ) : S e c ond gr a de t e a c he r s i n A l a c hua a nd M a r i on C ount y R e adi ng F i r s t s c hool s w i l l be r e c r ui t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t h e s t udy. 32 pa r t i c i pa nt s ( 16 f r om e a c h c ount y) w i l l be a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hr e e obs e r va t i ons be t w e e n A ugus t a nd D e c e m be r E a c h of t he 32 t e a c he r s w i l l nom i na t e s i x s t ude nt s t ot a l f r om t he i r r e a di ng c l a s s E a c h s e c ond gr a de r w i l l be no m i na t e d a c c or d i ng t o a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s ( hi gh, a ve r a ge a nd l ow ) ba s e d on t he i r D I B E L S O r a l R e a di ng F l ue nc y m e a s ur e s f r om t he f i na l a s s e s s m e nt f r om t he p r e vi ous ye a r N o c om pe ns a t i on w i l l be pr ovi de d t o a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s 10. D E S C R I B E T H E I N F O R M E D C O N S E N T P R O C E S S I N C L U D E A C O P Y O F T H E I N F O R M E D C O N S E N T D O C U M E N T ( i f a ppl i c a bl e ) T e a c he r s w i l l pr ovi de i nf or m e d c ons e nt t o pa r t i c i p a t e i n t he s t udy. A ddi t i ona l l y, pa r e nt s of t he nom i na t e d s t ude nt s w i l l pr ovi de c ons e nt f or t he i r c hi l dr e n t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. L e t t e r s a r e a t t a c he d. P l e as e us e at t ac hm e nt s s par i ngl y __________________________ _________________________ P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i ga t or 's S i gna t ur e S upe r vi s or 's S i gna t ur e I ap p r ove t h i s p r o t oc ol f or s u b m i s s i on t o t h e U F I R B : ____________________ ________ D e pt C ha i r / C e nt e r D i r e c t o r D a t e

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154 I n f or m e d C on s e n t P r ot oc ol T i t l e : D i f f e r e nt i a t e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on a nd C l a s s r oom M a na ge m e nt P r a c t i c e s t ha t P r om ot e R e a di ng G r ow t h i n S e c ond G r a de S t ude n t s P l e as e r e ad t h i s c on s e n t doc u m e n t c ar e f u l l y be f o r e y ou de c i de t o par t i c i pat e i n t h i s s t u dy P u r p os e of t h e r e s e ar c h s t u d y: T he s c i e nt i f i c pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o unde r s t a nd how di f f e r e nt i a t e d i ns t r uc t i on i n r e a di ng a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s pr e di c t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt Y ou w i l l b e as k e d : T o c om p l e t e a f o r m p r ovi di ng i nf or m a t i on a bout your s e l f Y ou w i l l a l s o be a s ke d t o be obs e r ve d t hr e e t i m e s dur i ng t he F a l l s e m e s t e r f or a pp r oxi m a t e l y 90 m i nut e s dur i ng your s c he dul e d r e a di ng bl oc k T i m e r e q u i r e d : 41/ 2 hour s t ot a l R i s k s an d B e n e f i t s : N o m or e t ha n m i ni m a l r i s k i s i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t udy T he r e i s no di r e c t be ne f i t t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. T he r e i s no c om pe ns a t i on f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. C on f i d e n t i al i t y: Y our i de nt i t y w i l l be ke pt c onf i d e nt i a l t o t he e xt e nt pr ovi de d by l a w O nl y t he r e s e a r c he r w i l l ha ve a c c e s s t o your obs e r va t i on da t a w hi c h w i l l be s t or e d i n a l oc ke d f i l e c a bi ne t f or t he dur a t i on of t he s t udy. T he f i na l r e s ul t s w i l l be pr e s e nt e d a t a c onf e r e nc e a nd m a y be s ubm i t t e d t o e duc a t i ona l j our na l s f or pos s i bl e publ i c a t i on. V ol u n t ar y p ar t i c i p at i on : Y our pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy i s c om pl e t e l y vol unt a r y T he r e i s no pe na l t y f or not pa r t i c i pa t i ng. R i gh t t o w i t h d r aw f r om t h e s t u d y: Y ou ha ve t he r i ght t o w i t hd r a w f r om t he s t udy a t a nyt i m e w i t hout c ons e que nc e Y ou do no t ha ve t o a ns w e r a ny que s t i on you do not w a nt t o a ns w e r Wh om t o c on t ac t i f you h ave q u e s t i on s ab ou t t h e s t u d y: M e l i s s a M i l l e r M E d D oc t or a l S t ude nt or H ol l y L a ne P h. D P O B ox 117050 G 315 N or m a n H a l l G a i ne s vi l l e F L 32611 7050, ( 352 ) 392 0701, e xt 246 Wh om t o c on t ac t ab ou t you r r i gh t s as a r e s e ar c h p ar t i c i p an t i n t h e s t u d y : U F I R B O f f i c e B ox 112250, U ni ve r s i t y o f F l o r i da G a i ne s vi l l e F L 32611 2250; ph 392 0433. I h ave r e ad t h e p r oc e d u r e s ou t l i n e d ab ove I vol u n t ar i l y agr e e t o p ar t i c i p at e i n t h i s s t u d y an d h ave r e c e i ve d a c op y o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i on P a r t i c i pa nt s s i gna t ur e a nd da t e __________________________ P r i nc i pl e i nve s t i ga t or s s i gna t ur e a nd da t e __________________________

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155 V ol u n t e e r R e c r u i t m e n t S c r i p t M y na m e i s ( r e s e a r c he r s t a t e s na m e ) a nd I a m a gr a dua t e s t ude nt i n t he C ol l e ge o f E d uc a t i on. I a m a doc t or a l s t ude nt c onduc t i ng a s t udy t o unde r s t a nd how di f f e r e nt i a t e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c l a s s r oom m a na ge m e nt pr a c t i c e s pr om ot e gr o w t h i n r e a di ng I ne e d s e c ond gr a de e l e m e nt a r y e duc a t i on t e a c he r s a t R e a di ng F i r s t s c hool s t o vol unt e e r t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy I f you a gr e e t o pa r t i c i pa t e I w oul d l i ke t o obs e r ve you t hr e e t i m e s f o r a ppr oxi m a t e l y 90 m i nut e s du r i ng e a c h obs e r va t i on i n your c l a s s r oom du r i ng you r s c he dul e d r e a di ng bl oc k. A ddi t i ona l l y, you w i l l be a s ke d t o nom i na t e s i x s t ude nt s f r om you r r e a di ng c l a s s m e e t i ng w i l l t a ke pl a c e a t you r c onve ni e nc e a f t e r t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd a na l ys i s T hi s m e e t i ng w i l l be us e d t o ge t s om e f e e dba c k f r om you a bout t he i nt e r vi e w Y our i de nt i t y w i l l be ke pt c onf i de nt i a l t o t he e xt e n t pr ovi de d by l a w O nl y I w i l l ha ve a c c e s s t o t he t a pe d i nt e r vi e w s w hi c h I w i l l pe r s ona l l y t r a ns c r i be r e m ovi ng a ny i de nt i f i e r s du r i ng t r a ns c r i pt i on. T he t a pe s w i l l be de s t r oye d a t t he c o m pl e t i on of t he pr oj e c t T he f i na l r e s ul t s w i l l be pr e s e nt e d a t a c onf e r e nc e a nd m a y be s ubm i t t e d t o e duc a t i ona l j ou r na l s f or pos s i bl e publ i c a t i on. N o m or e t ha n m i ni m a l r i s k i s i nvol ve d i n t h i s s t udy. T he r e i s no di r e c t be ne f i t t o you i n t hi s r e s e a r c h, a l t hough t he r e s ul t s m a y c ont r i but e t ow a r d t he c ha nge of e duc a t i on pr a c t i c e i n t he f ut ur e Y our pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy i s c om pl e t e l y vol unt a r y T he r e i s no pe na l t y f o r not pa r t i c i pa t i ng. Y ou ha ve t he r i ght t o w i t hd r a w f r o m t he s t udy a t a nyt i m e w i t hout c ons e que nc e W oul d you l i ke t o pa r t i c i pa t e ?

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156 R E F E R E N C E S A da m s M J ( 1990) B e gi nni ng t o r e ad: T hi nk i ng and l e ar ni ng about pr i nt C a m br i dge M A : M I T P r e s s A de l m a n, H S & T a yl or L ( 2002) S c hool c ouns e l or s a nd s c hool r e f or m : N e w di r e c t i ons P r of e s s i onal Sc hool C ouns e l i ng, 5 ( 4) 235 248. A l l i ngt on, R L ( 1991 ) T he l e ga c y of S l ow i t do w n a nd m a ke i t m or e c onc r e t e I n J Z ut e l l & S M c C or m i c k ( E ds ) L e ar ne r f ac t or s / t e ac he r f ac t or s : I s s ue s i n l i t e r ac y r e s e a r c h and i ns t r uc t i on: 40 t h y e ar book of t he N at i onal R e adi n g C onf e r e nc e C hi c a go: N a t i ona l R e a di ng C onf e r e nc e A nde r s P L H o f f m a n, J V & D uf f y G G ( 2000 ) T e a c hi ng t e a c he r s t o t e a c h r e a di ng: P a r a di gm s hi f t s pe r s i s t e nt pr obl e m s a nd c ha l l e nge s I n M L K a m i l P B R os e nt ha l P D P e a r s on, & R B a r r ( E ds ) H an dbook of r e adi ng r e s e ar c h, V ol I I I M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s A r m br us t e r B B L e hr F & O s bor ne J M ( 2001 ) P ut r e adi ng f i r s t : T he r e s e ar c h bui l di ng bl oc k s f or t e ac hi ng c hi l dr e n t o r e ad W a s hi ngt on, D C : T he N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f or L i t e r a c y. R e t r i e ve d F e b r ua r y 22 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w ni f l gov/ pr t ne r s hi pf or r e a di ng/ publ i c a t i ons / C i e r r a pdf A s h, G E K uhn, M R & W a l pol e S ( 2003) F l y i ng i n t he f a c e of r e s e a r c h: I ns e r vi c e t e a c he r s us e of r ound r obi n r e a di ng ( r e s e a r c h i n p r ogr e s s ) P a pe r p r e s e nt e d a t t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng C onf e r e nc e S c ot t s da l e A Z B a bya k, A E K oor l und, M & M a t he s P G ( 20 00) T he e f f e c t s of s t or y m a ppi ng i ns t r uc t i on on t he r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on of s t ude nt s w i t h be h a vi or a l di s or de r s B e hav i or al D i s or de r s 25 ( 3) 239 258 B a ke r J M & Z i g m ond, N ( 1990) A r e r e gul a r c l a s s e s e qui ppe d t o a c c om m oda t e s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ? E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 56, 51 5 526. B a l l E & B l a c hm a n, B ( 1991) D oe s phone m e a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni ng i n ki nde r ga r t e n m a ke a di f f e r e nc e i n e a r l y w or d r e c ogni t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt a l s pe l l i ng? R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 26 49 66 B a l l D L & F e i m a n N e m s e r S ( 1988 ) U s i ng t e xt books a nd t e a c he r s gui de s : A di l e m m a f or be gi nni ng t e a c he r s a nd t e a c he r e duc a t or s C ur r i c u l um I nqui r y 18 401 427. B a r t on A r w ood, S M W e hby, J & F a l k, K B ( 2 005) R e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or e l e m e nt a r y a ge s t ude nt s w i t h e m ot i ona l a nd be ha vi or a l di s or de r s : a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l out c om e s E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 72 ( 1 ) 7 27 B a um a nn, J F K a m e e nui E J & A s h, G E ( 200 3) R e s e a r c h on voc a bul a r y i ns t r uc t i on: V ol t a i r e r e dux. I n J F l ood D L a pp J R S qui r e & J M J e ns e n ( E ds ) H andbood on

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157 r e s e a r c h on t e ac hi ng t he E ngl i s h l anguage ar t s ( 2 n d e d ) M a hw a h, N J : E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s B e c k, I L & M c K e ow n, M G ( 2001) T e xt t a l k: C a pt ur i ng t he be ne f i t s o f r e a d a l oud e xpe r i e nc e s f or young c hi l d r e n. T he R e adi ng T e ac he r 55 ( 1) 10 20 B e c k, I L P e r f e t t i C A & M c K e ow n, M G ( 198 2) E f f e c t s of l ong t e r m voc a bul a r y i ns t r uc t i on on l e xi c a l a c c e s s a nd r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on. J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 74, 506 521. B e nne t t K J B r ow n K S B oyl e M R a c i ne Y & O f f or d D ( 2003 ) D oe s l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a t s c hool e nt r y c a us e c onduc t pr obl e m s ? Soc i al Sc i e nc e & M e di c i ne 56 ( 12 ) 2443 2449. B l oc k, C C & P r e s s l e y, M ( 2002) C om pr e he ns i on i ns t r uc t i on: R e s e a r c h ba s e d be s t pr a c t i c e s N e w Y or k: G ui l f or d B ona t e P L ( 2000) A nal y s i s of pr e t e s t pos t t e s t de s i gns B oc a R a t on, F L : C ha pm a n & H a l l B os C S & V a ughn, S ( 1998 ) S t r a t e gi e s f or t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s B os t on: A l l yn & B a c on. B r ophy, J ( 1973 ) S t a bi l i t y o f t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s A m e r i c an E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h J our nal 10, 245 252 B r ophy, J E ( 1986) R e s e a r c h l i nki ng t e a c he r be h a vi or t o s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt : P ot e nt i a l i m pl i c a t i ons f or i ns t r uc t i on o f C ha pt e r 1 s t ude nt s I n B I W i l l i a m s P A R i c hm ond, & B J M a s on ( E ds ) D e s i gns f or c om pe ns at or y e du c at i on: C onf e r e nc e pr oc e e di ngs and pape r s W a s hi ngt on D C : R e s e a r c h a nd E va l ua t i o n A s s oc i a t e s B r ophy, J E & E ve r t s on, C M ( 1976) L e ar ni ng f r om t e ac hi ng: A de v e l opm e nt al pe r s pe c t i v e B os t on: A l l yn & B a c on. B r yk, A S & R a ude nbus h, S W ( 1992 ) H i e r ar c hi c al l i ne ar m ode l s S a ge : N e w bur y P a r k, C A B uc hne r A F a ul F & E r d f e l de r R ( 1997) G P ow e r : A pr i or i pos t hoc and c om pr om i s e pow e r anal y s e s f or t he M ac i nt os h ( V e r s i on 2. 1. 2 ) [ C om put e r P r ogr a m ] T r i e r G e r m a ny: U ni ve r s i t y of T r i e r C a r r E J T a yl or J C & R obi ns on, S ( 1991) T h e e f f e c t s of s e ve r e be ha vi or pr obl e m s i n c hi l dr e n on t he t e a c hi ng be ha vi or o f a dul t s J our n al of A ppl i e d B e hav i or A nal y s i s 24 523 535. C ha l l J e a nne S ( 1967) L e ar ni ng t o r e ad: T he gr e at de bat e N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w H i l l C l a r ke L K ( 1989) E nc our a gi ng i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng i n f i r s t gr a de r s w r i t i ng: E f f e c t s on l e a r ni ng t o s pe l l a nd r e a d R e s e ar c h i n t he T e ac hi ng of E ngl i s h 22 281 309

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168 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H M e l i s s a A nn M i l l e r w a s bor n i n M i a m i F l o r i da T he e l de s t of t w o c hi l dr e n, s he gr e w up m os t l y i n O c a l a F l or i da gr a dua t i ng f r o m V a ngua r d H i gh S c hool i n 1987 S he e a r ne d bot h he r B a c he l or s a nd M a s t e r s de gr e e s i n S pe c i a l E duc a t i on f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n 1993 a nd 2003, r e s pe c t i ve l y. S he t a ught s t ude nt s w i t h e m ot i ona l / be ha vi or a l di s or de r s f or e i ght ye a r s i n M a r i on C ount y, F l o r i da M e l i s s a a c hi e ve d c e r t i f i c a t i on f r om t he N a t i ona l B oa r d of P r o f e s s i ona l T e a c hi ng S t a nda r ds i n 2002 a nd m a i nt a i ns c e r t i f i c a t i on t o t e a c h s t ude nt s w i t h d i s a bi l i t i e s i n K 12 gr a de s i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da M e l i s s a be ga n he r doc t or a l s t udi e s i n 2003, f oc us i ng on t he p r e ve nt i on a nd r e m e di a t i on of r e a di ng d i f f i c ul t i e s f or s t ude nt s w i t h be ha vi or p r obl e m s S he w a s a n A l um ni F e l l ow a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a nd w a s s uppor t e d by t w o f e de r a l gr a nt s i nc l udi ng P r oj e c t P A S S : P r om ot i ng A c a de m i c a nd S oc i a l S uc c e s s a nd a n E B D l e a de r s hi p gr a nt s pons or e d t hr ough t he O f f i c e of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on P r og r a m s W hi l e c om pl e t i ng he r s t udi e s M e l i s s a s e r ve d a s a s t ude nt r e pr e s e nt a t i ve t o t he T e a c he r E duc a t i on D i vi s i on of t he C ounc i l f or E xc e pt i ona l C hi l dr e n f or t w o ye a r s a nd s e r ve d a s a n e di t or i a l a s s i s t a nt t o D r T e r r y S c ot t f o r B e y ond B e hav i or a j our na l publ i s he d by t he C ounc i l f o r C hi l d r e n w i t h B e ha vi or D i s or de r s ( C C B D ) U pon c om pl e t i on of he r P h. D pr og r a m M e l i s s a a nd he r f a m i l y w i l l m ove t o C ha pe l H i l l N or t h C a r ol i na w he r e s he w i l l be gi n a c a r e e r a s a n A s s i s t a nt P r of e s s or of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h C a r ol i na a t C ha pe l H i l l S he ha s be e n m a r r i e d t o he r hus ba nd, J e d M i l l e r f o r s i x ye a r s T he y ha ve one da ught e r M a i s y, a ge 4.


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DIFFERENTIATED READING INSTRUCTION AND
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES THAT
PROMOTE READING DEVELOPMENT

















By

MELISSA A. MILLER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2007




































O 2007 Melissa A. Miller
































For Jed and Maisy
This would not have been possible
without your love and support








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all those who believed in me, and

encouraged me to plunge into this dissertation. This could have never been possible without my

"Seven Kinds of Smoke."

First, my committee, and especially my advisor, Dr. Holly Lane, who provided a fun,

motivating, and supportive academic environment under which I could thrive. Thanks also to

Dr. Terry Scott, who provided with me more opportunities for professional growth than I could

ever count. Dr. Nancy Corbett, who provided me with hours of guidance and dialogue that

always helped me to ponder the really tough questions. And finally, thanks to Dr. David Miller

who challenged me to figure out my own stats and helped me to see the light (I CAN do it

myself).

Second, the love and support of my family provided endless strength. I would especially

like to acknowledge my parents, Mark and Carol Shaffer, who always believed in me and never

thought I could fail. You taught me the most valuable life lessons, but most importantly, the

value of hard work. I also am grateful for my brother Brett who helped me keep things in

perspective, and the sister of my heart, Kim, who was, is, and always will be there for me. And

thanks to all my aunts, uncles, and cousins, who are not just an extension of my family, but an

extension of myself.

Third, the faculty and staff of the Department of Special Education really taught me what

the Foundation of the Gator Nation is all about. Without "The Pit" where would we all be? You

have truly helped shape the teacher I will be!

Fourth, the fun kind of smoke, made the time fly by! Thanks to all my fellow doctoral

students, both at UF and around the country, who I have forged friendships and professional

relationships with that will last long past our doctoral programs.











The fifth kind of smoke, I thank my Ichiban Grandma, who taught me humility, honor,

and perseverance. You have always believed in me and lifted me up when I needed it most.

Sixth, I would like to acknowledge all the students I taught in the past. Without having

had you touch my life in the ways that you did, I would never have wanted to Eind ways to make

life better for all students with special needs. Also, to my Aunt Betty, who inspired me to be a

teacher and to achieve National Board Certifieation.

Seventh, and the most powerful kind of smoke there is that I saved the BEST for last; I

would like to acknowledge the love and support of my husband, Jed, and my beautiful daughter,

Maisy. You made countless sacrifices so that I could pursue a dream. I cannot imagine life

without you, and I cannot imagine ever making it though this process without your

encouragement.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ................ ................. 4...............


LIST OF TABLES............... ..............9..


LI ST OF FIGURE S ................. ................. 10......... ...


ABSTRACT ................. ................. 11.............


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION............... ............. 1


Status of Reading Achievement in the U.S ................ .............. ... .............. 13..
Connection Between Reading Deficits and Behavior Problems.............. ................ 14
Effective Instruction Requires Effective Classroom Management ................ ............... 17
Differentiated Reading Instruction in Today's Classrooms ................. ............. ......20
Theoretical Framework ........._... ......___ .............._ 23...

Purpose of the Study. .............__ .............._ 24..._.__...


2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........._... ......___ .............._ 26...


Methods to Select Reviewed Studies ............._ .....___ ....___ ...........2
Review of the Literature ........._...... ........._...... ........_ .. ......... 2
Effective Teachers are Critical to Student Achievement............_. .. ........._._.. 28
Effective Teachers are Exemplary Reading Instructors............................. 32
Effective Teachers Differentiate Reading Instruction ................. ................. ..39
Effective Teachers are Classroom Managers ................ ......... ...............49
Summary and Conclusions ................. ................. 56......... ...
Rationale for the Study ................ ..............58. ..............


3 METHODOLOGY...................... .......59


Introduction.............. .............. 59

Hypotheses ................ ................. 59..............
M ethods ................. ..............60.......... ......
Setting ................. ................. 60.............
Participants ................ ..............61. ...............
M measures ................. ..............62.......... ......
Teacher Data ................. ................. 63..............
Observation Data .............. ... .. ......... ..............63.......
Differentiated reading instruction measure ................. ................. ....63
Classroom management measure ................ ... .............. .......... .65
Reading measure ........._... ....____......___ ............6











Procedures.............. ...............68
Consent.............. .................68
Ob servati ons ................ ..............68. .......... ....
Pilot Phase ................ ..............68. ...............
Data Collection Phase ................ ..............69. .......... ....
Interobserver Agreement. ............. .....___ .....___ ...........7
Student Reading Assessment Data ............._....._ ....___ ............7
Design and Analy si s ............. ......___ .............. 7 1...
Limitations ................ ... ......___ ...... ..............73
Internal Threats to Validity ............. ......___ ....___...........7
External Threats to Validity ............. ......___ .....___ ..........7


4 RE SULT S ............. ...... __ ..............75....


Introduction.............. ..... ......... ......75
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.............. ...............76

Sample Description................................. 76
Descriptive Statistics of All Variables.............. ................76
Inferential Statistics ............. ...... __ ..............77....
Multiple Regression Analysis ............._ .......__ .....___...........7
Descriptive Statistics on Checklist Indicators ....._____ .......___ ............. 83
Interobserver Agreement ............. ......___ .............. 85....


5 DISCUS SION ............. ......___ .............. 87....


Introduction.............. .............. 87
Summary of Results ............. ......___ .............. 89...
Hypothesis 1 ............. ...... __ .............. 90....
Hypothesis 2 ............. ...... __ ..............91....
Hypothesis 3 ............. ...... __ .............. 92....
Hypothesis 4 ............. ...... __ ..............93....
Hypothesis 5 ............. ...... __ .............. 95....
Interpretation of Findings ............. ......___ .............. 96...
Limitations ............. ...... __ .............. 99....
Instrumentation............. .............. 99
Tim e ............... ....... ..... ...... ........... 10

Generalizability of the Study ................ ................ 101........ ....

Implications for Future Research ................ ................ 102........ ....
Conducting Teacher Interviews.............. .............. 102
Increasing Study Duration ................. ........... ... ............. 103...
Including Additional Reading Assessments ................ .......... .............. 104
Conducting Additional Data Analysis ................ ............. ......... ..... 105

Implications for Future Practice.............. ............... 105
Pre-Service Teacher Education ................. .......... .................... 0
In-Service Teacher Education ................ ................ 108........ ....











Teacher Practices .........._.._ ......... ............._. 110...
Phonemic awareness .........._.._._ .......__....._.. .........11
Phonics .........._.._ ......... ............._. 111...
Fluency .........._.._ ......... ............._. 112...
Vocabulary.............. .............. 113
Comprehension .........._.._. ......__....._... ... ....... 1
Conclusions .......... .. ...... .... .. ... .. ..... ............ 115
Teachers Differentiate Reading Instruction Based on Student Need ................. 117
Practices that Contribute to Progress in Reading .........._.._.. .......__. ........ 119


APPENDIX


A SUMMARY OF REVIEWED STUDIES ........._._.._ ...._... .....__........... 2


B OBSERVATION CHECKLIST S ........._._. ...._... ............. 132....


C OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS FOR CHECKLIST INDICATORS ................... ...... 138


D TEACHER FORMS ................. ................ 148........ ....


E INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTS ................. ........... ......... 151


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ................ 156........ ....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............. ................ 168












LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Demographic data for participating schools ................ ..............61. .............


3-2 Demographic data for participants ................ ................. 62......... ...

3-3 Regression models.............. .................72


4-1 Descriptive data of explanatory and outcome variables.............. ................77

4-2 Correlational statistics ................. ..............78................


4-3 Full regression model ................. ................. 8......... 1...

4-4 Adjusted regression model ................ ................. 81.............


4-5 Summary of models ................. ..............82. ..............

4-6 CDI and CMC indicator analysis ................ ..............83. .............

4-7 Frequent practices observed during reading instruction.............. .............. 85

4-8 Descriptive statistics for interobserver agreement ....._____ ..... ... ............... .86










LIST OF FIGURES

Table page

1-1 Combined reading and behavior prevention.............. ............... 16

1-2 Model of differentiated reading instruction ................ ................. 24............

5-1 Model of differentiated reading instruction.............. .............. 88

5-2 Summary of regression models. ................ ................. 95......... ...










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

DIFFERENTIATED READING INSTRUCTION AND CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES THAT READING DEVELOPMENT

By

Melissa A. Miller

May 2007

Chair: Holly Lane
Major: Special Education

Teaching reading involves much more than expert knowledge; an effective teacher must

teach in such a way as to engage the students' interest, challenge them, and spark their

imagination. To meet these pedagogical challenges, teachers must have an awareness of the

diverse abilities and backgrounds of students, including those with learning and behavior

problems. Teachers who effectively manage their classrooms not only demonstrate an awareness

of their students' diverse needs, but also possess a set of skills necessary to meet those needs.

There is a lack of research that examines specifically how classroom management techniques can

be applied to different instructional contexts, especially to reading instruction. The purpose of

my study was to examine the ways effective differentiation of instruction in reading relates to

classroom management, and how the two work together to help students develop reading skills in

inclusive classroom settings. Classroom observations were conducted using two checklists that

measured teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom management

structures identified by the literature as best practices. Data were analyzed using a variety of

methods, including correlational and multiple regression analysis.









The results of the correlational analysis revealed that there is a significant negative

relationship between teacher' s use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom averages

on the fall and winters assessments of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency subtest. The negative

correlation indicated that when teachers differentiate reading instruction, they do so in

classrooms with the most struggling readers, and that differentiation is based on student need.

Multiple regression analysis revealed that the explanatory variables used in this study,

differentiated reading instruction and classroom management structures, were significant

indicators of class averages on DIBELS ORF measures. Furthermore, the multiple regression

analysis indicated that teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom

management structures enables students to make the same gains in fluency regardless of reading

ability. Teachers who implement these strategies are leveling the playing field, and in essence,

maintain the gap between struggling and proficient readers.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Teaching reading involves much more than expert knowledge; an effective teacher must

teach in such a way as to engage the students' interest, challenge them, and spark their

imagination. To meet these pedagogical challenges, teachers must have an awareness of the

diverse abilities and backgrounds of students, including those with learning and behavior

problems. In addition to being experts in reading instruction, today's teachers must possess

classroom management skills that facilitate the learning process. A combination of research-

based reading instruction and classroom management skills ensures success for teachers and

students.

Status of Reading Achievement in the U.S.

While conducting a longitudinal study at an elementary school in Texas, researcher

Connie Juel came to a startling conclusion. Of the fourth graders she interviewed, 40% would

choose to clean their room over reading. In fact, one child admitted, "I'd rather clean the mold

around the bathtub than read" (Juel, 1988).

Coincidentally, in their 2005 report, a National Assessment of Educational Progress

(NAEP) panel (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005) found that 38% of fourth graders were unable to

read basic passages and correctly answer associated comprehension questions. Thirty-eight

percent of all fourth graders have reading skills below the "basic" level and students who read

below the "basic" level cannot read well enough to complete class work at grade level (U. S.

Department of Education, 2001). With only 33% of the nation' s fourth graders reading at the

"basic" level, and 30% reading at "proficient" or above, we are truly a nation at risk.

The good news is that research clearly demonstrates most reading failure is preventable

and students identified as "high risk" can improve their reading and writing achievement with










quality instruction (Adams, 1990). Finding a way to get children to not only want to read, but

also become proficient readers is a very complicated process. To get students to read well, they

must read frequently, but to get them to read frequently, they must be able to read well (Adams,

1990). Put Reading First, a publication based on the work of the National Reading Panel (NRP)

(Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborne, 2001) advocates for the use of scientifieally-based reading

interventions and strategies in the classroom in order to improve children's reading achievement.

Unfortunately, the prognosis for children who experience reading deficits is grim. A

child who leaves first grade as a struggling reader will most likely become a poor reader in third

grade (Juel, 1988; Torgesen & Burgess, 1998). Even worse, a child who does not learn to read

and get meaning from text by fourth grade has a .88 probability of never learning to read despite

the implementation of reading interventions (Juel, 1988; Torgesen & Burgess, 1998). To further

complicate matters, reading failures bring about negative long-term consequences for children's

self-confidence, motivation to learn, and overall school performance, and affect post-school

outcomes as well (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD], 2000).

For students who are unable to read fluently by third grade, it is improbable that they will earn a

high school diploma (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 200; Slavin, Karweit, Wasik,

Madden & Dolan, 1994; U.S. Department of Education, 1998).

Connection between Reading Deficits and Behavior Problems

According to Bos and Vaughn (1998), most students referred for special education

services experience reading difficulties. In addition to poor academic achievement, students with

reading problems are often at risk for conduct and behavioral disorders (Bennett, Brown, Boyle,

Raccine, & Offord, 2003). When coupled with reading deficits, behavior problems manifest

themselves in the classroom, resulting in office discipline referrals for noncompliant behavior









during academic tasks (Scott, Nelson, & Liaupsin, 2001). When these academic and behavior

deficits persist, interventions become less effective, further resulting in school failure, thus

producing a cycle of academic and behavioral failure that leads to negative school and life

outcomes.

With the growing number of students who are at risk for academic failure not being

identified as eligible for special education services, many students never receive the academic or

behavioral interventions necessary for school success (Bos & Vaughn, 1998). Unfortunately, the

maj ority of the students with behavioral and academic problems are not identified as eligible for

special education services until third or fourth grade, the unfortunate point at which the

probability of successful intervention has substantially diminished. Foorman, Francis, Shaywitz,

Shaywitz, and Fletcher (1997) have found that 82% of struggling readers were able to improve

their reading ability to within average range when they were provided with interventions in the

early grades. This percentage decreased to 42% when remediation was provided in the

intermediate grades. When remediation was provided in the middle school grades and beyond,

the percentage fell to 15%. It has become increasingly evident that the longer academic failures

persist without effective intervention, the less likely it is the interventions can be successful

(Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).

Built upon the underlying assumption that early intervention is key to preventing early

reading and behavior failure, Scott and Lane (2001) developed a system for combining early

reading and behavior prevention that focuses on prevention across students at the school-wide

level. Recognizing that some students require more intense and individualized intervention for

reading and behavior problems, Scott and Lane (2001) developed a three-tiered model of early

prevention based on the work of Sugai and Horner (2000), whose model of positive behavior









supports included those primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention that occur specifically

related to behavioral issues. Scott and Lane adapted this model in recognition of the overlap

needs for universal prevention efforts in the areas of academics and behavior issues. Primary

prevention systems are implemented across all students, with 80-90% of those students expected

to maintain academic and behavioral success when provided these universal prevention.

Secondary systems are implemented with 5-15% of students for whom primary systems have

proven unsuccessful. The third level of prevention occurs at the tertiary level which focuses on

interventions that are reserved for the neediest 1-5% of students for whom both primary and

secondary systems have been insufficient. With the appropriate classroom supports and effective

teaching strategies, early intervention has been shown to provide students at risk for reading and

behavior problems an opportunity to maintain a level of academic success comparable to that of

their peers (Gunter, Hummel, & Conroy, 1998; Scott et al., 2001).


Reading Behavior

S1-5% Tertiary Prevention


S5-15% Secondary
Prevention




S80-90% Prmar









Figure 1-1. Combined reading and behavior prevention









Effective Instruction Requires Effective Classroom Management

There exists an assumption that effective teaching cannot be defined (Darling-Hammond,

1997), but interestingly, recent research on effective teachers demonstrates otherwise. In the

search to define effective teaching, researchers began identifying effective teaching processes as

early as the 1970s. Brophy (1973), Dunkin and Biddle (1974), and Soar and Soar (1979) began

researching the process that effective teachers engage in to promote high student achievement.

In classrooms with accomplished teachers, student engagement is high, and occurs as a result of

a combination of classroom management skills and effective instructional techniques (Taylor,

Pearson, Clark & Walpole, 1998; Pressley, 1998; Taylor, Pressley & Pearson, 2000). Teachers

who effectively manage their classrooms not only demonstrate an awareness of their students'

diverse needs, but also possess a set of skills necessary to meet those needs (Marzano, 2003).

Effective classroom management skills fall under three categories: (a) environmental

factors, (b) instructional variables, and (c) teacher behaviors. Environmental classroom

management skills relate to classroom arrangement, student grouping, and the physical attributes

of the classroom (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003). Instructional variables constitute the

teaching of rules and procedures, as well as planning, delivery, and methods of instruction.

Teacher behaviors are related to use of reinforcement and praise, relationships of teachers and

students, and teacher actions (Emmer, Evertson, and Worsham, 2003). When classroom

management is implemented effectively, an increase in student engagement occurs, disruptive

behaviors decrease, and use of instructional time increases, all resulting in improved academic

achievement (Wang, Haertel, and Walberg, 1993). When teachers are able to spend more time

on instruction and less time dealing with discipline problems, student achievement improves.









Classroom management is a key element in promoting an environment conducive to student

learning (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003).

Although there is little debate on the comorbidity of academic and behavior deficits in

students (Kauffman, 1997), the causal nature of each deficit is unclear. Many researchers posit

that reading deficits result in problem behaviors (Maag, 1999; Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1995;

Williams & McGee, 1994), while others suggest that it is problem behaviors that lead to deficits

in reading (Cornwall & Bawden, 1992; Gunter & Denny, 1998). Regardless of their position,

researchers (e.g., Lewis, Sugai, & Colvin, 1998; Nelson, Scott, & Polsgrove, 1999; Skiba &

Peterson, 2000) agree that both reading and behavioral deficits interfere with student learning.

For students with challenging behaviors, reducing problem behavior is a priority, but academic

instruction, specifically reading instruction, need not be overlooked in the process. Research has

shown that interventions targeting academic skills may also reduce problem behaviors (Barton-

Arwood, Wehby, & Falk, 2005; Coie & Krehbiel, 1984; DuPaul, Ervin, Hook, & McGoey,

1998).

Just as effective classroom management variables could be distinguished into three

categories, effective reading instruction can be characterized by similar categories related to (a)

environmental, (b) instructional, and (c) teacher related variables. Environmental variables relate

to desk arrangement, existence of literacy centers or class libraries, and learning aids found on

display (Morrow et al., 1999). Instructional variables concern the manner in which skills are

taught and the balance of instructional methods (Pressley, 2002; Pressley, Allington, Wharton-

McDonald, Block, & Morrow, 2001). Teacher related variables focus on components such as

teacher relationships with students and use of praise or feedback (Pressley, 2002).









According to Wehby, Lane, and Falk (2003), academic instruction for students with

challenging behaviors is often deserted in an effort to focus attention of the reduction of problem

behaviors. Despite the limited focus on reading instruction for students with behavioral deficits,

researchers addressing this issue have found promising improvements in the reading

achievement of this population of students (Babyak, Koorland, & Mathes, 2000; Falk & Wehby,

2001; Wehby, Falk, Barton-Arwiood, Lane, & Cooley, 2003). With recent research in the area of

reading instruction for students demonstrating reading deficits suggesting that early remediation

is necessary to improve academic outcomes (Adams, 1990; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998;

Torgesen & Burgess, 1998), it may be safe to conclude that examining the combined effects of

effective classroom management and reading instruction would shed light on the key elements

that promote reading achievement for struggling readers.

With teachers in inclusive settings increasingly providing reading instruction to students

with academic and behavioral deficits, researchers are Einding that effective reading instruction is

often being overlooked rather than promoted (McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Haager, & Lee,

1993; Vaughn & Klingner, 1998; Zigmond & Baker, 1995). One explanation is that general

education teachers often do not have the knowledge, skills, or desire to provide specialized

instruction for students with learning or behavior problems (Denton, Vaughn & Fletcher, 2003).

Another reason why reading instruction in these settings fails is that behavior problems in the

classroom make it difficult for instruction to occur (Carr, Taylor & Robinson, 1991; Wehby,

Symons & Canale, 1998).

In their research of exemplary first grade literacy instruction, Morrow, Tracey, Woo, and

Pressley (1999) found that outstanding classroom management systems contributed to student

learning and reading achievement. In fact, Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) conducted an









extensive literature review and concluded that student achievement was most affected by

classroom management. Learning cannot occur in a classroom that is governed by chaos. With

an alarming 12% to 22% of all students experiencing emotional or behavioral disorders

(Adelman & Taylor, 2002) and 18% of students with combined academic and behavioral deficits

requiring specialized interventions (Dunn & Baker, 2002), classrooms are bursting with students

with diverse needs, making a teacher' s classroom management skills more important than ever.

It is no surprise that many teachers report feeling inundated and defieient in the skills necessary

to effectively meet the needs of all their students (Grek, 2000; Vaughn & Schumm, 1995).

Consequently, due to the recent movement toward inclusion and the development of new

reading initiatives at the local and national level, reading instruction will be delivered to students

with both academic and behavior problems in regular education classrooms (Coleman &

Vaughn, 2000). Additionally, the lack of academic performance in reading and other content

areas has gained added importance with the high academic standards imposed by the No Child

Left Behind Act (2001) and the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education

Act (1997), which states that students with disabilities must participate in statewide assessments.

Students with learning and behavior deficits require effective reading instruction informed by

research-based practices if they are to meet the standards imposed by these initiatives.

Differentiated Reading Instruction in Today's Classrooms

To effectively meet the standards imposed by national and statewide initiatives, and to

meet the needs of a diverse groups of students in the classroom, many teachers are implementing

strategies associated with differentiated instruction. Webster's Ninth Collegiate Dictionary

(1984) defines differentiate as "to make something different or specialized by modifying it, or to

become different or specialized by being modified" (p. 205). According to Tomlinson (2001),









differentiated instruction allows students to have access to academic content through a variety of

instructional approaches, groupings, uses of materials, and presentations. Teachers use a balance

of whole class, small group, and individual instruction depending on the needs of the students in

the classroom. Differentiated instruction allows teachers to provide access of the same core

curriculum to all students so that all children can make academic progress. Tomlinson (1999)

defines differentiated instruction not by the "stuff' that kids learn, but the "how" they learn. The

content that students learn remains constant; it is how they learn (i.e. level of difficulty, seating

arrangements, methods of presentation, and instructional strategies) that varies tremendously.

By differentiating reading instruction, teachers are able to promote reading achievement while

taking the different ability levels of students into consideration, thus avoiding the "one size fits

all" method of instruction that does not work for all students (Schumm, 1999; Tomlinson, 2001).

According to Tomlinson, instruction can be differentiated according to three elements: content

(the materials or curriculum used), process (the activities or instructional strategies

implemented), and product (the manner in which students demonstrate learning).

Two of the basic premises behind differentiated instruction lie within the key elements of

student understanding and engagement. For students to understand what they are learning, they

have to be engaged. In order to effectively implement differentiated instruction in reading and

engage students throughout the learning process, an effective teacher needs to know each child's

skill level and have an idea of where the child should be so that he or she can reach the child

where they are to move them on (Tomlinson, 1999). Successful differentiated instruction

depends greatly on the reciprocal nature of understanding and engagement. To promote

equitable reading instruction for all students, Torgesen (2002) supports the use of differentiated

reading instruction for students of different abilities within the same classroom.









When done correctly, differentiated reading instruction can be used as a tool for effective

early intervention and prevention of reading problems (Foorman & Moats, 2004). Flexible

grouping is key to effective differentiation of instruction in reading because groups can be

created and modified at any time according to student progress and need. For flexible grouping

to be effective, teachers must engage in continuous progress monitoring so that students can be

placed in groups based on informal reading assessments or curriculum based measures. Through

progress monitoring and flexible grouping, principles of differentiated instruction can be

implemented in reading classrooms so that all students have access to the same curriculum

(Haager & Klingner, 2005).

In their research of effective differentiated instruction, Vaughn and Schumm (1997, 1998,

2000, 2001) found barriers to successful implementation of differentiated instruction. One of the

barriers to successful differentiation of instruction in reading is time, a teacher' s enemy. Many

teachers report that time for planning activities that differentiate reading instruction for both

mainstreamed and general education students is virtually nonexistent (Schumm, Vaughn, &

Harris, 1997). In fact, a study conducted by Schumm and Vaughn (1992) found that only 39% of

the 60 general education teachers surveyed rated their planning for students in inclusive

environments as acceptable. Another barrier reported by teachers was classroom management

(Moody & Vaughn, 1997; Vaughn, Hughes, Schumm, & Klingner, 1998). Teachers reported not

having the skills or resources necessary to keep the rest of the students engaged while teaching

students in small groups. They also reported that teaching students using a whole class format

was easier to manage. Finally, teachers reported not having the skills or resources necessary to

teach targeted reading skills to enhance the learning of students with varying ability levels

(Vaughn, Hughes, Schumm & Klingner, 1998).









Schumm, Vaughn, and Leavell (1994) developed a framework for planning in inclusive

classrooms. Their Planning Pyramid enables teachers to focus on what they expect all, most, or

some of their students to learn. At the bottom of the pyramid is what all students must learn

about a concept; the basics of what is presented universally to students. In the middle section of

the pyramid, teachers focus on what they think most students should grasp about the concept

presented. These are ideas that extend beyond the basic ideas and may include more complex

concepts related to the topic. The top of the pyramid contains information that represents what

will be learned by a small number of students and is based on interest and background

knowledge that students may have on the topic.

Theoretical Framework

By overlaying the framework created by Schumm, Vaughn, and Leavell (1994) onto that

system of prevention posited by Scott and Lane (2001), a Model of Differentiated Reading

Instruction is created, taking into consideration components of early reading intervention,

classroom management/behavior interventions, and planning. Recognizing that different skills

and activities need to be targeted to different groups of students in the classroom, differentiated

instruction can be planned for and implemented for students with a diverse group of needs. With

the Model of Differentiated Reading Instruction (Figure 1-2), planning, classroom management

and effective reading instruction are all work hand in hand; no single entity can stand alone

without the other' s support. Effective reading instruction and classroom management requires

effective planning and student grouping, as evidenced in the literature (Evertson, Emmer &

Worsham, 2003; Moody & Vaughn, 1997; Morrow, Tracey, Woo, & Pressley, 1999; Vaughn,

Hughes, Schumm, & Klingner, 1998). From this model, however, the question arises: For

students with challenging behaviors and academic deficits, can an effective teacher who









differentiates instruction using sound classroom management techniques coupled with effective

instruction positively affect reading achievement?

Reading Behavior

Planin 1-5I% of students in the class will require more intensive, one-
on-one reading and behavior interventions. This is what
some, not all students will learn.

5-15% of students will require secondary reading and
behavior interventions, possibly in small groups. This is what
most. but not all students will learn.


S80-90% of students will respond to the universal instruction
and prevention provided to the whole class. These are the
skills that all students must learn.


Figure 1-2. Model of differentiated reading instruction (Adapted from Scott & Lane, 2001 and
Schumm, Vaughn, & Leavell, 1994)

Purpose of the Study

Research has shown that classroom management is necessary in order for learning to take

place but cannot stand on its own. Instruction and classroom management must go hand in hand

in order for student achievement to occur (Evertson & Harris, 1992). There is a lack of research

that examines specifically how classroom management techniques can be applied to different

instructional contexts, especially to reading instruction, and how the two variables affect student

reading achievement or growth in reading. The purpose of this study is to examine classroom

reading instruction, classroom management practices, which for the purpose of this study, will be

represented by students' oral reading fluency. More specifically, the following research

questions will be addressed










1. Do teachers differentiate reading instruction, and if so, is differentiation based on
students' needs?

2. Is there a relationship between teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction,
classroom management structures, and students' oral reading fluency?

In Chapter 2, a review of related literature is presented to provide theoretical and

empirical support for differentiating reading instruction and implementing research-based

classroom management techniques to promote reading growth in elementary aged students. An

overview of the methods used in this study to answer these research questions is provided in

Chapter 3. The results from the study are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, Chapter 5, contains a

discussion of results for classroom practice and future research.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this review is to explore the research-based variables included in the

literature on effective classroom management and quality reading instruction as they relate to

student reading achievement. By first examining what researchers identify as characteristics of

effective reading teachers and their ability to promote student reading achievement, then

examining the variables of effective reading instruction, and finally identifying classroom

management variables that promote student achievement, strategies can be identified as effective

toward successful implementation of differentiated instruction in reading.

Methods to Select Reviewed Studies

A thorough review of publications from 1970 to present was evaluated through electronic

databases such as EBSCOHost through Academic Search Premier, FirstSearch, and WilsonWeb.

The following descriptors were used for studies on exemplary reading teachers, effective reading

instruction and differentiated instruction: reading instruction, classroom teachers and reading

achievement, elementary reading instruction, effective reading teachers, differentiated

instruction, and differentiating instruction. For classroom management studies, descriptors

included: classroom management, classroom environment, classroom context, and classroom

management and academics.

The following criteria were established for inclusion in this literature review: (a) studies

were conducted in elementary school settings; (b) studies took place in inclusive classroom

settings (with the exception of two studies that were follow-up studies); (c) studies occurred

between 1980 and 2005; and (d) literature reviews were conducted between 1970 and 2005. A

total of 13 documents that addressed classroom management and reading instruction, including

differentiated reading instruction, were electronically retrieved. From these 13 documents, six










additional articles were found through an ancestral search of the electronically retrieved

documents. Finally, a hand search of Elementary School Journal, Reading Research Quarterly,

and Scientific Studies ofReading dating back to 1990 yielded two articles. A total of 21 research

studies were found to represent the literature on classroom management, reading instruction, and

differentiated instruction.

Review of the Literature

John Dewey (1960) wrote, "Everything the teacher does, as well as the manner in which

he does it, incites the child to respond in some way or another (p. 59)." Teacher effectiveness

has been investigated in the continuing debate as to whether it is a reliable indicator of student

achievement. Researchers (Brophy, 1986; Porter & Brophy, 1988; Schalock & Schalock, 1993)

have identified characteristics of effective teachers based on student achievement data and

nominations from school administrators. Effective teachers perform three functions: (a) they

use effective instructional strategies, (b) they use effective classroom management techniques,

and (c) they design curriculum that facilitates student learning (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering,

2003). For the purposes of this literature review, the focus will be on the identified instructional

and classroom management variables that make differentiated instruction successful. With the

accountability measures imposed by the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), curriculum is

mandated at the state or local level, leaving teachers little room to design curriculum that meets

the needs of their diverse classrooms. To deal with the demands of student diversity and state

testing mandates, teachers adapt or modify required curricular materials and rely on strategies

such as differentiation of instruction to meet their students' needs. Despite this limitation,

effective teachers still have long reaching effects on student behavior and achievement. In fact,









an effective teacher influences student achievement twice as much as curriculum policies or

assessment guidelines (Marzano, 2003).

Effective Teachers are Critical to Student Achievement

In a study conducted by Wright, Horn, and Sanders (1997), researchers found that

effective teachers were effective with students regardless of whether those students demonstrated

low or high ability levels, and that classroom teachers had the greatest impact on student

achievement. Using the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) to measure the

effects of teachers on student achievement across grades 2-8, over 60,000 Tennessee students'

achievement test score data were analyzed. Although a variance in teacher effectiveness was

found (ranging from least effective to most effective) teachers played a significant role in student

achievement in mathematics, reading, language arts, social studies, and science. After analyzing

student achievement test scores compiled from 1990 to 1996 and correlating those data with

school principals' ratings of teachers on a scale of low, average, to high in effectiveness, Wright

et al. found that the most effective teachers were able to raise student achievement scores during

one academic school year. Additionally, they discovered that regardless of whether students

were ranked low, average, and high in ability level, highly effective teachers could still affect

student achievement. One limitation of this study was that the researchers relied solely on

student achievement data to identify effective teachers. Direct observations of teacher quality

were not used to determine how quality instruction affected student achievement. Teacher

observations, along with student data, would allow for a more thorough understanding of how

teachers affect student achievement.

Haycock (1998) compared the Tennessee student data compiled by Wright et al. (1997)

with similar findings from independent researchers in the Dallas Independent School District and









the Boston Public School System. When she examined the student achievement data compiled

on teachers classified as most effective or highly effective, Haycock found that students

classified as low achieving increased their achievement level by as much as 53 percentile points

when taught by a highly effective teacher over a one year period. In contrast, students in

classrooms with less effective teachers gained approximately 14 percentile points over a period

of one year. These results are remarkable when considering that students naturally gain an

average of six percentile points due to maturation alone over a period of one year (Hattie, 1992;

Cohen & Davis, 1987). Additionally, the study addressed the importance of having an effective

teacher over a period of three years. Haycock' s examination of the data revealed that for a group

of low achieving students assigned to highly effective teachers in grades four through six,

average reading scores from the 59th percentile to the 76th percentile over the course of three

years. Conversely, a group of low achieving students assigned to less effective teachers for the

same three year period experienced a drop in reading scores, falling from the 60th percentile in

reading to the 42nd over a period of three years. From the research conducted on teacher

effectiveness, Haycock (1998) points out that researchers need to go one step beyond making the

link between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Specific teacher qualities and

characteristics need to be identified so that they may be addressed in teacher preparation and

professional development programs. Although Haycock identifies the standards for raising

teacher quality (accountability in teacher preparation programs, qualified teachers for minority

students, parent education, and better recruitment), specific methods for achieving these

standards while still meeting the teacher shortage are not addressed.

One of the barriers to identifying these teacher qualities is the variation of "effective"

classroom variables that can be found in classrooms across the country. Pianta, LaParo, Payne,










Cox, and Bradley (2002) conducted research with 223 Kindergarten classrooms in three states.

One child was observed in each classroom using the Classroom Observation System for

Kindergarten (COS-K), which screened for such variables as management of time, teacher-

student interactions, and classroom climate. Additionally, teachers rated their students' social

and academic outcomes and provided descriptive information regarding their own educational

and teaching backgrounds. Demographic information on the classroom and school was also

collected.

Findings suggest that there is significant variability in the quality of instruction students

receive in Kindergarten classrooms. The average Kindergarten student was involved in teacher

directed activities during 44% of the observed interval, center time during 18% of intervals,

seatwork during 17%, transition time during 1 1% of intervals, and free time during 8% of the

intervals observed (Pianta et al., 2002). Even more disturbing, these researchers found that in the

223 classrooms observed, the average Kindergarten child was exposed to academic teaching

during 21% of the intervals observed, with whole group instruction taking up 44% of the

intervals and only 18% reserved for small group and individual instruction. Alarmingly, 71 of

the Kindergarteners observed were never read aloud to during the intervals observed, teaching of

social rules occurred during only 1% of the intervals observed, and 140 of the children observed

were never exposed to the teaching of social rules. It should be noted, however, that although

these findings are startling, direct observations lasted only 3 hours in each of the 223

kindergarten classrooms observed. The fact that this limited amount of time could sample

"typical" instruction is debatable.

Variations in what constitutes "effective instruction" were also found in a national study

conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care









Research Network (NICHD ECCRN, 2005), wherein 780 third graders from more than 250

school districts in cities located around 10 data collection sites were observed. Observers used

the Classroom Observation System for Third Grade (COS-3) to identify specific experiences of

children in these classrooms and features such as the setting, activities, teacher behavior, and

student engagement. Observations began with the start of the school day and lasted for about 6

hours, broken down into eight 25-minute intervals. Teachers also completed a questionnaire

about their teaching experience, education, and professional development experiences. The

Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale was also used to measure teacher beliefs and self-efficacy.

Based on their observations, the NICHD ECCRN (2005) researchers found that the

average classroom was engaged in whole class instruction for 53% of intervals observed while

independent seatwork activities made up 39% of intervals observed. The students were exposed

to varied instructional activities, with 48% of the intervals observed spent on subj ect matter

relating to literacy, 24% spent on math, and transitions or management taking up 18% of

intervals observed. In examining teacher behaviors during the observations, the researchers

found that teachers interacted with students during 10% of the intervals and engaged in basic

skills instruction during 37% of the intervals. Although students were engaged for nearly 67% of

the intervals observed, engaged time often occurred during basic skills instruction. During only

5% of the intervals observed did students have the opportunity to collaborate with peers, and in

only 7% of the intervals were students engaged in activities that promoted higher order thinking

skills such as analysis or inference.

These data suggest that there is variation not only in the implementation of effective

practices, but also the quality of instruction for children in elementary school across the United

States, and that children are not assured a high-quality education during these years (NICHD









ECCRN, 2005). The finding that typical third graders are not offered a variety of instructional

experiences throughout the day and that instruction appears to focus on basic skills instruction

indicates the need for more detailed discussions of what constitutes quality teaching and

instruction in the elementary grades. Despite the fact that researchers found limited academic

engagement in classroom observed, quality of instruction was not noted, thereby limited the

ability to make comparisons between type and quality of instruction versus student engagement.

Effective teachers provide exemplary classroom instruction and demonstrate classroom

management skills that contribute to student learning. Wright et al., (1997) and Haycock (1998)

found that effective teachers affect student achievement regardless of student ability level and

highly effective teachers can raise student achievement by as many as 53 percentile points over a

period of one year. In contrast, Pianta et al. (2002) and the NICHD ECCRN (2005) found that

teacher use of exemplary practices varies and that most teachers focus on basic skills practice as

a result of federal and state testing mandates. A summary of these studies is included in

Appendix A.

Effective Teachers are Exemplary Reading Instructors

Michael Pressley and his colleagues conducted a series of studies to identify teacher

qualities that contribute to student achievement (Morrow, Tracey, Woo, & Pressley, 1999;

Pressley, Rankin & Yokoi, 1996; Pressley, Wharton-McDonald, Allington, et al., 2001; Pressley,

Wharton-McDonald, Mistretta-Hampston, & Echevarria, 1998; Pressley, Yokoi, Rankin,

Wharton-McDonald, & Mistretta-Hampston, 1997; Wharton-McDonald, Pressley & Mistretta-

Hampston, 1998). These studies yield practices that related to specific instructional strategies,

classroom management techniques, and teacher-student interactions. These studies focus on

specific characteristics of teachers from classrooms with high reading achievement. Several of









these studies not only identified qualities of exemplary reading teachers, but also focused on

instructional characteristics that contributed to student reading achievement.

In this series of studies conducted, Pressley and his colleagues examined elementary

teachers' literacy instruction to identify those elements that were consistent across classrooms

with high student achievement. In their 1996 and 1997 studies, the researchers initiated

questionnaires of 83 K-2 and 33 Eifth grade teachers to learn how teachers themselves

characterize their literacy instruction. In both studies, teachers were nominated by their

supervisors as excellent being reading teachers, and were asked to respond to two questionnaires.

The first questionnaire was designed to elicit responses based on what the teachers considered to

be essential components of literacy instruction for average and struggling readers (Pressley,

Rankin & Yokoi, 1996; Pressley, Yokoi, Rankin, Wharton-McDonald, & Mistretta-Hampston,

1997). From this list, researchers generated a second questionnaire that asked respondents to rate

the literacy practices on a seven-point Likert scale, ranging from "never" to "several times

daily."

Both primary and intermediate elementary teachers indicated that their practices included

print rich environments, diverse instructional methods, a balance of whole language and skills

instruction, mixed grouping practices (whole and small group instruction as well as

individualized instruction), and integration of reading into other content areas (Pressley, Rankin

& Yokoi, 1996; Pressley, Yokoi, Rankin, Wharton-McDonald, & Mistretta-Hampston, 1997).

Contrary to the watered down academic approach often taken with students who experience

academic difficulties (Allington, 1991), these exemplary reading teachers reported that they

provided the same instruction for struggling readers, but adapted methods to meet the needs of

students with special needs. These studies have limitations in that their sample included only










exemplary reading teachers nominated by supervisors who are members of the International

Reading Association. The researchers acknowledge that their selection criteria was biased and

that most students do not receive reading instruction from teachers deemed as "exemplary."

Wharton-McDonald et al. (1998) studied nine first grade teachers who were nominated

by language arts coordinators as being either outstanding or typical literacy instructors.

Observations and interviews conducted in the classrooms of the most effective teachers revealed

that student reading achievement was highest when the teacher provided a balanced approach to

reading and writing with basic skills instruction. Specifically, teachers blended direct skills

instruction with whole language activities, provided a literature rich environment for students

with a variety of book genres present, and used different instructional groupings according to the

lessons taught. Additionally, teachers in classrooms with high achievement were able to

minimize problem behaviors by using systems of behavior management. Teachers' use of

classroom behavior systems and effective time management led to increased student engaged

time, which is linked to high rates of achievement. One explanation of these effects, and

coincidentally one limitation of this study, is that the sample of teachers included in this study all

taught in suburban school districts with similar populations. This would limit this study's

generalizablity to more diverse populations of students. The researchers acknowledged that

including teachers that teach students with diverse backgrounds may yield different results.

Pressley et al. (1998) continued their research of exemplary reading teachers by

observing and interviewing fourth and fifth grade teachers from four school districts in Upstate

New York. A total of 10 teachers were nominated by language arts coordinators based on their

students' achievement test results, enthusiasm for teaching, sampling of students' work products,

use of current trends in the field of reading, and professional development activities. Each










teacher was observed for 90 minutes twice per month during his or her scheduled language arts

block. Observers gathered field notes on instructional procedures, teacher-student interactions,

and the layout of the classroom. Interviews took place twice during the study and lasted for 60

to 90 minutes each, with interviewers clarifying instructional practices observed in the

classroom.

Data from the observations and interviews was analyzed and coded to determine if there

were common themes in the classrooms studied. Pressley et al. (1998) found that these

exemplary teachers balanced reading instruction with skills practice and authentic literacy

experiences. Further, they provided literature rich environments with many opportunities to

collaborate with peers and managed classrooms using a variety of grouping methods. Classrooms

varied in relation to the extent to which students were encouraged to self regulate their time and

assignments, as well as the teacher' s use of behavior management plans. Teachers were also

varied in the way that students were motivated to learn. In some classrooms, students' learning

was encouraged as a means to excel on standardized tests, while in other classrooms the focus of

learning was promoted as an intrinsic reward. Throughout their findings Pressley et al. stressed

that fourth and fifth grade classrooms offer complicated literacy environments, and that teachers

are faced with the challenges of not only managing a diverse group of learners with varying

backgrounds, but also keeping up with the current trends in reading research and applying those

methods in their classroom practice. Although the study's sample size was small (only ten

teachers were included), the researchers included teachers from schools in districts that were

characterized as low, middle, and upper middle class to improve on their previous study.

In an effort to identify exemplary reading teacher qualities, Morrow et al., (1999)

conducted similar research in first grade classrooms in New Jersey. Six first grade classrooms









were observed across three school districts. School administrators nominated teachers based on

students' reading achievement, sound educational philosophy, student engagement, and positive

feedback from colleagues. Each classroom was observed for 25 hours over eight separate visits

during the teachers' language arts blocks. The observers recorded information regarding literacy

instruction that was taking place, paying close attention to features such as instructional methods

and groupings, social interactions of teachers and students, assessment, classroom management,

student engagement, and the classroom environment. Additionally, each of the teachers was

interviewed regarding their literacy practices and philosophies.

The observations and interviews conducted yielded valuable information about what

exemplary reading teachers do during reading instruction. Each of the classrooms focused on

literacy rich environments, a variety of reading experiences ranging from independent reading to

whole class reading instruction, multiple opportunities to engage in writing, explicit skills

instruction, cross-curricular reading connections, and effective classroom management (Morrow

et al., 1999). Overall, teachers who demonstrate exemplary literacy practices engage in balanced

reading instruction to meet the diverse needs of the children in their classrooms. The researchers

also found that without implementing successful classroom management techniques, reading

instruction cannot occur. This study identified specific teacher characteristics that supported

student reading achievement, and described how teachers meet the needs of the diverse

population of the students served. In order to generalize this study's results, additional

information is needed to determine school district characteristics and variability of the student

population at the schools observed.

Pressley and associates (2001) continued their study of first grade literacy instruction by

extending the research from two of their previous studies: Pressley et al. (1996) and Wharton-










McDonald et al. (1998). Researchers extended their research beyond Upstate New York to

include New Jersey, Wisconsin, Texas, and California. Additionally, the newer study included

pairs of teachers nominated by administrators with one identified as effective at providing high

quality reading instruction and the other selected as a typical reading teacher. Both teachers

taught students of diverse backgrounds and ability levels. Teachers were observed during

reading instruction for 15 to 30 hours at each site, with observers paying close attention to

methods of instruction, student groupings, teacher-student interactions, and management

practices.

Formal interviews took place with each pair of teachers, with the focus being on

clarification of practices observed during reading instruction. Based on the observations,

teachers were ranked in order from most effective to least effective. Researchers then compiled

a list of teaching behaviors observed from the five most effective teachers, resulting in 221

teaching behaviors that characterized effective instruction (Pressley et al., 2001). The most

effective classrooms were managed effectively, provided a positive environment, included

balanced skills and whole language instruction, provided scaffolded instruction, encouraged self-

regulation in students, and connected reading to other content areas (Pressley et al., 2001).

Excellent classroom management was the most commonly observed teacher characteristic in the

most effective classrooms. Researchers stressed that this study did not place emphasis or support

the use of any one type of literacy instruction over another and that balanced literacy instruction

is supported by this and previous studies. Although researchers identify quality literacy

instruction, information is not provided on how these teachers became exemplary classroom

teachers. If there continues to be a focus on how to create effective teachers, research needs to









include information about how these teachers were prepared and what they do to become

"exemplary."

In a case study conducted by Walpole, Justice, and Invernizzi (2004), a small elementary

school of 320 students was the focus of research for its ability to implement research based

literacy practices with its diverse group of students. The teachers at this school were identified

as exemplary based on their ability to integrate curricular mandates with authentic literacy

experiences, make instructional decisions based on student achievement data, and make effective

use of small group instruction. These researchers found that teachers were successful when they

differentiated instruction to address the many skill levels of their diverse students. Small group

and individual instruction was provided in addition to whole group instruction so that each

student' s needs could be met. Efficient provision of support in small group and individual

instructional settings, along with effective management were viewed as essential ingredients of

teacher success. Although effective management was addressed as key to differentiation of

instruction, specific techniques were not addressed along with methods for how teachers manage

their classrooms during small group reading instruction.

In the studies reviewed by Pressley and colleagues and Walpole et al., researchers

consistently found that effective reading instructors differentiated instruction by providing a

variety of instructional methods and grouping methods. Pressley et al. (1996) and Wharton-

McDonald et al. (1998) found that exemplary reading instructors also consistently used

classroom management practices that supported instruction and resulted in higher student

achievement. Additionally, researchers found that in classrooms where reading instruction was

engaging and classroom management practices were used, problem behaviors were reduced










(Pressley, 1998; Wharton-McDonald et al., 1998). See Appendix A for a summary of these

studies.

Effective Teachers Differentiate Reading Instruction

Children enter school with a variety of background experiences and a range of ability

levels. Students who have limited access to books or other literacy activities at home are often at

risk for reading difficulties when they enter school. Although all classrooms contain some range

of student ability, the gap in at-risk students' reading ability does not disappear even after the

first year in school (Ornstein, 1995). If not diagnosed through early assessment or addressed

through appropriate instruction in the first years at school, this gap in reading knowledge widens,

resulting in what has been called the "Matthew Effect" in reading (Rayner, Foorman, Perfetti,

Pesesky, & Seidenberg, 2002; Stanovich, 1986). Without early intervention, the "Matthew

Effect" continues to cause additional reading deficits until these struggling readers reach an age

where the odds of ever developing literacy skills are shockingly low. Eventually, this can lead to

a gap in achievement on state and local standardized tests (McGill-Franzen, Zmach, Solic, &

Zeig, 2006).

This gap in the reading abilities of students from diverse backgrounds has been the focus

of many researchers and educators, especially with the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act

(U. S. Department of Education, 2001), the latest national reform effort to address literacy

instruction and the gap in achievement levels between high and low performing students.

Studies have been conducted examining exemplary literacy teachers' practices that helped

researchers identify evidence-based practices, including small-group differentiated reading

instruction. Researchers found that the most effective reading teachers focused more on small-

group than whole-group instruction (Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, 2000; Taylor, Peterson,









Pearson, &Rodriguez, 2002b). The research of Pressley and his colleagues demonstrated that

outstanding teachers of literacy used a combination of whole-group, small-group, and

individualized instruction. These teachers also adapted reading instruction to meet individual

student needs. In other words, these teachers differentiated instruction based on the needs of

their students (Pressley et al., 1998; Pressley, Rankin, & Yokoi, 1996).

According to Tomlinson (1999), an effective teacher who differentiates instruction knows

where each student in the classroom is on levels of knowledge, skill, and understanding as well

as where each child needs to progress. Differentiating instruction is not a method or a strategy

but a way of thinking about instruction in the classroom. When thought of as a philosophy of

teaching (how) rather than a prescribed method for doing things (what), differentiated instruction

can provide a way for every student to have access to the core reading curriculum in every

classroom. Differentiation includes a variety of teaching methods, including whole class, small-

group, and individual instruction, but it does not require individualizing instruction for every

student in the class. Although students can work individually in the classroom, differentiated

instruction should not be thought of as individualizing instruction. Rather, it embodies a set of

beliefs that enables the teacher to address the unique skills and challenges of diverse student

populations. Differentiated instruction does not promote a one size fits all instruction, nor does it

require individualized planning. Instead, differentiation requires that teachers plan and account

for both the differences and the commonalities of students.

In their 1993 study of 60 general education teachers, McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm,

Haager, and Lee examined the way in which teachers accommodated students with disabilities in

general education classrooms. Participants were 60 general education teachers of grades K-12

from a large southeastern school district. There were 20 teachers from each of three grade level










groupings: elementary, middle, and high school levels. Each teacher identified one student with

learning disabilities from their classrooms to participate and parental permission was obtained

for inclusion in the study. Teachers were observed for 50 minutes during each of the three

classroom observations that took place using the Classroom Climate Scale, an observation tool

that was developed by the researchers for this study. The tool was created to measure teacher

behaviors, student behaviors, student participation, and overall classroom climate (McIntosh et

al., 1993). Additionally the Classroom Climate Scale (CCS) was piloted in three stages

throughout the study so that interrater reliability could be established.

In addition to teacher and student behaviors, researchers were interested in the way

teachers modified assignments, arrangements, grouping, and other classroom related elements

for students with disabilities. Overall, the researchers found that mainstreamed students received

the same attention, assignments, seating, materials, and activities as the general education

students (McIntosh et al, 1993). The troublesome part of this finding, however, is that no

modifications were made for the students with disabilities. Whole-class instruction was the

norm, and mainstreamed students were rarely engaged or participated in the activities or lessons

being provided by the teacher. Because the primary mode of instruction was large-group and the

material was not adapted to meet the needs of different students, most of the students with

learning disabilities were not engaged in the learning process in these classrooms.

Although these Eindings spurred future research in the area of student grouping and

differentiation of instruction by Vaughn, Schumm, and associates, limitations and unanswered

questions contributed to studies that informed the field in this area of research. For example, the

observations that took place occurred during social studies and science content area instruction.

Additionally, researchers did not examine student learning gains throughout the study. Future









research would focus on how much students are learning in general education classrooms where

differentiation of instruction is not occurring and how teachers embark on differentiating

instruction in the area of reading for students with learning difficulties.

Teachers' perception of student grouping during reading instruction was the topic of a

study conducted by Moody and Vaughn (1997). Additionally, researchers were interested in the

way in which teachers differentiated reading instruction for students in inclusive classroom

settings. Participants were 29 3rd grade general education teachers and the 20 special education

teachers who provide support for them on a daily basis. The study took place in a large urban

school district located in the southeastern United States. Researchers conducted 60 minute

individual interviews and held 75 minute focus groups discussions with the participating

teachers. Researchers served as the moderators of the interviews and focus group discussions,

and both were audio-taped for transcription.

Through the interviews and focus group discussions, the researchers found that (a) most

teachers reported using whole class-grouping for reading in general education settings, (b)

general education and special education teachers were divided on whether to use homogeneous

or heterogeneous grouping practices, and (c) teachers reported that classroom management

played a role in their decision to use whole-class rather than small-group reading instruction.

When discussing ability grouping, teachers felt that high achievers benefited more from

heterogeneous ability grouping, and that homogeneous grouping did not make the low

performing students feel as inadequate (Moody & Vaughn, 1997). Additional significant

findings revealed that the teachers interviewed reported that they should be the ones to decide

how to group students, and that they would benefit from research that focuses on instructional









strategies for working with small groups, as well as strategies to manage the rest of their students

when implementing small group reading instruction.

This study yielded important information regarding what teachers need to successfully

differentiate reading instruction in inclusive settings. One important piece missing, however,

was teacher observations. It is with extreme caution that researchers should rely purely on

teacher reports and discussions to inform educational research. In a subsequent study, Schumm,

Moody and Vaughn (2000), found that although teachers reported using small-group reading

instruction, observations revealed that was not the case. Students' desks were arranged in groups

of four, but small group instruction did not take place in the classroom. Although teachers

recognized that small-group instruction was better than whole-class instruction, they reported

using small-group instruction simply based on how students' desks were organized. Teachers

Researchers identified important elements to address in future research studies, one of which

including providing teachers with professional development activities that would involve

teaching elements of small-group reading instruction.

In response to their previous studies, Vaughn, Hughes, Schumm, and Klingner (1998),

implemented a two-year study in which teachers were taught four instructional practices to assist

them in the teaching of reading and writing in their elementary inclusive classrooms.

Participants were seven general education teachers who taught in two public elementary schools

in a large urban southeastern school district. The schools had recently adopted a consultation/

collaboration model of inclusion in which certified special education teachers were assigned to

general education teachers for 60 to 90 minutes per day during reading and mathematics

instruction. Teachers identified specific reading and writing strategies that would help them with

instruction. Teachers were trained on the use of these strategies through professional









development seminars that were offered once per nine-week block. During each nine-week

block, teachers attended a day-long workshop regarding each topic (The Writing Process,

Collaborative Strategic Reading, Class Wide Peer Tutoring, and Making Words) and then

received two follow-up meetings that lasted three hours each. Teachers used that time to ask

questions regarding the intervention and provide encouragement to other teachers by discussing

successful implementation procedures.

Through teacher interviews, validity checklists, implementation barrier checklists, and

researcher logs of teacher observations for data collection, researchers found the participating

teachers (a) wanted instructional practices that could be used in whole class instruction for easy

implementation and planning, (b) learned about the instructional practices but did not know how

to effectively differentiate those practices with struggling readers or writers, (c) modified their

instructional practices to include those skills deemed as important for success on upcoming

standardized tests, (d) continued to use whole class instructional grouping even with the support

of an additional teacher (the special education resource teacher) in the classroom and (e) reported

lack of time as main cause for not implementing the instructional practices learned because they

spend too much time with transitions and classroom management issues (Vaughn et al., 1998).

The most important Einding that came from this study was that, even though teachers

report knowing very few instructional practices to enhance the skills of struggling readers, once

taught and provided those strategies, they still do not know what it "looks like" to implement

those strategies. Teachers were unable to make modifications, alter grouping practices, or

provide additional support to diverse learners after being taught the strategies. Of additional

importance was the Einding that time and classroom management were reported as barriers to

successful implementation of the strategies taught to differentiate reading and writing instruction,









even with the support of the special education teacher in the classroom. No discussion was made

on how to use the collaboration of these two teachers as a tool to help teachers differentiate

reading and writing instruction, or of the grouping practices of teachers with who are trained to

work with students with reading difficulties. The next two articles focus on the prevalence of

small group differentiated reading instruction by teachers who are certified in special education.

In a series of studies, Vaughn, Moody, and Schumm (1998) and Moody, Vaughn,

Hughes, and Fischer (2000), examined the ways that special education teachers differentiate

reading instruction in elementary resource room settings. Participants in first study were 14

special education resource room teachers and their students who attended an elementary school

in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States. A total of 82 students

participated in the study and qualified for special education services according to their district' s

protocol. Stanford Achievement Test scores were collected on each of the participating students,

both from the previous school year and at the end of the year during which the study took place.

Teacher interviews, observations using the CCS, and teacher self-reports were used to determine

what reading instruction looked like in the special education resource room.

From the previous three studies, the researchers expected reading instruction to look

much different than what was observed in general education classrooms. General education

teachers reported not having the skills or training to implement instructional or classroom

management strategies for students with special needs (Moody & Vaughn, 1997; Vaughn et al.,

1998). Considering that teachers who are certified to teach students with special needs must

have training that focuses on differentiating instruction for diverse learners and managing

students with special needs, results were quite disheartening. First, 11 of the 14 teachers used

whole class instruction followed by independent seatwork during reading instruction. Second,










despite the fact that teachers discussed the importance of attending to the learning styles of

students and providing them with different modes of instruction, differentiation took place in

only a few cases in which different materials were provided for students during independent seat

work activities. Additionally, after reporting on the importance of decoding and phonics

instruction few teachers were reported explicitly teaching the skills. Not only was phonics and

decoding instruction nonexistent, from the 41 teacher observations that took place,

comprehension strategy instruction was only observed once. Finally, when comparing student

SAT scores from the end of the previous school year to the end of the study year, students in the

study made very little or no growth in reading.

As a follow up, Moody, Vaughn, Hughes, and Fischer (2000), researchers recruited six of

the 14 teachers from their previous study to participate in a study that examined their

instructional and grouping practices in reading, as well as the reading achievement of the

students in their classrooms. They sought to discover how these teachers' practices changed

since the previous study and what their perspectives were on special education for students with

reading difficulties. Teacher interviews, observations using the CCS, and self-reports were once

again used in the same manner as the previous study. Additionally, students were administered

the Test of Reading Fluency (TORF) and subtests of the Woodcock Johnson Tests of

Achievement Revised (WJ-R) in place of the Stanford Achievement Test scores.

Through four teacher observations and the checklists that teachers completed prior to

each observation, as well as the interviews, researchers found that only half of the teachers in the

follow-up study used less whole class instruction and relied more on small group and peer

tutoring during reading. These teachers differentiated reading materials and instruction to match

students' needs. Those teachers who continued to rely on whole class instruction reported that









small group and individualized instruction made it too difficult to manage the rest of the class.

Instruction was not differentiated because they reported that it should be embedded within the

context of whole class instruction. Sadly, the inconsistency in instruction at these two schools

was reflected in student achievement scores. Students in these classrooms made very little

reading gains in fluency on the passage comprehension subtest of the WJ-R, despite a average

gain of 19.36 words per minute during the study. These students should have made gains of 30

or more words per minute, indicating they made little growth in fluency. One limitation to the

findings of these students scores, however, is that the scores were averaged together, making it

difficult to compare the achievement of students from classrooms in which teachers

differentiated instruction with those that did not. Future research would benefit the field if

achievement scores could be compared between classrooms in which reading instruction is

differentiated and those that it is not.

In both of these studies, researchers expected to find something different in reading

classrooms where teachers are expected to be fully trained to meet the needs of students with

diverse learning needs. What they found reiterates research findings of Baker and Zigmond

(1990) and Good and Brophy (1994) in which differentiation of instruction was virtually

nonexistent in both regular and special education classrooms, and teachers reported the same

issues as barriers to implementation: lack of time, little knowledge of strategy instruction, and

limited classroom management skills.

Schumm, Moody, and Vaughn (2000) report data from two studies, in which they

examined first the reading instruction practices of 29 third grade teachers and second, the

academic and social outcomes of their students. Study 1 consisted of a series of interviews,

observations using the CCS, and teacher self-report checklists. Findings indicate that despite the









fact that teachers reported using small groups (mixed-ability and ability), observations revealed

that 21 of the teachers used whole class instruction during reading. Materials were not

differentiated for students and all students were expected to use the same basal regardless of

level. In three classrooms where small group instruction took place, materials were

differentiated. In four of the classrooms where small groups were used, differentiation of

materials did not occur as grouping was used only as a means of lowering the student-to-teacher

ratio. In classrooms where whole class instruction dominated, an additional adult (resource

teacher or paraprofessional) was in the room during more than half of the observations (Schumm

et al., 2000). In interviews, teachers reported they continued to use whole-class instruction

because of (a) school/district policy, (b) lack of resources, (c) convenience of whole-class

instruction in planning and classroom management.

With only four of the 29 teachers using differentiated reading materials, researchers

sought to find the implications of this practice on their students. Each teacher was asked to

identify two children from each of the following identifying categories: high achiever (HA),

average achiever (AA), low achiever (LA), and learning disabled (LD). Using the Kaufman

Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) decoding and comprehension subtests to measure

reading achievement, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept,

and the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS), researchers obtained interesting results.

High achieving students made substantial progress in both decoding and comprehension while

average achievers made gains only in decoding. Low achievers and students with learning

disabilities made little or no gains on both measures. On the self-concept scale, none of the

students in any of the achievement groups made significant changes in self-concept from fall to

spring during the study. Finally, overall, students from all achievement groups demonstrated a









decline in their attitudes toward reading at school and at home from fall to spring (Schumm et

al., 2000).

In summary, the research articles reviewed on differentiation of reading instruction

yielded important Eindings and implications for future research. Although the Eindings were

significant to informing the Hield of research in the area of reading instruction for students with

diverse abilities in inclusive classroom settings, the researchers consistently failed to make

comparisons between the students in the classrooms where reading instruction was differentiated

consistently and those where whole class instruction was the norm. Research needs to focus on

providing classroom teachers with a better understanding of differentiated instruction methods,

classroom management techniques, and instructional practices for different grouping methods.

Additionally, teachers continue to voice their opinions and need for reading practices that are

informed by research but are easy to implement outside the research setting (Schumm et al.,

2000). Teachers report that they know what is good for their students, but do not know how to

provide it. See Appendix A for a summary of these studies.

Effective Teachers are Classroom Managers

Duke (1979) defined classroom management as "...the provisions and procedures

necessary to establish and maintain an environment in which instruction and learning can occur

(p. xii)." In classrooms with effective teachers who positively affect student achievement,

researchers (e.g., Morrow et al., 1999; Pressley et al., 1996, 1997; Wharton-McDonald et al,

1998) found that classroom management was a necessary component of effective reading

instruction. In addition to the array of instructional strategies they employ, effective teachers

differentiate instruction not only by providing a balance of basic skills instruction and authentic

literacy experiences, but also by using whole group, small group, and individual instructional









methods to increase student achievement (Morrow et al., 1999; Pressley et al., 2001; Pressley et

al., 1996, 1997; Walpole et al., 2004; Wharton-McDonald et al, 1998). Those teachers identified

as effective also provided literature-rich classroom environments, interacted with students

positively, and provided a balanced approach to grouping students through differentiation of

instruction. In order for differentiation of instruction to take place, the elements of effective

teaching must be present along with the parallel components of efficient classroom management

that facilitates instruction and student achievement. The following review of research on

classroom management addresses studies that identity effective classroom practices that teachers

use to facilitate the success of differentiation of instruction in reading. Practices such as teaching

rules and procedures, establishing clear expectations and consequences, arranging the classroom

environment, and maintaining student engagement are discussed.

Teachers have been using elements of classroom management since the days of the one

room schoolhouse. The 1970s brought about a trend toward more systematic research of

classroom management practices. Kounin (1970) conducted the first large-scale study of

classroom management. Using 49 videotapes of first and second grade classrooms, Kounin

(1970) examined differences between effective and ineffective teachers and their ability to deal

with discipline problems in the classroom. What he discovered was, effective teachers did more

to prevent problem behaviors before they occurred and that effective and ineffective teachers did

not differ in the skills they used once problem behaviors occurred (Kounin, 1970). Additionally,

he identified four critical elements of effective classroom management. First, "withitness" was

observed in classrooms with the most effective teachers. "Withitness" refers to teachers'

awareness of problem behavior and the immediate attention the teacher pays to that behavior

(Kounin, 1970). Second, effective teachers were able to deliver instructional lessons smoothly,










while keeping the momentum of the lesson going to maintain student engagement. Third,

students were aware of behavioral expectations at all times. Finally, effective classroom

managers provided challenging independent tasks for students, and varied tasks to keep students

motivated.

Kounin' s (1970) findings indicate that there exist a set of management variables that can

highly predict student behavior in the classroom. Importantly, these conclusions are

correlational in nature, and it cannot be said for sure that these teacher variables solely affected

student behavior. Student characteristics were not considered in this study, making it difficult to

determine if this study's results can be generalized to other classrooms, teachers, or students.

Despite these limitations, Kounin's (1970) study set the stage for future research in the area of

classroom management.

Carolyn Evertson began studying elements of effective classroom management in 1976

with Jere Brophy. They compared effective teachers with average teachers in their study of 30

elementary teachers whose students demonstrated consistent academic achievement, and 38

teachers of students with atypical academic performance. The results of their study were

published in a book, Learning from Teaching: A Developmental Perspective, in which they

concluded that classroom management skills were significant to measuring teacher effectiveness

and are necessary contributors to student learning (Brophy & Evertson, 1976). This research was

just the first of many studies conducted by Evertson and her colleagues, who eventually laid the

groundwork for many of the research based classroom management practices employed by

teachers across the country.

In a series of studies conducted at the Research and Development Center for Teacher

Education at the University of Texas at Austin, Evertson and her colleagues began researching









how critical elements of classroom management affect student achievement. In their 1980 study,

Emmer, Evertson, and Anderson observed 27 elementary teachers in eight schools. Using the

Classroom Narrative Record, a form used to record observations in narrative form, observers

focused on characteristics such as class rules, room arrangement, use of materials, transitions,

behavioral consequences, grouping patterns, procedures, feedback, and teacher responses. In

addition to narrative records, observers measured student engagement using the Student

Engagement Rating (SER). This tool measured student engagement in 15 minute intervals and

allowed observers to record the number of students who were off task during a particular

activity. A Einal measure, the Component Ratings was used to compare groups of teachers on a

list of classroom management variables developed by researchers.

Using student achievement test data from the previous year and the data collected during

the observations, Emmer et al. (1980) separated the teachers into two groups: more effective and

less effective. These two groups exhibited striking differences in both management styles and

student achievement. From the first day of school, the more effective managers (a) had a system

of rules and procedures in place and taught those rules and procedures explicitly, (b) addressed

problem behaviors as soon as they occurred, and (c) provided initial academic activities that

ensured student success. These practices resulted high rates of student engagement coupled with

low rates of off-task behavior in these classrooms. Beyond the first days of school, the more

effective teachers (a) had well-arranged classrooms to facilitate movement and access to

materials and had procedures in place for dealing with unplanned situations. The study's

findings demonstrate the importance of having a system of classroom management in place at the

beginning of the school year, but researchers acknowledged that additional research should be









conducted to determine how teachers maintain a precise system of classroom management

throughout the school year.

As a follow up, Evertson, Emmer, Sanford, and Clements (1983) conducted research in

two urban school districts located in the southwestern U. S. as part of the Classroom Management

Improvement Study (CMIS) to determine if teachers who received a classroom management

manual and workshops would demonstrate characteristics of effective classroom managers more

so than those who did not receive the intervention. Teachers were assigned to experimental

(n=23) and control (n=18) groups, and observed at the onset of the study to determine their level

of classroom management expertise. It was determined that several teachers in the control group

demonstrated characteristics of effective classroom managers. The intervention received by the

experimental group consisted of a management manual organized around 11 classroom

management practices: (1) preparing the classroom, (2) planning for rules and procedures, (3)

dealing with consequences, (4) teaching rules and procedures, (5) initial activities for the

beginning of school, (6) dealing with potential problems, (7) monitoring students, (8) dealing

with inappropriate behavior, (9) instructional organization, (10) holding students accountable,

and (11) providing clear directions during instruction. Additionally, teachers in the experimental

group attended two three-hour workshops at the beginning of the year and one follow-up six

weeks later. Teachers in the control group received the manual and workshops during the middle

of the school year.

As in the previous study, student engagement was measured using the Student

Engagement Rates (SER) instrument, in which on-task rates were recorded in 15-minute

intervals. Additionally, teachers were rated using a component rating system that consisted of a

series of management variables in checklist form. Results indicated that (a) teachers who










participated in the experimental group used the recommended practices more than those in the

control group, (b) classrooms taught by teachers in the experimental group had higher rates of

student engagement and low rates of student misbehavior, and (c) teachers who received the

intervention were better able to manage their classrooms than those in the control group

(Evertson et al., 1983). One limitation to this study is that it may be difficult to generalize its

results due to the specific characteristics of the school district at the time of the study.

Mandatory busing was implemented at the beginning of the school year, bringing diverse student

populations to classrooms that were previously heterogeneous in nature. Teachers began using

homogeneous grouping methods to place students with similar academic abilities in the same

classrooms. As a result, teachers were exposed to training workshops designed to make them

more aware of management and discipline issues. Despite this limitation, the variables

identified in this study as essential to classroom management, are currently part of the

curriculum designed by Evertson, Emmer and Worsham (2003), and used to prepare pre-service

teachers across the country.

Evertson's (1989) study replicated a similar study conducted in 1985 with secondary

teachers, only this time the participants were 29 teachers from first through sixth grades. In this

randomized study, the treatment group (n=15) received a classroom management manual that

was organized around the 11 practices described in the Evertson et al. (1983) study, as well as

information included in a manual published by the Research and Development Center for

Teacher Education, based on the previous research of Evertson and colleagues (e.g. Evertson,

Emmer, Clements, Sanford & Worsham, 1981; Emmer et al., 1980). Before the school year

began, the treatment group participated in a one-day workshop where they received the manual

and other related materials. The researchers trained district personnel to conduct the workshops,









and a follow-up workshop took place in October for teachers in the treatment group. Teachers in

the control group received the manual and workshop at the end of the school year.

Teachers in both groups were observed for 30 to 50 minutes six times throughout the

year. Observers used narrative records to record instructional activities, teacher-student

interactions, and length of instruction. Observations that took place in the beginning of the year

focused on teachers' instruction of rules and procedures, monitoring, and feedback. Student

engagement data were collected in ten-minute intervals to determine if students were on task

during instructional periods. Observers provided a summary rating of each teacher after the sixth

observation, which included comparisons in student engaged time from the beginning to end of

the school year, improvements in transition times, and strategies students used to get help from

the teacher (Evertson, 1989).

From this study, Evertson (1989) found that teachers in the treatment group (a) provided

better instructional management through clear directions and explanations at the onset of lessons,

elicited student feedback to ensure understanding; (b) taught rules and procedures more

explicitly from the beginning of the school year which resulted in increased academic engaged

time; (c) implemented routines more efficiently than teachers in the control group; (d) were more

in tune with students needs, attention levels, and abilities; and (e) did more to prevent problem

behavior before it occurred and dealt with misbehavior immediately. One of the limitations

found in this study relates to its external validity. The participants in the treatment and control

groups knew each other well and often visited each other' s classrooms, creating the perfect

environment for treatment diffusion. Although participants in the control group claimed they did

not share information provided in the workshops or materials, control group teachers began to

take and implement ideas found in classrooms of teachers from the treatment group, making it









difficult to determine if changes in the control group were due to exposure to the treatment.

Regardless of this limitation, these Eindings support Eindings from previous studies concluding

that establishing rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year results in increased

instructional time and student time on-task (Emmer et al., 1980; Evertson et al., 1983, Evertson,

Emmer, Clements, Sanford & Worsham, 1981). See Appendix A for a summary of these studies.

Summary and Conclusions

In the first section of this review, teacher effectiveness with respect to student

achievement was discussed. Studies by Wright et al. (1997), Haycock (1998), Pianta et al.

(2002), and the NICHD ECCRN (2005) revealed that teacher effectiveness varies across teachers

and classrooms, and that there is a gap between what effective and typical teachers do in the

classroom. Consistently, however, the reviewed studies showed that effective teachers have a

significant effect on student achievement for students of all ability levels, backgrounds, and

needs. Exemplary teachers were identified as effective literacy instructors and outstanding

classroom managers. Researchers stressed the importance of improving teacher preparation

programs so that quality teachers become the mainstay in classrooms across the country.

In an effort to describe how effective teachers provide exemplary reading instruction,

several studies conducted by Pressley and his colleagues from 1997 to 2001 were presented.

The cumulative Eindings of these studies indicate that effective reading teachers provide

instruction that is balanced with explicit skills instruction and authentic literature experiences.

Additionally, effective reading teachers demonstrated classroom management practices that

facilitated student engagement. A variety of student groupings and the use of classroom

management techniques also were found to support successful differentiation of instruction in

reading, which in turn contributes to student achievement in reading.









When exploring how teachers differentiate instruction in reading, McIntosh et al. (1993),

Moody and Vaughn (1997), Vaughn et al. (1998), Moody et al. (2000), Vaughn et al. (1998), and

Schumm et al. (2000) explored how teachers differentiate instruction in reading. Teachers

continued to identify time, resources, and classroom management as barriers to successful

implementation of differentiated reading instruction. Additionally, reading achievement of

students with reading difficulties is low compared to their peers when taught using whole class

instructional formats in inclusive settings. Furthermore, even when teachers are given the

strategies and resources to implement flexible grouping and differentiated reading instruction,

they consistently rely on whole-class instruction due to convenience and management

considerations. It is apparent that classroom management continues to be a concern of teachers

as they try to meet the needs of students with diverse learning abilities and behavior problems in

inclusive settings.

Finally, effective classroom management practices were identified through a series of

studies conducted by Evertson and colleagues (Emmer et al., 1980; Evertson et al., 1983;

Evertson, 1989). Successful classroom managers teach rules and procedures and provided clear

expectations with consequences for students at the beginning of the school year. Classroom

management practices that are associated with high student engagement included providing clear

directions during instructional tasks and eliciting student feedback to check for understanding.

Just as early intervention in reading has been stressed by reading researchers (Adams, 1990;

Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998; Torgesen & Burgess, 1998), classroom management strategies

implemented at the beginning of the year contribute to increased academic engaged time for

students and a reduction in disruptive behaviors throughout the school year (Emmer et al., 1980;

Evertson et al., 1983; Evertson, 1989).









Rationale for the Study

Given that we now know that instruction and classroom management must go hand in

hand in order for student achievement to occur (Evertson & Harris, 1992), we are ready to

examine specifically how classroom management techniques can be applied to different

instructional contexts, especially to reading instruction. To address the limited research in this

area, this study addresses two questions. First, do teachers differentiate reading instruction, and

if so, is it based on student need? Second, how are teachers' use of differentiated reading

instruction and classroom management practices related to improving the reading skills of

elementary students? Specifically, this study will address if and how teachers can improve

reading fluency and if instructional practices are supported by classroom management

structures. To answer these questions, it will be necessary to observe classrooms in which

differentiated instruction in reading occurs, and then identify those classroom management

practices that facilitate successful implementation. By addressing these questions, and

identifying important variables that promote reading development, perhaps classroom instruction

in reading will no longer be plagued with the inconsistency with that was observed in the various

classrooms involved in the studies included in this literature review. Additionally, providing

teachers with a research-based framework would level the playing Hield for all students to receive

quality instruction in reading.










CHAPTER 3
IVETHODOLOGY

Introduction

Researchers have shown that classroom management is necessary in order for learning to

take place but cannot stand on its own. Instruction and classroom management must coexist in

order for student achievement to occur (Evertson & Harris, 1992). Very little research exists that

examines specifically how classroom management techniques are applied in various instructional

contexts, especially to reading instruction, and how the two variables affect growth in reading.

The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions regarding differentiated reading

instruction and classroom management practices in inclusive classroom settings:

1 Do teachers differentiate reading instruction, and if so, is differentiation based on
students' needs?

2 Is there a relationship between teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction,
classroom management structures, and students' oral reading fluency?

Hypotheses

Based on the statement of the problem that exists with reading instruction in the United

States and the research questions formulated to address these problems, fiye null hypotheses

were generated for this study:

Hypothesis 1 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly
associated with outcomes on the DIBELS ORF measure.

Hypothesis 2 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly
associated with their use of classroom management structures.

Hypothesis 3 Teachers' use of classroom management structures is not significantly
associated with outcomes on the DIBELS ORF measure.

Hypothesis 4 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom
management structures is not strongly associated with outcomes on the
DIBELS ORF measure.










Hypothesis 5 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and best practices in
classroom management structures will not result in an increase in fluency
between the fall and winter DIBELS assessment periods.

Inferential statistics were used to address Hypotheses 1 through 3, while multiple

regression analysis was used to answer Hypotheses 4 and 5. The methods employed to answer

each null hypothesis, as well as Research Questions 1 and 2 will be further described in detail. In

the remainder of Chapter 3, the research methods are described, including the setting,

participants, measures, data collection procedures, and methods of data analysis used in the

study .

Methods

Setting

Nine school sites in two north central Florida school districts were selected for this study.

The schools were selected using purposive sampling procedures (Miles & Huberman, 1994) to

identify schools participating in the Reading First Initiative, a state grant program created to

ensure the use of scientifically based research as the foundation for reading instruction in

Kindergarten through third grades. The goal of Reading First is to ensure that all students are

proficient readers by third grade, thereby focusing reading intervention efforts on the primary

grades. Research suggests that students need approximately 90 minutes of teacher-directed

reading instruction to facilitate student success and skill mastery (Cooper, Slavin, & Madden,

1997; Slavin et al., 1994). One of the integral parts of Reading First is a dedicated 90-minute

reading block that promotes systematic, explicit reading instruction using combined whole and

small group formats. Schools and teachers at participating Reading First schools were selected

on the basis that participation in this initiative requires them to differentiate reading instruction

through the use of small group instruction and literacy center activities (Gumm & Turner, 2004)









in order to meet the needs of their students, therefore exemplary use of differentiated reading

instruction should be observed in their classrooms. Based on teacher reports and school data, the

demographic and socioeconomic status of each school was recorded as follows (Table 3-1).

Table 3-1. Demographic data of participating schools
School Student White* African Hispanic* Asian* Other* Free/Reduced
Enrollment American* Lunch*
1 853 66 11 16 .3 6 60
2 752 43 44 7 .4 5 69
3 451 40 38 17 .51 4 78
4 468 60 29 6 1 4 72
5 1037 34 17 38 2 8 70
6 559 52 28 16 1 4 71
7 310 53 35 4 1 5 66
8 506 13 77 3 1 6 89
9 359 3 92 1 1 3 89
*Percentages

Participants

Participants were 32 second-grade teachers from two school districts in north central

Florida. Second-grade teachers were chosen due to the nature of instruction that takes place

prior to administration for Florida' s Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), which is

administered to students in grades 3-11 and aligned to the state's Sunshine State Standards, a

criterion used for measuring student benchmarks in mathematics, reading, science, and writing

(Florida Department of Education, 2003).

Initial contact with principals at the identified Rea~ding First schools in each of the two

school districts enabled the researcher to identify 32 second-grade teachers who were willing to

participate in the study and who were responsible for conducting reading instruction. A power

analysis was conducted to determine sample size for this study based on effect size of the

variables, statistical test being proposed, and significance level of the study (Rudestam &

Newton, 2001). According to Cohen (1988), the accepted power should be no less than .80










because the probability of making a Type II Error should be no greater than .20 (Welkowitz,

Ewen & Cohen, 1991). Using the computer program G*Power (Buchner, Faul & Erdfelder,

1997), it was determined that a power of .80, alpha level of .05, and effect size of .3 5, the total

sample size needed was 31. To account for participant attrition, 32 second-grade teachers were

recruited for participation in the study (Table 3-2).

Table 3-2. Demographic data for participants
Variables (n=32) Frequency Percentage
Gender
Male 1 3.1
Female 31 96.9
Race
White 16 50.0
African American 12 37.5
Asian/Pacific Islander 0 0.0
Hispanic 4 12.5
Degree Held
Bachelor's 22 68.8
Master' s 10 31.3
Special Certification
Reading 3 9.4
Special Education 1 3.1
Other 3 9.4
Teaching Experience
1-5 10 31.3
6-10 7 21.9
11-15 6 18.8
16-20 3 9.4
21+ 6 18.9

Measures

Data were collected beginning in August 2006 and ending in January 2007. The doctoral

student researcher assumed the responsibility of conducting observations and compiling teacher

data. Two undergraduate students were recruited to assist with teacher observations over the

course of the study, and also helped to establish interobserver agreement for using the study-

related checklists: Checklist for Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management Checklist










(Appendix B). Observers recruited by the doctoral student researcher were trained on the use

and completion of each checklist by assisting with piloting the instrument prior to the study's

initial collection period.

Teacher data

Nominated teachers were asked to complete a checklist designed to provide identifying and

demographic information about themselves as participants (Appendix C). Information gathered

included gender, race, degrees, certifications, and years of teaching experience. Additionally, the

questionnaire asked teachers to categorize their school as urban, suburban, or rural, identify how

many students in their class have been identified with a range of disabilities, and identify the

reading program currently in use in the classroom.

Prior to each observation, teachers had the option of completing a Pre-Observation

Checklist prior to their scheduled observation. This checklist addressed potential instructional

activities that could not be identified by the observation tools, such as basis for grouping during

the reading lesson, method of grouping (heterogeneous or homogeneous), basis for reading

material selection, and types of instructional materials selected for different groups (Appendix

B). Information provided in this checklist was incorporated into the observation tools listed in

the Observation Data section of this chapter.

Observation data

Differentiated reading instruction measure. Three 60 to 90 minute classroom

observations per teacher occurred between August 2006 and January 2007. Data collectors were

scheduled to observe in each classroom for the duration of the reading block, which was

typically a dedicated 90-minute reading block. Due to changes in scheduling or teacher

planning, most observations of reading instruction occurred between 60-90 minutes in each









classroom. The three observations were conducted over the course of the semester (McIntosh,

Vaughn, Schumm, Haager, & Lee, 1993; Moody, Vaughn, Hughes, & Fischer, 2000; Vaughn,

Hughes, Schumm, & Klingner, 1998) using the Checklist for Differentiated Instruction (CDI), a

checklist created by the doctoral student researcher and adapted from the following measures:

Classroom Climate Scale () and Evaluation of Center Environment (McIntosh et al., 1 993;

Owocki, 2005). The Classroom Climate Checklist was selected for use as part of the observation

tool because it was developed to provide a method for which teacher and student behaviors could

be observed during academic instruction (McIntosh et al., 1993). Consisting of four components

(Teacher initiated behaviors, student initiated behaviors, student participation and interaction,

and overall classroom climate), the Classroom Climate Scale provides a way in which

researchers can measure the extent to which teachers differentiate instruction. The Evaluation of

Center Environment form was created so that teachers who differentiate reading instruction

could evaluate the use of centers in their classroom.

By adapting and combining these two instruments to form the Checklist for Differentiated

Instruction (CDI), the doctoral student researcher was able to evaluate the manner in which

differentiated instruction occurs during reading. Additionally, the CDI was designed to provide

information regarding how teachers carry out reading instruction to meet the needs of a diverse

population of students during reading instruction. The CDI contains four specific domains:

teacher behaviors, student behaviors, materials, and literacy center use. Each domain contains

observable indicators related to the domain that can be answered with a "Yes," "No," or

"Unclear" response by the observer. See Table C-1 in Appendix C for indicator definitions.

According to Tomlinson (2001), differentiated instruction allows students to have access to

academic content through a variety of instructional approaches, groupings, use of materials, and










presentations. Teachers use a balance of whole-class, small-group, and individual instruction

depending on the needs of the students in the classroom. Differentiated instruction allows

teachers to provide the access to the same curriculum to all students so that all children can make

academic progress. The CDI checklist allows the observer to examine teachers' use of these

instructional characteristics, including instructional approaches, groupings, and material use.

Classroom management measure. Duke (1979) defined classroom management as

"...the provisions and procedures necessary to establish and maintain an environment in which

instruction and learning can occur (p. xii)." In classrooms with effective teachers who

positively affect student achievement, researchers (e.g., Morrow et al., 1999; Pressley et al.,

1996; Wharton-McDonald et al, 1998) found that classroom management was a necessary

component of effective reading instruction. To address the question regarding the relationship

between classroom management and reading growth, observers used an adaptation of the Best

Practices Cla~ssroom Management Checklist, created by Florida' s Positive Behavior Supports

Proj ect for the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports at the University of

South Florida. The Classroom Management Checklist (CMC) was designed for this proposed

study to assist observers in identifying best practices in classroom management. The CMC

covers four domains of best practices, including classroom arrangement, scheduling,

instructional planning and delivery, and classroom discipline plan. Each domain contains

observable indicators related to the domain that can be answered with a "Yes," "No," or

"Unclear" response by the observer. See Table C-2 in Appendix C for operational definitions of

each indicator.

The CDI and CMC were combined into one checklist that was completed by each observer

in each classroom throughout the course of the study. These instruments were piloted in the









classroom of ten teachers not participating in the study and all observers were taught to use the

CDI and CMC during practice sessions in these same classrooms. Observer training is

described in detail in the Procedures section of this chapter. Additionally, interobserver

agreement will be established on this measure.

Reading measure

Students' oral reading fluency was measured by analyzing each classroom scores on the

Dynamic Indicators of~asic Early Literacy M\~ills (DIBELS, Good & Kaminski, 2002). DIBELS

is a progress monitoring tool designed to assist schools in determining which students are

meeting benchmarks in development of specific early reading skills. The measures were

developed based on research reviewed by both the National Research Council (1998) and the

National Reading Panel (2000), and includes assessment of phonological awareness, alphabetic

principle, and fluency. DIBELS is used as an evaluative tool that informs instructional practice

for students who do not demonstrate proficiency of the early reading skills and yields scores and

individual student reports that indicate whether a student is performing at benchmark, strategic,

or intensive status. At benchmark, students scoring in this range are considered to be low risk

and are at grade level for initial core reading program instruction. In the strategic range, students

are considered in the moderate risk range and are classified as needing strategic or additional

interventions in reading in addition to the core reading program. Students scoring in the

intensive category are deemed high risk and considered eligible for reading interventions that

focus on one-on-one interventions beyond the core reading program (Good, Simmons,

Kame'enui, Kaminski, & Wallin, 2002).

The DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure was selected for use in this study

because it is a standardized test of accuracy and fluency that uses connected text. Additionally,









DIBELS ORF was designed to (a) identify children with reading difficulties who may require

additional instructional supports in reading and (b) monitor progress toward reading instructional

goals. Each reading passage is calibrated for the grade level reading goal. Furthermore, student

performance is measured by having students read three specified passages aloud for one minute.

are scored as errors. The number of correct words read per minute minus errors (words omitted,

substituted, and hesitations of more than three seconds) from the passage is considered the oral

reading fluency rate. According to Osborn, Lehr, and Hiebert (2003) fluency can be thought of

as a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. When fluent readers are able to

identify words accurately and automatically, they are able to not only concentrate and focus their

attention on comprehending text, but also make connections to the text based on their

background knowledge. Fluent readers have the ability to recognize words and comprehend at

the same time while less fluent readers must focus much of their attention on word recognition

resulting in poor comprehension.

DIBELS assessments occur three times per year, in the Fall, Winter and Spring. Reading

First schools are required to use DIBELS as an ongoing progress-monitoring tool and to assist

teachers in implementing instructional strategies that will move students from intensive or

strategic to benchmark status. Reading First guidelines suggest reading interventions that should

be implemented for students at each risk level. For example, students scoring at the intensive or

strategic level in second grade on the ORF would benefit from reading instruction that includes

fluency building activities such as repeated readings with an adult, paired reading with a more

proficient reader or tape-assisted reading could improve reading fluency. Teachers who use

DIBELS reports to inform classroom reading instruction and skill review also provide students

with practice opportunities during center work and independent reading activities.










DIBELS scores were reviewed using the Class Status Report to calculate mean scores on

ORF measures that are reported for each teacher during the assessment periods. Teachers

received class reports following each assessment of DIBELS, and provided the researcher with

copies with a Class Status Report so that a class average could be calculated. Class averages

were recorded for both DIBELS assessments, changes in oral reading fluency were recorded, and

average scores on each checklist were recorded. Class averages of DIBELS assessments were

obtained because they represent a whole class measure of reading fluency. Because the CDI and

CMC are whole class measures of reading instruction and classroom management, a equal

measure of whole class reading fluency had to be calculated for correlational analysis.

Procedures

Consent

The doctoral student researcher obtained Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to

conduct research in the two North Central Florida school districts (AppendixE). After schools

were identified as Reading First participants, principals received letters delineating the nature of

the research to be conducted and requesting participation in the research study (Appendix E).

Consent to participate in the study was obtained from each of the teachers recruited (Appendix

E). After consent was obtained, the doctoral student researcher began creating a schedule for

observations so that each teacher was notified of their respective observation period.

Observations

Pilot phase. The researcher, along with several data collectors conducted all classroom

observations. Data collectors were trained on the use of the CDI and CMC instrument during the

pilot phase of this study. Data collectors accompanied the researcher on each of ten observations

in randomly selected elementary schools in one school district in North Central Florida. Prior to









each classroom observation, data collectors reviewed the operational definitions associated with

the checklist indicators, and asked clarifying questions regarding indicators that were unclear.

The checklists were completed separately the student researcher and the data collector during the

pilot phase. The data collector was encouraged to make note of any checklist indicator that was

unclear or confusing to them during the observation. After the classroom observation was

complete, the research and data collector conducted a meeting to compare checklist items and

items that were deemed as unclear. The researcher pointed out specific examples of the indicator

if it was observed during the observation.

Data collection phase. Observations were conducted using the combined Checklist for

Differentiated Instruction (CDI) and the Classroom Management Checklist (CMC), as described

in the previous section. Classroom observations took place during the 90-minute reading block

in each teacher' s classroom. Each teacher was observed for 60-90 minutes during each of three

observations throughout the study period. Although the reading block was scheduled for 90

minutes in each classroom, the amount of time spent on reading instruction ranged between 60

and 90 minutes in most participating classrooms. The first round of observations began two

weeks after school started in each school district. Observations were staggered approximately

six weeks apart, with all observations completed by the end of January 2007.

When using the CDI and CMC as a measurement tool during the classroom observations,

observers marked "Yes" when an indicator on the checklist is observed, "No" when it was not

observed, or "Unclear" when it the observer was not sure the indicator was accurately

represented during the observation. Additionally, the observers were encouraged to take

anecdotal notes of lessons they observed, making note of specific classroom rules posted,

strategies implemented, or other procedures that occurred during the observation.










Prior to each observation, participating teachers were given the option of completing a Pre-

Observation Checklist, which provided insights into indicators that could not be directly

observed by the data collectors. The information the teachers provided was incorporated into the

answers on the checklists. After each observation, the researcher totaled the "Yes" responses for

each indicator and assigned each classroom observation for each teacher a numerical score. At

the conclusion of the study, the median score for the three observations was used as the teachers'

total score for the CDI and the CMC. Additionally, median scores were obtained on each

checklist, separately, so that the researcher could determine if differentiated instruction or

classroom management practices had unique influences on students' oral reading fluency scores.

Interobserver Agreement

To determine the consistency of observers during classroom observations using the CDI

and CMS, interobserver agreement data were collected (Kennedy, 2005). Prior to the

observation period, the doctoral student researcher recruited assistance from undergraduate

students to aid in data collection procedures. Each observer was trained on the use of each

observation tool, and participated in observations to establish interobserver agreement in the

classrooms of non-participating teachers. The checklists were piloted over a period of 10

sessions during the pilot phase of this study. A reliability of .80 or higher was deemed

acceptable (Kazdin, 1982, Kennedy, 2005). Reliabilities were calculated using the

occurrence/non-occurrence method of estimating. Each time an indicator was observed by both

the primary and secondary observer as a "Yes" response, an occurrence was tallied. Reliability

was calculated by dividing the total number of "Yes" responses tallied by the total number of

occurrences possible. Additionally, interobserver reliability was obtained on 25 out of 96, or

20% of the total observations.









Student Reading Assessment Data

The researcher collected classroom data on students' DIBELS scores for the Fall (DIBELS

1) and Winter (DIBELS 2) assessment periods. Using the Class Status Report created at the

conclusion of each assessment period, the doctoral student researcher compiled scores for each

participating teacher based on the mean DIBELS score in ORF for all students. DIBELS 1 and

DIBELS 2 assessments were compared to determine overall increase in words per minute for all

students, and each teacher was assigned a numerical score representing their class average, and a

separate score representing the change in ORF between DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2 assessments.

Design and Data Analysis

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 11.0O (SPS S) was used for all data

analysis. To answer the first research question, (Do teachers differentiate reading instruction,

and if so, is differentiation based on students' needs?) bivariate correlational analysis was used to

determine if correlations existed between classroom DIBELS oral reading fluency (ORF) scores

and teachers' ratings on the CDI and CMC. Each teacher' s score on the CDI and CMC was

entered into the SPSS database, along with their respective classroom averages on the DIBELS

ORF measure. To answer the second research question (Is there a relationship between

teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction, classroom management structures, and oral

reading fluency?), the relationship between differentiated reading instruction, classroom

management methods and their ability to predict oral reading fluency scores in second grade

students, was determined using simultaneous multiple regression analysis. Two models were

used to test Hypotheses 4 and 5. The first model represents the full multiple regression model

with all variables present, while the second model represents the adjusted model with the post-

test removed from the equation (Table 3-3). Multiple regression was used to establish or predict










the portion of the variance in the dependent variable, student reading performance on the

DIBELS ORF measure, by the set of independent variables, differentiated reading instruction

and classroom management, at a pre-determined significance level. Using simultaneous multiple

regression, all the independent variables were considered at the same time (Huck, 2004).

Additionally, a second model was introduced, removing the post-test DIBELS 2 ORF (winter)

scores to determine the effects of the combined CDI and CMC on the DIBELS 1 ORF (fall)

assessment.


Table 3-3.
Model
Model 1


Regression models
Equation
Y=a+blXl+b2X2+b3X3+6


Variable Definitions
Y=Student reading scores pre-DIBELS
a= the constant, where the regression line
intercepts the y axis and represents the
amount the dependent y will be when all the
independent variables are 0.
b= regression coefficients, representing the
amount the dependent variable (y) changes
when the corresponding independent
variable (x) changes one unit;
X1= student reading scores post-DIBELS;
X2=Score on Checklist for Differentiated
Instruction;
X3= Score on Classroom Management
Checklist; and
e= the error term.

Y=Student reading scores pre-DIBELS
a= the constant, where the regression line
intercepts the y axis and represents the
amount the dependent y will be when all the
independent variables are 0
b= regression coefficients, representing the
amount the dependent variable (y) changes
when the corresponding independent
variable (x) changes one unit
X1= score on Checklist for Differentiated
Instruction
X2=Score on Classroom Management Checklist
e= the error term.


Model 2 Y=a+b 1Xl+b2X2+6









Student reading scores on the DIBELS ORF measures were collected as pre- and post-test

scores for the Fall (DIBELS 1) and Winter (DIBELS 2) assessment periods, respectively. The

post-test data were entered in first as the dependent variable. Secondly, the scores for the

independent variables of the Checklist for Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management

Checklist were entered into the regression equation. Correlation coefficients were reported as

multiple correlations, or R2, which is the percent of shared variance in the dependent, or outcome

variable, explained collectively by all the independent, or explanatory variables. Using SPSS

software, the researcher hoped to demonstrate that the scores obtained on the CDI and CMC

(explanatory variables) can predict reading fluency scores for students in classrooms where

differentiated reading instruction occurs.

Limitations

Internal Threats to Validity

This study employed a pre-test/post-test design, which makes it subj ect to threats to

internal validity, specifically time and history effects. There were no observed events external to

the classroom observations or student assessment periods that might have had an effect on either

the checklist scores, or student reading outcomes. The study lasted approximately four months,

which is half the school year, which introduced the possibility that the students in each of the

participating classrooms would not demonstrate significant reading growth over the course of

this study, therefore making it difficult to demonstrate the predictive nature of differentiated

reading and classroom management practices on reading growth. Mortality rates were not a

concern in this study due to the stability of the teacher populations at the schools selected, as

well as the constricted time frame of the study. All teachers remained involved throughout the

duration of the study, and none were transferred.









External Threats to Validity

Although the sample contained only one male participant, there was valid representation by

race and years of teaching experience. More teachers possessed a bachelor' s degree than any

other degree, and only 22% of teacher participants possessed special certification of some kind.

All attempts were made to control for the interaction of selection and treatment effects by

ensuring that participation in the study was voluntary, and that teachers were not aware of the

checklist items prior to any observations. Without knowledge of the checklist items, there was

not threat that teachers would discuss the classroom behaviors to be observed and recorded on

the checklists.

Despite these limitations, any correlations made between reading achievement/

growth in classrooms where differentiated reading instruction occurs along with the

implementation of effective classroom management techniques could provide future researchers

with the research needed to create new interventions. Teachers cry out for opportunities to learn

new strategies and interventions that help them promote students' reading achievement and help

them manage their classrooms (Moody et al., 2000; Vaughn et al., 1998). Additionally, Teachers

often report that small group reading instruction is effective and important to student reading

achievement (Pressley et al., 1998; Wharton-McDonald et al., 1998) but state that time, lack

knowledge of instructional skills, and classroom management issues prevent them from

adequately meeting the needs of all their students through differentiated reading instruction

(Schumm et al., 2000; Vaughn et al., 1998). This proposed study has the potential to

demonstrate the correlation between those pivotal classroom characteristics and their ability to

predict students' reading achievement.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Introduction

This study was conducted to address the following research questions:

1. Do teachers differentiate reading instruction, and if so, is differentiation based on

students' needs?

2. Is there a relationship between teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction,

classroom management structures, and students' oral reading fluency?

The following null hypotheses were tested in this study:

Hypothesis 1 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly
associated with outcomes on the DIBELS ORF measure.

Hypothesis 2 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly
associated with their use of classroom management structures.

Hypothesis 3 Teachers' use of classroom management structures is not significantly
associated with outcomes on the DIBELS ORF measure.

Hypothesis 4 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom
management structures is not strongly associated with outcomes on the
DIBELS ORF measure.

Hypothesis 5 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and best practices in
classroom management structures will not result in an increase in fluency
between the fall and winter DIBELS assessment periods.

The research Eindings in this chapter are presented in four sections. The first section

presents descriptive statistics on the sample. The second section of this chapter presents the

inferential statistics. Data from the correlational analyses conducted to answer Research

Question 1 and Hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 will be presented. Third, the results of the multiple

regression analyses are presented to answer Research Questions 2 and Hypotheses 4 and 5.









Finally, descriptive statistics are presented on the item analysis conducted on the checklists of

the participating teachers, as well as interobserver agreement data that were compiled.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Sample Description

The sample in this study consisted of 32 second-grade teachers in nine elementary

schools in two north central Florida school districts. All participating schools were Reading First

schools, were reported as either suburban or rural, and considered high poverty schools.

Demographic data for all teacher participants is shown in Table 3-3. Of the 32 participants,

nearly 97% were female, with only one male teacher participating. The participants were evenly

distributed with regard to race, with 50% responding as white and 50% reporting being either

African American or Hispanic. Most teachers in the sample held a bachelor' s degree, and only

22% possessed some kind of additional certification in either reading, special education, or some

other category. Years of teaching experience yielded widely distributed results, as well, with

31% reporting 1-5 years of experience, nearly 20% reporting 6-10 and 1 1-15 years of experience,

10% reporting 16-20 years of teaching experience, and almost 20% with over 21 years of

teaching experience.

Descriptive Statistics of All Variables

Table 4-1 represents the means, standard deviations, and minimum/maximum scores on

each variable measured for all 32 participating teachers. Teachers received total scores on each

of three observations using the CDI and CMC. The scores for all three observations were then

averaged and represented by the Observation Average. The total average score was further

broken down by checklist, represented by CDI Average and CMC average. Class averages were

reported for each DIBELS ORF score for each teacher, representing the fall (DIBELS 1) and









winter (DIBELS 2) assessments. Additionally, average ORF scores were reported, as well as the

change or increase in words per minute from the fall assessment to the winter assessment.

The mean scores for the checklists were 38.63 for the average scores, 18.72 for the CDI

average alone, and 19.97 for the CMC average. According to these results, teachers scored about

the same on the differentiation of instruction checklist as they did on the classroom management

checklist. When examining the means of the outcome variable, DIBELS ORF, class averages

were about 54 words per minute (WPM) on the fall assessment and increased to approximately

77 WPM at the winter assessment. These data indicate that classes averaged approximately 23

WPM increase between the two assessment periods.

Table 4-1. Descriptive data of explanatory and outcome variables
Measure (n=32) Mean SD Minimum Maximum
Explanatory Variables
Observation Average 38.63 6.45 22 49
CDI Average 18.72 4.24 9 25
CMC Average 19.97 3.02 13 25

Outcome Variables
DIBELS 1 54.53 11.95 32 84
DIBELS 2 77.75 14.55 46 108
DIBELS Average 66.38 12.66 39 96
DIBELS Change 23.22 8.27 4 42

Inferential Statistics

Table 4-2 represents statistical analysis used to answer the following research question

and address the listed hypotheses:

Question 1 Do teachers differentiate reading instruction, and if so, is differentiation
based on student need?

Hypothesis 1 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly
associated with outcomes on the DIBELS ORF measure.

Hypothesis 2 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly
associated with their use of classroom management structures.










Hypothesis 3 Teachers' use of classroom management structures is not significantly
associated with outcomes on the DIBELS ORF measure.

Table 4-2. Correlational statistics
Measure CDI Average CMC DIBELS 1 DIBELS 2 DIBEL S
(n=32) Average Change
CDI Average 1.000 0.601 -0.720 -0.532 0.104
p<.001 p<.001 p=.002 p=.572
CMC 0.601 1.000 -0.300 -0.047 0.350
Average p<.001 p=.096 p=.798 p=.049
DIBELS 1 -0.720 -0.300 1.000 0.823 0.002
p=.<001 p=.096 p<.001 p=.990
DIBELS 2 -0.532 -0.047 0.823 1.000 0.570
p=.002 p=.798 p<.001 p=.001
DIBEL S 0.104 0.350 0.002 0.570 1.000
Change p=.572 p=.049 p=.990 p=.001
Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-Tailed)

Correlations were computed to test the relationship of the checklists used in the study

with the outcomes assessed on the DIBELS ORF measure. An examination of the correlations

reveals that when teachers do differentiate reading instruction, it is in classrooms with lower

measures on DIBELS ORF, as reflected in the strong negative correlation between the

differentiated instruction checklist (CDI) and both DIBELS 1 and 2 classroom averages (r=-

0.720, p<.01; r= -0.532, p<.01). Conversely, in classrooms where the differentiation does not

take place as consistently, DIBELS scores were higher. This means that there is a strong

possibility that teachers differentiate reading instruction the most when they have struggling

readers in their classrooms and that these teachers are differentiating reading instruction based on

student need, which answers research question one. At the 0.01 level of significance, teachers'

use of differentiated reading instruction, as measured by the CDI, yielded a negative correlation

(r= -0.720, p<.01; r= -0.532, p<.01), leading to a rej section of Hypothesis 1. It can be concluded

that differentiation of reading instruction is significantly associated with DIBELS ORF

measures.









In testing Hypothesis 2, that the CDI and CMC scores were not associated, correlational

data revealed that scores on the CDI and CMC were strongly related (r= 0.601, p<.01). This

indicates that when teachers scored high on the differentiated instruction checklist (CDI), their

use of best practices in classroom management was high, as well. Due to the statistical

significance of this data, Hypothesis 2 was rej ected, indicating that differentiated reading

instruction is significantly associated with the use of classroom management structures.

Despite the fact that the checklists were strongly associated, and the CDI was strongly

associated with DIBELS ORF fall and winter measures, the association between the CMC and

DIBELS was not strong (r= -0.300, p=.096; r= -0.047, p=.798). Although there is a moderate

association between the CMC and DIBELS 1, there appears to be no correlation between the

CMC and DIBELS 2 scores. Based on this data, the researcher failed to reject Hypothesis 3,

indicating that it cannot be concluded that there is statistical significance between teachers' use

of best practices in classroom management and students' scores on the DIBELS assessments.

Multiple Regression Analysis

A multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the degree of association

between the explanatory variables (teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction as

measured by the CDI, and teachers' use of classroom management structures, as measured by the

CMC) and the outcome variables (DIBELS ORF measures on the fall and winter assessments).

The multiple regression analysis was also conducted to test the following research question and

hypotheses:

Question 2: Is there a relationship between teachers' use of differentiated reading
instruction, use of classroom management structures, and oral reading
fluency?










Hypothesis 4 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and best practices in
classroom management structures will not result in an increase in fluency
between the fall and winter DIBELS assessment periods.

Hypothesis 5 Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom
management structures is not strongly associated with outcomes on the
DIBELS ORF pre-test measure.

Two regression models were tested to investigate the influence of the CDI and CMC on

the increase in DIBELS ORF measures from the fall to winter assessments. The data in the study

were analyzed using the class average on the DIBELS ORF Winter assessment, CDI average

scores, and CMC average scores as explanatory variables for the first model, and the CDI

average scores and CMC average scores alone as explanatory variables for the second model.

The second model was introduced to remove the effects of the DIBELS pre-test scores on the

post-test scores so that the influence of the practices measured by the checklists could be

determined.

Using SPSS REGRESSION the first regression model was analyzed with all variables

present (Table 4-3). Results indicated that an R2 of .722 was statistically significant,

F(3,2 8)=24.29 8, p<.00 1. The full regression model indicates that the explanatory variables are

jointly associated with 72% of the shared variance in DIBELS ORF scores. When examining the

influence of each variable on DIBELS ORF scores, the greatest predictor of the post-test score

(DIBELS 2) was the pre-test score on DIBELS 1. This is indicated by the large standardized

beta coefficient (8=. 843) because a unit of change (one word per minute) on the DIBELS 1 pre-

test would have a large effect on the DIBELS 2 post-test score. Additionally, DIBELS 1 has the

largest absolute t value and smallest significance (t-5.713, p<. 001), which suggests that DIBELS

1 has a large impact on the scores predicted for DIBELS 2. It would seem that with the DIBELS

1 score in the equation, teachers' use of differentiated reading and classroom management









practices did not have predictive value on the DIBELS ORF post-test scores, with significance

levels of p=. 669 and p=.060 (at the .05 level of significance), making DIBELS 1 appear to be the

stronger of the explanatory variables in the model.

Table 4-3. Full regression model
Outcome Explanatory b 8 t Significance Zero-Order
Variable Variable Correlations
DIBELS 2 DIBELS 1 1.027 .843 5.713 p<.001 .823
(Post-Test) CDI .261 -.076 .433 p=. 669 -.532
CMC 1.210 .251 1.961 p=. 060 -.047

Again using SPSS REGRESSION, the second regression model was analyzed.

Consisting of two explanatory variables (CDI and CMC) and one outcome variable (DIBELS 1),

the researcher demonstrated the predictive value of the checklists on students oral reading

fluency scores, with the absence of reading instruction as a variable. By eliminating the post-test

data, the predictive value of the checklists can better be evaluated. Results indicated that an R2

of .545 was statistically significant, F(2, 29)=1 7.3 74, p<.001.

Table 4-4. Adjusted regression model
Outcome Explanatory b 8 t Significance Zero-Order
Variable Variable Correlations
DIBELS 1 CDI -2.375 -.844 -5.387 p<.001 -.720
(Pre-Test) CMC .818 .207 1.321 p=. 197 -.300

This adjusted model indicates that the explanatory variables are jointly associated with

55% of the shared variance in DIBELS 1 ORF scores. When examining the influence of each

variable on DIBELS 1 ORF scores, the greatest predictor of students' pre-test scores (DIBELS 1)

was CDI (differentiated reading instruction checklist). This is indicated by the large

standardized beta coefficient (8= -.844) because a unit of change on the CDI would have a large

effect on the DIBELS 1 pre-test score. Additionally, the CDI had the largest absolute t value and

smallest significance (t- -5.387, p<.001), which suggests that the CDI is a better predictor of

students' DIBELS ORF scores for the fall assessment. As explanatory variables, the CDI and









CMC are good predictors of students' reading scores on DIBELS ORF measures, but the CDI

accounted for more of the variance in these scores than did the CMC.

Based on the multiple regression analysis conducted to answer Research Questions 2, it is

apparent that the CDI is strongly associated with the scores on both DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2

assessments, and that scores on the CDI are highly predictive of scores on DIBELS ORF

measures(Table 4-5).

Table 4-5. Summary of models
R R Square Adjusted R
Square
Model 1:
Predictors
(DIB2), DIB 1 .823 .677 .666
Predictors
(DIB2), DIB 1, CDIAVG .827 .684 .663
Predictors
(DIB2), DIB l, CDIAVG, CMCAVG .850 .722 .693

Model 2:
Predictors
(DIBl1), CDIAVG .720 .518 .502
Predictors
(DIBl1), CDIAVG, CMCAVG .738 .545 .514

Despite the fact that the CDI and CMC are highly correlated, the CMC is not associated

with scores on DIBELS ORF measures, and accounts for approximately 3% of the variance

when added to the regression equation in both models. The results of the regression analysis also

indicate that the model used was a good fit for the outcome variable (DIBELS 2) in the study,

with a range of R2agj= .666 to R2agj= .693 for the model.

Hypotheses 4 was rej ected because the correlations between the CDI, CMC, and DIBELS

1 yielded statistically significant results with an R2 Of .722 and F(3,28)=24.298, p<.001. With the

rej section of the null for Hypothesis 4, it can be concluded that the CDI and CMC, when taking

into account the pre-test scores on DIBELS 1, are highly associated with the DIBELS 2 post-test









scores. Hypothesis 5 was rejected since the association between the CDI and CMC accounted

for 54% of the shared variance in the DIBELS 1 scores. With the absence of reading instruction

as a variable and by eliminating the post-test data, the predictive value of the checklists were

specifically evaluated. Results indicated that an R2 Of .545 was statistically significant,

F(2,29)=17.374, p<.001. It can be concluded that the CDI and CMC will contribute to an

increase in DIBELS ORF pre-test scores.

Descriptive Statistics on Checklist Indicators

Trends in best practices were compiled in Table 4-6.


Table 4-6 CDI and CMC indicator analysis
Item # High Performers High Performers
CDI* CMC*
1 100 100
2 100 88
3 75 100
4 100 100
5 100 94
6 100 94
7 100 81
8 94 100
9 100 100
10 100 75
11 100 100
12 100 88
13 81 100
14 81 100
15 88 94
16 31 100
17 100 100
18 100 94
19 100 69
20 100 88
21 81 100
22 94 81
23 94 38
24 100 100
25 75 94
*Percentages


Item # Low Performers
CDI*
1 88
2 63
3 25
4 81
5 88
6 94
7 94
8 75
9 94
10 63
11 69
12 88
13 13
14 25
15 44
16 0
17 94
18 100
19 50
20 50
21 0
22 38
23 50
24 38
25 25


Low Performers
CMC*
100
31
100
100
88
94
13
69
94
25
75
94
94
100
94
100
100
25
31
25
81
63
0
100
94










After the observations were completed, the checklists were analyzed for any trends in

best practices that were recorded during the observations. This included recording responses on

each of the checklist items. The researcher selected the checklist that contained the median score

for each teacher and recorded the occurrence of a "Yes" for each of the checklist items. The

checklists were divided into two categories: high performers (40/50 or higher on the checklist)

or low performers (39/50 or below on the checklist). Item numbers were then matched with the

indicators listed on the checklist, the analysis revealed that all teachers (a) place instructional

materials on walls or bulletin boards, (b) maintain the physical arrangement of the classroom

environment, (c) remove distracting items from view or reach of students, (d) provide students

with adequate space for storage, (e) provide instructional assignments that are relevant to

students, (f) provide non-punitive provisions for students needing more time to finish work, (g)

teach skills in the natural setting, and (h) deliver consequences in a consistent and timely

manner.

Teachers who were considered high implementers on the differentiation checklist scored

low on two indicators: they did not make collaboration or independent work dependent on

student choice, and they inconsistently posted consequences to rule violations. Low performing

teachers demonstrated problems with (a) implementing student pairing, (b) using individualized

assignments or activities, (c) providing different assignments to students, (d) providing a

different sequence of activities based on student need, (e) providing students with the choice to

collaborate or work independently, (f) implementing all aspects of centers including materials,

posting rules and directions at centers, creating a rotation plan for centers, providing adequate

time and materials for centers, and allowing choice at centers, (g) posting rules and procedures

in the classroom, (h) posting student work prominently, (i) reviewing transitions regularly, (j)









aspects of class rules including stating rules positively, limiting rules to five or less, and

providing rules that are ob servable/measurable, and (k) posting consequences for rule violations

in the classroom. For a complete listing of checklist indicators by item number, see Appendix B.

In addition to examining each checklist indicator, anecdotal notes recorded by the data

collectors were analyzed to determine if there were consistent frequent practices employed by

both the high and low performing groups (Table 4-7). Most teachers implemented a variation of

choral reading when introducing a new story to students and incorporated small group instruction

into their reading program. Many teachers used technology during their reading instruction,

which included the use of audio cassette tapes and players for books on tape, Leap Pad story

systems, microphones with classroom amplification systems, and My Reading Coach or Read

Naturally computer software. The highest performing teachers implemented practices such as

reciprocal teaching, small group instruction formats, literacy centers, and varied grouping

formats for students.

Table 4-7. Frequent practices observed during reading instruction
Practice Observed Percentage of
Teachers
Reciprocal Teaching 38
My Reading Coach 59
Variety of Grouping Formats 63
Round Robin Reading 66
Read Naturally 75
Literacy Centers 75
Small Group Instruction 81
Leap Pad Reading 84
Choral Reading 91

Interobserver Agreement

Data on interobserver agreement (IOA) were collected throughout this study. First, IOA

was calculated during the piloting phase of the study, in which the differentiated reading

instruction checklist (CDI) was used in ten classrooms that were randomly selected from a










sample of 10 elementary schools in a north central Florida school district. IOA scores ranged

between 88 and 100, with a mean of 94.8. While data were being collected during the classroom

observations, IOA data were collected for 25 sessions, or 26% of the total observations

conducted. IOA ranged from 86 to 100, with a mean of 94.8 and a standard deviation of 3.786

(Table 4-8).

Table 4-8. Descriptive statistics for interobserver agreement
Range Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
IOA 14 86 100 94.80 3.786

Chapter 4 contained the results of the data analyses, presented in five sections. First,

descriptive statistics on the sample were presented. The second section of this chapter presented

the inferential statistics used to answer the first research question, along with Hypotheses one,

two, and, three. To answer these questions, the results of the correlational analyses were

presented. Third, the results of the multiple regression analyses were presented to answer

research questions two and three, and Hypotheses 4 and 5. Finally, descriptive statistics were

presented on the item analysis conducted on the checklists of the participating teachers. Trends

in best practices of high scoring teachers were analyzed. Additionally, this section included a

description of the data on interobserver agreement that was compiled during this study.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Introduction

Researchers have found that of the 20% of children in the United States who experience

serious reading difficulties, a maj ority tend to struggle with those difficulties over time and that

students in early elementary grades who struggle with reading are more likely to have reading

difficulties well into their secondary years (Grossen, 1997; Juel, 1988; Torgesen & Burgesss,

1998). As a result, many initiatives have been made at the local, state, and national levels to not

only identify reliable indicators of students at risk for early reading failure, but also to develop

evidence based practices that will help students develop the skills they need to learn to read

(Snow et al., 1998; Torgesen and Burgess, 1998).

Results of this study yielded similar conclusions to those reviewed in the literature on

reading instruction and classroom management practices in Chapter 2 of this study. First, this

study found that reading instruction and classroom management were related as postulated by

Pressley, Rankin and Yokoi (1996), Pressley, Yokoi, Rankin, Wharton-McDonald, and Mistretta

(1997), and Walpole, Justice, and Invernizzi (2004). Teachers who employed best practices in

classroom management were highly effective reading instructors who were able to improve the

reading fluency of even the lowest of readers. Second, this study found that the highest

performing teachers taught classroom rules and procedures, and used routines to facilitate

successful use of differentiated instruction, which was also found by Emmer and Worsham

(2003), Evertson, (1989), and Evertson, Emmer, Sanford and Clements (1983). Finally, this

study yielded Eindings similar to those of Moody, Vaughn, and Fischer (2000), Vaughn, Hughes,

Schumm, and Klingner (1998), and Vaughn, Moody, and Schumm (1998) in that teachers relied

on whole-group instruction for a maj ority of reading instruction; however, this study found that









high performing teachers also incorporated small-group instruction, student pairing, and

collaborative group work more often than low performing teachers. Additionally, this study

found that students did make gains in fluency in classrooms where differentiated reading

instruction occurred most often.

Recognizing that different skills and activities need to be targeted to different groups of

students in the classroom, differentiated instruction can be planned for and implemented for

students with a diverse group of needs. With the Model of Differentiated Reading Instruction

(Figure 5-1), planning, classroom management and effective reading instruction all work hand in

hand; no single entity can stand alone without the other' s support. Effective reading instruction

and classroom management requires effective planning and student grouping, as evidenced in the

literature (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003; Moody & Vaughn, 1997; Morrow, Tracey, Woo,

& Pressley, 1999; Vaughn, Hughes, Schumm, & Klingner, 1998).


Reading Behavior
Plan ing 1-15% of students in the class will require more intensive, one-
on-one reading and behavior interventions. This is what
some, not all students will respond to.

5-15% of students will require secondary reading and
behavior interventions, possibly in small groups. This is what
most, but not all students will respond to.


80-90% of students will respond to the universal instruction
and prevention provided to the whole class. These are the
skills that all students successfully master.







Figure 5-1. Model of differentiated reading instruction









This study used classroom observations of 32 second-grade teachers to examine the

relationship between differentiated reading instruction, classroom management structures, and

students' reading progress. The study took place in nine reading first schools found in two

school districts in North Central Florida. Two checklists were used to identify key indicators of

teachers' use of best practices in differentiated reading instruction and classroom management.

These checklists contained instructional and management domains that represent best practices

as identified in the literature on effective teaching (Evertson et al., 2003; Pressley et al, 1999;

Vaughn et al., 1998). Teachers' scores on the checklists were then compared with class

averages of DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency scores from the fall and winter assessment periods.

Data from the checklists and DIBELS ORF measures were analyzed using both correlational and

multiple regression analysis to test Hyve null hypotheses.

This chapter provides an overview of the current study and summarizes the results found

in Chapter 4. First, conclusions related to the research questions and null hypotheses are

discussed. Next, conclusions of this study are discussed in relation to each of the research

questions posed in this study. A discussion of the limitations of this study is presented followed

by implications for future research and practice based on the research Eindings.

Summary of Results

Two checklists, the Checklist for Differentiated Instruction (CDI) and the Classroom

Management Checklist (CMC), were completed during three classroom observations of 32

teachers. The explanatory variables in this study were the teachers' average of three scores on the

CDI and the CMC, as well as classroom averages on the DIBELS ORF fall assessment. The

DIBELS ORF winter assessment was the outcome variable in this study. First, correlations were

analyzed to determine which variables had the strongest relationships with the DIBELS ORF









measures, both DIBELS 1 (fall assessment) and DIBELS 2 (winter assessment). Then, two

regression models were used to examine the relationship between teachers' use of differentiated

reading instruction and classroom management practices, and their ability to predict students'

fluency measures using DIBELS as the assessment tool.

The correlations (Table 4-2) analyzed in this study indicated that teachers' use of

differentiated reading instruction, as measured by the CDI, yielded a strong negative correlation

with both DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2 (r= -0.720, p<.001; r= -0.532, p<.001). In the first

regression model (Table 4-3), the full model, the F statistic revealed that the model was

statistically significant for DIBELS 2 in this study, with R2=.722, F(3,28)=24.298, p<.001. The

full regression model indicates that the explanatory variables are jointly associated with 72% of

the variance in DIBELS ORF scores for the winter assessment period. In the second regression

model (Table 4-4), results indicate that an R2=.545, F(2,29)=17.374, p<.001 is statistically

significant, with the CDI and CMC being j ointly associated with 55% of the variance in the

DIBELS 1 ORF scores (fall assessment). Regression coefficients for all variables are displayed

in Table 4-5. The results of this study are presented in relation to each of the null hypotheses

formulated in the previous chapter.

Hypothesis 1

Hypothesis 1: Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly associated

with outcomes on DIBELS ORF measures.

This hypothesis was formulated to examine the relationship between both DIBELS 1 and

DIBELS 2 (fall and winter assessments, respectively) and the CDI as the explanatory variable.

Hypothesis 1 was rejected. There is a statistically significant relationship between teachers' use

of differentiated reading instruction practices and students' oral reading fluency scores, both at










the fall and winter assessments. The results revealed a negative relationship (r= -0.720, p<.001;

r= -0.532, p<.001), meaning that when teachers scored high on the differentiation checklist,

classroom scores on DIBELS were low. One interpretation of this is that teachers who have

struggling readers in their classroom tend to use more differentiated reading instruction practices

than teachers who have readers who are more proficient. When teachers use DIBELS as a

progress monitoring tool to assist in determining which students are in need of explicit

instruction to develop early reading skills, instructional practices can be incorporated to include

best practices in differentiated reading instruction that focus on reading interventions that support

the core reading program (Good et al., 2002). Teachers who implement these practices

frequently do so in classrooms with the lowest of readers, as evidenced by the results found in

this study. In answer to Research Question 1, teachers do differentiate reading instruction based

on student need. Correlations are reported in Table 4-2.

Hypothesis 2

Hypothesis 2: Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction is not significantly associated

with their use of classroom management structures.

This hypothesis enabled the researcher to determine if teachers' scores on the

differentiated instruction checklist (CDI) were associated with their score on the checklist that

evaluated classroom management structures (CMC). Research conducted by Pressley (1998) and

Wharton-McDonald et al. (1998) found that exemplary reading teachers consistently used

classroom management practices that supported instruction, resulted in higher student

achievement, and reduced problem behaviors. Based on the analysis conducted, the correlation

was computed at r=.601, p<.001, indicating a strong positive correlation between the two

variables. Hypothesis 2 was rejected. Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction










practices and classroom management structures is strongly associated. This means that teachers

who implement differentiated reading instruction practices in the classroom rely on best practices

in classroom management to support instruction. This was further supported by the data from

the checklist indicators that were analyzed for commonalities across teachers. Teachers who

scored highest on both checklists used classroom management practices such as transition

instruction, posting rules and consequences in the classroom, and structuring the classroom

environment so that students have access to all areas of the classroom. Correlations are reported

in Table 4-2.

Hypothesis 3

Hypothesis 3: Teachers' use of classroom management structures is not significantly associated

with student outcomes on DIBELS ORF measures.

This hypothesis was formulated to determine the relative strength of the classroom

management variable on both DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2 assessments. Based on the research of

Evertson et al. (1980, 1989, 2003), teachers who implemented classroom management practices

learned through a series of professional development activities were better able to provide

instructional management during lessons, which resulted in improved academic engaged time

and increased attention to student needs. It was not determined, however, if the use of these

practices resulted in improved student achievement. To test this theory, correlational analysis

was conducted to determine if teachers' use of classroom management practices were associated

with scores on DIBELS ORF measures. Based on the correlations computed at the .01

significance level, Hypothesis 3 failed to be rej ected because with weak correlations (r= -0.300,

p=.096 for DIBELS 1 and r= -.047, p=.798 for DIBELS 2), no statistical significance was found.

Although there was a weak negative correlation with DIBELS 1, it cannot be concluded that









teachers' use of classroom management structures is associated with DIBELS ORF measures.

Correlations are reported in Table 4-2.

Hypothesis 4

Hypothesis 4: Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and best practices in classroom

management structures will not result in an increase in fluency between the fall and winter

DIBELS assessment periods.

This hypothesis allowed the researcher to determine the effects of DIBELS 1(fall

assessment pre-test), the CDI, and the CMC as explanatory variables on DIBELS 2 (winter

assessment post-test). Using the full multiple regression model, the analysis revealed that R2 is

significant at p<.001, and substantial at .722. This full model indicates that the explanatory

variables (DIBELS 1, CDI, and CMC) are jointly associated with 72% of the variance in

DIBELS 2 post-test scores. Upon further examination, it is apparent that DIBELS 1 has the

greatest influence on DIBELS 2 scores. This is consistent with the correlation found in Table

4-2, in which DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2 were significantly correlated at r=. 823, p<.001.

Hypothesis 4 was rej ected. It can be concluded that differentiated instruction practices and

classroom management structures, in conjunction with students' scores on the DIBELS 1 pre-

test, are strongly associated with DIBELS 2 post-test data.

It is important to note that the full regression model takes into consideration student

learning that occurs between the fall and winter assessments. Typically, pre-testing is used to

factor out the initial level of knowledge that students possess in the absence of instruction so that

comparisons can be made to determine the amount of student learning and differences between

groups. The problem with this, according to Bonate (2000), is that ceiling effects can cause post-

test scores to appear higher for students with high pre-test scores. Further examination of the










regression coefficients (Table 4-5) for Model 1 allow for analysis of the contribution that each

variable makes to the equation when added to the model. DIBELS 1 alone accounts for almost

67.7% of the variance in the DIBELS 2 post-test scores. When the CDI is added to the equation,

it contributes less than 1% to the variance. When the CMC is entered into the regression model,

it contributes 3.8% of the variance in DIBELS 2 scores. There are two interpretations of this

data that can be hypothesized.

First, it may be dangerous to interpret that the change in student' s DIBELS scores

between the fall and winter assessment periods is not based on teacher' s differentiation of

instruction or use of classroom management structures. Without jumping to this conclusion first,

it is necessary to examine the data on the change in the class averages between DIBELS 1 and 2

collected during this study. Analysis of the changes between DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2 (Table

4-2) reveals that the only variable that was correlated with increased oral reading fluency scores

was the classroom management checklist, which was statistically significant at the .05 level, with

r=.3 50, p=.049. The CDI was not statistically significant and had a very weak correlation with

the change in DIBELS scores.

Secondly, analysis of the multiple regression data reveals that, although the CDI and

CMC contribute very little to the variance in the DIBELS 2 post-test, an interesting conclusion

may be drawn. Recall that teachers' use of differentiated instruction was strongly correlated

with both DIBELS 1 and DIBELS 2 scores individually. This suggests that students' ORF

scores increased, regardless of the differences in performance on DIBELS 1. In other words,

students made about the same gains in fluency across classrooms, regardless of initial level. In

fact, the correlation between DIBELS 1 and the change in DIBELS scores was .002, indicating a










very weak relationship. Teachers' scores on the CDI had very little correlation with increases in

fluency because the ORF scores were similar across classrooms.

Hypothesis 5

Hypothesis 5: Teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom management

structures are not strongly associated with outcomes on the DIBELS 1 ORF measure.

This hypothesis enabled the researcher to isolate scores on the CDI and CMC to

determine their ability to predict classroom averages on the DIBELS ORF pre-test measure, or

DIBELS 1. Using the adjusted model, the multiple regression analysis revealed that the CDI and

CMC account for 55% of the variance in the DIBELS 1 scores, and that the CDI alone

contributes 52% of the variance alone. The adjusted model was created to examine the

association between teachers' use of differentiated reading instruction and classroom

management practices on students' oral reading fluency, prior to beginning instruction. By

examining this association, it may be possible to predict a teachers' ability to improve reading

fluency in classrooms with struggling readers. Figure 5-2 examines the relationships between

the variables examined in Hypotheses 4 and 5.


Figure 5-2. Summary of regression models









The solid-line arrows indicate variables with significant relationships, while dashed lines

indicate that no statistical significance was found.

Interpretation of Findings

This study yielded promising outcomes in three important ways, each related to the

research questions posed in this study. First of all, Research Question 1 asked, "Do teachers

differentiate reading instruction, and if so, is differentiation based on student need?" Based on

the results found in this study, teachers who were high implementers did differentiate reading

instruction, and most importantly, differentiation was based on student need. This was

evidenced first by the negative correlation between the Checklist for Differentiated Instruction

(CDI) scores and scores on both DIBELS ORF measures. Teachers in classrooms with the

lowest readers differentiated the most because their students would benefit from the myriad of

instructional strategies and interventions used when differentiation takes place. Teachers in

these classrooms consistently used evidenced-based practices like reciprocal teaching, in which

the teacher engages in a dialogue with students during reading and uses four strategies:

summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting (Palincsar, 1986). Reciprocal

teaching provides teachers with a strategy that helps students get meaning from text by making

sure they understand what they read.

Another common practice among teachers who differentiated reading instruction the most

was the use of literacy centers in the classroom. Literacy centers focus on reading specific

content and are related to specific reading skills that were addressed during reading instruction.

Literacy centers provide a means of differentiating materials and activities based on various

levels of student knowledge (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2005; Tomlinson, 1999).

Additionally, the use of literacy centers in the differentiated classroom provides the teacher with










an opportunity to use small-group instruction to work with groups of students on focused

interventions. Coincidentally, teachers who implemented literacy centers, also used small group,

teacher-guided instruction more than teaches who did not differentiate.

This finding is significant in that it demonstrated the power of differentiated instruction

when applied in classrooms with struggling readers. In classrooms with struggling readers,

teachers who implement the research based practices that were observed during this study were

able to maintain the gap in reading fluency, rather then allowing the gap to continue to widen.

Researchers (e.g. McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Haager, & Lee, 1993; Moody, Vaughn, Hughes,

& Fischer, 2000; Pressley, Wharton-McDonald, Allington, Block, Morrow, Tracey, et al., 2001)

have examined the effects of exemplary reading instruction and differentiated reading instruction

in elementary classrooms without examining the connection between instruction and the reading

progress in classrooms with struggling readers. Knowing that differentiated reading instruction

can positively influence students' oral reading fluency, teachers may begin to implement those

strategies in classrooms with the lowest of readers.

Secondly, Research Question 2 asked, "Is there a relationship between teachers' use of

differentiated reading instruction, classroom management structures, and oral reading fluency?"

Analysis of the data revealed that teachers' scores on the CDI were strongly correlated with both

DIBELS measures, and the multiple regression analysis yielded results that indicated that

students' ORF scores increased regardless of the differences in performance on the DIBELS 1

pre-test. Interestingly, students made about the same gains in fluency across classrooms,

regardless of their initial level. Teachers' scores on the CDI had very little correlation with

increases in fluency because the ORF scores were similar across classrooms. Could it be that

teachers' use of differentiated reading practices is leveling the playing field for students who










struggle the most? Stanovich (1986) would argue that with the "Matthew Effect" in reading, in

which the gap between struggling readers and proficient readers widens as a result of poor

instruction, these struggling readers typically would not be receiving the instruction necessary

for gains in reading to be similar to those of proficient readers. The teachers in this study,

however, seem to be providing instruction in classrooms with struggling students that enables

them to make gains that are equal to those made by proficient readers. This is probably the most

significant finding of this study, since it demonstrates that when done correctly, differentiated

instruction can maintain the gap in reading fluency between proficient and struggling readers,

rather than allowing the "Matthew Effect" to cause the gap to widen.

Fuchs and Fuchs (1993) suggest that students in second grade should make oral reading

fluency gains of between 1.5 to 2.0 words per week. With this standard for weekly growth,

classes in this study should have averaged an increase of at least 23 words on the DIBELS ORF

measure between the fall and winter assessments, which are separated by approximately 15

weeks of instruction. Of the 32 teachers in the study, 17 had class averages on DIBELS 2 that

demonstrated a 23 word per minute increase from DIBELS 1, with increases ranging from 23 to

42 words. Of those 17 teachers, 10 were teachers who scored highest on the differentiated

instruction checklist. This provides additional evidence that teachers who differentiate reading

instruction can maintain the gap between struggling and proficient readers.

Research Question 2 also examined the relationship between classroom management

structures and oral reading fluency. This part of the answer to Question 2 proved to be

complicated. Although scores on the CMC were not statistically significant when correlated

with oral reading fluency measures, teachers who scored highest on the differentiated instruction

checklist also scored high on the classroom management checklist, which were highly correlated.










Alternately, even when teachers scored low on the differentiated instruction checklist, they did

not always score low on the classroom management checklist. The minimum and maximum

scores on the CDI were 9 and 24, respectively, while the minimum and maximum scores on the

CMC were 15 and 25, respectively. Teachers tend to consistently implement best practices in

classroom management regardless of instructional delivery. For many teachers, classroom

management provides the structure for instruction and without it effective instruction cannot take

place (Evertson, 2003).

Classroom structures that were commonly implemented across many of the classrooms in

the study were posting of rules/consequences, explicit instruction of procedures and transitions,

and the use of a variety of reinforcers in the classroom. Pressley et al. (2001) and Wharton-

McDonald et al. (1998) found that effective reading teachers provide literature rich classroom

environments, interacted with students in a positive manner, and provided a balanced approach

to reading instruction through varied grouping formats. Most importantly, they found that these

elements could not be in place without the parallel components of efficient classroom

management structures. Effective instruction and classroom management must go hand in hand

in order for learning to occur, as evidenced by the results of this study.

Limitations

In this section, the limitations of the study will be addressed, specifically related to

instrumentation and time limitations, and generalizability of the study.

Instrumentation

One of the first limitations of this study relates to the observation tool used to score

teachers on their use of both differentiated reading instruction and classroom management

structures. Although these checklists were piloted to provide for clear operational definitions of









each indicator, the indicators were not tested for reliability and validity on a large sample of

classrooms. Some of the indicators on each checklist overlapped across checklists, so the

number of test items used could be adjusted to improve the construct validity of the indicators.

Additionally, use of anecdotal notes varied among data collectors as to recording of observed

practices, making it difficult to determine which practices were being used consistently across

classrooms and teachers. A more standardized format for recording anecdotal notes would have

made analysis of best practices more effective.

Another limitation of the checklists was their inability to capture specific aspects of

instruction. It was difficult to determine if rules and procedures had been taught from the

beginning since observations did not begin from the first days of school. The nature of

teacher/student interactions were not measured by the checklist, making it difficult to determine

the frequency of questions asked to specific students, the opportunities for students to respond to

the teachers' questions, and whether students are actively engaged in learning versus passively

taking in the information provided by the teacher. By including ways to measure the nature and

frequency of questioning that goes on in the classroom, as well as the manner in which the

teacher imparts knowledge onto his/her students, the checklist would better be able to capture

specific instructional components that have been proven as effective in helping students retain

knowledge (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

Time

This study took place over the course of 16 weeks, making time one of the limitations of

this study. This created an issue with observed reading growth for students on the DIBELS ORF

measure. Results may have been more significant if increases in words per minute on the oral

reading fluency measure could have been analyzed over the course of an entire school year.