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Comparison of the Outcomes on the Leadership Behaviors of Community College Administrators

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Title: Comparison of the Outcomes on the Leadership Behaviors of Community College Administrators
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0019261/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparison of the Outcomes on the Leadership Behaviors of Community College Administrators
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0019261:00001


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COMPARISON OF THE OUTCOMES OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS OF COMMUNITY
COLLEGE ADMINISTRATORS






















By

LISA ULMER TUNKS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































S2007 Lisa Ulmer Tunks





































To my son, Dean.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my thanks to a myriad of individuals for their encouragement and

unfailing support along the way. My first true mentor, Dr. J. T. Lightfoot, saw in me the potential

and desire to pursue graduate work. I thank him for making me set my sights higher. His

confidence in my academic abilities gave me the strength of mind to continue on this path for the

past 12 years.

I offer my sincerest gratitude to Dr. Dale Campbell, who supported my efforts throughout

my doctoral experience, and gave me the opportunity to complete this work. Additionally, I

would like to thank my supervisory committee for their guidance and support.

I would not have been able to embark on this journey, much less complete it without the

support of my friends and family. My parents and brother were unwavering in their

encouragement. Special thanks go to Jill Quinn for keeping my energy focused, and to Jen

Garea for keeping my priorities straight.

Finally, I offer my most heartfelt thanks to my husband and son. They have taken this

j ourney with me and continued to cheer me on every step of the way. Their faith in my abilities

carried me through. For that, I am eternally grateful.












TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ........._._ ...... .__ ...............7....


AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........9


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............11.......... ......


Introducti on ................. ...............11.................
Statement of the Problem ................. ...............12................

Purpose of the Study ................. ...............15.......... .....
Research Questions............... ...............1
Definitions .................... ...............15.

Si gnificance of the Study ................. ...............16.......... .....
Limitations ................. ...............17.................
Sum m ary ................. ...............18.......... ......


2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............20................


Leadership Theories............... ...............20
Leadership and Gender ................. .... .......... ...............23......
Women in Higher Education Administration ................. ...............25........... ...
Leadership Theory and Gender .............. ...............27....
Leadership Development of Women ................. ...............28................
Leadership Characteristics............... ............2
Attributes and Competencies............... ..............3
The 21st Century Educational Leader ................. ...............31........... ..
Leadership Development Programs ................. ...............32........... ....
Graduate Education Programs ................. ...............34........... ....
Professional Association Programs .............. ... .. ...............36.
Community College Campus Based Leadership Programs ................. .....................37
Sum m ary ................. ...............40..............

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............. ...............42....


Purpose of the Study ................. ...............42....___ .....
Population ................. ...............43___ .......
The Program .............. ...............43....
The Population............... ...............4
Instrum ents .............. ........ ...... ..... ..........4
Research Design and Data Collection .............. ...............46....
Data Analysis............... ...............47
Summary ................. ...............47.................












4 DATA ANALYSIS .............. ...............49....


Data Analysis Process................. .. ..............4
Presentation of Data for All Subj ects ........._.___..... .__. ...............51..
Results of Grouped Data............... ...............52..
Targeted Attributes ........._.___..... .___ ...............53.....
Differences by Gender............... ...............54.
Learning Plan Assessments .............. ...............54....
Usefulness of the OPQ .............. ...............55....
M entering .............. ........ .. .. .................5
Feedback on Changes in Leadership Style ....._.__._ ..... ... .__. ......._..........5
Follow Up Interviews .............. ...............58....
M entering .............. ...............63....
Journaling .............. ...............63....
Leadership Literature................ ..............6
Summary ........._.___..... .___ ...............64.....

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............. ...............76....


Changes in Personality Attribute Scores .............. ...............77....
Gender Differences ........._.__........ .__. ...............79....

Changes by Work Behavior Domains .............. ...............80....
Answers to Research Questions............... ...............8
Answer to the First Research Question .............. ...............83....
Answer to the Second Research Question............... ...............83
Answer to the Third Research Question............... ...............85
Recommendations for Future Research ........._._._ ...._. ...............86...

Implications for Higher Education Administration .............. ...............88....
Summary ........._.___..... .___ ...............90.....

APPENDIX


A COPY OF APPROVED PROTOCOL .............. ...............92....


B LEARNING PLAN AS SES SSMENT ................. ...............95...............


C FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE .............. ...............97....


D EXAMPLE OF OPQ REPORT ................. ...............98.......... ....

E PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCORES .............. ...............100....


REFERENCES .............. ...............107....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............113......... ......










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 21st Century Leader Job Match Attributes .....___.....__.___ .......____ .........4

3-1 Example of Program Coursework............... ...............4

4-1 Overall Test Scores Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test .............. ...............66....

4-2 Overall Test Scores by Female Participants Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test........................66

4-3 Overall Test Scores by Male Participants Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test ...........................67

4-4 Work Behavior Domains and Related Attributes .............. ...............67....

4-5 Occurrence of Targeted Attributes by Gender .....__.___ ........___ .......__.........6

4-6 Overall Test Scores for the Relationships with People Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-
Ranked Test .............. ...............69....

4-7 Overall Test Scores by Female Participants for the Relationships With People
Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test .............. ...............69....

4-8 Overall Test Scores by Male Participants for the Relationships With People
Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test .............. ...............70....

4-9 Overall Test Scores for the Thinking Style Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test ......70

4-10 Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for Overall Test Scores by Female Participants for the
Thinking Style Dimension ........._.__ ..... .___ ...............71....

4-11 Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for Overall Test Scores by Male Participants for the
Thinking Style Dimension ........._.__ ..... .___ ...............71....

4-12 Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test for Overall Test Scores for the Feelings and Emotions
Dimension ........._.__ ..... .._ ._ ...............72....

4-13 Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test for Overall Test Scores by Female Participants for the
Feelings and Emotions Dimension .............. ...............72....

4-14 Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for Overall Test Scores by Male Participants for the
Feelings and Emotions Dimension .............. ...............73....

4-15 Difference in Attributes Targeted for Improvement Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test ...........74

4-16 Differences in Gender Among Pretest and Posttest Scores on Attributes Targeted for
Improvement Kruskall-Wallis Test............... ...............75..











5-1 Average Changes in Attribute Scores in Ranked Order .............. ....................9

E-1 Raw Stein Scores for Female Participants ................. ...............100........... ..

E-2 Raw Stein Scores for Male Participants ................. ...............102........... ..

E-3 Targeted Attribute Scores for Female Participants ................. ................ ......... .103

E-4 Targeted Attribute Scores for Male Participants .............. ...............105....









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education

COMPARISON OF THE OUTCOMES OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS OF COMMUNITY
COLLEGE ADMINISTRATORS

By

Lisa Ulmer Tunks

May 2007

Chair: Dale F. Campbell
Maj or: Higher Education Administration

The purpose of this study was to explore a community college educational leadership

development program in Florida. Through a combination of professional coaching, individual

development and focus, individuals were encouraged to acquire new skills and modify behaviors,

therefore increasing their educational leadership capacity in the role of Provost, Vice President,

or President.

The population for the study included a group of community college administrators who

participated in a leadership development program through the University of Florida, with courses

held at Florida Community College in Jacksonville and St. Petersburg College. The foundation

of the program was a 2-year graduate-level curriculum. All classes were delivered on site at the

community college or via distance education by professors from the University of Florida.

Completion of the entire program resulted in a Certifieate in Community College Executive

Leadership.

This was an ex post-factor research design that focused on the results of the pretest and

posttest data garnered from the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ). The community

college cohort participants were given the OPQ at the beginning of their leadership development

program by a qualified test administrator. Participants then received a detailed report that









outlined their work style preferences on 32 dimensions. Attribute scores were stated in stein

score format on a 1 to 10 scale. Participants used the information provided in the OPQ report to

create an Individual Learning Plan (ILP). With the assistance of a qualified OPQ administrator,

subj ects selected one to three of their attributes that they felt would contribute to their leadership

success. They created specific goals and objectives designed to develop those characteristics,

and constructed an accountability protocol for measurement of each goal. Over the course of the

Community College Executive Leadership program, participants simultaneously worked toward

promoting their ILP while completing coursework and other program requirements. In addition

to the data collected from the OPQ pretest and posttest results, six individuals were chosen as a

subgroup to participate in follow-up interviews.

Our Eindings suggest that the participants were able to modify their leadership style and

behavior as a result of the program. While the subj ects did not demonstrate statistically

significant differences overall on the OPQ, they did show significant learning gains on the

attributes that they had targeted for improvement.

Through a program of course work, professional coaching, and individual development

and focus, both male and female academic leaders were able to make great strides in enhancing

their leadership skills. Their behavioral modifications could enable them to be more effective

educational leaders in the future.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

The focus of this work was to examine a community college leadership development

program and to explore a framework of educational leadership development. In light of the

changing face of the academic presidency, the shortage of well prepared community college

administrators, and the shifting role of women in higher education administration, there has been

a documented increased need for higher education leadership development. This section outlines

the research questions and several key definitions used in this study.

Introduction

At the turn of the twentieth century, a new breed of learning institutions began to find its

foothold in America. What started as speculation and pilot programs grew roots with William

Rainey Harper at the University of Chicago. Armed with generous backing and some of the

greatest scholastic minds of the era, he developed a universal plan for creating the junior college.

Harper' s threefold plan was simple in its design: transform fading liberal arts schools into two-

year institutions, promote the creation of new two-year colleges, and design six-year high

schools by merging secondary schools with university programs. (Witt, Wattenbarger,

Gollattscheck, & Suppiger, 1994) Over the next century, the entire country embraced and

adopted a system of junior and community colleges. These institutions evolved as the needs of

the population changed. Modern community colleges are no longer limited to offering academic

courses of study, but grew to include terminal and vocational degrees (Witt et al. 1994).

More than a century later, the community college system in America is established as a

principle player in higher education. It is estimated that nearly two-thirds of the students

pursuing an advanced degree start their coursework at a community college (Cohen & Brawer,

1994). The combined factors of rising costs of education, smaller class sizes, and personalized









instructions have helped channel students into the halls of community colleges nationwide.

Newer technologies and distance education have brought an even greater and more diverse

student body to the schools (Wilson, Cordry, & King, 2004).

As the population has changed, so has the nature of the institution itself. The distinctive

structure and design of the community college dictates a unique administration, different from

both big universities and small private colleges. It is perhaps due the uniqueness of the

institutional design of the community college that they been leaders in educational change. The

turn of the twenty first century brought new and unforeseen challenges to the landscape of

education. If America' s community colleges are going to continue to be competitive in higher

education, then they must once again adapt to the changing climate (Shults, 2001: Vaughan &

Weisman, 2003).

Statement of the Problem

It was predicted that America' s community colleges would be facing an unprecedented

shortage of qualified educational leaders (Amey, VanDerLinden & Brown, 2001; Campbell,

2006; Hockaday & Puyear, 2000; Parsons, 1992; Ross, 2002; Shults, 2001; Stephenson,

2001;Vaughan & Weisman, 2003). Of the faculty who were employed during the community

college explosion in the 1960s, nearly half will be replaced during the near the beginning of the

21st century. Due to both age and reorganization of departments, the turnover of administrators

may be even greater (Stephenson, 2001). According to a research brief released by the American

Association of Community Colleges (AACC), community college presidents have been leaving

their posts at an unsettling rate. Weisman and Vaughan (2002) conducted a survey of 661

community college presidents in 2001, and found that 79% planned to retire by 2011. A similar

study illustrates that by the year 2007, 45% of the presidents surveyed suggested that they would









seek retirement, leaving a significant gap in leadership (Shults, 2001). The article further

illustrates the graying of the presidency through the average age of community college

presidents; the average age in 1986 was 51 and by 1998 it was 57, a statistic that has been

documented by other researchers as well (Ross, 2002). This further demonstrates that the profile

of community college leadership is changing. The impending exodus will both create new

opportunities for a new generation of leaders as well as create a gap in the leadership. (Shults,

2001)

Turnover of the top executive in any organization can have both positive and negative

consequences. Newer ideologies and management methods can infuse new life into a suffering

institution. Likewise, frequent changing of the guard can lead to uncertainty and low morale. A

study by Padilla and Ghosh (2000) looked at the tenure histories of over 200 college presidents,

going back half a century and representing more than 2000 institutions of higher education.

Their conclusions indicated that average length of tenure of presidents has been declining

significantly. By the turn of the century, they estimated that the average term would be less than

6 years, down from an average of 10.9 years in 1899. Moreover, private sector presidents tend to

stay in office longer than those running public institutions. (Padilla & Ghosh, 2000, p32)

In addition to providing startling evidence of the graying of the presidency, the AACC

manuscript outlined leadership skills that have been identified as critical for successful

leadership in academia. Moreover, it resonated the concern that today's community college

leaders have found themselves ill-prepared for the changing needs of their institutions. New

community college presidents who have been crafted in the mold of their predecessors may find

themselves in a similar predicament. They may feel unprepared to manage certain segments of

their post, such as fundraising and fiscal administration (Shults, 2001). As demands placed on









educational leaders rise, presidents will be expected to offer creative solutions to their

constituents, and do so in less time and with fewer resources (Pierce & Pedersen, 1997). Based

on this information, it stands to reason that the maj or question of how community college leaders

are being groomed for leadership is pressing on the minds of the governing bodies of America' s

community colleges (McPhail, 2002).

Following the startling findings reported by the AACC, Campbell (2006) duplicated a

portion of that research and examined the proj ected retirement of the administrative and

professional staffs of the nation's community colleges. Presidents from across the country were

asked to speculate about the departure of their high level administrators, specifically, those in

academic affairs, student affairs, and business affairs. The results indicated that an

overwhelming percentage of community college officers will more than likely retire from office

by the year 2010, leaving a significant gap in some very decidedly specialized arenas (Campbell,

2006, pl2). When combined with the imminent likelihood of a shortage in the presidency, the

departure of registrars, human resources specialists, and financial aid directors will create an

unprecedented lack of leadership in America' s community colleges.

A subsequent demographic issue is the drastic change in the profile of the senior

administrators. A study by Moore, Twombly, and Martorana (1985) identified the four

administration positions that most often feed into the presidential "pipeline": Chief Academic

Officer, Chief Business Officer, Chief Student Affairs Officer, and Continuing Education

Officer. According to this research, in 1984 these leadership positions were overwhelmingly

occupied by men. By the year 2000, a trend to hire female administrators resulted in a

demographic shift most noted in the position of Student Affairs Officer where less than fifty

percent were reported to be male (Amey, VanDerLinden, & Brown, 2001). The role of women









as administrators in institutions of higher education is of critical concern to the future success of

the academic academy, and is therefore deserving of further investigation (Eddy, 2003).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of a community college leadership

development program on the leadership behaviors of community college administrators and to

explore a framework of educational leadership development. The primary design addressed by

this research suggests that through a combination of professional coaching, individual

development and focus, individuals can acquire new skills, modify behaviors, and therefore,

increase their educational leadership capacity. Identification of individual skills and weaknesses,

followed by attribute specific improvements, was the cornerstone of this approach.

Research Questions

Research questions were designed to identify the change in behavior over the course of a

leadership development program and the impact gender on the subj ects' leadership behaviors as

measured by their personality attribute scores. The study addressed these questions:

1. Is there a difference in the personality attributes of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

2. Is there a difference in the leadership styles of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

3. What effect did gender have on their leadership development?


Definitions

The following sections delineates several terms that are used in this body of work.

Administrator: refers to any individual holding a position of managerial level at an institution of

higher education; one who is employed by a community college in the position of president, vice

president, director, executive director, dean, provost, or any similarly ranked position.









Attribute: a personal characteristic that helps determine and delineate a person's behavior.

Examples include emotional control, cognitive ability, and persuasiveness.

Mastery: refers to the quality of being well qualified in a given skill, and motivation to

produce a desired result.

Learning gain: the measurement of changes in leadership attributes between the pre-test

and the post-test of the OPQ.

Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPO): is a self report behavioral questionnaire

that was developed by SHL specifically for the purpose of candidate identification and selection.

Personality: based on a psychometric concept, it is the sum of an individual's traits and

preferences that dictate his/her behavior.

Significance of the Study

It has been predicted that America' s community colleges will be facing an unprecedented

shortage of qualified educational leaders in the coming years. This impending exodus will both

create new opportunities for a new generation of leaders as well as create a gap in the leadership.

It has been estimated that within the institution of higher education, the selection and

hiring of an external candidate for a management position can carry a price tag that may exceed a

million dollars (Bain & Mabey, 1999). Colleges cannot afford to waste institutional funds on

ineffective leaders. The financial implications, combined with the impended departure of a

substantial number of academic leaders have focused the spotlight on leadership development

programs. Through talent recognition and leadership development training, the next generation

of college leaders may be cultivated from the population that exists within the administrative

framework of America' s Community Colleges.

Additionally, this study points to the success of using a hybrid theory of leadership

development, instead of either trait or behavioral theory alone. Trait theory relies on the









fundamental point of view that leadership is inherent and therefore leaders are born, and not be

made. Moreover, that there are distinctive characteristics that are common to all strong leaders.

Traditional behavior theory explains that an individual's leadership style will be determined by

his actions, and that those behaviors are a direct representation of his effectiveness. However,

this research indicates that a hybrid theory that blends together portions of both theories may

provide a more realistic view of leadership development.

The research presented here used the idea of inherent leadership traits, borrowed from

traditional trait theory, in that participants were originally selected for the program based on their

demonstrated leadership qualities. The ideology then shifted toward behavioral theory as the

participants created individual learning plans to guide their course of study and subsequent

behavioral modifications. The success of the program demonstrates that the hybridization of the

two theories is an effective approach to the development of educational leaders

The results of this study contribute to the growing literature regarding community

colleges and higher education leadership. More specifically, it has added to the growing research

surround leadership development.

Limitations

Limitations of this research revolve around the testing instrument and the size of the

population. This study was based on the subj ects' self report as recorded and measured by the

OPQ, a questionnaire designed to interpret personality traits. While there is an integrated score

of desirability, there still exists the possibility that subj ects will attempt to create what they

perceive to be a more favorable profile. The internal reliability measures will be addressed

further in Chapter 3.

The population used in this research study was made up of a pre-existing cohort of higher

education professionals. Therefore, one unique threat to internal validity was the lack of ability









to manipulate the independent variables. All of the data collection took place prior to the

involvement of the primary researcher.

Due to the circumstances upon which the population was formed, there is a limitation of an

assumption of motivation that must be mentioned. The individuals who participated in this

research were part of an existing cohort of students who were chosen to participate in a

leadership development program. The selection of students for the cohort program was based on

a multitude of factors including their service to the community college and their ability to fill an

anticipated vacancy within the college. There is, therefore, an assumption that all of the students

who participated in the program had an internal desire or motivation for improving their

leadership skills. In that this research study is looking to measure the degree of change that the

participants experienced as result of the leadership program, this motivation to change should be

included in the discussion of limitations.

Summary

The continued growth and success of America' s community colleges is in the hands of the

new breed of administrators who will replace the rapidly retiring "old guard." It is critical that

these new leaders be supremely well groomed to step into the various positions that await them.

Further, the changing demographic face of the population being served dictates a shift in makeup

of the leadership as well. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a community

college leadership program, and highlight any differences that may have occurred due to their

gender.

The purpose of this study, research questions, definitions, and research limitations were

presented in this chapter. A review of relevant literature and the theoretical framework for the

study will be addressed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 contains the research design, methodology and

protocols used in the study. The research findings and data analysis are presented in Chapter 4.









Finally, research findings, future study recommendations, and implications for community

college administration can be found in Chapter 5.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2 contains a review of literature that is relevant to the scope of this study. The

chapter is divided into four sections; (a) leadership theories and models, (b) leadership and

gender research, (c) leadership characteristics, and (d) leadership development programs. The

chapter will conclude with a summary.

Leadership Theories

In order to fully characterize an effective leader, leadership as a concept must first be

identified. Defining leadership is not a simple as opening a dictionary. Hockaday and Puyear

(2000) have estimated that there are more than 125 documented descriptions of educational

leadership in the literature. They succinctly summarized those definitions as "simply holding the

goals of the institution in one hand and the people of the institution in the other and somehow

bringing these two together in a common good" (p. 3).

Within the literature, five primary research approaches to defining leadership theory have

emerged: trait, behavioral, power and influence, contingency, and integrative (Bensimon,

Neuman & Birnbaum, 1989; Birnbaum, 1989; Lussier & Achua, 2007). Trait theory is based on

the fundamental point of view that leadership is inherent and therefore leaders are born, and

cannot be made. Early speculation regarding trait theory hypothesized that there are distinctive

characteristics that could be found in all leaders. While no definitive list of traits emerged as a

blueprint, many traits that are correlated with successful leadership have been identified.

The overall dissatisfaction with the lack or research to support trait theory led to the

development of behavior theory (Goff, 2003). This theory explores the individual's leadership

style and examines the particular behaviors of effective leaders (Bensimon, Neuman &









Birnbaum, 1989). This work will focus on leadership trait and behavioral theories as they relate

to community college leadership development.

Much of the research surrounding leadership theory was originated in trait theory, and it

attempted to identify the attributes of an effective leader. This approach to leadership relies on

the understanding of the difference between traits and personality. While traits are

distinguishing characteristics, personality is the sum of those traits and the behaviors that result

from them (Lussier & Achua, 2007). Development of an individual's personality is thought to

be a combination of both environmental and genetic factors.

The Big Five Model of Personality Traits is a widely accepted method of organizing

personality traits. Different researchers may have slightly different names for the five categories;

they are generally referred to as surgency, agreeableness, adjustment, conscientiousness, and

openness to experience. Sugency refers to dominant behaviors and extroverted tendencies.

Those who exhibit a strong surgency personality prefer to be in a leadership role and are not

afraid of confrontation. Warm, friendly, and personable are terms that could be used to describe

someone who displays the agreeableness personality dimension. The adjustment personality is

determined on a continuum of emotional stability. Those who tend to be positive, strong under

pressure and calm are at the stable end, while those who are nervous and criticize others to make

themselves seem superior measure at the unstable end of the continuum. Conscientiousness is

sometimes referred to as achievement, and includes such characteristics as reliability, integrity,

and organization skills. Lastly, those who are open to experience are willing to change, and are

not afraid of undertaking new experiences. (Lussier & Achua, 2007) Although these five

dimensions may seem to be an over simplification of personality, it provides a means of creating

an individual profile that can be useful in a variety of circumstances.









Behavioral theory considers not the characteristics and individual traits, but the actions of

leaders. This approach measures activity patterns and reactions of administrators in leadership

situations. Attempts to determine the singular best leadership style for all situations have lead

investigators to identify those behaviors common among effective leaders. Early researchers

classified behaviors as directive or participatory and emphasized the level of personal interaction

that a manager exhibited (Birnbaum, 1989). When considering at educational leadership

against this theory, presidents can be evaluated on a scale that measures the amount of team

orientation they prefer as compared to an authoritarian approach. It has been suggested that

academic leaders who prefer to include other administrators and faculty in their decision making

are more effective (Bensimon, Neuman, & Birnbaum, 1989; Birnbaum, 1989; Bolman & Deal,

1994).

Data collected from semi-structured interviews of presidents of thirty-two colleges

examined the definitions of leadership and the preferred styles of management of those leaders

(Birnbaum, 1989). Ninety-seven percent of the presidents surveyed indicated that they subscribe

to the behavioral theory of management, citing group motivation and goal setting as interaction

preferences. They also overwhelmingly mentioned the vision of the college and future direction

as points of reference for their style. (Birnbaum, 1989) The researcher acknowledged that the

method of data collection and small sample size were limitations of the work, however, the

results showed that the group felt that leadership behavior should be the benchmark of effective

management.

Due, in part to the dynamic atmosphere of higher education, a hybrid theory may provide

a more realistic method of viewing leadership. This model encompasses aspects of trait and

behavioral theories while considering situational variables (Bass, 1990). This approach to









leadership in higher education provides for transformational growth and development as the

college environment changes and the demands of the administration adjust accordingly. The

next generation of community college administrators must be able to identify new areas of

personal growth and professional development if they are to truly transform with their

institutions (Pierce & Pedersen, 1997; Campbell, 2006).

Leadership and Gender

The research surrounding gender and leadership has historically been limited. In spite of a

recent expansion of literature on the female role in educational leadership, few report findings of

an empirical nature. Much of the research that is available is qualitative in nature, and based on

self-report. (Rosser, 2001) The classical image of a leader brings to mind great warriors, heroes,

presidents, and conquerors. These metaphors leave little room for their female counterparts to

create lasting and authentic impressions (Amey & Twombly, 1992; Eddy, 2003). Furthermore,

strong cultural ideologies about leadership in the workplace are epidemically male dominated.

This is exceedingly true of America' s colleges and universities. The "old boy network"

has been in place for as long as the institutions themselves. It has been reported that despite the

increases in female community college students, women are less likely than men to pursue

higher administrative level positions at those institutions (Warner & DeFleur, 1993).

Additionally, the limitations and expectations placed on them if they do choose to pursue a

position of leadership within the university are different than those faced by men (Glazer-

Raymo, 1999).

In light of the recent need for new educational leadership, the discussion of women in

leadership positions takes on a new importance. Shifting student demographics point to more

women and minorities entering America' s community colleges (Stephenson, 2001). In spite of

the statistics that demonstrate that women represent the maj ority of college students, they are









underrepresented in high ranking positions with those institutions (Walton & McDade, 2001).

In 1995, there were 453 women college presidents in the United States, which is representative

of approximately 16% of all institutions (Touchton & Ingram, 1995). As a percentage of the

total populations, this demonstrates an obvious inequity of gender representation.

The number of women college presidents has been on the rise in the past few decades.

Whereas only 5% of the country's college presidents were female in 1975, by 1995 women made

up roughly 16% of the total presidential population (Touchton & Ingram, 1995, Mercer, 1998,).

Furthermore, a report by the American Association of Community Colleges indicated that of all

the college presidents hired between 1995 and 1998, 34% were women (Evelyn, 2001).

Moreover, more than a third of newly appointed community college presidents were women

(Ross, 2002) Both statistics regarding women in college presidency demonstrate an increase in

female representation in that arena. Ironically, there has not been a dramatic shift in the

academic atmosphere. Senior faculty in areas such as engineering, the biological sciences and

law remained dominated by men. Women who have successfully broken through the barriers

and found positions of authority do not report a sense of inclusion or acceptance (Zemsky, 2001).

Due in part to this increase in the female presence in education administration, more

attention has been paid to women' s leadership role in higher education (Tedrow, 1999). It bears

mentioning that although gender based leadership research has been published throughout the

twentieth century, the maj ority of the work demographic analyses and experiential narrations.

It has been said that higher education serves as a backdrop against which social and

political attitudes about women are played out. An examination of the history of women as

students, faculty, and administrators in America's academic institutions clearly demonstrates the

chilly environment for women, and the continual struggle for equality within the ivory tower.









Women were largely disregarded as academic equals through the early years of the twentieth

century, and often were admitted begrudgingly into universities. (Nidiffer, 2001).

Women in Higher Education Administration

The initiation of female leadership in higher education would not be complete without a

brief glance of Wellesley College in Massachusetts. It bears the distinction of being the first

institution where a woman was appointed, and governed as college president. During her tenure

at Wellesley, Alice Freeman facilitated the university's transformation from a seminary

institution to a true academic academy. Moreover, she established a hierarchy of departmental

organization to allow for an internal dispersion of power. Freeman referred to her own approach

to governance as "heart culture," a philosophy rooted in developing personal relationships with

staff. (Brown, 2003)

Before the presidency, there are numerous executive positions to be filled. These

prominent administrative positions probably influence the curriculum, educational landscape,

and overall tone of the university more than the presidency does (Walton & McDade, 2001).

They tend to be the most direct pipeline to the presidency, as well. One such title is chief

academic officer, and it was the focus of a 2001 study by Walton and McDade.

In looking at the role of the chief academic officer (CAO), the researchers focused on who

the women currently holding these positions were, how they came to the office of CAO, and

their ultimate career obj ective. The population consisted of 208 women CAOs representing 1378

research I and II colleges and universities nationwide. Their average age was 52.7, nearly half

were married, more than half were mothers, and 96% had obtained a doctoral degree.

Interestingly, an overwhelming 36% were graduates of traditional women's colleges, and 83%

held a rank of professor in some capacity. (Walton & McDade, 2001) This research bears

importance because no one gets promoted to the presidency unexpectedly. There is a natural










progression through the ranks in academia, and having a clearer profile of what a successful

CAO looks like could help to create that leadership blueprint.

Similarly, Young (2004) investigated leadership styles of senior managers in an academic

institution with the intention of delineating gender influences on leadership. The case study was

comprised of 5 men and 3 women all in new positions of authority at a college which had

recently come under service review. Because of the sudden organizational shift in management,

the newly appointed senior executive team was in a unique position to look at their leadership

styles free from any pre-existing relationships. The new chief executive' s goal was to "build a

community of learning with a culture of partnership, community and teamwork" (Young, 2004,

p. 96).

Leadership styles were identified through a series of questionnaires and interviews, and

were classified as either transactional or transformational. This distinction was based on Bass

and Avolio's (1994) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Further, gender identification was

determined derived from the demographic data and open-ended interview questions using Gray's

(1993) male and female paradigms. (as cited in Young, 2004).

One of the more interesting findings of the study was the crossing over of gender paradigm

association in both sexes. While men reported preference to classically female traits, such as

creativity and informality, women identified more closely with the male pattern. The researcher

suggested that the shift on behalf of the male respondents is founded in a desire to adopt a more

modern approach to management, and be perceived as more approachable and collaborative.

Conversely, the women may have felt the need to take on more masculine traits in an effort to be

taken more seriously. (Young, 2004)









The author concludes that while there did not appear to be a definitive conclusion, that the

results of the investigation were interesting and prompted future research. One final statement

disclosed that all participants in the study admitted to being influenced greatly by their academic

preparation. The aptitudes and techniques they had previously developed were the guiding

supervisory styles that they ultimately integrated. The argument could be made that leadership

may be a function of training.

Leadership Theory and Gender

Much of the current literature regarding gender and leadership is genuinely lacking in

theoretical context. Most of the major leadership models are based on the traditional male

viewpoint, focusing on personal power in an economic world (Jablonski, 1996) Because gender

based research does not accurately fall into any comprehensive organizational model, there is

little foundational evidence to create a theoretical framework for female leadership.

The leadership styles of seven women college presidents were categorized in a study by

Jablonski (1996). Through self report interview, the investigator was able to record and define

the perceived managerial characteristics and techniques of the participants. Additionally, five

faculty members from each campus were selected to provide insight as well as a point of

comparison. The presidents who participated in this study represented a variety of colleges; both

private and public, coeducational state universities, a technical school and two women's

colleges. (Jablonski, 1996)

The presidents' perceptions of themselves as leaders generally concluded that they saw

themselves as participatory leaders who empowered others and created a collaborative learning

environment. The maj ority of the women cited the importance of providing staff and faculty

with a sense of authority and ownership in the decision making process. The group recognized

that, while collaboration is a more time consuming method of problem solving, it is a good









investment. Breeding open communication was generally considered to be critical in faculty

relations, as was shared decision making. (Jablonski, 1996)

This particular study provided a unique glimpse at the self perception of a group of

female college presidents. The central themes of collaborative thinking, shared decision making,

and open communication helped shape the profie of women in academic leadership roles. Other

researchers have stated that similar traits were universally found in successful community

college executives nationwide including collaborative thinking and accessible lines of

communication (Hockaday & Puyear, 2000). Although higher of these studies attempted to

delineate a profie of an effective collegiate leader, parallels may be drawn between their

Endings.

There was a point in America' s history where women were considered biologically unfit to

pursue higher education (Nidiffer, 2003). Over the past 150 years, daughters from all classes

have found their way through the halls of academia. Female students currently comprise a

resounding maj ority of all undergraduate college students in America, and certain graduate

programs as well (Bashaw & Nidiffer, 2003). More and more women are Einding their place

among the academic leadership ranks, up through the college presidency. Their legacy and future

influence in higher education deserves continued exploration.


As women play a maj or role in these educational reforms, they must simultaneously
develop a personal version of their plan of action for renewal and commitment to
mentoring female students, faculty, and staff at their colleges. They must establish
credibility by leading with commitment and following through in those areas that require
hand-holding and foresight. In addition, women can become the leading visionaries and
paradigm pioneers of our institutions. (Giannini, 2001, p 210)

Leadership Development of Women

While many leadership development programs have begun to surface across the nation,

very few offer the unique perspective of women in leadership roles. Most of these exist within









the departments of Women' s Studies, and more often are not academic in nature, but student

services opportunities for women to find mentors with in the business community. A program

that is revolutionizing the mold is the Leadership Scholars Certificate Program at Rutgers

University. The foundation of the program nineteen hours of coursework combined with

internships and service proj ects. The philosophy encompasses a view of leadership that strives

to identify women's contributions to the business community while questioning existing social

structure and imbalance of power in governance and power worldwide. (Trigg, 2006)

Historically, women have been underrepresented in most areas of leadership, from

politics to academia (Trigg, 2006). This disproportion is especially distressing in the collegiate

world given the statistics regarding the make up of the student population. Providing leadership

training for women and a course of study about the dynamics of management can educate about

navigating the corporate environments so that the inequities can begin to dissipate. Women bring

a new perspective to the leadership arena, and that viewpoint may be catalyst for resuscitating

the face of American higher education.

Leadership Characteristics

The growing importance of college leadership resulted in over 150 publications about the

community college presidency between the year 1989 and 1995 (Pierce & Pedersen, 1997).

Ranging from demographic analyses to discussions of leadership styles, the variety of research

topics has been inclusive. One key area of concentration has been the delineation of the

characteristics or qualities of a successful leader. Many researchers have attempted to create a

working profile of what the "perfect leader" looks like. While no one body of work claims to

have created the ideal profile, there does seem to be a general agreement in the literature of

common demographics, personality traits, and leadership styles of an effective leader.










Demographically, there is a widespread acceptance of the current picture of college

leadership in America. Using survey results from 975 presidents, McFarlin (1999) described the

composite outstanding community college president as male, Caucasian, married and roughly 55

years old. A doctoral degree was a common factor among the presidents surveyed with more

than 85% having completed either a Ph.D. or an Ed.D at the time of the investigation. Further, a

marked maj ority had earned their terminal degree in higher education, most with an emphasis in

community college leadership. While some research (Anthony, 1986) has indicated that any

doctoral degree will pave the path toward a collegiate presidency, McFarlin's research strongly

supports higher education focused on higher education administration.

Although demographic research does paint a portrait of the achievements of the group of

people currently occupying college presidencies, it does little to delineate the characteristics of

an effective leader. Hybrid leadership theory proposes that by understanding a leader' s

personality attributes, we can better understand their behavior. Through the understanding of

effective leadership behavior, a more concise definition of a leadership profile can be created.

Attributes and Competencies

Attributes are an individual's characteristics which reinforce the behavioral aptitudes

(Bain & Mabey, 1999). Examples include competitiveness, persuasiveness, and decisiveness.

They allow an individual to develop competencies with more proficiency, and are used to predict

behavior. Trait theory states that leadership is intrinsic in nature, and leaders are born not made.

Although there is no definitive list of leadership attributes that are common across the research,

there are several theorists who conclusively identified personality characteristics that would be

beneficial for higher education leaders to possess.

Hockaday and Puyear list nine traits their report to the AACC (2000) that they feel

community college presidents should embody. Those traits include vision, integrity, confidence,









courage, technical knowledge, collaborative spirit, persistence, good judgment, and the desire to

lead (Hockaday & Puyear, 2000). They feel these qualities are essential for all community

college presidents, and they are not alone. Several of the leadership qualities they suggest have

been continuing themes within the literature.

Bolman and Deal (1994) concur that vision, courage, and integrity are necessary traits for

a community college leader to possess. They add to their list a commitment to ethics, passion,

good communication skills, self knowledge and willingness to take risks. A similar list of

attributes was created by Bain and Mabey (1999) that are critical to their model of

transformational leadership: Behavioral, Caring, Democratic, Social Confidence, Worrying,

Tough Minded, Achieving, Controlling, and Vigorous. The Occupational Personality

Questionnaire (OPQ) measures these traits, and was the instrument used in this study.

Contemporary leaders will be faced with challenges unlike anything their predecessors

could fathom. They must be innovative, comfortable with change, have a global outlook, and be

able to manage a more diverse group of people who operate in less conventional locations.

Byham, Smith and Paese (2002) outlined some of the attributes contemporary leaders possess as

compared to their more traditional counterparts including team building, risk taking, proactive

stance, embracing change and innovative thinking. Many of these traits are echoed in the OPQ,

and have been identified as crucial to becoming an effective educational leader (Campbell and

Leverty, 1997).

The 21st Century Educational Leader

Out of the need to develop an accurate profile of an effective community college

president, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida created the 21s~t Century

Educational Leadership Profiles Proj ect. Utilizing attributes that had been identified with the

transformational model of leadership, Campbell and Leverty (1997) developed an Attribute-









Based Person-Job Match Report. The OPQ provided the instrumentation for assessing the

nineteen attributes that were included in the original design. From the questionnaire, a

leadership profile was created, and has been demonstrated to be an effective tool in selection and

development of future community college leaders (Campbell & Kachick, 2002). Recently, the

report was updated to include 24 attributes which are categorized as essential, important, or

relatively important. Table 2-1 contains the grouping of attributes based on those three

categories.

Leadership Development Programs

It is critical that organizations use reliable and efficient methods of selecting employees.

Identifying the best candidate for a position requires the ability to match a high potential

performer with a changing work environment (Kehoe, 2000). Within the institution of higher

education, choosing a future leader carries a price tag that, in some cases, can exceed a million

dollars (Bain & Mabey, 1999). Recent publications outlining the impending retirement of

current presidents and academic leaders of America' s community colleges has prompted a

cluster of research studies and manuscripts about the leadership gap. Interestingly, much of the

new information brings to light that the true gap is not necessarily in the startling retirement

numbers, but in the lack of qualified candidates in the direct path to academic leadership (Shults,

2001; Evelyn, 2001). A more prudent approach to filling the gap for many institutions may be to

cultivate their own leaders. While the analyses that have lead to these conclusions are current,

the idea of leadership development is not.

Elsner noted in a 1984 publication that community colleges have "thus far declined to

make a critical investment in [their] future" (p. 33). The leadership crisis that he predicted would

require innovative thinking and immediacy in order to prepare the forthcoming generation of

presidents and higher education administrators. The primary suggestion of the work was to









create environments that concentrated on the study of community college leadership with the

hopes of preserving the health of the institution. (Elsner, 1984) Although this publication pre-

dates what many consider to be the realization of the crisis, it clearly demonstrates the need for

leadership development programs.

A significant portion of college leadership research has focused on the immediate needs of

the community college presidency (Boggs & Kent, 2002; Eddy, 2003; Eddy, 2005; Padilla &

Ghosh, 2000; Sturnick, Milley, & Tisinger, 1993; Vaughan, 1994; Weisman & Vaughan, 2001).

Undeniably, that shortage will be the most recognizable due to the prestige that surrounds the

position. However, several analyses (Shults, 2001; McClenney, 2001; Watts & Hammons, 2002;

Campbell, 2006) remind us that the pathway to the presidency is paved with high level

administrators who must also be prepared for the new demands of higher education

admini strati on.

Padilla and Ghosh noted in their 2000 research regarding presidential tenure that there is a

difference in length of stay averages between "internal" and "external" presidents. Those who

were promoted from within the college have a tendency to have longer presidencies than those

recruited from beyond the walls of the institution. However, public institutions are more likely

to employ a candidate from outside their halls, thus contributing to the shorter tenures of public

university presidents. (Padilla & Ghosh, 2000, p 34) Through internal leadership development

programs, it can be assumed that in addition to being better prepared for the specific needs of the

college, candidates will be more likely to occupy their posts longer, and create more stability

within the institution.

American community colleges are led by a diverse group of individuals whose

backgrounds, both academic and professional, are possibly more varied than any other group of









business leaders (Wallin, 2006). Unlike other professions, higher education administrators are

not subject to licensure requirements or entrance exams. Therefore, preparation for community

college leadership is dissimilar to other professions in that there a variety of paths available, each

with its own set of positive and negative attributes.

Leadership development happens in three primary methods: (a) graduate education, (b)

professional association programs, and (c) campus based leadership development programs

(Campbell, 2002; Watts & Hammons, 2002). Each approach serves a unique and necessary

purpose within the framework of leadership development (Vaughan & Weisman, 2003), and

there is no one method that is better than the others. Moreover, a recurring discussion with the

AACC has been the need for improved partnerships between the independent development

programs and the institutions they serve (McClenney, 2001). This idea of collaborative learning

and development is supported by Amey (2005) in her statement that "leadership is an ongoing

process of learning" and must continue to be so if the community college movement is to thrive.

Graduate Education Programs

The most traditional approach to leadership education is through graduate study, and a

predominance of the nation' s trained leaders were the product of management degree programs

(Watts & Hammons, 2002). It is the rare exception for a college administrator to attain a high

level appointment without a terminal degree. The knowledge base that is assumed to accompany

a doctorate along with the level of scholarship that is associated with the degree is a desirable

trait for a community college administrator to possess. (Duvall, 2005)

According to the AACC website (American Association of Community Colleges, 2006)

there are almost 20 graduate education programs that focus on community college education.

Many of these programs offer a less traditional approach to student education. The traditional

approach to education typically includes structured class lectures, small group discussions and









projects. An ideal system would provide students with the opportunity to design their own

program based on their assessed academic and leadership strengths and weaknesses (Watts &

Hammons, 2002). Several colleges have adopted the learning community approach which

groups students together in a cohort that remains together through their entire course of study

(Duvall, 2005). This approach creates a sense of teamwork that will be revisited throughout their

leadership tenure.

One such program exists at Morgan State University, and its design was the focus of a

2002 article by McPhail. The Community College Leadership Doctoral Program was created in

1999 with much uncertainty regarding funding, interest, and -overall structure of the curriculum.

A three-year Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) program was designed based on a cohort learning

environment. Using the idea that collaborative learning would foster a more realistic culture of

scholarship, the School of Education and Urban Planning launched the program with high hopes.

(McPhail, 2002)

Early qualitative evidence points to the success of the program. According to the

students, the cohort learning environment improved their critical thinking skills, heightened their

personal and professional aspirations, and increased the likelihood that they would continue with

the course of study (McPhail, 2002). Learning communities can provide unique and compelling

educational experiences (O'Bannion, 1997; Duvall, 2005). Additionally, creating a learning

environment where the cohort of students has similar professional aspirations will allow the

curriculum to be relevant and well organized. Graduate education programs, while still the

standard for higher education administration preparation, must continue to create programs of

study that are timely and specific to the needs of the students.









Professional Association Programs

A variety of organizations offer workshops and institutes for the sole purpose of

furthering leadership development. A catalog on the AACC website (AACC, 2006) currently

lists 44 different programs across the nation. Both the President' s Academy and the Future

Leaders Institute provide job specific leadership enhancement programs through the AACC. The

League for Innovation in the Community College annually offers a one week Executive

Leadership Institute, and the National Institute for Leadership Development offers an array of

programs ranging in length from three days to one week.

A study by Wallin (2006) examined short term leadership programs in an attempt to

identify what areas of leadership college administrators felt they could benefit from developing,

and offer suggestions for efficient training. Forty-four participants were chosen from an

assembly at an AACC leadership institute. They represented a broad spectrum both

geographically and demographically. A survey containing 45 attitudes and preferences was

administered during the week long program they were attending. A follow up interview added a

qualitative measure to the study. The focus of the questionnaire included their history of

participation and attitudes regarding leadership development programs. (Wallin, 2006)

The investigator proposed that the results could provide a framework for guiding future

leadership development programs. Participants selected three dominant areas of interest that

they felt should be better addressed in future leadership development courses: skill orientation,

relationship orientation, and personal concerns. Skill orientation relates to resource development

and financial issues including legal matters and conflict resolution. Relationship orientation

refers to team building and motivation of faculty and staff while personal concerns are associated

with areas of family and individual wellness. (Wallin, 2006) Armed with better personal

assessment and motivation skills, professional development will be enhanced.









A longstanding association based leadership development program is the Presidents

Academy of the American Association of Community Colleges. It has been operating for over

thirty years, and in that time has blossomed into multiple forums. Boggs and Kent (2002)

outlined the various programs offered by the AACC. The Summer Institute is designed

specifically for college CEOs as both a networking as well as a learning opportunity. Spouses

are encouraged to attend social events while CEOs are in workshops on topics such as

fundraising and enrollment management. Personal interviews with several attendants provide

overwhelming evidence of the positive experiences the institute provides. One CEO explained

that the forum allowed him to "discover new ways that community colleges contribute to

society" (Boggs & Kent, 2002, p. 57)

The AACC has added to its lineup of development workshops with the DC Institute

which addresses the specific concerns of governance and legislation. To further complement the

Presidents Academy the Taming technology Institute helps presidents tackle the challenges of

integrating technology into their institutions. The AACC believes that professional development

and education should be a lifelong process, an evolutionary process that begins with an

administrative appointment. (AACC, 2006)

While short term development programs serve a great purpose, they should not be used as

the only method of leadership training, but as continuing education opportunities. Intermittent

training programs can allow administrators with demanding schedules to continue their personal

and professional growth (Chiriboga, 2003).

Community College Campus Based Leadership Programs

The impending demand for qualified and capable community college leaders has been well

documented in the literature (Amey, VanDerLinden & Brown, 2001; Campbell, 2006; Hockaday

& Puyear, 2000; Parsons, 1992; Ross, 2002; Shults, 2001; Stephenson, 2001;Vaughan &









Weisman, 2003) Not only is there predicted to be a mass exodus at the highest level, but the

pipeline positions are in jeopardy as well (Bolman & Deal, 1994; Campbell, 2006: Shults, 2001).

A current trend in leadership development are community college campus based programs that

range in length and breadth from simple internship programs to rigorous certificate programs.

One of the most significant benefits of these types of programs is the aspect of j ob

specificity. Localized programs can mold and shape participants to meet the needs for the

institution they will continue to serve (Cooper & Pagotto, 2003). Another benefit common

among campus based programs is that they tend to be relatively short in duration, usually lasting

less than two years (Cooper & Pagotto, 2003; Vaughan & Weisman, 2003). Usually, classes are

held in the evening or on weekends so that professionals with demanding work and personal

schedules are able to maintain their normal routines while attending classes. A third noteworthy

advantage that campus based programs have is that at the end of each cycle, several participants

will be prepared to step into leadership roles at that institution, with a minimal adjustment period

(Vaughan & Weisman, 2003).

Weisman and Vaughan (2003) offer the following three guidelines for designing

community college campus based presidential leadership development programs: (a) establish a

presidential board partnership, (b) select participants based on explicit criteria, and (c) create a

comprehensive program that allows for "hands-on" involvement of participants. The authors go

on to further suggest that the program have a two year time frame to allow participants to fully

internalize the behaviors of a president, and to form mentoring relationships with other academic

leaders (Weisman & Vaughan, 2003). ).

One such program that has been in operation for many years is the Leadership Institute for

a New Century (LINC). This program is a collaborative effort between Iowa State University,









the Iowa Association of Community College Presidents, and the Iowa Association of

Community College Trustees. This program was created for the unique purpose of developing

the talents of women and minorities for leadership roles in community colleges. (Ebbers,

Gallisath, Rockel, & Coyan, 2000)

Much like the suggestions outlined by Vaughan and Weisman, the LINTC program selects

candidates based on recommendations from their supervisors, and must meet basic inclusion

criteria. The fees for attending are paid for by the sponsoring community college, and

participants attend lectures and workshops the first weekend of every month for nine months.

Every year, participants are asked to complete an exit survey in order to evaluate their

satisfaction with the program. The 1996 survey indicated that overall satisfaction with program,

with a maj ority feeling that their participation assisted them in refining their career goals.

Moreover, 62% reported accepting a promotion to an upper level administrative position as a

result of their participation in the program. The LINTC program has clearly been a positive force

in the leadership development efforts in the Iowa Community Colleges. (Ebbers, et al, 2000)

Another such program was created at Daytona Beach Community College (DBCC) in

Florida in 1999 to meet the growing needs of the college. Their approach included three

distinctive approaches including the Presidential Leadership Seminars, the Beacon Leadership

Program, and Situational Leadership Workshops. Based on an individual's leadership potential,

commitment to the college and their overall willingness to embrace personal change, a cross

section of college employees were selected for participation in the programs. Each curriculum

had a unique focus and approach to developing leadership. (Sharples, 2002)

Of the three programs, the Beacon Leadership Program provided the most formal approach

to leadership training, and included weekend courses held on the community college campus and









a structured mentoring program. The mentor was selected from the candidate's own

department, and a total of 150 hours of shadowing was completed during the program. All

credits that participants accumulated over the course of the program could be applied toward a

higher degree in education in the future. (Sharples, 2002)

At the conclusion of the Beacon Program, students were asked to address a critical issue

facing the college, and devise strategies and solutions. As a result of this terminal proj ect, the

students were able to identify and begin to work toward the successful resolution of several

institution-wide concerns. Overall, the participants agreed that they had developed the necessary

skills and resources to step into a leadership role in their respective departments throughout the

community college. Additionally, they felt confident that their participation in the Beacon

Leadership Program will have a positive effect on the continued success of DBCC. (Sharples,

2002)

Community college campus based leadership programs offer many advantages, and are

becoming a more efficient and economical choice for cultivating tomorrow's higher education

administrators. It is an irreplaceable on the j ob training program that, coupled with self analysis

and leadership instruction, may be the most efficient method of preparing the next generation of

community college leaders.

Summary

This chapter presented a review of relevant literature regarding leadership theory,

leadership development programs, characteristics and behaviors, and gender studies. The results

of this research will add to the existing body of knowledge specifically looking at gender within

the context of leadership development. The following chapter describes the research methods,

population, and testing procedures used to investigate the research questions.









Table 2-1. 21st Century Leader Job Match Attributes
Essential Important

Data Rational Conventional

Evaluative Rule Following

Forward Thinking


Relatively Important

Persuasive

Controlling

Outspoken

Relaxed

Affiliative

Innovative

Achieving

Variety Seeking

Adaptable

Detail Conscious

Independent Minded

Optimi sti c

Trusting

Emotionally Controlled









CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter states the purpose of the study, outlines the research questions, population,

and instrumentation. Data collection, research design and analytical methodology are also

describe ed.

Purpose of the Study

The outcome of a community college leadership development program on the leadership

behaviors of community college administrators was examined in this study. The purpose of this

study was to explore a theoretical framework of educational leadership development by

examining two models designed to cultivate leadership abilities. The first design suggests that

through a combination of professional coaching, individual development and focus, individuals

can acquire new skills, modify behaviors, and therefore, increase their educational leadership

capacity. Enhanced leadership roles in this study include promotion within the community

college to the position of Provost, Vice President or President. Identification of individual skills

and weaknesses, followed by attribute specific improvements, is the cornerstone of this

approach.

The second construct proposes that leadership talent is the foundation for leadership

development. Without a recognized aptitude, the trainee will be limited in his ability to relate the

newly acquired skill set to future situations. Therefore, the concentration of leadership

development should be on the established strengths rather than the weaknesses.

Research questions were designed to identify the impact of leadership training on the

subjects' leadership behaviors as measured by their personality attribute scores. The study

addressed these questions:

1. Is there a difference in the personality attributes of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?











2. Is there a difference in the leadership styles of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

3. What effect did gender have on their leadership development?


Population

The population for the study included a group of community college administrators who

participated in a leadership development program at a community college in Florida.

The Program

Due to an anticipated reduction in the scope and number of college administrators in the

state of Florida, a leadership development program was put into practice to prepare current

college employees for management positions. The foundation of the program was a two-year

graduate level curriculum. All classes were delivered on site at each community college by

professors from the University of Florida. Completion of the entire program resulted in a

Certificate in Community College Executive Leadership. An example of the 18 credit hours of

course work is listed in Table 3-1.

Development and implementation of an individualized learning plan, attendance at

professional conferences, and a culminating group proj ect were required in addition to the 18

hours of coursework. During the Summer terms, students were given the opportunity to work

with leadership development experts through a series of lectures and workshops.

The Population

Acceptance into the Community College Executive Leadership program was

competitively based on several criteria: (a) all applicants must hold a bachelor' s degree, and

preference was given to those with a master' s degree; (b) the applicant's teaching and/or service

performance at the community college was evaluated; (c) the program director/supervisor and










provost/vice president recommendation for the program were considered; and, (d) the applicant's

ability to fill an anticipated vacancy was reviewed. The selection committee included the

President, Senior Vice Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Provosts of the community college.

Their responsibility was to create a list of recommended candidates for the President to select

from. Tuition and fees associated with participation were paid for by the college, unless a

participant did not complete the course of study. In that circumstance, participants were required

to reimburse the college for the expenses. Textbooks and other related course materials were

paid for by the participants.

Twenty three employees were selected to participate in the program at two community

colleges in Florida. The cohort was made up of 12 men and 11 women. Of the original

participants, 17 agreed to take part in this research study; 7 men and 10 women.

Instruments

Two data collection instruments were used in this study. The first instrument, the

Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), was used to create a personality profile and the

second was a follow-up questionnaire. Both tools have previously demonstrated validity and

reliability (Bain & Mabey, 1999; Kachik, 2003; Saville, Sik, Nyfield, Hackston, & MacIver,

1996; Salvano, 2005; Sloan, 2002).

The OPQ was originally designed by Saville and Holdsworth, Ltd (SHL) in 1984

specifically for use in the workplace. The original concept was to develop a comprehensive

workplace-relevant personality assessment instrument to assist businesses in streamlining their

hiring practices. Since its creation, it has been translated into 22 different languages and helped

over 5,000 clients, including Fortune 500 companies, hire well matched employees.

The version of the OPQ used for this study (OPQ32 Version n) gathers information to

create a 32-dimension personality profile. It contains 230 occupationally applicable questions









that are used to assess work behaviors. For each question, participants are asked to indicate to

what degree they "strongly agree (5)" to "strongly disagree (1)" with items as represented by a 5-

point Likert scale. The OPQ measurements are grouped into three areas: Relationship with

People, Thinking Styles, and Feelings and Emotions. It is based on the unique combinations of

scores in these three areas that researchers have been able to create best-fit employment profies.

Work related behaviors, preferred leadership style and team type are all components of a good

job match. In addition to the 32 personality dimensions, the OPQ also includes a measurement

of Social Desireablity which measures the extent to which participants are responding

consistently, or if they are attempting to answer based on their interpretation of what the test

administrator is looking for. All attributes are assigned a numerical value between 1 and 10, and

the profie is presented in a stein score format (SHL, 1996). An example of this report can be

found in Appendix B.

Several studies have demonstrated the reliability and validity of the OPQ within the

framework of personnel development (Kachik, 2003; Saville, et. al, 1996; Sloan, 2002). SHL

has provided data which demonstrates the reliability of the tool including measures of test-retest

reliability and internal consistency (SHL, 1996). Test-retest reliability is a measurement of the

correlation between an initial test and a second test taken one month later. The correlation

coefficient of the OPQ scores ranged from 0.64 for Critical to 0.91 for Outgoing, with a mean of

0.84 (SHL, 2000). With a preferred correlation coefficient being 0.70 or higher, this data

demonstrates the reliability of the OPQ as an assessment tool. Measurements of validity have

compared the OPQ to personality profie tools such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the

Gordon Personality Profie. These criterion validation studies conclude that the OPQ is a valid

tool, and measures what it intends to measure. (SHL, 2000)









The second data collection instrument used in this study was a follow-up questionnaire.

Questions related to a participant' s level of commitment and improvement were created to assess

the effects that the learning plan activities may have had on the overall leadership development

of the individual. The questions were juried by a panel of experts in advance. A total of no more

than 6 participants were chosen for follow-up interviews based on their level of behavior and

leadership style change. A copy of the follow-up questionnaire is available in Appendix B.

Research Design and Data Collection

The community college cohort participants were given the OPQ at the beginning of their

leadership development program. Dr. Dale F. Campbell, a qualified SHL Test User administered

the OPQ to all subjects. Participants subsequently received a detailed report which outlined their

work style preferences on 32 dimensions. Attribute scores were stated in stein score format on a

1 to 10 scale. In addition to the 32 personality traits, a Social Desirability score was calculated

for each subject to assess the reliability of the individual's responses. This score reveals the

extent to which the test taker is attempting to give the presumed appropriate score. While it is

not considered a personality attribute, it does help to clarify the validity of the individual

assessment.

Participants used the information provided in the OPQ report to create an Individual

Learning Plan (ILP). With the assistance of a qualified OPQ administrator, subjects selected one

to three of their attributes that they felt would contribute to their leadership success. They

created specific goals and obj ectives designed to develop those characteristics, and constructed

an accountability protocol for measurement of each goal. Over the course of the Community

College Executive Leadership program, participants simultaneously worked toward promoting

their ILP while completing coursework and other program requirements.










Upon the conclusion of the outlined course of study, all participants evaluated their own

progress in a written report. Additionally, Dr. Campbell administered the OPQ as a post-test and

subj ects were provided with a second report of its findings.

Data Analysis

This study included an ex post-facto analysis of the pretest and the posttest data that were

collected at the two intervals previously described. The primary obj ective was to determine

whether participation in a Leadership Development Program resulted in a change in leadership

style as measured by the difference in OPQ score on targeted attributes. Due the small sample

size and the nature of the population, nonparametric techniques were used to evaluate the data.

A sign test provided the initial analysis of the data to determine an overall difference between the

pretest and posttest scores as a whole. Secondly, the Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of

variance was employed to determine the differences between the pretest and posttest scores of

the participants' targeted attributes.

Data collected during the follow up interviews was used to illustrate the participants'

experiences in the Leadership Development Program, and to add insight that pertained to the

changes they made on their targeted attributes. The interview material was grouped based on

context analysis and key terms.

Summary

This chapter has provided an overview of the research methods of this study. The

purpose of the study, population, instrumentation, design and collection methods were all

explained. The methods used for data analysis were included as well, and those results will be

presented in the following chapter.










Table 3-1. Example of Program Coursework


Course and Semester Hours
~d Learning Plan Development (1)

unity Learning Plan Implementation (1)
1(3)
(3) Learning Plan Evaluation (1)

ion (3) Practicum: Quality Enhancement
Project (3)


Fall Curriculum in Higher E
2002 Administration (3)
Semester Spring Case Studies in Comml
2003 College Administration
Fall Higher Education Law
2003
Spring Higher Ed Administrat:
2004
Source: Campbell, 2002.









CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS

The outcome of a community college leadership development program on the leadership

behaviors of community college administrators was examined in this study. All of the results of

this study including a synopsis of the pretest and posttest attribute data, descriptive results,

explanations of the data analysis process, and a discussion of the qualitative reports from a

subgroup of participants will be presented in this chapter. Research questions were designed to

identify the change in behavior over the course of a leadership development program and the

impact of gender on the subj ects' leadership behaviors as measured by their personality attribute

scores. The study addressed these questions:

4. Is there a difference in the personality attributes of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

5. Is there a difference in the leadership styles of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

6. What effect did gender have on their leadership development?

Data Analysis Process

This study included an ex post-facto analysis of the pretest and the posttest data that were

collected at two intervals. The pretest was administered by Dr. Campbell to the community

college cohort participants at the beginning of their leadership development program in 2004.

Participants subsequently received a detailed report which outlined their work style preferences

on 32 dimensions. Upon the conclusion Leadership Development Program in 2005, Dr.

Campbell administered the OPQ as a post-test and subjects were provided with a second report

of its findings.

The primary obj ective of this study was to determine whether participation in a Leadership

Development Program resulted in a change in leadership style as measured by the difference in










OPQ score on targeted attributes. Due to the small sample size and the nature of the population,

nonparametric techniques were used to evaluate the data. A Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for

difference provided the initial analysis of the data to determine an overall difference between the

pretest and posttest scores as a whole, and also total score by gender. The data was then broken

down and compared based on the three primary dimensions, Relationships with People, Thinking

Style, and Feelings and Emotions. Secondly, a Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test was employed to

determine the differences between the pretest and posttest scores of the participants' targeted

attributes. Finally, the Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of variance looked at gender as a

variable on the participants targeted attributes.

An assumption that is critical to the understanding of the OPQ results is that a change in

score on any given attribute may be an increase or a decrease in the numerical score. Moreover,

an increase in score does not necessarily indicate a "good change" nor does a decrease in score

signify a "bad change." For the purposes of this study, learning gains in either direction

indicated a change in behavior from the pretest to the posttest. Therefore, discussions of

increases or decreases in a participant' s attribute score were to indicate a direction of numerical

movement. It should not be assumed that a positive learning gain was "good" or that a negative

movement in score was "bad."

In addition to the OPQ pretest and posttest results, this research includes information

provided from the participants Learning Plan Assessments (LPA) and from follow-up interviews.

Each individual provided regular feedback on their progress through the LPA that they

completed every semester during the Leadership Development Program. This information

allowed them to chart their progress and report their learning activities to Dr. Campbell. Related

ideas were identified and grouped to demonstrate commonalities between participants. Data










collected during the follow-up interviews was used to illustrate the participants' experiences in

the Leadership Development Program, and to add insight that pertained to the changes they made

on their targeted attributes. The interview material was grouped based on context analysis and

key terms.

Presentation of Data for All Subjects

After receiving results of their 2004 OPQ pretest, all participants created an Individual

Learning Plan based on the information garnered by the report. This ILP guided their learning

obj ectives each semester as they worked to modify their behaviors through specific learning

activities. At the conclusion of the Leadership Development Program, all participants repeated

the OPQ and evaluated their own progress in a Learning Plan Assessment. Examples of both

documents can be found in Appendix B. Every participant received a report of their 2005 OPQ

posttest as well. All raw stein scores for all attributes can be found in Table C-1 and Table C-2.

As previously mentioned, the small sample size was a limitation of this study. In order to

accurately measure statistical significance between the pretest and posttest scores, non-

parametric analysis techniques were used. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was utilized to test for

differences between the 2004 pretest and the 2005 posttest for the overall scores for all

participants, then again by gender. The signed-rank test is appropriate in this situation in that it is

the non-parametric analogue to the paired t-test, but takes in consideration that the differences

between the pairs is not normally distributed. The results of this data analysis can be found in

Tables 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3. The analysis yielded no significant differences between the overall

pretest and posttest scores (mean rank = -0.4375, p = .4465, z= -11.5). Further, a data analysis

of the overall pretest and posttest scores did not indicate that gender had a statistically significant

impact on the outcomes (Female Participants mean rank = 0, p = .5391, z = -5.5; Male

Participants mean rank = -0.33333, p = .8125, z = -1.5).









Results of Grouped Data

The OPQ was designed by Saville and Holdsworth (1996) to organize work behaviors into

three distinctive domains. They are Relationships With People, Thinking Style, and Feelings and

Emotions. A complete list of the attributes that comprise each domain can be found in Table 4-

4. In addition to analyzing the OPQ scores as a whole body of data, each domain was

considered as a variable and a Wilcoxon sign-rank test was conducted to determine the

differences between the pretest and posttest scores. To address the third research question

pertaining to gender differences, each domain was further subdivided into a male and female

cluster. The analysis resulted in no significant differences between groups as a whole, or by

gender for any of the three domains.

The results for the overall domain of Relationships With People can be found in Tables 4-

6, 4-7, and 4-8. Results of analysis of this domain as a group demonstrated that there were no

significant differences overall on the attributes within this domain (mean rank = -1.1875, p =

.1729, z = -24.5). Subsequent analyses which accounted for gender as a variable demonstrated

that female participants demonstrated no significant differences within this domain (mean rank =

-1, p = .2578, z = -10.0), nor did their male counterparts (mean rank = -0.83333, p = .5313, z =

-3.5).

Six attributes within the Relationships With People domain were targeted for

improvement by female participants, whereas males only targeted four attributes within this

domain. Of the chosen characteristics Outspoken, Persuasive and Modest were selected by both

genders with Outspoken being the most commonly targeted attribute in this domain. Affiliative

and Democratic were each targeted by one female, and one male selected Socially Confident.

The results for the overall domain of Thinking Style can be found in Tables 4-9, 4-10, and

4-11. There were no significant differences for the whole group on this domain (mean rank = -









0.375, p = .8041, z = -5). Furthermore, analyses to determine the impact of gender on the

outcomes within this attribute yielded no significant differences for female (mean rank = -0.3, p

=.7832, z = -3) or male participants (mean rank = 0. 166667, p =.9, z = 1.5).

More females targeted attributes from this domain than Relationships With People or

Feelings and Emotions with a total of ten targeted attributes. Adaptability was selected by three

women; Forward Thinking and Data Rational were each selected twice; and Innovative, Detail

Conscious, and Conscientious were each chosen one time by women. Male participants

identified Hyve attributes in this area including Data Rational, Rule Following, Variety Seeking,

and Evaluative. The most commonly targeted attribute in this domain was Data Rational with a

total of four individuals selecting it for improvement.

The results for the overall domain of Feelings and Emotions can be found in Tables 4-12,

4-13, and 4-14. Results of analysis of this domain as a group demonstrated that there were no

significant differences overall on the attributes within this domain (mean rank = 1.125, p =

.4525, z = 12.5). Subsequent analyses which accounted for gender as a variable established that

female participants demonstrated no significant differences within this domain (mean rank = 0.8,

p = .6797, z = 3.5), nor did their male counterparts (mean rank = -0.666667, p = .6563, z = 2.5).

Seven attributes were targeted for improvement by women within this domain. Trusting

and Competitive were each chosen twice while Tough Minded, Optimistic, Emotionally

Controlled, Vigorous, and Decisive were each selected once by female participants. Trusting

and Competitive were also chosen twice by their male counterparts, with Tough Minded and

Achieving each garnering one notation.

Targeted Attributes

After receiving their 2004 pretest results, each participant selected multiple attributes to

target for their individual areas of improvement. They stated what numerical change they felt










they could achieve over the course of the Leadership Development Program, and outlined a

learning plan to facilitate those changes. These attributes and their associated pretest and

posttest numerical scores are referred to as the targeted attributes.

A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to measure the differences between the pretest and

posttest scores for the targeted attributes. The results of this analysis were statistically

significant (mean rank = 1.74359, p =. 0056, z = 155.5). Although the participants did not

increase their dimension scores as a whole, they did demonstrate a significant difference in

improvement on those individual scores that had been marked for improvement. Again, the

Wilcoxon signed-rank test was utilized due to the very small sample size and the lack of normal

distribution on the differences between pretest and posttest scores.

As a group, the participants had an average change of 2.38 per attribute on their targeted

attributes. When addressed by gender, male participants demonstrated slightly greater learning

gains with an average change of 2.625 per targeted attribute as compared to females who

produced an average of 2.17 per targeted attribute.

Differences by Gender

Following the analysis of the targeted attributes, an additional assessment of the impact

of gender was performed. A Kruskall-Wallis one way analysis of variance was used to

determine whether gender played a role in achieving greater improvement on the targeted

attributes. The results of the Kruskall-Wallis test indicated that gender did not play a role in

score improvement on individual items marked for improvement (Female mean rank = 2.18,

Male mean rank = 1.625, p = .6968, chi-square = .1518).

Learning Plan Assessments

Participants completed Learning Plan Assessments (LPA) at regular intervals throughout

the Leadership Development Program. The number of LPA reports for each participant varied









from a total of three to a total of seven. The same format was used for each semester, and

participants were encouraged to reflect upon their experiences in a less structured manner if they

so chose as well. Several common themes emerged and were continued through the length of the

program including the overall usefulness of the OPQ and the related attribute identification,

mentoring as a whole, and reports of feedback received as a result of their changes in leadership

style and work behaviors.

Usefulness of the OPQ

The overall consensus among the cohort of students was that the OPQ was a useful tool

in delineating their own work related behaviors and preferences. They felt that they benefited

from the knowledge they gained from the report and recognized the importance of self analysis

in their attempts to become better leaders. One individual stated that he was "glad that [he] had

an opportunity to take an honest look at [him] self and determine the areas needed for

improvement." Another participant commented that:

I have learned that the Learning Plan and the OPQ results are a continuous improvement
process that helps me identify my areas of strength and modify the areas for improvement
to help me be a strong leader now and in the future. This experience will allow me to go
forward with confidence in all that I do and recognize I have in me the very essence of a
great leader.

However, recognizing the need for change, and being willing and able to make personal

change proved to be more difficult for several people. A female participant commented:

There are some aspects of my style that can be modified, while some are inherent part of
my personality that won't sway very much. It is simply up to me to identify these aspects
and balance them so that it results in an effective leader.

Another echoed the sentiment and further explained that she had not achieved mastery of the

new leadership attributes. Her acceptance of her lack of mastery reads:

I gave it my best shot; it' s simply not my preferred style. I will never 'enj oy analyzing
statistical information' as the OPQ states. Thankfully, there are people out there who
love working with numbers and I would love to hire them! I don't see my data rational










score as a weakness. While it' s not a preferred style, I know I can make data-based
decisions when needed.

Quite a few individuals made mention of their success with the OPQ as it related to their

level of commitment. That their mastery of new skills, or lack thereof was in direct relation to

their personal level of commitment to change. The feedback regarding their performance was

instrumental in maintaining the higher level of dedication that was necessary for overall

achievement.

Mentoring

One of the more noteworthy common threads among the self reports was that of

mentoring. While the female participants talked about their mentoring experiences more

frequently than their male counterparts, both genders refer to the need for, or importance of

establishing a mentoring relationship. In particular, one participant had a lasting and

professionally meaningful relationship with her mentor that she described in the following:

I have been working every other week with my mentor [name withheld]. (S)he is
gracious and happy to see me each time I visit for our mentoring meeting. I find this time
invaluable to ask advice about maj or areas within higher education, i.e. grant writing,
politics, networking, etc. I also feel comfortable asking her about her perceptions of my
style, tips on handling difficult situations, or times when I feel less confident. She is
always encouraging me to meet with others in and outside of [name of college withheld],
and to consider my future employment goals.

Still others cited the importance of networking with their mentor, and the reflection of the

professional shadow that their mentor was casting. One woman expanded beyond the traditional

idea of a mentor and connected with a small national group of female academic leaders.

Through email and professional conferences, they have established a community of mentors that

provides a forum for sharing successes and asking for advice. One female summarized the

importance of her mentoring relationship and stated,









Connecting with other women leaders was definitely helpful to my overall growth. Being
able to give and receive honest feedback was valuable. It helped me realize that I am not
alone in my effort to develop into a transformational leader.

This concept of the importance of establishing a mentoring relationship was a recurring theme in

both the LPA reports and the follow-up interviews.

Feedback on Changes in Leadership Style

Many participants used the LPA reports as an opportunity to share some of the feedback

they had received as a result of their behavioral changes. Overwhelmingly, the comments they

shared were positive and reinforced their continued work toward attribute mastery. Some of the

comments included:

I have been told that the search committee is looking for a new chair, and the suggestion
was to get someone "like [name withheld]. While I don't have time to chair this
particular committee, I will take it as a compliment.

During the past two years, I have made it a point to gather and utilize the latest data and
statistics in the grant proposals that I prepare and submit. I believe that I have established
a reputation among faculty of being able to assist and advise on completing the
background research that is necessary to prepare and submit a quality grant proposal.

On another occasion I was complimented by a senior faculty that I have the utmost
respect for. He shared with me that it' s hard for anyone to say no to me when I ask them
to help with a proj ect because I am so genuine. That was probably the highlight of my
learning.

I was notified that I was one of forty administrative staff that was awarded a merit bonus
based on my performance in my new role.

These positive comments from co-workers and supervisors clearly demonstrated that not

only had the participants been able to affect change in their own perceptions of leadership, but

that they had begun to incorporate different work behaviors. As some participants pointed out,

the recognition of their new skills further reinforced the behavior, and enhanced the likelihood of

mastery. Overall, the reports indicated that they had begun to recognize strong leadership









attributes in themselves and others as the program advanced, and they possessed a healthier

outlook in terms of future professional opportunities.

Follow Up Interviews

The follow-up interviews were conducted with a subgroup of six participants in February

2007. The purpose of the interviews was to gain insight into the Leadership Development

Program experiences of the participants and to discover how the participants evaluated their own

level of mastery of the targeted attributes.

A questionnaire was used to guide the interviews. This instrument had been previously

developed by a juried panel of experts, and can be found in Appendix B. The participants

selected for follow-up interviews were contacted via email and once an interview had been

scheduled, they were sent a copy of the questionnaire as well as copies of their OPQ pretest and

posttest reports to refresh their memories. The preview of the questionnaire allowed subjects to

reflect upon their experiences with the Leadership Development Program and formulate

responses in advance of the interview.

Interviews were conducted via telephone, and all conversations were recorded for accuracy

purposes. Participants were informed that the conversation was being recorded, and that all

recording would remain in the possession of the investigator so as to protect their confidentiality.

They were encouraged to be as forthright as possible and to include specific examples and

relevant anecdotes.

A total of six individuals were interviewed; three male and three female. Participants were

selected based on the level of change that they had demonstrated on the OPQ pretest and

posttest. Included in the interview pool were the male and female with the greatest overall

change, the male and female with the least overall change, and the male and female with the









median level of change. The comparative level of attribute change was not divulged to any

participant.

In general, the participants were enthusiastic and animated in their discussion of the

program and their individual progress. While not all individuals reported mastery of their

targeted obj ectives, they overwhelmingly affirmed some level of success in modifying their

leadership style and work behaviors. Both the female and the male interviewee who

demonstrated the least amount of change from their 2004 pretest to the 2005 posttest indicated

that in spite of the lack of numerical confirmation, they both felt they had made considerable

personal improvement on their targeted attributes. The female participant noted that she had

truly worked on becoming more Adaptable in the workplace, and that her annual performance

review the subsequent year indicated that her flexibility had improved, thus improving her

overall job performance. She went on to state that although her OPQ posttest didn't necessarily

indicate the change, she felt she had made strides in that area.

Likewise, her male counterpart was surprised at his posttest results. Overall, he indicated

that he felt all of his posttest scores were lower than what he had anticipated them being. Of the

three targeted attributes, he had no change between pretest and posttest on two of them, and a

change of 3 points on the 10 point scale on the other. He had identified three attributes, Variety

Seeking, Tough Minded and Socially Confident as his target traits and admitted that he had

anticipated those areas to be weaknesses. However, he felt that he had made maj or strides and

during the interview, he remarked that he felt the test was not an accurate reflection of his

individual progress.

The same participant elaborated about his mastery of the new skill set by stating that while

he felt he had learned to integrate the behaviors into his preferred work style, that he did not feel









that he had truly mastered any of the three targeted attributes. Although perhaps he was closer

on Tough Minded, for the other two attributes he did not denote any degree of mastery.

The male participant who demonstrated the most overall change over the course of the

Leadership Development Program felt that the scores were an accurate reflection of the strides he

has made toward becoming a stronger leader. In the interview, he commented,

If you just base it on the scores it looks like I've been successful. Dr. Campbell discussed
the scores, and he said that we shouldn't expect more than two or three points change in
score. As you can see on Modest, I changed six [points]. I felt pretty good about that. It
was something I was working on, and it worked. So I feel pretty successful about those
changes. (personal communication, February 2007)

Interestingly, this participant did not feel that he had mastered any of his targeted

attributes. Although he mentioned that he has become more comfortable with the new style of

thinking, he cannot foresee either characteristic becoming an integral part of his preferred work

style. In spite of the marked change on all of his targeted attribute scores, he recognized that

some aspects of his personality are inherent, and not likely to transform.

Similarly, another participant who demonstrated marked improvement from her pretest to

posttest scores achieved perceived success, but did not feel that she had reached true mastery.

On her three targeted attributes, her pretest scores were 10, 2, and 2 with those numbers

representing a scale of 1 to 10. Her posttest scores on those attributes were 7, 7, and 7,

indicating a change of 3, 5 and 5. This participant was overwhelmingly confident about her

individual success in achieving the leadership goals and obj ectives. She remarked early in the

interview that not only had her scores improved, but that she had predicted the exact amount of

change that she would demonstrate. However, when questioned about her mastery and

integration of the new skills, she stated,

I don't know that I would even say mastery because that makes it seem like I've got it
down cold and I've still got a long way to go. I would say that through increased









awareness, it's something that I am continually working on and in some situations, I am
more successful than others. It' s not really mastery, I'm just working toward improving
those areas. (personal communication, February 2007)

She went on to discuss her perceptions of whether or not she had integrated the new skill

set, and could consider it to be her preferred style. One of the attributes that she had targeted for

change was Detail Conscious. On the OPQ pretest, her score on that attribute was 10, which is

considered extreme and indicates that an individual is focused on details, is methodical and

organized, and may become preoccupied with detail. Although her posttest score dropped to a 7,

she commented that it has not become her preferred style and that she consciously works against

her natural style daily in an attempt to be less Detail Conscious. She believes that it is an aspect

of her personality that will never change. Contrarily, mentioned that her dramatic change on the

Data Rational attribute is warranted. She pointed out that she wasn't convinced that a change

had actually occurred or if it' s always been in her nature, and when she took the OPQ, her daily

work did not include a statistical element.

One of the more insightful interviews was with a female participant who demonstrated

minimal change on her selected attributes. She selected two attributes, and had no change on one

of them, and a numerical change of 1 on the other. When asked about her perceived success in

changing her behaviors as demonstrated on the OPQ, she laughed and stated that while she felt

she had been moderately successful that she believed, in general, that people do not change.

They may be able to consciously work toward changing their outward behavior in certain

circumstances, but it will be a constant effort to do so. She commented,

I don't know if I will ever be an eternal optimist like some people are, but I think I am
more optimistic and more confident as I go further through the problem. I want to be
more decisive. I have had more practice this year with executive decisions, so I have
gotten a little better at being decisive at work. (personal communication, February 2007)









Overall, the participants felt they had achieved some success in achieving their learning

and development objectives for each of the attributes. None, however, indicated that they were

secure in their mastery of the new style, although all considered themselves to be more

comfortable with the behavior and had even grown to prefer the new skills.

During the course of the follow-up interviews, all participants expressed their overall

satisfaction with their personal progress as well as their involvement with the Leadership

Development Program. In general, they were pleased to have had an opportunity to take an

honest look at their leadership style and work behaviors and determine the areas needed for

improvement. A recurring sentiment was the realization that self-improvement was an ongoing

process, and they would have to continue to work towards mastering new leadership behaviors.

One individual stated,

I have learned that the Learning Plan and the OPQ results are a continuous improvement
process that helps me identify my areas of strength and modify the areas for improvement
to help me be a strong leader now and in the future. This experience will allow me to go
forward with confidence in all that I do and recognize I have in me the very essence of a
great leader.

Others recognized that their level of commitment to change directly impacted the

successful outcomes of the program. A number of participants voiced their initial lack of

dedication as a lack of focus or understanding of the full scope of the undertaking. This

universal theme was well summarized by a participant, who explained,

Before I took the post-OPQ, I did not believe I had significantly changed my attitude
about these areas; however I had made a concerted effort to modify my actions in certain
situations. I put my level of commitment somewhere around a Level III because I did not
seize every opportunity to alter my behavior. But when I did, I did so beyond what was
comfortable to me so maybe that was the key. I am not surprised that I was able to
change, only that I was so effective at making the change.

The fifth question on the follow-up interview asked the participants what, if anything

they would do differently to ensure success and what advice they would give to others to










improve the likelihood of attaining mastery of the chosen attributes. Their responses outlined

three distinctive themes; mentoring, joumnaling, and leadership literature.

Mentoring

All subj ects mentioned mentoring as both something they would do differently, or had

done themselves, and a suggestion they would give to others. Regardless of their demonstrated or

perceived success, the group echoed the sentiment of the importance of working with a trusted

colleague or mentor. One man expressed his need for mentor in this fashion:

There were times when I wasn't sure how aggressive I should be, of what I should do.
So maybe if I had someone, sort of a mentor for this particular activity, who could say
'try this' or 'yeah, this is good,' that might have helped. I don't know if it would have
affected the outcome, but it might have. (personal communication, February 2007).

Another participant noted that a mentor would have been beneficial in that it would have

given her a unique opportunity to gain feedback from a trusted source. She went on to say that

while she would not have chosen a mentor from her college or cohort, that securing a trusted

individual who would reflect back an honest image would have been helpful in navigating the

program.

Additional comments centered on gaining experience from watching another

administrator at work. To be able to learn from how they handle every day situations and their

reactions would be useful. It would also provide an opportunity to discover that person's

attributes that others may see as strengths and weaknesses, and continue to build on the image of

a successful leader.

Journaling

A second common suggestion was that of joumaling. Multiple participants made mention

of the importance of creating and maintaining a j oumal to chart their progress through the

program. One participant stated that if he could do anything differently, he would definitely









keep a journal to delineate the three attributes he had targeted, and to document his learning

obj ectives and events related to those areas. Another participant elaborated on the use of a

journal and importance of self reflection. She commented that she wished she had spent more

time doing personal research and individual reading, and that it had been her intent to do so, but

that outside influences such as work and family hampered her ability to spend quality private

time developing her leadership attributes.

Leadership Literature

Still another common thread was the mention of current leadership related books that

several of the participants read and spoke highly of during the interviews. One man suggested

that future participants spend time researching the attributes that they feel they could change, and

invest in the associated literature to be better prepared for the challenges. Another commented

that he began his program by finding books on leadership, and that they helped set the tone for

his program. Some books that were repeatedly mentioned were Learning to Lead by Bennis and

Goldsmith, The 360 oLeader by John Maxwell, and Good to Great by Jim Collins. Participants

noted that reading literature that was not assigned as part of the Leadership Development

Program was beneficial to them in that it gave them different perspectives on leadership, and

provided them with more diverse tools with which they could facilitate change in their own

leadership style.

Summary

This chapter outlined the statistical analysis required to answer the three research

questions posed in Chapter 3. Information regarding pretest and posttest attribute data,

descriptive results, explanations of the data analysis process, as well as qualitative reports from

the follow-up interviews were presented in this chapter. Chapter 5 contains an enhanced










discussion of these results, implications for higher education, and suggests areas of future

research.










Table 4-1. Overall Test Scores Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test
.Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Rank
Difference Rank
AGE 185 184 -1 -1 2 -2
10F 178 176 -2 -2 3 -3
(17 184 183 -1 -1 2 -2
EOF 181 181 0 + 0 1 1
EA& 183 175 -8 -8 4 -4
FA& 180 180 0 + 0 1 1
(OF 179 179 0 + 0 1 1
H05 185 184 -1 -1 2 -2
011 181 179 -2 2 3 -3
JM 179 181 2 + 2 3 3
EP 182 184 2 + 2 3 3
10? 183 184 1 + 1 2 2
M4M 179 181 2 + 2 3 3
IfF 184 175 -9 -9 5 -5
OF 178 179 1 + 1 2 2
PF 183 182 -1 -1 2 -2
Mean-
Rank 01.4375
z--11.5, p=.4465


Table 4-2. Overall Test Scores by Female Participants Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test

Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Aboue Rank Sge
Difference Rank
AGE 185 184 -1 -1 1 -1
10F 178 176 -2 -2 1 -1
(07 184 183 -1 -1 2 -2
EOF 181 181 0 + 0 2 2
(OF 179 179 0 + 0 2 2
EU 182 184 2 + 2 2 2
LF 183 184 1 + 1 2 2
NF 184 175 -9 -9 3 -3
OF 178 179 1 + 1 3 3
PF 183 182 -1 -1 4 -4
Mean
Rank
z--5.5, p=.5391










Table 4-3. Overall Test Scores by Male Participants Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test

Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Aboue Rank Sge
Difference Rank
EM 183 175 -8 -8 4 -4
FA& 180 180 0 + 0 1 1
HM 185 184 -1 -1 2 -2
IM 181 179 -2 2 3 -3
JM 179 181 2 + 2 3 3
MM 179 181 2 + 2 3 3
Mean-
Rank 0.33333
z--1.5, p=.8125


Table 4-4. Work Behavior Domains and Related Attributes
Relationships with People Thinking Style

Persuasive Data Rational

Controlling Evaluative

Outspoken Behavioral

Independent Minded Conventional

Outgoing Conceptual

Affiliative Innovative

Socially Confident Variety Seeking

Modest Adaptable

Democratic Forward Thinking

Caring Detail Conscious

Conscientious

Rule Following


Feelings and Emotions

Relaxed

Worrying

Tough Minded

Optimi sti c

Trusting

Emotionally Controlled

Vigorous

Competitive

Achieving

Deci sive









Table 4-5. Occurrence of Targeted Attributes by Gender
Attribute Number of Times Targeted Number of Times Targeted
by Female by Male
Participants Participants
Relationships With People
Persuasive 1 1
Controlling
Outspoken 1 2
Independent Minded
Outgoing
Affiliative 1
Socially Confident 1
Modest 1 1
Democratic 1
Caring
Thinking Style
Data Rational 2 2
Evaluative 1
Behavioral
Conventional
Conceptual
Innovative 1
Variety Seeking 1
Adaptable 3
Forward Thinking 2
Detail Conscious 1
Conscientious 1
Rule Following 1
Feelings and Emotions
Relaxed
Worrying
Tough Minded 1 1
Optimi sti c 1
Trusting 2 2
Emotionally Controlled 1
Vigorous 1
Competitive 2 2
Achieving 1
Decisive 1
Persuasive
Controlling
Outspoken









Table 4-6. Overall Test Scores for the Relationships with People Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-
Ranked Test
.Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Difrne Rank Rn

AF 52 48 -4 -4 4 -4
BF 56 51 -5 -5 5 -5
CF 52 54 2 + 2 2 2
DF 61 58 -3 -3 3 -3
EM 58 52 -6 -6 6 -6
FM 61 59 -2 -2 2 -2
GF 56 54 -2 -2 2 -2
HM 56 59 3 + 3 3 3
IM 52 55 3 + 3 3 3
JM 49 44 -5 -5 5 -5
KF 55 59 4 + 4 4 4
LF 55 57 2 + 2 2 2
MM 56 54 -2 -2 2 -2
NF 59 59 0 + 0 1 1
OF 61 59 -2 -2 2 -2
PF 54 51 -3 -3 3 -3
Mean
-1.1875
Rank
z--24.5, p=.1729


Table 4-7. Overall Test Scores by Female Participants for the Relationships With People
Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test
Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Difrne Rank Rn

AF 52 48 -4 -4 4 -4
BF 56 51 -5 -5 5 -5
CF 52 54 2 + 2 2 2
DF 61 58 -3 -3 3 -3
GF 56 54 -2 -2 2 -2
KF 55 59 4 + 4 4 4
LF 55 57 2 + 2 2 2
NF 59 59 0 + 0 1 1
OF 61 59 -2 -2 2 -2
PF 54 51 -3 -3 3 -3
Mean
Rank
z--10.0, p=.2578










Table 4-8. Overall Test Scores by Male Participants for the Relationships With People
Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test
Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Difrne Rank Rn
EM 58 52 -6 -6 4 -4
FM 61 59 -2 -2 1 -1
MM 56 54 -2 -2 1 -1
HM 56 59 3 + 3 2 2
IM 52 55 3 + 3 2 2
JM 49 44 -5 -5 3 -3
Mean-
Rank 0.83333
z--3.5, p=.5313


Table 4-9. Overall Test Scores for the Thinking Style Dimension Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test
.Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Dfeec in Rank
AF 78 79 1 + 1 2 2
BF 71 68 -3 -3 3 -3
CF 74 73 -1 -1 2 -2
DF 62 69 7 + 7 5 5
EM 64 64 0 + 0 1 1
FM 65 59 -6 -6 4 -4
GF 65 64 -1 -1 2 -2
HM 80 70 -10 -10 7 -7
IM 65 72 7 + 7 5 5
JM 75 76 1 + 1 2 2
KF 59 68 9 + 9 6 6
LF 69 68 -1 -1 2 -2
MM 69 72 3 + 3 3 3
NF 80 68 -12 -12 8 -8
OF 64 67 3 + 3 3 3
PF 83 76 -7 -7 5 -5
Mean
-0.375
Rank
z--5, p=.8041









Table 4-10. Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for Overall Test Scores by Female Participants for the
Thinking Style Dimension
.Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Difrne Rank Rn

AF 78 79 1 + 1 1 1
BF 71 68 -3 -3 2 -2
CF 74 73 -1 -1 1 -1
DF 62 69 7 + 7 3 3
GF 65 64 -1 -1 1 -1
KF 59 68 9 + 9 4 4
LF 69 68 -1 -1 1 -1
NF 80 68 -12 -12 5 -5
OF 64 67 3 + 3 2 2
PF 83 76 -7 -7 3 -
Mean
-0.3
Rank
z--3, p=.7832


Table 4-11. Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for Overall Test Scores by Male Participants for the
Thinking Style Dimension
.Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Difrne Rank Rn

EM 64 64 0 + 0 1 1
FM 65 59 -6 -6 4 -4
JM 75 76 1 + 1 2 2
IM 65 72 7 + 7 5 5
HM 80 70 -10 -10 6 -6
MM 69 72 3 + 3 3 3
Mean
0.166667
Rank
z--.5, p=.9













Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Aboue Rank Sge
Difference Rank
AF 55 57 2 + 2 3 3
BF 51 57 6 -6 6 6
CF 58 56 -2 -2 3 -3
DF 58 54 -4 + 4 5 -5
EM 61 59 -2 + 2 3 -3
FM 54 62 8 -8 7 7
GF 58 61 3 + 3 4 4
HM 49 55 6 + 6 6 6
IM 64 52 -12 12 10 -10
JM 55 61 6 + 6 6 6
KF 68 57 -11 -11 9 -9
LF 59 59 0 -0 1 1
MM 54 55 1 -1 2 2
NF 45 48 3 -3 4 4
OF 53 53 0 + 0 1 1
PF 46 55 9 + 9 8 8
Mean
1.125
Rank
z=12.5, p=.4525


Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Aboue Rank Sge
Difference Rank
AF 55 57 2 + 2 2 2
BF 51 57 6 + 6 5 5
CF 58 56 -2 -2 2 -2
DF 58 54 -4 -4 4 -4
GF 58 61 3 + 3 3 3
KF 68 57 -11 -11 7 -7
LF 59 59 0 + 0 1 1
NF 45 48 3 + 3 3 3
OF 53 53 0 + 0 1 1
PF 46 55 9 + 9 6 6
Mean
0.8
Rank
z-3.5, p=.6797


Table 4-12. Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test for Overall Test Scores for the Feelings
Dimension


and Emotions


Table 4-13. Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test for Overall Test Scores by
Feelings and Emotions Dimension


Female Participants for the










Table 4-14. Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked test for Overall Test Scores by Male Participants for the
Feelings and Emotions Dimension
.Absolute Signed
Participant Pre Post Difference Sign Difrne Rank Rn
EM 61 59 -2 -2 2 -2
FA& 54 62 8 + 8 4 4
HM 49 55 6 + 6 3 3
IM 64 52 -12 -12 5 -5
JM 55 61 6 + 6 3 3
MM 54 55 1 + 1 1 1
Mean
0.666667
Rank
z-2.5, p=.6563










Table 4-15. Difference in Attributes

Pretest Posttest Difference


Targeted for Improvement Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked Test
.Absolute Signed
Sign Rank
Difference Rank
0 1 1
0 1 1
+ 2 3 3
+ 2 3 3
+ 2 3 3
+ 3 4 4
+ 1 2 2
3 4 -4
1 2 -2
+ 5 6 6
1 2 -2
+ 6 7 7
+ 1 2 2
+ 2 3 3
+ 1 2 2
+ 3 4 4
+ 5 6 6
1 2 -2
0 1 1
+ 2 3 3
+ 3 4 4
+ 5 6 6
2 3 -3
7 8 -8
+ 1 2 2
+ 1 2 2
+ 3 4 4
3 4 -4
+ 2 3 3
+ 4 5 5
+ 2 3 3
+ 2 3 3
6 7 -7
0 1 1
+ 3 4 4
+ 5 6 6
+ 1 2 2
0 1 1
+ 2 3 3
Mean
Rank 1.74359
z=155.5, p==.0056










Table 4-16. Differences in Gender Among Pretest and Posttest Scores on Attributes Targeted for
Improvement Kruskall-Wallis Test
Gender Mean Rank

Female 2.18
Male 1.625
Chi-Square: .1518,
p=.6968









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents conclusions and findings as they relate to the data analysis discussed

in the previous chapter as well as the review of literature. Recommendations for future research

will also be provided in this chapter, and the implications of this material for higher education

will be presented.

It was predicted that America' s community colleges would be facing an unprecedented

shortage of qualified educational leaders in the coming years. This impending exodus will both

create new opportunities for a new generation of leaders as well as create a gap in the leadership.

Resulting research has attempted to create a working profile of what the "perfect leader" looks

like. While no one body of work claims to have created the ideal profile, there does seem to be a

general agreement in the literature of common demographics, personality traits, and leadership

styles of an effective leader. Through talent recognition and leadership development training,

the next generation of college leaders may be cultivated from the population that exists within

the administrative framework of America' s Community Colleges.

The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of a community college leadership

development program on the leadership behaviors of community college administrators and to

explore a framework of educational leadership development. The primary design addressed by

this research suggests that through a combination of professional coaching, individual

development and focus, individuals can acquire new skills, modify behaviors, and therefore,

increase their educational leadership capacity. Identification of individual skills and weaknesses,

followed by attribute specific improvements, was the cornerstone of this approach.

The study specifically looked to address the impact of the program through these

questions:









7. Is there a difference in the personality attributes of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

8. Is there a difference in the leadership styles of community college
administrators after 12 months of program participation?

9. What effect did gender have on their leadership development?


Chapter 2 contains a review of literature that is relevant to the scope of this study. The

results of the OPQ pretest and posttest, the Learning Plan Assessments, and the follow-up

questionnaire were presented in Chapter 4. This chapter addresses those findings and provides

recommendations for future research.

Changes in Personality Attribute Scores

The following observations are based on both the interpretation of the data analysis of the

participants OPQ pretest and posttest scores as well as the raw mean differences in attribute

score. While the second set of information was not evaluated using statistical analysis, it is

useful in creating an overview of the participants' experiences and subsequent behavioral

changes that occurred during the Leadership Development Program. Table 5-1 provides an

overview of the average amount of change for each attribute for the overall group and by gender.

The analysis of the overall pretest and posttest scores yielded no significant differences

between the groups. However, the raw ranking of amount of numerical change between the

2004 pretest and the 2005 posttest indicated that three attributes averaged more than a full point

difference for the total population. The group as a whole demonstrated the most dramatic change

on their Data Rational score, an attribute linked to preferring to work with numbers and

statistical information. This change was consistent across the two gender groups, as women

exhibited the most sizeable change on this attribute and it was the second highest change in

attribute average score for the men. A total of four out of the sixteen participants targeted Data









Rational as an area of weakness, which accounts for most of the improvement of this attribute.

Additionally, it must be considered that over the course of the Leadership Development

Program, the participants were required to take graduate level courses offered through the

University of Florida. Literature review and research analysis were a component of most classes.

It stands to reason that a certain amount of the improvement on this attribute across the board

was due to the natural learning curve of performing graduate level coursework. According to

Byham, Smith and Paese (2002), the importance that a person places on a characteristic can also

impact their enthusiasm for the activities that are necessary to elicit the change. Given that Data

Rational was a common focal point for many of the participants; it stands to reason that the

importance that they placed on this attribute positively impacted the amount of improvement that

they demonstrated as a group.

A compelling change was also noted on the overall Competitive score, which was targeted

for improvement by a total of four individuals, two male and two female. Again, a quarter of the

total population had targeted this attribute for improvement. Moreover, those individuals who

chose Competitive as one of their targeted attributes all expressed a high level of confidence in

their overall success in mastery of their new leadership style. One female participant increased

her Competitive score by six points on the 10-point scale, and felt that her new found confidence

in her leadership abilities contributed to her ability to be more competitive in the workplace.

The third most changed overall score was on the Conventional personality attribute.

Similarly, this trait was in the top five greatest changed attributes for both male and female

participants. This characteristic measures an individual's willingness to work outside of their

comfort zone and to try less predictable methods of operating. Interestingly, none of the sixteen

participants listed this quality as an area they felt they needed to target, nor did their pretest









scores, on average, indicate that they fell to the extreme ends of the OPQ scale. Their posttest

scores overall numerically moved toward being less Conventional as a group. Again, it may be

considered that their participation in the Leadership Development Program created a learning

environment where they were challenged to be more creative and innovative in the classroom,

and this effect carried over into their work preferences.

Gender Differences

A data analysis of the overall pretest and posttest scores did not indicate that gender had a

statistically significant impact on the outcomes. Interestingly, the foundational work from which

this research stems found that there was a greater overall change in the personality attributes in

male participants than in females (Salvano, 2005). This inconsistency is due in large part to the

weakness of the statistical analysis implemented in the original study. While the small sample

size and lack of normal distribution dictate non-parametric statistical analyses, the 2005 data set

was analyzed with parametric techniques. It is this researcher's opinion that the investigative

statistics used resulted in flawed results that are, therefore, in conflict with the findings presented

in this manuscript.

The trend found in this research of gender similarity was further illustrated in the ranking

of mean differences between pretest and posttest scores by gender, as found in Table 5-1. There

were several overwhelming commonalities that indicated that gender did not have a direct impact

on the OPQ outcomes.

Female participants demonstrated the most change on Data Rational, whereas it ranked as

the second highest level of change for males. Two women and two men distinguished Data

Rational as a targeted attribute, and clearly, both genders had learning gains in this area. Both

groups also found Conventional in their top five, with it ranking fourth for the female

participants and fifth for the males.










Conversely, the lower end of the spectrum revealed similarities as well. Both Caring and

Innovative ranked in the bottom five attributes in terms of the level of change demonstrated by

all participants, male and female. Caring, which measures the amount of empathy and support

provided to others in the workplace, ranked as the trait with the fifth least amount of change for

women, and the third lowest for the males. Interestingly, Innovative measures how a person

enj oys being creative in the workplace and generate new ideas and original solutions to

problems. It ranked in the fourth and fifth lowest position for female and male participants,

respectively. This is an intriguing development in that the group became less Conventional over

the course of the program, which is often linked to Innovative.

The lack of significant differences between the male and female participants suggests, on a

broad scale, that women are equally as capable of affecting change in their leadership style.

Additionally, it showed that women can modify those behaviors which have been determined to

be more difficult to alter. The inequity in gender representation, especially in leadership roles in

academia is unfounded. Women's leadership development must be advanced in the twenty-first

century, challenging women to cultivate their skills as managers and institutions to broaden their

perspectives.

Changes by Work Behavior Domains

Contrarily, when the data is grouped based on the three distinctive domains established by

Saville and Holdsworth (1996), there does appear to be a learning gain difference between the

genders. The domains as delineated in the OPQ are Relationships With People, Thinking Style,

and Feelings and Emotions. A complete list of the attributes that comprise each domain can be

found in Table 4-4.

As a group, the female participants demonstrated the greatest amount of change for the

domain of Feelings and Emotions. This domain does not contain any of the three highest









ranking attribute changes for women, Data Rational, Independent Minded and Behavioral. It

does, however, contain more of the attributes that were targeted by female participants than

either of the other two domains. Overall, the female participants demonstrated the least amount

of change for the Relationships With People domain, where the fewest targeted attributes were

represented.

Bearing the exact opposite outcome, the male participants displayed the greatest amount of

change for the Relationships With People domain, and the least for the Feelings and Emotions

domain. Likewise, only one of the top three most markedly changed attributes can be found in

the Relationships With People domain. In a more peculiar result, in spite of the considerable

learning gains made in this area, males targeted fewer attributes in the Relationships With People

domain than in either of the other two areas.

It should be noted that both of these results reflect an inconsistency when compared to the

foundational research done by Salvano (2005). Her results indicated that the male participants

demonstrated the greatest overall change in the Feelings and Emotions domain, with female

participants have the greatest change in the Thinking Style domain. As has been previously

mentioned, while Salvano' s work did provide much of the groundwork for this study, it is this

researcher' s opinion that the statistics implemented in that work were poorly chosen, and did not

accurately reflect the analysis of the material.

Byham, Smith and Paese (2002) highlight methods of developing leadership talent, and the

struggles many individuals with face along the development path. Their research allowed them to

create a chart which assigns a numerical value to the level of difficulty associated with ease of

trait development. Byham, et al. list the attributes associated with the Feelings and Emotions

domain as the more difficult attribute set to modify. Optimistic and Vigorous rank as two of the









more challenging qualities to modify. The male subset of this research corroborated their

findings, and elicited less overall change for those dimensions that Byham, et al. suggested

would be more challenging to amend.

Contrarily, the female participants in this study demonstrated their greatest overall changes

in the Feelings and Emotions domain. While this may seem to be in direct opposition to the

literature, the external influences that the women experienced during the Leadership

Development Program would account for much of their personality changes. Through both the

Learning Plan Assessments and the follow-up interviews, several of the women elaborated on

some of the personal issues they were faced with between 2004 and 2005. Deaths in the family,

divorce, relocation, change in work demands, considerable weight loss, and children going away

to college were some of the hindrances they faced. All of these issues were personal in nature,

and required many of the women to develop some behaviors associated with the Feelings and

Emotions domain. Because the findings of this study are in direct conflict with the published

literature, the impact of outside influences on an individual's overall behavioral change may be

an area that dictates further investigation.

Answers to Research Questions

This study design suggested that through a combination of professional coaching,

individual development and focus, individuals can acquire new skills, modify behaviors, and

therefore, increase their educational leadership capacity. A comparison of the participants'

pretest and posttest OPQ scores for their targeted attributes indicates that there was a significant

difference, and therefore a change in their leadership characteristics. Follow-up interviews and

self reports found in the participants' Learning Plan Assessments corroborate these findings.

While the data analysis indicated that further investigation of the subj ect is warranted, the overall










implications of the study point to the conclusion that the Leadership Development Program was

influential in affecting behavioral change in the leadership skills of the participants.

Answer to the First Research Question

The first research question asked whether there was a difference in the personality

attributes of community college administrators after 12 months of participation in the Leadership

Development program. The statistical analysis of the overall pretest and posttest scores yielded

no significant differences between the groups, meaning that their complete OPQ profie had not

changed by the conclusion of the program. The researcher believes this was due in large part to

the small sample size of the population. This study only included a total of sixteen individuals,

which is considerably lower than an optimal subject pool. Not only did the small sample size

limit the raw data, it required the use of non-parametric analyses, which do not assume a normal

distribution of the population. The methods employed during this analysis required the

researcher to convert the raw figures to ranked data. This generally involves a slight loss of

information, which in turn, makes this a less powerful test than its parametric counterpart.

Answer to the Second Research Question

The second question focused on where there was a difference in the leadership styles of

community college administrators after 12 months of program participation. This question

specifically speaks to the behavioral changes that were demonstrated by the participants as a

result of their participation, and can be measured both by the statistical analysis of their targeted

attributes and self-reports of success.

The statistical test used to measure the differences between the pretest and posttest scores

for the targeted attributes indicated that there was a statistically significant difference over the

course of the program. Although the participants did not increase their OPQ scores as a whole,










they did demonstrate a significant difference in improvement on those individual scores that they

had identified as points of individual focus.

Additionally, the raw ranking of amount of numerical change between the 2004 pretest

and the 2005 posttest indicated that several attributes averaged more than a full point difference

for the total population. Since the focus of the Leadership Development Program was on

individual learning gains and specific leadership attributes, these Eindings demonstrate its

effectiveness in helping to master stronger leadership behaviors.

Furthermore, the participants reported that over the course of the Leadership

Development Program that they felt they had made great strides in their leadership skills. Those

who participated in the follow-up interviews strongly agreed that they had achieved some level

of success in modifying their work behaviors. One individual noted that he recognized his

overall change as self-assuredness in the work environment,

I can say that one effect of this activity was a boost in confidence, and not just in the
work environment. Is it my preferred style? Yeah, I would say so. I would say that is
accurate. I can say having the confidence that I learned from this activity really helped. I
felt confident and able to answer those [work related] questions. (personal
communication, February 2007)

Some individuals who lacked the statistical evidence to demonstrate their

accomplishments articulated their beliefs that they had made considerable improvement in their

targeted areas. More than anything, they learned how to recognize leadership attributes within

themselves and others,

I have started studying the behavior of administrators and faculty whom I consider to be
leaders. One characteristic common to those I have observed is a positive attitude. I
intend to emulate this behavior whenever possible.

Salvano (2005) found similar outcomes in her investigation of the personality attributes

of a group of community college leaders. She mentions four critical macro themes that surfaced









during the course of the follow-up interviews; (1) the subj ects indicated mastery of their targeted

attributes, (2) the subj ects modified their leadership behaviors and styles, (3) there was an

improvement of overall subj ect talent, and (4) that subj ects valued interactive educational

opportunities. The findings of this study were consistent with the previous research which points

to an individual mastery of leadership behaviors as well as a perceived success in developing a

leadership style as a result of the Leadership Development Program.

Answer to the Third Research Question

The third research question focused on the effect of gender on leadership development.

A statistical assessment of the impact of gender was performed by using Kruskall-Wallis one

way analysis of variance. This test demonstrated whether gender played a role in achieving, or

failing to achieve, greater improvement on the targeted attributes. The results indicated that

gender did not have a significant impact on the outcomes of this study.

As has been mentioned, this may also be due to the small sample size of the population.

Moreover, there was a numerical inequity between the male and female population used in this

research, as well as lack of normal distribution of subj ects. Those factors directly impacted the

ability to discern the statistical significance of gender within the parameters of this study.

Kachik (2002) indicated in her study of community college and corporate leaders that gender did

have a significant impact on the personality attribute changes demonstrated by her subj ects.

Further investigation explained that the intervening variable of the managerial environment was

the primary source of the gender impact. While her results regarding the influence of gender

appear to stand in contrast to this study, the limitations previously mentioned inhibited this study

from being able to comprehensively address that question.

In addition to the statistical analysis, the raw data provided evidence that there were

several overwhelming commonalities that indicated that gender did not have a direct impact on









the OPQ outcomes. There were similar learning gains for both male and female participants for

numerous attributes. Both groups exhibited the considerable change on Data Rational, ranking

as the most changed attribute for females, and the second highest for males. Two women and

two men distinguished Data Rational as a targeted attribute, and clearly, both genders had

learning gains in this area. Conventional also ranked in the top Hyve for both male and female

participants.

This demonstrates that both groups were successful in creating Individual Learning Plans

that addressed specific personality traits. Through a program of course work, professional

coaching, and individual development and focus, both male and female academic leaders were

able to make great strides in enhancing their leadership skills.

Recommendations for Future Research

The research Eindings presented in this study have answered certain questions, but have

illuminated other issues that should be addressed in future study. As stated previously, the

population used in this research study was made up of a pre-existing cohort of higher education

professionals, and all of the data collection took place prior to the involvement of the primary

researcher. The ex post facto design of this study was a limitation. Creating a dedicated

experimental design would improve the study and help to establish validity and generalizability.

This researcher suggests a longitudinal design that includes a larger subj ect base as well as a

broader population. Moreover, the scope of this research was limited to self report of the

mastery of behavioral change. A follow up posttest of the OPQ in addition to the interview

would be more indicative of the true internalization of the learned leadership attributes.

Previously published research suggested that certain attributes would pose more a

challenge to individuals attempting to modify their own behaviors. The female participants in

this study demonstrated learning gains in the domain that had been identified as the more









arduous attribute set to modify. However, the male subset of this research, upheld the published

literature, and elicited less overall change for those dimensions that were reported to be more

challenging to amend. Further investigation into the relationship between the recognized level of

difficulty of change to the attributes targeted for change would shed light on this discrepancy,

and further validate the development protocol.

The small sample size of this study also prohibited the inclusion of the intervening variable

of age, or stage of life. There was not enough variation of the ages of the participants to allow

for a true analysis of the impact of age on the outcomes of the Leadership Development

Program. During the follow up interviews, several participants made reference to their age as a

compounding factor that prohibited them from being more willing to internalize a new behavior.

One participant noted that she did not believe that people truly change, especially after years of

practice with existing behaviors. Moreover, that until the negative aspects of her leadership

personality were brought to her attention, that she felt she had progressed at an acceptable pace

through the ranks of her community college, and was a respected administrator. Perhaps a larger

sample size that is more expansive would allow for an examination of the impact of age, or stage

of life as an intervening variable.

Due to the circumstances upon which the population was formed, there is an assumption of

motivation that must be mentioned. The individuals who participated in this research were part

of an existing cohort of students who were selected by their employers to participate in a

leadership development program. This was based on a several factors including their history

service to the college and their desire to progress to higher administrative levels. There is,

therefore, an assumption that all of the participants had an internal desire or motivation for

improving their leadership skills. To eliminate that underlying factor of internal motivation, a









future study may address a similar program design but with a more random population of

graduate students who do not stand to directly gain workplace promotion from participation in

the program.

Another interesting aspect to this work involves the future educational direction of the

participants. During the course of the follow-up interviews, many individuals noted that they

had decided to continue on with their leadership education, and were pursuing a doctorate in

higher education themselves. An examination of the correlation between participation in the

Leadership Development Program and the subsequent enrollment in a doctoral program would

be a noteworthy longitudinal study.

Delving deeper in the mentoring aspect of the Leadership Development Program may

provide more information and speak to the individuals' accomplishment in achieving mastery of

their targeted attributes. As several of the participants mentioned during on their ILP and in the

follow-up interview, establishing a relationship with a mentor was a contributing factor to their

success. A comparison of the perceived success of those who had a mentor as compared to those

who managed their program without external guidance would be a worthwhile investigation that

would further the account for the efficacy of the Leadership Development Program.

Implications for Higher Education Administration

The results of this study have contributed to the growing literature regarding community

colleges and higher education leadership. The looming need for new leadership within the

structure of American' s community colleges is pressing on the minds of the governing bodies of

the institutions, the academies that produce them. More specifically, this research adds to the

emergent research surround leadership selection and development, two key areas of concern.

Additionally, it provides for future avenues of research that will continue to augment the study of

community college leadership.









It has been estimated that within the institution of higher education, choosing a future

leader carries a price tag that, in some cases, can exceed a million dollars (Bain & Mabey, 1999).

Colleges cannot afford to waste institutional funds on ineffective leaders. The Einancial

implications, combined with the impended departure of a substantial number of academic leaders

have focused the spotlight on leadership development programs. A primary area of research has

been creating a definition of a successful leader. Many researchers have attempted to create a

working profie of what the ideal leader looks like, and formulate a map of the essential

characteristics. While no one body of work claims to have created the ideal profie, there does

seem to be a general agreement in the literature of common personality traits and leadership

styles of an effective leader.

Traditional behavior theory explores the individual's leadership style and examines the

particular behaviors of effective leaders. However, this research indicates that a hybrid theory

that combines aspects of both trait and behavioral theory may provide a more realistic method of

viewing leadership. This model encompasses aspects of trait and behavioral theories while

considering situational variables (Bass, 1990). This approach to leadership in higher education

provides for transformational growth within the constructs of a managerial environment. The

research presented here encompassed traditional trait theory in that the participants were selected

for the Leadership Development Program, in part, due to their inherent leadership qualities.

Behavioral theory came into play as the participants created individual learning plans and

subsequent Learning Plan Assessments as a self measuring tool by which to guide their

behavioral modification. The success of the program demonstrates that the hybridization of the

two theories is an effective approach to the development of educational leaders.









Summary

The forecast for the leadership of America' s community colleges is disquieting.

Numerous experts have warned of the impending exodus that will both create new opportunities

for a new generation of leaders as well as create a gap in the leadership. (Amey, VanDerLinden

& Brown, 2001; Campbell, 2006; Hockaday & Puyear, 2000; Parsons, 1992; Ross & Green,

2002; Shults, 2001; Stephenson, 2001; Vaughan & Weisman, 2003). Additionally, today's

community college leaders have found themselves ill-prepared for the changing needs of their

institutions. Through talent recognition and leadership development training, the next generation

of college leaders may be cultivated from the population that exists within the administrative

framework of America' s Community Colleges.

This study explored a theoretical framework of educational leadership development by

examining and educational model designed to cultivate leadership abilities. Statistical evidence

demonstrated that participants were able to modify their preferred behavior styles on targeted

attributes during the course of a one year leadership development program. Additionally, the

qualitative data gathered from self-reports and follow-up interviews further reinforced the

efficacy of the program, especially for those who were internally motivated to modify their

behaviors. Overall, this research adds to the existing body of knowledge surrounding the

usefulness of leadership development programs, and their place in higher education.






















































Persuasive
Democratic
Rule Following
Achieving
Modest

Worrying
Outgoing
Caring
Innovative

Adaptable

Conscientious
Forward Thinking


Overall Group Female Participants Male Participants

Avg. Avg. Avg.
Attribute Change Attribute Change Attribute Change


Table 5-1. Average Chane i


Attribute Scores in Ranked Order


1.1


2.333


Data Rational


1.4375 Data Rational
Independent
1.3125 Minded
1.1250 Behavioral


Competitive


Competitive
Conventional
Independent
Minded
Controlling
Democratic
Socially Confident

Evaluative
Persuasive

Detail Conscious
Rule Following

Tough Minded
Affiliative
Trusting
Decisive
Modest
Relaxed

Vigorous
Behavioral
Conceptual

Optimistic
Conscientious

Worrying
Achieving
Outspoken
Adaptable
Outgoing
Forward Thinking
Caring
Innovative
Emotionally
Controlled
Variety Seeking


Data Rational
Modest

Democratic
Conventional
Controlling
Persuasive
Socially
Confident
Rule Following
Independent
Minded
Conscientious
Emotionally
Controlled
Affiliative
Evaluative

Outgoing
Variety Seeking
Adaptable
Worrying
Tough Minded
Behavioral
Forward
Thinking
Detail Conscious
Relaxed

Optimistic
Vigorous
Achieving
Decisive
Innovative
Conceptual
Trusting

Caring
Outspoken


2.000
1.667

1.667
1.667
1.333
1.167

1.167
1.167

0.833
0.833

0.833
0.833
0.833
0.667
0.667
0.667
0.667
0.667
0.500

0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.333
0.333
0.167
0.167

0.167
0.000


0.9375
0.8125
0.8125
0.7500


Conventional
Conceptual
Trusting
Evaluative


0.7500 Detail Conscious
0.6250 Competitive

0.6250 Decisive
0.6250 Tough Minded
Emotionally
0.6250 Controlled
0.5625 Controlling
0.5625 Outspoken
0.5625 Socially Confident
0.5000 Relaxed
0.5000 Vigorous
0.5000 Affiliative
0.4375 Variety Seeking
0.4375 Optimistic


0.4375
0.3750
0.3750
0.3750
0.3125
0.3125
0.1875
0.1875
0.1250
0.0625

0.0625
0.0000











APPENDIX A
COPY OF APPROVED PROTOCOL

Informed Consent

Protocol Title: A Comparison of the Outcomes of a Community College Leadership
Development Program on the Leadership Behaviors of Community College Administrators

Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.

Purpose of the research study:

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a leadership development program on the
leadership behaviors of program participants. This study is a comparative examination of
leadership training program outcomes achieved by Community College Leaders in the State of
Florida.

What you will be asked to do in the study:

1. You will be asked to allow the researcher to analyze the data that have already been collected
including: (a) your scores on the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) administered
at two intervals and, (b) the information you provided on your Learning Plan Assessment.
Based on the analysis of the data for your cohort, follow-up questions regarding the
leadership development program will be formulated. Interview questions will be juried by a
panel of experts prior to administration.
2. You will be asked to participate in a semi-structured interview that the researcher will
conduct with you via telephone or in person. Interviews will be audiotape recorded to ensure
accuracy. The researcher will transcribe and code the interview data for analysis and the
audiotape will be erased.

Time required:

The time required for the semi-structured interview is estimated to be 45 minutes and will not
exceed one hour

Confidentiality:

Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be
assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be destroyed when
the study is completed and the data have been analyzed. Neither your name or any other
identifying information, nor that of your institution will be identified in the study.









Risks and Benefits:

No more than minimal risks or benefits are anticipated.

Compensation:

Compensation will not be awarded for participation in this study.

Voluntary participation:

Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.

Right to withdraw from the study:

You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence.

Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:

If you have questions about the study, you may contact Lisa Tunks, Ed. D. Candidate, Higher
Education Administration, Department of Educational Administration & Policy, University of
Florida, 200 Norman Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. You may contact me by email at
Edugatr@bellsouth.net or by telephone at 561-350-6876. Dr. Dale Campbell, Professor of
Educational Administration & Policy, 229 Norman Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611; 352-392-2391 ext 281; dfc@coe.ufl.edu.

Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:

UJFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433.

Agreement:

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and
I have received a copy of this description.



Participant: Date:



Principal Investigator: Date:

















UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA


SUBJECT: Apgproval of Proocol #2006Q-U 022
TITE: A, Comparwiso of the Outcomes of a C~rimmun;ty Collee LeadrsRhip Devel~opment:
ProgramI on the Leadersip Behaviors of community Cotlege Admrinistrators
5PolliOa None~


1 am pleased to advise you that Mth Irlverrslt of Florida InsN~titution Revie, Board has, recsnre~ntled
a~pproval of' this pr-otocol. Based are its review, the LIFIRB d~tmrmined that this resealrch pre~sents n
moare than minimal risk to parr~iiduls Givers your protocpl, it is ~esetia~L that you obstain signed
dccume~nlation obf Informed cornsent fromn each xairticaipant Enclosed ;is the dated, RS appiored
infonrmd consent to be used w uhen rerCelitin parrticipant for the~ research.

It is essential that each of your parrtilparts Signl a cop0y of your approved informed
consent that bears he IRIS approval stamp and experation date,

If you wIsh to make any changes to this protoco, Freeladarng he need to insrcrase the number of
,warticappan authOthed? You mus4t disclose your plans before your implement: them so~ that the Board
can AS$@$$~ their limpact on Your protocol. Ira addition, you must report to the Scard any rexpC~te'd
complicatrions that affect your Iparticipanrts.

If you have rot ;ournpleted[Iis protocol by March 25, 2007, please telephone our office (3932-g433),
and we will discuss the renewal PrOCess; with yoU It Im Iraprtan that you keep your Departmelt
Chair informed about the status of this research asot~col

lIF d1


Institutional Review Board Approval


Instlullenal Italie Bor~d
NWADD100+790I


POb Box 12250~
Gairnevlle, FL 32611-22501
Phome. (3525392-0433
Fax: f352 ) 392-923
E-rmail: 1.0... al..au
httpisirB.uil.edia


DATF


archs~ 241. 2006


TO: Lisa Tainks
0 01 Norrrhan Platt


FRCiNL:


Campus i
Ira S. Fischler, Chair
Umvearsety of FLeeda
Iristitutiond alu Reiw ord


An Bqual Oppolrnma halshlmin










APPENDIX B
LEARNING PLAN AS SE SSMENT

Title:

Date:


Name :


College:


Part I. Learning Proposal


"The learning college engages learners as full partners in the learning process, with learners
assuming primary responsibility for their own choices" (O'Banion, 1997, p. 49).

1. Please identify the specific the one to three Attribute(s) and Stein Score(s) from your initial
OPQ that you have been working on for your Learning Contract (i.e. persuasive (4), etc.).


(a) Attribute


Stein Score

Stein Score

Stein Score


(b) Attribute_

(c) Attribute_


2. What learning activities have you completed?



3. How successful have you been in achieving your objectives?



4. What evidence do you have that you are malong progress to achieve your goals (i.e.
unsolicited comments from your supervisor, coworkers, classmates, etc.)?



Part II. Self-Assessment

Part of assuming responsibility for your own learning includes your own assessment of that
learning. You have been working on achieving the goals in your Learning Contract since our
initial individual conference. Please give me a realistic assessment of the extent of your
commitment and effort you have put forth in achieving the goals in your Leamning Contract.



1. Circle one of the following levels that best describes the extent of your commitment from
lowest to highest levels (I-V) in attaining mastery of the attributes you identified to work on in
your Learning Contract.









Level I--New Year' s Resolution (Soon slips back to regular pattern of behavior).

Level II--Go on a Diet (Purchase a book on a new diet and/or enroll in a seminar). You
make a plan and achieve some short term success. However, you soon slip back into
regular eating habits.

Level III--Join a Health Club (Pay a monthly fee for services and your amount of
participation is at your discretion). You do make progress and achieve a basic level of
knowledge of what you should do and some level of mastery. Requires some stretch
outside of your comfort zone and some monetary investment.

Level IV--Hire a Personal Trainer (Have a regular appointment and receive one on one
coaching). Individual trainer holds you accountable and ensures that you stretch to attain
stated goals. Requires a higher monetary investment. The more you progress your
confidence builds and you attain mastery. Your goals are no longer seen by you as that
big of a stretch.

Level V-Learning is Internalized (Actual behavioral change occurs). No longer outside
your comfort zone. Mastery is not only achieved, it becomes your preferred style.

2. Considering the above, what do you believe your attribute stein scores) will be for each
attribute on the post assessment? Please specify.



III. Post-Assessment Reflections-Complete after you have been given your actual scores.


1. Record your new actual stein scores) for each attribute on you were working on from your
post assessment. Do the scores surprise you in anyway? If so, why?


2. What, if anything, would you do differently or recommend that others do to further enhance
the likelihood that you would achieve mastery of the attributes that you identified.? I would do
anything differently.









APPENDIX C
FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE

Respondent ID: [to be assigned by researcher]

At the beginning of the Leadership Development Program, you developed a learning plan to
improve your skills or behaviors relevant to specific attributes. Here are the attributes that you
identified and your corresponding OPQ scores.

Attribute OPO Score (2004) OPO Score (2005)








1. Since the beginning the Leadership Development program until now, how successful
have you been in achieving your learning and development obj ectives for each of the
attributes that you identified in your learning plan?

2. How well have you succeeded in attaining a mastery of each of the attributes that you
identified in your learning plan? [Interviewer follow-up: Please give an example...]

3. How well have you succeeded in mastering these behaviors to the extent that you
would say that they have become your preferred style? [Interviewer follow-up:
Please describe how this has/has not occurred...]

4. What are three learning activities in which you have participated that have been
instrumental in helping you to achieve your objectives?

5. What, if anything, would you do differently or recommend that others do to further
enhance the likelihood of achieving mastery of the attributes?

6. What feedback have you received to let you know that you have been successful in
achieving your goals?









APPENDIX D
EXAMPLE OF OPQ REPORT











Expert Report


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APPENDIX E
PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCORES


Table E-1. Raw Stein Scores for Female Participants
Attribute AF BF CF DF GF
Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest
Persuasive 5 4 7 7 4 5 5 5 8 8
Controlling 4 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 6 7
Outspoken 2 3 6 6 2 3 6 4 3 4

Independent Minded 5 4 4 3 4 5 9 6 6 3

Outgoing 4 3 6 6 5 6 4 4 4 7
Affliative 6 6 3 3 6 4 4 5 4 5

Socially Confident 6 6 6 6 3 3 9 8 6 6

Modest 5 5 5 4 7 7 2 3 7 4
Democratic 8 7 8 5 8 8 7 7 5 5
Caring 7 4 4 4 6 5 6 7 7 5
Data Rational 8 8 5 5 2 3 4 6 5 8
Evaluative 7 9 7 7 8 8 6 8 6 6
Behavioral 9 9 5 4 5 7 6 7 6 8
Conventional 4 3 4 6 8 6 5 3 2 2
Conceptual 10 7 8 9 7 6 4 5 7 4
Innovative 6 7 8 8 3 4 6 5 9 9
1 variety Seeking 6 6 5 2 4 4 4 4 5 6
Adaptable 3 3 4 3 8 6 9 9 3 5
Forward Thinking 4 6 7 8 4 6 8 8 4 4
Detail Conscious 8 8 7 5 9 8 3 5 7 4
Conscientious 8 8 6 5 8 7 2 4 5 5
Rule Following 5 5 5 6 8 8 5 5 6 3
Relaxed 5 6 6 4 3 3 5 4 4 6
Worrying 4 4 4 3 7 7 6 7 4 3
Tough Minded 6 6 7 6 5 3 6 6 7 7
Optimistic 8 9 8 5 3 1 8 7 8 8
Trusting 4 3 4 6 5 5 5 3 6 6
Emtonly6 6 5 4 5 8 4 6 6 6
Controlled
rigorous 4 4 4 4 8 7 3 3 3 6
Competitive 3 3 2 8 4 5 4 4 5 3
Achieving 6 7 4 7 5 6 5 5 7 7
Decisive 2 2 4 6 7 6 7 5 4 5




















100