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An XML based approach proposing an effective solution to the data management issues within the construction industry

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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1 AN XML BASED APPROACH PROPOSING AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO THE DATA MANAGEMENT ISSUES WITHIN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY By DUZGUN AGDAS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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2 Copyright 2006 by Duzgun Agdas

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3 To my family for being there every time I needed them.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my chair, Dr. Ralph D. Ellis, and the members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Charles R. Glagola and Dr. Mi chael C. MvVay, for their mentoring. Special thanks go to Dr. Ellis, as his willingness and experience we re invaluable contributions to the successful completion of this thesis.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......10 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Information Technology in Construction...............................................................................13 Subcontracted Work........................................................................................................14 e-Construct.................................................................................................................... ..15 Construction Data Exchange Requirements...........................................................................16 Problem Definition............................................................................................................. ....16 2 EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE...............................................................................18 Overview of Extensible Markup Language............................................................................18 Comparison of XML to HTML..............................................................................................18 Advantages of XML.............................................................................................................. .19 Structure of XML............................................................................................................... ....20 XML Schema..................................................................................................................... .....21 The Structure of XML Schema.......................................................................................22 Details of XML Schema Data Types...............................................................................23 Simple data types.....................................................................................................23 Complex data types..................................................................................................23 XML Schema Components.............................................................................................24 Sequence...................................................................................................................24 Namespace...............................................................................................................24 Restriction................................................................................................................25 Extension..................................................................................................................26 Import.......................................................................................................................27 Include......................................................................................................................28 3 GEOGRAPHY MARKUP LANGUAGE..............................................................................30 Overview of Geography Markup Language...........................................................................30 Structure of GML............................................................................................................... ....30 GML Experiment................................................................................................................. ...31 4 XML APPLICATIONS..........................................................................................................33

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6LandXML........................................................................................................................ .......33 aecXML Infrastructure Project Schema.................................................................................33 DIGGS.......................................................................................................................... ..........33 TransXML....................................................................................................................... .......34 5 SCHEMA RESEARCH PROJECT........................................................................................35 Introduction to Research Methodology and Requirements....................................................35 Research Project Outline....................................................................................................... .35 Review of FDOT Data Exchange Needs.........................................................................35 Review and Assessment of TransXML and DIGGS Standards......................................36 Development of Schemas and Conflict Solutions with Existing Schemas.....................36 Developing a Construction Ex change Protocol Website.................................................36 Implementation................................................................................................................36 6 INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH...................................................................................................37 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........37 Data Dictionary................................................................................................................ .......38 Schema Development.............................................................................................................39 Comments on Schema Development...............................................................................39 XML Schema for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action Form....................40 XML Instance Document for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action Form........................................................................................................................... ..44 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES............................................................54 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .........54 Future of XML and Possible Im pacts on Construction Industry............................................55 APPENDIX A FDOT CONSTRUCTION FORM RE VIEW AND DATA DICTIONARY.........................57 FDOT Construction Form Review.........................................................................................57 FDOT Construction Offices and Respective Forms........................................................57 Aviation office..........................................................................................................57 Office of the comptroller..........................................................................................57 Construction office...................................................................................................57 Contracts administration office................................................................................57 Environmental mana gement office..........................................................................58 Equal opportunity office...........................................................................................58 Estimates office........................................................................................................60 Financial development office...................................................................................60 Office of general counsel.........................................................................................60 Office of information systems..................................................................................61 Office of general inspector.......................................................................................61 ITS program office...................................................................................................61

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7Maintenance office...................................................................................................61 Materials office........................................................................................................62 Personnel resource office.........................................................................................63 Office of policy planning.........................................................................................63 Procurement office...................................................................................................64 Project management and development office..........................................................64 Public transportation and m odal administrator office..............................................65 Rail office.................................................................................................................65 Office of right of way...............................................................................................65 Roadway design office.............................................................................................68 Safety office.............................................................................................................68 Specification office..................................................................................................68 Structures office.......................................................................................................69 Support services office.............................................................................................69 Systems planning office...........................................................................................69 Traffic engineering a nd operations office................................................................69 Transit office............................................................................................................70 Turnpike enterprise office........................................................................................70 Utilities office...........................................................................................................71 Filtered Construction Forms............................................................................................71 Construction office construction forms....................................................................71 Equal opportunity office construction forms...........................................................72 Materials office construction forms.........................................................................73 Data Dictionary................................................................................................................ .......73 B TRANSXML AND DIGGS DOCUMENTATION...............................................................74 TransXML Documentation.....................................................................................................74 DIGGS Documentation..........................................................................................................74 C ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH............................78 FDOT Construction Forms and Related Documentation.......................................................78 Engineers MOT Evaluation at Crash Site Form and Data inventory.............................78 XML schema for engineers MOT evaluation at crash site form.............................80 XML instance document for engineers MOT evaluation at crash site form...........82 Contractors Past Performance Ra ting Form and Data Inventory...................................83 XML schema for contractors past performance rating form...................................84 XML instance document for contractors past performance rating form.................86 Work Plan Controlling Item of Work Form and Data Inventory....................................88 XML schema for work plan controlling item of work form....................................89 XML instance document for work plan controlling item of work form..................90 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..91 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................93

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 XML simple data types......................................................................................................29 7-1 Data inventory of trainee enroll ment & notice of personnel action form..........................46 A-1 Aviation office construction forms....................................................................................57 A-2 Office of the comptroller construction office....................................................................57 A-3 Construction office construction forms.............................................................................57 A-4 Contracts administration office construction forms...........................................................57 A-5 Environmental management office construction forms.....................................................58 A-6 Equal opportunity office construction forms.....................................................................58 A-7 Estimates office construction forms...................................................................................60 A-8 Financial development office construction forms..............................................................60 A-9 Office of general couns el construction forms....................................................................60 A-10 Office of information systems construction forms............................................................61 A-11 Office of general inspector construction forms.................................................................61 A-12 ITS program office construction forms..............................................................................61 A-13 Maintenance office construction forms.............................................................................61 A-14 Materials office construction forms...................................................................................62 A-15 Personnel resource offi ce construction forms....................................................................63 A-16 Office of policy planning construction forms....................................................................63 A-17 Procurement office construction forms..............................................................................64 A-18 Project management and devel opment office construction forms.....................................64 A-19 Transportation and modal administrator office construction forms..................................65 A-20 Rail office construction forms...........................................................................................65 A-21 Office of right of way construction forms.........................................................................65

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9A-22 Roadway design office construction forms........................................................................68 A-23 Safety office construction forms........................................................................................68 A-24 Specifications office construction forms...........................................................................68 A-25 Structures office construction forms..................................................................................69 A-26 Support services office construction forms........................................................................69 A-27 Systems planning office construction forms......................................................................69 A-28 Traffic engineering and opera tions office construction forms...........................................69 A-29 Transit office construction forms.......................................................................................70 A-30 Turnpike enterprise office construction forms...................................................................70 A-31 Utilities office construction forms.....................................................................................71 A-32 Construction office filtered construction forms.................................................................71 A-33 Equal opportunity office filtered construction forms.........................................................72 A-34 Materials office filtered construction forms......................................................................73 A-35 Data dictionary snapshot.................................................................................................. ..73 B-1 TransXML documentation.................................................................................................74 B-2 DIGGS documentation.......................................................................................................74 C-1 Engineer's MOT evaluation at cr ash site form data inventory...........................................80 C-2 Contractors past performan ce rating form data inventory................................................84 C-3 Work plan controlling item of work form data inventory..................................................89

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 7-1 Trainee enrollment & noti ce of personnel action form......................................................48 7-2 Outline of the XML schema for trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form...49 7-3 Outline of the XML instance document for trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form.................................................................................................................... .....52 C-1 Engineers maintenance of traffic (MOT) evaluation at crash site form...........................78 C-2 Contractors past performance rating form........................................................................83 C-3 Work plan controlling item of work form..........................................................................88

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering AN XML BASED APPROACH PROPOSING AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO THE DATA MANAGEMENT ISSUES WITHIN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY By Duzgun Agdas December 2006 Chair: Ralph D. Ellis Major: Civil Engineering The construction industry has long been know n as lacking in IT investment and implementation. One of the most severe draw backs of the phenomenon is observed in data management issues. As an industry characteristic construction projects produce a vast amount of data from various different working groups, which makes the data management nearly impossible with traditional methods. There have been various projects to solve th is problem, to provide a methodology that will provide a seamless solution to the problems faced. None of them has yet to produce an effective solution. Any proposed solution method must be pr actical, economic and easy to use in order to overcome strong industry resistance. A newly emerged technology, XML, offers an easy to implement, affordable and flexible solution to the data management problems. This thesis includes background research, development methodology and some initiati ve examples of such a solution.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The last two decades have witnessed th e golden age for information technology (IT) development. Improvements in computer science and advancements in technology resulted in IT improvements. The progress caught a ttention of a number of different industries, and they started to invest in IT. One of the most successful implementation was in production industry. IT implementation not only changed the process defi nition but also brought new and more efficient management principles to the industry. The IT implementation enabled producers to get the best results in the shortest amount of time, in addition to giving them a lot of control over the process by reducing worker related errors. Although IT innovations brought a lot in ma ny industries, its implementation to construction industry was relativel y gradual. A number of reasons are proposed to explain the phenomenon. Some of those include but not limited to: Construction industry is undoubtedly one of the most traditional industries. People tend to follow what they have been taught, and ther e is a strong user resistance to change. The industry is fragmented. There are a num ber of parties invol ved in construction regardless of the size and scope of the proj ect. This makes it hard to implement a collaborative system. Construction industry is project based. Unlik e the object oriented production industry, the products tend to be unique and it makes it hard to create a common framework applicable to multiple projects. The social hierarchy shows a huge variati on within a company. While most of the workforce is hardly computer literate, it is not easy to implemen t the IT and make it available to all workers. Training will be required which needs time and money investment. The industry itself has a low profit margin when compared with others. Although the turnover values of structures is very significan t, the low profit margins tend to lead to more compressed cash flows and resultantly reducing the companys economic power. Most construction companies tend to look for short term benefits instead of investing their money in IT implementation whic h is relatively expe nsive and not very likely to affect company significantly in short term.

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13 Information Technology in Construction Although the IT implementation in construction is harder than other industries, it will be most beneficial in construction. Within the traditional approach, yet the most important process is construction itself as a characteristic, a lot of time and money are spent on the administration processes and data involved tasks. Some of the innovations are be ginning to be used. The IT applications are generally applied to drawings, scheduling, and el ectronic construction data storing. Almost all companies are using commercial software to schedule their jobs. The software applications are capable of creating box diagrams and bar charts as well as allocating and the resources. Although each and every other company i nvolved in a project uses the same or similar type of device to handle scheduli ng, the interoperability in electr onic format is very limited. The schedule updates are performed manually. Change orders delays are all processed and input to update the schedule again manually. Another computerized applic ation is the shop drawings Every single construction company, regardless of the size, uses computers to handle all kinds of dr awings. Yet they print those and submit the shop drawings for approval. The shop drawings are not static. As a result, every other change has to be marked, and the drawings need to be reprinted and resubmitted for approval. In addition, although the drawings are in electronic fo rmat, the quantity take offs, multiplication of the side lengths geometric fi gures drawn in two dimensions, are done by hand. It is not only a tedious activity but also very pr one to produce errors as there will be lots of calculations. The last major IT application to construction is data storag e of, generally, progress reports and financial information. The information is placed in a data base, not very different from the

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14 archiving the paperwork. The in teroperability is lim ited to the company, not with the other parties. Subcontracted Work One of the drastically changing characteristics of construction is the amount of work to be subcontracted. It is the project ion of division of labor princi ple applied to construction. Companies are willing to subcontr act most of the job to specia lists. It not only accelerates the process but also increases the quality of the job as every party will be performing the job they are best at. The construction industr y is highly material and equi pment-oriented, and unless the company is large enough in scale to perform proj ects of various types and sizes, acquiring all the required equipment and material would in crease the overhead expenses drastically. Subcontracting construction work items is inevitabl e. Subcontracting requir es a lot of additional data exchange requirements. The data to be interchanged within subcontractors includes but not limited to the following: Pay item information Weekly/Monthly construction progress reports Daily reports Change orders A very recent study (American Subcontractors Association 2006) stated that the project participants are discouraged to share their information in digita l format. There are even clauses added to some of the contracts to prevent it The main concern of both the owner and the contractor is discrepancies between hardcopies and electr onic documents. Currently the hardcopies are given priority in case of claims, and actually this is explicitly stated in Standard General Conditions of the Construction Contr act published by the Engi neers Joint Contract Documents Committee. This is a clear exampl e of the tradition-bound co nstruction industry.

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15 The above mentioned problems are charac teristics of US construction industry requirements and problems. The variation of th e data, the companies need to interchange, increases when the construction becomes international. Recently big scale companies started getting jobs in foreign grounds. Even they may subcontract the whole j ob, the differences in standards, work item definitions, and languages ma ke it hard for every participant of the project to evaluate the situation. e-Construct e-Construct (Econstruct 2001) is an interna tional project designed to create a common framework for data exchange of the European construction industry. The aim of the project was to increase the competitiveness of the European building and construction industry, by creating frameworks to lead cheaper, faster and better construction. The general problems encountered were orig inated from the causes related to the characteristic of the construction industry. The problems related to IT were including; miscommunications resulted from incompatible co mputer applications an d lack of electronic communication between parties. The common framework was created by usi ng Extensible Markup Language (XML) and aimed to make the European c onstruction industry united. Once th e system was established, user would be able to do their research for material, and market surveying thro ugh one search engine that would be in users own language. The differen ce in specifications would not be a problem as the framework will reflect the changes. The inte rface created is to be a bridge constructed between suppliers, contractors, and the owner wh ich would eventually eliminate the extra cost and time loss related to miscommunication between parties.

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16 Construction Data Exchange Requirements Construction industry is one of the highest budg eted yet little profita ble industries. One of the common costs is related with lack of commun ication between parties. It not only adds to direct costs of the project but increases the indirect costs of the project co nsiderably. The improvements in that manner will both increase the profit margin and qua lity of the product. A study (Haas et al 1999) concluded that alt hough the labor productivity of construction industry is increased from 80s to present date, management procedures we re not leading factors in that increase. The productivity is increased as a result of more advanced technology and the decrease in real wages. Another survey (Na tional Institute of Standards and Technology 2006) pointed out the costs caused by lacking in inform ation interoperability in construction industry. The experiment methodology was to compare presen t situation to a hypothe tical world scenario where data exchange is in elec tronic format. In the hypothetical world created, data interchange and communication between parties are instant by employing information technology tools. The results indicated that in year 2002 about 16 billion dollars spen t on construction services might have been avoided by better utilized information management technologies for data exchange. In addition to the calculated loss, there are indirect costs that could not be calculated in that research. Those include but not limited to, reduced productivity and losing reputation and job opportunities. Problem Definition The above surveys pointed out that the c onstruction industry needs electronic data exchange protocols to better manage the data wh ich will lead to better management, increased productivity, and resultantly higher profit margin s. Although some solutions were proposed, the high cost and complexity of the early proposed solutions made them not very applicable. The solution should be cheap, and the app lication of it should be simple.

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17 The most promising solution might be creating an interface to enable parties to interact instantly. Extensible markup la nguage (XML) can provide such a solution. XML offers (The World Wide Web Consortium 2003) a common langua ge for each project participant for data interchange. Once the common language is created the data management will be handled better with much less effort which will lead to better decision making ability by manager.

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18 CHAPTER 2 EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE Overview of Extensible Markup Language XML is a W3C recommended, very flexible data language that can be used to represent different types of data. It is derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). XML is like Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) which is markup language that is used to publish hypertext formatted data on World Wide Web, yet, XML and HTML are attributed for different purposes. HTML is used to only descri be how data should be presented, whereas XML describes the data itself. Although XML and HTML are alike in structure, they have differences in their structures (OReilly Media 2006). HTML has fixed tags. HTML compilers have to follow these tags to define his document. The developers needs to put a constant effort trying to keep up with recent technology, as the extent of the HTML documents de pends on the extent of the defined tags. The applicability of enhancements to HTML is limited to the software whose vendors participated in the development process. In addition to that ba ckward compatibility is a great issue. On the contrary, XML allows the author to define his own tags and hi s own document structure. It allows the user to define tags and form the stru ctural relationships between elements. As all the tags are to be defined by the user, there is no predefined semantics. Comparison of XML to HTML XML and HTML have completely different purposes. XML is not a replacement for HTML. It is important to understand that HTML is a platform that will enable one to present his data, whereas XML is the data. The future of internet will be depending on XML, but the poor representation of data is a problem wh ich might be handled by employing HTML.

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19 Advantages of XML XML has the potential to be the ultimate solu tion to the data manage ment problems of any industry. It is not only easy to implement but also inexpensive and does not require extensive maintenance services. XML will allow the users (R efsnes Data 2006) to exchange data, to share data, and to store data. The foremost and distinctive advantage of XML is that it can provide a common framework for data exchange be tween two or more incompatib le systems. With the recent technological advancements, more companies are using computers to store data, or complete certain progresses. One of the major hidden indirect costs of projects is resulted from poor data management within participants of the project. Each party needs to spend time and money on modifications to the data they got from the other party if they want to us e that information. This will produce extra overhead cost to the project as well as leading to longer project completion time. In addition, the reli ability of the data will be dependi ng on the person in charge to make modifications to the data. Data sharing is another asset of XML. Once the system is established, through XML interfaces, the parties will be able to share their information. This will especially be beneficial when the construction involves subcontracting. It will reduce the paperwork generated and data sharing will be performed much faster with mo re dependable data. As the XML data sharing does not require any software or hardware, implementation will not be a major issue (Most of the web browsers support XML). Besides, the files to be used will be basic text files of relatively small sizes. That will eliminate the broadband connection requirement. XML may also be employed to store the data. The code gives users to have control over the way he wants to store the data. XML also can be used to retrieve data from already existing

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20 data bases. The advantage of XML is the flexib ility that will allow the user to modify the database or files that the data is stored. The assets of XML that will contribute more to my research are explained above. In addition to those, XML can be used to create se parate data fields within the document. As the data will be stored in XML files separated fr om the HTML, the modifications in data will not require changes in HTML code. Traditionally any change in data to a webpage created by HTML will require modifications to code. XML will allow the user to concentrate on format of webpage rather than dealing with the data. This will make maintenance be handled easier. Structure of XML Although XML is an extensible meta-language and user has control over defining the tags, it follows certain easy to follow but strict rules. To begin with, XML files start with the declara tion line which basically states the file is an XML file. It will include the information about the XML version and the encoding. XML file starting with the above declaration line is conforming to the version 1.0 and the character set used is UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format-8). What is your major Civil Engineering Above is a simple XML document. The first line is the declaration line as mentioned above. is the root element and and are the child elements of the root element. As can be seen, all of the elements have a closing tag () except for the declaration line (An XML element is everything between an opening and a closing tag) Declaration line is

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21 not part of the data on the document, but it is necessary to include. It includes give information about the code version and the encoding type. It is the first thing a browser checks before running an XML file. If the first line is not includ ed, the application file will fail to run properly. In addition to that, the elements need to be ne sted properly within the root element. For the above example there are only root and child elements. If there were sub-child elements, they would have been nested within ch ild elements. It also should be kept in mind that the elements are case sensitive in XML unlike HTML. XML files may contain attributes in addition to the elements. Attributes are used to give additional information about elements. For inst ance, in the above code 1.0 and UTF-8 are attributes to xml version and encoding. i.e. . XML files may also include comments. They are anything between . Comments are generally intende d to provide additional inform ation about programmer and the version of the schema about the schema. Like the declaration line, comments are not part of data but they provide useful information. XML Schema XML schemas (The World Wide Web Consortiu m 2003) are XML files that are used to define the structure of the XML documents. In addition to defining the structure, they carry information about the element type defi nitions and types. XML schemas are W3C recommendations (from May 2, 2001), and they ar e also known as XSD files. They contain information about all the elements and attributes; give information about data types and structure of the application document. They form an outlin e that is going to be the structure of the XML file. XML schema development is of paramount im portance. Unless the part ies that are to share or exchange information are using the common schema s, they will not be able to make use of the

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22 information on the XML documents. An XML applic ation file is valid a nd meaningful provided it has a valid schema. XML schemas are turned out to be replacem ents for Document Type Definition (DTD) files (Refsnes Data 2006). The DTD files were us ed for the same purpose as XSD files, defining the structure of XML document. The DTD files used to define the struct ure of SGML documents and as XML inherited its structure from SGML, it has inherited the da ta type definition format to define its structure too. Although th e DTD files are to be created for the same purpose, XSD files have some advantages on the DTD files. DTD files use a different format then the XML files. XSD files on the other hand, are nothing but XML files. An XML literate user can create the XML schemas where as DTD requires a learning process as they are not in XML file format. DT D files do not s upport all kinds of element definitions as the built-in data defini tions are limited than that of XSD files. In addition, they are not extensible. The very mo st distinctive advant age of XML is being extensible and so are XSD files where as DTD files are not. In year 2001, XML schemas were recommended by W3C, and became the universally accepted document definition procedure of XML files. The Structure of XML Schema The following is a sample XML schema for the previous simple XML document given above:

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The first line is the declaration line which is explained earlier. < schema> is the root element here. It states the XML document is a sc hema file and this comment is same for every schema file. In the code above, the root element was the Interview whereas here it is schema. Elements Q and A was child elements of the root element. is stating the name of the child element this time. line nested within the previous comment states that the elements is of a complex type. Th ere will be a more comp rehensive explanation of the data types of schemas in upcoming chapters. Fo r this specific case, the complex data type is composed of two basic data type elements. line defines the sequencing of the two simple elements. and lines defines the sequencing, and also name the el ements and their types. Here both elements are of simple type of string that is generally used for elements co mposed of characters. Again the following data type section will includ e detailed information about them. Details of XML Schema Data Types Simple data types The simple data types are the ones that are built in within the XM L version. Although there are a vast number of built-in data types, the mo st widely used ones are: integer, double, boolean, time, date, string, and dateTime. Definitions of thos e together with respective examples are given in Table 3-1. Complex data types The complex data types are used for the elem ents that contain other elements and/or attributes. There are no certain rules to the comp lex type definitions provided the basics of the

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24 XML rules are followed (Some of those are explaine d in the following chapte rs). User can define his own complex data types provide d it is not possible to express th e data content with the simple data types. Recall the example given above the in terview element is defined to be consisted of two elements. XML Schema Components Sequence This tag is used in schema to define the orde r of the elements of within the complex type element. If the above schema were used to create an instance documen t, the instance document should have an order of child elements ad follows. What is your major?
Civil Engineering Recall the related part of the schema: The schema specifies the order, and it is to be followed. If not there will be an error produced and the instance document will not run properly. Namespace

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25 The second and third lines above include the namespace information about the schema. (Xmlns is referred to xml namespace). The namespace concept is nothing but a clever and easy way of preventing the possible naming conflicts between different schemas, which might have same element names. The namespace states that the names that are used in the schema are coming from the namespace specified. Namespaces are generally web addresses. Although there are no written rules about the naming, it is more convenient to name it after the party who created it. The above schema is created by me and a proper would be my own web address, although it does not ac tually exist. Here the comment line, xmlns="http://www.duzgunagdas.com" is referred to as both the default and target namespaces. elementFormDefault="qualified" line states that the names that are used in this specific schema are to be qualified within the namespace. Restriction These are predefined limitations th at can be put to the simple da ta types in order to confine the data to certain values or similarly in order to exclude certain values. There are certain in built restriction comments available for the user. The above mentioned restrictions apply to si mple data types which are given in earlier sections. The restriction commands can be used to redefine the context of a previously defined complex data type. This might be helpful in long term, in case of changes to the data format. Another application of th e restriction tag together with the complex data types is restricting the content of the complex data with the previously defined data types. By this way, one can confine the data type content of his own complex data to thos e of an already existing one. The following is a simple illustration of th e use of restriction on character length on the simple string data types which are nested within the complex type element Interview. I wanted a

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26 minimum of 10 and a maximum of 18 character length (Additional restrict ion comments can be obtained from the cited references). Here it is explicitly stated that the data elemen ts are of simple data types. In order to use the restriction command, the data type explicitly needs to be stated. Although it is the same schema used above, modifications were necessary to use th e restriction tag. Extension Although one can define his own complex data types to have elements with attributes, extension elements can be used to extend a simple data type to create a complex one. The already existing, in-built, simple data type will be base for the new complex data type. The following is an example. Suppose there is a simple element,
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27 Although the extensions can be used for the above mentioned purpose, the more important use of extension tag is extending a complex data type with anothe r one. This way already defined elements in complex data types will be used co llaboratively. It is impor tant as in real life applications generally data type s will be way too complicated than the above mentioned basic schema data types. Import Import function is used to import global element definitions from other schemas. If already defined name tags were to be used for the sche ma design, one can use import tag and include that namespace in the schema. Two or more XML schemas can be used simultaneously within the same schema. The import functi on can be used for schemas with different target namespaces. Import comment must be the child element of schema element. It is, therefore, will apply to the whole schema. Following is an example: Above schema is a fraction of a schema devel oped by me, which is given in full extend in following chapters. Two different namespaces are imported for the above schema. These

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28 namespaces are imported in order to use already de fined data type definitions they contain for the schema I have created. The required data type definitions were defined in the schema TXLGML20060123pxs.xsd of TransXML project. As th at schema was using the content of the gml.xsd schema, and as the namespace content of that schema is also different from the TransXML schema, both namespaces were imported. The first namespace is http://www.opengis.net/gml and the schema location is defined by a local link. The second schema, whose namespace is http://www.transxml.net/schema/txl/0.3 is also located by a local link. Remote links can be used to define the schema locations provide d they are accessible on web. Here, both gml.xsd and the TXL-GML20060123pxs.xsd schemas are located under close proximity of the main schema. Include This comment is very similar to the import co mment. The only difference is that it allows users to combine schemas that are targeted to the same namespace or no namespaces. As the schemas will be using the same target namespace, namespace command line will not be necessary. The schema location should be sufficien t to locate the schemas. This comment allows user to create smaller and simpler schemas. Fo r repeating data type definitions for the same project, some base schemas addressing common da ta type definitions can be created and used more than once. < xs:include schemaLocation="schema1.xsd"/> The above comment line should be enough to im port the schema schema1, provided it is locally available. Similar to the case of impor t function, remote links might also be used to describe the schema location if they are accessible via internet.

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29 Table 3-1. XML simple data types Data type Definition Example Integer Any non-decimal number 12354 -123 Double Numbers with decimal values 123.45 Boolean Values that are eith er true or false True False Date Date in yy-mm-dd format 1250-10-10 Time Time in hh:mm:ss format 11:10:00 dateTime Date and time in yy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss format 1950-11-10T10:00:00 String Data consisting of characters abc Abc-1254

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30 CHAPTER 3 GEOGRAPHY MARKUP LANGUAGE Overview of Geography Markup Language Geography Markup Language is a complete and comprehensive XML grammar used to describe both spatial and non-spatial geographic in formation. It is developed by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and currently version 3.1.1 is use d. It is the latest and most comprehensive set of specifications. Although GML is designed specifically to conv ey geographic information, it enables users to create with less effort and in a more unifo rm way. GML is an XML extension rather than being a different language. It has more built in elements and predefined context than regular XML. It is more efficient and easy to crea te the schemas by making them GML compatible whether the data includes geogr aphic information or not. Structure of GML Throughout the design phase of my own resear ch, I intend to use already created GML schemas rather than creating my own. Although GML is a subset of XML, it requires additional learning process, as it has cons iderable differences with XML. Therefore, pointing out the differences with XML and GML will be enough. Ex cessive GML structure definition will not be relevant. The GML hierarchy (Styler 2006) consists of objects, properti es, and values. The objects have properties, and properties define the values. It is similar to the root element, child element, sub-child element relations in XML. The labeling shows variations with the regular XML convention. In GML the objects follows the U pperCamelCase notation (The first and the subsequent words are all start with upper case letters, if a ny) whereas, the properties follow lowerCamelCase notation (The fi rst words start with lower case letters, and the subsequent

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31 words are all start with upper case letters, if any). This makes it cl ear what is an object and what is a property. In XML there is no such differen tiation. Both classes and attributes either use lowerCamelCase notation or UpperCamelCase notation which causes ambiguity in deciding what is a class and what is an attribute or element. GML Experiment The GML Experiment (NCHRP 2005) was conducted by TransXML project research team to see the efficiency of making the schemas GML compatible. The proposed way was creating two parallel schemas and instance docu ments, a schema and an instance document which are GML compatible and another two written with plain XML, and comparing them against each other. In order to evaluate the misperception of GML addressing only geographic information, both geographic and non-geographic data created for the experiment. The main interest was evaluating the following: effort required to the develop documents using plain XML and GML compatible XML whether the added GML components made the schemas complicated or made them easier to follow and understand whether GML made the schema easier to comprehend or not if GML provide an ample solution frame work for differing kinds of work The conclusions derived from the experiment are as following: Schema development is easier with GML. GML has more predefined elements definitions which reduces the amount of work to be done significantly. In this specific experiment, although the data range was not very wide, design team took advantage of using GML. In the presence of more and complicated data GML will be more appreciated. Even the basic inherited properties, ID, descri ption etc., can make it a lot easier to develop the schema. GML is more structured than plain XML. Ther e are not a lot of restrictions to XML which enables it to be flexible, but the extra flex ibility might cause ambiguity. GML offers a more structured way of creating extensible documents. The difference in naming the objects and properties (UpperCamelCase a nd lowerCamelCase) makes it easier to understand the document.

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32 The GML experiment clearly indicated that the GML covers more than geographic information. It may also be used with non-ge ographic data to make the process easier and more understandable

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33 CHAPTER 4 XML APPLICATIONS A number of XML based data exchange pr otocols have been created recently. The following (NCHRP 2004) are some of those XML applications: LandXML It is developed to share and exchange all land related data including surveying and surface data. The schema is supported by a number of commercial software applications. Employing LandXML might be of great help during design issues related but not limited to roads. aecXML Infrastructure Project Schema Developed by the aecXML infrastructure work ing group, the schema addresses the project pay items for various stages of construction. One of the major and issues regarding construction management includes payment information about various work items on different stages of projects. The aecXML schema enables user to us e the design information to come up with the cost estimations and/or payment information. DIGGS DIGGS (Data Interchange for Ge otechnical and Environmental Specialists) is a research project aimed to create an international XML ba sed geotechnical data interchange format which is GML compliant. The framework also should in clude a data dictiona ry. DIGGS working group have produced over 60 schemas including but not limited to schemas for material sampling, insitu testing, piling and foundation da ta. The DIGGS project is signifi cant, as it covers one of the most complicated data construc tion industry has. DIGGS is the only XML application protocol with a complete data dictionary.

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34 TransXML TransXML project is a NCHRP funded proj ect whose scope is to develop a common framework for transportation cons truction data exchange. The pr oject is limited by four key business areas; transportation co nstruction and materials, trans portation safety, highway bridge structures, and survey/road desi gn. The project aimed to create an interactive framework for the key business areas as well as providing a base for future schema development, which is to be an ample solution to transportation construction data exchange probl em. The projects second phase, creating the schemas and application files for th e key business areas, is completed. The outcome summary of the project is as follows: Transportation construction/materials: Bid package, construction progress package, material sampling, and testing package project cons truction status package are the major application files are included. Transportation safety: Two application files were created. The first application allows users to search through crash records stored using the NHTSA FARS Safety XML schema. Users may also link these crash records to the related highway safety information. The HISA schema is used for that purpose. Th e second application file demonstrates how multiple sources of crash data using different XML schemas can be combined in a single crash report. Highway bridge structures: The file contains a software installation file whose purpose is to demonstrate the translation of a Bridge TransXML instance document produced by a bridge analysis software to a format that c ould be interpreted by a nother bridge analysis software. Its creating an interface that makes it possible to use the analysis of different software applications interchangeably. Survey/Roadway design: The purpose of the application is to demonstrate how to import and display GIS area features into a CAD design drawing. Th e application was developed on Microstation version 08.05.01.xx Windows x86 using MDL (Microstation Development Language).

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35 CHAPTER 5 SCHEMA RESEARCH PROJECT Introduction to Research Met hodology and Requirements Florida Department of Transportation is Floridas largest gover nmental organization. Every other year billi ons of dollars worth of construc tion is completed for FDOT. As a characteristic of construction industry, a lot of documents are produced and that makes the data management hard to deal with the traditiona l approach. In addition to the mass amount of paperwork produced, the chances of user related errors occurr ing increases. Some of the problems FDOT officials are fa cing are; the time and human hours spent to create the documents, to modify the documents that are crea ted by different parties etc. XML can provide a solution to these problems. In order to overc ome the above mentioned problems, a research project proposal is developed at University of Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering. The proposal was submitted, and accepted by FDOT. Research Project Outline The research project is aimed (Ellis et al 2006) to create the required XML schemas that will enable data interchange possible. The project outline is as follows: Review of FDOT Data Exchange Needs This task is to be completed by carrying out interviews with the personnel at different levels within FDOT. The results will include in formation about the current construction data in detail. The main issue will be creating an inventor y and then mapping the data with respect to the generator, usage, and storage. Once the data mapped, the needs for data exchange should be defined.

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36 Review and Assessment of TransXML and DIGGS Standards The products of the TransXML and DIGGS project s should be reviewed in detail. The data definitions and the schemas of both projects are to be examined carefully in order to see their relevance and applicability to the FDOT data exchange requirements. Development of Schemas and Conflict Solutions with Existing Schemas The schemas will be created according to the needs of FDOT data exchange requirements that are already identified. After they are cr eated their compliance w ith the other projects schemas should be compared and possi ble conflicts should be resolved. Developing a Construction Exchange Protocol Website The developed data dictionary and the schemas will be made public on the webpage created. The website will also include the cons truction data interchange framework. The website will allow managers to consult on data exchange issues. Implementation The created website will also be used to serve as an information tool where the project results will be published. Additi onal information sessions will be held for managers about the project. The details of the implementation plan will be available once a certain progress level achieved.

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37 CHAPTER 6 INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH Introduction My goal is to create an ample solution to the data management problems construction managers are facing. It is not logical to try to develop a solution like that from the very beginning of the research. Theref ore, I have decided to start working with the project I am involved in, it is mentioned above, in order to better analyze the s ituation, and to use the project findings for my own research. The project and my research will not be different up to a certain point, as transportation constructio n is under the big umbrella of construction. Once the project is finished, the products of it shoul d be used as a ladder to achieve the more comprehensive solution. The project work started with the meetings with the people in charge of the data management in district office. The purpose was to get familiar with the FDOT construction data and to see what data needs to be exchanged. Th e results I got were not very encouraging. Some of the data was not in electronic format which made them impossible to store electronically and very hard to retrieve. The ones th at are stored electronically were not consistent with each other. Some of the data on the papers is scanned and st ored in a hard drive while some other data is stored through commercial software. In order to get more familiar with the F DOT construction data, I have recommended to creating my own data dictionary and later map the data on the dictionary. The best idea was working with the forms available on the FDOT we bpage. These forms are available to public at FDOTs website (http://www.dot.state.fl.us ). They are used to excha nge any kind of construction data with FDOT. This approach is advantageous whether the data on th e forms represents the whole set of the FDOT constructi on data or not. If the data on the construction related forms

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38 represents the whole data invent ory of FDOT, I would be creati ng the most comprehensive data dictionary. If not, I would be work ing on a task to convert the data on forms to electronic format which is an activity I need to complete for th e project I am currently involved in. Once the required feedback from various departments of FDOT is obtained, the above mentioned ambiguity would be resolved. Data Dictionary Because of the vast total numb er of the forms, it was not possible to create the data dictionary of the whole forms. Instead, the most relevant ones to research were chosen to work with. In order to categorize the forms with respec t to their relevance, I have listed them with respect to the office producing. Once that classification was do ne, it was easier to decide on which ones are more relevant to the research priorities. The forms later were filtered and in order to validate the approach, a meeting was set up with FDOT officials. The initial dictionary was not a very complicat ed, but it was a useful tool to address the needs of the research. The data in the data dictionary was pulled from the forms. Once the forms were decided, I started looking for the forms that are in the archives in order to see what the actual data looks like. It was im portant as I have needed the da ta types to create the data dictionary. The data dictionary definition is not unique and can show vari ation regarding the needs of the research. When deciding on the components of the data dictionary, I have used some professional advice from some of the TransXML and DIGGS project participants, and it was modified with respect to the needs of the research. A snapshot from the data dictionary column headers can be found in the appendices. I have not included the whole data dictionary as it is not yet completed. I have cr eated data inventory of

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39 the forms that I developed schemas for. The data inventory is nothing but the completed fraction of the data dictionary. Schema Development Relatively basic forms and corresponding data definitions were chosen to start with. The short term target was determining the effort needed for creating the schemas and the instance documents. Forms 700-010-15, 700-010-25, 700-010-64 and 275-020-08 were chosen to start with whose titles are Work Pl an Controlling Item of Work, Contractor Past Performance Rating, Engineer's Maintenance of Traffic (M OT) Evaluation at Crash Site, and Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action respectively. As I already had the data items extracted fr om the forms and validated the data types by looking in to the completed forms, creating the schemas was relatively easy. The examples of schemas and the instance document can be found at the references. Comments on Schema Development Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action form is a fairly straight forward and easy to complete form. The data recording does not require any skills, but it has to be signed by 4 different parties 9 times total. That requires the form be physically transported at least 7 times. When the number of data and the amount work perf ormed every year is considered, it is a big problem. The form is provided in Figure 7-1. Once the XML is employed, each participant w ould be able to log in to the developed website with their user names and passwords upl oad the information they need to share with other parties. Not only the process will speed up but also the instant feedback will enable the users to interact faster. While creating the schemas, I have used a predefined data type definition that was created in TransXML. The address type de fined in the TXL-GML20060123pxs.xsd schema in

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40 TransXML project, is referred to as the addre ss type of the trainee, as well as address of contractor in the schema for contractors pa st performance rating form, which is given in Appendix C. (The schema is available at http://www.transxml.net and the schema fraction is published with the permission from NCHRP). Although this is a little cont ribution to the schema development, it is important to point out th e methodology of employing other schemas for my research. I have not used GML extensions for the schema s for a couple of reasons. I wanted to keep them as simple as possible, as most of the people I am working with are not very familiar with the XML technology. I included details that are su fficient to express the data content on the forms. More importantly, I was able to create the schemas by using XML data type definitions only. Yet, I have followed the GML notation while creating the schemas. Th e extensibility of the schemas makes them possible to be extended by a GML schema if needed. XML Schema for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action Form The following schema code is created:

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41


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44
The logical outline of the schema is given in Figure 7-2. Table 7-1 represents the data inventory created for that form. The sections of the form are translated as the child elements of the root element of the schema. I have chosen th e name of the root element name of the schema as the title of the form to make it more convent ional. The sub-child elements are the work items in the forms. The way the forms are produced made the schema development much easier as they are already in the hierarchical format needed for XML documents. This will not only make it easier to develop the instance docum ents and the schemas, but also will be the basis of future data bases that are lik ely to be developed. XML Instance Document for Trainee Enrollme nt & Notice of Personal Action Form The instance document is created using the schema created (All the data on the instance documents is valid but fictional). The code is as follows; 121321321

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45 125425 t8787878 alachua 2 John Doe 12121
type three Jane Doe 1254653 White Female 1965-11-11 3800 SW gainesville FL 32608< /txl:postalCodeID> 1254 headquarters John Doe the Trainer 12500 4564654 3 type III 2003-11-11 Jo hn Doe 1203-10-10 false true John Doe 1256-11-11 1254-10-10 451-650 Hrs 1254 1456-09-09

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46
true John Doe 1256-11-11 Jo hn Doe 1203-10-10 true John Doe 1256-11-11 21212121 5545454545 2 56 1254-10-10 Jo hn Doe 1203-10-10 J ohn Doe 9999-01-12 J ohn Doe 4545-10-31 Voluntary Lack of enthusiasm 1000-01-01 125442 Above is the raw code for the instance docum ent. Once the required stylesheet document is prepared the XHTML document can be modified to look similar to the actual form. This minor detail may not seem important but it might be crucial to overcome the before mentioned industry resistance. The outline of the instance document is provided in Figure 7-3. Table 7-1. Data inventory of trainee enro llment & notice of personnel action form Label on form Data type Financial project no Integer FAP No Integer

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47 Table 7-1. Continued Label on form Data type Contract no String County String District Integer Contractor name String FEID no Integer Proposed training clas sification String Trainees name (first/ middle initial /last) String Trainee social security number Integer Trainees race String Sex String Date of birth Date Trainees mailing address Address Instructors name & classification String Annual family income Integer Trainees annual income Integer Number of dependants Integer Previous classifications String Enrollment date requested Date Contractors name & date String Date Date Acceptable trainee interview Boolean Enrollment approved Boolean DCCM name & date String Date of successful observation Date Proficiency demonstrated at milestone String Total accumulated training hours Integer Graduation approved Boolean DCCM name & Date String Contractors name & date String Banking approved Boolean DCCM name & date String Financial project no. tran sferred to Integer F.A.P no. Integer District Integer Hours prior to transfer Integer Effective date Date Contractors name & date Date Sending DCCM name & date String Receiving DCCM name & date String Type of Termination String Reason for Termination String Effective Date Date Hrs Accumulated At Termination Integer

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48 Figure 7-1. Trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form

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49 Figure 7-2. Outline of the XML schema for tr ainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form

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50 Figure 7-2. Continued

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51 Figure 7-2. Continued

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52 Figure 7-3. Outline of the XML instance document for trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form

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53 Figure 7-3. Continued

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54 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES Conclusion This thesis is to propose an enhancement me thod to the current the data management applications within the constr uction industry. The total solution will evolve together with the research project I am involved in. Although the project deals only w ith the transportation construction data, some more effort will make it possible to develop a more general solution once the project is completed. FDOT is mainly performing transportation construction, but the minor work items to be same or similar with general construction. With some effort, a possible gap between construction in general and transportation construction can be filled. Later stages of the project will require more schemas, and the application files be developed. As the small examples of using the already existing schema components implie d, the already created schemas will be employed more. The next step in the project will be deve loping an XML interface that will enable two incompatible computer applications FDOT em ploying now. Once that phase is completed, XML will be more appreciated, and it will be a big step to towards completing the solution procedure as most of the companies are actually using co mputers to handle the vast majority of tedious work items. Once the data dictionary is completed, the data mapping and schema compatibility issues are all going to be resolved. The interactive web site and required info sessions will wrap up the project and the monitoring will enable me to get re quired feedback from the users to better utilize the ample solution. The schemas developed for the construction form s might not provide th e best approach for a more general solution, but they provide a good idea of how the schema development will be

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55 handled. More than likely, the schema instance document relation will not be in the case presented here. In this phase of research, I created 4 schemas fo r 4 application files, each of which are related with a construction form. Once th e data dictionary is developed, the work item relations will be defined, and a more systematic approach will be developed. The later stages of project will include development of base schemas, which will include data type definitions that are repeated in different forms. That will elim inate the necessity of defining same or similar work item descriptions for different schemas, and the schemas will be easier to create as most of the data types would have already been defined in those base schemas. As I do not have the complete data dictionary for the time being, I ha d to develop a specific schema for each instance document, which is not the most efficient way. Future of XML and Possible Impa cts on Construction Industry The future of the internet, NGI (Next genera tion Internet), will be depending on XML. Integration to XML technology will be of param ount importance in order to keep up with the recent developments. XML based seamless data management might be one of the most drastic changes ever happened to construction industry. It will not on ly accelerate the processes, saving money and time, but also will lead to better management applications. Automotive industry has been using Total Quality Management (TQM) principles for al most fifty years. Cases are similar for other quality and production principles There have been many attempts to implement these to construction to excel in production. Those attempts turn out to be unsuccessful most of the time. The most common excuse was blaming the unpred ictability of the construction industry. The unpredictability is the re sult of poor data management principles and applications. Construction managers need to have better data management prin ciples to better utilize the data at their hands. All the quality control an d quality assurance principles require strong statistical analysis to figure

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56 out deviations. A strong statisti cal analysis requir es valid data. Not many of construction companies can keep up with that requirement. Th e proposed solution in that thesis will make it possible for every company to have absolute control over their data.

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57 APPENDIX A FDOT CONSTRUCTION FORM RE VIEW AND DATA DICTIONARY The following tables contains the forms are th e FDOT construction forms used for initial steps of research, with respect to the office produces them. FDOT Construction Form Review FDOT Construction Offices and Respective Forms Aviation office Table A-1. Aviation office construction forms Form no Form title 725-040-11 Airspace obstruction permit application 725-040-12 Airport site appr oval and license application 725-040-1 Airport license renewal application Office of the comptroller Table A-2. Office of the comp troller construction office Form no Form title 300-000-01 Travel form 300-000-06 Consultant travel form 350-020-03 Agreement summary sheet 350-020-04 Tentative acceptance agreement u tility installation by DOT contractor 350-080-14 Application for ref und from state of Florida Construction office Table A-3. Construction office construction forms Form no Form title 675-010-10 Nonconforming structur al steel and miscellaneous metal component data sheet 675-030-03 Asphaltic concrete pa y reduction summary sheet 675-060-10 Asphalt pavement st raightedge test report Contracts administration office Table A-4. Contracts administra tion office construction forms Form no Form title 375-000-02 Fax order form 375-000-31 Bid document confidentiality agreem ent as to trade s ecret & proprietary documents 375-000-32 Bid document escrow affidavit

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58 Table A-4. Continued Form no Form title 375-000-33 Bid document escrow agreement 375-020-09 Bid or proposal bond 375-020-18 Declaration of joint venture and power of attorney for bidding on specified 375-020-20 Bid protest bond 375-020-22 Certification of current capacity 375-020-37 Application for qualificati on for emergency debris removal Environmental management office Table A-5. Environmental manage ment office construction forms Form no Form title 650-040-01 Permit transmittal memorandum 650-040-03 Stormwater pollution prevention plan construction inspection report 650-040-04 Owner/Operator cert ification preparation of documents and inspection report 650-040-05 Contractor certifi cation preparation of documents--npdes general permit 650-040-07 Contractor certifi cation/npdes general permit for storm water discharges 650-050-01 Letter of intent Flor ida scenic highways program 650-050-02 Eligibility a pplication Florida scen ic highways program 650-050-03 Field inventory form Fl orida scenic highways program 650-050-04 Corridor impressions survey fo rm Florida scenic highways program 650-050-05 Designation application Fl orida scenic highways program 650-050-06 Application for vegetation mana gement at outdoor advertising signs 650-050-09 Permit for landscaping on state road right of way 650-050-10 Florida highway beautifi cation council grant application Equal opportunity office Table A-6. Equal opportunity office construction forms Form no Form title 275-010-10 Title VI program and related statutes discrimination complaint 275-010-11 Title VI/Title VIII quarterly report 275-010-12 Construction contractors EEO report 275-020-01 Federal aid highway construction summary 275-020-02 O.J.T. monthly time report Trenching machine operator 275-020-04 O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt luteman raker 275-020-07 On-the-job Training Schedule Compliance Check 275-020-08 Trainee enrollment and no tification of personnel action 275-020-09 O.J.T. monthly time report C oncrete curb/sidewalk machine operator 275-020-13 O.J.T. monthly time report Erosion control specialist 275-020-17 O.J.T. monthly time report Earth wall erector 275-020-18 O.J.T. monthly time re port Installer/tester 275-020-19 O.J.T. monthly time report Roller operator 275-020-20 O.J.T. monthly time report Front end loader operator

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59 Table A-6. Continued Form no Form title 275-020-22 O.J.T. monthly time report Highw ay or bridge ironwor ker, reinforcing 275-020-23 O.J.T. monthly time report Scraper-pan operator 275-020-24 O.J.T. monthly time report Fo rm/Curb & gutter builder (structures) 275-020-25 O.J.T. monthly time report Grade checker 275-020-26 O.J.T. monthly time report As phalt/Bridge deck screed operator 275-020-27 O.J.T. monthly time report Highway concrete finisher 275-020-28 Equal employment opportunity officers 275-020-29 O.J.T. monthly time report Highway or bridge carpenter 275-020-30 O.J.T. monthly time report Pipelayer 275-020-31 O.J.T. monthly time report Backhoe operator 275-020-35 O.J.T. monthly time report Painter, highway or bridge 275-020-36 O.J.T. monthly time repo rt Air compressor operator 275-020-37 O.J.T. monthly time re port Asphalt distributor 275-020-38 O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt paving machine operator 275-020-39 O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt plant drier operator 275-020-43 Certification of subcontr act amount to DBE contractor 275-020-44 O.J.T. monthly time report equipment maintenance technician 275-020-45 O.J.T. monthly time repo rt Motor grader operator 275-020-46 O.J.T. monthly time report Milling machine operator 275-020-47 O.J.T. monthly time report Conc rete paving finishing machine operator 275-020-48 O.J.T. monthly time report Conc rete paving machine/ spreader operator 275-020-49 O.J.T. monthly time report Deckhand 275-020-51 O.J.T. monthly time report Mechanic 275-020-58 O.J.T. monthly time report Truck driver 275-020-60 O.J.T. monthly time report Tractor operator 275-020-64 O.J.T. monthly time report St one and aggregate spreader operator 275-020-65 O.J.T. monthly time report Sign erector 275-020-67 O.J.T. monthly time report Pile driver 275-020-70 O.J.T. monthly time re port Piledriver leadman 275-020-71 O.J.T. monthly time report Mixer operator 275-020-75 O.J.T. monthly time report Mason 275-020-77 O.J.T. monthly time re port Landscape worker 275-020-79 O.J.T. monthly time report Instrument person 275-020-80 O.J.T. monthly time report Highw ay or bridge ironw orker, structural 275-020-81 O.J.T. monthly time report Guard rail erector 275-020-88 O.J.T. monthly time report Cran e, clamshell, backhoe, derrick, dragline 275-020-93 O.J.T. monthly time report Bulldozer operator 275-020-94 O.J.T. monthly time report Tr affic signalization installer/mechanic 275-020-96 On-the-job training schedule 275-020-98 O.J.T. monthly time report Traffic control specialist 275-021-01 On-the-job training request for proficiency demonstration 275-021-02 On-the-job traini ng trainee interview 275-021-03 Banking certificate of training 275-021-04 Contractor certification of EEO/AA policy and plan adoption

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60 Table A-6. Continued Form no Form title 275-021-05 Supervisory and office personnel EEO meeting record 275-021-06 Project personnel EEO meeting record 275-021-07 Contractor comp any wide EEO report 275-021-08 Contractor's a nnual July EEO report 275-021-10 Inspection report for job site bulletin board 275-021-11 Certificate of training 275-021-12 Daily weekly report for on-the-job trainees 275-021-13 Notification to FDOT of EEO officer 275-030-01 Schedule a certification form no. 1 275-030-070 Application for construction management development program & bond guarantee 275-030-071 Application for small business certification (SBC) 275-030-073 Technical assistance request 275-030-074 Justification for bond guarantee 275-030-10 Bid opportunity list 275-030-11 DBE bid package information 275-030-11A Anticipated DBE participation statement 275-030-11B DBE affirmative action plan Estimates office Table A-7. Estimates office construction forms Form no Form title 600-00-02 Pay item request: New/Expanded structure Financial development office Table A-8. Financial developm ent office construction forms Form no Form title 350-020-05 State infrastructure bank (SIB) application 350-020-08 State infrastructure bank (SIB ) recipient semi-an nual progress report 350-050-36 Local highway finance report (FHWA form 536) 350-090-17 Toll facility revolvi ng trust fund quarterly report Office of general counsel Table A-9. Office of general counsel construction forms Form no Form title 050-020-26 Exempt documents request form 350-020-08 Statement of claim for property damage 350-050-36 Statement of claim property damage with personal injuries

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61 Office of information systems Table A-10. Office of information systems construction forms Form no Form title 325-060-05 FDOT computer security access request 325-060-06 Corporate account request Office of general inspector Table A-11. Office of general in spector construction forms Form no Form title 450-000-01 Self certification of accounti ng system and reimbursement rates ITS program office Table A-12. ITS program of fice construction forms Form no Form title 750-010-04 FAA notice of proposed construction or alteration 750-010-05 Application for ante nna structure registration 750-040-01 Tower use agreement Maintenance office Table A-13. Maintenance o ffice construction forms Form no Form title 010-000-07 Adopt-a-highway lit ter removal agreement 375-020-01 Daily report of maintenance project 375-020-02 Maintenance project weekly summary 375-020-05 Contract maintenance work document 375-020-24 Maintenance cont ract time extension 375-020-40 Contractor's invoice 375-020-43 Contractor fiel d performance report 850-000-15 Herbicide application log 850-005-01 Report of repair and certi fication of funds expenditure 850-005-02 State force and cont ract cost documentation 850-010-06 Load capacity information 850-010-16 Application for bri dge inspection certification 850-030-05 Monitoring well inspection log 850-040-01 Overweight/Overdimensional permit 850-040-02 Request for special road use permit trip application 850-040-65 Request for temporary clos ing/special use of state road 850-040-70 Permit application for solicitation of contributions or to conduct safety break 850-040-71 Notification and re quest for facility use 850-040-72 Indemnification agreement 850-040-85 Permit for moving building over state roads 850-040-90 Application for permit to move building over state roads

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62 Table A-13. Continued Form no Form title 850-045-01 Rest area comment card 850-045-05 Application for memorial monument 850-050-03 Inspection report (guardrail, reflecti vity & single & multipost sign insp rpt) 850-055-01 Call box system testing, inspection and maintenance 850-055-02 Type II attenuator inspec tion report other type units 850-055-03 Type I attenuator inspection report 850-055-04 Attenuator inventory update 850-055-05 Type II attenuator inspection re port Hidro cell sandw ich and cluster 850-055-06 Type II attenuator in spection report G-R-E-A-T 850-055-07 Type II attenuator inspection repor t Sand barrel, ener gite and fitch 850-055-08 Type II attenuator inspec tion report Hex foam sandwich 850-055-09 Type II attenuator in spection report Guadguard 850-055-10 Type II attenuator insp ection report Brakemaster 850-055-11 Type II attenuator inspection report TAU II Materials office Table A-14. Materials o ffice construction forms Form no Form title 675-000-01 Qualification performance report 675-000-05 Laboratory qualification application 675-010-02 Compressive strength of concrete cylinders 675-010-03 Concrete design mix 675-010-04 Concrete design mix (Metric) 675-020-02 Aggregate system fi ne aggregate code form 675-020-03 Aggregate system base aggregate code form 675-020-04 Aggregate system coar se aggregate code form 675-020-05 Pipe backfill code sheet 675-020-06 Embankment, subgrade, and base code sheet 675-020-21 Density log sheet 675-020-22 Density log book 675-020-23 Density inspection report 675-020-25 Earthwork density report 675-020-26 Earthwork daily re port of construction 675-020-27 Contractor quality cont rol density record system 675-020-28 Verification earthwork density record system 675-030-02 Control charts for acceptance tests 675-030-04 Asphaltic concrete control strip density 675-030-06 Daily report of asphalt plant inspector 675-030-07 Daily report of asphalt paving inspector 675-030-08 Bituminous mixture summary 675-030-09 Pavement evaluation coring and condition data 675-030-10 Core out averages work sheet 675-030-17 Asphalt independent verification report

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63 Table A-14. Continued Form no Form title 675-030-18 Asphalt plant daily re port of quality control 675-030-19 Asphalt plant verification report 675-030-20 Asphalt roadway daily report of quality control 675-030-21 Asphalt roadway verification report 675-030-22 Asphalt plant pay factor worksheets 675-030-22A Asphalt plant pay factor work sheets, July 2005 specification version 675-030-23 Asphalt resolution report 675-030-23A Asphalt resolu tion report (LIMS) 675-030-24 Asphalt mix design summary report 675-030-24A Asphalt mix design summary report, version 2 (excel 2003 full install) 675-030-25 Asphalt plant worksheet 675-030-25A Asphalt plant worksheet 675-050-01 Material re lease notification 675-050-02 Control of concrete 675-050-04 Sample transmittal card (C-22) 675-050-05 Mixer identification card 675-050-10 Delivery ticket for non structural concrete 675-070-01 Production joint welding procedure 675-070-02 Production joint weld procedure specification 675-070-03 Weld procedure qualification record 700-030-12 Referee analysis Personnel resource office Table A-15. Personnel resource office construction forms Form no Form title 250-025-01 Employee grievance form 250-025-01A Employee grievance disposition 250-030-10 Exempt social s ecurity number request 250-035-01 Workers' compensation memorandum 250-050-02 Leadership academy: Individual implementation plan 250-050-11 TRESS course roster (without PDH's) Office of policy planning Table A-16. Office of policy pl anning construction forms Form no Form title 525-010-01 Interlocal agreement for creation of the metropolitan planning organization 525-010-02 Transportation planning funds joint participation agreement 525-010-03 Intergovernmental coor dination and review and public transportation coordination

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64 Procurement office Table A-17. Procurement o ffice construction forms Form no Form title 375-030-01 Request for qualification pack age for professional consultants 375-030-12 Standard professional services agreement 375-030-20 Disadvantaged business en terprise (DBE) certification 375-030-21 DBE participation statement 375-030-25 Task work order for professional services 375-030-26 Task work order amendment form for professional services 375-030-30 Truth in nego tiation certification 375-030-31 MBE payment certification 375-030-32 Certification regarding debarmen t, suspension, inelig ibility and voluntary exclusion 375-030-33 Certification for disclosure of lobbying 375-030-5B Invoice summary sheet 375-030-5D Invoice summary sheet (Multi-project/Task) 375-030-5E One page invoice 375-040-18 Drug-free workplac e program certification 375-040-24 MBE planned utilization 375-040-26 Bid or proposal bond 375-040-27 Performance bond 375-040-49 Credit card charge complaint Project management a nd development office Table A-18. Project management and de velopment office construction forms Form no Form title 375-030-08A Consultant schedule evaluation 375-030-08B Consultant management evaluation 375-030-08C Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 2 project development and environmental 375-030-08D Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, gr oup 3 highway design roadway 375-030-08E Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, gr oup 4 highway design bridges 375-030-08F Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 5 bridge inspection 375-030-08G Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, gr oup 6 traffic engineering and operation 375-030-08H Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, gr oup 7 traffic operations design 375-030-08I Consultant quality evaluation T ype of work, group 8 surveying and mapping 375-030-08J Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 9 soil exploration, material testing 375-030-08K Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 11 engineering contract administration 375-030-08M Consultant quality evaluati on Type of work, group 13 planning 375-030-08N Consultant quality evaluati on Type of work, group 14 architect 375-030-08P Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 15 landscape architect

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65 Table A-18. Continued Form no Form title 375-030-08R Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 21 acquisition, negotiation, closing 375-030-08U Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 24 acquisition relocation assistance 375-030-08V Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, gr oup 25 right of way clearing and leasing 375-030-08W Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, gr oup 99 non-standard work type 375-030-08X Consultant CEI work performance evaluation 375-030-08Z Constructability evaluation 525-010-30 Federal-aid pr oject funding request 525-010-32 Local agency program supplemental agreement 525-010-33 Local agency certificat ion qualification agreement 525-010-40 Local agency program agreement 525-010-401 Local agency program agreement Exhibit 1 525-010-40A Local agency program agreement Exhibit A 525-010-40B Local agency program agreement Exhibit B 525-010-40D Local agency program agreement Exhibit D 525-010-40L Local agency program agreement Exhibit L 525-010-40M Local agency program agreement Exhibit RL 525-010-40R Local agency program agreement Exhibit R 525-010-40T Local agency program agreement Exhibit T Public transportation and modal administrator office Table A-19. Transportation and modal ad ministrator office construction forms Form no Form title 725-030-06 Public transportation jo int participation agreement 725-030-06E EXHIBITS Public transpor tation joint particip ation agreement 725-030-07 Public transportation supplem ental joint participation agreement Rail office Table A-20. Rail office construction forms Form no Form title 725-080-86 Rail corrider crossing permit application Office of right of way Table A-21. Office of right of way construction forms Form no Form title 575-030-02 Representative authorization 575-030-03 Right of way negotiation cont act record and suit information 575-030-07 Offer and purchase agreement 575-030-08 Counteroffer and purchase agreement

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66 Table A-21. Continued Form no Form title 575-030-12 Donation of property to FDOT 575-030-15 Right of entry agreement 575-030-16 Closing statement 575-030-17 Application for payment of closing costs 575-030-18 Public disclosure affidavit 575-030-19 Public disclosure act exemp tion affidavit (Corporate exempt) 575-030-20 Corporation exemption document 575-030-21 Public disclosure act exemption affidavit (Trust-exempt condemnation) 575-030-22 Public eminent domain document 575-030-24 Recommendation for settlement 575-030-25 Mediation report 575-030-27 Request for taxpaye r identification number 575-030-30 Trial/Hearing report 575-030-31 Notice to owner 575-030-32 Notice to owner Spanish 575-030-33 Notice to business owner 575-030-34 Notice to business owner Spanish 575-030-35 Request for vendor identification number 575-030-36 Invoice for protective rent payment 575-040-01 Business survey questionnaire 575-040-02 Household survey questionnaire 575-040-03 Statement of eligibility for supplem entary replacement housing payment for 90 575-040-03S Statement of elig ibility (Spanish) for supplementary replacement housing payment for 90 575-040-04 Relocation assistance costs 575-040-05 Replacement housing payment determination three comparables method 575-040-06 Statement of eligibility for supplem entary replacement housing payment for own 575-040-06S Statement of elig ibility (Spanish) for supplementary replacement housing payment for 180-day 575-040-08 Hazardous substance letter 575-040-09 90-day letter of assurance 575-040-09S 90-day letter of assurance (Spanish) 575-040-10 Replacement housing payment transaction package 575-040-11 30-day notice to vacate 575-040-11S 30-day notice to vacate (Spanish) 575-040-12 Income certification 575-040-13 Replacement housing qu estionnaire/certification 575-040-14 Application and claim for replacement housing payment 575-040-15 Move cost estimate 575-040-16 Search expense itemization 575-040-17 Personal property inventory 575-040-19 Receipt for business move options information packet 575-040-20 Moving expense calculati on and payment determination 575-040-21 Moving cost transaction package

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67 Table A-21. Continued Form no Form title 575-040-22 Direct payment agreement 575-040-23 Application and claim for reimbursement of moving costs 575-040-24 Warrant acknowledgement 575-040-25 Relocation payment appeal 575-040-26 Trip log for reimbur sement of search cost 575-040-27 Labor cost worksheet 575-040-28 Owned equipment usage and charges 575-040-29 Receipt for information packet for residential moves 575-040-30 Notice of eligibil ity nonresidential/ signs 575-040-30S Notice of eligibility nonresidential signs (Spanish) 575-040-31 Notice of eligibility residential 575-040-31S Notice of eligibil ity residential (Spanish) 575-040-32 Offer of benefits on-premise signs 575-040-33 Notice of claim denial/right to appeal 575-060-01 Property inventory 575-060-02 Cash receipt form 575-060-03 Affidavit 575-060-04 Demolition and removal contract minus contract 575-060-05 Demolition and removal contract plus contract 575-060-06 Performance bond (Surety) 575-060-07 Contract co mpletion report 575-060-08 Asbestos abatement contract 575-060-09 Field inspection 575-060-10 Performance bond (Cash) 575-060-11 Release & Notice of non-friable asbestos containing materials temp. Leased/Occupied 575-060-12 Collection form 575-060-13 Non-collusion declaration and compliance with 49 CFR 29. 575-060-16 Affidavit "asbestos abatement" 575-060-17 Release and right of entry agreement for asbestos survey 575-060-17S Release and right of entry agr eement for asbestos survey (Spanish) 575-060-18 Release and notice of non-friabl e asbestos containing materials (ACM) 575-060-19 Release and notice of friable asbestos hazard 575-060-22 Radon gas notification 575-060-22S Radon gas notification (Spanish) 575-060-31 Proposed lease notification 575-060-32 Airspace agreement 575-060-33 Lease agreement 575-060-33S Lease agreement (Spanish) 575-060-34 Initial O and M management plan review 575-060-35 Initial buildi ng survey review 575-060-36 Initial abatement tec hnical specification review 575-060-37 Radon gas notification and disclosure of lead-bas ed paint hazards warning

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68 Table A-21. Continued Form no Form title 575-060-37S Radon gas notification and disclosu re of lead-based paint hazards warning (Spanish) 575-070-01 Outdoor advertising pe rmit tag replacement request 575-070-02 Outdoor advertisi ng license application 575-070-04 Application for out door advertising permit 575-070-12 Outdoor advertising pe rmit cancellation certification 575-070-18 Application to place bann ers on non limited access right of way 575-070-25 Outdoor advertising permit transfer affidavit 575-095-07 Local agency program/FDOT right of way certification 575-095-09 Local agency program/FDOT no additional right of way certification 575-095-10 Right of way certi fication Design build FLI-163 Logo application/annual permit renewal Roadway design office Table A-22. Roadway design office construction forms Form No Form Title 592-12 Drainage Connection Permit Application 592-13 Drainage Connection Permit Safety office Table A-23. Safety office construction forms Form no Form title 500-000-25 Detailed damage inspection report 500-065-01 Subgrant application for highway safety funds 500-065-04 Statement of highway safety project costs 500-065-05 Summary statement of personnel services cost 500-065-06 Personnel services time sheet 500-065-07 Detail of costs 500-065-09 Non-expendable property accountability record 500-065-17 Highway safety c oncept paper coversheet 500-065-18 Concept paper evaluation form Specification office Table A-24. Specifications office construction forms Form no Form title 630-020-01 Notification of alleged deficiency transportation products Qualified prod

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69 Structures office Table A-25. Structures o ffice construction forms Form no Form title 625-020-05 ADA consituent curb ramp request 625-020-06 ADA consituent accessible route request Support services office Table A-26. Support services office construction forms Form No Form Title 050-020-02 Records Submittal Request Systems planning office Table A-27. Systems planning office construction forms Form no Form title 850-040-14 Driveway/Connection application cate gory a (single family homes, duplexes) 850-040-15 Driveway/Connection app lication for all categories 850-040-16 Receipt of connection applica tion and fee (or waiver of fee) 850-040-17 Record of waived re quirements for all categories 850-040-18 Driveway connection permit for all categories 850-040-19 Record drawings report by permittee's professional engineer 850-040-20 Security instrument receipt 850-040-21 State highway access conn ection completeness review 850-040-22 Applicant time extension form 850-040-23 Proposed state hwy access driveway/c onnection notice of intent to deny permit 850-040-24 Proposed state highway access connec tion notice of intent to issue permit 850-040-26 Violation and no tice to show cause Traffic engineering and operations office Table A-28. Traffic engineering and operations office construction forms Form no Form title 700-010-22 Final acceptance of traffic signal in stallation(s) & transfer of maintenance 750-010-02 Submittal data tr affic control equipment 750-010-03 Vehicle spot speed study 750-010-12 Application for traffi c control device certification 750-010-13 Certified traffic contro l signal device complaint form 750-010-22 Traffic signal maintena nce and compensation agreement 750-020-01 Traffic signal warrant summary 750-020-02 Summary of vehicle movements 750-020-03 Vehicle movements data sheet 750-020-04 Condition diagram 750-020-05 Collision diagram 750-020-06 Crash summary

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70 Table A-28. Continued Form no Form title 750-020-07 Intersection delay study 750-020-08 Vehicle gap size study 750-020-09 Pedestrian volume sheet 750-020-10 Summary of pe destrian movement 750-020-11 Pedestrian group size 750-020-12 Safe curve speed study 750-020-13 No passing zone study 750-020-14 Travel time and delay study field data 750-020-15 Guidelines for determining the operati onal status of existi ng lighting facilities on freeway 750-020-16 Guidelines for determining the operational status of existing lighting 750-020-17 Guidelines for determining the operational status of existing lighting 750-020-18 Roundabout justification study 750-020-19 Travel time and de lay study field summary 750-040-02 Closed circuit televi sion camera (CCTC) agreement Transit office Table A-29. Transit office construction forms Form no Form table 725-030-01 State fleet program vehicle release form 725-030-02 State fleet equipment inspection 725-030-03 State fleet program report maintenance summary 725-030-04 Work order state fleet program 725-030-05 Lease agreement for department of transportation vehicles and equipment 725-030-08 State fleet program transit bus PM inspection 725-030-09 State fleet program preventive main tenance and inspection vans and wagons 725-030-10 Certificate of complian ce for a section 5311 subrecipient 725-030-11 FDOT medical examination re port for bus transit system driver Turnpike enterprise office Table A-30. Turnpike enterpri se office construction forms Form no Form title 800-040-01 Qualification of tandem trailer equipment (Tractor) 800-040-02 Qualification of ta ndem trailer equipment (Fir st or lead trailers) 800-040-03 Certification of insurance 800-040-04 General certification covering tandem trailer operations by permittee 800-040-05 Qualification for special perm it to operate tandem trailer vehicle 800-040-06 Certification of tandem trai ler equipment (Dolly converters) 800-040-07 Qualification for special certifi cate to operate tandem trailer vehicle

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71 Utilities office Table A-31. Utilities office construction forms Form no Form title 710-010-04 Utility work order change no. __ 710-010-05 Utility work schedule 710-010-06 Utility estimate summary 710-010-08 Required provisions for fe deral aid contracts with a UAO 710-010-09 Required provisions for federal aid contracts with an engineering contractor 710-010-12 Utility billing summary 710-010-18 Joint use of util ity facilities agreement 710-010-20 Utility master agreement, (At UAO and FDOT expense combined) 710-010-21 Utility work by highway contract or agreement, (At FDOT expense) 710-010-22 Utility work by highway contract or agreement, (At utility expense) 710-010-30 State highway lighting, mainte nance, and compensation agreement 710-010-50 Corporate resolution, delegati on and special power of attorney 710-010-51 Delegation and special power of attorney 710-010-52 Roadway lighting syst em maintenance agreement 710-010-53 Roadway illumination services agreement 710-010-54 Utility work agreement (F DOT participating in expense) 710-010-55 Utility work agreement, (At UAO's sole expense) 710-010-56 Utility design by FDOT consulta nt agreement, (At utility expense) 710-010-57 Utility work by highway c ontractor agreement (Lump sum) 710-010-61 Utility exception 710-010-64 Utility work by highw ay contract master agreem ent (at UAO and FDOT expense combined) 710-010-65 Selective utility work agreemen t (FDOT participating in expense) 710-010-85 Utility permit Filtered Construction Forms These forms are reviewed and the forms in the following table chosen to be reviewed in order to create the ini tial data dictionary. Construction office construction forms Table A-32. Construction office filtered construction forms Form no Form title 700-010-08 MOT review report 700-010-15 Work plan cont rolling item of work 700-010-25 Contractors past performance report 700-010-64 Engineers maintenance of traffic evaluation at crash site 700-010-69 Wage and hour record 700-010-84 Drilled shaft log

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72 Table A-32. Continued Form no Form title 700-010-86 Drilled shaft rock excavation log 700-010-89 Drilled shaft concrete placement log 700-050-08 Piling tabulations Equal opportunity office construction forms Table A-33. Equal opportunity offi ce filtered construction forms Form no Form title 275-020-04 O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt luteman raker 275-020-07 On-the-job training schedule compliance check 275-020-08 Trainee enrollment and no tification of personnel action 275-020-09 O.J.T. monthly time report C oncrete curb/sidewalk machine operator 275-020-13 O.J.T. monthly time report Erosion control specialist 275-020-17 O.J.T. monthly time report Earth wall erector 275-020-18 O.J.T. monthly time re port Installer/Tester 275-020-19 O.J.T. monthly time report Roller operator 275-020-20 O.J.T. monthly time report Front-end loader operator 275-020-22 O.J.T. monthly time report-Highway or bridge ironworker, reinforcing 275-020-23 O.J.T. monthly time re port Scraper-Pan operator 275-020-24 O.J.T. monthly time report Form/Curb & gutter builder (Structures) 275-020-25 O.J.T. monthly time report Grade checker 275-020-26 O.J.T. monthly time report As phalt/Bridge deck screed operator 275-020-27 O.J.T. monthly time report Highway concrete finisher 275-020-28 Equal employment opportunity officers 275-020-29 O.J.T. monthly time report Highway or bridge carpenter 275-020-30 O.J.T. monthly time report Pipelayer 275-020-31 O.J.T. monthly time report Backhoe operator 275-020-35 O.J.T. monthly time report Painter, highway or bridge 275-020-36 O.J.T. monthly time repo rt Air compressor operator 275-020-37 O.J.T. monthly time re port Asphalt distributor 275-020-38 O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt paving machine operator 275-020-39 O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt plant drier operator 275-020-43 Certification of subcontr act amount to DBE contractor 275-020-44 O.J.T. monthly time report equipment maintenance technician 275-020-45 O.J.T. monthly time repo rt Motor grader operator 275-020-46 O.J.T. monthly time report Milling machine operator 275-020-47 O.J.T. monthly time reportConc rete paving finishing machine operator 275-020-48 O.J.T. monthly time reportConc rete paving machine/spreader operator 275-020-49 O.J.T. monthly time report Deckhand 275-020-51 O.J.T. monthly time report Mechanic 275-020-58 O.J.T. monthly time report Truck driver 275-020-60 O.J.T. monthly time report Tractor operator 275-020-64 O.J.T. monthly time report St one and aggregate spreader operator

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73 Materials office construction forms Table A-34. Materials office f iltered construction forms Form no Form title 675-010-02 Compressive strength of concrete cylinders 675-010-03 Concrete design mix 675-020-22 Density log book Data Dictionary The initial data dictionary is created at early stages of the project a nd should evolve to its final form when required feedback from FDOT ob tained. The data dictionary snapshot is given in the Table A-35. Table A-35. Data dictionary snapshot Label Common Inventory Data on form name name type Document Producer Consumer Label on the form is referred to as the name given to data item on the form. This column will be extracted directly from the forms. Common name is the name attributed to data items in order to prevent labeling conflicts Inventory name is the label used for the data items in my research inventory. Common name and the inventor y name same for most of the elements. Data type is the type of data, either simple or comple x. Document is referred to as the form number of the form listings from which the data is obtaine d. Producer is the party who has created the data. Consumer is the party that uses the data. The last two columns were created to be able to map the data. They are important in understanding that will be using the data and what they are going to use it for.

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74 APPENDIX B TRANSXML AND DIGGS DOCUMENTATION TransXML and DIGGS are the ongo ing projects that are most lik ely to contribute to my research. This section contains some additiona l data about the documents created in those projects. TransXML Documentation Table B-1. TransXML documentation Business area Application Title Transportation construction & materials XML schema TransXML bid package schema v.03 Transportation construction & materials XML schema TransXML construction progress schema v. 0.3 Survey/Roadway design XML schema TransXML design project schema v. 0.3 Transportation construction & materials XML sc hema TransXML linear reference schema v. 0.3 Transportation construction & materials XML schema TransXML material sampling and testing schema v. 03 Transportation construction & materials XML schema TransXML project construction status schema v. 03 Transportation construction & materials XML schema TransXML reference rchema v. 0.3 Transportation construction & materials XM L schema TransXML base schema v. 0.3 Highway bridge structures Software TransXML bridge input converter Transportation safety XML schema Crash list state Transportation safety XML schema Fars Transportation safety XML schema Fars_2005 Transportation safety XML schema Fars crash list Transportation safety XML schema MMUC Transportation safety XML schema MXDM Transportation safety XML schema Summary Transportation safety XML schema Value pair DIGGS Documentation Table B-2. DIGGS documentation Application Title Text file DIGGS data dictionary rev 23 XML schema Aggregate abrasion value XML schema Aggregate crushing value XML schema Aggregate impact value XML schema Atterberg limits

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75 Table B-2. Continued Application Title XML schema Blow XML schema Business associate XML schema Capwap XML schema Capwap segment XML schema Cast shaft XML schema Cast shaft component XML schema Cast shaft construction XML schema Cast shaft instance XML schema CBR detail XML schema CBR general XML schema Chalk tests XML schema Chemical tests XML schema Compaction detail XML schema Compaction general XML schema Compressive strength detail XML schema Compressive strength general XML schema Consolidation detail XML schema Consolidation general XML schema Detail XML schema Diggs CRS XML schema Dilatometer detail XML schema Dilatometer general XML schema Discontinuity data XML schema Driven penetration test detail XML schema Driven penetration test general XML schema Driven pile XML schema Driven pile component XML schema Driven pile construction XML schema Driven pile instance XML schema Driving analysis XML schema Driving log XML schema Elongation index XML schema Equipment XML schema Flakiness index XML schema Foundation group XML schema Fracture spacing XML schema Frost susceptibility detail XML schema Frost susceptibility general XML schema Hand vane XML schema Hole XML schema Hole construction XML schema Insitu CBR XML schema Insitu chemical tests XML schema Insitu density

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76 Table B-2. Continued Application Title XML schema Insitu flame ionisation detector XML schema Insitu permeability detail XML schema Insitu permeability general XML schema Insitu pho to ionisation detector XML schema Laboratory permeability XML schema Laboratory velocity XML schema Layer XML schema Library XML schema Load test XML schema Los Angeles abrasion XML schema Mcv detail XML schema Mcv general XML schema Meta data XML schema Monitoring point construction XML schema Monitoring point event XML schema Monitoring point general XML schema Monitoring point reading XML schema Other field tests XML schema Other laboratory tests XML schema Particle size general XML schema Pocket penetrometer XML schema Point load test XML schema Polished stone value XML schema Porosity XML schema Pressuremeter detail data XML schema Pressuremeter detail loops XML schema Pressuremeter detail test XML schema Pressuremeter general XML schema Project XML schema Redox potential XML schema Relative density XML schema Resistivity XML schema Sample XML schema Schmidt rebound hardness XML schema Shear box detail XML schema Shear box general XML schema Shore hardness XML schema Shrinkage XML schema Slake durability XML schema Soundness XML schema Specification XML schema Specimen XML schema Static cone test detail

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77 Table B-2. Continued Application Title XML schema Static cone test general XML schema Suction XML schema Ten percent fines XML schema Transmission information XML schema Vane detail XML schema Vane general XML schema Water absorption XML schema Water levels in hole

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78 APPENDIX C ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION FO R INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH As stated in previous chapters I have created four schemas and four application files for the data on FDOT construction forms. FDOT Construction Forms and Related Documentation Engineers MOT Evaluation at Cras h Site Form and Data inventory Figure C-1. Engineers maintenance of tra ffic (MOT) evaluation at crash site form

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79 Figure C-1. Continued

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80 Table C-1. Engineer's MOT evaluation at crash site form data inventory Label on form Data Type Date/Time of occurrence dateTime Report Date Date FIN project no Integer State road no String District Integer Federal project no Integer County String Contract no Integer WPI no Integer Have there been other crashes in the same vicinity of the work zone Boolean If yes, give dates Date Police investigated Boolean Work zone location of crash String MUTCD and TCP accordance Boolean Enhancements to the MOT at the crash site Boolean List enhancements String Analysis of conditions Pavement String Visibility String Routing String Type of project String Name of the engineer String XML schema for engineers MOT evaluation at crash site form

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81

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82
XML instance document for engineers MO T evaluation at crash site form 2002-0401T03:25:00 2002-04-15 21325915201 9A 2 29552691 duval 21444 false work zone true false

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83 Dry Asphalt Limited Appro ach to Construc tion Reconstructi on Divided Median, Urban
John Doe
Contractors Past Performance Rating Form and Data Inventory Figure C-2. Contractors pa st performance rating form

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84 Table C-2. Contractors past perfor mance rating form data inventory Label on form Data type Contractor name String FIN project no. Integer Address Address County String Contract no. Integer Final contract amount Double Type of work String Proj. administrator/firm or residency String Date final accepted Date Pursuit of the work Integer Proper MOT application Integer Timely submittal of documents Integer Timely completion of project Integer Coordination/Cooperation Integer Mitigate cost and time overruns Integer Environmental compliance Integer Conformance with contract documents Integer DBE utilization Integer Project administrator String Resident engineer String XML schema for contractors past performance rating form

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85

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86
XML instance document for contractors past performance rating form John Doe

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87 123456789213
3800 SW gainesville FL 32608 1254 headquarters
alachua 12542 12354654.00 Maintenance Jane Doe 1965-11-11 12 12 8 4 6 5 7 10 4 82 John Doe 1985-10-10 John Doe 1985-10-10


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88 Work Plan Controlling Item of Work Form and Data Inventory Figure C-3. Work plan contro lling item of work form

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89 Table C-3. Work plan controlling item of work form data inventory Label on Form Data Type Financial Project ID Integer Date from Date Date to Date Contract No. String Description String Location/Limits String Work days Integer Contractor's comments String Submitted by String Submission date Date PE comments String Reviewed by String Review date Date Approved by String Approval date Date XML schema for work plan controlling item of work form

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90 XML instance document for work plan controlling item of work form 20778415201 t2110 2001-10-11 2002-01-01 bridge s uperstructure gainesville 6 days John Doe 2002-01-01 John Doe 2002-01-01 John Doe 2002-01-07

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91 LIST OF REFERENCES American Subcontractors Association, Inc (2006). Electronic data exchange in construction. Retrieved September 14, 2006, from http://www.asaonline.com/pdfs/June2006WhitePaper.pdf Econstruct (2001). eConstruct homepage. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from http://www.econstruct.org Ellis, R.D., McVay, M., Hoit, M. (2006). Integra tion of XML schemas for the exchange of FDOT construction project data. Research proposa l, University of Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, Florida. Haas, C.T., Borcherding, J.D., Allmon, E., Goodrum, P. M. (1999) U.S. construction labor productivity trends, 1970-1998. Report, University of Texa s at Austin, Center for Construction Industry Studies, Texas. Retrieved October 12, 2006, from http://www.cdc.gov/elcosh/docs/d0100/d000131/d000131.PDF O'Reilly Media, Inc. (2006). What is XML? Retrieved September 10, 2006 from http://www.xml.com/pub/a/98/10/guide0.html Refsnes Data (2006) XML tutorial Retrieved August 26, 2006, from http://www.w3schools.com/xml/default.asp Refsnes Data (2006) XML schema tutorial. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from http://www.w3schools.com/schema/default.asp Styler, M. (2006). Development and implementati on of the DIGGS format to perform LRFD resistance factor calibration of dr iven concrete piles in Florida Masters thesis, University of Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, Florida. The World Wide Web Consortium (2003). Extensible markup language. Retrieved July 28, 2006, from http://www.w3.org/XML The World Wide Web Consortium (2003). XML schema Retrieved August 14, 2006, from http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema NCHRP Transportation Research Board (2005). XML schemas for exchange of transportation data GML experiment summary report. Retrieved June 28, 2006, from http://www.transxml.com/GML+Experiment/Group+Documents/default.aspx NCHRP Transportation Research Board (2004). XML schemas for exchange of transportation data interim report sections 1-5. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.transxml.com/Info/Project+Documents/250.aspx U.S. Department of Commerce T echnology Administration, National Institute of Standards and

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92 Technology (2006). Cost analysis of inadequate inter operability in the U.S. capital facilities industry. Retrieved October 10, 2006, from http://fire.nist.gov/bf rlpubs/build04/PDF/b04022.pdf

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93 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Duzgun Agdas was born on June 14, 1983, in Tun celi, Turkey. After completing his high school education, he has attended the civil engi neering department of Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara, Turkey. Upon getti ng his Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering in June 2005, the author was admitted to the University of Florida for graduate level studies. After getting his Master of Engineeri ng degree in 2006, he will remain at UF for his doctorate.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0017883/00001

Material Information

Title: An XML based approach proposing an effective solution to the data management issues within the construction industry
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Agdas, Duzgun ( Dissertant )
Ellis, Ralph D. ( Thesis advisor )
Glagola, Charles R. ( Reviewer )
MvVay, Michael C. ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Civil Engineering thesis, M.E
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Civil and Coastal Engineering

Notes

Abstract: The construction industry has long been known as lacking in IT investment and implementation. One of the most severe drawbacks of the phenomenon is observed in data management issues. As an industry characteristic, construction projects produce a vast amount of data from various different working groups, which makes the data management nearly impossible with traditional methods. There have been various projects to solve this problem, to provide a methodology that will provide a seamless solution to the problems faced. None of them has yet to produce an effective solution. Any proposed solution method must be practical, economic and easy to use in order to overcome strong industry resistance. A newly emerged technology, XML, offers an easy to implement, affordable and flexible solution to the data management problems. This thesis includes background research, development methodology and some initiative examples of such a solution.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 93 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.E.)--University of Florida, 2006.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003757841
System ID: UFE0017883:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0017883/00001

Material Information

Title: An XML based approach proposing an effective solution to the data management issues within the construction industry
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Agdas, Duzgun ( Dissertant )
Ellis, Ralph D. ( Thesis advisor )
Glagola, Charles R. ( Reviewer )
MvVay, Michael C. ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Civil Engineering thesis, M.E
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Civil and Coastal Engineering

Notes

Abstract: The construction industry has long been known as lacking in IT investment and implementation. One of the most severe drawbacks of the phenomenon is observed in data management issues. As an industry characteristic, construction projects produce a vast amount of data from various different working groups, which makes the data management nearly impossible with traditional methods. There have been various projects to solve this problem, to provide a methodology that will provide a seamless solution to the problems faced. None of them has yet to produce an effective solution. Any proposed solution method must be practical, economic and easy to use in order to overcome strong industry resistance. A newly emerged technology, XML, offers an easy to implement, affordable and flexible solution to the data management problems. This thesis includes background research, development methodology and some initiative examples of such a solution.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 93 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.E.)--University of Florida, 2006.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003757841
System ID: UFE0017883:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





AN XML BASED APPROACH PROPOSING AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO THE DATA
MANAGEMENT ISSUES WITHIN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY























By

DUZGUN AGDAS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2006
































Copyright 2006

by

Duzgun Agdas


































To my family for being there every time I needed them.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my chair, Dr. Ralph D. Ellis, and the members of my supervisory committee, Dr.

Charles R. Glagola and Dr. Michael C. MvVay, for their mentoring. Special thanks go to

Dr. Ellis, as his willingness and experience were invaluable contributions to the successful

completion of this thesis.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ........._..... ...............8....__........


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............10....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 1 1..


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............12.......... ......


Information Technology in Construction .............. ...............13....
Subcontracted W ork ................. ...............14.......... .....
e-Construct .............. ... ...............15.

Construction Data Exchange Requirements .............. ...............16....
Problem Definition .............. ...............16....


2 EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE ................. ...............18................


Overview of Extensible Markup Language ................. ...............18........... ...

Comparison of XML to HTML ........._._ ....._..._. ...............18....
Advantages of X ML ......__.__ ... .... .___ ....___ ....___ ....___ ........_.......19
Structure of XML ................ ....................... .................. ................20
XM L Schem a ................... .. ........... ...............21.......
The Structure of XML Schema ........ ......... ........ ................ ...............22
Details of XML Schema Data Types. ................ .............. ......... ........ .....23

Simple data types .............. ...............23....
Complex data types .............. ...............23....
XML Schema Components .............. ...............24....
Sequence ................. ...............24.................
Nam space .............. ...............24....
Restriction .............. ...............25....
Extension ................. ...............26.................

Import ................. ...............27.................
Include ................. ...............28.................


3 GEOGRAPHY MARKUP LANGUAGE .............. ...............30....


Overview of Geography Markup Language ................. ...............30........... ...
Structure of GM L .............. ...............30....

GML Experiment ................. ...............3.. 1..............


4 XML APPLICATIONS .............. ...............33....












Land XML ................ ..... .. ........ .........
aecXML Infrastructure Proj ect Schema ........._._.._......._........ ...........3
D IG G S .............. ...............33....
TransX ML .............. ...............34....


5 SCHEMA RESEARCH PROJECT ................. ...............35................


Introduction to Research Methodology and Requirements .............. ..... ............... 3
Research Proj ect Outline ................. ... ......... ...............35.....
Review of FDOT Data Exchange Needs ................... ... ......... ........... ...........3
Review and Assessment of TransXML and DIGGS Standards .............. ....................36
Development of Schemas and Conflict Solutions with Existing Schemas .....................36
Developing a Construction Exchange Protocol Web site ................. ......___............36
Impl ementation ................. ...............36........... ....

6 INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH............... ...............37


Introducti on ................. ...............37.................
Data Dictionary ................. ...............38.................
Schema Development ................. ......... ...............39.......
Comments on Schema Development............... .. ...... .................3
XML Schema for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action Form ................... .40
XML Instance Document for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action
Form ................. ...............44.................


7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES .............. ...............54....


Conclusion .................. ...... ....... .... ...... .. ..................5
Future of XML and Possible Impacts on Construction Industry ............__ ........._ ......55


APPENDIX


A FDOT CONSTRUCTION FORM REVIEW AND DATA DICTIONARY .........................57


FDOT Construction Form Review .............. .. ... ...............57.
FDOT Construction Offces and Respective Forms ................. ................. ........ 57
Aviation offce............... ...............57.
Offce of the comptroller ................. ...............57................
Construction offce ................. ...............57.................
Contracts administration offce .............. ...............57....
Environmental management onfce .............. ...............58....
Equal opportunity off ce............... ...............58.
Estimates offce .................. ...............60.................
Financial development omfce ................ ...............60........... ....
Offce of general counsel ................ ......... ........ ......... ................60
Offce of information systems ................. ...............61................
Offce of general inspector ................. ...............61................
ITS program offce ................ ...............61........... ....












Maintenance office ................. ...............61.................
M materials office .............. ...............62....
Personnel resource office .............. ...............63....
Office of policy planning .......................... .................. ...............63
Procurement office .............. ...... ....... ..........6

Proj ect management and development office ........._.___..... .__. ........._......64
Public transportation and modal administrator office ........._._ .... ..._._. .........65
Rail office ........._.___..... ._ __ ...............65.....
Office of right of way ........._.___..... .___ ...............65...
Roadway design office ........._.___..... .__. ...............68....
Safety office .............. ...............68....
Specification office .............. ...............68....
Structures office .............. ...............69....

Support services office ........._..._.._ ...._._. ...............69....
Systems planning office .............. .... ...............69.
Traffic engineering and operations office .............. ...............69....
Transit office ............... ...............70....

Turnpike enterprise office .............. ...............70....
Utilities office............... ...............71.
Filtered Construction Forms................ ...............71.
Construction office construction forms ...._ ......_____ .......___ ............7

Equal opportunity office construction forms .............. ...............72....
Materials office construction forms .............. ...............73....
Data Dictionary ............ ..... .._ ...............73...

B TRANSXML AND DIGGS DOCUMENTATION .............. ...............74....


TransXML Documentation............... .............7
DIGGS Documentation .............. ...............74....


C ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH.............._._. .........78


FDOT Construction Forms and Related Documentation .............. ...............78...

Engineer' s MOT Evaluation at Crash Site Form and Data inventory ...........................78
XML schema for engineer' s MOT evaluation at crash site form. .................. ..........80
XML instance document for engineer's MOT evaluation at crash site form......_....82
Contractor' s Past Performance Rating Form and Data Inventory ................. ................83
XML schema for contractor's past performance rating form ................. ...............84
XML instance document for contractor' s past performance rating form .................86
Work Plan Controlling Item of Work Form and Data Inventory ................. ................88
XML schema for work plan controlling item of work form ................. ................89
XML instance document for work plan controlling item of work form ................. .90

LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............91................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............93....











LIST OF TABLES


Table page


3-1 XML simple data types ........._._ ............ ...............29...

7-1 Data inventory of trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form ................... .......46

A-1 Aviation office construction forms .............. ...............57....


A-2 Office of the comptroller construction offce ........._ ....... ___ ......__.........5

A-3 Construction office construction forms .............. ...............57....

A-4 Contracts administration office construction forms............... ...............57.

A-5 Environmental management office construction forms ....._____ .........__ ...............58

A-6 Equal opportunity office construction forms .............. ...............58....

A-7 Estimates office construction forms............... ...............60.


A-8 Financial development onfce construction forms............... ...............60.

A-9 Offce of general counsel construction forms ...._ ......_____ .......___ ..........6

A-10 Office of information systems construction forms ..........._ ..... ..__ .........__......61

A-11 Office of general inspector construction forms .........___....... ......__............61

A-12 ITS program offce construction forms................ ...............61.

A-13 Maintenance office construction forms .............. ...............61....

A-14 Materials offce construction forms ............ .......... ...............62..

A-15 Personnel resource offce construction forms ................. ........._ ...... 63.........


A-16 Office of policy planning construction forms ................. ....___ ............ .......6

A-17 Procurement office construction forms............... ...............64.


A-18 Proj ect management and development onfce construction forms ................. ...............64

A-19 Transportation and modal administrator office construction forms ................. ...............65

A-20 Rail office construction forms .............. ...............65....


A-21 Office of right of way construction forms ............ ....._ ...............65











A-22 Roadway design office construction forms................ ...............68.

A-23 Safety office construction forms ............_ ..... ..__ ...............68..


A-24 Specifieations onfce construction forms .............. ...............68....

A-25 Structures office construction forms ............ ......__ ...............69.


A-26 Support services office construction forms................ ...............69.

A-27 Systems planning office construction forms .....__.....___ ..........._ ...........6


A-28 Traffic engineering and operations office construction forms................ ................6

A-29 Transit office construction forms ............ ..... ._ ...............70..


A-30 Turnpike enterprise office construction forms .....__.....___ ........... ............7

A-31 Utilities office construction forms .............. ...............71....


A-32 Construction office filtered construction forms .....__.....___ ..............._........7


A-33 Equal opportunity office filtered construction forms............... ...............72.

A-34 Materials office filtered construction forms .............. ...............73....


A-3 5 Data dictionary snapshot............... ...............73

B-1 TransXML documentation............... .............7


B-2 DIGGS documentation............... .............7


C-1 Engineer's MOT evaluation at crash site form data inventory............... ...............8

C-2 Contractor' s past performance rating form data inventory ......____ ..... .. ...__...........84


C-3 Work plan controlling item of work form data inventory. ........._..._.._ ......._._. ........._89










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

7-1 Trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form............... ...............48..

7-2 Outline of the XML schema for trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form ...49

7-3 Outline of the XML instance document for trainee enrollment & notice of personnel
action form ................. ...............52.................

C-1 Engineer' s maintenance of traffic (MOT) evaluation at crash site form ................... ........78

C-2 Contractor' s past performance rating form ................. ...._ .......... .........8

C-3 Work plan controlling item of work form ................. ...............88..............









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

AN XML BASED APPROACH PROPOSING AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION TO THE DATA
MANAGEMENT ISSUES WITHIN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


By

Duzgun Agdas

December 2006

Chair: Ralph D. Ellis
Major: Civil Engineering

The construction industry has long been known as lacking in IT investment and

implementation. One of the most severe drawbacks of the phenomenon is observed in data

management issues. As an industry characteristic, construction proj ects produce a vast amount of

data from various different working groups, which makes the data management nearly

impossible with traditional methods.

There have been various proj ects to solve this problem, to provide a methodology that will

provide a seamless solution to the problems faced. None of them has yet to produce an effective

solution. Any proposed solution method must be practical, economic and easy to use in order to

overcome strong industry resistance.

A newly emerged technology, XML, offers an easy to implement, affordable and flexible

solution to the data management problems. This thesis includes background research,

development methodology and some initiative examples of such a solution.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

The last two decades have witnessed the golden age for information technology (IT)

development. Improvements in computer science and advancements in technology resulted in IT

improvements. The progress caught attention of a number of different industries, and they started

to invest in IT. One of the most successful implementation was in production industry. IT

implementation not only changed the process definition but also brought new and more efficient

management principles to the industry. The IT implementation enabled producers to get the best

results in the shortest amount of time, in addition to giving them a lot of control over the process

by reducing worker related errors.

Although IT innovations brought a lot in many industries, its implementation to

construction industry was relatively gradual. A number of reasons are proposed to explain the

phenomenon. Some of those include but not limited to:

* Construction industry is undoubtedly one of the most traditional industries. People tend to
follow what they have been taught, and there is a strong user resistance to change.

* The industry is fragmented. There are a number of parties involved in construction
regardless of the size and scope of the proj ect. This makes it hard to implement a
collaborative system.

* Construction industry is proj ect based. Unlike the obj ect oriented production industry, the
products tend to be unique and it makes it hard to create a common framework applicable
to multiple proj ects.

* The social hierarchy shows a huge variation within a company. While most of the
workforce is hardly computer literate, it is not easy to implement the IT and make it
available to all workers. Training will be required which needs time and money
investment.

* The industry itself has a low profit margin when compared with others. Although the
turnover values of structures is very significant, the low profit margins tend to lead to more
compressed cash flows and resultantly reducing the company's economic power. Most
construction companies tend to look for short term benefits instead of investing their
money in IT implementation which is relatively expensive and not very likely to affect
company significantly in short term.









Information Technology in Construction

Although the IT implementation in construction is harder than other industries, it will be

most beneficial in construction. Within the traditional approach, yet the most important process

is construction itself as a characteristic, a lot of time and money are spent on the administration

processes and data involved tasks.

Some of the innovations are beginning to be used. The IT applications are generally

applied to drawings, scheduling, and electronic construction data storing.

Almost all companies are using commercial software to schedule their jobs. The software

applications are capable of creating box diagrams and bar charts as well as allocating and the

resources. Although each and every other company involved in a proj ect uses the same or similar

type of device to handle scheduling, the interoperability in electronic format is very limited. The

schedule updates are performed manually. Change orders delays are all processed and input to

update the schedule again manually.

Another computerized application is the shop drawings. Every single construction

company, regardless of the size, uses computers to handle all kinds of drawings. Yet they print

those and submit the shop drawings for approval. The shop drawings are not static. As a result,

every other change has to be marked, and the drawings need to be reprinted and resubmitted for

approval. In addition, although the drawings are in electronic format, the quantity take offs,

multiplication of the side lengths geometric figures drawn in two dimensions, are done by hand.

It is not only a tedious activity but also very prone to produce errors as there will be lots of

calculations.

The last maj or IT application to construction is data storage of, generally, progress reports

and financial information. The information is placed in a data base, not very different from the










archiving the paperwork. The interoperability is limited to the company, not with the other

parties.

Subcontracted Work

One of the drastically changing characteristics of construction is the amount of work to be

subcontracted. It is the proj section of division of labor principle applied to construction.

Companies are willing to subcontract most of the j ob to specialists. It not only accelerates the

process but also increases the quality of the j ob as every party will be performing the j ob they are

best at. The construction industry is highly material and equipment-oriented, and unless the

company is large enough in scale to perform proj ects of various types and sizes, acquiring all the

required equipment and material would increase the overhead expenses drastically.

Subcontracting construction work items is inevitable. Subcontracting requires a lot of additional

data exchange requirements. The data to be interchanged within subcontractors includes but not

limited to the following:

* Pay item information
* Weekly/Monthly construction progress reports
* Daily reports
* Change orders

A very recent study (American Subcontractors Association 2006) stated that the proj ect

participants are discouraged to share their information in digital format. There are even clauses

added to some of the contracts to prevent it. The main concern of both the owner and the

contractor is discrepancies between hardcopies and electronic documents. Currently the

hardcopies are given priority in case of claims, and actually this is explicitly stated in "Standard

General Conditions of the Construction Contract" published by the Engineers Joint Contract

Documents Committee. This is a clear example of the tradition-bound construction industry.










The above mentioned problems are characteristics of US construction industry

requirements and problems. The variation of the data, the companies need to interchange,

increases when the construction becomes international. Recently big scale companies started

getting j obs in foreign grounds. Even they may subcontract the whole j ob, the differences in

standards, work item definitions, and languages make it hard for every participant of the project

to evaluate the situation.

e-Construct

e-Construct (Econstruct 2001) is an international proj ect designed to create a common

framework for data exchange of the European construction industry. The aim of the proj ect was

to increase the competitiveness of the European building and construction industry, by creating

frameworks to lead cheaper, faster and better construction.

The general problems encountered were originated from the causes related to the

characteristic of the construction industry. The problems related to IT were including;

miscommunications resulted from incompatible computer applications and lack of electronic

communication between parties.

The common framework was created by using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and

aimed to make the European construction industry united. Once the system was established, user

would be able to do their research for material, and market surveying through one search engine

that would be in users own language. The difference in specifications would not be a problem as

the framework will reflect the changes. The interface created is to be a bridge constructed

between suppliers, contractors, and the owner which would eventually eliminate the extra cost

and time loss related to miscommunication between parties.









Construction Data Exchange Requirements

Construction industry is one of the highest budgeted yet little profitable industries. One of

the common costs is related with lack of communication between parties. It not only adds to

direct costs of the proj ect but increases the indirect costs of the proj ect considerably. The

improvements in that manner will both increase the profit margin and quality of the product.

A study (Haas et al 1999) concluded that although the labor productivity of construction

industry is increased from 80s to present date, management procedures were not leading factors

in that increase. The productivity is increased as a result of more advanced technology and the

decrease in real wages. Another survey (National Institute of Standards and Technology 2006)

pointed out the costs caused by lacking in information interoperability in construction industry.

The experiment methodology was to compare present situation to a hypothetical world scenario

where data exchange is in electronic format. In the hypothetical world created, data interchange

and communication between parties are instant by employing information technology tools. The

results indicated that in year 2002 about 16 billion dollars spent on construction services might

have been avoided by better utilized information management technologies for data exchange. In

addition to the calculated loss, there are indirect costs that could not be calculated in that

research. Those include but not limited to, reduced productivity and losing reputation and job

opportunities.

Problem Definition

The above surveys pointed out that the construction industry needs electronic data

exchange protocols to better manage the data which will lead to better management, increased

productivity, and resultantly higher profit margins. Although some solutions were proposed, the

high cost and complexity of the early proposed solutions made them not very applicable. The

solution should be cheap, and the application of it should be simple.









The most promising solution might be creating an interface to enable parties to interact

instantly. Extensible markup language (XML) can provide such a solution. XML offers (The

World Wide Web Consortium 2003) a common language for each proj ect participant for data

interchange. Once the common language is created the data management will be handled better

with much less effort which will lead to better decision making ability by manager.









CHAPTER 2
EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE

Overview of Extensible Markup Language

XML is a W3C recommended, very flexible data language that can be used to represent

different types of data. It is derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

XML is like Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) which is markup language that is used to

publish hypertext formatted data on World Wide Web, yet, XML and HTML are attributed for

different purposes. HTML is used to only describe how data should be presented, whereas XML

describes the data itself.

Although XML and HTML are alike in structure, they have differences in their structures

(O'Reilly Media 2006). HTML has Eixed tags. HTML compilers have to follow these tags to

define his document. The developers needs to put a constant effort trying to keep up with recent

technology, as the extent of the HTML documents depends on the extent of the defined tags. The

applicability of enhancements to HTML is limited to the software, whose vendors participated in

the development process. In addition to that backward compatibility is a great issue. On the

contrary, XML allows the author to define his own tags and his own document structure. It

allows the user to define tags and form the structural relationships between elements. As all the

tags are to be defined by the user, there is no predefined semantics.

Comparison of XML to HTML

XML and HTML have completely different purposes. XML is not a replacement for

HTML. It is important to understand that HTML is a platform that will enable one to present his

data, whereas XML is the data. The future of internet will be depending on XML, but the poor

representation of data is a problem which might be handled by employing HTML.









Advantages of XML

XML has the potential to be the ultimate solution to the data management problems of any

industry. It is not only easy to implement but also inexpensive and does not require extensive

maintenance services. XML will allow the users (Refsnes Data 2006) to exchange data, to share

data, and to store data.

The foremost and distinctive advantage of XML is that it can provide a common

framework for data exchange between two or more incompatible systems. With the recent

technological advancements, more companies are using computers to store data, or complete

certain progresses. One of the maj or hidden indirect costs of proj ects is resulted from poor data

management within participants of the proj ect. Each party needs to spend time and money on

modifications to the data they got from the other party if they want to use that information. This

will produce extra overhead cost to the proj ect as well as leading to longer proj ect completion

time. In addition, the reliability of the data will be depending on the person in charge to make

modifications to the data.

Data sharing is another asset of XML. Once the system is established, through XML

interfaces, the parties will be able to share their information. This will especially be beneficial

when the construction involves subcontracting. It will reduce the paperwork generated and data

sharing will be performed much faster with more dependable data. As the XML data sharing

does not require any software or hardware, implementation will not be a maj or issue (Most of the

web browsers support XML). Besides, the files to be used will be basic text files of relatively

small sizes. That will eliminate the broadband connection requirement.

XML may also be employed to store the data. The code gives users to have control over

the way he wants to store the data. XML also can be used to retrieve data from already existing










data bases. The advantage of XML is the flexibility that will allow the user to modify the

database or files that the data is stored.

The assets of XML that will contribute more to my research are explained above. In

addition to those, XML can be used to create separate data fields within the document. As the

data will be stored in XML files separated from the HTML, the modifications in data will not

require changes in HTML code. Traditionally any change in data to a webpage created by HTML

will require modifications to code. XML will allow the user to concentrate on format of webpage

rather than dealing with the data. This will make maintenance be handled easier.

Structure of XML

Although XML is an extensible meta-language and user has control over defining the tags,

it follows certain easy to follow but strict rules.

To begin with, XML files start with the declaration line which basically states the file is an

XML file. It will include the information about the XML version and the encoding.



XML file starting with the above declaration line is conforming to the version 1.0 and the

character set used is UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format-8).



What is your maj or
Civil Engineering



Above is a simple XML document. The first line is the declaration line as mentioned

above. is the root element and and are the child elements of the root

element. As can be seen, all of the elements have a closing tag () except for the declaration

line (An XML element is everything between an opening and a closing tag). Declaration line is










not part of the data on the document, but it is necessary to include. It includes give information

about the code version and the encoding type. It is the first thing a browser checks before

running an XML file. If the first line is not included, the application file will fail to run properly.

In addition to that, the elements need to be nested properly within the root element. For the

above example there are only root and child elements. If there were sub-child elements, they

would have been nested within child elements. It also should be kept in mind that the elements

are case sensitive in XML unlike HTML.

XML files may contain attributes in addition to the elements. Attributes are used to give

additional information about elements. For instance, in the above code 1.0 and UTF-8 are

attributes to xml version and encoding. i.e.

XML files may also include comments. They are anything between < !-- and -->.

Comments are generally intended to provide additional information about programmer and the

version of the schema about the schema. Like the declaration line, comments are not part of data

but they provide useful information.

XML Schema

XML schemas (The World Wide Web Consortium 2003) are XML files that are used to

define the structure of the XML documents. In addition to defining the structure, they carry

information about the element type definitions and types. XML schemas are W3C

recommendations (from May 2, 2001), and they are also known as XSD files. They contain

information about all the elements and attributes; give information about data types and structure

of the application document. They form an outline that is going to be the structure of the XML

file. XML schema development is of paramount importance. Unless the parties that are to share

or exchange information are using the common schemas, they will not be able to make use of the










information on the XML documents. An XML application Eile is valid and meaningful provided

it has a valid schema.

XML schemas are turned out to be replacements for Document Type Definition (DTD)

Eiles (Refsnes Data 2006). The DTD Eiles were used for the same purpose as XSD files, defining

the structure of XML document. The DTD Eiles used to define the structure of SGML documents

and as XML inherited its structure from SGML, it has inherited the data type definition format to

define its structure too. Although the DTD files are to be created for the same purpose, XSD Eiles

have some advantages on the DTD files.

DTD files use a different format then the XML files. XSD files on the other hand, are

nothing but XML files. An XML literate user can create the XML schemas where as DTD

requires a learning process as they are not in XML file format. DTD files do not support all kinds

of element definitions as the built-in data definitions are limited than that of XSD files. In

addition, they are not extensible. The very most distinctive advantage of XML is being

extensible and so are XSD files where as DTD files are not. In year 2001, XML schemas were

recommended by W3C, and became the universally accepted document definition procedure of

XML files.

The Structure of XML Schema

The following is a sample XML schema for the previous simple XML document given

above :
























The first line is the declaration line which is explained earlier. is the root

element here. It states the XML document is a schema fie and this comment is same for every

schema file.

In the code above, the root element was the Interview, whereas here it is schema. Elements

Q and A was child elements of the root element. is stating the

name of the child element this time. line nested within the previous comment

states that the elements is of a complex type. There will be a more comprehensive explanation of

the data types of schemas in upcoming chapters. For this specific case, the complex data type is

composed of two basic data type elements. line defines the sequencing of the two

simple elements. and

lines defines the sequencing, and also name the elements and their types. Here both elements are

of simple type of string that is generally used for elements composed of characters. Again the

following data type section will include detailed information about them.

Details of XML Schema Data Types

Simple data types

The simple data types are the ones that are built in within the XML version. Although there

are a vast number of built-in data types, the most widely used ones are: integer, double, boolean,

time, date, string, and dateTime. Definitions of those together with respective examples are given

in Table 3-1.

Complex data types

The complex data types are used for the elements that contain other elements and/or

attributes. There are no certain rules to the complex type definitions provided the basics of the










XML rules are followed (Some of those are explained in the following chapters). User can define

his own complex data types provided it is not possible to express the data content with the simple

data types. Recall the example given above the interview element is defined to be consisted of

two elements.

XML Schema Components

Sequence

This tag is used in schema to define the order of the elements of within the complex type

element. If the above schema were used to create an instance document, the instance document

should have an order of child elements ad follows.

What is your maj or?
Civil Engineering

Recall the related part of the schema:






The schema specifies the order, and it is to be followed. If not there will be an error

produced and the instance document will not run properly.

Namespace


targetNamespace="http://www.duzgunagdas. com"
xmlns:xs= "http://www.w3 .org/200 1/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="'qualified" >




















The second and third lines above include the namespace information about the schema.

(Xmlns is referred to xml namespace). The namespace concept is nothing but a clever and easy

way of preventing the possible naming conflicts between different schemas, which might have

same element names. The namespace states that the names that are used in the schema are

coming from the namespace specified. Namespaces are generally web addresses. Although there

are no written rules about the naming, it is more convenient to name it after the party who

created it. The above schema is created by me and a proper would be my own web address,

although it does not actually exist.

Here the comment line, xmlns="http://wwww duzgunagdas.com" is referred to as both the

default and target namespaces. elementFormDefault="'qualified" line states that the names that

are used in this specific schema are to be qualified within the namespace.

Restriction

These are predefined limitations that can be put to the simple data types in order to confine

the data to certain values or similarly in order to exclude certain values. There are certain in built

restriction comments available for the user.

The above mentioned restrictions apply to simple data types which are given in earlier

sections. The restriction commands can be used to redefine the context of a previously defined

complex data type. This might be helpful in long term, in case of changes to the data format.

Another application of the restriction tag together with the complex data types is restricting

the content of the complex data with the previously defined data types. By this way, one can

confine the data type content of his own complex data to those of an already existing one.

The following is a simple illustration of the use of restriction on character length on the

simple string data types which are nested within the complex type element Interview. I wanted a










minimum of 10 and a maximum of 18 character length (Additional restriction comments can be

obtained from the cited references).
























Here it is explicitly stated that the data elements are of simple data types. In order to use

the restriction command, the data type explicitly needs to be stated. Although it is the same

schema used above, modifications were necessary to use the restriction tag.

Extension

Although one can define his own complex data types to have elements with attributes,

extension elements can be used to extend a simple data type to create a complex one. The already

existing, in-built, simple data type will be base for the new complex data type. The following is

an example. Suppose there is a simple element,
And after defining the schema, it is required to add the age and gender of the reporter. The

extension tag allows user to do so.



















Although the extensions can be used for the above mentioned purpose, the more important

use of extension tag is extending a complex data type with another one. This way already defined

elements in complex data types will be used collaboratively. It is important as in real life

applications generally data types will be way too complicated than the above mentioned basic

schema data types.

Import

Import function is used to import global element definitions from other schemas. If already

defined name tags were to be used for the schema design, one can use import tag and include that

namespace in the schema. Two or more XML schemas can be used simultaneously within the

same schema. The import function can be used for schemas with different target namespaces.

Import comment must be the child element of schema element. It is, therefore, will apply to the

whole schema. Following is an example:


xmlns:gml= "http://www.opengis.net/gml "
xmlns: txl= "http://www. transxml. net/schema/txl/0.3 "
targetNamespace= "duzgun" elementFormDefault= qualified">
schemaLocati on= gml/3. 1 .1/b ase/gml .xsd "/>


Above schema is a fraction of a schema developed by me, which is given in full extend in

following chapters. Two different namespaces are imported for the above schema. These










namespaces are imported in order to use already defined data type definitions they contain for

the schema I have created. The required data type definitions were defined in the schema TXL-

GML20060123pxs.xsd of TransXML proj ect. As that schema was using the content of the

gml.xsd schema, and as the namespace content of that schema is also different from the

TransXML schema, both namespaces were imported. The first namespace is

http://www. opengis.net/gml, and the schema location is defined by a local link. The second

schema, whose namespace is http://www.transxml .net/schema/txl/0.3 is also located by a local

link. Remote links can be used to define the schema locations provided they are accessible on

web. Here, both gml.xsd and the TXL-GML20060123pxs.xsd schemas are located under close

proximity of the main schema.

Include

This comment is very similar to the import comment. The only difference is that it allows

users to combine schemas that are targeted to the same namespace or no namespaces. As the

schemas will be using the same target namespace, namespace command line will not be

necessary. The schema location should be sufficient to locate the schemas. This comment allows

user to create smaller and simpler schemas. For repeating data type definitions for the same

proj ect, some base schemas addressing common data type definitions can be created and used

more than once.



The above comment line should be enough to import the schema schemal, provided it is

locally available. Similar to the case of import function, remote links might also be used to

describe the schema location if they are accessible via internet.










Table 3-1. XML simple data types
Data type Definition
Integer Any non-decimal number

Double Numbers with decimal values
Boolean Values that are either true or false

Date Date in yy-mm-dd format
Time Time in hh:mm:ss format
dateTime Date and time in yy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss
format
String Data consisting of characters


Example
12354
-123
123.45
True
False
1250-10-10
11:10:00

1950-11-10T10:00:00
abc
Abc-1254









CHAPTER 3
GEOGRAPHY MARKUP LANGUAGE

Overview of Geography Markup Language

Geography Markup Language is a complete and comprehensive XML grammar used to

describe both spatial and non-spatial geographic information. It is developed by Open Geospatial

Consortium (OGC) and currently version 3.1.1 is used. It is the latest and most comprehensive

set of specifications.

Although GML is designed specifically to convey geographic information, it enables users

to create with less effort and in a more uniform way. GML is an XML extension rather than

being a different language. It has more built in elements and predefined context than regular

XML. It is more efficient and easy to create the schemas by making them GML compatible

whether the data includes geographic information or not.

Structure of GML

Throughout the design phase of my own research, I intend to use already created GML

schemas rather than creating my own. Although GML is a subset of XML, it requires additional

learning process, as it has considerable differences with XML. Therefore, pointing out the

differences with XML and GML will be enough. Excessive GML structure definition will not be

relevant.

The GML hierarchy (Styler 2006) consists of obj ects, properties, and values. The obj ects

have properties, and properties define the values. It is similar to the root element, child element,

sub-child element relations in XML. The labeling shows variations with the regular XML

convention. In GML the obj ects follows the UpperCamelCase notation (The first and the

subsequent words are all start with upper case letters, if any) whereas, the properties follow

lowerCamelCase notation (The first words start with lower case letters, and the subsequent









words are all start with upper case letters, if any). This makes it clear what is an obj ect and what

is a property. In XML there is no such differentiation. Both classes and attributes either use

lowerCamelCase notation or UpperCamelCase notation which causes ambiguity in deciding

what is a class and what is an attribute or element.

GML Experiment

The "GML Experiment" (NCHRP 2005) was conducted by TransXML proj ect research

team to see the efficiency of making the schemas GML compatible. The proposed way was

creating two parallel schemas and instance documents, a schema and an instance document

which are GML compatible and another two written with plain XML, and comparing them

against each other. In order to evaluate the misperception of GML addressing only geographic

information, both geographic and non-geographic data created for the experiment. The main

interest was evaluating the following:

* effort required to the develop documents using plain XML and GML compatible XML

* whether the added GML components made the schemas complicated or made them easier
to follow and understand

* whether GML made the schema easier to comprehend or not

* if GML provide an ample solution framework for differing kinds of work

The conclusions derived from the experiment are as following:

* Schema development is easier with GML. GML has more predefined elements definitions
which reduces the amount of work to be done significantly. In this specific experiment,
although the data range was not very wide, design team took advantage of using GML. In
the presence of more and complicated data GML will be more appreciated. Even the basic
inherited properties, ID, description etc., can make it a lot easier to develop the schema.

* GML is more structured than plain XML. There are not a lot of restrictions to XML which
enables it to be flexible, but the extra flexibility might cause ambiguity. GML offers a
more structured way of creating extensible documents. The difference in naming the
obj ects and properties (UpperCamelCase and lowerCamelCase) makes it easier to
understand the document.










*The GML experiment clearly indicated that the GML covers more than geographic
information. It may also be used with non-geographic data to make the process easier and
more understandable









CHAPTER 4
XML APPLICATIONS

A number of XML based data exchange protocols have been created recently. The

following (NCHRP 2004) are some of those XML applications:

LandXML

It is developed to share and exchange all land related data including surveying and surface

data. The schema is supported by a number of commercial software applications. Employing

LandXML might be of great help during design issues related but not limited to roads.

aecXML Infrastructure Project Schema

Developed by the aecXML infrastructure working group, the schema addresses the proj ect

pay items for various stages of construction. One of the maj or and issues regarding construction

management includes payment information about various work items on different stages of

proj ects. The aecXML schema enables user to use the design information to come up with the

cost estimations and/or payment information.

DIGGS

DIGGS (Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Environmental Specialists) is a research

proj ect aimed to create an international XML based geotechnical data interchange format which

is GML compliant. The framework also should include a data dictionary. DIGGS working group

have produced over 60 schemas including but not limited to schemas for material sampling, in-

situ testing, piling and foundation data. The DIGGS proj ect is significant, as it covers one of the

most complicated data construction industry has. DIGGS is the only XML application protocol

with a complete data dictionary.









TransXML

TransXML proj ect is a NCHRP funded proj ect whose scope is to develop a common

framework for transportation construction data exchange. The proj ect is limited by four key

business areas; transportation construction and materials, transportation safety, highway bridge

structures, and survey/road design. The proj ect aimed to create an interactive framework for the

key business areas as well as providing a base for future schema development, which is to be an

ample solution to transportation construction data exchange problem. The proj ects second phase,

creating the schemas and application files for the key business areas, is completed. The outcome

summary of the proj ect is as follows:

* Transportation construction/materials: Bid package, construction progress package,
material sampling, and testing package proj ect construction status package are the maj or
application files are included.

* Transportation safety: Two application files were created. The first application allows
users to search through crash records stored using the NHTSA FARS Safety XML schema.
Users may also link these crash records to the related highway safety information. The
HISA schema is used for that purpose. The second application file demonstrates how
multiple sources of crash data using different XML schemas can be combined in a single
crash report.

* Highway bridge structures: The file contains a software installation file whose purpose is
to demonstrate the translation of a Bridge TransXML instance document produced by a
bridge analysis software to a format that could be interpreted by another bridge analysis
software. It' s creating an interface that makes it possible to use the analysis of different
software applications interchangeably.

* Survey/Roadway design: The purpose of the application is to demonstrate how to import
and display GIS area features into a CAD design drawing. The application was developed
on Microstation version 08.05.01.xx Windows x86 using MDL (Microstation
Development Language).









CHAPTER 5
SCHEMA RESEARCH PROJECT

Introduction to Research Methodology and Requirements

Florida Department of Transportation is Florida' s largest governmental organization.

Every other year billions of dollars worth of construction is completed for FDOT. As a

characteristic of construction industry, a lot of documents are produced and that makes the data

management hard to deal with the traditional approach. In addition to the mass amount of

paperwork produced, the chances of user related errors occurring increases. Some of the

problems FDOT officials are facing are; the time and human hours spent to create the

documents, to modify the documents that are created by different parties etc. XML can provide

a solution to these problems. In order to overcome the above mentioned problems, a research

proj ect proposal is developed at University of Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal

Engineering. The proposal was submitted, and accepted by FDOT.

Research Project Outline

The research proj ect is aimed (Ellis et al 2006) to create the required XML schemas that

will enable data interchange possible. The project outline is as follows:

Review of FDOT Data Exchange Needs

This task is to be completed by carrying out interviews with the personnel at different

levels within FDOT. The results will include information about the current construction data in

detail. The main issue will be creating an inventory and then mapping the data with respect to the

generator, usage, and storage. Once the data mapped, the needs for data exchange should be

defined.









Review and Assessment of TransXML and DIGGS Standards

The products of the TransXML and DIGGS proj ects should be reviewed in detail. The data

definitions and the schemas of both projects are to be examined carefully in order to see their

relevance and applicability to the FDOT data exchange requirements.

Development of Schemas and Conflict Solutions with Existing Schemas

The schemas will be created according to the needs of FDOT data exchange requirements

that are already identified. After they are created their compliance with the other proj ects'

schemas should be compared and possible conflicts should be resolved.

Developing a Construction Exchange Protocol Website

The developed data dictionary and the schemas will be made public on the webpage

created. The website will also include the construction data interchange framework. The website

will allow managers to consult on data exchange issues.

Implementation

The created website will also be used to serve as an information tool where the proj ect

results will be published. Additional information sessions will be held for managers about the

proj ect. The details of the implementation plan will be available once a certain progress level

achieved.









CHAPTER 6
INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH

Introduction

My goal is to create an ample solution to the data management problems construction

managers are facing. It is not logical to try to develop a solution like that from the very

beginning of the research. Therefore, I have decided to start working with the proj ect I am

involved in, it is mentioned above, in order to better analyze the situation, and to use the proj ect

findings for my own research. The proj ect and my research will not be different up to a certain

point, as transportation construction is under the big umbrella of construction. Once the proj ect is

finished, the products of it should be used as a ladder to achieve the more comprehensive

solution.

The proj ect work started with the meetings with the people in charge of the data

management in district office. The purpose was to get familiar with the FDOT construction data

and to see what data needs to be exchanged. The results I got were not very encouraging. Some

of the data was not in electronic format which made them impossible to store electronically and

very hard to retrieve. The ones that are stored electronically were not consistent with each other.

Some of the data on the papers is scanned and stored in a hard drive while some other data is

stored through commercial software.

In order to get more familiar with the FDOT construction data, I have recommended to

creating my own data dictionary and later map the data on the dictionary. The best idea was

working with the forms available on the FDOT webpage. These forms are available to public at

FDOT' s website (http://www.dot. state.fl.us). They are used to exchange any kind of construction

data with FDOT. This approach is advantageous whether the data on the forms represents the

whole set of the FDOT construction data or not. If the data on the construction related forms










represents the whole data inventory of FDOT, I would be creating the most comprehensive data

dictionary. If not, I would be working on a task to convert the data on forms to electronic format

which is an activity I need to complete for the proj ect I am currently involved in. Once the

required feedback from various departments of FDOT is obtained, the above mentioned

ambiguity would be resolved.

Data Dictionary

Because of the vast total number of the forms, it was not possible to create the data

dictionary of the whole forms. Instead, the most relevant ones to research were chosen to work

with. In order to categorize the forms with respect to their relevance, I have listed them with

respect to the office producing. Once that classification was done, it was easier to decide on

which ones are more relevant to the research priorities.

The forms later were filtered and in order to validate the approach, a meeting was set up

with FDOT officials.

The initial dictionary was not a very complicated, but it was a useful tool to address the

needs of the research. The data in the data dictionary was pulled from the forms. Once the forms

were decided, I started looking for the forms that are in the archives in order to see what the

actual data looks like. It was important as I have needed the data types to create the data

di cti onary.

The data dictionary definition is not unique and can show variation regarding the needs of

the research. When deciding on the components of the data dictionary, I have used some

professional advice from some of the TransXML and DIGGS proj ect participants, and it was

modified with respect to the needs of the research.

A snapshot from the data dictionary column headers can be found in the appendices. I have

not included the whole data dictionary as it is not yet completed. I have created data inventory of










the forms that I developed schemas for. The data inventory is nothing but the completed fraction

of the data dictionary.

Schema Development

Relatively basic forms and corresponding data definitions were chosen to start with. The

short term target was determining the effort needed for creating the schemas and the instance

documents. Forms 700-010-15, 700-010-25, 700-010-64 and 275-020-08 were chosen to start

with whose titles are "Work Plan Controlling Item of Work", "Contractor Past Performance

Rating", "Engineer's Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) Evaluation at Crash Site", and "Trainee

Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action" respectively.

As I already had the data items extracted from the forms and validated the data types by

looking in to the completed forms, creating the schemas was relatively easy. The examples of

schemas and the instance document can be found at the references.

Comments on Schema Development

"Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action" form is a fairly straight forward and

easy to complete form. The data recording does not require any skills, but it has to be signed by 4

different parties 9 times total. That requires the form be physically transported at least 7 times.

When the number of data and the amount work performed every year is considered, it is a big

problem. The form is provided in Figure 7-1.

Once the XML is employed, each participant would be able to log in to the developed

website with their user names and passwords upload the information they need to share with

other parties. Not only the process will speed up but also the instant feedback will enable the

users to interact faster.

While creating the schemas, I have used a predefined data type definition that was

created in TransXML. The address type defined in the "TXL-GML20060 123pxs.xsd" schema in










TransXML proj ect, is referred to as the address type of the trainee, as well as address of

contractor in the schema for contractor' s past performance rating form, which is given in

Appendix C. (The schema is available at http://www.transxml.net, and the schema fraction is

published with the permission from NCHRP). Although this is a little contribution to the schema

development, it is important to point out the methodology of employing other schemas for my

research.

I have not used GML extensions for the schemas for a couple of reasons. I wanted to keep

them as simple as possible, as most of the people I am working with are not very familiar with

the XML technology. I included details that are sufficient to express the data content on the

forms. More importantly, I was able to create the schemas by using XML data type definitions

only. Yet, I have followed the GML notation while creating the schemas. The extensibility of the

schemas makes them possible to be extended by a GML schema if needed.

XML Schema for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action Form

The following schema code is created:


xmlns: gml-http://www. opengi s.net/gml
xmlns:txl= "http://www.transxml.net/schematl/." targetNamespace= "duzgun"
elementFormDefault="'qualified">
schemaLocation= gml/3. 1 .1/b ase/gml .xsd "/>




















































type="txl: StreetAddressPropertyType"/>
type="xs: string"/>





="traineesAnnualIncome" type= "xs:integer"/>
="noOfDependents" type="xs:integer"/>


= "xs:integer"/>
























type= "xs:boolean"/>

"districtContractComplianceManagerNameAndae
type= "xs: string"/>


























name=" districtContractComplianceManagerNameAnd~ae
type="xs: string"/>























name=' "di stri ctC ontractC ompli anceManagerNam eAndD ate"'
type= "xs: string"/>






type= "xs:integer"/>













































The logical outline of the schema is given in Figure 7-2. Table 7-1 represents the data

inventory created for that form. The sections of the form are translated as the child elements of

the root element of the schema. I have chosen the name of the root element name of the schema

as the title of the form to make it more conventional. The sub-child elements are the work items

in the forms. The way the forms are produced made the schema development much easier as they

are already in the hierarchical format needed for XML documents. This will not only make it

easier to develop the instance documents and the schemas, but also will be the basis of future

data bases that are likely to be developed.

XML Instance Document for Trainee Enrollment & Notice of Personal Action Form

The instance document is created using the schema created (All the data on the instance

documents is valid but fictional). The code is as follows;


xmlns:xsi= "http://www.w3 .org/200 1/XML Schema-instance"
xsi :schemaLocati on=-"duzgun 275-020-08.xsd"
xmlns:gml= "http://www.opengis.net/gml"
xmlns:txl="http:.//www.transxml .net/schema/txl/0.3 "
xmlns:xs= "http://www.w3 .org/200 1/XMLSchema" xmlns= "duzgun">

1213 213 21










1 25425
t8787878
al achua
2
John Doe
12121


type three
Jane Doe
1254653
White
Female
1965-11l-11


3800 SW
gainesville
FL
32608
12 54
headquarters


John Doe the
Trai ner

12500 4564654 3

type III
2003 -11-11
John Doe 1 20O3 10- 10


fal se
true


1254-10-10O
4 5 1-6 50 Hrs
12 54
145 6-09-09












graduatei onApproved>true



John Doe 1 20O3 10- 10


true



2 1212121
5 545454545
2
56
1 254-10-10O
John Doe 1 20O3 10- 10


John Doe 9999-01- 12
John D oe 45 45 10-3 1


Vroluntary
Lack of enthusiasm
1 000-01-01
12 5442



Above is the raw code for the instance document. Once the required stylesheet document is

prepared the XHTML document can be modified to look similar to the actual form. This minor

detail may not seem important but it might be crucial to overcome the before mentioned industry

resistance. The outline of the instance document is provided in Figure 7-3.

Table 7-1. Data inventory of trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form
Label on form Data type
Financial proj ect no Integer
FAP No Integer









Table 7-1. Continued
Label on form Data type
Contract no String
County String
District Integer
Contractor name String
FEID no Integer
Proposed training classification String
Trainee's name (first/ middle initial /last) String
Trainee social security number Integer
Trainee's race String
Sex String
Date of birth Date
Trainee's mailing address Address
Instructor' s name & classification String
Annual family income Integer
Trainee's annual income Integer
Number of dependants Integer
Previous classifications String
Enrollment date requested Date
Contractor' s name & date String
Date Date
Acceptable trainee interview Boolean
Enrollment approved Boolean
DCCM name & date String
Date of successful observation Date
Proficiency demonstrated at milestone String
Total accumulated training hours Integer
Graduation approved Boolean
DCCM name & Date String
Contractor' s name & date String
Banking approved Boolean
DCCM name & date String
Financial proj ect no. transferred to Integer
F.A.P no. Integer
District Integer
Hours prior to transfer Integer
Effective date Date
Contractor' s name & date Date
Sending DCCM name & date String
Receiving DCCM name & date String
Type of Termination String
Reason for Termination String
Effective Date Date
Hrs Accumulated At Termination Integer












STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
TRBAINEE ENROLLMENTF & NOTICE OF PERSONNEL ACTION
SECTION 1: PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
1. Financial PoctNo. 2. F.A.P. No. 3. Contract No. 4. Cony 5. District


6. Contractor Name 7. FEID No.


SECTION 2: ENROLLMENT & TRAINEE IDENTIFICATION
8. Proposed Training Classification: 9. Trainee's Name ( first middle initial last)


10. Trainee Social SeuiyNo. 11. Trainee's Race 12. Sex 13.Date of Birth
OBlack rotom.c,- 1an. Whitessesn.o,,.an. OHispanic O~ale aFemale
0 Am. Indian/Al Native OAsian/Pac. Islander
14. Trainee's Mailing Address 15..Instnrctor's Name & Classification 16. Income Data-Complete only if Non Minority Male enrollment
Annual family Trainees annual No. dependents
InCome InCome

17. List previous classifications for which training was received and list classifications worked in 18. Enrollment Date Requested


19. Trainee's Signature 20. Contractor's Signature & Date
Date

SECTION 3: ENROLLMENT APPROVAL
21. Acceptable Trainee Interview? 22. Enrollmenlt Approved? 23. District Contract Compl~3nce Manager (DECMIJ1 Signature & Date

O Yes O No OYes O No Date

SECTION 4: GRADUATION REQUEST

24. Date of Successful 25. Proficiency Demonstrated at 26. Toltal 2.Cntatrs intr
observation Milestone Acumlae
Trann Hours
o 100-2@0 Hrs 0 451-650 Hrs Date
B 241-450 Hrs O Copeinof all
SECTION 5: GRADUATION APPROVAL
28. Graduation A rod?29. District Contract CopineMngr(CM intr Date
O Yes O No Date

SECTION 6: CONTRACTOR'S REQUEST TO AWARD BANKING CERTIFICATE
30. Contractor's Sintr Date
|Date
SECTION 7: BANKING APPROVAL
3i Banking 4pprored? 32. District Contract Comlac Maaer(iM Sintr Date
|O Yes O No Date
SECTION 8: TRAINEE TRANSFER REQUEST
33. Financial PoetNo. Transferred to 34. F.A.P no. 35. District 36. Hrs rirto Transfer |37 Effective Date


38 Contractor's Sintr Date
Date

SECTION 9: TRANSFER APPROVAL
39 SnigDCCM Sintue&Date 40. ecivingl DCCM Sintue&Date
Date Date

SECTION 10: NOTICE OF TERMIlNATION PRIOR TO GRADUATION
41.Typ of Termination 42 Reason for Termination 43. Effective Date 44. Hrs Accum. At Term.
O Voluntary 0 Involuntary


Figure 7-1. Trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action form












4 : sher..a "http ://wwwuu~w3.org/2001/XML5chema"
9 xs:import "http://wwwru, opengis~net/gml"
+ xs:import "http://wwwurutrasm~an~schm~xml~ntshmatl
8 O xs:element "TraineeEnrollmentAnclNoticeofPersonnelAtin
E--- O xs:complexType
E--- O xs:sequence
E--- O xs:element "Projectklentification"
E--- O xs:ComplexType
8--- O xs:sequence
E---- I xs:element "financialProjectNo"
I-- xs:element "FAPNo"
-- I xs:element "contractNo"
-- xs:element "county"
-- a xs:element "district"
-- xs:element "contractorName"
-- a xs:element "FEIDNo"
E--- O xs:element "EnrollmentAnclTraineelclentification"
E--- O xs:complexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- O xs:element "training~lassification"
-- xs:element "traineeName"
O xs:element "trainaee5N"
8-- O xs:element "traineeRace"
E--- O xs:simpleType
E--- e xs:restriction "xs:string"
a xs:enumeration "Black"
+ xs:enumeration "White"
a xs:enumeration "Hispanic"
+ xs:enumeration "Am. Indian"
a xs:enumeration "Asian/Pac Islander"
xs:enumeration "Other"
8-- xs:element "sex
E--- O xs:simpleType
E--- O xs:restriction "xs:string"
; xs:enumeration "Male"
+ xs:enumeration "Female"
-- I xs:element "clate0f8irth"
xs:element "traineeAclcress"
-- xs:element "instructorNameAncl~lassification"
8-- O xs:element "incomeData"
E--- O xs:complexType
E--- O xs:sequence
O xs:element "annualFamilyIncome"
+ xs:element "traineesAnnuallncome"
xs:element "noOfDependents"
-- I xs:element "previousTraining~lassification"
xs:element "enrollmentDateRequestecl"
-- I xs:element "contractorNameAnclDate"



Figure 7-2. Outline of the XML schema for trainee enrollment & notice of personnel action
form













E--- O xs:element "EnrollmentApproval"
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- e xs:element "acceptableTraineeReview"
--a xs:element "enrollmentApproval"
-- e xs:element "district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameAnat
E--- O xs:element "GraduationRequest"'
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- e xs:element "date0f5uccessfulobservation"
8-- e xs:element "proficienceyMilestone"
E--- O xs:simpleType
8--- a xs:restriction "xs:string"
a xs:enumeration "100-240 Hrs"
xs:enumeration "241-450 Hrs"
a xs:enumeration "451-650 Hrs"
xs:enumeration "Completion of All"
-- e xs:element "totalTrainingHours"
--a xs:element "contractorNameAndDate"
E--- 6 xs:element "GraduationApproval"
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- a xs:element "graduationApproved"
-- xs:element "district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameA nat
E--- O xs:element "ContractorRequestToAwyrdardinankingetfiae
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- e xs:element "contractorNameAndDate"
E--- O xs:element "BankingApproval"
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- e xs:element "bankingApproved"
--a xs:element "district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameA nat
E--- 6 xs:element "TraineeTransferRequest"
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- a xs:element "financialProjectNoTransferredTo"
-- xs:element "FAPNo"
-- a xs:element "district"
-- xs:element "hoursPriorToTransfer"
-- a xs:element "effectiveDate"
-- xs:element "contractorNameAndDate"
E--- 6 xs:element "TransferApproval"
8--- a xs:ComplexType
E--- O xs:sequence
-- e xs:element "sendingDCCMNameAndDate"
--a xs:element "receivingDCCMNameAndDate"


Figure 7-2. Continued











8- + xs:element "NoticeofTerminationPriorToGracluation"
0--- O xs:complexType
E--- 6 xs:sequence
8 xs:element "typeOFTermination"'
E--- O xs:simpleType
0--- e xs:restriction "xs:string"
-- e xs:enumeration "Voluntary'
-- xs:enumeration "Involuntary"
8 xs:element "YeasonForTermination"
+ xs:element "effectiveDate"
aI xs:element "hoursAccumulatedAtTermination"


Figure 7-2. Continued












1+TraineeEnrollmentAndNoticeofPersonnelActio "http://wwwur.wy3.orgf2001 /XML5chema-instance"
0--- O ProjectIdentification
-- O inancialProjectNo 121321321
-- O FAPNo 125425
-- O contractNo tS787878
-- O county alachua
-- district 2
-- + contractorName Ilohn Doe
-- O FEIDNo 12121
8--- EnrollmentAndTraineeldentification
-- I training~lassification type three
-- traineeName Ilane Doe
-- e trainee55N 1254653
-- traineeRace White
-- O sex Female
-- dateOf~irth 1965-11-11
-- e+ traineeAddress
8--+ txl:5treetAddress
-- + txl:street 3800 SW
-- txl:cityName gainesville
-- e txl:statecode FL
-- e txl:postalcodelD 32608
-- txl:postalcodeExtension 1254
-- e txl:address~ategory headquarters
-- I instructorNameAnd~lassification John Doe the Trainer
-- O+ incomeData
O annualFamilyIncome 12500
traineesAnnuallncome 4564654
O noOfDependents 3
-- O previousTraining~lassification type III
-- e enrollmentDateRequested 2003-11-11
-- + contractorNameAndDate John Doe 1203-10-10
8--- EnrollmentApproval
-- O acceptableTraineeReviewu false
-- O enrollmentApproval true
-- district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameAnd at John Doe 1256-11-11
8--- e GraduationRequest
-- a date0f5uccessfulobservation 1254-10-10
-- proficienceyMilestone 451-650 Hrs
-- a totalTrainingHours 1254
-- I contractorNameAndDate John Doel456-09-09
8--- e GraduationApproval
-- e graduationApproved true
-- district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameAnd at John Doel256-11-11


Figure 7-3. Outline of the XML instance document for trainee enrollment & notice of
personnel action form











0--- e GraduationApproval
a graduationApproved true
a district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameAnd at John Doel256-11-11
0--- 6 CntractorRequestToAwyard~knk~ringeriicat
8 contractor~ameAnd~ate
0--- e Banking Approval
a bankingApproved true
a district~ontract~omplianceManagerNameAnd at John Doe 1256-11-11
E--- O TraineeTransferRequest
a financialProjectNoTransferredTo 21212121
6 FAPNo 5545454545
+ district 2
i hoursPriorToTransfer 56
+ effectiveDate 1254-10-10
contractorNameAndDate John Doe 1203-10-10
E--- 6 TransferApproval
i sendingDCCMNameAndDate John Doe 9999-01-12
+ receivingDCCMNameAndDate 4545-10-31
E--- O NaticeofTerminationPriorToGraduation
a typeOFTermination Voluntary
+ reasonForTermination Lack of enthusiasm
i a ffectiveDate 1000-01-01
+ hoursAccumulatedAtTermination 125442


Figure 7-3. Continued









CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES

Conclusion

This thesis is to propose an enhancement method to the current the data management

applications within the construction industry. The total solution will evolve together with the

research proj ect I am involved in. Although the proj ect deals only with the transportation

construction data, some more effort will make it possible to develop a more general solution

once the proj ect is completed. FDOT is mainly performing transportation construction, but the

minor work items to be same or similar with general construction. With some effort, a possible

gap between construction in general and transportation construction can be filled. Later stages of

the proj ect will require more schemas, and the application files be developed. As the small

examples of using the already existing schema components implied, the already created schemas

will be employed more.

The next step in the proj ect will be developing an XML interface that will enable two

incompatible computer applications FDOT employing now. Once that phase is completed, XML

will be more appreciated, and it will be a big step to towards completing the solution procedure

as most of the companies are actually using computers to handle the vast maj ority of tedious

work items.

Once the data dictionary is completed, the data mapping and schema compatibility issues

are all going to be resolved. The interactive web site and required info sessions will wrap up the

proj ect and the monitoring will enable me to get required feedback from the users to better utilize

the ample solution.

The schemas developed for the construction forms might not provide the best approach for

a more general solution, but they provide a good idea of how the schema development will be









handled. More than likely, the schema instance document relation will not be in the case

presented here. In this phase of research, I created 4 schemas for 4 application Eiles, each of

which are related with a construction form. Once the data dictionary is developed, the work item

relations will be defined, and a more systematic approach will be developed. The later stages of

proj ect will include development of base schemas, which will include data type definitions that

are repeated in different forms. That will eliminate the necessity of defining same or similar

work item descriptions for different schemas, and the schemas will be easier to create as most of

the data types would have already been defined in those base schemas. As I do not have the

complete data dictionary for the time being, I had to develop a specific schema for each instance

document, which is not the most efficient way.

Future of XML and Possible Impacts on Construction Industry

The future of the intemet, NGI (Next generation Intemet), will be depending on XML.

Integration to XML technology will be of paramount importance in order to keep up with the

recent developments.

XML based seamless data management might be one of the most drastic changes ever

happened to construction industry. It will not only accelerate the processes, saving money and

time, but also will lead to better management applications. Automotive industry has been using

Total Quality Management (TQM) principles for almost fifty years. Cases are similar for other

quality and production principles. There have been many attempts to implement these to

construction to excel in production. Those attempts tumn out to be unsuccessful most of the time.

The most common excuse was blaming the unpredictability of the construction industry. The

unpredictability is the result of poor data management principles and applications. Construction

managers need to have better data management principles to better utilize the data at their hands.

All the quality control and quality assurance principles require strong statistical analysis to figure










out deviations. A strong statistical analysis requires valid data. Not many of construction

companies can keep up with that requirement. The proposed solution in that thesis will make it

possible for every company to have absolute control over their data.










APPENDIX A
FDOT CONSTRUCTION FORM REVIEW AND DATA DICTIONARY

The following tables contains the forms are the FDOT construction forms used for initial

steps of research, with respect to the office produces them.

FDOT Construction Form Review

FDOT Construction Offices and Respective Forms

Aviation office

Table A-1. Aviation office construction forms


Form no
725-040-11
725-040-12
725-040-1


Form title
Airspace obstruction permit application
Airport site approval and license application
Airport license renewal application


Office of the comptroller

Table A-2. Office of the comptroller construction office
Form no Form title
300-000-01 Travel form
300-000-06 Consultant travel form
350-020-03 Agreement summary sheet
350-020-04 Tentative acceptance agreement utility installation by DOT contractor
350-080-14 Application for refund from state of Florida

Construction office

Table A-3. Construction office construction forms
Form no Form title
675-010-10 Nonconforming structural steel and miscellaneous metal component data


sheet
Asphaltic concrete pay reduction summary sheet
Asphalt pavement straightedge test report


675-030-03
675-060-10


Contracts administration office


Table A-4. Contracts administration office construction forms
Form no Form title
375-000-02 Fax order form
375-000-31 Bid document confidentiality agreement as to trade secret & proprietary
documents
375-000-32 Bid document escrow affidavit










Table A-4. Continued
Form no Form title
375-000-33 Bid document escrow agreement
375-020-09 Bid or proposal bond
375-020-18 Declaration of joint venture and power of attorney for bidding on specified
375-020-20 Bid protest bond
375-020-22 Certification of current capacity
375-020-37 Application for qualification for emergency debris removal

Environmental management office

Table A-5. Environmental management office construction forms


Form no
650-040-01
650-040-03
650-040-04

650-040-05
650-040-07
650-050-01
650-050-02
650-050-03
650-050-04
650-050-05
650-050-06
650-050-09
650-050-10


Form title
Permit transmittal memorandum
Stormwater pollution prevention plan construction inspection report
Owner/Operator certification preparation of documents and inspection
report
Contractor certification preparation of documents--npdes general permit
Contractor certification/npdes general permit for storm water discharges
Letter of intent Florida scenic highways program
Eligibility application Florida scenic highways program
Field inventory form Florida scenic highways program
Corridor impressions survey form Florida scenic highways program
Designation application Florida scenic highways program
Application for vegetation management at outdoor advertising signs
Permit for landscaping on state road right of way
Florida highway beautification council grant application


Equal opportunity office

Table A-6. Equal opportunity office construction forms


Form no
275-010-10
275-010-11
275-010-12
275-020-01
275-020-02
275-020-04
275-020-07
275-020-08
275-020-09
275-020-13
275-020-17
275-020-18
275-020-19
275-020-20


Form title
Title VI program and related statutes discrimination complaint
Title VI/Title VIII quarterly report
Construction contractors EEO report
Federal aid highway construction summary
O.J.T. monthly time report Trenching machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt luteman raker
On-the-job Training Schedule Compliance Check
Trainee enrollment and notification of personnel action
O.J.T. monthly time report Concrete curb/sidewalk machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Erosion control specialist
O.J.T. monthly time report Earth wall erector
O.J.T. monthly time report Installer/tester
O.J.T. monthly time report Roller operator
0.J.T. monthly time report Front end loader operator










Table A-6. Continued


Form title
O.J.T. monthly time report Highway or bridge ironworker, reinforcing
O.J.T. monthly time report Scraper-pan operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Form/Curb & gutter builder (structures)
O.J.T. monthly time report Grade checker
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt/Bridge deck screed operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Highway concrete finisher
Equal employment opportunity officers
O.J.T. monthly time report Highway or bridge carpenter
0.J.T. monthly time report Pipelayer
O.J.T. monthly time report Backhoe operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Painter, highway or bridge
O.J.T. monthly time report Air compressor operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt distributor
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt paying machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt plant drier operator
Certification of subcontract amount to DBE contractor
O.J.T. monthly time report equipment maintenance technician
O.J.T. monthly time report Motor grader operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Milling machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Concrete paying finishing machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Concrete paying machine/ spreader operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Deckhand
O.J.T. monthly time report Mechanic
O.J.T. monthly time report Truck driver
0.J.T. monthly time report Tractor operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Stone and aggregate spreader operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Sign erector
O.J.T. monthly time report Pile driver
0.J.T. monthly time report Piledriver leadman
O.J.T. monthly time report Mixer operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Mason
O.J.T. monthly time report Landscape worker
O.J.T. monthly time report Instrument person
0.J.T. monthly time report Highway or bridge ironworker, structural
O.J.T. monthly time report Guard rail erector
O.J.T. monthly time report Crane, clamshell, backhoe, derrick, dragline
O.J.T. monthly time report Bulldozer operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Traffic signalization installer/mechanic
On-the-j ob training schedule
O.J.T. monthly time report Traffic control specialist
On-the-j ob training request for proficiency demonstration
On-the-j ob training trainee interview
Banking certificate of training
Contractor certification of EEO/AA policy and plan adoption


Form no
275-020-22
275-020-23
275-020-24
275-020-25
275-020-26
275-020-27
275-020-28
275-020-29
275-020-30
275-020-31
275-020-35
275-020-36
275-020-37
275-020-38
275-020-39
275-020-43
275-020-44
275-020-45
275-020-46
275-020-47
275-020-48
275-020-49
275-020-51
275-020-58
275-020-60
275-020-64
275-020-65
275-020-67
275-020-70
275-020-71
275-020-75
275-020-77
275-020-79
275-020-80
275-020-81
275-020-88
275-020-93
275-020-94
275-020-96
275-020-98
275-021-01
275-021-02
275-021-03
275-021-04










Table A-6. Continued


Form title
Supervisory and office personnel EEO meeting record
Proj ect personnel EEO meeting record
Contractor company wide EEO report
Contractor's annual July EEO report
Inspection report for j ob site bulletin board
Certificate of training
Daily weekly report for on-the-j ob trainees
Notification to FDOT of EEO officer
Schedule a certification form no. 1
Application for construction management development program & bond
guarantee
Application for small business certification (SBC)
Technical assistance request
Justification for bond guarantee
Bid opportunity list
DBE bid package information
Anticipated DBE participation statement
DBE affirmative action plan


Form no
275-021-05
275-021-06
275-021-07
275-021-08
275-021-10
275-021-11
275-021-12
275-021-13
275-030-01
275-030-070

275-030-071
275-030-073
275-030-074
275-030-10
275-030-11
275-030-11A
275-030-11B


600-00-02


Pay item request: New/Expanded structure


050-020-26
350-020-08
350-050-36


Exempt documents request form
Statement of claim for property damage
Statement of claim property damage with personal injuries


Estimates office

Table A-7. Estimates office construction forms
Form no Form title


Financial development office

Table A-8. Financial development office construction forms
Form no Form title
350-020-05 State infrastructure bank (SIB) application
350-020-08 State infrastructure bank (SIB) recipient semi-annual progress report
350-050-36 Local highway finance report (FHWA form 536)
350-090-17 Toll facility revolving trust fund quarterly report

Office of general counsel

Table A-9. Office of general counsel construction forms
Form no Form title










Office of information systems


Table A-10. Office of information systems construction forms
Form no Form title
325-060-05 FDOT computer security access request
325-060-06 Corporate account request


Office of general inspector

Table A-11. Office of general inspector construction forms
Form no Form title
45 0-000-01 Self certification of accounting system and reimbursement rates

ITS program office

Table A-12. ITS program office construction forms
Form no Form title
750-010-04 FAA notice of proposed construction or alteration
750-010-05 Application for antenna structure registration
750-040-01 Tower use agreement


Maintenance office

Table A-13. Maintenance office construction forms


Form no
010-000-07
375-020-01
375-020-02
375-020-05
375-020-24
375-020-40
375-020-43
850-000-15
850-005-01
850-005-02
850-010-06
850-010-16
850-030-05
850-040-01
850-040-02
850-040-65
850-040-70
850-040-71
850-040-72
850-040-85
850-040-90


Form title
Adopt-a-highway litter removal agreement
Daily report of maintenance proj ect
Maintenance proj ect weekly summary
Contract maintenance work document
Maintenance contract time extension
Contractor's invoice
Contractor field performance report
Herbicide application log
Report of repair and certification of funds expenditure
State force and contract cost documentation
Load capacity information
Application for bridge inspection certification
Monitoring well inspection log
Overweight/Overdimensional permit
Request for special road use permit trip application
Request for temporary closing/special use of state road
Permit application for solicitation of contributions or to conduct safety break
Notification and request for facility use
Indemnification agreement
Permit for moving building over state roads
Application for permit to move building over state roads










Table A-13. Continued


Form title
Rest area comment card
Application for memorial monument
Inspection report (guardrail, reflectivity & single & multipost sign insp rpt)
Call box system testing, inspection and maintenance
Type II attenuator inspection report other type units
Type I attenuator inspection report
Attenuator inventory update
Type II attenuator inspection report Hidro cell sandwich and cluster
Type II attenuator inspection report G-R-E-A-T
Type II attenuator inspection report Sand barrel, energite and fitch
Type II attenuator inspection report Hex foam sandwich
Type II attenuator inspection report Guadguard
Type II attenuator inspection report Brakemaster
Type II attenuator inspection report TAU II


Form no
850-045-01
850-045-05
850-050-03
850-055-01
850-055-02
850-055-03
850-055-04
850-055-05
850-055-06
850-055-07
850-055-08
850-055-09
850-055-10
850-055-11


Materials office

Table A-14. Materials office construction forms


Form title
Qualification performance report
Laboratory qualification application
Compressive strength of concrete cylinders
Concrete design mix
Concrete design mix (Metric)
Aggregate system fine aggregate code form
Aggregate system base aggregate code form
Aggregate system coarse aggregate code form
Pipe backfill code sheet
Embankment, subgrade, and base code sheet
Density log sheet
Density log book
Density inspection report
Earthwork density report
Earthwork daily report of construction
Contractor quality control density record system
Verification earthwork density record system
Control charts for acceptance tests
Asphaltic concrete control strip density
Daily report of asphalt plant inspector
Daily report of asphalt paying inspector
Bituminous mixture summary
Pavement evaluation coring and condition data
Core out averages work sheet
Asphalt independent verification report


Form no
675-000-01
675-000-05
675-010-02
675-010-03
675-010-04
675-020-02
675-020-03
675-020-04
675-020-05
675-020-06
675-020-21
675-020-22
675-020-23
675-020-25
675-020-26
675-020-27
675-020-28
675-030-02
675-030-04
675-030-06
675-030-07
675-030-08
675-030-09
675-030-10
675-030-17





Table A-14. Continued


Form title
Asphalt plant daily report of quality control
Asphalt plant verification report
Asphalt roadway daily report of quality control
Asphalt roadway verification report
Asphalt plant pay factor worksheets
Asphalt plant pay factor worksheets, July 2005 specification version
Asphalt resolution report
Asphalt resolution report (LIMS)
Asphalt mix design summary report
Asphalt mix design summary report, version 2 (excel 2003 full install)
Asphalt plant worksheet
Asphalt plant worksheet
Material release notification
Control of concrete
Sample transmittal card (C-22)
Mixer identification card
Delivery ticket for non structural concrete
Production joint welding procedure
Production j oint weld procedure specification
Weld procedure qualification record
Referee analysis


Form no
675-030-18
675-030-19
675-030-20
675-030-21
675-030-22
675-030-22A
675-030-23
675-030-23A
675-030-24
675-030-24A
675-030-25
675-030-25A
675-050-01
675-050-02
675-050-04
675-050-05
675-050-10
675-070-01
675-070-02
675-070-03
700-030-12


Personnel resource office

Table A-15. Personnel resource office construction forms
Form no Form title


250-025-01
250-025-01A
250-030-10
250-035-01
250-050-02
250-050-11


Employee grievance form
Employee grievance disposition
Exempt social security number request
Workers' compensation memorandum
Leadership academy: Individual implementation plan
TRESS course roster (without PDH's)


525-010-01
525-010-02
525-010-03


Interlocal agreement for creation of the metropolitan planning organization
Transportation planning funds joint participation agreement
Intergovernmental coordination and review and public transportation coordination


Office of policy planning

Table A-16. Office of policy planning construction forms
Form no Form title










Procurement office


Table A-17. Procurement office construction forms


Form no
375-030-01
375-030-12
375-030-20
375-030-21
375-030-25
375-030-26
375-030-30
375-030-31
375-030-32

375-030-33
375-030-5B
375-030-5D
375-030-5E
375-040-18
375-040-24
375-040-26
375-040-27
375-040-49


Form title
Request for qualification package for professional consultants
Standard professional services agreement
Disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) certification
DBE participation statement
Task work order for professional services
Task work order amendment form for professional services
Truth in negotiation certification
MBE payment certification
Certification regarding debarment, suspension, ineligibility and voluntary
exclusion
Certification for disclosure of lobbying
Invoice summary sheet
Invoice summary sheet (Multi-project/Task)
One page invoice
Drug-free workplace program certification
MBE planned utilization
Bid or proposal bond
Performance bond
Credit card charge complaint


Project management and development office


Table A-18. Proj ect management and development office construction forms


Form no
375-030-08A
375-030-08B
375-030-08C

375-030-08D
375-030-08E
375-030-08F
375-030-08G

375-030-08H
375-030-081
375-030-08J

375-030-08K

375-030-08M
375-030-08N
375-030-08P


Form title
Consultant schedule evaluation
Consultant management evaluation
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 2 proj ect development and
environmental
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 3 highway design roadway
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 4 highway design bridges
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 5 bridge inspection
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 6 traffic engineering and
operation
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 7 traffic operations design
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 8 surveying and mapping
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 9 soil exploration, material
testing
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 11 engineering contract
admini strati on
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 13 planning
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 14 architect
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 15 landscape architect










Table A-18. Continued


Form title
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 21 acquisition, negotiation,
closing
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 24 acquisition relocation
as distance


Form no
375-030-08R

375-030-08U


375-030-08V Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 25 right of way clearing and


leasing
Consultant quality evaluation Type of work, group 99 non-standard work type
Consultant CEI work performance evaluation
Constructability evaluation
Federal-aid proj ect funding request
Local agency program supplemental agreement
Local agency certification qualification agreement
Local agency program agreement
Local agency program agreement Exhibit 1
Local agency program agreement Exhibit A
Local agency program agreement Exhibit B
Local agency program agreement Exhibit D
Local agency program agreement Exhibit L
Local agency program agreement Exhibit RL
Local agency program agreement Exhibit R
Local agency program agreement Exhibit T


375-030-08W
375-030-08X
375-030-08Z
525-010-30
525-010-32
525-010-33
525-010-40
525-010-401
525-010-40A
525-010-40B
525-010-40D
525-010-40L
525-010-40M
525-010-40R
525-010-40T


Form no
575-030-02
575-030-03
575-030-07
575-030-08


Form title
Representative authorization
Right of way negotiation contact record and suit information
Offer and purchase agreement
Counteroffer and purchase agreement


Public transportation and modal administrator office

Table A-19. Transportation and modal administrator office construction forms
Form no Form title
725-030-06 Public transportation j oint participation agreement
725-030-06E EXHIBITS Public transportation j oint participation agreement
725-030-07 Public transportation supplemental joint participation agreement

Rail office

Table A-20. Rail office construction forms
Form no Form title
725-080-86 Rail corridor crossing permit application

Office of right of way

Table A-21. Office of right of way construction forms










Table A-21. Continued


Form title
Donation of property to FDOT
Right of entry agreement
Closing statement
Application for payment of closing costs
Public disclosure affidavit
Public disclosure act exemption affidavit (Corporate exempt)
Corporation exemption document
Public disclosure act exemption affidavit (Trust-exempt condemnation)
Public eminent domain document
Recommendation for settlement
Mediation report
Request for taxpayer identification number
Trial/Hearing report
Notice to owner
Notice to owner Spanish
Notice to business owner
Notice to business owner Spanish
Request for vendor identification number
Invoice for protective rent payment
Business survey questionnaire
Household survey questionnaire
Statement of eligibility for supplementary replacement housing payment for 90
Statement of eligibility (Spanish) for supplementary replacement housing
payment for 90
Relocation assistance costs
Replacement housing payment determination three comparable method
Statement of eligibility for supplementary replacement housing payment for own
Statement of eligibility (Spanish) for supplementary replacement housing
payment for 180-day
Hazardous substance letter
90-day letter of assurance
90-day letter of assurance (Spanish)
Replacement housing payment transaction package
30-day notice to vacate
30-day notice to vacate (Spanish)
Income certification
Replacement housing questionnaire/certification
Application and claim for replacement housing payment
Move cost estimate
Search expense itemization
Personal property inventory
Receipt for business move options information packet
Moving expense calculation and payment determination
Moving cost transaction package


Form no
575-030-12
575-030-15
575-030-16
575-030-17
575-030-18
575-030-19
575-030-20
575-030-21
575-030-22
575-030-24
575-030-25
575-030-27
575-030-30
575-030-31
575-030-32
575-030-33
575-030-34
575-030-35
575-030-36
575-040-01
575-040-02
575-040-03
575-040-03S

575-040-04
575-040-05
575-040-06
575-040-06S

575-040-08
575-040-09
575-040-09S
575-040-10
575-040-11
575-040-11S
575-040-12
575-040-13
575-040-14
575-040-15
575-040-16
575-040-17
575-040-19
575-040-20
575-040-21










Table A-21. Continued


Form title
Direct payment agreement
Application and claim for reimbursement of moving costs
Warrant acknowledgement
Relocation payment appeal
Trip log for reimbursement of search cost
Labor cost worksheet
Owned equipment usage and charges
Receipt for information packet for residential moves
Notice of eligibility nonresidential/ signs
Notice of eligibility nonresidential signs (Spanish)
Notice of eligibility residential
Notice of eligibility residential (Spanish)
Offer of benefits on-premise signs
Notice of claim denial/right to appeal
Property inventory
Cash receipt form
Affidavit
Demolition and removal contract minus contract
Demolition and removal contract plus contract
Performance bond (Surety)
Contract completion report
Asbestos abatement contract
Field inspection
Performance bond (Cash)
Release & Notice of non-friable asbestos containing materials temp.
Leased/Occupied
Collection form
Non-collusion declaration and compliance with 49 CFR 29.
Affidavit "asbestos abatement"
Release and right of entry agreement for asbestos survey
Release and right of entry agreement for asbestos survey (Spanish)
Release and notice of non-friable asbestos containing materials (ACM)
Release and notice of friable asbestos hazard
Radon gas notification
Radon gas notification (Spanish)
Proposed lease notification
Airspace agreement
Lease agreement
Lease agreement (Spanish)
Initial O and M management plan review
Initial building survey review
Initial abatement technical specification review
Radon gas notification and disclosure of lead-based paint hazards warning


Form no
575-040-22
575-040-23
575-040-24
575-040-25
575-040-26
575-040-27
575-040-28
575-040-29
575-040-30
575-040-30S
575-040-31
575-040-31S
575-040-32
575-040-33
575-060-01
575-060-02
575-060-03
575-060-04
575-060-05
575-060-06
575-060-07
575-060-08
575-060-09
575-060-10
575-060-11

575-060-12
575-060-13
575-060-16
575-060-17
575-060-17S
575-060-18
575-060-19
575-060-22
575-060-22S
575-060-31
575-060-32
575-060-33
575-060-33S
575-060-34
575-060-35
575-060-3 6
575-060-37










Table A-21. Continued


Form title
Radon gas notification and disclosure of lead-based paint hazards warning
(Spanish)
Outdoor advertising permit tag replacement request
Outdoor advertising license application
Application for outdoor advertising permit
Outdoor advertising permit cancellation certification
Application to place banners on non limited access right of way
Outdoor advertising permit transfer affidavit
Local agency program/FDOT right of way certification
Local agency program/FDOT no additional right of way certification
Right of way certification Design build
Logo application/annual permit renewal


Form no
575-060-37S

575-070-01
575-070-02
575-070-04
575-070-12
575-070-18
575-070-25
575-095-07
575-095-09
575-095-10
FLI-163


Roadway design office

Table A-22. Roadway design office construction forms
Form No Form Title
592-12 Drainage Connection Permit Application
592-13 Drainage Connection Permit

Safety office

Table A-23. Safety office construction forms


Form no
500-000-25
500-065-01
500-065-04
500-065-05
500-065-06
500-065-07
500-065-09
500-065-17
500-065-18


Form title
Detailed damage inspection report
Subgrant application for highway safety funds
Statement of highway safety proj ect costs
Summary statement of personnel services cost
Personnel services time sheet
Detail of costs
Non-expendable property accountability record
Highway safety concept paper coversheet
Concept paper evaluation form


Specification office

Table A-24. Specifications office construction forms
Form no Form title
63 0-020-01 Notification of alleged deficiency transportation products Qualified prod















































Traffic engineering and operations office

Table A-28. Traffic engineering and operations office construction forms


Structures office


Table A-25. Structures office construction forms
Form no Form title
625-020-05 ADA consituent curb ramp request
625-020-06 ADA consituent accessible route request

Support services office

Table A-26. Support services office construction forms
Form No Form Title
050-020-02 Records Submittal Request

Systems planning office

Table A-27. Systems planning office construction forms


Form no
850-040-14
850-040-15
850-040-16
850-040-17
850-040-18
850-040-19
850-040-20
850-040-21
850-040-22
850-040-23
850-040-24
850-040-26


Form title
Driveway/Connection application category a (single family homes, duplexes)
Driveway/Connection application for all categories
Receipt of connection application and fee (or waiver of fee)
Record of waived requirements for all categories
Driveway connection permit for all categories
Record drawings report by permitted's professional engineer
Security instrument receipt
State highway access connection completeness review
Applicant time extension form
Proposed state hwy access driveway/connection notice of intent to deny permit
Proposed state highway access connection notice of intent to issue permit
Violation and notice to show cause


Form no
700-010-22
750-010-02
750-010-03
750-010-12
750-010-13
750-010-22
750-020-01
750-020-02
750-020-03
750-020-04
750-020-05
750-020-06


Form title
Final acceptance of traffic signal installations) & transfer of maintenance
Submittal data traffic control equipment
Vehicle spot speed study
Application for traffic control device certification
Certified traffic control signal device complaint form
Traffic signal maintenance and compensation agreement
Traffic signal warrant summary
Summary of vehicle movements
Vehicle movements data sheet
Condition diagram
Collision diagram
Crash summary










Table A-28. Continued


Form title
Intersection delay study
Vehicle gap size study
Pedestrian volume sheet
Summary of pedestrian movement
Pedestrian group size
Safe curve speed study
No passing zone study
Travel time and delay study field data
Guidelines for determining the operational status of existing lighting facilities on
freeway
Guidelines for determining the operational status of existing lighting
Guidelines for determining the operational status of existing lighting
Roundab out j ustifi cati on study
Travel time and delay study field summary
Closed circuit television camera (CCTC) agreement


Form no
750-020-07
750-020-08
750-020-09
750-020-10
750-020-11
750-020-12
750-020-13
750-020-14
750-020-15

750-020-16
750-020-17
750-020-18
750-020-19
750-040-02


Transit office

Table A-29. Transit office construction forms
Form no Form table


725-030-01
725-030-02
725-030-03
725-030-04
725-030-05
725-030-08
725-030-09
725-030-10
725-030-11


State fleet program vehicle release form
State fleet equipment inspection
State fleet program report maintenance summary
Work order state fleet program
Lease agreement for department of transportation vehicles and equipment
State fleet program transit bus PM inspection
State fleet program preventive maintenance and inspection vans and wagons
Certificate of compliance for a section 5311 subrecipient
FDOT medical examination report for bus transit system driver


Turnpike enterprise office

Table A-30. Turnpike enterprise office construction forms


Form no
800-040-01
800-040-02
800-040-03
800-040-04
800-040-05
800-040-06
800-040-07


Form title
Qualification of tandem trailer equipment (Tractor)
Qualification of tandem trailer equipment (First or lead trailers)
Certification of insurance
General certification covering tandem trailer operations by permitted
Qualification for special permit to operate tandem trailer vehicle
Certification of tandem trailer equipment (Dolly converters)
Qualification for special certificate to operate tandem trailer vehicle










Utilities office


Table A-31. Utilities office construction forms


Form no
710-010-04
710-010-05
710-010-06
710-010-08
710-010-09
710-010-12
710-010-18
710-010-20
710-010-21
710-010-22
710-010-30
710-010-50
710-010-51
710-010-52
710-010-53
710-010-54
710-010-55
710-010-56
710-010-57
710-010-61
710-010-64

710-010-65
710-010-85


Form title
Utility work order change no.
Utility work schedule
Utility estimate summary
Required provisions for federal aid contracts with a UAO
Required provisions for federal aid contracts with an engineering contractor
Utility billing summary
Joint use of utility facilities agreement
Utility master agreement, (At UAO and FDOT expense combined)
Utility work by highway contractor agreement, (At FDOT expense)
Utility work by highway contractor agreement, (At utility expense)
State highway lighting, maintenance, and compensation agreement
Corporate resolution, delegation and special power of attorney
Delegation and special power of attorney
Roadway lighting system maintenance agreement
Roadway illumination services agreement
Utility work agreement (FDOT participating in expense)
Utility work agreement, (At UAO's sole expense)
Utility design by FDOT consultant agreement, (At utility expense)
Utility work by highway contractor agreement (Lump sum)
Utility exception
Utility work by highway contract master agreement (at UAO and FDOT expense
combined)
Selective utility work agreement (FDOT participating in expense)
Utility permit


Filtered Construction Forms

These forms are reviewed and the forms in the following table chosen to be reviewed in

order to create the initial data dictionary.

Construction office construction forms

Table A-32. Construction office filtered construction forms


Form title
MOT review report
Work plan controlling item of work
Contractors past performance report
Engineers maintenance of traffic evaluation at crash site
Wage and hour record
Drilled shaft log


Form no
700-010-08
700-010-15
700-010-25
700-010-64
700-010-69
700-010-84










Table A-32. Continued
Form no Form title
700-010-86 Drilled shaft rock excavation log
700-010-89 Drilled shaft concrete placement log
700-050-08 Piling tabulations

Equal opportunity office construction forms

Table A-33. Equal opportunity office filtered construction forms


Form title
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt luteman raker
On-the-j ob training schedule compliance check
Trainee enrollment and notification of personnel action
O.J.T. monthly time report Concrete curb/sidewalk machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Erosion control specialist
O.J.T. monthly time report Earth wall erector
O.J.T. monthly time report Installer/Tester
O.J.T. monthly time report Roller operator
0.J.T. monthly time report Front-end loader operator
O.J.T. monthly time report-Highway or bridge ironworker, reinforcing
O.J.T. monthly time report Scraper-Pan operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Form/Curb & gutter builder (Structures)
O.J.T. monthly time report Grade checker
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt/Bridge deck screed operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Highway concrete finisher
Equal employment opportunity officers
O.J.T. monthly time report Highway or bridge carpenter
0.J.T. monthly time report Pipelayer
O.J.T. monthly time report Backhoe operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Painter, highway or bridge
O.J.T. monthly time report Air compressor operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt distributor
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt paying machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Asphalt plant drier operator
Certification of subcontract amount to DBE contractor
O.J.T. monthly time report equipment maintenance technician
O.J.T. monthly time report Motor grader operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Milling machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report- Concrete paying finishing machine operator
O.J.T. monthly time report- Concrete paying machine/spreader operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Deckhand
O.J.T. monthly time report Mechanic
O.J.T. monthly time report Truck driver
0.J.T. monthly time report Tractor operator
O.J.T. monthly time report Stone and aggregate spreader operator


Form no
275-020-04
275-020-07
275-020-08
275-020-09
275-020-13
275-020-17
275-020-18
275-020-19
275-020-20
275-020-22
275-020-23
275-020-24
275-020-25
275-020-26
275-020-27
275-020-28
275-020-29
275-020-30
275-020-31
275-020-35
275-020-36
275-020-37
275-020-38
275-020-39
275-020-43
275-020-44
275-020-45
275-020-46
275-020-47
275-020-48
275-020-49
275-020-51
275-020-58
275-020-60
275-020-64










Materials office construction forms

Table A-34. Materials office filtered construction forms
Form no Form title
675-010-02 Compressive strength of concrete cylinders
675-010-03 Concrete design mix
675-020-22 Density log book

Data Dictionary

The initial data dictionary is created at early stages of the proj ect and should evolve to its

final form when required feedback from FDOT obtained. The data dictionary snapshot is given

in the Table A-3 5.

Table A-3 5. Data dictionary snapshot
Label Common Inventory Data
on form name name type Document Producer Consumer

Label on the form is referred to as the name given to data item on the form. This column

will be extracted directly from the forms. Common name is the name attributed to data items in

order to prevent labeling conflicts. Inventory name is the label used for the data items in my

research inventory. Common name and the inventory name same for most of the elements. Data

type is the type of data, either simple or complex. Document is referred to as the form number of

the form listings from which the data is obtained. Producer is the party who has created the data.

Consumer is the party that uses the data. The last two columns were created to be able to map the

data. They are important in understanding that will be using the data and what they are going to

use it for.










APPENDIX B
TRANSXML AND DIGGS DOCUMENTATION

TransXML and DIGGS are the ongoing proj ects that are most likely to contribute to my

research. This section contains some additional data about the documents created in those

proj ects.


TransXML Documentation


Table B-1. TransXML documentation
Business area
Transportation construction & materials
Transportation construction & materials

Survey/Roadway design

Transportation construction & materials

Transportation construction & materials

Transportation construction & materials

Transportation construction & materials
Transportation construction & materials
Highway bridge structures
Transportation safety
Transportation safety
Transportation safety
Transportation safety
Transportation safety
Transportation safety
Transportation safety
Transportation safety


Application Title
XML schema TransXML bid package schema v.03
XML schema TransXML construction progress
schema v. 0.3
XML schema TransXML design project schema v.
0.3
XML schema TransXML linear reference schema
v. 0.3
XML schema TransXML material sampling and
testing schema v. 03
XML schema TransXML project construction
status schema v. 03
XML schema TransXML reference rchema v. 0.3
XML schema TransXML base schema v. 0.3
Software TransXML bridge input converter
XML schema Crash list state
XML schema Fars
XML schema Fars_2005
XML schema Fars crash list
XML schema MMUC
XML schema MXDM
XML schema Summary
XML schema Value pair


DIGGS Documentation

ation
Title
DIGGS data dictionary rev 23
Aggregate abrasion value
Aggregate crushing value
Aggregate impact value
Atterberg limits


Table B-2. DIGGS document
Application
Text file
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema










Table B-2. Continued
Application
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema


Title
Blow
Business associate
Capwap
Capwap segment
Cast shaft
Cast shaft component
Cast shaft construction
Cast shaft instance
CBR detail
CBR general
Chalk tests
Chemical tests
Compaction detail
Compaction general
Compressive strength detail
Compressive strength general
Consolidation detail
Consolidation general
Detail
Diggs CRS
Dilatometer detail
Dilatometer general
Discontinuity data
Driven penetration test detail
Driven penetration test general
Driven pile
Driven pile component
Driven pile construction
Driven pile instance
Driving analysis
Driving log
Elongation index
Equipment
Flakiness index
Foundation group
Fracture spacing
Frost susceptibility detail
Frost susceptibility general
Hand vane
Hole
Hole construction
Insitu CBR
Insitu chemical tests
Insitu density










Table B-2. Continued
Application
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema


Title
Insitu flame ionisation detector
Insitu permeability detail
Insitu permeability general
Insitu photo ionisation detector
Laboratory permeability
Laboratory velocity
Layer
Library
Load test
Los Angeles abrasion
Mcy detail
Mcy general
Meta data
Monitoring point construction
Monitoring point event
Monitoring point general
Monitoring point reading
Other field tests
Other laboratory tests
Particle size general
Pocket penetrometer
Point load test
Polished stone value
Porosity
Pressuremeter detail data
Pressuremeter detail loops
Pressuremeter detail test
Pressuremeter general
Proj ect
Redox potential
Relative density
Resi stivity
Sample
Schmidt rebound hardness
Shear box detail
Shear box general
Shore hardness
Shrinkage
Slake durability
Soundness
Specification
Specimen
Static cone test detail










Table B-2. Continued
Application
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema
XML schema


Title
Static cone test general
Suction
Ten percent fines
Transmission information
Vane detail
Vane general
Water absorption
Water levels in hole












































D strict:


APPENDIX C

ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH



As stated in previous chapters, I have created four schemas and four application files for


the data on FDOT construction forms.



FDOT Construction Forms and Related Documentation



Engineer's MOT Evaluation at Crash Site Form and Data inventory


STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEER'S MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC (MOT)
EVALUATION AT CRASH SITE

Date/Time of Occurrence: Report Date:
FIN Project No.: State Road No.:
Federal Project No.: County:
Contract No.: WPI No.:


MOT Evaluation at Crash Site:

Have there been other crashes in the same vicinity of the wvork zone?

O YES O No
If yes, give dates.

Police Investigated? O YES O No

If available, attach police report.

Wonk Zone Location of Crash:
(Approach, transition, work area)

Is the Immediate area at the crash s te In accordance with State Standards, MUTCD and TCP?

Are there any recommended enhancements to the MOT at the crash site?

O YES O No

List enhancements to be made to the work site.


79-010-64
CONSTRuareN
mass or


O YES O No


Distribution: Onginal to Project Administrator
Copies to: District Safety Engineer
Contractor
State Construction Office (MS 31)
StateSaf~metyOfic (S53)


Figure C-1.


Engineer' s maintenance of traffic (MOT) evaluation at crash site form








































INDICATE NORTH

Sign with flag & light

\/Sign on Portable or Permanent
Support
Vertcal Pandl

SBarricade

SCone

Drum

Flagger


O Reconstruction Undivided Median, Urban
O Reconstruction Divided Median, Urban
O New Construction, Undivided Median
O New Construction, Divided Median
O Interection
O Other (Describe)


Telephone Number (daytime)


Signature of Project Administrator


700010-64
CONSTRUCTION
08/0
Page 2of 3


DIAGRAM:

Crash Diagram including all traffic control devices
present at the time of crash, vehicles involved, etc.


In addition to the above diagram, if the traffi control plan in effect
follows guidelines of MUTCD, Part VI, indicaEte figure number,
standard index sheet number, or plan sheet.


ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONS: ifknown


Pavement:

0 wet
0 Dry
0 Asphalt
0 concrete
O other


Visibility:

0 clear
O Limited
0 Night (darkness)
0 Day(daylight)


Routing:

0 Existing Pavement
O Detour
O Approach t Construction


Type lof Project:

0 Resurfacing Undivided Median
0 Resurfacing Divided Median
SWidening Und vided Median
SReconstruction Undivided Median, Rural
SReconstruction Div ded Med an, Rural
SWidening Und vided to Divided


Figure C-1. Continued










Table C-1. Engineer's MOT evaluation at crash site form data inventory
Label on form Data Type
Date/Time of occurrence dateTime
Report Date Date
FIN project no Integer
State road no String
District Integer
Federal proj ect no Integer
County String
Contract no Integer
WPI no Integer
Have there been other crashes in the
same vicinity of the work zone Boolean
If yes, give dates Date
Police investigated Boolean
Work zone location of crash String
MUTCD and TCP accordance Boolean
Enhancements to the MOT at the crash site Boolean
List enhancements String
Analysis of conditions
Pavement String
Visibility String
Routing String
Type of project String
Name of the engineer Strinn


XML schema for engineer's MOT evaluation at crash site form


xmlns:xs="http://www.w3 .org/200 1/XMLSchema" xmlns= "duzgun"
targetNamespace="duzgun">


















































































:"Resurcafing Divided Median"/>
:"Widening Undivided Median"/>
:"Reconstruction Undivided Median, Rural"/>
:"Reconstruction Divided Median, Rural"/>
:"Widening Undivided to Divided"/>
:"Reconstruction Undivided Median, Urban"/>
:"Reconstruction Divided Median, Urban"/>
:"New Construction, Undivided Median"/>
:"New Construction, Divided Median"/>
:"Intersection"/>
:"Other"/>




ify" type="xs:string" minOccurs="O"/>




eer" type= "xs:string"/>


XML instance document for engineer's MOT evaluation at crash site form

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3 .org/200 1/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocati on= "duzgun 700-0 1 5-6 8.xsd" >
2002-04-01 TO3:25: 00
2002-04- 1 5
21325915201 < stateRoadNo> 9A
2
295 52691
duval
21 444
fal se

work zone
true
recommendi ngEnhancem ents>fal se















































(Final Contract Amounrt)


(Proj. adlmlrllr.I carfir or C;eltient r


(FIN Projiec No.)


(Courity) (Contract No.}


(Type OfWorl)


(Date Final Accepted)


Projct Administrator Isigaancrd


Dry


Asphalt
Limited
Approach to Construction
Reconstruction Divided Median, Urban


John Doe



Contractor's Past Performance Rating Form and Data Inventory



8AE OF FLC04tn.EPrCaThlENT FOTP.4NSPORANCIM
C:ONTRACTOR'S PAST PERFORMANCE REPORT


70C410-25
CoasrmacRow


(Contractor Name)


(Address}


ANSgWER APLL QUEgTIONS


IClaximum
Value

12

12


141/20 mus

10
12
10.112 manr~
2D]
#4 rwa


981110


Raled
Value


Performance

Prlfstlit ofthe Work.
Prolper MO~and Minrimize Impads to Traveling
Plubie
Timely arid CompIlete Suibmittal of Doculments.
Timelyv Completion of Projet.
Coordination / Cooperation with CEI Personnel.
RP~vrpr Owneslrs and I.tilities Com~any.
F~ia~qgre Cost and Time Overruns
Erwironmental CorrpianCe
Conformane With Contract Dcuments.
0135 Utilzation

Tatal Saare


Date Rescident Engineer (sipranure) Dele


Figure C-2.


Contractor' s past performance rating form










Table C-2. Contractor' s past performance rating form data inventory
Label on form Data type
Contractor name String
FIN project no. Integer
Address Address
County String
Contract no. Integer
Final contract amount Double
Type of work String
Proj. administrator/firm or residency String
Date Einal accepted Date
Pursuit of the work Integer
Proper MOT application Integer
Timely submittal of documents Integer
Timely completion of proj ect Integer
C oordi nati on/C oop erati on Integer
Mitigate cost and time overruns Integer
Environmental compliance Integer
Conformance with contract documents Integer
DBE utilization Integer
Proj ect administrator String
Resident engineer String

XML schema for contractor's past performance rating form


xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml" xmlns:txl="http://www.transxml.net/schematl/."
targetNamespace= "duzgun" elementFormDefault= qualified">
schemaLocati on= "gml/3. 1 1/base/gml .xsd "/>
GML20060 123 pxs.xsd "/>





















































































































XML instance document for contractor's past performance rating form


xsi: schemaLocation= "duzgun 700-010-25.xsd"
xmlns:gml= "http://www.op engis.net/gml "
xmlns: txl= "http://www. transxml. net/schema/txl/0.3 "
xmlns= "duzgun">
John Doe










123 4 567 892 1 3


3800 SW
gainesville
FL
32608
12 54
headquarters


al achua
1 2542
123 54654.00
Mai ntenance
Jane Doe
196 5-11-11

12
1 2
8
4
6
mtiat
7
10
4
82

John Doe
1985-10-10O
John Doe
1985-10-10O






Submitted by:
Contractor's Representative (signature) Date

Project EgnginEe*s comments:


Work Plan Controlling Item of Work Form and Data Inventory

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
WORK PLAN
CONTROLLING ITEM OF WORK


700-01-15
couNSTucTION


FINANCIAL PROJECT ID CONTRACT NO.

In accordance with the accepted work schedule the controlling items of work for the period ( O weekly/ O biweekly) from
to aire as follows:


Description


Location/Limits


Prime Contractor or Subcontractors will work:


O 5 day work week
O 7 day work week


O 6 day work week
O Other


Contractor's comments:


Approved by:


Project Engineer (signature)


Distribution: Original Project File
1 Copy Contractor (as requested)


Figure C-3.


Work plan controlling item of work form










Table C-3. Work plan controlling item of work form data inventory
Label on Form Data Type
Financial Proj ect ID Integer
Date from Date
Date to Date
Contract No. String
Description String
Location/Limits String
Work days Integer
Contractor's comments String
Submitted by String
Submission date Date
PE comments String
Reviewed by String
Review date Date
Approved by String
Approval date Date

XML schema for work plan controlling item of work form


elementFormDefault="'qualified" xmlns=" duzgun" targetNamespace="duzgun">








= "financialProj ectId" type= "xs:integer"/>
="contractNo" type="xs:string"/>
S"dateFrom" type= "xs:date"/>
="dateTo" type="xs:date"/>
="description" type="xs:string"/>
="location" type="xs:string"/>
="contractorWorksFor" type="xs:string"/>
="contractorComments" type="xs: string"/>
="submittedBy" type="xs:string"/>
="submissionDate" type="xs:date"/>
="peComments" type="xs:string"/>
="reviewedBy" type="xs:string"/>
="reviewDate" type="xs:date"/>
="approvedBy" type="xs:string"/>
="approvalDate" type="xs:date"/>










XML instance document for work plan controlling item of work form


xmlns:xsi= "http://www.w3 .org/200 1/XML Schema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocati on= "duzgun 7000 1015.xsd" >
2077841 5201
t2110O
200 1--10-1
2002-0 1-0 1
b ri dge sup erstructure
gai ne svilIle
6 day s

John Doe
2002-0 1-0 1


John Doe
2002-0 1 -0 1
John Doe
2002-0 1-07










LIST OF REFERENCES


American Subcontractors Association, Inc (2006). Electronic data exchange in construction.
Retrieved September 14, 2006, from
http://www. asaonline. com/pdfs/June2006WhitePaper.pdf.

Econstruct (2001). eConstruct homepage. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from
http://www. econstruct. org.

Ellis, R.D., McVay, M., Hoit, M. (2006). Integration of XML schemas for the exchange of
FDOT construction proj ect data. Research proposal, University of Florida, Department of
Civil and Coastal Engineering, Florida.

Haas, C.T., Borcherding, J.D., Allmon, E., Goodrum, P. M. (1999). U.S. construction
labor productivity trends, 1970-1998. Report, University of Texas at Austin, Center for
Construction Industry Studies, Texas. Retrieved October 12, 2006, from
http://www. cdc. gov/elcosh/docs/d01 00/d000131/d000131. PDF.

O'Reilly Media, Inc. (2006). What is XIM? Retrieved September 10, 2006 from
http://www.xml.com/pub/a/98/10O/guide0.html.

Refsnes Data (2006) XIM tutorial. Retrieved August 26, 2006, from
http://www.w3 schools. com/xml/default. asp.

Refsnes Data (2006) XIM schema tutorial. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from
http://www.w3 schools. com/schema/default. asp.

Styler, M. (2006). Development and implementation of the DIGGS format to perform LRFD
resistance factor calibration of driven concrete piles in Florida. Master' s thesis,
University of Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, Florida.

The World Wide Web Consortium (2003). Extensible markup language. Retrieved July 28,
2006, from http://www.w3. org/XML

The World Wide Web Consortium (2003). XIM schema. Retrieved August 14, 2006, from
http://www.w3. org/XML/Schema.

NCHRP Transportation Research Board (2005). MI~ schemas for exchange of rt~rt~r~rt~rt~r~anprta~tio
data GM~L experiment summary report. Retrieved June 28, 2006, from
http:.//www.transxml_ com/GML+Experiment/Group+Documents/defaultaspx.

NCHRP Transportation Research Board (2004). MI~ schemas for exchange of rt~rt~r~rt~rt~r~anprta~tio
data interim report sections 1-5. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from
http://www.transxml.com/Info/Project+Docuet/5.sx

U.S. Department of Commerce Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and









Technology (2006). Cost analysis of inadequate interoperability in the U.S. capital
facilities industry. Retrieved October 10, 2006, from
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Duzgun Agdas was born on June 14, 1983, in Tunceli, Turkey. After completing his high

school education, he has attended the civil engineering department of Middle East Technical

University (METU) in Ankara, Turkey. Upon getting his Bachelor of Science degree in Civil

Engineering in June 2005, the author was admitted to the University of Florida for graduate level

studies. After getting his Master of Engineering degree in 2006, he will remain at UF for his

doctorate.