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On the Skyscraper As a Building Type in an Era of Uncertainty, Globalization and Environmentalism

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PAGE 1

ON THE SKYSCRAPER AS A BUILDING TYPE IN AN ERA OF UNCERTAINTY, GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTALISM By BRANDON THOMAS MOORE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006 1

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Copyright 2006 by Brandon Thomas Moore 2

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To Colonel William Aiken Starrett, a true master builder and skyscraper man who gave all he had to the Empire State Building. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank my high school basketball coaches Mr. Randall Leath and Mr. David Thorpe; and the brothers of Lambda Chi Alpha, both alumni and undergraduate, for making me the man I am today. I would also like to thank Dr. Abdol Chini, Dr. Charles Kibert, and Dr. Robert Stroh for serving on my superv isory committee. I thank the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction faculty and staff for truly caring about the welfare of their students. Lastly, I thank my moth er, who has always been there. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 1) INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ .....12 September 11, 2001 ................................................................................................................12 Problem Statement ..................................................................................................................14 Scope and Limitations ............................................................................................................15 Scope...............................................................................................................................15 Limitations .......................................................................................................................20 Layout .....................................................................................................................................23 2) LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................................................................2 5 Stone to Steel ..........................................................................................................................25 What is a Skyscraper? .....................................................................................................26 The Great Chicago Fire ...................................................................................................27 From Bridges to Buildings ..............................................................................................28 The First Skyscraper ........................................................................................................29 Social factors ............................................................................................................30 Economic factors ......................................................................................................31 Technological innovation .........................................................................................32 Chicago to New York .............................................................................................................35 The First Worlds Tallest Anything ................................................................................36 The Worlds Tallest Heads East ......................................................................................36 The New York Era ...........................................................................................................37 New York City Skyward ..........................................................................................37 Race into the Manhattan Sky ...................................................................................40 The New Challengers ......................................................................................................43 The Asian Tiger ......................................................................................................................46 Asian Trends ....................................................................................................................46 The Petronas Shift ...........................................................................................................49 Council on Tall Buildings a nd Urban Habitat (CTBUH) ................................................51 The Shift Continues .........................................................................................................53 State of the Skyscraper ...........................................................................................................55 The Power of Proposal ....................................................................................................55 The Worlds Tall Buildings .............................................................................................57 5

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The Sustainable Skyscraper ....................................................................................................61 The Numbers for Going Green ........................................................................................62 The Energy of the Built Environment ......................................................................62 City or Country .........................................................................................................64 Skyscraper as a Space Saver ....................................................................................65 Skyscraper Sustainable Systems ......................................................................................67 Passive Design ..........................................................................................................67 Active Design ...........................................................................................................73 The Ecology of the Skyscraper ................................................................................75 Current Sustainable Tall Buildings ..........................................................................76 Burj Dubai and Beyond ..........................................................................................................80 Skyscraper Cities of Tomorrow .......................................................................................81 Indian Shift ...............................................................................................................81 Chinese Games .........................................................................................................82 Ultra Modern Skyscrapers ........................................................................................83 The Race Continues .........................................................................................................85 Liquid Gold Structures .............................................................................................85 Up and Coming ........................................................................................................87 The Story of Lower Manhattan .......................................................................................88 Towers 2, 3, 4 and 7 World Trade Center ................................................................88 The Freedom Tower .................................................................................................89 3) METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS......................................................................................103 The Public Opinion of Skyscraper s and the Downtown Environment .................................103 Tampa, Florida ..............................................................................................................104 Skyscraper Sample Size .........................................................................................104 Execution of the Protocol .......................................................................................105 Skyscraper Protocol Question Analysis ........................................................................106 Question 1: Are they safe? .....................................................................................106 Question 2: Are they beautiful? .............................................................................107 Question 3: Are they a threat? ................................................................................108 Question 4: Downtown? .........................................................................................108 Question 5: Suburbia? ............................................................................................109 Question 6: Are they memorable? ..........................................................................109 Question 7: Are they proud icons? .........................................................................110 Question Overview .................................................................................................110 Downtown versus Suburban Viewpoints ......................................................................111 Protocol Limitations and Improvements .......................................................................112 4) FINDINGS, SUGGESTI ONS AND CONCLUSION.............................................................122 Findings .........................................................................................................................122 Future Study Suggestions..............................................................................................123 The Final State of the Skyscraper ..................................................................................126 APPENDIX: PROTOCOL INFORMED CONSENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE ......................129 6

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REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................135 7

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1: Buildings Over 1,300 Feet ......................................................................................................24 1-2: Skyscrapers Construc ted in the World 1996-2000, 2002-2006 ..............................................24 1-3: Skyscrapers Constructed in the United States 1996-2000, 2002-2006 ..................................24 2-1: Building Height and Per centage Return on Investment .........................................................91 2-2: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in the United States of America ..................................................91 2-3: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in China .......................................................................................92 2-4: Average Percentage of Bu ildings Worldwide per 60 years ....................................................92 2-5: Average Percentage of Buildings Worldwide per Decades ...................................................92 2-6: List of Worlds Talles t Buildings Past and Present ................................................................93 2-7: Top Ten World s Tallest Buildings ........................................................................................93 2-8: Worlds Tallest Buildings Per Continent ...............................................................................93 2-9: Worlds Tallest Buildings per Categories ..............................................................................94 2-10: United States Top Ten Skys craper Cities versus Population...............................................94 2-11: China Top Ten Skyscraper Cities versus Population ...........................................................94 2-12: Worldwide Top Ten Skyscrap er Countries versus Population .............................................95 2-13: Worldwide Top Ten Skys craper Countries versus GDP ......................................................95 2-14: Comparative Population Densities Around the Globe .........................................................96 2-15: Urban versus Rural World Populations ................................................................................96 2-16: Developing and Developed Nations Urban versus Rural Concentrations ............................97 2-17: Current Worlds Top Ten Populated Countries ....................................................................97 2-18: Worlds Top Ten Populated Countries in 2050 ....................................................................98 2-19: GDP Trends 2010-2030 in Trillions.....................................................................................98 2-20: Current Skyscraper Ra nk versus Population and GDP ........................................................98 8

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2-21: Emporis Skyscraper Award Winners ...................................................................................99 2-22: Tallest Buildings Currently Under Construction ..................................................................99 2-23: Future Top Ten Worl ds Tallest Building List ...................................................................100 3-1: Protocol Question and Answer Distribution.........................................................................115 3-2: Protocol Question and Answer Percentage Distribution ......................................................115 3-3: Chi Squared Testing for Protocol 1 and 2, 4 and 5 Question and Answer Distribution......116 3-4: Chi-Squared Testing for Ques tion Four Difference Distribution .........................................117 9

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1: Skyscraper Gross Floor Area Comparison ...........................................................................100 2-2: High-rises per Continent .......................................................................................................101 2-3: Number of Top 100 World s Tallest Buildings per Country ...............................................101 2-4: Top Ten High-Rise Cities in the World ...............................................................................102 3-1: Protocol Question 1 Distribution ..........................................................................................118 3-2: Protocol Question 2 Distribution ..........................................................................................118 3-3: Protocol Question 3 Distribution ..........................................................................................119 3-4: Protocol Question 4 Distribution ..........................................................................................119 3-5: Protocol Question 5 Distribution ..........................................................................................120 3-6: Protocol Question 6 Distribution ..........................................................................................120 3-7: Protocol Question 7 Distribution ..........................................................................................121 3-8: Protocol Question and Answer Percentage Distribution .....................................................121 10

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction ON THE SKYSCRAPER AS A BUILDING TYPE IN AN ERA OF UNCERTAINTY, GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTALISM By Brandon Thomas Moore December 2006 Chair: Abdol R. Chini Major Department: Building Construction As a nation looked on, both One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center fell from their lofty heights on September 11, 2001. Af ter that attack, and th e destruction of such famous skyscrapers, there was fear and speculati on that there would be nearly a moratorium on tall buildings and their construc tion. Today however, more skyscrap ers are being built than ever previously known in the history of the world. Why has the s kyscraper continued to be the building type of choice for many developers and ow ners in the face of terrorism? Is the public view of the skyscraper as optimistic as that of the developers and owners of these tall buildings? The economical, social, and cultural aspects of the skyscraper must be taken into consideration when asking why one builds tall. Further, the sk yscraper is now a building not only of America, but also of the world. The skyscraper is al so now becoming increasingly environmental in todays concern with sustainability and green building. Our st udy explained and synthesized the economical, social, and cultural aspects of skyscrap ers through the building types storied history versus the owners impetus to build tall and the publics willingness to embrace such structures in uncertain times. We also examined the deve lopments and future of skyscrapers in foreign markets. Finally, we analyzed the growing fiel d of sustainable skyscrapers and possibilities for the future of tall green structures. 11

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION September 11, 2001 On September the 11 th 2001, the world as Americans knew it was changed forever. At 8:46 a.m. that fateful morning American Airlines flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. What seemed initially to be a horrific accident, turned into a deliberate and premeditated attack as Un ited Airlines flight 175 ripped through the South Tower of the World Trade Center at 9:03 a.m., a mere 17 minutes after the initial North Tower collision. Since both planes were bound for a tran scontinental destination in Los Angeles, they carried thousands of gallons of highly flammabl e jet fuel that became the source of a raging inferno in both One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center. With the combination of missing columns that were taken out by the planes and the softening or weakening of the steel supports that supported each floor fro m the intense heat of the jet fuel fires, the Twin Towers were terminally ill and bound to fail explosively. At 10:05 a.m., Two World Trade Center disintegrated before the eyes of the world. A 1,362 foot tall iconic building that took 7 years (1966-1973) to build was reduced to shards of rubble in just a few seconds (Emporis Buildings 2006). Thousands of tons of steel, glass, concrete and other materials were pulverized, in stantly trapping and crushing nearly all of the people that remained in the building. Dust cl ouds blew down lower Manh attan turning day into night and causing thousands to flee running through the streets of the nations and the worlds business capital. The 1,368 foot One World Trad e Center soon followed suit as it too fell at 10:28 p.m. in an equally terrible and awful display. Thousands of tons of what once was a beautiful piece of modern architecture now were deadly pieces of debris. 12

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When the dust finally settled, and the events at the Pentagon and in Pennsylvania were finished, 3,056 people from 90 different countries had lost their lives (U.S. Department of State, 2002). Most of those who perished were at the World Trade Center, where 2,823 people were buried in the tangled ruins that once were the ta llest buildings in the world and quintessential symbols of Americas fiscal stre ngth and world power (U.S. Depa rtment of State, 2002). In addition to the Twin Towers, a third building, 7 World Trade Center, also collapsed at 4:10 p.m. due to effects of its collapsed neighbors, but fortunately the building had been evacuated and no casualties resulted ther efore. In the end a tota l of 3,301 feet and 267 floors of skyscraper vertical space had been erased from the Manhatta n skyline (Emporis Buildings, 2006). It was a moment in the United States of Amer icas and the worlds hi story that will be remembered for generations. It is the type of moment that those who were alive during its unfolding will remember and tell to their children as they grow older much like when President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas or when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. You knew where you were and what you were doing as you saw those planes hit and saw the tallest sk yscrapers in the worlds greatest city ripped from the sky. Americans across the nation were tuned in at home, in the conference room, in the cafeteria. All at once the world had been turned upside down and terrorists with planes were destroying those things we believed to be safe, th ings we believed would be there day in and day out as we went about our lives. All that remain ed of these once proud civic sym bols was rubble and ruins. The space in lower Manhattan was replaced only by emo tional heartache and the jagged shrapnel of the bottom floors of the tubular struct ure of the World Trade Center. Many questions rose out of the wreckage September 11 th left behind. Who had carried out these treacherous acts? What w ould the United States response be ? Was it safe to fly? What 13

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terrorist protection would be in place to prevent future attacks? Fear and hysteria were at a maximum and the questions about security in Am erica were many. A ques tion that perhaps was not necessarily at the forefront of Americas mind was the future of the skyscraper as a building type in a post-9/11 world. Could a building type that was synonym ous with such a public, tragic event survive? Problem Statement Initially following the collapse of the Twin Towers, there was uncertainty about the tall building in America and in the wo rld. Would there be an initial moratorium on skyscrapers with the fear of further extreme terrori st attacks? Would developers take the chance to build tall? Further, would renters and employees now feel co mfortable living or work ing in a skyscraper? As the fifth anniversary of September 11 th passes not only is the skyscraper alive and well, but the tall building in America and in the world is thriving. High-rises are be ing erected in greater numbers than ever before, and at heights and comp lexities that surpass a ny on this earth (Post, 2005). In fact, currently under construction th ere are 132 buildings over 650 feet tall, 37 buildings over 950 feet tall and impressive ly 10 buildings over 1,300 feet tall (CTBUH Database, 2006). Having 10 buildings currently under construction that are over 1,300 feet is an astounding fact since there are currently only 6 bu ildings over that height, those buildings are listed in table 1-1. Moreover, more skyscrapers than ever before are also being proposed and will soon dot the skylines of the world (Post, 2005). Table 1-2 shows that in th e 5 years before September 11 th and the five years following September 11 th the skyscraper as a building type in the world has grown e xponentially. Nearly double the skyscrapers have been or are scheduled to be comple ted for the years 2002 to 2006 as compared with the number that were built from 1996 to 2000. The United States accounts for a good portion of the worlds building of these high-rise structures. Table 1-3 displays that during 14

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the years 2002 thru 2006 the Unite d States put into pl ace 1,334 skyscrapers which is more than double the 593 skyscrapers put into place from 1996 to 2000. Also, table 1-3 conveys that of all the skyscrapers built in the world, the United St ates accounted for an average 10.16% of them from 2002 up to and including 2006. In contrast, from 1996 until 2000 America accounted for only 8.37% of the worlds tall buildi ngs. It is important to point out that buildings that were already under construction or in the final stages of planning up to September 11 th would be completed regardless of the terrori st attacks since financ ing, drawings and parties are all secured. Therefore, the numbers for 2002 thru 2006 do contai n buildings that were obviously not halted and completely stopped permanently. Nevertheless, the data shows that skyscrapers really did not cease or even suffer a depression as being a viable option for designers, developers and owners. So why in the face of terrorism and uncertain ty has the tall building in America and the world done so well? Why continue to build ta ll when the worst has truly happened? What factors are incorporated into building tall and building skyscrapers? Does the public react with the same zeal, enthusiasm and optimism that developers and owners obviously have in constructing, working and living in and around th ese structures? Where are the worlds tall buildings being conceived and built? What development is there of sustainable skyscrapers? What does the future entail for the skyscraper? Is the skyscrapers longevity realistic in an ever changing, increasingly populated, increasingly dense, te rrorist stricken world? Scope and Limitations Scope The skyscraper as a building type involves a wi de range of topics, pe ople, technologies and influences. It is the intention of this wo rk to not cover the ga mut of all the possible 15

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considerations and angles to res earch and construct the skyscraper but rather to provide a concise explanation of the building from a historical, present and future standpoint. This work will begin with a historical look at the tall building, what constitutes a high-rise and the factors that influenced its creation. Technologi cal innovation pertinent to the er ection of the first skyscrapers and its continued success will include brief overvie ws of structural steel members, elevators, communications, foundations and inte rior lighting. By no means will this overview be a treatise on every technical and mechanical aspect of these sy stems. In essence the skyscraper as a static structure will be examined and the initial steel skeleton concept will be discussed. Skyscraper focus then shifts from Chicago to New York where the race for the worlds tallest building begins. Throughout, social, economical and cultural factors will be discussed to include financial prosperity or recession influences, ego and awe of the pub lic. Historical timelines will be developed to record technologi cal progress and the worlds talles t building status as the years pass. The pride, finances and power associat ed with the worlds ta llest building cannot be ignored when looking at skyscrapers. Therefore, specific case studies of the worlds tallest buildings will include Masonic Temple Park Row Building Singer Building Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower Woolworth Building Chrysler Building Empire State Building One World Trade Center Sears Tower Petronas Towers 1 and 2 Taipei 101 The Chicago based Council on Tall Buildings an d Urban Habitat rules for measuring the worlds tallest are important in determining th e world rankings and thus will be presented. 16

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Accompanying research into the worlds tallest bu ildings will be a look in to the Asian Tiger communities of the Far East and the shift in s kyscraper construction that has accompanied their purchasing power and population dominance. The global use of the skyscraper will be discussed within the realm of the countries constructing or having already completed some of the worlds tallest buildings to include China Malaysia Taiwan United Arab Emirates United States of America The percentage of the worlds skyscrapers each y ear will be analyzed along side the rate of skyscraper construction during re cessions and booms in respective parts of the world. Global population statistics and gross dom estic product comparisons with s kyscraper counts in countries throughout the world will be plotted against one another as well and results will be inferred. The work will then reach the present state of the skyscraper in todays modern world. An up to date historical timeline will be finalized. Tabulations will be made for skyscraper counts in the top countries of each geographical region usi ng the Emporis online database. These regions include Asia North America Europe South America Oceania Africa These tabulations will then be cross-referen ced with current population and gross domestic product data using the Population Reference Bu reau and the CIAs Wo rld Factbook. Tallest buildings according to cate gories and per continent will also be presented. 17

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As architecture, engineering and constr uction progress and advance so too has the complexity of the skyscraper. The days of the glass box are numbere d if not extinct and several buildings challenge the limit of design and structure. Complex build ings to be reviewed include Burj Dubai Central Chinese Television Building Hearst Building Turning Torso Taipei 101 Swiss Re Headquarters Burj Al Arab Bank of China A caveat to structural and aesthetic comple xity is the symbolism accompanied with many modern buildings including the use of local arch itectural influences and customs. However, symbolism in a skyscraper is not a new endeavor and as such past examples of the skyscraper as a symbol or adorned with symbols will be considered. Todays examples of symbolic skyscrapers and their influence will further be addressed. The demands on the earth increase year after year as more is built, more are born and more is consumed. Sustainabili ty and its position w ithin the skyscraper cannot be excluded in any discussion of the future of high-rise buildings. Inherent sustainability and the future of the tall building as the answer to the need for denser populati ons and more condensed city environments is paramount to the survival of habitable life on this pl anet. The creation of vertical space when the horizontal space runs out will be accompanied by a number of systems, materials and devices which must have the l east amount of impact on the earth while still providing a sound, safe, pleasing en vironment in which to live, work and play. The inner workings of passive and active sustainable system s will be reviewed along with case studies of 18

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buildings that already include sustainable practices. Thes e buildings primarily include Bank of America Tower Hearst Building Swiss Re Headquarters The New York Times Building The Solaire Commerzbank Aside from components of individual building systems such as the envelope, energy use and building materials, a large portion of this section will be concerned with the worlds population growth and the how the smaller footprin t of the skyscraper and close proximities will allow for more sustainable lifestyles. Only select systems and their implementation will be covered in the context of a blanket look at sust ainable skyscrapers in place and in theory. Sustainable skyscrapers are certainly the future of the downtown environment, but what else is on the horizon for the high-rise? The correlating portion of this work will concern itself with possible future aspects of the tall building in the world. First off, the populat ion projections of certain high-rise heavyweight countries will be computed and opinions drawn on their high-rise count in the future. The projected world population and urban versus rura l lifestyles will also be shown and further conclusions shall be drawn. Who are the up a nd coming countries in skyscraper building? Which countries might possibly have exponentiall y more high rises than they currently do? What type of structures can be e xpected and to what heights? In relation to the previous question important future high-rise buildings will also be analyzed to include Burj Dubai Freedom Tower Fordham Spire As previously stated, more skyscrapers ar e currently unde r construction and more are being proposed than ever before (Post, 2005). There is an obvious enthusiasm for high-rises 19

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within owners and developers who employ likeminded architects and engineers who in turn build taller, more complex and more powerful struct ures. But what about the businesses, clients, employees and residents that work, live and play around these structures ? Are they concerned about possible future terrorism? Do they pref er the downtown environment as opposed to the suburban environment? Do they even like the look of a skyline? Can they even identify these so called symbols of commerce and strength? Are they as proud of tall building innovation and feats as those who are personally involved and inst rumental to the completi on of tall structures? These questions need to be answered in order to draw conclusions a bout the high-rise as a building type. However, it does seem that the downtown urban lifestyle will become more and more the norm rather than the exception and subur ban living will become the luxury. A protocol entitled The Public Opinion of Skyscrapers and the Downtown Environment sought out to answer just those questions about what the public and what the users of skyscraper construction had to say about the tall building and its surround ings. The protocol t ook place in the city of Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. and therefore results are solely limited to members of that region. It did provide insight into the American average psyche however and the results have been statistically analyzed and displayed for use in conclusions about the popu larity of the skyscraper in a terrorist threatened and every shrinking world. Explana tion and review of each question asked will be conducted, along with conclusions drawn for each question and how that relates to what is actually happening in the skyscraper world. Limitations As mentioned before, the work is not intende d to be a complete and extensive guide to designing, engineering or c onstructing a skyscraper. The numer ous length and breadth of such a topic is beyond the capabilities of such a limited volume of work. Within each skyscraper are thousands of components, working with thous ands of multiple other systems, designed by 20

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thousands of others and constructed by thousands more. There are severa l quantitative features mentioned within the work but primarily the work looks toward the qualitative aspects of why the world is so enamored with building tall? Th erefore, technical or mechanical workings of systems and processes are not to be included. Also, the systems that govern the harmonious being that is a skyscraper will not be dissected completely, if considered at all. Systems of particular interest that will be excluded will be the fire safety, mass damping and wind engineering of the building. These systems will be glazed over briefly but technical consideration will not be given. Upon the inception of the skyscraper there were several archit ects, engineers, contractors and owners that helped further the idea of building tall. Their accomplishments are commendable and vast, and provide the foundation by which we now are able to know the tall buildings of the world. A few prominent figur es have made their way into the work for explanation purposes but the following is not inte nded to cover nor shall it attempt to cover the countless men and women who have made the skyscrap er what it is today. Current skyscraper figures also will only be casually looked at to expound on the factors discussed in the lure and lore of the skyscraper. As with most construction endeavors the goal is to have an attractive return on investment. However, there are problems created with building millions of square feet of office or residential space if there is not a fervent demand for it. Th e work does not take into account depressing real estate markets by skyscraper construction or any other real estate factors that are a resultant of building tall. Regardless of the glass box nickname gi ven to many skyscrapers, architecture and beautiful design do exist for tall buildings. The work does admire certain symbolic, complicated 21

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and substantial architectural, engineering and co nstruction feats within th e building type of the skyscraper but there will be no discussion of what type of arch itecture buildings represent such as classical, post-modern etc On that same note there will be no reference to supposed Chicago or New York schools of skyscraper de sign. It is true that Chicago and New York have had the most influence on the tall building but the work is not only about these two cities and their buildings in America. Rather, the work attempts to look at the beginnings of the skyscraper in Chicago and New York, which has now morphed into skyscrapers of the world. For sustainable skyscrapers in this work the focus has been on the possible systems and systems in place that can reduce energy and materi al consumption. The work is not intended to look at the energy, materials and overall impact that high-rises have as compared to mid-rise or low-rise buildings whether residential or commerci al in nature. Rain water runoff, heat island effects and air quality will not be a part of this study. In particular, elevator energy consumption as an inhibitor to building tall versus building low is not a consideration. Further, employee and resident quality of work space or living space as a qualitative aspect of high-rises is only briefly mentioned. Indoor air quality, indoor lighting qu ality and detachment from the street and outdoor environment issues also are not discussed. Lastly, life-cycles of the skyscraper is not considered. The work also does not encompass consider ations for what could halt skyscraper construction around the world aside from fis cal recessions. Telecommunications and information technology as ways around building tall for concentrated business zones have therefore also not been taken into account for the future of skyscrapers. A future for the skyscraper in a terrorist afflicted world includes special design and engineering considerations to ensure minimal damage and danger to the humans using skyscrapers. This study will not delve 22

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into what is being done to ter ror-proof buildings and make them as safe as possible. The associated cost and architecture accompanied with fortress-like buildings also will not be a concern in this work. The case studies and examples given are by no means the only examples of the type of building factor in question. All systems and pr ocedures discussed do not represent completely the systems that go into a skyscrap er. Those systems that are liste d are also not the only options for designers and engineers. The various op tions for foundations, stru ctural steel designs, concrete designs and other building options are fa r too many to explain in detail and therefore have not been covered in depth. Moreover, num bers computed for 2006 include those buildings currently under construction and scheduled to be completed in 2006. Finally, cities other than Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. were not surveyed and therefore not considered. The survey was limited to only th ose people present in downtown Tampa on August 14, 2006 and generally included the professiona l working force age range of Tampa area residents. Layout An exhaustive literature re view will be presented in Chapter 2 to expound on the skyscrapers history, present status and future possibilities. The re view will discuss the important factors that go into the skyscraper that still hold tr ue through today such as social, financial and cultural factors. Historical time lines, technological adva nces, global trends and environmental impacts all will be analyzed and co mputed. Chapter 3 discusses the protocol: The Public Opinion of Skyscrapers and the Downtown Environment, and how it was carried out. Location, constituency, means and methods of the protocol all will be considered. Further, each question given to the survey respondents wi ll be mulled over and discussed. Possible discrepancies and positive influences on the survey will also be prevalent. Suggestions for a 23

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revamped survey also will be offered. Chapter 3 also provides the stat istical analysis of the survey data and what each question resultant was. Results will then be turned into conclusions about the responses that the Tampa residents gave giving further insight into the future of the skyscraper and its primary home, downtown. The final chapter 4 will provide a summary of the data collected and analyzed thr ough the protocol, databases and lit erature review. To represent the work as a whole, several main points will be drawn. As the literatu re review was conducted, and more and more data was looked at, severa l opportunities for future studies came about. Therefore, recommendations for future research will accompany chapter 4 so that more facets of such a complex building can be looked at, not on ly from a building construction standpoint but possibly an architectural, engineerin g, business and even sociological stand point as well. Table 1-1: Buildings Over 1,300 Feet Building Height (ft) Height (m) Location Year Taipei 101 1,671 509 Taipei, Taiwan 2004 Petronas Tower 1 1,483 452 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 Petronas Tower 2 1,483 452 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 Sears Tower 1,451 442 Chicago, Illinois, USA 1974 Jin Mao Tower 1,380 421 Shanghai, China 1998 Two International Finance 1,362 415 Hong Kong, China 2003 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) Table 1-2: Skyscrapers Constr ucted in the World 1996-2000, 2002-200 6 Years Skyscrapers Built Average Per Year 1996-2000 6,880 1,376 2002-2006 13,247 2,649 Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?nav= signin&lng=3. (July 31, 2006) Table 1-3: Skyscrapers Constructed in the United States 1996-2000, 2002-200 6 Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?nav=signin&l ng=3. (July 31, 2006) Years Skyscrapers Built Average Per Year World % 1996-2000 593 119 8.37 2002-2006 1,334 267 10.16 24

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Stone to Steel There are perhaps no more historically significant items than the structures that each civilization has chosen to surround themselves wit h. The pyramids of ancient Egypt, the temples of the Mayans, the Great Wall of China, the Colise um of Rome, all great structures that attract millions each year. One would be hard pressed to think of ancient history and not remember the types of buildings associated with time peri ods and human endeavors of the past. Church structures such as Notre Dame and Cologne Cathedral taking hundr eds of years and thousands of hands exalting God and faith, spires stretching to reach the heavens as monuments of mans devotion to religion and Gods omnipresence so that all in the town and in the fields could see (Ali and Armstrong, 1995). The pagodas, obelisks and minarets of Eastern civilizations shot upward to mark relics and shrine s of the past (Jencks, 1980). The urge to build tall, iconic structures is an ancient aspect of man and mans built environment. Man looks at the world and wants to conque r. Conquer the land, sea and air. With satellites and space shuttles man util izes the air. With telescopes and observatories man explores and expands the knowledge of our world. With par achutes and hang gliders man enjoys the air. With large jumbo jets man defends and traverses our air. With derricks, cranes and lifts man builds into the air. With elevators and stairwel ls man utilizes the air to live, work and play vertically. The tall structures of ancient worlds are stri kingly similar to todays tall structures. Their symbolism and reasoning of cultural, social a nd powerful contexts plays very well towards many of todays same reasons that the world builds tall and will continue to build tall. In the same spirit that the Pharaohs built the Sphinx or that the Tower of Babel was attempted, so too has the 25

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tall building in modern society been built and co nceived. Accordingly the cities of New York, Hong Kong, Dubai and Taipei are the Athens, Rome, Cairo and Paris of yesterday. The skyscraper will be remembered as the building of modern history and of an industrialized world. Using steel where there was once stone and usin g air once again as a medium. What is a Skyscraper? Skyscraper, the word itself invokes images of the Empire State Building, the Sears Tower, and the Bank of China. However, buildings ne ed not be thousands of feet above the ground in order to be termed a skyscraper or a high-rise. The varied definitions fo r a tall building are as varied as the architecture and construction of these buildings. Perhap s one knows a skyscraper when they see it. In science, only slightly more concrete defin itions are given in the following. Dating back to 1891 in Maitlands Ameri can Slang Dictionary, the earliest known definition, a skyscraper is a very tall building such as now are bei ng built in Chicago (Starrett, 1928). Equally vague is the prominent early skyscr aper architect Louis Sullivans definition of a skyscraper. It must be tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a uni t without a single disse nting line (Sullivan, 1896). The builder of the Empire State Building a nd The Manhattan Company Building, William A. Starrett describes the skyscraper as any tall bu ilding, implying a steel skeleton incased in a wall that is merely a drapery (Starrett, 1928). M eans Illustrated Construction Dictionary defines a high-rise as a building having ma ny stories and serviced by elev ators (Greene and Marchetti, 2000). A further definition by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat states that A tall building is not defined by its height or num ber of stories. The important criterion is whether or not the design is influenced by some aspect of tallness. It is a building in 26

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which tallness strongly influences planning, de sign, construction, and use. It is a building whose height creates conditions different from those that exist in common buildings of a certain region and period (Ali and Armstrong, 1995). For the purpose of this work a skyscrap er, tall building or high-ri se will be defined in accordance with the Emporis database definition of any building that is able to be occupied and is over 12 stories in height. Within such a defi nition, structures such as the Eiffel Tower and the Statue of Liberty are not considered. Current ly, Emporis lists 107,948 buildings that have been completed and are over the 12 story lower limit. Further, Emporis also lists a total of 129,879 buildings over 12 stories that are in one of the following categories Completed Under Construction Proposed Approved Never Built Demolished On Hold Under Reconstruction Visionary Under Demolition. Emporis is a trusted name in the real estate and building industry. Its we bsite and database made in conjunction with help from the Council on Tall Building and Urban Habitat indexes the worlds buildings and thus is a credible source for skyscraper information (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The Great Chicago Fire The city of Chicago was founded in 1804, dest royed in 1812 by Native Americans and was incorporated as a city in 1837 a nd today is the third largest city in America (Malden, 2006). Lying on the banks of Lake Michigan with the Chicago River weaving throughout some of the tallest buildings in the world; Chicago is wher e the skyscraper was conceived and born. But 27

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where did the impetus to build ta ll come from, what were the underl ying factors in going vertical instead of horizontally within the city? It all began one fateful Sunday evening in 1871. Near 9 p.m. on Sunday, October 8, 1871 in Patr ick OLearys barn located in an alley behind 137 DeKoven Street a cow allegedly kicked over a lanter n (Chicago Municipal Reference Library, 2005). That small flicker of flame was th e spark that would eventu ally ignite the entire city of Chicago and engulf the heart of the city leaving only ruins. By 1:30 a.m. the fire had jumped the river and the business district was ablaze (Chicago Municipal Reference Library, 2005). Following the business distri ct, the fire headed north and continued to lay siege to the city. Finally, by midnight on Monday the 9 th with the help of some rainfall the last flames were extinguished (Chicago Municipal Reference Librar y, 2005). Much of the city at the time was comprised of wooden-framed low level buildings and many so called fireproof commercial buildings (Douglas, 1996). Regardless of material both types of buildings perished amidst the ravaging fire. The final numbers were stag gering; 300 Chicagoans dead, a third of the population or roughly 90,000 left homeless and a damage estimate of $200 million dollars, an enormous sum of money in that day (Chica go Municipal Reference Library, 2005). At the time Chicago was a vibrant, young city, acting as a significant traffic, trading and material hub for the Midwest and the entire count ry (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Chicago had to be rebuilt and it had to be built in su ch a manner as to truly resist fire and prevent another disaster from demolishing the city in its entirety. The primary building material relied on therefore was steel, which was not a new material but was now being used in new applications (Douglas, 1996). From Bridges to Buildings Drawing inspiration from the bridge builders of the era, steel began to be implemented into structures as a viable altern ative to stone materials (Douglas 1996). Sir Henry Bessemer, the 28

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English engineer, had develope d the technique know n as the Bessemer process and steel had been around since. The proce ss involved blowing co ld air through molten pi g iron to decrease carbon content and impurities. The result was a material that now had greater compression and tension properties compared to wrought and cas t iron (Bascomb, 2003). Also, the process made steel more durable and resistant to fatigue a nd corrosion (Bascomb, 2003). Steel exhibits the following properties Elastic: 22,000 pounds/ square inch Plastic: 36,000 pounds/ square inch Tension Failure: 45,000 to 60,000 pounds/square inch Compression: 30,000 pounds/ square inch The compression property listed above is fifteen times greater than that of stone components (Sabbagh, 1989). Therefore, with strong and stiff steel, buildings had th e possibility to be carried taller and taller without the restraints of load-bearing masonry construction. The upper limit of masonry was in fact 16-stories dem onstrated by the Monadnock Building in Chicago (Starrett, 1928). However, with a tall mas onry structure the base of the supporting masonry walls had to be 6 feet thick while sacrificing window space and the ever-important rental floor area (Sabbagh, 1989). Architects and engineers did attempt to lessen the sizes of these walls with cast and iron reinforcement within masonry walls, but lack of tensile strength compromised their long lasting structural inte grity (Starrett, 1928). Thus, a new type of building was on the horizon, one in which steel would be the sole means of support and strength. The First Skyscraper With the advent of steel shapes and forms, the dungeons of masonry structures of old were no longer necessary. The skyscraper in comparison was actually well lit and airy. The place was Chicago, the year was 1883, the man was the architect and engineer William LeBaron 29

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Jenney and the building was the Home Insura nce Building (Douglas, 1996). Jenney had the impulse to take the dead load off of the mas onry walls and place them solely on the structural steel and iron components that made up the build ing (Starrett, 1928). After erection of the 6 th floor, Jenney was urged by the Phipps Steel Company out of Pittsburgh to use Bessemer type steel beams for the remaining floors in replacem ent of the wrought-iron beams that made up the first six stories (Starrett, 1928) Columns and beams were bolted together using angle-iron brackets. Although the Home Insurance Building was by all means a humble building at a mere 10 stories in height with an a dditional 2 stories adde d on later, the result ing cage design or steel skeleton was a tremendous breakthrough, one which has paved the way for todays highrises and worlds tallest buildings (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Now that the exterior walls acted only as a curtain, large windows allowing the optimal amount of light in were possible. In fact, using alternative or redu ced amounts of traditional masonry materials, a savings of 15% on normal building costs could be real ized (Jencks, 1980) Also, the cu rtains were even capable of being transformed to include no masonry or supporti ng structure at all. The first example of this is in Ludwig Mies van der Rohes Lakeshore Drive Apartments in Chicago, completed in 1951 (Ali and Armstrong, 1995). They are the first high-ri ses to be covered comple tely in glass and to define what we think of toda y as a true curtain wall. Social Factors Why build tall in the first place? Sure th e technology was there a nd available but it was only made possible or even thought about because there was a demand for tall structures. Where did this demand come from? How did societal and population factors aff ect the advent of the skyscraper and its use as a viable building type? As Chicago grew, so too did the need for th e tall building grow. Following the Civil War that ended in 1865, Americans migrated in large nu mbers to large city cent ers such as New York 30

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and Chicago (Douglas, 1996). Between 1870 and 1890 alone, Chicago grew from 298,977 people to a city of 1,098,570, a 367% increase (D ouglas, 1996)! The central hub of the Midwest with connections to the eastern seaboard needed more office sp ace and more vertical space to combat an ever-increasing population and concu rrently an ever-increasing business sector. Developers and owners saw a need and addressed it with multiple-storied buildings that were bolstered by Jenneys new found design. It was not practical or feasible to go horizontally so they instead went vertically. Economic Factors Cass Gilbert, the man who would be the ar chitect behind the future worlds tallest building, the Woolworth Building in New York City, made the statement that the modern skyscraper or high-rise was the machine that made the land pay (Willis, 1995). Escalating land values, property taxes and renter demands to be in close proximity to downtown business districts resulted in the growth vertically of city centers, particularly in Chicago who started with a fresh landscape after the Great Fire of 1871 (Starrett, 1928). In order to get the appropriate amount of return on investment, investors needed to build multiple stories of rentable floor area. Basically, skyscrapers are the result of that surp lus need for more rentable area to justify the price of buying and building upon highly-valued land. It takes no hard reasoning to realize that a ten story building can bring ten times as much re venue as a one story structure. As discussed previously structural steel also allowed for more rentable area as opposed to bulky, costly masonry installations. Figure 2-1 shows that with increased stories the gross floor area increases incrementally, which allows for more rentable floor area. The figure represents a typical midtown Manhattan office tower, 1.6 million square feet in size for rentable floor space with a high central tower and setbacks. 31

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It is a simple idea, build taller to offset land and development costs in order to increase revenues and operating incomes. Ho wever, that is not to say that one should construct a building into excess above the ground. There is a balance offset between building tall to recoup land and associated expenses versus the design, engine ering and construction co sts of technically and physically challenging buildings. That balance is termed the economic height of the skyscraper (Clark and Kingston, 1930). The true economic height of a structure is that height which will secure the maximum ultimate return on total investment (including la nd) within the reasonable useful life of the structure under appropriate conditions of arch itectural design, efficiency of layout, light and air, neighborly conduct, street approach es and utility services (Clark and Kingston, 1930). Table 2-1 shows that as a buildings height increase s and therefore the rentable floor area increases, so does the return on investment up to a particular point. At 63 stories investors can expect to receive a 10.25% actual return on i nvestment on a typical midtown Manhattan highrise. As this number is surpassed and the number of stories increases, the construction costs also increase and return on investment dwindles. In fact, at 131 stories it is evidenced that an investor would actually receive no normal computed return on investment and lose money at -0.02%. Once again, despite being an antiq uated piece of literature the work still demonstrates that financial benefit remains a paramount factor in the decision on how high to build. Technological Innovation It is very much true that Jenneys new design of placing the load of buildings onto structural steel supports thus allo wing curtain walls is of prime importance. However, it is also important to note that several other systems were necessary to allow building to new heights. Without steel, skyscrapers would not have been possible but without pr oper engineering and 32

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technology they would not have been feasible or attractive as a build ing type. Of particular note are the inventions of the elevator, telephone, modern foundation systems, air conditioning and fluorescent lighting. At the 1853 worlds fair, Elisha Otis Graves unveiled a new i nvention, the first passenger elevator with a safety device (Bascomb, 2003). This invention came 32 years prior to Jenneys design with structural steel, but it allows for passenger movement well above the normal carrying capacity of the human le gs day in and day out. The pr actical limit for building even masonry supported structures was six stories and rental rates amongst floors above the 3 rd were much lower (Starrett, 1928). Thus, the elevator allowed owners to build as tall as desired in a safe manner and to a practical degree depending on the engineering at the time. As elevators have evolved so too have the skyscrapers that embody them. Typically, with every new worlds tallest building it seems that the worlds fastest elevators follow within. In fact, the current worlds tallest building Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan house the wo rlds fastest elevators which travel at 3,281 feet per minute (Lepik, 2004). Elevators are a complicated endeavor and re quire a separate design professional as a specialist elevator consultant on the design team (Yeang, 2000). Di fferent orientations of the service core, elevator banks, sky lobbies, elevator zones and elevator systems must all be taken into account. How many people are to be serv iced and what can be done about congestion for morning and work closing conditions? The elevat or is the life blood for a tall building, for without it the skyscrapers we know today would not be fathomab le. The following is a brief early historical timeline of the elevator 1853 Elisha Otis Graves unveils 1 st safe passenger elevator (Bascomb, 2003) 1871 1 st passenger elevator instal led at 120 Broadway in New York City (Abramson, 2000) 1887 1 st electric elevator in use 33

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1904 1 st gearless traction elevator installed 1924 Variable voltage elevator introduced al lowing quick movement without jerking and speeds of 1,100 feet per minute (Jencks, 1980) The invention of the telegraph had made long distance communication possible for business and company communication. However, Alexander Graham Bells telephone invented in 1876 was a breakthrough in local interpersona l communication. This invention meant that coworkers and colleagues no longer needed to meet face to face (Wells, 2005). Even in the same building, large and expansive buildings in par ticular, the telephone was a practical means of communication that allowed for widespread o ffices even within very tall structures. Underneath these mammoth structures lies an entire web of foundation systems that really is a mega structure under a mega structure. A problem facing early skyscraper designers, engineers and contractors was how the weight of the tall buildings was go ing to be transferred into the ground which supported the structure. The esteemed arch itecture and engineering firm of Burnham and Root in Chicago had an answer and implemented a steel grillage design that was a reaction to the reali zation that former pyramid stone a nd cement structures were no longer practical, nor were they feasible for such loads as were requ ired under tall buildings (Starrett, 1928). Rail-road ties laid at ri ght angles were embedded in conc rete with steel I-beams at the upper courses. In essence, The Rookery Building in Chicago was the first modern floating foundation using Burnham and Roots design (S tarrett, 1928). Today s foundations are now filled with rebar and concrete which is very emblematic of foundations of old. The modern foundations found under todays skyscrapers are deced ents of the original answer to securing high-rise buildings and include Pad foundations Deep foundations Raft foundations Caisson foundations 34

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Pile and raft foundations Pile, raft and slurry wall foundations The air conditioner also changed the way that sk yscrapers were built and where. After its invention in 1939 by Willis Carrier in America natu ral means of ventilation and cool air were no longer necessary (Abel, 2003). This provided the opportunity to design now without a further restraint due to air. Now how were these large structures going to be lit? Outer offices and locations were obviously no problem since they were in close pr oximity to windows. However, inner spaces far from windows needed adequate li ghting as well. Initiall y, these concerns were met by light courts placed inside high-rises to allow light into all offices and into multiple sides of the building. The invention of interior fluores cent lighting then allowed light into interiors not near windows at all. The boundaries created by designing around natural li ghting were no longer prevalent and thus new structures with new archit ecture could be developed in the 1940s as this technology was available (Willis, 1995). Recently, the modern skyscraper has gone back to a policy of natural lighting as much as possibl e in a sustainably c onscious world, but the fluorescent light still abounds for cl oudy days and night work shifts. The design consideration was there, the tec hnology was there and que stions were no longer if high-rise building was possible but rather ho w high and how fast? Bu ilding tall was now a measure of resolve and owners took that resolv e and started making skyscrapers at a feverous pace. Where better to build tall than the great American cities of Chicago and New York? Chicago to New York Flying into OHare International Airport you se e home after home and strip mall after strip mall. But then the ground starts to swell and the buildings get taller and taller and the skyline emerges. Names like Sears, John Hancock and ATandT extrude from the waters of Lake Michigan. Currently housing Am ericas tallest building, the S ears Tower at 1,451 feet to its 35

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structural top, Chicago is wher e the world first saw tall buildi ngs being constructed (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Beginning with William Le Baron Jenneys Home Insurance Building in 1885, Chicago was an experimental th ink tank of innovation and inventi on for how to build tall. The architects, engineers and contra ctors in Chicago at the time we re developing new designs and implementation techniques as fast as the build ings were being demanded, higher and higher and higher still. The First Worlds Tallest Anything Seven years following the Home Insurance Buildi ng, the first building to be touted as the worlds tallest anything was built. This bu ilding was the Masonic Temple built in 1892 (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The tallest commercial building in the world started what has been a heavily combated race ever since (Moudry, 2005). Prior to completion, the competing organization of the Independent Order of Odd Fello ws, claimed that they were going to build not only the worlds tallest commerci al building but the tallest build ing of any kind in the entire world (Moudry, 2005). Once again, a precedent had now been set and the spectacle side of the skyscraper was now coming to fruition. The Inde pendent Order of Odd Fellows in fact, like many future worlds tallest buildings, never realiz ed their structure and th us the Masonic Temple held the crown. It drew public attention and wonderment, which ha s only pervaded to this day creating a public advertisement that had no equal. The Worlds Tallest Heads East The year after Chicago held the worlds tallest commercial buildi ng, the city council actually limited building height due to a recession in the real es tate market. 1893 saw the height limited to 130 feet, or around 10 to 11 stories (Willis, 1995). Such a limit would for sure doom the future chances of Chicago to hold the worlds tallest anything once New York approved skeleton steel construction into th eir building code. As such, 1899 saw the definitive shift from 36

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building the tallest in Chicago to New York. Th e Park Row Building completed in that year was the first of many worlds tallest buildings to be completed in New York City. With it there would be no question of tallest with a lantern, spire or other archite ctural detail. The title would not return to Chicago for another 75 years. The restrictions on skyscrapers in Chicago put them behind New York forever and as such Chicago ha s been Americas second city in skyscraper construction and design regardless of the Sears To wer. Currently, New York City has nearly five times as many skyscrapers with 5,053 as compared to Chicagos 1,050 tall buildings (Emporis Buildings, 2006). True, New York is much more populated and contains the nations financial center, but perhaps that capacity came with the ability to construct tall structures without severe restrictions. It is also true that lot sizes in Chic ago were much larger than in New York due to the Great Fire of 1871 and therefore going up was more practical and inevitable in New York City (Willis, 1995). The New York Era Once the New York area got a hold of the s kyscraper there was no stopping the massive amount of tall building constructi on taking place in Manhattan. In 1890 there were 6 buildings over 10 stories in New York, by 1908 there were 538 (Nash, 2005). In those 18 years tall buildings in the city grew by n early 900%! This count was taken at 10 stories but the number is still staggering to acknowledge. New York City Skyward In that year 1908, another structure in New York was built that took the title of worlds tallest building. The Singer Building built for the infamous sewing machine company was 612 feet, placing it 221 feet above the formerly worlds tallest Park Row Building (CTBUH Database, 2006). It was a public exhibition this building of th e worlds tallest building. An advertisement of the largest kind. For a fe w cents even, the public could get to the 40 th floor of 37

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the Singer Building and look out over New York City (Lepik, 2004). But fame was fleeting for the Singer Building and the following year in 1909, the 700 foot Metropolitan Life Insurance Building took the title of worlds tallest buildi ng (CTBUH Database, 2006). It too was complete with viewing tower on the 46 th floor (Lepik, 2004). Insurance companies were widely expanding and needed more office space to house their large work forces following the trend that skyscrapers were a response to business needs (Ali and Armstrong, 1995). These large structures not only served a practical purpose, but also served as a positive at tribute of wealth and security (Abramson, 2000). Constructing the worlds tallest building was al so a prime way to get free advertising into the public eye to attr act possible new customers. It was not only the heights of these structures that were attractive, but also the romantic fervor emanating from large, symbolic struct ures such as the Flatiron Building of 1902. The building was originally the Fulle r Building, but with a stark re semblance to a flat-iron the building has taken on a more suitable name (Nash, 2005). Other buildings with symbolic elements placed into them included the Americ an Radiator Building of 1924 and the City Bank Farmers Trust Building of 1931. Th e American Radiator Building was made of black brick so that when the lights were on in the inside at night it glowed to convey the metaphor for home heating that the company was involved in (Nas h, 2005). The City Bank Farmers Trust Building on the other hand contained the 14 giants of finance at the 19 th floor setback. Each giant alternated smiling and frowning to portray the business cycles of bust and boom (Abramson, 2000). Also, numerous famous building competitions were taking place to generate publicity and public involvement. Two notable compe titions were the New York Times Building competition of 1913 and the Chicago Tribune co mpetition of 1922. These sparked publicly celebrated events and people skied the building as soon as possible to get a glimpse of the view 38

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they offered. For the Chicago Tribune comp etition alone 263 architecture proposals were received (Abel, 2003). The architects were to design the worlds greatest building for the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, an indication of the symbolic nature that the Chicago Tribune was after as an icon for their newspaper. As the public became enraptured, so too did developers and building owners. Frank W. Woolworth the self-made millionaire of the popular five-and-dime stores wanted a structure to go above all others. The answer was the 1913 Woolworth Building. It was a symbol of Woolworths fiscal strength and business success over the years. For its completion Woolworth even paid 13.5 million dollars in cash for his building which was quickly nicknamed the Cathedral of Commerce (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The 792 feet were not necessarily a financial consideration or a true real-estate transaction, but rather a testament to the influence of ego and power within the skyscraper. Woolworth was supposed to have said to make it 50 feet taller than the Metropolitan Life Building which had denied him a much needed bank loan years prior, he succeeded by 92 feet instead but the message had been sent (Lepik, 2004). The construction and completion of the building was su ch a tremendous national affair that President Woodrow Wilson turned on the lights himself on Ap ril 24, 1913 to be an ornament of the city of New York (Lepik, 2004). Of course the buildin g also had its own viewing platform on the 55 th floor, open to the public (Lepik, 2004). The competition for worlds tallest was heating up and the attractive nature of building tall fo r space, notoriety and power was taking hold. Skyscraper after skyscraper continued to be raised and at such a pace that there grew concerns with air quality and illumination for th e streets below. The Equitable Building was a behemoth twin towered structure that is said to have caused the 1916 New York zoning law to be enacted (Moudry, 2005). This zoning allowed one-fourth of the lot to be unlimited in height and 39

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the rest to be setback accordingly, resulting in a wedding cake look (W illis, 1995). Some of New Yorks most famous and powerful skyscrap ers were about to be constructed under this setback zoning law. Race into the Manhattan Sky Following World War I a young America was out to prove itself and its prosperity, what ensued has been termed the roa ring 20s. The tallest buildings typically occur at the end of large economic or real-estate boom s. One such boom was the roaring 20s, which ended in the Great Depression that began in October, 1929 an d whose effects were truly felt by 1930 (Willis, 1998). The peak that accompanied this race in to the sky occurred in August, 1929 right in the middle of planning, designing and constructing the buildings that challe nged for the worlds tallest (National Bureau of Economic Resear ch, 2003). Prior to that catastrophic economic downturn however, a race for the worlds tallest building ensued, the likes of which have not been replicated. There were thr ee runners each with a sincere belief and dete rmination to be the worlds tallest building regardless of all comers These three buildings were the Manhattan Company Building, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building all completed within the same time period. Today, they still stand as th ree of the four tallest buildings in New York City (Emporis Buildings, 2006). But how did they get there? Initially, there were two buildings in the race for the worlds tallest; the Manhattan Company Building and the Chrysler Building. The architects for each building, H. Craig Severance and William Van Alen, were once suc cessful partners from 1914 till 1925 who had a rather harsh falling out and now were competitors not only for work but also for the title of worlds tallest (Bascomb, 2003). The owners were both wealthy businessmen. Walter P. Chrysler was another self-made millionaire whose car company had become one of the top three 40

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car companies in America at the time. The developer of the Manhattan Company Building, George Ohrstrom, was termed the boy wonder of Wall Street and set out w ith Starrett Brothers and Eken to build not only the worlds tallest building but to build it within one year. The Chrysler Building was a testament to the companys wealth, success and prosperity. Brick mosaics included cars, metallic elements do tted the exterior, the interiors were emblematic of the modern automobile and above all it was to be the worlds talle st building towering over the 26-story General Motors building (Bascomb, 2003). Now, the Manhattan Company Building may have lacked ornamental symb olism, but it was nevertheless to be the tallest building in the world and not only that, it was to be constructed at a break neck speed. Its green copper top is today an identifiable symbol in the lower Manhattan skyline. The papers and the public followed each step closely but before the race could be any further underway a new player entered the aren a. The Empire State Building was announced by a team of former governor Alfred Smith and J ohn Raskob, the head of General Motors. Now the race was three pronged and featured car compan ies, opposing design professionals and a place for only one to take the crown of worlds talles t. Since the Chrysler Building had begun in 1928 and the Manhattan Company Building had begun in 1929 they were ahead of the Empire State Building which began in 1930 (CTBUH Database, 2006). As the first two reached completion it appear ed that the Manhattan Building would beat out the Chrysler Building. However, not to be done by boundaries of money or material Chrysler and Van Alen set out to make a new design, a secret de sign to finish the top of the Chrysler building and overtake the Manhattan Co mpany Building. Van Alen is quoted as saying if this is to be a skyscraper, why not make it scrape the sky (Bascomb, 2003)? So that is what they set out to do, and after a redesign in secret, Chrysler and Van Alen had a plan to overtake 41

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Severance and Ohrstrom and hopefully take care of the Empire State Buildings future height competition. The Manhattan Building was toppe d out and proclaimed the worlds tallest building in all the papers and on the tongues of New Yorkers. However, the Chrysler team remained quiet and thereafter raised their se cret nirosta covered obelisk that had been constructed within the upper portion of the bu ilding away from view (Bascomb, 2003). On October 16, 1929 the Chrysler Building was offici ally the worlds tallest building without questionfor now at least. What about the Empire State Bu ilding and its endeavors? Orig inally, the structure was to be just under 1,000 feet tall (Willis, 1998). With the new tip of the Chrysler Building at 1,046 feet why not just go that much taller and become the tallest building in the world (Emporis Buildings, 2006)? The design was changed to a 1,050 foot building with a mooring mast of 200 feet for zeppelins (Willis, 1998). Would this add to the economical value of the building, would this mast ever really be used by zeppelins? The an swer is no and as such the ego and pride factor of building tall is evidenced. Wh en the men building and purchasi ng the building were that close to being the worlds tallest how could they turn away from such a feat? Raskob was particularly perturbed that the United States still had no structure that was taller than the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France (Bascomb, 2003). This mindset followed the American builder mindset of outdoing, out designing and out bu ilding the old world of Europe. So they went forward, completing the building in record time with record feats, including finishi ng the structural steel in 11 months (Willis, 1998). The Empire State Bu ilding rose as quickly as both the Manhattan Company Building and the Chrysler Building despite being twice the size (Willis, 1998). At the point when the contracts were first signed with the architects in 1929 to when the building was opened May 1, 1931 there had spanned only 21 months (Willis, 1998). From the original 80 to 42

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85 stories planned to the 102 stories completed, the Empire State Building was termed the Eighth Wonder of the World (Empire State Bu ilding, 2006). It was a pinnacle of American endeavor, service, hard work and grit. In th e 75 years since the opening of the building in 1931, 117 million people have visited its observation deck (Empire State Building, 2006). In the first year alone, one million dollars came from obser vation deck fees, which equaled the amount generated from the rent in that year (Willis, 1998). The builder, Starrett Brothers and Eken, received the title of worlds tallest in the Empire State Building that was not realized within the Manhattan Company Building project. Colonel W illiam Aiken Starrett who passed away shortly after finishing the building perhaps sums up be st the reason New York and America grew up quickly in the early 20 th century. We Americans always like to think of things in terms of bigness; there is a romantic appeal in it, and into our national pride has some how been woven the yardstick of bigness. Perhaps that is one of the reasons why we are so proud of our structures ; they are big, very big, certainly the tallest and certainly the most complex and the most compelling the world has ever seen. They fairly personate the hustle and bustle of our modern accomplishment and postulate our ideal of efficiency, and they are our national pride because they are so completely American. So the bigness of the business as a whole we enjoy gasping over. -Colonel William A. Starrett The New Challengers With the onset of the Great Depression finally hitting the finances of construction and lenders, it would be 41 years before another worl ds tallest building took the place of the Empire State Building. America would resume building tall after World War II but the tallest skyscraper construction still would occur around peaks of business cycles such as the peak in 1973 (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003). The de sire to build tall is inherent as discussed before, and building tall remains dormant for onl y so long. For too long the United States and the world had not constructed a ne w worlds tallest, a building that defied nature and that drew the attention of the public. 43

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One World Trade Center and Two World Trad e Center were the final worlds tallest buildings to be located in New York City. Awe-inspiring, aluminum supports adorned the exterior and it shone like a light house indicating their position in lower Manhattan as the shining star above the worlds business ca pital. The story of their demi se is well known, but their birth and life were tremendous achievements. On a given business day as many as 200,000 visitors came to the buildings and the buildings themselves held 500 businesses compromising 50,000 employees (Stephens, 2004). It was a city thrown up vertically into the sky. In the heated worlds tall est races of the early 20 th century no one building lasted very long as the worlds tallest until the Empire State Build ing. In that fashion One World Trade Center being just 6 feet above Two World Trade Center at 1,368 feet lasted onl y about 2 years as the worlds tallest building (CTBUH Database, 2006). Alas, Chicago reclaimed its title of having the worlds tallest building w ith the Sears Tower in 1974 (Emporis Buildings, 2006). An icon among icons, the Sears Tower was built by the mighty Sears Roebuck Company and remains the tallest building in America and ruled the world from 1974 until 1998, a period of 24 years. On a clear day there were views of four states; Illinoi s, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan (Pridmore, 2002). The Sears Tower has become not only a sym bol of the fiscal strength of Sears or of Chicago, but also a symbol of the entire Mi dwest. The Sears To wer sets itself apart magnificently and is inseparable from the city of Chicago. The designer a nd structural engineer Fazlur Khan who also designed another significant building in the John Hancock Center was concerned with making the buildings he created human (Ali, 2001). High-rises have tremendous human appeal. They inspire and demonstrate the ultimate strength and reaches of human existence and so there is an attach ment that is all too human to thes e tall structures of glass, steel 44

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and concrete. From America to ab road, the human aspect to build tall is omnipresent. The next period and waves of tall buildings now were going to come from across seas. The skyscraper as a building type is an enti rely American invention and as such much pride has been taken in the tall building across the nati on. The skyscraper departed from the old world and dared to go above and beyond anything th at had been seen prior. For roughly 113 years America reigned supreme as the tallest na tion in the world. From Chicago to New York, and back the skyscraper transformed the Americ an city, and the world was to follow. The following is a historical timeline of skyscraper history thus far 1885 Home Insurance Building be comes the first skyscraper 1892 Masonic Temple touted as first of worlds tallest co mmercial buildings 1899 Park Row Building shifts tallest bui lding race from Chicago to New York 1902 Flatiron Building demonstrates literal symbolic architecture 1908 Singer Building constructed to take worlds tallest title 1909 Metropolitan Life Insurance Build ing takes worlds tallest title 1913 New York Times building competition 1913 Woolworth Building built to worlds tallest height 1922 Chicago Tribune building competition 1924 American Radiator takes literal sy mbolic architecture to new heights 1929 Great Depression begins 1930 Manhattan Company Building takes bronze medal in worlds tallest race 1930 Chrysler Building becomes the worlds tallest building temporarily 1931 City Bank Farmers Trust Buildi ng giants of finance constructed 1931 Empire State Building begins 41 year worlds tallest reign 45

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1972 One World Trade Center is comple ted as the worlds tallest building 1974 Sears Tower becomes the worlds tallest building and restores the skyscraper crown to Chicago The Asian Tiger Just as the skyscraper spread from Chicago to New York and across the United States, so too has the skyscraper gone to the far reaches of the entire globe. The global skyscraper has a particular stronghold in the Asian Pacific rim co untries such as China, Japan, Malaysia and Taiwan. The truth is that there are more skyscr apers being constructed an d being constructed at greater heights in Asia today than in America (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Tables 2-2 and 2-3 show that Americas tall buildi ngs were built in the average y ear of 1972 as opposed to Chinas tallest buildings being built at the average year of 1998, a 26 year difference. Further, Chinas average building height for their t op ten buildings is 63 feet over the average of Americas height at 1,109 feet. Americas saving grace is that 9 of the 10 top ten tallest are above 1,000 feet while only 7 of Chinas top ten are a bove 1,000 feet. Regardless, the current rate and height of construction demonstrates the construction ab ility and power that China and other Asian countries around them are exerting in such a shor t period of time. The days of the pagodas and shrines may be extinct but a new structure in th e skyscraper has taken their place. With the design, implementation and construction of their ta ll buildings Asian countries have added their own recipe for skyscraper image and structure. Asian countries have taken the skyscraper into a new light in accordance with their beliefs symbolism, politics and culture. Asian Trends With increasing population, decreasing free land and increasing economic prosperity it is no wonder why many Asian nations are taking the lead in skyscraper construction. While America still remains strong and healthy in it s development of urban, downtown environments, 46

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the Chinese are building out of necessity and po licy. In the same manner that New York and Chicago grew up in huge fits of construction bo oms and civic pride the Chinese in Shanghai, Hong Kong and Beijing are building th eir communities at a feverish pace. The skylines and city centers that took decades upon decades and gene rations upon generations in America is taking the Chinese and other Asian communities only a single generation to complete. New York took 50 years, Hong Kong took only 30 years and soon ot her fast growing cities will take even less time to grow up vertically (Abel, 2003). Excluding the year 2006, the skyscraper has ha d a 120 year history. Chinas first tall buildings over 12 stories as listed by the C ouncil on Tall Building and Urban Habitat Emporis database occurred 44 years after Jenneys Chicago skyscraper in 1929. That year saw two 13story hotels go up in Shanghai termed the Peace and Jin Jiang Hotels (CTBUH Database, 2006). Following those two hotels, Chinas skyscraper inventory did not incr ease exponential and only increased very mildly at best. Therefore, for th e sake of this discussion the skyscrapers history has been divided into two 60-year pe riods, from 1885 to 1945 and from 1946 to 2005 respectively. Table 2-4 demonstrates that from the inception of the skyscraper in 1885 until the end of World War II the United States of America erected 5,600 skyscrapers which accounted for an average of 84% of the skyscrapers built throughout those years in the world. In contrast, the years after World War II to the present have showed a sharp average decrease in Americas skyscraper construction compared to world skyscr aper growth. Those years exhibit an average of 35% for the 11,981 buildings built in America, as compared to the amount of skyscrapers built in the world during that time period. This is not to say that America is building fewer skyscrapers, but that the world is catching up in a global fashion, in particular China portrays the 47

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Asian tiger quick growth of population, econom y and thus skyscrapers. With only 10 skyscrapers from 1929 until 1945 China was a non-fact or in any skyscraper diatribe. However, in the second half of skyscraper history, Chin a has taken their tall building numbers from a meager 10 to 8,453. This number accounts for an average of 13% of all skyscrapers built in the world during those 60 years. Obviously, this tr end shows that not only are emerging countries like China building tall, but also th at the rest of the world is acc ounting for a large percentage of high-rises. China may be half a world away but themes of power, aesthetic, pride and symbolism that were very present in the American skyscraper pervade the Chinese skyscraper. The economic, social and cultural implications are still felt. China is a dynamic, constantly changing country and as such its high-rise archit ecture is invocative of the ne w found strength and power China wishes to exude and that China does in fact possess. With the release from British colonial rule for Hong Kong in 1997, several financially powerful structures were being erected in the years leading up to the Hong Kong release. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters demonstrated some of the global architecture of the region. The Bank of China constructed in 1989 was for a while the tallest in Hong Kong (Abe l, 2003). The legendary architect of the Bank of China, I.M. Pei, described the building as a symbol of the economic awakening that was to befall China in the coming years (Lepik, 2004). Bo th buildings brought on a feng shui expert in the design and planning stages to ensure acceptan ce by the public (Lepik, 2004). The fifth tallest building in the world located in Shanghai is the Jin Mao Tower, completed in 1998 (Emporis Buildings, 2006). In addition to the recognition garnered from building to the height of 1,380 feet, the tower exudes carefully planned Chinese characteristics (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The number 8 in Chinese culture is significant for luck and as such the designers of the Jin Mao used 48

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it multiple times in the floor plan of the skyscraper. The core of the building is actually an octagon and the base size is at 1/8 th scale in regards to the height of the building (Lepik, 2004). The shape of the exterior structure represents the classic Chinese pagoda step-down appearance as well. Even young, developing towns are taking part in the skyscraper to put themselves on the map so to speak. This idea of using height to gain recognition and notoriety for a region or country is truly exemplified in th e Petronas Towers and Taipei 101 ye t to be discussed. As such, the new town of Shenzhen located in southern China wanted a building that symbolized their spirit and resolve as a community to be rec ognized (Gissen, 2002). They placed no height restrictions on the building a nd named it the Di Wang Commerci al Center whose height was intentionally set at 33 feet higher than the Bank of China in Hong Kong (Gissen, 2002). The ribbon-window banding at the corn ers gives the building the look of traditional kung fu jackets and the green color of the entire building symbo lizes prosperity (Gissen, 2002). Even the shape of the building as a whole read s as the Mandarin word mei, which translated means beauty (Gissen, 2002). Now with the talle st building in Shenzhen, there has to be an observation deck, the 69 th floor acts as such (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The Petronas Shift Amazingly enough, China was not the country to produce the tallest bui lding in the world outside of the United States. That sole di stinction fell on a much lesser known country, Malaysia, in 1996. With the topp ing out of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, building the tallest building in the world shifted from an American endeavor to a worldwide one. The Petronas Towers were the quintesse ntial statements in the Asian sh ift of skyscraper building. At 1,483 feet to the architectur al top of the classic Islami c minarets that adorn each building, the Petronas Towers eclipsed the Sear s Towers by only a mere 32 feet (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Those 32 feet made all the di fference in the world however and the little 49

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known country and capital of Malaysia and Kual a Lumpur were truly put onto the map. After all, that was the intention of the developers, designers and build ers of these twin beauties. The buildings themselves were constructed by the state petroleum company and located distinctly in the newly devel oped commercial center of the Golden Triangle area in Kuala Lumpur (Lepik, 2004). The towers while serving as th e obvious functional office space serves several qualitative purposes. The Petronas Towers ar e said to be part of a larger plan to shift technology and to transform the image and enterprise of the whole nation of Malaysia (Reina and Post, 1996). An image that puts Malaysia on the same level as only the most developed nations (Reina and Post, 1996). The towers w ith their pedestrian bridge on the 41 st floor, which serves as an observation deck, demonstrate a large gateway into the economy of Malaysia (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The gateway is meant to lead the mind and eye into the commercial heart of Kuala Lumpur and therefore Malaysia (Robison, 1994). Further symbolism reveal cultural and social impacts of the Malaysian people. Being an Islamic state, the footprint resembles the 8 point star popular in Islam and th e exterior has a classic scalloped pattern as well. The elements that actually put the Petronas Towers up and over the architectural top of the Sears Tower were the aforementioned Islamic minarets (Engineeri ng News Record, 1996). Lastly, the towers can be described as tropical towe rs that reflect the Kuala Lumpur climate and actually shimmer in the sun (Post, 1996). The topping out of the Petronas Towers in 1996 was a nationally celebrated event in Malaysia complete with firewo rks and national fervor. Like the topping out of buildings in America, the nations flag was flown and the final beam signed by those pertinent to the project. For the first time, a building had been eclipsed fr om abroad, and not only that, but it was the first time two buildings held the worlds tallest title. With the same tradition and excitement that 50

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America tops out its buildings, so too had the elation of height gone global. All of sudden the United States had dropped from 1 st to 3 rd in the race to be the world s tallest. However, America had one last hope prior to the Pe tronas Towers being christened the worlds tallest buildings, the Council on Tall Buildings a nd Urban Habitat. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habita t originally began as the Joint Committee on Tall Buildings formed between the Internatio nal Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1969 (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 2006). Beginning in 1973, the Council listed the 30 tallest buildings in the world and in 1980 the Council expanded its listing to the more well-known 100 worlds tallest buildings (Engineering News Record, 2004). The mission of the council explains the connection that the CTBUH has with both skyscrapers and th e downtown urban environment as a whole. The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, an international non-profit organization sponsored by architectural, engineering, pl anning, and construction professionals, was established to facilitate prof essional exchanges among those i nvolved in all aspects of the planning, design, construction and operation of tall buildings and the urban habitat. The Council's primary goal is to promote better urban environments by maximizing the international interaction of professionals, and by making the latest knowledge available to its members and to the public at large in useful form. The Council has a major concern with the role of tall buildings in the urban environment and their impact thereon. Providing adequate space for life and work involves not only technological factors, but social and cultural aspects as well. While not an advocate for tall buildings per se in those situations in which they are appropriate, the Council seeks to encourage the use of th e latest knowledge in their implementation (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 2006). Now, the measurement of height for each build ing was determined from the sidewalk level of the main entrance to the arch itectural top of the building whic h included penthouses, spires and pinnacles, but not masts, flagpoles and te levision or radio ante nnas (Engineering News 51

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Record, 2004). This stipulation was decided upo n to always apply to the Sears Tower by the Council and by Fazlur Khan, the designer and stru ctural engineer of the building (Engineering News Record, 1996). The idea was that antenna e are only temporary structures and that minarets, for example, are in fact permanent (Gill 2005). As such a highly contested battle as the worlds tallest building has b een since the inception of the skyscraper, it is no wonder why Americans and in particular Chicagoans wanted a shifting of the rules to not include the minarets that make the Petronas Towers taller than the Sears Tower. The Chicago Committee on High Rise Buildings wined and dine d the Council on Tall Bu ildings and Urban Ha bitat and proposed a hats off approach to measuring the buildings (Engineering News Record, 1996). Hundreds of local school children even wrote letters to the CTBUH, but in the end these actions which occurred very near to when the CTBUH named the Petronas Towers the worlds tallest had no effect on the final ruling and thus the worlds tallest in Chicago was reduced to third tallest. Out of the debacle that was naming the Petronas Towers the worlds tallest buildings, the Council on Tall Buildings a nd Urban Habitat decided to expand th e categories from one to four. Rather than solely relying on the structural or architectur al height of a building the Council decided that buildings could also be measured by highest occupied floor, top of roof and top of the antennae (Gill, 2005). By these rules the Petrona s Towers retained the tit le of worlds tallest building to the architectural top. However, the S ears Tower now held the ti tle in the other three categories. With the new CTBUH rulings, the worlds tallest landscape looked as follows: Worlds Tallest Building to the Architectural/Structural Top: Petronas Towers 1,483 feet Worlds Tallest Building to the Highes t Occupied Floor: Sears Tower 1,355 feet Worlds Tallest Building to the Roof: Sears Tower 1,451 feet Worlds Tallest Building to the Ante nnae: Sears Tower 1,729 feet 52

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The Shift Continues Further demonstrating that the construction of tall buildings requires an enormous amount of financial backing and clout, th e skyscraper surge in Asia to ok a tremendous dip in the same year that the Petronas Towers were completed. 1998 saw numerous volatile highs and lows in stock markets around the world (Zukowsky and T horne, 2000). In addition, there were drastic downturns in Asian economies which led to the di rect cancellation and the postponing of several tall buildings (Zukowsky and Thorne, 2000). However, with the completion of Taipei 101 or the Taipei Financial Center in Taipei, Taiwan in 2004, the Asian skyscraper was back. Along with this tall building, was also the desire to be the worlds tallest Upon its completion, Taipei 1 01 held three of the four, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, worlds tallest titles. The four categories are currently as follows: Worlds Tallest Building to the Architectural/Structural Top: Taipei 101 1,671 feet Worlds Tallest Building to the Highest Occupied Floor: Taipei 101 1,473 feet Worlds Tallest Building to the Roof: Taipei 101 1,440 feet Worlds Tallest Building to the Ante nnae: Sears Tower 1,729 feet Taipei 101 stands much taller than even its title of the worlds tallest building. The city of Taipei located in northern Taiwan contains only 167 high-rise bu ildings and the second tallest building, Shin Kong Life Tower, is nearly half the height of Taipei 101 (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Therefore, Taipei 101 stand as a giant able to be seen from all poi nts in the city. The building obliges views at the 89 th and 91 st floors which both act as observatories (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The sight is one that must have been similar to when the Empire State Building was constructed amongst the low a nd mid-rises in midtown Manhattan. The building itself encompasses a landmark symbol of Taiwans economic success and national pride. Taipei 101 is a very vibrant centerpiece to the newly formed Hsingy financial 53

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and government district in the ar ea (Gissen, 2002). It stands as the first worlds tallest building of the 21 st century and within the structure lie once ag ain several other symbo lic gestures toward culture and social aspects of the Taiwanese people. At the topping out of the building the Taipei mayor at the time and now president of Taiwan in stalled a golden bolt much like the ceremony at the Empire State Building in which Alfred Smith laid the cornerstone using a golden spade for the mortar (Bascomb, 2003). It was the mayors idea to build the tallest building in the world, which shows how significant leaders of the worl d think having the worlds tallest building is (Lepik, 2004). With Taipei 101 it also becomes in creasingly evident that smaller countries feel that by building tall th ey can show the world they are not quite so non-influential. Overall, the architecture is invocative of the Chinese and th e dominant color in the greentinted cladding is designed to impersonate jade (Howeler, 2003). The Chinese lucky number 8 can be found again in this build ing. There are 8 mega-columns with supporting mega-truss outriggers per every 8 th floor (Gissen, 2002). The entire structure resembles many things including bamboo sprouts and the traditional pagoda design (Lepik, 2004). At night the stepped surfaces make the building glow like a lantern. The unfolding petal styling is not only important to make the building look like a lantern at night but also is a sign for prosperity in Chinese symbolism (Gissen, 2002). Dragons meant to br ing luck adorn the building as well (Lepik, 2004). In keeping with themes fr om other skyscrapers, the building also c ontains the worlds fastest elevator at 3,281 f eet per minute (Lepik, 2004). The following displays the Asian skyscr aper historical timeline thus far 1929 First 2 skyscrapers constructed in China, Peace Hotel and Jin Jiang Hotel 1989 Bank of China completed, talles t building in Hong Kong at the time 1997 Hong Kong released from British col onial rule 1998 Petronas Towers completed in Malaysia to become worlds tallest buildings, first worlds tallest buildings outside of America 54

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1998 Asian financial downturn cancels or delays many skyscrapers 2004 Taipei 101 completed in Taiwan to become worlds tallest building State of the Skyscraper The world, and not just Asia and America, is building skyscraper after skyscraper. The global building is becoming a force wherever land is scarce, populations are booming, economies are thriving, power is garnered and a message wants to be sent. The American invention has taken hold and to build up is to be modern. The factors that influenced construction of the tall building from the past are still paramount in the built world today. Even proposals of the worlds tallest bu ilding draw the attention of writers and readers everywhere. What are the tallest buildings and tallest build ings by usage? How do the populations compare for countries that build tall? How does a countrys gross domestic product (GDP) and skyscraper construction compare? Where are the completed tall buildings located in the world, which particular continents and nations? Where does the skyscraper as a building type stand in the world, in individual countries? Questions answ ered in this section sh ow that the skyscraper is engrained within civilization throughout the worl d as a global building t ype. As globalization continues, it appears the skyscraper is likely to stay in the hearts, minds and structures of developed and developing nations in the world. The Power of Proposal Staggering amounts of publicity followed th e Manhattan Company Building, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building during the race to the worlds talle st building at the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s. Bu ilding the worlds tallest building draws the attention of the public and therefore the attenti on of the papers that serve the public. Following suit during the construction of those buildings, se veral others paid lip service to building the worlds tallest building themselves. Included in th ese plans that hit the headlines day in and day 55

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out, was the 100 story skyscraper of a not yet determined height for the Manhattan Life Insurance Company, developer A.E. Lefcour t was proposing a 150 story tall building and developer Charles Noyes even pr oposed going a quarter of a mile into the sky and two blocks wide (Bascomb, 2003). The Great Depression cert ainly derailed any proposed plans but who knows if these dreaming structures would have been constructed regardless. The point is building tall is exciting and draws the loftiest of expectations, even if th ey may be unrealistic. The super tall buildings built in New York in Chicago during the 1970s also drew their fair share of news coverage. A building fina lly taking over the Empire State Building after 41 years such as One World Trade Center was ne ws to New Yorkers and to the nation. The following Sears Tower in Chicago therefore, was a direct news catcher as well as it overtook One and Two World Trade Center in 1974. The pub lic and the press cannot help themselves; they look to the sky in awe. Young and old, bi g and small, all are cap tivated regardless of decade or design. As the turn of the century neared closer a nd closer several buildi ngs were being proposed to eclipse any heights attained thus far. There seemed to be a trophy for having the tallest building as the year 2000 drew to a beginning. This race for the millennium entailed several buildings that shot for the 2,000 foot mark, several others that s ought simply to be the worlds tallest and others who sought simply to be the tallest in their region. Notable buildings that were envisioned but never happened in the fever that was the years before and around the millennium included Miglin-Beitler Tower Ch icago, 2,000 feet tall, w ould be worlds tallest Millennium Tower Tokyo, 2,754 feet tall, to house 60,000 people Millennium Tower London, 1,265 feet ta ll, would be European record Tours San Fin Paris, 1,377 feet tall, would be European record Grollo Tower Melbourne, 1,625 feet tall, would be worlds tallest Bionic Tower Shanghai, 4,029 feet tall, to house 100,000 people 56

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7 South Dearborn Chicago, 2,000 feet tall, would be worlds tallest (Lepik, 2004) Maharishi Tower Sao Paulo, 1,662 feet tall, pyramid to house 50,000 people (Civil Engineering, 1999, November) Several of these towers demonstrated no significa nt financial gain and could only be explained by the pride that would be associ ated with creating each building. Most worlds tallest buildings edge the previous record holder by an average of around 100 feet; the buil dings proposed for the millennium race for the worlds tallest however e dged the current worlds tallest by several times this number (Civil Engineering, 1999, April). The press and publicity received for producing buildings of monumental size that shape skylines is something that will continue for as long as any kind of interesting, nature-defying structure is even conceived in the brain of a de signer. For example, Frank Lloyd Wrights Mile High Skyscraper of 1956 was never realistically proposed to be constructed, but it got people thinking and it got people excite d about building tall again (Z ukowsky and Thorne, 2000). In that same spirit, it takes people to ask how high and how complex, rather than maintaining the same glass box. Buildings will continue to challe nge the current, to realize the buildings of the future. The Worlds Tall Buildings There can be only one worlds tallest building. One could argue that there could be four worlds tallest buildings with the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat rules, but the most prestige seems to be in the tallest to th e architectural top such as Taipei 101. However, building tall is an endeavor in itself. They cannot all be the worlds tallest buildings. Table 2-6 demonstrates that since the first touted worlds tallest building, the Masonic Temple built in the year 1892 in Chicago, there have been only 11 worl ds tallest buildings. All building heights are taken at their architectural or structural top and all years are taken as when the building was 57

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actually substantially complete, not topped out. That is 11 buildings out of thousands in the world. Therefore, there is simply a pride regardle ss of whether or not the building is the absolute tallest in all of the world. There is however, the omnipresent pride of ha ving the worlds tallest building or at least being in the top ten. Table 2-7 lists the worlds current top ten tallest buildings measured from the architectural or stru ctural top. Only 2 are in the Un ited States and the remaining 8 are located on the Asian continent. The 2 United Stat es skyscrapers in the t op ten have an average age of being built in 1953. The Asian skyscrapers on the other hand have an average age of being built in 1998. The pride of having the worl ds tallest buildings in America lasted 113 years and now the new era of Asian influence can certainly be seen. Figure 2-2 shows what percentage of skyscrapers each continent contains to date. Asia does include the Middle East and Oceania is inclusive of Australia and surrounding Pacific islands. The figure shows that t hose two continents contain 56% of the worlds skyscrapers and that Asia with 33,819 high-rises now has more skyscrapers than North America at 25,983. Figure 2-3 conversely shows that the United States at least has a hold on the top 100 worlds tallest buildings. Out of those 100 the U.S. has 34 within its borde rs, as compared to 30 for the Chinese nation. This figure also demonstrates th at in terms of tallness, the United States and China are the only two real conte nders, since the next closest count ries only have 5 in the top 100. Finally, Figure 2-3 portrays th e fact that Hong Kong with 7,548 buildings is the skyscraper capital of the world with Ne w York City a couple thousand behind at 5,501 buildings. Globalization of tall buildings also can be seen, since in the top ten skyscrapers only Brazil has more than one city on the list. From Japan to Ar gentina, the skyscraper is a global building type. 58

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Even if a building does not rise to the height of Taipei 101 or the Sears Tower, it still can claim some notoriety. Tallest this and tallest that matters to the de signers, contractors and residents of these great structur es. It takes a tremendous amo unt of materials, manpower and energy to create any tall building. Tables 28 and 2-9 both show othe r categories where tall buildings can gain recognition a nd admiration. In addition to the buildings listed, there are numerous other categories possible within continents, countries, cities and sectors. In an attempt to look at skyscraper construction compared to popul ation size the top ten skyscraper countries were taken and then comp ared against their popula tion rank. Figure 2-12 demonstrates for countries it seems that while th ere are several that are very high in population rank and skyscraper rank, some are scattered as far back as 119 th in population. Singapore is the country with that distinction and the high-rise buildings there may be explained by the limited land available to construct on. Obviously, having a large congested population is going to drive construction skyward and other factors that may allow or disallow the proliferation of tall buildings include Political climate Social climate Cultural climate Historical climate Land availability Population size Business centers Economic power Ego Moving closer to home and looking at cities i ndividually in America and China, shows a bit more correlation between popula tion of cities and skyscraper construction. The smallest city with skyscraper clout in Am erica is Honolulu as the 47 th largest city in the United States. Otherwise, 6 of the 10 tallest cities in America are in the top ten in population, including the top 59

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5 most populous cities in the nation. China also has 7 of its top ten skyscrap er cities in the top ten of Chinas populated cities. Th e top four populated citi es in China also ar e within the top ten skyscraper cities in the region. Population ma y be misleading due to differing city sizes and densities and thus skyscraper c onstruction can be prolific in su rprising areas. Also, whether or not a country is developed or not does not chan ge the size of their population. The second most populated country in the world is India and yet it remains absent from any skyscraper list (Population Reference Bureau, 2006). In Figure 2-13, when comparing gross domestic product or purchasing power parity to skyscraper production, the correlation becomes mo re and more clear. Singapore once again produces an outlier, but still is fairly high in GDP at number 56 in the world. Otherwise, the other 9 countries are within the top 18 GDPs in the world. The top three of the United States, China and Japan are also included. India has the 4 th largest GDP in the world but still remains absent in this comparison as well. With respect to pride, prestig e and success, skyscrapers can co me in all different forms and sizes. Only a select few have the honorable dist inction of being the worlds tallest building. For the thousands of others that are left, other distinctions do remain. The population and GDP comparisons shown here are not good indicators of tall building construction, nor do they take factors of city layouts into account Of significant note is that th e countries that have produced the last three worlds tallest buildings are drastically absent from any population or GDP comparisons. Taiwan and Malaysia therefore dem onstrate that skyscraper s are not only about how many people or how high a GDP a country has but rather how big the desi re to build tall is. There are still further ways that tall buildi ngs can be set apart re gardless of height; the sustainable skyscraper is now taking shape in the built environment. 60

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The Sustainable Skyscraper (The skyscraper) alone will enable us to ach ieve the urban densities necessary to live sustainably on this pl anet (Howeler, 2003). Sustainable design and construc tion is defined as design and construction which seeks to create spaces where materials, energy and wate r are used efficiently a nd where the impact on the natural environment is minimized (Greene, 2000). Recently, green building has become a buzz word in the architectural, engine ering, construction and real estate realms. It therefore should be of little surprise that the larg est buildings in the world would follow suit and have an impact on green building themselves. As more and more skyscrapers are being co nstructed and proposed across the globe, so too are more and more skyscr apers being drawn and built with sustainability and the environment in mind. Many reasons exist for any owner and for any building to go green. These notions of energy, material, resource and land conservation extend across all build ing types. The desire to build in an environmentally cons cious manner are the results of several factors that influence not only construction, but in particul ar high-rise construction. How can the exorbitant amounts of energy consumed by buildings in the world be helped, mitigated and improved upon? Where is the growing global population going to be housed where will they work and how will they interact? What type of city densities does the future hold? What space impacts result from building vertically, rather than horizontall y? As energy becomes scarce and becomes increasingly and possibly prohibitively expensive, how will the worlds city planners, designers and constructors respond? How can condensing populations with the skyscraper as a building type assist in the fight for freedom from or at least provide less reliance on oil? 61

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The Numbers for Going Green Energy consumption pertains not only to the actual construction and commissioning of a building for an owner or developer, but also to the life of the building as it serves its useful purpose to society. Populations continue to grow millions upon millions and billions upon billions. The numbers for consumption and populati on convey that the skyscr aper is not the sole savior of our worlds built environment but can assist from a spatial, energy efficient and practical point of view. Currently, there is no other economically viable option for owners and therefore for the public (Yeang, 2002). The Energy of the Built Environment Buildings account for much of the energy consum ed not only in the United States, but also in the world. Daily activities of driving to work and running errands also are contained within the sphere of energy necessary to use and make buildings useful in the first place. In the United States of America, buildings account for th e following in energy and resource usage 36% of total energy 65% of electricity consumption 30% of raw materials 30% of waste output 12% of potable water (USGBC, 2006). The highly urbanized, developed nations that build skyscrapers make up only about 25 percent of the global population and yet they account for 70 percen t of the worlds consumption of energy, 75 percent of metals and 85 per cent of the worlds wood (Yeang, 2002). The skyscraper designed and constructed with a sust ainable approach can lessen these figures and lessen the impact that the developed nati ons have on the rest of society. 62

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The layout of the built environment creates the framework of energy use for a community (Foster, 2006). The alternative to centralized cities are those such as Los Angeles and Miami that are spread out between subur ban tracts and only connected th rough highways and interstates, that in turn require large amounts of personal transportation by automobile to commute to and from work or recreation. In regards to carbon dioxide emi ssions, which leads to the warming of the globe, buildings are the prime emitter. The emissions produced by human activities on a global scale are broken down as follows: 50% attributable to the built environment 25% attributable to transportation to include work commuting 25% industrial sources (Gissen, 2002). When the cities of the globe grow horizontally ra ther than vertically, more and more roads are needed to connect the people of a community (Foster, 2006). These greater distances have a directly harmful effect on the environment and consequently the qua lity of life in regions that involve hours upon hours of commuting. Convenien ce is the American way, but somehow since the widespread boosterism of the automobile, th e desire for the conveni ence of being able to walk or take mass transit to destinations in frac tions of the time and in close proximity to the home has gotten lost. Skyscraper construction allows for several us es or mixed-use so that retail space, office space and residential space can all be very close together if not in the same building. The world renowned architect Norman Foster has even proposed that the technology is available today to put entire horizontal blocks into the air as super-tall stru ctures (Foster, 2006). Fosters building of multiplicity could encompass Housing Shops Restaurants Cinemas 63

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Museums Sporting facilities Green spaces Transportation networks (Foster, 2006). The previously mentioned 2,754 foot Millennium Tower proposed for Tokyo was a prime candidate of Fosters for such a ra dical and revolutionary undertaking. City or Country People are flocking to the city and densification of the population is inevitable. In particular, young couples and single persons are choosing urban livi ng over the fading attraction of a suburban lifestyle (Abel, 2003). Now, denser populations require buildings that lie in close proximity to one a nother and that lend themselves to mass transit and alternative means of transportation, which includes walking and biking. The tall, slender structures of skyscrapers are just the building type for the return of the city and of the return of the human as the prime means of trans port rather than the automobile. Denser populations per capita also consume the least amount of energy (Howeler, 2003) Prime examples are the cities of New York, Tokyo and Hong Kong. Table 2-14 actually shows that Hong Kong is the tallest, densest city in the world with 36,896 people per square mile. The table also reveals that Asian cities are much more dense in response to higher populati ons and limited land availability. This trend will inevitably find itself in American and European cities, as the Wests population increases and land availability decreases. A nother factor in becoming denser is quality of life. When everything a typical human needs throughout the week is close by, then the urban densities produce a convenience that canno t be realized in the subur ban sphere (Foster, 2006). For future communities and nations, the tall bu ilding will become a necessity. Table 2-15 demonstrates the distribution of populations in the world in term of living environment, urban or rural. By the year 2025, 62% of the worlds to tal population will be contained within the urban 64

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environments of the earth. That percentage equates to an urban population of around 5 billion people! Of particular interest table 2-16 shows that in devel oped countries such as the United States the urban population will contain 85% of the worlds developed country population. In contrast, developing nations will be at 57% urban population concentrations. The developing nations in 2025 however, house a much larger por tion of the worlds population at 6.75 billion people which unearths a topic for another tim e; housing the worlds developing nations. Skyscraper as a Space Saver Long before there were double-skinned facades low-flow fixtures and energy efficient appliances, the skyscraper was a more sustainabl e building typology. The tall building stands as a structure that is inherently sustainable due to its condensed nature in providing the same services that can be found spread out elsewhere. Simply put, if you have a 60 story building with each story taking up an acre of space, then th at same building would take up 60 acres in a suburban environment. Placing more people, servi ces and units in a single structure ultimately saves the roof space as well, reducing 60 exposed r oofs of an office park to one roof exposed to the sun, therefore saving energy, materials and space. Now it may be said that buildi ng tall costs more in terms of design, construction and actual implementation of the building due to its extreme height. However, it cannot be denied that in the skyscraper century or so th at has unfolded, skyscrapers are not the type of building to be knocked down after 20, 30 or even 50 years thus ma king them resilient in aspects of life cycle costing. Exact data has not been computed as to the costs comparis on of low-rise life cycle costs versus high-rise but a future study would do well to do so. The complex webs of systems, materials and interactions within a skyscraper are beyond the scope of this work. The restoration and maintenance on skyscrapers also is not a topic to be discussed here. It still remains though that skyscrapers are engineered and built to la st. For example, the Empire State Building 65

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celebrates its 75 th birthday this year, th e Chrysler Building its 76 th the Woolworth its 93 rd Who is to say how long they will stand, but they ar e still examples of old, but still functioning structures that serve the same purpose and save the same space as they did upon their completion. In a more concrete example of the space a nd accompanying energy savings that can be produced by high-rises such as Four Times Squa re that was recently built in New York City, William Browning is looked upon: A high-rise of 1.6 million sft on 28 floors sits on one acre, if it were divided into individual structures in suburbia it woul d take up 140 acres, not including the required infrastructure for access and utilities. The incredible c oncentration on a small piece of land, which 95 percent of the workers, of whom there are 6,000, get to by public tran sportation in itself, makes it sustainable. The single-roof surface of Four Times Square w ith all of its thermal exposure would be 48 times larger in a one-story building (Gissen, 2002). Now, this example could not apply everywhere it especially could not occur in areas without viable means of pub lic transport. It still is interesting to note th at with the advent of large downtown environments that can be built and planned to accommodate residences and also mass transit, there is a greater chance of reduc tion of the strain on transporting by automobile and the emissions, time and distances that accompany them. Mr. Browning also goes on to speak of elevat ors as a means of m oving people once inside the skyscraper. While not explored too thorough ly in this work, Mr. Browning claims that because elevators are counterweighed that they are the most energy efficient means of movement from floor to floor (Gissen, 2002). Compared to low-rise buildings that require no vertical lifts, the skyscraper will obviously fair worse, but other factors such as cooling load, land use and transportation problems must be taken into acco unt, another topic for a future study. The 66

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embodied energy, or energy used for the components and construction of the skyscraper also lends itself to being of lesser impact due to the high-quality of design, materials and craftsmanship that accompanies tall buildings (Foster, 2006). Skyscraper Sustainable Systems Green skyscrapers can help in the fight for a sustainable future in the world. Their small footprint, potential for large ve rtical space and housing of a larg e numbers of workers, residents and customers make them attractive candidates for inherent sustainability. In addition to the inherent features of the tall bu ilding, several systems are in pl ace that are greening the tallest structures in the world even further. The syst ems include passive or na tural and non-mechanical design elements and active systems with mechanical or electrical means. New approaches to designing and maximizing skyscraper efficiency through its lifetime are also being proposed by architects such as Kenneth Yea ng. Several of the systems discussed are actually already being implemented in skyscrapers across the globe. In particular, Europe and America are leading the way in sustainable skyscraper de sign and construction. The following will explore some of those skyscrapers and the systems which they encompa ss, to create a health ier, more hospitable, sustainable skyscraper. Passive Design Passive design implements the properties of na tural elements, materials and structures to create an environmentally responsive building or skyscraper in th ese cases. The following is not intended to be a complete list of the passive design and structure elements that may be incorporated into a building but it meant to provide an overview of the range of systems and the idea behind them. That idea is to use the worlds natural processes, in addition to sensible practices to have a skyscraper that is more harmon ic with the environment in which it resides. 67

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The layout and orientation is th e largest portion of the buildin g that can be adjusted to provide for a building that works more with nature and in particular the sun or cool ing loads that accompany it. Orienting the buildings large face s in a north-south manner can limit the cooling loads that are placed on the east-west sides of the building. Additionally, the windows on the hot sides of a building may mitigate the he at gained by recessing the windows within the external wall (Yeang, 1996). In cont rast, if a skyscraper is located in a particularly cool area that is cool throughout most of the year then the opposite could be imposed and the east-west sides could be the larger sides to absorb as much heat as possible. The layout and location of critical skyscraper elements can also be paramount in making the building energy efficient. In particular, the service cores for the building may be placed on the exterior east and west portions of the structure acting as a heat buffer (Yea ng, 2000). Service cores are the spine of any skyscraper. They contain all communications electrical, plumbing, mechanical and most importantly elevator works for the building. They are typically not air-conditioned and thus are a radiant heat load when located in the center of the skyscraper. Placing th em on the exterior only, places these spaces in a manner in which they act ually act in a favorable manner for not being air-conditioned. Further, taperi ng the building at th e bottom can reduce re flection and improve the transparency and day lighting aspects of the ground floors (Foster, 2006). Tapering at the top of the building reduces reflections of th e sky as well (Foster, 2006). Lighting for a skyscraper has always been a primary concern. W ith the inception of fluorescent lighting in the 1940s, that proble m was thought to be solved (Willis, 1998). However, why use artificial lighting that costs energy when you could simply open a shade and use the natural light given from the sun? Awnings that can control where the sun hits and where it is able to be harnessed, provide the necessary sun control needed in particularly humid, heat 68

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rampant climates (Yeang,1996). Large floor to cei ling windows also allow optimum light in and with the right faade the heat that comes with the light provided by the sun can be managed. Using the sun and being in contro l of how it affects the building is a major fa ctor in controlling the loads on a buildings conditioning systems and lighting systems. Natural lighting also provides for improved quality of life within the building as the occupants are actually opening their shades and letting the natural world in. The skin of the skyscraper is the most e xposed portion of the building to the natural elements and is subject to insolation. In designing the proper faad e the tall structure can harness the properties it needs a nd prevent the properties it does not want from entering the building. Operable windows are actually making a comeback so that now the occupants have control over their own individual environment (A bel, 2003). Double-skin facades are also the answer to the increased heat ga ined from exposure to the sun in day lighting activ ities. With these double-skins there is a th ermal buffer created. In winter months the solar penetration available is allowed in, but the heat inside the building is not compromised by exposure to the outside cold air (Gissen, 2002). In temperate months, the sk in can be opened and natural ventilation can take place and fresh air can replace conditioned air and the energy associated with it (Gissen, 2002). In the hot ter summer time, the faade can then be closed again and the layer between the two portions act as another thermal buffer but this time protecting from the heat while still providing day lighting (Gissen, 20 02). In the United Kingdom it has been shown that double-skin facades can reduce energy consumption by 65 percent and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50 percent in the cold, temp erate climate (Gissen, 2 002). Specially coated single-skin facades also can introduce light to th e environment while rejecting the heat from the sun. 69

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With the option to now open the windows, a new design element of natural ventilation is available. Using computational fluid dynamics the flow of air within a building can be examined and adjusted to provide fresh air and cooling throughout th e skyscraper (Gissen, 2002). The solar energy or hot air that rises ar e the source of movement in natural ventilation systems. Wind scooping from the roofs or from openings in the sides of the building provide the fresh air and force it into the building. Hollo w core ventilated slabs also can provide for reducing the heat intake taken on by the materi als that make up the building, in particular concrete. Also within the struct ure it would be possible to include the air-conditioning shafts and ducts, eliminating the requirement to cool or heat the in terstitial space, while increasing ceiling height (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Another option in natural ventilation, is completely opening the building up at night to provide night cooling and cool down the building components that were heated up during the course of the day such as the ceilings, walls and fl oors (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Water features, rooftop gardens and sky gard ens also can benefit the skyscraper by means of their inborn natural features. First off, these elements can bring work and nature back together again by means of the office, thus improving the working conditions and hopefully the performance, well-being and productivity of empl oyees (Foster, 2006). Rockefeller Center built in part during the 1930s and 40s actually housed the first rooftop gardens in a skyscraper capacity (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Since then, it ha s come to light that besides the qualitative aspects of bringing the park to the sky for employees, these places provide several environmental benefits. Effectively, plants cl ean the air and therefore can manage emissions (Gissen, 2002). Plants convert carbon dioxide to oxygen and treat any acid rain type chemically saturated water. Also, run-off that usually would go through dirtie r city streets and pick up chemicals are now 70

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contained and absorbed in a more efficient manner, perhaps to be used in an active sustainable practice such as rain water harvesting for bathroom s. Green roofs also help negate the effects of the solar heating on a buildings roof and thus keeps the building and its up per floors cooler. It may also be possible to have a carbon dioxide cycle equilibrium if enough plants are present and can absorb the carbon dioxide produced by building operations (Foster, 2006). Water and water features, while also being good for a working environments employees, can clean the air by making particulates too heavy to float (Giseen, 2002). Using the soil in which a skyscraper rests also can be beneficial to improving the sustainability of the tall building. At the depths which foundations re st on, the seasonal temperature fluctuations are neg ligible and thus the soil is an ideal geothermal heat exchanger (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Heat can be stored during summer months and vice versa for the winter months. That heat can then be utilized appropria tely as necessary. Material selection and structure design also in fluences the sustainabi lity of the building. Materials that take less embodied energy to produ ce and erect in the first place are ideal. Of course, recycled or recyclable materials are always necessary elements in discussing sustainable buildings and skyscrapers. Materi als that are produced primarily off-site in a precast manner can be helpful in reducing jobsite energy use and environmental disruption. Low conductivity materials can also help in maintaining energy requ irements and not having materials that absorb a lot of heat. Nontoxic materials with low amounts of volatile orga nic components (VOCs) should be used extensively to prevent off-gassing and compromising the indoor air quality of the building (Giseen, 2002). Also, using mechanical un its that do not contain harmful atmospheric or ozone-depleting elements such as CFCs or HCFCs not only betters the building, but the environment in which the building is located. Finally, designing for the use of fewer materials 71

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such as a reduction in the necessary amount of steel or concrete can alleviate the material extraction impact a skyscraper may have. Possible passive elements of a sustai nable skyscraper discussed include Orientation Layout Service cores Sun-control awnings Operable windows Single-skin coated faade Double-skin faade Natural ventilation Wind scoops Hollow-core slabs Ducts within structures Night cooling Rooftop gardens, green roofs Sky gardens, atrium gardens Water features Soil geothermal heat exchangers Material selection Recycled materials Precast, low conductivity materials VOC content consideration Design consideration, material efficiency maximization 72

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Active Design Using engineered systems for sustainability also has its place w ithin the modern day skyscraper. By combining passive elements with theses active systems, buildings are able to achieve a more sustainable outcome in their pe rformance over time. These active systems are primarily used in the realm of water savings, ai r purification and energy savings. Energy savings encompasses many things from automated blinds to photovoltaic ce lls that actual ly supply power to the building and possibly to the overall power grid. Water conservation and utilization is becomi ng a prime concern within the sustainable skyscraper. As such, rain water storage for later applications takes place on a ll of the roof areas. The water is then stored in tanks for use as irri gation for green roofs, nearby parks or for toilets and cooling tower water. The goal for many st ructures is to minimize the impact on surrounding stormwater systems, while also lessening demand for water from the utilities. Therefore, installed within the bathrooms are low-flow fixtur es or possibly waterless urinals. Along those same lines some buildings contain their own wast e water treatment plants. Now these plants do not make the blackwater potable necessarily, but can make the wate r usable for other nonpotable applications as stat ed above. Also, by placing ta nks strategically throughout tall buildings, the pumping necessary for water deliver y can be greatly reduced (Hucal, 2004). Air conditioning requirements a nd fresh air stipulations are also a concern for the owner and therefore the inhabitants of tall buildings. Locating air-conditioning systems on a floor-byfloor system will create a more hospitable atmos phere for the direct people using that space, while optimizing efficiency. Buildings are also taking in outside air and filtering it multiple times so that the air they expel is actually cleaner than the air they intake. The air is also being considered as a possible energy supply. Tall bu ildings are located at heights where winds are blowing at higher speeds than at ground level. To harness and harvest this power, wind turbines 73

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have been proposed on several build ings With the advent of such a system it would be possible to energize the surrounding community power syst em, as well as operate the building (Aveni, 2001). The reality of energy saving systems in buildings that are erected currently is an exciting prospect. Photovoltaic cells, utilizing sun power in combination with fuel cells, whose only byproduct is water, are providing natural, free power from the environment to the super structure (Gissen, 2002). Gas-absorption chillers, which r un on natural gas instead of electricity, also contribute to energy savings by reducing air-conditioning costs and they help the environment because they use no ozone-depleting components (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Occupancy sensors throughout each room regulate lig hting control automatically by determining if the room is occupied or not. Buildings also incorporate other electronics su ch as programmable thermostats, Energy Star fixtures and day lig hting sensors that control the intensity of artificial light necessary. For the potential geot hermal heating or cooling passi ve elements discussed above, there are heat exchangers which offer a wider ra nge of usable temperatures (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Within some concrete slabs from floor to floor, buildings are in corporating polyethylene tubing that provides radiant he ating and cooling which is a more efficient means of airconditioning (Post, 2005). Possible active design elements for the su stainable skyscraper discussed include Blackwater treatment plants for non-potable applications Rain water storage/harvester ta nks for non-potable applications Staggered tank stations to reduce pumping need Local air-conditioning control Air filtration per floor an d from the street level Wind turbine energy harvesting (future possibility) 74

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Photovoltaic cells Fuel cells Gas-absorption chillers Occupancy sensors Programmable thermostats Energy Star appliances Day lighting intensity sensors Geothermal heat exchangers Polyethylene tubing for radian t slab heating and cooling The Ecology of the Skyscraper Within the same length and breadth of provi ding passive energy systems and a sustainable built environment, is the idea of making the sk yscraper fit the region that it occupies. Skyscrapers should not look the sa me all over the world. Yes, they should reflect the social, cultural and economic pulse of a certain region, but in addition to that they should attain the position of being in tune with its surroundings. Kenneth Yeang is an architect who has proposed a new look into not only skyscrapers, but the sustainable skyscraper No longer can the proliferation of largely wasteful type buildings be allowed to opera te. Energy must be treated as precious as the money that is so carefully conserved and looked over during design and construction. Tiny, segmented offices within a dark, dingy skyscrap er cannot be allowed because they result in a highly internalized en vironment that exists at the expense of large amounts of energy (Yeang, 1996). The skyscraper must be able to adapt and utilize the environmental impacts that can be felt within th e local built environment. The tall building must have operable windows, proper ventilation, and so on as discussed. But more importantly, high75

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rises must truly interact with the land, water and air that enco mpasses the surroundings of the building. Kenneth Yeang therefore, proposes a bi oclimatic skyscraper that is sustainable in terms of specific environment. The sustainabl e or bioclimatic skyscrap er of the future is described as the following: The bioclimatic skyscraper is a tall building whose built form is configured by design, using passive low-energy techniqu es to relate to the sites climate and meteorological data, resulting in a tall building that is environmentally interact ive, low-energy in embodiment and operations, and high quality in performance (Yeang, 1996). Mr. Yeang postulates that with the enactment of these design feat ures that a building could save between 30 and 60 percent of the costs over its lifetime (Yeang, 1996). These lower life-cycle energy costs would come at the expense of hi gher, earlier capital expens es but would pay off eventually. Climatic responses to the skyscraper therefore more than justify the expense. The skyscraper functions as a porti on and contributing member of the environment rather than working against the environmenta l aspects it is surrounded with. Current Sustainable Tall Buildings A sustainable skyscraper is not just lip-service from industr y designers and contractors. Several of these environmentally conscious buildings are being erected and many are already completed. The environmentally progressive nations in Europe such as the United Kingdom and Germany account for many sustainably designed ta ll structures. The United States also is contributing with several high-ri ses that are following the Lead ership in Environmental and Energy Design (LEED) criteria se t forth by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). These buildings exemplify many of the passive and active sustaina ble design elements spoke of previously. 76

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Currently under construction, the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park in New York City is to be the first high-rise building in America that will have the platinum level LEED designation, which is the highest attainable designation a building can have (Spillane and Pinch, 2004). Upon its completion, the skyscraper will al so be the second tallest building at 1,200 feet in New York, showing that sustainable can be just at tall as conventional (Hucal, 2004). Notable systems and strategies wi thin the building include 4.6 megawatt co-generation plant Filtered air intake Floor-by-floor air handling units Rainwater reuse and harvesting Waterless urinals, low-flow fixtures Recyclable and renewable building materials Green roofs Double-skin curtain wall The 54-story tower actually will ac t as a 54-story air filter which will make the streets of New York that much cleaner and the employees that much healthier (Hucal 2004). Upon the design completion, the goals of the design team will hopef ully be met and the tower will be the most sustainable tall building in the world. The goals as compared to a typical tall building include 50% energy consumption reduction 50% potable water consumption reduction 95% storm water contribution reduction 50% recycled material components 50% of building materials within 50 0 miles of the site (Hucal, 2004). New York, once thought of as a dirty, grimy c ity is making a particular resurgence and there are multiple towers, and multiple green towers at that, dotting the skyline. Another green skyscraper that is already in pl ace is the Hearst Building, also located in the Big Apple. The Hearst Building is actually the first office buildin g located in the city to obtain a gold LEED rating (Nobel, 2006). The buildi ng is to be a beacon for the Hearst Corporation, housing 2,000 employees from 10 separate locations (Post, 2005) The building also is a beacon of hope for 77

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what innovative design can produce in a sustainabl e mindset. Sir Norman Foster designed the building so that it actually uses 20% less steel than comparable steel buildings (Nobel, 2006). Foster also used the original art deco building faade for the bottom floors as an architectural skin for the building. Other notable f eatures of the Hear st Building include 25% less energy use 30% less potable water thr ough rain water harvesting Radiant heating and cooling through slab tubing Large atrium water feature to clean air and condition the lobby Office space exhaust air used to condition lobby atrium, reclaims energy and minimizes use of outside air (Post, 2005). Going across the Atlantic several other buildi ngs demonstrate sustainable practices. The Swiss Re Headquarters located in London, Engla nd was also designed by Sir Norman Foster. The building has now become a symbol for London a nd is also a symbol of the possibility for future skyscraper construction in a classic low and mid-rise city. The building itself is conical in shape which minimizes air resistance around and especially at the base of the building (Gissen, 2002). In contrast, square buildings tend to cause wind gusting at street level. The tall building also incorporates the following components Interior green spiraling atriums that breakdown the building and improve natural ventilation Natural ventilation th rough cladding slots Air conditioning not needed for much of the y ear, natural ventilation provided for 40% of the year Double-skin faade (Gissen, 2002). Commerzbank is yet another Foster sustainabl e skyscraper and it too contains many of the elements found in his other buildings. Of special note is that Commerzba nk is the second tallest building in Frankfurt, Germany and the first environmentally sensitive building of its kind (Emporis Buildings, 2006). There are 9 hangi ng gardens throughout th e building, which is 78

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meant to reconcile tall buildings with human and ecology (Gissen, 2002). It also contains a double-skin curtain wall for fu rther sustainability. Returning back to New York City, two additional buildings represent sustainable structures. It may seem that New York contains a good share of sustainable buildings, but really Europe contains many more buildings that have sustainable systems. They are not listed here due to repetition but as Germany is still rec overing and rebuilding from World War II and the fall of the Berlin Wall, they are the most activ e green skyscraper builder in the world today (Emporis Buildings, 2006). However, New York is increasingly build ing green and becoming the Green Apple instead of the Big Apple. The New York Times is moving its world famo us newspaper and they have chosen to make their future new building into a world cl ass, sustainable skyscraper. The buildings exterior is the primary exciting feature. Instea d of a classic curtain wall, the building will be covered in a double-skin faade that will then be covered by aluminum silicate tubes that allow for increased day lighting and natu ral lighting for those inside (H agberg, 2006). The glass that these tubes cover is also low-iron, low emissiv ity and spectrally select ive which will make the building actually change colors th roughout the day (Gissen, 2002). It will be bluish after the rain, red after sunset and it wi ll overall be a vibrant symbol in midtown (Gissen, 2002). The tubes, glass and reflective metal of the building all help in redu cing heat or solar gain (Gissen, 2002). The final building focused on in New York is the Solaire, which was completed in 2003. The Solaire is actually the first green high-rise residential building in th e United States. It was able to achieve the second best ranking in LEED gold. Overall, the resi dences are 38 percent 79

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more efficient than New York building codes prescribe (Gissen, 2002). Systems and practices encompassed within the building include Photovoltaics Geothermal energy recovery system Blackwater waste treatment system Gas-absorption chillers Occupancy sensors Lighting control Climate control Low or no VOC materials Recycled materials Roof gardens (Gissen, 2002). The building also was designed for certain en ergy and utility use percentages as follows: 35% less energy use 65% reduction in peak energy demand usage 50% less potable water use 5% of buildings energy provide d by photovoltaics (Gissen, 2002). Burj Dubai and Beyond As the world grows and countries develop, so too will skyscraper construction around the world be furthered. In l ooking at future populations and the ability to house such vast numbers, skyscrapers and going ve rtical with construction will be the answer. The American invention will soon be prominent in every larg e, developing country on the globe. Even in countries where skyscrapers abound such as China, further development and high-rise buildings are being constructed to send a message. Comple xity in design and huge construction endeavors in skyscraper erection are also becoming more and more appare nt. The glass box is no longer the building that the owner or developer wants to build; curves, spirals, pinnacles and sharp angles embody the new skyscraper architecture. In the world of tall skyscrapers fame is fleeting. Many worlds tallest buildings have lasted only a few short years and in some cases even less than a year in their reign. In following with that tradition of skyscraper booms and worlds 80

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tallest building, spurts of competition between several buildings in the not so distant future will be again vying for the title and striving to overt ake Taipei 101. What will become of the World Trade Center and Lower Manhattan? How will the first world renowned skyscraper city respond to attacks on this building type? Skyscraper Cities of Tomorrow True, the developed countries or 1 st world countries of the world that already have plenty of high-rises will continue to build tall. But they will begin to have more and more company, as countries expand and become more financially advanced with greater economies and greater quality of life. Also, the buildings going up all over the world, do not contain the traditional garb of old. The skyscraper is being reinvented in a new light, with not only sustainable practices as discussed earlier, but also in architecture and construction di fficulty. Combined with new locations and new complexities, the skyscraper is creating the cities of tomorrow. Indian Shift With exponential population growth in the coming years in certain countries, both developed and developing skyscraper construction will be highly visible. Where there are flows of people spilling over into the b illions and where there is a s hortage of land, there will be skyscrapers. As already discussed, high-rises allo w large populations to sustain themselves in a regulating manner. Condensed, modern cities of millions upon millions cannot survive without soon implementing tall building construction, en ergy costs and transportation costs all but prevent spread out establishments. This fact is particularly true in very large developing country cities. Table 2-17 shows the current top ten worlds largest countri es. Table 2-18 as a supplement shows what the rankings will be by th e year 2050 and the percentage change in 81

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population according to the Populat ion Reference Bureau. Table 219 also demonstrates the top four gross domestic product, or purchasing power parity countries in the world and what their GDPs will be by the year 2030. The glaring country that lacks in skyscraper construction is India, which by the year 2050, table 2-18 shows will be the worlds most popul ated country and by the year 2030, table 2-19 shows will have the 3rd largest GDP. Table 2-20 shows that India today has a total of 1,253 tall buildings which makes the it the 23 rd tallest nation in the world. The United States, China and Japan on the other hand rank as the 1 st 3 rd and 5 th tallest countries in th e world while maintaining top GDPs and top populations. India also is smaller than both Ch ina and the United States. The inevitable conclusion in India wi ll be a growth in skyscraper construction. In fact, India had already proposed an India Tower that would dwar f all other buildings in the race for the worlds tallest building (Civil Engineering, 1999, April) Although the India Tower was never built, it would not be surprising if the next worlds tallest does in fact come from this emerging world power. Chinese Games Coming in 2008, the nation of China will host its first ever summer Olympic games in Beijing. In addition to the mammoth amounts of construction for stadium facilities, Olympic parks and Olympic villages, the Chinese will also have some new high-rise buildings on display for the world to see. These buildings are in tended to show the sym bolic progress that the Chinese have made as their power on the global stage increases. In particular, two buildings that will draw the eye of the world are the Central Chinese Television Building (CCTV Building), located in Beijing and the Shanghai World Financial Center located in Shanghai which will have some Olympic participation. The same elements of symbolism, culture and strength will eman ate from these structures to the world. 82

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The Shanghai World Financial Center is to be a 1,614 foot tall skyscraper that will rank as the second tallest building in the world upon it s completion in 2007 (Lepik, 2004). What little the skyscraper lacks in height to be the worlds tallest, it makes up for in being perhaps the most complex tall structure in the world. The top of the building will be a square plan with a round hole though the middle of it so that wind pressures are reduced, but also for a symbolic purpose. It follows the Chinese conception of the earth as a square and the sky as a circle, a true skyscraper (Abel, 2003). The other building that is certain to be regarded as a breakthrough of architecture, engineering and construction is the CCTV Buildi ng, in the primary Olympic city of Beijing. The building will only stand at 768 feet as its tallest point, but will be a self-contained mini-city upon completion by the Olympic games (Post, 2005). Th e allure of the building comes in its new concepts in spatial layout and statics (Lepik, 2004). The building is hard to describe but will be a skyscraper vertically and a landscraper horizontally with cantilevered po rtions and angles that are unlike any building seen thus far. Ultra Modern Skyscrapers It has been demonstrated that just as th e skyscraper has progressed, so too has the technology to make it the bu ilding that it is today progressed. Initially it was steel and elevators, then lighting and air-conditioning and now glass a nd sustainable systems. Just as technology of the skyscraper has advanced to give the buildings the modern amenities of today, so too has architecture progressed over th e years to give use the most profound, unique, tall structures on this earth. It used to be that due to sheer size, the skyscraper would be recognized and admired from afar. However, as symbolism and pride in the tall building progressed, designs got evermore complicated and many of the new skyscrap ers being constructed today resemble a new, ultra modern civilization. 83

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One building that exemplifies ne w innovations in art for archite ctures sake is the Turning Torso in Malmo, Sweden. The building was actually inspired by a sculpture that the architect, Santiago Calatrava, had produce d. At 623 feet, the building is one of the worlds largest sculpture pieces (Emporis Buildings, 2006). It act ually twists 90 degrees from the base of the tower to the tip of the structure. The building also has tremendous pride value, aside from being a symbol for the country of Sweden and its tall est building. The Turning Torso lies across the Oresund Strait from Copenhagen, Denmark. Copenhage n has a height restri ction of 10 stories within their city and therefore it was the intent of the Swedes to make a building that was tall and beautiful so that Denmark would look on with envy (Nobel, 2005). Evidence that not only Denmark, but the world admired the Turning Torso came when it was awarded the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2005. The Emporis Skyscraper Award has been given every year since 2000. It is given to the designers of an outstanding skyscraper and seeks to identify and encourage achievements fr om the previous year in the building trades, which successfully address the needs and aspirations of so cieties through real estate, design, and construction. The selection proce ss favors solutions that not only provide for people's physical, social and economic needs, bu t that also stimulate and respond to their cultural and spiritual expecta tions. Particular attention is given to building schemes, products, and corporate activitie s that use local resources a nd appropriate technology in an innovative way, and to projects likely to inspire similar efforts elsewhere (Emporis Awards, 2006). The Emporis awards over the years shown in table 2-21 demonstrate that height is not the only factor in great skyscraper construction. The aver age height of the winners actually has only been 787 feet, which was drastically brought up with Taipei 101 (Emporis Awards, 2006). Height combined with beauty in these sleek, sharp, angl ed buildings are replacing the glass box that has been so popular for so long. 84

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The Race Continues Throughout the skyscrapers storied past, the battle for worlds tallest has more or less always been there. From the Masonic Temple in Chicago to Taipei 101 in Taiwan, the prestige and pride that accompanies the design, constructi on and implementation of the tallest man-made inhabitable buildings, is comparable to the financ ial clout and power necessa ry to even get these buildings out of the ground. So as it goes, a new challenger has risen and challengers for other positions in the worlds top ten tallest s kyscrapers are also in the works. Liquid Gold Structures The United Arab Emirates was formed on December 2,1971 and thus is a very young country (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The country its elf is small, only about the size of Rhode Island and is termed the jewel of the Arab wo rld. Eventually, however, the countrys primary resource will run out, oil. As such the country is attempting to develop an economy that will last with business and tourism. When a city and a nation wants to be recognized, and grow up in a big way, they build skyscrapers. The country actually now contains 432 skyscrapers (Emporis Buildings, 2006). This is quite a feat considering the country did not have more than 20 skyscrapers until 1992 (CTBUH Database, 2006). Currently, Dubai is the countrys largest city and also contains most of the tall buildings with 190 skyscrapers (Emporis Buildings, 2006). It also contains Burj al Arab Hotel which is the second tallest hotel in the worl d at 1,053 feet, 31 feet away fr om being the worlds tallest (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The hotel is actua lly built on a man made island out into the ocean and is designed as a giant sail billowing in the wind (Lepik, 2004). It is one of the many construction endeavors in the regi on that wishes to bring luxury tourism to Dubai (Lepik, 2004). Skyscrapers, man made islands and tourist at tractions do not seem to be the stopping point for Dubai however. Their wish is to build the worlds tallest building and that undertaking is 85

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currently under construction. Burj Dubai, which translated means the Tower of Dubai, embodies all of the characters of why the world is building tall. Socially, culturally, politically, financially and symbolically the tower will be the pinnacle of what Dubai and the United Arab Emirates can achieve on a skyscraper scale. It is to be part of a planne d city of 500,000 within the Dubai waterfront area (Post, 2005). The building is such an important economic and political symbol for the United Arab Emirates that the height of the structure is currently secret, reminiscent of the race to the top in New York in the 1930s. Some report the buildi ng as 2,296 feet (Post, 2005), others report at least half a mile up into the sky (Nobel, 2005). Regardless, the developers of the building want it to be known that the title of the worlds ta llest building is coming back to the Middle East. Some may say that there ha d never been a worlds tallest building in the Middle East, but the developers refer to when the pyramids of Egypt were overtaken by the buildings of Europe hundred of years ago (Nobe l, 2005). The company developing the building proclaim that this structure is one that will ch ange history (EMAAR, 2006). In fact, the building will be the first over 2,000 feet tall and will be the first to hold all of the CTBUH tallest building categories. The developers also state The goal of Burj Dubai is not simply to be the worlds highest building. Its to embody the worlds highest aspirations. Burj Dubai looks different depending on where youre standing. For those living nearby, it is a shining accomplishment tangible proof of Dubais central role in a growing world. For those standing in other global capitals, it is a shining symbol an icon of the new Middle East: prosperous, dynamic, and successful. In fact, Burj Dubai is both. It is a fact an unpreceden ted example of international cooperation and a symbol a beacon of pr ogress for the entire world (EMAAR, 2006). The developers opinion of Burj Dubai strengthen th e position that skyscrapers are more than just a place to work or live, but rath er they are also statements. 86

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Up and Coming There are also several other buildings under c onstruction in the world set to attack titles aside from worlds tallest. As the skyscraper goes global, more and more competition is coming from outside of the United States. As shown in table 2-7 previously, the United States occupies only 2 of the top ten tallest buildings in the world, at 4 th and 9 th tallest. With the completion of some of the numerous tall buildings under construction shown in table 2-22, the top ten tallest buildings in the world will look completely differe nt. Table 2-22 also shows that of the tallest 15 buildings going up, only 2 are in America. Th e majority of tall structures seem to be consistently on the Asian continent and in the Middle East, with a few scattered elsewhere. Dubai especially, is building ta ller and taller with 4 buildings going up that are all over 1,000 feet tall, including the worlds tallest building. Table 2-23 now shows what the top ten worlds tallest buildings shall look like at the completion of the buildings listed as under construction in table 2-22. Come that time, the United States will be a non-factor with only one building in the top ten, the once mighty Sears Tower in position 10. The Chinese will still hold the majority of the worlds tallest and the Middl e Easts new skyscraper power will also be felt a bit. Alas, the torch may seem to have been official ly passed to the rest of the world but, not to be outdone Chicago may come back with a buildi ng that could challenge for the worlds tallest building, if not second place. As Burj Dubais fi nal height is top secret, it is difficult to speculate, but Santiago Calatrava is taking his art as architecture to a new level. The Fordham Spire is the possible worlds tallest building that would return the crown to the United States of America. In the design, each floor slab would turn 2 degrees from the floor below it, thus making a complete 360 degree turn up the buildi ng (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Calatravas 87

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impetus was fire billowing from Indian settle ments that used to line the Chicago River. Omnipresent, as always this symbolic return to America may never occur, but the hope is there and the desire to build the talles t still lies in Americans despite past attacks on the skyscraper as a building type. The Story of Lower Manhattan More than five years after the attacks of September 11, 2006 there are still no structures occupying the locations where One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center stood. This highly public, highly sentimental plot of land in Lower Manhattan means a lot of things to a lot of people and thus has been thoroughly a nd prohibitively mulled over in a bureaucratic fashion. Only recently is there so me light at the end of the tunnel for what is to be done with the World Trade Center land that remains currently v acant. In the end the area will have 29 projects worth an anticipated 21 billi on dollars completed before 2015 (Post, 2006, September 11). With the myriad of projects a few towers in particular stand out in Towers 2, 3 and 4, the already completed 7 World Trade Center and the Freedom Tower. Upon completion the area that once was the scene of such horror will be an architectural and civic masterpiece. Towers 2, 3, 4 and 7 World Trade Center Recently, three of the four towers that are to be completed at the World Trade Center site were announced. These towers are currently numbered simply towers 2, 3 and 4 and will reside at the east side of the si te. The trio constitute only a portion of the ma ssive undertaking going on in Lower Manhattan. However, being part of the worlds most symbolic and most attention gathering rebuilding of a ny area, draws only the best in th e business. Architects Foster and Partners, Fumihiko Maki and Maki and Associates and th e Richard Rogers Partnership represent the top quality architec ts whose designs are planned to be implemented. The Rogers tower would be the tallest at 1,555 feet tall, ma king it the second tallest building in New York, 88

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after the to be completed Freedom Tower (Engi neering News Record, 2006, September 18). The Foster tower would be constructed to 1,254 feet making, it the third tallest building in New York and only 4 feet above the Empire State Build ing (Engineering News Record, 2006, September 18). Lastly, the Maki tower would be 61 stories and rise to 947 feet tall (Engineering News Record, 2006, September 18). All three would demonstrate how America can rebuild and the resolve with which Americans bu ild tall in the face of foes. One building that was destroyed that day has ac tually already been rebuilt, 7 World Trade Center. It is a 52 story white glass building that reflects the sky above and allows tremendous amount of color changing depending on the ti me of day (Jacobs, 2006). The building also achieved a gold level LEED certific ation and is the only other highrise in New York besides the Hearst Building to achieve such a rating (Jacobs 2006). The building is an indicator of the beauty and achievement that is to come around the rest of the World Trade Center area. It also demonstrates designing and constr ucting with terrorism in mind with blast-absorbent glass and energy-absorbing steel springs incorporated into the structure (Jacobs, 2006). The Freedom Tower By far, the most significant structure going up at the World Trade Center site is the Freedom Tower. It is to be the most symbolic skyscraper the world has ever seen. It will show America triumphant in the face of terrorism, it will rise to 1,776 feet symbolizing the year of the Declaration of Independence, it will be the quintessential building of and for America and Americans everywhere. For the design, the joint city and stat e organization of the Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Corporation held an internati onal design competition in 2002. There were 406 entries received initially (Lepik, 2004)! It was a whose, who of architecture firms all fighting to be the group chosen to construct a memorabl e piece of world and human history. Oddly enough, 89

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a good number of the entries featur ed soaring skyscrapers to repl ace the tall buildings that had fallen (Stephens, 2004). In the end Daniel Libe skinds design was selected. The design involved a 1,776 tower that was asymmetrically built taller on one side to resemble th e Statue of Libertys torch (Chamberlain, 2006). In the end though the buildings la ndlord rejected the design as uneconomical and today the design stands as a symmetrical 77 story, st ill 1,776 foot tall glass enclosed structure (Chamberlain, 2006). In regards to terrorism the entire base 200 feet will be mechanical equipment only and will be fort ress-like in design (Chamberlain, 2006). The building and the area has its problems and pitfalls, with astronomically rising costs due to structural modifications to fight terrori sm. The area also still has a stigma and the argument of whether the entire building will be occupied is st ill in question. Although, recently 1,000,000 square feet of the tower was confirmed to be rented out by United States agencies and other state agencies (Bagli, 2006) Regardless of terrorism concerns, financial concerns and public concerns the buildings are going thr ough. According to the governor of New York, George E. Pataki the Freedom Tower will be bui lt and it will be occupied (Bagli, 2006). The land, the area, the stories and the buildings that are to follow mean too much to go by the wayside. It is this symbolic aspect of skyscr apers which enraptures th e minds of constituents who build tall. It is this symbolic aspect of s kyscrapers that wills buildings such as the Freedom Tower into the New York skyline. 90

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Table 2-1: Building Height and Percentage Return on Investment Story Height Actual Percentage Return (%) Normal Computed Percentage Return (%) 8 4.22 4.69 15 6.44 6.10 22 7.73 7.31 30 8.50 8.45 37 9.07 9.23 50 9.87 10.13 63 10.25 10.33 75 10.06 9.90 85 9.08 100 7.08 110 5.22 115 4.14 120 2.95 125 1.66 130 0.27 131 -0.02 Clark, W., & Kingston, J. (1930). The skyscraper: A study in th e economic height of modern office buildings. New York, NY: American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. Table 2-2: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in the United States of America City Building Height Year Chicago Sears Tower 1,451 ft 1974 New York City Empire State Building 1,250 ft 1931 Chicago Aon Center 1,136 ft 1973 Chicago John Hancock Center 1,127 ft 1969 New York City Chrysler Building 1,046 ft 1930 Atlanta Bank of America Plaza 1,023 ft 1992 Los Angeles US Bank Tower 1,018 ft 1989 Chicago ATandT Corporate Center 1,007 ft 1989 Houston JP Morgan Chase Tower 1,002 ft 1982 Chicago Two Prudential Plaza 995 ft 1990 Average 1,106 1972 Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?nav=si gnin&lng=3. (July 31, 2006) 91

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Table 2-3: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in China City Building Height Year Shanghai Jin Mao Tower 1,380 ft 1998 Hong Kong Two International Finance 1,362 ft 2003 Guangzhou CITIC Plaza 1,283 ft 1997 Shenzhen Shun Hing Square 1,260 ft 1996 Hong Kong Central Plaza 1,227 ft 1992 Hong Kong Bank of China Tower 1,205 ft 1990 Hong Kong The Center 1,135 ft 1998 Shenzhen SEG Plaza 957 ft 2000 Shanghai Plaza 66 945 ft 2001 Shanghai Tomorrow Square 934 ft 2003 Average 1,169 1998 Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?na v=signin&lng=3. (July 31, 2006) Table 2-4: Average Percentage of Buildings Worldwide per 60 years Years U.S.A Percentage China Percentage 1885 1945 5,600 84% 10 0% 1945 2005 11,981 35% 8453 13% Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?na v=signin&lng=3. (July 31, 2006) Table 2-5: Average Percentage of Buildings Worldwide per Decades Years U.S.A Percentage China Percentage 1996-2005 175 9.19% 291 17.21% 1986-1995 167 16.52% 278 27.68% 1976-1985 224 25.64% 188 21.71% 1966-1975 316 32.68% 64 6.48% 1956-1965 230 49.06% 25 4.21% 1946-1955 79 74.46% 0 0.33% Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?na v=signin&lng=3. (July 31, 2006) 92

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Table 2-6: List of Worlds Tall est Buildings Past and Present Building Location Height (ft) Year Masonic Temple Chicago, Illinois 302 1892 Park Row Building New York, New York 391 1899 Singer Building New York, New York 612 1908 Metropolitan Life Building New York, New York 700 1909 Woolworth Building New York, New York 792 1913 Chrysler Building New York, New York 1,046 1930 Empire State Building New York, New York 1,250 1931 One World Trade Center New York, New York 1,368 1972 Sears Tower Chicago, Illinois 1,451 1974 Petronas Towers 1 and 2 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1,483 1998 Taipei 101 Taipei, Taiwan 1,671 2004 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) Table 2-7: Top Ten Worlds Tallest Buildings Building Height (ft.) Location Year Taipei 101 1,671 Taipei, Taiwan 2004 Petronas Tower 1 1,483 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 Petronas Tower 2 1,483 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 Sears Tower 1,451 Chicago, Illinois 1974 Jin Mao Tower 1,380 Shanghai, China 1998 Two International Finan ce 1,362 Hong Kong, China 2003 CITIC Plaza 1,283 Guangzhou, China 1997 Shun Hing Square 1,260 Shenzhen, China 1996 Empire State Building 1,250 New York, New York 1931 Central Plaza 1,227 Hong Kong, China 1992 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) Table 2-8: Worlds Tallest Buildings Per Continent Continent Building Height (ft.) Location Africa Carlton Centre Office Towe r 730 Johannesburg, South Africa Asia Taipei 101 1,671 Taipei, Taiwan Europe Triumph Palace 866 Moscow, Russia North America Sears Tower 1,451 Chicago, Illinois Oceania Q1 Tower 1,058 Gold Coast City, Australia South America Parque Central Torre Oeste 725 Caracas, Venezuela Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) 93

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Table 2-9: Worlds Tallest Buildings per Categories Building Type Building Height (ft.) Location Office Taipei 101 1,671 Taipei, Taiwan Hospital Guy's Tower 449 London, England Residential Q1 Tower 1,058 Gold Coast City, Australia Educational Moscow State University 787 Moscow, Russia Lodging Ryugyong 1,083 Pyongyang, North Korea Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) Table 2-10: United States Top Ten S kyscraper Cities versus Population City Buildings Population U.S Rank New York 5,503 8,143,197 1 Chicago 1,050 2,842,518 3 Los Angeles 469 3,844,829 2 Honolulu 425 377,379 47 San Francisco 398 739,426 14 Philadelphia 342 1,463,281 5 Houston 329 2,016,582 4 Washington 298 582,049 27 Boston 258 559,034 24 Dallas 237 1,213,825 9 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) Table 2-11: China Top Ten Skyscrap er Cities versus Population City Buildings Population Chinese Rank Hong Kong 7,458 6,943,600 3 Beijing 845 7,746,519 2 Shanghai 793 9,145,711 1 Guangzhou 460 4,111,946 10 Wuhan 396 4,550,000 8 Shenzhen 334 1,245,000 NR Macau 325 453,733 NR Chongqing 299 6,300,000 4 Xiamen 175 1,370,000 NR Shenyang 162 4,649,490 7 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) 94

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Table 2-12: Worldwide Top Ten Skyscr aper Countries versus Population Country Buildings Population World Rank U.S.A. 19,187 296,483,000 3 Brazil 12,236 184,184,000 5 China 12,142 1,303,701,000 1 Spain 7,484 43,484,000 30 Japan 5,285 127,728,000 10 Canada 4,967 32,225,000 36 Singapore 3,703 4,296,000 119 South Korea 3,068 48,294,000 24 United Kingdom 3,033 60,068,000 22 Turkey 2,863 72,907,000 17 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http ://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) and Population Reference Bureau. Popula tion Reference Bureau Database. http://www.prb.org/datafind/da tafinder7.htm. (June 22, 2006) Table 2-13: Worldwide Top Ten S kyscraper Countries versus GDP Country Buildings GDP (trillions) World Rank U.S.A. 19,187 12,360 1 Brazil 12,236 1,556 10 China 12,142 8,859 2 Spain 7,484 1,029 13 Japan 5,285 4,018 3 Canada 4,967 1,114 11 Singapore 3,703 124.3 56 South Korea 3,068 965.3 14 United Kingdom 3,033 1,830 6 Turkey 2,863 572 18 Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) and CIA. CIA World Factbook Database. https://www.odc i.gov/cia/publicati ons/factbook/index.html. (June 27, 2006) 95

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Table 2-14: Comparative Popul ation Densities Around the Globe Region Population Area (mile^2) Population/ (mile^2) Asia Pacific Hong Kong 5,693,000 23 245,747 Jakarta 9,882,000 76 129,920 Ho Chi Minh City 3,725,000 31 120,596 Shanghai 6,936,000 78 88,931 Bangkok 5,955,000 102 58,422 Manila 10,156,000 188 54,012 Seoul 16,792,000 342 49,087 Taipei 6,695,000 138 48,571 Beijing 5,762,000 151 38,168 Singapore 2,719,000 78 34,862 Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto 13,872,000 495 28,025 Tokyo-Yokohama 27,245,000 1,089 25,014 Europe and North America Paris 8,720,000 432 20,183 New York 14,625,000 1,274 11,478 Berlin 3,021,000 274 11,020 London 9,115,000 874 10,427 Los Angeles 10,130,000 1,110 9,126 Chicago 6,529,000 762 8,566 Houston 2,329,000 310 7,512 Abel, C. (2003). Sky high: Vertical architecture. London, United Kingdom: Royal Academy of Arts. Table 2-15: Urban versus Rural World Populations Year Urban (%) Rural (%) Total (billions) 1950 30.00 70.00 2.50 1975 38.40 61.60 4.07 2000 47.20 51.80 6.12 2025 62.00 38.00 8.06 Ali, M., & Armstrong, P. (1995). Architecture of tall buildings: Council on tall buildings and urban habitat. New York, NY: McGrawHill, Inc. 96

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Table 2-16: Developing and De veloped Nations Urban versus Rural Concentrations Years Urban (%) Rural (%) Total (billions) 1950 Developed Countries 44.00 56.00 0.85 1950 Developing Countries 17.00 83.00 1.67 1975 Developed Countries 69.00 31.00 1.10 1975 Developing Countries 27.00 73.00 2.96 2000 Developed Countries 77.00 23.00 1.25 2000 Developing Countries 40.00 60.00 4.85 2025 Developed Countries 85.00 15.00 1.39 2025 Developing Countries 57.00 43.00 6.75 Ali, M., & Armstrong, P. (1995). Architecture of tall buildings: Council on tall buildings and urban habitat. New York, NY: McGrawHill, Inc. Table 2-17: Current Worlds T op Ten Populated Countries Country Population (millions) China 1,311 India 1,122 United States 299 Indonesia 225 Brazil 187 Pakistan 166 Bangladesh 147 Russia 142 Nigeria 135 Japan 128 Population Reference Bureau. Popula tion Reference Bureau Database. http://www.prb.org/datafind/da tafinder7.htm. (June 22, 2006) 97

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Table 2-18: Worlds Top Ten Populated Countries in 2050 Country Population (millions) Percentage Change (%) India 1,628 31 China 1,437 9 United States 420 29 Nigeria 299 55 Pakistan 295 44 Indonesia 285 21 Brazil 260 28 Bangladesh 231 36 Dem. Rep. of Congo 183 NR Ethiopia 145 NR Population Reference Bureau. Popula tion Reference Bureau Database. http://www.prb.org/datafind/da tafinder7.htm. (June 22, 2006) Table 2-19: GDP Trends 2010-2030 in Trillions Country 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 United States 13,043 15,082 17,541 20,123 23,112 China 10,116 13,538 17,615 22,592 28,833 India 5,162 6,694 8,644 11,059 14,102 Japan 3,858 4,192 4,438 4,653 4,878 Energy Information Administration. Wo rld Gross Domestic Product by Region. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/ pdf/ieoreftab_3.pdf. (June 18, 2006) Table 2-20: Current Skyscraper Ra nk versus Population and GDP Country Skyscrapers Rank Population GDP U.S.A. 19,187 1 3 1 China 12,142 2 1 2 Japan 5,285 5 10 3 India 1,253 23 2 4 Population Reference Bureau. Popula tion Reference Bureau Database. http://www.prb.org/datafind/da tafinder7.htm. (June 22, 2006) and Energy Information Administration. World Gross Domestic Product by Region. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/ pdf/ieoreftab_3.pdf. (June 18, 2006) 98

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Table 2-21: Emporis Skyscraper Award Winners Awarded Building Location Height (ft.) 2000 Sofitel New York Hotel New York, New York 356 2001 One Wall Centre Vancouver, Canada 491 2002 Kingdom Centre Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 992 2003 Swiss Re Headquarters London, United Kingdom 590 2004 Taipei 101 Taipei, Taiwan 1,671 2005 Turning Torso Malmo, Sweden 623 Average Height: 787 Emporis. Emporis Awards Listing. http://awards.emporis.com/?lng=3 (June 22, 2006) Table 2-22: Tallest Buildings Curre ntly Under Construction Name Location Height (ft) Year Complete Burj Dubai Dubai, U.A.E. 2,296 2008 Busan Lotte Tower Busan, South Korea 1,620 2009 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai 1,614 2007 Abraj Al Bait Hotel Tower Mekkah, Saudi Arabia 1,591 NA International Commerce Centre Hong Kong 1,588 2009 Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Nanjing, China 1,496 2008 Dubai Towers Doha Doha, Qatar 1,450 2007 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago 1,361 2008 23 Marina Dubai 1,246 2009 Bank of America Tower New York City 1,200 2008 Wanhao Financial Center Chongqing, China 1,171 2006 Almas Tower Dubai 1,148 2007 Federation Complex Tower A Moscow 1,132 2010 Palacio de la Bahia Panama City 1,102 2009 Rose Tower Dubai 1,092 2006 Post, N. (2005, October 31). Skys craper envy lives on, globally. Engineering NewsRecord, 255(17), 10-11. 99

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Table 2-23: Future Top Ten Wo rlds Tallest Building List Name Location Height (ft) Year Complete Burj Dubai Dubai, U.A.E. 2,296 2008 Taipei 101 Taipei, Taiwan 1,671 2004 Busan Lotte Tower Busan, South Korea 1,620 2009 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai, China 1,614 2007 Abraj Al Bait Hotel Tower Mekkah, Saudi Arabia 1,591 NA International Commerce Centre Hong Kong, China 1,588 2009 Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Nanjing, China 1,496 2008 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1,483 1998 Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1,483 1998 Sears Tower Chicago, Illinois 1,451 1974 Council on Tall Buildings and Urba n Habitat. CTBUH Database. http://join.emporis.com/?na v=signin&lng=3. (July 31, 2006) 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 815223037506375 StoriesGFA (sft) Figure 2-1: Skyscraper Gross Floor Area Comparison Clark, W., & Kingston, J. (1930 ). The skyscraper: A study in the economic height of modern office buildings New York, NY: American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. 100

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31% 25% 23% 17% 3% 1% Asia North America Europe South America Oceania Africa Figure 2-2: High-rises per Continent Emporis.Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 USAChinaAustraliaUAEJapanCanadaOther Figure 2-3: Number of Top 100 Worlds Talles t Buildings per Country Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. ht tp://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) 101

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0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000Hong Kong New York City S o P a u l o S i n g a p o re S e o u l Tokyo Rio de Jane i ro Ista n bul T or o nto Bue n o s Aires Figure 2-4: Top Ten High-Rise Cities in the World Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis.com/en/. (July 31, 2006) 102

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS The Public Opinion of Skyscrapers and the Downtown Environment As demonstrated, the progression of the s kyscraper into todays world has been accompanied with widespread public admiration, awe and approval. Owners and developers hold the finances in constructing tall buildings, bu t the public holds the tr ue dollars as tenants and renters of the commercial or residential space that a skyscrap er provides. The goal of every tall building regardless of symbo lism and impact is to return an attractive amount of money back to those who are investing in the building. Therefore, public acceptance and support in the construction and implementation of high-rises is paramount. As more skyscrapers are reaching new height s of construction, as more skyscrapers are being erected and as more are being proposed th an ever before, the public mindset towards the tall building must be taken into account. The public makes up the constituents that work, live or recreate around tall structures. Their influe nce and opinion matters most in the acceptance and utilization of tall buildings. In the five years that have passed since September 11 th what is the publics opinion of the tall building? How do they feel about the many as pects of the tall buildin g and the environments that they are set against? Such questions are intended to gauge the success with which the tall building stands in a modern, terrorism-ridden world. The power of the publics view on the skyscraper is the true measure of how well a skys craper expresses safety, symbolism and pride. This study, entitled The Public Opinion of S kyscrapers and the Downtown Environment was designed to capture public sentimen t and thinking of the tall build ings that have dotted so many American cities. The city thus chosen to represent the public was Tampa, Florida 103

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Tampa, Florida Tampa might as well represent any typical, mi d to large-sized American city. The city itself represents 303,477 residents according to the 2000 census which makes Tampa the 56 th largest American city in the nation (Populati on Reference Bureau, 2006). The area of Tampa Bay, which includes Tampa, St. Petersburg a nd Clearwater, contains 2,647,658 people in the entire metropolitan area (E mporis Buildings, 2006). The city itself contains 57 completed skyscr apers, with its tallest building being the AmSouth Building at 579 feet (E mporis Buildings, 2006). The c ity also has an additional 16 skyscrapers under construction at this time (Empor is Buildings, 2006). Now, it is realized that these figures do not make Tampa necessarily a high -rise mecca. However, the tall buildings and those people surrounded by them in downtown Tamp a do give credibility to answers given for the study. A tall building is a tall building, whethe r it be in Taiwan or Tampa. The typical Tampian could very well be transplanted into downtown Houston and have the same feelings and opinions on skyscrapers. Skyscraper Sample Size As stated above, the size of Tampa, Fl orida from the 2000 census was 303,477 residents within city limits (Population Reference Burea u, 2006). In determining the sample size necessary to be statistically significant and to estimate the size of the sample of the population that needed to be studied, the basic calculati on of n=(Z/Delta)^2 p q was used. In this equation n represents required samp le size, Z represents the Z-value for a particular confidence level, Delta represents the esti mate interval, and where p and q are given as equal at 0.5. The resulting sample size was calculate d as 384 participants with a confidence interval of 95 percent (Ostle and Malone, 1988). 104

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Execution of the Protocol The protocol was conducted in the downto wn area of Tampa, Florida on Monday, August 14, 2006. With strict emphasis placed on survey ing only those people that were coming in, going out of or that were currently located inside of a skyscraper the protocols credibility and objectivity remains in tact. The protocol consisted of a short, Likert scale, seven-question survey. The Likert scale contai ned within the protocol ranged from answer responses of one through five and the accompanyi ng verbiage was as follows: 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Undecided 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree The seven questions were also simple to unde rstand and interpret, th ey read as follows: I would/do feel safe working or living in a skyscraper. I enjoy the sight of skyscrapers and believe they enhance a citys skyline. I feel that skyscrapers of the wo rld are still a terrorist threat. I would/do prefer living in an urban, downtown environment. I would/do prefer living in a subur ban, grid system environment. I can identify cities by their skylines. I am proud of our natio ns tall skyscrapers. The intention of the above questions will be di scussed along with the re sults in regards to statistical analysis and testi ng. Both the informed consent portion and the actual protocol questions can be viewed as A ppendix A. This appendix repres ents the actual questionnaire format given to all participants. The protocol was carried out duri ng the course of the entire day within skyscraper lobbies, elevator zones, entrances or exits and actual offices within high-rise buildings. Specific buildings near which and in which th e protocol was car ried out include AmSouth Building Bank of America Plaza 105

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One Tampa City Center SunTrust Financial Center Park Tower Rivergate Tower Hillsborough County Center Together, these buildings constitute the seven tall est buildings in Tampa, which was the intention when delivering the protocol (Emporis Buildi ngs, 2006). This listing also includes perhaps Tampas most famous building in the Rivergate Tower. This cy lindrical building is meant to mimic or symbolize a lighthouse on the skyline of old Tampa Bay (Emporis Buildings, 2006). At days end, all 384 necessary re sponses had been gathered, with results that lend themselves to prevailing notions of the many fact ors that contribute to skyscraper longevity and sustenance as a building type in a world that holds thr eats to Americans and the world every day. Skyscraper Protocol Question Analysis Each question contained within th e protocol dealt with a specif ic aspect of skyscrapers and their existence. In order to re lay the findings, statistical analys is using chi-squared testing was performed. First, each question was mulled over to determine significance in the Likert answer distributions. Then that analys is was taken a bit further in re gards to how those people who preferred suburban or urban environments responded. In using a question that contained the potentially vague terms of urban or suburban, disc retion was given to thos e taking the protocol. Defining the boundary between urban and suburban can only be realized in the minds of the respondents. These areas are the type of th ing where you know which area you are in when you see it and as such the public was left to decide for themselves. Question 1: Are they safe? The intention of question one was to gauge how safe those people occupying and using skyscrapers felt while they were within the build ing. Table 3-1 shows the distribution of answers 106

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that were recorded from the protocol and table 32 shows those same results in percentage forms. In order test whether that th e 60.43 percentage of answers that agreed with the question of feeling safe, working or living in a skyscraper, was statistically significant, a Chi-squared test was performed. Disregarding respondents that answered 3, or undecided, the expected column was the sum of responses that were 1, 2, 4 or 5 and then divided by 2. The division by 2 represents the 2 main categories of agreed versus disagreed or 1 and 2 versus 4 and 5. if the public had no opinion, the two groups would have e qual numbers of responses. Such a response, would indicate a random response to the five Likert possibilities. The observed column represented the actual number of responses per those people that strongly agreed, 5, and agreed, 4, and those people that represente d disagreement with a strongly disagree, 1 and disagree, 2 as their answer. Then taking the differences be tween observed and expected, squaring it and then dividing it by the expected number the Chi-s quared testing was complete. Now since each category, 1 and 2, and 4 and 5, calculated above the 3.84 chi-squared dist ribution for 95 percent confidence and 1 degree of freedom, at 34.08, the null hypothesis that the answers were distributed evenly was rejected (Ostle and Malone, 1988). The calculations are all provided within table 3-3 for all questions. This also mean s that the difference is statistically significant, and that the 60.43 percent shown in Figure 3-1 as the majority of responses for agreeing with the safety of skyscrapers is statistically significant as well. The Chi-squared testing for all questions followed the same steps mentioned. Question 2: Are they beautiful? Skyscrapers are some of the la rgest buildings on earth and th erefore it is important for them to be aesthetically pleas ing as their image projects upon many people, local and visiting alike. The intent of question 2 was to gauge how the public viewed the ta ll building as a piece of the urban landscape. Once agai n, the null hypothesis of even distribution over the Likert 107

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responses was rejected by Chi-squared testing an d the majority of answers that turned towards agreeing that skyscrapers are beautiful pieces of the built environment, was found to be a departure from random. Figure 3-2 shows the percentage of res pondents that answered strongly agree, 5 and agree, 4 was 70.06 percent as opposed to the 9.9 percent of the public who do not like the look of the tall building. Question 3: Are they a threat? In an America and a world that has been at tacked by faceless terrorists and groups that support such carnage, the public must have an opi nion on how likely they feel more skyscrapers are to be targeted as places of battle in a never-ending war. Question 3 addressed the issue of terrorism and tall buildings. It was found that the 57.3 percent shown in figure 3-3 of the public who agreed with the statement that skyscrapers are still terrorist targets is statistically significant and differs significantly from the 21.09 percent that do not agree that skyscrapers are still terrorist targets. A question that perhaps should have been included in the protocol would be whether or not this threat of terrorism would preclude the public from working or living in a high-rise structure. Regardless the people surveyed were leaving, going into or occupying a tall building at the very moment of filling out the protoc ol. Therefore, their fear of terrorist acts, at least in the skyscrapers of Tampa, was not preventing their high-rise use. Question 4: Downtown? Skyscrapers are synonymous w ith downtown, dense urban areas. The relationship between the two is unbreakable and thus for the skyscrap er of tomorrow to be successful, a movement into more of an urban and less suburban enviro nment would be inevitable. How does the public in Tampa feel about downtown as their place of residence? Analysis shows that the 56.25 percent of respondents shown in figure 3-4 that answered that they disagreed with preferring to live in an urban environment is statistically si gnificant. Over 26 percent of Tampa respondents 108

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did agree with preferring to liv e in an urban environment and such a percentage would possibly rise in other locations. The mindset in pr eferring a downtown environment over a suburban environment will be analyzed further. Question 5: Suburbia? If Tampa residents do not pref er living downtown, in high-ri se living then the innverse area of suburbia is where they would chose to live given th e option. Over 47 percent of respondents indicated that they ag reed with the statement that they preferred to live in a suburban, grid system environment. This percent was found to be statistically significant and led to the rejection of the hypothesis that the responses were random with no bias with respect to skyscrapers. About a quarter of the public sample d did disagree with this statement as shown in Figure 3-5 with 26.82 preferring not to live in suburbia. Once ag ain, location and local cultures could dramatically alter the results of such a question. Question 6: Are they memorable? Part of the recipe for building tall is to be sy mbolic and to be remembered in the chaos that is the real world. How well does the public id entify with tall buildings across America and across the globe? Have the intentions to create instantaneous landmarks been realized in the eyes of the public? Question 6 asked Tampians how well they could identify the skylines of the world with regards to tall build ings and the indelible memories they may implant in those that come into view or contact with them. More than half of the respondents at 56.51 percent as shown in figure 3-6 answered that they agreed th at they could identify cities by the skylines and skyscrapers that accompanied them. In a cont inuing trend of all ques tions analyzed, this percentage was found to be statistically significant. It seems th at the intentions of building with height and power is conveyed and burn ed into the memories of the public. 109

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Question 7: Are they proud icons? Another variable in the skyscr aper equation is the element of pride in building to great height. The parties involved in implementing s kyscrapers are proud in th e end of their gravitydefying product, but how does the public feel ab out the nations most fa mous tall buildings? Does the Sears Tower and Empire State Building come to represent a buoy of pride for the American public or Tampians? With a resounding agreement at 65.37 per cent, a statistically significant percentage, the public in Tampa is proud of the tall buildings that make up American urban areas. A mere 11.46 percent shown in fi gure 3-7 disagreed with being proud of the nations skyscrapers. Question Overview What has been learned in this protocol? Using the limit of Tampa Bay residents and visitors, it was found that the majority of the public surveyed conveyed the following in regards to the skyscraper as a building type Tampians feel safe working or living in a skyscraper Tampians enjoy the sight of skyscrapers and the addition they make in skylines Tampians still believe that skyscrapers are a terrorist target Tampians do not prefer living in a downtown environment Tampians do prefer living in a suburban environment Tampians can identify cities by their skylines and tall buildings Tampians are proud of Americas tall buildings. It seems that despite fears of terrorism, the public is ready and willing to accept the skyscraper as a building type not only prior to September 11 th but also after it. Perhap s, working or living in a skyscraper is like the many risks humans take everyday in driving a car, flyi ng in an airplane and crossing the street. Perhaps, skyscrapers are ju st a part of life and the minute occurrence of terrorism in the tall building is just dea lt with. It is interesting to note that the 12.76 percent of people who disagreed and the 9.38 percent of people who strongly disagreed that they felt safe in 110

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skyscrapers were also occupying, coming out of or going into a tall building. Regardless, it seems that the public, along with developers, will co ntinue building tall a nd that such endeavors will be supported despite terrorism or other concerns. Figure 3-8 shows that in questions 1, 2, 6 and 7 which regard the safety and vitality of ta ll buildings, the majority of the Tampa public see the skyscraper in a positive light and despite not wanting to live in downtowns and skyscrapers, they still enjoy them. In the end the null hypothesis was rejected for all questions which showed that one way or another a signifi cant majority of people either agreed or disagreed with the questions of the protocol. This is no surprise, because the urban or suburban environments we choose to surround ourselves with is paramount to our quality of life, which for more people is the most important aspect of thei r lives, and their familys lives. Downtown versus Suburban Viewpoints Looking into the data gathered from the protoc ol, it can also be obser ved that there is a distinct shift in thinking between those groups that preferred liv ing in a downtown environment versus those that preferred livi ng in a suburban environment. It makes sense that those people that preferred living in and around low lying residential homes would also not be as apt to be a skyscraper supporter. On the other hand, thos e Tampians that supported living in downtown environments would likely be more attracted to high-rises and the features that accompany tall structures. Once again, it is impor tant to realize that the publics own view of what constituted suburban and urban areas was used. To divide these two groups, question number four, which was the most clear cut in terms of urban versus suburban, was used. Only those respondents who answered 1 and 2 versus 4 and 5 were considered. Answers 1 and 2 represen ted disagreement with urban living, and 4 and 5 represented agreement with urban living. Agreem ent with living in an urban environment was taken as the observed frequency response, while the expected column contained the data for 111

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disagreement with urban living amongst the qu estions. The null hypothesis used in this Chisquared testing was that there would be no significant difference in the answers given by those who supported urban living when compared to thos e who did not support urban living. Using all five possible Likert answer choi ces the analysis had 5 degrees of freedom which allowed for a chi-squared distribution number of 11.1 when used at 95 percen t confidence (Ostle and Malone, 1988). It was found that throughout the 6 questions, that all re sponses between the two opposing groups did in fact differ significantly and thus the null hypothesis was rejected. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis th at different viewpoints equals different feelings on skyscrapers was confirmed. The statistically significant findings are all pictured in table 3-4. Protocol Limitations and Improvements The protocol was intended to represent mo st any American viewpoint in most any American city of moderate popula tion with moderate amounts of skys crapers. With that goal in mind, the protocol was carried out and the results are solid data for areas that resemble Tampa Bay. However, there are factors contained within the protocol that limit its effectiveness and range in terms of an American or gl obal skyscraper. These factors include Proximity Finances Location People Environment Culture Age History Due to the limits of where the protocol c ould be carried out a nd where the protocol administrator could afford to travel, the lo cation was limited to Tampa. Now Tampa, as previously stated could very well represent mo st mid-sized to largesized American city 112

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complete with all the amenities and attractions of any metropolitan area. However, in terms of skyscraper numbers and populati on numbers Tampa is not compar able to locations such as New York City Chicago Los Angeles Hong Kong Tokyo Sao Paulo Sydney London These locations also have different people who come from different mindsets and upbringings. It is very possible that growing up in subur ban Tampa influences fondness, or dislike for skyscrapers and downtown environments. Growing up in New York would certainly bias people one way or the other. However, a review of th e cities listed was not feasible. Being totally immersed in a skyscraper environment that ha s thousands and thousands of tall buildings is certain to change the mindsets of those people w ho come into contact with them. A skyscraper culture so to speak, that is so celebrated in Ch icago leads one to believ e that Chicagoans would be prone to support tall buildi ngs and live downtown. The people of Tampa who come from all over the world into the growing state of Florida are perhaps in search of more space and more room and do not prefer the vertic al, limited space of the worlds large cities. On the other hand, young people may be more open to the idea of livi ng downtown in places such as New York, so age may have an effect that was not accounted for in this protocol. Lastly, history of skyscrapers within cities may have an a ffect on views towards tall build ings. In Chicago, where the skyscraper is synonymous with their growth as a city, the skyscraper is welcomed, whereas in London tall buildings have only up until recently b een denounced. Also, New Yorkers may have the most to say about tall buildings after September 11 th Tampa, Florida was far removed on that day. New Yorkers had friends and family peri sh in those attacks. Their loved ones still 113

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work in those downtown areas where even the smalle st skyscraper now has security. It would be interesting to judge the New Yorkers take on sk yscrapers in an era of uncertainty. 114

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Table 3-1: Protocol Questi on and Answer Distribution Answer/Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 36 16 26 100 50 26 18 2 49 22 55 116 53 59 26 3 67 77 83 67 100 82 89 4 143 137 133 60 129 146 140 5 89 132 87 41 52 71 111 384 384 384 384 384 384 384 Table 3-2: Protocol Question and Answer Percentage Distribution Answer/Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 9.38% 4.17% 6.77% 26.04% 13.02% 6.77% 4.69% 2 12.76% 5.73% 14.32% 30.21% 13.80% 15.36% 6.77% 3 17.45% 20.05% 21.61% 17.45% 26.04% 21.35% 23.18% 4 37.24% 35.68% 34.64% 15.63% 33.59% 38.02% 36.46% 5 23.18% 34.38% 22.66% 10.68% 13.54% 18.49% 28.91% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 115

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Table 3-3: Chi Squared Testing for Protocol 1 and 2, 4 and 5 Question and Answer Distribution Question Observed Expected O-E (O -E)^2 Chi^2 Distribution Pass/Fail 1 1 and 2 85 158.5 -73.5 5402.25 34.0836 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 232 158.5 73.5 5402.25 34.0836 3.84 Fail 2 1 and 2 38 153.5 -115.5 13340.3 86.9072 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 269 153.5 115.5 13340.3 86.9072 3.84 Fail 3 1 and 2 81 150.5 -69.5 4830.25 32.0947 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 220 150.5 69.5 4830.25 32.0947 3.84 Fail 4 1 and 2 216 158.5 57.5 3306.25 20.8596 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 101 158.5 -57.5 3306.25 20.8596 3.84 Fail 5 1 and 2 103 142 -39 1521 10.7113 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 181 142 39 1521 10.7113 3.84 Fail 6 1 and 2 85 151 -66 4356 28.8477 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 217 151 66 4356 28.8477 3.84 Fail 7 1 and 2 44 147.5 -103.5 10712.3 72.6254 3.84 Fail 4 and 5 251 147.5 103.5 10712.3 72.6254 3.84 Fail 116

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Table 3-4: Chi-Squared Testing for Ques tion Four Difference Distribution Question Observed Expected O-E (O -E)^2 Chi^2 Distribution Pass/Fail 1 4 27 23 529 19.59 10 36 26 676 18.78 14 36 22 484 13.44 37 81 44 1,936 23.90 35 36 1 1 0.03 75.74 11.10 Fail 2 1 12 11 121 10.08 4 17 13 169 9.94 21 46 25 625 13.59 29 83 54 2,916 35.13 44 58 14 196 3.38 72.12 11.10 Fail 3 7 13 6 36 2.77 20 29 9 81 2.79 26 44 18 324 7.36 36 73 37 1,369 18.75 10 57 47 2,209 38.75 70.43 11.10 Fail 5 14 30 16 256 8.53 23 27 4 16 0.59 23 36 13 169 4.69 27 86 59 3,481 40.48 11 37 26 676 18.27 72.57 11.10 Fail 6 7 17 10 100 5.88 10 42 32 1,024 24.38 18 50 32 1,024 20.48 35 80 45 2,025 25.31 28 27 -1 1 0.04 76.09 11.10 Fail 7 3 13 10 100 7.69 5 20 15 225 11.25 19 54 35 1,225 22.69 26 90 64 4,096 45.51 47 39 -8 64 1.64 88.78 11.10 Fail 117

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0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-1: Protocol Ques tion 1 Distribution 0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-2: Protocol Question 2 Distribution 118

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0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-3: Protocol Question 3 Distribution 0.00%5.00%10.00%15.00%20.00%25.00%30.00%35.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-4: Protocol Question 4 Distribution 119

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0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-5: Protocol Question 5 Distribution 0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-6: Protocol Question 6 Distribution 120

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0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00% 1 2 3 4 5Answe r Figure 3-7: Protocol Question 7 Distribution Skyscrapers & the Downtown Environment 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567 Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree Figure 3-8: Protocol Question and Answer Pe rcentage Distribution 121

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CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION The skyscraper as a building type contai ns thousands upon thousands of systems all working together to produce a unique, remarkable structure to house workers and residents. In researching the tall build ing it would take several volumes to run through the gamut of systems, architecture, engineering, construction and factors that go into realizing skyscrapers. The future of skyscrapers in an environmentally conscious world and the systems that accompany the greening of the skyscraper also ra ise questions about individual sy stems. As a result, there are several opportunities for future high-rise research, of which a few possibilities will be discussed. Throughout this work underlying factors have been referred to us ing case studies and insight. These factors provide the impetus for building tall and will be given as the foundation for skyscraper proliferation and future dominan ce. From inception to continued construction, these factors have survived over the 121 years of skyscraper construction and remain as true today, if not truer, as they we re back in Chicago in 1885. Findings The skyscraper as a building type has b een exhaustively researched and explained throughout this work. The history of the ta ll building, the engineer ing behind it and the technological innovation that has le d to its widespread acceptance, all convey the several factors that lie within the realm of building tall. Wh ether a skyscraper was built in 1906 or 2006, the factors involved are by all means the same. Societal factors, such as large city populations and diminished land supply still apply whether it was 1890 Chicago, or 1990 Hong Kong. Cultural and political factors, in terms of a community s willingness to accept skyscraper construction; leads to their proliferation stil l today as they did yesterday. Financial success and power also retain their stronghold as omnipres ent factors in the skyscraper. Modern skyscrapers still read 122

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AT&T, Bank of America, and Sears Tower just as the skyscrapers of the past read Woolworth, Singer, and Chrysler. Countries wishing to es tablish themselves in the largest way possible choose the tall building as their medium. It was not much different in the original rash of skyscraper construction that the United States had while trying to break the ties of old Europe. Countries wish not to break ties of a host country these days, but ra ther of their lower statuses of their country on a global stage. The pride a nd enthusiasm felt by Americans and their tall buildings has transcended time, and place, and ha s taken hold in the rest of the world. Skyscrapers are a part of mode rn life. High-rises allow the maximum amount of people in the smallest amounts of space. For the worl ds growing populations and diminishing land supplies, the tall building is the answer. As th e world develops, as countries better design urban centers, the skyscraper will continue to be the bu ilding type of the earth and its people. Placing green systems into an already heralded building type, that allows for an inherently sustainable building to begin with, only will further the success of the skyscraper. Though Tampians may prefer suburban living, they still exhibit common threads of skyscraper support and encouragement. Tampians believe skyscrapers to be relatively safe, beautiful additions to any skyline and symbols of communities. In addition, there is a certain pride that comes from building ta ll that goes beyond the idea of financial returns and business logic. It may be that skyscraper s are still at risk for terrorism, but so are subways, stadiums and airplanes. Yet, these items still abound in our post-September 11 th world. So too, will the skyscraper abound. The tall building is too sy mbolic, political, cultural and powerful to be toppled by terrorists. Future Study Suggestions From foundation to pinnacle, the skyscraper is a marvel of architecture, design and construction. The interactions and intricacies of these systems are complex and require superior 123

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knowledge and insight into each individual system Any one of the following systems and their design deserve further thought and inference for improvement and sophistication in a modern skyscraper world Foundation Systems Structural Steel Systems Concrete Structural Systems Composite Structural Systems Curtain Wall Systems Elevator Systems Plumbing Systems Mechanical Systems Electrical Systems Now, these systems can makeup other mid-rise a nd low-rise buildings, but within the realm of high-rise construction special consideration must be garnered prio r to putting these systems into place. Innovations and experiments in these syst ems can mean a skyscraper that functions and performs better with less material or energy usage. In regards to making the skyscraper the most efficient building possibl e, the factors of the sustainable skyscraper come into pl ay. It has been said that the ci ties that are denser, and denser by the use of the skyscraper, such as New York and Hong Kong also use the least amount of energy per capita (Howeler, 2003). Studies regarding the electri cal requirements for skyscrapers versus other low and mid-rise buildings of the sa me square footage are necessary to purport this statement. How do the elements of elevators, vertically moving water or air and construction difficulty in building tall compare to the same elements in other buildings that do not require vertical capabilities? Building tall requires cranes, vertical lifti ng and transportation during construction. In terms of construction costs what are the differences in construction of similar square footages between low and mid-rise buildings versus hi gh-rise buildings? Also, what difference in 124

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materials whether more or less in high-rise cons truction is there? What specific systems and materials require more materials in skyscrapers versus other buildings? How much waste does a skyscraper comparably generate co mpared to other building types? Further, in terms of sustainability how does th e public feel about greening the structures of the world? Do they consider the sustainable asp ects of the skyscraper, or buildings in general, when they choose to rent or occupy a building as an employee? Further, what is the developers take on the sustainable skyscrap er? Developers and owners ar e the driving force behind making tall, green structures and ther efore their thinking and developm ent trends are important. As the worlds population swells a nd countries continue to develop, skyscrapers are being built in locations that pose new natural th reats. Mass damping to prevent the sway of skyscrapers is a complex endeavor that requires furt her study. In locations that have a high probability and occurrence of ear thquake, mass damping is necessary to design, construct and occupy a skyscraper with any confidence. Research in making the skyscraper earthquakeready or even earthquake-proof is necessary for the safety and further use of the skyscraper. Research into resisting certai n magnitudes of earthquakes and the materials accompanied with designing these structures is also required. Seismically active areas that currently contain skyscrapers include Dubai, United Arab Emirates Taipei, Taiwan Mexico City, Mexico Tokyo, Japan Los Angeles, California Oakland, California San Diego, California San Jose, California San Francisco, California Seattle, Washington 125

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With the same thinking regarding research of a seismically responsive skyscraper, so too must the engineering and elements of a hurricane or tropical cyclone res ponsive skyscraper be explored. Resistance to the high winds and rain s that accompany these natural disasters is something that must be analyzed and researched especially for the following skyscraper areas Bangkok, Thailand Beijing, China Hong Kong, China Shanghai, China Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan Tokyo, Japan Miami, Florida Tampa, Florida New Orleans, Louisiana Designing and constructing for human factors an d elements also require a further look. Since September 11 th what terrorist-conscious steps have been taken in terms of materials and engineering in the skyscraper world. How do the materials and syst ems, that are already in place in the skyscrapers of the world, hold up to blasting and other terrori st acts? What materials and engineering endeavors coul d provide a more terroris t resistant skyscraper? The ever-present factor of fire within any building, but especially the skyscraper, should also be expounded upon. What fire and escape syst ems are currently in place? How would these systems perform under true fire situations? What fire prevention or containment techniques can be employed in the high profile buildings of s kyscrapers? How do experimental materials and systems perform that could help in the future of skyscraper fire system design? The Final State of the Skyscraper On September 11 th 2001 when One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center fell from their lofty positions in the worlds greatest super powers, greatest city, the future of the skyscraper was placed into question. In term s of performance, the 9/11 Commission reported 126

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that the buildings actually held up quite well considering the nature of the attack and the resulting damage those airplanes cau sed to the superstructure. It is interesting to also think that during that same day not only skyscrapers were attacked. The five-sto ry Pentagon building was also targeted and attacked. September 11 th was about destroying American symbols and endeavors, not about the destruction of skyscrapers. In terms of that day, it is unfortunate that the skyscraper acting as a symbol for a country was so prevalent. However, that is what many of our buildings whether tall or small do, they represent society and are a symbol of the surrounding community and even of the surrounding nation. Five years later, the skyscraper as a building type is not going into extinction. The world is building taller and building more frequently than ever before. Countries that are still developing, are doing so by utilizing the skyscraper. Skyscrapers speak of a countrys power and progress. Companies develop towers to also prove their fi scal strength. Communiti es develop the worlds tallest structures to ga rner the attention of the internati onal community. Skyscrapers house evergrowing populations. The populations of our most populated nations are accepting the skyscraper and embracing the high-rise as part of their culture and part of their lives. The tall building has come to symbolize modernity and t echnological advancement in many forms. From Le Baron Jenney to Calatrava, the skyscraper con tinues to evolve architect urally and continues to be designed in more complex e ngineering endeavors. Elevator s are faster, foundations deeper, beams thicker and exteriors more multifaceted. Sustainable elements allow the skyscraper to be sustainable in terms of densities and in terms of sustainable system s. The world gets denser and the skyscraper abounds, the world gets more modern and the skyscraper abounds, the world competes and the skyscraper abounds. 127

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The public also finds itself in general suppor t of the tall building. Thus, justifying the continued success and presence of the tall building in America, and also the world. In the face of terrorist acts and uncerta in times, the skyscraper shines as a beacon of hope and strength. Other countries are taking that symbol of strength and using it for thei r own statements. Do not be surprised to see emerging nations such as India take the skyscraper to new levels. Or maybe there is hope still for the United States, in Chicag o or maybe a place like Las Vegas, to recapture the worlds tallest building title. The atten tion and prestige accompanied with such an undertaking would certainly be a prime driving force. The fame is fleeting and in order to prove themselves communities and countries will continue to battle using buildings. Structures will be taller, more dynamic and more encompassing as the worlds population grows and as the worlds available land shrinks. The American invention and the American buildi ng type will not be st opped so long as it is the most viable structure to maximize land space and rental revenues. The skyscraper has roots in many elements of the human and in many elements of society. The tall building is part social, part economical, part cultur al, part environmental, part symbolis m and part political. It is for all of these reasons that the fear of terrorism, or any other fears that have belabored the skyscraper in the past, will not stop skyscraper support and skyscraper construction. The skyscraper as a building type is the building type of the past, the present and particularly the future. 128

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APPENDIX: PROTOCOL INFORMED CONSENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE Protocol Title: The public opinion of skyscrapers and the downtown environment Please read this consent port ion carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to gauge the publics opinion on various aspects of skyscrapers and the urban environment. What you will be asked to do in the study: Participants will be asked to complete a seven (7) question survey and circle the answer that best represents their opinion on the topics. The answers to be circled range from 1 to 5, with 1 being strong disagreement and 5 being strong agreement. Time required: 5 minutes Risks and Benefits: There is no risk or benefit for yo u in participating in this study. Confidentiality: Your name is not necessary for this study and therefore all answers will not be linked ba ck to any participant. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Brandon T. Moore, Graduate Student, M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction, 727.798.3997. Dr. Abdol Chini, Director, M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction, 352.273.1165. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florid a, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, ph 392-0433. Circle One 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Undecided 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly Agree 1. I would/do feel safe working or livi ng in a skyscraper. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I enjoy the sight of skyscrapers an d believe they 1 2 3 4 5 enhance a citys skyline. 3. I feel that skyscrapers of the world are still a 1 2 3 4 5 terrorist threat. 4. I would/do prefer living in an urban, 1 2 3 4 5 downtown environment. 5. I would/do prefer living in a suburban, grid 1 2 3 4 5 system environment. 6. I can identify cities by th eir skylines. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I am proud of our nations tall skyscrapers. 1 2 3 4 5 129

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REFERENCES Abel, C. (2003). Sky high: Vertical architecture. London, United Kingdom: Royal Academy of Arts. Abramson, D. (2000). Skyscraper rivals: The AIG building a nd the architecture of wall street. New York, NY: Arch itectural Press. Ali, M. (2001). Art of the skyscraper: Th e genius of Fazlur Khan. New York, NY: Rizzoli International Publishing. Ali, M., & Armstrong, P. (1995). Architecture of tall buildings: Council on tall buildings and urban habitat. New York, NY: McGrawHill, Inc. Aveni, M. (2001, February). Tall Building to Use Wind Power for Energy Efficiency. Civil Engineering, 10. Bagli, C. U.S. and state plan to oc cupy freedom tower. (2006, September 17). The NewYork Times p. A1 and A40. Bascomb, N. (2003). Higher: A historic race to th e sky and the making of a city. New York, NY: Doubleday. Chamberlain, L. (2006, July). Idling at Ground Zero. Planning-The Magazine of the American Planning Association 7(72), 12-15. Chicago Municipal Reference Library. (2005). Chicago: 1871 The Great Fire. Retrieved June 14, 2006, from Chicago Public Library Web site: http://www.chipublib.org/004chicago/timeline/greatfire.html. CIA. (2006). CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved June 27,2006, from Central Intelligence Agency Web site: https://www.odci.gov/cia/publicat ions/factbook/index.html. Civil Engineering. (1999, April). India tower w ould dwarf others in race for worlds tallest structure. Civil Engineering 16. Civil Engineering. (1999, November). Brazilian tower could win race to be worlds tallest building. Civil Engineering 12. Clark, W., & Kingston, J. (1930). The skyscraper: A study in th e economic height of modern office buildings. New York, NY: American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. Council on Tall Buildings and Ur ban Habitat. (2006). Brief Hi story. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from Council on tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Web site: http://www.ctbuh.org/. 130

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CTBUH Database. (2006). Emporis Login Ga teway. Retrieved May 29, 2006 July 31, 2006, from CTBUH Database Powered by Emporis Web site: http://join.emporis.com/?nav=signin&lng=3. Douglas, G. (1996). Skyscrapers: a social history of the very tall building in America. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. Eisele, J., & Kloft, E. (2003). High-rise manual Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser-Publishers for Architecture. EMAAR. (2006). Burj Dubai: EMAAR. Retrie ved July 8, 2006, from EMAAR Web site: http://www.burjdubai.com/. Empire State Building. (2006). Empire State Buil ding History. Retrieved June 24, 2006, from Empire State Building Web site: http://www.esbnyc.com/tourism/touris m_history.cfm?CFID=15175007&CFTOKE N=26561642. Emporis Awards. (2006). Emporis Awards Home. Retrieved June 22, 2006, from Emporis Buildings International Database about Buildings, Construction and the Real-Estate industry Web site: http://awards.emporis.com/?lng=3 Emporis Buildings. (2006). Emporis Buildings The Building Industry Platform. Retrieved May 29, 2006 July 31, 2006, from Emporis Buildin gs International Database about Buildings, Construction and the Real-Estate Industry Web site: http://www.emporis.com/en/. Energy Information Administration. (2006). Wo rld Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Region using Purchasing Power Parity. Retrieved June 18, 2006, from Energy Information Administration Web site: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oia f/ieo/pdf/ieoreftab_3.pdf. Engineering News Record. (1996, Apr il 22). Petronas takes the title. Engineering News-Record, 12. Engineering News Record (2004, April 26). 508-m taipei megatower anointed worlds tallest. Engineering News-Record, 15. Engineering News Record. (2006, September 18). Ground Zero Office Designs Hailed as Hopeful Symbols. Engineering News-Record, 257 (11), 12. Foster, N. (2006). Architecture and Sustainabi lity. Retrieved June 30, 2006, from Foster and Partners Web site: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/intern et_site/public_html/download.php?f=dat a/information/Architecture_and_Sustainability. 131

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Gill, R. (2005). What is the worlds tallest building? (CTBUH Rules). Retrieved June 23, 2006, from All About Skyscrapers Web site: http://www.allaboutskyscrapers.com/Tallest_Building.htm. Gissen, D. (2002). Big & green. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Greene, M., & Marchetti, J. (2000). Means illustrated cons truction dictionary. Kingston, MA: R.S. Means Company, Inc. Hagberg, E. (2006, May). NYs Green Horizon. Metropolis, 52. Hampton, T. (2006, March, 27). Chicago Bu ilders Ride Next Supertall Wave. Engineering News-Record, 12(256), 10-11. Howeler, E. (2003). Skyscraper: Vertical now. New York, NY: Universe Publishing. Hucal, M. (2004, December). Transforming the skyline and the green building market. Environmental Design + Construction. 9(7), 28-31. Jacobs, K. (2006, July). Ground Zeros Saving Grace. Planning-The Magazine of the American Planning Association 7(72), 64-67. Jencks, C. (1980). Skyscrapers-skyprickers-skycities. New York, NY: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. Lepik, A. (2004). Skyscraper. New York, NY: Prestel. Malden, J. (2006). Chicago: Hi storical Information About Chicago. Retrieved June 14, 2006, from Chicago Public Library Web site: http://www.chipublib.org/004chicago/chihist.html. Moudry, R. (2005). The American skyscraper: Cultural histories. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Nash, E. (2005) Manhattan skyscrapers. New York, NY: Princet on Architectural Press. National Bureau of Economic Research. (2003). Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from National Bureau of Economic Research Web site: http://www.nber.org/cycles.html/. Nobel, P. (2006, May). Norm an Foster v.s. New York. Metropolis, 70-74. Ostle & Malone. (1988). Statistics in research. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 132

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Population Reference Bureau. (2006 ). Population Reference Bureau DataFinder. Retrieved June 22, 2006, from Population Reference Bureau Web site: http://www.prb.org/datafind/datafinder7.htm. Post, N. (1996, January 15). Architects passi on is space between towers, not their height. Engineering News Record, 55. Post, N. (2005, October 31). Skys craper envy lives on, globally. Engineering NewsRecord, 255(17), 10-11. Post, N. (2006, September 11). Traffic, concrete deliveries, crowding are key concerns for WTC area. Engineering News-Record, 257(10), 30-31. Pridmore, J. (2002). Sears tower: A building book from the Chicago architecture foundation. Rohnert Park, CA: Pomegranate Communications, Inc. Reina, P., & Post, N. (1996, January 15). Malays ia cracks height ceiling as it catapults into future. Engineering News-Record, 36-54. Robison, R. (1994, July). Malaysias twins: High-ri se, high-strength. Civil Engineering, 63-65. Sabbagh, K. (1989). Skyscraper. London, United Kingdom: Macmillan London Limited. Spillane, J., & Pinch, L. (2004). 2004 top projects of interest. Construction Executive, 29-35. Starrett, W. (1928). Skyscrapers and the men who build them. New York, NY: Charles Scribners Sons. Stephens, S. (2004). Imagining ground zero: Official and uno fficial proposals for the world trade center site. New York, NY: Architectural Record. Sullivan, L. (1896, March). The tall office building artistically considered. Lippincotts Magazine. U.S. Department of State. (2002, August 15). Se ptember 11: Basic Facts. Retrieved June 5, 2006, from U.S. Department of State Web site: http://www.state.gov/co alition/cr/fs/12701.htm. USGBC. (2006). USGBC: Why Build Green? Retrieved June 30, 2006, from U.S. Green Building Council Web site: http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=291&. Wells, M. (2005). Skyscrapers: Structure and design. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Willis, C. (1995). Form follows finance New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Willis, C. (1998). Building the empire state. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. 133

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Yeang, K. (1996). The skyscraper bioclimatically considered: A design primer. London, United Kingdom: Academy Eds. Yeang, K. (2000). Service cores West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Academy. Yeang, K. (2002). Reinventing the skyscraper: A ver tical theory of urban design. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Academy. Zukowsky, J., & Thorne, M. (2000) Skyscrapers: The new millennium New York, NY: Prestel. 134

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brandon Thomas Moore was born in Biloxi Mississippi on September 27, 1982. Coming from a military family Brandon moved around the nation and the world. After Mississippi, the Moore family moved to Bitburg, Germany. Then to San Bernardino, California; and finally settled into the Tampa Bay area. In Tampa Bay Brandon attended Countryside High School where he graduated Summa cum Laude and was captain of th e basketball team. After high school, Brandon attended the only place he applied, the University of Florida, and chose a concentration in building construction. In that time Brandon also joined Lambda Chi Al pha fraternity and has remained an active and faithful brother throughout his college career. Brandon graduated Summa Cum Laude with a Bachelor of Science in Building Construction in May of 2006. Opting to participate in the combined degree program offered, Brandon grad uated in December 2006 with a Master of Science in Building Construction. Upon graduation it is Brandons sincere hope an d desire to construct and manage the erection of Americas tall buildings. In late December Brandon will move to Las Vegas, Nevada to begin his career constructing the tall buildings and casinos of The Strip. Ultimately, Brandon wishes to return someday after years of field experience to the University of Florida and earn a Doctor of Philosophy in Building Construction and spend the remainder of his days teaching tomorrows builders. 135


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Title: On the Skyscraper As a Building Type in an Era of Uncertainty, Globalization and Environmentalism
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Title: On the Skyscraper As a Building Type in an Era of Uncertainty, Globalization and Environmentalism
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Copyright Date: 2008

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ON THE SKYSCRAPER AS A BUILDING TYPE INT AN ERA OF UNCERTAINTTY,
GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTALISM

















By

BRANDON THOMAS MOORE


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE INT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Brandon Thomas Moore


































To Colonel William Aiken Starrett, a true master builder and skyscraper man who gave all he
had to the Empire State Building.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first like to thank my high school basketball coaches Mr. Randall Leath and

Mr. David Thorpe; and the brothers of Lambda Chi Alpha, both alumni and undergraduate, for

making me the man I am today. I would also like to thank Dr. Abdol Chini, Dr. Charles Kibert,

and Dr. Robert Stroh for serving on my supervisory committee. I thank the M.E. Rinker Sr.

School of Building Construction faculty and staff for truly caring about the welfare of their

students. Lastly, I thank my mother, who has always been there.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .........__. ............ ...............4......


LI ST OF T ABLE S ........._.._... ...............8...._.._........


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............10....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 1 1..


CHAPTER


1) INTRODUCTION ................. ...............12.......... ......


September 11, 2001 .............. ...............12....
Problem Statement ................. ...............14.................

Scope and Limitations .............. ...............15....
Scope .............. ...............15....
Limitations ................. ...............20.................

Layout ................. ...............23.................


2) LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............25................

Stone to Steel .............. .. ...............25...
What is a Skyscraper? ............ ...............26.....
The Great Chicago Fire .............. ...............27....
From Bridges to Buildings .............. ...............28....
The First Skyscraper............... ...............2
Social factors ................ ...............30.................
Economic factors ................. ...............31.................
Technological innovation ................. ...............32.................
Chicago to New York .................. ............ ...............35.....
The First World's Tallest Anything .............. ...............36....
The World' s Tallest Heads East ................. ...............36...............
The New York Era .................. ...............37................
New York City Skyward ................. ...............37.......... .....
Race into the Manhattan Sky .............. ...............40....
The New Challengers .............. ...............43....
The Asian Tiger ................. ...............46........... ....
Asian Trends s................ ...............46.................
The Petronas Shift .............. ................. ........................4
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) ................. .......__...........51
The Shift Continues .....__................. ...............53......
State of the Skyscraper ................. ...............55.......... ....
The Power of Proposal ................. ...............55.......... ....
The World' s Tall Buildings ................. ...............57........... ...












The Sustainable Skyscraper ................. ...............61........... ....
The Numbers for Going Green ............... ... ...............62.......... ....
The Energy of the Built Environment ................. ...............62...............
City or Country............... ...............64
Skyscraper as a Space Saver .............. ...............65....
Sky scraper Sustainable Sy stem s ................ ...............67........... ..
Passive Design............... ...............67.
Active Design ................. ...............73.................
The Ecology of the Skyscraper ................. ...............75........... ...
Current Sustainable Tall Buildings .............. ...............76....
Burj Dubai and Beyond .............. ...............80....
Skyscraper Cities of Tomorrow. ................. ............... 1.............
Indian Shift ............ ............ ............... 1....
Chinese Games ............ ............ ...............82....
Ultra Modern Skyscrapers ................. ...............83....... ......
The Race Continues ............ ............ ...............85...

Liquid Gold Structures ................ ...............85........... ....
Up and Coming .............. ...............87....
The Story of Lower Manhattan ................... .......... ...............88.....
Towers 2, 3, 4 and 7 World Trade Center ................. ...............88.............
The Freedom Tower ................. ...............89........... ....


3) METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS ................ ...............103...............

The Public Opinion of Skyscrapers and the Downtown Environment ................. ...............103
Tampa, Florida ............... ...............104...
Skyscraper Sample Size .............. ...............104....
Execution of the Protocol ................. ...............105......... .....

Skyscraper Protocol Question Analysis .............. ...............106....
Question 1: Are they safe? ............ ...............106.....
Question 2: Are they beautiful? ............ ...............107.....
Question 3: Are they a threat? ................ ...............108........... ..
Question 4: Downtown? ................ ...............108................
Question 5: Suburbia? ........_.. ............_ ........._........._.._......_._.109
Question 6: Are they memorable? ....._._.__ ..... .___. .....___ ............0
Question 7: Are they proud icons? .........._.... ....___ ....__._ ...........1
Question Overview ........._...... ......___ ...............110...
Downtown versus Suburban Viewpoints ........._._.......___. ......_ ...........11
Protocol Limitations and Improvements ........._.. ........._ ....___.. ..........12


4) FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION ................. ..............................122

Findings ................. ........... ...............122......
Future Study Suggestions ................. ...............123................
The Final State of the Skyscraper ................. ...............126..............

APPENDIX: PROTOCOL INFORMED CONSENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE ......................129













REFERENCES .............. ...............130....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............135......... ......











LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1-1: Buildings Over 1,300 Feet............... ...............24..

1-2: Skyscrapers Constructed in the World 1996-2000, 2002-2006............... ...............2

1-3: Skyscrapers Constructed in the United States 1996-2000, 2002-2006 ................. ...............24

2-1: Building Height and Percentage Return on Investment .............. ...............91....

2-2: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in the United States of America ................. ............... ...._..91

2-3: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in China .............. ...............92....

2-4: Average Percentage of Buildings Worldwide per 60 years. ....._____ ... ......_ ..............92

2-5: Average Percentage of Buildings Worldwide per Decades ...........__... ......... ........._..92

2-6: List of World' s Tallest Buildings Past and Present. .....____. .......__. .......__...........93

2-7: Top Ten World' s Tallest Buildings ................. ...............93........... ..

2-8: World's Tallest Buildings Per Continent .............. ...............93....

2-9: World's Tallest Buildings per Categories .............. ...............94....

2-10: United States Top Ten Skyscraper Cities versus Population .............. .....................9

2-11: China Top Ten Skyscraper Cities versus Population ................. ...............94...........

2-12: Worldwide Top Ten Skyscraper Countries versus Population............... ...............9

2-13: Worldwide Top Ten Skyscraper Countries versus GDP ................. .......... ...............95

2-14: Comparative Population Densities Around the Globe .............. ...............96....

2-15: Urban versus Rural World Populations ................. ...............96........... .

2-1 6: Developing and Developed Nati ons Urb an versus Rural Concentrati ons ................... .........97

2-17: Current World' s Top Ten Populated Countries. .....__.....___ ..........__ ..............97

2-18: World's Top Ten Populated Countries in 2050............... ...............98..

2-19: GDP Trends 2010-2030 in Trillions............... ...............9

2-20: Current Skyscraper Rank versus Population and GDP .............. ...............98....











2-21: Emporis Skyscraper Award Winners ........... ......_ ...............99

2-22: Tallest Buildings Currently Under Construction................ .............9

2-23: Future Top Ten World' s Tallest Building List ......_.__ .... ....__ .. ...._._.......0

3-1: Protocol Question and Answer Distribution ................. ...............115.............

3-2: Protocol Question and Answer Percentage Distribution ................. .......... ...............115

3-3: Chi Squared Testing for Protocol 1 and 2, 4 and 5 Question and Answer Distribution ......116

3 -4: Chi-Squared Testing for Question Four Difference Distribution............. ..._.........__ ...117











LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1: Skyscraper Gross Floor Area Comparison ......___ .... ...._.._ ...............100..

2-2: High-rises per Continent. ..........._..._ ...............101..._.._ .....

2-3: Number of Top 100 World's Tallest Buildings per Country .............. .....................101

2-4: Top Ten High-Rise Cities in the World .............. ...............102....

3-1: Protocol Question 1 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............118.

3 -2: Protocol Question 2 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............118..

3-3: Protocol Question 3 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............119..

3 -4: Protocol Question 4 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............119..

3-5: Protocol Question 5 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............120..

3-6: Protocol Question 6 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............120..

3-7: Protocol Question 7 Distribution ..........._...__........ ...............121..

3-8: Protocol Question and Answer Percentage Distribution ....._.__._ ... ......__ ...............121









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

ON THE SKYSCRAPER AS A BUILDING TYPE INT AN ERA OF UNCERTAINTY,
GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTALISM

By

Brandon Thomas Moore

December 2006

Chair: Abdol R. Chini
Major Department: Building Construction

As a nation looked on, both One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center fell

from their lofty heights on September 11, 2001. After that attack, and the destruction of such

famous skyscrapers, there was fear and speculation that there would be nearly a moratorium on

tall buildings and their construction. Today however, more skyscrapers are being built than ever

previously known in the history of the world. Why has the skyscraper continued to be the

building type of choice for many developers and owners in the face of terrorism? Is the public

view of the skyscraper as optimistic as that of the developers and owners of these tall buildings?

The economical, social, and cultural aspects of the skyscraper must be taken into consideration

when asking why one builds tall. Further, the skyscraper is now a building not only of America,

but also of the world. The skyscraper is also now becoming increasingly environmental in

today's concern with sustainability and green building. Our study explained and synthesized the

economical, social, and cultural aspects of skyscrapers through the building type's storied history

versus the owner's impetus to build tall and the public's willingness to embrace such structures

in uncertain times. We also examined the developments and future of skyscrapers in foreign

markets. Finally, we analyzed the growing field of sustainable skyscrapers and possibilities for

the future of tall green structures.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

September 11, 2001

On September the 11Ith, 2001, the world as Americans knew it was changed forever. At

8:46 a.m. that fateful morning American Airlines flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the

World Trade Center in New York City. What seemed initially to be a horrific accident, turned

into a deliberate and premeditated attack as United Airlines flight 175 ripped through the South

Tower of the World Trade Center at 9:03 a.m., a mere 17 minutes after the initial North Tower

collision. Since both planes were bound for a transcontinental destination in Los Angeles, they

carried thousands of gallons of highly flammable j et fuel that became the source of a raging

inferno in both One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center. With the combination of

missing columns that were taken out by the planes, and the softening or weakening of the steel

supports that supported each floor from the intense heat of the jet fuel fires, the Twin Towers

were terminally ill and bound to fail explosively.

At 10:05 a.m., Two World Trade Center disintegrated before the eyes of the world. A

1,362 foot tall iconic building that took 7 years (1966-1973) to build was reduced to shards of

rubble in just a few seconds (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Thousands of tons of steel, glass,

concrete and other materials were pulverized, instantly trapping and crushing nearly all of the

people that remained in the building. Dust clouds blew down lower Manhattan turning day into

night and causing thousands to flee running through the streets of the nation' s and the world' s

business capital. The 1,368 foot One World Trade Center soon followed suit as it too fell at

10:28 p.m. in an equally terrible and awful display. Thousands of tons of what once was a

beautiful piece of modern architecture now were deadly pieces of debris.









When the dust finally settled, and the events at the Pentagon and in Pennsylvania were

finished, 3,056 people from 90 different countries had lost their lives (U.S. Department of State,

2002). Most of those who perished were at the World Trade Center, where 2,823 people were

buried in the tangled ruins that once were the tallest buildings in the world and quintessential

symbols of America' s fiscal strength and world power (U. S. Department of State, 2002). In

addition to the Twin Towers, a third building, 7 World Trade Center, also collapsed at 4: 10 p.m.

due to effects of its collapsed neighbors, but fortunately the building had been evacuated and no

casualties resulted therefore. In the end a total of 3,301 feet and 267 floors of skyscraper vertical

space had been erased from the Manhattan skyline (Emporis Buildings, 2006).

It was a moment in the United States of America' s and the world' s history that will be

remembered for generations. It is the type of moment that those who were alive during its

unfolding will remember and tell to their children as they grow older much like when President

John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas or when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on

December 7, 1941. You knew where you were and what you were doing as you saw those

planes hit and saw the tallest skyscrapers in the world's greatest city ripped from the sky.

Americans across the nation were tuned in at home, in the conference room, in the cafeteria. All

at once the world had been turned upside down and terrorists with planes were destroying those

things we believed to be safe, things we believed would be there day in and day out as we went

about our lives. All that remained of these once proud civic symbols was rubble and ruins. The

space in lower Manhattan was replaced only by emotional heartache and the jagged shrapnel of

the bottom floors of the tubular structure of the World Trade Center.

Many questions rose out of the wreckage September 11Ith left behind. Who had carried out

these treacherous acts? What would the United States response be? Was it safe to fly? What









terrorist protection would be in place to prevent future attacks? Fear and hysteria were at a

maximum and the questions about security in America were many. A question that perhaps was

not necessarily at the forefront of America' s mind was the future of the skyscraper as a building

type in a post-9/11 world. Could a building type that was synonymous with such a public, tragic

event survive?

Problem Statement

Initially following the collapse of the Twin Towers, there was uncertainty about the tall

building in America and in the world. Would there be an initial moratorium on skyscrapers with

the fear of further extreme terrorist attacks? Would developers take the chance to build tall?

Further, would renters and employees now feel comfortable living or working in a skyscraper?

As the fifth anniversary of September 11Ith passes not only is the skyscraper alive and well, but

the tall building in America and in the world is thriving. High-rises are being erected in greater

numbers than ever before, and at heights and complexities that surpass any on this earth (Post,

2005). In fact, currently under construction there are 132 buildings over 650 feet tall,

37 buildings over 950 feet tall and impressively 10 buildings over 1,300 feet tall (CTBUH

Database, 2006). Having 10 buildings currently under construction that are over 1,300 feet is an

astounding fact since there are currently only 6 buildings over that height, those buildings are

listed in table 1-1. Moreover, more skyscrapers than ever before are also being proposed and

will soon dot the skylines of the world (Post, 2005).

Table 1-2 shows that in the 5 years before September 11Ith and the five years following

September 11Ith the skyscraper as a building type in the world has grown exponentially. Nearly

double the skyscrapers have been or are scheduled to be completed for the years 2002 to 2006 as

compared with the number that were built from 1996 to 2000. The United States accounts for a

good portion of the world's building of these high-rise structures. Table 1-3 displays that during










the years 2002 thru 2006 the United States put into place 1,334 skyscrapers which is more than

double the 593 skyscrapers put into place from 1996 to 2000. Also, table 1-3 conveys that of all

the skyscrapers built in the world, the United States accounted for an average 10. 16% of them

from 2002 up to and including 2006. In contrast, from 1996 until 2000 America accounted for

only 8.37% of the world' s tall buildings. It is important to point out that buildings that were

already under construction or in the final stages of planning up to September 11Ith WOuld be

completed regardless of the terrorist attacks since financing, drawings and parties are all secured.

Therefore, the numbers for 2002 thru 2006 do contain buildings that were obviously not halted

and completely stopped permanently. Nevertheless, the data shows that skyscrapers really did

not cease or even suffer a depression as being a viable option for designers, developers and

owners.

So why in the face of terrorism and uncertainty has the tall building in America and the

world done so well? Why continue to build tall when the worst has truly happened? What

factors are incorporated into building tall and building skyscrapers? Does the public react with

the same zeal, enthusiasm and optimism that developers and owners obviously have in

constructing, working and living in and around these structures? Where are the world's tall

buildings being conceived and built? What development is there of sustainable skyscrapers?

What does the future entail for the skyscraper? Is the skyscraper' s longevity realistic in an ever

changing, increasingly populated, increasingly dense, terrorist stricken world?


Scope and Limitations

Scope

The skyscraper as a building type involves a wide range of topics, people, technologies and

influences. It is the intention of this work to not cover the gamut of all the possible









considerations and angles to research and construct the skyscraper but rather to provide a concise

explanation of the building from a historical, present and future standpoint. This work will begin

with a historical look at the tall building, what constitutes a high-rise and the factors that

influenced its creation. Technological innovation pertinent to the erection of the first skyscrapers

and its continued success will include brief overviews of structural steel members, elevators,

communications, foundations and interior lighting. By no means will this overview be a treatise

on every technical and mechanical aspect of these systems. In essence the skyscraper as a static

structure will be examined and the initial steel skeleton concept will be discussed. Skyscraper

focus then shifts from Chicago to New York where the race for the world's tallest building

begins. Throughout, social, economical and cultural factors will be discussed to include

financial prosperity or recession influences, ego and awe of the public. Historical timelines will

be developed to record technological progress and the world's tallest building status as the years

pass. The pride, finances and power associated with the world's tallest building cannot be

ignored when looking at skyscrapers. Therefore, specific case studies of the world's tallest

buildings will include

* Masonic Temple
* Park Row Building
* Singer Building
* Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower
* Woolworth Building
* Chrysler Building
* Empire State Building
* One World Trade Center
* Sears Tower
* Petronas Towers 1 and 2
* Taipei 101

The Chicago based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat rules for measuring the

world's tallest are important in determining the world rankings and thus will be presented.










Accompanying research into the world's tallest buildings will be a look into the "Asian Tiger"

communities of the Far East and the shift in skyscraper construction that has accompanied their

purchasing power and population dominance. The global use of the skyscraper will be discussed

within the realm of the countries constructing or having already completed some of the world' s

tallest buildings to include

* China
* Malaysia
* Taiwan
* United Arab Emirates
* United States of America

The percentage of the world' s skyscrapers each year will be analyzed along side the rate of

skyscraper construction during recessions and booms in respective parts of the world. Global

population statistics and gross domestic product comparisons with skyscraper counts in countries

throughout the world will be plotted against one another as well and results will be inferred.

The work will then reach the present state of the skyscraper in today's modern world. An

up to date historical timeline will be finalized. Tabulations will be made for skyscraper counts in

the top countries of each geographical region using the Emporis online database. These regions

include

* Asia
* North America
* Europe
* South America
* Oceania
* Africa

These tabulations will then be cross-referenced with current population and gross domestic

product data using the Population Reference Bureau and the CIA' s World Factbook. Tallest

buildings according to categories and per continent will also be presented.









As architecture, engineering and construction progress and advance so too has the

complexity of the skyscraper. The days of the "glass box" are numbered if not extinct and

several buildings challenge the limit of design and structure. Complex buildings to be reviewed

include

* Burj Dubai
* Central Chinese Television Building
* Hearst Building
* Turning Torso
* Taipei 101
* Swiss Re Headquarters
* Burj Al Arab
* Bank of China

A caveat to structural and aesthetic complexity is the symbolism accompanied with many

modern buildings including the use of local architectural influences and customs. However,

symbolism in a skyscraper is not a new endeavor and as such past examples of the skyscraper as

a symbol or adorned with symbols will be considered. Today's examples of symbolic

skyscrapers and their influence will further be addressed.

The demands on the earth increase year after year as more is built, more are born and

more is consumed. Sustainability and its position within the skyscraper cannot be excluded in

any discussion of the future of high-rise buildings. Inherent sustainability and the future of the

tall building as the answer to the need for denser populations and more condensed city

environments is paramount to the survival of habitable life on this planet. The creation of

vertical space when the horizontal space runs out will be accompanied by a number of systems,

materials and devices which must have the least amount of impact on the earth while still

providing a sound, safe, pleasing environment in which to live, work and play. The inner

workings of passive and active sustainable systems will be reviewed along with case studies of










buildings that already include sustainable practices. These buildings primarily include

* Bank of America Tower
* Hearst Building
* Swiss Re Headquarters
* The New York Times Building
* The Solaire
* Commerzbank

Aside from components of individual building systems such as the envelope, energy use

and building materials, a large portion of this section will be concerned with the world' s

population growth and the how the smaller footprint of the skyscraper and close proximities will

allow for more sustainable lifestyles. Only select systems and their implementation will be

covered in the context of a blanket look at sustainable skyscrapers in place and in theory.

Sustainable skyscrapers are certainly the future of the downtown environment, but what else is

on the horizon for the high-rise?

The correlating portion of this work will concern itself with possible future aspects of the

tall building in the world. First off, the population proj sections of certain high-rise heavyweight

countries will be computed and opinions drawn on their high-rise count in the future. The

proj ected world population and urban versus rural lifestyles will also be shown and further

conclusions shall be drawn. Who are the up and coming countries in skyscraper building?

Which countries might possibly have exponentially more high rises than they currently do?

What type of structures can be expected and to what heights? In relation to the previous question

important future high-rise buildings will also be analyzed to include

* Burj Dubai
* Freedom Tower
* Fordham Spire

As previously stated, more skyscrapers are currently under construction and more are

being proposed than ever before (Post, 2005). There is an obvious enthusiasm for high-rises









within owners and developers who employ like-minded architects and engineers who in turn

build taller, more complex and more powerful structures. But what about the businesses, clients,

employees and residents that work, live and play around these structures? Are they concerned

about possible future terrorism? Do they prefer the downtown environment as opposed to the

suburban environment? Do they even like the look of a skyline? Can they even identify these so

called "symbols" of commerce and strength? Are they as proud of tall building innovation and

feats as those who are personally involved and instrumental to the completion of tall structures?

These questions need to be answered in order to draw conclusions about the high-rise as a

building type. However, it does seem that the downtown urban lifestyle will become more and

more the norm rather than the exception and suburban living will become the luxury. A protocol

entitled The Public Opinion of Skyscrapers and the Downtown Environment sought out to

answer just those questions about what the public and what the users of skyscraper construction

had to say about the tall building and its surroundings. The protocol took place in the city of

Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. and therefore results are solely limited to members of that region. It did

provide insight into the American average psyche however and the results have been statistically

analyzed and displayed for use in conclusions about the popularity of the skyscraper in a terrorist

threatened and every shrinking world. Explanation and review of each question asked will be

conducted, along with conclusions drawn for each question and how that relates to what is

actually happening in the skyscraper world.

Limitations

As mentioned before, the work is not intended to be a complete and extensive guide to

designing, engineering or constructing a skyscraper. The numerous length and breadth of such a

topic is beyond the capabilities of such a limited volume of work. Within each skyscraper are

thousands of components, working with thousands of multiple other systems, designed by









thousands of others and constructed by thousands more. There are several quantitative features

mentioned within the work but primarily the work looks toward the qualitative aspects of why

the world is so enamored with building tall? Therefore, technical or mechanical workings of

systems and processes are not to be included. Also, the systems that govern the harmonious

being that is a skyscraper will not be dissected completely, if considered at all. Systems of

particular interest that will be excluded will be the fire safety, mass damping and wind

engineering of the building. These systems will be glazed over briefly but technical

consideration will not be given.

Upon the inception of the skyscraper there were several architects, engineers, contractors

and owners that helped further the idea of building tall. Their accomplishments are

commendable and vast, and provide the foundation by which we now are able to know the tall

buildings of the world. A few prominent figures have made their way into the work for

explanation purposes but the following is not intended to cover nor shall it attempt to cover the

countless men and women who have made the skyscraper what it is today. Current skyscraper

figures also will only be casually looked at to expound on the factors discussed in the lure and

lore of the skyscraper.

As with most construction endeavors the goal is to have an attractive return on investment.

However, there are problems created with building millions of square feet of office or residential

space if there is not a fervent demand for it. The work does not take into account depressing real

estate markets by skyscraper construction or any other real estate factors that are a resultant of

building tall.

Regardless of the "glass box" nickname given to many skyscrapers, architecture and

beautiful design do exist for tall buildings. The work does admire certain symbolic, complicated










and substantial architectural, engineering and construction feats within the building type of the

skyscraper but there will be no discussion of what type of architecture buildings represent such

as classical, post-modern etc... On that same note there will be no reference to supposed

"Chicago" or "New York" schools of skyscraper design. It is true that Chicago and New York

have had the most influence on the tall building but the work is not only about these two cities

and their buildings in America. Rather, the work attempts to look at the beginnings of the

skyscraper in Chicago and New York, which has now morphed into skyscrapers of the world.

For sustainable skyscrapers in this work the focus has been on the possible systems and

systems in place that can reduce energy and material consumption. The work is not intended to

look at the energy, materials and overall impact that high-rises have as compared to mid-rise or

low-rise buildings whether residential or commercial in nature. Rain water runoff, heat island

effects and air quality will not be a part of this study. In particular, elevator energy consumption

as an inhibitor to building tall versus building low is not a consideration. Further, employee and

resident quality of work space or living space as a qualitative aspect of high-rises is only briefly

mentioned. Indoor air quality, indoor lighting quality and detachment from the street and

outdoor environment issues also are not discussed. Lastly, life-cycles of the skyscraper is not

considered.

The work also does not encompass considerations for what could halt skyscraper

construction around the world aside from fiscal recessions. Telecommunications and

information technology as ways around building tall for concentrated business zones have

therefore also not been taken into account for the future of skyscrapers. A future for the

skyscraper in a terrorist afflicted world includes special design and engineering considerations to

ensure minimal damage and danger to the humans using skyscrapers. This study will not delve










into what is being done to "terror-proof' buildings and make them as safe as possible. The

associated cost and architecture accompanied with fortress-like buildings also will not be a

concern in this work.

The case studies and examples given are by no means the only examples of the type of

building factor in question. All systems and procedures discussed do not represent completely

the systems that go into a skyscraper. Those systems that are listed are also not the only options

for designers and engineers. The various options for foundations, structural steel designs,

concrete designs and other building options are far too many to explain in detail and therefore

have not been covered in depth. Moreover, numbers computed for 2006 include those buildings

currently under construction and scheduled to be completed in 2006.

Finally, cities other than Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. were not surveyed and therefore not

considered. The survey was limited to only those people present in downtown Tampa on August

14, 2006 and generally included the professional working force age range of Tampa area

residents.

Layout

An exhaustive literature review will be presented in Chapter 2 to expound on the

skyscraper' s history, present status and future possibilities. The review will discuss the

important factors that go into the skyscraper that still hold true through today such as social,

financial and cultural factors. Historical timelines, technological advances, global trends and

environmental impacts all will be analyzed and computed. Chapter 3 discusses the protocol: The

Public Opinion of Skyscrapers and the Downtown Environment, and how it was carried out.

Location, constituency, means and methods of the protocol all will be considered. Further, each

question given to the survey respondents will be mulled over and discussed. Possible

discrepancies and positive influences on the survey will also be prevalent. Suggestions for a









revamped survey also will be offered. Chapter 3 also provides the statistical analysis of the

survey data and what each question resultant was. Results will then be turned into conclusions

about the responses that the Tampa residents gave giving further insight into the future of the

skyscraper and its primary home, downtown. The final chapter 4 will provide a summary of the

data collected and analyzed through the protocol, databases and literature review. To represent

the work as a whole, several main points will be drawn. As the literature review was conducted,

and more and more data was looked at, several opportunities for future studies came about.

Therefore, recommendations for future research will accompany chapter 4 so that more facets of

such a complex building can be looked at, not only from a building construction standpoint but

possibly an architectural, engineering, business and even sociological stand point as well.

Table 1-1: Buildings Over 1,300 Feet
Building Height (ft) Height (m) Location Year
Taipei 101 1,671 509 Taipei, Taiwan 2004
Petronas Tower 1 1,483 452 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998
Petronas Tower 2 1,483 452 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998
Sears Tower 1,451 442 Chicao, Illinois, USA 1974
Jin Mao Tower 1,380 421 Shanghai, China 1998
Two International Finance 1,362 415 Hong Kong China 2003
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)

Table 1-2: Skyscrapes Constructed in the World 1996-2000, 2002-2006
Years Skyscraprs Built Averae Per Year
1996-2000 6,880 1,376
2002-2006 13,247 2,649
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.emporis. com/?nav=signin&1ng=3 (July 3 1, 2006)

Table 1-3: Skyscrapers Constructed in the United States 1996-2000, 2002-2006
Years Skyscrapers Built Average Per Year World %
1996-2000 593 119 8.37
2002-2006 1,334 267 10.16
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.empori s. com/?nav=signin&1ng=3 (July 3 1, 2006)









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Stone to Steel

There are perhaps no more historically significant items than the structures that each

civilization has chosen to surround themselves with. The pyramids of ancient Egypt, the temples

of the Mayans, the Great Wall of China, the Coliseum of Rome, all great structures that attract

millions each year. One would be hard pressed to think of ancient history and not remember the

types of buildings associated with time periods and human endeavors of the past. Church

structures such as Notre Dame and Cologne Cathedral taking hundreds of years and thousands of

hands exalting God and faith, spires stretching to reach the heavens as monuments of man's

devotion to religion and God's omnipresence so that all in the town and in the fields could see

(Ali and Armstrong, 1995). The pagodas, obelisks and minarets of Eastern civilizations shot

upward to mark relics and shrines of the past (Jencks, 1980). The urge to build tall, iconic

structures is an ancient aspect of man and man' s built environment.

Man looks at the world and wants to conquer. Conquer the land, sea and air. With

satellites and space shuttles man utilizes the air. With telescopes and observatories man explores

and expands the knowledge of our world. With parachutes and hang gliders man enjoys the air.

With large jumbo jets man defends and traverses our air. With derricks, cranes and lifts man

builds into the air. With elevators and stairwells man utilizes the air to live, work and play

vertically.

The tall structures of ancient worlds are strikingly similar to today's tall structures. Their

symbolism and reasoning of cultural, social and powerful contexts plays very well towards many

of today's same reasons that the world builds tall and will continue to build tall. In the same

spirit that the Pharaohs built the Sphinx or that the Tower of Babel was attempted, so too has the









tall building in modern society been built and conceived. Accordingly the cities of New York,

Hong Kong, Dubai and Taipei are the Athens, Rome, Cairo and Paris of yesterday. The

skyscraper will be remembered as the building of modern history and of an industrialized world.

Using steel where there was once stone and using air once again as a medium.

What is a Skyscraper?

Skyscraper, the word itself invokes images of the Empire State Building, the Sears Tower,

and the Bank of China. However, buildings need not be thousands of feet above the ground in

order to be termed a skyscraper or a high-rise. The varied definitions for a tall building are as

varied as the architecture and construction of these buildings. Perhaps one knows a skyscraper

when they see it. In science, only slightly more concrete definitions are given in the following.

Dating back to 1891 in Maitland's American Slang Dictionary, the earliest known

definition, a skyscraper is "a very tall building such as now are being built in Chicago" (Starrett,

1928). Equally vague is the prominent early skyscraper architect Louis Sullivan's definition of a

skyscraper.

"It must be tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of
exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer
exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line" (Sullivan,
1896).

The builder of the Empire State Building and The Manhattan Company Building, William A.

Starrett describes the skyscraper as "any tall building, implying a steel skeleton incased in a wall

that is merely a drapery" (Starrett, 1928). Means Illustrated Construction Dictionary defines a

high-rise as a "building having many stories and serviced by elevators" (Greene and Marchetti,

2000). A further definition by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat states that

A tall building is not defined by its height or number of stories. The important criterion is
whether or not the design is influenced by some aspect of "tallness." It is a building in










which tallness strongly influences planning, design, construction, and use. It is a building
whose height creates conditions different from those that exist in "common" buildings of a
certain region and period (Ali and Armstrong, 1995).

For the purpose of this work a skyscraper, tall building or high-rise will be defined in

accordance with the Emporis database definition of any building that is able to be occupied and

is over 12 stories in height. Within such a definition, structures such as the Eiffel Tower and the

Statue of Liberty are not considered. Currently, Emporis lists 107,948 buildings that have been

completed and are over the 12 story lower limit. Further, Emporis also lists a total of 129,879

buildings over 12 stories that are in one of the following categories

* Completed
* Under Construction
* Proposed
* Approved
* Never Built
* Demolished
* On Hold
* Under Reconstruction
* Visionary
* Under Demolition.


Emporis is a trusted name in the real estate and building industry. Its website and database made

in conjunction with help from the Council on Tall Building and Urban Habitat indexes the

world's buildings and thus is a credible source for skyscraper information (Emporis Buildings,

2006).

The Great Chicago Fire

The city of Chicago was founded in 1804, destroyed in 1812 by Native Americans and was

incorporated as a city in 1837 and today is the third largest city in America (Malden, 2006).

Lying on the banks of Lake Michigan with the Chicago River weaving throughout some of the

tallest buildings in the world; Chicago is where the skyscraper was conceived and born. But









where did the impetus to build tall come from, what were the underlying factors in going vertical

instead of horizontally within the city? It all began one fateful Sunday evening in 1871.

Near 9 p.m. on Sunday, October 8, 1871 in Patrick O'Leary's bamn located in an alley

behind 137 DeKoven Street a cow allegedly kicked over a lantern (Chicago Municipal Reference

Library, 2005). That small flicker of flame was the spark that would eventually ignite the entire

city of Chicago and engulf the heart of the city leaving only ruins. By 1:30 a.m. the fire had

jumped the river and the business district was ablaze (Chicago Municipal Reference Library,

2005). Following the business district, the fire headed north and continued to lay siege to the

city. Finally, by midnight on Monday the 9th, with the help of some rainfall the last flames were

extinguished (Chicago Municipal Reference Library, 2005). Much of the city at the time was

comprised of wooden-framed low level buildings and many so called "fireproof commercial

buildings (Douglas, 1996). Regardless of material, both types of buildings perished amidst the

ravaging fire. The Einal numbers were staggering; 300 Chicagoans dead, a third of the

population or roughly 90,000 left homeless and a damage estimate of $200 million dollars, an

enormous sum of money in that day (Chicago Municipal Reference Library, 2005).

At the time Chicago was a vibrant, young city, acting as a significant traffic, trading and

material hub for the Midwest and the entire country (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Chicago had to be

rebuilt and it had to be built in such a manner as to truly resist fire and prevent another disaster

from demolishing the city in its entirety. The primary building material relied on therefore was

steel, which was not a new material but was now being used in new applications (Douglas,

1996).

From Bridges to Buildings

Drawing inspiration from the bridge builders of the era, steel began to be implemented into

structures as a viable alternative to stone materials (Douglas, 1996). Sir Henry Bessemer, the










English engineer, had developed the technique known as the Bessemer process and steel had

been around since. The process involved blowing cold air through molten pig iron to decrease

carbon content and impurities. The result was a material that now had greater compression and

tension properties compared to wrought and cast iron (Bascomb, 2003). Also, the process made

steel more durable and resistant to fatigue and corrosion (Bascomb, 2003). Steel exhibits the

following properties

* Elastic: 22,000 pounds/ square inch
* Plastic: 36,000 pounds/ square inch
* Tension Failure: 45,000 to 60,000 pounds/square inch
* Compression: 30,000 pounds/ square inch


The compression property listed above is fifteen times greater than that of stone components

(Sabbagh, 1989). Therefore, with strong and stiff steel, buildings had the possibility to be

carried taller and taller without the restraints of load-bearing masonry construction. The upper

limit of masonry was in fact 16-stories demonstrated by the Monadnock Building in Chicago

(Starrett, 1928). However, with a tall masonry structure the base of the supporting masonry

walls had to be 6 feet thick while sacrificing window space and the ever-important rental floor

area (Sabbagh, 1989). Architects and engineers did attempt to lessen the sizes of these walls

with cast and iron reinforcement within masonry walls, but lack of tensile strength compromised

their long lasting structural integrity (Starrett, 1928). Thus, a new type of building was on the

horizon, one in which steel would be the sole means of support and strength.

The First Skyscraper

With the advent of steel shapes and forms, the dungeons of masonry structures of old

were no longer necessary. The skyscraper in comparison was actually well lit and airy. The

place was Chicago, the year was 1883, the man was the architect and engineer William LeBaron









Jenney and the building was the Home Insurance Building (Douglas, 1996). Jenney had the

impulse to take the dead load off of the masonry walls and place them solely on the structural

steel and iron components that made up the building (Starrett, 1928). After erection of the 6th

floor, Jenney was urged by the Phipps Steel Company out of Pittsburgh to use Bessemer type

steel beams for the remaining floors in replacement of the wrought-iron beams that made up the

first six stories (Starrett, 1928). Columns and beams were bolted together using angle-iron

brackets. Although the Home Insurance Building was by all means a humble building at a mere

10 stories in height with an additional 2 stories added on later, the resulting "cage design" or

steel "skeleton" was a tremendous breakthrough, one which has paved the way for today's high-

rises and world's tallest buildings (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Now that the exterior walls acted

only as a "curtain", large windows allowing the optimal amount of light in were possible. In

fact, using alternative or reduced amounts of traditional masonry materials, a savings of 15% on

normal building costs could be realized (Jencks, 1980) Also, the curtains were even capable of

being transformed to include no masonry or supporting structure at all. The first example of this

is in Ludwig Mies van der Rohe' s Lakeshore Drive Apartments in Chicago, completed in 1951

(Ali and Armstrong, 1995). They are the first high-rises to be covered completely in glass and to

define what we think of today as a true curtain wall.

Social Factors

Why build tall in the first place? Sure the technology was there and available but it was

only made possible or even thought about because there was a demand for tall structures. Where

did this demand come from? How did societal and population factors affect the advent of the

skyscraper and its use as a viable building type?

As Chicago grew, so too did the need for the tall building grow. Following the Civil War

that ended in 1865, Americans migrated in large numbers to large city centers such as New York









and Chicago (Douglas, 1996). Between 1870 and 1890 alone, Chicago grew from 298,977

people to a city of 1,098,570, a 367% increase (Douglas, 1996)! The central hub of the Midwest

with connections to the eastern seaboard needed more office space and more vertical space to

combat an ever-increasing population and concurrently an ever-increasing business sector.

Developers and owners saw a need and addressed it with multiple-storied buildings that were

bolstered by Jenney's new found design. It was not practical or feasible to go horizontally so

they instead went vertically.

Economic Factors

Cass Gilbert, the man who would be the architect behind the future world's tallest

building, the Woolworth Building in New York City, made the statement that the modern

skyscraper or high-rise was the "machine that made the land pay" (Willis, 1995). Escalating

land values, property taxes and renter demands to be in close proximity to downtown business

districts resulted in the growth vertically of city centers, particularly in Chicago who started with

a fresh landscape after the Great Fire of 1871 (Starrett, 1928). In order to get the appropriate

amount of return on investment, investors needed to build multiple stories of rentable floor area.

Basically, skyscrapers are the result of that surplus need for more rentable area to justify the

price of buying and building upon highly-valued land. It takes no hard reasoning to realize that a

ten story building can bring ten times as much revenue as a one story structure. As discussed

previously structural steel also allowed for more rentable area as opposed to bulky, costly

masonry installations. Figure 2-1 shows that with increased stories the gross floor area increases

incrementally, which allows for more rentable floor area. The figure represents a typical

midtown Manhattan office tower, 1.6 million square feet in size for rentable floor space with a

high central tower and setbacks.









It is a simple idea, build taller to offset land and development costs in order to increase

revenues and operating incomes. However, that is not to say that one should construct a building

into excess above the ground. There is a balance offset between building tall to recoup land and

associated expenses versus the design, engineering and construction costs of technically and

physically challenging buildings. That balance is termed the "economic height" of the

skyscraper (Clark and Kingston, 1930).

The true economic height of a structure is that height which will secure the maximum
ultimate return on total investment (including land) within the reasonable useful life of the
structure under appropriate conditions of architectural design, efficiency of layout, light
and air, "neighborly conduct", street approaches and utility services (Clark and Kingston,
1930).

Table 2-1 shows that as a buildings height increases and therefore the rentable floor area

increases, so does the return on investment up to a particular point. At 63 stories investors can

expect to receive a 10.25% actual return on investment on a typical midtown Manhattan high-

rise. As this number is surpassed and the number of stories increases, the construction costs also

increase and return on investment dwindles. In fact, at 131 stories it is evidenced that an investor

would actually receive no normal computed return on investment and lose money at -0.02%.

Once again, despite being an antiquated piece of literature the work still demonstrates that

financial benefit remains a paramount factor in the decision on how high to build.

Technological Innovation

It is very much true that Jenney's new design of placing the load of buildings onto

structural steel supports thus allowing curtain walls is of prime importance. However, it is also

important to note that several other systems were necessary to allow building to new heights.

Without steel, skyscrapers would not have been possible but without proper engineering and









technology they would not have been feasible or attractive as a building type. Of particular note

are the inventions of the elevator, telephone, modern foundation systems, air conditioning and

fluorescent lighting.

At the 1853 world's fair, Elisha Otis Graves unveiled a new invention, the first passenger

elevator with a safety device (Bascomb, 2003). This invention came 32 years prior to Jenney's

design with structural steel, but it allows for passenger movement well above the normal

carrying capacity of the human legs day in and day out. The practical limit for building even

masonry supported structures was six stories and rental rates amongst floors above the 3'dwrd

much lower (Starrett, 1928). Thus, the elevator allowed owners to build as tall as desired in a

safe manner and to a practical degree depending on the engineering at the time. As elevators

have evolved so too have the skyscrapers that embody them. Typically, with every new world' s

tallest building it seems that the world's fastest elevators follow within. In fact, the current

world's tallest building Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan house the world's fastest elevators which

travel at 3,281 feet per minute (Lepik, 2004).

Elevators are a complicated endeavor and require a separate design professional as a

specialist elevator consultant on the design team (Yeang, 2000). Different orientations of the

service core, elevator banks, sky lobbies, elevator zones and elevator systems must all be taken

into account. How many people are to be serviced and what can be done about congestion for

morning and work closing conditions? The elevator is the life blood for a tall building, for

without it the skyscrapers we know today would not be fathomable. The following is a brief

early historical timeline of the elevator

* 1853 Elisha Otis Graves unveils 1st safe passenger elevator (Bascomb, 2003)
* 1871 1st passenger elevator installed at 120 Broadway in New York City (Abramson,
2000)
* 1887 1st electric elevator in use










* 1904 1st gearless traction elevator installed
* 1924 Variable voltage elevator introduced allowing quick movement without j erking and
speeds of 1,100 feet per minute (Jencks, 1980)

The invention of the telegraph had made long distance communication possible for

business and company communication. However, Alexander Graham Bell's telephone invented

in 1876 was a breakthrough in local interpersonal communication. This invention meant that

coworkers and colleagues no longer needed to meet face to face (Wells, 2005). Even in the same

building, large and expansive buildings in particular, the telephone was a practical means of

communication that allowed for widespread offices even within very tall structures.

Underneath these mammoth structures lies an entire web of foundation systems that really

is a mega structure under a mega structure. A problem facing early skyscraper designers,

engineers and contractors was how the weight of the tall buildings was going to be transferred

into the ground which supported the structure. The esteemed architecture and engineering firm

of Burnham and Root in Chicago had an answer and implemented a steel grillage design that was

a reaction to the realization that former pyramid stone and cement structures were no longer

practical, nor were they feasible for such loads as were required under tall buildings (Starrett,

1928). Rail-road ties laid at right angles were embedded in concrete with steel I-beams at the

upper courses. In essence, The Rookery Building in Chicago was the first modern floating

foundation using Burnham and Root's design (Starrett, 1928). Today's foundations are now

filled with rebar and concrete which is very emblematic of foundations of old. The modern

foundations found under today's skyscrapers are decedents of the original answer to securing

high-rise buildings and include

* Pad foundations
* Deep foundations
* Raft foundations
* Caisson foundations









* Pile and raft foundations
* Pile, raft and slurry wall foundations

The air conditioner also changed the way that skyscrapers were built and where. After its

invention in 1939 by Willis Carrier in America natural means of ventilation and cool air were no

longer necessary (Abel, 2003). This provided the opportunity to design now without a further

restraint due to air. Now how were these large structures going to be lit? Outer offices and

locations were obviously no problem since they were in close proximity to windows. However,

inner spaces far from windows needed adequate lighting as well. Initially, these concerns were

met by light courts placed inside high-rises to allow light into all offices and into multiple sides

of the building. The invention of interior fluorescent lighting then allowed light into interiors not

near windows at all. The boundaries created by designing around natural lighting were no longer

prevalent and thus new structures with new architecture could be developed in the 1940's as this

technology was available (Willis, 1995). Recently, the modern skyscraper has gone back to a

policy of natural lighting as much as possible in a sustainably conscious world, but the

fluorescent light still abounds for cloudy days and night work shifts.

The design consideration was there, the technology was there and questions were no longer

if high-rise building was possible but rather how high and how fast? Building tall was now a

measure of resolve and owners took that resolve and started making skyscrapers at a feverous

pace. Where better to build tall than the great American cities of Chicago and New York?

Chicago to New York

Flying into O'Hare International Airport you see home after home and strip mall after strip

mall. But then the ground starts to swell and the buildings get taller and taller and the skyline

emerges. Names like Sears, John Hancock and ATandT extrude from the waters of Lake

Michigan. Currently housing America' s tallest building, the Sears Tower at 1,451 feet to its









structural top, Chicago is where the world first saw tall buildings being constructed (Emporis

Buildings, 2006). Beginning with William LeBaron Jenney's Home Insurance Building in 1885,

Chicago was an experimental think tank of innovation and invention for how to build tall. The

architects, engineers and contractors in Chicago at the time were developing new designs and

implementation techniques as fast as the buildings were being demanded, higher and higher and

higher still.

The First World's Tallest Anything

Seven years following the Home Insurance Building, the first building to be touted as the

world's tallest anything was built. This building was the Masonic Temple built in 1892

(Emporis Buildings, 2006). The "tallest commercial building" in the world started what has been

a heavily combated race ever since (Moudry, 2005). Prior to completion, the competing

organization of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, claimed that they were going to build not

only the world's tallest commercial building but the tallest building of any kind in the entire

world (Moudry, 2005). Once again, a precedent had now been set and the spectacle side of the

skyscraper was now coming to fruition. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in fact, like

many future world's tallest buildings, never realized their structure and thus the Masonic Temple

held the crown. It drew public attention and wonderment, which has only pervaded to this day

creating a public advertisement that had no equal.

The World's Tallest Heads East

The year after Chicago held the world's tallest commercial building, the city council

actually limited building height due to a recession in the real estate market. 1893 saw the height

limited to 130 feet, or around 10 to 11 stories (Willis, 1995). Such a limit would for sure doom

the future chances of Chicago to hold the world's tallest anything once New York approved

skeleton steel construction into their building code. As such, 1899 saw the definitive shift from









building the tallest in Chicago to New York. The Park Row Building completed in that year was

the first of many world' s tallest buildings to be completed in New York City. With it there

would be no question of tallest with a lantern, spire or other architectural detail. The title would

not return to Chicago for another 75 years. The restrictions on skyscrapers in Chicago put them

behind New York forever and as such Chicago has been America' s second city in skyscraper

construction and design regardless of the Sears Tower. Currently, New York City has nearly

five times as many skyscrapers with 5,053 as compared to Chicago's 1,050 tall buildings

(Emporis Buildings, 2006). True, New York is much more populated and contains the nation's

financial center, but perhaps that capacity came with the ability to construct tall structures

without severe restrictions. It is also true that lot sizes in Chicago were much larger than in New

York due to the Great Fire of 1871 and therefore going up was more practical and inevitable in

New York City (Willis, 1995).

The New York Era

Once the New York area got a hold of the skyscraper there was no stopping the massive

amount of tall building construction taking place in Manhattan. In 1890 there were 6 buildings

over 10 stories in New York, by 1908 there were 538 (Nash, 2005). In those 18 years tall

buildings in the city grew by nearly 900%! This count was taken at 10 stories but the number is

still staggering to acknowledge.

New York City Skyward

In that year 1908, another structure in New York was built that took the title of world' s

tallest building. The Singer Building built for the infamous sewing machine company was 612

feet, placing it 221 feet above the formerly world' s tallest Park Row Building (CTBUH

Database, 2006). It was a public exhibition this building of the world's tallest building. An

advertisement of the largest kind. For a few cents even, the public could get to the 40th flOOT Of









the Singer Building and look out over New York City (Lepik, 2004). But fame was fleeting for

the Singer Building and the following year in 1909, the 700 foot Metropolitan Life Insurance

Building took the title of world' s tallest building (CTBUH Database, 2006). It too was complete

with viewing tower on the 46th flOOr (Lepik, 2004). Insurance companies were widely expanding

and needed more office space to house their large work forces following the trend that

skyscrapers were a response to business needs (Ali and Armstrong, 1995). These large structures

not only served a practical purpose, but also served as a positive attribute of wealth and security

(Abramson, 2000). Constructing the world's tallest building was also a prime way to get free

advertising into the public eye to attract possible new customers.

It was not only the heights of these structures that were attractive, but also the romantic

fervor emanating from large, symbolic structures such as the Flatiron Building of 1902. The

building was originally the Fuller Building, but with a stark resemblance to a flat-iron the

building has taken on a more suitable name (Nash, 2005). Other buildings with symbolic

elements placed into them included the American Radiator Building of 1924 and the City Bank

Farmers Trust Building of 193 1. The American Radiator Building was made of black brick so

that when the lights were on in the inside at night it glowed to convey the metaphor for home

heating that the company was involved in (Nash, 2005). The City Bank Farmers Trust Building

on the other hand contained the 14 giants of finance at the 19th flOOr setback. Each giant

alternated smiling and frowning to portray the business cycles of bust and boom (Abramson,

2000). Also, numerous famous building competitions were taking place to generate publicity

and public involvement. Two notable competitions were the New York Times Building

competition of 1913 and the Chicago Tribune competition of 1922. These sparked publicly

celebrated events and people skied the building as soon as possible to get a glimpse of the view









they offered. For the Chicago Tribune competition alone 263 architecture proposals were

received (Abel, 2003). The architects were to design the world's greatest building for the

"World' s Greatest Newspaper", an indication of the symbolic nature that the Chicago Tribune

was after as an icon for their newspaper.

As the public became enraptured, so too did developers and building owners. Frank W.

Woolworth the self-made millionaire of the popular Hyve-and-dime stores wanted a structure to

go above all others. The answer was the 1913 Woolworth Building. It was a symbol of

Woolworth's fiscal strength and business success over the years. For its completion Woolworth

even paid 13.5 million dollars in cash for his building which was quickly nicknamed the

"Cathedral of Commerce" (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The 792 feet were not necessarily a

financial consideration or a true real-estate transaction, but rather a testament to the influence of

ego and power within the skyscraper. Woolworth was supposed to have said to make it 50 feet

taller than the Metropolitan Life Building which had denied him a much needed bank loan years

prior, he succeeded by 92 feet instead but the message had been sent (Lepik, 2004). The

construction and completion of the building was such a tremendous national affair that President

Woodrow Wilson turned on the lights himself on April 24, 1913 to be an ornament of the city of

New York (Lepik, 2004). Of course the building also had its own viewing platform on the 55th

floor, open to the public (Lepik, 2004). The competition for world's tallest was heating up and

the attractive nature of building tall for space, notoriety and power was taking hold.

Skyscraper after skyscraper continued to be raised and at such a pace that there grew

concerns with air quality and illumination for the streets below. The Equitable Building was a

behemoth twin towered structure that is said to have caused the 1916 New York zoning law to be

enacted (Moudry, 2005). This zoning allowed one-fourth of the lot to be unlimited in height and









the rest to be setback accordingly, resulting in a "wedding cake" look (Willis, 1995). Some of

New York's most famous and powerful skyscrapers were about to be constructed under this

setback zoning law.

Race into the Manhattan Sky

Following World War l a young America was out to prove itself and its prosperity, what

ensued has been termed the "roaring 20's". The tallest buildings typically occur at the end of

large economic or real-estate booms. One such boom was the "roaring 20's", which ended in the

Great Depression that began in October, 1929 and whose effects were truly felt by 1930 (Willis,

1998). The peak that accompanied this race into the sky occurred in August, 1929 right in the

middle of planning, designing and constructing the buildings that challenged for the world's

tallest (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003). Prior to that catastrophic economic

downturn however, a race for the world' s tallest building ensued, the likes of which have not

been replicated. There were three runners each with a sincere belief and determination to be the

world's tallest building regardless of all comers. These three buildings were the Manhattan

Company Building, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building all completed within

the same time period. Today, they still stand as three of the four tallest buildings in New York

City (Emporis Buildings, 2006). But how did they get there?

Initially, there were two buildings in the race for the world's tallest; the Manhattan

Company Building and the Chrysler Building. The architects for each building, H. Craig

Severance and William Van Alen, were once successful partners from 1914 till 1925 who had a

rather harsh falling out and now were competitors not only for work but also for the title of

world's tallest (Bascomb, 2003). The owners were both wealthy businessmen. Walter P.

Chrysler was another self-made millionaire whose car company had become one of the top three









car companies in America at the time. The developer of the Manhattan Company Building,

George Ohrstrom, was termed the "boy wonder" of Wall Street and set out with Starrett Brothers

and Eken to build not only the world's tallest building but to build it within one year.

The Chrysler Building was a testament to the company's wealth, success and prosperity.

Brick mosaics included cars, metallic elements dotted the exterior, the interiors were emblematic

of the modern automobile and above all it was to be the world' s tallest building towering over

the 26-story General Motors building (Bascomb, 2003). Now, the Manhattan Company Building

may have lacked ornamental symbolism, but it was nevertheless to be the tallest building in the

world and not only that, it was to be constructed at a break neck speed. Its green copper top is

today an identifiable symbol in the lower Manhattan skyline.

The papers and the public followed each step closely but before the race could be any

further underway a new player entered the arena. The Empire State Building was announced by

a team of former governor Alfred Smith and John Raskob, the head of General Motors. Now the

race was three pronged and featured car companies, opposing design professionals and a place

for only one to take the crown of world' s tallest. Since the Chrysler Building had begun in 1928

and the Manhattan Company Building had begun in 1929 they were ahead of the Empire State

Building which began in 1930 (CTBUH Database, 2006).

As the first two reached completion it appeared that the Manhattan Building would beat

out the Chrysler Building. However, not to be done by boundaries of money or material

Chrysler and Van Alen set out to make a new design, a secret design to finish the top of the

Chrysler building and overtake the Manhattan Company Building. Van Alen is quoted as saying

"if this is to be a skyscraper, why not make it scrape the sky" (Bascomb, 2003)? So that is what

they set out to do, and after a redesign in secret, Chrysler and Van Alen had a plan to overtake









Severance and Ohrstrom and hopefully take care of the Empire State Building' s future height

competition. The Manhattan Building was topped out and proclaimed the world's tallest

building in all the papers and on the tongues of New Yorkers. However, the Chrysler team

remained quiet and thereafter raised their secret nirosta covered obelisk that had been

constructed within the upper portion of the building away from view (Bascomb, 2003). On

October 16, 1929 the Chrysler Building was officially the world' s tallest building without

question...for now at least.

What about the Empire State Building and its endeavors? Originally, the structure was to

be just under 1,000 feet tall (Willis, 1998). With the new tip of the Chrysler Building at 1,046

feet why not just go that much taller and become the tallest building in the world (Emporis

Buildings, 2006)? The design was changed to a 1,050 foot building with a mooring mast of 200

feet for zeppelins (Willis, 1998). Would this add to the economical value of the building, would

this mast ever really be used by zeppelins? The answer is no and as such the ego and pride factor

of building tall is evidenced. When the men building and purchasing the building were that close

to being the world's tallest how could they turn away from such a feat? Raskob was particularly

perturbed that the United States still had no structure that was taller than the Eiffel Tower in

Paris, France (Bascomb, 2003). This mindset followed the American builder mindset of

outdoing, out designing and out building the old world of Europe. So they went forward,

completing the building in record time with record feats, including finishing the structural steel

in 11 months (Willis, 1998). The Empire State Building rose as quickly as both the Manhattan

Company Building and the Chrysler Building despite being twice the size (Willis, 1998). At the

point when the contracts were first signed with the architects in 1929 to when the building was

opened May 1, 1931 there had spanned only 21 months (Willis, 1998). From the original 80 to









85 stories planned to the 102 stories completed, the Empire State Building was termed the

"Eighth Wonder of the World" (Empire State Building, 2006). It was a pinnacle of American

endeavor, service, hard work and grit. In the 75 years since the opening of the building in 193 1,

117 million people have visited its observation deck (Empire State Building, 2006). In the first

year alone, one million dollars came from observation deck fees, which equaled the amount

generated from the rent in that year (Willis, 1998). The builder, Starrett Brothers and Eken,

received the title of world' s tallest in the Empire State Building that was not realized within the

Manhattan Company Building project. Colonel William Aiken Starrett who passed away shortly

after finishing the building perhaps sums up best the reason New York and America grew up

quickly in the early 20th century.

We Americans always like to think of things in terms of bigness; there is a romantic appeal
in it, and into our national pride has somehow been woven the yardstick of bigness.
Perhaps that is one of the reasons why we are so proud of our structures; they are big, very
big, certainly the tallest and certainly the most complex and the most compelling the world
has ever seen. They fairly personate the hustle and bustle of our modern accomplishment
and postulate our ideal of efficiency, and they are our national pride because they are so
completely American. So the bigness of the business as a whole we enj oy gasping over.

-Colonel William A. Starrett

The New Challengers

With the onset of the Great Depression finally hitting the finances of construction and

lenders, it would be 41 years before another world's tallest building took the place of the Empire

State Building. America would resume building tall after World War II but the tallest skyscraper

construction still would occur around peaks of business cycles such as the peak in 1973

(National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003). The desire to build tall is inherent as discussed

before, and building tall remains dormant for only so long. For too long the United States and

the world had not constructed a new world's tallest, a building that defied nature and that drew

the attention of the public.









One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center were the final world's tallest

buildings to be located in New York City. Awe-inspiring, aluminum supports adorned the

exterior and it shone like a lighthouse indicating their position in lower Manhattan as the shining

star above the world' s business capital. The story of their demise is well known, but their birth

and life were tremendous achievements. On a given business day as many as 200,000 visitors

came to the buildings and the buildings themselves held 500 businesses compromising 50,000

employees (Stephens, 2004). It was a city thrown up vertically into the sky.

In the heated world' s tallest races of the early 20th century no one building lasted very long

as the world's tallest until the Empire State Building. In that fashion One World Trade Center

being just 6 feet above Two World Trade Center at 1,368 feet lasted only about 2 years as the

world's tallest building (CTBUH Database, 2006). Alas, Chicago reclaimed its title of having

the world's tallest building with the Sears Tower in 1974 (Emporis Buildings, 2006). An icon

among icons, the Sears Tower was built by the mighty Sears Roebuck Company and remains the

tallest building in America and ruled the world from 1974 until 1998, a period of 24 years. On a

clear day there were views of four states; Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan (Pridmore,

2002). The Sears Tower has become not only a symbol of the fiscal strength of Sears or of

Chicago, but also a symbol of the entire Midwest. The Sears Tower sets itself apart

magnificently and is inseparable from the city of Chicago. The designer and structural engineer

Fazlur Khan who also designed another significant building in the John Hancock Center was

concerned with making the buildings he created human (Ali, 2001). High-rises have tremendous

human appeal. They inspire and demonstrate the ultimate strength and reaches of human

existence and so there is an attachment that is all too human to these tall structures of glass, steel









and concrete. From America to abroad, the human aspect to build tall is omnipresent. The next

period and waves of tall buildings now were going to come from across seas.

The skyscraper as a building type is an entirely American invention and as such much

pride has been taken in the tall building across the nation. The skyscraper departed from the old

world and dared to go above and beyond anything that had been seen prior. For roughly 113

years America reigned supreme as the tallest nation in the world. From Chicago to New York,

and back the skyscraper transformed the American city, and the world was to follow. The

following is a historical timeline of skyscraper history thus far

* 1885 Home Insurance Building becomes the first skyscraper

* 1892 Masonic Temple touted as first ofworld's tallest commercial buildings

* 1899 Park Row Building shifts tallest building race from Chicago to New York

* 1902 Flatiron Building demonstrates literal symbolic architecture

* 1908 Singer Building constructed to take world's tallest title

* 1909 Metropolitan Life Insurance Building takes world's tallest title

* 1913 New York Times building competition

* 1913 Woolworth Building built to world's tallest height

* 1922 Chicago Tribune building competition

* 1924 American Radiator takes literal symbolic architecture to new heights

* 1929 Great Depression begins

* 1930 Manhattan Company Building takes bronze medal in world's tallest race

* 1930 Chrysler Building becomes the world's tallest building temporarily

* 193 1 City Bank Farmers Trust Building "giants of finance" constructed

* 1931 Empire State Building begins 41 year world' s tallest reign










* 1972 One World Trade Center is completed as the world's tallest building

* 1974 Sears Tower becomes the world' s tallest building and restores the skyscraper crown
to Chicago

The Asian Tiger

Just as the skyscraper spread from Chicago to New York and across the United States, so

too has the skyscraper gone to the far reaches of the entire globe. The global skyscraper has a

particular stronghold in the Asian Pacific rim countries such as China, Japan, Malaysia and

Taiwan. The truth is that there are more skyscrapers being constructed and being constructed at

greater heights in Asia today than in America (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Tables 2-2 and 2-3

show that America's tall buildings were built in the average year of 1972 as opposed to China's

tallest buildings being built at the average year of 1998, a 26 year difference. Further, China' s

average building height for their top ten buildings is 63 feet over the average of America' s height

at 1,109 feet. America' s saving grace is that 9 of the 10 top ten tallest are above 1,000 feet while

only 7 of China's top ten are above 1,000 feet. Regardless, the current rate and height of

construction demonstrates the construction ability and power that China and other Asian

countries around them are exerting in such a short period of time. The days of the pagodas and

shrines may be extinct but a new structure in the skyscraper has taken their place. With the

design, implementation and construction of their tall buildings Asian countries have added their

own recipe for skyscraper image and structure. Asian countries have taken the skyscraper into a

new light in accordance with their beliefs, symbolism, politics and culture.

Asian Trends

With increasing population, decreasing free land and increasing economic prosperity it is

no wonder why many Asian nations are taking the lead in skyscraper construction. While

America still remains strong and healthy in its development of urban, downtown environments,









the Chinese are building out of necessity and policy. In the same manner that New York and

Chicago grew up in huge fits of construction booms and civic pride the Chinese in Shanghai,

Hong Kong and Beijing are building their communities at a feverish pace. The skylines and city

centers that took decades upon decades and generations upon generations in America is taking

the Chinese and other Asian communities only a single generation to complete. New York took

50 years, Hong Kong took only 30 years and soon other fast growing cities will take even less

time to grow up vertically (Abel, 2003).

Excluding the year 2006, the skyscraper has had a 120 year history. China' s first tall

buildings over 12 stories as listed by the Council on Tall Building and Urban Habitat Emporis

database occurred 44 years after Jenney's Chicago skyscraper in 1929. That year saw two 13-

story hotels go up in Shanghai termed the Peace and Jin Jiang Hotels (CTBUH Database, 2006).

Following those two hotels, China's skyscraper inventory did not increase exponential and only

increased very mildly at best. Therefore, for the sake of this discussion the skyscraper's history

has been divided into two 60-year periods, from 1885 to 1945 and from 1946 to 2005

respectively .

Table 2-4 demonstrates that from the inception of the skyscraper in 1885 until the end of

World War II the United States of America erected 5,600 skyscrapers which accounted for an

average of 84% of the skyscrapers built throughout those years in the world. In contrast, the

years after World War II to the present have showed a sharp average decrease in America' s

skyscraper construction compared to world skyscraper growth. Those years exhibit an average

of 35% for the 11,981 buildings built in America, as compared to the amount of skyscrapers built

in the world during that time period. This is not to say that America is building fewer

skyscrapers, but that the world is catching up in a global fashion, in particular China portrays the









Asian tiger quick growth of population, economy and thus skyscrapers. With only 10

skyscrapers from 1929 until 1945 China was a non-factor in any skyscraper diatribe. However,

in the second half of skyscraper history, China has taken their tall building numbers from a

meager 10 to 8,453. This number accounts for an average of 13% of all skyscrapers built in the

world during those 60 years. Obviously, this trend shows that not only are emerging countries

like China building tall, but also that the rest of the world is accounting for a large percentage of

high-rises.

China may be half a world away but themes of power, aesthetic, pride and symbolism that

were very present in the American skyscraper pervade the Chinese skyscraper. The economic,

social and cultural implications are still felt. China is a dynamic, constantly changing country

and as such its high-rise architecture is invocative of the new found strength and power China

wishes to exude and that China does in fact possess. With the release from British colonial rule

for Hong Kong in 1997, several financially powerful structures were being erected in the years

leading up to the Hong Kong release. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters

demonstrated some of the global architecture of the region. The Bank of China constructed in

1989 was for a while the tallest in Hong Kong (Abel, 2003). The legendary architect of the Bank

of China, I.M. Pei, described the building as a symbol of the "economic awakening" that was to

befall China in the coming years (Lepik, 2004). Both buildings brought on a feng shui expert in

the design and planning stages to ensure acceptance by the public (Lepik, 2004). The fifth tallest

building in the world located in Shanghai is the Jin Mao Tower, completed in 1998 (Emporis

Buildings, 2006). In addition to the recognition garnered from building to the height of 1,380

feet, the tower exudes carefully planned Chinese characteristics (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The

number 8 in Chinese culture is significant for luck and as such the designers of the Jin Mao used









it multiple times in the floor plan of the skyscraper. The core of the building is actually an

octagon and the base size is at 1/8th scale in regards to the height of the building (Lepik, 2004).

The shape of the exterior structure represents the classic Chinese pagoda step-down appearance

as well. Even young, developing towns are taking part in the skyscraper to put themselves on the

map so to speak. This idea of using height to gain recognition and notoriety for a region or

country is truly exemplified in the Petronas Towers and Taipei 101 yet to be discussed. As such,

the new town of Shenzhen located in southern China wanted a building that symbolized their

spirit and resolve as a community to be recognized (Gissen, 2002). They placed no height

restrictions on the building and named it the Di Wang Commercial Center whose height was

intentionally set at 33 feet higher than the Bank of China in Hong Kong (Gissen, 2002). The

ribbon-window banding at the corners gives the building the look of traditional kung fu j ackets

and the green color of the entire building symbolizes prosperity (Gissen, 2002). Even the shape

of the building as a whole reads as the Mandarin word "mei", which translated means beauty

(Gissen, 2002). Now with the tallest building in Shenzhen, there has to be an observation deck,

the 69th flOOr acts as such (Emporis Buildings, 2006).

The Petronas Shift

Amazingly enough, China was not the country to produce the tallest building in the world

outside of the United States. That sole distinction fell on a much lesser known country,

Malaysia, in 1996. With the topping out of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, building the

tallest building in the world shifted from an American endeavor to a worldwide one. The

Petronas Towers were the quintessential statements in the Asian shift of skyscraper building.

At 1,483 feet to the architectural top of the classic Islamic minarets that adorn each

building, the Petronas Towers eclipsed the Sears Towers by only a mere 32 feet (Emporis

Buildings, 2006). Those 32 feet made all the difference in the world however and the little









known country and capital of Malaysia and Kuala Lumpur were truly put onto the map. After

all, that was the intention of the developers, designers and builders of these twin beauties.

The buildings themselves were constructed by the state petroleum company and located

distinctly in the newly developed commercial center of the Golden Triangle area in Kuala

Lumpur (Lepik, 2004). The towers while serving as the obvious functional office space serves

several qualitative purposes. The Petronas Towers are said to be part of a larger plan to shift

technology and to transform the image and enterprise of the whole nation of Malaysia (Reina and

Post, 1996). An image that puts Malaysia on the same level as only the most developed nations

(Reina and Post, 1996). The towers with their pedestrian bridge on the 41st floor, which serves

as an observation deck, demonstrate a large gateway into the economy of Malaysia (Emporis

Buildings, 2006). The gateway is meant to lead the mind and eye into the commercial heart of

Kuala Lumpur and therefore Malaysia (Robison, 1994). Further symbolism reveal cultural and

social impacts of the Malaysian people. Being an Islamic state, the footprint resembles the 8

point star popular in Islam and the exterior has a classic scalloped pattern as well. The elements

that actually put the Petronas Towers up and over the architectural top of the Sears Tower were

the aforementioned Islamic minarets (Engineering News Record, 1996). Lastly, the towers can

be described as "tropical" towers that reflect the Kuala Lumpur climate and actually shimmer in

the sun (Post, 1996).

The topping out of the Petronas Towers in 1996 was a nationally celebrated event in

Malaysia complete with fireworks and national fervor. Like the topping out of buildings in

America, the nations flag was flown and the final beam signed by those pertinent to the proj ect.

For the first time, a building had been eclipsed from abroad, and not only that, but it was the first

time two buildings held the world's tallest title. With the same tradition and excitement that









America "tops out" its buildings, so too had the elation of height gone global. All of sudden the

United States had dropped from 1st to 3rd in the race to be the world's tallest. However, America

had one last hope prior to the Petronas Towers being christened the world's tallest buildings, the

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat originally began as the "Joint Committee

on Tall Buildings" formed between the International Association of Bridge and Structural

Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1969 (Council on Tall Buildings and

Urban Habitat, 2006). Beginning in 1973, the Council listed the 30 tallest buildings in the world

and in 1980 the Council expanded its listing to the more well-known 100 world's tallest

buildings (Engineering News Record, 2004). The mission of the council explains the connection

that the CTBUH has with both skyscrapers and the downtown urban environment as a whole.

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, an international non-profit organization
sponsored by architectural, engineering, planning, and construction professionals, was
established to facilitate professional exchanges among those involved in all aspects of the
planning, design, construction and operation of tall buildings and the urban habitat.

The Council's primary goal is to promote better urban environments by maximizing the
international interaction of professionals, and by making the latest knowledge available to
its members and to the public at large in useful form.

The Council has a maj or concern with the role of tall buildings in the urban environment
and their impact thereon. Providing adequate space for life and work involves not only
technological factors, but social and cultural aspects as well.

While not an advocate for tall buildings per se, in those situations in which they are
appropriate, the Council seeks to encourage the use of the latest knowledge in their
implementation (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 2006).

Now, the measurement of height for each building was determined from the sidewalk level

of the main entrance to the architectural top of the building which included penthouses, spires

and pinnacles, but not masts, flagpoles and television or radio antennas (Engineering News









Record, 2004). This stipulation was decided upon to always apply to the Sears Tower by the

Council and by Fazlur Khan, the designer and structural engineer of the building (Engineering

News Record, 1996). The idea was that antennae are only temporary structures and that

minarets, for example, are in fact permanent (Gill, 2005). As such a highly contested battle as

the world' s tallest building has been since the inception of the skyscraper, it is no wonder why

Americans and in particular Chicagoans wanted a shifting of the rules to not include the minarets

that make the Petronas Towers taller than the Sears Tower. The Chicago Committee on High

Rise Buildings wined and dined the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat and proposed a

"hats off' approach to measuring the buildings (Engineering News Record, 1996). Hundreds of

local school children even wrote letters to the CTBUH, but in the end these actions which

occurred very near to when the CTBUH named the Petronas Towers the world's tallest had no

effect on the final ruling and thus the world's tallest in Chicago was reduced to third tallest.

Out of the debacle that was naming the Petronas Towers the world' s tallest buildings, the

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat decided to expand the categories from one to four.

Rather than solely relying on the structural or architectural height of a building the Council

decided that buildings could also be measured by highest occupied floor, top of roof and top of

the antennae (Gill, 2005). By these rules the Petronas Towers retained the title of world' s tallest

building to the architectural top. However, the Sears Tower now held the title in the other three

categories. With the new CTBUH rulings, the world's tallest landscape looked as follows:

* World's Tallest Building to the Architectural/Structural Top: Petronas Towers 1,483 feet
* World's Tallest Building to the Highest Occupied Floor: Sears Tower 1,355 feet
* World' s Tallest Building to the Roof: Sears Tower 1,451 feet
* World's Tallest Building to the Antennae: Sears Tower 1,729 feet









The Shift Continues

Further demonstrating that the construction of tall buildings requires an enormous amount

of financial backing and clout, the skyscraper surge in Asia took a tremendous dip in the same

year that the Petronas Towers were completed. 1998 saw numerous volatile highs and lows in

stock markets around the world (Zukowsky and Thorne, 2000). In addition, there were drastic

downturns in Asian economies which led to the direct cancellation and the postponing of several

tall buildings (Zukowsky and Thorne, 2000).

However, with the completion of Taipei 101 or the Taipei Financial Center in Taipei,

Taiwan in 2004, the Asian skyscraper was back. Along with this tall building, was also the

desire to be the world's tallest. Upon its completion, Taipei 101 held three of the four, Council

on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, world's tallest titles. The four categories are currently as

follows:

* World's Tallest Building to the Architectural/Structural Top: Taipei 101 1,671 feet
* World's Tallest Building to the Highest Occupied Floor: Taipei 101 1,473 feet
* World's Tallest Building to the Roof: Taipei 101 1,440 feet
* World's Tallest Building to the Antennae: Sears Tower 1,729 feet

Taipei 101 stands much taller than even its title of the world's tallest building. The city of

Taipei located in northern Taiwan contains only 167 high-rise buildings and the second tallest

building, Shin Kong Life Tower, is nearly half the height of Taipei 101 (Emporis Buildings,

2006). Therefore, Taipei 101 stand as a giant able to be seen from all points in the city. The

building obliges views at the 89th and 91st floors which both act as observatories (Emporis

Buildings, 2006). The sight is one that must have been similar to when the Empire State

Building was constructed amongst the low and mid-rises in midtown Manhattan.

The building itself encompasses a landmark symbol of Taiwan' s economic success and

national pride. Taipei 101 is a very vibrant centerpiece to the newly formed Hsingy financial









and government district in the area (Gissen, 2002). It stands as the first world' s tallest building

of the 21s~t century and within the structure lie once again several other symbolic gestures toward

culture and social aspects of the Taiwanese people. At the topping out of the building the Taipei

mayor at the time and now president of Taiwan installed a golden bolt much like the ceremony at

the Empire State Building in which Alfred Smith laid the cornerstone using a golden spade for

the mortar (Bascomb, 2003). It was the mayor's idea to build the tallest building in the world,

which shows how significant leaders of the world think having the world' s tallest building is

(Lepik, 2004). With Taipei 101 it also becomes increasingly evident that smaller countries feel

that by building tall they can show the world they are not quite so non-influential.

Overall, the architecture is invocative of the Chinese and the dominant color in the green-

tinted cladding is designed to impersonate jade (Howeler, 2003). The Chinese lucky number 8

can be found again in this building. There are 8 mega-columns with supporting mega-truss

outriggers per every 8th flOOr (Gissen, 2002). The entire structure resembles many things

including bamboo sprouts and the traditional pagoda design (Lepik, 2004). At night the stepped

surfaces make the building glow like a lantern. The unfolding petal styling is not only important

to make the building look like a lantern at night, but also is a sign for prosperity in Chinese

symbolism (Gissen, 2002). Dragons meant to bring luck adomn the building as well (Lepik,

2004). In keeping with themes from other skyscrapers, the building also contains the world's

fastest elevator at 3,281 feet per minute (Lepik, 2004).

The following displays the Asian skyscraper historical timeline thus far

* 1929 First 2 skyscrapers constructed in China, Peace Hotel and Jin Jiang Hotel
* 1989 Bank of China completed, tallest building in Hong Kong at the time
* 1997 Hong Kong released from British colonial rule
* 1998 Petronas Towers completed in Malaysia to become world's tallest buildings, first
world's tallest buildings outside of America









* 1998 Asian financial downturn cancels or delays many skyscrapers
* 2004 Taipei 101 completed in Taiwan to become world's tallest building


State of the Skyscraper

The world, and not just Asia and America, is building skyscraper after skyscraper. The

global building is becoming a force wherever land is scarce, populations are booming,

economies are thriving, power is garnered and a message wants to be sent. The American

invention has taken hold and to build up is to be modern. The factors that influenced

construction of the tall building from the past are still paramount in the built world today. Even

proposals of the world's tallest building draw the attention of writers and readers everywhere.

What are the tallest buildings and tallest buildings by usage? How do the populations compare

for countries that build tall? How does a country's gross domestic product (GDP) and

skyscraper construction compare? Where are the completed tall buildings located in the world,

which particular continents and nations? Where does the skyscraper as a building type stand in

the world, in individual countries? Questions answered in this section show that the skyscraper

is engrained within civilization throughout the world as a global building type. As globalization

continues, it appears the skyscraper is likely to stay in the hearts, minds and structures of

developed and developing nations in the world.

The Power of Proposal

Staggering amounts of publicity followed the Manhattan Company Building, the Chrysler

Building and the Empire State Building during the race to the world's tallest building at the end

of the 1920's and the beginning of the 1930's. Building the world's tallest building draws the

attention of the public and therefore the attention of the papers that serve the public. Following

suit during the construction of those buildings, several others paid lip service to building the

world's tallest building themselves. Included in these plans that hit the headlines day in and day










out, was the 100 story skyscraper of a not yet determined height for the Manhattan Life

Insurance Company, developer A.E. Lefcourt was proposing a 150 story tall building and

developer Charles Noyes even proposed going a quarter of a mile into the sky and two blocks

wide (Bascomb, 2003). The Great Depression certainly derailed any proposed plans but who

knows if these dreaming structures would have been constructed regardless. The point is

building tall is exciting and draws the loftiest of expectations, even if they may be unrealistic.

The super tall buildings built in New York in Chicago during the 1970's also drew their

fair share of news coverage. A building finally taking over the Empire State Building after 41

years such as One World Trade Center was news to New Yorkers and to the nation. The

following Sears Tower in Chicago therefore, was a direct news catcher as well as it overtook

One and Two World Trade Center in 1974. The public and the press cannot help themselves;

they look to the sky in awe. Young and old, big and small, all are captivated regardless of

decade or design.

As the turn of the century neared closer and closer several buildings were being proposed

to eclipse any heights attained thus far. There seemed to be a trophy for having the tallest

building as the year 2000 drew to a beginning. This race for the millennium entailed several

buildings that shot for the 2,000 foot mark, several others that sought simply to be the world's

tallest and others who sought simply to be the tallest in their region. Notable buildings that were

envisioned but never happened in the fever that was the years before and around the millennium

included

* Miglin-Beitler Tower Chicago, 2,000 feet tall, would be world's tallest
* Millennium Tower Tokyo, 2,754 feet tall, to house 60,000 people
* Millennium Tower London, 1,265 feet tall, would be European record
* Tours San Fin Paris, 1,377 feet tall, would be European record
* Grollo Tower Melbourne, 1,625 feet tall, would be world's tallest
* Bionic Tower Shanghai, 4,029 feet tall, to house 100,000 people










* 7 South Dearborn Chicago, 2,000 feet tall, would be world's tallest (Lepik, 2004)
* Maharishi Tower Sao Paulo, 1,662 feet tall, pyramid to house 50,000 people (Civil
Engineering, 1999, November)


Several of these towers demonstrated no significant financial gain and could only be explained

by the pride that would be associated with creating each building. Most world's tallest buildings

edge the previous record holder by an average of around 100 feet; the buildings proposed for the

millennium race for the world' s tallest however edged the current world' s tallest by several times

this number (Civil Engineering, 1999, April).

The press and publicity received for producing buildings of monumental size that shape

skylines is something that will continue for as long as any kind of interesting, nature-defying

structure is even conceived in the brain of a designer. For example, Frank Lloyd Wright' s Mile

High Skyscraper of 1956 was never realistically proposed to be constructed, but it got people

thinking and it got people excited about building tall again (Zukowsky and Thorne, 2000). In

that same spirit, it takes people to ask how high and how complex, rather than maintaining the

same "glass box". Buildings will continue to challenge the current, to realize the buildings of the

future.

The World's Tall Buildings

There can be only one world's tallest building. One could argue that there could be four

world's tallest buildings with the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat rules, but the

most prestige seems to be in the tallest to the architectural top such as Taipei 101. However,

building tall is an endeavor in itself. They cannot all be the world's tallest buildings. Table 2-6

demonstrates that since the first touted world's tallest building, the Masonic Temple built in the

year 1892 in Chicago, there have been only 11 world's tallest buildings. All building heights are

taken at their architectural or structural top and all years are taken as when the building was









actually substantially complete, not topped out. That is 11 buildings out of thousands in the

world. Therefore, there is simply a pride regardless of whether or not the building is the absolute

tallest in all of the world.

There is however, the omnipresent pride of having the world' s tallest building or at least

being in the top ten. Table 2-7 lists the world's current top ten tallest buildings measured from

the architectural or structural top. Only 2 are in the United States and the remaining 8 are

located on the Asian continent. The 2 United States skyscrapers in the top ten have an average

age of being built in 1953. The Asian skyscrapers on the other hand have an average age of

being built in 1998. The pride of having the world' s tallest buildings in America lasted 1 13

years and now the new era of Asian influence can certainly be seen.

Figure 2-2 shows what percentage of skyscrapers each continent contains to date. Asia

does include the Middle East and Oceania is inclusive of Australia and surrounding Pacific

islands. The figure shows that those two continents contain 56% of the world's skyscrapers and

that Asia with 33,819 high-rises now has more skyscrapers than North America at 25,983.

Figure 2-3 conversely shows that the United States at least has a hold on the top 100 world's

tallest buildings. Out of those 100 the U.S. has 34 within its borders, as compared to 30 for the

Chinese nation. This figure also demonstrates that in terms of tallness, the United States and

China are the only two real contenders, since the next closest countries only have 5 in the top

100. Finally, Figure 2-3 portrays the fact that Hong Kong with 7,548 buildings is the skyscraper

capital of the world with New York City a couple thousand behind at 5,501 buildings.

Globalization of tall buildings also can be seen, since in the top ten skyscrapers only Brazil has

more than one city on the list. From Japan to Argentina, the skyscraper is a global building type.










Even if a building does not rise to the height of Taipei 101 or the Sears Tower, it still can

claim some notoriety. Tallest this and tallest that matters to the designers, contractors and

residents of these great structures. It takes a tremendous amount of materials, manpower and

energy to create any tall building. Tables 2-8 and 2-9 both show other categories where tall

buildings can gain recognition and admiration. In addition to the buildings listed, there are

numerous other categories possible within continents, countries, cities and sectors.

In an attempt to look at skyscraper construction compared to population size the top ten

skyscraper countries were taken and then compared against their population rank. Figure 2-12

demonstrates for countries it seems that while there are several that are very high in population

rank and skyscraper rank, some are scattered as far back as 119th in population. Singapore is the

country with that distinction and the high-rise buildings there may be explained by the limited

land available to construct on. Obviously, having a large congested population is going to drive

construction skyward and other factors that may allow or disallow the proliferation of tall

buildings include

* Political climate
* Social climate
* Cultural climate
* Historical climate
* Land availability
* Population size
* Business centers
* Economic power
* Ego

Moving closer to home and looking at cities individually in America and China, shows a

bit more correlation between population of cities and skyscraper construction. The smallest city

with skyscraper clout in America is Honolulu as the 47th largest city in the United States.

Otherwise, 6 of the 10 tallest cities in America are in the top ten in population, including the top









5 most populous cities in the nation. China also has 7 of its top ten skyscraper cities in the top

ten of China' s populated cities. The top four populated cities in China also are within the top ten

skyscraper cities in the region. Population may be misleading due to differing city sizes and

densities and thus skyscraper construction can be prolific in surprising areas. Also, whether or

not a country is developed or not does not change the size of their population. The second most

populated country in the world is India and yet it remains absent from any skyscraper list

(Population Reference Bureau, 2006).

In Figure 2-13, when comparing gross domestic product or purchasing power parity to

skyscraper production, the correlation becomes more and more clear. Singapore once again

produces an outlier, but still is fairly high in GDP at number 56 in the world. Otherwise, the

other 9 countries are within the top 18 GDP's in the world. The top three of the United States,

China and Japan are also included. India has the 4th largest GDP in the world but still remains

absent in this comparison as well.

With respect to pride, prestige and success, skyscrapers can come in all different forms and

sizes. Only a select few have the honorable distinction of being the worlds tallest building. For

the thousands of others that are left, other distinctions do remain. The population and GDP

comparisons shown here are not good indicators of tall building construction, nor do they take

factors of city layouts into account. Of significant note is that the countries that have produced

the last three world's tallest buildings are drastically absent from any population or GDP

comparisons. Taiwan and Malaysia therefore demonstrate that skyscrapers are not only about

how many people or how high a GDP a country has but rather how big the desire to build tall is.

There are still further ways that tall buildings can be set apart regardless of height; the

sustainable skyscraper is now taking shape in the built environment.









The Sustainable Skyscraper

(The skyscraper) alone will enable us to achieve the urban densities necessary to live
sustainably on this planet (Howeler, 2003).

Sustainable design and construction is defined as design and construction which "seeks to

create spaces where materials, energy and water are used efficiently and where the impact on the

natural environment is minimized" (Greene, 2000). Recently, green building has become a buzz

word in the architectural, engineering, construction and real estate realms. It therefore should be

of little surprise that the largest buildings in the world would follow suit and have an impact on

green building themselves. As more and more skyscrapers are being constructed and proposed

across the globe, so too are more and more skyscrapers being drawn and built with sustainability

and the environment in mind.

Many reasons exist for any owner and for any building to go green. These notions of

energy, material, resource and land conservation extend across all building types. The desire to

build in an environmentally conscious manner are the results of several factors that influence not

only construction, but in particular high-rise construction. How can the exorbitant amounts of

energy consumed by buildings in the world be helped, mitigated and improved upon? Where is

the growing global population going to be housed, where will they work and how will they

interact? What type of city densities does the future hold? What space impacts result from

building vertically, rather than horizontally? As energy becomes scarce and becomes

increasingly and possibly prohibitively expensive, how will the world's city planners, designers

and constructors respond? How can condensing populations with the skyscraper as a building

type assist in the fight for freedom from or at least provide less reliance on oil?









The Numbers for Going Green

Energy consumption pertains not only to the actual construction and commissioning of a

building for an owner or developer, but also to the life of the building as it serves its useful

purpose to society. Populations continue to grow millions upon millions and billions upon

billions. The numbers for consumption and population convey that the skyscraper is not the sole

savior of our world's built environment but can assist from a spatial, energy efficient and

practical point of view. Currently, there is no other economically viable option for owners and

therefore for the public (Yeang, 2002).

The Energy of the Built Environment

Buildings account for much of the energy consumed not only in the United States, but also

in the world. Daily activities of driving to work and running errands also are contained within

the sphere of energy necessary to use and make buildings useful in the first place. In the United

States of America, buildings account for the following in energy and resource usage

* 36% of total energy
* 65% of electricity consumption
* 30% of raw materials
* 30% of waste output
* 12% of potable water (USGBC, 2006).

The highly urbanized, developed nations that build skyscrapers make up only about 25

percent of the global population and yet they account for 70 percent of the world' s consumption

of energy, 75 percent of metals and 85 percent of the world' s wood (Yeang, 2002). The

skyscraper designed and constructed with a sustainable approach can lessen these figures and

lessen the impact that the developed nations have on the rest of society.










The layout of the built environment creates the framework of energy use for a community

(Foster, 2006). The alternative to centralized cities are those such as Los Angeles and Miami

that are spread out between suburban tracts and only connected through highways and interstates,

that in turn require large amounts of personal transportation by automobile to commute to and

from work or recreation.

In regards to carbon dioxide emissions, which leads to the warming of the globe, buildings

are the prime emitter. The emissions produced by human activities on a global scale are broken

down as follows:

* 50% attributable to the built environment
* 25% attributable to transportation to include work commuting
* 25% industrial sources (Gissen, 2002).

When the cities of the globe grow horizontally rather than vertically, more and more roads are

needed to connect the people of a community (Foster, 2006). These greater distances have a

directly harmful effect on the environment and consequently the quality of life in regions that

involve hours upon hours of commuting. Convenience is the American way, but somehow since

the widespread boosterism of the automobile, the desire for the convenience of being able to

walk or take mass transit to destinations in fractions of the time and in close proximity to the

home has gotten lost. Skyscraper construction allows for several uses or mixed-use so that retail

space, office space and residential space can all be very close together if not in the same

building. The world renowned architect Norman Foster has even proposed that the technology is

available today to put entire horizontal blocks into the air as super-tall structures (Foster, 2006).

Foster' s building of multiplicity could encompass

* Housing
* Shops
* Restaurants
* Cinemas









* Museums
* Sporting facilities
* Green spaces
* Transportation networks (Foster, 2006).

The previously mentioned 2,754 foot Millennium Tower proposed for Tokyo was a prime

candidate of Foster' s for such a radical and revolutionary undertaking.

City or Country

People are flocking to the city and densification of the population is inevitable. In

particular, young couples and single persons are choosing urban living over the "fading

attraction" of a suburban lifestyle (Abel, 2003). Now, denser populations require buildings that

lie in close proximity to one another and that lend themselves to mass transit and alternative

means of transportation, which includes walking and biking. The tall, slender structures of

skyscrapers are just the building type for the return of the city and of the return of the human as

the prime means of transport rather than the automobile. Denser populations per capital also

consume the least amount of energy (Howeler, 2003). Prime examples are the cities of New

York, Tokyo and Hong Kong. Table 2-14 actually shows that Hong Kong is the tallest, densest

city in the world with 36,896 people per square mile. The table also reveals that Asian cities are

much more dense in response to higher populations and limited land availability. This trend will

inevitably find itself in American and European cities, as the West' s population increases and

land availability decreases. Another factor in becoming denser, is quality of life. When

everything a typical human needs throughout the week is close by, then the urban densities

produce a convenience that cannot be realized in the suburban sphere (Foster, 2006).

For future communities and nations, the tall building will become a necessity. Table 2-15

demonstrates the distribution of populations in the world in term of living environment, urban or

rural. By the year 2025, 62% of the world' s total population will be contained within the urban









environments of the earth. That percentage equates to an urban population of around 5 billion

people! Of particular interest, table 2-16 shows that in developed countries such as the United

States the urban population will contain 85% of the world's developed country population. In

contrast, developing nations will be at 57% urban population concentrations. The developing

nations in 2025 however, house a much larger portion of the world' s population at 6.75 billion

people which unearths a topic for another time; housing the world's developing nations.

Skyscraper as a Space Saver

Long before there were double-skinned facades, low-flow fixtures and energy efficient

appliances, the skyscraper was a more sustainable building typology. The tall building stands as

a structure that is inherently sustainable due to its condensed nature in providing the same

services that can be found spread out elsewhere. Simply put, if you have a 60 story building with

each story taking up an acre of space, then that same building would take up 60 acres in a

suburban environment. Placing more people, services and units in a single structure ultimately

saves the roof space as well, reducing 60 exposed roofs of an office park to one roof exposed to

the sun, therefore saving energy, materials and space.

Now it may be said that building tall costs more in terms of design, construction and actual

implementation of the building due to its extreme height. However, it cannot be denied that in

the skyscraper century or so that has unfolded, skyscrapers are not the type of building to be

knocked down after 20, 30 or even 50 years thus making them resilient in aspects of life cycle

costing. Exact data has not been computed as to the costs comparison of low-rise life cycle costs

versus high-rise but a future study would do well to do so. The complex webs of systems,

materials and interactions within a skyscraper are beyond the scope of this work. The restoration

and maintenance on skyscrapers also is not a topic to be discussed here. It still remains though

that skyscrapers are engineered and built to last. For example, the Empire State Building









celebrates its 75th birthday this year, the Chrysler Building its 76th, the Woolworth its 93rd. Who

is to say how long they will stand, but they are still examples of old, but still functioning

structures that serve the same purpose and save the same space as they did upon their

completion.

In a more concrete example of the space and accompanying energy savings that can be

produced by high-rises such as Four Times Square that was recently built in New York City,

William Browning is looked upon:

A high-rise of 1.6 million sft on 28 floors sits on one acre, if it were divided into individual
structures in suburbia it would take up 140 acres, not including the required infrastructure
for access and utilities. The incredible concentration on a small piece of land, which 95
percent of the workers, of whom there are 6,000, get to by public transportation in itself,
makes it sustainable. The single-roof surface of Four Times Square with all of its thermal
exposure would be 48 times larger in a one-story building (Gissen, 2002).

Now, this example could not apply everywhere, it especially could not occur in areas

without viable means of public transport. It still is interesting to note that with the advent of

large downtown environments that can be built and planned to accommodate residences and also

mass transit, there is a greater chance of reduction of the strain on transporting by automobile

and the emissions, time and distances that accompany them.

Mr. Browning also goes on to speak of elevators as a means of moving people once inside

the skyscraper. While not explored too thoroughly in this work, Mr. Browning claims that

because elevators are counterweighed that they are the most energy efficient means of movement

from floor to floor (Gissen, 2002). Compared to low-rise buildings that require no vertical lifts,

the skyscraper will obviously fair worse, but other factors such as cooling load, land use and

transportation problems must be taken into account, another topic for a future study. The









embodied energy, or energy used for the components and construction of the skyscraper also

lends itself to being of lesser impact due to the high-quality of design, materials and

craftsmanship that accompanies tall buildings (Foster, 2006).

Skyscraper Sustainable Systems

Green skyscrapers can help in the fight for a sustainable future in the world. Their small

footprint, potential for large vertical space and housing of a large numbers of workers, residents

and customers make them attractive candidates for inherent sustainability. In addition to the

inherent features of the tall building, several systems are in place that are greening the tallest

structures in the world even further. The systems include passive or natural and non-mechanical

design elements and active systems with mechanical or electrical means. New approaches to

designing and maximizing skyscraper efficiency through its lifetime are also being proposed by

architects such as Kenneth Yeang. Several of the systems discussed are actually already being

implemented in skyscrapers across the globe. In particular, Europe and America are leading the

way in sustainable skyscraper design and construction. The following will explore some of those

skyscrapers and the systems which they encompass, to create a healthier, more hospitable,

sustainable skyscraper.

Passive Design

Passive design implements the properties of natural elements, materials and structures to

create an environmentally responsive building or skyscraper in these cases. The following is not

intended to be a complete list of the passive design and structure elements that may be

incorporated into a building but it meant to provide an overview of the range of systems and the

idea behind them. That idea is to use the world's natural processes, in addition to sensible

practices to have a skyscraper that is more harmonic with the environment in which it resides.









The layout and orientation is the largest portion of the building that can be adjusted to

provide for a building that works more with nature and in particular the sun or cooling loads that

accompany it. Orienting the building's large faces in a north-south manner can limit the cooling

loads that are placed on the east-west sides of the building. Additionally, the windows on the

"hot" sides of a building may mitigate the heat gained by recessing the windows within the

external wall (Yeang, 1996). In contrast, if a skyscraper is located in a particularly cool area that

is cool throughout most of the year then the opposite could be imposed and the east-west sides

could be the larger sides to absorb as much heat as possible. The layout and location of critical

skyscraper elements can also be paramount in making the building energy efficient. In

particular, the service cores for the building may be placed on the exterior east and west portions

of the structure acting as a heat buffer (Yeang, 2000). Service cores are the spine of any

skyscraper. They contain all communications, electrical, plumbing, mechanical and most

importantly elevator works for the building. They are typically not air-conditioned and thus are a

radiant heat load when located in the center of the skyscraper. Placing them on the exterior only,

places these spaces in a manner in which they actually act in a favorable manner for not being

air-conditioned. Further, tapering the building at the bottom can reduce reflection and improve

the transparency and day lighting aspects of the ground floors (Foster, 2006). Tapering at the top

of the building reduces reflections of the sky as well (Foster, 2006).

Lighting for a skyscraper has always been a primary concern. With the inception of

fluorescent lighting in the 1940's, that problem was thought to be solved (Willis, 1998).

However, why use artificial lighting that costs energy when you could simply open a shade and

use the natural light given from the sun? Awnings that can control where the sun hits and where

it is able to be harnessed, provide the necessary sun control needed in particularly humid, heat










rampant climates (Yeang, 1996). Large floor to ceiling windows also allow optimum light in and

with the right facade the heat that comes with the light provided by the sun can be managed.

Using the sun and being in control of how it affects the building is a maj or factor in controlling

the loads on a building's conditioning systems and lighting systems. Natural lighting also

provides for improved quality of life within the building as the occupants are actually opening

their shades and letting the natural world in.

The skin of the skyscraper is the most exposed portion of the building to the natural

elements and is subj ect to insolation. In designing the proper facade the tall structure can

harness the properties it needs and prevent the properties it does not want from entering the

building. Operable windows are actually making a comeback so that now the occupants have

control over their own individual environment (Abel, 2003). Double-skin facades are also the

answer to the increased heat gained from exposure to the sun in day lighting activities. With

these double-skins there is a thermal buffer created. In winter months the solar penetration

available is allowed in, but the heat inside the building is not compromised by exposure to the

outside cold air (Gissen, 2002). In temperate months, the skin can be opened and natural

ventilation can take place and fresh air can replace conditioned air and the energy associated

with it (Gissen, 2002). In the hotter summer time, the facade can then be closed again and the

layer between the two portions act as another thermal buffer but this time protecting from the

heat while still providing day lighting (Gissen, 2002). In the United Kingdom it has been shown

that double-skin facades can reduce energy consumption by 65 percent and reduce carbon

dioxide emissions by 50 percent in the cold, temperate climate (Gissen, 2002). Specially coated

single-skin facades also can introduce light to the environment while rej ecting the heat from the

sun.









With the option to now open the windows, a new design element of natural ventilation is

available. Using computational fluid dynamics, the flow of air within a building can be

examined and adjusted to provide fresh air and cooling throughout the skyscraper (Gissen,

2002). The solar energy or hot air that rises are the source of movement in natural ventilation

systems. Wind scooping from the roofs or from openings in the sides of the building provide the

fresh air and force it into the building. Hollow core ventilated slabs also can provide for

reducing the heat intake taken on by the materials that make up the building, in particular

concrete. Also within the structure it would be possible to include the air-conditioning shafts and

ducts, eliminating the requirement to cool or heat the interstitial space, while increasing ceiling

height (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Another option in natural ventilation, is completely opening the

building up at night to provide night cooling and cool down the building components that were

heated up during the course of the day such as the ceilings, walls and floors (Eisele and Kloft,

2003).

Water features, rooftop gardens and "sky gardens" also can benefit the skyscraper by

means of their inborn natural features. First off, these elements can bring work and nature back

together again by means of the office, thus improving the working conditions and hopefully the

performance, well-being and productivity of employees (Foster, 2006). Rockefeller Center built

in part during the 1930's and 40's actually housed the first rooftop gardens in a skyscraper

capacity (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Since then, it has come to light that besides the qualitative

aspects of bringing the park to the sky for employees, these places provide several environmental

benefits. Effectively, plants clean the air and therefore can manage emissions (Gissen, 2002).

Plants convert carbon dioxide to oxygen and treat any acid rain type, chemically saturated water.

Also, run-off that usually would go through dirtier city streets and pick up chemicals are now









contained and absorbed in a more efficient manner, perhaps to be used in an active sustainable

practice such as rain water harvesting for bathrooms. Green roofs also help negate the effects of

the solar heating on a buildings roof and thus keeps the building and its upper floors cooler. It

may also be possible to have a carbon dioxide cycle equilibrium if enough plants are present and

can absorb the carbon dioxide produced by building operations (Foster, 2006). Water and water

features, while also being good for a working environment' s employees, can clean the air by

making particulates too heavy to float (Giseen, 2002).

Using the soil in which a skyscraper rests also can be beneficial to improving the

sustainability of the tall building. At the depths which foundations rest on, the seasonal

temperature fluctuations are negligible and thus the soil is an ideal geothermal heat exchanger

(Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Heat can be stored during summer months and vice versa for the

winter months. That heat can then be utilized appropriately as necessary.

Material selection and structure design also influences the sustainability of the building.

Materials that take less embodied energy to produce and erect in the first place are ideal. Of

course, recycled or recyclable materials are always necessary elements in discussing sustainable

buildings and skyscrapers. Materials that are produced primarily off-site in a precast manner can

be helpful in reducing jobsite energy use and environmental disruption. Low conductivity

materials can also help in maintaining energy requirements and not having materials that absorb

a lot of heat. Nontoxic materials with low amounts of volatile organic components (VOCs)

should be used extensively to prevent off-gassing and compromising the indoor air quality of the

building (Giseen, 2002). Also, using mechanical units that do not contain harmful atmospheric

or ozone-depleting elements such as CFC's or HCFC's not only betters the building, but the

environment in which the building is located. Finally, designing for the use of fewer materials










such as a reduction in the necessary amount of steel or concrete can alleviate the material

extraction impact a skyscraper may have.

Possible passive elements of a sustainable skyscraper discussed include

* Orientation

* Layout

* Service cores

* Sun-control awnings

* Operable windows

* Single-skin coated facade

* Double-skin facade

* Natural ventilation

* Wind scoops

* Hollow-core slabs

* Ducts within structures

* Night cooling

* Rooftop gardens, green roofs

* Sky gardens, atrium gardens

* Water features

* Soil geothermal heat exchangers

* Material selection

* Recycled materials

* Precast, low conductivity materials

* VOC content consideration

* Design consideration, material efficiency maximization









Active Design

Using engineered systems for sustainability also has its place within the modern day

skyscraper. By combining passive elements with theses active systems, buildings are able to

achieve a more sustainable outcome in their performance over time. These active systems are

primarily used in the realm of water savings, air purification and energy savings. Energy savings

encompasses many things from automated blinds to photovoltaic cells that actually supply power

to the building and possibly to the overall power grid.

Water conservation and utilization is becoming a prime concern within the sustainable

skyscraper. As such, rain water storage for later applications takes place on all of the roof areas.

The water is then stored in tanks for use as irrigation for green roofs, nearby parks or for toilets

and cooling tower water. The goal for many structures is to minimize the impact on surrounding

stormwater systems, while also lessening demand for water from the utilities. Therefore,

installed within the bathrooms are low-flow fixtures or possibly waterless urinals. Along those

same lines some buildings contain their own waste water treatment plants. Now these plants do

not make the blackwater potable necessarily, but can make the water usable for other non-

potable applications as stated above. Also, by placing tanks strategically throughout tall

buildings, the pumping necessary for water delivery can be greatly reduced (Hucal, 2004).

Air conditioning requirements and fresh air stipulations are also a concern for the owner

and therefore the inhabitants of tall buildings. Locating air-conditioning systems on a floor-by-

floor system will create a more hospitable atmosphere for the direct people using that space,

while optimizing efficiency. Buildings are also taking in outside air and filtering it multiple

times so that the air they expel is actually cleaner than the air they intake. The air is also being

considered as a possible energy supply. Tall buildings are located at heights where winds are

blowing at higher speeds than at ground level. To harness and harvest this power, wind turbines









have been proposed on several buildings With the advent of such a system it would be possible

to energize the surrounding community power system, as well as operate the building (Aveni,

2001).

The reality of energy saving systems in buildings that are erected currently is an exciting

prospect. Photovoltaic cells, utilizing sun power, in combination with fuel cells, whose only by-

product is water, are providing natural, free power from the environment to the super structure

(Gissen, 2002). Gas-absorption chillers, which run on natural gas instead of electricity, also

contribute to energy savings by reducing air-conditioning costs and they help the environment

because they use no ozone-depleting components (Eisele and Kloft, 2003). Occupancy sensors

throughout each room regulate lighting control automatically by determining if the room is

occupied or not. Buildings also incorporate other electronics such as programmable thermostats,

Energy Star fixtures and day lighting sensors that control the intensity of artificial light

necessary. For the potential geothermal heating or cooling passive elements discussed above,

there are heat exchangers which offer a wider range of usable temperatures (Eisele and Kloft,

2003). Within some concrete slabs from floor to floor, buildings are incorporating polyethylene

tubing that provides radiant heating and cooling which is a more efficient means of air-

conditioning (Post, 2005).

Possible active design elements for the sustainable skyscraper discussed include

* Blackwater treatment plants for non-potable applications

* Rain water storage/harvester tanks for non-potable applications

* Staggered tank stations to reduce pumping need

* Local air-conditioning control

* Air filtration per floor and from the street level

* Wind turbine energy harvesting (future possibility)









* Photovoltaic cells

* Fuel cells

* Gas-absorption chillers

* Occupancy sensors

* Programmable thermostats

* Energy Star appliances

* Day lighting intensity sensors

* Geothermal heat exchangers

* Polyethylene tubing for radiant slab heating and cooling

The Ecology of the Skyscraper

Within the same length and breadth of providing passive energy systems and a sustainable

built environment, is the idea of making the skyscraper fit the region that it occupies.

Skyscrapers should not look the same all over the world. Yes, they should reflect the social,

cultural and economic pulse of a certain region, but in addition to that they should attain the

position of being in tune with its surroundings. Kenneth Yeang is an architect who has proposed

a new look into not only skyscrapers, but the sustainable skyscraper. No longer can the

proliferation of largely wasteful type buildings be allowed to operate. Energy must be treated as

precious as the money that is so carefully conserved and looked over during design and

construction. Tiny, segmented offices within a dark, dingy skyscraper cannot be allowed

because they result in a highly "internalized" environment that exists at the expense of large

amounts of energy (Yeang, 1996). The skyscraper must be able to adapt and utilize the

environmental impacts that can be felt within the local built environment. The tall building must

have operable windows, proper ventilation, and so on as discussed. But more importantly, high-









rises must truly interact with the land, water and air that encompasses the surroundings of the

building. Kenneth Yeang therefore, proposes a bioclimatic skyscraper that is sustainable in

terms of specific environment. The sustainable or bioclimatic skyscraper of the future is

described as the following:

The bioclimatic skyscraper is a tall building whose built form is configured by design,
using passive low-energy techniques to relate to the site's climate and meteorological data,
resulting in a tall building that is environmentally interactive, low-energy in embodiment
and operations, and high quality in performance (Yeang, 1996).

Mr. Yeang postulates that with the enactment of these design features that a building could save

between 30 and 60 percent of the costs over its lifetime (Yeang, 1996). These lower life-cycle

energy costs would come at the expense of higher, earlier capital expenses but would pay off

eventually. Climatic responses to the skyscraper therefore more than justify the expense. The

skyscraper functions as a portion and contributing member of the environment rather than

working against the environmental aspects it is surrounded with.

Current Sustainable Tall Buildings

A sustainable skyscraper is not just lip-service from industry designers and contractors.

Several of these environmentally conscious buildings are being erected and many are already

completed. The environmentally progressive nations in Europe such as the United Kingdom and

Germany account for many sustainably designed tall structures. The United States also is

contributing with several high-rises that are following the Leadership in Environmental and

Energy Design (LEED) criteria set forth by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC).

These buildings exemplify many of the passive and active sustainable design elements spoke of

previously.










Currently under construction, the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park in New

York City is to be the first high-rise building in America that will have the platinum level LEED

designation, which is the highest attainable designation a building can have (Spillane and Pinch,

2004). Upon its completion, the skyscraper will also be the second tallest building at 1,200 feet

in New York, showing that sustainable can be just at tall as conventional (Hucal, 2004). Notable

systems and strategies within the building include

* 4.6 megawatt co-generation plant
* Filtered air intake
* Floor-by-floor air handling units
* Rainwater reuse and harvesting
* Waterless urinals, low-flow Eixtures
* Recyclable and renewable building materials
* Green roofs
* Double-skin curtain wall

The 54-story tower actually will act as a 54-story air filter which will make the streets of New

York that much cleaner and the employees that much healthier (Hucal, 2004). Upon the design

completion, the goals of the design team will hopefully be met and the tower will be the most

sustainable tall building in the world. The goals as compared to a typical tall building include

* 50% energy consumption reduction
* 50% potable water consumption reduction
* 95% storm water contribution reduction
* 50% recycled material components
* 50% of building materials within 500 miles of the site (Hucal, 2004).

New York, once thought of as a dirty, grimy city is making a particular resurgence and

there are multiple towers, and multiple green towers at that, dotting the skyline. Another green

skyscraper that is already in place is the Hearst Building, also located in the Big Apple. The

Hearst Building is actually the first office building located in the city to obtain a gold LEED

rating (Nobel, 2006). The building is to be a beacon for the Hearst Corporation, housing 2,000

employees from 10 separate locations (Post, 2005). The building also is a beacon of hope for









what innovative design can produce in a sustainable mindset. Sir Norman Foster designed the

building so that it actually uses 20% less steel than comparable steel buildings (Nobel, 2006).

Foster also used the original art deco building facade for the bottom floors as an architectural

skin for the building. Other notable features of the Hearst Building include

* 25% less energy use
* 30% less potable water through rain water harvesting
* Radiant heating and cooling through slab tubing
* Large atrium water feature to clean air and condition the lobby
* Office space exhaust air used to condition lobby atrium, reclaims energy and minimizes
use of outside air (Post, 2005).

Going across the Atlantic several other buildings demonstrate sustainable practices. The

Swiss Re Headquarters located in London, England was also designed by Sir Norman Foster.

The building has now become a symbol for London and is also a symbol of the possibility for

future skyscraper construction in a classic low and mid-rise city. The building itself is conical in

shape which minimizes air resistance around and especially at the base of the building (Gissen,

2002). In contrast, square buildings tend to cause wind gusting at street level. The tall building

also incorporates the following components

* Interior green spiraling atriums that breakdown the building and improve natural
ventilation
* Natural ventilation through cladding slots
* Air conditioning not needed for much of the year, natural ventilation provided for 40% of
the year
* Double-skin facade (Gissen, 2002).

Commerzbank is yet another Foster sustainable skyscraper and it too contains many of the

elements found in his other buildings. Of special note is that Commerzbank is the second tallest

building in Frankfurt, Germany and the first environmentally sensitive building of its kind

(Emporis Buildings, 2006). There are 9 hanging gardens throughout the building, which is









meant to reconcile tall buildings with human and ecology (Gissen, 2002). It also contains a

double-skin curtain wall for further sustainability.

Returning back to New York City, two additional buildings represent sustainable

structures. It may seem that New York contains a good share of sustainable buildings, but really

Europe contains many more buildings that have sustainable systems. They are not listed here

due to repetition but as Germany is still recovering and rebuilding from World War II and the

fall of the Berlin Wall, they are the most active green skyscraper builder in the world today

(Emporis Buildings, 2006). However, New York is increasingly building green and becoming

the "Green Apple" instead of the Big Apple.

The New York Times is moving its world famous newspaper and they have chosen to

make their future new building into a world class, sustainable skyscraper. The building's

exterior is the primary exciting feature. Instead of a classic curtain wall, the building will be

covered in a double-skin facade that will then be covered by aluminum silicate tubes that allow

for increased day lighting and natural lighting for those inside (Hagberg, 2006). The glass that

these tubes cover is also low-iron, low emissivity and spectrally selective which will make the

building actually change colors throughout the day (Gissen, 2002). It will be bluish after the

rain, red after sunset and it will overall be a vibrant symbol in midtown (Gissen, 2002). The

tubes, glass and reflective metal of the building all help in reducing heat or solar gain (Gissen,

2002).

The final building focused on in New York is the Solaire, which was completed in 2003.

The Solaire is actually the first green high-rise residential building in the United States. It was

able to achieve the second best ranking in LEED, gold. Overall, the residences are 38 percent










more efficient than New York building codes prescribe (Gissen, 2002). Systems and practices

encompassed within the building include

* Photovoltaics
* Geothermal energy recovery system
* Blackwater waste treatment system
* Gas-absorption chillers
* Occupancy sensors
* Lighting control
* Climate control
* Low or no VOC materials
* Recycled materials
* Roof gardens (Gissen, 2002).

The building also was designed for certain energy and utility use percentages as follows:

* 35% less energy use
* 65% reduction in peak energy demand usage
* 50% less potable water use
* 5% of building' s energy provided by photovoltaics (Gissen, 2002).

Burj Dubai and Beyond

As the world grows and countries develop, so too will skyscraper construction around

the world be furthered. In looking at future populations and the ability to house such vast

numbers, skyscrapers and going vertical with construction will be the answer. The American

invention will soon be prominent in every large, developing country on the globe. Even in

countries where skyscrapers abound such as China, further development and high-rise buildings

are being constructed to send a message. Complexity in design and huge construction endeavors

in skyscraper erection are also becoming more and more apparent. The "glass box" is no longer

the building that the owner or developer wants to build; curves, spirals, pinnacles and sharp

angles embody the new skyscraper architecture. In the world of tall skyscrapers fame is fleeting.

Many world's tallest buildings have lasted only a few short years and in some cases even less

than a year in their reign. In following with that tradition of skyscraper booms and world's









tallest building, spurts of competition between several buildings in the not so distant future will

be again vying for the title and striving to overtake Taipei 101. What will become of the World

Trade Center and Lower Manhattan? How will the first world renowned skyscraper city respond

to attacks on this building type?

Skyscraper Cities of Tomorrow

True, the developed countries or 1st world countries of the world that already have plenty

of high-rises will continue to build tall. But they will begin to have more and more company, as

countries expand and become more financially advanced with greater economies and greater

quality of life. Also, the buildings going up all over the world, do not contain the traditional garb

of old. The skyscraper is being reinvented in a new light, with not only sustainable practices as

discussed earlier, but also in architecture and construction difficulty. Combined with new

locations and new complexities, the skyscraper is creating the cities of tomorrow.

Indian Shift

With exponential population growth in the coming years in certain countries, both

developed and developing skyscraper construction will be highly visible. Where there are flows

of people spilling over into the billions and where there is a shortage of land, there will be

skyscrapers. As already discussed, high-rises allow large populations to sustain themselves in a

regulating manner. Condensed, modern cities of millions upon millions cannot survive without

soon implementing tall building construction, energy costs and transportation costs all but

prevent spread out establishments. This fact is particularly true in very large developing country

cities. Table 2-17 shows the current top ten world's largest countries. Table 2-18 as a

supplement shows what the rankings will be by the year 2050 and the percentage change in










population according to the Population Reference Bureau. Table 2-19 also demonstrates the top

four gross domestic product, or purchasing power parity countries in the world and what their

GDP's will be by the year 2030.

The glaring country that lacks in skyscraper construction is India, which by the year 2050,

table 2-18 shows will be the world's most populated country and by the year 2030, table 2-19

shows will have the 3rd largest GDP. Table 2-20 shows that India today has a total of 1,253 tall

buildings which makes the it the 23rd tallest nation in the world. The United States, China and

Japan on the other hand rank as the 1st, 3rd and 5th tallest countries in the world while maintaining

top GDP's and top populations. India also is smaller than both China and the United States. The

inevitable conclusion in India will be a growth in skyscraper construction. In fact, India had

already proposed an India Tower that would dwarf all other buildings in the race for the world's

tallest building (Civil Engineering, 1999, April). Although the India Tower was never built, it

would not be surprising if the next world' s tallest does in fact come from this emerging world

power.

Chinese Games

Coming in 2008, the nation of China will host its first ever summer Olympic games in

Beijing. In addition to the mammoth amounts of construction for stadium facilities, Olympic

parks and Olympic villages, the Chinese will also have some new high-rise buildings on display

for the world to see. These buildings are intended to show the symbolic progress that the

Chinese have made as their power on the global stage increases.

In particular, two buildings that will draw the eye of the world are the Central Chinese

Television Building (CCTV Building), located in Beijing and the Shanghai World Financial

Center located in Shanghai which will have some Olympic participation. The same elements of

symbolism, culture and strength will emanate from these structures to the world.









The Shanghai World Financial Center is to be a 1,614 foot tall skyscraper that will rank as

the second tallest building in the world upon its completion in 2007 (Lepik, 2004). What little

the skyscraper lacks in height to be the world's tallest, it makes up for in being perhaps the most

complex tall structure in the world. The top of the building will be a square plan with a round

hole though the middle of it so that wind pressures are reduced, but also for a symbolic purpose.

It follows the Chinese conception of the earth as a square and the sky as a circle, a true

"sky"scraper (Abel, 2003).

The other building that is certain to be regarded as a breakthrough of architecture,

engineering and construction is the CCTV Building, in the primary Olympic city of Beijing. The

building will only stand at 768 feet as its tallest point, but will be a self-contained mini-city upon

completion by the Olympic games (Post, 2005). The allure of the building comes in its new

concepts in spatial layout and statics (Lepik, 2004). The building is hard to describe but will be a

skyscraper vertically and a "landscraper" horizontally with cantilevered portions and angles that

are unlike any building seen thus far.

Ultra Modern Skyscrapers

It has been demonstrated that just as the skyscraper has progressed, so too has the

technology to make it the building that it is today progressed. Initially it was steel and elevators,

then lighting and air-conditioning and now glass and sustainable systems. Just as technology of

the skyscraper has advanced to give the buildings the modern amenities of today, so too has

architecture progressed over the years to give use the most profound, unique, tall structures on

this earth. It used to be that due to sheer size, the skyscraper would be recognized and admired

from afar. However, as symbolism and pride in the tall building progressed, designs got ever-

more complicated and many of the new skyscrapers being constructed today resemble a new,

ultra modern civilization.









One building that exemplifies new innovations in art for architecture's sake is the Turning

Torso in Malmo, Sweden. The building was actually inspired by a sculpture that the architect,

Santiago Calatrava, had produced. At 623 feet, the building is one of the world's largest

sculpture pieces (Emporis Buildings, 2006). It actually twists 90 degrees from the base of the

tower to the tip of the structure. The building also has tremendous pride value, aside from being

a symbol for the country of Sweden and its tallest building. The Turning Torso lies across the

Oresund Strait from Copenhagen, Denmark. Copenhagen has a height restriction of 10 stories

within their city and therefore it was the intent of the Swedes to make a building that was tall and

beautiful so that Denmark would look on with envy (Nobel, 2005). Evidence that not only

Denmark, but the world admired the Turning Torso came when it was awarded the Emporis

Skyscraper Award in 2005.

The Emporis Skyscraper Award has been given every year since 2000. It is given to the

designers of an outstanding skyscraper and

seeks to identify and encourage achievements from the previous year in the building trades,
which successfully address the needs and aspirations of societies through real estate,
design, and construction. The selection process favors solutions that not only provide for
people's physical, social and economic needs, but that also stimulate and respond to their
cultural and spiritual expectations. Particular attention is given to building schemes,
products, and corporate activities that use local resources and appropriate technology in an
innovative way, and to proj ects likely to inspire similar efforts elsewhere (Emporis
Awards, 2006).

The Emporis awards over the years shown in table 2-21 demonstrate that height is not the only

factor in great skyscraper construction. The average height of the winners actually has only been

787 feet, which was drastically brought up with Taipei 101 (Emporis Awards, 2006). Height

combined with beauty in these sleek, sharp, angled buildings are replacing the "glass box" that

has been so popular for so long.









The Race Continues

Throughout the skyscraper' s storied past, the battle for world' s tallest has more or less

always been there. From the Masonic Temple in Chicago to Taipei 101 in Taiwan, the prestige

and pride that accompanies the design, construction and implementation of the tallest man-made

inhabitable buildings, is comparable to the financial clout and power necessary to even get these

buildings out of the ground. So as it goes, a new challenger has risen and challengers for other

positions in the world's top ten tallest skyscrapers are also in the works.

Liquid Gold Structures

The United Arab Emirates was formed on December 2,1971 and thus is a very young

country (Emporis Buildings, 2006). The country itself is small, only about the size of Rhode

Island and is termed the "j ewel" of the Arab world. Eventually, however, the country's primary

resource will run out, oil. As such the country is attempting to develop an economy that will last

with business and tourism. When a city and a nation wants to be recognized, and grow up in a

big way, they build skyscrapers. The country actually now contains 432 skyscrapers (Emporis

Buildings, 2006). This is quite a feat considering the country did not have more than 20

skyscrapers until 1992 (CTBUH Database, 2006).

Currently, Dubai is the country's largest city and also contains most of the tall buildings

with 190 skyscrapers (Emporis Buildings, 2006). It also contains Burj al Arab Hotel which is the

second tallest hotel in the world at 1,053 feet, 31 feet away from being the world's tallest

(Emporis Buildings, 2006). The hotel is actually built on a man made island out into the ocean

and is designed as a giant sail billowing in the wind (Lepik, 2004). It is one of the many

construction endeavors in the region that wishes to bring luxury tourism to Dubai (Lepik, 2004).

Skyscrapers, man made islands and tourist attractions do not seem to be the stopping point

for Dubai however. Their wish is to build the world's tallest building and that undertaking is









currently under construction. Burj Dubai, which translated means the Tower of Dubai, embodies

all of the characters of why the world is building tall. Socially, culturally, politically, financially

and symbolically the tower will be the pinnacle of what Dubai and the United Arab Emirates can

achieve on a skyscraper scale. It is to be part of a planned city of 500,000 within the Dubai

waterfront area (Post, 2005). The building is such an important economic and political symbol

for the United Arab Emirates that the height of the structure is currently secret, reminiscent of

the race to the top in New York in the 1930's. Some report the building as 2,296 feet (Post,

2005), others report at least half a mile up into the sky (Nobel, 2005). Regardless, the developers

of the building want it to be known that the title of the world' s tallest building is coming back to

the Middle East. Some may say that there had never been a world's tallest building in the

Middle East, but the developers refer to when the pyramids of Egypt were overtaken by the

buildings of Europe hundred of years ago (Nobel, 2005). The company developing the building

proclaim that this structure is one that will change history (EMAAR, 2006). In fact, the building

will be the first over 2,000 feet tall and will be the first to hold all of the CTBUH tallest building

categories. The developers also state

The goal of Burj Dubai is not simply to be the world' s highest building. It' s to embody the
world's highest aspirations.

Burj Dubai looks different depending on where you're standing. For those living nearby, it
is a shining accomplishment tangible proof of Dubai's central role in a growing world.
For those standing in other global capitals, it is a shining symbol an icon of the new
Middle East: prosperous, dynamic, and successful.

In fact, Burj Dubai is both. It is a fact an unprecedented example of international
cooperation and a symbol a beacon of progress for the entire world (EMAAR, 2006).

The developers opinion of Burj Dubai strengthen the position that skyscrapers are more than just

a place to work or live, but rather they are also statements.









Up and Coming

There are also several other buildings under construction in the world set to attack titles

aside from world's tallest. As the skyscraper goes global, more and more competition is coming

from outside of the United States. As shown in table 2-7 previously, the United States occupies

only 2 of the top ten tallest buildings in the world, at 4th and 9th tallest. With the completion of

some of the numerous tall buildings under construction shown in table 2-22, the top ten tallest

building's in the world will look completely different. Table 2-22 also shows that of the tallest

15 buildings going up, only 2 are in America. The majority of tall structures seem to be

consistently on the Asian continent and in the Middle East, with a few scattered elsewhere.

Dubai especially, is building taller and taller with 4 buildings going up that are all over 1,000

feet tall, including the world's tallest building. Table 2-23 now shows what the top ten world's

tallest buildings shall look like at the completion of the buildings listed as under construction in

table 2-22. Come that time, the United States will be a non-factor with only one building in the

top ten, the once mighty Sears Tower in position 10. The Chinese will still hold the majority of

the world' s tallest and the Middle East' s new skyscraper power will also be felt a bit.

Alas, the torch may seem to have been officially passed to the rest of the world but, not to

be outdone Chicago may come back with a building that could challenge for the world's tallest

building, if not second place. As Burj Dubai's final height is top secret, it is difficult to

speculate, but Santiago Calatrava is taking his art as architecture to a new level. The Fordham

Spire is the possible world's tallest building that would return the crown to the United States of

America. In the design, each floor slab would turn 2 degrees from the floor below it, thus

making a complete 360 degree turn up the building (Emporis Buildings, 2006). Calatrava's









impetus was fire billowing from Indian settlements that used to line the Chicago River.

Omnipresent, as always this symbolic return to America may never occur, but the hope is there

and the desire to build the tallest still lies in Americans despite past attacks on the skyscraper as a

building type.

The Story of Lower Manhattan

More than five years after the attacks of September 11, 2006 there are still no structures

occupying the locations where One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center stood.

This highly public, highly sentimental plot of land in Lower Manhattan means a lot of things to a

lot of people and thus has been thoroughly and prohibitively mulled over in a bureaucratic

fashion. Only recently is there some light at the end of the tunnel for what is to be done with the

World Trade Center land that remains currently vacant. In the end the area will have 29 proj ects

worth an anticipated 21 billion dollars completed before 2015 (Post, 2006, September 11).

With the myriad of proj ects a few towers in particular stand out in Towers 2, 3 and 4, the

already completed 7 World Trade Center and the Freedom Tower. Upon completion the area

that once was the scene of such horror will be an architectural and civic masterpiece.

Towers 2, 3, 4 and 7 World Trade Center

Recently, three of the four towers that are to be completed at the World Trade Center

site were announced. These towers are currently numbered simply towers 2, 3 and 4 and will

reside at the east side of the site. The trio constitute only a portion of the massive undertaking

going on in Lower Manhattan. However, being part of the world' s most symbolic and most

attention gathering rebuilding of any area, draws only the best in the business. Architects Foster

and Partners, Fumihiko Maki and Maki and Associates and the Richard Rogers Partnership

represent the top quality architects whose designs are planned to be implemented. The Rogers

tower would be the tallest at 1,555 feet tall, making it the second tallest building in New York,









after the to be completed Freedom Tower (Engineering News Record, 2006, September 18). The

Foster tower would be constructed to 1,254 feet making, it the third tallest building in New York

and only 4 feet above the Empire State Building (Engineering News Record, 2006, September

18). Lastly, the Maki tower would be 61 stories and rise to 947 feet tall (Engineering News

Record, 2006, September 18). All three would demonstrate how America can rebuild and the

resolve with which Americans build tall in the face of foes.

One building that was destroyed that day has actually already been rebuilt, 7 World Trade

Center. It is a 52 story white glass building that reflects the sky above and allows tremendous

amount of color changing depending on the time of day (Jacobs, 2006). The building also

achieved a gold level LEED certification and is the only other high-rise in New York besides the

Hearst Building to achieve such a rating (Jacobs, 2006). The building is an indicator of the

beauty and achievement that is to come around the rest of the World Trade Center area. It also

demonstrates designing and constructing with terrorism in mind with blast-absorbent glass and

energy-absorbing steel springs incorporated into the structure (Jacobs, 2006).

The Freedom Tower

By far, the most significant structure going up at the World Trade Center site is the

Freedom Tower. It is to be the most symbolic skyscraper the world has ever seen. It will show

America triumphant in the face of terrorism, it will rise to 1,776 feet symbolizing the year of the

Declaration of Independence, it will be the quintessential building of and for America and

Americans everywhere.

For the design, the j oint city and state organization of the Lower Manhattan

Redevelopment Corporation held an international design competition in 2002. There were 406

entries received initially (Lepik, 2004)! It was a whose, who of architecture firms all fighting to

be the group chosen to construct a memorable piece of world and human history. Oddly enough,









a good number of the entries featured soaring skyscrapers to replace the tall buildings that had

fallen (Stephens, 2004). In the end Daniel Libeskind's design was selected. The design involved

a 1,776 tower that was asymmetrically built taller on one side to resemble the Statue of Liberty's

torch (Chamberlain, 2006). In the end though the building' s landlord rej ected the design as

uneconomical and today the design stands as a symmetrical 77 story, still 1,776 foot tall glass

enclosed structure (Chamberlain, 2006). In regards to terrorism the entire base 200 feet will be

mechanical equipment only and will be fortress-like in design (Chamberlain, 2006).

The building and the area has its problems and pitfalls, with astronomically rising costs

due to structural modifications to fight terrorism. The area also still has a stigma and the

argument of whether the entire building will be occupied is still in question. Although, recently

1,000,000 square feet of the tower was confirmed to be rented out by United States agencies and

other state agencies (Bagli, 2006). Regardless of terrorism concerns, financial concerns and

public concerns the buildings are going through. According to the governor of New York,

George E. Pataki the Freedom Tower "will be built and it will be occupied" (Bagli, 2006). The

land, the area, the stories and the buildings that are to follow mean too much to go by the

wayside. It is this symbolic aspect of skyscrapers which enraptures the minds of constituents

who build tall. It is this symbolic aspect of skyscrapers that wills buildings such as the Freedom

Tower into the New York skyline.










Table 2-1: Building. Height and Percentage Return on Investment
Story Height Actual Percentage Return (%) Normal Computed Percentage Return (%)
8 4.22 4.69
15 6.44 6.10
22 7.73 7.31
30 8.50 8.45
37 9.07 9.23
50 9.87 10.13
63 10.25 10.33
75 10.06 9.90
85 9.08
100 7.08
110 5.22
115 4.14
120 2.95
125 1.66
130 0.27
1311 -0.02
Clark, W., & Kingston, J. (1930). The sk~yscraper: A study in the economic height of modern
office buildings. New York, NY: American Institute of Steel Construction Inc.

Table 2-2: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in the United States of America
Cit Building Height Year
Chicago Sears Tower 1,451 ft 1974
New York Cit Empire State Building 1,250 ft 1931
Chicago Aon Center 1,136 ft 1973
Chicago John Hancock Center 1,127 ft 1969
New York City Chrysler Building 1,046 ft 1930
Atlanta Bank of America Plaza 1,023 ft 1992
Los Angeles US Bank Tower 1,018 ft 1989
Chicago ATandT Croate Center 1,007 ft 1989
Houston JP Morgan Chase Tower 1,002 ft 1982
Chicago Two Prudential Plaza 995 ft 1990
Average 1,106 1972
Council on Tall Builcings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.emporis. com/?nav=signin&1ng=3 (July 3 1, 2006)









Table 2-3: Top Ten Tallest Buildings in China
Cit Building Heignht Year
Shanghai Jin Mao Tower 1,380 ft 1998
Hong Kong Two International Finance 1,362 ft 2003
Guangzou CITIC Plaza 1,283 ft 1997
Shenzhen Shun HingSur 1,260 ft 1996
Hong Kong Central Plaza 1,227 ft 1992
Hong Kong Bank of China Tower 1,205 ft 1990
Hong Kong The Center 1,135 ft 1998
Shenzhen SEG Plaza 957 ft 2000
Shanha Plaza 66 945 ft 2001
Shanha Tomorrow Square 934 ft 2003
Average 1,169 1998
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.emporis. com/?nav=signin&1ng=3 (July 31i, 2006)


Table 2-4: Average Percentage of Buildings Worldwide per 60 years
Years U.S.A Percentage China Percentage
1885 1945 5,600 84% 10 0%
1945 2005 11,981 35% 8453 13%
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.emporis.com/?nav=signin&1ng=3. (July 31, 2006)

Table 2-5: Avera e Percenta e of Buildin s Worldwide er Decades


gUI g-J g ~ ~ p I~1~V CIIII V I~V
Years U.S.A Percentage China Percentage
1996-2005 175 9.19% 291 17.21%
1986-1995 167 16.52% 278 27.68%
1976-1985 224 25.64% 188 21.71%
1966-1975 316 32.68% 64 6.48%
1956-1965 230 49.06% 25 4.21%
1946-1955 79 74.46% 0 0.33%


V~VU~~~


Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.emporis.com/?nav=signin&1ng=3. (July 31, 2006)









Table 2-6: List of World' s Tallest Buildings Past and Present
Building Location Height (ft) Year
Masonic Temple Chicago, Illinois 302 1892
Park Row Building New York, New York 391 1899
Singer Building New York, New York 612 1908
Metroplitan Life Building New York, New York 700 1909
Woolworth Building New York, New York 792 1913
Crsler Building New York, New York 1,046 1930
Empire State Building New York, New York 1,250 1931
One World Trade Center New York, New York 1,368 1972
Sears Tower Chicag,Illinois 1,451 1974
Petronas Towers 1 and 2 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1,483 1998
Taipe 101 Taipe, Taiwan 1,671 2004
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)

Table 2-7: Top Ten World's Tallest Buildins
Building Heih (ft.) Location Year
Taipe 101 1,671 Taipe, Taiwan 2004
Petronas Tower 1 1,483 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998
Petronas Tower 2 1,483 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998
Sears Tower 1,451 Chicago, Illinois 1974
Jin Mao Tower 1,380 Shanghai, China 1998
Two International Finance 1,362 Hong Kon, China 2003
CITIC Plaza 1,283 Guangzou, China 1997
Shun Hing Sqare 1,260 Shenzhen, China 1996
Empire State Building 1,250 New York, New York 1931
Central Plaza 1,227 Hong Kon, China 1992
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)

Table 2-8: World's Tallest Buildings Per Continent
Continent Building Height (ft.) Location
Africa Carlton Centre Office Tower 730 Johannesbur, South Africa
Asia Taipei 101 1,671 Taipei, Taiwan
Europe Triumph Palace 866 Moscow, Russia
North America Sears Tower 1,451 Chicao, Illinois
Oceania Q1 Tower 1,058 Gold Coast City,Australia
South America Parque Central Torre Oeste 725 Caracas, Venezuela
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)









Table 2-9: World's Tallest Buildings per Categories
Building Typ Building Height (ft.) Location
Office Taipei 101 1,671 Taipei, Taiwan
Hosital Guy's Tower 449 London, England
Residential Q1 Tower 1,058 Gold Coast City, Australia
Educational Moscow State Universit 787 Moscow, Russia
Lodging Ryugong 1,083 Pongyang North Korea
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)

Table 2-10: United States Top Ten Skyscrapr Cities versus Population
Cit Building Poplation U.S Rank
New York 5,503 8, 143,197 1
Chicago 1,050 2,842,518 3
Los Angeles 469 3,844,829 2
Honolulu 425 377,379 47
San Francisco 398 739,426 14
Philadelphia 342 1,463,281 5
Houston 329 2,016,582 4
Washington 298 582,049 27
Boston 258 559,034 24
Dallas 237 1,213,825 9
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)

Table 2-11: China Top Ten Skyscrae Cities versus Population
Cit Buildins Popuation Chinese Rank
Hong Kong 7,458 6,943,600 3
Beijing 845 7,746,519 2
Shanha 793 9,145,711 1
Guangzou 460 4, 111,946 10
Wuhan 396 4,550,000 8
Shenzhen 334 1,245,000 NR
Macau 325 453,733 NR
Chongqing 299 6,300,000 4
Xiamen 175 1,370,000 NR
Shenyang 162 4,649,490 7
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006)









Table 2-12: Worldwide To Ten Skycae Countries versus Population
Country Buildins Population World Rank
U.S.A. 19,187 296,483,000 3
Brazil 12,236 184,184,000 5
China 12, 142 1,303,701,000 1
Spain 7,484 43,484,000 30
Japan 5,285 127,728,000 10
Canada 4,967 32,225,000 36
Singapre 3,703 4,296,000 119
South Korea 3,068 48,294,000 24
United Kingdom 3,033 60,068,000 22
Turkey 2,863 72,907,000 17
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis. com/en/. (July 31, 2006) and
Population Reference Bureau. Population Reference Bureau Database.
http://www.prb. org/datafind/datafinder7 .htm. (June 22, 2006)

Table 2-13: Worldwide To Ten Skyscrae Countries versus GDP
Country Buildins GDP (trillions) World Rank
U.S.A. 19, 187 12,360 1
Brazil 12,236 1,556 10
China 12, 142 8,859 2
Spain 7,484 1,029 13
Japan 5,285 4,018 3
Canada 4,967 1,114 11
Singapre 3,703 124.3 56
South Korea 3,068 965.3 14
United Kingdom 3,033 1,830 6
Turkey 2,863 572 18
Emporis. Emporis Buildings Database. http://www.emporis_ com/en/. (July 31, 2006) and CIA.
CIA World Factbook Database. https://www.odci .gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html.
(June 27, 2006)









Table 2-14: Comparative Population Densities Around the Globe

Population/
Region Population Area (mile^`2) (mile^'2)
Asia Pacific
Hong Kong 5,693,000 23 245,747
Jakarta 9,882,000 76 129,920
Ho Chi Minh Cit 3,725,000 31 120,596
Shanghai 6,936,000 78 88,931
Bangkok 5,955,000 102 58,422
Manila 10,156,000 188 54,012
Seoul 16,792,000 342 49,087
Taipe 6,695,000 138 48,571
Beijing 5,762,000 151 38, 168
Singapre 2,719,000 78 34,862
Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto 13,872,000 495 28,025
Tokyo-Yokohama 27,245,000 1,089 25,014

Europe and North America
Paris 8,720,000 432 20, 183
New York 14,625,000 1,274 11,478
Berlin 3,021,000 274 11,020
London 9, 115,000 874 10,427
Los Angeles 10,130,000 1,110 9, 126
Chicago 6,529,000 762 8,566
Houston 2,329,000 310 7,512
Abel, C. (2003). Sk~y high: Vertical architecture. London, United Kingdom: Royal Academy of
Arts.

Table 2-15: Urban versus Rural World Populations
Year Urban ()Rural (%) Total millions )
1950 30.00 70.00 2.50
1975 38.40 61.60 4.07
2000 47.20 51.80 6.12
2025 62.00 38.00 8.06
Ali, M., & Armstrong, P. (1995). Architecture of tal buildings: Council on tall buildings and
urban habitat. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill, Inc.










Table 2-16: Developing and Develoe Nations Urban versus Rural Concentrations
Years Urban (%) Rural (%) Total millions )
1950 Developed Countries 44.00 56.00 0.85
1950 Developing Countries 17.00 83.00 1.67
1975 Develope Countries 69.00 31.00 1.10
1975 Developng. Countries 27.00 73.00 2.96
2000 Develoe Countries 77.00 23.00 1.25
2000 Developng. Countries 40.00 60.00 4.85
2025 Develoe Countries 85.00 15.00 1.39
2025 Developing Countries 57.00 43.00 6.75
Ali, M., & Armstrong, P. (1995). Architecture of tal buildings: Council on tall buildings and
urban habitat. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill, Inc.


Country Population (millions)
China 1,311
India 1,122
United States 299
Indonesia 225
Brazil 187
Pakistan 166
Bangladesh 147
Russia 142
Nigeria 135
Japan 128


Table 2-17: Current W s


___.__.___


Population Reference Bureau. Population Reference Bureau Database.
http://www.prb. org/datafind/datafinder7 .htm. (June 22, 2006)









Table 2-18: World's Top Ten Populated Countries in 2050
Country Population (millions) Percentae Chang~e (%)
India 1,628 31
China 1,437 9
United States 420 29
Nigneria 299 55
Paki stan 295 44
Indonesia 285 21
Brazil 260 28
Bangladesh 231 36
Dem. Rep. of Congo 183 NR
Ethiopia 145 NR
Population Reference Bureau. Population Reference Bureau Database.
http://www.prb. org/datafind/datafinder7 .htm. (June 22, 2006)

Table 2-19: GDP Trends 2010-2030 in Trillions
Country 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
United States 13,043 15,082 17,541 20,123 23,112
China 10, 116 13,538 17,615 22,592 28,833
India 5,162 6,694 8,644 11,059 14,102
Japan 3,858 4,192 4,438 4,653 4,878
Energy Information Administration. World Gross Domestic Product by Region.
http:.//www.eia. doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/ieoreftab_3 .pdf. (June 18, 2006)

Table 2-20: Current Skyscraper Rank versus Population and GDP
Country Skyscrapers Rank Population GDP
U.S.A. 19,187 1 3 1
China 12,142 2 1 2
Jaa 5,285 5 10 3
India 1,253 23 2 4
Population Reference Bureau. Population Reference Bureau Database.
http://www.prb. org/datafind/datafinder7.htm. (June 22, 2006) and Energy Information
Administration. World Gross Domestic Product by Region.
http:.//www.eia. doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/ieoreftab_3 .pdf. (June 18, 2006)









Table 2-21: Emporis Skyscraper Award Winners
Awarded Building. Location Height (ft.)
2000 Sofitel New York Hotel New York, New York 356
2001 One Wall Centre Vancouver, Canada 491
2002 Kingdom Centre Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 992
2003 Swiss Re Headquarters London, United Kingdom 590
2004 Taipei 101 Taipei, Taiwan 1,671
2005 Turning. Torso Malmo, Sweden 623
Average Height: 787
Emporis. Emporis Awards Listing. http://awards_ emporis.com/?lng=3. (June 22, 2006)

Table 2-22: Tallest Buildings Currently Under Construction
Name Location Height (ft) Year Complete
Burj Dubai Dubai, U.A.E. 2,296 2008
Busan Lotte Tower Busan, South Korea 1,620 2009
Shanghi World Financial Center Shanha 1,614 2007
Abraj Al Bait Hotel Tower Mekkah, Saudi Arabia 1,591 NA
International Commerce Centre Hong Kong 1,588 2009
Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Nanj ing China 1,496 2008
Dubai Towers Doha Doha, Qatar 1,450 2007
Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago 1,361 2008
23 Marina Dubai 1,246 2009
Bank of America Tower New York Cit 1,200 2008
Wanhao Financial Center Chongqin, China 1,171 2006
Almas Tower Dubai 1,148 2007
Federation Complex Tower A Moscow 1,132 2010
Palacio de la Bahia Panama Cit 1,102 2009
Rose Tower Dubai 1,092 2006
Post, N. (2005, October 31i). Skyscraper envy lives on, globally. Engineering News-
Record, 255(17), 10-11.









Table 2-23: Future Top Ten World's Tallest Building. List
Name Location Height (ft) Year Complete
Burj Dubai Dubai, U.A.E. 2,296 2008
Taipei 101 Taipei, Taiwan 1,671 2004
Busan Lotte Tower Busan, South Korea 1,620 2009
Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai, China 1,614 2007
Abraj Al Bait Hotel Tower Mekkah, Saudi Arabia 1,591 NA
International Commerce Centre Hong Kon, China 1,588 2009
Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Nanj in, China 1,496 2008
Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1,483 1998
Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1,483 1998
Sears Tower Chicag, Illinois 1,451 1974
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH Database.
http://join.emporis. com/?nav=signin&1ng=3 (July 3 1, 2006)



2,500,000

2,000,000-


S1,500,000-

~1,000,000-

500,000-


8 15 22 30 37 50 63 75
Sto ri es

Figure 2-1: Skyscraper Gross Floor Area Comparison
Clark, W., & Kingston, J. (1930). The sk~yscraper: A study in the economic height of modern
office buildings. New York, NY: American Institute of Steel Construction Inc.