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Culture and the Clios: A Comparison of Clio Award-Winning Television Commercials from the United States, the United Kind...

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 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Literature review
 Methodology
 Results
 Discussion and conclusions
 Appendix A: Operational defini...
 Appendix B: Clio coding sheet
 References
 Biographical sketch
 

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CULTURE AND THE CLIOs: A COMPARISON OF CLIO AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS FROM THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED KINDGOM, AND AUSTRALIA By MARIE ALICIA GUADAGNO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Marie Alicia Guadagno

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This document is dedicated to the graduate students of the University of Florida. The ones who will never read it.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Most importantly, I thank my parents for their unwavering love and support. You both have taught me the most valuable of life lessons and provided me with a solid moral foundation. You have kept my spirits high a nd my sense of humor going. I love you both dearly. Also, thank you to my brother, grandma, and all other family members. You have always been there for me and I greatly appr eciate everything you have ever done for me. To Dr. John Sutherland, who never babied us thank you. You provided me with great knowledge and confidence. Thank you to Dr. Marilyn Roberts, the sweetest woman of the South, for being so kind and generous to me. To Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho for being so flexible and helpful during the thesis process. To Dr. Robyn Goodman, Dr. Debbie Treise, and Dr. Michael Weigol d for taking me half way arou nd the world, literally, and for opening my eyes to new adventures. Also thank you for always being there to chat about life or just to wave hello. Tha nk you also to Dr. Joseph Pisani, an amazing professor who I will never forget. To the f aculty that I have come to know and love, thank you. To Dr. Stephen Marshall who paved the way and who deserves his own section. Thank you, good friend, thank you. To Lizzie, my friend, my confidant, a nd my alter-ego. The girl who kept me laughing for years. The girl that comprehends me, even at 5:40 a.m. The girl Ill will be sitting and laughing with when Im 80. One day, we will break the cycle together.

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v To Joann, my great friend and my eternal roommate. We go together. There are far too many instances to write about. Just rememb er, Ill always be there in your heart and in your soul! We will carry on the legacy of our grandmothers, together, forever. To Miss Scarlett. What do I even begin with? The summer of us? The European dream team? I dont know. Thank you. You ar e the one who bore the brunt of my fanatical sarcasm and still continues to la ugh with me. We found humor in even the bleakest of situations that is the sign of a rare and absolu tely true friendship. We are still running agains t the wind together. To my little children at work, thank you. I c onsider you all my gifts. You all hold such a special place in my heart. Although you will probably never read this, you have all changed my life in indescribable ways. To all my other great friends, thank you! To the Holman clan, I will never forget the love you showed me. To the BP, the co llective group of crazies who taught me lifes truest lessons thanks for the eternal wis dom. To Scaljon, I dont know where to begin with you. The laughs weve shared are unmatched. One day Scaljon, one day. To the generous Mike and Paul, thank you. And to any of my other friends. I love you all. Thank you.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii FIGURE......................................................................................................................... ......x ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................3 Culture........................................................................................................................ ..3 Perpetuation and Transmission of Culture............................................................4 Understanding Different Cultures.........................................................................6 Cultural Frameworks And Dimensions........................................................................8 Research of Hall (1966, 1976)...............................................................................8 Research of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997).......................................8 Research of Hofstede (1980, 1994).......................................................................9 Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture......................................................................10 Previous Cultural Research and Mass Communications............................................13 Focus of the Current Study.........................................................................................13 Advertising Awards....................................................................................................16 The Clio Awards.........................................................................................................18 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................22 Content Analysis Defined...........................................................................................22 Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Method......................................23 Creating the Current Cont ent Analysis Method.........................................................24 Intercoder Reliability..................................................................................................24 Unit of Analysis and Sample Design..........................................................................25 Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis................................................................25 Rules and Procedures..........................................................................................25 Coder Training.....................................................................................................26 Pre-testing............................................................................................................27

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vii Coder Independence............................................................................................27 Number of Judges per Spot.................................................................................27 Intercoder Reliability...........................................................................................28 Final Revisions and Category Decisions....................................................................30 Data analysis...............................................................................................................31 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................32 Spot Descriptive Characterist ics by Award Level and Year...............................32 Spot Descriptive Characteri stics by Country of Origin.......................................33 Advertising Agency Brand Descriptive Characteristics......................................34 Product Category Descriptive Characteristics.....................................................34 Dominant Commercial Characters Descriptive Characteristics..........................35 Research Questions.....................................................................................................36 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................43 Descriptive Results.....................................................................................................43 Hypotheses and Research Questions..........................................................................44 Limitations..................................................................................................................44 Clio Limitations..........................................................................................................45 Future Research and Conclusion................................................................................45 APPENDIX A OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS..............................................................................47 B CLIO CODING SHEET.............................................................................................54 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................62 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................66

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viii LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia...................................................................................................................15 2 Holsti and Perreault and Le igh Reliability Indices..................................................29 3 Sample distribution by Year. (N=268).....................................................................32 4 Award Levels...........................................................................................................33 5 Top Ten Countries Represented...............................................................................33 6 Top Ten Advertising Agencies Represented............................................................34 7 Top Ten Product Categories Represented................................................................35 8 Commercial Characters Pr esent in Overall Sample.................................................36 9 High Power Distance in Ads?..................................................................................36 10 Low Power Distance in Ads?...................................................................................37 11 Individualism in Ads?..............................................................................................38 12 Low Individualism (collectivism) in Ads?...............................................................38 13 Masculinity in Ads?.................................................................................................38 14 Low Masculinity (femininity) in Ads?.....................................................................38 15 High Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads?......................................................................39 16 Low Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads?.......................................................................39 17 Long term orientation in Ads?.................................................................................40 18 Short term orientation in Ads?.................................................................................40

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ix 19 Executional variables in Ads?..................................................................................42 20 Prototypical Clio......................................................................................................44

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x FIGURE Figure page 1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia...................................................................................................................15

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xi Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising CULTURE AND THE CLIOs: A COMPARISON OF CLIO AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS FROM THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED KINDGOM, AND AUSTRALIA By Marie Alicia Guadagno December 2006 Chair: John Sutherland Major Department: Advertising In the broadest scope, the purpose of this study is to explore differences in culture in an attempt to better unde rstand human divides. The comprehension of culture is essential to the field of inte rnational marketing and advertis ing. In a more narrow scope, this study aims to contribute meaningful info rmation of the cultural content depicted in award-winning television commercials. With this information, both marketers and advertisers may get a better idea of what is appealing and creative to different cultures. Utilizing this type of research may lessen th e chance of making costly cultural blunders. Both marketers and advertisers seeking to en ter new cultural market segments may get a better understanding of the territory they are tryi ng to enter. Finally, this study serves as a springboard for further research on cultu re and award-winning advertising.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A civilization is a heritage of beliefs, customs, and knowledge slowly accumulated in the course of centuries, elements di fficult at times to justify by logic, but justifying themselves as paths when they lead somewhere. Antoine de Saint-Exupry The paths to unlocking the logi c and inclinations of diffe rent cultures can only be paved by in-depth and extensive researc h. In an era seemingly wrought by profound cultural conflicts (such as war and political strife), and even by more light-hearted cultural misunderstandings (such as being lost in translation), it is imperative to better understand culture and its impact on society. A cultures influence on society is all pervasive (Mueller, 1987). From spoken wo rd to implied meaning, to government, business, entertainment, and everywhere in between culture surrounds society. We cannot separate ourselves from our own culture nor can we meaningfu lly interact without culture (Hall, 1966). This paper will first explore, in a global sense, the construct of culture and the communication of values based on the culture theory (Feather, 1995; Rokeach, 1973). Next, the importance of understanding cultural differences will be discussed. The effect of culture on the standardization vs. lo calization debate (Elin der, 1965; Fatt, 1967; Kanso, 1992; Levitt, 1983; Ricks, Arpan, & Fu, 1974) will also be considered as a validation for why culture should be studied. This paper will also examine different cultural frameworks as researched by Hall (1966, 1976), Hofstede (1980, 1994), and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997); and previous research done on culture and

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2 advertising (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1 996; Al-Olayan & Karande, 2000; Caillat & Mueller, 1996; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; de Mooij, 2005; Muelle r, 1987; Pollay, 1983; Zandpour et al., 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Here we find a gap in the literature wh en considering cultu re and award-winning television advertisements. The nature of a dvertising awards and their impact on the industry will be explored (Gagnard & Morri s, 1988; Helgesen, 1994; Kover, James, & Sonner, 1997; Polonsky & Waller, 1995; West, Collins, & Miciak, 2003). Based on this extensive review of the lite rature, several hypotheses rega rding culture reflected in award-winning advertisements from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia will be proposed. The content anal ysis methodology, data analysis, and results of this study will be reported. Finally, the c ontribution and limitations of this research will be assessed. In the most cosmic sense, the purpose of this study is to explore differences in culture in an attempt to better understand human divides. The comprehension of culture is essential to the field of inte rnational marketing and advertis ing. In a more narrow scope, this study aims to contribute meaningful info rmation of the cultural content depicted in award-winning television commercials. With this information, both marketers and advertisers may get a better idea of what is appealing and creative to different cultures. Utilizing this type of research may lessen th e chance of making costly cultural blunders. Both marketers and advertisers seeking to en ter new cultural market segments may get a better understanding of the territory they are tryi ng to enter. Finally, this study serves as a springboard for further research on cultu re and award-winning advertising.

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3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The expansive growth of global economies in this modern ag e has largely been influenced by both cross cultural marketing and advertising. On th e surface, it seems as though divides between cultures are receding in to an old fashioned and distance past. What is hip in Tokyo and London and New York may be of the same genre, but what of their initial promotional appeals? Despite the global markets, does advertising still reflect the very culture it is aiming to influence? A deep understanding of cultu re and its effect is still a necessity when discussing global mark ets, cross-cultural ma rketing, international business and, of course, advertising. Culture The construct of culture pertains to ho w the world is perceived and communicated (Zandpour, et al., 1994). Throughout anthropological and sociol ogical history, more than 160 definitions of culture have been identi fied (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Terpstra and David (1991) explain that cultur e is a 1) learned, 2) shared, 3) interrelated set of values that provide members of a society with a se t of orientations. Hofstede (1980) defines culture as the interactive a ggregate of common characteristic s that influences a groups response to its environment ( p. 19). Culture is also defi ned by Hofstede again in 1994 as the collective programming of the mind wh ich distinguishes the member of one group or category of people from another (p. 5). Common recurring words in these many definitions of culture include learned and shared. Members of a culture share ideas and values that determine behavior and co mmunication. These cultural values also are

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4 influential to how members of a culture inte ract with members of different cultures (Rokeach, 1973). It is important to study cultural values b ecause they are the core enduring beliefs of large groups of people. These values are st able, significant, and well-worth studying due to their expansive reach (Pollay, 1983). Feathe r (1995) explains that culture values are more abstract than just attitudes, and values are hierarchically defined. They affect the way a person or group of people perceive a s ituation as positive, negative, or neutral. These values are intimately bound up with a persons sense of se lf (Feather, 1995, p. 1136). If these cultural values are such an in tegral part of our ps yche that we cannot separate ourselves from th em, yet they are a set of learned ideas, then how are these values transferred to new members? In order for a culture to exist it must cultivate and carry on its values to new members. Perpetuation and Tran smission of Culture Rokeach (1973) explains that the maint enance, enhancement, and transmission of values within a culture typically become in stitutionalized (p. 25). Therefore, it is generally agreed on by social scientists th at institutions such as family, school, and church are important transmitters of cultural va lues. It is through these shared institutions that the communication between members of a culture take place (Frith & Mueller, 2003). It is important to realize that cultura l values can be transferred also by less conservative institutions as well. Pollay (1983) discusses the role of mass media and its effect on the transmission of cultural values He acknowledges that advertising plays a major role in mass media, and therefore is a carri er of culture. He states that advertising is the only institution with a cadre of applied be havioral scientists working continually to

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5 enhance the effectiveness of its influence (p. 73). It is theorized by Tse, Belk, and Zhou (1989) that cultural values communicated th rough advertising are forces that shape motivation, lifestyle, and product choices. While Mueller (1987) illustrates that ads tend to mirror the values and characteristics of the culture in which it exists it is also important to acknowledge that advertising may drive a new set of cultural values. Whereas the in stitutions previously discussed (family, school, etc) tend to play a conservative role in preserving values, the role of advertising may bring about change in behavior and even st andards for behavior (Pollay, 1983). Kanso (1992) states while cu lture may affect advertising in many ways, advertising itself may alter the cultural environment in which it operates (p. 10). A unique example of how advertising influe nced culture is the creative and rulebreaking advertising in Amer ica during the 1960s. Thomas Fr ank (1997) illustrates this turbulent era of political assassinations, race riots, and the Vietnam War rendered a generation of young people cynical and distrusting. Advertisers, specifically Doyle Dane & Bernbach retreated from th e traditional puffery of 1950s advertising, and ushered in the era of anti-ad advertising. Using ironic a nd self-deprecating approaches such as the Volkswagen Lemon ads, advertisers bega n to influence this cynical generation. Marketers saw an ally in this generation and started merchandising counter-culture clothing, music, television programs, art a nd books. Advertisers promoted these products as true and authentic. These industry approaches challenged traditional cultural values and made it possible for new, less cons ervative values to be transferred to a young culture (Frank, 1997).

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6 Understanding Different Cultures Since advertising is both influenced by cultural values and is a transmitter of cultural values, it is necessary to study the di fferences in culture in this age of global societies. Marieke de Moo ij (2005) theorizes that cultu re is the most important determining factor of consumer behavior. Th e promotional strategies that are developed and implemented are culture bound. De Mooij ex plains, in order to build relationships between consumers and brands, advertising mu st reflect peoples values (p. 35). Pollay and Gallagher (1990) found that advertisements typically endorse and reinforce cultural values (as cited in Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Understanding cultural values is necessary to successful international marketing and advertising (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). A great purpose and motivator for studying cultural differences and/or similarities is wh en both marketers and advertisers are faced with the decision to standardize their produc t and message, or local ize their product and message a paradox that has largely been de bated by practitioners and academicians. The standardized/global marketing and advertising approach was birthed in 1965 by a Swedish ad man named Erik Elinder. E linder argued for advert ising standardization across Western Europe, citing that media and mobility could make this standardization possible. He asserted that just as there wa s an American consumer, so too was there a European consumer who enjoyed the same films, magazines, living conditions, and vacation spots (Elinder, 1965). Therefore, a st andardized advertising message for these products and services would work across Europe Later advocates of this standardization include Fatt (1967) and Levitt (1983). Global ma rketing called for the standardization of advertising messages world-wide. Levitt ar gued that the basic needs and wants of

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7 consumers around the globe were homogenous, and that differences in culture were superficial. On the opposite side of this debate ar e the proponents of a localized approach, meaning that advertisers should tailor the ads message and cont ent to suit the respective culture (Kanso, 1992). Ricks, Arpan, and Fu ( 1974) illustrated that both international marketers and advertisers attempted to enter international markets and failed miserably due to cultural misunderstanding. They expl ain that most intern ational advertising blunders occur because of a failure to fully understand the foreign culture and its social norms (p. 49). Several humorous advertising blunders were given as examples, including translation errors in headlin es. General Motors attempte d to use the headline Body by Fisher in Flemish, but it translated into Corpse by Fisher (Ricks, Arpan, & Fu, 1974). Aside from linguistic errors, deeper cultura l blunders have also been made while attempting to standardize ad messages. Rick s, Arpan and Fu (1974) cite an ad for Listerine in Thailand, depicti ng a girl and a boy together, as a serious cultural mistake. During this era in Thailand it was cultura lly unacceptable to show boys and girls together, and this ad offended the Thai people (Ricks, Arpan, & Fu, 1974). While these blunders may sound humorous, it must be acknowledged that this lack of cultural understanding ul timately lead to serious ec onomic repercussions for these large corporations. Comprehending the basic foundations of a cultu re, such as their values, can lead to more positive outcomes for both international marketers and advertisers. Researchers such as Hall (1966, 1976), Hofstede (1980, 1994), and

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8 Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) ha ve provided theoreti cal frameworks for understanding cultural differences. Cultural Frameworks And Dimensions Research of Hall (1966, 1976) Through his cultural researc h, Hall (1966, 1976) identified two separate cultural dimensions 1) high/low context, and 2) polychronic/monochronic time orientation. Hall described a high context culture as using implicit and ambiguous communication. These high context cultures rely on heavy contextual cues, and verbal communication is only a small part of the larger, overall message (Frith & Mueller, 20 03). While high context cultures tend to communicate through more implicit messages, low context cultures tend to use more explicit and stra ight-forward messages (Hall, 1976). Low context cultures value communication that is both di rect and unambiguous in nature. Halls second dimension of culture details time orientation as either polychronic, meaning being involved with many things and situations at once, or as monochronic, meaning being involved with one situati on at a time (Hall, 1966). Polychronic and monochronic time orientations do not mix. In polychronic time cultures, it is normal to arrive late for business meetings and social events. Agendas, schedules, and deadlines are often rearranged in these cultures. Howeve r, in monochronic time cultures there is a heavy priority placed on time and these cult ures value schedules and deadlines being late is usually unacceptable (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Research of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) The research of Trompenaars and HampdenTurner (1997) also classified cultures by different dimensions. Much like Hofste de, Trompenaars identified these cultural dimensions by using the instrument of a su rvey, given to busine ss professionals across

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9 various cultures. Expanding on the prior research conducted by both Hall (1966) and Hofstede (1980), Trompenaars and HampdenTurner (1997) found seven dimensions universalism/particularism, communitarianism/individualism, neutral/emotional, defuse/specific, achievement/ascription, hum an-time, and human-nature relationship. Both communitarianism/individualism and achie vement/ascription relate very closely to Hofstedes (1980) collectivist/individu alistic and power distance dimensions, respectively. The dimension of neutral/emoti onal deals with a cultu res willingness to openly express feelings, whereas universalism/pa rticularism deals with rules in society, and can be related to Hofstedes (1980) uncertainty avoidance dimension. The humantime dimension is related to Halls (1966) dimension of time orientation (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1997). Research of Hofstede (1980, 1994) Through a thorough review of the literature pertaining to cultural dimensions, Geert Hofstedes framework was chosen for this research study. After reviewing how cultural dimensions were operationalized (Albers-Mi ller & Gelb, 1996; Al -Olayan & Karande, 2000; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 19 87; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989; Zandpour, et al. 1994), Hofstedes framework proved to be co nsistent and appropriate for this content analysis study. Like Hall, re search conducted by Geert Hofs tede (1980) also identified cultural dimensions. In the early 1980s, Hofstede conducted a major study of IBM employees in 53 different countries. The main objective of his res earch was to examine work-related behavior among these employ ees (Beamer, 2000). Hofstede found four major dimensions in his prelimin ary research power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femin inity, and uncertainty avoidance. A fifth

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10 dimension, long term orientation, was added after a survey made by Chinese scholars examined student behavior in 23 countries (Hofstede, 1994). Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture Each of the five cultural dimensions is measured on a scale of zero to 100; where zero indicates the lowest index and 100 re presents the highest (de Mooij, 2005). The first dimension researched was power distance and it can be defined as the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally (de Mooij, p. 60). In cultures with high power distance scores, societal hierarchies are viewed as the norm. People of high power distance cultures are more likely to obey authority figures and exp ect clear directions (Z andpour, et al., 1994). Cultures that have high power distance believ e in the notion that everything and everyone has its own place. Many Asian cultures exhibit very high power distances. This is evident in their reverence for the elderly and the prope r respect for figures that are high in status (de Mooij, 2005). Relationships are greatly affected by power distance. In high power distance cultures, relationships between parents a nd children, bosses and em ployees, students and teachers show a strong dependency (de Mooij, 2005). De Mooij (2005) also explains that an introverted correlation between power dist ance and education levels is evident. The higher the education levels, the decr eased index of power distance. Cultures that score low on power distance tend to have a negative connotation of the word authority. These cultures valu e equal rights and equal opportunities for its citizens. In cultures with low power distance, dependency on others is avoided (with the exception of immediate family), and independe nce is highly valued (de Mooij, 2005).

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11 The next, and most thoroughl y researched dimension, is individualism/collectivism (Beamer, 2000). This contrast can be defined as people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belo nging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty (de Mooij, p. 61). A highl y individualistic culture correlates with a high value on independence (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996). A highl y individualistic culture also emphasizes personal achieveme nts, expression of private opinions, and decision-making based on facts. In a highl y collectivist society, rules are implicit and communication is contextual whereas in an individualistic culture, expression is more explicit and rely on articulation of words (Zandpour, et al., 1994). Western nations such as the United St ates, England, and Australia are more individualistic, although betw een 70% and 80% of the worl ds population is collectivist (de Mooij, 2005). Masculinity/femininity is another polar cultural di mension defined by Hofstede as the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life (Hofstede, 1980). One of the core values in a feminine societ y is modesty. Winners in a feminine society are taught to have sympathy for the underdogs or losers; while in masculine societies, children learn to admire th e strong (de Mooij, 2005). In most masculine societies, there is an emphasis on power, performance, and efficiency (Frith & Mueller, 2003). The dimens ion of masculinity vari es and is not based on geographical closeness. Cultures such as Japa n, Austria, and Italy all score very high on the masculinity index, but greatly differ in terms of location and other index scores (de Mooij, 2005). The United States has been reluct ant to use the term masculine or feminine

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12 to describe cultures because of curre nt political correctness; the terms toughness/tenderness are now used (de Mooij, 2005). Uncertainty avoidance is defined as the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid th ese situations (de M ooij, p. 67). Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance formulate many rules to struct ure their daily life. Persons in high UAI cultures tend to have greater a nxiety and stress than th e people in cultures who do not mind ambiguity. In low UAI cu ltures, taking risks is promoted. It is theorized by Hofstede (1980) that a culture of high mascu linity (propensity to win), and low UAI (freedom from stress or a nxiety) appears to be indicators of high creativity and innovation. He cites this may be a reason that the British win so many creative advertising awards at international compet itions (Hofstede, 1980). A fifth dimension, long term orientation was added after Chinese social scientists developed a survey to assess Confucian philo sophy in Asia. Long term orientation is defined as the extent to which a society e xhibits a pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historic or shor t-term point of view (de Mooij, 2005, p. 69). Many East Asian cultures such as China, Ja pan, and Taiwan score very high on long term orientation. This is evident by these culture s strong inclinations to honor the past, preserve relationships by st atus, and having a sense of sh ame (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Cultures that score low on long term orientat ion are typically West ern or Latin cultures such as the United States, Germany, and Chile (de Mooij, 2005). Long term orientation is closely rela ted to Confucian philosophy. In Western cultures, this frame of mind proves to be too difficult to understand. The Western logic of if A = true, than the opposite B=false is not thoroughly underst ood by Eastern cultures

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13 (de Mooij, 2005). The East is many times seen as a cultural paradox, where emphasis on tradition starkly opposes the em phasis on innovation yet both work together to form thriving societies (de Mooij, 2005). Previous Cultural Research and Mass Communications Hofstedes (1980) theory of cultural dimens ions has been used since the 1980s to conduct cross-cultural, consumer behavior research. The dimensions are increasingly being used as independent variables in cult ural research. In 1996/ 97, the European Media Survey (EMS) replicated a similar survey us ing Hofstedes (1980) questions. The country scores were found to be similar to those f ound 20 years earlier, thus making Hofstedes (1980) findings still valid (de Mooij, 2005). These dimensions play an important role in the formulation of advertising campaigns. Cr oss-cultural advertising research has been conducted using various frameworks of cultu re (Albers-Miller & Ge lb, 1996; Al-Olayan & Karande, 2000; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 1987; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989; Zandpour, et al. 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Results typically show culture reflected in the ads being studied. For example, Mueller (1987) found that Japanese ads reflect the traditional Japanese values of status and long-term orientation. Al-Olayan and Karande (2000) found that traditional Arab ic values, closely related to religion, were depicted in the respective adve rtising. Zhang and Gelb (1996) found that Chinese print ads that focus on the cultural value of collectivism were s een as more appealing to Chinese students. However, of these cross-cultural studie s, many have not examined award-winning advertisements, thus creating a gap in the literature. Focus of the Current Study As earlier discussed, much of the precedi ng literature (especially content analyses) has focused on dissimilar cultures and thei r advertising appeals. Studies comparing

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14 dissimilar cultures such as the United States to China (Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989), the Un ited States to Japa n (Mueller, 1987), the United States to Mexico (Gregory & Munch, 1997) the United States to Israel (Hornik, 1980), and the United Kingdom to France (Wh itelock & Chung, 1989) are abundant. This has lead to a disproportionate number of st udies focusing on heterogeneous cultures, and somewhat of a disinterest in similar cu ltures. Few studies re garding culture and advertising have concentrated on countries/culture s with the same language and similar cultural heritage. The nature of this study, therefore, is to review advertising appeals from countries that are culturally alike in many ways. Us ing the theoretical fr amework of Hofstede (1980) and the prior research of Caillat a nd Mueller (1996), the United States and the United Kingdom were chosen based on their obvious similarities. Katz and Lee (1992) argue that the United States and the United Ki ngdom are so alike, that if advertising standardization could work anywhere, it woul d be these two countries. They state that both the United States and the United Ki ngdom are highly developed societies with similar economic policies. These countrie s also have sophisticated and creative advertising industries and very comparable a dvertising expenditures. Due to sample size constrictions, a thorough review of the literature was re-c onducted, and the country of Australia was additionally chosen for comp arison. The cultural research of Hofstede (1980) and Ward (2001) justify this collaborati on due to the fact that the United States, United Kingdom and Australia share a cultural history and many of the same cultural values. Table 1 illustrates the Hofstede (1980) indices for the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. To help visualize this Figure 1 also illustrates the same indices.

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15 Table 1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the Unite d States, United Kingdo m, and Australia. United States United Kingdom Australia Power Distance (PDI) 40 35 36 Individualism (IDV) 91 89 90 Masculinity (MAS) 62 66 61 Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) 46 35 51 Long-Term Orientation (LTO)) 29 25 31 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PDIIDVMASUAILTO United States United Kingdom Australia Figure 1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the Un ited States, United Ki ngdom, and Australia. Here one can see the distinct cultural si milarities between these countries, based on the work of Hofstede (1980). The dimension th at differs the greatest is uncertainty avoidance (UAI). The United Kingdoms score of 35 is marginally lower than the United States (46) and Austra lia (51). According to Hofstede ( 1980) this means that taking risks may be more promoted in the United Kingdom th an in the United States or Australia. On all other dimensions, these countries are st rikingly congruent. Thei r index scores for individualism (~ 90) represen t the archetype, stand-alone cu ltures in Western society; all are extremely individualistic. In concordan ce with this high le vel of individualism, these countries are also very masculine (i ndex of ~ 63), meaning they all value the

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16 propensity to be the best. These countries relatively low indices (~ 37) on the power distance dimension represent cultural values of equality and opportunity for all members of society. The low indices for long term orie ntation (~ 28) indicate that these cultures accept change and immediacy (Hofstede, 1980). Conversely, while cultural dimensions are global in nature, a dvertising executional variables can be expected to differ by culture. Different training, clients, and perspectives in different advertising i ndustries should produce different executions, even across cultures. As discussed previously, the issue to standardize or localize appeals can cause dissonance among advertisers and agencies. By studying countries that are theorized to be very similar in terms of culture, then international adve rtisers may very well consider a standardized approach and campaign. On the other hand, if these variables differ significantly, marketers and advertisers may seek a more localized approach. To analyze the cultural values reflected in these countries ad vertising appeals, ads from these countries needed to be select ed for content analysis. While searching for a consistent way to gather these ads, the id ea of award-winning ads came about. Research in the area of content analysis and award-wi nning ads is not copious (Gagnard & Morris, 1988). Advertising awards present a consistent (quarterly, annu ally, etc) dataset, as well as representing what can be considered the best ads. The lack of literature in this area, combined with the consistency and perc eived excellence of award-winning ads presented an interesting and unique way to form this studys sample. Advertising Awards It is estimated that there are currently mo re than 500 advertis ing award shows held worldwide (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Thes e awards range from internationally

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17 renowned events to small, local ceremonies. Advertising awards, at their core, are meant to assess and recognize advert isings effectiveness and creativity (Helgesen, 1994). There are generally two different criterion that adve rtising awards can be based on the ads effectiveness, and the ads creativity (including editing sequences, design, copy). However, as Helgesen (1994) explains, D espite the many differences between the awards, they have a strong common denominator in their zest for creative excellence, as expressed in criteria and rules for pa rticipation and evaluation (p. 43). The reasons why advertising agencies will pa y top dollar just to enter into one of the prestigious advertising award competitions vary. Four main reasons have been studied by Polonsky and Waller (1995). Some agencies feel winning these distinguished awards will merely gain the recogniti on that they feel they dese rve for their work (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Raudsepp (1987) ex plained that in order for cr eativity to blossom, there needed to be recognition and praise. Other agencies feel that winning esteemed awards en courage creativity among the staff. The staff can be seen as a unit, much like a baseball team; when the team wins, morale is increased. Winning awards can promote company pride and challenge the agency to do better than the last campaign th ey raise the bar. This type of team unity can also work in favor of the agency by r ecruiting new and upcoming talent (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Another incentive to enter an awards co mpetition is to increase an agencys prestige, or prominence in the industry. The a dvertising industry is extremely competitive by nature; it is important for an agency to b ecome an industry leader if it wants to survive (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Chipperfield (1989) cites the reasons w hy sub-par agencies

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18 always criticize the advertising award compe titions is because they are yearly reminders of how average their ca mpaigns are (as cited in Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Finally, perhaps the greatest reason ad agen cies choose to enter these award shows is to advertise for themselves. Agencies see competitions as a way to attract new clients (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Alt hough it has been found that th e level of cr eativity in a campaign does not play a signifi cant role in the client-a gency relationship (Helgesen, 1994), it can be theorized that winning awards reassures the agencys talent. Potential clients may feel that if that hire an agen cy known for its prestigious awards, a campaign for their company or brand will also be successful (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Although the appeal of advertising awards is alluring, the awar d shows have often come under severe criticism (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Kiely (1989) found that particular award shows have been criticized for how they go about picking winners (as cited in Polonsky & Waller, 1995). There is also a notion that creatives will forget that at the core of the campaign lays a business probl em. The awards have been criticized for encouraging creatives to write to the pane l of judges for competitions and not to consumers (Kover, James, & Sonner, 1997). As stated earlier, there are two different wa ys that advertising awards can be judged on the effectiveness of the ads (such as the EFFIEs) and on the creativity of the content (such as the One Shows and the Clios). For this study on culture in advertising, the creative advertising award compe tition, the Clios, will be used. The Clio Awards The prestigious Clio Awards (name derive d from the ancient Greek mythological muse of history and heroic poetry) (Dee, 1999) are awarded on the basis of creative innovation and excellence. Helgesen (1994) explai ns that the creativity concept is vague

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19 concerning meaning, content, structure, and boundaries (p. 44). Ther e is no operational definition for the concept of creativity; ther e are no numbers or statistics for what is deemed creative. The Clio Awards are given to advertisements and design across a wide range of media including print, television, radio, internet, billboard and poster (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006).The criteria of creativ ity in advertising awards are based mainly on subjectivity. In 1988, Csikszentmihalyi argued that something creative must add value to the cu lture; ads must be judged and recognized by those who are competent in the advertising field and who have reached high levels in the advertising profession. The Clio Awards pride themselves on e xpert evaluation by an esteemed jury. Entrees are examined on the basis of creativ e excellence, although the Clios Web site explains that, the important differentiator will be the power of the idea. Daring ideas that capture the imagination and change the wa y we think and feel. Ideas so fresh, so contagious, so intelligent, so compelling and entertaining you can't avoid them (Clio Awards, 2005). The awards began in 1959 in the United States, and in 1965 they began to span international boarders (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006). Each medium has its own internationally respected ju rors. They seek to award the original and unusual creative concepts in one of the most influential art forms in modern history. In order to win a Clio Award, an agency or school or individual must submit their ad to an initial assembly of judges. Acco rding to T. Gulisano (personal communication, June 5, 2006), approximately 80% of submitted work is tossed out in the preliminary round of competition. T. Gulisano (persona l communication, June 5, 2006) jokingly refers to this process as being much lik e a beauty contest for advertisements. An

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20 international jury of exonerated industry me n and women will then make final decisions on which ads will receive which level of awards. It is important to remember that the Clio Awards are a submitted sample frame and not representa tive of the entire advertising world. They were chosen for this study because of their international nature. Also, according to Kim and Margison (2005), creativity stems from an individuals interaction with his or her cultural macrocosm. Since the Clio Awards are give n based on creativity, using them for this cultural study may be a be tter reflection of the culture from which the ads originate. Hypothesis and Research Questions As previously discussed, the objective of this study is to explore the cultural values reflected in award-winning advertisements from similar cultures. After reviewing the literature, one hypothesis was formulated: H1: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia will differ in term s of executional variables (Stewart & Furse; Marshall, 2006). In addition to this hypothesis, the litera ture suggested five research questions: RQ1: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of power distance (PDI)? RQ2: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of individualism (IDV). RQ3: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of masculinity (MAS). RQ4: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance (UAI).

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21 RQ5: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of long-term orientation (LTO). Due to the very high level of interacti on between the global markets of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, it is cardinal to know the answers to such research questions

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22 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content analysis is a research method that is used to systematically evaluate the content of all forms of recorded communica tion (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The nature of content analysis provides a realm of resear ch opportunities and is the most appropriate research method for this study. Content an alysis is unobtrusive and allows for assessments of various types of communi cation (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Content analysis allows for words, themes, symbols, characters, and space-and-time information to be measured (Kassarjian, 1977). Prior rese arch involving the use of content analysis (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olaya n & Karande, 2000; Cailla t & Mueller, 1996; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Gagnard & Mo rris, 1988; Mueller, 1987; Pollay, 1983; Stewart & Furse, 1986; Tse, Belk, & Z hou, 1989; Zandpour, et al. 1994) has expanded knowledge and created new ideas in the areas of journalism, marketing, advertising, and cross-cultural communication (Abernethy & Fr anke, 1996), thus legitimizing its use in this study. Content Analysis Defined In the broadest sense, content analysis is essentially the scie ntific analysis of communications messages (Holsti, 1969). Taking into account the concepts more narrowly defined by Berelson (1952), Kassarj ian (1977), and Kolbe and Burnett (1991), we find that the three main distinguishing ch aracteristics of content analysis are that it must be 1) objective, 2) sy stematic, and 3) quantitative.

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23 Objectivity is the basis for which categor ies are developed and defined. Objectivity should be established by previously defined th eoretical constructs and operationalized as variables for descriptive relati onship analysis. Kassarjian (1977) explains that in order to lessen the possibility that the findings will re flect researcher subjectivity all decisions should be guided by an explic it set of rules for categories and data collection methods. The component of objectivity gives scientific standing to the quantitat ive content analysis method and differentiates it from basic l iterary criticism (K assarjian, 1977). The systematization requirement is needed to dispel criticism that the researcher could only be admitting materials that s upport his or her hypotheses (Berelson, 1952). Systematization also demands that the data a nd findings be of some theoretical relevance (Kassarjian, 1977). The final and most distin ctive component of content analysis, as defined by Kassarjian (1977) and Berelson (195 2), is quantification. Kassarjian (1977) explains that content analysis is all about a measurement of the extent of emphasis or omission of any given analytic category (p. 9). The necessity of quantification is based on the expectation of the data to be in accord ance with statistical me thods. Interpretations and inferences can subsequently be made (K assarjian, 1977). Consider ing that the nature of this study encompasses cultural values reflected in the content of advertising, content analysis is an exemplary met hod to go about the research. Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Method Research conducted by Stewart and Furse (1986) is the back bone to this study. Together they studied the effectiveness of more than 1,000 television commercials and 155 execution elements. Their operational definitions are used in this paper. Stewart and Furse (1986) created a factor analysis by co mbining a set of findings from copy testing and descriptive statistics from the thousand co mmercials. The factor analysis found that

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24 a variety of elements both positively and negatively influenced the effectiveness of a commercial. Those elements that were f ound to positively influence the effectiveness utilized attention-grabbing devices such as humor and memory aids (Stewart & Furse, 1986). Creating the Current Content Analysis Method The work of Marshall (2006) served as a springboard for this studys content analysis method. The basis of the Marshall (2006) study follows the framework defined by Kassarjian (1997) with additional informa tion provided by Kolbe and Burnett (1991). In 1977, Kassarjian called for an improvement in the content analysis method, with specific regards to reliability. Intercoder reliabi lity is crucial to ri gorous content analysis because it becomes the basis for analysis quality (Kassarjian, 1977; Perreault & Leigh, 1989). Intercoder Reliability Marshall (2006) explains that interjudge reliability is a statistical measure of agreement between several judges processing identical communication content (p. 52). This reliability is highly related to the content analysis requirement of objectivity (Kassarjian, 1977). Marshall (2006) states that the coder independence cannot be understated and it is absolutely critical in order to meet the requirements ascribed by Kassarjian (1977). The reporting of intercoder re liability is fundamental to scientifically significant content analysis. Kolbe and Burnett (1991) f ound that often the reliabilities of content analyses are misleading in the sense that th ey may be overestimated in terms of the number of judges and reliabiliti es indexes. Marshall (2006) al so points out that categories with high reliability may skew low individua l measures. Reporting individual categorys

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25 reliabilities is preferred and us ed in this paper. This study employs the use of the work of Marshall (2006). Unit of Analysis and Sample Design The unit of analysis for this study is Clio award winning television commercials from the years 1995 through 2004. The Clio awards did not take place in 1997 and were therefore unavailable for this study. Although the Clio awards did take place in 2002, the tape was also unavailable for this study. Cont ent analysis of Clio winning advertisements has been previously researched by Gagna rd & Morris (1988). The research sample consisted of N=268 television commercials that garnered a grand, gold, or silver Clio award. The researcher obtain ed tapes of the Clio awar d shows from the years 1995 (n=32), 1996 (n=29), 1998 (n=41), 1999 (n =31), 2000 (n=35), 2001 (n=36), 2003 (n=30) and 2004 (n=63). The 1997 and 2002 Clio aw ards were unavailable for this study. Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis Following the previously discussed fram ework of Kolbe and Burnett (1991), the elements of rules and procedures includi ng coding instrument and code book, judge training, pre-testing, judge independence, numbe r of judges and the st atistical evaluation of reliability will all be discussed individually. Rules and Procedures Operational definitions and categorical details should be thoroughly discussed in the rules and procedures of any content analys is. The dimensions a nd categories that are operationalized in this study are taken from the Stewart and Fu rse (1986) model and Marshall (2006). Each coder was provided a sixpage coding sheet as well as a detailed codebook that gave definitions and examples for each possible variable in a category. The coding sheet consisted of 37 questions and/ or categories. The questions were either

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26 descriptive information about the individual commercial or categories borrowed from the aforementioned studies. The questions can be broken down into three sections. The first section details the descriptive information pertaining to the indi vidual ad. The second section was derived from Stewart and Furs e (1986, p. 131-143). This section of the coding sheet includes various devices and dom inant appeals researched by Stewart and Furse (1986). These categories have been previously used for researching television commercials (Stewart & Furse, 1986; Gagna rd & Morris 1988; Marshall, 2006). The final section focuses on cultural valu es as defined by Hofstede (1980). At the initial training session judges were informed to make choices based on the dominance of the variable. Th e judges were instructed to choose the best option when multiple options were available. In order to make an educated choice the coders could also turn to their codebook for examples a nd definitions. A copy of the codebook can be found in Appendix A and a copy of the c oding sheet is located in Appendix B. Coder Training Four coders were selected and educat ed on how to properly fill out the coding sheets relevant to the study. Two of the coders were advertising gr aduate students with backgrounds in advertising. The third coder is receiving an MBA and the fourth coder is a PhD student seeking a degree in advertising. One coder is fluent in both Malay and Chinese (Cantonese), while another coder is flue nt in Hindi. All four coders are fluent in the English language. Each coder was assigned to code approximately 67 ads of the 268 sample. The initial coder training session lasted ne arly two hours. The purpose, theoretical background, and operational defi nitions of the study were discussed; as well as the codebook and coding sheet. Three ads from the sample were viewed and coded to

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27 provide an example of the procedure. C oncerns and questions that arose during the meeting and subsequent coding processes were addressed immediatel y. The coders were given their assignments (roughly 67 ads) and informed that they could contact the lead researcher with any further concerns. Pre-testing Using the previous work of Marshall (2006) a pre-test was conducted at the initial coder training meeting. Three of the ads from the sample were viewed and coded, without the coders interacting. A thorough discussion fo llowed and coders were asked to justify why the made certain decisi ons. The category definitions were reviewed again. The pretest helped make minor changes to the coding instrument such as adding a category for public service announcements. Afte r the initial training session the coders were instructed to use the knowledge gained from the meeting as well as the codebook to make their educated decisions as objectively as possible. The lead researchers were always available to addre ss questions and concerns. Coder Independence Citing Marshall (2006), it is ve ry important for each code r to work independently of each other as to meet the requirements as cribed by Kassarjian (1977). Since the coders knew each other, it was crucial to educate th em of the potential downfalls of working together. At the initial meeting the coders we re instructed to work independently of one another and to refrain from discussing coding procedures with others. Access to a personal VCR was required from all coders. Number of Judges per Spot Research by Kolbe & Burnett (1991) states that the use of two coders was the most frequent configuration found in the literature. Using this realistic way to establish

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28 reliability assessments, each ad from the samp le was initially coded twice by two separate coders. Once all ads were coded, agreem ents and disagreements were assessed to ascertain individual category ag reement estimates. The primary researchers served as a third judge and solved disagreements a nd evaluated the work of the coders. Intercoder Reliability Marshall (2006) illustrates that there is no consistent means for addressing intercoder reliability in content analysis. Although many researcher s have emphasized the importance of intercoder reliability (Holsti, 1969; Hughes & Garrett, 1990; Kassarjian, 1977; Kolbe & Burnett, 1991; Perreault & Lei gh, 1989), few offer a consistent way to evaluate it. However, no matter which met hod the primary researcher chooses, initial estimates of proportion of agreement should be calculated. To dete rmine this proportion, the formula of Holsti (1969) was used Reliability = 2M ____________ N1+N2 M = the number of agreements between coders N = total number of decisions made by each coder Though the Holsti (1969) formula was somewhat groundbreaking in assessing intercoder reliability, more recent literature suggests th at valid intercoder reliability estimates should include a pro cess to correct for chance agre ements between the coders (Hughes & Garrett, 1990; Krippendorf, 1980; Kassarjian, 1977). A researcher must conclude that interjudge reliability has not b een met if the level of agreement obtained is not significantly greater than that expect ed by chance (Hughes & Garrett, 1990). For this

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29 study, intercoder reliability es timates provided by Perreault & Leigh (1989) was used. This method has also been used in research conducted by Marshall (2006). Perreault and Leigh (1989, p.140) developed an explicit model of the level of agreement that might be expected given a true (population) level of reliability. This method is an accurate way of correcting chance agreement between coders. The Perreault and Leigh (1989) model has been considered a more appropriate method for conducting marketing related rese arch. The reliability inde x that Perreault and Leigh (1989) created is Ir = {[(Fo/N) (1/k)] [k/ (k 1)} Fo = observed frequency of agreement between judges N = total number of judgments k = number of categories The Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Lei gh (1989) findings for each individual category were computed and reported along with the overall aver age. According to Kassarjian (1977), reliability in range of 85% can be view ed as satisfying. Out of 27 measures, both the Holsti (1969) and Perreau lt and Leigh (1989) formulas found overall reliability to be .91 and .92, respectively. Ta ble 2 reports the individual category and overall reliabilities. Table 2. Holsti and Perreault and Leigh Reliability Indices Category Holsti Index Perreault and Leigh Index Scenic beauty Beautiful characters Graphic displays Visual reinforcements through words Logo .94 .96 1.00 .94 .99 .94 .96 1.00 .94 .99

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30 Table 2. Continued Category Holsti Index Perreault and Leigh Index Commercial appeals or selling propositions Commercial format Informational/transformational Dominant setting Setting Presence of music Culture specific music Dominant tone Direct comparison Culture specific language Dominant character Culture specific Individualism Collectivism Masculinity Femininity Long term Short term High power distance Low power distance High uncertainty avoidance Low uncertainty avoidance .73 .86. .92 .95 .89 .96 .97 .88 .98 .86 .93 .94 .93 .88 .89 .91 .92 .90 .87 .85 .90 .87 .84 .92 .92 .96 .94 .96 .97 .93 .98 .85 .96 .94 .93 .87 .88 .91 .92 .89 .86 .84 .89 .86 Overall reliability average .91 .92 Final Revisions and Category Decisions Upon reviewing the categories on the c oding sheet, two cate gories (Product Categories and Dominant Appeals) failed to meet the qualifications for minimum cell criteria. To remedy this problem, standard er ror for the sample was used as a guideline. The decision was made to err on the conserva tive side, using an overall rate of 8% or n=10. The two aforementioned categories were reassessed and condensed to meet the standard of error requirement (n=10). They are as follows. a. Alcoholic Beverages (including beer) b. Non alcoholic Beverages (bot h carbonated and non carbonated)

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31 c. Apparel (including high fashion) d. Packaged Foods (including breakfa st items, snacks, and desserts) e. Electronics and related services (includi ng computers, internet and telecom services) f. Personal Products (including beauty and over-the-counter health aids) g. Financial products and services (including credit and debit cards) h. Travel and tourism (including hote ls, resorts, and transportation) i. Other (including leisure, pe t car, and household durables) New groups for Dominant Appeal a. Hedonism (including sexual, comfort, enjoyment, self-image, achievement, and excitement appeals) b. Welfare Concerns (including safe ty and social approval appeals) Data analysis SPSS 14.0 was used for data analysis. Fr equencies, cross ta bulations, and chisquare tests were conducted to explore the hypotheses.

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32 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter will focus on both the descriptive statistics for the entire Clio award winning television commercial sample size (N= 268), and also on the statistical findings derived from the previously discussed hypothe sis and research questions. For the latter discussion, only variables from ads from the United States (n=141) and the United Kingdom and Australia (n=36) will be statistically tested, in accordance with previously stated hypothesis and research questions. Descriptive Statistics of Clio Commercials The overall Clio sample (N=268) descrip tive statistics display spot characteristics of the Clio sample. These descriptive statisti cs provide frequencies and percents for the following characteristics: Clio award year and award level, co untry of origin, advertising agency, product categories, and dom inant characters of the ads. Spot Descriptive Characteristics by Award Level and Year Table 3 illustrates Clio s pot count by year. The largest sample year was 1998 (15.3%) and the smallest sample year was 2004 (10.8%). Table 3. Sample distribution by Year. (N=268) Year Frequency Percent 2004 29 10.8% 2003 31 11.6% 2001 37 13.8% 2000 36 13.4% 1999 31 11.6% 1998 41 15.3% 1996 30 11.2% 1995 33 12.3 Total 268 100%

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33 Table 4 illustrates Clio aw ard levels. The sample (N= 268) consisted of 10 grand Clio winners (3.7%), 130 gold Clio winners (48.5%), and 128 silver Clio winners (47.8%). Table 4. Award Levels. Award Level Frequency Percent Grand 10 3.7% Gold 130 48.5% Silver 128 47.8% Total 268 100% Spot Descriptive Characteristics by Country of Origin Given the nature of this study, it is impe rative to report wh ich countries were represented in the total samp le (N=268). Although this paper mainly focuses on three countries, United States (n=141), United Ki ngdom (n=27), and Australia (n=9), an overview of other countries in the sample could provide for fu ture research questions. In the total sample there were 29 countries represented. Ads from the United States represent the largest pe rcent (52.6%) of the total sample, followed by ads from the United Kingdom (10.1%). Table 5 illustra tes the descriptive statistics for the top ten countries that were most represented. Table 5. Top Ten Countries Represented. Country Frequency Percent United States 141 52.6% United Kingdom 27 10.1% Argentina 19 7.1% Australia 9 3.4% Brazil 9 3.4% France 8 3.0% Netherlands 7 2.6% Germany 6 2.2% Spain 5 1.9% Sweden 5 1.9%

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34 Advertising Agency Brand Descriptive Characteristics More than 100 advertising agencies from around the world were represented in the total Clio sample (N=268). Many awards we re earned by regional offices of larger agency brands. To be more concise, the de scriptive total illustrated here was done by condensing regional offices under a main ag ency brand name when applicable (e.g. Wieden + Kennedy Amsterdam was reclassifi ed as simply Wieden + Kennedy). BBDO is the agency greatest represente d in the sample (8.2%), followed by DDB (6.3%). In following with the top ten repor ting strategy from prev ious tables, Table 6 illustrates the top ten agencies represented in the total sample of Clio ads by frequency and percent. Table 6. Top Ten Advertisi ng Agencies Represented. Agency Frequency Percent BBDO 22 8.2% DDB 17 6.3% Saatchi & Saatchi 14 5.2% Goodby, Silverstein & Partners 13 4.9% TBWA/Chiat/Day 11 4.1% Art Center Los Angeles (Student) 11 4.1% Cliff Freeman & Partners 10 3.7% Leo Burnett 9 3.4% Young & Rubicam 7 2.6% Wieden + Kennedy 6 2.2% Product Category Descriptive Characteristics As previously stated, a few of the initial product categories did not meet the minimum cell requirements and therefore need ed to be reclassified to remedy the problem. In the end, 15 product categories were redefined and a descriptive statistical analysis was computed. Findings show that the product category of Apparel represented the greatest percen t of the sample at 14.2%. In keeping consistent with the

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35 tables provided above, the top ten product ca tegories represented in the sample are reported in Table 7. Table 7. Top Ten Product Categories Represented. Product Category Frequency Percent Apparel 38 14.2% Entertainment 33 12.3% Automobiles and Vehicles 31 11.6% Alcoholic Beverages 24 9.0% Electronics and Related Services 22 8.2% General Retail/E-Tail 17 6.3% Other 16 6.0% Travel and Tourism 15 5.6% Non-Alcoholic Beverages 15 5.6% Public Service Announcement 15 5.6% Dominant Commercial Characters Descriptive Characteristics Reviewing the dominant characters in the Clio sample finds that males were represented more greatly than females. Of the 239 ads that featured a character, 138 of them featured a male as the dominant, lead ch aracter. A female sports star was the least represented character, only shown in one ad. The dominant character category was broken down into more than 20 possible an swers to be all-encompassing. Although not discussed in this paper, this category may be useful to other studies involving gender representation and award-winni ng advertisements. The following table illustrates the descriptive presence of characters in the C lio sample. For definiti ons of each potential answer, refer to Appendix A.

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36 Table 8. Commercial Characters Present in Overall Sample Frequency Percent Professional male 26 9.7 Professional female 2 0.7 Entertainer male 4 1.5 Entertainer female 2 0.7 Sports star male 15 5.6 Sports star female 1 0.4 Model male 6 2.2 Model female 11 4.1 Elderly male 10 3.7 Elderly female 5 1.9 Child 9 3.4 Teenager 3 1.1 Young adult 42 15.7 Mother 3 1.1 Father 8 3.0 Real life male 69 25.7 Real life female 6 2.2 Cartoon/Animated 17 6.3 Total 239 89.2 Research Questions This study was generated by the five rese arch questions previously addressed in the literature review. Chi-Squa re and differences in proportion were used to statistically test for associations. Statisti cal significance was tested at the conventional p<.05 level. Results from each will be discussed. The first research question states: RQ1: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of power distance (PDI)? When computing the findings for both high and low power distance (Tables 9 and 10) reflected in ads from the United States, th e United Kingdom, and Australia, no significant difference was found. There were no statistically significant differences based on Fishers Exact Test p= .25 for high power distance, and p=.32 for low power distance to be found with regards to this dimension.

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37 Table 9. High Power Distance in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 66 48.6% 14 38.9% 80 45.2% No 75 53.2% 22 61.1% 97 54.8% High power distance present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .73, d.f.= 1, p = .25, n = 177 Table 10. Low Power Distance in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 43 30.5% 13 36.1% 56 31.6% No 98 69.5% 23 63.9% 121 68.4% Low power distance present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .42, d.f.= 1, p = .32, n = 177 The second research question states: RQ2: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of individualism (IDV). When computing the findings for both high and low individualism (collectivism) (Tables 11 and 12) reflected in ads from the United St ates, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no significant difference was found. There were no st atistically significant differences based on Fishers Exact Test p= .31 for individualism, and p=.31 for collectivism to be found with regards to this dimension.

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38 Table 11. Individualism in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 89 63.1% 25 69.4% 114 64.4% No 52 36.9% 11 30.6% 63 35.6% Individualism present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .50, d.f.= 1, p = .31, n = 177 Table 12. Low Individualism (collectivism) in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 48 34.0% 10 27.8% 58 32.8% No 93 66.0% 26 72.2% 119 67.2% Collectivism present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .51, d.f.= 1, p = .31, n = 177 The third research question states: RQ3: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of masculinity (MAS). When computing the findings for both high and low masculinity (femininity) (Tables 13 and 14) reflected in ads from the United St ates, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no significant difference was found. There were no statistically significant differences based on Fishers Exact Test p= .42 for masculinit y, and p=.52 for femininity to be found with regards to this dimension Table 13. Masculinity in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 95 67.4% 23 63.9% 118 66.7% No 46 32.6% 13 36.1% 59 33.3% Masculinity present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .16, d.f.= 1, p = .42, n = 177 Table 14. Low Masculinity (femininity) in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Total

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39 Australia FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 18 12.8% 5 13.9% 23 13.0% No 123 87.2% 31 86.1% 154 87.0% Femininity present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .03, d.f.= 1, p = .52, n = 177 The fourth research question states: RQ4: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance (UAI). When computing the findings for both high a nd low uncertainty avoidance (Tables 15 and 16) reflected in ads from the United St ates, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no significant differences were found based on Fishers Exact Test p= .44 for high uncertainty avoidance, and p=.17 for low uncerta inty avoidance to be found with regards to this dimension. Table 15. High Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 20 14.2% 6 16.7% 26 14.7% No 121 85.8% 30 83.3% 151 85.3% High uncertainty avoidance present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = .14, d.f.= 1, p = .44, n = 177 Table 16. Low Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 118 83.7% 27 75.0% 145 81.9% No 23 16.3% 9 25.0% 32 18.1% Low uncertainty avoidance present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = 1.46, d.f.= 1, p = .17, n = 177

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40 The fifth research question states: RQ5: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Ho fstedes (1980) cultural dimension of long-term orientation (LTO). When computing the findings for both long term and short term orie ntation (Tables 17 and 18) reflected in ads from the United St ates, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no significant differences were found based on Fi shers Exact Test p= .11 for long term orientation, and p=.13 for short term orient ation with regards to this dimension. Table 17. Long term orientation in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 27 19.1% 11 30.6% 38 21.5% No 114 80.9% 25 69.4% 139 78.5% Long term orientation present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = 2.21, d.f.= 1, p = .11, n = 177 Table 18. Short term orientation in Ads? United States United Kingdom & Australia Total FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent FrequencyPercent Yes 106 75.2% 23 63.9% 129 72.9% No 35 24.8% 13 36.1% 48 27.1% Short term orientation present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100% = 1.85, d.f.= 1, p = .13, n = 177 Hypothesis The hypothesis stated: H1: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia will differ in term s of executional variables (Stewart & Furse; Marshall, 2006). When computing the findings for the executi onal variables reflected in ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Austra lia, H1 was not supported by the results (Table 19). The table reports only the most frequently oc curring variables (frequencies

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41 and percents) in the ads, for example, most ads did not use Scenic Beauty (94.3%) and therefore, is reported. There were no statistically significant differences based on Fishers Exact Test or Chi-Square to be found with regards to execu tional variables. However, when reviewing the computed findings for the category of Culture specific language, the researcher found an interesting result. Culture specific la nguage refers to the language and jargon from the country of origin. An example of this is Budweisers Clio award-winning ad entitled Whazzup from the United States The phrase whazzup suggests a very informal way of greeting a good friend. Perhap s an explanation for the differences among cultures in this category is due to the Britis h and Australians more formal speech to each other. The category tested either th e presence or absence of culture specific language. The Fishers Exact Test is p=.051 for this category. One must keep in mind that n=142, which takes into consideration that some ads had no spoken word.

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42 Table 19. Executional variables in Ads? United States United Kingdom and Australia Total Sig Scenic Beauty (absence) 132 95% 33 91.7% 165 94.3% NS Beautiful Characters (absence) 126 91.3% 32 88.9% 158 90.8% NS Graphs and Charts (absence) 140 99.3% 35 97.2% 175 98.9% NS Visual Reinforcement Through Words (presence) 97 68.8% 28 77.8% 125 70.6% NS Scenic Beauty (absence) 132 95% 33 91.7% 165 94.3% NS Transformational (presence) 127 90.1% 29 80.6% 156 88.1% NS Dominant Setting (indoors) 64 48.9% 18 52.9% 82 49.7% NS Music (presence) 88 62.4% 27 75% 115 65% NS Culture specific music (absence) 134 95% 35 97.2% 169 95.5% NS Direct Comparisons (absence) 136 96.5% 35 97.2% 171 96.6% NS Culture specific language (presence) 108 93.9% 22 81.5% 130 91.5% NS Culture specific product (absence) 129 91.5% 32 88.9% 161 91% NS

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43 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of the current research was to examine the representation of cultural values manifested in Clio Award-winni ng ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. These countries were chosen primarily based on their inherent cultural similarities as defined by Hofstede (1980). They were also chosen because of their # in the overall Clio sample (N=268) This study differs from previous research done on Clio Awards (Gagnard & Morris, 1988) because it seeks to analyze the manifestation of cultural values in the ads. It differs from previous research on cultural values and advertising in the sense that it compares three similar nations/cultures, instead of dissimilar ones (AlbersMiller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olaya n & Karande, 2000; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 1987; Tse, Be lk, & Zhou, 1989; Zandpour, et al. 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). This final chapter addresses the research findings, the limitations of the study, and future research possibilities. Descriptive Results Based on the descriptive results presented in Chapter 4, a prototypical Clio winning ad was created based on the characteristics receiving the highest frequencies in each descriptive category. This has been done for the Clios by Gagnard and Morris (1988) and for the EFFIEs by Marshall (2006). The prototypical Clio winner would look much like Table 20. It would be a gold winner ( 48.5%), in all color (86.2%) for a product or service that deals with entertainment (12.3%). It would use words and a logo to visually

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44 reinforce the message (75.4%) The ad w ould be transformational (88.8%) and the dominant appeal would be product reminder (40.7%). Table 20. Prototypical Clio Prototypical Clio (%) Color All Color 86.2 Award Level Gold 48.5 Product Category Entertainment 12.3 Country of Origin United States 52.6 Visual Reinforcement Through Words 75.4 Visual Display of Logo Present 99.3 Dominant Appeal Product Reminder 40.7 Transformational/Informational Transformational 88.8 Hypotheses and Research Questions The research questions and hypothesis previ ously stated in the literature review dealt with the manifestation of similar cult ural values in Clio winning ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australi a. It was suggested that there would be significant differences between ad appeals in terms of Hofstedes (1980) cultural dimensions. All five research questions found no significant differences among the sample. A final addition to the results ch apter included one category, unrelated to Hofstedes (1980) dimensions, and this was culture specific la nguage. There was a statistically significant diffe rence (p=.05) between the Un ited States and the United Kingdom and Australia in the sample (n=142). This may be of interest to researchers seeking to study spoken language and culture in advertising. Limitations As with any research, a thorough discussi on of the studys limitations is provided. Many of the limitations in this study simply c ould not be avoided; and future research should seek to remedy those that can be changed.

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45 Clio Limitations The Clio sample consisted of eight tapes from the years 1995-2004, omitting 1997 because the Clios did not take place that year, and 2002 for which the researchers could not obtain. In order to bolster sample size for future research, the years unattainable for this study should be coded. The Clio reels came from various advertising faculty in the College of Journalism and Communicati ons at the University of Florida. Another limitation to using the Clio Award s for this type of study is that while they may represent the best in creative excellence, they ma y prove to be too uniform in a study that seeks to compar e or contrast cultural values In a simpler explanation, these ads may have been submitted solely to garner awards from a primarily United States judge panel, and may not be a great representation of th e culture they originated in. The issue of to whom do crea tives write surfaced here. Futu re research could remedy this, for example, by tweaking hypotheses to de al with creative humor and cross-cultural advertising. Future Research and Conclusion Since there are few studies that deal with the multidimensional aspects of this paper, future research has great potential. This study serves a springboard to assess cultural values repres ented in award-winning ads. Although this study dealt with ads that won creative excellence awards (Clios), future studies could focus on the other side of the award spectrum, the effectiveness aw ards (EFFIES). It would be extremely interesting to see how the diffe rent sides of advertising awar d shows differ or compare in terms of culture or country of origin. In keeping proximate to the research ques tions presented and test ed in this paper, this study could also provide future research in the area of standa rdized campaigns for

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46 culturally similar nations. It seems practical to study this area in-depth because more cost efficient campaigns may emerge from the research. In closing, this exploratory study contri butes to the litera ture on advertising awards, Hofstedes (1980) dimensions of culture and their effects on communication, and advertising standardization. This paper attempts to bridge the gap f ound in the literature and to inspire other res earchers to explore.

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47 APPENDIX A OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Clio Coding Categories, Opera tional Definitions, and Examples Code Book A) Visual Devices V11. Scenic Beauty Does the commercial pr esent striking scenes of natural beauty? (mountains, flowing streams) V12. Beautiful Characters Does the comm ercial present one or more strikingly beautiful people? V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts Does the commercial use graphics or charts as part of its presentation? V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words Literal words on the screen used to reinforce some charac teristic of the produc t or part of the commercial message. Ex. % Stronger or out of 4 doctors recommend V15. Visual Display of Logo There is a visual picture of the logo in the commercial. B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition? 1. Attributes or ingredient as main message A major focus of the commercial is to communicate something about how the product is made or the ingredients. Ex. Toot hpaste containing fluoride. 2. Product performance or benefit as main message A major focus of the commercial is to communicate what the product does or how to use it. Ex. Whiter teeth. 3. Psychological or subjective benefits A major focu s of the commercial is to communicate hidden or non-provable benefits of having/using the product. Ex. You will be mo re popular/confident/sexy. 4. Product reminder as main message A product or package is the primary message rather than any sp ecific attribute/benefit. 5. Sexual Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on sexual cues.

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48 6. Comfort Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts. Ex. Soft chairs, cool climate. 7. Safety Appeal A main focus of th e commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or physical danger. Ex. Safety alarms. 8. Enjoyment Appeal A main focus of th e commercial is on enjoying life to the fullest; good food and drink and so on. 9. Welfare Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on caring or providing for others. Ex. Gift giving. 10. Social Approval A main focus of the commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining approval of others. 11. Self Esteem or Self Image A main focus of the commercial is on feeling better about oneself, improving one self, being a better person. 12. Achievement A main focus of the co mmercial is on obtaining superiority over others, getting ahead, winning. 13. Excitement/Variety A main focu s of the commercial is on adding excitement, thrills, variety to life. Avoiding boredom. C) Commercial Format V17. What is the dominant fo rmat of the commercial? 1. Vignette A series of two or more stories that can stand alone. No continuing storyline, but several i ndependent stories which may convey the same message. Multiple interv iews would be an example. 2. Slice of Life Interplay between two or more people that portray a conceivable real life situation. Th ere is continuity of action. 3. Testimonial by product user One or mo re individuals recounts his or her satisfaction for the product advertised or the results of using the product advertised. For example Bill Cosby for Jell-O. 4. Endorsement by celebrity/authority One or more individuals or organizations advocates or recomme nds the product but does not claim personal use or satisfaction. 5. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy A demonstration of product in use, for example a man shaving in a commercial for shaving cream; women applying ma ke up. A demonstration of the use of the product, benefit, or product character istic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration, as in the ca se of dipping chalk into a beaker of fluoride to demonstrate how fluoride is to be absorbed by the teeth. 6. Demonstration of results of usi ng a product Demonstration of the outcome of using the product. For example, shining floors and bouncing hair. 7. Comedy or Satire The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor an elemen t of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny. 8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope The entire commercial or some substantial part is animated. For exam ple the Keebler Elves. Rotoscope is

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49 a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time. For example the Trix Rabbit. 9. Photographic Stills The use of phot ographic stills in part of the commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models. 10. Creation of Mood or Image as dominan t element An attempt to create a desire for the product, without o ffering a specific product claim, by appealing to the viewers emo tional/sensory involvement. 11. Commercial written as a serious dram a The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. 12. Fantasy/Exaggeration/Surrealism Us e of animation or other visual devices instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on th e part of the viewer. 13. Problem & Solution An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem. Example foot odor. 14. Interview An interview, question/an swers is the primary vehicle in the commercials. Example Rolaids How do you spell relief? D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message V18. Informational/Rational or Tr ansformational/Image/Emotional 1. Informational/Rational Primary focu s is on information or facts about the brand or product presented in some logical way to suggest some reason for purchasing the brand or product. Ex. Business to Business ads. 2. Transformational/Image/Emotional Primary focus is on creating an image or mood. Sometimes these ads ar e referred to as soft sell ads. Usually, but not always, there is little or no information or content present in the sense of facts about the brand or product. E) Commercial Setting V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting? 1. Indoors Is the commercial setting or significant pa rt of it indoors or in other man made structures? Ex. Kitc hens, garages, offices, stadium, airplanes. 2. Outdoors Is the commercial setting or significant part of it outdoors? Ex. Mountains, rivers, beaches backyard, gardens. 3. No setting There is no particul ar setting for the commercial. V20. Where is the commercial setting? 1. Urban apartment/housing A significant portion of the commercial is set in a home or apartment in a highly populated area. Ex. A house in a large neighborhood or city. 2. Rural apartment/housing A significant portion of the commercial is set in a home or apartment in a sparsely populated area. Ex. A house in the middle of nowhere.

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50 3. Office/business A significant portion of the commercial is set in an office building or business location. Ex. A boardroom meeting. 4. Restaurant A significant portion of the commercial is set in a place where food is served. 5. Obvious landmark A significant portion of the commercial is set at a wellknown landmark. Ex. The Eiffel Tower. 6. Green pasture A significant portion of the commercial is set in a wide-open, grassy space. Ex. Cow pasture. 7. Mountainous area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near a mountainous region. Ex. A snowy peak with skiers. 8. Desert area A significant portion of the commercial is set in a sandy, barren region. Ex. The Sahara. 9. Beach/lake area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near water. Ex. People fishing on a lake. 10. Other Insert location if none of the above applies. 11. Not Applicable Absence of a setting. Ex. Cosmetic stills or blank screens. F) Music V21. Presence or absence of music Is music present in the commercial in any format. V22. Presence of absence of culture specifi c music Is the music that is present representative of the culture of origin. Ex. African drums. G) Commercial Tone/Atmosphere V23. Predominant Tones Examples 1. Cute/adorable Welchs Grape Ju ice commercials with little children. 2. Hard sell Straight facts about product attributes. 3. Warm and caring Jif Peanut Butter Choosy Moms Choose Jif 4. Modern/contemporary Many liquor ads. 5. Wholesome/healthy Food thats good for you. 6. Technological Computer related. 7. Conservative/Traditional/Nostalgic Ma ny black and white or sepia tones. 8. Happy/fun-loving Travel commercials like Carnival Cruise Lines. 9. Cool/Laid-back Beer commercials like Coors Light. 10. Somber/serious Many PSAs Dont let friends drink and drive. 11. Uneasy/tense Security i ssues, political issues. 12. Glamorous High fashion, make up, alcohol. 13. Humorous Bud Light Real Men of Genius. 14. Rough/rugged Jeep commercials, Marlboro Cowboys. H) Comparisons V24. Direct comparison with other products 1. Yes Comparison is direct or obvio us in nature. Example Coke and Pepsi, Crest and Colgate. Or example that other cleaner.

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51 2. No No comparison is made Product stands alone. I) Languages (Spoken ) V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language 1. Presence Any spoken word in the comme rcial is in the language native to the region/country that it is shown in. Example Japanese ad for Coke is spoken in Japanese. 2. Absence A globalized ad. Every commercial shown regardless of location is in the same language. Exampl e The same exact Coke commercial spoken in English is shown in Japan, China, Latin America, and Europe. 3. Cannot code There is no spoken word in the commercial. J) Characters V26. Who is the dominant charact er being shown in the ad? 1. Professional male Dominant charact er is a male businessman, doctor, lawyer, etc. 2. Professional female Dominant char acter is a female businesswoman, doctor, lawyer, etc. 3. Entertainer male Dominant character is a famous male actor, singer, or performer. 4. Entertainer female Dominant character is a famous female actress, singer, or performer. 5. Sports star male Dominant character is a famous male sports personality. 6. Sports star female Dominant character is a famous female sports personality. 7. Supermodel male Dominant character is a well-known male supermodel. 8. Supermodel female Dominant character is a well-known female supermodel. 9. Model male Dominant character is a good looking, unknown, male actor. (Axe) 10. Model female Dominant character is a good looking, unknown female actress. (Ice Breakers Gum) 11. Elderly male Dominant char acter is an elderly man. 12. Elderly female Dominant ch aracter is an elderly woman. 13. Child Dominant character is a ch ild presumably under 12 years old. 14. Teenager Dominant character is a teenager presumably 13-19 years old. 15. Young adult Dominant character is a young adult/college student presumably in their 20s. 16. Mother Dominant character is a female playing a motherly/matriarchal role. 17. Father Dominant character is a male playing a fatherly/patriarchal role. 18. Real-life male Dominant character is a real guy on the streets. Ex. Interview.

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52 19. Real-life female Dominant character is a real girl on the streets. Ex. Interview. 20. Cartoon Dominant character is animated. 21. Not applicable No human/cartoon characters. K) Localization V27. Is the product culture specific? 1. Yes The product is designed for a sp ecific cultural market. An example is shampoos or hair care products designe d specifically for Women of color. 2. No The product is universal and can be used by anybody. Example Coke. L) Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture V28. Individualism/Collectivism 1. Highly individualistic The commercial ex udes an air of individualism, selfpreservation, and people looking after th emselves only. Examples include the lone runner/winner in a Nike ad, and An Army of One. 2. Highly collectivist The commercial e xudes an air of strong group mentality. It is very we oriented and member s of the group make decisions on what would be best for the group/culture/c ountry as a whole. Examples include many PSAs that explain when you do your part, we all succeed. V29. Masculine/Feminine 1. Highly Masculine The commercials dominant values are achievement and success. Achievement and status is highly regarded. Examples include winning, the big fast sports cars for status symbol, being the best. 2. Highly feminine The commercials dominant values are nurturing, caring, warm, and quality of life. There is no competition. Examples include its okay if you are not the winner or the best V30. Long term orientation/ Short term orientation 1. Highly long term The commercials dominant values are perseverance, reverence for nature, and harmony of man with nature. Examples include Confucian values in Asian societies.

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53 2. Highly short term The commercials dominant values include a focus on favors, gifts, current stability, and on es immediate gratification. Examples include Hungry? Gotta eat! V31. Power distance 1. Strongest power distance The commercials domina nt values are having a social hierarchy and knowing ones pl ace. Acceptance of authority comes naturally. Examples include a strict boss and a subservient employee. 2. Weakest power distance There is no social hierarchy and authority has a negative connotation. V32. Uncertainty Avoidance 1. Strongest UAI The commer cials dominant values include avoidance of the ambiguous and uncertain situations. Exam ples include commercials that show rules, structure, and formality to life. 2. Weakest UAI The commercial s dominant values include as few social rules as possible and ritualistic be havior is not present. The commercial can use competition or conflict because they ar e not seen as threatening. Examples include direct comparison advertisements such as The Pepsi Challenge.

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54 APPENDIX B CLIO CODING SHEET Clio Award-Winning Advertiseme nts and Dimensions of Culture V1. Case ID #______ V2. Coder initials______ V3. Ad Title___________________________________________________ V4. Brand_____________________________________________________ V5. Agency Name______________________________________________ V6. Country of Origin____________________________________________ V7. Color (1) All Color (2) B&W (3) Mixed V8. Award level (1) Grand (2) Gold (3) Silver (4) Bronze V9. Award Year

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55 1. 2005 6. 1999 2. 2004 7. 1998 3. 2003 8. 1996 4. 2001 9. 1995 5. 2000 V10. Award Category

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56 Agriculture/Industrial/Building 1. Alcoholic Beverages 2. Apparel and Accessories 3. Automobiles and Vehicles 4. Beauty Aids 5. Beer 6. Carbonated Beverages 7. Non-carbonated Beverages 8. Breakfast Foods 9. Business Products 10. Childrens Products 11. Computer and Related (fo r business or personal) 12. Consumer Electronics 13. Cosmetics 14. Credit or Debit Cards 15. Delivery Systems and Products 16. Entertainment 17. High Fashion 18. Fast Food and Restaurant 19. Financial Services or Products 20. General retail/E-tail 21. Health Aids and Over the Counter Products 22. Health Aids Prescription Products 23. Health and Medical Pr oducts and Services 24. Hotels/Resorts 25. Household Durable Products 26. Internet Services 27. Leisure Products 28. Package Food 29. Personal Care Products 30. Pet Care 31. Professional Services 32. Real Estate 33. Self Care: Body 34. Snacks/Desserts 35. Telecom Services 36. Transportation 37. Travel/Tourism

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57 A) Visual Devices V11. Scenic Beauty 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V12. Beautiful Characters 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V15. Visual Display of Logo 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition? 1. Attribute or ingredient as the main message 2. Product performance or benefit as the main message 3. Psychological or subjective benefit as the main message 4. Product reminder as main message 5. Sexual appeal 6. Comfort appeal 7. Safety appeal 8. Enjoyment appeal 9. Welfare appeal 10. Social approval 11. Self-esteem or self-image 12. Achievement 13. Excitement, variety C) Commercial Format

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58 V17. What is the dominant fo rmat of the commercial? 1. Vignette 2. Slice of life 3. Testimonial by product user 4. Endorsement by a celebrity or authority 5. Demonstration of product in use 6. Demonstration of results of using the product 7. Comedy or Satire 8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope 9. Photographic stills 10. Creation of mood or image as dominant element 11. Fantasy/exaggeration/surrealism as dominant element 12. Problem and solution (before/after presentation) 13. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message V18. Informational/Rational OR Tr ansformational/Image/Emotional 1. Informational 2. Transformational E) Commercial Setting V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting? 1. Indoors 2. Outdoors 3. Other 4. No setting V20. Where is the commercial setting 1. Urban apartment/housing 2. Rural apartment/housing 3. Office/business setting 4. Restaurant 5. Obvious landmark 6. Green pasture 7. Mountainous area 8. Desert 9. Beach/lake area 10. Other 11. Not applicable F) Music V21. Presence or absence of music 1. Presence

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59 2. Absence V22. Presence or absence of country specific music 1. Presence 2. Absence G) Commercial tone and atmosphere V23. (Please select the predominant tone) 1. Cute/adorable 2. Hard sell 3. Warm and caring 4. Modern/contemporary 5. Wholesome/healthy 6. Technological 7. Conservative/traditional/nostalgic 8. Happy/fun-loving 9. Cool/laid-back 10. Somber/serious 11. Uneasy/tense 12. Glamorous 13. Humorous 14. Rough/rugged H) Comparisons V24. Is there a direct comp arison with other products? 1. Yes 2. No I) Languages V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language 4. Presence 5. Absence 6. Cannot code. J) Characters V26. Who is the dominant charact er being shown in the ad? 22. Professional male 23. Professional female 24. Entertainer male

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60 25. Entertainer female 26. Sports star male 27. Sports star female 28. Supermodel male 29. Supermodel female 30. Model male 31. Model female 32. Elderly male 33. Elderly female 34. Child 35. Teenager 36. Young Adult 37. Mother 38. Father 39. Real-life male 40. Real-life female 41. Cartoon/Animated 42. Not applicableK) Localization V27. Is the product culture specific? 3. Yes 4. No L) Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture V28. Presence of Individualism? 1. Yes 2. No V28b. Presence of Collectivism? 1. Yes 2. No V29. Presence of Masculinity? 1. Yes 2. No V29b. Presence of Femininity? 1. Yes 2. No V30. Presence of Long term orientation? 1. Yes 2. No

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61 V30b. Presence of Short term orientation? 1. Yes 2. No V31. High power distance present? 1. Yes 2. No V31b. Low power distance present? 1. Yes 2. No V32. High uncertainty avoidance present? 1. Yes 2. No V32b. Low uncertainty avoidance present? 1. Yes 2. No Notes:

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62 LIST OF REFERENCES Abernethy, A.M., & Franke, G.R. (1996). The information content of advertising: A meta-analysis. Journal of Advertising 25(2), 1-17. Albers-Miller, N., & Gelb, B. (1996). Business advertising appeals as a mirror of cultural dimensions: A study of eleven countries. Journal of Advertising 35(4), 57-70. Al-Olayan, F.S., & Karande, K. (2000). A conten t analysis of magazine advertisements from the United States and the Arab world. Journal of Advertising 29(3), 69-83. Beamer, L. (2000). Finding a way to teach cultural dimensions. Business Communication Quarterly 63(3), 111-118. Berelson, B.R. (1952). Content analysis in communication research New York, NY: The Free Press. Caillat, Z., & Mueller, B. (1996). The influe nce of culture on American and British advertising: An exploratory co mparison of beer advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 36(3), 79-88. Cheng, H., & Schweitzer, J.C. (1996). Cultura l values reflected in Chinese and U.S. television commercials. Journal of Advertising Research 36(3), 27-45. Clio Awards (2005). Retrieved December 1, 2005, from http://www.clioawards.com. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Society, culture, and person: A systems view of creativity. In The nature of creativity, ed., 325-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. de Mooij, M. (2005). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dee, J. (1999). But is it advertising? Harpers 298(1784), 61-70. Elinder, E. (1965). How internati onal can European advertising be? Journal of Marketing 29(2), 7-11. El-Murad, J., & West, D. (2004). The definiti on and measurement of creativity: What do we know? Journal of Advertising Research 44(2), 188-201. Fatt, A. (1967). The danger of l ocal international advertising. Journal of Marketing 31(1), 60-62.

PAGE 74

63 Feather, N. (1995). Values, valences, and choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68 (6), 1135 1151. Frank, T. (1997). The conquest of cool: Business culture counter-culture, and the rise of hip-consumerism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Frith, K. T., & Mueller, B. (2003). Advertising and societies: Global issues New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Gagnard, A., & Morris, J.R. (1988). CLIO commercials from 19751985: Analysis of 151 executional variables. Journalism Quarterly 65(4), 859-865. Gregory, G., & Munch, J. (1997). Cultural va lues in international advertising: An examination of familial norms and roles in Mexico. Psychology & Marketing 14(2), 99-119. Hall, E.T. (1966). The hidden dimension Garden City, NY: Doubleday. -----------(1976). Beyond culture. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press. Helgesen, T. (1994). Advertising awards and advertising agency performance criteria. Journal of Advertising Research 34(4), 43-53. Hofstede, G. (1980). Cultures consequences: Internati onal differences in work-related value. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. -------------(1994). Uncommon sense about organizations: Cases, studies and field observations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Holsti, O.R. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Hornik, J. (1980). Comparative evaluation of international vs. national advertising strategies. Columbia Journal of World Business 15 (1), 36-45. Hughes, M.A., & Garrett, D.E. (1990). Interc oder reliability estima tion approaches in marketing: A generalizability theo ry framework for quantitative data. Journal of Marketing Research 27(2), 185-195. Kanso, A. (1992). International advertising strategi es: Global commitment to local vision. Journal of Advertising Research 32(1), 10-14. Kassarjian, H. (1977). Content anal ysis in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research 4(1), 8-18. Katz, H., & Lee, W.N. (1992). Oceans apar t: An initial exploration of social communication differences in U.S. and U.K. prime-time television advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 11(1), 69-82.

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64 Kim, K.H., & Margison, J. (2005). Cultural influence on creativity: The relationship between creativity and Confucianism. Roeper Review 27(3), 186. Kolbe, R.H., & Burnett, M.S. (1991). Conten t-analysis research: An examination of applications with directives for improv ing research reliability and objectivity. Journal of Consumer Research 18(2), 233-250. Kover, A., James, W., & Sonner, B. (1997). To whom do advertising creatives write? An inferential answer. Journal of Advertising Research 37(1), 41-53. Krippendorf, K. (1980). Content analysis: An intr oduction to its methodology Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Levitt, T. (1983). The gl obalization of markets. Harvard Business Review 61(3), 92-102. Marshall, S.W. (2006). Advertising message strategi es and executional devises in television commercials from award-winni ng effective campaigns from 1999 to 2004 Unpublished doctoral dissertati on, University of Florida. Mueller, B. (1987). Reflections of culture: An analysis of Japanese and American advertising appeals. Journal of Advertising Research 27(3), 51-59 Perreault, W.D., & Leigh, L.E. (1989). Reliabil ity of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research 26(2), 135-148. Pollay, R.W. (1983). Measuring the cultu ral values manifest in advertising. Current Issues and Research in Advertising 6(1), 71-92. Pollay, R.W., & Gallagher, K. (1990). Advertis ing and cultural values : Reflections in the distorted mirror. International Journal of Advertising 9 (4), 359-372. Polonsky, M.J., & Waller, D.S. (1995). Does winning advertising awards pay? The Australian experience. Journal of Advertising Research 35(1), 25-35. Raudsepp, E. (1987). Establishing a creative climate. Training and Development Journal 41(4), 50-54. Ricks, D.A., Arpan, J.S., & Fu, M.Y. ( 1974). Pitfalls in a dvertising overseas. Journal of Advertising Research 14(6), 47-51. Rokeach, M.J. (1973). The nature of human values New York, NY: Free Press. SPSS Inc. (2006). SPSS Base 14.0 for Windows Us er's Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Stewart, D. W., & Furse, D.H. (1986). Effective television adver tising: A study of 1000 commercials. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Terpstra, V., & David, K. (1991). The cultural environment of international business Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern.

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65 Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1997). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural di versity in business New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Tse, D.K, Belk, R.W., & Zhou, N. (1989). Becoming a consumer society: A longitudinal and cross-cultural content analysis of print ads from Hong Kong, the Peoples Republic of China and Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Research 15(4), 457-472. Ward, S. (2001). Australia and the British embrace: The demi se of the imperial ideal Melbourne, Australia: Melbour ne University Press. West, D., Collins, E., & Miciak, A. (2003). Management perspectives of awards for creative advertising. Journal of General Management 29(2), 23-34. Whitelock, J., & Chung, D. (1989). Cross-cu ltural advertising: An empirical study. International Journal of Advertising 3, 291-310. Zandpour, F., Campos, V., Catalano, J., Chang, C., Cho, Y., Hoobyar, R., et al. (1994). Global reach and local touch: Achieving cultural fitness in TV advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 34(5), 35-63. Zhang, Y., & Gelb, B. (1996). Matching advertis ing appeals to cultur e: The influence of products use conditions. Journal of Advertising 25(3), 29-47.

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66 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Marie Alicia Guadagno mostly enjoys l oving life and laughing. She has traveled across the globe and hopes to travel to many more places. She knows that most of the world is just ocean anyhow. Her meritable re sume includes all things irrelevant to her major and field. Marie feels most productiv e when she is teaching and explaining concepts to others esp ecially children. She is exceptional at communicating with youngins. Marie is a proponent of earning much, consuming little, hoarding nothing, and giving generously. She hopes to in corporate these values into th e path that lies in front of her.


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Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Tables
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
    Abstract
        Page xi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Literature review
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Methodology
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Results
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Discussion and conclusions
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Appendix A: Operational definitions
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Appendix B: Clio coding sheet
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    References
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Biographical sketch
        Page 66
Full Text












CULTURE AND THE CLIOs: A COMPARISON OF CLIO AWARD-WINNING
TELEVISION COMMERCIALS FROM THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED
KINDGOM, AND AUSTRALIA















By

MARIE ALICIA GUADAGNO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Marie Alicia Guadagno

































This document is dedicated to the graduate students of the University of Florida. The
ones who will never read it.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Most importantly, I thank my parents for their unwavering love and support. You

both have taught me the most valuable of life lessons and provided me with a solid moral

foundation. You have kept my spirits high and my sense of humor going. I love you both

dearly.

Also, thank you to my brother, grandma, and all other family members. You have

always been there for me and I greatly appreciate everything you have ever done for me.

To Dr. John Sutherland, who never babied us thank you. You provided me with

great knowledge and confidence. Thank you to Dr. Marilyn Roberts, the sweetest woman

of the South, for being so kind and generous to me. To Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho for being so

flexible and helpful during the thesis process. To Dr. Robyn Goodman, Dr. Debbie

Treise, and Dr. Michael Weigold for taking me halfway around the world, literally, and

for opening my eyes to new adventures. Also thank you for always being there to chat

about life or just to wave "hello". Thank you also to Dr. Joseph Pisani, an amazing

professor who I will never forget. To the faculty that I have come to know and love,

thank you.

To Dr. Stephen Marshall who paved the way and who deserves his own section.

Thank you, good friend, thank you.

To Lizzie, my friend, my confidant, and my alter-ego. The girl who kept me

laughing for years. The girl that comprehends me, even at 5:40 a.m. The girl I'll will be

sitting and laughing with when I'm 80. One day, we will break the cycle together.









To Joann, my great friend and my eternal roommate. We go together. There are far

too many instances to write about. Just remember, I'll always be there in your heart and

in your soul! We will carry on the legacy of our grandmothers, together, forever.

To Miss Scarlett. What do I even begin with? The summer of us? The European

dream team? I don't know. Thank you. You are the one who bore the brunt of my

fanatical sarcasm and still continues to laugh with me. We found humor in even the

bleakest of situations that is the sign of a rare and absolutely true friendship. We are

still running against the wind together.

To my little children at work, thank you. I consider you all my gifts. You all hold

such a special place in my heart. Although you will probably never read this, you have all

changed my life in indescribable ways.

To all my other great friends, thank you! To the Holman clan, I will never forget

the love you showed me. To the BP, the collective group of crazies who taught me life's

truest lessons thanks for the eternal wisdom. To Scaljon, I don't know where to begin

with you. The laughs we've shared are unmatched. One day Scaljon, one day. To the

generous Mike and Paul, thank you. And to any of my other friends. I love you all. Thank

you.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M EN T S ................................................................................................. iv

L IS T O F T A B L E S ........................................................................................................... v iii



ABSTRACT ............................................................. xi

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................................................. .............................................. .

2 LITER A TU R E R EV IEW .................................................................... ...............3...

C u ltu re ............................................................................................... ........ . ....... 3
Perpetuation and Transmission of Culture ......................................................4...
U understanding D different Cultures .................................................... ...............6...
Cultural Frameworks And Dimensions ..................................................8...
R research of H all (1966, 1976).......................................................... ...............8...
Research of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) .................................... 8
R research of H ofstede (1980, 1994) .................................................. ...............9...
H ofstede's D im tensions of Culture ................................................. ................ 10
Previous Cultural Research and Mass Communications...................................... 13
F ocu s of the C current Study ......................................... ........................ ............... 13
Advertising Awards ......................... .... .......... ........ ............... 16
The C lio A w yards ................................................................................................... 18

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ................................................... ............................................ 22

C ontent A naly sis D efined ...................................................................... ................ 22
Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Method.................................23
Creating the Current Content Analysis Method ....................................................24
In terco d er R eliab ility .................................................................................................. 2 4
U nit of A analysis and Sam ple D esign..................................................... ................ 25
Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis...........................................................25
Rules and Procedures .. .. ................. ............................................... 25
C o d er T rain in g ..................................................................................................... 2 6
P re -te stin g ............................................................................................................ 2 7









C oder Independence .. .. .................. ................................................ 27
N um ber of Judges per Spot ......................................................... 27
Intercoder R eliab ility ...................................................................... ................ 2 8
Final R visions and Category D decisions ............................................... ................ 30
D ata analysis ................................................................................ . .................31

4 R E S U L T S .......................................................................................... ..................... 3 2

Spot Descriptive Characteristics by Award Level and Year...............................32
Spot Descriptive Characteristics by Country of Origin..................................33
Advertising Agency Brand Descriptive Characteristics................................34
Product Category Descriptive Characteristics................................ ................ 34
Dominant Commercial Characters Descriptive Characteristics.......................35
Research Questions ................. .. ........... ............................... 36

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION S ................................................. ................ 43

D descriptive R results .. ....................................................... ... ............... 43
Hypotheses and Research Questions ....................... .......................................... 44
L im itatio n s ............................................................................................................... .. 4 4
C lio L im itatio n s .......................................................................................................... 4 5
Future R research and C conclusion ........................................................... ................ 45

APPENDIX

A OPERATION AL DEFINITION S ......................................................... ................ 47

B CLIO C O D IN G SH EET .................................................................... ................ 54

L IST O F R EFE R E N C E S ... ........................................................................ ................ 62

BIO GR APH ICAL SK ETCH .................................................................... ................ 66















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the United States, United Kingdom, and
A u stra lia .............................................................................................................. .. 1 5

2 Holsti and Perreault and Leigh Reliability Indices .............................................29

3 Sam ple distribution by Y ear. (N =268)................................................ ................ 32

4 A w ard L ev els. .......................................................................................................... 3 3

5 Top Ten C countries R presented ......................................................... ................ 33

6 Top Ten Advertising Agencies Represented.......................................................34

7 Top Ten Product Categories Represented ..........................................................35

8 Commercial Characters Present in Overall Sample ...........................................36

9 H igh Pow er D instance in A ds? ..................................... ..................... ................ 36

10 L ow Pow er D instance in A ds? ..................................... ...................... ................ 37

1 1 In d iv idu alism in A d s? .............................................................................................. 3 8

12 Low Individualism (collectivism ) in A ds? ...............................................................38

13 M a scu lin ity in A d s? ................................................................................................. 3 8

14 Low Masculinity (femininity) in Ads?................................................................38

15 High Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads? .................................................................39

16 Low Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads? ..................................................................39

17 L ong term orientation in A ds? .................................... ..................... ................ 40

18 Short term orientation in Ads? .........................................................40









19 E xecutional variables in A ds? ..................................... ..................... ................ 42

20 Prototypical Clio ....... ................... ........... .....................................44
















FIGURE


Figure page

1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the United States, United Kingdom, and
A u stra lia .............................................................................................................. .. 1 5















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

CULTURE AND THE CLIOs: A COMPARISON OF CLIO AWARD-WINNING
TELEVISION COMMERCIALS FROM THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED
KINDGOM, AND AUSTRALIA

By

Marie Alicia Guadagno

December 2006

Chair: John Sutherland
Major Department: Advertising

In the broadest scope, the purpose of this study is to explore differences in culture

in an attempt to better understand human divides. The comprehension of culture is

essential to the field of international marketing and advertising. In a more narrow scope,

this study aims to contribute meaningful information of the cultural content depicted in

award-winning television commercials. With this information, both marketers and

advertisers may get a better idea of what is appealing and creative to different cultures.

Utilizing this type of research may lessen the chance of making costly cultural blunders.

Both marketers and advertisers seeking to enter new cultural market segments may get a

better understanding of the territory they are trying to enter. Finally, this study serves as a

springboard for further research on culture and award-winning advertising.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A civilization is a heritage of beliefs, customs, and knowledge slowly accumulated
in the course of centuries, elements difficult at times to justify by logic, but
justifying themselves as paths when they lead somewhere.

Antoine de Saint-Exupery

The paths to unlocking the "logic" and inclinations of different cultures can only be

paved by in-depth and extensive research. In an era seemingly wrought by profound

cultural conflicts (such as war and political strife), and even by more light-hearted

cultural misunderstandings (such as being "lost in translation"), it is imperative to better

understand culture and its impact on society. A culture's influence on society is all

pervasive (Mueller, 1987). From spoken word to implied meaning, to government,

business, entertainment, and everywhere in between culture surrounds society. We

cannot separate ourselves from our own culture nor can we meaningfully interact without

culture (Hall, 1966).

This paper will first explore, in a global sense, the construct of culture and the

communication of values based on the culture theory (Feather, 1995; Rokeach, 1973).

Next, the importance of understanding cultural differences will be discussed. The effect

of culture on the standardization vs. localization debate (Elinder, 1965; Fatt, 1967;

Kanso, 1992; Levitt, 1983; Ricks, Arpan, & Fu, 1974) will also be considered as a

validation for why culture should be studied. This paper will also examine different

cultural frameworks as researched by Hall (1966, 1976), Hofstede (1980, 1994), and

Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997); and previous research done on culture and









advertising (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olayan & Karande, 2000; Caillat &

Mueller, 1996; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; de Mooij, 2005; Mueller, 1987; Pollay, 1983;

Zandpour et al., 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

Here we find a gap in the literature when considering culture and award-winning

television advertisements. The nature of advertising awards and their impact on the

industry will be explored (Gagnard & Morris, 1988; Helgesen, 1994; Kover, James, &

Sonner, 1997; Polonsky & Waller, 1995; West, Collins, & Miciak, 2003). Based on this

extensive review of the literature, several hypotheses regarding culture reflected in

award-winning advertisements from the United States, the United Kingdom, and

Australia will be proposed. The content analysis methodology, data analysis, and results

of this study will be reported. Finally, the contribution and limitations of this research

will be assessed.

In the most cosmic sense, the purpose of this study is to explore differences in

culture in an attempt to better understand human divides. The comprehension of culture is

essential to the field of international marketing and advertising. In a more narrow scope,

this study aims to contribute meaningful information of the cultural content depicted in

award-winning television commercials. With this information, both marketers and

advertisers may get a better idea of what is appealing and creative to different cultures.

Utilizing this type of research may lessen the chance of making costly cultural blunders.

Both marketers and advertisers seeking to enter new cultural market segments may get a

better understanding of the territory they are trying to enter. Finally, this study serves as a

springboard for further research on culture and award-winning advertising.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The expansive growth of global economies in this modern age has largely been

influenced by both cross cultural marketing and advertising. On the surface, it seems as

though divides between cultures are receding into an old fashioned and distance past.

What is 'hip' in Tokyo and London and New York may be of the same genre, but what of

their initial promotional appeals? Despite the global markets, does advertising still reflect

the very culture it is aiming to influence? A deep understanding of culture and its effect is

still a necessity when discussing global markets, cross-cultural marketing, international

business and, of course, advertising.

Culture

The construct of culture pertains to how the world is perceived and communicated

(Zandpour, et al., 1994). Throughout anthropological and sociological history, more than

160 definitions of culture have been identified (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Terpstra and

David (1991) explain that culture is a 1) learned, 2) shared, 3) interrelated set of values

that provide members of a society with a set of orientations. Hofstede (1980) defines

culture as "the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influences a group's

response to its environment" (p. 19). Culture is also defined by Hofstede again in 1994

as the "collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the member of one group

or category of people from another" (p. 5). Common recurring words in these many

definitions of culture include "learned" and "shared." Members of a culture share ideas

and values that determine behavior and communication. These cultural values also are









influential to how members of a culture interact with members of different cultures

(Rokeach, 1973).

It is important to study cultural values because they are the core enduring beliefs of

large groups of people. These values are stable, significant, and well-worth studying due

to their expansive reach (Pollay, 1983). Feather (1995) explains that culture values are

more abstract than just attitudes, and values are hierarchically defined. They affect the

way a person or group of people perceive a situation as positive, negative, or neutral.

These values are "intimately bound up with a person's sense of self" (Feather, 1995, p.

1136). If these cultural values are such an integral part of our psyche that we cannot

separate ourselves from them, yet they are a set of learned ideas, then how are these

values transferred to new members? In order for a culture to exist it must cultivate and

carry on its values to new members.

Perpetuation and Transmission of Culture

Rokeach (1973) explains that the "maintenance, enhancement, and transmission of

values within a culture typically become institutionalized" (p. 25). Therefore, it is

generally agreed on by social scientists that institutions such as family, school, and

church are important transmitters of cultural values. It is through these shared institutions

that the communication between members of a culture take place (Frith & Mueller,

2003).

It is important to realize that cultural values can be transferred also by less

"conservative" institutions as well. Pollay (1983) discusses the role of mass media and its

effect on the transmission of cultural values. He acknowledges that advertising plays a

major role in mass media, and therefore is a carrier of culture. He states that advertising is

"the only institution with a cadre of applied behavioral scientists working continually to









enhance the effectiveness of its influence" (p. 73). It is theorized by Tse, Belk, and Zhou

(1989) that cultural values communicated through advertising are forces that shape

motivation, lifestyle, and product choices.

While Mueller (1987) illustrates that ads tend to mirror the values and

characteristics of the culture in which it exists, it is also important to acknowledge that

advertising may drive a new set of cultural values. Whereas the institutions previously

discussed (family, school, etc) tend to play a conservative role in preserving values, the

role of advertising may bring about change in behavior and even standards for behavior

(Pollay, 1983). Kanso (1992) states "while culture may affect advertising in many ways,

advertising itself may alter the cultural environment in which it operates" (p. 10).

A unique example of how advertising influenced culture is the creative and "rule-

breaking" advertising in America during the 1960s. Thomas Frank (1997) illustrates this

turbulent era of political assassinations, race riots, and the Vietnam War rendered a

generation of young people cynical and distrusting. Advertisers, specifically Doyle Dane

& Bernbach retreated from the traditional puffery of 1950s advertising, and ushered in

the era of anti-ad advertising. Using ironic and self-deprecating approaches such as the

Volkswagen "Lemon" ads, advertisers began to influence this cynical generation.

Marketers saw an ally in this generation and started merchandising "counter-culture"

clothing, music, television programs, art and books. Advertisers promoted these products

as "true" and "authentic." These industry approaches challenged traditional cultural

values and made it possible for new, less conservative values to be transferred to a young

culture (Frank, 1997).









Understanding Different Cultures

Since advertising is both influenced by cultural values and is a transmitter of

cultural values, it is necessary to study the differences in culture in this age of global

societies. Marieke de Mooij (2005) theorizes that culture is the most important

determining factor of consumer behavior. The promotional strategies that are developed

and implemented are culture bound. De Mooij explains, "in order to build relationships

between consumers and brands, advertising must reflect people's values" (p. 35). Pollay

and Gallagher (1990) found that advertisements typically endorse and reinforce cultural

values (as cited in Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

Understanding cultural values is necessary to successful international marketing

and advertising (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). A great purpose and motivator for studying

cultural differences and/or similarities is when both marketers and advertisers are faced

with the decision to standardize their product and message, or localize their product and

message a paradox that has largely been debated by practitioners and academicians.

The standardized/global marketing and advertising approach was birthed in 1965

by a Swedish ad man named Erik Elinder. Elinder argued for advertising standardization

across Western Europe, citing that media and mobility could make this standardization

possible. He asserted that just as there was an "American consumer," so too was there a

"European consumer" who enjoyed the same films, magazines, living conditions, and

vacation spots (Elinder, 1965). Therefore, a standardized advertising message for these

products and services would work across Europe. Later advocates of this standardization

include Fatt (1967) and Levitt (1983). Global marketing called for the standardization of

advertising messages world-wide. Levitt argued that the basic needs and wants of









consumers around the globe were homogenous, and that differences in culture were

superficial.

On the opposite side of this debate are the proponents of a localized approach,

meaning that advertisers should tailor the ad's message and content to suit the respective

culture (Kanso, 1992). Ricks, Arpan, and Fu (1974) illustrated that both international

marketers and advertisers attempted to enter international markets and failed miserably

due to cultural misunderstanding. They explain that "most international advertising

blunders occur because of a failure to fully understand the foreign culture and its social

norms" (p. 49).

Several humorous advertising blunders were given as examples, including

translation errors in headlines. General Motors attempted to use the headline "Body by

Fisher" in Flemish, but it translated into "Corpse by Fisher" (Ricks, Arpan, & Fu, 1974).

Aside from linguistic errors, deeper cultural blunders have also been made while

attempting to standardize ad messages. Ricks, Arpan and Fu (1974) cite an ad for

Listerine in Thailand, depicting a girl and a boy together, as a serious cultural mistake.

During this era in Thailand it was culturally unacceptable to show boys and girls

together, and this ad offended the Thai people (Ricks, Arpan, & Fu, 1974).

While these blunders may sound humorous, it must be acknowledged that this

lack of cultural understanding ultimately lead to serious economic repercussions for these

large corporations. Comprehending the basic foundations of a culture, such as their

values, can lead to more positive outcomes for both international marketers and

advertisers. Researchers such as Hall (1966, 1976), Hofstede (1980, 1994), and









Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) have provided theoretical frameworks for

understanding cultural differences.

Cultural Frameworks And Dimensions

Research of Hall (1966, 1976)

Through his cultural research, Hall (1966, 1976) identified two separate cultural

dimensions 1) high/low context, and 2) polychronic/monochronic time orientation. Hall

described a high context culture as using implicit and ambiguous communication. These

high context cultures rely on heavy contextual cues, and verbal communication is only a

small part of the larger, overall message (Frith & Mueller, 2003). While high context

cultures tend to communicate through more implicit messages, low context cultures tend

to use more explicit and straight-forward messages (Hall, 1976). Low context cultures

value communication that is both direct and unambiguous in nature.

Hall's second dimension of culture details time orientation as either polychronic,

meaning being involved with many things and situations at once, or as monochronic,

meaning being involved with one situation at a time (Hall, 1966). Polychronic and

monochronic time orientations do not 'mix'. In polychronic time cultures, it is normal to

arrive late for business meetings and social events. Agendas, schedules, and deadlines are

often rearranged in these cultures. However, in monochronic time cultures there is a

heavy priority placed on time and these cultures value schedules and deadlines being

late is usually unacceptable (Frith & Mueller, 2003).

Research of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997)

The research of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) also classified cultures

by different dimensions. Much like Hofstede, Trompenaars identified these cultural

dimensions by using the instrument of a survey, given to business professionals across









various cultures. Expanding on the prior research conducted by both Hall (1966) and

Hofstede (1980), Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) found seven dimensions -

universalism/particularism, communitarianism/individualism, neutral/emotional,

defuse/specific, achievement/ascription, human-time, and human-nature relationship.

Both communitarianism/individualism and achievement/ascription relate very closely to

Hofstede's (1980) collectivist/individualistic and power distance dimensions,

respectively. The dimension of neutral/emotional deals with a culture's willingness to

openly express feelings, whereas universalism/particularism deals with rules in society,

and can be related to Hofstede's (1980) uncertainty avoidance dimension. The human-

time dimension is related to Hall's (1966) dimension of time orientation (Trompenaars &

Hampden-Turner, 1997).

Research of Hofstede (1980, 1994)

Through a thorough review of the literature pertaining to cultural dimensions, Geert

Hofstede's framework was chosen for this research study. After reviewing how cultural

dimensions were operationalized (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olayan & Karande,

2000; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 1987; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989; Zandpour, et

al. 1994), Hofstede's framework proved to be consistent and appropriate for this content

analysis study. Like Hall, research conducted by Geert Hofstede (1980) also identified

cultural dimensions. In the early 1980s, Hofstede conducted a major study of IBM

employees in 53 different countries. The main objective of his research was to examine

work-related behavior among these employees (Beamer, 2000). Hofstede found four

major dimensions in his preliminary research power distance,

individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. A fifth









dimension, long term orientation, was added after a survey made by Chinese scholars

examined student behavior in 23 countries (Hofstede, 1994).

Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture

Each of the five cultural dimensions is measured on a scale of zero to 100; where

zero indicates the lowest index and 100 represents the highest (de Mooij, 2005).

The first dimension researched was power distance, and it can be defined as "the

extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is

distributed unequally" (de Mooij, p. 60). In cultures with high power distance scores,

societal hierarchies are viewed as the norm. People of high power distance cultures are

more likely to obey authority figures and expect clear directions (Zandpour, et al., 1994).

Cultures that have high power distance believe in the notion that everything and everyone

has its own place. Many Asian cultures exhibit very high power distances. This is evident

in their reverence for the elderly and the proper respect for figures that are high in status

(de Mooij, 2005).

Relationships are greatly affected by power distance. In high power distance

cultures, relationships between parents and children, bosses and employees, students and

teachers show a strong dependency (de Mooij, 2005). De Mooij (2005) also explains that

an introverted correlation between power distance and education levels is evident. The

higher the education levels, the decreased index of power distance.

Cultures that score low on power distance tend to have a negative connotation of

the word 'authority'. These cultures value equal rights and equal opportunities for its

citizens. In cultures with low power distance, dependency on others is avoided (with the

exception of immediate family), and independence is highly valued (de Mooij, 2005).









The next, and most thoroughly researched dimension, is individualism/collectivism

(Beamer, 2000). This contrast can be defined as "people looking after themselves and

their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in

exchange for loyalty" (de Mooij, p. 61). A highly individualistic culture correlates with a

high value on independence (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996). A highly individualistic

culture also emphasizes personal achievements, expression of private opinions, and

decision-making based on facts. In a highly collectivist society, rules are implicit and

communication is contextual whereas in an individualistic culture, expression is more

explicit and rely on articulation of words (Zandpour, et al., 1994).

Western nations such as the United States, England, and Australia are more

individualistic, although between 70% and 80% of the world's population is collectivist

(de Mooij, 2005).

Masculinity/femininity is another polar cultural dimension defined by Hofstede as

"the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant

values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life (Hofstede, 1980).

One of the core values in a feminine society is modesty. "Winners" in a feminine society

are taught to have sympathy for the underdogs or losers; while in masculine societies,

children learn to admire the strong (de Mooij, 2005).

In most masculine societies, there is an emphasis on power, performance, and

efficiency (Frith & Mueller, 2003). The dimension of masculinity varies and is not based

on geographical closeness. Cultures such as Japan, Austria, and Italy all score very high

on the masculinity index, but greatly differ in terms of location and other index scores (de

Mooij, 2005). The United States has been reluctant to use the term masculine or feminine









to describe cultures because of current political correctness; the terms

toughness/tenderness are now used (de Mooij, 2005).

Uncertainty avoidance is defined as "the extent to which people feel threatened by

uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations" (de Mooij, p. 67). Cultures

with high uncertainty avoidance formulate many rules to structure their daily life. Persons

in high UAI cultures tend to have greater anxiety and stress than the people in cultures

who do not mind ambiguity. In low UAI cultures, taking risks is promoted.

It is theorized by Hofstede (1980) that a culture of high masculinity (propensity to

win), and low UAI (freedom from stress or anxiety) appears to be indicators of high

creativity and innovation. He cites this may be a reason that the British win so many

creative advertising awards at international competitions (Hofstede, 1980).

A fifth dimension, long term orientation was added after Chinese social scientists

developed a survey to assess Confucian philosophy in Asia. Long term orientation is

defined as "the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future-oriented perspective

rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view" (de Mooij, 2005, p. 69).

Many East Asian cultures such as China, Japan, and Taiwan score very high on long term

orientation. This is evident by these cultures strong inclinations to honor the past,

preserve relationships by status, and having a sense of shame (Frith & Mueller, 2003).

Cultures that score low on long term orientation are typically Western or Latin cultures

such as the United States, Germany, and Chile (de Mooij, 2005).

Long term orientation is closely related to Confucian philosophy. In Western

cultures, this frame of mind proves to be too difficult to understand. The Western logic of

if A = true, than the opposite B=false is not thoroughly understood by Eastern cultures









(de Mooij, 2005). The East is many times seen as a cultural paradox, where emphasis on

tradition starkly opposes the emphasis on innovation yet both work together to form

thriving societies (de Mooij, 2005).

Previous Cultural Research and Mass Communications

Hofstede's (1980) theory of cultural dimensions has been used since the 1980s to

conduct cross-cultural, consumer behavior research. The dimensions are increasingly

being used as independent variables in cultural research. In 1996/97, the European Media

Survey (EMS) replicated a similar survey using Hofstede's (1980) questions. The country

scores were found to be similar to those found 20 years earlier, thus making Hofstede's

(1980) findings still valid (de Mooij, 2005). These dimensions play an important role in

the formulation of advertising campaigns. Cross-cultural advertising research has been

conducted using various frameworks of culture (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olayan

& Karande, 2000; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 1987; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989;

Zandpour, et al. 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Results typically show culture reflected in

the ads being studied. For example, Mueller (1987) found that Japanese ads reflect the

traditional Japanese values of status and long-term orientation. Al-Olayan and Karande

(2000) found that traditional Arabic values, closely related to religion, were depicted in

the respective advertising. Zhang and Gelb (1996) found that Chinese print ads that focus

on the cultural value of collectivism were seen as more appealing to Chinese students.

However, of these cross-cultural studies, many have not examined award-winning

advertisements, thus creating a gap in the literature.

Focus of the Current Study

As earlier discussed, much of the preceding literature (especially content analyses)

has focused on dissimilar cultures and their advertising appeals. Studies comparing









dissimilar cultures such as the United States to China (Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Zhang

& Gelb, 1996; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989), the United States to Japan (Mueller, 1987), the

United States to Mexico (Gregory & Munch, 1997), the United States to Israel (Hornik,

1980), and the United Kingdom to France (Whitelock & Chung, 1989) are abundant. This

has lead to a disproportionate number of studies focusing on heterogeneous cultures, and

somewhat of a 'disinterest' in similar cultures. Few studies regarding culture and

advertising have concentrated on countries/cultures with the same language and similar

cultural heritage.

The nature of this study, therefore, is to review advertising appeals from countries

that are culturally alike in many ways. Using the theoretical framework of Hofstede

(1980) and the prior research of Caillat and Mueller (1996), the United States and the

United Kingdom were chosen based on their obvious similarities. Katz and Lee (1992)

argue that the United States and the United Kingdom are so alike, that if advertising

standardization could work anywhere, it would be these two countries. They state that

both the United States and the United Kingdom are highly developed societies with

similar economic policies. These countries also have sophisticated and creative

advertising industries and very comparable advertising expenditures. Due to sample size

constrictions, a thorough review of the literature was re-conducted, and the country of

Australia was additionally chosen for comparison. The cultural research of Hofstede

(1980) and Ward (2001) justify this collaboration due to the fact that the United States,

United Kingdom and Australia share a cultural history and many of the same cultural

values. Table 1 illustrates the Hofstede (1980) indices for the United States, the United

Kingdom, and Australia. To help visualize this, Figure 1 also illustrates the same indices.









Table 1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
United States United Kingdom Australia
Power Distance 40 35 36
(PDI)
Individualism (IDV) 91 89 90
Masculinity (MAS) 62 66 61
Uncertainty 46 35 51
Avoidance (UAI)
Long-Term 29 25 31
Orientation (LTO))


100
90'
80'
70'
60' United States
50- United Kingdom
30 0 Australia
20
10
0
PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO


Figure 1 Hofstede (1980) Indices for the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.

Here one can see the distinct cultural similarities between these countries, based on

the work of Hofstede (1980). The dimension that differs the 'greatest' is uncertainty

avoidance (UAI). The United Kingdom's score of 35 is marginally lower than the United

States (46) and Australia (51). According to Hofstede (1980) this means that taking risks

may be more promoted in the United Kingdom than in the United States or Australia. On

all other dimensions, these countries are strikingly congruent. Their index scores for

individualism (~ 90) represent the archetype, 'stand-alone' cultures in Western society;

all are extremely individualistic. In concordance with this high level of individualism,

these countries are also very masculine (index of- 63), meaning they all value the









propensity to be the best. These countries' relatively low indices (~ 37) on the power

distance dimension represent cultural values of equality and opportunity for all members

of society. The low indices for long term orientation (~ 28) indicate that these cultures

accept change and immediacy (Hofstede, 1980).

Conversely, while cultural dimensions are global in nature, advertising executional

variables can be expected to differ by culture. Different training, clients, and perspectives

in different advertising industries should produce different executions, even across

cultures.

As discussed previously, the issue to standardize or localize appeals can cause

dissonance among advertisers and agencies. By studying countries that are theorized to

be very similar in terms of culture, then international advertisers may very well consider

a standardized approach and campaign. On the other hand, if these variables differ

significantly, marketers and advertisers may seek a more localized approach.

To analyze the cultural values reflected in these countries' advertising appeals,

ads from these countries needed to be selected for content analysis. While searching for a

consistent way to gather these ads, the idea of award-winning ads came about. Research

in the area of content analysis and award-winning ads is not copious (Gagnard & Morris,

1988). Advertising awards present a consistent (quarterly, annually, etc) dataset, as well

as representing what can be considered 'the best' ads. The lack of literature in this area,

combined with the consistency and perceived 'excellence' of award-winning ads

presented an interesting and unique way to form this study's sample.

Advertising Awards

It is estimated that there are currently more than 500 advertising award shows held

worldwide (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). These awards range from internationally









renowned events to small, local ceremonies. Advertising awards, at their core, are meant

to assess and recognize advertising's effectiveness and creativity (Helgesen, 1994). There

are generally two different criterion that advertising awards can be based on the ad's

effectiveness, and the ad's creativity (including editing sequences, design, copy).

However, as Helgesen (1994) explains, "Despite the many differences between the

awards, they have a strong common denominator in their zest for creative excellence, as

expressed in criteria and rules for participation and evaluation" (p. 43).

The reasons why advertising agencies will pay top dollar just to enter into one of

the prestigious advertising award competitions vary. Four main reasons have been studied

by Polonsky and Waller (1995). Some agencies feel winning these distinguished awards

will merely gain the recognition that they feel they deserve for their work (Polonsky &

Waller, 1995). Raudsepp (1987) explained that in order for creativity to blossom, there

needed to be recognition and praise.

Other agencies feel that winning esteemed awards encourage creativity among the

staff. The staff can be seen as a unit, much like a baseball team; when the team wins,

morale is increased. Winning awards can promote company pride and challenge the

agency to do better than the last campaign they raise the bar. This type of team unity

can also work in favor of the agency by recruiting new and upcoming talent (Polonsky &

Waller, 1995).

Another incentive to enter an awards competition is to increase an agency's

prestige, or prominence in the industry. The advertising industry is extremely competitive

by nature; it is important for an agency to become an industry leader if it wants to survive

(Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Chipperfield (1989) cites the reasons why sub-par agencies









always criticize the advertising award competitions is because they are yearly reminders

of how 'average' their campaigns are (as cited in Polonsky & Waller, 1995).

Finally, perhaps the greatest reason ad agencies choose to enter these award shows

is to advertise for themselves. Agencies see competitions as a way to attract new clients

(Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Although it has been found that the level of creativity in a

campaign does not play a significant role in the client-agency relationship (Helgesen,

1994), it can be theorized that winning awards reassures the agency's talent. Potential

clients may feel that if that hire an agency known for its prestigious awards, a campaign

for their company or brand will also be successful (Polonsky & Waller, 1995).

Although the appeal of advertising awards is alluring, the award shows have often

come under severe criticism (Polonsky & Waller, 1995). Kiely (1989) found that

particular award shows have been criticized for how they go about picking winners (as

cited in Polonsky & Waller, 1995). There is also a notion that creative will forget that at

the core of the campaign lays a business problem. The awards have been criticized for

encouraging creative to write to the panel of judges for competitions and not to

consumers (Kover, James, & Sonner, 1997).

As stated earlier, there are two different ways that advertising awards can be judged

- on the effectiveness of the ads (such as the EFFIE's) and on the creativity of the content

(such as the One Show's and the Clio's). For this study on culture in advertising, the

creative advertising award competition, the Clio's, will be used.

The Clio Awards

The prestigious Clio Awards (name derived from the ancient Greek mythological

muse of history and heroic poetry) (Dee, 1999) are awarded on the basis of creative

innovation and excellence. Helgesen (1994) explains that "the creativity concept is vague









concerning meaning, content, structure, and boundaries" (p. 44). There is no operational

definition for the concept of creativity; there are no numbers or statistics for what is

deemed creative. The Clio Awards are given to advertisements and design across a wide

range of media including print, television, radio, internet, billboard and poster (T.

Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006).The criteria of creativity in advertising

awards are based mainly on subjectivity. In 1988, Csikszentmihalyi argued that

something creative must add value to the culture; ads must be judged and recognized by

those who are competent in the advertising field and who have reached high levels in the

advertising profession.

The Clio Awards pride themselves on expert evaluation by an esteemed jury.

Entrees are examined on the basis of creative excellence, although the Clio's Web site

explains that, "the important differentiator will be the power of the idea. Daring ideas that

capture the imagination and change the way we think and feel. Ideas so fresh, so

contagious, so intelligent, so compelling and entertaining you can't avoid them" (Clio

Awards, 2005). The awards began in 1959 in the United States, and in 1965 they began to

span international boarders (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006). Each

medium has its own internationally respected jurors. They seek to award the original and

unusual creative concepts in one of the most influential art forms in modern history.

In order to win a Clio Award, an agency or school or individual must submit their

ad to an initial assembly of judges. According to T. Gulisano (personal communication,

June 5, 2006), approximately 80% of submitted work is tossed out in the 'preliminary'

round of competition. T. Gulisano (personal communication, June 5, 2006) jokingly

refers to this process as being much like a beauty contest for advertisements. An









international jury of exonerated industry men and women will then make final decisions

on which ads will receive which level of awards. It is important to remember that the Clio

Awards are a submitted sample frame and not representative of the entire advertising

world. They were chosen for this study because of their international nature. Also,

according to Kim and Margison (2005), creativity stems from an individual's interaction

with his or her cultural macrocosm. Since the Clio Awards are given based on creativity,

using them for this cultural study may be a better reflection of the culture from which the

ads originate.

Hypothesis and Research Questions

As previously discussed, the objective of this study is to explore the cultural

values reflected in award-winning advertisements from similar cultures. After reviewing

the literature, one hypothesis was formulated:

* HI: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United
Kingdom, and Australia will differ in terms of executional variables (Stewart &
Furse; Marshall, 2006).

* In addition to this hypothesis, the literature suggested five research questions:

* RQ1: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of power distance (PDI)?

* RQ2: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of individualism (IDV).

* RQ3: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of masculinity (MAS).

* RQ4: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of uncertainty avoidance (UAI).






21


* RQ5: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of long-term orientation (LTO).

Due to the very high level of interaction between the global markets of the United

States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, it is cardinal to know the answers to such

research questions














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Content analysis is a research method that is used to systematically evaluate the

content of all forms of recorded communication (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The nature of

content analysis provides a realm of research opportunities and is the most appropriate

research method for this study. Content analysis is unobtrusive and allows for

assessments of various types of communication (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Content

analysis allows for words, themes, symbols, characters, and space-and-time information

to be measured (Kassarjian, 1977). Prior research involving the use of content analysis

(Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olayan & Karande, 2000; Caillat & Mueller, 1996;

Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Gagnard & Morris, 1988; Mueller, 1987; Pollay, 1983;

Stewart & Furse, 1986; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989; Zandpour, et al. 1994) has expanded

knowledge and created new ideas in the areas of journalism, marketing, advertising, and

cross-cultural communication (Abernethy & Franke, 1996), thus legitimizing its use in

this study.

Content Analysis Defined

In the broadest sense, content analysis is essentially the scientific analysis of

communications messages (Holsti, 1969). Taking into account the concepts more

narrowly defined by Berelson (1952), Kassarjian (1977), and Kolbe and Burnett (1991),

we find that the three main distinguishing characteristics of content analysis are that it

must be 1) objective, 2) systematic, and 3) quantitative.









Objectivity is the basis for which categories are developed and defined. Objectivity

should be established by previously defined theoretical constructs and operationalized as

variables for descriptive relationship analysis. Kassarjian (1977) explains that in order to

lessen the possibility that the findings will reflect researcher subjectivity all decisions

should be guided by an explicit set of rules for categories and data collection methods.

The component of objectivity gives scientific standing to the quantitative content analysis

method and differentiates it from basic literary criticism (Kassarjian, 1977).

The systematization requirement is needed to dispel criticism that the researcher

could only be admitting materials that support his or her hypotheses (Berelson, 1952).

Systematization also demands that the data and findings be of some theoretical relevance

(Kassarjian, 1977). The final and most distinctive component of content analysis, as

defined by Kassarjian (1977) and Berelson (1952), is quantification. Kassarjian (1977)

explains that content analysis is all about "a measurement of the extent of emphasis or

omission of any given analytic category" (p. 9). The necessity of quantification is based

on the expectation of the data to be in accordance with statistical methods. Interpretations

and inferences can subsequently be made (Kassarjian, 1977). Considering that the nature

of this study encompasses cultural values reflected in the content of advertising, content

analysis is an exemplary method to go about the research.

Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Method

Research conducted by Stewart and Furse (1986) is the backbone to this study.

Together they studied the effectiveness of more than 1,000 television commercials and

155 execution elements. Their operational definitions are used in this paper. Stewart and

Furse (1986) created a factor analysis by combining a set of findings from copy testing

and descriptive statistics from the thousand commercials. The factor analysis found that









a variety of elements both positively and negatively influenced the effectiveness of a

commercial. Those elements that were found to positively influence the effectiveness

utilized attention-grabbing devices such as humor and memory aids (Stewart & Furse,

1986).

Creating the Current Content Analysis Method

The work of Marshall (2006) served as a springboard for this study's content

analysis method. The basis of the Marshall (2006) study follows the framework defined

by Kassarjian (1997) with additional information provided by Kolbe and Burnett (1991).

In 1977, Kassarjian called for an improvement in the content analysis method, with

specific regards to reliability. Intercoder reliability is crucial to rigorous content analysis

because it becomes the basis for analysis quality (Kassarjian, 1977; Perreault & Leigh,

1989).

Intercoder Reliability

Marshall (2006) explains that "interjudge reliability is a statistical measure of

agreement between several judges processing identical communication content" (p. 52).

This reliability is highly related to the content analysis requirement of objectivity

(Kassarjian, 1977). Marshall (2006) states that the coder independence cannot be

understated and it is absolutely critical in order to meet the requirements ascribed by

Kassarjian (1977).

The reporting of intercoder reliability is fundamental to scientifically significant

content analysis. Kolbe and Burnett (1991) found that often the reliabilities of content

analyses are misleading in the sense that they may be overestimated in terms of the

number of judges and reliabilities indexes. Marshall (2006) also points out that categories

with high reliability may skew low individual measures. Reporting individual category's









reliabilities is preferred and used in this paper. This study employs the use of the work of

Marshall (2006).

Unit of Analysis and Sample Design

The unit of analysis for this study is Clio award winning television commercials

from the years 1995 through 2004. The Clio awards did not take place in 1997 and were

therefore unavailable for this study. Although the Clio awards did take place in 2002, the

tape was also unavailable for this study. Content analysis of Clio winning advertisements

has been previously researched by Gagnard & Morris (1988). The research sample

consisted of N=268 television commercials that garnered a grand, gold, or silver Clio

award. The researcher obtained tapes of the Clio award shows from the years 1995

(n=32), 1996 (n=29), 1998 (n=41), 1999 (n=31), 2000 (n=35), 2001 (n=36), 2003 (n=30)

and 2004 (n=63). The 1997 and 2002 Clio awards were unavailable for this study.

Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis

Following the previously discussed framework of Kolbe and Burnett (1991), the

elements of rules and procedures including coding instrument and code book, judge

training, pre-testing, judge independence, number of judges and the statistical evaluation

of reliability will all be discussed individually.

Rules and Procedures

Operational definitions and categorical details should be thoroughly discussed in

the rules and procedures of any content analysis. The dimensions and categories that are

operationalized in this study are taken from the Stewart and Furse (1986) model and

Marshall (2006). Each coder was provided a six-page coding sheet as well as a detailed

codebook that gave definitions and examples for each possible variable in a category.

The coding sheet consisted of 37 questions and/or categories. The questions were either









descriptive information about the individual commercial or categories borrowed from the

aforementioned studies. The questions can be broken down into three sections. The first

section details the descriptive information pertaining to the individual ad. The second

section was derived from Stewart and Furse (1986, p. 131-143). This section of the

coding sheet includes various devices and dominant appeals researched by Stewart and

Furse (1986). These categories have been previously used for researching television

commercials (Stewart & Furse, 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Marshall, 2006). The

final section focuses on cultural values as defined by Hofstede (1980).

At the initial training session judges were informed to make choices based on the

dominance of the variable. The judges were instructed to choose the best option when

multiple options were available. In order to make an educated choice the coders could

also turn to their codebook for examples and definitions. A copy of the codebook can be

found in Appendix A and a copy of the coding sheet is located in Appendix B.

Coder Training

Four coders were selected and educated on how to properly fill out the coding

sheets relevant to the study. Two of the coders were advertising graduate students with

backgrounds in advertising. The third coder is receiving an MBA and the fourth coder is

a PhD student seeking a degree in advertising. One coder is fluent in both Malay and

Chinese (Cantonese), while another coder is fluent in Hindi. All four coders are fluent in

the English language. Each coder was assigned to code approximately 67 ads of the 268

sample.

The initial coder training session lasted nearly two hours. The purpose, theoretical

background, and operational definitions of the study were discussed; as well as the

codebook and coding sheet. Three ads from the sample were viewed and coded to









provide an example of the procedure. Concerns and questions that arose during the

meeting and subsequent coding processes were addressed immediately. The coders were

given their assignments (roughly 67 ads) and informed that they could contact the lead

researcher with any further concerns.

Pre-testing

Using the previous work of Marshall (2006), a pre-test was conducted at the initial

coder training meeting. Three of the ads from the sample were viewed and coded, without

the coders interacting. A thorough discussion followed and coders were asked to justify

why the made certain decisions. The category definitions were reviewed again.

The pretest helped make minor changes to the coding instrument such as adding a

category for public service announcements. After the initial training session the coders

were instructed to use the knowledge gained from the meeting as well as the codebook to

make their educated decisions as objectively as possible. The lead researchers were

always available to address questions and concerns.

Coder Independence

Citing Marshall (2006), it is very important for each coder to work independently

of each other as to meet the requirements ascribed by Kassarjian (1977). Since the coders

knew each other, it was crucial to educate them of the potential downfalls of working

together. At the initial meeting the coders were instructed to work independently of one

another and to refrain from discussing coding procedures with others. Access to a

personal VCR was required from all coders.

Number of Judges per Spot

Research by Kolbe & Burnett (1991) states that the use of two coders was the most

frequent configuration found in the literature. Using this realistic way to establish









reliability assessments, each ad from the sample was initially coded twice by two separate

coders. Once all ads were coded, agreements and disagreements were assessed to

ascertain individual category agreement estimates. The primary researchers served as a

third judge and solved disagreements and evaluated the work of the coders.

Intercoder Reliability

Marshall (2006) illustrates that there is no consistent means for addressing

intercoder reliability in content analysis. Although many researchers have emphasized the

importance of intercoder reliability (Holsti, 1969; Hughes & Garrett, 1990; Kassarjian,

1977; Kolbe & Burnett, 1991; Perreault & Leigh, 1989), few offer a consistent way to

evaluate it. However, no matter which method the primary researcher chooses, initial

estimates of proportion of agreement should be calculated. To determine this proportion,

the formula of Holsti (1969) was used

Reliability = 2M



N1+N2

M = the number of agreements between coders

N = total number of decisions made by each coder

Though the Holsti (1969) formula was somewhat groundbreaking in assessing

intercoder reliability, more recent literature suggests that valid intercoder reliability

estimates should include a process to correct for chance agreements between the coders

(Hughes & Garrett, 1990; Krippendorf, 1980; Kassarjian, 1977). A researcher must

conclude that interjudge reliability has not been met if the level of agreement obtained is

not significantly greater than that expected by chance (Hughes & Garrett, 1990). For this









study, intercoder reliability estimates provided by Perreault & Leigh (1989) was used.

This method has also been used in research conducted by Marshall (2006).

Perreault and Leigh (1989, p. 140) developed an "explicit model of the level of

agreement that might be expected given a true (population) level of reliability." This

method is an accurate way of correcting chance agreement between coders. The

Perreault and Leigh (1989) model has been considered a more appropriate method for

conducting marketing related research. The reliability index that Perreault and Leigh

(1989) created is

Ir = {[(Fo/N) (1/k)] [k/ (k 1)} <

Fo = observed frequency of agreement between judges

N = total number of judgments

k = number of categories

The Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Leigh (1989) findings for each individual

category were computed and reported along with the overall average. According to

Kassarjian (1977), reliability in range of 85% can be viewed as satisfying. Out of 27

measures, both the Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Leigh (1989) formulas found overall

reliability to be .91 and .92, respectively. Table 2 reports the individual category and

overall reliabilities.

Table 2. Holsti and Perreault and Leigh Reliability Indices
Category Holsti Index Perreault and Leigh
Index
Scenic beauty .94 .94
Beautiful characters .96 .96
Graphic displays 1.00 1.00
Visual reinforcements through words .94 .94
Logo .99 .99









Table 2. Continued
Category Holsti Index Perreault and Leigh
Index
Commercial appeals or selling
propositions .73 .84
Commercial format .86. .92
Informational/transformational .92 .92
Dominant setting .95 .96
Setting .89 .94
Presence of music .96 .96
Culture specific music .97 .97
Dominant tone .88 .93
Direct comparison .98 .98
Culture specific language .86 .85
Dominant character .93 .96
Culture specific .94 .94
Individualism .93 .93
Collectivism .88 .87
Masculinity .89 .88
Femininity .91 .91
Long term .92 .92
Short term .90 .89
High power distance .87 .86
Low power distance .85 .84
High uncertainty avoidance .90 .89
Low uncertainty avoidance .87 .86
Overall reliability average .91 .92


Final Revisions and Category Decisions

Upon reviewing the categories on the coding sheet, two categories (Product

Categories and Dominant Appeals) failed to meet the qualifications for minimum cell

criteria. To remedy this problem, standard error for the sample was used as a guideline.

The decision was made to err on the conservative side, using an overall rate of 8% or

n=10. The two aforementioned categories were reassessed and condensed to meet the

standard of error requirement (n=10). They are as follows.

a. Alcoholic Beverages (including beer)

b. Non alcoholic Beverages (both carbonated and non carbonated)









c. Apparel (including high fashion)

d. Packaged Foods (including breakfast items, snacks, and desserts)

e. Electronics and related services (including computers, internet and telecom services)

f. Personal Products (including beauty and over-the-counter health aids)

g. Financial products and services (including credit and debit cards)

h. Travel and tourism (including hotels, resorts, and transportation)

i. Other (including leisure, pet car, and household durables)

New groups for Dominant Appeal

a. Hedonism (including sexual, comfort, enjoyment, self-image, achievement, and

excitement appeals)

b. Welfare Concerns (including safety and social approval appeals)



Data analysis

SPSS 14.0 was used for data analysis. Frequencies, cross tabulations, and chi-

square tests were conducted to explore the hypotheses.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

This chapter will focus on both the descriptive statistics for the entire Clio award

winning television commercial sample size (N=268), and also on the statistical findings

derived from the previously discussed hypothesis and research questions. For the latter

discussion, only variables from ads from the United States (n=141) and the United

Kingdom and Australia (n=36) will be statistically tested, in accordance with previously

stated hypothesis and research questions.

Descriptive Statistics of Clio Commercials

The overall Clio sample (N=268) descriptive statistics display spot characteristics

of the Clio sample. These descriptive statistics provide frequencies and percent for the

following characteristics: Clio award year and award level, country of origin, advertising

agency, product categories, and dominant characters of the ads.

Spot Descriptive Characteristics by Award Level and Year

Table 3 illustrates Clio spot count by year. The largest sample year was 1998

(15.3%) and the smallest sample year was 2004 (10.8%).

Table 3. Sample distribution by Year. (N=268)
Year Frequency Percent
2004 29 10.8%
2003 31 11.6%
2001 37 13.8%
2000 36 13.4%
1999 31 11.6%
1998 41 15.3%
1996 30 11.2%
1995 33 12.3
Total 268 100%









Table 4 illustrates Clio award levels. The sample (N=268) consisted of 10 grand

Clio winners (3.7%), 130 gold Clio winners (48.5%), and 128 silver Clio winners

(47.8%).

Table 4. Award Levels.
Award Level Frequency Percent
Grand 10 3.7%
Gold 130 48.5%
Silver 128 47.8%
Total 268 100%

Spot Descriptive Characteristics by Country of Origin

Given the nature of this study, it is imperative to report which countries were

represented in the total sample (N=268). Although this paper mainly focuses on three

countries, United States (n=141), United Kingdom (n=27), and Australia (n=9), an

overview of other countries in the sample could provide for future research questions. In

the total sample there were 29 countries represented. Ads from the United States

represent the largest percent (52.6%) of the total sample, followed by ads from the United

Kingdom (10.1%). Table 5 illustrates the descriptive statistics for the top ten countries

that were most represented.

Table 5. Top Ten Countries Represented.
Country Frequency Percent
United States 141 52.6%
United Kingdom 27 10.1%
Argentina 19 7.1%
Australia 9 3.4%
Brazil 9 3.4%
France 8 3.0%
Netherlands 7 2.6%
Germany 6 2.2%
Spain 5 1.9%
Sweden 5 1.9%









Advertising Agency Brand Descriptive Characteristics

More than 100 advertising agencies from around the world were represented in the

total Clio sample (N=268). Many awards were earned by regional offices of larger

agency brands. To be more concise, the descriptive total illustrated here was done by

condensing regional offices under a main agency brand name when applicable (e.g.

Wieden + Kennedy Amsterdam was reclassified as simply Wieden + Kennedy).

BBDO is the agency greatest represented in the sample (8.2%), followed by DDB

(6.3%). In following with the 'top ten' reporting strategy from previous tables, Table 6

illustrates the top ten agencies represented in the total sample of Clio ads by frequency

and percent.

Table 6. Top Ten Advertising Agencies Represented.
Agency Frequency Percent
BBDO 22 8.2%
DDB 17 6.3%
Saatchi & Saatchi 14 5.2%
Goodby, Silverstein & 13 4.9%
Partners
TBWA/Chiat/Day 11 4.1%
Art Center Los Angeles 11 4.1%
(Student)
Cliff Freeman & Partners 10 3.7%
Leo Burnett 9 3.4%
Young & Rubicam 7 2.6%
Wieden + Kennedy 6 2.2%

Product Category Descriptive Characteristics

As previously stated, a few of the initial product categories did not meet the

minimum cell requirements and therefore needed to be reclassified to remedy the

problem. In the end, 15 product categories were redefined and a descriptive statistical

analysis was computed. Findings show that the product category of 'Apparel'

represented the greatest percent of the sample at 14.2%. In keeping consistent with the









tables provided above, the top ten product categories represented in the sample are

reported in Table 7.

Table 7. Top Ten Product Categories Represented.
Product Category Frequency Percent
Apparel 38 14.2%
Entertainment 33 12.3%
Automobiles and Vehicles 31 11.6%
Alcoholic Beverages 24 9.0%
Electronics and Related 22 8.2%
Services
General Retail/E-Tail 17 6.3%
Other 16 6.0%
Travel and Tourism 15 5.6%
Non-Alcoholic Beverages 15 5.6%
Public Service 15 5.6%
Announcement

Dominant Commercial Characters Descriptive Characteristics

Reviewing the dominant characters in the Clio sample finds that males were

represented more greatly than females. Of the 239 ads that featured a character, 138 of

them featured a male as the dominant, lead character. A female sports star was the least

represented character, only shown in one ad. The dominant character category was

broken down into more than 20 possible answers to be all-encompassing. Although not

discussed in this paper, this category may be useful to other studies involving gender

representation and award-winning advertisements. The following table illustrates the

descriptive presence of characters in the Clio sample. For definitions of each potential

answer, refer to Appendix A.









Table 8. Commercial Characters Present in Overall Sample

Professional male
Professional female
Entertainer male
Entertainer female
Sports star male
Sports star female
Model male
Model female
Elderly male
Elderly female
Child
Teenager
Young adult
Mother
Father
Real life male
Real life female
Cartoon/Animated
Total


Frequency
26
2
4
2
15
1
6
11
10
5
9
3
42
3
8
69
6
17
239


Percent
9.7
0.7
1.5
0.7
5.6
0.4
2.2
4.1
3.7
1.9
3.4
1.1
15.7
1.1
3.0
25.7
2.2
6.3
89.2


Research Questions

This study was generated by the five research questions previously addressed in

the literature review. Chi-Square and differences in proportion were used to statistically

test for associations. Statistical significance was tested at the conventional p<.05 level.

Results from each will be discussed.

The first research question states:

* RQ1: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of power distance (PDI)?

When computing the findings for both high and low power distance (Tables 9 and 10)

reflected in ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no significant

difference was found. There were no statistically significant differences based on Fisher's

Exact Test p= .25 for high power distance, and p=.32 for low power distance to be found

with regards to this dimension.









Table 9. High Power Distance in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

High Yes 66 48.6% 14 38.9% 80 45.2%
power
distance No 75 53.2% 22 61.1% 97 54.8%
present?
Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%

2 =.73, d.f.= 1, p = .25, n = 177

Table 10. Low Power Distance in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

Low Yes 43 30.5% 13 36.1% 56 31.6%
power
distance No 98 69.5% 23 63.9% 121 68.4%
present?
Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%

f =.42, d.f.= 1, p = .32, n = 177

The second research question states:

* RQ2: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of individualism (IDV).

When computing the findings for both high and low individualism (collectivism) (Tables

11 and 12) reflected in ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no

significant difference was found. There were no statistically significant differences based

on Fisher's Exact Test p= .31 for individualism, and p=.31 for collectivism to be found

with regards to this dimension.









Table 11. Individualism in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Yes 89 63.1% 25 69.4% 114 64.4%
Individualism No 52 36.9% 11 30.6% 63 35.6%
present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
f =.50, d.f.= 1, p =.31, n= 177

Table 12. Low Individualism (collectivism) in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Yes 48 34.0% 10 27.8% 58 32.8%
Collectivism No 93 66.0% 26 72.2% 119 67.2%
present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
f =.51, d.f.= 1, p = .31, n= 177

The third research question states:

* RQ3: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of masculinity (MAS).

When computing the findings for both high and low masculinity (femininity) (Tables 13

and 14) reflected in ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no

significant difference was found. There were no statistically significant differences based

on Fisher's Exact Test p= .42 for masculinity, and p=.52 for femininity to be found with

regards to this dimension

Table 13. Masculinity in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Yes 95 67.4% 23 63.9% 118 66.7%
Masculinity No 46 32.6% 13 36.1% 59 33.3%
present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
f = .16, d.f.= 1, p =.42, n = 177


Table 14. Low Masculinity (femininity) in Ads?
I United States I United Kingdom & Total









Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Yes 18 12.8% 5 13.9% 23 13.0%
Femininity No 123 87.2% 31 86.1% 154 87.0%
present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
f =.03, d.f.= 1, p =.52, n = 177

The fourth research question states:

* RQ4: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of uncertainty avoidance (UAI).

When computing the findings for both high and low uncertainty avoidance (Tables 15

and 16) reflected in ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no

significant differences were found based on Fisher's Exact Test p= .44 for high

uncertainty avoidance, and p=.17 for low uncertainty avoidance to be found with regards

to this dimension.

Table 15. High Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
High Yes 20 14.2% 6 16.7% 26 14.7%
uncertainty No 121 85.8% 30 83.3% 151 85.3%
avoidance Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
present?
f = .14, d.f.= 1, p =.44, n = 177

Table 16. Low Uncertainty Avoidance in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Low Yes 118 83.7% 27 75.0% 145 81.9%
uncertainty No 23 16.3% 9 25.0% 32 18.1%
avoidance Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
present?
f = 1.46, d.f.= 1, p .17, n = 177









The fifth research question states:

* RQ5: Are Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States,
United Kingdom, and Australia different in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural
dimension of long-term orientation (LTO).

When computing the findings for both long term and short term orientation (Tables 17

and 18) reflected in ads from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, no

significant differences were found based on Fisher's Exact Test p= .11 for long term

orientation, and p=.13 for short term orientation with regards to this dimension.

Table 17. Long term orientation in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Long term Yes 27 19.1% 11 30.6% 38 21.5%
orientation No 114 80.9% 25 69.4% 139 78.5%
present? Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
) = 2.21, d.f.= 1,p= .11,n= 177

Table 18. Short term orientation in Ads?
United States United Kingdom & Total
Australia
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Yes 106 75.2% 23 63.9% 129 72.9%
Short term No 35 24.8% 13 36.1% 48 27.1%
orientation Total 141 100% 36 100% 177 100%
present?
f = 1.85, d.f.= 1, p = .13, n = 177

Hypothesis

The hypothesis stated:

* HI: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States, United
Kingdom, and Australia will differ in terms of executional variables (Stewart &
Furse; Marshall, 2006).

When computing the findings for the executional variables reflected in ads from the

United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, HI was not supported by the results

(Table 19). The table reports only the most frequently occurring variables (frequencies









and percent) in the ads, for example, most ads did not use 'Scenic Beauty' (94.3%) and

therefore, is reported.

There were no statistically significant differences based on Fisher's Exact Test or

Chi-Square to be found with regards to executional variables. However, when reviewing

the computed findings for the category of 'Culture specific language', the researcher

found an interesting result. Culture specific language refers to the language and 'jargon'

from the country of origin. An example of this is Budweiser's Clio award-winning ad

entitled "Whazzup" from the United States. The phrase "whazzup" suggests a very

informal way of greeting a good friend. Perhaps an explanation for the differences among

cultures in this category is due to the British and Australians more "formal" speech to

each other. The category tested either the presence or absence of culture specific

language. The Fisher's Exact Test is p=.051 for this category. One must keep in mind that

n=142, which takes into consideration that some ads had no spoken word.









Table 19. Executional variables in Ads?
United States United Kingdom Total Sig
and Australia
Scenic Beauty 132 95% 33 91.7% 165 94.3% NS
(absence)
Beautiful
Characters 126 91.3% 32 88.9% 158 90.8% NS
(absence)
Graphs and
rs anc 140 99.3% 35 97.2% 175 98.9% NS
Charts (absence)
Visual
Reinforcement
Reinforcement 97 68.8% 28 77.8% 125 70.6% NS
Through Words
(presence)
Scenic Beauty 132 95% 33 91.7% 165 94.3% NS
(absence)
Transformational
Transformational 127 90.1% 29 80.6% 156 88.1% NS
(presence)
Dominant
Dominant 64 48.9% 18 52.9% 82 49.7% NS
Setting (indoors)
Music (presence) 88 62.4% 27 75% 115 65% NS
Culture specific 134 95% 35 97.2% 169 95.5% NS
music (absence)
Direct 136 96.5% 35 97.2% 171 96.6% NS
Comparisons
(absence)
Culture specific 108 93.9% 22 81.5% 130 91.5% NS
language
(presence)
Culture specific 129 91.5% 32 88.9% 161 91% NS
product
(absence)














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The purpose of the current research was to examine the representation of cultural

values manifested in Clio Award-winning ads from the United States, the United

Kingdom, and Australia. These countries were chosen primarily based on their inherent

cultural similarities as defined by Hofstede (1980). They were also chosen because of

their # in the overall Clio sample (N=268). This study differs from previous research

done on Clio Awards (Gagnard & Morris, 1988) because it seeks to analyze the

manifestation of cultural values in the ads. It differs from previous research on cultural

values and advertising in the sense that it compares three similar nations/cultures, instead

of dissimilar ones (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Al-Olayan & Karande, 2000; Cheng &

Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 1987; Tse, Belk, & Zhou, 1989; Zandpour, et al. 1994; Zhang

& Gelb, 1996). This final chapter addresses the research findings, the limitations of the

study, and future research possibilities.

Descriptive Results

Based on the descriptive results presented in Chapter 4, a prototypical Clio winning

ad was created based on the characteristics receiving the highest frequencies in each

descriptive category. This has been done for the Clio's by Gagnard and Morris (1988)

and for the EFFIE's by Marshall (2006). The prototypical Clio winner would look much

like Table 20. It would be a gold winner (48.5%), in all color (86.2%) for a product or

service that deals with entertainment (12.3%). It would use words and a logo to visually









reinforce the message (75.4%) The ad would be transformational (88.8%) and the

dominant appeal would be product reminder (40.7%).

Table 20. Prototypical Clio
Prototypical Clio (%)

Color All Color 86.2
Award Level Gold 48.5
Product Category Entertainment 12.3
Country of Origin United States 52.6
Visual Reinforcement Through Words 75.4
Visual Display of Logo Present 99.3
Dominant Appeal Product Reminder 40.7
Transformational/Informational Transformational 88.8

Hypotheses and Research Questions

The research questions and hypothesis previously stated in the literature review

dealt with the manifestation of similar cultural values in Clio winning ads from the

United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. It was suggested that there would be

significant differences between ad appeals in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimensions. All five research questions found no significant differences among the

sample. A final addition to the results chapter included one category, unrelated to

Hofstede's (1980) dimensions, and this was 'culture specific language'. There was a

statistically significant difference (p=.05) between the United States and the United

Kingdom and Australia in the sample (n=142). This may be of interest to researchers

seeking to study spoken language and culture in advertising.

Limitations

As with any research, a thorough discussion of the study's limitations is provided.

Many of the limitations in this study simply could not be avoided; and future research

should seek to remedy those that can be changed.









Clio Limitations

The Clio sample consisted of eight tapes from the years 1995-2004, omitting 1997

because the Clio's did not take place that year, and 2002 for which the researchers could

not obtain. In order to bolster sample size for future research, the years unattainable for

this study should be coded. The Clio reels came from various advertising faculty in the

College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida.

Another limitation to using the Clio Awards for this type of study is that while

they may represent 'the best' in creative excellence, they may prove to be too 'uniform'

in a study that seeks to compare or contrast cultural values. In a simpler explanation,

these ads may have been submitted solely to garner awards from a primarily United

States judge panel, and may not be a great representation of the culture they originated in.

The issue of 'to whom do creative write' surfaced here. Future research could 'remedy'

this, for example, by tweaking hypotheses to deal with creative humor and cross-cultural

advertising.

Future Research and Conclusion

Since there are few studies that deal with the multidimensional aspects of this

paper, future research has great potential. This study serves a springboard to assess

cultural values represented in award-winning ads. Although this study dealt with ads that

won creative excellence awards (Clio's), future studies could focus on the other side of

the award spectrum, the effectiveness awards (EFFIES). It would be extremely

interesting to see how the different sides of advertising award shows differ or compare in

terms of culture or country of origin.

In keeping proximate to the research questions presented and tested in this paper,

this study could also provide future research in the area of standardized campaigns for






46


culturally similar nations. It seems practical to study this area in-depth because more cost

efficient campaigns may emerge from the research.

In closing, this exploratory study contributes to the literature on advertising

awards, Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture and their effects on communication, and

advertising standardization. This paper attempts to bridge the gap found in the literature

and to inspire other researchers to explore.














APPENDIX A
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

Clio Coding Categories, Operational Definitions, and Examples


Code Book

A) Visual Devices

V11. Scenic Beauty Does the commercial present striking scenes of natural beauty?
(mountains, flowing streams)

V12. Beautiful Characters Does the commercial present one or more strikingly
beautiful people?

V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts Does the commercial use graphics or charts
as part of its presentation?

V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words Literal words on
the screen used to reinforce some characteristic of the product or part of the
commercial message. Ex. "50% Stronger" or "3 out of 4 doctors recommend"

V15. Visual Display of Logo There is a visual picture of the logo in the
commercial.

B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions

V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?
1. Attributes or ingredient as main message A major focus of the
commercial is to communicate something about how the product is made
or the ingredients. Ex. Toothpaste containing fluoride.
2. Product performance or benefit as main message A major focus of the
commercial is to communicate what the product does or how to use it. Ex.
Whiter teeth.
3. Psychological or subjective benefits A major focus of the commercial is
to communicate hidden or non-provable benefits of having/using the
product. Ex. You will be more popular/confident/sexy.
4. Product reminder as main message A product or package is the primary
message rather than any specific attribute/benefit.
5. Sexual Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on sexual cues.









6. Comfort Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on cues appealing to
creature comforts. Ex. Soft chairs, cool climate.
7. Safety Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on cues appealing to
being free from fear or physical danger. Ex. Safety alarms.
8. Enjoyment Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on enjoying life to
the fullest; good food and drink and so on.
9. Welfare Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on caring or
providing for others. Ex. Gift giving.
10. Social Approval A main focus of the commercial is on belonging,
winning friends, obtaining approval of others.
11. Self Esteem or Self Image A main focus of the commercial is on feeling
better about oneself, improving oneself, being a better person.
12. Achievement A main focus of the commercial is on obtaining superiority
over others, getting ahead, winning.
13. Excitement/Variety A main focus of the commercial is on adding
excitement, thrills, variety to life. Avoiding boredom.

C) Commercial Format

V17. What is the dominant format of the commercial?
1. Vignette A series of two or more stories that can stand alone. No
continuing storyline, but several independent stories which may convey
the same message. Multiple interviews would be an example.
2. Slice of Life Interplay between two or more people that portray a
conceivable real life situation. There is continuity of action.
3. Testimonial by product user One or more individuals recounts his or her
satisfaction for the product advertised or the results of using the product
advertised. For example Bill Cosby for Jell-O.
4. Endorsement by celebrity/authority One or more individuals or
organizations advocates or recommends the product but does not claim
personal use or satisfaction.
5. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy A demonstration of
product in use, for example a man shaving in a commercial for shaving
cream; women applying make up. A demonstration of the use of the
product, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy or device rather
than actual demonstration, as in the case of dipping chalk into a beaker of
fluoride to demonstrate how fluoride is to be absorbed by the teeth.
6. Demonstration of results of using a product Demonstration of the
outcome of using the product. For example, shining floors and bouncing
hair.
7. Comedy or Satire The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or
satire. Not only is humor an element of the commercial, but also the
commercial is written to be funny.
8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope The entire commercial or some
substantial part is animated. For example the Keebler Elves. Rotoscope is









a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time.
For example the Trix Rabbit.
9. Photographic Stills The use of photographic stills in part of the
commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models.
10. Creation of Mood or Image as dominant element An attempt to create a
desire for the product, without offering a specific product claim, by
appealing to the viewers' emotional/sensory involvement.
11. Commercial written as a serious drama The commercial is written as a
stage play, melodrama, or tragedy.
12. Fantasy/Exaggeration/Surrealism Use of animation or other visual
devices instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude
literal translation on the part of the viewer.
13. Problem & Solution An attempt to define or show a problem, then
indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem. Example foot
odor.
14. Interview An interview, question/answers is the primary vehicle in the
commercials. Example Rolaids "How do you spell relief'?


D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message

V18. Informational/Rational or Transformational/Image/Emotional
1. Informational/Rational Primary focus is on information or facts about
the brand or product presented in some logical way to suggest some reason
for purchasing the brand or product. Ex. Business to Business ads.
2. Transformational/Image/Emotional Primary focus is on creating an
image or mood. Sometimes these ads are referred to as "soft sell" ads.
Usually, but not always, there is little or no information or content present
in the sense of facts about the brand or product.

E) Commercial Setting

V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting?
1. Indoors Is the commercial setting or significant part of it indoors or in
other man made structures? Ex. Kitchens, garages, offices, stadium,
airplanes.
2. Outdoors Is the commercial setting or significant part of it outdoors? Ex.
Mountains, rivers, beaches, backyard, gardens.
3. No setting There is no particular setting for the commercial.

V20. Where is the commercial setting?
1. Urban apartment/housing A significant portion of the commercial is set in a
home or apartment in a highly populated area. Ex. A house in a large neighborhood
or city.
2. Rural apartment/housing A significant portion of the commercial is set in a
home or apartment in a sparsely populated area. Ex. A house in the middle of
nowhere.









3. Office/business A significant portion of the commercial is set in an office
building or business location. Ex. A boardroom meeting.
4. Restaurant A significant portion of the commercial is set in a place where food
is served.
5. Obvious landmark A significant portion of the commercial is set at a well-
known landmark. Ex. The Eiffel Tower.
6. Green pasture A significant portion of the commercial is set in a wide-open,
grassy space. Ex. Cow pasture.
7. Mountainous area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near a
mountainous region. Ex. A snowy peak with skiers.
8. Desert area A significant portion of the commercial is set in a sandy, barren
region. Ex. The Sahara.
9. Beach/lake area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near water.
Ex. People fishing on a lake.
10. Other Insert location if none of the above applies.
11. Not Applicable Absence of a setting. Ex. Cosmetic stills or blank screens.

F) Music

V21. Presence or absence of music Is music present in the commercial in any
format.

V22. Presence of absence of culture specific music Is the music that is present
representative of the culture of origin. Ex. African drums.

G) Commercial Tone/Atmosphere

V23. Predominant Tones Examples
1. Cute/adorable Welch's Grape Juice commercials with little children.
2. Hard sell Straight facts about product attributes.
3. Warm and caring Jif Peanut Butter "Choosy Moms Choose Jif'
4. Modern/contemporary Many liquor ads.
5. Wholesome/healthy Food that's "good for you".
6. Technological Computer related.
7. Conservative/Traditional/Nostalgic Many black and white or sepia tones.
8. Happy/fun-loving Travel commercials like Carnival Cruise Lines.
9. Cool/Laid-back Beer commercials like Coors Light.
10. Somber/serious Many PSA's "Don't let friends drink and drive".
11. Uneasy/tense Security issues, political issues.
12. Glamorous High fashion, make up, alcohol.
13. Humorous Bud Light "Real Men of Genius".
14. Rough/rugged Jeep commercials, Marlboro Cowboys.

H) Comparisons

V24. Direct comparison with other products
1. Yes Comparison is direct or obvious in nature. Example Coke and
Pepsi, Crest and Colgate. Or example "that other cleaner...."









2. No No comparison is made. Product stands alone.

I) Languages (Spoken)

V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language
1. Presence Any spoken word in the commercial is in the language native
to the region/country that it is shown in. Example Japanese ad for Coke is
spoken in Japanese.
2. Absence A 'globalized' ad. Every commercial shown regardless of
location is in the same language. Example The same exact Coke commercial
spoken in English is shown in Japan, China, Latin America, and Europe.
3. Cannot code There is no spoken word in the commercial.

J) Characters

V26. Who is the dominant character being shown in the ad?

1. Professional male Dominant character is a male businessman, doctor,
lawyer, etc.
2. Professional female Dominant character is a female businesswoman,
doctor, lawyer, etc.
3. Entertainer male Dominant character is a famous male actor, singer, or
performer.
4. Entertainer female Dominant character is a famous female actress,
singer, or performer.
5. Sports star male Dominant character is a famous male sports personality.
6. Sports star female Dominant character is a famous female sports
personality.
7. Supermodel male Dominant character is a well-known male supermodel.
8. Supermodel female Dominant character is a well-known female
supermodel.
9. Model male Dominant character is a "good looking", unknown, male
actor. (Axe)
10. Model female Dominant character is a "good looking", unknown female
actress. (Ice Breakers Gum)
11. Elderly male Dominant character is an elderly man.
12. Elderly female Dominant character is an elderly woman.
13. Child Dominant character is a child presumably under 12 years old.
14. Teenager Dominant character is a teenager presumably 13-19 years old.
15. Young adult Dominant character is a young adult/college student
presumably in their 20s.
16. Mother Dominant character is a female playing a motherly/matriarchal
role.
17. Father Dominant character is a male playing a fatherly/patriarchal role.
18. Real-life male Dominant character is a "real guy" on the streets. Ex.
Interview.









19. Real-life female Dominant character is a "real girl" on the streets. Ex.
Interview.
20. Cartoon Dominant character is animated.
21. Not applicable -No human/cartoon characters.

K) Localization

V27. Is the product culture specific?

1. Yes The product is designed for a specific cultural market. An example
is shampoos or hair care products designed specifically for "Women of color".
2. No The product is universal and can be used by anybody. Example -
Coke.

L) Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture

V28. Individualism/Collectivism
1. Highly individualistic The commercial exudes an air of individualism, self-
preservation, and people looking after themselves only. Examples include the
"lone" runner/winner in a Nike ad, and "An Army of One".

2. Highly collectivist The commercial exudes an air of strong group mentality.
It is very "we" oriented and members of the group make decisions on what
would be best for the group/culture/country as a whole. Examples include
many PSA's that explain "when you do your part, we all succeed."


V29. Masculine/Feminine

1. Highly Masculine The commercial's dominant values are achievement
and success. Achievement and status is highly regarded. Examples include
winning, the big fast sports cars for status symbol, being "the best".

2. Highly feminine The commercial's dominant values are nurturing, caring,
warm, and quality of life. There is no competition. Examples include "it's
okay if you are not the winner or the best..."


V30. Long term orientation/Short term orientation

1. Highly long term The commercial's dominant values are perseverance,
reverence for nature, and harmony of man with nature. Examples include
Confucian values in Asian societies.









2. Highly short term The commercial's dominant values include a focus on
favors, gifts, current stability, and one's immediate gratification. Examples
include "Hungry? Gotta eat!"


V31. Power distance

1. Strongest power distance The commercial's dominant values are having a
social hierarchy and knowing one's place. Acceptance of authority comes
naturally. Examples include a strict boss and a subservient employee.

2. Weakest power distance There is no social hierarchy and authority has a
negative connotation.

V32. Uncertainty Avoidance

1. Strongest UAI The commercial's dominant values include avoidance of the
ambiguous and uncertain situations. Examples include commercials that show
rules, structure, and formality to life.

2. Weakest UAI The commercial's dominant values include as few social 'rules' as
possible and ritualistic behavior is not present. The commercial can use
competition or conflict because they are not seen as threatening. Examples
include direct comparison advertisements such as "The Pepsi Challenge".














APPENDIX B
CLIO CODING SHEET

Clio Award-Winning Advertisements and Dimensions of Culture

VI. Case ID # V2. Coder initials

V3. Ad Title

V4. Brand

V5. Agency Name

V6. Country of Origin

V7. Color (1) All Color (2) B&W (3) Mixed

V8. Award level (1) Grand (2) Gold (3) Silver (4) Bronze

V9. Award Year






55


1.2005 6.1999
2.2004 7.1998
3.2003 8.1996
4.2001 9.1995
5.2000

V10. Award Category









Agriculture/Industrial/Building
1. Alcoholic Beverages
2. Apparel and Accessories
3. Automobiles and Vehicles
4. Beauty Aids
5. Beer
6. Carbonated Beverages
7. Non-carbonated Beverages
8. Breakfast Foods
9. Business Products
10. Children's Products
11. Computer and Related (for business or personal)
12. Consumer Electronics
13. Cosmetics
14. Credit or Debit Cards
15. Delivery Systems and Products
16. Entertainment
17. High Fashion
18. Fast Food and Restaurant
19. Financial Services or Products
20. General retail/E-tail
21. Health Aids and Over the Counter Products
22. Health Aids Prescription Products
23. Health and Medical Products and Services
24. Hotels/Resorts
25. Household Durable Products
26. Internet Services
27. Leisure Products
28. Package Food
29. Personal Care Products
30. Pet Care
31. Professional Services
32. Real Estate
33. Self Care: Body
34. Snacks/Desserts
35. Telecom Services
36. Transportation
37. Travel/Tourism









A) Visual Devices

V11. Scenic Beauty
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V12. Beautiful Characters
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V15. Visual Display of Logo
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions

V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?
1. Attribute or ingredient as the main message
2. Product performance or benefit as the main message
3. Psychological or subjective benefit as the main message
4. Product reminder as main message
5. Sexual appeal
6. Comfort appeal
7. Safety appeal
8. Enjoyment appeal
9. Welfare appeal
10. Social approval
11. Self-esteem or self-image
12. Achievement
13. Excitement, variety


C) Commercial Format









V17. What is the dominant format of the commercial?
1. Vignette
2. Slice of life
3. Testimonial by product user
4. Endorsement by a celebrity or authority
5. Demonstration of product in use
6. Demonstration of results of using the product
7. Comedy or Satire
8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope
9. Photographic stills
10. Creation of mood or image as dominant element
11. Fantasy/exaggeration/surrealism as dominant element
12. Problem and solution (before/after presentation)
13. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere)

D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message

V18. Informational/Rational OR Transformational/Image/Emotional
1. Informational
2. Transformational

E) Commercial Setting

V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting?
1. Indoors
2. Outdoors
3. Other
4. No setting

V20. Where is the commercial setting
1. Urban apartment/housing
2. Rural apartment/housing
3. Office/business setting
4. Restaurant
5. Obvious landmark
6. Green pasture
7. Mountainous area
8. Desert
9. Beach/lake area
10. Other
11. Not applicable


F) Music

V21. Presence or absence of music
1. Presence









2. Absence

V22. Presence or absence of country specific music
1. Presence
2. Absence

G) Commercial tone and atmosphere

V23. (Please select the predominant tone)

1. Cute/adorable
2. Hard sell
3. Warm and caring
4. Modem/contemporary
5. Wholesome/healthy
6. Technological
7. Conservative/traditional/nostalgic
8. Happy/fun-loving
9. Cool/laid-back
10. Somber/serious
11. Uneasy/tense
12. Glamorous
13. Humorous
14. Rough/rugged

H) Comparisons

V24. Is there a direct comparison with other products?
1. Yes
2. No

I) Languages

V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language
4. Presence
5. Absence
6. Cannot code.

J) Characters
V26. Who is the dominant character being shown in the ad?



22. Professional male
23. Professional female
24. Entertainer male









25. Entertainer female
26. Sports star male
27. Sports star female
28. Supermodel male
29. Supermodel female
30. Model male
31. Model female
32. Elderly male
33. Elderly female
34. Child
35. Teenager
36. Young Adult
37. Mother
38. Father
39. Real-life male
40. Real-life female
41. Cartoon/Animated
42. Not applicableK) Localization

V27. Is the product culture specific?
3. Yes
4. No

L) Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture


V28. Presence of Individualism?
1. Yes
2. No

V28b. Presence of Collectivism?
1. Yes
2. No

V29. Presence of Masculinity?
1. Yes
2. No

V29b. Presence of Femininity?
1. Yes
2. No


V30. Presence of Long term orientation?
1. Yes
2. No










V30b. Presence of Short term orientation?
1. Yes
2. No

V31. High power distance present?
1. Yes
2. No

V3 lb. Low power distance present?
1. Yes
2. No


V32. High uncertainty avoidance present?
1. Yes
2. No

V32b. Low uncertainty avoidance present?
1. Yes
2. No


Notes:















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Marie Alicia Guadagno mostly enjoys loving life and laughing. She has traveled

across the globe and hopes to travel to many more places. She knows that most of the

world is just ocean anyhow. Her meritable resume includes all things irrelevant to her

major and field. Marie feels most productive when she is teaching and explaining

concepts to others especially children. She is exceptional at communicating with

youngin's. Marie is a proponent of earning much, consuming little, hoarding nothing, and

giving generously. She hopes to incorporate these values into the path that lies in front of her.