<%BANNER%>

Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Clio Award Winning Advertisements

HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Literature review
 Methodology
 Results
 Discussion and conclusions
 Appendix A: Code book
 Appendix B: Code sheet
 References
 Biographical sketch
 

PAGE 1

COMPARISON OF U.S. AND LATIN AMERICAN CLIO AWARD WINNING ADVERTISEMENTS By SCARLETT WHITNEY ROSIER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 by Scarlett Whitney Rosier

PAGE 3

This document is dedicated to my mother fo r being a shoulder to lean on, my father for being the calm in the storm, my brother for te aching me things that I could never learn in school and my horse for making me smile even on the worst of days.

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many individuals to thank who have influenced the path that I followed. I would like to first thank my mother who has bared the br unt of my highs and lows, without her encouragement, love and guidan ce I would not be the person I am today. Next, I would like to thank my father w ho found a way to provide support and comfort without being overbearing. My brother, the one person who has all the qualities that I lack, has influenced my life in more ways then I think he even knows. To my horse, Lavish, the only reason I still have low-bl ood pressure and a smile on my face. To Dr. Sutherland, who in his own way ga ve me all the materials necessary to succeed. To Dr. Roberts, who was the impetus for my desire to study international advertising. Dr. Cho, without him I would still ha ve no idea what a chi-s quare test is. Dr. Goodman, who was always availa ble to give advice starting fr om copy and visualization to the day before my thesis defense. To Jody Hedge who never made me feel stupid for asking crazy questions. To Dr. Steve Marsha ll thank you for being the one to go before us and leaving behind a phenomenal disserta tion without you I would still be working on this thesis. To all the br illiant minds of the advertising department thank you for providing me with the tools necessary to enter the real world. The next group of individuals I would lik e to acknowledge are not related nor are they faculty, but they are the people I chose to surround myself with, the ones who let me act crazy, laughed at me, laughed with me and made sure I didn’t completely lose my mind. To Jean, the best roommate and friend I could have ever been randomly placed

PAGE 5

v with, thanks for keeping me sane for four year s. To Kelley, my firs t friend “ever” thanks for keeping me fed, sheltered and still riding. Crazy Raga my fellow Libra who understands all my quirks without you this year would have been just another 365 days. Nick one of the few people whom I allow to see me cry, thank you for giving me tough love. To James the person who thought I talked too much, thank you for allowing me to talk too much. Elizabeth, the first to go to the real world, thank you for all the motivation. To Isyana thank you for keeping me in dancing shoes. To Zach thank you for every word of encouragement that you sent my way, I don’t think I could have finished this without your many late night im s. Joe although your brother gets precedent you still managed to earn a place in the tha nk you section. Tracy the one person that I was definitely supposed to meet in college I don’t think we could be connected by anymore people, but then again who knows. Mike and Paul, thank you for providing me lodging at The UF and being amazing hos ts. Marla, I should have known the consequences of meeting you at a wedding woul d be grave, but it sure has been fun. Greg it’s a bummer I didn’t meet you earlier. To all my friends thank you for listening to me talk at great lengths about a topic that most of you had no interest in at all. It was all of your encouragement, support and insistence that I get out of th e house every once in a while that got me through this stage in my life. I truly am grateful to each and every one of you. This next individual has perhaps been the most influential to this entire experience. She has truly experienced the fu ll range of my emotions. I believe I can go so far as to say that she knows what it would be like to be married to me. Marie there are many things to thank you for incl uding; convincing me to buy ti ckets to Seattle at 1 AM,

PAGE 6

vi agreeing that driving to Indi anapolis to watch the Gators win the National Championship was a brilliant plan even if it meant driving to Macon, GA in the middle of the night, deciding to go on a European adventure BEFORE finishing our thesis constantly coming up with something to LOL about no matter wh at the circumstance, sharing a double size bed, eating a disgusting array of food, putting up with my incessant ring tones, dealing with my never-ending cold and in genera l being the only person that understands the events that took place this year and this su mmer. Marie because of you my personality may be slightly altered, I now laugh at things no one in their right mind would find funny and I agree to too many trips a nd for all that I am thankful. Finally, I would like to thank the geniuses behind instant messenger, myspace.com, thefacebook.com and Cosmopolitan magazine who have provided me with endless hours of procrastination. To my computer the one material possession that I babied, thanks for crashing on me the day before my defense, RIP.

PAGE 7

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................3 Opportunities from Results...........................................................................................3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................4 Culture Defined............................................................................................................4 Importance of Understanding Cultural Differences.....................................................5 Perpetuation of Culture.................................................................................................7 Perpetuation of Culture Through Mediated Images..............................................7 Perpetuation of Culture Through Advertising.......................................................8 Cultural Theories..........................................................................................................9 Edward T. Hall......................................................................................................9 Shalom Schwartz.................................................................................................10 Geert Hofstede.....................................................................................................12 Previous Cross-Cultural Studies.................................................................................16 Introduction to Latin American Culture.....................................................................19 Understanding Latin America and its Culture.....................................................20 Geography of Latin America...............................................................................20 Social and Economic Factors..............................................................................21 Universal Characteristics.....................................................................................21 Business in Latin America...................................................................................22 Creativity Affects Culture...........................................................................................24 Advertising Awards....................................................................................................25 Clio Awards.........................................................................................................25 Winning Creative Awards...................................................................................27 Ways Creativity Reflects Culture........................................................................27 Purpose.......................................................................................................................2 8 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................29

PAGE 8

viii 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................30 Content Analysis Defined...........................................................................................30 Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Methods....................................31 Creating The Current Content Analysis.....................................................................32 Category Reliability.............................................................................................33 Interjudge Reliability...........................................................................................34 Unit of Analysis..........................................................................................................35 Sampling Design.........................................................................................................35 Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis................................................................35 Rules and Procedures..........................................................................................35 Coders and Coder Training.................................................................................36 Pretest..................................................................................................................37 Coder Independence............................................................................................38 Number of Coders per Spot.................................................................................38 Intercoder Reliability...........................................................................................38 Final Revisions to the Codebook and Code sheets.....................................................40 Category Decisions..............................................................................................41 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................41 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................42 Descriptive Statistics of Clio commercials.................................................................42 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Country................................................................42 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Year......................................................................43 Spot Descriptive Statistics Clio Award Level.....................................................43 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Agencies...............................................................44 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Categories............................................................44 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Dominant Characters...........................................45 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................46 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................53 Comparing the Results to the Literature.....................................................................54 Limitations..................................................................................................................55 Future Research Recommendations...........................................................................56 APPENDIX A CODE BOOK.............................................................................................................58 B CODE SHEET............................................................................................................65 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................75

PAGE 9

ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Hofstede’s (1980) Dimensions of culture: Brazil versus USA................................20 2 Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Le igh (1989) Intercoder Reliability......................40 3 New Groups for Question 10: Award Category.......................................................41 4 New Groups for Question 16: What Is the Dominant Commercial Appeal or Selling Proposition...................................................................................................41 5 Latin American Countries Total (N=33)..................................................................43 6 Clio Award Years.....................................................................................................43 7 Award Level of Spots...............................................................................................44 8 Clio Award Winning Advertising Agencies............................................................44 9 Clio Award Categories.............................................................................................45 10 Dominant Characters Portrayed in Clio Ads............................................................45 11 Presence or Absence of Indivi dualism USA vs. Latin America..............................46 12 Presence or Absence of Collectivism USA vs. Latin America................................47 13 Presence or Absence of Masculin ity in USA vs. Latin America.............................47 14 Presence or Absence of Femininity USA vs. Latin America...................................48 15 Presence or Absence of Long-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America...............48 16 Presence or Absence of Short-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America...............48 17 Presence or Absence of High Powe r Distance USA vs. Latin America..................49 18 Presence or Absence of Low Powe r Distance USA vs. Latin America...................49 19 Presence or Absence of High Uncertain ty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America......50

PAGE 10

x 20 Presence or Absence of Low Uncertain ty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America.......50 21 Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Executional Variables............................51

PAGE 11

xi Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising COMPARISON OF U.S. AND LATI N AMERICAN CLIO AWARD WINNING ADVERTISEMENTS By Scarlett Whitney Rosier December 2006 Chair: John Sutherland Major Department: Advertising The primary purpose of this study was to ex amine whether or not creativity reflects culture. Hofstede’s dimensions of culture we re used as the theoretical framework while the study was operationalized using Clio awar d winning advertisements from the years 1995 through 2004; the Clio awards did not take place during 1997 whereas the 2002 Clio awards tape was unavailable for this research. A content analysis was the method used to conduct the research. The study wa s interested in uncove ring the occurrence of Hofstede's dimensions of culture an d executional variables in award winning advertisements. The executional variables u tilized a variable analysis framework based on the Stewart and Furse comprehensive research study of Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials

PAGE 12

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In an era of booming international growth and global communities, it is important to understand the roles that cultural differences play in shaping the environment. Before one can uncover the importance of cultural diffe rences, it is imperative that there is a general knowledge of culture. Culture is a concept that has been studied time and time again by numerous scholars for a variety of di fferent reasons. Howeve r, each individual has a slightly different view of what cultu re is and what it means to the world. One definition of culture is that it is “the inte ractive aggregate of comm on characteristics that influences a group’s response to its envi ronment” (Hofstede, 1980, p. 19). A proper understanding of culture allows one to uncover its importance to life. Culture is such a prominent aspect of human life therefore, that understanding its differences is essential to the workings of business, diplomacy, politics, religion and social work. Understanding differences among cultures is a safe way to ensure that costly mistakes in marketing are avoided. For ex ample, a proper unders tanding of cultural differences could have saved General Motors a lot of money had th ey conducted cultural research on the meanings of certain Spanish words when they attempted to sell the “Corsa” and the “Nova” in the Spanish mark et (Taylor, 1992). The names carried poor connotations for cars, “Corsa” resembles co arser and “Nova” was understood as “doesn’t go” (Taylor, 1992). Culture persists through different forms ranging from interpersonal communications to mediated communication. When mediated communication

PAGE 13

2 perpetuates culture it is suggested by cultivat ion theory that what is viewed on television ultimately creates a shared cultural environm ent of images and representations with which viewers grow and live (Morgan, Leggett & Shananhan, 1999). Due to the influence of the mass media and a global environment, it has become necessary for advertisers and marketers to develop a means of communicating to the world. However, global communication is often a difficult feat to accomplish. Many scholars have conducted in-depth re search on culture, cultural differences and the perpetuation of culture. In regard s to cultural differences there are three prevailing theories, Hall (1976), Schwartz (1994) and Hofstede (1980). All three theories deal with cultural values and their differences. However, Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture have proven to be the most succe ssful and most often used framework when utilizing content analysis. The majority of studies that utilize Hofstede’s (1980) theory tend to focus attention on Asian cultures versus United States cultu re. However, little research has been conducted comparing Latin American culture to United States culture. A comparison of these two cultures would be beneficial due to both the economic, business and marketing opportunities that each culture has to offer the other (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). As previously stated many research studies have focused on culture and related properties, yet few have looked at how cultu re is displayed in creative, award winning advertisements. One of the most well-known advertising award programs is the international Clio awards. Judges deci de winning ads based on their creativity.

PAGE 14

3 An interesting way to view how culture is transmitted through mediated images would be to use Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture as a mean s to study Clio award winning advertisements. Purpose of the Study The primary purpose of this study was to ex amine whether or not creativity reflects culture. Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of cu lture were used as the theoretical framework while the study was operationaliz ed using Clio award winning advertisements from the years 1995 through 2004; the Clio awards did not take place during 1997 whereas 2002 Clio awards tape was unavailable for this research. The purpose was not only to uncover whether or not creativity reflects culture, but also to compare the differences in dimensions, as displayed in ads, between the United States and Latin America. A content analysis was conducted utilizing the aforem entioned sample. The study looked at the occurrence of creative and execu tional techniques used in multicultural advertisements. The study employed a variable analysis fr amework based on the Stewart and Furse (1986) comprehensive research study of Effective Television Adver tising: A Study of 1000 Commercials Opportunities from Results The results of this research have the opport unity to add more proof that Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture, although a bit outdated and based on an IBM business survey, are still useful in today’s internati onal advertising arena. In combination with adding support to Hofstede’s (1980) framework, the study coul d also contribute to aiding agencies in general and crea tives specifically in realizing that representing a culture properly through its specific cultural dimensions will lead to award winning advertisements or just better ads in general.

PAGE 15

4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW We live in a time in which global economies and international communication are paramount to the success of individual and wo rldwide markets. Therefore, it has become imperative that we understand a ll aspects of culture, especial ly cultural differences. Cultural differences have played a huge role in the global environment. Yet, in order for one to fully understand the importance of cultura l differences it is necessary that there is a full understanding of culture in general. Only by submitting to this challenge and encouragement will our culture be authentic, timely and creativethe best m eans of our social and economic progress. (Llosa, 1982 p. A-3) Culture Defined Culture is a concept that has been st udied time and time again by numerous scholars for a variety of different reasons. One scholarly definition of culture is The written or graphic representation or di scussion of one of the aesthetic products or characteristics of a given homogenous social group, which include architecture, art, classical and popular music, litera ture, poetry, philosophy, dance, theater, opera, cinema, radio, television, fashi on, gastronomy, journalism, photography, history, archaeology, anthropology, royalty, folklore and travel. (Buckman, 1990, p.136) A similar view of culture is that it is th e beliefs, morals, laws and customs that a group of people living in one community share and pass on to younger generations. These morals and customs have the ability to shape behavior, or add structure to a person’s world (Iivonen, Sonnenwald, Parm a & Poole-Kober, 1998). According to Macionis (1995), humans are the only species whose survival depe nds on what culture

PAGE 16

5 teaches them instead of through natural biologi cal senses. Culture gives groups their own symbols, language, values, norms and material views. When individuals are immersed in their culture they are able to communicate, understand and essentially live (Macionis, 1995). Culture allows humans to communicat e with one another, share values, follow rules and norms, and main tain social control. Importance of Understanding Cultural Differences Understanding cultural differences allows indi viduals to see that traits such as the American way of standing three feet away to talk are not the guiding rule of etiquette around the world and that Europeans who step cl ose to talk are not rude, just following their cultural guidelines. Gaining knowledge about cultural differences is important to the workings of business, diplomacy, politics, religion and social wo rk to be effective (McGrath, 2006). Stevens (1991) uses an exam ple of how Eastern Bloc cultures measure business profits and objectives versus th e Western way of measuring profits and objectives. The example discusses how in centrally-planned economies such as the Eastern Bloc, output prices (i.e .,revenue or selling price) a nd input prices (i.e., expenses for labor) are assigned by the government as economic norms. Unlike in Eastern cultures prices in the United States are market-based and show a compromise between buyers and sellers (Stevens, 1991). This example suggest s that to successfully conduct business or grow businesses internationally, it is important for each party, the investor and the host, to understand the culturally specific bus iness dealings of one another. A full understanding of cultural differe nces may help businesses that go abroad re duce potential risks. Hofstede (1980) uses the Middle East and the United States as another example of the importance of understanding cult ural differences in business. In Western cultures the

PAGE 17

6 objective of negotiations is to work towards a fi nal, mutual agreement. At the end of the negotiation both parties shake hands, symbo lizing the end of negotiations and the beginning of the working agreement (Hofstede, 1980). In Middle Eastern countries there is a great deal of negotiation that occurs before shaking hands, which signifies an agreement. Unlike Western cultures where sh aking hands signify the end, shaking hands in the Middle East signifies that the serious negotiations are just starting (Hofstede, 1980). Understanding cultural differences is a necessity to ensure that positive outcomes occur in global business transactions as we ll as political and diplomatic affairs. Culture is more often riddled with conflict than with cohesion and cultural differences tend to be disastrous (Hofstede, 1980). Hofstede’s (1980) opinion of culture may make the study of cultural differences app ear futile at best, but if we did not study and understand other cultures businesses could risk failure economies could plummet, political turmoil could rage and the world coul d return to the dark ages. One of the main fields that benefit from the knowledge accumulated by the study of cultural differences is advertising. Advertising is cap able of making huge gaffes in the local market as well as on foreign soil. Therefore, understanding cultur al differences is necessary in successfully marketing and selling products. It has been found that U.S. firms entering foreign markets are the most prone to creating erro rs, although foreign firms are also guilty of erring in the American market (Taylor, 1992). Naming products tend to be one of the more difficult cross-cultural barr iers to cross. Numerous products and services have been promoted and advertised using a name that in one language or anothe r is considered foul, offensive or inappropriate for the context (Taylor, 1992). Words are not the only way to offend a foreign consumer; symbols, icons and animals can also cause some frustration.

PAGE 18

7 For example, in Britain the Apple Macintosh icon for a trashcan created a fairly large problem. The American trashcan icon resembled a British postal box. Such a discrepancy has the ability to be extremely detrimental to consumer trust and comfort with a product (Taylor, 1992). Perpetuation of Culture In order for cultures to perpetuate themselv es in a global environment they must be able to communicate the values, rules and soci al structure to new members and reinforce these cultural characteristics to current members. Social institutions such as churches and schools have been used for centuries to teac h members of society how to “fit in” to a particular culture (Davis & Jasinski, 1993). Human beings are extremely interdependent and use this characteristic to create culture a nd the social world (Davis & Jasinski, 1993). One way culture is able to sustain itself is by interpersonal comm unication. Humans are reliant on communication, it is in ternal and external communi cation practices that allow us the ability to experience and identify ourse lves (Davis & Jasinski, 1993). Another way that culture is perpetuated in comm unities is through performance practices. Performance practices allow for experiences that encourage involvement and feeling for the social world in which one lives, rather than just transmission and learning of pieces of information (Davis & Jasinski, 1993). Perpetuation of Culture Through Mediated Images Interpersonal communication within communities is only one way that allows culture to perpetuate. Mediated versions of life such as te levision shows and movies also teach us about our own culture as well as other cultures. For example, in 1992 the debate over how television displays a contempor ary American family went into overdrive due to the portrayal of the title character in the sitcom Murphy Brown giving birth out of

PAGE 19

8 wedlock. Thus began a heated debate stem ming from housewives to the presidential candidate Dan Quayle, regarding the volatile st ate of the culturally accepted form of the nuclear family (Morgan, Leggett, & Shanaha n, 1999). The idea that mediated images influence culture was born out of the main hypothesis of cultivation theory, which suggests that people who spend a large amount of time watching television are more likely to view the real world in ways that mirror the most common and recurrent messages shown on television, compared to peop le who view less television but still have the same demographic characteristic s (Morgan, Leggett, & Shananhan, 1999). Cultivation theory proposes that television in general constructs a shared cultural environment of images and representations with which we grow up and live (Morgan, Leggett & Shananhan, 1999). In regards to the debate over single parent households, Morgan, Leggett & Shananhan (1999) found th at television viewi ng is adding to the dismantling of traditional family values. Th e younger a person is and the more TV they view the more likely they are to cultivate a belief in antifamily values (Morgan, Leggett, & Shananhan, 1999). These results point to the overarching belief that culture and mediated images are affected by one another. Perpetuation of Culture Through Advertising Advertising is another huge player in the continuation of culture. Since advertising is so pervasive and the amount of advertising me ssages that an individu al is exposed to in a given day is exorbitant it is no wonder that advertising becomes part of our everyday routine, almost second nature. “Consumption—a nd the advertising that drives it—is our most powerful cultural force shaping our at titudes, beliefs, valu es and lifestyles (Fox, 2001).” Advertising is able to influence mu ch of our emotional, physical, social and cultural well-being.

PAGE 20

9 Cultural Theories Since culture encompasses many roles in an environment it is no wonder that research theories linked to cu lture are abundant. However, th ere are three main theories that are used to research cu ltural values in the global ma rket. Edward T. Hall (1976), Geert Hofstede (1980) and Shalom Schwartz (1994) each developed models that have been used numerous times to successfully research culture an d media. Although Hofstede (1980) has the most popular model he is not the only person to develop a set of dimensions based on cultural needs, values verbal languages a nd nonverbal languages. Hall (1976), an anthropologist, preceded Hofstede (1980). Edward T. Hall Hall (1976) developed the concept of high and low context cultures and worked on the concept of monochronic a nd polychronic time. High cont ext communication relies on information that is already in the person or implicit, theref ore little emphasis is placed on the explicit or coded part of the message whereas low context communication relies heavily on the explicit part of the message (Hall, 1976). Cultures are not placed specifically in a high context or low contex t category but rather they are found along a continuum. High Context Low Context Japanese-Chinese-Arab-Greek-Spanish-Italian-English-French-U.SScandinavian-German-Swiss German (Hall, 1976; Frith & Mueller, 2003) High and low context communication can have a direct influence on mass communication, especially advertising messages. The second concept that Hall (1976) wo rked on was that of monochronic and polychronic time. Monochronic or M-time te nds to focus on accomplishing one thing at

PAGE 21

10 a time, appointment times are rigid, time is inflexible and everything is organized and methodological (Dahl, 2004). M onochronic cultures are usua lly low context cultures. Polychonic or P-time focuses more on multi-ta sking, appointment times are flexible, time is flexible and interpersona l relations are most important (Dahl, 2004). Polychronic cultures tend to be high context cultures. Japanese, Middle Easter n and Latin American cultures tend to follow P-time while; Western cultures such as the United States, Germany, Switzerland and Scandinavia follo w M-time (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Both of Hall’s (1976) concepts are very useful and easily observed, however they lack empirical data. The lack of empirical data and ambiguity make s application of the concepts to a framework of a mo re analytical approach difficu lt, especially those that are comparing cultures that are closely related. These concepts limit broad based research because only one or two aspects of culture can be researched rather than multiple aspects that could give a broad explanati on of underlying values (Dahl, 2004). Shalom Schwartz A more recent cultural model proposed by Shalom Schwartz (1994), known as the Schwartz Value Inventory, was originally m eant to support or refine Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture. Schwartz (1994) uses value types; a set of values that can be conceptually combined into one meaningful de scription. Values loca ted in a value type have other values that are located at the opposite, or in the opp osing value type, for example; egalitarian commitment versus hier archy (Dahl, 2004). Ten value types were derived from 56 value questions using the sma llest space analysis. The value types are not independent because of the employment of the smallest space analysis (De Mooij, 2004). Seven value types were derived from the ten original value types to analyze

PAGE 22

11 cultural level values. These seven values are conservatism, two types of autonomy (intellectual and affective) hierarchy, mastery, egalit arian commitment and harmony. Conservatism is derived from values that are important to societies such as, closeknit harmonious relations wh ere the individual interests are the groups’ interest (De Mooij, 2004). This value type strives to maintain tradition in both order and values (Dahl, 2004). Conservatisms’ negative polar oppo site is autonomy. There are two types of autonomy; intellectual and affective. Both types stress individual interests rather than group interests. Intellectual autonomy include the values of indi vidual thought, curiosity, creativity and broadminded (De Mooij, 2004). Affective autonomy va lues pleasurable, exciting experiences (Dahl, 2004). The next value type is hierarchy, which emphasizes the values of social power, authority, hu mbleness and self-enhancement (De Mooij, 2004). Hierarchy finds a positive correlation with the mastery value type. Mastery strives to achieve a mastery of the social environment through self-assertion and pursuit of personal interest (De Mooij, 2004). The value type, egalitarian commitment concerns itself with the welfare of others, social justi ce, equality and freedom. This value type is the negative opposite of conser vatism and the positive opposite of autonomy (De Mooij, 2004). The last value type is harmony. Ha rmony encompasses the values of harmony with nature, world peace, and social justice. This value type is the opposite of mastery (Dahl, 2004). The Schwartz (1994) model alth ough originally meant to be similar to Hofstede’s (1980) model is in fact much di fferent than Hofstede’s (1980) model as well as Hall’s (1976) model. The use of values versus preferred states or behaviors could potentially eliminate the imp act of situational variables on respondents. However, the use of values instead of specific outcomes en courages respondents to answer in how they

PAGE 23

12 would want and not there actual state (Dahl, 2004). Schwartz’s (1994 ) model tends to be used less often in quantitative cross-cultural studies because of its tendency to measure the desirable, which leads to utopian-like answ ers. The use of unipolar scales also makes interpretation of results difficult for quant itative, cross-cultural studies like the one discussed in this paper. The respondents for the Schwartz (1994) model were teachers and students and therefore their answers may not be generalizable to a larger population. Geert Hofstede Geert Hofstede (1980) originally develope d a model that included four dimensions of culture; Power distance, Individualism /Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, Uncertainty avoidance and only added the fifth dimension; Long-term/Short-term orientation based on Confucianism after he conducted a busine ss survey in China (Hofstede, 1980). Hofstede’s (1980) model was born out of a business research study that he conducted between 1967 through 1973 fo r IBM in 64 countries (Hofstede, 1980). The five dimensions are measured on an inde x of zero to 100 with zero representing the lowest index and 100 indicating th e highest index (De Mooij, 2004). Power distance is defined as “the exte nt to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally” (De Mooij, 2004). The individuals in countries such as Japan, India, Malaysia, Mexico and France, where the power distance index is high are more accepting of social hierarchies and consider giving and accepting authority the norm (Frith & Mue ller, 2003). This type of acceptance of authority also breeds dependency (Frith & Mu eller, 2003). The Philippines with an index score of 94 are a perfect exam ple of a country with a high power distance (De Mooij, 2004). Populations with a low power distance such as the U.S., Austria, Denmark and Hungary have a negative perspective of authority and consider equality of rights and

PAGE 24

13 opportunity extremely important (De Mooij, 20 04). Since equality is stressed in low power distance cultures, persons with power try to down play thei r power and older men and women try to look younger (De Mooij, 2004 ). While in high power distance cultures social status and age are highly respected (De Mooij, 2004). When deciding how to advertise in countries high in power distance it is a wise id ea to employ testimonials by celebrities, credible sources or users of the product (Zandapour & Campos, 1994). The individualism/collectivism dimensi on suggests that “people look after themselves and their immediate family only or people belong to in-groups who look after them in exchange for loya lty” (De Mooij, p. 34, 2004). In individualis tic cultures everyone is concerned with looking after onese lf, while societal laws and regulations are in place to protect the indi vidual (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Collectivistic cultures on the other hand consider lifelong loyalty to one’s in-group of up-most importance and if you break those ties severe consequences will fo llow (Frith & Mueller, 2003). America is a very individualistic society that is “I” c onscious and strives for self-actualization (De Mooij, 2004). In regard to collectivistic cultures such as Ja pan, the population is concerned with being “we” conscious and desi res harmony as well as avoidance of loss of face (De Mooij, 2004). Advertising in Ja pan that showcases people in groups and use the pronouns “we” and “us” are the most successf ul campaigns (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Masculinity/femininity is the third dime nsion that is used to depict cultural differences. “The dominant values in a ma sculine society are achievement and success, the dominant values in a feminine society ar e caring for others and quality of life” (De Mooij, p. 34, 2004). Such cultures as Am erica and Germany, that are dominated by masculine characteristics tend to be driven by performance and achievement and winning

PAGE 25

14 is an extremely positive attribute, while fe minine cultures look for consequences and prefer to focus on quality of life instead of winning and competition (De Mooij, 2004). Sweden is considered a highly feminine societ y that does not stress social differentiation of the sexes; both men and women are conc erned with caring for all members of the population including the weakest (Frith & Mu eller, 2003). Appeals of winning, success and status are effective advertising strategi es in masculine societies whereas images reflecting nurturing and relations hips are effective in feminine cultures (Frith & Mueller, 2003). “The extent to which people feel threaten ed by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations,” is the definition pr ovided for uncertainty a voidance (De Mooij, p. 35, 2004). Britain, Sweden and Hong Kong have weak uncertainty avoidance indices numbers, these cultures are not afraid of am biguity and prefer to have as few rules as possible (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Those individuals who reside in high uncertainty avoidance countries like Germany, Austria a nd Japan, need rules and structure in their life because anxiety is commonplace (De Moo ij, 2004). In low scoring uncertainty avoidance societies the individuals are re sult oriented and make decisions based on common sense (De Mooij, 2004). When deal ing with new products, low uncertainty avoidance populations are the first to a dopt the new trends while high uncertainty avoidance cultures are slow to take advant age of new innovations (De Mooij, 2004). In cultures where the need for uncertainty a voidance is high, advertisements that use arguments and explicit messages are the mo st successful, while employing symbolic associations with implicit messages are mo re effective in low uncertainty avoidance societies (Frith & Mueller, 2003).

PAGE 26

15 The final dimension of culture that Hofs tede (1980) created with the help of Michael Bond is the long-term/short-term or ientation. Bond orig inally “sampled a domain of values, formulated by Chinese scholars and developed what he titled the dimension Confucian Work Dynamism”(De Mo oij, p.35, 2004). Long-term orientation as it is referred to in Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions is “an emphasis on the past and tradition as opposed to living for today or i nvesting in tomorrow” (Frith & Mueller, p.46, 2003). The majority of East Asian countries score very high on this dimension (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Since the majority of East Asian countries also tend to have a high score on the collectivism scale there is an emphasi s on Confucian thinking such as filial piety, paternalism and family ties (De Mooij, 2004). Most western cultures, America is a good example, are considered to be short-term or iented. These short-term oriented cultures have little concern for old a nd past history; instead they are constantly looking towards the future and the newer and better things that it may hold (F rith & Mueller, 2003). Masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoida nce and long-term/short-term orientation are all independent variables that have ai ded in defining cross-cultural difference in consumer behavior (De Mooij, 2004). Like the previous models, Hofstede’s ( 1980) dimensions do have limitations. The following are constraints that have been found; the dimensions were developed from data collected between 1968 and 1973, therefore they ar e considered out of date, the research population is limited to IBM employees and a ttitude survey questionnaires may not be the most valid tool in inferring values (Sondergaard, 1994). Some critics consider Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture to be out of date, however they are actually be well used in today’s global environment. The European Media Survey (1996/1997)

PAGE 27

16 utilized Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of cu lture to conduct research (De Mooij, 2000). The EMS scores found information that was co ngruent with the results that Hofstede found 20 years ago, especially in the areas regarding divers ity and consumption as well as ownership of products (De Mooij, 2000). Although, the dimensions are not perfect they have been successfully ap plied in nominal quotations, empirical research and used as a paradigm (Sondergaard, 1994). In the e nd, Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimensions have been able to withstand the test of tim e and are an extremely stable way to explain the influence of cultural norms on a country’s media. Hence, why they are the most appropriate choice for resear ch using content analysis. Previous Cross-Cultural Studies Many previous studies have utilized Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture to unearth a plethora of cross-cultural info rmation ranging from the effectiveness of advertising appeals to the refl ection of cultural values. Zh ang and Gelb (1996) utilized the dimensions of individualism and collec tivism in a comparison study of advertising appeals in the United States and China. This study found that individuals respond to advertising messages that are congruent w ith their culture (Zha ng & Gelb, 1996). For example, China is typically considered a co llectivistic culture that emphasizes family, social interests and collective actions and deemphasizes personal goals and accomplishments. Research has found that consumers respond more favorably to advertising appeals that are congruent with their cultural values (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). For example, since Chinese consumers are co llectivistic in nature they would respond well to collectivistic appeals, whereas Am erican consumers would respond better to individualistic appeals (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

PAGE 28

17 Han and Shavitt (1994) conducted anothe r study using the individualistic and collectivistic dimension. In this study they researched the individua listic nature of the United States and the collectivistic nature of Korea. The research found that appeals such as in-group benefits, harmony, family and inte grity were more persuasive for Korean consumers, whereas appeals of individual benefits, preferences, personal success and independence are more persuasive to Amer icans (Han & Shavitt, 1994). It was found that cultural factors influence the media enviro nment and the types of advertisements that are used in different cultures (Han & Shavitt, 1994). The study also discovered a link between attitudinal processes a nd culture. The link suggests th at differences in culturally supported attitudes and values may be shown in the tendency to accept and use persuasive appeals that accentuate differe nt values (Han & Shavitt, 1994). Using persuasive appeals that focus on social norms and roles instead of i ndividual preferences and benefits, could be more effective in conve rting behavioral inten tions in collectivistic cultures is an example of the relation between appeals and culture (Han & Shavitt, 1994). For the most part cultures that are collectiv istic in nature are more likely to prefer collectivistic advertising appeals. However, there is one instance where cultural values and advertising appeals are li kely to differ. Advertisements for personal products regardless of cultural orientation tend to be positioned as individualistic (Han &Shavitt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Individualism and collectivism are the broa dest and most widely used dimensions of cultural variability for cu ltural comparison (Han &Shavi tt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Gregory & Munch, 1997; Taylor Miracle & Wilson, 1997). The majority of research utilizing Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture has focused on the individualism and

PAGE 29

18 collectivism dimension whereas few studies have documented findings on the other dimensions (Han & Shavitt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Gregory & Munch, 1997; Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997). Taylor, Miracle and Wilson (1997) discovere d information relating to Hofstede’s (1980) uncertainty avoidance index. They studi ed the reliance of contextual elements of Korea and the United states. The high context and low context measurement that they employed is very similar to the uncertainty avoidance dimension. Koreans were found to prefer contextual elements of mood and tone with advertisemen ts that utilized low levels of informational content or low uncertainty avoidance (Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997). The United States on the other hand were found to prefer high levels of information in commercials or high uncertainty avoidance (Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997). Although, high and low context was the original impetu s for the study the results add information about uncertainty avoidance. Some studies have inadvertently found information regarding other dimensions even when they set out to look at the individualistic/collec tivistic dimension. Individualism and collectivism was once agai n the topic for Gregory and Munchs’ (1997) study of Mexico and the United States. Mexi co is a collectivisti c culture where the influence of family on individual consumpti on and behavior is very strong (Gregory & Munch, 1997). As mentioned before the United States is an indivi dualistic culture. Although the beginning of the study looks at the collectivistic aspects of Mexico versus the individualistic aspects of America, it also takes into account other cultural behaviors that reflect some of Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions. Long-term orientation and power distance are the two other di mensions that Gregory and Munch (1997) touch on. In

PAGE 30

19 Mexico there is a large empha sis on cooperation within the family that is based on a traditional set of norms and values that are to be passed on by the parents to the children, this emphasis on tradition re flects the dimension of longterm orientation (Gregory & Munch, 1997). A high power distance within famili es is also evident in Mexico, the wife is subservient to the husband and the childre n are subservient to the parents (Gregory & Munch, 1997). The results of the Gregory and Munch (1997) study found that subjects had a more positive attitude toward an advertisement and higher purchase intention for products that depicted cultural roles and norms within the ads. In order for advertisements to be successful in Mexico th ey need to follow certain role expectations. For example, women should be shown in ads that are positioned as familial products such as, cooking and caring for the family, whereas men should be shown in ads for maleoriented products (Gregory & Munch, 1997). Introduction to Latin American Culture Many cultural studies focusing on Hofstede ’s (1980) dimensions of culture have compared the Asian community to the Nort h American community. However, only a few studies (Gregory & Munch, 1997) have co mpared Latin American culture to the United States. A comparison of these two cultures would be bene ficial in growing support for Hofstede’s (1980) theory. Like Asian countries, Latin American countries are dissimilar from the United States in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture. Below is a table that visualizes an example of those differences.

PAGE 31

20 Table 1. Hofstede’s (1980) Dimensi ons of culture: Brazil versus USA Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO Brazil 69 38 49 76 65 USA 40 91 62 46 29 (Hofstede, 1980) Understanding Latin America and its Culture In recent years Latin America has devel oped into a large and booming market for consumer goods produced by foreign-based multinational corporations (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). This growth has made it a very appealing segment for marketers and businesses alike (Herbig & Yel kur, 1997). Since the market is experiencing such positive growth, countries such as the United St ates and the United Kingdom are looking into expansion opportunities. However, in order to effectively make the transition it is important to have an understanding of the demographics of the area. Geography of Latin America Latin America encompasses the Spanish, Portuguese-, and Frenchspeaking nations of Central and South America, the Caribbean and Mexico (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). These countries are often seen as one homogenous cluster, yet they are more correctly segmented into three he terogeneous cultural subgroups. The first subgroup is known as the Southern cone c ountries, included in this grouping are Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Southern Brazil (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The main cultural influence of the Southern cone countries came form European colonialists and immigrants (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). This cultural infl uence could explain why Latin America is more closely related to Europe than the United States (Buckman, 1990). Another cultural subgroup known as th e Andean countries consists of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The third segment is the Northern

PAGE 32

21 South American countries comprised of Venezuela and Colombia (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Brazil, Mexico and Puerto Rico are each in a group of their own (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Although, Puerto Rico is a group in itself, it is the most similar to the other groupings and countri es, whereas Brazil is the most different (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Social and Economic Factors Economically Latin America has two soci al classes based on geography; center countries and peripheral countries (Tanse y & Hyman, 1994). In regard to Latin Americans, the affluent class, tend to pract ice conspicuous consumption more frequently than wealthy U.S. households (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). There is a higher ratio discrepancy between upper cla ss and lower-class consumption in Latin America than in the same classes in the U.S. (Tansey & Hyma n, 1994). This discrepancy is in large part due to the lower average in come of Latin Americans (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). When comparing the affluent consumers it is important to note that those in the U.S. and Europe tend to set the standard for the affluent in Latin America (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). Those in the middle and lower socioeconomic cl ass in Latin America take their lifestyle cues from the affluent within their co untry (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). The wealthy classes in Latin America take their lifesty le preferences from the United States and Europe and tend to favor transnational cultur e, whereas the lower economic classes favor national culture (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). Universal Characteristics The socioeconomic classes may differ on certain cultural preferences however there are certain characteristics that are universal. The characte ristic of politeness is an important aspect in interpersonal relations hips (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Research

PAGE 33

22 has found that the cultural dime nsion of power distance is hi gh in Latin America, but at the same time every person regard less of class is to be trea ted with “respecto” (respect) and “dignidad” (dignity) (Lenartowicz & Johns on, 2003). In Latin American cultures the institution of the family is the primary in-g roup and no other institution is more important (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The value of “familia” (family) in Latin America sets the scene for an unquestioned authority and s upremacy of the father and the contrasting role of self-sacrific e of the mother (Owen & Scherer, 2002 p. 38). Another cultural characteristic that is not specific to one cla ss is the idea of shame. Shame is used as a tool for special control in all Latin American countries (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The cultural value of “machismo is also a f undamental principal in Latin America (Owen & Scherer, 2002). “Machismo is the ideology of manliness that c onfers privilege on men whose role is to protect the weaker and more vulnerable women (Owen & Scherer, 2002 p. 38). Business in Latin America In regards to women, Latin America has ma sculine views on the specific roles that women should encompass. This ideology is extremely important to understand when International businesses send female expatria tes to manage global assignments (Owen & Scherer, 2002). If the female managers ar e not made aware of the cultural differences prior to their departure it will prove difficu lt for both the manager and the host country to successfully develop appropriate business st rategies (Owen & Scherer, 2002). For females the education will help them unders tand the cultural stereotypes that could impede their advancement (Owen & Scherer, 2002). When conducting business in Latin Am erica many businesses are unable to produce effective results regardless of the man or woman managing the assignment.

PAGE 34

23 Sometimes the difficulty merely comes down to the culture of the manager. For example, American businessmen follow the principle set forth by the constitution in regards to equal rights, equal job opportunity as we ll as an equal chance to shine which demonstrates the qualities of low power distance (Davis, 1969). Whereas, Latin Americans believe that a superior is not a peer or an equal, this cultural characteristic corresponds with high power di stance (Davis, 1969). In Latin America there is no “nuclear family” instead there is an extende d family that includes all relatives (Davis, 1969). This idea of the extended family is a co llectivistic trait. The extended family is extremely influential to the building of enterp rise and business (Davis, 1969). For Latin Americans “enterprise is valued mainly for its contribution to family interests not as an achievement itself” (Davis, 1969, pg. 91). The Un ited States as an individualistic culture is mainly concerned with the “nuclear family” and this family unit is not as influential to enterprise (Davis, 1969). In the end it is important to remember that when conducting business in another country the local busine ssman is at an advantage because he is operating in his own environment (Davis, 1969). Business management is not the only vehi cle that is driven by Latin American culture. The majority of newspapers and ma gazines cater to thos e who reside in the countries, focusing on the literary and artist ic talent (Buckman, 1990). Latin American newspapers and magazines provide a large amount of information pertaining to the happenings in “la madra patri a” also known as Spain and all the cultural aspects relating to “the mother country” (Buckman, 1990). Although there are many areas where Latin American countries are similar it is important to beware of generalizations a nd shared problems (Davis, 1969). Because the

PAGE 35

24 countries are located in the same geogr aphic region and have certain shared characteristics it is easy to assume that they are all the same. However, there are other characteristics and influences that separate the countries from one another such as geographic, historical and polit ical backgrounds (Lenti, 1993). Creativity Affects Culture As discussed earlier a great deal of research has focused on advertising across cultures. However, very little is known about award winning ads that are culturally sensitive. Therefore, in this paper the end result should help expand the field of research in regards to how award-winning creativity is reflected in Latin American culture versus the United States culture. In order to do so there must be a basic understanding about advertising awards in general. Advertising awards are implemented to create a professional standard for advertising practices and effectiveness. The awards are useful for both the corporate and the individual level as a way to recogni ze and provide a professional assessment of companies and campaigns (Helgesen, 1994). Awards are used as a means to promote agencies (Helgesen, 1994). The weight that awards place on creativity is huge and leads to the belief that creativity is the most important attribute for agency achievement and success (Helgesen, 1994). Those agencies that are viewed as the most successful consider “creative excellence” the most impor tant factor (Helgesen, 1994). Awards are of great importance to agencies as well as the individuals who compose the agencies. Individuals who receive awards are likely to receive a promotion, a salary increase and even new job offers (Helgesen, 1994).

PAGE 36

25 Advertising Awards There are two types of advertising awar d categories recognized by advertising professionals; one category focuses on effectiveness and the other focuses on creativeness. One of the most well-known a nd well-researched awards for effectiveness are the Effie awards. These awards have aided many research studies in the quest for effectiveness in advertising. Unlike the Effies the Clio awards focu s on creativity and are not as well researched. Clio Awards The Clio awards are the globes most rec ognized international advertising awards competition for creativity (clioawards.com, 2005). This competition was founded in 1959 as a way to honor creative ex cellence in advertising as we ll as pay tribute to what many consider the most interesting and influe ntial form of art in modern culture; ads (clioawards.com, 2005). Each year agencies and creatives submit what they consider to be their best ads to the Clio offices. Fr om the submission step the ads are then put through a preliminary process where judges ma ke their selections. The use of judges places the Clio awards on a different level than the rest of award programs (clioawards.com, 2005). Clio judges are chos en based on certain qualifications. A judge must be on top of his/her game and highly i nvolved with his/her respective agency (T. Gulisanoi, personal communication, June 5, 2006). The judges chief job is to discover television and cinema advertisements that ar e original and unusual ones that have the ability to set a benchmark for excellence (clioawards.com, 2005). Once the judges are selected and the submission process is over, th e next step is the act ual judging process. The assembly of world-class judges culls th rough each ad that is submitted (T. Gulisanoi, personal communication, June 5, 2006). This pr eliminary step allows for a process of

PAGE 37

26 elimination. Gulisano (2006) suggests that the ev ent is very similar to a beauty contest, where there are multiple rounds until finally a winner or in this case a grand Clio is chosen. The preliminary process weeds out a bout 80 percent of the entrants (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006). The process of elimination is first based on a numerical value from one to ten, which gives an ad a collective value, then the ad is chosen by majority rules (T. Gulisano, pers onal communication June 5, 2006). In the end the will of the judges usurps the numeri cal value (T. Gulisano, personal communication June 5, 2006). The winners receive a gold, silver or bronze award (cli oawards.com, 2005). The award itself is called a Clio (Gagnard & Morris, 1988). In Greek mythology Clio was the muse of history and her main role was to proclaim great deeds, hence why great advertisements receive Clios (Gagnard & Mo rris, 1988). Due to the mythological roots some have proclaimed that the Clios ar e advertisings muse (McConnell, 1993). The instant success that comes with winning a Clio is not the only way the awards influence the industry (advertising.about .com, 2006). The Clios, like the Oscars, are a way to recognize the best of the be st in the advertising ar ena (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006). These awards allow for the communications community to receive accolades and attention (T. Gu lisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006). The Clios are about awards and accolades, but the most important part of the program is that it allows for enlightenment and edu cation of current and emerging markets (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June, 5 2006).

PAGE 38

27 Due to the international nature of the C lios they have the ability to collect a culturally diverse field of entrants. The inte rnational factor coupl ed with Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of cultural will aid in re searching how creativity reflects culture. Winning Creative Awards Currently, there is limited information availa ble on how creativity reflects culture. In terms of creativity there is a great deal of research conducted on what winning creative awards and what that creativity means to th e advertising environment. Winning creative ideas have been found to boost sales, give agencies a competitive advantage and provide agencies and creatives with an idea of what works and what doesn’t (West, Collins & Miciak, 2003). These awards have also been linked with agencies, clients, staff and creativity but as of yet, have not been cons idered in terms of a cultural aspect (West, Collins & Miciak, 2003). This lack of cultural aspect is surprising because those individuals who win awards b ecome opinion leaders and trendsetters, which allows them the opportunity to influence the industry in its portrayal of cultura l congruent ads (West, Collins, Miciak, 2003). Ways Creativity Reflects Culture Research has found that creativity wins aw ards and those individuals who create the winning ads are able to influence the i ndustry, however what wins may not always reflect what the consumer in a given culture likes. Kover, James and Sonner (1997) found that consumers who viewed ads, regardle ss of awards, liked those that were selfenhancing, aided them in feeling more like an ideal human, provided them with the opportunity to feel competent, feel affec tion and made them alert. Although, it was found that consumers were in agreement on fact ors that needed to be similar there were however, other aspects that needed to be di fferent. Koslow, Sasser and Riordan (2003)

PAGE 39

28 believe that creativity should be different from person to person, culture to culture. Creativity should also be appropriate based on the situation and audience, original, useful and satisfying to some group at some time (K oslow, Sasser & Riordan, 2003). This idea that creativity should be satis fying and appropriate for a gi ven group is the foundation for the belief that creativity reflects culture. An example of a period where advertising was created so that it would be satisfying to a particular group was dur ing the 1960s in the United States. During the sixtie s social issues as well as the disaffected and disenchanted American population drove a dvertising (Advertising Age, 2005). The culture of the sixties is what influenced Coca-cola and other well-advertised products to create campaigns that focused on multi-ethnicity and peace (Advertising Age, 2005). The wellknown Coca-cola ad “I’d like to teach the wo rld to sing,” was crea ted to reflect the culture of the times. The 1960s in America is just one example of how advertising is representing culture. Advertis ing has become such an impre ssive display of culture that social historians are able to use advertis ements as documentary evidence of typical lifestyles in various er as (Pollay, 1983). Purpose The purpose of this study is to build upon the research that has been found regarding culture, advertising awards and creativity, while al so creating a new path that will hopefully influence the industry. As stated earlier there has been little to no research conducted on the link between award winning ad vertisements and cultu re, therefore this research proposes to unearth th e link utilizing Hofstede’s (19 80) cultural dimensions as a theoretical framework. Two cu ltures were chosen to represent the findings: America and Latin America. The United States tends to be strong in its cultural dimensions therefore

PAGE 40

29 it will be used as the comparison for the study. Latin America was chosen due to its growing economy and market. Hypotheses Previous research conducted by Hofstede (1980) has found that Latin Americans will have the cultural dimensi ons of collectivism, feminin ity, high power distance, strong uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. Hypothesis 1: Clio Award-winning televisi on commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of collectivism. Hypothesis 2: Clio Award-winning televisi on commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of femininity. Hypothesis 3: Clio Award-winning televisi on commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of high power distance. Hypothesis 4: Clio Award-winning televisi on commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of long-term orientation. Hypothesis 5: Clio Award-winning televisi on commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of strong uncertainty avoidance. Hypothesis 6: Clio Award-winning televisi on commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of executional variables (Stewart and Furse, 1986; Marshall, 2006)

PAGE 41

30 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content analysis is the ideal methodological format to use when message content is the main concern of the research project. It has been used in studies that examine advertising, journalism, marketing and in ternational business for the purpose of conference proceedings, theses and disserta tions (Abernethy & Franke, 1996). Content analysis has been utilized in the past to study print (AlbersMiller & Stafford, 1999; Taylor & Stern, 1997), international advertis ing (Albers-Miller & St afford, 1999); Taylor & Stern, 1997) as well as tele vision content (Gagnard & Mo rris, 1988; Stewart & Furse, 1986). Content analysis is a systematic, obj ective and quantitative method that grants the researcher a full observation and evaluation of all forms of recorded communications (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). This tool allows for words, themes, symbols, characters, items and space-and-time information to be measur ed (Kassarjian, 1977). Content analysis with an unobtrusive means of gathering data an d its strength in testing empirical data is the perfect method to analyze televisi on commercials (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Content Analysis Defined Content analysis is used to improve the understanding of advert ising practices and the relationship that exists between advertising effects a nd advertising characteristics (Davis, 1997). Content analysis is “the systematic, objective and quantitative analysis of advertising conducted to infer a pattern of advertising practice or the elements of brands’ advertising strategies such as brand positioning, selling proposition and creative tones,” (Davis, 1997 p. 392-392).

PAGE 42

31 The objectivity component is the foundation for the development and definition of categories. It is important that the objectiv e definitions are taken fr om previously defined theoretical constructs and operationalized as variables fo r later descriptive relationship analysis. In order for cont ent analysis to have high objectivity the procedure must include rules and procedures judge training sessions, pr etesting of measures, judge independence (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Objectivity is the ingredient in content analysis that provides scientific standing and provi des a defense against literary criticism (Kassarjian, 1977). The systematic component means that all comm unication content or analysis categories are included or excluded base d on strict adherence to the rules (Holsti, 1969). Another feature that systematizati on adds to content an alysis is the design structure that ensures the data that is accumula ted is relevant to the scientific problem or hypothesis (Berelson, 1952). The systematic natu re of content analysis ensures that the findings are unbiased and they are theoretica lly relevant and generalizable (Kassarjian, 1977). The final element that distinguishes co ntent analysis from other methods is the quantification characteri stic. Quantification is used to measure the amount of emphasis or omission of any particular an alytic category (Kassarjian, 1977) It is important to note that the quantification charac teristic is in place to provide data that can draw interpretations and inferences (Berel son, 1952). The systematic, objective and quantitative characteristics of content anal ysis made it an ideal method for exploring Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in Clio award winning advertisements. Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Methods Portions of this method were taken from research conducted by Resnick and Stern (1977) and Stewart and Furse (1986). Resn ick and Stern (1977) developed a method to uncover whether or not a televi sion advertisement was informative or not. A fourteen

PAGE 43

32 point evaluative criteria wa s formulated to gage the information levels of the advertisements (Resnick & Stern, 1977). Th e study by Resnick and Stern (1977) was the impetus for Stewart and Furse’s study. Stewart and Furse (1986) studied the effectiveness of over 1,000 commercials and 155 executional elements. Through research Stewart and Furse (1986) created a factor analysis by combining a set of findings from copy testing and descriptive sta tistics from the thousand commercials. The factor analysis found that a variety of el ements influenced the effectiveness of a commercial, both positively and negatively. Those elements that were found to positively influence the effectiveness utilized attention-grabbing devices such as humor and memory aids (Stewart & Furse, 1986). Creating The Current Content Analysis This content analysis will follow the fr amework created by Kassarjian (1977) with additional information derived from Kolbe a nd Burnett (1991). Kassarjian’s (1977) work looked at the three components of content analysis as well as sampling and reliability. Kassarjian (1977) is such a fundamental framework that Kolbe and Burnett (1991) consider a citation of Kassarjian (1977) as an element that ads more objectivity to a study. Reliability has been the area most in fluenced by Kassarjian (1977). Content analysis calls for subjectivity to be limite d due to systematic nature and objective description of communications content, theref ore reliability is of the utmost concern (Kassarjian, 1977). Content analysis utilizes judges and coders therefore, interjudge or intercoder reliability is esse ntial for producing quality data (Kassarjian, 1977; Perreault & Leigh, 1989; Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Kassarjian (1977) focused on two types of reliability; category and interjudge. Category reliability is dependent on the “anal yst’s ability to formulate categories and

PAGE 44

33 present to competent judges definitions of the categories so they will agree on which items of a certain population belong in a category and which do not (Kassarjian, 1977, p.14). Interjudge reliability is measure base d on percent of agreement between multiple judges who are processing the exact same communication content (Kassarjian, 1977). These two types of reliability are tremendous ly important when manifest and latent content issues are concerned (Marshall, 2006 ). In order to minimize differences in definitions that may occur latent content analysis calls for researchers to adhere to a strictly defined framework (Marshall, 2006). Category Reliability Kolbe and Burnett (1991) conducted research based on Kassarjian (1977) to review the methods used in published content analys is articles as well as inspect their own criteria for reliability. Their research u tilized 128 articles from 28 journals, three proceedings and one anthology. Each level of Kassarjian’s (1977) framework was employed to conduct the research. The level of objectivity was measured by whether or not studies reported coding rules and procedures, judge training, pretes ting measures, judge independence of authors and judge independence of each other (Kol be & Burnett, 1991). The results for objectivity found that 71 per cent of their sample provi ded information regarding categories and operational defi nitions (Kolbe & Burnett, 199 1). The authors found that only 40.6 percent of the sample reported any fo rm of judge training, however they point out that it is unlikely that judges receive d no training, instead there may have just forgotten to report training. In regards to pretesting Kolbe and Bu rnett (1991) found that 70.3 percent of the studies did not report pretesting. The aut hors suggest that a lack of pretesting is a weakne ss in research.

PAGE 45

34 Interjudge Reliability Judge independence is a huge factor for a ll studies utilizing content analysis. “Interjudge reliability measures are based on the systematic and consistent nature of defined variables and the very basis of re liability is in the foundation of category definitions as well as how well judges agre e on content decisions” (Marshall, 2006, p.7). In the Kolbe and Burnett (1991) study it was found that 48.4 percent of cases used purely independent judges. The number of judges ut ilized varied, however two coders were most frequently employed (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The issue of judging is one that brings many concerns especially in regard s to the amount of judges used for a study. Some judges may only code a subset of data, but are still counted as a full time judge. Therefore the amount of judges employed is often a misreprese ntation of the actual count (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). As discussed earlier reliability is an indispensable part of a valid content analysis. Thus, the calculations and re porting of reliability are important factors to examine. Kolbe and Burnett (1991) observed the reliab ility index used and how the reliability index was reported. The coefficient of agreem ent was the most frequently cited index. A coefficient of agreement is found by dividing the total number of ag reements by the total number of coding decisions (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). For the aspect of reliability index reporting 35.9 percent of the sample reported an “overall reliability”, while 24.2 percent reported individual reliabilities and another 8.6 percent report ed ranges of reliabilities (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The numbers are im portant to note because “overall reliability” could generate misleading results (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Misleading results often occur when one aggregate average is reported (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The best way to

PAGE 46

35 correct misleading results is to utilize ra nge and individual re liabilities, which are superior to the overall approach (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Kolbe and Burnett (1991) conclude that there are many gaps and hiccups in the method utilized by analysts in the areas of objectivity and reliability. This study will employ their analysis as a guideline for im provements on reliability and objectivity where others have varied. Unit of Analysis The study analyzed Clio award winning advertisements from the years 1995 through 2004, the Clio awards did not take place during 1997 whereas the 2002 Clio awards tape was unavailable at the time of research. Sampling Design The research sample consisted of 268 C lio award winning television commercials. The researcher obtained tapes of Clio aw ards from the years 1995 (n=33), 1996 (n=30), 1998 (n=41), 1999 (n=31), 2000 (n=36), 2001 (n= 37), 2003 (n=31) and 2004 (n=29). Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis Following the previously discussed fram ework of Kolbe and Burnett (1991), the elements of rules and procedures includi ng coding instrument and code book, coder training, pretesting, coder independence, number of coders and the st atistical evaluation of reliability will all be discussed individually. Rules and Procedures When referring to the rules and proce dures involved in content analysis a discussion of category details and operational definitions is necessary. The dimensions and categories that are operationalized in this study are taken from the Stewart and Furse (1986) model and Marshall (2006). Each code r was provided a six-pa ge code sheet as

PAGE 47

36 well as a codebook that gave definitions and ex amples for each variable in a category. The code sheet consisted of 37 questions or categories. The questions were either descriptive information about the particular advertisement or categories borrowed from the aforementioned studies. The questions ca n be compartmentalized into three different sections. The first section concentrates on descriptive statistics pertaining to the individual spot. The spot information was provided as a super before each ad. The questions included: a case ID number, code r initials, ad title, brand, agency name, country of origin, color, award level, award year a nd product category. The second section was derived from Stewart and Furs e (1986, p. 131-143). This section of the coding sheet includes: visual devices, commercial appeals or selling propositions, commercial format, typology of broadcast commercial message, commercial setting, music, commercial tone and atmosphere, comp arisons and commercial characters. These categories have been used in some variati on to examine television commercials (Stewart & Furse, 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Ma rshall, 2006). The final section focuses on localization, utilizing Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture. At the initial training session coders were informed to make choices based on the dominance of the variable. The coders were instructed to choose the best option when multiple options were available. In order to make an educated choice the coders could also turn to their codebook for examples and operational definitions. A copy of the codebook can be found in appendix A and a copy of the code sheet is located in appendix B. Coders and Coder Training Four coders were selected and educated on how to properly fill out the code sheets and clarifications were made in regards to the meanings. Two of the coders were

PAGE 48

37 international advertising graduate students with Bachelors degrees in Advertising. The third coder was receiving an MBA and the fourth coder was a PhD student, both had a background in international comm unication. All four judges we re fluent in English. One coder was also fluent in Hindi while another coder was fluent in Malay and Cantonese as well. Each person coded roughly 67 ads of the 268 samples. The coding process itself not including the viewing of an ad took an average of 7 minutes. There was one coder training session that lasted two hours. At this session the purpose and background of the project was disc ussed as well as the codebook and code sheet. Three ads were also viewed so as to provide an example of the procedure. Concerns, questions and comments that aros e during the viewing and subsequent coding process were addressed immediately at the m eeting. In the end the coders were given their assignments and informed that they c ould contact the lead researcher with any questions. Pretest A pretest was conducted at the initial coder meeting. Three commercials were coded together. The lead author chose to conduc t the pretest at the in itial training session so as to remedy any issues prior to indepe ndent coding. The pretes t also allowed for a roundtable discussion of decisions and references. All four coders chosen to code the ads were present for the pretest. The pretes t helped make minor changes to the coding instrument such as adding an award cate gory for public service announcements. After the initial training session the coders were instructed to use the knowledge gained from the meeting as well as the codebook to make e ducated decisions. The lead author was always available for additi onal concerns or questions.

PAGE 49

38 Coder Independence The coders knew each other therefore, it was very important that coder independence was maintained. At the meeti ng the coders were instructed to work independently of one another a nd to refrain from discussing coding procedures with other coders. In order to ensure the independence it was required that each coder had personal access to a VCR. Number of Coders per Spot Initially two coders judged each advertis ement. Kolbe & Burnett (1991) found that utilizing two coders was the most frequently employed configuration. Once all ads were coded, agreements and disagreements were assessed to ascertai n individual category agreement estimates. After estimates were derived from the data, the primary researchers solved disagreements. Intercoder Reliability Intercoder reliability is an extremely impor tant factor in ensu ring quality findings in content analysis. Many authors have attempte d to develop measures that will properly measure reliability (Cohen, 1960; Krippendorff, 1970). However, the majority of the studies were found to rely on marginal freque ncies that rendered them inappropriate for proper reliability for this analysis. Regardle ss of the method used to conduct intercoder reliability a proportion of agreement must be established. The best way to determine a proportion of agreement is to use Holsti’s (1969) formula 2M Reliability = N1 + N2 M = the number of agreements between coders N = total numbers of decisions made by each coder

PAGE 50

39 The Holsti (1969) method was used to estab lish agreement among coders. However, in order to ensure valid intercoder estimates a process to correct chance agreement between coders must be employed. Perreault and Leigh (1989, p.140) developed an “explicit model of the level of agreement that might be expected given a true (population) level of reliability.” This method is an accurate way of correcting chance agreement between coders. The Perreault and Leigh (1989) model has been considered a more appropriate method for conducting marketing related rese arch. The reliability inde x that Perreault and Leigh (1989) created is Ir = {[(Fo/N) – (1/k)] [k / (k – 1)}(square root) Fo = observed frequency of agreement between judges N = total number of judgments k = number of categories The results for Perreault and Leigh (1989) and Holsti (1969) are shown below as well as an overall average for each. There were 27 categories retrieved from the code sheet, these categories were then reviewed fo r reliability purposes. Both reliability formulas were utilized to disc over an accurate overall averag e. Out of the 27 measured categories, the Holsti (1969) method found the ove rall reliability to be .91. The Perreault and Leigh (1989) formula found the overall reliab ility to be .92. Th e acceptable range for reliability is .80 (Kassarjian, 1977). Therefor e both averages are above the acceptable range. These results confirm that there wa s high intercoder reliab ility among the coders employed for this study.

PAGE 51

40 Table 2. Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Leigh (1989) Intercoder Reliability Category Holsti Perreault and Leigh Index Scenic beauty Beautiful characters Graphic displays Visual reinforcements through words Logo Commercial appeals or selling propositions Commercial format Informational/transformational Dominant setting Setting Presence of music Culture specific music Dominant tone Direct comparison Culture specific language Dominant character Culture specific Individualism Collectivism Masculinity Femininity Long term Short term High power distance Low power distance High uncertainty avoidance Low uncertainty avoidance .94 .96 1.00 .94 .99 .73 .86 .92 .95 .89 .96 .97 .88 .98 .86 .93 .94 .93 .88 .89 .91 .92 .90 .87 .85 .90 .87 .94 .96 1 .94 .99 .84 .92 .92 .96 .94 .96 .97 .93 .98 .85 .96 .94 .93 .87 .88 .91 .92 .89 .86 .84 .89 .86 Overall reliability average .91 .92 Final Revisions to the Codebook and Code sheets Before beginning the compilation of results it was necessary to amend a few categories in order to remedy th e issue of minimum cell criteria To resolve this concern a standard error of 8 percen t (n = 10) was employed.

PAGE 52

41 Category Decisions In following with the standard of error, certain options within the categories and dominant appeals sections faile d to meet the qualifications. Therefore, those items were reassessed and combined to meet the requirements of 8 percent (n=10). Table 3. New Groups for Question 10: Award Category Award Category Subgroups within new category Alcoholic beverages Beer Non-alcoholic beverages Carbonate d and Non-Carbonated beverages Apparel Apparel/Accesso ries and High Fashion Packaged Foods Breakfast foods, Snacks/Desserts and Packaged food Electronics and related services Computer and related, Consumer electronics, Telecom services and Internet services Personal Products Beauty aids, Cosmetics, Health aids and over the counter products, Personal care products, Children’s products Financial products and services Credit or debit cards and Financial services and products Travel and Tourism Hotels and resorts, Transportation and Travel/Tourism Other Health services and medical products, Professional services, Business products, Leisure products, Household durable products and Pet care Table 4. New Groups for Question 16: What Is the Dominant Commercial Appeal or Selling Proposition Dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition Subgroups within new category Hedonism Sexual appeal, Comfort appeal, Enjoyment appeal, Self-esteem or self-image, Achievement and Excitement, variety Welfare Concern Safety appeal, Welfare appeal and Social approval Data Analysis SPSS 14.0 was used for data analysis. Fr equencies, cross tabulations, and chisquare tests were conducted to explore the hypotheses.

PAGE 53

42 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter focuses on the descriptive sta tistics for the Clio award sample and the statistical tests of the hypot heses. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the hypotheses. Chi-square tests are used to te st the statistical signi ficance of results in bivariate tables (C. Cho, personal communi cation, Spring, 2006). The independent and dependent variables are both categorical (C. Cho, personal communication, Spring, 2006). Below the Chi-square table displays th e results for the Pear son Chi-square with the value, the degree of freedom, and the Fisher’s Exact Test significance value. Descriptive Statistics of Clio commercials The descriptive statistics for the Clio sa mple (N=268) show information related to each spot. Frequencies and percents are provid ed for the characteristics of country, year, categories, award level, agenci es and dominant character. Spot Descriptive Statistics of Country Table 5 displays the Latin American countri es that were repres ented in the Clio sample (N=268). The largest sample country was Argentina (7.1%). Brazil was the second largest sample country (3.4%), wh ile Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Latin America (general) all represented .4 percent of the sample.

PAGE 54

43 Table 5. Latin American Countries Total (N=33) Country Frequency Percent Argentina 19 7.1 Brazil 9 3.4 Guatemala 1 .4 Mexico 1 .4 Peru 1 .4 Uruguay 1 .4 Latin America (General) 1 .4 Total 33 12.5 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Year Table 6 illustrates the years that were utilized for the Clio award sample (N=268). The year 1998 with a frequency of 41 accounted for the most commercials (15.3%). The years 2001 (N=37) and 2000 (N=36) accounted for the second greatest number of commercials (13.4%). 2004 (N=29) contai ned the least amount of spots (10.8%). Table 6. Clio Award Years Year Frequency Percent 2004 29 10.8 2003 31 11.6 2001 37 13.8 2000 36 13.4 1999 31 11.6 1998 41 15.3 1996 30 11.2 1995 33 12.3 Total 268 100 Spot Descriptive Statistics Clio Award Level The Clio award-winning sample (N=268) showcased the grand, gold and silver awards. Out of the sample (N=268) 3.7 per cent of the advertisem ents won grand Clio honors. 48.5 percent of the sample (N=268) took home gold Clios, while 47.8 percent of the sample (N=268) claimed the silver award.

PAGE 55

44 Table 7. Award Level of Spots Award Level Frequency Percent Grand 10 3.7 Gold 130 48.5 Silver 128 47.8 Total 268 100.0 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Agencies There were 104 advertising agencies and f our art schools represented in the Clio award sample (N=268). Many of the ads came from regional agencies that are part of larger international companies. The statistics provided in table 8 represent only the large family companies instead of the regional bran ches. Overall no agency that amassed over 8.2 percent of the total sample. BBDO (8.2 %) and DDB (6.3%) were the agencies that won the most Clio awards. Saatchi & S aatchi (5.2%), Goodby Silverstein & Partners (4.9%) and TBWA Chiat/Day (4.5%) round out the top five Clio award-winning agencies. The students from the Art Center in LA (4.1%) won the most Clio awards. Table 8. Clio Award Winning Advertising Agencies Agency Frequency Percent BBDO 22 8.2 DDB 17 6.3 Saatchi & Saatchi 14 5.2 Goodby Silverstein & Partners 13 4.9 TBWA Chiat/Day 12 4.5 Art Center LA 11 4.1 Total (top 6) 89 33.2 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Categories As addressed earlier certain options in the category section were combined in order to ensure that the cell size was large enough (N=10). Therefore, the categories have been reduced from (N=39) to (N=15). However, financial products and services, fast food and restaurants and delivery systems could not be combined further to make the minimum

PAGE 56

45 cell size. Apparel is the largest category representing 14.2 percent of the sample (N=268). The second most frequently advert ised category is entertainment (n=33). Automobiles and vehicles (11.6%) round out the top three categories. Table 9. Clio Award Categories Categories Frequency Percent Alcoholic Beverages 24 9.0 Non-Alcoholic Beverages 15 5.6 Apparel 38 14.2 Automobiles and Vehicles 31 11.6 Personal Products 14 5.2 Packaged Foods 13 4.9 Electronics and Related Services 22 8.2 Financial Products and Services 9 3.4 Delivery Systems 1 .4 Entertainment 33 12.3 Fast Food and Restaurants 5 1.9 General Retail ad E-tail 17 6.3 Travel and Tourism 15 5.6 Public Service Announcements 15 5.6 Other 16 6.0 Total 268 100.0 Spot Descriptive Statistics of Dominant Characters Table 10 provides a visual of the charact ers that were represented in the Clio sample (N=268). Real-life males (28.9%) were portrayed the most in the spots. Young adults (17.6%) were the second most often seen characters in the ads. The third most prevalent character was professional-males (10.9%). Sports star females (.4%) were the least likely to be portrayed in the sample (N=268). Table 10. Dominant Characters Portrayed in Clio Ads Characters Frequency Percent Professional Male 28 9.7 Professional Female 2 .7 Entertainer Male 4 1.5 Entertainer Female 2 .7

PAGE 57

46 Table 10. Continued Characters Frequency Percent Sports Star Male 15 5.6 Sports Star Female 1 .4 Model Male 6 2.2 Model Female 11 4.1 Elderly Male 10 3.7 Elderly Female 5 1.9 Child 9 3.4 Teenager 3 1.1 Young Adult 42 15.7 Mother 3 1.1 Father 8 3.0 Real-life Male 69 25.7 Real-life Female 6 2.2 Cartoon/Animated 17 6.3 Total 239 89.2 Missing System total 29 10.8 Hypotheses The six hypotheses discussed in the literature review were the impetus for the results and research that are addressed here. Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture were the foundation for the hypotheses. Hypothesis one theorized, “Clio Award-wi nning television comm ercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of collectivism. The dimension of individualism (table 11) was not statistically significant. Therefore, no differences can be discerned from the data about the presence or absence of individualism between the Unite d States and Latin America. Table 11. Presence or Absence of Individualism USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Individualism 89 63.1% 18 54.5% 107 61.5% Absence of Individualism 52 36.9% 15 45.5% 67 38.5% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%

PAGE 58

47 2=. 830; df=1; p=. 237; n=174 The dimension of collectivism (table 12) was not statistically significant. From this information no differences were found between the United States and Latin America in regard to the presence or absence of colle ctivism in Clio awardwinning advertisements. Table 12. Presence or Absence of Co llectivism USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Collectivism 48 34.0% 14 42.4% 62 35.6% Absence of Collectivism 93 66.0% 19 57.6% 112 64.4% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=. 819; df=1; p=. 239; n=174 Hypothesis two posits that, “Clio Award-wi nning television comm ercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of femininity”. The di mension of masculinit y (table 13) was not statistically significant. Therefore, no di fference can be ascertained between the USA and Latin America in regard to the presence or absence of masculinity in Clio awardwinning ads. Table 13. Presence or Absence of Masc ulinity in USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Masculinity 95 67.4% 19 57.6% 114 65.6% Absence of Masculinity 46 32.6% 14 42.4% 60 34.5% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=1.137; df=1;p=193; n=174 The dimension of femininity (table 14) was statistically insignificant. There are no differences between the United States and Latin America in regard to the presence or absence of femininity in Clio award-winning ads.

PAGE 59

48 Table 14. Presence or Absence of Femininity USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Femininity 18 12.8% 6 18.2% 24 13.8% Absence of Femininity 123 87.2% 27 81.8% 150 86.2% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=. 660; df=1; p=. 287; n=174 Hypothesis three suggests, “Clio Award-wi nning television comm ercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of high power distance”. The dimension of long-term orientation (table 15) was not statistically significant. There is no di fference between the U.S. and Latin America in the presence or absence of long-term orientation in Clio award-winning spots. Table 15. Presence or Absence of Long-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Longterm Orientation 27 19.1% 11 33.3% 38 21.8% Absence of Longterm Orientation 114 80.9% 22 66.7% 136 78.2% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=3.152; df=1; p=. 065; n=174 The dimension of short-term orientation (tab le 16) is not statistically significant. Thus it can be said that no differences pers ist between U.S. and Latin American Clio spots when it comes to the presence or absence of short-term orientation. Table 16. Presence or Absence of Short-Te rm Orientation USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Shortterm Orientation 106 75.2% 22 66.7% 128 73.6% Absence of Shortterm Orientation 35 24.8% 11 33.3% 46 26.4% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=. 996; df=1; p=. 216; n=174

PAGE 60

49 Hypothesis four, “Clio Award-winning te levision commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of long-term orientation”. The di mension of high power distance (table 17) is not statistically significant. No differe nces can be found between the USA and Latin America in terms of presence or absence of high power distance in Clio award-winning advertisements. Table 17. Presence or Absence of High Power Distance USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of High Power Distance 66 46.8% 11 33.3% 77 44.3% Absence of High Power Distance 75 53.2% 22 66.7% 97 55.7% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=1.968; df=1; p=. 113; n=174 The dimension of low power distance (table 18) is not significa nt. No differences are uncovered regarding the presence or abse nce of low power distance in U.S. Clio award winning ads versus Latin American Clio ads. Table 18. Presence or Absence of Low Power Distance USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Low Power Distance 43 30.5% 12 36.4% 55 31.6% Absence of Low Power Distance 98 69.5% 21 63.6% 119 68.4% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=. 426; df=1; p=. 324; n=174 Hypothesis five speculates that, “Clio Awa rd-winning television commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimension of strong uncerta inty avoidance”. The dimension of high uncertainty avoidance (table 19) is not statis tically significant. There is no difference

PAGE 61

50 between Latin America and the U.S. Clio awar d winning spots in regard to the presence or absence of high uncertainty avoidance. Table 19. Presence or Absence of High Uncertainty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presences of High Uncertainty Avoidance 20 14.2% 8 24.2% 28 16.1% Absence of High Uncertainty Avoidance 121 85.8% 25 75.8% 146 83.9% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=2.004; df=1; p=. 126; n=174 The dimension of low uncertainty avoida nce (table 20) is not statistically significant. There are no differences between Latin America and the United States when the presence or absence of low uncertainty avoidance in Clio award-winning ads are involved. Table 20. Presence or Absence of Low Uncertainty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America USA Latin America Total Presence of Low Uncertainty Avoidance 118 83.7% 24 72.7% 142 81.6% Absence of Low Uncertainty Avoidance 23 16.3% 9 27.3% 32 18.4% Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100% 2=2.141; df=1, p=. 115; n=174 Hypothesis six posits “Clio Award-winni ng television commercials from the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of executional variables” (Stewart and Fu rse, 1986; Marshall, 2006).

PAGE 62

51 Table 21. Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Executional Variables United States Latin America Total Sig. Scenic beauty 132 95% 33 100% 165 95.9% NS Beautiful characters 126 91.3%26 78.8%152 88.9% .047 Graphic displays 140 99.3%32 97% 172 98.9% NS Visual reinforcement through words 97 68.8%31 93.9%128 73.6% .001 Logo 141 100% 32 97% 173 99.4% NS Commercial appeals or selling propositions 73 51.8%7 21.2%80 46% .022 Commercial format 67 47.5%11 33.3%78 44.8% NS Informational/transformational127 90.1%28 84.8%155 89.1% NS Dominant setting 66 50.4%18 69.2%84 53.5% NS Presence of music 88 62.4%23 69.7%111 63.8% NS Culture specific music 134 95% 31 93.9%165 94.8% NS Dominant tone 88 62.4%16 48.5%104 59.8% NS Direct comparison 136 96.5%32 97% 168 96.6% NS Culture specific language 108 93.9%6 40% 114 87.7% .000 Culture specific 129 91.5%21 63.6%150 86.2% .000 There was a statistical significant relati onship found (table 11) for the use of presence or absence of beau tiful characters. Latin Ameri can (21.2%) Clio spots had a greater likelihood of showing beautiful character s than did the United States (8.7%). The United States Clio award winning advertisements were more likely to have an absence of beautiful characters. Statistical significance was found (table 11) fo r the presence or ab sence of visual reinforcement through words. Latin American Clio award spots were found to show a presence of visual reinforcements through words (93.9%) more than the United States (68.9%). There was a statistically significant re lationship found (table 11) for dominant commercial appeals. There is a difference between the United Stat es (51.8%) and Latin America (21.2%) for the use of the domina nt appeal “product reminder as a main

PAGE 63

52 message”. The dominant appeal of “Hedonism ” is present 24.2 per cent of the time in Latin American Clio spots and 12.1 percent in Clio ads for the USA. Welfare is another appeal where a difference is found between Latin America (15.2%) and the United States (5.0%). Statistical significance was found (table 11) for the presence or absence of culture specific language. The United States (93.9%) has a greater presence of culture specific language than Latin America (40.0%). 60 percent of Latin America’s Clio awardwinning advertisements have an absence of culture specific language while only 6.1 percent of United States ads l ack culture specific language. A statistically significant re lationship was found (table 11) for culture specific product. The products in the spots were cult urally specific 36.4 pe rcent of the time in Latin American Clio ads versus the 8.5 percen t of products that were culturally specific to the USA.

PAGE 64

53 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The current study set out to add support to the theoretical framework of Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture as well as illust rate the importance of utilizing culture in award winning advertisements. The first hypothesis was interested in conf irming that Latin American Clio winning ads would demonstrate the dimension of collectiv ism more than U.S. ads. The results for this hypothesis were not statis tically significant which does not allow for an affirmation of the hypothesis. Hypothesis two sought to uncover that Lati n American Clio s pots would showcase the dimension of femininity more than U.S. s pots. However, the results were found to be statistically insignificant, t hus no difference between Latin America and the United States can be discerned in regard to the presence or absence of femininity in Clio award winning ads. The goal of the third hypothesis was to find that the dimension of high power distance would be reflected in Latin American Clio ads more than in U.S. Clio spots. Once again the data was not statistically si gnificant and could not support the hypothesis. For the fourth hypothesis, the dimension of long-term orientation was expected to be representative in Latin American Clio awards more than U.S. ads. However, the final results garnered from the data found no stat istical significance between Latin America and the U.S. involving the presence or absenc e of long-term orient ation in Clio award winning ads. Although, the significance of this particular hypothesis is not less than .05

PAGE 65

54 it is not far from it (.065). This result can be considered a trend and could be explored with a larger sample size. As for the dimension of uncertainty avoida nce, hypothesis five predicted that Latin American Clio spots would demonstrate highe r uncertainty avoidance than the ads from the United States. The results found for this were not statistically significant. Thus, hypothesis five was not supported. The sixth hypothesis theorized, “Latin Am erican Clio award winning ads will be different from U.S. Clio award winning ads ba sed on executional vari ables” (Stewart and Furse, 1986; Marshall, 2006). The results found five variables signifi cantly significant. Therefore there are differences between the U.S. and Latin America in terms of presence of beautiful characters, visual reinforcemen t through words, dominant appeals, presence of culture specific language and ab sence of culture specific product. Comparing the Results to the Literature Although the results for the first five hypotheses were found to be statistically insignificant, the data does provide informa tion that can be used for future research studies in terms of cultural differences. When looking back at the l iterature reviewed for this study and the results that were found, certain aspects stan d out as possible reasons for the lack of significance. The dimension of femininity may not have been reflected as strongly because of the Latin American id eology of “machismo” (Owen & Scherer, 2002). Another area that th e literature review touc hed on was geography and the differences between the countries that fo rm the Latin American community. For example, the Southern cone countries orig inally spawned from European colonists therefore these countries may demonstrate more European dimensions of culture, whereas, Mexico and Puerto Rico are more closely related to the United States

PAGE 66

55 (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Even t hough the reasons of history, geography and ideology could explain the insi gnificance of the results Davi s (1969) originally warned his readers to beware of generalizations, which is an important factor to remember in this research study. It is also important to note that Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture are broad and can be viewed in a subject ive manner making it difficult for coders to decipher a dimension in an advertisement. Limitations For all intents and purposes a content anal ysis was the most appropriate research design for this study however, there were a fe w limitations that need to be mentioned. Due to the fact that a content analysis is based on nominal scales and qualitative judgments it is difficult to ensure reliabilit y, validity or objectivity (Perreault & Leigh, 1989). Another limitation to be aware of wa s the language barriers. Since the Clio awards are international some of the ads utilized the native language of their country of origin, therefore the full meaning of the ad was lost on those judge s who were unfamiliar with certain languages. The sampling frame for this study incl uded 268 Clio awards from the years 1995 through 2004. The 1997 Clio awards did not take place and the 2002 Clio awards tape was unavailable for this study. A few limitations arose from this sampling process. The first was that the sampling frame was limited to the tapes that were available through the University of Florida’s advertising departme nt. Since these tapes were hunted down the quality was poor and certain years were una vailable. Another problem was the over representation of the United States during th e eight year period. The United States accounted for 141 spots out of 268. The large U.S. sample size and the small overall sample size made it difficult to acquire data on ce rtain countries. It is possible that a bias

PAGE 67

56 towards the United States may have occurre d, where either the majority of the judges were representing the U.S. or more U.S. agencies submitted entries to the award program. Whichever the case may be the sample size in general caused some difficulties in the research process. Since content analysis is a descrip tive method the small sample size (N=268) makes it difficult for a theoretically sound c onclusion to be drawn (Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997). The use of content analysis also makes it difficult to uncover true readings of cultural values (e.g. Hofstede’s (1980) dime nsions of culture), which are often buried within the message because of the us e of manifest content (Caillat & Mueller, 1996). That said the questions de rived from the Stewart and Furse (1986) study and Marshall (2006) used to conduct the cont ent analysis for this study could only touch on service information. In order for more conc lusive results to be found future research must be conducted that takes a more in-dep th look at the information than content analysis has the ability to do. Future Research Recommendations The lack of statistical signi ficance in the five hypothese s does not mean that the information accumulated was useless. Hypot hesis six discusses five areas where statistical significance was found. It was found that beautiful characters were more likely to be present in Latin American ads than U. S. ads another set of data discovered that Latin American Clio award winning ads uti lized visual reinfo rcement through words more than U.S. ads. The dominant appeal of “product reminder as main message” was more likely to be employed by U.S. ads than Latin American spots, while the dominant appeals of welfare and hedonism showed up mo re often in Latin American Clio award winning ads. Two more questi ons resulted in statistically significant numbers; presence

PAGE 68

57 of culture specific language a nd presence of culture specific product. The presence of culture specific language was exercised more often in the U.S. Clio award winning ads than in the Latin American ads. However, culture specific products were more often advertised in Latin American Clio award winni ng advertisements than in U.S. spots. These results as well as the information on Ho fstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture can be used to grow future research on cultural comparisons between the United States and Latin America. For example, future resear chers could look at why appeals of hedonism and welfare are more predominant in Latin Am erica or why beautiful characters are more likely to appear in Latin American ads than U.S. ads. The information on culture specific language could be used to inve stigate the difficulties that ma y arise when marketing to a culture that has many variations in language, like Latin America. Even the results for Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of culture can be used as an impetus for looking for advertising award programs that may acknowledg e more culturally specific ads than the Clio awards, which are known for creativity.

PAGE 69

58 APPENDIX A CODE BOOK A) Visual Devices V11. Scenic Beauty – Does the commercial pr esent striking scenes of natural beauty? (mountains, flowing streams) V12. Beautiful Characters – Does the comm ercial present one or more strikingly beautiful people? V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts – Does the commercial use graphics or charts as part of its presentation? V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words – Literal words on the screen used to reinforce some charac teristic of the produc t or part of the commercial message. Ex. “50% Stronger” or “3 out of 4 doctors recommend” V15. Visual Display of Logo – There is a visual picture of the logo in the commercial. B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition? 1. Attributes or ingredient as main message – A major focus of the commercial is to communicate something about how the product is made or the ingredients. Ex. Toot hpaste containing fluoride. 2. Product performance or benefit as main message – A major focus of the commercial is to communicate what the product does or how to use it. Ex. Whiter teeth. 3. Psychological or subjective benefits – A major focu s of the commercial is to communicate hidden or non-provable benefits of having/using the product. Ex. You will be mo re popular/confident/sexy. 4. Product reminder as main message – A product or package is the primary message rather than any sp ecific attribute/benefit. 5. Sexual Appeal – A main focus of the commercial is on sexual cues. 6. Comfort Appeal – A main focus of the commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts. Ex. Soft chairs, cool climate. 7. Safety Appeal – A main focus of th e commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or physical danger. Ex. Safety alarms. 8. Enjoyment Appeal A main focus of th e commercial is on enjoying life to the fullest; good food and drink and so on.

PAGE 70

59 9. Welfare Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on caring or providing for others. Ex. Gift giving. 10. Social Approval A main focus of the commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining approval of others. 11. Self Esteem or Self Image A main focus of the commercial is on feeling better about oneself, improving one self, being a better person. 12. Achievement A main focus of the co mmercial is on obtaining superiority over others, getting ahead, winning. 13. Excitement/Variety A main focu s of the commercial is on adding excitement, thrills, variety to life. Avoiding boredom. C) Commercial Format V17. What is the dominant fo rmat of the commercial? 1. Vignette – A series of two or more stories that can stand alone. No continuing storyline, but several i ndependent stories which may convey the same message. Multiple interv iews would be an example. 2. Slice of Life – Interplay between two or more people that portray a conceivable real life situation. Th ere is continuity of action. 3. Testimonial by product user – One or mo re individuals recounts his or her satisfaction for the product advertised or the results of using the product advertised. For example Bill Cosby for Jell-O. 4. Endorsement by celebrity/authority – One or more individuals or organizations advocates or recomme nds the product but does not claim personal use or satisfaction. 5. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy – A demonstration of product in use, for example – a man shaving in a commercial for shaving cream; women applying ma ke up. A demonstration of the use of the product, benefit, or product character istic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration, as in the ca se of dipping chalk into a beaker of fluoride to demonstrate how fluoride is to be absorbed by the teeth. 6. Demonstration of results of usi ng a product – Demonstration of the outcome of using the product. For example, shining floors and bouncing hair. 7. Comedy or Satire – The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor an elemen t of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny. 8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope – The entire commercial or some substantial part is animated. For exam ple the Keebler Elves. Rotoscope is a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time. For example the Trix Rabbit. 9. Photographic Stills – The use of phot ographic stills in part of the commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models. 10. Creation of Mood or Image as dominan t element – An attempt to create a desire for the product, without o ffering a specific product claim, by appealing to the viewers’ emo tional/sensory involvement.

PAGE 71

60 11. Commercial written as a serious dram a – The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. 12. Fantasy/Exaggeration/Surrealism – Us e of animation or other visual devices instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on th e part of the viewer. 13. Problem & Solution – An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem. Example foot odor. 14. Interview – An interview, question/an swers is the primary vehicle in the commercials. Example – Rolaids “How do you spell relief”? D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message V18. Informational/Rational or Tr ansformational/Image/Emotional 1. Informational/Rational – Primary focu s is on information or facts about the brand or product presented in some logical way to suggest some reason for purchasing the brand or product. Ex. Business to Business ads. 2. Transformational/Image/Emotional – Primary focus is on creating an image or mood. Sometimes these ads ar e referred to as “soft sell” ads. Usually, but not always, there is little or no information or content present in the sense of facts about the brand or product. E) Commercial Setting V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting? 1. Indoors – Is the commercial setting or significant pa rt of it indoors or in other man made structures? Ex. Kitc hens, garages, offices, stadium, airplanes. 2. Outdoors – Is the commercial setting or significant part of it outdoors? Ex. Mountains, rivers, beaches backyard, gardens. 3. No setting – There is no particul ar setting for the commercial. V20. Where is the commercial setting? 1. Urban apartment/housing – A significant portion of the commercial is set in a home or apartment in a highly populated area. Ex. A house in a large neighborhood or city. 2. Rural apartment/housing – A significant portion of the commercial is set in a home or apartment in a sparsely populated area. Ex. A house in the middle of nowhere. 3. Office/business A significant portion of the commercial is set in an office building or business location. Ex. A boardroom meeting. 4. Restaurant A significant portion of the commercial is set in a place where food is served. 5. Obvious landmark A significant portion of the commercial is set at a wellknown landmark. Ex. The Eiffel Tower.

PAGE 72

61 6. Green pasture A significant portion of the commercial is set in a wide-open, grassy space. Ex. Cow pasture. 7. Mountainous area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near a mountainous region. Ex. A snowy peak with skiers. 8. Desert area A significant portion of the commercial is set in a sandy, barren region. Ex. The Sahara. 9. Beach/lake area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near water. Ex. People fishing on a lake. 10. Other – Insert location if none of the above applies. 11. Not Applicable – Absence of a setting. Ex. Cosmetic stills or blank screens. F) Music V21. Presence or absence of music – Is music present in the commercial in any format. V22. Presence of absence of culture specifi c music – Is the music that is present representative of the culture of origin. Ex. African drums. G) Commercial Tone/Atmosphere V23. Predominant Tones Examples 1. Cute/adorable – Welch’s Grape Ju ice commercials with little children. 2. Hard sell – Straight facts about product attributes. 3. Warm and caring – Jif Peanut Butter “Choosy Moms Choose Jif” 4. Modern/contemporary – Many liquor ads. 5. Wholesome/healthy – Food that’s “good for you”. 6. Technological – Computer related. 7. Conservative/Traditional/Nostalgic – Ma ny black and white or sepia tones. 8. Happy/fun-loving – Travel commercials like Carnival Cruise Lines. 9. Cool/Laid-back – Beer commercials like Coors Light. 10. Somber/serious – Many PSA’s – “Don’t let friends drink and drive”. 11. Uneasy/tense – Security i ssues, political issues. 12. Glamorous – High fashion, make up, alcohol. 13. Humorous – Bud Light “Real Men of Genius”. 14. Rough/rugged – Jeep commercials, Marlboro Cowboys. H) Comparisons V24. Direct comparison with other products 1. Yes – Comparison is direct or obvio us in nature. Example – Coke and Pepsi, Crest and Colgate. Or example “that other cleaner….” 2. No – No comparison is made Product stands alone. I) Languages (Spoken ) V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language

PAGE 73

62 1. Presence – Any spoken word in the comme rcial is in the language native to the region/country that it is shown in. Example – Japanese ad for Coke is spoken in Japanese. 2. Absence – A ‘globalized’ ad. Every commercial shown regardless of location is in the same language. Exampl e – The same exact Coke commercial spoken in English is shown in Japan, China, Latin America, and Europe. 3. Cannot code – There is no spoken word in the commercial. J) Characters V26. Who is the dominant charact er being shown in the ad? 1. Professional male – Dominant charact er is a male businessman, doctor, lawyer, etc. 2. Professional female – Dominant char acter is a female businesswoman, doctor, lawyer, etc. 3. Entertainer male – Dominant character is a famous male actor, singer, or performer. 4. Entertainer female Dominant character is a famous female actress, singer, or performer. 5. Sports star male – Dominant character is a famous male sports personality. 6. Sports star female Dominant character is a famous female sports personality. 7. Supermodel male – Dominant character is a well-known male supermodel. 8. Supermodel female Dominant character is a well-known female supermodel. 9. Model male – Dominant character is a “good looking”, unknown, male actor. (Axe) 10. Model female – Dominant character is a “good looking”, unknown female actress. (Ice Breakers Gum) 11. Elderly male – Dominant char acter is an elderly man. 12. Elderly female Dominant ch aracter is an elderly woman. 13. Child – Dominant character is a ch ild presumably under 12 years old. 14. Teenager – Dominant character is a teenager presumably 13-19 years old. 15. Young adult – Dominant character is a young adult/college student presumably in their 20s. 16. Mother – Dominant character is a female playing a motherly/matriarchal role. 17. Father – Dominant character is a male playing a fatherly/patriarchal role. 18. Real-life male – Dominant character is a “real guy” on the streets. Ex. Interview. 19. Real-life female Dominant character is a “real girl” on the streets. Ex. Interview. 20. Cartoon – Dominant character is animated. 21. Not applicable – No human/cartoon characters.

PAGE 74

63 K) Localization V27. Is the product culture specific? 1. Yes – The product is designed for a sp ecific cultural market. An example is shampoos or hair care products designe d specifically for “Women of color”. 2. No – The product is universal and can be used by anybody. Example – Coke. L) Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture V28. Individualism/Collectivism 1. Highly individualistic – The commercial exudes an air of individualism, self-preservation, and peopl e looking after themselves only. Examples include the “lone” runner/winner in a Nike ad, and “An Army of One”. 2. Highly collectivist – The commerci al exudes an air of strong group mentality. It is very “we” oriented and members of the group make decisions on what would be best for the group/cul ture/country as a whole. Examples include many PSA’s that explain “whe n you do your part, we all succeed.” V29. Masculine/Feminine 1. Highly Masculine – The commercial’s dominant values are achievement and success. Achievement and status is highly regarded. Examples include winning, the big fast sports cars for status symbol, being “the best”. 2. Highly feminine – The commercial’s dominant values are nurturing, caring, warm, and quality of life. There is no competition. Examples include “it’s okay if you are not the winner or the best…” V30. Long term orientation/ Short term orientation 1. Highly long term – The commercial’s dominant values are perseverance, reverence for nature, and harmony of man with nature. Examples include Confucian values in Asian societies. 2. Highly short term – The commercial’s dominant values include a focus on favors, gifts, current stability, and on e’s immediate gratification. Examples include “Hungry? Gotta eat!” V31. Power distance

PAGE 75

64 1. Strongest power distance – The commercial’s domina nt values are having a social hierarchy and knowing one’s pl ace. Acceptance of authority comes naturally. Examples include a strict boss and a subservient employee. 2. Weakest power distance – There is no social hierarchy and authority has a negative connotation. V32. Uncertainty Avoidance 1. Strongest UAI – The co mmercial’s dominant valu es include avoidance of the ambiguous and uncertain situations. Examples include commercials that show rules, structure, and formality to life. 2. Weakest UAI – The commercial’s domi nant values include as few social ‘rules’ as possible and ritu alistic behavior is not present. The commercial can use competition or conflict because they are not seen as threatening. Examples include direct comparison advertisements such as “The Pepsi Challenge”.

PAGE 76

65 APPENDIX B CODE SHEET Clio Award-Winning Advertiseme nts and Dimensions of Culture V1. Case ID #______ V2. Coder initials______ V3. Ad Title___________________________________________________ V4. Brand_____________________________________________________ V5. Agency Name______________________________________________ V6. Country of Origin____________________________________________ V7. Color (1) All Color (2) B&W (3) Mixed V8. Award level (1) Grand (2) Gold (3) Silver (4) Bronze V9. Award Year 1. 2005 6. 1999 2. 2004 7. 1998 3. 2003 8. 1996 4. 2001 9. 1995 5. 2000 V10. Award Category 1. Agriculture/Industrial/Building 2. Alcoholic Beverages 3. Apparel and Accessories 4. Automobiles and Vehicles 5. Beauty Aids 6. Beer 7. Carbonated Beverages 8. Non-carbonated Beverages 9. Breakfast Foods 10. Business Products 11. Children’s Products 12. Computer and Related (for business or personal) 13. Consumer Electronics 14. Cosmetics 15. Credit or Debit Cards 16. Delivery Systems and Products 17. Entertainment 18. High Fashion 19. Fast Food and Restaurant 20. Financial Services or Products 21. General retail/E-tail 22. Health Aids and Over the Counter Products 23. Health Aids Prescription Products 24. Health and Medical Products and Services

PAGE 77

66 25. Hotels/Resorts 26. Household Durable Products 27. Internet Services 28. Leisure Products 29. Package Food 30. Personal Care Products 31. Pet Care 32. Professional Services 33. Real Estate 34. Self Care: Body 35. Snacks/Desserts 36. Telecom Services 37. Transportation 38. Travel/Tourism 39. Public Service Announcements A) Visual Devices V11. Scenic Beauty 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V12. Beautiful Characters 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V15. Visual Display of Logo 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition? 1. Attribute or ingredient as the main message 2. Product performance or benefit as the main message 3. Psychological or subjective benefit as the main message 4. Product reminder as main message 5. Sexual appeal 6. Comfort appeal 7. Safety appeal

PAGE 78

67 8. Enjoyment appeal 9. Welfare appeal 10. Social approval 11. Self-esteem or self-image 12. Achievement 13. Excitement, variety C) Commercial Format V17. What is the dominant fo rmat of the commercial? 1. Vignette 2. Slice of life 3. Testimonial by product user 4. Endorsement by a celebrity or authority 5. Demonstration of product in use 6. Demonstration of results of using the product 7. Comedy or Satire 8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope 9. Photographic stills 10. Creation of mood or image as dominant element 11. Fantasy/exaggeration/surrealism as dominant element 12. Problem and solution (before/after presentation) 13. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message V18. Informational/Rational OR Tr ansformational/Image/Emotional 1. Informational 2. Transformational E) Commercial Setting V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting? 1. Indoors 2. Outdoors 3. Other 4. No setting V20. Where is the commercial setting 1. Urban apartment/housing 2. Rural apartment/housing 3. Office/business setting 4. Restaurant 5. Obvious landmark 6. Green pasture 7. Mountainous area

PAGE 79

68 8. Desert 9. Beach/lake area 10. Other 11. Not applicable F) Music V21. Presence or absence of music 1. Presence 2. Absence V22. Presence or absence of country specific music 1. Presence 2. Absence G) Commercial tone and atmosphere V23. (Please select the predominant tone) 1. Cute/adorable 2. Hard sell 3. Warm and caring 4. Modern/contemporary 5. Wholesome/healthy 6. Technological 7. Conservative/traditional/nostalgic 8. Happy/fun-loving 9. Cool/laid-back 10. Somber/serious 11. Uneasy/tense 12. Glamorous 13. Humorous 14. Rough/rugged H) Comparisons V24. Is there a direct comp arison with other products? 1. Yes 2. No I) Languages V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language 4. Presence 5. Absence 6. Cannot code.

PAGE 80

69 J) Characters V26. Who is the dominant charact er being shown in the ad? 22. Professional male 23. Professional female 24. Entertainer male 25. Entertainer female 26. Sports star male 27. Sports star female 28. Supermodel male 29. Supermodel female 30. Model male 31. Model female 32. Elderly male 33. Elderly female 34. Child 35. Teenager 36. Young Adult 37. Mother 38. Father 39. Real-life male 40. Real-life female 41. Cartoon/Animated 42. Not applicable K) Localization V27. Is the product culture specific? 3. Yes 4. No L) Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture V28. Presence of Individualism? 1. Yes 2. No V28b. Presence of Collectivism? 1. Yes 2. No V29. Presence of Masculinity? 1. Yes 2. No V29b. Presence of Femininity? 1. Yes 2. No V30. Presence of Long term orientation? 1. Yes 2. No

PAGE 81

70 V30b. Presence of Short term orientation? 1. Yes 2. No V31. High power distance present? 1. Yes 2. No V31b. Low power distance present? 1. Yes 2. No V32. High uncertainty avoidance present? 1. Yes 2. No V32b. Low uncertainty avoidance present? 1. Yes 2. No Notes:

PAGE 82

71 REFERENCES Abernethy, A., & Franke, G. (1996). The info rmation content of a dvertising: A metaanalysis. Journal of Advertising 25(2), 1-7. About, Inc. (2006). Advertising aw ards. Retrieved March, 2006, from http://advertising.about. com/cs/awards/index.htm Advertising Age. (2005). 1960s Creat ivity and breaking the rules. Advertising Age 76(13), 50-54. Albers-Miller, N., & Stafford, M. (1999). International services advertising: An examination of the variation in appeal us e for experiential and utilitarian services. Journal of Services Marketing 13(4), 390-406. Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research New York: The Free Press. Brophy, A. (2005). International Clio awards revives popular TV awards special in partnership with Dick Clark Produc tions. Retrieved March, 2006, from http://www.clioawards.com/pre ss/index.cfm?year=2005&pressid=97 Buckman, R. (1990). Cultural agenda of Latin American newspapers and magazines: Is U.S. domination a myth? Latin American Research Review 25(2), 134-155. Caillat, Z., & Mueller, B. ( 1996). Observations: The influe nce of culture on American and British advertising: An explorat ory comparison of beer advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 36(3), 79-88. Cohen, J. (1960). Coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20, 37-46 Dahl, S. (2004). Intercultural research: The current state of knowledge. Middlesex University discussion paper 26. Retrieved March 2006 from http://stephan.dahl.at/in tercultural/hall.html Davis, J. (1997). Advertising research: Theory and practice Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Davis, S. (1969). U.S. versus Latin Amer ica: business & culture: Improvement of management policies and performance can result from an understanding of basic differences in each environment. Harvard Business Review 47(6), 88-98.

PAGE 83

72 Davis, D., & Jasinski, J. (1993). Beyond the culture wars: An agenda for research on communication and culture. Journal of Communication 43(3), 141-149. De Mooij, M. (2000). The future is predicta ble for international marketers: Converging incomes lead to diverging consumer behavior. International Marketing Review 17(2), 103-113 De Mooij, M. (2004). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Fox, R. (2001). Warning advertising may be hazardous to your health. USA Today Magazine 130(2678), 62-66. Frith, K., & Mueller, B. (2003). Advertising and societies: Global issues New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Gagnard, A. & Morris, J. (1988). CLIO co mmercials from 1975-1985: Analysis of 151 executional variables. Journalism Quarterly 65(4), 859-865. Gregory, G., & Munch, J. (1997). Cultural va lues in international advertising: An examination of familial norms and roles in Mexico. Psychology & Marketing 14(2), 99-119. Hall, E. (1976). Beyond culture Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Han, S., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 30, 326-350. Helgesen, T. (1994). Advertising awards and advertising agency performance criteria. Journal of Advertising Research 34(4), 43-53. Herbig, P., & Yelkur, R. (1997). Differences between Hispanic and Anglo consumer expectations Management Decision 35(2), 125-132. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: Internati onal differences in work-related values Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Holsti, O. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Iivonen, M., Sonnewald, D., Parma, M., & Poole-Kober, E. (1998). Analyzing and understanding cultural differences: Experi ences from education in library and information studies. Presented at the 64th IFLA General Conference. Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 16-August 21, 1998. Kassarjian, H. (1977). Content anal ysis in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research 4(2), 8-18.

PAGE 84

73 Kolbe, R., & Bellinger, D. (1985). Correlate s of successful advertising campaigns: The manager’s perspective. Journal of Advertising Research 25, 34-39. Koslow, S., Sasser, S. & Riordan, E. (2003) What is creative to whom and why? Perceptions in advertising agencies. Journal of Advertising Research March, 98110. Kover, A., James, W. & Sonner, B. (1997). To whom do advertisi ng creatives write? And inferential answer. Journal of Advertising Research January/February, 41-53 Krippendorf, K. (1980). Content analysis: An intr oduction to its methodology Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Lenartowicz, T., & Johnson, J. (2003). A crossnational assessment of the values of Latin America managers: Contrasti ng hues or shades of gray? Journal of International Business Studies 34(3), 266-282. Lenti, P. (1993). The Latin Ameri can film industry takes on Hollywood. North American Congress on Latin America 27(2), 4-10. Llosa, M. (1982). El elefante y la cultura. Excelsior 1, A-3 Macionis, J. (1995). Sociology Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Marshall, S. (2006). Advertising message strategies and executional devises in television commercials from award-winning “eff ective” campaigns from 1999 to 2004 Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida. McConnell, F. (1993). Truly dishonest: and joe six-pack knows it. Commonweal, 120(2), 14 McGrath, J. (2006). Understanding culture a nd cultural differences: Introduction to the study of other cultures. Retrieved March 2006, from http://blue.butler.edu/~jfmcgrat/culture.htm Morgan, M., Leggett, S., & Shananhan, J. ( 1999). Television and family values: Was Can Quayle right? Mass Communication & Society 2(1/2), 47-63. Owen, C., & Scherer, R. (2002). Doing busine ss in Latin America: Managing cultural differences in perceptions of female expatriates Sam Advanced Management Journal, Spring, 37-41. Perreault, W., & Leigh, L. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research 26(2), 135-148. Pollay, R. (1983). Measuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. In J.H. Leigh and C. R. Martin (Eds.), Current issues and research in advertising Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 71-92

PAGE 85

74 Resnik, A., & Stern, B. (1977). In formation content in TV ads. Journal of Marketing 41, 51-53. Schwartz, S. (1994). Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Cross-cultural research and methodology series, Vol. 18 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Sondergaard, M. (1994). Research note; Hofste des consequences: A study of reviews, citations and replications. Organization Studies 15(3), 447-456. SPSS Inc. (2006). SPSS Base 14.0 for Windows Us ers Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Stewart, D., & Furse, D. (1986). Effective television adver tising: A study of 1000 commercials Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Stevens, W. (1991). Doing business in the Eastern Bloc: Conceptual differences in accounting principles-The language of business. Review of Business 13 (1/2). Tansey, R., & Hyman, M. (1994). Dependency th eory and the effects of advertising by foreign-based multinational corporations in Latin America. Journal of Advertising 23(1), 27-40. Taylor, D. (1992). Global software: Developing applica tions for the international market New York: Springer-Verlag. Taylor, C., Miracle, G., & Wilson, D. (1997) The impact of information level on the effectiveness of U.S. and Korean television commercials Journal of Advertising 26(1), 1-18. Taylor, C., & Stern, B. (1997). Asian-Americans: Television advertising and the model minority stereotype. Journal of Advertising, 2692), 47-61. West, D., Collins, E., & Miciak, A. (2003). Management perspectives of awards for creative advertising. Journal of General Management 29(2), 23-34. Zandapour, F., & Campos, V. (1994). Global reac h and local touch; Achieving cultural fitness in television advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 34(5), PAGE # Zhang, Y., & Gelb, B. (1996). Matching advertis ing appeals to cultur e: The influence of products use conditions. Journal of Advertising 25(3), 30-45.

PAGE 86

75 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Scarlett Rosier never planne d to receive her master’s degree, nor did she plan on spending more than four years at the University of Florida, but that was five years ago. She is unsure where she wants to begin her care er and is open to suggestions. Until she is gainfully employed she will be spending time with her amazing horse Lavish, enjoying the company of her best friends and feeding the travel bug.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0016202/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Clio Award Winning Advertisements
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0016202:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0016202/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Clio Award Winning Advertisements
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0016202:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Tables
        Page ix
        Page x
    Abstract
        Page xi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Literature review
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Methodology
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Results
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Discussion and conclusions
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Appendix A: Code book
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendix B: Code sheet
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    References
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Biographical sketch
        Page 75
Full Text












COMPARISON OF U.S. AND LATIN AMERICAN CLIO AWARD WINNING
ADVERTISEMENTS

















By

SCARLETT WHITNEY ROSIER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Scarlett Whitney Rosier

































This document is dedicated to my mother for being a shoulder to lean on, my father for
being the calm in the storm, my brother for teaching me things that I could never learn in
school and my horse for making me smile even on the worst of days.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

There are many individuals to thank who have influenced the path that I followed.

I would like to first thank my mother who has bared the brunt of my highs and lows,

without her encouragement, love and guidance I would not be the person I am today.

Next, I would like to thank my father who found a way to provide support and comfort

without being overbearing. My brother, the one person who has all the qualities that I

lack, has influenced my life in more ways then I think he even knows. To my horse,

Lavish, the only reason I still have low-blood pressure and a smile on my face.

To Dr. Sutherland, who in his own way gave me all the materials necessary to

succeed. To Dr. Roberts, who was the impetus for my desire to study international

advertising. Dr. Cho, without him I would still have no idea what a chi-square test is. Dr.

Goodman, who was always available to give advice starting from copy and visualization

to the day before my thesis defense. To Jody Hedge who never made me feel stupid for

asking crazy questions. To Dr. Steve Marshall thank you for being the one to go before

us and leaving behind a phenomenal dissertation without you I would still be working on

this thesis. To all the brilliant minds of the advertising department thank you for

providing me with the tools necessary to enter the real world.

The next group of individuals I would like to acknowledge are not related nor are

they faculty, but they are the people I chose to surround myself with, the ones who let me

act crazy, laughed at me, laughed with me and made sure I didn't completely lose my

mind. To Jean, the best roommate and friend I could have ever been randomly placed









with, thanks for keeping me sane for four years. To Kelley, my first friend "ever" thanks

for keeping me fed, sheltered and still riding. Crazy Raga my fellow Libra who

understands all my quirks without you this year would have been just another 365 days.

Nick one of the few people whom I allow to see me cry, thank you for giving me tough

love. To James the person who thought I talked too much, thank you for allowing me to

talk too much. Elizabeth, the first to go to the real world, thank you for all the

motivation. To Isyana thank you for keeping me in dancing shoes. To Zach thank you

for every word of encouragement that you sent my way, I don't think I could have

finished this without your many late night ims. Joe although your brother gets precedent

you still managed to earn a place in the thank you section. Tracy the one person that I

was definitely supposed to meet in college I don't think we could be connected by

anymore people, but then again who knows. Mike and Paul, thank you for providing me

lodging at The UF and being amazing hosts. Marla, I should have known the

consequences of meeting you at a wedding would be grave, but it sure has been fun.

Greg it's a bummer I didn't meet you earlier. To all my friends thank you for listening to

me talk at great lengths about a topic that most of you had no interest in at all. It was all

of your encouragement, support and insistence that I get out of the house every once in a

while that got me through this stage in my life. I truly am grateful to each and every one

of you.

This next individual has perhaps been the most influential to this entire experience.

She has truly experienced the full range of my emotions. I believe I can go so far as to

say that she knows what it would be like to be married to me. Marie there are many

things to thank you for including; convincing me to buy tickets to Seattle at 1 AM,









agreeing that driving to Indianapolis to watch the Gators win the National Championship

was a brilliant plan even if it meant driving to Macon, GA in the middle of the night,

deciding to go on a European adventure BEFORE finishing our thesis, constantly coming

up with something to LOL about no matter what the circumstance, sharing a double size

bed, eating a disgusting array of food, putting up with my incessant ring tones, dealing

with my never-ending cold and in general being the only person that understands the

events that took place this year and this summer. Marie because of you my personality

may be slightly altered, I now laugh at things no one in their right mind would find funny

and I agree to too many trips and for all that I am thankful.

Finally, I would like to thank the geniuses behind instant messenger, myspace.com,

thefacebook.com and Cosmopolitan magazine who have provided me with endless hours

of procrastination. To my computer the one material possession that I babied, thanks for

crashing on me the day before my defense, RIP.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ..................................................... ix

ABSTRACT .................................................... ................. xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ........ .. ......................................... ..........................................1.

Purpose of the Study .......................... .. ........... ...................................... ...3
O opportunities from R esults.......................................... ......................... ...............3...

2 LITER A TU RE REV IEW .................................................................... ...............4...

Culture Defined ................ ....................... ............................... .4
Importance of Understanding Cultural Differences ...............................................5...
P erpetu ation of C culture .............................................................. .............. .............. .7...
Perpetuation of Culture Through Mediated Images ........................................7...
Perpetuation of Culture Through Advertising .................................. ...............8...
C u ltu ral T h eo ries ................................................................................................... .. 9
E dw ard T H all .............................................................................................. 9
Shalom Schw artz .... ... ......................................... ....................... . ........... 10
Geert Hofstede ................. .. ............ ............................... 12
Previous Cross-Cultural Studies ...................................................... ............... 16
Introduction to Latin A m erican Culture ................................................ ................ 19
Understanding Latin America and its Culture................................ ................ 20
G geography of Latin A m erica.................. .................................................... 20
Social and E conom ic F actors ......................................................... ................ 2 1
U universal C haracteristics....................................... ...................... ................ 2 1
B u siness in L atin A m erica.............................................................. ................ 22
C reativity A effects C ulture.......................................... ......................... ................ 24
Advertising Awards ................................... ......... ...... ...............25
C lio A w ard s ......................................................................................................... 2 5
W inning C relative A w ards ..................................... ...................... ................ 27
W ays Creativity Reflects Culture.................................................... 27
P u rp o se ...................................................................................................... ........ .. 2 8
H y p o th e se s ................................................................................................................ .. 2 9









3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ................................................... ............................................ 30

C ontent A naly sis D efined ...................................................................... ................ 30
Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Methods................................31
Creating The Current Content A analysis ................................................ ................ 32
C category R liability .... ............................................................... .............. 33
Interjudge Reliability ........................................................................ 34
U nit of A analysis .................................................................................................... 35
Sam pling D esign .........................................................................................................35
Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis........................................... ................ 35
Rules and Procedures .. .. ................. ............................................... 35
Coders and Coder Training ......................................................... 36
P retest.............. ........................................................................ . ..... 37
C oder Independence .............. ...... ............ .............................................. 38
N um ber of C orders per Spot...................................................... ................ 38
Intercoder R liability .................................................. ............... .. .. ... ....... ..... 38
Final Revisions to the Codebook and Code sheets................................................40
Category D decisions ...................................................................... ............ 41
D ata A analysis .................................................................................................. 4 1

4 R E S U L T S .......................................................................................... ..................... 4 2

D escriptive Statistics of Clio com m ercials............................................ ................ 42
Spot D escriptive Statistics of Country ........................................... ................ 42
Spot D escriptive Statistics of Y ear................................................. ................ 43
Spot Descriptive Statistics Clio Award Level................................ ................ 43
Spot D escriptive Statistics of A gencies.......................................... ................ 44
Spot D escriptive Statistics of Categories ....................................... ................ 44
Spot Descriptive Statistics of Dominant Characters ......................................45
H y p o th e se s ................................................................................................................ .. 4 6

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS .................................................................53

Com paring the R results to the Literature................................................ ................ 54
L im itatio n s ................ .......................................................................................... .. 5 5
Future R research R ecom m endations ...................................................... ................ 56

APPENDIX

A C O D E B O O K .. ............ .................................................. ............... .... .. .. .. 58

B CO D E SH EET ........................................................................... ..... .... ....... ............... 65

REFERENCES ................................. .. ........... .....................................71

BIO GR APH ICAL SK ETCH .................................................................... ................ 75




viii















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 Hofstede's (1980) Dimensions of culture: Brazil versus USA ..............................20

2 Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Leigh (1989) Intercoder Reliability ...................40

3 New Groups for Question 10: Award Category.................................. ................ 41

4 New Groups for Question 16: What Is the Dominant Commercial Appeal or
Selling Proposition ........... .............. .... ........ ......... ............... 41

5 Latin Am erican Countries Total (N =33)............................................. ................ 43

6 Clio Award Years .................. .. ........... ............................... 43

7 A w ard L evel of Spots. ...................................................................... ................ 44

8 Clio Award W inning Advertising Agencies ....................................... ................ 44

9 C lio A w ard C categories ........................................... .......................... ................ 45

10 Dom inant Characters Portrayed in Clio Ads....................................... ................ 45

11 Presence or Absence of Individualism USA vs. Latin America ..............................46

12 Presence or Absence of Collectivism USA vs. Latin America.............................. 47

13 Presence or Absence of Masculinity in USA vs. Latin America ..........................47

14 Presence or Absence of Femininity USA vs. Latin America...............................48

15 Presence or Absence of Long-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America ............48

16 Presence or Absence of Short-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America ............48

17 Presence or Absence of High Power Distance USA vs. Latin America ...............49

18 Presence or Absence of Low Power Distance USA vs. Latin America................49

19 Presence or Absence of High Uncertainty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America ......50









20 Presence or Absence of Low Uncertainty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America.......50

21 Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Executional Variables .........................51















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

COMPARISON OF U.S. AND LATIN AMERICAN CLIO AWARD WINNING
ADVERTISEMENTS

By

Scarlett Whitney Rosier


December 2006

Chair: John Sutherland
Major Department: Advertising

The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether or not creativity reflects

culture. Hofstede's dimensions of culture were used as the theoretical framework while

the study was operationalized using Clio award winning advertisements from the years

1995 through 2004; the Clio awards did not take place during 1997 whereas the 2002

Clio awards tape was unavailable for this research. A content analysis was the method

used to conduct the research. The study was interested in uncovering the occurrence of

Hofstede's dimensions of culture and executional variables in award winning

advertisements. The executional variables utilized a variable analysis framework based

on the Stewart and Furse comprehensive research study of Effective Television

Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In an era of booming international growth and global communities, it is important

to understand the roles that cultural differences play in shaping the environment. Before

one can uncover the importance of cultural differences, it is imperative that there is a

general knowledge of culture. Culture is a concept that has been studied time and time

again by numerous scholars for a variety of different reasons. However, each individual

has a slightly different view of what culture is and what it means to the world. One

definition of culture is that it is "the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that

influences a group's response to its environment" (Hofstede, 1980, p. 19). A proper

understanding of culture allows one to uncover its importance to life. Culture is such a

prominent aspect of human life therefore, that understanding its differences is essential to

the workings of business, diplomacy, politics, religion and social work.

Understanding differences among cultures is a safe way to ensure that costly

mistakes in marketing are avoided. For example, a proper understanding of cultural

differences could have saved General Motors a lot of money had they conducted cultural

research on the meanings of certain Spanish words when they attempted to sell the

"Corsa" and the "Nova" in the Spanish market (Taylor, 1992). The names carried poor

connotations for cars, "Corsa" resembles coarser and "Nova" was understood as "doesn't

go" (Taylor, 1992).

Culture persists through different forms ranging from interpersonal

communications to mediated communication. When mediated communication









perpetuates culture it is suggested by cultivation theory that what is viewed on television

ultimately creates a shared cultural environment of images and representations with

which viewers grow and live (Morgan, Leggett & Shananhan, 1999). Due to the

influence of the mass media and a global environment, it has become necessary for

advertisers and marketers to develop a means of communicating to the world. However,

global communication is often a difficult feat to accomplish.

Many scholars have conducted in-depth research on culture, cultural differences

and the perpetuation of culture. In regards to cultural differences there are three

prevailing theories, Hall (1976), Schwartz (1994) and Hofstede (1980). All three theories

deal with cultural values and their differences. However, Hofstede's (1980) dimensions

of culture have proven to be the most successful and most often used framework when

utilizing content analysis.

The majority of studies that utilize Hofstede's (1980) theory tend to focus attention

on Asian cultures versus United States culture. However, little research has been

conducted comparing Latin American culture to United States culture. A comparison of

these two cultures would be beneficial due to both the economic, business and marketing

opportunities that each culture has to offer the other (Tansey & Hyman, 1994).

As previously stated many research studies have focused on culture and related

properties, yet few have looked at how culture is displayed in creative, award winning

advertisements. One of the most well-known advertising award programs is the

international Clio awards. Judges decide winning ads based on their creativity.









An interesting way to view how culture is transmitted through mediated images

would be to use Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture as a means to study Clio award

winning advertisements.

Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether or not creativity reflects

culture. Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture were used as the theoretical framework

while the study was operationalized using Clio award winning advertisements from the

years 1995 through 2004; the Clio awards did not take place during 1997 whereas 2002

Clio awards tape was unavailable for this research. The purpose was not only to uncover

whether or not creativity reflects culture, but also to compare the differences in

dimensions, as displayed in ads, between the United States and Latin America. A content

analysis was conducted utilizing the aforementioned sample. The study looked at the

occurrence of creative and executional techniques used in multicultural advertisements.

The study employed a variable analysis framework based on the Stewart and Furse

(1986) comprehensive research study of Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000

Commercials.

Opportunities from Results

The results of this research have the opportunity to add more proof that Hofstede's

(1980) dimensions of culture, although a bit outdated and based on an IBM business

survey, are still useful in today's international advertising arena. In combination with

adding support to Hofstede's (1980) framework, the study could also contribute to aiding

agencies in general and creative specifically in realizing that representing a culture

properly through its specific cultural dimensions will lead to award winning

advertisements or just better ads in general.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

We live in a time in which global economies and international communication are

paramount to the success of individual and worldwide markets. Therefore, it has become

imperative that we understand all aspects of culture, especially cultural differences.

Cultural differences have played a huge role in the global environment. Yet, in order for

one to fully understand the importance of cultural differences it is necessary that there is

a full understanding of culture in general.

Only by submitting to this challenge and encouragement will our culture be
authentic, timely and creative- the best means of our social and economic progress.
(Llosa, 1982 p. A-3)

Culture Defined

Culture is a concept that has been studied time and time again by numerous

scholars for a variety of different reasons. One scholarly definition of culture is

The written or graphic representation or discussion of one of the aesthetic products
or characteristics of a given homogenous social group, which include architecture,
art, classical and popular music, literature, poetry, philosophy, dance, theater,
opera, cinema, radio, television, fashion, gastronomy, journalism, photography,
history, archaeology, anthropology, royalty, folklore and travel. (Buckman, 1990,
p.136)

A similar view of culture is that it is the beliefs, morals, laws and customs that a

group of people living in one community share and pass on to younger generations.

These morals and customs have the ability to shape behavior, or add structure to a

person's world (livonen, Sonnenwald, Parma & Poole-Kober, 1998). According to

Macionis (1995), humans are the only species whose survival depends on what culture









teaches them instead of through natural biological senses. Culture gives groups their own

symbols, language, values, norms and material views. When individuals are immersed in

their culture they are able to communicate, understand and essentially live (Macionis,

1995). Culture allows humans to communicate with one another, share values, follow

rules and norms, and maintain social control.

Importance of Understanding Cultural Differences

Understanding cultural differences allows individuals to see that traits such as the

American way of standing three feet away to talk are not the guiding rule of etiquette

around the world and that Europeans who step close to talk are not rude, just following

their cultural guidelines. Gaining knowledge about cultural differences is important to

the workings of business, diplomacy, politics, religion and social work to be effective

(McGrath, 2006). Stevens (1991) uses an example of how Eastern Bloc cultures measure

business profits and objectives versus the Western way of measuring profits and

objectives. The example discusses how in centrally-planned economies such as the

Eastern Bloc, output prices (i.e.,revenue or selling price) and input prices (i.e., expenses

for labor) are assigned by the government as economic norms. Unlike in Eastern cultures

prices in the United States are market-based and show a compromise between buyers and

sellers (Stevens, 1991). This example suggests that to successfully conduct business or

grow businesses internationally, it is important for each party, the investor and the host,

to understand the culturally specific business dealings of one another. A full

understanding of cultural differences may help businesses that go abroad reduce potential

risks.

Hofstede (1980) uses the Middle East and the United States as another example of

the importance of understanding cultural differences in business. In Western cultures the









objective of negotiations is to work towards a final, mutual agreement. At the end of the

negotiation both parties shake hands, symbolizing the end of negotiations and the

beginning of the working agreement (Hofstede, 1980). In Middle Eastern countries there

is a great deal of negotiation that occurs before shaking hands, which signifies an

agreement. Unlike Western cultures where shaking hands signify the end, shaking hands

in the Middle East signifies that the serious negotiations are just starting (Hofstede,

1980). Understanding cultural differences is a necessity to ensure that positive outcomes

occur in global business transactions as well as political and diplomatic affairs.

Culture is more often riddled with conflict than with cohesion and cultural

differences tend to be disastrous (Hofstede, 1980). Hofstede's (1980) opinion of culture

may make the study of cultural differences appear futile at best, but if we did not study

and understand other cultures businesses could risk failure, economies could plummet,

political turmoil could rage and the world could return to the dark ages. One of the main

fields that benefit from the knowledge accumulated by the study of cultural differences is

advertising. Advertising is capable of making huge gaffes in the local market as well as

on foreign soil. Therefore, understanding cultural differences is necessary in successfully

marketing and selling products. It has been found that U.S. firms entering foreign

markets are the most prone to creating errors, although foreign firms are also guilty of

erring in the American market (Taylor, 1992). Naming products tend to be one of the

more difficult cross-cultural barriers to cross. Numerous products and services have been

promoted and advertised using a name that in one language or another is considered foul,

offensive or inappropriate for the context (Taylor, 1992). Words are not the only way to

offend a foreign consumer; symbols, icons and animals can also cause some frustration.









For example, in Britain the Apple Macintosh icon for a trashcan created a fairly large

problem. The American trashcan icon resembled a British postal box. Such a

discrepancy has the ability to be extremely detrimental to consumer trust and comfort

with a product (Taylor, 1992).

Perpetuation of Culture

In order for cultures to perpetuate themselves in a global environment they must be

able to communicate the values, rules and social structure to new members and reinforce

these cultural characteristics to current members. Social institutions such as churches and

schools have been used for centuries to teach members of society how to "fit in" to a

particular culture (Davis & Jasinski, 1993). Human beings are extremely interdependent

and use this characteristic to create culture and the social world (Davis & Jasinski, 1993).

One way culture is able to sustain itself is by interpersonal communication. Humans are

reliant on communication, it is internal and external communication practices that allow

us the ability to experience and identify ourselves (Davis & Jasinski, 1993). Another

way that culture is perpetuated in communities is through performance practices.

Performance practices allow for experiences that encourage involvement and feeling for

the social world in which one lives, rather than just transmission and learning of pieces of

information (Davis & Jasinski, 1993).

Perpetuation of Culture Through Mediated Images

Interpersonal communication within communities is only one way that allows

culture to perpetuate. Mediated versions of life such as television shows and movies also

teach us about our own culture as well as other cultures. For example, in 1992 the

debate over how television displays a contemporary American family went into overdrive

due to the portrayal of the title character in the sitcom Murphy Brown giving birth out of









wedlock. Thus began a heated debate stemming from housewives to the presidential

candidate Dan Quayle, regarding the volatile state of the culturally accepted form of the

nuclear family (Morgan, Leggett, & Shanahan, 1999). The idea that mediated images

influence culture was born out of the main hypothesis of cultivation theory, which

suggests that people who spend a large amount of time watching television are more

likely to view the real world in ways that mirror the most common and recurrent

messages shown on television, compared to people who view less television but still have

the same demographic characteristics (Morgan, Leggett, & Shananhan, 1999).

Cultivation theory proposes that television in general constructs a shared cultural

environment of images and representations with which we grow up and live (Morgan,

Leggett & Shananhan, 1999). In regards to the debate over single parent households,

Morgan, Leggett & Shananhan (1999) found that television viewing is adding to the

dismantling of traditional family values. The younger a person is and the more TV they

view the more likely they are to cultivate a belief in antifamily values (Morgan, Leggett,

& Shananhan, 1999). These results point to the overarching belief that culture and

mediated images are affected by one another.

Perpetuation of Culture Through Advertising

Advertising is another huge player in the continuation of culture. Since advertising

is so pervasive and the amount of advertising messages that an individual is exposed to in

a given day is exorbitant it is no wonder that advertising becomes part of our everyday

routine, almost second nature. "Consumption-and the advertising that drives it-is our

most powerful cultural force shaping our attitudes, beliefs, values and lifestyles (Fox,

2001)." Advertising is able to influence much of our emotional, physical, social and

cultural well-being.









Cultural Theories

Since culture encompasses many roles in an environment it is no wonder that

research theories linked to culture are abundant. However, there are three main theories

that are used to research cultural values in the global market. Edward T. Hall (1976),

Geert Hofstede (1980) and Shalom Schwartz (1994) each developed models that have

been used numerous times to successfully research culture and media. Although

Hofstede (1980) has the most popular model he is not the only person to develop a set of

dimensions based on cultural needs, values, verbal languages and nonverbal languages.

Hall (1976), an anthropologist, preceded Hofstede (1980).

Edward T. Hall

Hall (1976) developed the concept of high and low context cultures and worked on

the concept of monochronic and polychronic time. High context communication relies

on information that is already in the person or implicit, therefore little emphasis is placed

on the explicit or coded part of the message, whereas low context communication relies

heavily on the explicit part of the message (Hall, 1976). Cultures are not placed

specifically in a high context or low context category but rather they are found along a

continuum.

High Context Low Context

Japanese-Chinese-Arab-Greek-Spanish-Italian-English-French-U. S- Scandinavian-German-Swiss German

(Hall, 1976; Frith & Mueller, 2003)

High and low context communication can have a direct influence on mass

communication, especially advertising messages.

The second concept that Hall (1976) worked on was that of monochronic and

polychronic time. Monochronic or M-time tends to focus on accomplishing one thing at









a time, appointment times are rigid, time is inflexible and everything is organized and

methodological (Dahl, 2004). Monochronic cultures are usually low context cultures.

Polychonic or P-time focuses more on multi-tasking, appointment times are flexible, time

is flexible and interpersonal relations are most important (Dahl, 2004). Polychronic

cultures tend to be high context cultures. Japanese, Middle Eastern and Latin American

cultures tend to follow P-time while; Western cultures such as the United States,

Germany, Switzerland and Scandinavia follow M-time (Frith & Mueller, 2003).

Both of Hall's (1976) concepts are very useful and easily observed, however they

lack empirical data. The lack of empirical data and ambiguity makes application of the

concepts to a framework of a more analytical approach difficult, especially those that are

comparing cultures that are closely related. These concepts limit broad based research

because only one or two aspects of culture can be researched rather than multiple aspects

that could give a broad explanation of underlying values (Dahl, 2004).

Shalom Schwartz

A more recent cultural model proposed by Shalom Schwartz (1994), known as the

Schwartz Value Inventory, was originally meant to support or refine Hofstede's (1980)

dimensions of culture. Schwartz (1994) uses value types; a set of values that can be

conceptually combined into one meaningful description. Values located in a value type

have other values that are located at the opposite, or in the opposing value type, for

example; egalitarian commitment versus hierarchy (Dahl, 2004). Ten value types were

derived from 56 value questions using the smallest space analysis. The value types are

not independent because of the employment of the smallest space analysis (De Mooij,

2004). Seven value types were derived from the ten original value types to analyze









cultural level values. These seven values are conservatism, two types of autonomy

(intellectual and affective), hierarchy, mastery, egalitarian commitment and harmony.

Conservatism is derived from values that are important to societies such as, close-

knit harmonious relations where the individual interests are the groups' interest (De

Mooij, 2004). This value type strives to maintain tradition in both order and values

(Dahl, 2004). Conservatisms' negative polar opposite is autonomy. There are two types

of autonomy; intellectual and affective. Both types stress individual interests rather than

group interests. Intellectual autonomy include the values of individual thought, curiosity,

creativity and broadminded (De Mooij, 2004). Affective autonomy values pleasurable,

exciting experiences (Dahl, 2004). The next value type is hierarchy, which emphasizes

the values of social power, authority, humbleness and self-enhancement (De Mooij,

2004). Hierarchy finds a positive correlation with the mastery value type. Mastery

strives to achieve a mastery of the social environment through self-assertion and pursuit

of personal interest (De Mooij, 2004). The value type, egalitarian commitment concerns

itself with the welfare of others, social justice, equality and freedom. This value type is

the negative opposite of conservatism and the positive opposite of autonomy (De Mooij,

2004). The last value type is harmony. Harmony encompasses the values of harmony

with nature, world peace, and social justice. This value type is the opposite of mastery

(Dahl, 2004). The Schwartz (1994) model although originally meant to be similar to

Hofstede's (1980) model is in fact much different than Hofstede's (1980) model as well

as Hall's (1976) model. The use of values versus preferred states or behaviors could

potentially eliminate the impact of situational variables on respondents. However, the

use of values instead of specific outcomes encourages respondents to answer in how they









would want and not there actual state (Dahl, 2004). Schwartz's (1994) model tends to be

used less often in quantitative cross-cultural studies because of its tendency to measure

the desirable, which leads to utopian-like answers. The use of unipolar scales also makes

interpretation of results difficult for quantitative, cross-cultural studies like the one

discussed in this paper. The respondents for the Schwartz (1994) model were teachers

and students and therefore their answers may not be generalizable to a larger population.

Geert Hofstede

Geert Hofstede (1980) originally developed a model that included four dimensions

of culture; Power distance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity,

Uncertainty avoidance and only added the fifth dimension; Long-term/Short-term

orientation based on Confucianism after he conducted a business survey in China

(Hofstede, 1980). Hofstede's (1980) model was born out of a business research study

that he conducted between 1967 through 1973 for IBM in 64 countries (Hofstede, 1980).

The five dimensions are measured on an index of zero to 100 with zero representing the

lowest index and 100 indicating the highest index (De Mooij, 2004).

Power distance is defined as "the extent to which less powerful members of a

society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally" (De Mooij, 2004). The

individuals in countries such as Japan, India, Malaysia, Mexico and France, where the

power distance index is high are more accepting of social hierarchies and consider giving

and accepting authority the norm (Frith & Mueller, 2003). This type of acceptance of

authority also breeds dependency (Frith & Mueller, 2003). The Philippines with an index

score of 94 are a perfect example of a country with a high power distance (De Mooij,

2004). Populations with a low power distance such as the U.S., Austria, Denmark and

Hungary have a negative perspective of authority and consider equality of rights and









opportunity extremely important (De Mooij, 2004). Since equality is stressed in low

power distance cultures, persons with power try to down play their power and older men

and women try to look younger (De Mooij, 2004). While in high power distance cultures

social status and age are highly respected (De Mooij, 2004). When deciding how to

advertise in countries high in power distance it is a wise idea to employ testimonials by

celebrities, credible sources or users of the product (Zandapour & Campos, 1994).

The individualism/collectivism dimension suggests that "people look after

themselves and their immediate family only or people belong to in-groups who look after

them in exchange for loyalty" (De Mooij, p. 34, 2004). In individualistic cultures

everyone is concerned with looking after oneself, while societal laws and regulations are

in place to protect the individual (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Collectivistic cultures on the

other hand consider lifelong loyalty to one's in-group of up-most importance and if you

break those ties severe consequences will follow (Frith & Mueller, 2003). America is a

very individualistic society that is "I" conscious and strives for self-actualization (De

Mooij, 2004). In regard to collectivistic cultures such as Japan, the population is

concerned with being "we" conscious and desires harmony as well as avoidance of loss

of face (De Mooij, 2004). Advertising in Japan that showcases people in groups and use

the pronouns "we" and "us" are the most successful campaigns (Frith & Mueller, 2003).

Masculinity/femininity is the third dimension that is used to depict cultural

differences. "The dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success,

the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life" (De

Mooij, p. 34, 2004). Such cultures as America and Germany, that are dominated by

masculine characteristics tend to be driven by performance and achievement and winning









is an extremely positive attribute, while feminine cultures look for consequences and

prefer to focus on quality of life instead of winning and competition (De Mooij, 2004).

Sweden is considered a highly feminine society that does not stress social differentiation

of the sexes; both men and women are concerned with caring for all members of the

population including the weakest (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Appeals of winning, success

and status are effective advertising strategies in masculine societies whereas images

reflecting nurturing and relationships are effective in feminine cultures (Frith & Mueller,

2003).

"The extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to

avoid these situations," is the definition provided for uncertainty avoidance (De Mooij, p.

35, 2004). Britain, Sweden and Hong Kong have weak uncertainty avoidance indices

numbers, these cultures are not afraid of ambiguity and prefer to have as few rules as

possible (Frith & Mueller, 2003). Those individuals who reside in high uncertainty

avoidance countries like Germany, Austria and Japan, need rules and structure in their

life because anxiety is commonplace (De Mooij, 2004). In low scoring uncertainty

avoidance societies the individuals are result oriented and make decisions based on

common sense (De Mooij, 2004). When dealing with new products, low uncertainty

avoidance populations are the first to adopt the new trends while high uncertainty

avoidance cultures are slow to take advantage of new innovations (De Mooij, 2004). In

cultures where the need for uncertainty avoidance is high, advertisements that use

arguments and explicit messages are the most successful, while employing symbolic

associations with implicit messages are more effective in low uncertainty avoidance

societies (Frith & Mueller, 2003).









The final dimension of culture that Hofstede (1980) created with the help of

Michael Bond is the long-term/short-term orientation. Bond originally "sampled a

domain of values, formulated by Chinese scholars and developed what he titled the

dimension Confucian Work Dynamism"(De Mooij, p.35, 2004). Long-term orientation

as it is referred to in Hofstede's (1980) dimensions is "an emphasis on the past and

tradition as opposed to living for today or investing in tomorrow" (Frith & Mueller, p.46,

2003). The majority of East Asian countries score very high on this dimension (Frith &

Mueller, 2003). Since the majority of East Asian countries also tend to have a high score

on the collectivism scale there is an emphasis on Confucian thinking such as filial piety,

paternalism and family ties (De Mooij, 2004). Most western cultures, America is a good

example, are considered to be short-term oriented. These short-term oriented cultures

have little concern for old and past history; instead they are constantly looking towards

the future and the newer and better things that it may hold (Frith & Mueller, 2003).

Masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term/short-term orientation

are all independent variables that have aided in defining cross-cultural difference in

consumer behavior (De Mooij, 2004).

Like the previous models, Hofstede's (1980) dimensions do have limitations. The

following are constraints that have been found; the dimensions were developed from data

collected between 1968 and 1973, therefore they are considered out of date, the research

population is limited to IBM employees and attitude survey questionnaires may not be

the most valid tool in inferring values (Sondergaard, 1994). Some critics consider

Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture to be out of date, however they are actually be

well used in today's global environment. The European Media Survey (1996/1997)









utilized Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture to conduct research (De Mooij, 2000).

The EMS scores found information that was congruent with the results that Hofstede

found 20 years ago, especially in the areas regarding diversity and consumption as well

as ownership of products (De Mooij, 2000). Although, the dimensions are not perfect

they have been successfully applied in nominal quotations, empirical research and used

as a paradigm (Sondergaard, 1994). In the end, Hofstede's (1980) cultural dimensions

have been able to withstand the test of time and are an extremely stable way to explain

the influence of cultural norms on a country's media. Hence, why they are the most

appropriate choice for research using content analysis.

Previous Cross-Cultural Studies

Many previous studies have utilized Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture to

unearth a plethora of cross-cultural information ranging from the effectiveness of

advertising appeals to the reflection of cultural values. Zhang and Gelb (1996) utilized

the dimensions of individualism and collectivism in a comparison study of advertising

appeals in the United States and China. This study found that individuals respond to

advertising messages that are congruent with their culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). For

example, China is typically considered a collectivistic culture that emphasizes family,

social interests and collective actions and deemphasizes personal goals and

accomplishments. Research has found that consumers respond more favorably to

advertising appeals that are congruent with their cultural values (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

For example, since Chinese consumers are collectivistic in nature they would respond

well to collectivistic appeals, whereas American consumers would respond better to

individualistic appeals (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).









Han and Shavitt (1994) conducted another study using the individualistic and

collectivistic dimension. In this study they researched the individualistic nature of the

United States and the collectivistic nature of Korea. The research found that appeals such

as in-group benefits, harmony, family and integrity were more persuasive for Korean

consumers, whereas appeals of individual benefits, preferences, personal success and

independence are more persuasive to Americans (Han & Shavitt, 1994). It was found

that cultural factors influence the media environment and the types of advertisements that

are used in different cultures (Han & Shavitt, 1994). The study also discovered a link

between attitudinal processes and culture. The link suggests that differences in culturally

supported attitudes and values may be shown in the tendency to accept and use

persuasive appeals that accentuate different values (Han & Shavitt, 1994). Using

persuasive appeals that focus on social norms and roles instead of individual preferences

and benefits, could be more effective in converting behavioral intentions in collectivistic

cultures is an example of the relation between appeals and culture (Han & Shavitt, 1994).

For the most part cultures that are collectivistic in nature are more likely to prefer

collectivistic advertising appeals. However, there is one instance where cultural values

and advertising appeals are likely to differ. Advertisements for personal products

regardless of cultural orientation tend to be positioned as individualistic (Han &Shavitt,

1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

Individualism and collectivism are the broadest and most widely used dimensions

of cultural variability for cultural comparison (Han &Shavitt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996;

Gregory & Munch, 1997; Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997). The majority of research

utilizing Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture has focused on the individualism and









collectivism dimension whereas few studies have documented findings on the other

dimensions (Han & Shavitt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Gregory & Munch, 1997;

Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997).

Taylor, Miracle and Wilson (1997) discovered information relating to Hofstede's

(1980) uncertainty avoidance index. They studied the reliance of contextual elements of

Korea and the United states. The high context and low context measurement that they

employed is very similar to the uncertainty avoidance dimension. Koreans were found to

prefer contextual elements of mood and tone with advertisements that utilized low levels

of informational content or low uncertainty avoidance (Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997).

The United States on the other hand were found to prefer high levels of information in

commercials or high uncertainty avoidance (Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997). Although,

high and low context was the original impetus for the study the results add information

about uncertainty avoidance.

Some studies have inadvertently found information regarding other dimensions

even when they set out to look at the individualistic/collectivistic dimension.

Individualism and collectivism was once again the topic for Gregory and Munchs' (1997)

study of Mexico and the United States. Mexico is a collectivistic culture where the

influence of family on individual consumption and behavior is very strong (Gregory &

Munch, 1997). As mentioned before the United States is an individualistic culture.

Although the beginning of the study looks at the collectivistic aspects of Mexico versus

the individualistic aspects of America, it also takes into account other cultural behaviors

that reflect some of Hofstede's (1980) dimensions. Long-term orientation and power

distance are the two other dimensions that Gregory and Munch (1997) touch on. In









Mexico there is a large emphasis on cooperation within the family that is based on a

traditional set of norms and values that are to be passed on by the parents to the children,

this emphasis on tradition reflects the dimension of long-term orientation (Gregory &

Munch, 1997). A high power distance within families is also evident in Mexico, the wife

is subservient to the husband and the children are subservient to the parents (Gregory &

Munch, 1997). The results of the Gregory and Munch (1997) study found that subjects

had a more positive attitude toward an advertisement and higher purchase intention for

products that depicted cultural roles and norms within the ads. In order for

advertisements to be successful in Mexico they need to follow certain role expectations.

For example, women should be shown in ads that are positioned as familial products such

as, cooking and caring for the family, whereas men should be shown in ads for male-

oriented products (Gregory & Munch, 1997).

Introduction to Latin American Culture

Many cultural studies focusing on Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture have

compared the Asian community to the North American community. However, only a

few studies (Gregory & Munch, 1997) have compared Latin American culture to the

United States. A comparison of these two cultures would be beneficial in growing

support for Hofstede's (1980) theory. Like Asian countries, Latin American countries

are dissimilar from the United States in terms of Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture.

Below is a table that visualizes an example of those differences.










Table 1. Hofstede's (1980) Dimensions of culture: Brazil versus USA
Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO
Brazil 69 38 49 76 65
USA 40 91 62 46 29
(Hofstede, 1980)

Understanding Latin America and its Culture

In recent years Latin America has developed into a large and booming market for

consumer goods produced by foreign-based multinational corporations (Tansey &

Hyman, 1994). This growth has made it a very appealing segment for marketers and

businesses alike (Herbig & Yelkur, 1997). Since the market is experiencing such positive

growth, countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom are looking into

expansion opportunities. However, in order to effectively make the transition it is

important to have an understanding of the demographics of the area.

Geography of Latin America

Latin America encompasses the Spanish-, Portuguese-, and French- speaking

nations of Central and South America, the Caribbean and Mexico (Lenartowicz &

Johnson, 2003). These countries are often seen as one homogenous cluster, yet they are

more correctly segmented into three heterogeneous cultural subgroups. The first

subgroup is known as the Southern cone countries, included in this grouping are

Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Southern Brazil (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The

main cultural influence of the Southern cone countries came form European colonialists

and immigrants (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). This cultural influence could explain

why Latin America is more closely related to Europe than the United States (Buckman,

1990). Another cultural subgroup known as the Andean countries consists of Peru,

Ecuador and Bolivia (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The third segment is the Northern









South American countries comprised of Venezuela and Colombia (Lenartowicz &

Johnson, 2003). Brazil, Mexico and Puerto Rico are each in a group of their own

(Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Although, Puerto Rico is a group in itself, it is the most

similar to the other groupings and countries, whereas Brazil is the most different

(Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003).

Social and Economic Factors

Economically Latin America has two social classes based on geography; center

countries and peripheral countries (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). In regard to Latin

Americans, the affluent class, tend to practice conspicuous consumption more frequently

than wealthy U.S. households (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). There is a higher ratio

discrepancy between upper class and lower-class consumption in Latin America than in

the same classes in the U.S. (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). This discrepancy is in large part

due to the lower average income of Latin Americans (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). When

comparing the affluent consumers it is important to note that those in the U.S. and Europe

tend to set the standard for the affluent in Latin America (Tansey & Hyman, 1994).

Those in the middle and lower socioeconomic class in Latin America take their lifestyle

cues from the affluent within their country (Tansey & Hyman, 1994). The wealthy

classes in Latin America take their lifestyle preferences from the United States and

Europe and tend to favor transnational culture, whereas the lower economic classes favor

national culture (Tansey & Hyman, 1994).

Universal Characteristics

The socioeconomic classes may differ on certain cultural preferences however there

are certain characteristics that are universal. The characteristic of politeness is an

important aspect in interpersonal relationships (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Research









has found that the cultural dimension of power distance is high in Latin America, but at

the same time every person regardless of class is to be treated with respectt" (respect)

and "dignidad" (dignity) (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). In Latin American cultures the

institution of the family is the primary in-group and no other institution is more important

(Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). The value of"familia" (family) in Latin America sets

the scene for an unquestioned authority and supremacy of the father and the contrasting

role of self-sacrifice of the mother (Owen & Scherer, 2002 p. 38). Another cultural

characteristic that is not specific to one class is the idea of shame. Shame is used as a

tool for special control in all Latin American countries (Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003).

The cultural value of "machismo is also a fundamental principal in Latin America (Owen

& Scherer, 2002). "Machismo is the ideology of manliness that confers privilege on men

whose role is to protect the weaker and more vulnerable women (Owen & Scherer, 2002

p. 38).

Business in Latin America

In regards to women, Latin America has masculine views on the specific roles that

women should encompass. This ideology is extremely important to understand when

International businesses send female expatriates to manage global assignments (Owen &

Scherer, 2002). If the female managers are not made aware of the cultural differences

prior to their departure it will prove difficult for both the manager and the host country to

successfully develop appropriate business strategies (Owen & Scherer, 2002). For

females the education will help them understand the cultural stereotypes that could

impede their advancement (Owen & Scherer, 2002).

When conducting business in Latin America many businesses are unable to

produce effective results regardless of the man or woman managing the assignment.









Sometimes the difficulty merely comes down to the culture of the manager. For example,

American businessmen follow the principle set forth by the constitution in regards to

equal rights, equal job opportunity as well as an equal chance to shine which

demonstrates the qualities of low power distance (Davis, 1969). Whereas, Latin

Americans believe that a superior is not a peer or an equal, this cultural characteristic

corresponds with high power distance (Davis, 1969). In Latin America there is no

"nuclear family" instead there is an extended family that includes all relatives (Davis,

1969). This idea of the extended family is a collectivistic trait. The extended family is

extremely influential to the building of enterprise and business (Davis, 1969). For Latin

Americans "enterprise is valued mainly for its contribution to family interests not as an

achievement itself' (Davis, 1969, pg. 91). The United States as an individualistic culture

is mainly concerned with the "nuclear family" and this family unit is not as influential to

enterprise (Davis, 1969). In the end it is important to remember that when conducting

business in another country the local businessman is at an advantage because he is

operating in his own environment (Davis, 1969).

Business management is not the only vehicle that is driven by Latin American

culture. The majority of newspapers and magazines cater to those who reside in the

countries, focusing on the literary and artistic talent (Buckman, 1990). Latin American

newspapers and magazines provide a large amount of information pertaining to the

happenings in "la madra patria" also known as Spain and all the cultural aspects relating

to "the mother country" (Buckman, 1990).

Although there are many areas where Latin American countries are similar it is

important to beware of generalizations and shared problems (Davis, 1969). Because the









countries are located in the same geographic region and have certain shared

characteristics it is easy to assume that they are all the same. However, there are other

characteristics and influences that separate the countries from one another such as

geographic, historical and political backgrounds (Lenti, 1993).

Creativity Affects Culture

As discussed earlier a great deal of research has focused on advertising across

cultures. However, very little is known about award winning ads that are culturally

sensitive. Therefore, in this paper the end result should help expand the field of research

in regards to how award-winning creativity is reflected in Latin American culture versus

the United States culture. In order to do so there must be a basic understanding about

advertising awards in general.

Advertising awards are implemented to create a professional standard for

advertising practices and effectiveness. The awards are useful for both the corporate and

the individual level as a way to recognize and provide a professional assessment of

companies and campaigns (Helgesen, 1994). Awards are used as a means to promote

agencies (Helgesen, 1994). The weight that awards place on creativity is huge and leads

to the belief that creativity is the most important attribute for agency achievement and

success (Helgesen, 1994). Those agencies that are viewed as the most successful

consider "creative excellence" the most important factor (Helgesen, 1994). Awards are

of great importance to agencies as well as the individuals who compose the agencies.

Individuals who receive awards are likely to receive a promotion, a salary increase and

even new job offers (Helgesen, 1994).









Advertising Awards

There are two types of advertising award categories recognized by advertising

professionals; one category focuses on effectiveness and the other focuses on

creativeness. One of the most well-known and well-researched awards for effectiveness

are the Effie awards. These awards have aided many research studies in the quest for

effectiveness in advertising. Unlike the Effies the Clio awards focus on creativity and are

not as well researched.

Clio Awards

The Clio awards are the globes most recognized international advertising awards

competition for creativity (clioawards.com, 2005). This competition was founded in

1959 as a way to honor creative excellence in advertising as well as pay tribute to what

many consider the most interesting and influential form of art in modern culture; ads

(clioawards.com, 2005). Each year agencies and creative submit what they consider to

be their best ads to the Clio offices. From the submission step the ads are then put

through a preliminary process where judges make their selections. The use of judges

places the Clio awards on a different level than the rest of award programs

(clioawards.com, 2005). Clio judges are chosen based on certain qualifications. A judge

must be on top of his/her game and highly involved with his/her respective agency (T.

Gulisanoi, personal communication, June 5, 2006). The judges chief job is to discover

television and cinema advertisements that are original and unusual, ones that have the

ability to set a benchmark for excellence (clioawards.com, 2005). Once the judges are

selected and the submission process is over, the next step is the actual judging process.

The assembly of world-class judges culls through each ad that is submitted (T. Gulisanoi,

personal communication, June 5, 2006). This preliminary step allows for a process of









elimination. Gulisano (2006) suggests that the event is very similar to a beauty contest,

where there are multiple rounds until finally a winner or in this case a grand Clio is

chosen. The preliminary process weeds out about 80 percent of the entrants (T. Gulisano,

personal communication, June 5, 2006). The process of elimination is first based on a

numerical value from one to ten, which gives an ad a collective value, then the ad is

chosen by majority rules (T. Gulisano, personal communication June 5, 2006). In the end

the will of the judges usurps the numerical value (T. Gulisano, personal communication

June 5, 2006).

The winners receive a gold, silver or bronze award (clioawards.com, 2005). The

award itself is called a Clio (Gagnard & Morris, 1988). In Greek mythology Clio was the

muse of history and her main role was to proclaim great deeds, hence why great

advertisements receive Clios (Gagnard & Morris, 1988). Due to the mythological roots

some have proclaimed that the Clios are advertising muse (McConnell, 1993). The

instant success that comes with winning a Clio is not the only way the awards influence

the industry (advertising.about.com, 2006). The Clios, like the Oscars, are a way to

recognize the best of the best in the advertising arena (T. Gulisano, personal

communication, June 5, 2006). These awards allow for the communications community

to receive accolades and attention (T. Gulisano, personal communication, June 5, 2006).

The Clios are about awards and accolades, but the most important part of the program is

that it allows for enlightenment and education of current and emerging markets (T.

Gulisano, personal communication, June, 5 2006).









Due to the international nature of the Clios they have the ability to collect a

culturally diverse field of entrants. The international factor coupled with Hofstede's

(1980) dimensions of cultural will aid in researching how creativity reflects culture.

Winning Creative Awards

Currently, there is limited information available on how creativity reflects culture.

In terms of creativity there is a great deal of research conducted on what winning creative

awards and what that creativity means to the advertising environment. Winning creative

ideas have been found to boost sales, give agencies a competitive advantage and provide

agencies and creative with an idea of what works and what doesn't (West, Collins &

Miciak, 2003). These awards have also been linked with agencies, clients, staff and

creativity but as of yet, have not been considered in terms of a cultural aspect (West,

Collins & Miciak, 2003). This lack of cultural aspect is surprising because those

individuals who win awards become opinion leaders and trendsetters, which allows them

the opportunity to influence the industry in its portrayal of cultural congruent ads (West,

Collins, Miciak, 2003).

Ways Creativity Reflects Culture

Research has found that creativity wins awards and those individuals who create

the winning ads are able to influence the industry, however what wins may not always

reflect what the consumer in a given culture likes. Kover, James and Sonner (1997)

found that consumers who viewed ads, regardless of awards, liked those that were self-

enhancing, aided them in feeling more like an ideal human, provided them with the

opportunity to feel competent, feel affection and made them alert. Although, it was

found that consumers were in agreement on factors that needed to be similar there were

however, other aspects that needed to be different. Koslow, Sasser and Riordan (2003)









believe that creativity should be different from person to person, culture to culture.

Creativity should also be appropriate based on the situation and audience, original, useful

and satisfying to some group at some time (Koslow, Sasser & Riordan, 2003). This idea

that creativity should be satisfying and appropriate for a given group is the foundation for

the belief that creativity reflects culture. An example of a period where advertising was

created so that it would be satisfying to a particular group was during the 1960s in the

United States. During the sixties social issues as well as the disaffected and disenchanted

American population drove advertising (Advertising Age, 2005). The culture of the

sixties is what influenced Coca-cola and other well-advertised products to create

campaigns that focused on multi-ethnicity and peace (Advertising Age, 2005). The well-

known Coca-cola ad "I'd like to teach the world to sing," was created to reflect the

culture of the times. The 1960s in America is just one example of how advertising is

representing culture. Advertising has become such an impressive display of culture that

social historians are able to use advertisements as documentary evidence of typical

lifestyles in various eras (Pollay, 1983).

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to build upon the research that has been found

regarding culture, advertising awards and creativity, while also creating a new path that

will hopefully influence the industry. As stated earlier there has been little to no research

conducted on the link between award winning advertisements and culture, therefore this

research proposes to unearth the link utilizing Hofstede's (1980) cultural dimensions as a

theoretical framework. Two cultures were chosen to represent the findings: America and

Latin America. The United States tends to be strong in its cultural dimensions therefore









it will be used as the comparison for the study. Latin America was chosen due to its

growing economy and market.

Hypotheses

Previous research conducted by Hofstede (1980) has found that Latin Americans

will have the cultural dimensions of collectivism, femininity, high power distance, strong

uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation.

Hypothesis 1: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States

and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimension of collectivism.

Hypothesis 2: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States

and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimension of femininity.

Hypothesis 3: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States

and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimension of high power distance.

Hypothesis 4: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States

and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimension of long-term orientation.

Hypothesis 5: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States

and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimension of strong uncertainty avoidance.

Hypothesis 6: Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United States

and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of executional variables (Stewart and

Furse, 1986; Marshall, 2006)














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Content analysis is the ideal methodological format to use when message content is

the main concern of the research project. It has been used in studies that examine

advertising, journalism, marketing and international business for the purpose of

conference proceedings, theses and dissertations (Abernethy & Franke, 1996). Content

analysis has been utilized in the past to study print (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999;

Taylor & Stern, 1997), international advertising (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999); Taylor

& Stern, 1997) as well as television content (Gagnard & Morris, 1988; Stewart & Furse,

1986). Content analysis is a systematic, objective and quantitative method that grants the

researcher a full observation and evaluation of all forms of recorded communications

(Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). This tool allows for words, themes, symbols, characters, items

and space-and-time information to be measured (Kassarjian, 1977). Content analysis

with an unobtrusive means of gathering data and its strength in testing empirical data is

the perfect method to analyze television commercials (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991).

Content Analysis Defined

Content analysis is used to improve the understanding of advertising practices and

the relationship that exists between advertising effects and advertising characteristics

(Davis, 1997).

Content analysis is "the systematic, objective and quantitative analysis of
advertising conducted to infer a pattern of advertising practice or the elements of
brands' advertising strategies such as brand positioning, selling proposition and
creative tones," (Davis, 1997 p. 392-392).









The objectivity component is the foundation for the development and definition of

categories. It is important that the objective definitions are taken from previously defined

theoretical constructs and operationalized as variables for later descriptive relationship

analysis. In order for content analysis to have high objectivity the procedure must

include rules and procedures, judge training sessions, protesting of measures, judge

independence (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Objectivity is the ingredient in content analysis

that provides scientific standing and provides a defense against literary criticism

(Kassarjian, 1977). The systematic component means that all communication content or

analysis categories are included or excluded based on strict adherence to the rules (Holsti,

1969). Another feature that systematization adds to content analysis is the design

structure that ensures the data that is accumulated is relevant to the scientific problem or

hypothesis (Berelson, 1952). The systematic nature of content analysis ensures that the

findings are unbiased and they are theoretically relevant and generalizable (Kassarjian,

1977). The final element that distinguishes content analysis from other methods is the

quantification characteristic. Quantification is used to measure the amount of emphasis

or omission of any particular analytic category (Kassarjian, 1977). It is important to note

that the quantification characteristic is in place to provide data that can draw

interpretations and inferences (Berelson, 1952). The systematic, objective and

quantitative characteristics of content analysis made it an ideal method for exploring

Hofstede's dimensions of culture in Clio award winning advertisements.

Previous Television Commercial Content Analysis Methods

Portions of this method were taken from research conducted by Resnick and Stern

(1977) and Stewart and Furse (1986). Resnick and Stem (1977) developed a method to

uncover whether or not a television advertisement was informative or not. A fourteen









point evaluative criteria was formulated to gage the information levels of the

advertisements (Resnick & Stern, 1977). The study by Resnick and Stem (1977) was the

impetus for Stewart and Furse's study. Stewart and Furse (1986) studied the

effectiveness of over 1,000 commercials and 155 executional elements. Through

research Stewart and Furse (1986) created a factor analysis by combining a set of

findings from copy testing and descriptive statistics from the thousand commercials. The

factor analysis found that a variety of elements influenced the effectiveness of a

commercial, both positively and negatively. Those elements that were found to

positively influence the effectiveness utilized attention-grabbing devices such as humor

and memory aids (Stewart & Furse, 1986).

Creating The Current Content Analysis

This content analysis will follow the framework created by Kassarjian (1977) with

additional information derived from Kolbe and Burnett (1991). Kassarjian's (1977) work

looked at the three components of content analysis as well as sampling and reliability.

Kassarjian (1977) is such a fundamental framework that Kolbe and Burnett (1991)

consider a citation of Kassarjian (1977) as an element that ads more objectivity to a

study. Reliability has been the area most influenced by Kassarjian (1977). Content

analysis calls for subjectivity to be limited due to systematic nature and objective

description of communications content, therefore reliability is of the utmost concern

(Kassarjian, 1977). Content analysis utilizes judges and coders therefore, interjudge or

intercoder reliability is essential for producing quality data (Kassarjian, 1977; Perreault &

Leigh, 1989; Kolbe & Burnett, 1991).

Kassarjian (1977) focused on two types of reliability; category and interjudge.

Category reliability is dependent on the "analyst's ability to formulate categories and









present to competent judges definitions of the categories so they will agree on which

items of a certain population belong in a category and which do not (Kassarjian, 1977,

p. 14). Interjudge reliability is measure based on percent of agreement between multiple

judges who are processing the exact same communication content (Kassarjian, 1977).

These two types of reliability are tremendously important when manifest and latent

content issues are concerned (Marshall, 2006). In order to minimize differences in

definitions that may occur latent content analysis calls for researchers to adhere to a

strictly defined framework (Marshall, 2006).

Category Reliability

Kolbe and Burnett (1991) conducted research based on Kassarjian (1977) to review

the methods used in published content analysis articles as well as inspect their own

criteria for reliability. Their research utilized 128 articles from 28 journals, three

proceedings and one anthology. Each level of Kassarjian's (1977) framework was

employed to conduct the research.

The level of objectivity was measured by whether or not studies reported coding

rules and procedures, judge training, protesting measures, judge independence of authors

and judge independence of each other (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The results for

objectivity found that 71 percent of their sample provided information regarding

categories and operational definitions (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The authors found that

only 40.6 percent of the sample reported any form of judge training, however they point

out that it is unlikely that judges received no training, instead there may have just

forgotten to report training. In regards to protesting Kolbe and Burnett (1991) found that

70.3 percent of the studies did not report protesting. The authors suggest that a lack of

protesting is a weakness in research.









Interjudge Reliability

Judge independence is a huge factor for all studies utilizing content analysis.

"Interjudge reliability measures are based on the systematic and consistent nature of

defined variables and the very basis of reliability is in the foundation of category

definitions as well as how well judges agree on content decisions" (Marshall, 2006, p.7).

In the Kolbe and Burnett (1991) study it was found that 48.4 percent of cases used purely

independent judges. The number of judges utilized varied, however two coders were

most frequently employed (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The issue of judging is one that

brings many concerns especially in regards to the amount of judges used for a study.

Some judges may only code a subset of data, but are still counted as a full time judge.

Therefore the amount of judges employed is often a misrepresentation of the actual count

(Kolbe & Burnett, 1991).

As discussed earlier reliability is an indispensable part of a valid content analysis.

Thus, the calculations and reporting of reliability are important factors to examine.

Kolbe and Burnett (1991) observed the reliability index used and how the reliability

index was reported. The coefficient of agreement was the most frequently cited index. A

coefficient of agreement is found by dividing the total number of agreements by the total

number of coding decisions (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). For the aspect of reliability index

reporting 35.9 percent of the sample reported an "overall reliability", while 24.2 percent

reported individual reliabilities and another 8.6 percent reported ranges of reliabilities

(Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The numbers are important to note because "overall reliability"

could generate misleading results (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). Misleading results often

occur when one aggregate average is reported (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991). The best way to









correct misleading results is to utilize range and individual reliabilities, which are

superior to the overall approach (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991).

Kolbe and Burnett (1991) conclude that there are many gaps and hiccups in the

method utilized by analysts in the areas of objectivity and reliability. This study will

employ their analysis as a guideline for improvements on reliability and objectivity where

others have varied.

Unit of Analysis

The study analyzed Clio award winning advertisements from the years 1995

through 2004, the Clio awards did not take place during 1997 whereas the 2002 Clio

awards tape was unavailable at the time of research.

Sampling Design

The research sample consisted of 268 Clio award winning television commercials.

The researcher obtained tapes of Clio awards from the years 1995 (n=33), 1996 (n=30),

1998 (n=41), 1999 (n=31), 2000 (n=36), 2001 (n=37), 2003 (n=31) and 2004 (n=29).

Coding Procedure and Reliability Analysis

Following the previously discussed framework of Kolbe and Burnett (1991), the

elements of rules and procedures including coding instrument and code book, coder

training, protesting, coder independence, number of coders and the statistical evaluation

of reliability will all be discussed individually.

Rules and Procedures

When referring to the rules and procedures involved in content analysis a

discussion of category details and operational definitions is necessary. The dimensions

and categories that are operationalized in this study are taken from the Stewart and Furse

(1986) model and Marshall (2006). Each coder was provided a six-page code sheet as









well as a codebook that gave definitions and examples for each variable in a category.

The code sheet consisted of 37 questions or categories. The questions were either

descriptive information about the particular advertisement or categories borrowed from

the aforementioned studies. The questions can be compartmentalized into three different

sections. The first section concentrates on descriptive statistics pertaining to the

individual spot. The spot information was provided as a super before each ad. The

questions included: a case ID number, coder initials, ad title, brand, agency name,

country of origin, color, award level, award year and product category. The second

section was derived from Stewart and Furse (1986, p. 131-143). This section of the

coding sheet includes: visual devices, commercial appeals or selling propositions,

commercial format, typology of broadcast commercial message, commercial setting,

music, commercial tone and atmosphere, comparisons and commercial characters. These

categories have been used in some variation to examine television commercials (Stewart

& Furse, 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Marshall, 2006). The final section focuses on

localization, utilizing Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture.

At the initial training session coders were informed to make choices based on the

dominance of the variable. The coders were instructed to choose the best option when

multiple options were available. In order to make an educated choice the coders could

also turn to their codebook for examples and operational definitions. A copy of the

codebook can be found in appendix A and a copy of the code sheet is located in appendix

B.

Coders and Coder Training

Four coders were selected and educated on how to properly fill out the code sheets

and clarifications were made in regards to the meanings. Two of the coders were









international advertising graduate students with Bachelors degrees in Advertising. The

third coder was receiving an MBA and the fourth coder was a PhD student, both had a

background in international communication. All four judges were fluent in English. One

coder was also fluent in Hindi, while another coder was fluent in Malay and Cantonese as

well. Each person coded roughly 67 ads of the 268 samples. The coding process itself

not including the viewing of an ad took an average of 7 minutes.

There was one coder training session that lasted two hours. At this session the

purpose and background of the project was discussed as well as the codebook and code

sheet. Three ads were also viewed so as to provide an example of the procedure.

Concerns, questions and comments that arose during the viewing and subsequent coding

process were addressed immediately at the meeting. In the end the coders were given

their assignments and informed that they could contact the lead researcher with any

questions.

Pretest

A pretest was conducted at the initial coder meeting. Three commercials were

coded together. The lead author chose to conduct the pretest at the initial training session

so as to remedy any issues prior to independent coding. The pretest also allowed for a

roundtable discussion of decisions and references. All four coders chosen to code the ads

were present for the pretest. The pretest helped make minor changes to the coding

instrument such as adding an award category for public service announcements. After

the initial training session the coders were instructed to use the knowledge gained from

the meeting as well as the codebook to make educated decisions. The lead author was

always available for additional concerns or questions.









Coder Independence

The coders knew each other therefore, it was very important that coder

independence was maintained. At the meeting the coders were instructed to work

independently of one another and to refrain from discussing coding procedures with other

coders. In order to ensure the independence it was required that each coder had personal

access to a VCR.

Number of Coders per Spot

Initially two coders judged each advertisement. Kolbe & Burnett (1991) found that

utilizing two coders was the most frequently employed configuration. Once all ads were

coded, agreements and disagreements were assessed to ascertain individual category

agreement estimates. After estimates were derived from the data, the primary researchers

solved disagreements.

Intercoder Reliability

Intercoder reliability is an extremely important factor in ensuring quality findings in

content analysis. Many authors have attempted to develop measures that will properly

measure reliability (Cohen, 1960; Krippendorff, 1970). However, the majority of the

studies were found to rely on marginal frequencies that rendered them inappropriate for

proper reliability for this analysis. Regardless of the method used to conduct intercoder

reliability a proportion of agreement must be established. The best way to determine a

proportion of agreement is to use Holsti's (1969) formula

2M

Reliability = NI + N2

M = the number of agreements between coders

N = total numbers of decisions made by each coder









The Holsti (1969) method was used to establish agreement among coders. However, in

order to ensure valid intercoder estimates a process to correct chance agreement between

coders must be employed.

Perreault and Leigh (1989, p. 140) developed an "explicit model of the level of

agreement that might be expected given a true (population) level of reliability." This

method is an accurate way of correcting chance agreement between coders. The

Perreault and Leigh (1989) model has been considered a more appropriate method for

conducting marketing related research. The reliability index that Perreault and Leigh

(1989) created is

Ir = { [(Fo/N) (1/k)] [k/ (k 1)}(square root)

Fo = observed frequency of agreement between judges

N = total number of judgments

k = number of categories

The results for Perreault and Leigh (1989) and Holsti (1969) are shown below as

well as an overall average for each. There were 27 categories retrieved from the code

sheet, these categories were then reviewed for reliability purposes. Both reliability

formulas were utilized to discover an accurate overall average. Out of the 27 measured

categories, the Holsti (1969) method found the overall reliability to be .91. The Perreault

and Leigh (1989) formula found the overall reliability to be .92. The acceptable range for

reliability is .80 (Kassarjian, 1977). Therefore both averages are above the acceptable

range. These results confirm that there was high intercoder reliability among the coders

employed for this study.






40


Table 2. Holsti (1969) and Perreault and Leigh (1989) Intercoder Reliability
Si Perreault and Leigh
Category Holsti Id
Index
Scenic beauty .94 .94
Beautiful characters
.96 .96
Graphic displays 1.00 1
Visual reinforcements through words94 94
Logo .99 .99
Commercial appeals or selling propositions .73 .84
Commercial format
Informational/transformational
Dominant setting .95 .96
Setting .89 .94
Presence of music .96 .96
.96 .96
Culture specific music
Dominant tone .88 .93
Direct comparison .98 .98
Culture specific language .86 .85
Dominant character .93 .96
Culture specific .94 .94
Individualism .93 .93
Collectivism .88 .87
Masculinity .89 .88
Femininity .91 .91
Long term .92 .92
Short term .90 .89
High power distance
Low power distance
High uncertainty avoidance
Low uncertainty avoidance
.87 .86

Overall reliability average .91 .92

Final Revisions to the Codebook and Code sheets

Before beginning the compilation of results it was necessary to amend a few

categories in order to remedy the issue of minimum cell criteria. To resolve this concern


a standard error of 8 percent (n = 10) was employed.









Category Decisions

In following with the standard of error, certain options within the categories and

dominant appeals sections failed to meet the qualifications. Therefore, those items were

reassessed and combined to meet the requirements of 8 percent (n=10).

Table 3. New Groups for Question 10: Award Category
Award Category Subgroups within new category
Alcoholic beverages Beer
Non-alcoholic beverages Carbonated and Non-Carbonated beverages
Apparel Apparel/Accessories and High Fashion
Packaged Foods Breakfast foods, Snacks/Desserts and
Packaged Foods Packgedfoo
Packaged food
Computer and related, Consumer
Electronics and related services electronics, Telecom services and Internet
services
Beauty aids, Cosmetics, Health aids and
Personal Products over the counter products, Personal care
products, Children's products
iCredit or debit cards and Financial services
Financial products and services and products
Hotels and resorts, Transportation and
Travel and Tourism Travel/Tourism
Travel/Tourism
Health services and medical products,
Professional services, Business products,
Leisure products, Household durable
products and Pet care

Table 4. New Groups for Question 16: What Is the Dominant Commercial Appeal or
Selling Proposition
Dominant commercial appeal or selling Subgroups within new category
prooitio Subgroups within new category
proposition
Sexual appeal, Comfort appeal, Enjoyment
Hedonism appeal, Self-esteem or self-image,
Achievement and Excitement, variety
Welfare Concern Safety appeal, Welfare appeal and Social
approval

Data Analysis

SPSS 14.0 was used for data analysis. Frequencies, cross tabulations, and chi-


square tests were conducted to explore the hypotheses.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

This chapter focuses on the descriptive statistics for the Clio award sample and the

statistical tests of the hypotheses. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the

hypotheses. Chi-square tests are used to test the statistical significance of results in

bivariate tables (C. Cho, personal communication, Spring, 2006). The independent and

dependent variables are both categorical (C. Cho, personal communication, Spring,

2006). Below the Chi-square table displays the results for the Pearson Chi-square with

the value, the degree of freedom, and the Fisher's Exact Test significance value.

Descriptive Statistics of Clio commercials

The descriptive statistics for the Clio sample (N=268) show information related to

each spot. Frequencies and percent are provided for the characteristics of country, year,

categories, award level, agencies and dominant character.

Spot Descriptive Statistics of Country

Table 5 displays the Latin American countries that were represented in the Clio

sample (N=268). The largest sample country was Argentina (7.1%). Brazil was the

second largest sample country (3.4%), while Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and

Latin America (general) all represented .4 percent of the sample.










Table 5. Latin American Countries Total (N=33)
Country Frequency Percent
Argentina 19 7.1
Brazil 9 3.4
Guatemala 1 .4
Mexico 1 .4
Peru 1 .4
Uruguay 1 .4
Latin America (General) 1 .4
Total 33 12.5

Spot Descriptive Statistics of Year

Table 6 illustrates the years that were utilized for the Clio award sample (N=268).

The year 1998 with a frequency of 41 accounted for the most commercials (15.3%). The

years 2001 (N=37) and 2000 (N=36) accounted for the second greatest number of

commercials (13.4%). 2004 (N=29) contained the least amount of spots (10.8%).

Table 6. Clio Award Years
Year Frequency Percent
2004 29 10.8
2003 31 11.6
2001 37 13.8
2000 36 13.4
1999 31 11.6
1998 41 15.3
1996 30 11.2
1995 33 12.3
Total 268 100

Spot Descriptive Statistics Clio Award Level

The Clio award-winning sample (N=268) showcased the grand, gold and silver

awards. Out of the sample (N=268) 3.7 percent of the advertisements won grand Clio

honors. 48.5 percent of the sample (N=268) took home gold Clios, while 47.8 percent of

the sample (N=268) claimed the silver award.










Table 7. Award Level of Spots
Award Level Frequency Percent
Grand 10 3.7
Gold 130 48.5
Silver 128 47.8
Total 268 100.0

Spot Descriptive Statistics of Agencies

There were 104 advertising agencies and four art schools represented in the Clio

award sample (N=268). Many of the ads came from regional agencies that are part of

larger international companies. The statistics provided in table 8 represent only the large

family companies instead of the regional branches. Overall no agency that amassed over

8.2 percent of the total sample. BBDO (8.2%) and DDB (6.3%) were the agencies that

won the most Clio awards. Saatchi & Saatchi (5.2%), Goodby Silverstein & Partners

(4.9%) and TBWA Chiat/Day (4.5%) round out the top five Clio award-winning

agencies. The students from the Art Center in LA (4.1%) won the most Clio awards.

Table 8. Clio Award Winning Advertising Agencies
Agency Frequency Percent
BBDO 22 8.2
DDB 17 6.3
Saatchi & Saatchi 14 5.2
Goodby Silverstein &
Partners
TBWA Chiat/Day 12 4.5
Art Center LA 11 4.1
Total (top 6) 89 33.2

Spot Descriptive Statistics of Categories

As addressed earlier certain options in the category section were combined in order

to ensure that the cell size was large enough (N=10). Therefore, the categories have been

reduced from (N=39) to (N=15). However, financial products and services, fast food and

restaurants and delivery systems could not be combined further to make the minimum









cell size. Apparel is the largest category representing 14.2 percent of the sample

(N=268). The second most frequently advertised category is entertainment (n=33).

Automobiles and vehicles (11.6%) round out the top three categories.

Table 9. Clio Award Categories
Categories Frequency Percent
Alcoholic Beverages 24 9.0
Non-Alcoholic Beverages 15 5.6
Apparel 38 14.2
Automobiles and Vehicles 31 11.6
Personal Products 14 5.2
Packaged Foods 13 4.9
Electronics and Related
Services 22 8.2
Financial Products and
Services 9 3.4
Delivery Systems 1 .4
Entertainment 33 12.3
Fast Food and Restaurants 5 1.9
General Retail ad E-tail 17 6.3
Travel and Tourism 15 5.6
Public Service
Announcements
Other 16 6.0
Total 268 100.0

Spot Descriptive Statistics of Dominant Characters

Table 10 provides a visual of the characters that were represented in the Clio

sample (N=268). Real-life males (28.9%) were portrayed the most in the spots. Young

adults (17.6%) were the second most often seen characters in the ads. The third most

prevalent character was professional-males (10.9%). Sports star females (.4%) were the

least likely to be portrayed in the sample (N=268).

Table 10. Dominant Characters Portrayed in Clio Ads
Characters Frequency Percent
Professional Male 28 9.7
Professional Female 2 .7
Entertainer Male 4 1.5
Entertainer Female 2 .7









Table 10. Continued
Characters Frequency Percent
Sports Star Male 15 5.6
Sports Star Female 1 .4
Model Male 6 2.2
Model Female 11 4.1
Elderly Male 10 3.7
Elderly Female 5 1.9
Child 9 3.4
Teenager 3 1.1
Young Adult 42 15.7
Mother 3 1.1
Father 8 3.0
Real-life Male 69 25.7
Real-life Female 6 2.2
Cartoon/Animated 17 6.3
Total 239 89.2
Missing System total 29 10.8

Hypotheses

The six hypotheses discussed in the literature review were the impetus for the

results and research that are addressed here. Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture

were the foundation for the hypotheses.

Hypothesis one theorized, "Clio Award-winning television commercials from the

United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980)

cultural dimension of collectivism.

The dimension of individualism (table 11) was not statistically significant.

Therefore, no differences can be discerned from the data about the presence or absence of

individualism between the United States and Latin America.

Table 11. Presence or Absence of Individualism USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presenceof 18
Ind oi 89 63.1% 18 54.5% 107 61.5%
Individualism
Absence of
Ind oi 52 36.9% 15 45.5% 67 38.5%
Individualism
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%









2=. 830; df=l; p=. 237; n=174

The dimension of collectivism (table 12) was not statistically significant. From this

information no differences were found between the United States and Latin America in

regard to the presence or absence of collectivism in Clio award-winning advertisements.

Table 12. Presence or Absence of Collectivism USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of
Colectii48 34.0% 14 42.4% 62 35.6%
Collectivism
Absence of
Colecti93 66.0% 19 57.6% 112 64.4%
Collectivism
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
2=. 819; df=l; p=. 239; n=174

Hypothesis two posits that, "Clio Award-winning television commercials from the

United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980)

cultural dimension of femininity". The dimension of masculinity (table 13) was not

statistically significant. Therefore, no difference can be ascertained between the USA

and Latin America in regard to the presence or absence of masculinity in Clio award-

winning ads.

Table 13. Presence or Absence of Masculinity in USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of
Presence of 95 67.4% 19 57.6% 114 65.6%
Masculinity
Absence of
Ascunif46 32.6% 14 42.4% 60 34.5%
Masculinity I
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
X2=1.137; df=l;p=193; n=174

The dimension of femininity (table 14) was statistically insignificant. There are no

differences between the United States and Latin America in regard to the presence or

absence of femininity in Clio award-winning ads.










Table 14. Presence or Absence of Femininity USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of
Presence of 18 12.8% 6 18.2% 24 13.8%
Femininity
Absence of
Absence of123 87.2% 27 81.8% 150 86.2%
Femininity________
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
2=. 660; df=l; p=. 287; n=174

Hypothesis three suggests, "Clio Award-winning television commercials from the

United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980)

cultural dimension of high power distance". The dimension of long-term orientation

(table 15) was not statistically significant. There is no difference between the U.S. and

Latin America in the presence or absence of long-term orientation in Clio award-winning

spots.

Table 15. Presence or Absence of Long-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of Long- 27 19.1% 11 33.3% 38 21.8%
term Orientation
Absence of Long- 114 80.9% 22 66.7% 136 78.2%
term Orientation
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
X2=3.152; df=l; p=. 065; n=174

The dimension of short-term orientation (table 16) is not statistically significant.

Thus it can be said that no differences persist between U.S. and Latin American Clio

spots when it comes to the presence or absence of short-term orientation.

Table 16. Presence or Absence of Short-Term Orientation USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of Short-
Presence of Short- 106 75.2% 22 66.7% 128 73.6%
term Orientation
Absence of Short-
Absence of Short- 35 24.8% 11 33.3% 46 26.4%
term Orientation
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
2=. 996; df=l; p=. 216; n=174









Hypothesis four, "Clio Award-winning television commercials from the United

States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's (1980) cultural

dimension of long-term orientation". The dimension of high power distance (table 17) is

not statistically significant. No differences can be found between the USA and Latin

America in terms of presence or absence of high power distance in Clio award-winning

advertisements.

Table 17. Presence or Absence of High Power Distance USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of High 66 46.8% 11 33.3% 77 44.3%
Power Distance
Absence of High 75 53.2% 22 66.7% 97 55.7%
Power Distance
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
X2=1.968; df=l; p=. 113; n=174

The dimension of low power distance (table 18) is not significant. No differences

are uncovered regarding the presence or absence of low power distance in U.S. Clio

award winning ads versus Latin American Clio ads.

Table 18. Presence or Absence of Low Power Distance USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presence of Low
Presence of Low 43 30.5% 12 36.4% 55 31.6%
Power Distance
Absence of Low
Absence ofLow 98 69.5% 21 63.6% 119 68.4%
Power Distance
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
2=. 426; df=l; p=. 324; n=174

Hypothesis five speculates that, "Clio Award-winning television commercials from

the United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of Hofstede's

(1980) cultural dimension of strong uncertainty avoidance". The dimension of high

uncertainty avoidance (table 19) is not statistically significant. There is no difference









between Latin America and the U.S. Clio award winning spots in regard to the presence

or absence of high uncertainty avoidance.

Table 19. Presence or Absence of High Uncertainty Avoidance USA vs. Latin America
USA Latin America Total
Presences of High
Uncertainty 20 14.2% 8 24.2% 28 16.1%
Avoidance
Absence of High
Uncertainty 121 85.8% 25 75.8% 146 83.9%
Avoidance
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
X2=2.004; df=l; p=. 126; n=174

The dimension of low uncertainty avoidance (table 20) is not statistically

significant. There are no differences between Latin America and the United States when

the presence or absence of low uncertainty avoidance in Clio award-winning ads are


involved.

Table 20 Presence or Absence of Low Uncertaint Avoidan A


vs Latin America


USA Latin America Total
Presence of Low
Uncertainty 118 83.7% 24 72.7% 142 81.6%
Avoidance
Absence of Low
Uncertainty 23 16.3% 9 27.3% 32 18.4%
Avoidance
Total 141 100% 33 100% 174 100%
X2=2.141; df=l, p=. 115; n=174

Hypothesis six posits "Clio Award-winning television commercials from the

United States and Latin America will differ significantly in terms of executional

variables" (Stewart and Furse, 1986; Marshall, 2006).










Table 21. Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Executional Variables
I Latin
United States America Total Sig.
Scenic beauty 132 95% 33 100% 165 95.9% NS
Beautiful characters 126 91.3% 26 78.8% 152 88.9% .047
Graphic displays 140 99.3% 32 97% 172 98.9% NS
Visual reinforcement through 97 68.8% 31 93.9% 128 73.6% .001
words
Logo 141 100% 32 97% 173 99.4% NS
Commercial appeals or selling 73 5 7 21.2% 80 46% .022
propositions
Commercial format 67 47.5% 11 33.3% 78 44.8% NS
Informational/transformational 127 90.1% 28 84.8% 155 89.1% NS
Dominant setting 66 50.4% 18 69.2% 84 53.5% NS
Presence of music 88 62.4% 23 69.7% 111 63.8% NS
Culture specific music 134 95% 31 93.9% 165 94.8% NS
Dominant tone 88 62.4% 16 48.5% 104 59.8% NS
Direct comparison 136 96.5% 32 97% 168 96.6% NS
Culture specific language 108 93.9% 6 40% 114 87.7% .000
Culture specific 129 91.5% 21 63.6% 150 86.2% .000

There was a statistical significant relationship found (table 11) for the use of

presence or absence of beautiful characters. Latin American (21.2%) Clio spots had a

greater likelihood of showing beautiful characters than did the United States (8.7%). The

United States Clio award winning advertisements were more likely to have an absence of

beautiful characters.

Statistical significance was found (table 11) for the presence or absence of visual

reinforcement through words. Latin American Clio award spots were found to show a

presence of visual reinforcements through words (93.9%) more than the United States

(68.9%).

There was a statistically significant relationship found (table 11) for dominant

commercial appeals. There is a difference between the United States (51.8%) and Latin

America (21.2%) for the use of the dominant appeal "product reminder as a main









message". The dominant appeal of "Hedonism" is present 24.2 percent of the time in

Latin American Clio spots and 12.1 percent in Clio ads for the USA. Welfare is another

appeal where a difference is found between Latin America (15.2%) and the United States

(5.0%).

Statistical significance was found (table 11) for the presence or absence of culture

specific language. The United States (93.9%) has a greater presence of culture specific

language than Latin America (40.0%). 60 percent of Latin America's Clio award-

winning advertisements have an absence of culture specific language while only 6.1

percent of United States ads lack culture specific language.

A statistically significant relationship was found (table 11) for culture specific

product. The products in the spots were culturally specific 36.4 percent of the time in

Latin American Clio ads versus the 8.5 percent of products that were culturally specific

to the USA.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The current study set out to add support to the theoretical framework of Hofstede's

(1980) dimensions of culture as well as illustrate the importance of utilizing culture in

award winning advertisements.

The first hypothesis was interested in confirming that Latin American Clio winning

ads would demonstrate the dimension of collectivism more than U.S. ads. The results for

this hypothesis were not statistically significant which does not allow for an affirmation

of the hypothesis.

Hypothesis two sought to uncover that Latin American Clio spots would showcase

the dimension of femininity more than U.S. spots. However, the results were found to be

statistically insignificant, thus no difference between Latin America and the United States

can be discerned in regard to the presence or absence of femininity in Clio award winning

ads.

The goal of the third hypothesis was to find that the dimension of high power

distance would be reflected in Latin American Clio ads more than in U.S. Clio spots.

Once again the data was not statistically significant and could not support the hypothesis.

For the fourth hypothesis, the dimension of long-term orientation was expected to be

representative in Latin American Clio awards more than U.S. ads. However, the final

results garnered from the data found no statistical significance between Latin America

and the U.S. involving the presence or absence of long-term orientation in Clio award

winning ads. Although, the significance of this particular hypothesis is not less than .05









it is not far from it (.065). This result can be considered a trend and could be explored

with a larger sample size.

As for the dimension of uncertainty avoidance, hypothesis five predicted that Latin

American Clio spots would demonstrate higher uncertainty avoidance than the ads from

the United States. The results found for this were not statistically significant. Thus,

hypothesis five was not supported.

The sixth hypothesis theorized, "Latin American Clio award winning ads will be

different from U.S. Clio award winning ads based on executional variables" (Stewart and

Furse, 1986; Marshall, 2006). The results found five variables significantly significant.

Therefore there are differences between the U.S. and Latin America in terms of presence

of beautiful characters, visual reinforcement through words, dominant appeals, presence

of culture specific language and absence of culture specific product.

Comparing the Results to the Literature

Although the results for the first five hypotheses were found to be statistically

insignificant, the data does provide information that can be used for future research

studies in terms of cultural differences. When looking back at the literature reviewed for

this study and the results that were found, certain aspects stand out as possible reasons for

the lack of significance. The dimension of femininity may not have been reflected as

strongly because of the Latin American ideology of "machismo" (Owen & Scherer,

2002). Another area that the literature review touched on was geography and the

differences between the countries that form the Latin American community. For

example, the Southern cone countries originally spawned from European colonists

therefore these countries may demonstrate more European dimensions of culture,

whereas, Mexico and Puerto Rico are more closely related to the United States









(Lenartowicz & Johnson, 2003). Even though the reasons of history, geography and

ideology could explain the insignificance of the results Davis (1969) originally warned

his readers to beware of generalizations, which is an important factor to remember in this

research study. It is also important to note that Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture

are broad and can be viewed in a subjective manner making it difficult for coders to

decipher a dimension in an advertisement.

Limitations

For all intents and purposes a content analysis was the most appropriate research

design for this study however, there were a few limitations that need to be mentioned.

Due to the fact that a content analysis is based on nominal scales and qualitative

judgments it is difficult to ensure reliability, validity or objectivity (Perreault & Leigh,

1989). Another limitation to be aware of was the language barriers. Since the Clio

awards are international some of the ads utilized the native language of their country of

origin, therefore the full meaning of the ad was lost on those judges who were unfamiliar

with certain languages.

The sampling frame for this study included 268 Clio awards from the years 1995

through 2004. The 1997 Clio awards did not take place and the 2002 Clio awards tape

was unavailable for this study. A few limitations arose from this sampling process. The

first was that the sampling frame was limited to the tapes that were available through the

University of Florida's advertising department. Since these tapes were hunted down the

quality was poor and certain years were unavailable. Another problem was the over

representation of the United States during the eight year period. The United States

accounted for 141 spots out of 268. The large U.S. sample size and the small overall

sample size made it difficult to acquire data on certain countries. It is possible that a bias









towards the United States may have occurred, where either the majority of the judges

were representing the U.S. or more U.S. agencies submitted entries to the award program.

Whichever the case may be the sample size in general caused some difficulties in the

research process.

Since content analysis is a descriptive method the small sample size (N=268)

makes it difficult for a theoretically sound conclusion to be drawn (Taylor, Miracle &

Wilson, 1997). The use of content analysis also makes it difficult to uncover true

readings of cultural values (e.g. Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture), which are

often buried within the message because of the use of manifest content (Caillat &

Mueller, 1996). That said the questions derived from the Stewart and Furse (1986) study

and Marshall (2006) used to conduct the content analysis for this study could only touch

on service information. In order for more conclusive results to be found future research

must be conducted that takes a more in-depth look at the information than content

analysis has the ability to do.

Future Research Recommendations

The lack of statistical significance in the five hypotheses does not mean that the

information accumulated was useless. Hypothesis six discusses five areas where

statistical significance was found. It was found that beautiful characters were more likely

to be present in Latin American ads than U.S. ads another set of data discovered that

Latin American Clio award winning ads utilized visual reinforcement through words

more than U.S. ads. The dominant appeal of "product reminder as main message" was

more likely to be employed by U.S. ads than Latin American spots, while the dominant

appeals of welfare and hedonism showed up more often in Latin American Clio award

winning ads. Two more questions resulted in statistically significant numbers; presence









of culture specific language and presence of culture specific product. The presence of

culture specific language was exercised more often in the U.S. Clio award winning ads

than in the Latin American ads. However, culture specific products were more often

advertised in Latin American Clio award winning advertisements than in U.S. spots.

These results as well as the information on Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture can

be used to grow future research on cultural comparisons between the United States and

Latin America. For example, future researchers could look at why appeals of hedonism

and welfare are more predominant in Latin America or why beautiful characters are more

likely to appear in Latin American ads than U.S. ads. The information on culture specific

language could be used to investigate the difficulties that may arise when marketing to a

culture that has many variations in language, like Latin America. Even the results for

Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of culture can be used as an impetus for looking for

advertising award programs that may acknowledge more culturally specific ads than the

Clio awards, which are known for creativity.














APPENDIX A
CODE BOOK

A) Visual Devices

V11. Scenic Beauty Does the commercial present striking scenes of natural beauty?
(mountains, flowing streams)

V12. Beautiful Characters Does the commercial present one or more strikingly
beautiful people?

V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts Does the commercial use graphics or charts
as part of its presentation?

V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words Literal words on
the screen used to reinforce some characteristic of the product or part of the
commercial message. Ex. "50% Stronger" or "3 out of 4 doctors recommend"

V15. Visual Display of Logo There is a visual picture of the logo in the
commercial.

B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions

V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?
1. Attributes or ingredient as main message A major focus of the
commercial is to communicate something about how the product is made
or the ingredients. Ex. Toothpaste containing fluoride.
2. Product performance or benefit as main message A major focus of the
commercial is to communicate what the product does or how to use it. Ex.
Whiter teeth.
3. Psychological or subjective benefits A major focus of the commercial is
to communicate hidden or non-provable benefits of having/using the
product. Ex. You will be more popular/confident/sexy.
4. Product reminder as main message A product or package is the primary
message rather than any specific attribute/benefit.
5. Sexual Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on sexual cues.
6. Comfort Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on cues appealing to
creature comforts. Ex. Soft chairs, cool climate.
7. Safety Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on cues appealing to
being free from fear or physical danger. Ex. Safety alarms.
8. Enjoyment Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on enjoying life to
the fullest; good food and drink and so on.









9. Welfare Appeal A main focus of the commercial is on caring or
providing for others. Ex. Gift giving.
10. Social Approval A main focus of the commercial is on belonging,
winning friends, obtaining approval of others.
11. Self Esteem or Self Image A main focus of the commercial is on feeling
better about oneself, improving oneself, being a better person.
12. Achievement A main focus of the commercial is on obtaining superiority
over others, getting ahead, winning.
13. Excitement/Variety A main focus of the commercial is on adding
excitement, thrills, variety to life. Avoiding boredom.

C) Commercial Format

V17. What is the dominant format of the commercial?
1. Vignette A series of two or more stories that can stand alone. No
continuing storyline, but several independent stories which may convey
the same message. Multiple interviews would be an example.
2. Slice of Life Interplay between two or more people that portray a
conceivable real life situation. There is continuity of action.
3. Testimonial by product user One or more individuals recounts his or her
satisfaction for the product advertised or the results of using the product
advertised. For example Bill Cosby for Jell-O.
4. Endorsement by celebrity/authority One or more individuals or
organizations advocates or recommends the product but does not claim
personal use or satisfaction.
5. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy A demonstration of
product in use, for example a man shaving in a commercial for shaving
cream; women applying make up. A demonstration of the use of the
product, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy or device rather
than actual demonstration, as in the case of dipping chalk into a beaker of
fluoride to demonstrate how fluoride is to be absorbed by the teeth.
6. Demonstration of results of using a product Demonstration of the
outcome of using the product. For example, shining floors and bouncing
hair.
7. Comedy or Satire The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or
satire. Not only is humor an element of the commercial, but also the
commercial is written to be funny.
8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope The entire commercial or some
substantial part is animated. For example the Keebler Elves. Rotoscope is
a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time.
For example the Trix Rabbit.
9. Photographic Stills The use of photographic stills in part of the
commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models.
10. Creation of Mood or Image as dominant element An attempt to create a
desire for the product, without offering a specific product claim, by
appealing to the viewers' emotional/sensory involvement.









11. Commercial written as a serious drama The commercial is written as a
stage play, melodrama, or tragedy.
12. Fantasy/Exaggeration/Surrealism Use of animation or other visual
devices instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude
literal translation on the part of the viewer.
13. Problem & Solution An attempt to define or show a problem, then
indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem. Example foot
odor.
14. Interview An interview, question/answers is the primary vehicle in the
commercials. Example Rolaids "How do you spell relief'?


D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message

V18. Informational/Rational or Transformational/Image/Emotional
1. Informational/Rational Primary focus is on information or facts about
the brand or product presented in some logical way to suggest some reason
for purchasing the brand or product. Ex. Business to Business ads.
2. Transformational/Image/Emotional Primary focus is on creating an
image or mood. Sometimes these ads are referred to as "soft sell" ads.
Usually, but not always, there is little or no information or content present
in the sense of facts about the brand or product.

E) Commercial Setting

V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting?
1. Indoors Is the commercial setting or significant part of it indoors or in
other man made structures? Ex. Kitchens, garages, offices, stadium,
airplanes.
2. Outdoors Is the commercial setting or significant part of it outdoors? Ex.
Mountains, rivers, beaches, backyard, gardens.
3. No setting There is no particular setting for the commercial.

V20. Where is the commercial setting?
1. Urban apartment/housing A significant portion of the commercial is set in a
home or apartment in a highly populated area. Ex. A house in a large neighborhood
or city.
2. Rural apartment/housing A significant portion of the commercial is set in a
home or apartment in a sparsely populated area. Ex. A house in the middle of
nowhere.
3. Office/business A significant portion of the commercial is set in an office
building or business location. Ex. A boardroom meeting.
4. Restaurant A significant portion of the commercial is set in a place where food
is served.
5. Obvious landmark A significant portion of the commercial is set at a well-
known landmark. Ex. The Eiffel Tower.









6. Green pasture A significant portion of the commercial is set in a wide-open,
grassy space. Ex. Cow pasture.
7. Mountainous area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near a
mountainous region. Ex. A snowy peak with skiers.
8. Desert area A significant portion of the commercial is set in a sandy, barren
region. Ex. The Sahara.
9. Beach/lake area A significant portion of the commercial is set on or near water.
Ex. People fishing on a lake.
10. Other Insert location if none of the above applies.
11. Not Applicable Absence of a setting. Ex. Cosmetic stills or blank screens.

F) Music

V21. Presence or absence of music Is music present in the commercial in any
format.

V22. Presence of absence of culture specific music Is the music that is present
representative of the culture of origin. Ex. African drums.

G) Commercial Tone/Atmosphere

V23. Predominant Tones Examples
1. Cute/adorable Welch's Grape Juice commercials with little children.
2. Hard sell Straight facts about product attributes.
3. Warm and caring Jif Peanut Butter "Choosy Moms Choose Jif'
4. Modem/contemporary Many liquor ads.
5. Wholesome/healthy Food that's "good for you".
6. Technological Computer related.
7. Conservative/Traditional/Nostalgic Many black and white or sepia tones.
8. Happy/fun-loving Travel commercials like Carnival Cruise Lines.
9. Cool/Laid-back Beer commercials like Coors Light.
10. Somber/serious Many PSA's "Don't let friends drink and drive".
11. Uneasy/tense Security issues, political issues.
12. Glamorous High fashion, make up, alcohol.
13. Humorous Bud Light "Real Men of Genius".
14. Rough/rugged Jeep commercials, Marlboro Cowboys.

H) Comparisons

V24. Direct comparison with other products
1. Yes Comparison is direct or obvious in nature. Example Coke and
Pepsi, Crest and Colgate. Or example "that other cleaner...."
2. No No comparison is made. Product stands alone.

I) Languages (Spoken)


V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language









1. Presence Any spoken word in the commercial is in the language native
to the region/country that it is shown in. Example Japanese ad for Coke is
spoken in Japanese.
2. Absence A 'globalized' ad. Every commercial shown regardless of
location is in the same language. Example The same exact Coke commercial
spoken in English is shown in Japan, China, Latin America, and Europe.
3. Cannot code There is no spoken word in the commercial.

J) Characters

V26. Who is the dominant character being shown in the ad?

1. Professional male Dominant character is a male businessman, doctor,
lawyer, etc.
2. Professional female Dominant character is a female businesswoman,
doctor, lawyer, etc.
3. Entertainer male Dominant character is a famous male actor, singer, or
performer.
4. Entertainer female Dominant character is a famous female actress,
singer, or performer.
5. Sports star male Dominant character is a famous male sports personality.
6. Sports star female Dominant character is a famous female sports
personality.
7. Supermodel male Dominant character is a well-known male supermodel.
8. Supermodel female Dominant character is a well-known female
supermodel.
9. Model male Dominant character is a "good looking", unknown, male
actor. (Axe)
10. Model female Dominant character is a "good looking", unknown female
actress. (Ice Breakers Gum)
11. Elderly male Dominant character is an elderly man.
12. Elderly female Dominant character is an elderly woman.
13. Child Dominant character is a child presumably under 12 years old.
14. Teenager Dominant character is a teenager presumably 13-19 years old.
15. Young adult Dominant character is a young adult/college student
presumably in their 20s.
16. Mother Dominant character is a female playing a motherly/matriarchal
role.
17. Father Dominant character is a male playing a fatherly/patriarchal role.
18. Real-life male Dominant character is a "real guy" on the streets. Ex.
Interview.
19. Real-life female Dominant character is a "real girl" on the streets. Ex.
Interview.
20. Cartoon Dominant character is animated.
21. Not applicable -No human/cartoon characters.









K) Localization

V27. Is the product culture specific?

1. Yes The product is designed for a specific cultural market. An example
is shampoos or hair care products designed specifically for "Women of color".
2. No The product is universal and can be used by anybody. Example -
Coke.

L) Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture

V28. Individualism/Collectivism
1. Highly individualistic The commercial exudes an air of individualism,
self-preservation, and people looking after themselves only. Examples include
the "lone" runner/winner in a Nike ad, and "An Army of One".

2. Highly collectivist The commercial exudes an air of strong group
mentality. It is very "we" oriented and members of the group make decisions
on what would be best for the group/culture/country as a whole. Examples
include many PSA's that explain "when you do your part, we all succeed."


V29. Masculine/Feminine

1. Highly Masculine The commercial's dominant values are achievement
and success. Achievement and status is highly regarded. Examples include
winning, the big fast sports cars for status symbol, being "the best".

2. Highly feminine The commercial's dominant values are nurturing, caring,
warm, and quality of life. There is no competition. Examples include "it's
okay if you are not the winner or the best..."


V30. Long term orientation/Short term orientation

1. Highly long term The commercial's dominant values are perseverance,
reverence for nature, and harmony of man with nature. Examples include
Confucian values in Asian societies.

2. Highly short term The commercial's dominant values include a focus on
favors, gifts, current stability, and one's immediate gratification. Examples
include "Hungry? Gotta eat!"


V31. Power distance









1. Strongest power distance The commercial's dominant values are having a
social hierarchy and knowing one's place. Acceptance of authority comes
naturally. Examples include a strict boss and a subservient employee.

2. Weakest power distance There is no social hierarchy and authority has a
negative connotation.

V32. Uncertainty Avoidance

1. Strongest UAI The commercial's dominant values include avoidance of
the ambiguous and uncertain situations. Examples include commercials that
show rules, structure, and formality to life.

2. Weakest UAI The commercial's dominant values include as few social
'rules' as possible and ritualistic behavior is not present. The commercial can
use competition or conflict because they are not seen as threatening. Examples
include direct comparison advertisements such as "The Pepsi Challenge".














APPENDIX B
CODE SHEET

Clio Award-Winning Advertisements and Dimensions of Culture


VI. Case ID #


V2. Coder initials


V3. Ad Title

V4. Brand

V5. Agency Name


V6. Country of Origin

V7. Color (1) All Color


V8. Award level


(1) Grand (2) Gold


(3) Silver (4) Bronze


V9. Award Year
1.2005
2.2004
3.2003
4.2001
5.2000

V10. Award Category


1. Agriculture/Industrial/Building
2. Alcoholic Beverages
3. Apparel and Accessories
4. Automobiles and Vehicles
5. Beauty Aids
6. Beer
7. Carbonated Beverages
8. Non-carbonated Beverages
9. Breakfast Foods
10. Business Products
11. Children's Products
12. Computer and Related (for
business or personal)
13. Consumer Electronics


14. Cosmetics
15. Credit or Debit Cards
16. Delivery Systems and Products
17. Entertainment
18. High Fashion
19. Fast Food and Restaurant
20. Financial Services or Products
21. General retail/E-tail
22. Health Aids and Over the
Counter Products
23. Health Aids Prescription
Products
24. Health and Medical Products and
Services


(2) B&W


(3) Mixed


1999
1998
1996
1995









25. Hotels/Resorts
26. Household Durable Products
27. Internet Services
28. Leisure Products
29. Package Food
30. Personal Care Products
31. Pet Care
32. Professional Services


33. Real Estate
34. Self Care: Body
35. Snacks/Desserts
36. Telecom Services
37. Transportation
38. Travel/Tourism
39. Public Service Announcements


A) Visual Devices

V11. Scenic Beauty
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V12. Beautiful Characters
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V13. Visual Display of Graphs/Charts
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V14. Visual Reinforcement of commercial message through words
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

V15. Visual Display of Logo
1. Presence
2. Absence
3. Can not code

B) Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions

V16. What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?
1. Attribute or ingredient as the main message
2. Product performance or benefit as the main message
3. Psychological or subjective benefit as the main message
4. Product reminder as main message
5. Sexual appeal
6. Comfort appeal
7. Safety appeal









8. Enjoyment appeal
9. Welfare appeal
10. Social approval
11. Self-esteem or self-image
12. Achievement
13. Excitement, variety

C) Commercial Format

V17. What is the dominant format of the commercial?
1. Vignette
2. Slice of life
3. Testimonial by product user
4. Endorsement by a celebrity or authority
5. Demonstration of product in use
6. Demonstration of results of using the product
7. Comedy or Satire
8. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope
9. Photographic stills
10. Creation of mood or image as dominant element
11. Fantasy/exaggeration/surrealism as dominant element
12. Problem and solution (before/after presentation)
13. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere)

D) Typology of Broadcast Commercial Message

V18. Informational/Rational OR Transformational/Image/Emotional
1. Informational
2. Transformational

E) Commercial Setting

V19. Where is the dominant commercial setting?
1. Indoors
2. Outdoors
3. Other
4. No setting

V20. Where is the commercial setting
1. Urban apartment/housing
2. Rural apartment/housing
3. Office/business setting
4. Restaurant
5. Obvious landmark
6. Green pasture
7. Mountainous area









8. Desert
9. Beach/lake area
10. Other
11. Not applicable

F) Music

V21. Presence or absence of music
1. Presence
2. Absence

V22. Presence or absence of country specific music
1. Presence
2. Absence

G) Commercial tone and atmosphere

V23. (Please select the predominant tone)

1. Cute/adorable
2. Hard sell
3. Warm and caring
4. Modem/contemporary
5. Wholesome/healthy
6. Technological
7. Conservative/traditional/nostalgic
8. Happy/fun-loving
9. Cool/laid-back
10. Somber/serious
11. Uneasy/tense
12. Glamorous
13. Humorous
14. Rough/rugged

H) Comparisons

V24. Is there a direct comparison with other products?
1. Yes
2. No

I) Languages

V25. Presence or absence of culture specific language
4. Presence
5. Absence
6. Cannot code.










J) Characters
V26. Who is the dominant character being shown in the ad?


22. Professional male
23. Professional female
24. Entertainer male
25. Entertainer female
26. Sports star male
27. Sports star female
28. Supermodel male
29. Supermodel female
30. Model male
31. Model female
32. Elderly male


33. Elderly female
34. Child
35. Teenager
36. Young Adult
37. Mother
38. Father
39. Real-life male
40. Real-life female
41. Cartoon/Animated
42. Not applicable


K) Localization

V27. Is the product culture specific?
3. Yes
4. No

L) Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture


V28. Presence of Individualism?
1. Yes
2. No

V28b. Presence of Collectivism?
1. Yes
2. No

V29. Presence of Masculinity?
1. Yes
2. No

V29b. Presence of Femininity?
1. Yes
2. No


V30. Presence of Long term orientation?
1. Yes
2. No









V30b. Presence of Short term orientation?
1. Yes
2. No

V31. High power distance present?
1. Yes
2. No

V3 lb. Low power distance present?
1. Yes
2. No


V32. High uncertainty
1. Yes
2. No


avoidance present?


V32b. Low uncertainty avoidance present?
1. Yes
2. No


Notes:















REFERENCES


Abernethy, A., & Franke, G. (1996). The information content of advertising: A meta-
analysis. Journal of Advertising, 25(2), 1-7.

About, Inc. (2006). Advertising awards. Retrieved March, 2006, from
http://advertising.about.com/cs/awards/index.htm

Advertising Age. (2005). 1960s Creativity and breaking the rules. Advertising Age,
76(13), 50-54.

Albers-Miller, N., & Stafford, M. (1999). International services advertising: An
examination of the variation in appeal use for experiential and utilitarian services.
Journal of Services Marketing, 13(4), 390-406.

Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. New York: The Free
Press.

Brophy, A. (2005). International Clio awards revives popular TV awards special in
partnership with Dick Clark Productions. Retrieved March, 2006, from
http://www.clioawards.com/press/index.cfm?year=2005&pressid=97

Buckman, R. (1990). Cultural agenda of Latin American newspapers and magazines: Is
U.S. domination a myth? Latin American Research Review, 25(2), 134-155.

Caillat, Z., & Mueller, B. (1996). Observations: The influence of culture on American
and British advertising: An exploratory comparison of beer advertising. Journal of
Advertising Research, 36(3), 79-88.

Cohen, J. (1960). Coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46

Dahl, S. (2004). Intercultural research: The current state of knowledge. Middlesex
University discussion paper 26. Retrieved March 2006 from
http://stephan.dahl.at/intercultural/hall.html

Davis, J. (1997). Advertising research: Theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall.

Davis, S. (1969). U.S. versus Latin America: business & culture: Improvement of
management policies and performance can result from an understanding of basic
differences in each environment. Harvard Business Review, 47(6), 88-98.






72


Davis, D., & Jasinski, J. (1993). Beyond the culture wars: An agenda for research on
communication and culture. Journal of Communication, 43(3), 141-149.

De Mooij, M. (2000). The future is predictable for international marketers: Converging
incomes lead to diverging consumer behavior. International Marketing Review,
17(2), 103-113

De Mooij, M. (2004). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global
marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Fox, R. (2001). Warning advertising may be hazardous to your health. USA Today
Magazine, 130(2678), 62-66.

Frith, K., & Mueller, B. (2003). Advertising and societies: Global issues. New York, NY:
Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.

Gagnard, A. & Morris, J. (1988). CLIO commercials from 1975-1985: Analysis of 151
executional variables. Journalism Quarterly, 65(4), 859-865.

Gregory, G., & Munch, J. (1997). Cultural values in international advertising: An
examination of familial norms and roles in Mexico. Psychology & Marketing,
14(2), 99-119.

Hall, E. (1976). Beyond culture. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Han, S., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in
individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of Experimental Social
Psychology, 30, 326-350.

Helgesen, T. (1994). Advertising awards and advertising agency performance criteria.
Journal of Advertising Research, 34(4), 43-53.

Herbig, P., & Yelkur, R. (1997). Differences between Hispanic and Anglo consumer
expectations. Management Decision, 35(2), 125-132.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related
values, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Holsti, 0. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley.

livonen, M., Sonnewald, D., Parma, M., & Poole-Kober, E. (1998). Analyzing and
understanding cultural differences: Experiences from education in library and
information studies. Presented at the 64th IFLA General Conference. Amsterdam,
Netherlands, August 16-August 21, 1998.

Kassarjian, H. (1977). Content analysis in consumer research. Journal of Consumer
Research, 4(2), 8-18.









Kolbe, R., & Bellinger, D. (1985). Correlates of successful advertising campaigns: The
manager's perspective. Journal ofAdvertising Research, 25, 34-39.

Koslow, S., Sasser, S. & Riordan, E. (2003). What is creative to whom and why?
Perceptions in advertising agencies. Journal ofAdvertising Research, March, 98-
110.

Kover, A., James, W. & Sonner, B. (1997). To whom do advertising creative write? And
inferential answer. Journal ofAdvertising Research, January/February, 41-53

Krippendorf, K. (1980). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Beverly
Hills, CA: Sage

Lenartowicz, T., & Johnson, J. (2003). A cross-national assessment of the values of Latin
America managers: Contrasting hues or shades of gray? Journal of International
Business Studies, 34(3), 266-282.

Lenti, P. (1993). The Latin American film industry takes on Hollywood. North American
Congress on Latin America. 27(2), 4-10.

Llosa, M. (1982). El elefante y la cultural. Excelsior, 1, A-3

Macionis, J. (1995). Sociology. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Marshall, S. (2006). Advertising message strategies and executional devises in television
commercials from award-winning "effective campaigns from 1999 to 2004.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida.

McConnell, F. (1993). Truly dishonest: and joe six-pack knows it. Commonweal, 120(2),
14

McGrath, J. (2006). Understanding culture and cultural differences: Introduction to the
study of other cultures. Retrieved March 2006, from
http://blue.butler.edu/~jfmcgrat/culture.htm

Morgan, M., Leggett, S., & Shananhan, J. (1999). Television and family values: Was Can
Quayle right? Mass Communication & Society, 2(1/2), 47-63.

Owen, C., & Scherer, R. (2002). Doing business in Latin America: Managing cultural
differences in perceptions of female expatriates. Sam AdvancedManagement
Journal, Spring, 37-41.

Perreault, W., & Leigh, L. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative
judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(2), 135-148.

Pollay, R. (1983). Measuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. In J.H. Leigh
and C. R. Martin (Eds.), Current issues and research in advertising. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan Press. 71-92









Resnik, A., & Stern, B. (1977). Information content in TV ads. Journal of Marketing, 41,
51-53.

Schwartz, S. (1994). Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications.
Cross-cultural research and methodology series, Vol. 18. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage.

Sondergaard, M. (1994). Research note; Hofstede's consequences: A study of reviews,
citations and replications. Organization Studies, 15(3), 447-456.

SPSS Inc. (2006). SPSS Base 14.0 for Windows User's Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.

Stewart, D., & Furse, D. (1986). Effective television advertising: A study of 1000
commercials. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Stevens, W. (1991). Doing business in the Eastern Bloc: Conceptual differences in
accounting principles-The language of business. Review of Business, 13 (1/2).

Tansey, R., & Hyman, M. (1994). Dependency theory and the effects of advertising by
foreign-based multinational corporations in Latin America. Journal of Advertising,
23(1), 27-40.

Taylor, D. (1992). Global software: Developing applications for the international
market. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Taylor, C., Miracle, G., & Wilson, D. (1997). The impact of information level on the
effectiveness of U.S. and Korean television commercials. Journal ofAdvertising,
26(1), 1-18.

Taylor, C., & Stern, B. (1997). Asian-Americans: Television advertising and the "model
minority" stereotype. Journal ofAdvertising, 2692), 47-61.

West, D., Collins, E., & Miciak, A. (2003). Management perspectives of awards for
creative advertising. Journal of General Management, 29(2), 23-34.

Zandapour, F., & Campos, V. (1994). Global reach and local touch; Achieving cultural
fitness in television advertising. Journal ofAdvertising Research, 34(5), PAGE #

Zhang, Y., & Gelb, B. (1996). Matching advertising appeals to culture: The influence of
products' use conditions. Journal ofAdvertising, 25(3), 30-45.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Scarlett Rosier never planned to receive her master's degree, nor did she plan on

spending more than four years at the University of Florida, but that was five years ago.

She is unsure where she wants to begin her career and is open to suggestions. Until she is

gainfully employed she will be spending time with her amazing horse Lavish, enjoying

the company of her best friends and feeding the travel bug.