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Brevis Furor: The Madness of Poetic Inspiration in Horace's Works

HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 On the margin of society: Inside...
 Cave, Cave: Rabies as poetic inspiration...
 The madness of Bacchic inspira...
 Conclusion
 Bibliography
 Biographical sketch
 

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B R E V I S F U R O R : T H E M A D N E S S O F P O E T I C I N S P I R A T I O N I N H O R A C E S W O R K S B y M I C H A E L W R I T T E R A T H E S I S P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2006

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i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk f i r s t of a l l m y f a m i l y f o r t he i r s t r ong e m ot i ona l s uppor t a nd a s s i s t a nc e i n t hi s pr oj e c t pa r t i c ul a r l y m y w i f e a nd m ot he r i n l a w f or t he i r e di t i ng s ki l l s a nd c om m e nt s I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o t ha nk m y f a t h e r i n l a w f or h i s f i na nc i a l s uppor t i n pr ovi di ng t he pe r f e c t l oc a t i on dur i ng t he w r i t i ng o f t hi s pr oj e c t S pe c i a l t ha nks t o t he U ni ve r s i t y of T ul s a f or t he us e o f i t s l i br a r y dur i ng t he S pr i ng of 2006, a nd t o m y f r i e nds i n G a i ne s vi l l e f or r e t r i e vi ng s or e l y ne e de d m a t e r i a l s f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l o r i da I a m a l s o i nde bt e d t o m y c om m i t t e e D r s T i m ot hy J ohns on, R obe r t W a gm a n, a nd D a vi d Y oung, f o r t he i r he l pf ul c om m e nt s a nd gui da nc e I w oul d m os t e s pe c i a l l y l i ke t o t ha nk t he c ha i r of m y c om m i t t e e D r T i m o t hy J ohns on, f or hi s f l e xi bi l i t y a nd e nc our a ge m e nt

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i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 O N T H E M A R G I N O F S O C I E T Y : I N S I D E T H E E X P E R I E N C E O F T H E V E SA N U S P O E T A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 C A V E C A V E : R A B I E S A S P O E T I C I N S P I R A T I O N I N T H E E P O D E S . . . . . . . . 20 4 T H E M A D N E S S O F B A C C H I C I N S P I R A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5 C O N C L U S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 B I B L I O G R A P H Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

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i v A bs t r a c t of T he s i s P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he D e g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s B R E V I S F U R O R : T H E M A D N E S S O F P O E T I C I N S P I R A T I O N I N H O R A C E S W O R K S B y M i c ha e l W R i t t e r A ugus t 2006 C ha i r : T i m ot hy S J ohns on M a j or D e pa r t m e nt : C l a s s i c s T hr oughout h i s poe t r y, H or a c e a s s e r t s t ha t c r e a t i ve f or c e s m us t be ba l a nc e d i n or de r f o r a poe t i c unde r t a ki ng t o be s uc c e s s f ul T h e r e f or e a poe t s i nge ni um i s f a s hi one d by ar s a nd t he f e r oc i t y o f i a m bi c r abi e s i s t e m pe r e d by C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c s T he m a i n obj e c t i ve of t he A r s P oe t i c a i s t o i l l us t r a t e H or a c e s doc t r i ne t ha t ar s a nd i nge ni um a r e e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt s i n t he c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s t ha t f a r f r om be i ng hos t i l e t o one a not he r a r e yoke d t oge t he r t o pr oduc e good poe t r y H or a c e i l l us t r a t e s t hi s doc t r i ne t hr ough t he e x e m pl a of D e m oc r i t us ba nd of m a d poe t s a nd t he v e s anus poe t a w ho c ul t i va t e i nge ni um a l one a nd s hun a C a l l i m a c he a n ar s t ha t w oul d m ol d t he i r c r e a t i ve out put i nt o w or t hw hi l e poe t r y. H or a c e w hi l e di s a vow i ng t he e xc e s s e s of i nge ni um r e c ogni z e s i t a s a n e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt i n t he c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s but m a i nt a i ns t ha t i nge ni um a s a c r e a t i ve f or c e m us t be t e m pe r e d by ar s J us t a s i nge ni um i s a pot e nt i a l s our c e of c r e a t i vi t y s o t he i a m bi c r abi e s w hi c h pr oduc e d t he c i vi l w a r s out o f w hi c h t he E pode s s p r ung, s e r ve s a l s o a s H or a c e s poe t i c

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v i ns pi r a t i on. H or a c e s c ol l e c t i on of E pode s c ont a i n pot e nt i nve c t i ve a nge r but he i s c a r e f ul i n hi s E pi s t l e s t o di s t i ngui s h A r c hi l oc h e a n i am bi f r om hi s ow n. H o r a c e i ns i s t s t ha t C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c s w e r e i ns t r um e nt a l i n t he c om pos i t i on of t he E pode s s o t ha t t he y a voi de d t he e xc e s s i ve vi ol e nc e of A r c hi l oc he a n a nge r w hi c h, i f l e f t unc he c ke d, ha s t he pow e r t o t r a ns gr e s s t he bounds of a c c e pt a bl e s oc i a l be ha vi or a nd r e s ul t s i n vi ol e nc e H or a c e s doc t r i ne of m e di oc r i t as i n t he c r e a t i ve p r oc e s s i s a l s o ope r a t i ve i n hi s e nc ount e r s w i t h B a c c hus i n hi s O de s B a c c hus i s one s our c e of poe t i c i ns pi r a t i on a nd he i s i ns t r um e nt a l i n d r a w i ng out H or a c e s ow n uni qu e i nge ni um f or t he c r e a t i on of pr a i s e poe t r y. B a c c hus how e ve r i s a l s o t he s our c e of i n s pi r a t i on be hi nd H or a c e s s ym pot i c ode s i ns of a r a s H or a c e i s c onc e r ne d t hr oughout t he O de s w i t h i l l us t r a t i ng t he gi f t s of B a c c hus a nd t he da nge r s of ove r i ndul ge nc e H or a c e a s m agi s t e r bi be ndi a t t i m e s e ndor s e s e xc e s s i ve i ndul ge nc e i n B a c c hus gi f t s b ut t he s e ode s m us t be unde r s t ood w i t hi n t he l a r ge r c ont e xt o f t he c ol l e c t i on of O de s w hi c h a dvoc a t e s a m ode r a t e c ons um pt i on of w i ne

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1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N H or a c e s A r s P oe t i c a a nd E pi s t l e s a r e uni que doc u m e nt s i n t ha t t he y pr e s e nt H or a c e s ow n r e f l e c t i ons ove r hi s l i f e t i m e of w or k : a n oppor t un i t y t ha t i s r a r e l y a f f o r de d i n ot he r a ut ho r s f r o m a nt i qui t y 1 I n t he s e w r i t i ngs H or a c e s r e a de r s a r e a bl e t o f or m a n i m pr e s s i on of hi s vi e w s on t he na t ur e a nd f unc t i on of t he poe t i n f a s hi oni ng s oc i e t y. H or a c e s l a t e r poe t r y t he n s e r ve s a s one m e a ns of e va l ua t i ng H or a c e s va t i c voi c e i n hi s E pode s a nd O de s T he A r s P oe t i c a be gi ns a s a p r a c t i c a l g ui de book on poe t r y t o t he P i s one s but be c om e s a pe r s ona l r e f l e c t i on on t he c ha r a c t e r of t he poe t a nd hi s r ol e i n s oc i e t y. 2 T he poe m s hi f t s f r om a dvi c e on t he m e c ha ni c s of c om pos i ng poe t r y t o c ons i de r t he c r i t i c a l di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he r ol e of i nge ni u m a nd ar s i n t he poe t s c r a f t di f f e r e nc e s w hi c h a r e a t t i m e s f a r f r om s t r a i ght f or w a r d. G ood poe t r y H o r a c e c l a i m s i s onl y a t t a i ne d w he n t he s e t w o e l e m e nt s w or k t oge t he r i n ha r m oni ous ba l a nc e T hi s f unda m e nt a l pr i nc i pl e i s i l l us t r a t e d t h r ough H or a c e s di s c us s i on of D e m oc r i t us poe t s 1 O v i d s e x i l i c w r i t i n g s a l s o o f f e r a r a r e e x c e p t i o n 2 R u d d ( 1 9 8 9 ) 1 9 2 1 p u t s t h e A r s a t 1 0 B C a n d i d e n t i f i e s t h e e l d e r P i s o b r o t h e r w i t h L u c i u s C a l p u r n i u s P i s o P o n t i f e x ( s o n o f t h e p a t r o n o f P h i l o d e m u s ) B r i n k ( 1 9 6 3 ) 2 3 9 2 4 3 s t r e s s e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d a t i n g t h e A r s c i t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s n e i t h e r s u f f i c i e n t e x t e r n a l n o r i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e t o p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n d a t e H e c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e A r s P o e t i c a w a s w r i t t e n e i t h e r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v a l l u m l y r i c u m o r a f t e r O d e s I V B r i n k e n d s w i t h B e n t l e y s s t a t e m e n t o n t h e p r o b l e m : A r s P o e t i c a a n n o i n c e r t o ; c p A r m s t r o n g ( 1 9 9 3 ) 1 8 5 2 3 0 w h o p l a c e s t h e d a t e o f t h e A r s P o e t i c a a t 1 0 B C ; s e e a l s o O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 8 ) 1 9 8 B e r n a r d F r i s c h e r ( 1 9 9 1 ) p u t s t h e d a t e o f t h e A r s P o e t i c a b e t w e e n 2 4 2 0 B C F r i s c h e r s w o r k h a s r e c e i v e d m i x e d r e v i e w s ( s e e r e v i e w s b y E d w a r d S a c k s a n d P a u l K e y s e r B M C R 3 2 [ 1 9 9 2 ] a n d t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h i s r e v i e w b y D e e C l a y m a n G r e g o r y C r a n e a n d D o n a l d G u t h r i e : B M C R 3 6 [ 1 9 9 2 ] )

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2 ( A P 295 301 ) w ho h i de t he m s e l ve s a w a y f r om s oc i e t y t o c ul t i va t e i nge ni um a nd ne gl e c t a C a l l i m a c he a n ar s t ha t H or a c e i ns i s t s m us t t e m pe r t he e xc e s s e s of i nge ni um 3 L i ke D e m oc r i t us ba nd of m a d poe t s w e a l t hy c om pos e r s s uc h a s t he P i s one s a r e not t i e d t o a ny s e r i ous c r i t i c l i ke Q ui nt i l i us t o f i l e dow n t he i r e xc e s s e s T he y m a y he a r not hi ng but a ppl a us e f r om s yc opha nt s a nd de e m t h e m s e l ve s poe t s T hi s de va l ua t i on of poe t r y i s t o be e xpe c t e d, H o r a c e be l i e ve s i n a s oc i e t y w he r e R om a n yout hs onl y l e a r n t o l us t a f t e r ga i n: an hae c ani m os ae r ugo e t c ur a pe c ul i / c um s e m e l i m bue r i t s pe r am us c ar m i na f i ngi pos s e l i ne nda c e dr o e t l e v i s e r v anda c upr e s s o ( A P 330 1 ) ? 4 A s a r e s ul t H or a c e f i nds hi m s e l f i n a s oc i e t y i n w hi c h he f e e l s he doe s not i n t e l l e c t ua l l y be l ong. H e t he r e f or e t u r ns t o t he G r e e ks f or a m ode l of t he po e t s r ol e i n s oc i e t y. H e c ont r a s t s t he m one y gr ubbi ng R om a n e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i on w i t h t he G r e e k: G r ai s i nge ni um G r ai s de di t or e r ot undo / M us a l oqui pr ae t e r l aude m nul l i us av ar i s ( A P 323 25) H or a c e s di s c us s i on of t he hi ghe s t a i m of t he v at e s i n c i vi l i z i ng s oc i e t y onl y na m e s G r e e k poe t s 5 a nd a t one t i m e he e ve n c om pos e d ve r s e s i n G r e e k. 6 I t i s t hi s a l i e na t i on f r om R om a n s oc i e t y, w hi c h doe s not va l ue t he l a bor s o f t he ge n ui ne poe t t ha t de s i gna t e s t he poe t m a d 7 a nd e xpl a i ns H or a c e s i nc r e a s i ng bi t t e r ne s s a nd f r us t r a t i on t hr oughout t he poe m t ha t r e a c he s i t s c l i m a x i n hi s s ym pa t he t i c por t r a ya l of t he m a d poe t 3 C f S 1 1 0 5 0 5 1 w h e r e H o r a c e s a y s o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r L u c i l i u s : a t d i x i f l u e r e h u n c l u t u l e n t u m s a e p e f e r e n t e m / p l u r a c u i d e m t o l l e n d a r e l i n q u e n d i s 4 A l l q u o t a t i o n s o f H o r a c e a r e t a k e n f r o m E d u a r d C W i c k h a m s 1 9 0 1 e d i t i o n 5 A P 3 9 1 4 0 7 6 6 S 1 1 0 3 1 3 5 7 O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 8 ) 2 0 9 : I t i s R o m e s m i s v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a r t o f p o e t r y H o r a c e a r g u e s t h a t h a s k e p t h e r f r o m a c h i e v i n g p r e e m i n e n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f l e t t e r s C f A P 2 8 9 2 9 4 : n e c v i r t u t e f o r e t c l a r i s v e p o t e n t i u s a r m i s / q u a m l i n g u a L a t i u m s i n o n o f f e n d e r e t u n u m / q u e m q u e p o e t a r u m l i m a e l a b o r e t m o r a v o s o / P o m p i l i u s s a n g u i s c a r m e n r e p r e h e n d i t e q u o d n o n / m u l t a d i e s e t m u l t a l i t u r a c o e r c u i t a t q u e / p r a e s e c t u m d e c i e s n o n c a s t i g a v i t a d u n g u e m

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3 O ne pr i m a r y que s t i on t ha t r e m a i ns i n t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he A r s P oe t i c a i s H or a c e s c hoi c e t o e nd w i t h t he s e e m i ngl y a br upt a nd s ur pr i s i ng de pi c t i on o f a m a d poe t t r a ppe d i n a pi t a l i e na t e d f r om hi s f e l l ow c i t i z e ns ( 452 476) T he m a d poe t i n hi s a t t e m pt s t o be c om e i m m or t a l t hr ou gh hi s poe t r y s e e ks t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h t he s oc i e t y t ha t ha s r e j e c t e d hi m T he m a d poe t i l l us t r a t e s t he e s s e nc e of H or a c e s pos i t i on i n R om a n s oc i e t y. I f he i s not t o be i de nt i f i e d w i t h t h e m a d poe t H or a c e s i ns i ght i nt o hi s pl i ght a t l e a s t r e ve a l s a n i nt i m a t e know l e dge t ha t i s s i t ua t e d i ns i de t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he m a d poe t 8 T he m a d poe t t he n, pe r ha ps r e pr e s e nt s H or a c e s f e a r s a bout t he poe t s i ns i de / out s i de r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h R om a n s oc i e t y. I t i s t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t i s H or a c e s ove r a r c hi ng c onc e r n a nd t he poe t s a l i e na t i on s e r ve s a s a f i t t i ng w a r ni ng t o a s pi r i ng poe t s a t t he c onc l us i on t o t he A r s P oe t i c a E pi s t l e 1. 19 23 25 pr ovi de s us w i t h a t a nt a l i z i ng gl i m ps e of H or a c e s t hought s on one of hi s e a r l i e s t w or ks hi s book of E pode s ( o r a s he c a l l s t he m i am bi ) F or t h e E pode s H or a c e t e l l s us he c hos e a s hi s m ode l t he A r c ha i c s e ve nt h c e nt ur y P a r i a n poe t A r c hi l oc hus i nf a m ous i n a nt i qui t y f or hi s s ki l l i n c om pos i ng i a m bi c ve r s e s H ow e ve r H or a c e s c l a i m s t o ha ve f ol l ow e d A r c hi l oc he a n an i m os w hi l e di s a vow i ng t he age nt i a v e r ba t ha t s l a nde r e d L yc a m be s ha s e nge nde r e d a g r e a t de a l of s c hol a r s hi p on t he e xa c t na t ur e of H o r a c e s ae m ul at i o W ha t ha s not be e n unde r s t ood i s t he que s t i on of j us t how a ngr y H or a c e s E pode s a r e C ha pt e r t w o w i l l f oc u s on t hi s que s t i on t o s how t ha t w hi l e H or a c e doe s not f ol l ow t he v e r ba of A r c hi l oc hus i n e m pl oyi ng s us t a i ne d a t t a c k a ga i ns t a n i ndi vi dua l hi s i am bi a r e ne ve r t he l e s s f ul l o f i n ve c t i ve r abi e s t ha t s e r ve s a s H or a c e s 8 B r i n k ( 1 9 7 1 ) 4 2 1 c o n t e n d s t h a t H o r a c e s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e m a d p o e t i s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f r e d u c t i o a d a b s u r d u m t h a t i s a c a r i c a t u r e o f p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n a n d o f p o e t i c e r r o r H e a l l o w s h o w e v e r t h a t H o r a c e u n d e r s t a n d s a n d e v e n i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e s t r u g g l e s o f t h e m a d p o e t : I t f a s c i n a t e s b e c a u s e i t i s w r i t t e n f r o m i n s i d e t h e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i t p r o f e s s e s t o r i d i c u l e ( 5 1 6 )

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4 poe t i c i ns pi r a t i on t hr oug hout t he E pode s H or a c e s e e ks t o m odi f y t hi s r a w i a m bi c r abi e s w i t h a C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c j us t a s he a dvoc a t e s m ol di ng i nge ni um w i t h C a l l i m a c he a n ar s i n t he A r s P oe t i c a T he f a c t t ha t H o r a c e s e l e c t e d t he i a m bi c ge nr e w i t h i t s t r a di t i ona l t he m e of r e t a l i a t i on i s a f i t t i ng r e f l e c t i on of t he a nxi e t i e s a nd s e l f de s t r uc t i ve t e nde nc i e s t ha t m a r r e d t he R om a n s t a t e i n t he d i f f i c ul t pe r i od be t w e e n O c t a vi a n s de f e a t of C a s s i us a nd B r ut us a t P hi l i ppi i n 42 B C a nd t he B a t t l e of A c t i u m i n 31 B C I nde e d, t he w or k ha s r i ght l y be e n i de nt i f i e d a s pos i t i one d on t he br i n k of t he ba t t l e of A c t i um a nd m a y be de s c r i be d a s c i vi l w a r poe t r y 9 I t w i l l be ne c e s s a r y t o t r e a t H o r a c e s va t i c r ol e i n t he E pode s i n hi s s i m ul t a ne ous a t t e m pt s t o f r e e hi m s e l f a nd hi s c om m uni t y f r om t he c yc l e of i a m bi c r abi e s w hi c h m a r ks t he c ol l e c t i on o f E pode s I t i s i n hi s c a pa c i t y a s v at e s t ha t H or a c e s e r ve s t o i l l us t r a t e t he A r s P oe t i c a s doc t r i ne of t he poe t s dut y T he i m pl i c i t C a l l i m a c he a ni s m i n E p 1 19. 21 34 i s e s s e nt i a l t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he E pode s a nd i s ke y i n H or a c e s e nc ount e r s w i t h B a c c hus i n hi s f i r s t t hr e e books of ode s J us t a s H or a c e t e m pe r s i nge ni um w i t h ar s i n t he A r s P oe t i c a he t e m pe r s B a c c hi c r e ve l r y w i t h A pol l oni a n r e s t r a i nt 1 0 T hi s i s r e f l e c t e d i n hi s p l a c e m e nt of B a c c hus a t t he f r ont o f hi s c ol l e c t i on ( 1. 1 ) a nd A po l l o a t i t s c l os e ( 3 30) T hr oughout O de s I I I I B a c c hus i s t he god m os t f r e que nt l y a ddr e s s e d a nd i s t he s our c e of H or a c e s i ns pi r a t i on. 1 1 T he t hi r d c ha pt e r w i l l a ddr e s s w ha t t he r ol e o f B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on i s i n H or a c e s poe t i c pr og r a m by de m ons t r a t i ng t ha t t he r e i s a c l e a r a nd pe r s i s t e nt l i nk t hr oughout t he O de s be t w e e n t he di c hot om y of B a c c hus / i nge ni um a nd A pol l o/ ar s a s di s c us s e d i n t he A r s P oe t i c a 9 F i t z g e r a l d ( 1 9 8 8 ) ; O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 8 ) 6 4 6 5 1 0 P u t n a m ( 1 9 7 3 ) 1 1 7 1 1 C 1 1 8 2 1 9 3 3 3 2 5 ; c f t h e c a r m i n a a d d r e s s e d t o A p o l l o : 1 2 1 1 3 1

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5 F ur t he r m or e t he v e s anus poe t a of t he A r s P oe t i c a e m bodi e s t he da nge r s of B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on a nd t he ove r i ndul ge nc e of i nge ni um a nd s o r e pr e s e nt s H or a c e s pr e s e nt a t i on of t he poe t a nd hi s poe t r y a s a n of t e n pr e c a r i ous bu t c a r e f ul ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he e xt r e m e s of ar s a nd i nge ni um

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6 C H A P T E R 2 O N T H E M A R G I N O F S O C I E T Y : I N S I D E T H E E X P E R I E N C E O F T H E V E SA N U S P O E T A T he e pi s t l e t o t he P i s one s ( A r s P oe t i c a ) i s os t e ns i bl y H or a c e s gui de book on how t o w r i t e good poe t r y T he l e t t e r w a s w r i t t e n t o t he a s ye t uni de nt i f i e d P i s one s a nd i t s da t e i s s t i l l c ont r ove r s i a l S c hol a r s ha ve r e c ogni z e d i n t he w or k t w o m a i n s e c t i ons ( 1 295 a nd 296 476) T he r e i s a s hi f t a t l i ne 295 f r om a di s c us s i on of ar s ( a r t ) t o t he ar t i f e x ( a r t i s t ) H o r a c e be gi ns t he A r s P oe t i c a by gi vi ng a dvi c e on s uc h t opi c s a s m e t e r a nd dr a m a a nd t e l l i ng t he P i s one s ( he pa r t i c ul a r l y s e e m s t o be a ddr e s s i ng t he ol de r br ot he r ) t ha t t he r e m us t be uni t y i n a l l t ha t t he y w r i t e ( A P 2 3) T hi s un i t y i s e xp r e s s e d by us i ng t he pr ope r m e t e r s f or t he p r ope r oc c a s i ons : t he w e i ght y da c t yl i c he xa m e t e r f or he a vy s ubj e c t s a s f ound i n e pi c ( A P 73 74) a nd i a m bi c f o r c om e dy a nd t r a ge dy be c a us e i t i s s ui t a bl e f or di a l ogue ( A P 79 82) H or a c e a dvi s e s t he P i s one s t o m a i nt a i n t he t r a di t i ona l us e s of t he m e t e r s : s i ngul a quae que l oc um t e ne ant s or t i t a de c e nt e r ( A P 92) I n dr a m a H or a c e s i m i l a r l y s t r e s s e s t o t he young novi c e s t ha t t he y m us t m a i nt a i n t r a di t i ona l c ha r a c t e r t ype s T he y m a y us e m yt hol ogy i n t he i r dr a m a s but t he c ha r a c t e r s m us t r e t a i n t he i r t r a di t i ona l pe r s ona l i t i e s ; f o r e xa m pl e A c hi l l e s m us t m a i nt a i n t he s a m e c ha r a c t e r t r a i t s a s de s c r i be d i n H om e r a nd l i ke w i s e P e ne l op e c a nnot be a ha r l o t T he a udi e nc e s e xpe c t a t i ons de ve l ope d t hr ough t he t r a di t i ons doe s m a t t e r a nd t he poe t m us t t a ke t he m i nt o a c c ount U nt i l l i ne 295 H or a c e a ppe a r s t o be c om pos i ng a w or k s i m i l a r t o A r i s t ot l e s P oe t i c s but a s H a r di s on a nd G ol de n c ont e nd, t he A r s i s pe r ha ps be s t de s c r i be d a s a n

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7 e xa m pl e of m e t a poe t r y w he r e t he poe t e xa m i ne s t he na t ur e of poe t r y H or a c e doe s not f oc us a s A r i s t ot l e doe s on de t a i l e d a s pe c t s o f poe t i c t he or y o r c om pos i t i on, but r a t he r hi s f oc us i s on t he na t u r e f unc t i on, c om m i t m e nt a nd ps yc hol ogy of t he poe t . 1 W e f i nd i n t he s e c ond por t i on of t he A r s a s pe a ke r w ho i s s o bi t t e r a nd a t t i m e s dow nr i ght a ngr y a t t he i nt e l l e c t ua l e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h he i s e xpe c t e d t o c om pos e t ha t he a l m os t s e e m s t o f or ge t t ha t he i s a ddr e s s i ng young a dol e s c e nt s w ho know not hi ng o f t he i nt e r na l s t r uggl e s of t he poe t T he e f f e c t i s t ha t t he w oul d be poe t s m i ght ve r y w e l l a s k t he m s e l ve s w he t he r t he y w i s h t o be poe t s o r not C ons i de r H or a c e s c r i t i que of t he phi l os ophe r D e m oc r i t us ( A P 295 308) D e m oc r i t us H or a c e t e l l s us va l ue s i nge ni um a bov e ar s a nd e xc l ude s t he s anos poe t as f r om H e l i c on t he ho m e of t he M us e s D e m oc r i t us onl y a dm i t s t hos e w hom he be l i e ve s t o pos s e s s i nge ni um t hos e w ho go a bout w i t h unt r i m m e d na i l s a nd unke m pt a ppe a r a nc e t o de m ons t r a t e t he i r di vi ne i ns pi r a t i on H or a c e s s pe a ke r i n t he A r s c a nnot c ont a i n hi s bi t t e r i ndi gna t i on a t t he s e i m i t a t o r s : I n g e n i u m m i s e r a q u i a f o r t u n a t i u s a r t e c r e d i t e t e x c l u d i t s a n o s H e l i c o n e p o e t a s D e m o c r i t u s b o n a p a r s n o n u n g u i s p o n e r e c u r a t n o n b a r b a m s e c r e t a p e t i t l o c a b a l n e a v i t a t 2 ( A P 2 9 5 2 9 8 ) [ B e c a u s e D e m o c r i t u s b e l i e v e s t h a t i n n a t e t a l e n t i s m o r e b l e s s e d t h a n w r e t c h e d a r t a n d e x c l u d e s s a n e p o e t s f r o m H e l i c o n a g o o d n u m b e r t a k e n o c a r e t o t r i m t h e i r n a i l s n o r t h e i r h a i r ; t h e y s e e k i s o l a t e d p l a c e s a n d a v o i d t h e b a t h s ] T he s e pr e t e nde r s t o t he poe t i c t hr one onl y c he a pe n t he m i s s i on of t he v at e s 3 F or H or a c e t he m a dne s s of t he s e unke m pt i m i t a t or s c a nnot e ve n be c ur e d w i t h t h r e e t i m e s t he 1 G o l d e n ( 2 0 0 0 ) 1 4 5 2 G o l d e n ( 2 0 0 0 ) 1 5 0 c o m m e n t s : b y t h e s i m p l e e x p e d i e n t o f f o r s a k i n g t h e b a t h s a n d h a i r c u t s [ t h e y ] c a n l a y c l a i m t o a r e p u t a t i o n f o r a r t i s t i c g e n i u s a m o n g a n u n c r i t i c a l p u b l i c . 3 F o r t h e u s a g e o f p o e t a a n d v a t e s i n t h e A u g u s t a n p e r i o d s e e N e w m a n ( 1 9 6 7 ) 5 1 5 2

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8 out put of A nt i c yr a s pr oduc t i on of he l l e bor e ( A P 2 95 300) 4 V a l e r i us M a xi m us r e l a t e s t ha t C a r ne a de s t ook he l l e bor e t o pur ge hi m s e l f i n or de r t o br i ng f or t h ( ad e x pr om e ndum ) hi s i nna t e t a l e nt ( i nge ni um ) 5 R udd no t e s t ha t t he p ur gi ng of t he bi l e w i t h he l l e bo r e w a s a t he r a py us e d t o t r e a t m e nt a l i ns t a bi l i t y c a us e d by a n e xc e s s of bl a c k bi l e 6 H ow e ve r B r i nk ha s c om m e nt e d t ha t he l l e bo r e c oul d be t a ke n t o r e nde r t he m i nd a l e r t a nd i nve nt i ve poi nt i ng out t ha t t he S t oi c C hr ys i ppus w a s t hought t o be s t r ong m i nde d e nough t o dr ug hi m s e l f t h r e e t i m e s ove r f or t hi s pu r pos e 7 W he n he l l e bor e i s r e f e r r e d t o t hr oughout H or a c e s w or ks i t a l w a ys r e f e r s t o a p ur ga t i ve t ha t di s c ha r ge s e xc e s s i ve bl a c k bi l e a nd t hus i ns a ni t y. 8 H or a c e t a ke s he l l e bo r e t o r e l i e ve hi m s e l f o f m a dne s s but he doe s not c l a i m t ha t he ha s t a ke n i t i n or de r t o b r i ng f or t h hi s i nge ni um f or c r e a t i ve pur pos e s a s C e r ne a de s w a s s a i d t o ha ve done H or a c e doe s not t he r e f o r e a ppe a r t o v i e w he l l e bor e a s a m e a ns of a r t i f i c i a l i ns pi r a t i on a s di d C hr ys i ppus a nd C a r ne a de s B y t a ki ng he l l e bor e H or a c e w i s he s a w a y t he m a dn e s s of unr e s t r a i ne d i nge ni um a s a n e nha nc e r of poe t i c pow e r : o e g o l a e v u s q u i p u r g o r b i l e m s u b v e r n i t e m p o r i s h o r a m n o n a l i u s f a c e r e t m e l i o r a p o e m a t a v e r u m 4 A n t i c y r a w a s f a m e d f o r i t s p r o d u c t i o n o f h e l l e b o r e 5 V a l M a x V I I I 7 e x t 5 : e r g o a n i m o t a n t u m m o d o v i t a f r u e b a t u r c o r p o r e u e r o q u a s i a l i e n o e t s u p e r u a c u o c i r c u m d a t u s e r a t i d e m c u m C h r y s i p p o d i s p u t a t u r u s e l l e b o r o s e a n t e p u r g a b a t a d e x p r o m e n d u m i n g e n i u m s u u m a d t e n t i u s e t i l l i u s r e f e l l e n d u m a c r i u s ; s e e G e l l X V I I 1 5 f o r a s i m i l a r a c c o u n t o f C a r n e a d e s u s e o f h e l l e b o r e H e r e h o w e v e r C a r n e a d e s i s s a i d t o t a k e h e l l e b o r e t o p u r g e h i m s e l f o f c o r r u p t l i q u i d f r o m h i s s t o m a c h ( b l a c k b i l e ) t h a t m i g h t w e a k e n t h e p o w e r a n d s t r e n g t h o f h i s i n t e l l e c t T h i s u s e o f h e l l e b o r e i s c l o s e r t o H o r a c e s u s e o f t h e d r u g d e s c r i b e d a t A P 3 0 1 3 0 4 ; y e t H o r a c e d o e s n o t c l a i m t h a t h e t a k e s h e l l e b o r e t o h e l p h i m c o m p o s e h i s w r i t i n g s a s C a r n e a d e s d o e s : C a r n e a d e s A c e d e m i c u s s c r i p t u r u s a d v e r s u m S t o i c i Z e n o n i s l i b r o s s u p e r i o r a c o r p o r i s e l l e b o r o c a n d i d o p u r g a v i t n e q u i d e x c o r r u p t i s i n s t o m a c h o h u m o r i b u s a d d o m i c i l i a u s q u e a n i m i r e d u n d a r e t e t i n s t a n t i a m v i g o r e m q u e m e n t i s l a b e f a c e r e t . 6 R u d d ( 1 9 8 9 ) 2 0 1 : A c c o r d i n g t o G r e e k m e d i c a l t h e o r y o n e s h e a l t h d e p e n d e d o n a c o r r e c t m i x t u r e o f t h e f o u r h u m o u r s : b l o o d p h l e g m y e l l o w b i l e a n d b l a c k b i l e M a d n e s s w a s t h o u g h t t o r e s u l t f r o m a n e x c e s s o f b l a c k b i l e 7 B r i n k ( 1 9 7 1 ) 3 3 3 4 ; c f P e t r o n 8 8 4 : C h r y s i p p u s u t a d i n v e n t i o n e m s u f f i c e r e t t e r e l l e b o r o a n i m u m d e t e r s i t 8 C f S 2 3 8 3 1 6 6 ; E p 2 2 1 3 7

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9 n i l t a n t i e s t ( A P 3 0 1 3 0 4 ) [ O f o o l t h a t I a m w h o i s c l e a n s e d o f b i l e i n t h e s e a s o n o f s p r i n g N o n e o t h e r w o u l d m a k e b e t t e r p o e t r y ; b u t i n t r u t h i t i s n o t w o r t h i t ] I f w r i t i ng i ns pi r e d poe t r y r e qui r e s t he t ype of r i gm a r ol e t ha t D e m o c r i t us poe t s unde r go, H or a c e s a r c a s t i c a l l y s t a t e s t ha t he w oul d r a t he r be done w i t h i t a nd be s a ne A s a r e s ul t t he s pe a ke r t e l l s t he P i s one s t ha t he ha s pu t a s i de poe t r y a nd now onl y s e r ve s a s a w he t s t one upon w hi c h a s pi r i ng poe t s c a n s ha r pe n t he i r s ki l l s 9 W r i t i ng poe t r y w e l l H or a c e i ns t r uc t s t he P i s one s doe s not r e qui r e s uc h e xt r e m e pr e t e ns e s I n f a c t D e m oc r i t us pr e f e r e nc e f or i nge ni um ove r m i s e r a. . ar t e ( 295) i gnor e s t he m e t i c ul ous s e l f c r i t i c i s m t ha t m us t s ha pe t he r a w poe t i c i ns pi r a t i on of i n ge ni um 1 0 H or a c e how e ve r doe s r e c ogni z e t ha t i nna t e t a l e nt i s c r uc i a l t o t he p oe t s s uc c e s s a s he c l a i m s a t S 1. 4 43 4: i n g e n i u m c u i s i t c u i m e n s d i v i n i o r a t q u e o s m a g n a s o n a t u r u m d e s n o m i n i s h u i u s h o n o r e m [ T o h i m w h o h a s i n n a t e t a l e n t t o w h o m t h e r e i s a d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d m i n d a n d a m o u t h t h a t w i l l s p e a k g r e a t t h i n g s m a y y o u g i v e t h e h o n o r o f t h i s n a m e ( p o e t ) ] T he i de a l i z e d ba r ds of G r e e c e a t t a i ne d t he honor o f t hi s na m e H o r a c e de s c r i be s t he i r a c hi e ve m e nt i n s i m i l a r l a ngua ge : s i c honor e t nom e n di v i ni s v at i bus at que | c ar m i ni bus v e ni t ( A P 400 1) Y e t a l t hough i n t he A r s P oe t i c a H or a c e r e c ogni z e s t he i m por t a nc e of i nge ni um i n t he poe t i c p r oc e s s t he m a j or i t y of t he e pi s t l e i s c onc e r ne d w i t h t he i m po r t a nc e of ar s a nd H or a c e s t w o m a j o r e xa m pl e s of un r e s t r a i ne d 9 C f E p 2 2 1 4 1 4 : n i m i r u m s a p e r e e s t a b i e c t i s u t i l e n u g i s | e t t e m p e s t i v u m p u e r i s c o n c e d e r e l u d u m | a c n o n v e r b a s e q u i f i d i b u s m o d u l a n d a L a t i n i s | s e d v e r a e n u m e r o s q u e m o d o s q u e e d i s c e r e v i t a e 1 0 C f E p 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 a : l u x u r i a n t i a c o m p e s c e t n i m i s a s p e r a s a n o | l e v a b i t c u l t u v i r t u t e c a r e n t i a t o l l e t l u d e n t i s s p e c i e m d a b i t e t t o r q u e b i t u r H e r e t h e i n i t i a l c r e a t i v e o u t p u t o f p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n m u s t b e f a s h i o n e d b y a s o u n d c u l t i v a t i o n ( s a n o c u l t u ) w h i c h D e m o c r i t u s p o e t s s h u n C f S 1 4

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10 i nge ni um t ha t of D e m oc r i t us poe t s a nd t he m a d poe t s e r ve a s e xa m pl e s of w ha t t o a voi d, m uc h l i ke t he a bs ur d por t r a i t t ha t be gi ns t he A r s P oe t i c a I n t he S a t i r e s a s i n t he A r s P oe t i c a H or a c e i s a l w a ys c ons c i ous t ha t t he di vi ne l y i ns pi r e d voi c e m us t be yoke d t o ar s H or a c e s i m ul t a ne ous l y pr a i s e s a nd c onde m ns hi s pr e de c e s s or a nd i nve nt or of s a t i r e L uc i l i us i n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y C a l l i m a c he a n l a ngua ge f or L uc i l i us l a c k o f a r t f ul ne s s : n a m f u i t h o c v i t i o s u s : i n h o r a s a e p e d u c e n t o s u t m a g n u m v e r s u s d i c t a b a t s t a n s p e d e i n u n o : ( 1 0 ) c u m f l u e r e t l u t u l e n t u s e r a t q u o d t o l l e r e v e l l e s : g a r r u l u s 1 1 a t q u e p i g e r s c r i b e n d i f e r r e l a b o r e m s c r i b e n d i r e c t e ( S 1 4 9 1 3 [ i t a l i c s a r e m i n e ] ) [ H e w a s f u l l o f e r r o r i n t h i s w a y : i n a n h o u r a s i f t h i s w a s a g r e a t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t e n h e w o u l d d i c t a t e t w o h u n d r e d v e r s e s s t a n d i n g o n o n e f o o t I n h i s m u d d y r i v e r t h e r e w a s f l o t s a m y o u w o u l d w i s h t o r e m o v e : h e b l u b b e r e d a n d w a s t o o l a z y t o e n d u r e t h e t o i l o f c o m p o s i n g t h a t i s c o m p o s i n g c o r r e c t l y ] L i ke t hos e l a z y R om a n poe t s w hom H or a c e de r i de s f or t he i r i na bi l i t y t o e ndur e t he t oi l of f a s hi oni ng w or t hw hi l e ve r s e s ( A P 291 2) L uc i l i us i s t oo l a z y ( pi ge r ) t o e ndur e t he l a bor ( f e r r e l abor e m ) of t he s e l f c r i t i c i z i ng poe t 1 2 H or a c e s i gna l s hi s obs e r va nc e of C a l l i m a c he a n ar s by l i ke ni ng L uc i l i us ve r bos i t y a nd c a r e l e s s w r i t i ng t o a m uddy s t r e a m 1 3 I n t e r m s of m e t a poe t i c s t he n, t he poe t s i nge ni um m us t be t e m pe r e d a nd j oi ne d w i t h ar s H or a c e t e l l s t he P i s one s : n a t u r a f i e r e t l a u d a b i l e c a r m e n a n a r t e q u a e s i t u m e s t : e g o n e c s t u d i u m s i n e d i v i t e v e n a 1 1 C f A P 4 5 7 : h i c d u m s u b l i m i s v e r s u s r u c t a t u r e t e r r a t 1 2 C f S 1 9 2 3 2 4 w h e r e t h e B o o r i s t h e s p e a k e r : n a m q u i s m e s c r i b e r e p l u r i s | a u t c i t i u s p o s s i t v e r s u s ? S e e a l s o S 1 4 1 3 1 6 : e c c e | C r i s p i n u s m i n i m o m e p r o v o c a t : a c c i p e s i v i s | a c c i p e i a m t a b u l a s : d e t u r n o b i s l o c u s h o r a | c u s t o d e s ; v i d e a m u s u t e r p l u s s c r i b e r e p o s s i t 1 3 C f C a l l H y m A p o l l 1 0 8 1 2 w h e r e A p o l l o i s t h e s p e a k e r : ! # $ % & % ( % % ) ( + # % + $ % % & % % | ( ( & + / ( & % ( 0 ) 1 + 2 ( 3 # 1 4 ( 0 / 4 3 | 5 6 % 2 % / $ & ( & ( 0 ( + + 2 7 # 1 % # ) % 3 8 ) 3 ! ( 3 | $ 3 + / ( 9 ( # : 4 / ( $ ; # < ( 0 % + $ 0 ) # & 4 3 | & $ 2 ( / % + ) = / 4 # & + 0 $ 6 3 > % + 1 / # % 0 1 7 % 0 E p 2 2 1 2 0 : v e h e m e n s e t l i q u i d u s p u r o q u e s i m i l l i m u s a m n i | f u n d e t o p e s L a t i u m q u e b e a b i t d i v i t e l i n g u a H e r e t h e p o e t i s l i k e n e d t o a c l e a r s t r e a m t h a t e n r i c h e s L a t i u m w i t h l a n g u a g e ; c f A P 4 6 7 2

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11 n e c r u d e q u i d p r o s i t v i d e o i n g e n i u m ; a l t e r i u s s i c ( 4 1 0 ) a l t e r a p o s c i t o p e m r e s e t c o n i u r a t a m i c e ( A P 4 0 8 1 1 ) [ I t i s a s k e d w h e t h e r a p r a i s e w o r t h y p o e m r e s u l t s f r o m n a t u r e o r a r t I d o n o t s e e h o w s t u d y w i t h o u t a r i c h v e i n o f t a l e n t n o r r o u g h i n n a t e n a t u r e i s u s e f u l T h u s e a c h s e e k s t h e a i d o f t h e o t h e r a n d s w e a r s a f r i e n d l y p a c t ] D e m oc r i t us poe t s t he n l a c k t he ba l a nc i ng i nf l ue n c e of ar s w he r e by t he i r i nge ni um m a y be p r une d i nt o w or t hw hi l e poe t r y. A s a r e s ul t H or a c e doe s not a ddr e s s t he unke m pt a m a t e ur s a s poe t s a c c e pt e d i nt o H e l i c on, but a s m e r e i m i t a t or s C ont r a r y t o t he pr ope r r ol e of t he poe t i n s oc i e t y, t he poe t s of H e l i c on ha ve r e j e c t e d s oc i e t y a nd s e e k i s ol a t i on t o c ul t i va t e t he i r i ns pi r a t i on ( A P 298 ) A d m i t t e dl y, H or a c e t oo s e e ks i s ol a t i on t o c ul t i va t e hi s i ns pi r a t i on, s hunni n g publ i c pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he opi ni ons of t he f i c kl e R om a n a udi e nc e a nd p r e f e r r i ng i ns t e a d a f e w c r i t i c a l r e a de r s 1 4 T hough H or a c e c ha s t i s e s D e m oc r i t us poe t s f or t he i r i s ol a t i on, he ha s a l s o e xpe r i e nc e d a l i e na t i on f r om t he v ul gus 1 5 H or a c e s di s pl e a s ur e w i t h t he un c r i t i c a l v ul gus i s pa r a l l e l e d i n hi s O de s I n C 1 1 t he R om a n pe opl e a r e f i c kl e ( m obi l i um t ur ba Q ui r i t i um ) a nd H or a c e i s s e pa r a t e d f r om t he po pul us by ba nds of S a t yr s a n d N ym phs ( s e c e r nunt popul o ) A t C 2. 4. 18 t he c r ow d i s s c e l e s t a pl e be a nd a t C 3 2. 20 t he y a r e a ga i n f i c kl e ( ar bi t r i o popul ar i s ) a nd vul ga r ( c oe t us que v ul gar e s ) T h i s f i c kl e ne s s c a r r i e s ove r i nt o t he a r t s w he r e t he v ul gus c a nnot be t r us t e d t o d i s c e r n a t r u e poe t f r o m t he i m i t a t or s o f D e m oc r i t us s c hool H or a c e he a r ke ns ba c k t o t he G r e e ks w hom he be l i e ve s t o be t he t r ue m a s t e r s of poe t r y, a nd i n hi s ow n s oc i e t y he i s a n out s i de r l ooki n g i n T he s pe a ke r i n 1 4 E p 2 2 7 7 8 : s c r i p t o r u m c h o r u s o m n i s a m a t n e m u s e t f u g i t u r b e m | r i t e c l i e n s B a c c h i s o m n o g a u d e n t i s e t u m b r a : E p 2 1 2 1 4 1 8 : v e r u m a g e e t h i s q u i s e l e c t o r i c r e d e r e m a l u n t | q u a m s p e c t a t o r i s f a s t i d i a f e r r e s u p e r b i | c u r a m r e d d e b r e v e m s i m u n u s A p o l l i n e d i g n u m | v i s c o m p l e r e l i b r i s e t v a t i b u s a d d e r e c a l c a r | u t s t u d i o m a i o r e p e t a n t H e l i c o n a v i r e n t e m ; s e e a l s o S 1 1 0 7 8 9 1 1 5 S e e S 1 4 2 5 ; S 1 1 0 7 3 ; S 2 6 2 8 ; A P 4 1 9

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12 t he A r s i ndi c a t e s t hr ough hi s b i t t e r c om pl a i n t s t ha t he ha s be e n l oc ke d out o f R om a n s oc i e t y. T he bi t t e r ne s s e xpr e s s e d i n t he A r s c a n be s t be e xpl a i ne d by t he g r e a t i m por t a nc e t ha t H or a c e a t t a c he s t o t he m i s s i on of t he poe t F o r H or a c e poe t s a r e ut i l i s ur bi 1 6 a nd t he y ha ve be e n r e c ogni z e d by t he G r e e ks a s di vi ne l y i ns pi r e d f o r p r ovi di ng t he s oc i a l l e ga l a nd be ha vi or a l c ode s by w hi c h t o l i ve 1 7 T he s pe a ke r ha s i de a l i z e d t he gr e a t poe t s of t he G r e e k t r a di t i on a t t r i but i ng t o t he m di vi ne i n s pi r a t i on w hi c h i s i n c ont r a s t t o D e m oc r i t us poe t s be ni gn a nd l a c ki ng out l a ndi s h poe t i c f r e nz y. 1 8 O r phe us w ho i s a pr i e s t a nd pr ophe t of t he gods c i vi l i z e d m e n by t e a c hi ng t he m t o a voi d bl oods he d a nd a bom i na bl e w a ys of l i f e S ol on ga ve t he A t he ni a n s l a w s i ns c r i be d on w oode n pl a nks i n or de r t o ke e p hi s s oc i e t y f r om de s c e ndi ng i nt o c i v i l w a r H om e r s s hi e l d of A c hi l l e s de m ons t r a t e d how a s oc i e t y c oul d l i ve i n ha r m ony, a nd a l s o i l l us t r a t e d t he da nge r s t ha t r e s ul t f r om a br e a kdow n i n or de r ( A P 392) H or a c e i n hi s ow n t i m e s w i t ne s s e d t he de s t r uc t i on t ha t R om e vi s i t e d upon he r s e l f a nd w a s ke e nl y i nt e r e s t e d i n t he r e c r e a t i on of s oc i e t y out of t he a s he s of c i vi l w a r 1 9 I t i s t hi s t e ns i on be t w e e n t he publ i c a nd t he p r i va t e r ol e of t he poe t t ha t H or a c e a ddr e s s e s i n t he c onc l u s i on of t he A r s T he f a c t t ha t poe t r y s e r ve s s uc h a n i m por t a nt f unc t i on i n s oc i e t y e xpl a i ns w hy t he s pe a ke r i n t he A r s e m pha s i z e s t o t he young P i s one s t ha t m e di oc r i t y i s not pe r m i s s i bl e i n t he c r a f t a s i t i s f o r a l a w ye r ( A P 366 373) 1 6 E p 2 2 1 2 4 1 7 A P 3 9 1 4 0 7 1 8 H a r d i s o n a n d G o l d e n ( 1 9 9 5 ) 7 7 1 9 E p o d 1 6 : A l t e r a i a m t e r i t u r b e l l i s c i v i l i b u s a e t a s | s u i s e t i p s a R o m a v i r i b u s r u i t

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13 I n t hi s da unt i ng t a s k, t he a s pi r i ng R om a n poe t f a c e s t he c ha l l e nge of m a i nt a i ni ng hi s a r t i s t i c i nt e gr i t y e s pe c i a l l y w i t hi n t he f r a gm e nt e d s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h he m us t c om pos e T he r ol e of t he s e r i ous c r i t i c i s c o m pr om i s e d i n a s oc i e t y w he r e r i c h pa t r ons c om pos e f or s yc opha nt s 2 0 C ons e que nt l y, H or a c e s a r c a s t i c a l l y s c of f s a t t hos e w ho by vi r t ue of t he i r bi r t h be l i e ve t ha t t he y c a n b e c a l l e d poe t ae : q u i n e s c i t v e r s u s t a m e n a u d e t f i n g e r e q u i d n i ? l i b e r e t i n g e n u u s p r a e s e r t i m c e n s u s e q u e s t r e m s u m m a m n u m m o r u m v i t i o q u e r e m o t u s a b o m n i ( A P 3 8 2 3 8 4 ) [ H e w h o d o e s n o t k n o w h o w t o f a s h i o n v e r s e s n e v e r t h e l e s s d a r e s t o d o s o W h y n o t ? H e i s f r e e f r e e b o r n e v e n e s t i m a t e d a s a k n i g h t o f t h e h i g h e s t f o r t u n e r e m o v e d f r o m a l l f a u l t ] T o a voi d t he pi t f a l l s o f s uc h di l e t t a nt e s H or a c e e n c our a ge s t he yout hs t o s e e k o ut a ha r s h c r i t i c one w ho w i l l r i go r ous l y c or r e c t t he i r w or k s o t ha t t he y w i l l not m a ke f ool s of t he m s e l ve s on t he publ i c s t a ge H or a c e s ubt l y s i gn a l s hi s a dhe r e nc e t o ne ot e r i c a nd C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c s i n hi s a dvi c e t o hol d ba c k publ i c a t i on of a w or k un t i l a f t e r t he ni nt h ye a r o f i t s c om pos i t i on: s i qui d t am e n ol i m | s c r i ps e r i s i n M ae c i de s c e ndat i udi c i s aur i s | e t pat r i s e t nos t r as nonum que pr e m at ur i n annum | m e m br ani s i nt us pos i t i s : de l e r e l i c e bi t | quod non e di de r i s ( A P 386 390 ) A ge ne r a t i on b e f o r e C a t ul l us ha d pr a i s e d C i nna s Z m yr na i n s i m i l a r l a ngua ge : Z m y r na m e i C i nnae nonam pos t de ni que | m e s s e m quam c oe pt a e s t nonam que e di t a pos t hi e m e m ( C 95 1 2) T he de di c a t i on a nd m e t i c ul ous e f f or t r e qui r e d of a good poe t i s a ne c e s s a r y c om pone nt of t he poe t s dut y a s v at e s T hi s du t y, t he P i s one s s houl d r e a l i z e i s a n i nc r e di bl y de m a ndi ng t a s k w hi c h c a n not be e nt r us t e d t o m e di oc r e poe t s H or a c e s e e m s t o a c know l e dge t he s t r a i n of c om po s i ng m e t i c ul ous poe t r y i n E p 2 2 w he n he c l a i m s i n a s t a t e m e nt t ha t i s s a r c a s t i c w he n c om pa r e d t o A P 301 4 t ha t he 2 0 A P 4 1 9 4 3 7

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14 w oul d pr e f e r t o be j udge d a f ool i s h a nd a r t l e s s a ut hor t ha n t o be w i s e a nd a ng r y: pr ae t ul e r i m s c r i pt or de l i r us i ne r s que v i de r i | dum m e a de l e c t e nt m al a m e v e l de ni que f al l ant | quam s ape r e e t r i ngi 2 1 H o r a c e punc t ua t e s t hi s s ur pr i s i ng s t a t e m e nt by l i ke ni ng hi m s e l f t o a de l us i ona l m a n f r om A r gos w ho bot h r e s e m bl e s a nd di f f e r s f r om t he v e s anus poe t a of t he A r s P oe t i c a I t w oul d be e a s y f o r a n a udi e nc e of E p 2 2 t o r e c a l l t he i m a ge of t he m a d poe t of t he A r s P oe t i c a t r a ppe d i n a pi t w i t h t he di f f e r e nc e t ha t t he A r gi ve a nd by e xt e ns i on H or a c e ha ve be e n a bl e t o a voi d t he pi t 2 2 W he n t he m a d poe t f a l l s i nt o a pi t w i t h hi s a t t e nt i on on ot he r m a t t e r s he de m on s t r a t e s t ha t I gnor a nc e of a ny obs t a c l e i n one s pa t h s e e m s t o ha ve be c om e p r ove r bi a l f or l a c k of pr a c t i c a l s e ns e 2 3 T he A r gi ve ( a nd H o r a c e ) ha ve t he p r a c t i c a l s e ns e t ha t t he v e s anus poe t a l a c ks ye t he i s s t i l l m a d a nd i s l i nke d t o t he m a d poe t t h r ough t he de l i ght he t a ke s i n hi s pe r s ona l i l l us i ons / de l us i ons 2 4 T he m a d poe t l i ve s i n hi s ow n i l l us or y w or l d w he r e h i s poe m s a nd hi s not a bl e de a t h w i l l ( he be l i e ve s ) e ns hr i ne hi m a m ong t he i m m o r t a l ba r ds w hi l e t he A r gi ve i s unde r t he de l us i on t ha t he i s w a t c hi ng w onde r f ul pl a ys w hi l e he s i t s i n a n e m pt y t he a t e r 2 1 E p 2 2 1 2 6 8 C f p s A c r o o n 1 2 6 : i r r i d e n d o h o c a i t e g o q u i d e m i n q u i t e o r u m v i t a m p r a e t u l e r i m q u i n o n i n t e l l e g u n t v i t i a s u a h i s q u i s a p i e n t e t e m e n d a t i o n e t o r q u e n t u r u n d e s u b n e c t i t f a b u l a m B r i n k ( 1 9 7 1 ) 3 4 9 a l s o n o t e s t h e d i s j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n E p 2 2 1 2 6 8 a n d A P 3 0 1 4 : T h e p r o v o c a t i v e s t a t e m e n t i n t r o d u c e s t h e A r g i v e t a l e w h i c h i t i s s u p p o s e d t o b e a r o u t I t s i r o n y i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e v e r y u n H o r a t i a n c o n t e n t : h o w e v e r b a d t h e q u a l i t y o f m y p o e m s I s h o u l d p r e f e r e n j o y a b l e i l l u s i o n s t o s a d d e n i n g k n o w l e d g e ( o f m y s h o r t c o m i n g s ) I n t h e A r s a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p u t o n t h e ( i n s p i r e d ) m a d n e s s o f p o e t s a n d i t s c u r e A P 3 0 1 4 T h e r e t o o H p u r p o r t s t o s p e a k o f h i m s e l f b u t d r a w s t h e o p p o s i t e c o n c l u s i o n p r e t e n d i n g t o p r e f e r c l a r i t y o f m i n d s a p e r e t o c r e a t i v e m a d n e s s 2 2 A P 4 5 8 5 9 : s i v e l u t i m e r u l i s i n t e n t u s d e c i d i t a u c e p s | i n p u t e u m f o v e a m v e l i c e t s u c c u r i t e l o n g u m | c l a m e t i o c i v e s n o n s i t q u i t o l l e r e c u r e t ; C f E p 2 2 1 3 5 : p o s s e t q u i r u p e m e t p u t e u m v i t a r e p a t e n t e m 2 3 B r i n k ( 1 9 7 1 ) 4 2 4 2 4 H o r a c e h a s j u s t s t a t e d ( E p 2 2 1 0 6 8 ) t h a t t h o s e p o e t s w h o c o m p o s e p o o r v e r s e s a r e a j o k e b u t t h e y r e j o i c e a n d h i g h l y e s t e e m t h e i r o w n w r i t i n g h a p p y i n t h e i r i l l u s i o n s a s l o n g a s a n h o n e s t c r i t i c s a y s n o t h i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r w o r k : r i d e n t u r m a l a q u i c o m p o n u n t c a r m i n a ; v e r u m | g a u d e n t s c r i b e n t e s e t s e v e n e r a n t u r e t u l t r o | s i t a c e a s l a u d a n t q u i d q u i d s c r i p s e r e b e a t i I c o n t e n d t h a t H o r a c e r e f e r s h e r e t o p o e t s s i m i l a r t o D e m o c r i t u s m a d p o e t s a n d t o t h e v e s a n u s p o e t a o f t h e A P

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15 H or a c e f ur t he r l i nks t he m a d A r gi ve w i t h t he m a d poe t w he n H or a c e de s c r i be s t he a t t e m pt s of ot he r s t o c ur e t he m of t he i r m a dne s s T he A r gi ve ha s f r i e nds a nd r e l a t i ve s w ho be l i e ve t he y a r e he l p i ng hi m by a dm i ni s t e r i ng he l l e bor e i n or de r t o r e l i e ve h i s m a dne s s H i s r e s pons e f a r f r om t he g r a t i t ude t ha t t he y e xpe c t i s i ns t e a d a r e buke : pol m e oc c i di s t i s am i c i | non s e r v as t i s ai t c ui s i c e x t or t a v ol upt as | e t de m pt us pe r v i m m e nt i s gr at i s s i m u s e r r o r ( E p 2. 2 138 140) I n t h e A r s P oe t i c a, H or a c e di s c our a ge s a nyone f r om a t t e m p t i ng t o s a ve t hos e poe t s w ho d e s t r oy t he m s e l ve s s i nc e doi ng s o w oul d be t he s a m e a s ki l l i ng t he m : s i t i us l i c e at que pe r i r e poe t i s | i nv i t um qu i s e r v at i de m f ac i t oc c i de nt i ( A P 466 7 ) T he m a d A r gi ve s r e l a t i ve s ha ve s a ve d hi m f r o m hi s de l us i ons a ga i ns t hi s w i l l a nd ha ve done t he s a m e a s m ur de r hi m ( pol m e oc c i di s t i s ) M a dm e n, a c c or di ng t o H o r a c e m us t be l e f t t o t he i r i ns a ni t y, e ve n t hough i t m a y l e a d t o t he i r ow n de s t r uc t i on B y l i ke ni ng h i m s e l f t o t he m a d A r gi ve a nd by e xt e ns i on t he m a d poe t of t he A r s P oe t i c a H or a c e i n a n un H or a t i a n m a nne r 2 5 di s t a nc e s hi m s e l f f r om ar s a s t he m os t va l ua bl e e l e m e nt i n t he poe t s c om pos i t i on, a nd, l i ke t he m a d A r gi ve a nd t he v e s anus poe t a, pr i vi l e ge s hi s ow n uni que i nge n i um H or a c e i s a bl e t o w a r n t he P i s one s of t he di f f i c ul t i e s t he poe t f a c e s be c a us e he ha s e xpe r i e nc e d t he m hi m s e l f H i s po r t r a i t of t he v e s anus poe t a i n t he c onc l udi ng s e c t i on of t he A r s i m pl i e s a n i nt i m a t e know l e dge of t he m a d poe t s a l i e na t i on f r o m s oc i e t y. B ut H or a c e doe s not w i s h t o l oc k hi m s e l f a w a y a nd r e n de r hi m s e l f us e l e s s t o s oc i e t y a s D e m oc r i t us poe t s ha ve done I t i s t hi s s t r ugg l e f o r c om m uni c a t i on t ha t i s a t t he he a r t of H or a c e s de pi c t i on of t he m a d poe t i s ol a t e d i n a pi t c a l l i ng t o hi s f e l l ow c i t i z e ns i n va i n R e j e c t e d a nd m oc ke d, he s i m ul t a ne ous l y s huns s oc i e t y a nd l ongs t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h i t 2 5 S e e s u p r a

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16 I t i s e vi de nt t ha t t he m a d poe t de s i r e s t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h hi s f e l l ow c i t i z e ns f r om H or a c e s l i ke ni ng hi m t o a l e e c h t ha t r e a ds t o de a t h a nyone w i l l i ng t o l i s t e n t o hi m ( A P 475 476) 2 6 B ut t he poe t a l s o ha s t e nde nc i e s t ow a r d s i s ol a t i on a nd e ve n s e l f de s t r uc t i on, r e s ul t i ng f r om t he i n t e ns e pr e s s ur e pl a c e d upon hi m T he m a d poe t f oc us e d s ol e l y on poe t r y, w a nde r s a bout w i t h hi s he a d i n t he c l ouds l i ke a bi r d c a t c he r ga z i ng a t bl a c k bi r ds a nd f a l l s i nt o a pi t ( A P 458 59) T he poe t c a l l s f or a i d: s uc c ur r i t e l ongum c l am e t i o c i v e s H e i s i s ol a t e d f r om s oc i e t y a nd a t f i r s t no one c a r e s t o a i d hi m H e i s not e ve n c ons i de r e d a m e m be r of t he hum a n r a c e ( hom o A P 469) B ut t he s pe a ke r t e l l s us pe r ha ps t he poe t t hr e w hi m s e l f i nt o t he pi t on pu r p os e A ga i n, H or a c e s how s t ha t he i s i ns i de t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he m a d poe t w he n he r e a ds t he m a d poe t s m ot i va t i on : q u i s c i s a n p r u d e n s h u c s e d e i e c e r i t a t q u e s e r v a r i n o l i t ? d i c a m . ( A P 4 6 2 3 ; i t a l i c s a r e m i n e ) [ H o w d o y o u k n o w I w i l l s a y p e r h a p s h e h a s t h r o w n h i m s e l f i n o n p u r p o s e a n d d o e s n o t w i s h t o b e s a v e d ? ] H or a c e us e s t he f i r s t pe r s on, a nd i ndi c a t e s t ha t he m a y know s om e t hi ng of t he m a d poe t s m i nd a nd w hy he m a y ha ve f a l l e n o r t h r ow n hi m s e l f i nt o t he pi t W e l e a r n t ha t t he S i c i l i a n poe t E m pe doc l e s c a s t hi m s e l f i nt o bu r ni ng A e t na : de us i m m or t al i s habe r i | dum c upi t E m pe doc l e s ar de nt e m f r i gi dus A e t nam | i ns i l ui t ( A P 464 66) I n t he i r que s t f or i m m or t a l i t y t hr ough t he i r c r a f t poe t s de s t r oy t he m s e l ve s I t i s d i f f i c ul t not t o i de nt i f y H or a c e a s a pot e nt i a l E m pe doc l e s ba s e d on t he c l a i m s t o i m m o r t a l i t y t ha t he m a ke s a bout hi m s e l f i n hi s O de s 2 6 C f O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 8 ) 2 1 9 w h o l i n k s H o r a c e w i t h t h e l e e c h : B u t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e r o l e o f t h e m u r d e r o u s l y e x u b e r a n t v e r s i f i e r w i t h i n t h e A r s i t s e l f I n t h e m o s t l i t e r a l a n d i m m e d i a t e s e n s e i t i s H o r a c e H o r a c e w h o c l i n g s a n d c l i n g s t o h i s r e a d e r s f o r a l l o f 4 7 6 l i n e s b e f o r e d r o p p i n g o f f i n t o s i l e n c e w h o i s t h e l e e c h o f t h e A r s P o e t i c a

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17 H or a c e c a n s pe a k a ut hor i t a t i ve l y a bout t he da nge r s t ha t t he poe t w i l l e nc ount e r i n hi s a t t e m pt f or i m m o r t a l i t y be c a us e he ha s e xpe r i e nc e d t he m O n s e ve r a l oc c a s i ons H or a c e m a ke s r e f e r e nc e t o hi s i m m or t a l i t y a s a v at e s be gi nni ng w i t h hi s a ddr e s s t o M a e c e na s i n O de s 1. 1. H e r e H or a c e c l a i m s t he i vy l e a ve s t ha t a r e t he r e w a r d o f poe t s a c t ua l l y l i nk hi m w i t h t he gods : m e . he de r ae | . di s m i s c e nt s upe r i s T he m a d poe t w i t h he a d upr a i s e d ( s ubl i m i s v e r s us r uc t at u r e t e r r at ) i s gl i m ps e d i n H or a c e s de s i r e t o be c ount e d a m ong t he i m m o r t a l l y r i c ba r ds : q u o d s i m e l y r i c i s v a t i b u s i n s e r i s s u b l i m i f e r i a m s i d e r a v e r t i c e ( O d e s 1 1 3 5 3 6 ; i t a l i c s a r e m i n e ) [ B u t i f y o u c o u n t m e a m o n g t h e l y r i c b a r d s I w i l l s t r i k e t h e s t a r s w i t h m y e x a l t e d h e a d ] O n s e ve r a l oc c a s i ons H or a c e r e ve l s i n hi s gr a ndi os e ne a r l y obs e s s i ve c l a i m s t o f a m e us i ng gr a phi c s ym bol s of m e t a m or phos i s I n C 2 20, a not he r a ddr e s s t o M a e c e na s H or a c e pr ophe s i e s hi s ow n i m m or t a l i t y be c om i ng a s w a n i n t he t r a di t i on o f P i nda r t he D i r c a e a n s w a n. A t C 3 30, i n a n a dd r e s s t o t he M us e M e l pom e ne H or a c e bol dl y c l a i m s t ha t he ha s c ons t r uc t e d a m onum e nt m or e nobl e t h a n t he r oya l pyr a m i ds ( r e gal i que s i t u py r am i dum al t i us ) a nd t ha t he s ha l l not w hol l y di e but hi s f a m e w i l l gr ow w i t h t i m e H or a c e ha s t he i nge ni um a nd t he ar s ne c e s s a r y t o m a ke s uc h c l a i m s s i nc e he ha s j oi ne d na t ur a l ge ni us w i t h di s c i pl i ne a nd s t udi e d t he i m m or t a l G r e e k ba r ds a nd a da pt e d t he i r ve r s e s t o L a t i n ( C 3 30. 13 14) T he t r ue poe t t he n, f i nds hi m s e l f ou t s i de of s oc i e t y but s t i l l unw i l l i ng t o s hr ug of f hi s dut y a nd obl i ga t i on t o hi s c ount r ym e n a s D e m o c r i t us poe t s ha ve done T he m a d poe t s t r i ve s f or g r e a t ne s s but f i nds hi m s e l f t r a ppe d i n a pi t I n t hi s r e s pe c t he s ha r e s i n t he a l i e na t i on t ha t D e m oc r i t us poe t s e xpr e s s S hut ou t f r om t he s oc i e t y he l ongs t o

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18 c om m uni c a t e w i t h, c hi l d r e n m oc k h i m a nd w i s e m e n ( qui s api unt ) a voi d hi m 2 7 I t i s t hi s i m a ge t ha t e nc a ps ul a t e s H or a c e s pos i t i on i ns i de t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he m a d poe t a s t a t e w i t h w hi c h he i s i nt i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r H o r a c e i s un doubt e dl y l i nke d w i t h t he m a d poe t t hr ough hi s pu r s ui t of i m m or t a l i t y, a s hi s O de s a t t e s t a nd i f he i s no t t o be i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he v e s anus poe t a he f i nds h i m s e l f unc om f o r t a bl y c l os e t o t hi s c ha r a c t e r T he A r s P oe t i c a i s l i t t e r e d w i t h w a r ni ngs of t he pi t f a l l s t ha t a w a i t a s pi r i ng poe t s a da unt i ng t a s k f or t he young a ddr e s s e e s of t he poe m H or a c e ha s pr e s e nt e d t he m a d poe t a s t he c l i m a x o f hi s A r s P oe t i c a a nd i f w e f a ul t hi m f or br e a ki ng of f t he pi e c e i n m e di as r e s w e m i s unde r s t a nd t he s t r uc t ur e of t he poe m H or a c e s m a i n c onc e r n i n t he A r s i s not t o p r e s e nt a m e c ha ni c a l gui de book t o poe t r y, but t o c a l l f o r t he uni t y o f i nge ni um a nd ar s i n t he poe t s c r a f t H o r a c e i s gr i e ve d t ha t R om a n poe t s l a c k t he de di c a t i on t ha t t he i r G r e e k pr e de c e s s or s ha d f or poe t i c gr e a t ne s s R om e ha s be e n c ons um e d w i t h m a t e r i a l i s m a nd i t s e ns ui ng m or a l de c l i ne i s r e f l e c t e d i n a ge ne r a l de c l i ne i n t he a r t s H or a c e s i ndi gna t i on m a ke s s e ns e i n l i ght o f t he i m m e ns e i m por t a nc e t ha t he p l a c e s on t he m i s s i on of t he po e t t o r e f or m a nd r e f a s hi on s oc i e t y. H or a c e doe s not be l i e ve t ha t a v at e s c a n de ve l op o ut of a s oc i e t y t ha t onl y s e e ks w e a l t h a nd i s unc r i t i c a l i n t he i r a ppr a i s a l of poe t r y. N e i t he r D e m oc r i t us poe t s no r t he m a d poe t ha ve a s t e r n c r i t i c t o m ol d t he i r i nge ni um J us t a s unke m pt l ong ha i r i s s ym bol i c o f t he unpol i s he d w r i t i ngs of t he D e m oc r i t e a n poe t s s o t he i m a ge of a r a m pa gi ng be a r t ha t ha s bur s t i t s c a ge i s s ym bol i c of t he m a d poe t s unr e s t r a i ne d i nge ni um 2 8 U nt r a i ne d t a l e nt 2 7 O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 8 ) 2 1 8 : h e i s f o r a l l h i s f e i g n e d u n s o c i a b i l i t y a c r e a t u r e o f s o c i e t y t o h i s v e r y c o r e 2 8 A P 4 7 2 4 : c e r t e f u r i t a c v e l u t u r s u s | o b i e c t o s c a v e a e v a l u i t s i f r a n g e r e c l a t h r o s | i n d o c t u m d o c t u m q u e f u g a t r e c i t a t o r a c e r b u s

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19 m us t be m a t c he d w i t h ar s j us t a s w e s ha l l s e e i n t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r t ha t t he r a w poe t i c i n s pi r a t i on t ha t i a m bi c r abi e s a f f or ds m us t be t e m p e r e d w i t h a C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c

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20 C H A P T E R 3 C A V E C A V E : R A B I E S A S P O E T I C I N S P I R A T I O N I N T H E E P O D E S i r a f ur o r b r e vi s e s t : a ni m um r e ge qui ni s i pa r e t i m pe r a t ; hunc f r e ni s hunc t u c om pe s c e c a t e na ( E p 1. 2 62 63 ) I n E p 1 19. 21 25 H or a c e c l a i m s t o ha ve be e n t he f i r s t t o i nt r oduc e P a r i a n i am bi t o L a t i um a boa s t s uppor t e d by hi s de pe nde nc e on A r c hi l oc he a n m e t r i c s t hr oughout t he E pode s 1 T he f a c t t ha t H or a c e s e l e c t e d t he i a m bi c ge nr e w hi c h a l r e a dy ha d R om a n a dhe r e nt s 2 a nd s e l e c t e d A r c hi l oc hus a s hi s m ode l w oul d l e a d hi s a udi e nc e t o e xpe c t a c e r t a i n ki nd of poe t r y s i nc e i am bi ha d c om e t o be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i nve c t i ve 3 B ut t he que s t i on r e m a i ns of j us t how a ngr y H or a c e s E pod e s a r e a nd t o w ha t e xt e nt i a m bi c r abi e s s e r ve s a s H or a c e s i ns pi r a t i on i n t he E pode s 4 W hi l e r i f e w i t h i nve c t i ve a n ge r H o r a c e s 1 H o r a c e m o s t o b v i o u s l y f o l l o w s A r c h i l o c h e a n m e t e r i n h i s u s e o f t h e i a m b i c t r i m e t e r f o l l o w e d b y i a m b i c d i m e t e r i n E p o d e s 1 1 0 T h i s s a m e m e t r i c a l s c h e m e i s d i s c e r n a b l e i n A r c h i l o c h u s f f 1 7 2 1 8 1 W O n l y E p o d e s 1 2 1 3 a n d 1 6 l a c k a c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e t r i c a l e x a m p l e f r o m A r c h i l o c h u s a f a c t t h a t m o s t l i k e l y s t e m s f r o m t h e f r a g m e n t a r y n a t u r e o f A r c h i l o c h u s w r i t i n g s R e c a l l t h a t E p o d e 1 1 o n l y f o u n d i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g A r c h i l o c h e a n e x a m p l e w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f T h e C o l o g n e E p o d e ( f r 1 9 6 a W ) i n 1 9 7 4 2 H o r a c e s c l a i m t o h a v e b e e n t h e f i r s t t o e x h i b i t P a r i a n i a m b i t o L a t i u m h a s b e e n q u e s t i o n e d o n a c c o u n t o f t h e p r e c e d e n t o f C a t u l l a n i a m b i H o w e v e r C a t u l l u s u s e s a v a r i e t y o f m e t r i c a l f o r m u l a s s u c h a s t h e h e n d e c a s y l l a b i c s t h a t a r e n o t i n t h e a r c h a i c i a m b i c c a n o n ( H e y w o r t h 2 0 0 1 ) 3 P i n d P y t h 2 5 2 5 6 ) 2 3 4 3 5 6 7 8 9 | : 7 ; < 7 = 9 4 > ? @ A $ 4 = 9 ( 9 ? B ? B < @ 6 = C 9 D | 7 E 4 @ 9 < % 6 F ? % A ) G 9 H % I J K K* ) 9 $ 2 B 5 B 9 L M | N @ < 7 6 ( 9 6 5 L K @ 5 @ 9 O B 6 P KJ < @ = A Q 5 R 7 S = 9 | I = B = 9 J 2 7 9 @ 9 ; A r i s t P o e t 1 4 4 8 b 3 1 T B 2 O 7 @ 9 ? B K 7 H B = 9 U 9 V H = ) 9 H W 2 X H 6 Y H @ ; H Y T > 2 O = Z @ 9 $ KK [ K@ P A ; C f W e s t ( 1 9 7 4 ) 2 2 : I n v e c t i v e w a s c l e a r l y r e g a r d e d a s t h e o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e g e n r e 4 F o r t h e d e b a t e o n H o r a c e s p o e t i c m o d e l s i n t h e E p o d e s s e e W a t s o n ( 2 0 0 3 ) 4 : B o t h A r c h i l o c h u s a n d C a l l i m a c h u s w e r e o f c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e g e n e s i s o f t h e p o e m s T h e t w o p a s s a g e s i n w h i c h H o r a c e e x p l i c i t l y a d v e r t s t o t h e l i t e r a r y i n s p i r a t i o n b e h i n d t h e E p o d e s ( E p o d e 6 a n d E p 1 1 9 ) a r e e m b l e m a t i c o f t h a t d u a l i t y o f i n f l u e n c e s i n c e i n e a c h c a s e a n o v e r t e v o c a t i o n o f A r c h i l o c h u s a s t h e m o v i n g s p i r i t b e h i n d t h e b o o k i s b a l a n c e d b y a n i m p l i c i t a l l u s i o n t o C a l l i m a c h u s m o r e r e c e n t I a m b i T h i s d e b a t e i s f a r f r o m s e t t l e d w i t h s c h o l a r s p o s i t i o n e d o n t h e s p e c t r u m b e t w e e n M a n k i n w h o s e e s f e w o r n o p o e t i c m o d e l s o t h e r t h a n A r c h i l o c h u s f o r t h e E p o d e s a n d W a t s o n w h o h i g h l i g h t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f C a l l i m a c h e a n p o e t i c s f o r H o r a c e s i a m b i

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21 i am bi a r e by a nd l a r ge i m pe r s ona l i ns of a r a s t he y a voi d t he pe r s i s t e nt a t t a c ks c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve H o r a c e t he n, by a dopt i ng a C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c t o t e m pe r t he e xc e s s e s of i nve c t i ve r abi e s m i r r or s hi s ow n a dvi c e t o t he P i s one s i n t he A r s P oe t i c a t o ba l a nc e i nge ni um w i t h ar s H or a c e on t hr e e oc c a s i ons s pe c i f i c a l l y na m e s A r c hi l oc hus a s hi s m ode l a nd i ns pi r a t i on f or hi s book of e pode s ( E pod 6. 13 E p 1. 19 23 25, A P 79 ) H or a c e t he n, i s c ons c i ous of t he ge ne r i c a s s u m pt i ons t ha t he i s a do pt i ng, a s he w oul d l a t e r w r i t e i n t he A r s P oe t i c a ( 79 ) : A r c hi l oc hum pr opr i o r abi e s ar m av i t i am bo C l e a r l y, r a ge i s s e e n a s a w e a pon ( ar m av i t ) t o be us e d i n t he m e di um o f i am bi w hi c h w oul d pr e s um a bl y l e a d H or a c e s a udi e nc e t o e xpe c t i a m bi c r abi e s i n hi s c ol l e c t i on. T he f i r s t s pe c i f i c r e f e r e nc e t o A r c hi l oc hus doe s not di s a ppoi nt : i t a ppe a r s i n E pode 6, one of t he m os t vi r ul e nt i nve c t i ve s i n t he c ol l e c t i on: Q u i d i m m e r e n t i s h o s p i t e s v e x a s c a n i s i g n a v u s a d v e r s u m l u p o s ? q u i n h u c i n a n i s s i p o t e s v e r t i s m i n a s e t m e r e m o r s u r u m p e t i s ? n a m q u a l i s a u t M o l o s s u s a u t f u l v u s L a c o n a m i c a v i s p a s t o r i b u s a g a m p e r a l t a s a u r e s u b l a t a n i v e s q u a e c u m q u e p r a e c e d e t f e r a : t u c u m t i m e n d a v o c e c o m p l e s t i n e m u s p r o i e c t u m o d o r a r i s c i b u m ( 1 0 ) c a v e c a v e : n a m q u e i n m a l o s a s p e r r i m u s p a r a t a t o l l o c o r n u a q u a l i s L y c a m b a e s p r e t u s i n f i d o g e n e r a u t a c e r h o s t i s B u p a l o a n s i q u i s a t r o d e n t e m e p e t i v e r i t i n u l t u s u t f l e b o p u e r ? [ W h y d o y o u h a r a s s i n n o c e n t s t r a n g e r s y o u a c o w a r d l y d o g w h e n c o n f r o n t i n g w o l v e s ? W h y n o t i f y o u h a v e t h e g u t s t u r n y o u r e m p t y t h r e a t s m y w a y a n d a t t a c k m e w h o w i l l b i t e b a c k ? F o r j u s t a s e i t h e r a M o l o s s i a n o r t a w n y L a c o n i a n t h e s t r o n g f r i e n d s o f s h e p h e r d s I w i l l p u r s u e t h r o u g h t a l l s n o w w i t h e a r u p r a i s e d w h a t e v e r b e a s t g o e s b e f o r e Y o u w h e n w i t h t e r r i f i e d y e l p s y o u h a v e f i l l e d t h e g r o v e s w i l l s n i f f o u t l e f t o v e r g a r b a g e B e w a r e b e w a r e : f o r m o s t s a v a g e l y d o I r a i s e r e a d i e d h o r n s a g a i n s t t h e w i c k e d j u s t a s t h e s l i g h t e d s o n i n l a w o f f a i t h l e s s L y c a m b e s o r t h e h a r s h e n e m y o f B u p a l u s O r i f s o m e o n e

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22 w i t h a b l a c k t o o t h s h o u l d a s s a u l t m e s h a l l I w e e p a s a n u n a v e n g e d c h i l d ? ] T he i a m bi s t ve r y de l i be r a t e l y pl a c e s hi m s e l f i n t he i a m bi c t r a di t i on of A r c hi l oc hus a nd H i ppona x. I t i s pl a i n t ha t t hi s e pode c ont a i ns pot e nt i nve c t i ve a nge r a nd t he s pe a ke r i s of t he s a m e s or t ( qual i s ) a s A r c hi l oc hus t he s p ur ne d s on i n l a w o f L yc a m be s w ho, a s t r a di t i on r e l a t e s be t r ot he d h i s da ught e r N e obul e t o A r c hi l oc hus onl y t o r e ne ge on t he a gr e e m e nt T hi s hum i l i a t i on i ns pi r e d A r c hi l oc hus t o c om pos e ve r s e s s o ha t e f ul t ha t t he y dr ove L yc a m be s a nd hi s da ught e r ( s ) t o ha ng t he m s e l ve s out of s ha m e A s i m i l a r s t or y i s t ol d c onc e r ni ng t he f a t e of H i ppona x vi c t i m s 5 A c c or di ng t o P l i ny, H i ppona x w a s not or i ous l y ugl y, w hi c h l e d t he s c ul pt or s B upa l us a nd A t he ni s t he s ons of A c he r m us t o m a ke s t a t ue s i n hi s l i ke ne s s f or publ i c di s pl a y a nd m oc ke r y. I n r e t a l i a t i on, H i ppona x uns he a t he d ( de s t r i nx i t ) s uc h s t i ngi ng i nve c t i ve t h a t t r a di t i on c l a i m s i t d r ove t he s c ul pt or s t o ha ng t he m s e l ve s 6 W he t he r f a c t ua l o r not t he s t or i e s of t he L yc a m bi de s a nd t he s c ul pt or s s e r ve a s a pa r a di gm f or t he c yc l e of i a m bi c i nj ur y a nd r e t a l i a t i on T he i a m bi s t a s s um e s a de f e ns i ve pos i t i on, a s s e r t i ng t ha t a s t he w r onge d pa r t y he i s f ul l y j us t i f i e d i n r e t a l i a t i ng. 7 H e i n f a c t e ve n be c om e s t he i ns t r um e nt of di vi ne ve nge a nc e a ga i ns t t he pe r pe t r a t or w ho ha s vi ol a t e d r e l i gi ous o bl i ga t i ons a s L yc a m be s di d. 8 T he i a m bi s t ve r y s pe c i f i c a l l y a dopt s t hi s de f e ns i ve pos t ur e f or hi m s e l f i n E pode 6, a s he doe s i n t he r ough l y c ont e m por a ne ou s S 2. 1 39 46: 9 5 H i p p o n a x i s o n l y s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o o n c e i n t h e E p o d e s a t 6 1 4 6 P l i n N H 3 6 4 1 2 P l i n y s t a t e s t h a t h e h i m s e l f d e n i e s t h i s a c c o u n t s i n c e t h e s c u l p t o r s m a d e s t a t u e s f o r n e i g h b o r i n g i s l a n d s a f t e r t h e i r d i s p u t e s w i t h H i p p o n a x 7 F o r t h e d e f e n s i v e p o s t u r e o f t h e i a m b i s t s e e C a t C 4 0 a n d A r c h f r 1 7 2 W T h e i a m b i s t i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c r e a t i n g a w a y t o d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n v e c t i v e R a v i d u s a n d L y c a m b e s a c t i o n s g i v e t h e p o e t s n o c h o i c e b u t t o r e s p o n d w i t h i a m b i 8 S e e i n p a r t i c u l a r f r 1 7 3 W : V 6 ? @ 9 4 ) 9 @ S : L S R \ A 2 X < B 9 / ] K B A H 7 ? B H 6 > I 7 Z B 9 9 T h e s e c o n d b o o k o f S a t i r e s w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 3 0 B C w h i l e t h e E p o d e s w a s p u b l i s h e d a r o u n d 2 9 B C

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23 s e d h i c s t i l u s h a u d p e t e t u l t r o q u e m q u a m a n i m a n t e m e t m e v e l u t i c u s t o d i e t e n s i s ( 4 0 ) v a g i n a t e c t u s ; q u e m c u r d e s t r i n g e r e c o n e r t u t u s a b i n f e s t i s l a t r o n i b u s ? o p a t e r e t r e x I u p p i t e r u t p e r e a t p o s i t u m r o b i g i n e t e l u m n e c q u i s q u a m n o c e a t c u p i d o m i h i p a c i s a t i l l e q u i m e c o m m o r i t ( m e l i u s n o n t a n g e r e c l a m o ) ( 4 5 ) f l e b i t e t i n s i g n i s t o t a c a n t a b i t u r u r b e [ B u t t h i s s t y l u s w i l l n e v e r o n i t s o w n s e a r c h o u t a l i v i n g p e r s o n a n d i t w i l l g u a r d m e j u s t a s a s w o r d c o v e r e d i n i t s s h e a t h W h y s h o u l d I a t t e m p t t o u n s h e a t h e i t s o l o n g a s I a m s a f e f r o m h o s t i l e b r i g a n d s ? O f a t h e r a n d k i n g J u p i t e r m a y t h e d i s c a r d e d w e a p o n p e r i s h w i t h r u s t ; l e t n o m a n h a r m m e d e s i r o u s f o r p e a c e B u t h e w h o r o u s e s m e ( b e t t e r n o t t o t o u c h m e I s h o u t ) w i l l r e g r e t i t a n d w i l l b e m a d e i n f a m o u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e t o w n b y m y s i n g i n g ] H or a c e de pi c t s hi s s t i l us a s a w e a pon ( e ns i s ) t ha t h a s t he pot e nt i a l f o r r i ght e ous ve nge a nc e H e pr ot e s t s t ha t he i s a m a n of pe a c e a nd i t i s onl y t hr ough t he f a ul t of a not he r t ha t he m u s t gr udgi ngl y uns he a t he ( de s t r i nge r e ) t he s w or d ( s t i l us ) H o r a c e s l a ngua ge i s i de nt i c a l t o P l i ny s de s c r i pt i on o f H i pp ona x uns he a t hi ng hi s i nve c t i ve I t i s t hi s c yc l e of r e t a l i a t i on a nd ve nge a nc e t ha t d r i ve s H or a c e i n E pode 6 a nd t ha t dr i ve s t he w a r r i ng f a c t i ons o f R om e i n E pode s 7 9 a nd 16 B ot h E pode s s e ve n a nd s i xt e e n a r e r e m a r ka bl e f or H or a c e s s t a nc e a s a s oc i a l i ns t r uc t or E pode 7 i s not s o m uc h a n e xhor t a t i on t o t he R om a ns a s i t i s a pe s s i m i s t i c i nve c t i ve a ga i ns t H or a c e s f e l l ow c i t i z e ns f or t he i r i na bi l i t y t o s ol ve t he c r i s e s t ha t ha ve l e d t o c i vi l w a r I n i t s pe s s i m i s m i t f or e s ha dow s t he f ut i l e e xhor t a t i on t o f l e e R om e i n E pode 16 a nd a s W a t s on r i ght l y poi nt s out e c hoe s t he ha r a ngue s of S ol on 1 0 H or a c e i n E pode 16 e xho r t s t he R om a ns t o a b a ndon R om e s i nc e i t ha s be e n c ur s e d by e ndl e s s c i vi l w a r a nd i s on t he br i nk of de s t r oyi ng i t s e l f T he onl y r e a s ona bl e c our s e of a c t i on, H or a c e hope l e s s l y c l a i m s i s t o s e e k t he bl e s s e d f i e l ds a nd r i c h i s l a nds ( ar v a be at a | pe t am us ar v a di v i t e s e t i ns ul as 41 42) 1 0 W a t s o n ( 2 0 0 3 ) 9 1 0 ; c f S o l o n f r 4 W e s t : ^ 2 7 H X 6 \ 4 3 I J K= A ? B H % 2 3 9 = ( A @ ` I @ H 0 K 7 H B = | B E S B 9 B H @ 4 3 : R 7 L 6 7 = 9 2 7 < > K \ 9 I J K= 9 $ : 6 B 4 L a S = 9 | $ S H @ O @ ; K@ 9 H B =

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24 Sat i r e s 2. 1 dr a w s us f ur t he r i nt o c om pa r i s on w i t h t he E pode s t hr ough i m a ge s t ha t a ppe a r i n bot h books N a t ur e H or a c e t e l l s us ha s e qui ppe d e a c h c r e a t ur e w i t h a m e a ns t o e xpr e s s a nge r C a ni di a ( w ho a ppe a r s i n S 1. 8 2. 1, 2. 8 a s w e l l a s i n E pode s 3, 5, 17) r e s or t s t o t he poi s on o f A l buc i us w he n a ng r y ( 48 4 9) A ni m a l s t oo, ha ve t he i r de f e ns e s a nd e a c h one ha s be e n pr ovi de d by na t ur e w i t h a m e a ns of f r i gh t e ni ng t he i r e ne m i e s s o t ha t t he w ol f a t t a c ks w i t h i t s f a ngs a nd t he bul l w i t h i t s h or ns : ut quo qu i s que v al e t s us pe c t o s t e r r e at ut que | i m pe r e t hoc nat ur a pot e n s s i c c ol l i ge m e c um : | de nt e l upus c or nu t aur us pe t i t ( S. 2. 1 50 52) T hi s a ni m a l i m a ge r y a ga i n i nvi t e s c om pa r i s on t o E pode 6, w he r e H or a c e pl a ys t he s ha pe s hi f t e r a t one t i m e a s he e pdog, ( w ho, unl i ke t he i m m e r e nt e s hos pi t e s w i l l bi t e ba c k, r e m or s u r um ) a t a not he r a bul l w i t h r e a di e d hor ns pr e pa r e d t o t a ke on t hos e w ho t hr e a t e n hi m or hi s f l oc k. 1 1 T he l a ngua ge of r e t a l i a t i on pr e va l e nt i n E pode 6 i s pa r a doxi c a l l y, a l s o t he ki nd of ve r s e t ha t H or a c e pr of e s s e s t o de ny i n E p 1 19. 23 25, t he s e c ond pa s s a ge i n w hi c h H or a c e s pe c i f i c a l l y r e f e r s t o A r c hi l oc hus a s a m od e l f or t he E pode s : P a r i o s e g o p r i m u s i a m b o s o s t e n d i L a t i o n u m e r o s a n i m o s q u e s e c u t u s A r c h i l o c h i n o n r e s e t a g e n t i a v e r b a L y c a m b e n ( 2 5 ) [ I w a s t h e f i r s t t o s h o w P a r i a n i a m b i t o L a t i u m ; I f o l l o w e d t h e m e t e r a n d s p i r i t o f A r c h i l o c h u s n o t h i s c o n t e n t a n d l a n g u a g e t h a t t o o k a c t i o n a g a i n s t L y c a m b e s ] H or a c e s pe c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t ha t he s huns t he l a ngua ge t ha t dr ove ( ag e nt i a ) L yc a m be s t o s ui c i de Y e t H or a c e us e s t he s a m e l a ngua ge i n E pode 6 ( agam pe r al t as aur e s ubl at a ni v e s ) t o de s c r i be t he pur s ui t of hi s e ne m i e s O ne w a y i n w hi c h i t i s pos s i bl e t o c ha r t t he 1 1 A n i m a l a l l e g o r i e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A r c h i l o c h u s ( e s p f r r 2 2 3 H X H H = < @ A ) 4 6 > b c I H 7 6 @ U a n d 2 3 1 4 1 6 ) I ] L S H B 2 B L H @ = H ( 9 : = K [ X @ ] dddd9 [ H B ] 2 3 9 : [ = ] K7 9 [ | H ( 9 4 ) 5 R 6 ( 9 ) 5 R B L 6 7 = 9 H 7 [ ? B ] ? B ? @ [ . | 2 ; ] 6 2 \ b W a t s o n ( 1 9 8 3 b ) a r g u e s c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t l i n e s 7 8 d o n o t r e f e r t o H o r a c e a s a h u n t i n g d o g V i e w i n g h i m a s s u c h w o u l d W a t s o n a r g u e s r u i n t h e u n i t y o f t h e s h e e p d o g i m a g e r y o f 1 1 0 v i o l a t e t h e s e q u e n c e o f t h o u g h t p r o c e e d i n g f r o m 5 8 a n d w o u l d i m p l y t h a t H o r a c e e n v i s a g e s t h e w r i t i n g o f i a m b i a s n o t j u s t a r e s p o n s e t o p r o v o c a t i o n b u t t h e a g g r e s s i v e s e e k i n g o u t o f t a r g e t s f o r h i s p e n ( 1 5 8 )

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25 i a m bi c t e nor o f t he E pode s i s t o not e t he va r i ous f o r m s of t he ve r b ago t ha t oc c ur s i x t i m e s t hr oughout t he c ol l e c t i on. I n f i ve of t he s e s i x oc c ur r e nc e s t he ve r b i s us e d t o de s c r i be t he dr i vi ng f or c e of i nve c t i ve i n t he s a m e s e ns e t ha t H or a c e us e s t he ve r b t o de s c r i be A r c hi l oc he a n v e r ba i n E p 1. 19 25. 1 2 F ou r of t he s e f i ve i ns t a nc e s oc c ur i n t he m i ddl e of t he c ol l e c t i on, r i ght w he n t he i nve c t i ve t one of t he E pode s i s a t i t s he i ght T he l a s t i ns t a nc e i s r e s e r ve d f or t he f i na l e pode i n t he c ol l e c t i on, a nd i n f a c t oc c ur s i n i t s f i na l ve r s e l e a vi ng t he r e a de r w i t hout a c l e a r r e s ol ut i on t o t he i a m bi c c onf l i c t T he E pode s one i s f or c e d t o c onc l ude doe s not c om pl e t e l y om i t A r c hi l oc he a n r a ge E pode 5 i n t r oduc e s C a ni di a a c c om pa ni e d by he r c ohor t of w i t c he s w ho ha ve ki dna ppe d a R om a n yout h a nd i nt e nd t o us e hi s l i v e r s o t ha t t he w i t c he s m a y pr e pa r e a pot e nt l ove pot i on t o us e a ga i ns t a w a yw a r d l ove r V a r us H or a c e d r a w s a pa t he t i c pi c t ur e of t he l a d, qui ve r i ng i n f r i ght ( t r e m e nt i que s t us or e ) a nd t he boy i m m e di a t e l y dr a w s t he r e a de r s s ym pa t hy, a n i m pube c or pus q ua l e pos s e t i m pi a | m ol l i r e T hr ac um pe c t or a ( 13 14) B ut by t he c onc l us i on of t he e po de t he w hi m pe r i ng boy i s t r a ns f or m e d t hr ough i a m bi c r abi e s i nt o a t e r r i bl e f ur y, s pe w i ng i nve c t i ve ba c k a t hi s ki dna ppe r s : s u b h a e c p u e r i a m n o n u t a n t e m o l l i b u s l e n i r e v e r b i s i m p i a s s e d d u b i u s u n d e r u m p e r e t s i l e n t i u m m i s i t T h y e s t e a s p r e c e s : v e n e n a m a g n u m f a s n e f a s q u e n o n v a l e n t c o n v e r t e r e h u m a n a m v i c e m ; d i r i s a g a m v o s ; d i r a d e t e s t a t i o n u l l a e x p i a t u r v i c t i m a ( 9 0 ) [ A t t h e s e i n c a n t a t i o n s t h e b o y n o l o n g e r a s b e f o r e a t t e m p t e d t o m o l l i f y t h e i m p i o u s w o m e n w i t h s o f t w o r d s b u t h e s i t a n t a s t o h o w t o b r e a k h i s s i l e n c e h e s e n t f o r t h T h y e s t e a n c u r s e s : Y o u r p o w e r f u l p o t i o n s d o n o t h a v e t h e p o w e r t o c h a n g e r i g h t a n d w r o n g n o r t o t u r n h u m a n v e n g e a n c e I w i l l h o u n d y o u w i t h c u r s e s ; m y f e a r f u l s o l e m n c u r s e w i l l n o t b e a t o n e d b y a n y o f f e r i n g ] 1 2 E p o d 5 8 9 6 7 7 1 7 1 2 1 3 1 5 9 1 7 8 1 T h e o n l y o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h d o e s n o t p e r t a i n t o t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e o f i a m b i c v e r b a i s 1 5 9 ( a p o e m s t i l l c o n t a i n i n g p l e n t y o f i n v e c t i v e )

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26 I n t hi s dr a m a H or a c e ha s e na c t e d t he c yc l e of ve n ge a nc e t ha t t a ke s a s m a l l c hi l d a s i nnoc e nt a s t he i m m e r e nt e s hos pi t e s of E pode 6 a n d s t a i ns hi m i n t he bl a c k bi l e of i nve c t i ve W e a r e c onf r on t e d w i t h t he unpl e a s a nt r e a l i t y t ha t no one how e ve r i nnoc e nt i n t he i nve c t i ve ga m e i s f r e e f r om gui l t a nd t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he a bus e r a nd a bus e d be c om e s a s c onf us e d a s i n t he c i vi l w a r r a gi ng i n E pode 7 B e f or e H or a c e r e t ur ns i n E pode 7 t o t he t he m e of t he c i vi l w a r s w i t h w hi c h he be ga n t he c ol l e c t i on, t he c l os i ng r he t o r i c a l que s t i o n of E pode 6 c a l l s t o m i nd C a ni di a w i t h he r de ns l i v i dus a nd he r de f e ns e l e s s vi c t i m : a n, s i qui s at r o de nt e m e pe t i v e r i t i nul t us ut f l e bo pue r ? A s E pode 6 c onc l ude s w e a r e l e f t w i t h t he de pr e s s i ng r e a l i z a t i on t ha t t he poe t ha s not of f e r e d a r e m e dy f o r t he i a m b i c c yc l e of r e t a l i a t or y a nge r but ha s s e e m i ngl y a dm i t t e d i t s c ont i nua t i on. T hi s f a i l u r e t o e s c a pe s uc h ve nge a nc e s e t s t he s t a ge f or t he s t a gn a nt dow nw a r d s pi r a l i nt o c i vi l w a r de s c r i be d i n E pode 7: Q u o q u o s c e l e s t i r u i t i s ? a u t c u r d e x t e r i s a p t a n t u r e n s e s c o n d i t i ? p a r u m n e c a m p i s a t q u e N e p t u n o s u p e r f u s u m e s t L a t i n i s a n g u i n i s n o n u t s u p e r b a s i n v i d a e C a r t h a g i n i s R o m a n u s a r c e s u r e r e t i n t a c t u s a u t B r i t a n n u s u t d e s c e n d e r e t S a c r a c a t e n a t u s v i a s e d u t s e c u n d u m v o t a P a r t h o r u m s u a u r b s h a e c p e r i r e t d e x t e r a ? ( 1 0 ) n e q u e h i c l u p i s m o s n e c f u i t l e o n i b u s u m q u a m n i s i i n d i s p a r f e r i s f u r o r n e c a e c u s a n r a p i t v i s a c r i o r a n c u l p a ? r e s p o n s u m d a t e t a c e n t e t a l b u s o r a p a l l o r i n f i c i t m e n t e s q u e p e r c u l s a e s t u p e n t s i c e s t : a c e r b a f a t a R o m a n o s a g u n t s c e l u s q u e f r a t e r n a e n e c i s u t i m m e r e n t i s f l u x i t i n t e r r a m R e m i s a c e r n e p o t i b u s c r u o r ( 2 0 ) [ W h e r e w h e r e a r e y o u r u s h i n g a c c u r s e d o n e s ? O r w h y a r e y o u r s w o r d s o n c e s h e a t h e d g r a s p e d b y y o u r h a n d s ? H a s n o t e n o u g h R o m a n b l o o d b e e n s p i l t o n f i e l d s a n d t h e s e a n o t s o t h a t t h e R o m a n c a n b u r n t h e p r o u d c i t a d e l s o f j e a l o u s C a r t h a g e o r t h e B r i t o n u n t o u c h e d m a y d e s c e n d t h e S a c r e d W a y i n c h a i n s b u t s o t h a t t h i s c i t y p e r i s h b y i t s o w n r i g h t h a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e P a r t h i a n s p r a y e r s ?

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27 T h e r e w a s n e v e r s u c h a h a b i t a m o n g w o l v e s n o r l i o n s u n l e s s a g a i n s t b e a s t s o f a n o t h e r s o r t H a s a b l i n d m a d n e s s o r a k e e n e r f o r c e o r g u i l t s e i z e d u s ? G i v e a n s w e r T h e y a r e s i l e n t a n d a w h i t e p a l l o r o v e r s p r e a d s t h e i r f a c e s a n d m i n d s o v e r t h r o w n t h e y a r e s t u p e f i e d T h u s i t i s a h a r s h f a t e a n d t h e c r i m e o f f r a t r i c i d e d r i v e s R o m a n s e v e r s i n c e t h e b l o o d o f i n n o c e n t R e m u s f l o w e d o n t o t h e e a r t h a c u r s e u p o n f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s ] H or a c e a ppe a r s a s be w i l de r e d a s t he R om a ns he ha r a ngue s T he poe m i s f i l l e d w i t h H or a c e s a ngr y que s t i ons a s t he poe t s e e ks a r a t i ona l e xpl a na t i on f or t he i r r a t i ona l m a dne s s t ha t ha s ove r t a ke n hi s f e l l ow c i t i z e ns T h i s t i m e i t i s not a n i ndi vi dua l bu t bi t t e r f a t e a nd f r a t e r na l m u r de r t ha t dr i ve s ( agun t ) t he R om a ns on t o f ur t he r m a dne s s R om e i t s e l f ha s be e n c ur s e d f r om i t s ve r y f ounda t i on a nd, j us t a s t he r e i s no v i c t i m a t ha t C a ni di a c a n of f e r t ha t w oul d e xpi a t e t he c ur s e s l e v e l e d a ga i ns t he r by t h e i l l f or t une d l a d of E pode 5, s o t he r e s e e m s t o be no a m ount of s a c r i f i c e t ha t i s c a pa bl e o f a ppe a s i ng t he c ur s e of R e m us bl ood. T he onl y a ns w e r t o t he ho pe l e s s ne s s t ha t pe r va de s E pode 7 i s not pr e s e nt e d unt i l E pode 16 w he r e H o r a c e pr opos e s a n e s c a pe pl a n. A f t e r t he i nve c t i ve t one gr a dua l l y bui l ds i n i nt e ns i t y t hr oughout t he m i ddl e of t he book, t he r e i s a di s t i nc t i ve c ha nge i n t he di r e c t i on of t he E pode s a f t e r poe m 10, a c ha nge r e f l e c t e d i n t he s hi f t i ng m e t r i c s t ha t H o r a c e e m pl o ys 1 3 W he r e a s poe m 11 i nt r oduc e s a s e que nc e pe r s i s t e nt t hr ough 16, of da c t yl s a nd i a m bs ( pur e da c t yl s i n 12) t he f i r s t t e n poe m s a r e c ons i s t e nt l y i a m bi c c oupl e t s 1 4 A f t e r t he m e t r i c a l va r i e t y o f 11 16, E pode 17 w i t h i t s uni que i a m bi c t r i m e t e r br i ngs t he book ba c k t o t he pur e i a m bi c s w i t h w hi c h t he c ol l e c t i on be ga n. E pode 17 i s a l s o t he on l y poe m t ha t ha s a n une ve n num be r of l i ne s i n 1 3 O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 8 ) 9 2 9 3 n o t e s t h a t w i t h t h e c l o s e o f E p o d e 1 0 H o r a c e s b o o k o f i a m b i a c h i e v e s a p l a u s i b l e e n d i n g T h e c l o s u r a l e f f e c t i s e n h a n c e d b y t h e p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n e n e m y M a e v i u s s e t t i n g o u t o n h i s s h i p ( e x i t I 1 0 1 ) a n d f r i e n d M a e c e n a s s e t t i n g o u t o n h i s ( I b i s I 1 1 ) M a e v i u s i l l f a t e d e x i t w o u l d t h u s f o r m H o r a c e s h a p p y e n d i n g 1 4 F o r m e t e r a s t h e m o s t o b v i o u s u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e i n t h e E p o d e s s e e C a r r u b b a ( 1 9 6 9 ) 1 8 2 1

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28 a l l of t he O de s a nd E pode s 1 5 T he s e i di os ync r a s i e s a l e r t us t ha t C a ni di a f a r f r o m be i ng a pe g on w hi c h t o ha ng a c oupl e of poe m s i s a m a j or f i gu r e i n t he E pode s 1 6 S he i s a m a i n c ha r a c t e r i n t w o e xt e ns i ve poe m s ( 5 a nd 17) t ot a l i ng 183 l i ne s w hi c h f e a t ur e pot e nt i nve c t i ve t ha t ha s i m po r t a nt t he m a t i c c onne c t i ons w i t h H or a c e s i a m bi c pe r s ona F ur t he r m or e i t goe s w i t hout s a yi ng t ha t a s t he f i na l poe m E pode 17 oc c upi e s a n i m por t a nt pos i t i on w i t hi n t he c ol l e c t i on. A s w e ha ve s e e n, H or a c e na r r a t e s t he a bduc t i on a n d t r a ns f or m a t i on of a n i nnoc e nt R om a n yout h i nt o a noc t ur nus F ur or i n E pode 5. H or a c e i n t hi s e pode onl y na r r a t e s e ve nt s but i n 17 he c a s t s hi m s e l f a s one o f t he m a i n c ha r a c t e r s 1 7 H ow e ve r i n hi s de pi c t i ons of C a ni di a i n 5 he ha s i n a s e ns e pl a ye d a n a c t i ve r ol e ( a s C a ni di a unde r s t a nds i t ) by i ns t i ga t i ng t he c yc l e o f i nve c t i ve a ga i ns t he r I n r e t a l i a t i on s he ( pe r ha ps w i t h a ba c kw a r d g l a nc e t o he r hum i l i a t i on i n S 1 8, w he r e H or a c e a ga i n pl a ys t he na r r a t or ) c onde m ns hi m f or t he m oc ke r y of he r s a c r e d r i t e s a nd hi s poe m s t ha t ha ve m a de he r t he t a l k of t he t ow n: i n u l t u s u t t u r i s e r i s C o t y t t i a v u l g a t a s a c r u m l i b e r i C u p i d i n i s e t E s q u i l i n i p o n t i f e x v e n e f i c i i m p u n e u t U r b e m n o m i n e i m p l e r i s m e o ? ( E p o d 1 7 5 6 5 9 ) [ W i l l y o u w i t h o u t p e n a l t y l a u g h a t d i v u l g e d C o t y n i a n r i t e s t h e s a c r e d r i t e o f u n r e s t r a i n e d C u p i d a n d a s p r i e s t o f E s q u i l i n e m a g i c w i l l y o u g o u n p u n i s h e d f o r f i l l i n g t h e c i t y w i t h m y n a m e ? ] A s not e d a bove t he i a m bi s t l i nks hi m s e l f t o t he do om e d yout h of E pode 5 vi a t he f i na l l i ne o f E pode 6 w he n he a dopt s hi s voi c e ( i nu l t us ut f l e bo pue r ? ) T hi s de f i a nt 1 5 P o r t e r ( 1 9 9 5 ) 1 1 6 1 6 G r i f f i n ( 1 9 9 3 ) 1 0 1 7 P o r t e r ( 1 9 9 5 ) 1 2 0 n o t e s t h a t t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e E p o d e s f o c u s e s o n H o r a c e h i m s e l f a n d t u r n s a g a i n s t h i m h i s o w n w o r d s T h i s c a n b e s e e n i n t h e c h a n g e f r o m t h e m a t t e r o f f a c t n a r r a t o r o f E p o d e 5 t o t h e p a i n f u l l y s u b j e c t i v e E p o d e 1 7 w h e r e H o r a c e i s a s t a r r i n g c h a r a c t e r

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29 s t a nc e by t he e nd o f t he book, be c om e s a poi nt o f s e l f m oc ke r y ( pa r t of t he i a m bi s t s a r s e na l ) w hi c h i s e s pe c i a l l y he i ght e ne d by t he poe t s s t a nc e i n E pode 16 a s a v at e s w ho, how e ve r unr e a l i s t i c a l l y, s ugge s t s a n e s c a pe pl a n f r om t he poi s one d e a r t h upon w hi c h R om e i s f ounde d. 1 8 H or a c e s i a m bi c pe r s ona i n t he ve r y ne xt e pode gi v e s w a y t o t he pow e r of C a ni di a s at r a c ar m i na S o m a ny of t he t he m e s of t he E pode s hi nge on t he t e ns i on be t w e e n i l l us i ons dr e a m s a nd de f l a t e d hope s 1 9 A s s oon a s H or a c e p r om i s e s a n e nd t o c i vi l s t r i f e i n 16. 15 16 ( f or t e qui d e x pe di at c om m uni t e r aut m e l i o r par s / m al i s c ar e r e quae r i t i s l abor i bus ) C a ni di a doom s hi m t o ne w c onf l i c t s : i ngr at a m i s e r o v i t a duc e nda e s t i n hoc / nov i s ut us que s uppe t as l abor i bus ( 17. 63 64) H o r a c e s a ppe a l t o m yt hol ogi c a l e xe m pl a t r i e s t o e nd t he i a m bi c c yc l e w hi l e C a ni di a s e m pha s i z e t he c ont i nue d s uf f e r i ng of t hos e f i gur e s w hos e pa s t w i l l a l w a ys be t he i r f u t ur e 2 0 T he e nd of t he E pode s t a ke s i t s a udi e nc e f r om t he l of t y de c l a r a t i on of t he v at e s i n t he l a s t l i ne of 16 ( pi i s s e c unda v at e m e dat ur f uga ) t o hi s a bj e c t de s pe r a t i on i n 17: i am i am e f f i c ac i do m anus s c i e nt i ae / s uppl e x e t or o C ani di a, par c e v oc i bus t ande m s ac r i s / c i t u m que r e t r o s ol v e s ol v e t ur bi ne m T he 1 8 F o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p o t e n t i a m b i s t s e e : F i t z g e r a l d ( 1 9 8 8 ) O l i e n s i s ( 1 9 9 1 ; 1 9 9 8 ) W a t s o n ( 1 9 9 5 ) T h e s e s c h o l a r s h a v e s e e n H o r a c e s s e l f d e p r e c a t i o n a s p r o g r a m m a t i c ; c f E p o d 1 1 5 1 6 : r o g e s t u u m l a b o r e q u i d i u v e m m e o | i m b e l l i s a c f i r m u s p a r u m ? F u r t h e r m o r e H o r a c e i n t h i s e p o d e l i k e n s h i m s e l f t o a m o t h e r b i r d w h o w a t c h e s o v e r h e r c h i c k s b u t i s u n a b l e t o o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d t h e y b e a t t a c k e d b y s n a k e s C p E p 2 1 1 2 4 5 w h e r e H o r a c e s p e a k s o f t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t t h e p o e t o f f e r s t h e S t a t e : m i l i t i a e q u a m q u a m p i g e r e t m a l u s u t i l i s u r b i | s i d a s h o c p a r v i s q u o q u e r e b u s m a g n a i u v a r i 1 9 S e e i n p a r t i c u l a r E p o d 1 7 6 5 6 9 T h e r e p e t i t i o n o f o p t a t ( t h r e e t i m e s ) o n l y p o i n t s t o t h e i l l u s i o n s t h a t H o r a c e T a n t a l u s P r o m e t h e u s a n d S i s y p h u s a r e u n d e r T h e y d e l u d e t h e m s e l v e s b y h o p i n g a t a l l s i n c e t h e i r f a t e i s t o s u f f e r p e r p e t u a l t o r m e n t P o r t e r ( 1 9 9 5 ) 1 1 3 s e e s t h e s e t h e m e s p l a y e d o u t i n C a n i d i a s r e j e c t i o n o f H o r a c e s p l e a s a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n E p o d e 9 w h e r e H o r a c e a s k s w h e n h e w i l l d r i n k C a e c u b a n w i t h M a e c e n a s i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f C a e s a r s v i c t o r y ; a q u e s t i o n t h a t i s l e f t u n a n s w e r e d i n t h e E p o d e s 2 0 P o r t e r ( 1 9 9 5 ) 1 1 8 H o r a c e s e x e m p l a a l l d e m o n s t r a t e a t o n e m e n t i n s o m e w a y m o s t n o t a b l y C a s t o r a n d P o l l u x b l i n d i n g o f S t e s i c h o r u s i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r h i s s l a n d e r a g a i n s t t h e i r s i s t e r H e l e n S t e s i c h o r u s f o l l o w i n g H o m e r s a c c o u n t h a d c l a i m e d t h a t s h e a b s c o n d e d t o T r o y w i t h P a r i s a n d t h u s c a u s e d t h e T r o j a n w a r A s a r e s u l t o f h i s s l a n d e r S t e s i c h o r u s w a s b l i n d e d u n t i l t h e b r o t h e r s h e e d e d h i s p r a y e r s ( v i c t i p r e c e ) a n d r e s t o r e d h i s s i g h t ( a d e m p t a v a t i r e d d i d e r e l u m i n a E p o d 1 7 4 3 4 4 ) H o r a c e i n c a l l i n g S t e s i c h o r u s v a t e s a l s o i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f a s s u c h b y e x t e n s i o n ( c f E p o d 1 6 6 6 ) C a n i d i a s e x e m p l a a l l s t r e s s u n e n d i n g t o r m e n t f o r a n o f f e n d e r

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3 0 ba r d, i nt e nt upon c ons t r uc t i ng a poe t i c vi s i on i n t h e gr e a t c r i s i s of hi s t i m e s doe s not pr e s e nt a c ohe r e nt r e s pons e t o C a ni di a s dom i na nc e a t t he c onc l us i on of t he E pode s 2 1 W ha t a r e w e t o m a ke of t hi s A r c hi l oc he a n s oundi n g H or a c e ? A t t he he a r t of t he E pode s w e f i nd i de nt i c a l l a ngua ge us e d t o e xp r e s s t he vi ol e nt a ggr e s s i on of a bus i ve i nve c t i ve ( E pode s 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 12) t he ve r y l a ngua ge H or a c e pr of e s s e s t o de ny i n E p 1. 19. 25 N o one ha s be e n w i l l i ng ye t t o c onc l ude t ha t t he H or a c e i n t he E pi s t l e s i s r e j e c t i ng or r e w r i t i ng hi s e a r l i e r poe t r y H or a c e s pe a ks of hi s i a m bs w i t h t he s a m e pr i de a s hi s gr a nd a c c om p l i s hm e nt s of t he O de s D a vi d M a nki n a t t e m pt s t o r e m ove t he c ont r a di c t i on by c l a i m i ng t ha t H o r a c e s i a m bi c s a r e us ua l l y i m pe r s ona l W hi l e H or a c e s E pode s c a n be s a i d t o a voi d t he pe r s i s t e nt a t t a c ks on i ndi vi dua l s t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z e t he i a m bi c s of A r c hi l oc h us i n hi s i nf a m ous pu r s ui t of t he L yc a m bi de s ( w hi c h w on hi m t he a ppr oba t i on of f ut ur e ge ne r a t i ons r e c or de d i n t he t e s t i m oni a ) t hi r t e e n of hi s e pode s e i t he r na m e a ddr e s s e e s or s pe c i f i c pe r s ona ge s 2 2 O t he r s ha ve r e l i e d on t he c ha nge i n H or a c e s pol i t i c a l / s oc i a l c i r c um s t a nc e s t o e xpl a i n a ny di s c r e pa nc y be t w e e n t he E pode s a nd H or a c e s l a t e r c r i t i c a l w or ks s o t ha t H or a c e w ho di d not e nj oy t he l i be r t i e s of e xpr e s s i on of t he a r i s t oc r a t i c C a t ul l us but w a s bou nd by t he dyna m i c s o f a pa t r on/ c l i e nt r e l a t i ons hi p, a v oi ds pe r s ona l a t t a c ks 2 3 W e r e a l l y do not ne e d t o e xc us e H or a c e t hi s m uc h by m i ni m i z i ng or e xc us i ng hi s i a m bi c a nge r t o a l l ow f o r hi s r e w or ki ng o f A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve H ow e ve r m uc h H or a c e e xpr e s s e s di s t a s t e e l s e w h e r e a t t he e xc e s s e s of i nve c t i ve ( E p 1 19 23 25 30 31; E p 2. 1 145 155) i t i s c e r t a i n t ha t t he r e i s r e a l a nge r i n t he 2 1 C f E p o d 1 7 7 4 w h e r e C a n i d i a i s t h e s p e a k e r : v e c t a b o r u m e r i s t u n c e g o i n i m i c i s e q u e s 2 2 E p o d 1 2 3 5 7 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 2 3 N i s b e t ( 1 9 8 4 )

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31 E pode s a nd i t i s qui t e pr oba bl e t ha t a s N i s be t r e m a r ke d, H i s a m bi t i on t o w r i t e e pode s i n t he m a nne r of A r c hi l oc hus ha d i t s o r i gi ns i n t he bi t t e r ne s s of de f e a t 2 4 H o r a c e f ol l ow i ng B r ut us t he doom e d c ha m pi on of t he r e publ i c a n c a us e r e l a t e s l a t e r how he ha d hi s w i ngs c l i ppe d a f t e r t he ba t t l e o f P h i l i ppi i n 42 B C 2 5 H e r e t ur ne d t o I t a l y t o f i nd hi s l a nd c onf i s c a t e d a nd hi s f a t he r de a d. H e be c a m e a c l e r k ( s c r i ba ) a nd s a ys t ha t he be ga n w r i t i ng t o m a ke a l i v i ng ( paupe r t as i m pul i t audax / ut v e r s us f ac e r e m E p. 2 2. 51 52) I t i s not unr e a s ona bl e t o s uppos e t ha t a s a r e s ul t o f t he f a i l ur e a t P hi l i ppi H o r a c e w oul d s e e k a n a ppr opr i a t e G r e e k m ode l t o e xp r e s s f r us t r a t i ons a bout t he de s t r uc t i ve r e t a l i a t or y a nge r t ha t i s t he e s s e nc e of c i vi l c onf l i c t 2 6 T hr oughout t he A r s P oe t i c a H o r a c e i s c ont i nua l l y f oc us e d on de c or um s t r e s s i ng t ha t t he f o r m o f poe t r y s houl d m a t c h i t s f unc t i on A c c or di ng t o t hi s a e s t he t i c pr i nc i p l e H or a c e c on s c i ous l y s e l e c t e d t he i a m bi c ge nr e a nd i t s m e t e r be c a us e i t pr ovi de d t he t he m e s he w i s he d t o pr e s e nt i n t he E pode s : 2 7 h u n c s o c c i c e p e r e p e d e m g r a n d e s q u e c o t h u r n i a l t e r n i s a p t u m s e r m o n i b u s e t p o p u l a r i s v i n c e n t e m s t r e p i t u s e t n a t u m r e b u s a g e n d i s ( A P 8 0 8 2 ) [ T h e c o m i c s o c k a n d t h e h i g h b o o t a d o p t e d t h i s f o o t ( i a m b u s ) s u i t e d f o r a l t e r n a t e s p e e c h a n d o v e r c o m i n g t h e d i n o f t h e c r o w d a n d b o r n f o r a c t i o n ] 2 4 N i s b e t ( 1 9 8 4 ) 2 2 5 E p 2 2 4 9 5 1 : u n d e s i m u l p r i m u m m e d i m i s e r e P h i l i p p i / d e c i s i s h u m i l e m p e n n i s i n o p e m q u e p a t e r n i / e t l a r i s e t f u n d i 2 6 H o r a c e s m i s f o r t u n e s a n d s u b s e q u e n t a n g e r s e r v e a s h i s p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e s o l d i e r L u c u l l u s a t E p 2 2 2 6 4 0 L u c u l l u s p o s s e s s i o n s a r e s t o l e n a n d h i s a n g e r ( a t h i m s e l f a s w e l l a s t h e t h i e f ) t r a n s f o r m s h i m i n t o a f u r i o u s w o l f ( p o s t h o c v e h e m e n s l u p u s e t s i b i e t h o s t i | i r a t u s p a r i t e r i e i u n i s d e n t i b u s a c e r ( E p 2 2 2 8 9 ) T h e l o s s i n s p i r e s h i m t o p l u n d e r i n o r d e r t o r e g a i n h i s w e a l t h B y l i k e n i n g h i m s e l f t o L u c u l l u s H o r a c e s t a t e s t h a t i l l f o r t u n e a n d a n g e r d r o v e h i m t o c o m p o s e v e r s e s f o r a l i v i n g 2 7 C f N i s b e t ( 1 9 8 4 ) 2 : P o e t s d o n o t c h o o s e t h e i r p e r s o n a e a t r a n d o m b u t t o m a t c h s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o s e e i n t h e m s e l v e s

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32 A ga i n w e s e e H or a c e f ul l y c ogni z a nt of t he a s s um e d a ggr e s s i ve l a ngua ge of t he i a m bi c ge nr e t ha t he a dopt s H ow e ve r t he r e a r e c l e a r i ndi c a t i ons t ha t H or a c e i n a dopt i ng A r c hi l oc hus ha s t e m pe r e d hi s m ode l w i t h C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c s T r ue H or a c e doe s not di r e c t l y qu ot e C a l l i m a c hus or s pe c i f i c a l l y na m e hi m a s a n i nf l ue nc e i n t he E pode s unl e s s w e a s s um e t ha t I bi s t he f i r s t w or d i n t he E pode s i s a r e f e r e nc e t o t he w or k o f t he s e l f s a m e t i t l e by C a l l i m a c hus E v e n i f t he l i nk i s not i nt e nt i ona l t he doc t us r e a de r w oul d c e r t a i nl y ha ve be e n r e m i nde d of C a l l i m a c hus B ut i f w e r e vi s i t E pode 6 w e m a y s e e a pa r a l l e l t o C a l l i m a c hus I a m bus 13. 52 53: $ @ = 4 ( A ) A ? X 6 B A H 7 R ; 2 c H B = | ? @ H X c 9 $ @ = 4 W I t i s c e r t a i nl y t e m p t i ng t o t a ke t he bul l i m a ge r y a s a poi nt of c ont a c t be t w e e n t he t w o poe m s e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e t he c ont e xt o f C a l l i m a c hus i a m b be a r s a s t r i ki ng r e s e m bl a nc e t o t he s i t ua t i on i n E po de 6. W he r e a s H or a c e unde r t a ke s t o r e pe l w i t h vi go r ous ve r ba l a s s a ul t s t he a t t a c ks of a c ow a r dl y s l a nde r e r w hom he m a y w e l l i nt e nd us t o t hi nk o f a s a not he r i a m bi s t 2 8 C a l l i m a c hus s i m i l a r l y a ddr e s s e s poe t s w ho ha ve t a ke n t o f i ght i ng a m ongs t t he m s e l ve s a nd ha ve a t t a c ke d C a l l i m a c hus i n pa r t i c ul a r f o r pol y e i de i a A s W a t s on not e s t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n A r c hi l o c he a n a nd C a l l i m a c he a n i s a r bi t r a r y a nd H or a c e w hi l e f l a ggi ng hi s a l l e gi a nc e t o A r c hi l oc hus a nd H i ppona x a s t he pr oge ni t or s of t he i a m bi c ge nr e i s c a r e f ul a l s o t o e nc ode a bow t o a m or e r e c e nt e xpone nt 2 9 E ve n i f H or a c e di d not s pe c i f i c a l l y na m e C a l l i m a c hus a s a n i nf l ue nc e f or t he E pode s he s ha r e s t he s a m e vi e w t ha t i nve c t i ve s pe c i f i c a l l y A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve 3 0 2 8 W a t s o n ( 2 0 0 3 ) 5 n 3 4 2 9 W a t s o n ( 2 0 0 3 ) 5 3 0 I n t h e s o l e f r a g m e n t w e h a v e f r o m C a l l i m a c h u s G r a p h e i o n h e m a k e s c l e a r h i s d i s t a s t e f o r A r c h i l o c h e a n h a r s h n e s s : 7 e K? P S 7 4 3 4 6 = 2 ; 9 H 7 5 J K @ 9 ? P 9 ( A 0 b ; H 7 ? X 9 H 6 @ 9 S : \ ? J A $ I $ 2 : @ H X 6 c 9 4 T ( 9 Q 5 7 = S H J 2 B H @ A ( f r 3 8 0 P f )

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33 c a n be c om e s o f i e r c e t ha t i a m bi c r abi e s r e f us e s t o be s a t i a t e d a nd t r a ns gr e s s e s t he bounda r i e s of s oc i e t y, r e s ul t i ng i n c i vi l s t r i f e a nd d e a t h ( E p 2 1. 145 155 ) : F e s c i n n i n a p e r h u n c i n v e n t a l i c e n t i a m o r e m ( 1 4 5 ) v e r s i b u s a l t e r n i s o p p r o b r i a r u s t i c a f u d i t l i b e r t a s q u e r e c u r r e n t i s a c c e p t a p e r a n n o s l u s i t a m a b i l i t e r d o n e c i a m s a e v u s a p e r t a m i n r a b i e m c o e p i t v e r t i i o c u s e t p e r h o n e s t a s i r e d o m o s i m p u n e m i n a x d o l u e r e c r u e n t o ( 1 5 0 ) d e n t e l a c e s s i t i ; f u i t i n t a c t i s q u o q u e c u r a c o n d i c i o n e s u p e r c o m m u n i ; q u i n e t i a m l e x p o e n a q u e l a t a m a l o q u a e n o l l e t c a r m i n e q u e m q u a m d e s c r i b i : v e r t e r e m o d u m f o r m i d i n e f u s t i s a d b e n e d i c e n d u m d e l e c t a n d u m q u e r e d a c t i ( 1 5 5 ) [ T h r o u g h t h i s c u s t o m [ r u s t i c f e s t i v a l s o f s a c r i f i c e a n d o f f e r i n g t h a t t o o k p l a c e a f t e r t h e g r a i n w a s h a r v e s t e d ] F e s c e n n i n e l i c e n s e w a s i n v e n t e d a n d i n a l t e r n a t e v e r s e s p o u r e d o u t r u s t i c t a u n t s a n d t h e f r e e d o m r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h o u t s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s w a s p l a y f u l l y i n n o c e n t u n t i l t h e s p o r t n o w g r o w i n g c r u e l b e g a n t o c h a n g e i n t o o p e n f r e n z y a n d i n v a d e t h e h o m e s o f h o n e s t p e o p l e u n c h e c k e d i n i t s t h r e a t s T h o s e a t t a c k e d b y t h e b l o o d y t o o t h w e r e h u r t ; e v e n a m o n g t h o s e u n h a r m e d t h e r e w a s a c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o m m o n g o o d F i n a l l y t h e r e w a s a l a w b e a r i n g a p e n a l t y t h a t f o r b i d p o r t r a y i n g a n y o n e i n a b u s i v e s o n g M e n c h a n g e d t h e i r m a n n e r t h r o u g h f e a r o f t h e c l u b a n d w e r e b r o u g h t b a c k t o c l e a n a n d p l e a s i n g l a n g u a g e ] I t m a y be a r gue d t ha t t he s e c ond book o f E pi s t l e s w a s not w r i t t e n unt i l a r ound 12 B C a nd t ha t H or a c e s di s pos i t i on i s di f f e r e nt t ha n w he n he c om pos e d t he E pode s ( w r i t t e n i n t he 30s B C ) H or a c e how e ve r s pe a ks i n a s i m i l a r ve i n i n E p 1 19 w he n he s pe c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t s t he s l a nde r s a ga i ns t L yc a m be s t ha t pr oduc e d t he s a m e r e s ul t s a s de s c r i be d i n E p 2 1. H or a c e s r e s i s t a nc e t o r e t a l i a t or y r a ge he c l a i m s i n E p 1 19, w a s ope r a t i ve i n t he c om pos i t i on of t he E pode s I n a ddi t i on t o di s a vow i ng t he e xc e s s i ve ha r s hne s s of A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve E p 1. 19 s pe c i f i c a l l y l i nks H o r a c e w i t h t he C a l l i m a c he a n e t hos of I am bus 1 ( f r 191) I n E p 1. 19, H or a c e i s i nt e nt on s h ow i ng t ha t hi s i am bi ha ve a c l a i m t o or i gi na l i t y a nd t ha t he di d not c om pos e t he b l a c k ve r s e s t ha t a pr o t g of A r c hi l oc hus w oul d be e xpe c t e d t o

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34 w r i t e I n doi ng s o, H or a c e i s de l i be r a t e l y e c hoi ng C a l l i m a c hus 3 1 w ho, i n hi s I am bi a l s o m a ke s i t c l e a r f r om t he be gi nni ng o f hi s book t ha t he w i l l de vi a t e f r om t he e xpe c t e d c ont e nt of t he ge nr e ( f r 191 1 4, P f ) : ? @ ; S B R f I I 8 9 B ? H @ A D @ < % 6 $ K K* ? c ) ? H g 9 V ? @ P O @ U 9 ? @ KK ; O @ P I = I 6 [ S ? @ P S = 9 : X 6 c 9 h B 2 O @ 9 @ 2 > 5 \ 9 $ 7 L 4 @ 9 H B H i 9 O @ P I > K 7 = @ 9 [ ] [ L i s t e n t o H i p p o n a x ; f o r I h a v e c o m e f r o m w h e r e t h e y s e l l a n o x f o r a c o i n b e a r i n g a n i a m b n o t s i n g i n g t h e B o u p a l e a n q u a r r e l ] C a l l i m a c hus a t t e m pt s t o t e m pe r t he v i ol e nc e t ha t a n a udi e nc e w oul d e xpe c t f r om t he i a m bi c ge nr e A t t he s a m e t i m e t ha t he e xpl i c i t l y a c know l e dge s H i ppona x, he a l s o di s t i ngui s he s hi m s e l f f r om hi s i nve c t i ve T hi s i s e xa c t l y w ha t w e f i nd H or a c e doi ng i n E p 1 19 w he r e he na m e s A r c hi l oc hus a s hi s m ode l w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y di s t a nc i ng hi m s e l f f r om hi m H or a c e s us e of a C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c s ym bol i c a l l y s i gna l s hi s de s i r e t o r e s t r a i n A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve F or C a t ul l us H o r a c e s pr e de c e s s or a nd f e l l ow c o m pos e r of nugae 3 2 t he un i f i c a t i on of t he C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c w i t h A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve i s not c ont r a di c t or y U nl i ke C a l l i m a c hus a nd H or a c e C a t ul l us m a ke s no de c l a r a t i on t ha t he i s r e s t r a i ni ng i a m bi c i nve c t i ve a nd i s t he r e f or e f r e e t o j oi n C a l l i m a c he a n w i t a nd s t yl e w i t h t he bi t i ng i nve c t i ve of A r c hi l oc hus 3 3 C a t ul l us t e l l s us i n C 16 t ha t a poe t i s s e pa r a t e f r om hi s poe m s a nd i s t he r e f or e f r e e t o dr a w on t he i a m bi c s pi r i t t o c r e a t e a bus e poe t r y. C a t ul l us r e a c he s ba c k t o t he pr e A l e xa ndr i a n i nve c t i ve t ha t t he C a l l i m a c he a n f i l t e r ha s f a i l e d t o 3 1 W a t s o n ( 2 0 0 3 ) 5 6 : ( C a l l i m a c h u s ) i a m b u s [ i s ] o f a n o v e l t y p e s t r i p p e d o f t h e u n b r i d l e d v i o l e n c e w h i c h h a d s t a m p e d t h e p o e t s v e n d e t t a a g a i n s t B u p a l u s j u s t a s C a l l i m a c h u s r e v i v e d H i p p o n a c t e a n i a m b u s b u t r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r s o H o r a c e i n g o i n g b a c k t o t h e a u t h o r i a l f o n s e t o r i g o o f t h e g e n r e a d o p t e d A r c h i l o c h u s m e t r i c a l f o r m a n d c o n t e n t b u t f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r a n s m u t e d t h e l a t t e r 3 2 C f C a t 1 4 ; H o r S 1 9 2 E p 1 1 9 4 2 3 3 S e e M a c L e o d ( 1 9 7 3 ) 3 0 5 : T h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f C a l l i m a c h e a n a n d v i t u p e r a t i v e w r i t i n g i s n o t a c a s u a l o n e ; r a t h e r t h e t w o a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r a s t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s O n t h e o n e h a n d t h e r e i s t h e e l e g a n t a n d c u l t i v a t e d A l e x a n d r i a n a u t h o r ; o n t h e o t h e r t h e p u r v e y o r o f b l u n t e v e n c o a r s e i n v e c t i v e

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35 r e m ove C a t ul l us C 40 56 a nd 116 a r e c l e a r i ns t a nc e s w he r e he i s i nf l ue nc e d by p r e A l e xa ndr i a n i nve c t i ve a ga i ns t t he a dvi c e of C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c s T h i s t e ns i on be t w e e n A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve a nd i t s C a l l i m a c h e a n m odi f i c a t i on i s f e l t now he r e m or e e xpl i c i t l y t ha n i n C 116 w he r e C a t ul l us pur pos e f u l l y j uxt a pos e s t he t r a ns l a t i on of C a l l i m a c hus poe m s w i t h hi s a bus e of G e l l i us 3 4 a nd c onc l ude s t ha t C a l l i m a c he a n ve r s e s do not ha ve t he pow e r t o he a l i nve c t i ve w ounds : S a e p e t i b i s t u d i o s o a n i m o v e n a n t e r e q u i r e n s c a r m i n a u t i p o s s e m m i t t e r e B a t t i a d a e q u i t e l e n i r e m n o b i s n e u c o n a r e r e t e l a i n f e s t a m i h i m i t t e r e i n u s q u e c a p u t h u n c v i d e o m i h i n u n c f r u s t r a s u m p t u m e s s e l a b o r e m G e l l i n e c n o s t r a s h i c v a l u i s s e p r e c e s c o n t r a n o s t e l a i s t a t u a e v i t a m u s a m i c t u : a t f i x u s n o s t r i s t u d a b i s s u p p l i c i u m [ O f t e n s e e k i n g w i t h m y m i n d h u n t i n g f o r h o w I m i g h t s e n d t o s t u d i o u s y o u t h e s o n g s o f B a t t i a d e s b y w h i c h I m i g h t m o l l i f y y o u t o w a r d s m e s o t h a t y o u w o u l d n o t a t t e m p t t o s e n d h o s t i l e m i s s i l e s c o n t i n u o u s l y a t m y h e a d T h i s t a s k I n o w s e e I h a v e u n d e r t a k e n i n v a i n G e l l i u s n o r a r e m y p r a y e r s o f a n y a v a i l i n t h i s m a t t e r I a v o i d w i t h m y c l o a k y o u r a r r o w s t h a t a r e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t m e : b u t y o u w i l l p a y t h e p e n a l t y s h o t t h r o u g h b y m y a r r o w s ] C a t ul l us c ol l e c t i on, a t l e a s t i n t he o r de r o f a r r a nge m e nt t ha t ha s c om e dow n t o us c onc l ude s w i t h t he t r i um ph of t he i a m bi c voi c e j u s t a s t he E pode s c onc l ude s w i t h t he vi c t or y of C a ni di a s at r a c ar m i na P e r ha ps H or a c e i s i nf l ue nc e d by t he C a t ul l a n a da pt a t i on of A r c hi l oc he a n bi l e a nd r e f us e s t o e nt i r e l y de pr i ve A r c hi l oc he a n i nve c t i ve of i t s s t i ng. T he r e i s no que s t i on t ha t H or a c e s E pode s c ont a i n a gr e a t de a l of i a m bi c a nge r B ut w he n H or a c e c ons i s t e nt l y us e s t he l a ngua ge of i nve c t i ve t hr oughout t he E pode s a nd t he n s t a t e s i n r e t r os pe c t t ha t he di s a vow s age nt i a v e r ba L y c am be n t he r e a de r m us t l ook m or e c l os e l y a t t he E pode s t o s e e i n w ha t w a y H o r a c e e m pl oys t hi s e t hos U nl e s s w e a r e 3 4 F o r C a t u l l u s n u m e r o u s s l a n d e r s a g a i n s t G e l l i u s s e e C 7 4 8 0 8 8 8 9 9 0 9 1 a n d 1 1 6

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36 t o c onc l ude by s a yi ng t ha t H or a c e w a s di s i nge nuous i n E p 1 19, w e m us t l ook f or a not he r e xpl a na t i on. A s I ha ve s how n, H o r a c e c onc e nt r a t e s hi s m os t i nve c t i ve e pode s i n t he m i ddl e of t he c ol l e c t i on de m on s t r a t e d by hi s d i c t i on w hi c h i s t he ve r y l a ngua ge he c l a i m s t o di s a vow H ow e ve r hi s i am bi di f f e r f r o m t he A r c hi l oc he a n i n t ha t t he y a r e not pe r s i s t e nt a t t a c ks on s i ngl e i ndi vi dua l s F ur t he r m o r e t he ve r y f a c t t ha t H o r a c e w r e s t l e s w i t h t he gui l t of t he i nve c t i ve c yc l e s e e ki ng a w a y out s t a nds i n s t a r k c ont r a s t t o A r c hi l oc hus w ho di s pl a ys ( a t l e a s t i n t he e xt a nt f r a gm e nt s ) no i nc l i na t i on t ha t i a m bi c r a ge s houl d be m ol l i f i e d. S uc h gui l t i n f a c t i s e vi de nc e t ha t H or a c e w i s he s t o t e m pe r t he r abi e s t ha t ha s l e d t o c i vi l w a r a m ong hi s f e l l ow c i t i z e ns w he r e a s A r c hi l oc hus i ndi vi dua l i s t i c s t a nc e doe s not e ve r l ook ba c k i n r e gr e t I n bot h t he E pode s a nd O de s H or a c e s i am bi a nd c ar m i na r e f l e c t a c ons c i ous a t t e m pt t o di s c ove r a nd e nd t he c yc l e o f gui l t t ha t i s a n e s s e nt i a l pa r t of i a m bi c a nge r I n E pode 7, H or a c e i de nt i f i e s t he s our c e of t he c i vi l w a r s a s s t e m m i ng f r om t he c ur s e of R e m us m ur de r T ha t i ni t i a l a c t of f r a t r i c i de onl y s e r ve s t o pe r pe t ua t e f ur t he r c i vi l c onf l i c t s dow n t o H o r a c e s ow n t i m e T he poe m l e a ve s t he r e a de r w i t h a s e ns e of ut t e r hope l e s s ne s s t ha t a s s t a t e d a bove r e a c he s i t s a pe x i n t he unr e a l i s t i c s ol ut i on o f a ba ndoni ng t he c ur s e d l a nd p r opos e d i n E pode 16. I n t he O de s t he gui l t t ha t d r i ve s t he R om a ns i s a ga i n r e vi s i t e d a nd i t s i m por t a nc e f or t he f i r s t book of ode s i s hi ghl i ght e d by i t s p os i t i on a t t he f or e f r ont o f t he c ol l e c t i on. C 1. 2 a ddr e s s e s t he ne e d f or t he r e c ons t r uc t i on o f R om a n s oc i e t y a f t e r c i vi l w a r B e f or e t hi s pr oc e s s m a y be gi n, t he gr e a t s i n ( s c e l us ) of c i v i l w a r m us t be e xpi a t e d. H or a c e de c l a r e s t ha t i t i s J upi t e r hi m s e l f w ho ha s a s s i gne d O c t a vi a n ( C ae s ar i s ul t or ) t he t a s k of

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37 e xpi a t i ng t he gui l t of f r a t r i c i de : c ui dab i t par t i s s c e l us e x pi andi | I upp i t e r ? ( C 1. 2 29 30) G ui l t w i l l be e xpi a t e d by t u r ni ng t he s w o r d f r om c i vi l c onf l i c t t o f or e i gn w a r s : 3 5 e h e u c i c a t r i c u m e t s c e l e r i s p u d e t f r a t r u m q u e q u i d n o s d u r a r e f u g i m u s a e t a s ? q u i d i n t a c t u m n e f a s t i ( 3 5 ) l i q u i m u s ? u n d e m a n u m i u v e n t u s m e t u d e o r u m c o n t i n u i t ? q u i b u s p e p e r c i t a r i s ? o u t i n a m n o v a i n c u d e d i f f i n g a s r e t u s u m i n M a s s a g e t a s A r a b a s q u e f e r r u m ( 4 0 ) ( C 1 3 5 3 3 4 0 ) [ A l a s t h e s h a m e o f o u r w o u n d s c r i m e s a n d s l a i n b r o t h e r s W h a t h a s t h i s h a r s h g e n e r a t i o n s h u n n e d ? W h a t s a c r i l e g e h a v e w e l e f t u n t o u c h e d ? F r o m w h a t h a v e o u r y o u t h r e s t r a i n e d t h e i r h a n d t h r o u g h f e a r o f t h e g o d s ? W h a t a l t a r s d i d t h e y s p a r e ? O m a y y o u o n a n e w a n v i l r e s h a p e t h e b l u n t e d s w o r d a g a i n s t t h e M a s s a g e t a e a n d A r a b s ] C a e s a r m us t not onl y t ur n R om e s a t t e nt i on t o f o r e i gn w a r s but he m us t a l s o a ddr e s s t he s oc i a l r e c ons t r uc t i on of R om e B y book f ou r o f t h e O de s H or a c e i s a bl e t o pr oc l a i m t ha t t he r ul e of l a w ha s a bol i s he d s e xua l l i c e nt i ous ne s s a nd s a c r i l e ge a t hom e w hi l e pe a c e i s pr e s e r ve d on t he f r ont i e r s ( nul l i s po l l ui t ur c as t a dom us s t upr i s | m os e t l e x m ac ul os um e dom ui t ne f a s | l audant ur s i m i l i pr ol e pue r pe r ae | c ul pam poe na pr e m i t c om e s C 4. 5 21 24) 3 6 T h i s pi c t ur e o f R om a n c ha s t i t y s t a nds i n m a r ke d c ont r a s t t o E pode s 8 a nd 12 t ha t s e r ve a s a m i c r oc os m of i a m bi c c onf l i c t a nd of f e r s a ni c e pa r a l l e l t o t he l i bi di nous C l e op a t r a of E pode 9 a nd C 1 37. T hi s ne w f ound s e xua l ha r m ony ( r e a l o r de s i r e d) c a n a l s o be gl i m ps e d i n C 1 16. T hi s pa l i node i s t he ve r y oppos i t e of t he 3 5 N H ( 1 9 7 0 ) 2 9 S e e C 3 6 w h e r e g u i l t i s e x p i a t e d t h r o u g h a n i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e g o d s : D e l i c t a m a i o r u m i m m e r i t u s l u e s | R o m a n e d o n e c t e m p l a r e f e c e r i s | a e d e s q u e l a b e n t i s d e o r u m e t | f o e d a n i g r o s i m u l a c r a f u m o 3 6 T h i s i s a f a r d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f t h e R o m a n h o u s e h o l d t h a n H o r a c e p r e s e n t s i n C 3 6 w h e r e t h e R o m a n m a t r o n i s l i c e n t i o u s : f e c u n d a c u l p a e s a e c u l a n u p t i a s | p r i m u m i n q u i n a v e r e e t g e n u s e t d o m o s ; m o x i u n i o r e s q u a e r i t a d u l t e r o s | i n t e r m a r i t i v i n a n e q u e e l i g i t | c u i d o n e t i m p e r m i s s a r a p t i m | g a u d i a l u m i n i b u s r e m o t i s | s e d i u s s a c o r a m n o n s i n e c o n s c i o | s u r g i t m a r i t o s e u v o c a t i n s t i t o r | s e u n a v i s H i s p a n a e m a g i s t e r | d e d e c o r u m p r e t i o s u s e m p t o r

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38 s c a t hi ng a t t a c ks on w om e n f ound i n H or a c e s i a m bs 3 7 H or a c e ha d c onc l ude d hi s c ol l e c t i on of i a m bs w i t h a f e i gne d pa l i node t o C a ni di a t ha t f a i l e d t o que nc h he r a nge r a nd i t i s s he w ho s pe a ks t he c onc l udi ng l i ne s i n t he E p ode s l e a vi ng t he r e a de r w i t h no e nd t o t he i nve c t i ve c yc l e I n C 1 16, how e ve r H or a c e s c onc l udi ng c a l l f or h i s young l ove r t o r e s t r a i n he r a nge r i s pr e f a c e d by a n a c c ount o f hi s ow n yout hf ul de s t r uc t i ve a nge r H or a c e ope nl y a dm i t s t ha t hi s a nge r i ns pi r e d h i m i n m a dne s s t o c om pos e hi s s w i f t i a m bi c s ( m e quoque pe c t or i s | t e m pt av i t i n dul c i i u v e nt a | f e r v or e t i n c e l e r i s i am bos | m i s i t f ur e nt e m C 1 16. 22 25) H or a c e by o f f e r i ng hi s i a m bs t o t he f i r e or t o t he A dr i a t i c m a ke s a n e a r ne s t a t t e m pt t o e nd t he i a m bi c c yc l e a nd he i nvi t e s hi s young l ove r t o do t he s a m e know i ng t ha t a nge r onl y l e a ds t o de s t r uc t i on ( O m at r e pul c h r a f i l i a pul c hr i or | que m c r i m i nos i s c um que v ol e s m odum | pone s i am bi s s i v e f l am m a | s i v e m ar i l i be t H adr i ano C 1 16. 1 4) 3 8 W e a r e e nc our a ge d by t he opt i m i s t i c t one o f t h e O de s w i t h i t s i m a ge s of e xpi a t e d gui l t t o hope t ha t unl i ke C a ni di a H or a c e s unna m e d l ove r w i l l a c c e pt t he r e t r a c t i on of hi s ha r s h w or ds a nd w i l l r e s t r a i n he r ow n a nge r O f a l l t he de s t r uc t i ve f o r c e s H or a c e c l a i m s i t i s a nge r t ha t t hr e a t e ns t o ups e t t he m i nd a nd de s t r oy t he ha r m ony of bot h pr i va t e ( E pode s 8, 12 15 ) a nd publ i c l i f e ( E pode s 7 16) A nge r H or a c e c l a i m s i s m or e 3 7 C p N H ( 1 9 7 0 ) 2 0 2 3 : T h e p o e m i s n o t a p a l i n o d e b u t f o r t h e m o s t p a r t a l i t t l e d i s c o u r s e d e i r a N H a r g u e t h a t C 1 1 6 i s n o t a p a l i n o d e b e c a u s e i t s m a i n o b j e c t i v e v i s i b l e a t i t s c o n c l u s i o n i s t o d i s s u a d e a y o u n g g i r l f r o m h e r a n g e r W h i l e t h i s i s t r u e I r e t a i n t h e t e r m b e c a u s e H o r a c e p l a i n l y r e t r a c t s h i s s l a n d e r s : n u n c e g o m i t i b u s | m u t a r e q u a e r o t r i s t i a d u m m i h i | f i a s r e c a n t a t i s a m i c a | o p p r o b r i i s a n i m u m q u e r e d d a s 3 8 H o r a c e l i k e C a t u l l u s i n C 3 6 s p e a k s o f t h r o w i n g h i s i a m b s a w a y b u t u n l i k e C a t u l l u s H o r a c e a c t u a l l y d o e s E p o d e 1 4 a l r e a d y s h o w s H o r a c e t o b e w e a r y o f h i s i a m b i c p e r s o n a a n d l i k e C 1 1 6 a l s o s i g n a l s h i s i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r g e n r e s H o w e v e r i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t H o r a c e s i a m b i c a n g e r i s n e v e r s u c c e s s f u l l y r e p r e s s e d c o m p l e t e l y C o n s i d e r t h e i a m b i c t o n e o f E p 1 1 9 w h e r e h e r e s p o n d s t o t h e c r i t i c s o f h i s c a r m i n a H e f e e l s h e h a s b e e n w r o n g l y i n j u r e d t h r o u g h m i s g u i d e d c r i t i c i s m a n d f o l l o w i n g t h e i a m b i c e t h o s f e e l s h e i s j u s t i f i e d i n r e t a l i a t i n g w i t h h a r s h l a n g u a g e

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39 pow e r f ul t ha n t he de s t r uc t i ve s e a a nd di s t ur bs t he s e ns e s e ve n m or e t ha n B a c c hus w ho i s a n i m por t a nt s our c e o f i ns pi r a t i on i n H or a c e s O de s

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40 C H A P T E R 4 T H E M A D N E S S O F B A C C H I C I N S P I R A T I O N I n t he A r s P oe t i c a a nd i n t he E pode s w e ha ve s e e n H or a c e s t e nde nc y t o ba l a nc e t he c r e a t i ve i m pul s e w i t h ar s w he t he r i t de r i ve s f r om i nge ni um or i a m bi c r abi e s T hi s pa t t e r n of m odi f yi ng pot e nt i a l l y de s t r uc t i v e f or c e s c ont i nue s w i t h H or a c e s e nc ount e r s w i t h B a c c hus a nd i n hi s s ym pot i c poe t r y W hi l e H or a c e r e j e c t s r e l i a nc e on i nge ni um a l one he ne ve r t he l e s s pr e s e nt s hi s r e a de r s w i t h t he i m a ge of hi m s e l f a s a B a c c hi c r e ve l e r di vi ne l y i ns pi r e d by B a c c hus w ho e l i c i t s H or a c e s i nge ni um f o r c r e a t i ve pu r pos e s E ve n i f t he t w o ode s i n w hi c h H or a c e pr o f e s s e s t o be i n t he gr i p o f B a c c hi c f r e nz y ( C 2. 19 3. 25) a r e r e m a r ka bl y c a l c ul a t e d, 1 t he a t t e nt i on t o ar s i n t he s e t w o ode s doe s not di m i ni s h t he poe t s i ns i s t e nc e on t he pow e r of a n i r r a t i ona l f or c e i n t he c ons t r uc t i on of hi s poe t r y. H or a c e s c l a i m s t o ha ve t r a ve l e d l e s s e r know n pa t hs a nd t o ha ve f ol l ow e d B a c c hus t hr ough unf r e que nt e d gr ove s ( v ac uum ne m us C 3 25) a l l s i gna l hi s a dhe r e nc e t o H e l l e ni s t i c poe t i c s H i s c l a i m s t o or i gi na l i t y, e x pr e s s e d m os t e s pe c i a l l y i n C 3. 25 a nd E p 1 19, i ndi c a t e hi s i nc or por a t i on of B a c c hus i nt o hi s C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c w hi c h i s i n t ur n m os t e vi de nt i n hi s pr a i s e poe t r y A s pr e vi ous l y not e d, H o r a c e i n c ont r a s t t o C hr ys i ppus a nd C a r ne a de s doe s not vi e w he l l e bor e a s a va l i d m e a ns of i nduc i ng c r e a t i vi t y. 2 H or a c e how e ve r doe s not c om pl e t e l y di s a vow i nt oxi c a t i on a s a m e a ns of i ns pi r a t i on. H or a c e w r i t e s i n t he A r s 1 C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 3 1 2 S e e s u p r a

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41 P oe t i c a t ha t he w oul d r a t he r r i d hi m s e l f of e xc e s s bi l e w i t h he l l e bor e a nd be s a ne t hough no ot he r w oul d w r i t e be t t e r poe m s ( non al i us f ac e r e t m e l i or a poe m at a A P 303) 3 H or a c e di s a vow s t he m a dne s s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h poe t i c c om pos i t i on, ye t i n t he O de s he p r of e s s e s t o ha ve be e n di vi ne l y i ns pi r e d t h r ough B a c c hi c i nt oxi c a t i on: Q u o m e B a c c h e r a p i s t u i p l e n u m ? q u a e n e m o r a a u t q u o s a g o r i n s p e c u s v e l o x m e n t e n o v a ? q u i b u s a n t r i s e g r e g i i C a e s a r i s a u d i a r a e t e r n u m m e d i t a n s d e c u s ( 5 ) s t e l l i s i n s e r e r e e t c o n s i l i o I o v i s ? d i c a m i n s i g n e r e c e n s a d h u c i n d i c t u m o r e a l i o n o n s e c u s i n i u g i s e x s o m n i s s t u p e t E u h i a s H e b r u m p r o s p i c i e n s e t n i v e c a n d i d a m ( 1 0 ) T h r a c e n a c p e d e b a r b a r o l u s t r a t a m R h o d o p e n u t m i h i d e v i o r i p a s e t v a c u u m n e m u s m i r a r i l i b e t o N a i a d u m p o t e n s B a c c h a r u m q u e v a l e n t i u m ( 1 5 ) p r o c e r a s m a n i b u s v e r t e r e f r a x i n o s n i l p a r v u m a u t h u m i l i m o d o n i l m o r t a l e l o q u a r d u l c e p e r i c u l u m e s t o L e n a e e s e q u i d e u m c i n g e n t e m v i r i d i t e m p o r a p a m p i n o ( 2 0 ) ( C 3 2 5 ) [ W h e r e B a c c h u s a r e y o u t a k i n g m e f u l l o f y o u r s t r e n g t h ? I n t o w h a t g r o v e s o r w h a t g r o t t o e s a m I s w i f t l y l e d w i t h m i n d c h a n g e d ? I n w h a t c a v e s w i l l I b e h e a r d p l a n n i n g t o p l a c e a m o n g t h e s t a r s a n d t h e c o u n c i l o f J o v e t h e e t e r n a l g l o r y o f e x c e l l e n t C a e s a r ? I w i l l s i n g a n o b l e d e e d r e c e n t a s y e t u n t o l d b y a n y o t h e r l i p s J u s t a s u p o n m o u n t a i n r a n g e s t h e s l e e p l e s s B a c c h a n t e i s s t u n n e d b e h o l d i n g H e b r u s a n d T h r a c e w h i t e w i t h s n o w a n d R h o d o p e t r a v e r s e d b y b a r b a r i a n f e e t j u s t s o i t i s p l e a s i n g f o r m e t o s t r a y a n d g a z e a t t h e s t r e a m s a n d u n t r o d d e n f o r e s t O m a s t e r o f N a i a d s a n d B a c c h a n a l s w h o h a v e t h e p o w e r t o t e a r o u t t h e t a l l a s h t r e e s w i t h t h e i r h a n d s I w i l l s p e a k n o t h i n g s l i g h t o r i n a h u m b l e m e a s u r e n o t h i n g m o r t a l I t i s a s w e e t d a n g e r O L e n a e u s t o f o l l o w t h e g o d w r e a t h i n g m y t e m p l e s w i t h t h e g r e e n v i n e t e n d r i l ] I n C 2. 19 a nd 3. 25 m o r e t ha n i n a ny ot he r ode s H or a c e m a ke s c l e a r hi s r e l i a nc e on B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on. I n t he s e t w o ode s he pur p or t s t o de s c r i be a ut he nt i c di v i ne 3 B a t i n s k y ( 1 9 9 0 9 1 ) 3 6 6 c o m m e n t s o n t h i s p a s s a g e f r o m t h e A P : H o r a c e r e m i n d s h i m s e l f a s w e l l a s h i s r e a d e r t h a t w i t h o u t t h i s e l e m e n t o f t h e p o e t i c p r o c e s s ( i n g e n i u m ) h e c o u l d n e v e r h a v e w r i t t e n t h e o d e s

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42 e xpe r i e nc e s i n w hi c h he i s pos s e s s e d by B a c c hu s 4 T he s e ode s s e e k t o de pi c t t he ps yc hol ogi c a l e f f e c t s of t he s e di vi ne e nc ount e r s by br i ngi ng t he a udi e nc e i ns i de t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd m a ki ng t he m f e e l t he d r e a d a nd j oy of di v i ne pos s e s s i on. B ot h ode s s pe a k of t he f e a r t ha t t he god i ns pi r e s but f e a r of w ha t ? 5 F i r s t H o r a c e f e a r s a n i m m or t a l w ho i s c a pa bl e of i ns pi r i ng bot h de s t r uc t i on a nd c r e a t i vi t y i n hi s f ol l ow e r s 6 S e c ondl y, a s F r a e nke l not e s he i s a l l t he t i m e a w a r e of w ha t a w a i t s hi m i f he f a i l s : r i di c ul e di s gr a c e pe r di t i on. 7 H or a c e f e a r s t ha t he w i l l not s uc c e e d i n hi s r ol e a s v at e s t ha t i s o f f ul f i l l i ng hi s vi s i on of i m m o r t a l i t y f or hi m s e l f a nd f or hi s s ubj e c t C a e s a r ( C ae s ar i s de c u s ) 8 I t w oul d be ve r y e a s y f or t he e nvy t ha t s ur r ounds H o r a c e t o t u r n t o r i di c ul e s i nc e hi s c r i t i c s a r e a l l t oo w i l l i ng t o m oc k hi s l of t y poe t i c a s pi r a t i ons 9 A ga i n, w e a r e r e m i nde d o f t he m a d poe t w ho i s t he t a r ge t e ve n of c hi l dr e n s r i di c ul e : agi t ant pue r i i nc aut i que s e quunt ur ( A P 456) B y r e s c ui ng B a c c hus f r om t he c a m p of t he 4 C 2 1 9 6 : p l e n o q u e B a c c h i p e c t o r e ; C 3 2 5 1 2 : Q u o m e B a c c h e r a p i s t u i | p l e n u m ? 5 C f C 2 1 9 5 8 : E u h o e r e c e n t i m e n s t r e p i d a t m e t u | p l e n o q u e B a c c h i p e c t o r e t u r b i d u m | l a e t a t u r : E u h o e p a r c e L i b e r | p a r c e g r a v i m e t u e n d e t h y r s o ; C 3 2 5 1 8 : d u l c e p e r i c u l u m e s t O L e n a e e s e q u i d e u m 6 N i s b e t a n d R u d d ( 2 0 0 4 ) 3 0 7 : B a c c h i c e c s t a s y i s b o t h t h r i l l i n g a n d d a n g e r o u s n o t b e c a u s e o f s n o w f i e l d s a n d p r e c i p i c e s ( F r a e n k e l ) b u t b e c a u s e m e e t i n g a g o d a n d s u b m i t t i n g o n e s m i n d t o h i m i s a t e r r i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e H o r a c e i n C 2 1 9 s h o w s t h a t B a c c h u s d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e i s n o t f a r f r o m h i s m i n d w h e n h e r e c o u n t s t h e f a t e s o f t h o s e w h o w o u l d n o t s u b m i t t o t h e g o d : f a s e t b e a t a e c o n i u g i s a d d i t u m | s t e l l i s h o n o r e m t e c t a q u e P e n t h e i | d i s i e c t a n o n l e n i r u i n a | T h r a c i s e t e x i t i u m L y c u r g i C f C 1 1 8 1 1 1 3 : n o n e g o t e c a n d i d e B a s s a r e u | i n v i t u m q u a t i a m n e c v a r i i s o b s i t a f r o n d i b u s | s u b d i v u m r a p i a m ; s e e N H ( 1 9 7 0 ) 2 3 4 o n t h i s p a s s a g e : i t d o e s n o t s e e m t o b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h i s i s a d e p r e c a t i o n e x p r e s s e d p a r a t a c t i c a l l y ; H o r a c e s a y s I s h a l l n o t o f f e n d y o u s o d o n o t h u r t m e H o r a c e i n C 1 1 8 d e s c r i b e s t h e i l l f a t e o f t h o s e w h o a b u s e t h e g i f t s o f B a c c h u s a n d h e w i s h e s t o d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e m 7 F r a e n k e l ( 1 9 5 7 ) 2 5 8 ; c f W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 6 8 ) 7 0 : W h y d o e s H o r a c e c l a i m t h a t i t i s d a n g e r o u s t o f o l l o w t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n ? I t i s b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r w h i c h h e p r o p o s e s i s n e w a n d p e c u l i a r l y d i f f i c u l t 8 C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 3 4 7 s t r e s s e s t h e p o e t s r o l e i n t h e a p o t h e o s i s o f h i s s u b j e c t s : A l t h o u g h H o r a c e c l a i m s t h a t i t i s h i s n e w a t t e m p t t o i m m o r t a l i z e C a e s a r t h a t i n f l a m e s h i m h e s e e m s c a p t i v a t e d l e s s b y C a e s a r s i m m o r t a l g l o r y t h a n b y h i s o w n p o w e r t o c r e a t e i t A l s o s e e J o h n s o n ( 1 9 9 3 ) 1 6 9 : H e ( H o r a c e ) i s a n a c t i v e c r e a t i v e a g e n t w h o h o l d s t h e p o w e r o f m e m o r y w h o s e c u r e s i m m o r t a l f a m e f o r h i m s e l f b y h i s r o l e a s i n t e r p r e t e r o f h i s o w n s o c i e t y t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s 9 T h i s i n f a c t i s e x a c t l y w h a t H o r a c e r e s p o n d s t o i n E p 1 1 9 3 5 f f : s c i r e v e l i s m e a c u r i n g r a t u s o p u s c u l a l e c t o r | l a u d e t a m e t q u e d o m i p r e m a t e x t r a l i m e n i n i q u u s : | n o n e g o v e n t o s a e p l e b i s s u f f r a g i a v e n o r | i m p e n s i s c e n a r u m e t t r i t a e m u n e r e v e s t i s W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 6 8 ) 2 7 : I f t h e r e i s a c o r e o f f a c t i n t h i s l i v e l y p i e c e [ E p 1 1 9 ] i t i s t h a t H o r a c e i s e n v i e d b y t h e l e s s f o r t u n a t e a n d t h e y t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c i z e h i m i n p u b l i c F o r e n v y i n H o r a c e s w o r k s s e e a l s o S 2 4 7 8 C 2 2 0 4 a n d C 4 3

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43 de f e a t e d A nt ony ( w ho ha d a dopt e d D i onys us a s hi s pa t r on de i t y 1 0 ) a nd de pi c t i ng B a c c hus a s t he s our c e of i ns pi r a t i on be hi nd h i s pr a i s e poe m s H or a c e r e i nc or por a t e s B a c c hus i nt o C a e s a r s pol i t i c a l r e gi m e a nd de m on s t r a t e s hi s pr i m a c y i n us i ng L a t i n l yr i c f or pol i t i c a l s ongs 1 1 W hi l e C 2 19 de s c r i be s a ge ne r a l e nt hus i a s m f or t he pow e r of B a c c hus C 3. 25 s pe c i f i c a l l y p l a c e s B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on i n t he s e r vi c e of p r a i s e poe t r y. H or a c e i n C 3 25 i s a l r e a dy i nt e nt on p r a i s i ng C a e s a r but i t i s B a c c hus a l s o L ya e us ( C 3 21, C 1 7. 22 E pod 9. 38 ) a nd L i be r ( C 1. 12 1. 16 1 18, 2. 19) w ho ha s t he pow e r t o r e ve a l w ha t i s a l r e a d y pr e s e nt i n H or a c e hi s ow n uni que i nge ni um 1 2 I n t he O de s H or a c e bol dl y pr oc l a i m s hi s ow n uni que t a l e nt : at f i de s e t i nge ni | be ni gna v e na e s t paupe r e m que di v e s | m e pe t i t C 2. 18 9 11 1 3 H e r e H or a c e pr oudl y de c l a r e s t ha t h i s i nge ni um ha s m a de hi m m o r e pow e r f u l t ha n t he r i c h m a n, w ho i s put i n t he unf l a t t e r i ng pos i t i on of s e e ki ng H or a c e out T hi s r i c h ve i n o f t a l e nt i s i n H or a c e s e pi s t l e t o F l or us l i nke d w i t h t he c r e a t i ve i ns pi r a t i on t ha t onl y t he c ount r ys i de c a n a f f or d: i n g e n i u m s i b i q u o d v a c u a s d e s u m p s i t A t h e n a s 1 0 S e e C a s s D i o 5 0 2 5 2 5 w h e r e O c t a v i a n r i d i c u l e s A n t o n y s s u b s e r v i e n c e t o C l e o p a t r a a n d h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e t i t l e o f D i o n y s u s O s i r i s : $ + 2 @ ? 1 9 R 6 \ 9 [ S 7 = 7 ? B $ ? @ ; c 9 ? B j 6 g 9 B H ( 9 H ( 9 9 H 8 9 = @ 9 H ( 9 4 A + I B H @ 9 H ( 9 I @ K K> ? = A B H @ ? 6 > H @ 6 B H ( 9 H i 9 I 6 @ S H B S L B 9 2 7 H ) 2 @ U H g 9 ? @ = 9 g 9 ) I = H 6 B I X 9 H B H ( 9 H @ S B ; H B A 2 3 9 I J K7 = A I @ S B U H B 4 3 S H 6 B H J I 7 4 B ) < 5 7 = 6 = S R X 9 H B 9 U 9 I > 9 H B 2 3 9 H % I > H 6 = B H @ U O L @ P k R \ ) ? K 7 K @ = I J H B I > 9 H B 4 3 H $ KKJ H 6 = B ? B O B 6 O B 6 = ? % ) Z \ K c ? J H B ? B ^ 2 g 9 2 3 9 k H g 9 9 J 2 c 9 k H g 9 R 7 g 9 H g 9 I 6 @ < @ 9 = ? g 9 2 \ 4 3 9 I 6 @ H = 2 g 9 H B H i 9 4 1 9 R 6 c I @ 9 ) ? 7 L 9 \ 9 ? B R > I 7 6 H = 9 % lS = 9 k m 7 K[ 9 \ 9 I 6 @ S ? P 9 @ U 9 H B ? B H @ ; A H 7 I B 4 B A B H & A n K= @ 9 ? B m 7 K[ 9 \ 9 0 9 @ 2 > Z @ 9 H B ? B H ( H 7 K 7 P H B @ 9 ? B F B P H ( 9 o S = 6 = 9 ? B = J 9 P S @ 9 ) I = ? 7 ? K\ ? J H B ? $ ? H @ ; H c 9 ? B R > I 7 6 I > S \ A 2 3 9 H & A < & A I > S \ A 4 3 H & A R B K > S S \ A ? P 6 = 7 ; @ 9 H B ? B 9 [ S @ P A V K B A ? B H g 9 p I 7 L 6 c 9 H = 9 % ? 7 5 B 6 = S 2 X 9 @ 9 T h a t t h e r e w a s a p r o p a g a n d a w a r b e t w e e n O c t a v i a n a n d A n t o n y i s e v i d e n t f r o m S u e t o n i u s A u g 7 0 w h e r e A n t o n y a c c u s e s O c t a v i a n a n d h i s f r i e n d s o f h o l d i n g a b a n q u e t d r e s s e d a s g o d s a n d g o d d e s s e s S e e S c o t t ( 1 9 2 9 ) 1 3 3 : C o n n e c t i o n o f t h e r u l e r w i t h D i o n y s u s m e a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e t y p i c a l g o d o f w o r l d c o n q u e s t t h e g o d w h o h a d s w e p t t h r o u g h t h e E a s t c o n q u e r i n g n a t i o n s f o u n d i n g c i t i e s a n d b e a r i n g i n h i s t r a i n t h e b l e s s i n g s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n T h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f A n t o n y w i t h t h i s g o d w a s n o d o u b t p r o p a g a n d a i n t e n d e d t o i m p r e s s t h e p e o p l e o f t h e E a s t w i t h t h e d i v i n i t y o f t h e t r i u m v i r w h o w a s a m b i t i o u s o f c o n q u e s t s i n t h e O r i e n t 1 1 C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 1 6 1 2 N H ( 1 9 7 0 ) 2 3 2 p o i n t o u t t h a t B a c c h u s w a s o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h L i b e r a n I t a l i a n g o d o f f r u i t f u l n e s s a n d t h a t T h e R o m a n s c o n n e c t e d L i b e r w i t h l i b e r t a s 1 3 C f A P 4 0 8 4 1 0 w h e r e H o r a c e u s e s i d e n t i c a l l a n g u a g e t o d e s c r i b e i n g e n i u m : n a t u r a f i e r e t l a u d a b i l e c a r m e n a n a r t e | q u a e s i t u m e s t : e g o n e c s t u d i u m s i n e d i v i t e v e n a | n e c r u d e q u i d p r o s i t v i d e o i n g e n i u m

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44 e t s t u d i i s a n n o s s e p t e m d e d i t i n s e n u i t q u e l i b r i s e t c u r i s s t a t u a t a c i t u r n i u s e x i t p l e r u m q u e e t r i s u p o p u l u m q u a t i t ; h i c e g o r e r u m f l u c t i b u s i n m e d i i s e t t e m p e s t a t i b u s u r b i s ( 8 5 ) v e r b a l y r a e m o t u r a s o n u m c o n e c t e r e d i g n e r ? ( E p 2 2 8 1 8 6 ) [ A t a l e n t e d m a n w h o h a s s e l e c t e d l e i s u r e l y A t h e n s f o r h i m s e l f a n d h a s g i v e n s e v e n y e a r s t o s t u d i e s a n d h a s g r o w n o l d a m i d s t b o o k s a n d c a r e s g o e s a b o u t m o r e s i l e n t t h a n a s t a t u e a n d m a k e s m a n y p e o p l e s h a k e w i t h l a u g h t e r ; h e r e a m I t o c o n d e s c e n d t o w e a v e w o r d s t o s t i r t h e s o u n d o f t h e l y r e a m o n g t h e w a v e s o f b u s i n e s s a n d i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e s t o r m s o f t h e c i t y ? ] C e r t a i nl y i t be c a m e t r a di t i ona l f o r a R om a n poe t w ho w i s he d t o de c l a r e hi s a l l e gi a nc e t o H e l l e ni s t i c poe t r y t o w r i t e of m ount a i ns unt r odde n p a t hs a nd s e c l ude d gr ove s t o s i gna l hi s pr i or i t y or a dhe r e nc e t o a gi ve n poe t i c t ype a nd w e ne e d no t a l w a ys t a ke t he m l i t e r a l l y 1 4 Y e t H or a c e a ppe a r s t o be s pe a ki ng qui t e l i t e r a l l y a bout t he a dve r s e e f f e c t s t ha t ur ba n c e nt e r s he r e r e pr e s e nt e d by A t he ns a nd m os t e s pe c i a l l y R om e ( hi c i n l i ne 84 r e f e r s t o R om e ) ha ve on hi s a bi l i t y t o t a p i nt o hi s i nge ni um f or c r e a t i ve pur pos e s H or a c e s pe a ks of hi s ow n i nge ni um a l w a ys pr e s e nt but not a l w a ys a c c e s s i bl e 1 5 a nd a dm i t s t ha t i n or de r t o us e i t f or c r e a t i ve pur po s e s he m us t s e e k t he s e c l ude d gr ove s : he m us t f ol l ow t he god ( dul c e pe r i c ul um e s t | o L e nae e s e qui de um ) T he l oc a t i on o f H or a c e s e nc ount e r s w i t h B a c c hus pl a ys a c r uc i a l r ol e i n poe t i c i ns pi r a t i on; B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on m us t t a ke p l a c e i n s e c l us i on, w hi c h c om e s da nge r ous l y c l os e t o t he s e c r e t a l oc a t ha t D e m oc r i t us poe t s s e e k a nd f or w hi c h H or a c e c r i t i c i z e s 1 4 F o r s i m i l a r d e c l a r a t i o n s n o t o n l y o f t h e p o e t s p r i m a c y b u t a l s o o f t h e p o e t s n e e d t o s e e k o u t d e s e r t e d m o u n t a i n s a n d w i l d e r n e s s e s s e e L u c r 1 9 2 6 2 7 : a v i a P i e r i d u m p e r a g r o l o c a n u l l i u s a n t e | t r i t a s o l o ; V e r g G 3 2 9 1 9 3 : s e d m e P a r n a s i d e s e r t a p e r a r d u a d u l c i s | r a p t a t a m o r ; i u v a t i r e i u g i s q u a n u l l a p r i o r u m | C a s t a l i a m m o l l i d e v e r t i t u r o r b i t a c l i v o C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 1 2 i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e p a s s a g e s s t a t e s : T h e a d j e c t i v e s l i k e t h o s e c o m m o n l y u s e d o f t h e h o l y m o u n t a i n d e s e r t a v a c u u m l o c a n u l l i u s a n t e t r i t a s o l o a v i a i n t a c t a p r o c l a i m n o t s o m u c h t h e p o e t s n e c e s s a r y i s o l a t i o n i n n a t u r e a s h i s l i t e r a r y u n i q u e n e s s 1 5 B a t i n s k y ( 1 9 9 0 9 1 ) 3 6 6

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45 t he m 1 6 H or a c e how e ve r i n hi s e s c a pe f r om t he c i t y, w hi c h m a y a t f i r s t a ppe a r a s a n e s c a pe f r om s oc i e t y, i s a t t e m pt i ng t o c om pos e pub l i c poe t r y. A s a v at e s he doe s not i nt e nd t ha t hi s poe t r y, w r i t t e n i n s ol i t ude a nd qui e t w i l l r e m a i n i n obs c ur i t y, but a s he i ndi c a t e s i n C 3 25, he w i l l be he a r d ( audi ar ) 1 7 T hi s i nt i m a t e c om m uni on w i t h B a c c hus i s not t o be s ought i n t he c i t y, a s H or a c e w r i t e s t o F l or us i n E p 2 2. 77 80 1 8 : s c r i p t o r u m c h o r u s o m n i s a m a t n e m u s e t f u g i t u r b e m r i t e c l i e n s B a c c h i s o m n o g a u d e n t i s e t u m b r a : t u m e i n t e r s t r e p i t u s n o c t u r n o s a t q u e d i u r n o s v i s c a n e r e e t c o n t r a c t a s e q u i v e s t i g i a v a t u m ? [ T h e w h o l e b a n d o f a u t h o r s l o v e s t h e f o r e s t a n d f l e e s t h e c i t y d u l y o b s e r v a n t v o t a r i e s o f B a c c h u s w h o d e l i g h t s i n s l e e p a n d s h a d e D o y o u w i s h t h a t I a m i d t h e n o c t u r n a l a n d d a i l y d i n s h o u l d s i n g a n d f o l l o w t h e n a r r o w p a t h w a y s o f t h e b a r d s ? ] A ga i n, H or a c e i ns i s t s t ha t he doe s not c om pos e a m i d t he hus t l e a nd bus t l e of R om e but i ns t e a d hi s e nc ount e r s w i t h B a c c hus t a ke pl a c e a w a y f r om s oc i e t y on t he na r r ow pa t hw a ys ( c ont r ac t a v e s t i gi um ) t ha t he a s a v at e s t r e a ds 1 9 A s B a t i ns ky not e s t he C a l l i m a c he a n i m a ge of t he poe t t a ki ng t he pa t h s l e s s t r a ve l e d ha ve i n H o r a c e s w or k, be e n a ppr opr i a t e d by B a c c hus i n bot h E p 2 2 a nd C 3. 25: B a c c hus w ho ha d s w e pt H or a c e of f t o t he s e i s ol a t e d pl a c e s ha s e nc r oa c he d on A pol l o s dom a i n. 2 0 H or a c e ha s 1 6 A P 2 9 7 8 : b o n a p a r s n o n u n g u i s p o n e r e c u r a t | n o n b a r b a m s e c r e t a p e t i t l o c a b a l n e a v i t a t 1 7 C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 3 4 5 : H o r a c e w i t h d r a w s f r o m t h e w o r l d b u t o n l y t o r e c r e a t e i t i n h i s o w n t e r m s I f p o l i t i c s a r e l e f t b e h i n d i t i s o n l y s o t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t o f p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s m a y b e c o m e t h e s u b j e c t o f h i s v e r s e 1 8 C f C 1 1 2 9 3 2 : m e d o c t a r u m h e d e r a e p r a e m i a f r o n t i u m | d i s m i s c e n t s u p e r i s m e g e l i d u m n e m u s | n y m p h a r u m q u e l e v e s c u m S a t y r i s c h o r i | s e c e r n u n t p o p u l o S e e a l s o B a t i n s k y ( 1 9 9 0 9 1 ) 3 6 6 H o r a c e s u g g e s t s t h a t i n g e n i u m i s p a r t o f a p o e t s n a t u r e b u t t h a t i t i s n o t a l w a y s o p e r a t i v e H e c o m p l a i n s t h a t w h i l e l i v i n g i n A t h e n s h e w a s u n a b l e t o e m p l o y i n g e n i u m I f a p o e t i s t o w r i t e h e m u s t e s c a p e t h e c i t y a n d f o l l o w B a c c h u s 1 9 C f E p 1 1 9 2 1 2 3 : l i b e r a p e r v a c u u m p o s u i v e s t i g i a p r i n c e p s | n o n a l i e n a m e o p r e s s i p e d e q u i s i b i f i d e t | d u x r e g e t e x a m e n 2 0 B a t i n s k y ( 1 9 9 0 9 1 ) 3 7 3 ; s e e a l s o C a l l i m a c h u s A e t i a 1 1 2 9 a n d t h e H y m n t o A p o l l o ( 1 0 5 1 3 ) ; a l s o F r e u d e n b u r g ( 1 9 9 3 ) 1 0 7 s p e a k i n g o n S 1 1 0 : I n l i n e s 3 1 3 5 H o r a c e c o n v e r t s t h e A p o l l o o f C a l l i m a c h u s s A e t i a p r o l o g u e i n t o Q u i r i n u s w h o w a r n s h i m i n a d r e a m n o t t o c o m p o s e G r e e k v e r s e s T h i s c o n v e r s i o n o f G r e e k t o R o m a n i s v e r y c l e v e r f o r b y i t t h e s a t i r i s t d r i v e s h o m e h i s p o i n t a b o u t i n d e p e n d e n t p o e t i c m i m e s i s : t h e s l a v i s h i m i t a t o r o f C a l l i m a c h u s h i s c r i t i c s i n o t h e r w o r d s w o u l d h a v e

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46 not m e r e l y m a na ge d t o m odi f y B a c c hus / i nge ni um w i t h a C a l l i m a c he a n a e s t he t i c he ha s s uc c e e de d i n i nc or por a t i ng B a c c hus i nt o hi s l i t e r a r y pr ogr a m w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng A pol l o a l s o a s a s our c e of i ns pi r a t i on 2 1 T he i m a ge of H or a c e a s a pa r t i c i pa nt i n B a c c hus r i t e s a m i ds t l one l y gr ove s ( C 3. 25. 8 14 ) s e r ve s not on l y t o br i ng t he a udi e nc e i nt o w ha t t he poe t pr of e s s e s t o be a n a c t ua l e c s t a t i c s t a t e but i t a l s o s e r ve s t o a nnounc e H or a c e s c l a i m t o o r i gi na l i t y ( di c am i ns i gne r e c e ns adhuc | i ndi c t um or e al i o ) H o r a c e t a ke s up a de f e ns e of t hi s or i gi na l i t y i n hi s l a t e r c r i t i c a l w or ks I n E p 1 19, H or a c e be gi ns hi s de f e ns e of hi s r e c e nt l y publ i s he d c ol l e c t i on of ode s by a ddr e s s i ng t he c ha r ge t ha t he i s a m e r e i m i t a t or o f G r e e k m ode l s w i t hout a c l a i m t o or i gi na l i t y. H o r a c e a ns w e r s ba c k t ha t i n f a c t i t i s he w ho i s i m i t a t e d by a s l a vi s h he r d ( s e r v um pe c us ) w ho be l i e ve s t ha t t hr ough B a c c hi c i nt oxi c a t i on t he y a r e a bl e t o c om pos e poe m s l i ke H or a c e : 2 2 P r i s c o s i c r e d i s M a e c e n a s d o c t e C r a t i n o n u l l a p l a c e r e d i u n e c v i v e r e c a r m i n a p o s s u n t q u a e s c r i b u n t u r a q u a e p o t o r i b u s u t m a l e s a n o s a d s c r i p s i t L i b e r S a t y r i s F a u n i s q u e p o e t a s v i n a f e r e d u l c e s o l u e r u n t m a n e C a m e n a e ( 5 ) l a u d i b u s a r g u i t u r v i n i v i n o s u s H o m e r u s ; E n n i u s i p s e p a t e r n u m q u a m n i s i p o t u s a d a r m a p r o s i l u i t d i c e n d a f o r u m p u t e a l q u e L i b o n i s m a n d a b o s i c c i s a d i m a m c a n t a r e s e v e r i s : h o c s i m u l e d i x i n o n c e s s a v e r e p o e t a e ( 1 0 ) n o c t u r n o c e r t a r e m e r o p u t e r e d i u r n o o i m i t a t o r e s s e r v u m p e c u s u t m i h i s a e p e b i l e m s a e p e i o c u m v e s t r i m o v e r e t u m u l t u s ( 2 0 ) [ I f y o u b e l i e v e l e a r n e d M a e c e n a s o l d C r a t i n u s n o s o n g s a r e a b l e t o p l e a s e o r t o l i v e f o r v e r y l o n g w h i c h a r e c o m p o s e d b y w a t e r d r i n k e r s S i n c e L i b e r e n r o l l e d m a d p o e t s w i t h t h e S a t y r s a n d F a u n s t h e s w e e t M u s e s h a v e g e n e r a l l y r e e k e d o f w i n e b y m o r n i n g H o m e r i s s a i d t o b e a m a d e A p o l l o g i v e t h e w a r n i n g I n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r H o r a c e h a s B a c c h u s a d o p t t h e r o l e o f A p o l l o i n g u i d i n g h i s d e v o t e e a l o n g u n f r e q u e n t e d p a t h s 2 1 C 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 3 0 4 6 4 1 5 2 2 C f J o h n s o n ( 1 9 9 3 ) 5 0 : W h e n H o r a c e r e s p o n d s t o h i s c r i t i c s a n d t h e i r a t t a c k s o n O d e s I I I I a n d t h e E p o d e s h e f i r s t d e f e n d s h i m s e l f a g a i n s t a t t a c k s t h a t m a k e h i m t o b e n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a w i n e b i b b e r a n d i n d o i n g s o h e c r e a t e s r o o m f o r t h e u s e o f w i n e i n p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n

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47 w i n e d r i n k e r a n d t o p r a i s e w i n e ; f a t h e r E n n i u s h i m s e l f n e v e r l e a p t f o r t h t o s i n g o f a r m s u n l e s s i n t o x i c a t e d I e n t r u s t t h e F o r u m a n d L i b o s w e l l t o t h e a b s t e m i o u s I w i l l b a n t h e s t e r n f r o m s i n g i n g A s s o o n a s I d e c l a r e d t h i s t h e p o e t s d i d n o t c e a s e t o c o n t e n d b y n i g h t w i t h w i n e a n d t o s t i n k o f i t b y d a y O i m i t a t o r s p a c k o f s l a v e s h o w o f t e n y o u r c o m m o t i o n h a s r o u s e d m y w r a t h a n d l a u g h t e r ] T he a t t i t ude t o t he poe t i c pr oc e s s t ha t t he i m i t at or e s di s pl a y i s e xa c t l y w ha t H or a c e c onde m ns D e m oc r i t us poe t s f or i n t he A r s P oe t i c a ( 295 301 ) T he s e poe t s t ha t r e l y s ol e l y on i nge ni um be l i e ve t ha t by m e r e l y i m i t a t i n g t he a ppe a r a nc e of a n i ns pi r e d de m e ns poe t a t he y m a y t he m s e l ve s w i n t he t i t l e o f poe t C om m a ge r c ont e nds t ha t H or a c e s ow n i ndul ge nc e ( i n w i ne ) w a s a t m os t a n a c c i de nt of hi s l i f e not a n e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt of hi s c r e a t i vi t y. 2 3 B ut i t i s not a n a c c i de nt t ha t H or a c e de pi c t s hi m s e l f a s i ns pi r e d by B a c c hus i n C 2. 19 a nd 3 25 a nd t ha t B a c c hus pl a ys a c ons i s t e nt r ol e t hr oughout H or a c e s m a ny s ym pot i c poe m s 2 4 C om m a ge r s c ont e nt i on t ha t H or a c e s c i t a t i on of C r a t i nus i n E p 1. 19 i s s a t i r i z i ng a popul a r a t t i t ude not e ndor s i ng i t 2 5 i gnor e s t ha t H o r a c e doe s not de pl or e t he c ons um pt i on o f w i ne but r e l i a nc e on i t a l one f or w r i t i ng poe t r y 2 6 B a c c hus s e r ve s a s H or a c e s i ns pi r a t i on f o r hi s uni que t a l e nt a nd one c a n not he l p but s e e a r e f l e c t i on of H or a c e i n t he br a i n s i c k poe t s 2 7 w hom H o r a c e s a t i r i z e s a s C om m a ge r c ont e nds ( ut m al e s anos | ads c r i ps i t L i be r Sat y r i s F auni s que poe t as | v i na f e r e dul c e s ol ue r unt m ane C am e nae ) Y e t H or a c e i s not 2 3 C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 3 0 2 4 C I 4 7 9 1 1 1 7 1 8 2 0 2 7 3 6 3 7 3 8 ; I I 3 7 1 1 1 4 ; I I I 8 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 7 1 9 2 1 2 8 2 9 ; I V 1 5 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 5 2 5 C o m m a g e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) 3 0 2 6 W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 6 8 ) 2 5 2 7 S e e H o r a c e s b i t i n g s e l f m o c k e r y i n S 2 7 1 1 4 1 1 7 w h e r e h e h a s h i s s l a v e D a v u s f i r s t r i d i c u l e h i m f o r h i s s l o t h ( i a m v i n o q u a e r e n s i a m s o m n o f a l l e r e c u r a m S 2 7 1 1 4 ) t h e n c o n f u s e H o r a c e s v e r s e m a k i n g w i t h m a d n e s s : a u t i n s a n i t h o m o a u t v e r s u s f a c i t C p S 2 3 1 4 w h e r e D a m a s i p p u s i s t h e s p e a k e r : S i c r a r o s c r i b i s u t t o t o n o n q u a t e r a n n o | m e m b r a n a m p o s c a s s c r i p t o r u m q u a e q u e r e t e x e n s | i r a t u s t i b i q u o d v i n i s o m n i q u e b e n i g n u s | n i l d i g n u m s e r m o n e c a n a s N o m a t t e r h o w m u c h H o r a c e t e m p t s t h e m u s e w i t h w i n e h i s w r i t e r s b l o c k r e m a i n s

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48 t he s a m e a s t he m al e s anos poe t as ( he r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i m i t at or e s ) but i s i ns t e a d, t hr ough hi s uni que t a l e nt t he l e a de r o f t he he r d ( q ui s i bi f i de t | dux r e ge t e x am e n ) A s i n H or a c e s s ym pot i c poe m s B a c c hus gi f t s pl a y a n i m por t a nt i f m ode r a t e d, r ol e T he s ym pot i c ode s a r e t he m s e l ve s t he f r ui t s o f t hos e gi f t s P e r ha ps t he m os t c l e a r l y d r a w n di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he be ne f i t s a nd da nge r s of B a c c hi c i nt oxi c a t i on c om e s i n C 1 18, w hi c h c om pr e s s e s bot h a s pe c t s of t he god w i t hi n a s i xt e e n l i ne poe m L i f e i s ha r d, H or a c e w a r ns f o r t hos e w ho a bs t a i n e nt i r e l y f r om B a c c hus gi f t s a nd, ( a c om m onpl a c e f ound i n H or a c e s s ym pot i c poe t r y) 2 8 ha r s h c a r e s ( m or dac e s s ol l i c i t udi ne s ) a r e c ur e d onl y by B a c c hus 2 9 H or a c e f ur t he r de ve l ops hi s pr a i s e s of w i ne i n E p 1. 5 16 f f a d dr e s s e d t o T or q ua t us W i ne i s he r e pr a i s e d f o r i t s a l m os t m i r a c ul ous m ul t i pl i c i t y of us e s c a pa bl e of i ns pi r i ng a s ol di e r t o ba t t l e ( c ont r a s t e d w i t h t he ne ga t i ve r i x a a t C 1 18. 8 ) a nd t e a c hi ng n e w a r t s q u i d n o n e b r i e t a s d i s s i g n a t ? o p e r t a r e c l u d i t s p e s i u b e t e s s e r a t a s a d p r o e l i a t r u d i t i n e r t e m ; s o l l i c i t i s a n i m i s o n u s e x i m i t a d d o c e t a r t i s f e c u n d i c a l i c e s q u e m n o n f e c e r e d i s e r t u m ? c o n t r a c t a q u e m n o n i n p a u p e r t a t e s o l u t u m ? ( 2 0 ) ( E p 1 5 1 6 2 0 ) [ W h a t d o e s i n t o x i c a t i o n n o t r e v e a l ? I t o p e n s u p s e c r e t s i t b i d s h o p e s t o b e f u l f i l l e d i t d r i v e s t h e s l u g g i s h t o b a t t l e ; i t t a k e s a w a y t h e b u r d e n f r o m w o r r i e d h e a r t s i t t e a c h e s n e w a r t s W h o m f r o m r e s t r i c t i n g p o v e r t y h a s i t n o t f r e e d ? ] S uc h pr a i s e s f or w i ne a r e a l m os t a l w a ys a c c om pa ni e d a nd l i m i t e d by s om e ki nd of w a r ni ng a bout t he da nge r s of ove r i ndul ge nc e a nd t hi s i s w ha t w e f i nd i n C 1 18. W ha t be gi ns a s a n e xhor t a t i on t o V a r us t o pl a nt t he s a c r e d vi ne i n t he s oi l a l ong t he T i bur a nd C a t i l us w a l l s e nds w i t h i m a ge s of B a c c hus i ns pi r e d e xc e s s w hi c h H or a c e r e j e c t s : 2 8 E g E p o d 9 1 3 ; C 1 7 2 7 2 1 1 3 8 3 2 1 3 2 9 4 1 2 2 9 H o r a c e w a s n o t u n i q u e i n d e p i c t i n g t h e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f w i n e i n s y m p o t i c l i t e r a t u r e S e e T h e o g n i s 2 1 1 2 1 2 4 9 7 4 9 8 4 9 9 5 1 0 ( W ) S e e J o h n s o n ( 2 0 0 4 ) 1 0 1 4 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f H o r a c e s G r e e k s y m p o t i c m o d e l s

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49 n o n e g o t e c a n d i d e B a s s a r e u i n v i t u m q u a t i a m n e c v a r i i s o b s i t a f r o n d i b u s s u b d i v u m r a p i a m s a e v a t e n e c u m B e r e c y n t i o c o r n u t y m p a n a q u a e s u b s e q u i t u r c a e c u s A m o r s u i e t t o l l e n s v a c u u m p l u s n i m i o G l o r i a v e r t i c e m ( 1 5 ) a r c a n i q u e F i d e s p r o d i g a p e r l u c i d i o r v i t r o ( C 1 1 8 1 1 1 6 ) [ I w i l l n o t r o u s e y o u a g a i n s t y o u r w i l l i l l u s t r i o u s B a s s a r e u s n o r i n t h e l i g h t o f d a y w i l l I s n a t c h u p y o u r i n s t r u m e n t s c o v e r e d w i t h l e a v e s o f m a n y k i n d s H o l d o f f t h e w i l d d r u m w i t h t h e B e r e c y n t i a n h o r n t h i n g s w h i c h b l i n d s e l f l o v e f o l l o w s a n d a n e x c e s s i v e v a n i t y b e a r i n g a n e m p t y h e a d a n d a f a i t h u n b r i d l e d i n k e e p i n g s e c r e t s m o r e t r a n s l u c e n t t h a n g l a s s ] H or a c e dr a w s on t he e xa m pl e p r ovi de d by t he C e n t a ur s t o r e m i nd V a r us t ha t i nt e m pe r a t e di s r e ga r d f o r t he pow e r s of B a c c hus l e a ds t o s e l f de s t r uc t i on ( ac ne qui s m odi c i t r ans i l i at m une r a L i be r i | C e nt aur e a m one t c um L api t hi s r i x a s upe r m e r o | de be l l at a C 1. 18 7 9) 3 0 H or a c e a s s e r t s i n C 1. 27 t ha t B a c c hus i n f a c t ha t e s t he e xc e s s e s t ha t r e s ul t f r om t he a bus e of hi s gi f t s B a c c hus i s a god o f i ns pi r a t i on but a l s o of m ode r a t i on ( v e r e c undum ) a nd H or a c e a c c or di ngl y c ha s t i s e s vi ol e nt s ym pos i a s t s : 3 1 N a t i s i n u s u m l a e t i t i a e s c y p h i s p u g n a r e T h r a c u m e s t : t o l l i t e b a r b a r u m m o r e m v e r e c u n d u m q u e B a c c h u m s a n g u i n e i s p r o h i b e t e r i x i s ( O d e s 1 2 7 1 4 ) [ T o f i g h t w i t h c u p s m a d e f o r t h e u s e o f p l e a s u r e i s f o r t h e T h r a c i a n s P u t a w a y b a r b a r i c m a n n e r s a n d k e e p b l o o d y q u a r r e l s a w a y f r o m m o d e s t B a c c h u s ] F or H or a c e t he r e a r e a ppr op r i a t e oc c a s i ons f or unr e s t r a i ne d dr i nki n g, s uc h a s t he r e t ur n of a f r i e nd f r om w a r ( C 1 36, 2. 7 3 14) vi c t or y ove r a f o r e i gn e ne m y ( 1. 37 ) 3 2 a nd 3 0 N H ( 1 9 7 0 ) 2 3 4 : A s t h e p o e m g r o w s m o r e t e m p e s t u o u s H o r a c e n o l o n g e r u s e s t h e k i n d l y n a m e s o f B a c c h e p a t e r a n d L i b e r b u t t h e o r g i a s t i c c u l t t i t l e s E u h i u s a n d B a s s a r e u s M e r o i s u n m i x e d w i n e H o r a c e u s e s t h i s t e r m t o d e n o t e w i n e b e f o r e i t i s s e r v e d ( 1 9 8 3 2 9 2 ) w i n e u s e d i n s a c r i f i c e ( 1 1 9 1 5 ) a n d w h e r e t h e r e i s h e a v y d r i n k i n g ( 1 1 3 1 0 1 3 6 1 3 2 1 2 5 ) ; s e e N H ( 1 9 7 0 ) 2 3 3 H o r a c e u s u a l l y u s e s a n a d j e c t i v e o f m o d e r a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s s u g g e s t e d c o n s u m p t i o n o f m e r u m S e e J o h n s o n ( 2 0 0 4 ) 2 2 0 n 2 8 3 1 I n C 1 1 3 a j e a l o u s H o r a c e s p e a k s o f t h e v i o l e n c e t h a t c a n a c c o m p a n y w i n e : u r o r s e u t i b i c a n d i d o s | t u r p a r u n t u m e r o s i m m o d i c a e m e r o | r i x a e s i v e p u e r f u r e n s | i m p r e s s i t m e m o r e m d e n t e l a b r i s n o t a m

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50 H or a c e s a nnua l s a c r i f i c e t o L i be r i n c om m e m or a t i on of hi s e nc ount e r w i t h a t r e e t ha t ne a r l y f e l l on hi m 3 3 F ur t he r m or e H or a c e e nc our a g e s hi s f r i e nd V e r gi l i us t o m i ng l e br i e f f ol l y a nd hi s w i s dom w i t h w i ne ( m i s c e s t ul t i t i am c ons i l i i s br e v e m 4. 12. 27) w hi c h e c hos H or a c e s e xhor t a t i on t o l a y s i e ge t o t he f or t i f i c a t i o n of w i s dom w i t h w i ne i n 3 28 ( pr om e r e c ondi t um | L y de s t r e nua C ae c ubum | m uni t ae que adhi be v i m s api e nt i ae ) A ga i n H or a c e s i nvi t a t i on t o t he ba nque t i n C 4. 12 s ugge s t s a l i m i t e d i nt oxi c a t i on ( br e v e m ) a nd V e r gi l i us i s e nc our a ge d t o r e t ur n t o s a ni t y. H or a c e s pe c i f i c a l l y l i nks hi s ow n c r e a t i ve i m pul s e w i t h B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on i n h i s ode s a nd i n hi s l a t e r c r i t i c a l d i s c us s i ons of hi s poe t i c a c hi e ve m e nt O de s 2 19 a nd 3 25 a r e uni que i ns of a r a s t he y pr o f e s s t o be a n a c c ount of B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on t ha t i nvi t e s t he a udi e nc e i ns i de t he e c s t a t i c e xpe r i e nc e H or a c e r i s ks t he da nge r s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h f ol l ow i ng t he god t hr ough unknow n pa t hs i n or de r t o e s t a bl i s h hi s ow n i nge nui t y. H or a c e s s t a nc e a s t he m agi s t e r bi be ndi a nd t he ov e r a r c hi ng c ar pe di e m t he m e t ha t l i nks t oge t he r t he s ym pot i c ode s o f books 1 4 e s t a bl i s he s B a c c hus a s a m a j or i ns pi r a t i on i n H or a c e s poe t i c pr ogr a m 3 4 T he un r e s t r a i ne d r e ve l r y t ha t i s a dvoc a t e d i n t he r e t u r n ode s ( 1. 36, 2. 7 3 14) t he C l e opa t r a ode ( 1. 37) a nd 3. 1 9 i s a s hor t l i ve d m a dne s s t ha t i s m ode r a t e d by ot he r s ym pot i c pi e c e s i n t he c ol l e c t i on ( C 1. 18 1 27, 2. 11 4 12) 3 5 3 2 J o h n s o n ( 2 0 0 4 ) 1 3 1 4 N u n c e s t b i b e n d u m s e e m s t o f u l f i l l H o r a c e s d e s i r e i n E p o d 9 t o c e l e b r a t e w i t h h e a v y d r i n k i n g s i n c e C a e s a r i s v i c t o r i o u s a t A c t i u m ( v i c t o r e l a e t u s C a e s a r e ) T h e C a e c u b a n h a d b e e n s t o r e d a w a y f o r f e s t a l b a n q u e t s ( E p o d 9 1 ) a n d o n l y i n C 1 3 7 i s i t p r o p e r t o b r i n g i t f o r t h f o r c e l e b r a t i o n ( a n t e h a c n e f a s d e p r o m e r e C a e c u b u m | c e l l i s a v i t i s d u m C a p i t o l i o | r e g i n a d e m e n t i s r u i n a s | f u n u s e t i m p e r i o p a r a b a t ) H o r a c e d e p i c t s C l e o p a t r a a s d r u n k w i t h f o r t u n e ( q u i d l i b e t i m p o t e n s | s p e r a r e f o r t u n a q u e d u l c i | e b r i a ) a n d s h e s e r v e s a s a n e x e m p l u m o f t h e p o w e r t h a t B a c c h u s h a s t o d r i v e h i s f o l l o w e r s m a d w i t h w i l d d e l u s i o n s ( m e n t e m q u e l y m p h a t a m M a r e o t i c o | r e d e g i t i n v e r o s t i m o r e s | C a e s a r ) 3 3 S e e C 3 8 1 3 1 5 w h e r e H o r a c e t e l l s M a e c e n a s t o c e l e b r a t e t h e M a r t i a n K a l e n d s b y d r i n k i n g : s u m e M a e c e n a s c y a t h o s a m i c i | s o s p i t i s c e n t u m e t v i g i l e s l u c e r n a s | p e r f e r i n l u c e m 3 4 J o h n s o n ( 2 0 0 4 ) p r o v i d e s a t h o r o u g h t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s y m p o s i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d f o r t h e c a r p e d i e m t h e m e a n d p r a i s e p o e t r y 3 5 C f C 2 3 a n d 2 1 0 w h i c h d o n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l l f o r m o d e r a t i o n i n d r i n k i n g b u t l i f e i n g e n e r a l

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51 H or a c e s s ym pot i c pi e c e s a r e t he m s e l ve s t he r e s ul t of hi s i ns pi r a t i on t o c om pos e poe m s t ha t e xpl or e bot h t he gi f t s a nd t he da nge r s of B a c c hi c i nt oxi c a t i on.

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52 C H A P T E R 5 C O N C L U S I O N T hr oughout h i s poe t r y H o r a c e pe r s i s t e nt l y a dvoc a t e s m ode r a t i ng t he c r e a t i ve f or c e s w hos e pow e r s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o de s t r oy t he poe t a nd hi s s oc i e t y. T hi s i s m os t c l e a r l y s e e n i n t he pow e r o f i a m bi c r abi e s t o s e r ve s i m ul t a ne ous l y a s a f ount of poe t i c i ns pi r a t i on t ha t H or a c e dr a w s f r om t o c om pos e hi s c ol l e c t i on of e pode s a nd a s a m e a ns by w hi c h s oc i e t y c om m i t s s ui c i de i n c i vi l w a r B ut t hi s m od e r a t i ng e t hi c i s a l s o p r e s e nt i n H or a c e s uni f i c a t i on of i nge ni um a nd ar s i n hi s po e t i c t he o r y a nd i n hi s i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h B a c c hus t hr oughout t he O de s H or a c e s ove r a r c hi ng c onc e r n i n t he A r s P oe t i c a i s not s i m pl y t o pr e s e nt a gui de book on t he m e c ha ni c s of c om pos i ng poe t r y but t o o f f e r a m or e de t a i l e d a nd i nt r i c a t e l ook a t t he poe t s voc a t i on. T hi s voc a t i on ha s a ve ne r a bl e hi s t or y a nd i nc l ude s s uc h poe t s a s O r phe us A m phi on, a nd H om e r ( A P 391 407) A n i nt e gr a l pa r t o f t he poe t s oc c upa t i on i s a pr ope r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n i nge ni um a nd ar s H or a c e t hr oughout t he e nt i r e bod y of hi s w or k pe r s i s t e nt l y a dvoc a t e s a uni f i c a t i on of t he t w o c r e a t i ve e l e m e nt s s o t ha t H or a c e c ha s t i s e s hi s m ode l L uc i l i us i n t he Sat i r e s not f or hi s i nge ni um but f o r hi s i na bi l i t y t o t e m pe r i t w i t h a n a r t f i l l e d a e s t he t i c H or a c e boa s t s of hi s ow n uni q ue i nge ni um ( C 2. 18 ) a nd a dm i t s t ha t i t i s a n e s s e nt i a l pa r t o f t he c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s ( A P 408 11) I n f a c t H or a c e c l a i m s i f L uc i l i us w a s w r i t i ng i n A ugus t a n R om e a nd w a s a t t e nt i ve t o t e m pe r i ng hi s i nge ni um he w oul d ha ve s upe r c e de d H or a c e i n t he qua l i t y of hi s poe t r y s i nc e hi s i nge ni um s ur pa s s e d H or a c e s ( S 1. 10 )

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53 I t i s t he dom i na nc e of i nge ni um ove r ar s t ha t H or a c e di s a vow s T he f a ul t s of D e m oc r i t us ba nd of m a d poe t s a nd t he c onc l udi ng i m a ge of t he v e s anus poe t a i n t he A r s P oe t i c a s e r ve a s a w a r ni n g t o t he P i s one s t o a voi d e xc e s s i v e r e l i a nc e on i nge ni um I n t he l i ne s pr e c e di ng t he f r i ght e ni ng pi c t u r e of t he v e s anus poe t a a t t he c onc l us i on t o t he A r s P oe t i c a H o r a c e be gi ns hi s m os t di r e c t t r e a t m e nt o f t he que s t i on o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n i nge ni u m a nd ar s ( A P 408 452 ) T he v e s anus poe t a t he n, s e r ve s a s a n e xa m pl e of t he poe t w ho s huns a ha r s h c r i t i c w ho, a s a t e m p e r i ng i nf l ue nc e i s a n e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt i n t he c r e a t i ve p r oc e s s H or a c e f r e que nt l y s t r e s s e s t he i m por t a nc e of l a bor i ng ove r h i s poe m s be f or e t he y a r e publ i s he d, a pr oc e s s t ha t he l i ke ns t o f or g i ng i r on on a n a nvi l T hi s a e s t he t i c i s a t w or k not onl y i n h i s s a t i r e s but a l s o i n hi s c ar m i na e ve n t hos e t ha t pur por t t o be a c t ua l a c c ount s of t he di v i ne m a dne s s of B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on. H or a c e ha s l e f t us t w o ode s i n w hi c h he s pe c i f i c a l l y s pe a ks of hi s pos s e s s i on by B a c c hus a nd t he di r e c t i nf l ue nc e t hi s pos s e s s i on ha s on hi s c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s T o f ol l ow B a c c hus i s da nge r ous ( dul c e pe r i c ul um e s t | o L e n ae e s e qui de um ) but l i ke t he B a c c ha nt e s i n C 3 25 w ho a r e f i l l e d w i t h t he god s pow e r t o do i nc r e di bl e de e ds ( o N ai adum pot e ns | B ac c har um que v al e nt i um | pr oc e r as m ani bus v e r t e r e f r ax i nos ) s o H or a c e i s l i ke w i s e f i l l e d w i t h t he i ns pi r i ng pow e r of B a c c hus t o c r e a t e poe t r y 1 T he i m por t a nc e of t h i s de c l a r a t i on m us t no t be m i t i ga t e d f or f e a r t ha t H or a c e m a y be vi e w e d a s l i t t l e m or e t ha n a n i m m ode r a t e r a vi ng f ol l ow e r of B a c c hus U nl i ke C 2 19, how e ve r w hi c h hi ghl i ght s B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on ge ne r a l l y C 3. 25 s pe c i f i e s t ha t pr a i s e poe t r y w i l l be t he f r ui t s o f hi s i ns pi r a t i on. N ot onl y w i l l H or a c e s i ng t he pr a i s e s of C a e s a r but hi s c ar m i na w i l l be unl i k e a ny he a r d be f o r e ( di c am i ns i gne 1 F r a e n k e l ( 1 9 5 7 ) 2 5 8

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54 r e c e ns adhuc | i ndi c t um or e al i o ) B a c c hi c i ns pi r a t i on, t he n a l s o s e r ve s t o a nnounc e H or a c e s or i gi na l i t y, a c onc e r n r e i t e r a t e d i n t he ve r y s e t t i ng of t he t w o ode s a nd i n H or a c e s l a t e r c r i t i c a l w r i t i ngs s uc h a s E p 1 19. T he ge ogr a phi c a l l oc a t i on of H or a c e s vi s i ons of B a c c hus s e r ve s a l m os t a s t e c hni c a l l a ng ua ge s i gna l i ng t ha t H o r a c e s poe t i c t a l e nt s a r e m ovi ng i n t o ne w t e r r i t or y w i t h B a c c hus a s gui de T he gi f t s o f B a c c hus m us t be r e s pe c t e d, a nd a l t hou gh t he r e a r e i n H or a c e s s ym pot i c pi e c e s i ns t a nc e s of e xc e s s i ve dr i nki ng t h a t H or a c e a s m agi s t e r bi be ndi f ul l y e ndor s e s t he s e oc c a s i ona l ode s of e xube r a nt i nt oxi c a t i on a r e t e m pe r e d by t he m o r e r e s t r a i ne d s ym pot i c pi e c e s i n t he c ol l e c t i on I n hi s s ym pot i c poe t r y, H or a c e us e s ve r y s t r ong l a ngua ge i n hi s c onde m na t i on of t hos e w ho ha ve vi ol a t e d t he s a nc t i t y of t he s ym pos i um t hr ough vi ol e nc e T he s ym pos i um i s t he s pa c e de s i gna t e d a bove a l l f or pe a c e a nd f or r e l i e f f r om t he da nge r s o f e ve r yda y ( m os t of t e n a r i s t oc r a t i c ) l i f e T o v i ol a t e t ha t pe a c e i s not onl y t o t r a ns gr e s s t he de c or um o f t he s ym pos i um but a l s o t o of f e nd a m ode s t god ( t ol l i t e bar bar um | m or e m v e r e c undu m que B ac c hum | s angui ne i s pr ohi be t e r i x i s C 1. 27 ) T he s ym pos i um i s a s pa c e i n w hi c h s oc i a l t i e s a r e f o r ge d a nd r e i nf or c e d, a nd i t t hus pl a ys a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n t he w a y s oc i e t y i s ( r e ) f a s hi one d. T h r ough hi s s ym pot i c ode s H or a c e t r e a t s t he va r i ous gi f t s o f w i ne a nd t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of i t s a bus e t hus e m pha s i z i ng m ode r a t e dr i nki ng a s pa r t of a n i de a l m ode r a t e l i f e s t yl e T hr ough t h i s pr e s e nt a t i on of t he be ne f i t s a nd da nge r s of w i ne B a c c hus s e r ve s a s H or a c e s i ns pi r a t i on t hr oughout hi s ode s a n i ns pi r a t i on de di c a t e d t o uni t y of i nge ni um a nd ar s

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55 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A r m s t r ong, D a vi d 1989. H or ac e Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w H a ve n. ___. 1993 T he A ddr e s s e e s of t he A r s poe t i c a : H e r c ul a ne um t he P i s one s a nd E pi c ur e a n P r o t r e pt i c M D 31: 185 230 B a bc oc k, C ha r l e s L 1966. S i C e r t us I nt r a r i t D ol or A R e c ons i de r a t i on of H or a c e s F i f t e e nt h E pode A J P h 87: 400 419. B a r c hi e s i A l e s s a ndr o. 2002. H or a c e a nd I a m bo s : T he P oe t a s L i t e r a r y H i s t or i a n I n A l be r t o C a va r z e r e e d I am bi c I de as : E s s ay s on a P oe t i c T r adi t i on f r om A r c hai c G r e e c e t o t he L at e R om an E m pi r e ( R ow m a n & L i t t l e f i e l d P ubl i s he r s I nc L a nha m M d. ) 141 164. B a r t ol K r ys t yna 1992 W he r e w a s I a m bi c P oe t r y P e r f o r m e d? : S om e E vi de nc e f r om t he F our t h C e nt ur y B C C Q 42: 65 71 B a t i ns ky, E m i l y E 1990 91. H or a c e s R e ha bi l i t a t i on of B a c c hus C W 84: 361 378 B r i nk, C O 1963. H or ac e on P oe t r y : P r ol oge m a t o t he L i t e r ar y E pi s t l e s C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge ___. 1971. H or ac e on P oe t r y : T he A r s P oe t i c a C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge ___. 1982. H or ac e on P oe t r y E pi s t l e s B ook I I T he L e t t e r s t o A ugus t us and F l or us C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge C a i r ns F 1983 H or a c e E pode 9 : S om e N e w I nt e r pr e t a t i ons I C S 8: 80 93. C a r r ubba R W 1965 A S t ud y of H or a c e s E i gh t h a nd T w e l f t h E pode s L at o m us 24: 591 98. ___. 1969. T he E pode s of H or ac e M out on, T he H a gue C a va r z e r e A l be r t o. ( e d. ) 2002. I am bi c I de as : E s s ay s on a P oe t i c T r adi t i on f r om A r c hai c G r e e c e t o t he L at e R om an E m pi r e R ow m a n & L i t t l e f i e l d P ubl i s he r s I nc L a nha m M d. C l a ym a n, D e e G r e gor y C r a ne a nd D ona l d G ut hr i e 1992. R e s pons e t o P a ul K e ys e r s r e vi e w of Shi f t i ng P ar adi gm s : N e w A ppr oac he s t o H or ac e s A r s P oe t i c a by B e r na r d F r i s c he r B M C R 3. 6

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56 C om m a ge r S t e e l e 1957 T he F unc t i on of W i ne i n H or a c e s O de s T A P h A 88: 68 80 ___. 1962. T he O de s of H or ac e : A C r i t i c al St udy Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w H a ve n. C onnor P J 1971. E nt hus i a s m P oe t r y a nd P ol i t i c s : A C ons i de r a t i on of H o r a c e O de s I I I 25 A J P h 92: 266 274. C r ow t he r N B 1979 W a t e r a nd W i ne a s S ym b ol s of I ns pi r a t i on M ne m os y ne 32: 1 11. D odds E R 1951 T he G r e e k s and t he I r r at i onal U ni ve r s i t y o f C a l i f o r ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y. D ove r K J 1964. T he P oe t r y of A r c hi l oc hus I n B S ne l l e d A r c hi l oque ( F onda t i on H a r dt G e ne va ) 183 212 D u Q ue s na y, I a n M L e M 2002. A M I C U S C E R T U S I N R E I N C E R T A C E R N I T U R : E pode I I n T ony W oodm a n D e ni s F e e ne y, e ds T r adi t i ons and C ont e x t s i n t he P oe t r y of H or ac e ( C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y or k) 17 37 F i t z ge r a l d, W 1988. P ow e r a nd I m pot e nc e i n H or a c e s E pode s R am us 17: 176 191. F r a e nke l E dua r d. 1957 H or ac e C l a r e ndon P r e s s O xf or d F r e ude nbur g, K i r k. 1993 T he W al k i ng M us e P r i nc e t on U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s P r i nc e t on. F r i s c he r B e r na r d 1991. Shi f t i ng P ar adi gm s : N e w A ppr oac he s t o H or ac e s A r s P oe t i c a S c hol a r s P r e s s A t l a nt a G ol de n, L e on 2000. A r s a nd A r t i f e x i n t he A r s P oe t i c a : R e vi s i t i ng t he Q ue s t i on o f S t r uc t ur e Sy l l C l as s 11: 141 161 G r i f f i n J a s pe r 1993. H or a c e i n t he T hi r t i e s I n N i a l l R udd, e d. H or ac e 2000: A C e l e br at i on : E s s ay s f or t he B i m i l l e nni um ( A nn A r bor M i c hi ga n) 1 22 H a hn, A de l a i de E 1939. E pode s 5 a nd 17 C a r m i na 1. 16 a nd 1. 17 T A P hA 70: 213 230. H a r di s on, O B a nd L e on G ol de n. 1995 H or ac e f or St ude nt s of L i t e r at ur e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s of F l or i da G a i ne s vi l l e H a r r i s on, S J 1989. T w o N ot e s on H o r a c e E po de s ( 10, 16 ) C Q 39: 271 274. ___. 2002. S om e G e ne r i c P r obl e m s i n H or a c e s E pode s : O r O n ( N ot ) B e i ng A r c hi l oc hus I n A l be r t o C a va r z e r e e d. I am bi c I de as : E s s ay s on a P oe t i c T r adi t i on f r om A r c hai c G r e e c e t o t he L at e R om an E m pi r e ( R ow m a n & L i t t l e f i e l d P ubl i s he r s I nc L a nha m M d. ) 165 186

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57 H e nde r s on, J ohn. 1987. S uc k i t a nd S e e ( H or a c e E pode 8) I n M i c ha e l W hi t by P hi l i p H a r di e M a r y W hi t by e ds H om o V i at or : C l as s i c al E s s a y s f or J B r am bl e ( B r i s t ol C l a s s i c a l B r i s t ol ) 105 118. ___. 1999. H or a c e T a l ks R ough a nd D i r t y : N o C om m e nt ( E pode s 8 & 12 ) Sc hol i a 8: 3 16. H e ndr i c ks on, G L 1925. A r c hi l oc hus a nd t he V i c t i m s of H i s I a m bi c s A J P h 46 : 101 127. H e yw or t h S J 1988. H or a c e 's S e c ond E pode A J P h 109: 71 85 ___. 2001 C a t ul l i a n I a m bi c s C a t ul l i a n I am bi I n A l be r t o C a va r z e r e e d. I am bi c I de as : E s s ay s on a P oe t i c T r adi t i on f r om A r c hai c G r e e c e t o t he L at e R om an E m pi r e ( R ow m a n & L i t t l e f i e l d P ubl i s he r s I nc L a nha m M d. ) 117 140. J ohns on, T i m ot hy S 1993 W i ne Song, and t he P ot e ns V at e s : T he Sy m pot i c St r uc t ur e of H or ac e s O de s P hD di s s U ni v. of I l l i noi s a t U r b a na C ha m pa i gn. ___. 1994. H or a c e C I V 12 V e r gi l i us a t t he S y m pos i on. V e r gi l i us 40: 49 66 ___. 1997. S ym pot i c a H o r a t i a na : P r obl e m s o f A r t i s t i c I nt e gr i t y. P hi l ol ogus 141 : 321 331. ___. 2004. A Sy m pos i on of P r ai s e : H or ac e R e t ur ns t o L y r i c i n O de s I V T he U ni v of W i s c ons i n P r e s s M a di s on. K e ys e r P a ul 1992 R e vi e w of Shi f t i ng P ar adi gm s : N e w A ppr oac he s t o H or ac e s A r s P oe t i c a by B e r na r d F r i s c he r B M C R 3 2 K i l pa t r i c k, R os s S 1970 A n I nt e r pr e t a t i on o f H or a c e s E pode 13. C Q 20: 135 41 L e e O w e n M 1965 H or a c e O de s I 38: T hi r s t f or L i f e A J P h 86 : 278 281 L e vi n, D N 1968 H or a c e s P r e oc c upa t i on w i t h D e a t h. C J 63: 315 20 M a nki n, D a vi d. 1985. T he E pode s o f H or a c e a n d A r c hi l oc he a n I a m bus P hD d i s s U ni v. of V i r gi ni a ___. 1995. H or ac e : E pode s C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge M a c L e od, C W 1973. C a t ul l us 116 C Q 23: 30 4 309. ___. 1979. H or a c e a nd t he S i byl ( E pode 16. 2 ) C Q 29: 220 221. M a nni ng, C E 1970. C a ni di a i n t he E pode s o f H or a c e M ne m os y ne 23: 393 401. M c K i nl a y, A r t hur P a t c h. 1946 47 T he W i ne E l e m e nt i n H or a c e C J 42: 161 1 68; 229 236.

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58 M ur r a y, O s w yn. 1981. T he S ym pos i on a s S oc i a l O r ga ni z a t i on. I n R obi n H gg, e d. T he G r e e k R e nai s s anc e of t he E i ght h C e nt ur y B C : T r adi t i on and I nnov at i on ( P r oc e e di ngs of t he Se c ond I nt e r nat i onal Sy m pos i um at t he Sw e di s h I ns t i t ut e i n A t he ns 1 5 J une 1981 ) 195 199 ___. 1985. S ym pos i um a nd G e nr e i n t he P oe t r y of H or a c e J R S 75: 39 50. N a gy, G r e gor y 1976. I a m bos : T ypol ogi e s of I n ve c t i ve a nd P r a i s e A r e t hus a 9: 191 205. N e w m a n, J K 1967 T he C onc e pt of V at e s i n A ug us t an P o e t r y L at om us 89. B r uxe l l e s N i s be t R G M a nd M a r ga r e t H ubba r d 1970 A C om m e nt ar y on H or ac e O de s B ook 1 C l a r e ndon P r e s s O xf or d ___. 1978. A C om m e nt ar y on H or ac e O de s B ook I I C l a r e ndon P r e s s O xf or d N i s be t R G M 1984 H or a c e s E pode s a n d H i s t or y. I n T ony W oodm a n a nd D a vi d W e s t e ds P oe t r y and P ol i t i c s i n t he A ge of A ugus t us ( C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge ) 1 18 N i s be t R G M a nd N i a l l R udd 2004. A C om m e nt ar y on H or ac e O de s B ook I I I C l a r e ndon P r e s s O xf or d O l i e ns i s E l l e n. 1991 C a ni di a C a ni c ul a a nd t he D e c or um of H or a c e s E pode s A r e t hus a 24. 1: 107 138 ___. 1998. H or ac e and t he R he t or i c of A ut hor i t y C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge P or t e r D a vi d H 1995. Q uo Q uo Sc e l e s t i R u i t i s : T he D ow nw a r d M om e nt um of H or a c e 's E pode s I C S 20: 107 130 P ut na m M i c ha e l 1973. H o r a c e C 3 30: T he L y r i c i s t a s H e r o. R am us 2: 1 17. R i c hl i n, A m y. 1992 T he G ar de n of P r i apus : Se x ual i t y and A ggr e s s i on i n R om an H um or O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y or k R udd, N i a l l 1989 H or ac e : E pi s t l e s B ook I I and E pi s t l e t o t he P i s one s ( A r s P oe t i c a ) C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge ___. ( e d. ) 1993 H or ac e 2000 A C e l e br at i on: E s s ay s f or t he B i m i l l e nni um A nn A r bo r M i c hi ga n S a c ks E dw a r d. 1992 R e vi e w of Shi f t i ng P ar adi g m s : N e w A ppr oac he s t o H or ac e s A r s P oe t i c a by B e r na r d F r i s c he r B M C R 3 2. S c ot t K e nne t h. 1929 O c t a vi a n s P r opa ga nda a n d A nt ony s D e S ua E br i e t a t e C P h 24: 133 141.

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59 S l a t e r W J 1981. P e a c e t he S ym pos i on, a nd t h e P oe t I C S 6. 2: 205 214 ___. 1991. D i ni ng i n a C l as s i c al C ont e x t A nn A r bor M i c hi ga n. S pe r dut i A l i c e 1950. T he D i vi ne N a t u r e of P oe t r y i n A nt i qui t y. T A P h A 81: 209 240 T hom S j a r l e ne 2000 T he I ndi vi dua l a nd S oc i e t y: A n O r ga ni s i ng P r i nc i pl e i n H or a c e 's E pod e s ? A k r ot e r i on 45: 37 51 T r a c y, H L 1948. H or a c e s A r s P oe t i c a : A S ys t e m a t i c A r gum e nt G & R 17: 104 115. W a t s on L C 1983a P r obl e m s i n E pode 11. C Q 33: 229 238 ___. 1983b. T he I a m bi s t a s S he e p D og: H or a c e E pode V I 7 8 M ne m os y ne 3 6: 156 159. ___. 1983c T w o P r obl e m s i n H or a c e E pode 3. P hi l ol ogus 127: 80 6 ___. 1987. E pode 9, or t he A r t of F a l s e hood. I n M i c ha e l W hi t by, P h i l i p H a r di e M a r y W hi t by, e ds H om o V i at or : C l as s i c al E s s ay s f or J B r am bl e ( B r i s t ol C l a s s i c a l B r i s t ol ) 119 129. ___. 1995. H or a c e s E pode s : T he I m po t e nc e of I a m bos ? I n S J H a r r i s on, e d. H om age t o H or ac e ( O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s O xf or d) 188 202 ___. 2003. A C om m e nt ar y on H or ac e s E pode s C l a r e ndon P r e s s O xf or d W e s t M L 1974 St udi e s i n G r e e k E l e gy and I a m bus W a l t e r D e G r uyt e r I nc B e r l i n. W i c kha m E dua r d C 1901. Q H or at i F l ac c i : O p e r a O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s O xf or d W i l l i a m s G or don. 1968. T r adi t i on and O r i gi nal i t y i n R om an P oe t r y C l a r e ndon P r e s s O xf or d. W i s t r a nd, E 1964. A r c hi l oc hus a nd H or a c e I n B S ne l l e d A r c hi l oque ( F onda t i on H a r dt G e ne va ) 257 279 W oodm a n, A J 1983 H or a c e E pi s t l e s 1, 19 23 40. M H 40 : 75 81 W oodm a n, T ony a nd M a r t i n W e s t ( e ds ) 1984 P oe t r y and P ol i t i c s i n t he A ge of A ug us t us C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dg e

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60 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H M i c ha e l R i t t e r w a s bor n i n S a ge r t on, T e xa s on J a nua r y 27, 1980. I n 1998 he gr a dua t e d f r om W e s t H ol m e s H i gh S c hool i n H ol m e s C ount y, O hi o. H e g r a dua t e d f r om O hi o U ni ve r s i t y i n 2002 w i t h a B a c he l or of A r t s i n c l a s s i c s H e w i l l r e c e i v e hi s M a s t e r of A r t s i n c l a s s i c a l phi l ol ogy f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l or i da i n 2006.


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Abstract
        Page iv
        Page v
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    On the margin of society: Inside the experience of the Vesanus Poeta
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Cave, Cave: Rabies as poetic inspiration in the Epodes
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The madness of Bacchic inspiration
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Conclusion
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Bibliography
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Biographical sketch
        Page 60
Full Text












BREVISFUROR: THE MADNESS OF POETIC INSPIRATION IN HORACE'S
WORKS














By

MICHAEL W. RITTER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank first of all my family for their strong emotional support and

assistance in this project, particularly my wife and mother-in-law for their editing skills

and comments. I would also like to thank my father-in-law for his financial support in

providing the perfect location during the writing of this project. Special thanks to the

University of Tulsa for the use of its library during the Spring of 2006, and to my friends

in Gainesville for retrieving sorely needed materials from the University of Florida. I am

also indebted to my committee, Drs. Timothy Johnson, Robert Wagman, and David

Young, for their helpful comments and guidance. I would most especially like to thank

the chair of my committee, Dr. Timothy Johnson, for his flexibility and encouragement.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ...............................................................................................ii

A B S T R A C T ................................................................................................................... iv

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N .................................................................................................... 1

2 ON THE MARGIN OF SOCIETY: INSIDE THE EXPERIENCE OF THE
VE SA N U S P O E TA .......................................... .................................................. 6

3 CA VE, CA VE: RABIES AS POETIC INSPIRATION IN THE EPODES.............. 20

4 THE MADNESS OF BACCHIC INSPIRATION ......................... .................... 40

5 C O N C L U S IO N ...................................................................................................... 52

B IB L IO G R A P H Y ......................................................................................................... 55

BIO GRAPH ICAL SK ETCH .. ................................................................ .............. 60















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

BREVIS FUROR:
THE MADNESS OF POETIC INSPIRATION IN HORACE'S WORKS

By

Michael W. Ritter

August 2006

Chair: Timothy S. Johnson
Major Department: Classics

Throughout his poetry, Horace asserts that creative forces must be balanced in

order for a poetic undertaking to be successful. Therefore, a poet's ingenium is fashioned

by ars, and the ferocity of iambic rabies is tempered by Callimachean aesthetics. The

main objective of the Ars Poetica is to illustrate Horace's doctrine that ars and ingenium

are essential elements in the creative process that, far from being hostile to one another,

are yoked together to produce good poetry. Horace illustrates this doctrine through the

exempla of Democritus' band of mad poets and the vesanuspoeta who cultivate ingenium

alone and shun a Callimachean ars that would mold their creative output into worthwhile

poetry. Horace, while disavowing the excesses of ingenium, recognizes it as an essential

element in the creative process, but maintains that ingenium, as a creative force, must be

tempered by ars.

Just as ingenium is a potential source of creativity, so the iambic rabies, which

produced the civil wars out of which the Epodes sprung, serves also as Horace's poetic









inspiration. Horace's collection of Epodes contain potent invective anger but he is

careful in his Epistles to distinguish Archilochean iambi from his own. Horace insists

that Callimachean aesthetics were instrumental in the composition of the Epodes so that

they avoided the excessive violence of Archilochean anger which, if left unchecked, has

the power to transgress the bounds of acceptable social behavior and results in violence.

Horace's doctrine of mediocritas in the creative process is also operative in his

encounters with Bacchus in his Odes. Bacchus is one source of poetic inspiration and he

is instrumental in drawing out Horace's own unique ingenium for the creation of praise

poetry. Bacchus, however, is also the source of inspiration behind Horace's sympotic

odes insofar as Horace is concerned throughout the Odes with illustrating the gifts of

Bacchus and the dangers of overindulgence. Horace, as magister bibendi, at times

endorses excessive indulgence in Bacchus' gifts, but these odes must be understood

within the larger context of the collection of Odes, which advocates a moderate

consumption of wine.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Horace's Ars Poetica and Epistles are unique documents in that they present

Horace's own reflections over his lifetime of work: an opportunity that is rarely afforded

in other authors from antiquity.1 In these writings Horace's readers are able to form an

impression of his views on the nature and function of the poet in fashioning society.

Horace's later poetry then serves as one means of evaluating Horace's vatic voice in his

Epodes and Odes. The Ars Poetica begins as a practical guidebook on poetry to the

Pisones, but becomes a personal reflection on the character of the poet and his role in

society.2 The poem shifts from advice on the mechanics of composing poetry to consider

the critical differences between the role of ingenium and ars in the poet's craft,

differences which are at times far from straightforward. Good poetry, Horace claims, is

only attained when these two elements work together in harmonious balance. This

fundamental principle is illustrated through Horace's discussion of Democritus' poets








1 Ovid's exilic writings also offer a rare exception.
Rudd (1989), 19-21, puts the Ars at 10 BC and identifies the elder Piso brother with Lucius Calpurnius
Piso Pontifex (son of the patron of Philodemus). Brink (1963), 239-243, stresses the difficulty of dating the
Ars, citing the fact that there is neither sufficient external nor internal evidence to provide a certain date.
He concludes that the Ars Poetica was written either during the intervallum lyricum or after Odes IV.
Brink ends with Bentley's statement on the problem: Ars Poetica anno incerto; cp. Armstrong (1993),
185-230, who places the date of the A4rs Poetica at 10 BC; see also Oliensis (1998), 198. Bernard Frischer
(1991), puts the date of the Ars Poetica between 24-20 BC. Frischer's work has received mixed reviews
(see reviews by Edward Sacks and Paul Keyser, BMCR 3.2 [1992] and the response to this review by Dee
Clayman, Gregory Crane and Donald Guthrie: BMCR 3.6 [1992]).










(AP 295-301) who hide themselves away from society to cultivate ingenium and neglect a

Callimachean ars that Horace insists must temper the excesses of ingenium.3

Like Democritus' band of mad poets, wealthy composers such as the Pisones are

not tied to any serious critic, like Quintilius, to file down their excesses. They may hear

nothing but applause from sycophants and deem themselves "poets." This devaluation of

poetry is to be expected, Horace believes, in a society where Roman youths only learn to

lust after gain: an haec animos aerugo et cura peculi /cum semel imbuerit, speramus

carmina fingi posse linenda cedro et levi servanda cupresso (AP 330-1)?4 As a result,

Horace finds himself in a society in which he feels he does not intellectually belong. He

therefore turns to the Greeks for a model of the poet's role in society. He contrasts the

money-grubbing Roman educational institution with the Greek: Grais ingenium, Grais

dedit ore rotundo /Musa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris (AP 323-25). Horace's

discussion of the highest aim of the vates in civilizing society only names Greek poets,5

and at one time, he even composed verses in Greek.6 It is this alienation from Roman

society, which does not value the labors of the genuine poet, that designates the poet

"mad"7 and explains Horace's increasing bitterness and frustration throughout the poem

that reaches its climax in his sympathetic portrayal of the mad poet.




3 Cf. S. 1.10.50-51 where Horace says of his predecessor Lucilius: at dixifluere hunc lutulentum, saepe
ferentem /plura cuidem tollenda relinquendis.
4 All quotations of Horace are taken from Eduard C. Wickham's 1901 edition.
5 AP 391-407.
66S. 1.10.31-35.
Oliensis (1998), 209: "It is Rome's misvaluation of the art of poetry, Horace argues, that has kept her
from achieving preeminence in the field of letters." Cf. AP 289-294: nec virtuteforet clarisve potentius
armis /quam lingua Latium, si non *i ,. ,. t unum /quemque poetarum limae labor et mora. vos, o /
Pompilius sanguis, carmen reprehendite quod non / multa dies et multa litura coercuit atque /praesectum
decies non castigavit ad unguem.









One primary question that remains in the interpretation of the Ars Poetica is

Horace's choice to end with the seemingly abrupt and surprising depiction of a mad poet

trapped in a pit, alienated from his fellow citizens (452-476). The mad poet, in his

attempts to become immortal through his poetry, seeks to communicate with the society

that has rejected him. The mad poet illustrates the essence of Horace's position in

Roman society. If he is not to be identified with the mad poet, Horace's insight into his

plight at least reveals an intimate knowledge that is situated "inside the experience" of the

mad poet.8 The mad poet, then, perhaps represents Horace's fears about the poet's

inside/outside relationship with Roman society. It is this relationship that is Horace's

overarching concern and the poet's alienation serves as a fitting warning to aspiring poets

at the conclusion to the Ars Poetica.

Epistle 1.19.23-25 provides us with a tantalizing glimpse of Horace's thoughts on

one of his earliest works, his book of Epodes (or as he calls them, iambi). For the

Epodes, Horace tells us, he chose as his model the Archaic seventh century Parian poet

Archilochus, infamous in antiquity for his skill in composing iambic verses. However,

Horace's claims to have followed Archilochean animos while disavowing the agentia

verba that slandered Lycambes has engendered a great deal of scholarship on the exact

nature of Horace's aemulatio. What has not been understood is the question of just how

angry Horace's Epodes are. Chapter two will focus on this question to show that while

Horace does not follow the verba of Archilochus in employing sustained attack against

an individual, his iambi are, nevertheless, full of invective rabies that serves as Horace's


8 Brink (1971), 421, contends that Horace's depiction of the mad poet is a demonstration of reduction ad
absurdum that is a caricature of poetic inspiration and of poetic error. He allows, however, that Horace
understands and even identifies with the struggles of the mad poet: "It fascinates because it is written from
inside the experience which it professes to ridicule" (516).









poetic inspiration throughout the Epodes. Horace seeks to modify this raw iambic rabies

with a Callimachean aesthetic, just as he advocates molding ingenium with Callimachean

ars in the Ars Poetica.

The fact that Horace selected the iambic genre with its traditional theme of

retaliation is a fitting reflection of the anxieties and self-destructive tendencies that

marred the Roman state in the difficult period between Octavian's defeat of Cassius and

Brutus at Philippi in 42 BC and the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Indeed, the work has

rightly been identified as positioned on the "brink of the battle of Actium" and may be

described as civil war poetry.9 It will be necessary to treat Horace's vatic role in the

Epodes in his simultaneous attempts to free himself and his community from the cycle of

iambic rabies which marks the collection of Epodes. It is in his capacity as vates that

Horace serves to illustrate the Ars Poetica's doctrine of the poet's duty.

The implicit Callimacheanism in Ep. 1.19.21-34 is essential to understanding the

Epodes and is key in Horace's encounters with Bacchus in his first three books of odes.

Just as Horace tempers ingenium with ars in the Ars Poetica, he tempers Bacchic revelry

with Apollonian restraint.10 This is reflected in his placement of Bacchus at the front of

his collection (1.1) and Apollo at its close (3.30). Throughout Odes I-III Bacchus is the

god most frequently addressed and is the source of Horace's inspiration."1 The third

chapter will address what the role of Bacchic inspiration is in Horace's poetic program by

demonstrating that there is a clear and persistent link throughout the Odes between the

dichotomy of Bacchus/ingenium and Apollo/ars as discussed in the Ars Poetica.


9 Fitzgerald (1988); Oliensis (1998), 64-65.
10 Putnam (1973), 1-17.
11 C.1.18, 2.19, 3.3, 3.25; cf. the carmina addressed to Apollo: 1.21, 1.31.






5


Furthermore, the vesanuspoeta of the Ars Poetica embodies the dangers of Bacchic

inspiration and the overindulgence of ingenium, and so represents Horace's presentation

of the poet and his poetry as an often precarious but careful balance between the extremes

of ars and ingenium.














CHAPTER 2
ON THE MARGIN OF SOCIETY: INSIDE THE EXPERIENCE OF THE VESANUS
POETA


The epistle to the Pisones (Ars Poetica) is ostensibly Horace's guidebook on how

to write good poetry. The letter was written to the as-yet-unidentified Pisones and its

date is still controversial. Scholars have recognized in the work two main sections (1-295

and 296-476). There is a shift at line 295 from a discussion of ars (art) to the artifex

(artist). Horace begins the Ars Poetica by giving advice on such topics as meter and

drama, and telling the Pisones (he particularly seems to be addressing the older brother)

that there must be unity in all that they write (AP 23). This unity is expressed by using

the proper meters for the proper occasions: the weighty dactylic hexameter for heavy

subjects as found in epic (AP 73-74) and iambic for comedy and tragedy because it is

suitable for dialogue (AP 79-82). Horace advises the Pisones to maintain the traditional

uses of the meters: singula quaeque locum teneant sortita decenter (AP 92). In drama,

Horace similarly stresses to the young novices that they must maintain traditional

character types. They may use mythology in their dramas, but the characters must retain

their traditional personalities; for example, Achilles must maintain the same character

traits as described in Homer, and likewise, Penelope cannot be a harlot. The audience's

expectations, developed through the traditions, does matter and the poet must take them

into account.

Until line 295 Horace appears to be composing a work similar to Aristotle's

Poetics, but, as Hardison and Golden contend, the Ars is perhaps best described as an










example of metapoetry, where the poet examines the nature of poetry. Horace does not

focus, as Aristotle does, on detailed aspects of poetic theory or composition, but rather

his focus is on "the nature, function, commitment, and psychology of the poet..."1 We

find in the second portion of the Ars a speaker who is so bitter and at times downright

angry at the intellectual environment in which he is expected to compose that he almost

seems to forget that he is addressing young adolescents who know nothing of the internal

struggles of the poet. The effect is that the would-be-poets might very well ask

themselves whether they wish to be poets or not.

Consider Horace's critique of the philosopher Democritus (AP 295-308).

Democritus, Horace tells us, values ingenium above ars and excludes the sanospoetas

from Helicon, the home of the Muses. Democritus only admits those whom he believes

to possess ingenium, those who go about with untrimmed nails and unkempt appearance

to demonstrate their divine inspiration. Horace's speaker in the Ars cannot contain his

bitter indignation at these imitators:

Ingenium misera quia fortunatius arte
credit et excludit sanos Helicone poetas
Democritus, bona pars non unguis ponere curat,
non barbam, secret petit loca, balnea vitat.2
(AP 295-298)

[Because Democritus believes that innate talent is more blessed than
wretched art and excludes sane poets from Helicon, a good number
take no care to trim their nails, nor their hair; they seek isolated places,
and avoid the baths.]

These pretenders to the poetic throne only cheapen the mission of the vates.3 For

Horace the madness of these unkempt imitators cannot even be cured with three times the


1 Golden (2000), 145.
2 Golden (2000), 150, comments: "by the simple expedient of forsaking the baths and haircuts [they] can
lay claim to a reputation for artistic genius among an uncritical public..."
3 For the usage of poeta and vates in the Augustan period, see Newman (1967), 51-52.










output of Anticyra's production of hellebore (AP 295-300).4 Valerius Maximus relates

that Carneades took hellebore to purge himself in order to bring forth (ad expromendum)

his innate talent (ingenium).5 Rudd notes that the purging of the bile with hellebore was a

therapy used to treat mental instability caused by an excess of black bile.6 However,

Brink has commented that hellebore could be taken "to render the mind alert and

inventive," pointing out that the "Stoic Chrysippus was thought to be strong-minded

enough to drug himself three times over for this purpose."7 When hellebore is referred to

throughout Horace's works, it always refers to a purgative that discharges excessive

black bile, and thus insanity.8 Horace takes hellebore to relieve himself of madness, but

he does not claim that he has taken it in order to bring forth his ingenium for creative

purposes as Cerneades was said to have done. Horace does not, therefore, appear to view

hellebore as a means of artificial inspiration as did Chrysippus and Carneades.

By taking hellebore Horace wishes away the madness of unrestrained ingenium as

an enhancer of poetic power:

o ego laevus, qui purgor bilem sub vemi temporis horam!
non alius faceret meliora poemata. verum


4 Anticyra was famed for its production of hellebore.
5 Val. Max. VIII. 7 ext. 5: ergo animo tantum modo vita fruebatur corpore uero quasi alieno et superuacuo
circumdatus erat. idem cum Chrysippo disputaturus elleboro se ante purgabat ad expromendum ingenium
suum adtentius et illius refellendum acrius; see Gell. XVII. 15 for a similar account of Carneades' use of
hellebore. Here, however, Carneades is said to take hellebore to purge himself of corrupt liquid from his
stomach (black bile) that might weaken the power and strength of his intellect. This use of hellebore is
closer to Horace's use of the drug described at AP 301-304; yet Horace does not claim that he takes
hellebore to help him compose his writings as Carneades does: Carneades Acedemicus, scripturus
adversum Stoici Zenonis libros, superior corporis elleboro candido purgavit, ne quid ex corruptis in
stomach humoribus ad domicilia usque animi redundaret et instantiam vigoremque mentis labefaceret...
6 Rudd (1989), 201: "According to Greek medical theory, one's health depended on a correct mixture of the
four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Madness was thought to result from an excess of
black bile..."
Brink (1971), 333-4; cf. Petron. 88. 4: Chrysippus, ut ad inventionem ....... ter elleboro animum
detersit.
8 Cf. S.2.3.83,166; Ep. 2.2.137.










nil tanti est.
(AP 301-304)

[0 fool that I am, who is cleansed of bile in the season of spring. None
other would make better poetry, but in truth, it is not worth it.]

If writing inspired poetry requires the type of rigmarole that Democritus' poets

undergo, Horace sarcastically states that he would rather be done with it and be sane. As

a result, the speaker tells the Pisones that he has put aside poetry and now only serves as

a whetstone upon which aspiring poets can sharpen their skills.9 Writing poetry well,

Horace instructs the Pisones, does not require such extreme pretenses. In fact,

Democritus' preference for ingenium over misera...arte (295) ignores the meticulous self-

criticism that must shape the raw poetic inspiration of ingenium.10 Horace, however,

does recognize that innate talent is crucial to the poet's success, as he claims at S. 1.4.43-

4:

ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior atque os
magna sonaturum, des nominis huius honorem.

[To him who has innate talent, to whom there is a divinely inspired
mind and a mouth that will speak great things, may you give the honor
of this name (poet)].

The idealized bards of Greece attained the honor of this name. Horace describes

their achievement in similar language: sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque I

carminibus venit (AP 400-1). Yet, although in the Ars Poetica Horace recognizes the

importance of ingenium in the poetic process, the majority of the epistle is concerned

with the importance of ars, and Horace's two major examples of unrestrained




9 Cf. Ep. 2.2.141-4: nimirum sapere est abiectis utile nugis, I et tempestivum pueris concedere ludum, I ac
non verba sequifidibus modulanda Latinis, I sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae.
10 Cf. Ep. 2.2.122-124a: luxuriantia compescet, nimis aspera sano I levabit cultu, virtute carentia toilet,
ludentis speciem dabit et torquebitur. Here the initial creative output of poetic inspiration must be
fashioned by a sound cultivation (sano cultu) which Democritus' poets shun. Cf. S. 1.4.










ingenium-that of Democritus' poets and the mad poet-serve as examples of what to

avoid, much like the absurd portrait that begins the Ars Poetica.

In the Satires, as in the Ars Poetica, Horace is always conscious that the divinely

inspired voice must be yoked to ars. Horace simultaneously praises and condemns his

predecessor and inventor of satire, Lucilius, in characteristically Callimachean language

for Lucilius' lack of artfulness:

nam fuit hoc vitiosus: in hora saepe ducentos,
ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno: (10)
cum flueret lutulentus, erat quod tollere velles:
garrulus11 atque piger scribendi ferre laborem,
scribendi recte...
(S. 1.4.9-13 [italics are mine])

[He was full of error in this way: in an hour, as if this was a great
accomplishment, often he would dictate two hundred verses, standing
on one foot. In his muddy river there was flotsam you would wish to
remove: he blubbered and was too lazy to endure the toil of composing,
that is, composing correctly... ]

Like those lazy Roman poets whom Horace derides for their inability to endure the

toil of fashioning worthwhile verses (AP 291-2), Lucilius is too lazy (piger) to endure the

labor (ferre laborem) of the self-criticizing poet.12 Horace signals his observance of

Callimachean ars by likening Lucilius' verbosity and careless writing to a muddy

stream.13 In terms of metapoetics, then, the poet's ingenium must be tempered and joined

with ars. Horace tells the Pisones:

natural fieret laudabile carmen an arte
quaesitum est: ego nec stadium sine divite vena


11 Cf. AP 457: hic, dum sublimis versus ructatur et errat...
12 Cf. S. 1.9.23-24 where the "Boor" is the speaker: nam quis me scribere pluris I aut citius possit versus?
See also S. 1.4.13-16: ecce I Crispinus minimo me provocat: 'accipe, si vis, I accipe iam tabulas: detur
nobis locus, hora, I custodes; videamus uter plus scribere possit.'
13 Cf. Call. Hym. Apoll. 108-12 where Apollo is the speaker: Acompiou otortoTlo [cyagi p6ogo, 6)d6 'r
to)ka I| )6utaa yrfi Kal to)kv E(p' i6caTi (up(p rov E)Kcl. I ATroT 6' OUK 6-76 tcav6Toq {i8op ypopconot
M G)tocat, aI 6 ~Ti KUOUprI T8 KUl aXpaavrog dvptet |I i8Kog E ipfig 6ktyrI )hP3d( aKpov acorov, Ep.
2.2.120: vehemens et liquidus puroque simillimus amni Ifundet opes Latiumque beabit divite lingua. Here
the poet is likened to a clear stream that enriches Latium with language; cf. AP 46-72.









nec rude quid prosit video ingenium; alterius sic (410)
altera poscit opem res et coniurat amice.
(AP 408-11)

[It is asked whether a praiseworthy poem results from nature or art. I
do not see how study without a rich vein of talent, nor rough innate
nature is useful. Thus, each seeks the aid of the other and swears a
friendly pact.]

Democritus' poets, then, lack the balancing influence of ars whereby their

ingenium may be pruned into worthwhile poetry. As a result, Horace does not address

the unkempt amateurs as poets accepted into Helicon, but as mere imitators.

Contrary to the proper role of the poet in society, the poets of Helicon have rejected

society and seek isolation to cultivate their inspiration (AP 298). Admittedly, Horace too

seeks isolation to cultivate his inspiration, shunning public performance and the opinions

of the fickle Roman audience and preferring instead a few critical readers.14 Though

Horace chastises Democritus' poets for their isolation, he has also experienced alienation

from the vulgus.15 Horace's displeasure with the uncritical vulgus is paralleled in his

Odes. In C. 1.1 the Roman people are "fickle" (mobilium turba Quiritium) and Horace is

separated from thepopulus by bands of Satyrs and Nymphs (secernuntpopulo). At C.

2.4.18, the crowd is scelestaplebe and at C. 3.2.20 they are again fickle (arbitrio

popularis) and vulgar (coetusque vulgares). This fickleness carries over into the arts

where the vulgus cannot be trusted to discern a true poet from the imitators of

Democritus' school. Horace hearkens back to the Greeks, whom he believes to be the

true masters of poetry, and in his own society he is an outsider looking in. The speaker in




14 Ep. 2.2.77-8: scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus etfugit urbem, I rite clients Bacchi somno gaudentis
et umbra: Ep.2.1.214-18: verum age et his, qui se lectori credere malunt I quam spectators fastidia ferre
superbi, I curam redde brevem, si munus Apolline dignum I vis complete libris et vatibus addere calcar, I ut
studio maiore petant Helicona virentem; see also S. 1.10.78-91.
15 See S. 1.4.25; S. 1.10.73; S. 2.6.28; AP 419.









the Ars indicates through his bitter complaints that he has been locked out of Roman

society.

The bitterness expressed in the Ars can best be explained by the great importance

that Horace attaches to the mission of the poet. For Horace, poets are utilis urbi,16 and

they have been recognized by the Greeks as divinely inspired for providing the social,

legal, and behavioral codes by which to live.17 The speaker has idealized the great poets

of the Greek tradition, attributing to them divine inspiration which is, in contrast to

Democritus' poets, "benign" and lacking outlandish "poetic frenzy." 18 Orpheus, who is a

priest and prophet of the gods, civilized men by teaching them to avoid bloodshed and

abominable ways of life. Solon gave the Athenians laws inscribed on wooden planks in

order to keep his society from descending into civil war. Homer's shield of Achilles

demonstrated how a society could live in harmony, and also illustrated the dangers that

result from a breakdown in order (AP 392). Horace in his own times witnessed the

destruction that Rome visited upon herself and was keenly interested in the re-creation of

society out of the ashes of civil war.19 It is this tension between the public and the private

role of the poet that Horace addresses in the conclusion of the Ars. The fact that poetry

serves such an important function in society explains why the speaker in the Ars

emphasizes to the young Pisones that mediocrity is not permissible in the craft as it is for

a lawyer (AP 366-373).





16 Ep. 2.2.124.
1 AP 391-407.
18 Hardison and Golden (1995), 77.
19 Epod. 16: Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetas, I suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit.









In this daunting task, the aspiring Roman poet faces the challenge of maintaining

his artistic integrity, especially within the fragmented social environment in which he

must compose. The role of the serious critic is compromised in a society where rich

patrons compose for sycophants.20 Consequently, Horace sarcastically scoffs at those

who by virtue of their birth believe that they can be called poetae:

qui nescit versus tamen audet finger. quidni?
liber et ingenuus, praesertim census equestrem
summam nummorum, vitioque remotus ab omni.
(AP 382-384)

[He who does not know how to fashion verses, nevertheless dares to do
so. Why not? He is free, freeborn even, estimated as a knight of the
highest fortune, removed from all fault.]

To avoid the pitfalls of such dilettantes, Horace encourages the youths to seek out a

harsh critic, one who will rigorously correct their work so that they will not make fools of

themselves on the public stage. Horace subtly signals his adherence to neoteric and

Callimachean aesthetics in his advice to hold back publication of a work until after the

ninth year of its composition: si quid tamen olim I scripseris, in Maeci descendat iudicis

auris I et patris et nostras, nonumque premature in annum, I membranis intus positis:

delere licebit I quodnon edideris (AP 386-390). A generation before, Catullus had

praised Cinna's Zmyrna in similar language: Zmyrna mei Cinnae nonam post denique

messem quam coepta est nonamque edita post hiemem (C. 95.1-2). The dedication and

meticulous effort required of a good poet is a necessary component of the poet's duty as

vates. This duty, the Pisones should realize, is an incredibly demanding task which can

not be entrusted to mediocre poets.

Horace seems to acknowledge the strain of composing meticulous poetry in Ep. 2.2

when he claims in a statement that is sarcastic when compared to AP 301-4, that he

20AP 419-437.










would prefer to be judged a foolish and artless author than to be wise and angry:

praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, I dum mea delectent mala me vel denique

fallant, I quam sapere et ringi.21 Horace punctuates this surprising statement by likening

himself to a delusional man from Argos who both resembles and differs from the vesanus

poeta of the Ars Poetica. It would be easy for an audience of Ep. 2.2 to recall the image

of the mad poet of the Ars Poetica trapped in a pit, with the difference that the Argive,

and by extension Horace, have been able to avoid the pit.22 When the mad poet falls into

a pit with his attention on other matters, he demonstrates that "Ignorance of any obstacle

in one's path seems to have become proverbial for lack of practical sense..."23 The

Argive (and Horace) have the practical sense that the vesanuspoeta lacks, yet he is still

mad and is linked to the mad poet through the delight he takes in his personal

illusions/delusions.24 The mad poet lives in his own illusory world where his poems and

his notable death will (he believes) enshrine him among the immortal bards, while the

Argive is under the delusion that he is watching wonderful plays while he sits in an

empty theater.



21 Ep. 2.2.126-8. Cf. ps.-Acro on 126: irridendo hoc ait. ego quidem, inquit, eorum vitam praetulerim, qui
non intellegunt vitia sua, his qui sapient et emendatione torquentur, under subnectit fabulam. Brink (1971),
349, also notes the disjunction between Ep. 2.2.126-8 and AP 301-4: "The provocative statement
introduces the Argive tale which it is supposed to bear out. Its irony is apparent from the very un-Horatian
content: however bad the quality of my poems, I should prefer enjoyable illusions to saddening knowledge
(of my shortcomings). In the Ars a similar interpretation is put on the (inspired) madness of poets and its
cure, A.P. 301-4. There too H. purports to speak of himself but draws the opposite conclusion, pretending
to prefer clarity of mind, sapere, to creative madness."
22AP 458-59: si veluti merulis intentus decidit auceps I in puteum foveamve, licet 'succurite' longum |
clamet 'io cives!' non sit qui tollere curet; Cf. Ep. 2.2.135: posset qui rupem et puteum vitare patentem.
23 Brink (1971), 424.

24 Horace has just stated (Ep. 2.2.106-8) that those poets who compose poor verses are a joke, but they
rejoice and highly esteem their own writing, happy in their illusions, as long as an honest critic says
nothing against their work: ridentur mala qui componunt carmina, verum I gaudent scribentes et se
venerantur et ultro, I si taceas, laudant quidquid scripsere beati. I contend that Horace refers here to poets
similar to Democritus' mad poets and to the vesanus poeta of the AP.









Horace further links the mad Argive with the mad poet when Horace describes the

attempts of others to cure them of their madness. The Argive has friends and relatives

who believe they are helping him by administering hellebore in order to relieve his

madness. His response, far from the gratitude that they expect, is instead a rebuke: 'pol

me occidistis, amici, I non servastis' ait, 'cui sic extorta voluptas I et demptus per vim

mentis gratissimus error (Ep. 2.2.138-140).' In the Ars Poetica, Horace discourages

anyone from attempting to save those poets who destroy themselves, since doing so

would be the same as killing them: sit ius liceatque perire poetis. I invitum qui servat

idemfacit occidenti (AP 466-7). The mad Argive's relatives have saved him from his

delusions against his will, and have done the same as murder him (pol me occidistis).

Madmen, according to Horace, must be left to their insanity, even though it may lead to

their own destruction. By likening himself to the mad Argive, and by extension the mad

poet of the Ars Poetica, Horace, in an "un-Horatian" manner,25 distances himself from

ars as the most valuable element in the poet's composition, and, like the mad Argive and

the vesanuspoeta, privileges his own unique ingenium.

Horace is able to warn the Pisones of the difficulties the poet faces because he has

experienced them himself. His portrait of the vesanuspoeta in the concluding section of

the Ars implies an intimate knowledge of the mad poet's alienation from society. But

Horace does not wish to lock himself away and render himself useless to society as

Democritus' poets have done. It is this struggle for communication that is at the heart of

Horace's depiction of the mad poet isolated in a pit, calling to his fellow citizens in vain.

Rejected and mocked, he simultaneously shuns society and longs to communicate with it.


25 See supra.









It is evident that the mad poet desires to communicate with his fellow citizens from

Horace's likening him to a leech that reads to death anyone willing to listen to him (AP

475-476).26 But the poet also has tendencies towards isolation and even self-destruction,

resulting from the intense pressure placed upon him. The mad poet, focused solely on

poetry, wanders about with his head in the clouds, like a bird-catcher gazing at black

birds, and falls into a pit (AP 458-59). The poet calls for aid: 'succurrite' longum clamet

'io cives!' He is isolated from society and at first no one cares to aid him. He is not even

considered a member of the human race (homo AP 469). But, the speaker tells us,

perhaps the poet threw himself into the pit on purpose. Again, Horace shows that he is

"inside the experience" of the mad poet when he reads the mad poet's motivation:

'qui scis an prudens huc se deiecerit atque
servari nolit?' dicam...
(AP 462-3; italics are mine)

["How do you know," I will say, "perhaps he has thrown himself in on
purpose and does not wish to be saved?"]

Horace uses the first person, and indicates that he may know something of the mad

poet's mind and why he may have fallen or thrown himself into the pit. We learn that the

Sicilian poet Empedocles cast himself into burning Aetna: deus immortalis haberi I dum

cupit Empedocles, ardentem frigidus Aetnam I insiluit (AP 464-66). In their quest for

immortality through their craft, poets destroy themselves. It is difficult not to identify

Horace as a potential Empedocles based on the claims to immortality that he makes about

himself in his Odes.




26 Cf. Oliensis (1998), 219, who links Horace with the leech: "But there is another candidate for the role of
the murderously exuberant versifier within the Ars itself. In the most literal and immediate sense it is
Horace-Horace, who clings and clings to his readers for all of 476 lines... before dropping off into silence-
who is the leech of the Ars Poetica."









Horace can speak authoritatively about the dangers that the poet will encounter in

his attempt for immortality because he has experienced them. On several occasions

Horace makes reference to his immortality as a vates, beginning with his address to

Maecenas in Odes 1.1. Here, Horace claims, the ivy leaves that are the reward of poets

actually link him with the gods: me...hederae ...dis miscent superis. The mad poet, with

head upraised (sublimis versus ructatur et errat), is glimpsed in Horace's desire to be

counted among the immortal lyric bards:

quodsi me lyrics vatibus inseris,
sublimi feriam sidera vertice.
(Odes 1.1.35-36; italics are mine)

[But if you count me among the lyric bards,I will strike the stars with
my exalted head.]

On several occasions Horace revels in his grandiose, nearly obsessive claims to

fame using graphic symbols of metamorphosis. In C. 2.20, another address to Maecenas,

Horace prophesies his own immortality, becoming a swan in the tradition of Pindar, the

Dircaean swan. At C. 3.30, in an address to the Muse Melpomene, Horace boldly claims

that he has constructed a monument more noble than the royal pyramids (regalique situ

pyramidum altius), and that he shall not wholly die but his fame will grow with time.

Horace has the ingenium and the ars necessary to make such claims since he has joined

natural genius with discipline and studied the immortal Greek bards and adapted their

verses to Latin (C. 3.30.13-14).

The true poet, then, finds himself outside of society but still unwilling to shrug off

his duty and obligation to his countrymen as Democritus' poets have done. The mad poet

strives for greatness, but finds himself trapped in a pit. In this respect, he shares in the

alienation that Democritus' poets express. Shut out from the society he longs to









communicate with, children mock him and wise men (qui %,ipinin) avoid him.27 It is this

image that encapsulates Horace's position "inside the experience" of the mad poet, a state

with which he is intimately familiar. Horace is undoubtedly linked with the mad poet

through his pursuit of immortality, as his Odes attest, and if he is not to be identified with

the vesanuspoeta, he finds himself uncomfortably close to this character. The Ars

Poetica is littered with warnings of the pitfalls that await aspiring poets, a daunting task

for the young addressees of the poem.

Horace has presented the mad poet as the climax of his Ars Poetica and if we fault

him for breaking off the piece in medias res, we misunderstand the structure of the poem.

Horace's main concern in the Ars is not to present a mechanical guidebook to poetry, but

to call for the unity of ingenium and ars in the poet's craft. Horace is grieved that Roman

poets lack the dedication that their Greek predecessors had for poetic greatness. Rome

has been consumed with materialism and its ensuing moral decline is reflected in a

general decline in the arts. Horace's indignation makes sense in light of the immense

importance that he places on the mission of the poet to reform and refashion society.

Horace does not believe that a vates can develop out of a society that only seeks wealth

and is uncritical in their appraisal of poetry. Neither Democritus' poets nor the mad poet

have a stern critic to mold their ingenium. Just as unkempt long hair is symbolic of the

unpolished writings of the Democritean poets, so the image of a rampaging bear that has

burst its cage is symbolic of the mad poet's unrestrained ingenium. Untrained talent




27 Oliensis (1998), 218: "...he is, for all his feigned unsociability, a creature of society to his very core."
28 AP 472-4: certefurit, ac velut ursus, I obiectos caveae valuit sifrangere clathros, I indoctum doctumque
fugat recitator acerbus...






19


must be matched with ars, just as we shall see in the following chapter that the raw poetic

inspiration that iambic rabies affords must be tempered with a Callimachean aesthetic.
















CHAPTER 3
CA VE, CA VE: RABIES AS POETIC INSPIRATION IN THE EPODES


ira furor brevis est: animum rege, qui nisi paret,
imperat; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena.
(Ep. 1.2.62-63)

In Ep. 1.19.21-25 Horace claims to have been the first to introduce Parian iambi to

Latium, a boast supported by his dependence on Archilochean metrics throughout the

Epodes. 1 The fact that Horace selected the iambic genre, which already had Roman

adherents,2 and selected Archilochus as his model would lead his audience to expect a

certain kind of poetry, since iambi had come to be associated with invective.3 But the

question remains of just how angry Horace's Epodes are and to what extent iambic rabies

serves as Horace's inspiration in the Epodes.4 While rife with invective anger, Horace's



1 Horace most obviously follows Archilochean meter in his use of the iambic trimeter followed by iambic
diameter in Epodes 1-10. This same metrical scheme is discernable in Archilochus ff. 172-181 W. Only
Epodes 12, 13, and 16 lack a corresponding metrical example from Archilochus, a fact that most likely
stems from the fragmentary nature of Archilochus' writings. Recall that Epode 11 only found its
corresponding Archilochean example with the publication of The Cologne Epode (fr. 196a W.) in 1974.
2 Horace's claim to have been the first to exhibit Parian iambi to Latium has been questioned on account of
the precedent of Catullan iambi. However, Catullus uses a variety of metrical formulas such as the
hendecasyllabics that are not in the archaic iambic canon (Heyworth, 2001).
3 Pind. Pyth. 2.52-56 EAE SE XPECOV q)EuyEIv 5aKO5 d8iv6v KaKayoptav- | EtSov yap EK(5 Ecbv T&
Tr6XX' Ev apaxavia | yoyEpov ApXiaoXov 3apuk6yotis X9EGIv raTv u6pEvov; Arist. Poet. 1448b31
ia[pETaov KaXGETaI vuv 6TI EV TCP AETpc TOUTCP ia6ppitov &XXXraous; Cf. West (1974), 22: "Invective
was clearly regarded as the outstanding feature of the genre."
4 For the debate on Horace's poetic models in the Epodes, see Watson ( 2' i i), 4: "Both Archilochus and
Callimachus were of crucial importance in the genesis of the poems. The two passages in which Horace
explicitly adverts to the literary inspiration behind the Epodes (Epode 6 and Ep. 1.19) are emblematic of
that duality of influence, since, in each case, an overt evocation of Archilochus as the moving spirit behind
the book is balanced by an implicit allusion to Callimachus' more recent Iambi." This debate is far from
settled, with scholars positioned on the spectrum between Mankin who sees few or no poetic models other
than Archilochus for the Epodes, and Watson who highlight the importance of Callimachean poetics for
Horace's iambi.










iambi are by and large impersonal insofar as they avoid the persistent attacks

characteristic of Archilochean invective. Horace, then, by adopting a Callimachean

aesthetic to temper the excesses of invective rabies, mirrors his own advice to the Pisones

in the Ars Poetica to balance ingenium with ars.

Horace on three occasions specifically names Archilochus as his model and

inspiration for his book of epodes (Epod. 6.13, Ep. 1.19.23-25, AP 79). Horace, then, is

conscious of the generic assumptions that he is adopting, as he would later write in the

Ars Poetica (79): Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo. Clearly, rage is seen as a

weapon (armavit) to be used in the medium of iambi, which would presumably lead

Horace's audience to expect iambic rabies in his collection. The first specific reference

to Archilochus does not disappoint: it appears in Epode 6, one of the most virulent

invectives in the collection:

Quid immerentis hospites vexas canis
ignavus adversum lupos?
quin huc inanis, si potes, vertis minas,
et me remorsurum petis?
nam qualis aut Molossus aut fulvus Lacon,
amica vis pastoribus,
agam per altas aure sublata nives,
quaecumque praecedet fera:
tu, cum timenda voce complesti nemus,
proiectum odoraris cibum. (10)
cave, cave: namque in malos asperrimus
parata tollo comua,
qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener,
aut acer hostis Bupalo.
an si quis atro dente me petiverit,
inultus ut flebo puer?

[Why do you harass innocent strangers, you, a cowardly dog when
confronting wolves? Why not, if you have the guts, turn your empty
threats my way, and attack me, who will bite back? For just as either a
Molossian or tawny Laconian, the strong friends of shepherds, I will
pursue through tall snow with ear upraised, whatever beast goes before.
You, when with terrified yelps you have filled the groves, will sniff out
left over garbage. Beware, beware: for, most savagely do I raise
readied horns against the wicked, just as the slighted son-in-law of
faithless Lycambes or the harsh enemy of Bupalus. Or, if someone









with a black tooth should assault me, shall I weep as an unavenged
child?]

The iambist very deliberately places himself in the iambic tradition of Archilochus

and Hipponax. It is plain that this epode contains potent invective anger, and the speaker

is 'of the same sort' (qualis) as Archilochus, the spurned son-in-law of Lycambes who, as

tradition relates, betrothed his daughter Neobule to Archilochus, only to renege on the

agreement. This humiliation inspired Archilochus to compose verses so hateful that they

drove Lycambes and his daughters) to hang themselves out of shame. A similar story is

told concerning the fate of Hipponax' victims.5 According to Pliny, Hipponax was

notoriously ugly, which led the sculptors Bupalus and Athenis, the sons of Achermus, to

make statues in his likeness for public display and mockery. In retaliation, Hipponax

'unsheathed' (destrinxit) such stinging invective that tradition claims it drove the

sculptors to hang themselves.6 Whether factual or not, the stories of the Lycambides and

the sculptors serve as a paradigm for the cycle of iambic injury and retaliation. The

iambist assumes a defensive position, asserting that, as the wronged party, he is fully

justified in retaliating.7 He, in fact, even becomes the instrument of divine vengeance

against the perpetrator who has violated religious obligations, as Lycambes did.8 The

iambist very specifically adopts this defensive posture for himself in Epode 6, as he does

in the roughly contemporaneous S. 2.1.39-46:9


5 Hipponax is only specifically referred to once in the Epodes, at 6.14.
6 Plin. NH 36.4.12. Pliny states that he himself denies this account, since the sculptors made statues for
neighboring islands after their disputes with Hipponax.
For the defensive posture of the iambist, see Cat. C. 40 and Arch. fr. 172 W. The iambist is frequently
concerned with creating a way to distance himself from the responsibility of the invective. Ravidus' and
Lycambes' actions give the poets no choice but to respond with iambi.
8 See in particular fr. 173 W: 6pKOV 8' EvoOaqi)aOG8ri pyav / dXa; TE Kal TpaTrE'av.
9 The second book of Satires was published in 30 BC while the Epodes was published around 29 BC.










sed hic stilus haud petet ultro
quemquam animantem et me veluti custodiet ensis (40)
vagina tectus; quem cur destringere coner
tutus ab infestis latronibus? o pater et rex
luppiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum,
nec quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis! at ille
qui me commorit (melius non tangere, clamo), (45)
flebit et insignis tota cantabitur urbe.

[But this stylus will never on its own search out a living person, and it
will guard me, just as a sword covered in its sheath. Why should I
attempt to unsheathe it so long as I am safe from hostile brigands? 0
father and king Jupiter, may the discarded weapon perish with rust; let
no man harm me, desirous for peace! But he who rouses me (better not
to touch me, I shout), will regret it and will be made infamous
throughout the whole town by my singing.]

Horace depicts his stilus as a weapon (ensis) that has the potential for righteous

vengeance. He protests that he is a man of peace, and it is only through the fault of

another that he must grudgingly unsheathe (destringere) the sword (stilus). Horace's

language is identical to Pliny's description of Hipponax unsheathing his invective. It is

this cycle of retaliation and vengeance that drives Horace in Epode 6 and that drives the

warring factions of Rome in Epodes 7, 9, and 16. Both Epodes seven and sixteen are

remarkable for Horace's stance as a social instructor. Epode 7 is not so much an

exhortation to the Romans as it is a pessimistic invective against Horace's fellow citizens

for their inability to solve the crises that have led to civil war. In its pessimism, it

foreshadows the futile exhortation to flee Rome in Epode 16 and, as Watson rightly

points out, echoes the harangues of Solon.10 Horace in Epode 16 exhorts the Romans to

abandon Rome since it has been cursed by endless civil war and is on the brink of

destroying itself. The only reasonable course of action, Horace hopelessly claims, is to

seek the "blessed fields" and "rich islands" (arva, beata I petamus arva, divites et insulas,

41-42).


10 Watson (2' "i i1), 9-10; cf. Solon fr. 4 West: riAET6p5l 8 Tr6Aig KaTa taV Ai65 OUTQOT' 6XETTaI
aToav...auTrol 8 q)OEpEi Yv 6Eya Xv rAtv d6qpabiroatv a dOTli Poloovrat.










Satires 2.1 draws us further into comparison with the Epodes through images that

appear in both books. Nature, Horace tells us, has equipped each creature with a means

to express anger. Canidia (who appears in S. 1.8, 2.1, 2.8 as well as in Epodes 3, 5, 17)

resorts to the poison of Albucius when angry (48-49). Animals, too, have their defenses

and each one has been provided by nature with a means of frightening their enemies so

that the wolf attacks with its fangs and the bull with its horns: ut quo quisque valet

suspects terreat, utque I imperet hoc natural potens, sic college mecum: I dente lupus,

cornu taurus petit (S. 2.1.50-52). This animal imagery again invites comparison to

Epode 6, where Horace plays the shape-shifter, at one time a sheepdog, (who, unlike the

immerentes hospites will bite back, remorsurum), at another a bull with readied horns,

prepared to take on those who threaten him or his 'flock.' 1

The language of retaliation prevalent in Epode 6 is, paradoxically, also the kind of

verse that Horace professes to deny in Ep. 1.19.23-25, the second passage in which

Horace specifically refers to Archilochus as a model for the Epodes:

Parios ego primus iambos
ostendi Latio, numerous animosque secutus
Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycamben. (25)

[I was the first to show Parian iambi to Latium; I followed the meter
and spirit of Archilochus, not his content and language that took action
against Lycambes.]

Horace specifically states that he shuns the language that drove (agentia) Lycambes

to suicide. Yet Horace uses the same language in Epode 6 againn per altas aure sublata

knives) to describe the pursuit of his enemies. One way in which it is possible to chart the


11 Animal allegories are especially associated with Archilochus (esp. frr. 223 TETTyos 5SpacO TrTEpou
and 23.14-16 ETr]ioTapal TOI ToV qpiX[o]v[Ta] av q)[t]AETv [, TOV 8' Xp6v EXaipEIV TE [Ka]l KaKO
[.. pU] ppwrl. Watson (1983b), argues convincingly that lines 7-8 do not refer to Horace as a hunting dog.
Viewing him as such would, Watson argues, ruin the unity of the sheepdog imagery of 1-10, violate the
sequence of thought proceeding from 5-8, and would imply that Horace "envisages the writing of iambi as
not just a response to provocation, but the aggressive seeking out of targets for his pen" (158).










iambic tenor of the Epodes is to note the various forms of the verb ago that occur six

times throughout the collection. In five of these six occurrences, the verb is used to

describe the "driving force" of invective in the same sense that Horace uses the verb to

describe Archilochean verba in Ep. 1.19.25.12 Four of these five instances occur in the

middle of the collection, right when the invective tone of the Epodes is at its height. The

last instance is reserved for the final epode in the collection, and in fact occurs in its final

verse, leaving the reader without a clear resolution to the iambic conflict. The Epodes,

one is forced to conclude, does not completely omit Archilochean rage.

Epode 5 introduces Canidia, accompanied by her cohort of witches who have

kidnapped a Roman youth and intend to use his liver so that the witches may prepare a

potent love potion to use against a wayward lover, Varus. Horace draws a pathetic

picture of the lad, quivering in fright (trementi questus ore) and the boy immediately

draws the reader's sympathy, an impube corpus, quale posset impia I mollire Thracum

pectora (13-14). But by the conclusion of the epode, the whimpering boy is transformed

through iambic rabies into a terrible fury, spewing invective back at his kidnappers:

sub haec puer iam non ut ante mollibus
lenire verbis impias,
sed dubius unde rumperet silentium,
misit Thyesteas preces:
'venena magnum fas nefasque, non valent
convertere humanam vicem;
diris agam vos; dira detestatio
nulla expiatur victima' (90)

[At these incantations the boy no longer, as before, attempted to mollify
the impious women with soft words, but, hesitant as to how to break his
silence, he sent forth Thyestean curses: "Your powerful potions do not
have the power to change right and wrong nor to turn human
vengeance. I will hound you with curses; my fearful solemn curse will
not be atoned by any offering."]


12Epod. 5.89, 6.7, 7.17, 12.13, 15.9, 17.81. The only occurrence which does not pertain to the "driving
force" of iambic verba is 15.9 (a poem still containing plenty of invective).










In this drama, Horace has enacted the cycle of vengeance that takes a small child as

innocent as the immerentes hospites of Epode 6 and stains him in the black bile of

invective. We are confronted with the unpleasant reality that no one, however innocent,

in the invective game is free from guilt, and the distinction between the abuser and

abused becomes as confused as in the civil war raging in Epode 7.

Before Horace returns in Epode 7 to the theme of the civil wars with which he

began the collection, the closing rhetorical question of Epode 6 calls to mind Canidia,

with her dens lividus, and her defenseless victim: an, si quis atro dente me petiverit,

inultus utflebopuer? As Epode 6 concludes, we are left with the depressing realization

that the poet has not offered a remedy for the iambic cycle of retaliatory anger but has

seemingly admitted its continuation. This failure to escape such vengeance sets the stage

for the stagnant downward spiral into civil war described in Epode 7:

Quo, quo scelesti ruitis? aut cur dexteris
aptantur enses conditi?
parumne campis atque Neptuno super
fusum est Latini sanguinis,
non, ut superbas invidae Carthaginis
Romanus arces ureret,
intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet
Sacra catenatus via,
sed ut secundum vota Parthorum sua
urbs haec periret dextera? (10)
neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus,
umquam nisi in dispar feris.
furome caecus, an rapit vis acrior,
an culpa? responsum date!
tacent et albus ora pallor inficit,
mentesque perculsae stupent.
sic est: acerba fata Romanos agunt
scelusque fratemae necis,
ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi
sacer nepotibus cruor. (20)

["Where, where are you rushing, accursed ones? Or why are your
swords, once sheathed, grasped by your hands? Has not enough
Roman blood been spilt on fields and the sea--not so that the Roman
can bum the proud citadels of jealous Carthage, or the Briton,
untouched, may descend the Sacred Way in chains, but so that this city
perish by its own right hand in accordance with the Parthians' prayers?









There was never such a habit among wolves nor lions, unless against
beasts of another sort. Has a blind madness or a keener force or guilt
seized us? Give answer!" They are silent, and a white pallor
overspreads their faces, and, minds overthrown, they are stupefied.
Thus it is, a harsh fate and the crime of fratricide drives Romans, ever
since the blood of innocent Remus flowed onto the earth, a curse upon
future generations.]

Horace appears as bewildered as the Romans he harangues. The poem is filled

with Horace's angry questions as the poet seeks a rational explanation for the irrational

madness that has overtaken his fellow citizens. This time, it is not an individual, but

bitter fate and fraternal murder that drives (agunt) the Romans on to further madness.

Rome itself has been cursed from its very foundation and, just as there is no victim that

Canidia can offer that would expiate the curses leveled against her by the ill-fortuned lad

of Epode 5, so there seems to be no amount of sacrifice that is capable of appeasing the

curse of Remus' blood. The only answer to the hopelessness that pervades Epode 7 is not

presented until Epode 16 where Horace proposes an escape plan.

After the invective tone gradually builds in intensity throughout the middle of the

book, there is a distinctive change in the direction of the Epodes after poem 10, a change

reflected in the shifting metrics that Horace employs.13 Whereas poem 11 introduces a

sequence, persistent through 16, of dactyls and iambs (pure dactyls in 12), the first ten

poems are consistently iambic couplets.14 After the metrical variety of 11-16, Epode 17

with its unique iambic trimeter brings the book back to the pure iambics with which the

collection began. Epode 17 is also the only poem that has an uneven number of lines in





13 Oliensis (1998), 92-93, notes that with the close of Epode 10, Horace's book of iambi "achieves a
plausible ending... The closural effect is enhanced by the polar opposition between enemy Maevius setting
out on his ship (exit, I. 10.1) and friend Maecenas setting out on his (Ibis, I. 1.1). Maevius' ill-fated exit
would thus form Horace's happy ending."
14 For meter as the most obvious unifying principle in the Epodes, see Carrubba (1969), 18-21.










all of the Odes and Epodes.15 These idiosyncrasies alert us that Canidia, far from being

"a peg on which to hang a couple of poems," is a major figure in the Epodes. 16 She is a

main character in two extensive poems (5 and 17), totaling 183 lines, which feature

potent invective that has important thematic connections with Horace's iambic persona.

Furthermore, it goes without saying that as the final poem, Epode 17 occupies an

important position within the collection.

As we have seen, Horace narrates the abduction and transformation of an innocent

Roman youth into a nocturnus Furor in Epode 5. Horace in this epode only narrates

events, but in 17 he casts himself as one of the main characters.17 However, in his

depictions of Canidia in 5, he has in a sense played an active role (as Canidia understands

it) by instigating the cycle of invective against her. In retaliation, she (perhaps with a

backward glance to her humiliation in S. 1.8, where Horace again plays the narrator)

condemns him for the mockery of her sacred rites and his poems that have made her the

talk of the town:

inultus ut tu riseris Cotyttia
vulgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis,
et Esquilini pontifex venefici
impune ut Urbem nominee impleris meo?
(Epod. 17.56-59)

[Will you, without penalty, laugh at divulged Cotynian rites, the sacred
rite of unrestrained Cupid, and as priest of Esquiline magic will you go
unpunished for filling the city with my name?]

As noted above, the iambist links himself to the doomed youth of Epode 5 via the

final line of Epode 6 when he adopts his voice (inultus utflebopuer?). This defiant


15 Porter (1995), 116.
16 Griffin (1993), 10.
17 Porter (1995), 120, notes that the second half of the Epodes "focuses on Horace himself and turns against
him his own words." This can be seen in the change from the matter-of-fact narrator of Epode 5 to the
painfully subjective Epode 17 where Horace is a starring character.










stance, by the end of the book, becomes a point of self-mockery (part of the iambist's

arsenal), which is especially heightened by the poet's stance in Epode 16 as a vates who,

however unrealistically, suggests an escape plan from the poisoned earth upon which

Rome is founded.18 Horace's iambic persona, in the very next epode, gives way to the

power of Canidia's atra carmina.

So many of the themes of the Epodes hinge on the tension between illusions,

dreams, and deflated hopes.19 As soon as Horace promises an end to civil strife in 16.15-

16 (forte quid expediat communiter aut melior pars / malis carere quaeritis laboribus),

Canidia dooms him to new conflicts: ingrata misero vita ducenda est in hoc, / novis ut

usque suppetas laboribus (17.63-64). Horace's appeal to mythological exempla tries to

end the iambic cycle, while Canidia's emphasize the continued suffering of those figures

whose "past will always be their future."20 The end of the Epodes takes its audience from

the lofty declaration of the vates in the last line of 16 (piis secunda vate me daturfuga) to

his abject desperation in 17: iam iam efficaci do manus scientiae, /supplex et

oro... Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris, / citumque retro solve, solve turbinem. The


18 For discussion of the "impotent" iambist, see: Fitzgerald (1988), Oliensis (1991;1998), Watson (1995).
These scholars have seen Horace's self-deprecation as programmatic; cf. Epod. 1.15-16: roges, tuum labor
quid iuvem meo I imbellis acfirmus parum? Furthermore, Horace in this epode likens himself to a mother
bird who watches over her chicks but is unable to offer assistance should they be attacked by snakes. Cp.
Ep. 2.1.124-5 where Horace speaks of the benefits that the poet offers the State: militia quamquam piger
et malus, utilis urbi, I si das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna iuvari.
19 See in particular Epod. 17.65-69. The repetition of optat (three times) only points to the illusions that
Horace, Tantalus, Prometheus and Sisyphus are under. They delude themselves by hoping at all, since their
fate is to suffer perpetual torment. Porter, (1995) 113, sees these themes played out in Canidia's rejection
of Horace's pleas and especially in Epode 9 where Horace asks when he will drink Caecuban with
Maecenas in celebration of Caesar's victory; a question that is left unanswered in the Epodes.
20 Porter (1995) 118. Horace's exempla all demonstrate atonement in some way, most notably Castor and
Pollux' blinding of Stesichorus in retaliation for his slander against their sister Helen. Stesichorus,
following Homer's account, had claimed that she absconded to Troy with Paris and thus caused the Trojan
war. As a result of his slander, Stesichorus was blinded until the brothers heeded his prayers (victi prece)
and restored his sight (adempta vati reddidere lumina, Epod. 17.43-44). Horace, in calling Stesichorus
vates, also identifies himself as such by extension (cf. Epod. 16.66). Canidia's exempla all stress unending
torment for an offender.









bard, intent upon constructing a poetic vision in the great crisis of his times, does not

present a coherent response to Canidia's dominance at the conclusion of the Epodes.21

What are we to make of this Archilochean sounding Horace? At the heart of the

Epodes we find identical language used to express the violent aggression of abusive

invective (Epodes 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12)-the very language Horace professes to deny in Ep.

1.19.25. No one has been willing yet to conclude that the Horace in the Epistles is

rejecting or rewriting his earlier poetry. Horace speaks of his iambs with the same pride

as his grand accomplishments of the Odes. David Mankin attempts to remove the

contradiction by claiming that Horace's iambics are usually impersonal. While Horace's

Epodes can be said to avoid the persistent attacks on individuals that characterize the

iambics of Archilochus in his infamous pursuit of the Lycambides (which won him the

approbation of future generations, recorded in the testimonia), thirteen of his epodes

either name addressees or specific personages.22 Others have relied on the change in

Horace's political/social circumstances to explain any discrepancy between the Epodes

and Horace's later critical works so that Horace, who did not enjoy the liberties of

expression of the aristocratic Catullus but was bound by the dynamics of a patron/client

relationship, avoids personal attacks.23 We really do not need to excuse Horace this

much by minimizing or excusing his iambic anger to allow for his reworking of

Archilochean invective.

However much Horace expresses distaste elsewhere at the excesses of invective

(Ep. 1.19.23-25, 30-31; Ep. 2.1.145-155), it is certain that there is real anger in the


21 Cf. Epod. 17.74, where Canidia is the speaker: vectabor umeris tunc ego inimicis eques.
22Epod. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17.
23 Nisbet (1984).










Epodes, and it is quite probable that, as Nisbet remarked, "His ambition to write epodes

in the manner of Archilochus had its origins in the bitterness of defeat..."24 Horace,

following Brutus, the doomed champion of the republican cause, relates later how he had

his wings clipped after the battle of Philippi in 42 BC. 25 He returned to Italy to find his

land confiscated and his father dead. He became a clerk (scriba) and says that he began

writing to make a living (paupertas impulit audax /ut versus facerem, Ep. 2.2.51-52). It

is not unreasonable to suppose that, as a result of the failure at Philippi, Horace would

seek an appropriate Greek model to express frustrations about the destructive retaliatory

anger that is the essence of civil conflict.26

Throughout the Ars Poetica, Horace is continually focused on decorum, stressing

that the form of poetry should match its function. According to this aesthetic principle,

Horace consciously selected the iambic genre and its meter because it provided the

themes he wished to present in the Epodes: 27

hunc socci cepere pedem grandesque cothurni,
alternis aptum sermonibus et popularis
vincentem strepitus et natum rebus agendis.
(AP 80-82)

[The comic sock and the high boot adopted this foot iambuss) suited for
alternate speech and overcoming the din of the crowd and born for
action.]




24 Nisbet (1984), 2.
Ep. 2.2.49-51: unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi, /decisis humilem pennis inopemque paterni /et
laris etfundi.
26 Horace's misfortunes and subsequent anger serve as his poetic inspiration, as indicated in the story of
the soldier Lucullus at Ep. 2.2.26-40. Lucullus' possessions are stolen, and his anger (at himself as well as
the thief) transforms him into a furious wolf (post hoc vehemens lupus, et sibi et hosti I iratus pariter,
ieiunis dentibus acer (Ep. 2.2.28-9). The loss inspires him to plunder in order to regain his wealth. By
likening himself to Lucullus, Horace states that ill fortune and anger drove him to compose verses for a
living.
27 Cf. Nisbet (1984), 2: "Poets do not choose their personae at random, but to match something that they
would like to see in themselves."









Again we see Horace fully cognizant of the assumed aggressive language of the

iambic genre that he adopts. However, there are clear indications that Horace, in

adopting Archilochus, has tempered his model with Callimachean aesthetics. True,

Horace does not directly quote Callimachus, or specifically name him as an influence in

the Epodes, unless we assume that "Ibis," the first word in the Epodes, is a reference to

the work of the self-same title by Callimachus. Even if the link is not intentional, the

doctus reader would certainly have been reminded of Callimachus. But if we revisit

Epode 6 we may see a parallel to Callimachus' Iambus 13.52-53: &oti560 S KEpaS

TEGCO-iTat I KOTECOV dOt8c)t. It is certainly tempting to take the bull imagery as a point

of contact between the two poems, especially since the context of Callimachus' iamb

bears a striking resemblance to the situation in Epode 6. Whereas Horace "undertakes to

repel with vigorous verbal assaults the attacks of a cowardly slanderer, whom he may

well intend us to think of as another iambist,"28 Callimachus similarly addresses poets

who have taken to fighting amongst themselves and have attacked Callimachus in

particular for polyeideia.

As Watson notes, the distinction between "Archilochean" and "Callimachean" is

arbitrary and Horace, "while flagging his allegiance to Archilochus and Hipponax as the

progenitors of the iambic genre, is careful also to encode a bow to a more recent

exponent.",29 Even if Horace did not specifically name Callimachus as an influence for

the Epodes, he shares the same view that invective, specifically Archilochean invective,30


28 Watson (2' 11 11), 5, n.34.
29 Watson (t2' 11 '), 5.
30 In the sole fragment we have from Callimachus' Grapheion, he makes clear his distaste for Archilochean
harshness: E'XKUOE 5e Spipt v TE X6XOV KUVOS 6O5 TE KEVTpOV acprltK6, 6Trr' 6apqoTpcov 8' iov EXEI
oTr6aTros (fr. 380 Pf.).










can become so fierce that iambic rabies refuses to be satiated and transgresses the

boundaries of society, resulting in civil strife and death (Ep. 2.1.145-155):

Fescinnina per hunc inventa licentia morem (145)
versibus alternis opprobria rustica fudit,
libertasque recurrentis accept per annos
lusit amabiliter, done iam saevus apertam
in rabiem coepit verti iocus et per honestas
ire domos impune minax. doluere cruento (150)
dente lacessiti; fuit intactis quoque cura
condicione super communi; quin etiam lex
poenaque lata, malo quae nollet carmine quemquam
describe: vertere modum, formidine fustis
ad bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. (155)

[Through this custom [rustic festivals of sacrifice and offering that took
place after the grain was harvested], Fescennine license was invented
and in alternate verses poured out rustic taunts, and the freedom,
received throughout successive years was playfully innocent until the
sport, now growing cruel, began to change into open frenzy and invade
the homes of honest people, unchecked in its threats. Those attacked
by the bloody tooth were hurt; even among those unharmed there was a
concern for the common good. Finally there was a law bearing a
penalty that forbid portraying anyone in abusive song. Men changed
their manner, through fear of the club, and were brought back to clean
and pleasing language.]

It may be argued that the second book of Epistles was not written until around 12

BC and that Horace's disposition is different than when he composed the Epodes (written

in the 30s BC). Horace, however, speaks in a similar vein in Ep. 1.19 when he

specifically rejects the slanders against Lycambes that produced the same results as

described in Ep. 2.1. Horace's resistance to retaliatory rage, he claims in Ep. 1.19, was

operative in the composition of the Epodes.

In addition to disavowing the excessive harshness of Archilochean invective, Ep.

1.19 specifically links Horace with the Callimachean ethos of Iambus 1 (fr. 191). In Ep.

1.19, Horace is intent on showing that his iambi have a claim to originality, and that he

did not compose the black verses that a protege of Archilochus would be expected to










write. In doing so, Horace is deliberately echoing Callimachus,31 who, in his Iambi, also

makes it clear from the beginning of his book that he will deviate from the expected

content of the genre (fr. 191, 1-4, Pf.):

AKOoaaG' 'lT'rTrCVaKTO- o uyap aXX' fiKCO
EK TCOV 6KOU 3OOVu KoXXU3Pou mTrTprpGKOUoGV,
qcppcov Yappov ou aIXrlTV aEliovTa
TilV P3ouTraAElov[...]

[Listen to Hipponax; for I have come from where they sell an ox for a
coin, bearing an iamb not singing the Boupalean quarrel...]

Callimachus attempts to temper the violence that an audience would expect from

the iambic genre. At the same time that he explicitly acknowledges Hipponax, he also

distinguishes himself from his invective. This is exactly what we find Horace doing in

Ep. 1.19 where he names Archilochus as his model while simultaneously distancing

himself from him. Horace's use of a Callimachean aesthetic symbolically signals his

desire to restrain Archilochean invective.

For Catullus, Horace's predecessor and fellow composer of nugae,32 the unification

of the Callimachean aesthetic with Archilochean invective is not contradictory. Unlike

Callimachus and Horace, Catullus makes no declaration that he is restraining iambic

invective, and is therefore free to join Callimachean wit and style with the biting

invective of Archilochus.33 Catullus tells us in C. 16 that a poet is separate from his

poems and is therefore free to draw on the iambic spirit to create abuse poetry. Catullus

reaches back to the pre-Alexandrian invective that the Callimachean filter has failed to

31 Watson (t2i i'), 5-6: (Callimachus') iambuss [is] of a novel type, stripped of the unbridled violence
which had stamped the poet's vendetta against... Bupalus... just as Callimachus revived Hipponactean
iambus but radically altered its subject-matter, so Horace, in going back to the authorialfons et origo of the
genre, adopted Archilochus' metrical form and content, but fundamentally transmuted the latter."
32 Cf. Cat. 1.4; Hor. S. 1.9.2, Ep. 1.19.42.
33 See MacLeod (1973), 305: "The juxtaposition of Callimachean and vituperative writing is not a casual
one; rather the two are deliberately contrasted alternatives. On the one hand, there is the elegant and
cultivated 'Alexandrian' author; on the other, the purveyor of blunt, even coarse, invective."










remove. Catullus' C. 40, 56 and 116 are clear instances where he is influenced by pre-

Alexandrian invective against the advice of Callimachean aesthetics. This tension

between Archilochean invective and its Callimachean modification is felt nowhere more

explicitly than in C. 116, where Catullus purposefully juxtaposes the translation of

Callimachus' poems with his abuse of Gellius34 and concludes that Callimachean verses

do not have the power to heal invective wounds:

Saepe tibi studios animo venante requires
carmina uti possem mittere Battiadae
qui te lenirem nobis, neu conarere
tela infesta mihi mittere in usque caput,
hunc video mihi nunc frustra sumptum esse laborem
Gelli, nec nostras hic valuisse preces.
contra nos tela ista tua evitamus amictu:
at fixus nostris tu dabis supplicium.

[Often seeking with my mind, hunting for how I might send to studious
you the songs of Battiades by which I might mollify you towards me,
so that you would not attempt to send hostile missiles continuously at
my head. This task, I now see, I have undertaken in vain, Gellius, nor
are my prayers of any avail in this matter. I avoid with my cloak your
arrows that are directed against me: but you will pay the penalty, shot
through by my arrows.]

Catullus' collection, at least in the order of arrangement that has come down to us,

concludes with the triumph of the iambic voice, just as the Epodes concludes with the

victory of Canidia's atra carmina. Perhaps Horace is influenced by the Catullan

adaptation of Archilochean bile and refuses to entirely deprive Archilochean invective of

its sting.

There is no question that Horace's Epodes contain a great deal of iambic anger.

But when Horace consistently uses the language of invective throughout the Epodes and

then states in retrospect that he disavows agentia verba Lycamben, the reader must look

more closely at the Epodes to see in what way Horace employs this ethos. Unless we are



34 For Catullus' numerous slanders against Gellius, see C. 74, 80, 88, 89, 90, 91, and 116.









to conclude by saying that Horace was disingenuous in Ep. 1.19, we must look for

another explanation. As I have shown, Horace concentrates his most invective epodes in

the middle of the collection, demonstrated by his diction which is the very language he

claims to disavow. However, his iambi differ from the Archilochean in that they are not

persistent attacks on single individuals. Furthermore, the very fact that Horace wrestles

with the guilt of the invective cycle, seeking a way out, stands in stark contrast to

Archilochus, who displays (at least in the extant fragments) no inclination that iambic

rage should be mollified. Such guilt, in fact, is evidence that Horace wishes to temper the

rabies that has led to civil war among his fellow citizens, whereas Archilochus'

individualistic stance does not ever look back in regret.

In both the Epodes and Odes, Horace's iambi and carmina reflect a conscious

attempt to discover and end the cycle of guilt that is an essential part of iambic anger. In

Epode 7, Horace identifies the source of the civil wars as stemming from the curse of

Remus' murder. That initial act of fratricide only serves to perpetuate further civil

conflicts down to Horace's own time. The poem leaves the reader with a sense of utter

hopelessness that, as stated above, reaches its apex in the unrealistic solution of

abandoning the cursed land proposed in Epode 16.

In the Odes, the guilt that drives the Romans is again revisited and its importance

for the first book of odes is highlighted by its position at the forefront of the collection.

C. 1.2 addresses the need for the reconstruction of Roman society after civil war. Before

this process may begin, the great sin (scelus) of civil war must be expiated. Horace

declares that it is Jupiter himself who has assigned Octavian (Caesaris ultor) the task of










expiating the guilt of fratricide: cui dabitpartis scelus expiandi I luppiter?, (C. 1.2.29-

30). Guilt will be expiated by turning the sword from civil conflict to foreign wars:35

eheu, cicatricum et sceleris pudet
fratrumque. quid nos dura refugimus
aetas? quid intactum nefasti (35)
liquimus? unde manum iuventus

metu deorum continuit? quibus
pepercit aris? o utinam nova
include diffingas retusum in
Massagetas Arabasque ferrum! (40)
(C. 1.35.33-40)

[Alas, the shame of our wounds, crimes, and slain brothers. What has
this harsh generation shunned? What sacrilege have we left
untouched? From what have our youth restrained their hand through
fear of the gods? What altars did they spare? 0 may you, on a new
anvil, reshape the blunted sword against the Massagetae and Arabs!]

Caesar must not only turn Rome's attention to foreign wars, but he must also

address the

social reconstruction of Rome. By book four of the Odes, Horace is able to

proclaim that the rule of law has abolished sexual licentiousness and sacrilege at home

while peace is preserved on the frontiers (nullis polluitur casta domus stupris, I mos et lex

maculosum edomuit nefas, I laudantur simili prole puerperae, I culpam poena premit

comes, C. 4.5.21-24).36 This picture of Roman chastity stands in marked contrast to

Epodes 8 and 12 that serve as a microcosm of iambic conflict and offers a nice parallel to

the libidinous Cleopatra ofEpode 9 and C. 1.37. This newfound sexual harmony (real or

desired) can also be glimpsed in C. 1.16. This palinode is the very opposite of the


35 N-H (1970), 29. See C. 3.6 where guilt is expiated through an increased attention to the gods: Delicta
maiorum immeritus lues, I Romane, done templa refeceris I aedesque labentis deorum et Ifoeda nigro
simulacra fumo.
36 This is a far different picture of the Roman household than Horace presents in C. 3.6 where the Roman
matron is licentious: fecunda culpae saecula nuptias I primum inquinavere et genus et domos;... mox
iuniores quaerit adulteros I inter mariti vina, neque eligit I cui donet impermissa raptim I gaudia luminibus
remotis, I sed iussa coram non sine conscio I surgit marito, seu vocat institor I seu navis Hispanae magister,
| dedecorum pretiosus emptor.










scathing attacks on women found in Horace's iambs.37 Horace had concluded his

collection of iambs with a feigned palinode to Canidia that failed to quench her anger and

it is she who speaks the concluding lines in the Epodes, leaving the reader with no end to

the invective cycle. In C. 1.16, however, Horace's concluding call for his young lover to

restrain her anger is prefaced by an account of his own youthful, destructive anger.

Horace openly admits that his anger inspired him, in madness, to compose his swift

iambics (me quoque pectoris I temptavit in dulci iuventa I fervor et in celeris iambos

misitfurentem, C. 1.16.22-25).

Horace, by offering his iambs to the fire or to the Adriatic, makes an earnest

attempt to end the iambic cycle, and he invites his young lover to do the same, knowing

that anger only leads to destruction (0 matre pulchrafilia pulchrior, I quem criminosis

cumque voles modum I pones iambis, sive flamma I sive maria libet Hadriano, C. 1.16.1-

4).38 We are encouraged by the optimistic tone of the Odes with its images of expiated

guilt to hope that, unlike Canidia, Horace's unnamed lover will accept the retraction of

his harsh words and will restrain her own anger. Of all the destructive forces, Horace

claims, it is anger that threatens to upset the mind and destroy the harmony of both

private (Epodes 8, 12, 15) and public life (Epodes 7, 16). Anger, Horace claims, is more





37 Cp. N-H (1970), 202-3: "The poem is not a palinode, but for the most part a little discourse de ira." N-H
argue that C. 1.16 is not a palinode because it's main objective, visible at its conclusion, is to dissuade a
young girl from her anger. While this is true, I retain the term because Horace plainly retracts his slanders:
nunc ego mitibus mI utare quaero tristia, dum mihi Ifias recantatis amica I opprobriis animumque reddas.
38 Horace, like Catullus in C. 36, speaks of throwing his iambs away, but unlike Catullus, Horace actually
does. Epode 14 already shows Horace to be weary of his iambic persona, and like C. 1.16, also signals his
interest in other genres. However, it should be noted that Horace's iambic anger is never successfully
repressed completely. Consider the iambic tone of Ep. 1.19 where he responds to the critics of his carmina.
He feels he has been wrongly injured through misguided criticism and, following the iambic ethos, feels he
is justified in retaliating with harsh language.






39


powerful than the destructive sea, and disturbs the senses even more than Bacchus who is

an important source of inspiration in Horace's Odes.















CHAPTER 4
THE MADNESS OF BACCHIC INSPIRATION


In the Ars Poetica and in the Epodes we have seen Horace's tendency to balance

the creative impulse with ars, whether it derives from ingenium or iambic rabies. This

pattern of modifying potentially destructive forces continues with Horace's encounters

with Bacchus and in his sympotic poetry. While Horace rejects reliance on ingenium

alone, he nevertheless presents his readers with the image of himself as a Bacchic reveler,

divinely inspired by Bacchus, who elicits Horace's ingenium for creative purposes. Even

if the two odes in which Horace professes to be in the grip of Bacchic frenzy (C. 2.19,

3.25) are "remarkably calculated,"1 the attention to ars in these two odes does not

diminish the poet's insistence on the power of an irrational force in the construction of

his poetry. Horace's claims to have traveled lesser-known paths and to have followed

Bacchus through unfrequented groves (vacuum nemus, C. 3.25), all signal his adherence

to Hellenistic poetics. His claims to originality, expressed most especially in C. 3.25 and

Ep. 1.19, indicate his incorporation of Bacchus into his Callimachean aesthetic, which is

in turn most evident in his praise poetry.

As previously noted, Horace, in contrast to Chrysippus and Carneades, does not

view hellebore as a valid means of inducing creativity.2 Horace, however, does not

completely disavow intoxication as a means of inspiration. Horace writes in the Ars


1 Commager (1962), 31.
2 See supra.










Poetica that he would rather rid himself of excess bile with hellebore and be sane, though

no other would write better poems (non aliusfaceret meliorapoemata, AP 303).3 Horace

disavows the madness associated with poetic composition, yet in the Odes he professes to

have been divinely inspired through Bacchic intoxication:

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui
plenum? quae nemora aut quos agor in specus
velox mente nova? quibus
antris egregii Caesaris audiar
aeternum meditans decus (5)
stellis inserere et consilio lovis?
dicam insigne recens adhuc
indictum ore alio. non secus in iugis
exsomnis stupet Euhias
Hebrum prospiciens et nive candidam (10)
Thracen ac pede barbaro
lustratam Rhodopen, ut mihi devio
ripas et vacuum nemus
mirari libet. o Naiadum potens
Baccharumque valentium (15)
proceras manibus vertere fraxinos,
nil parvum aut humili modo,
nil mortale loquar. dulce periculum est,
o Lenaee, sequi deum
cingentem viridi tempora pampino. (20)
(C. 3.25)

[Where, Bacchus, are you taking me, full of your strength? Into what
groves or what grottoes am I ,, i!i l. led with mind changed? In what
caves will I be heard planning to place among the stars and the council
of Jove the eternal glory of excellent Caesar? I will sing a noble deed,
recent, as yet untold by any other lips. Just as upon mountain ranges
the sleepless Bacchante is stunned, beholding Hebrus and Thrace, white
with snow and Rhodope traversed by barbarian feet, just so, it is
pleasing for me to stray and gaze at the streams and untrodden forest.
O master of Naiads and Bacchanals, who have the power to tear out the
tall ash-trees with their hands, I will speak nothing slight or in a humble
measure, nothing mortal. It is a sweet danger, 0 Lenaeus, to follow the
god, wreathing my temples with the green vine tendril.]

In C. 2.19 and 3.25, more than in any other odes, Horace makes clear his reliance

on Bacchic inspiration. In these two odes, he purports to describe authentic divine





' Batinsky (1990-91), 366, comments on this passage from the AP: "...Horace reminds himself, as well as
his reader, that without this element of the poetic process (ingenium) he could never have written the
odes..."










experiences in which he is possessed by Bacchus.4 These odes seek to depict the

psychological effects of these divine encounters by bringing the audience inside the

experience and making them feel the dread and joy of divine possession. Both odes

speak of the fear that the god inspires, but fear of what?5 First, Horace fears an immortal

who is capable of inspiring both destruction and creativity in his followers.6 Secondly, as

Fraenkel notes, "...he is all the time aware of what awaits him if he fails: ridicule,

disgrace, perdition."7 Horace fears that he will not succeed in his role as vates, that is, of

fulfilling his vision of immortality for himself and for his subject, Caesar

(Caesaris... decus).8 It would be very easy for the envy that surrounds Horace to turn to

ridicule, since his critics are all too willing to mock his lofty poetic aspirations.9 Again,

we are reminded of the mad poet, who is the target even of children's ridicule: agitant

pueri incautique sequuntur (AP 456). By rescuing Bacchus from the camp of the

4 C. 2.19.6:plenoque Bacchi pectore; C. 3.25.1-2: Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui I plenum?
5 Cf. C. 2.19.5-8: Euhoe, recent mens trepidat metu I plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum I laetatur: Euhoe,
parce Liber, I parce gravi metuende thyrso!; C. 3.25.18: dulce periculum est, 0 Lenaee, sequi deum.
6 Nisbet and Rudd (2004), 307: "Bacchic ecstasy is both thrilling and dangerous, not because of snowfields
and precipices (Fraenkel), but because meeting a god and submitting one's mind to him is a terrifying
experience..." Horace in C. 2.19 shows that Bacchus' destructive nature is not far from his mind when he
recounts the fates of those who would not submit to the god: fas et beatae coniugis additum I stellis
honorem tectaque Penthei I disiecta non leni ruina I Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. Cf. C. 1.18.11-13: non ego
te, candide Bassareu, I invitum quatiam, nec variis obsita frondibus I sub divum rapiam; see N-H (1970),
234, on this passage: "... it does not seem to be understood that this is a deprecation, expressed
paratactically; Horace says 'I shall not offend you, so do not hurt me'." Horace in C. 1.18 describes the ill
fate of those who abuse the gifts of Bacchus and he wishes to distance himself from them.
7 Fraenkel (1957), 258; cf. Williams (1968), 70: "Why does Horace claim that it is dangerous to follow this
inspiration? It is because the subject-matter which he proposes is new and peculiarly difficult."
8 Commager (1962), 347, stresses the poet's role in the apotheosis of his subjects: "Although Horace claims
that it is his new attempt to immortalize Caesar that inflames him, he seems captivated less by Caesar's
"immortal glory" than by his own power to create it." Also see Johnson (1993), 169: "He (Horace) is an
active creative agent who holds the power of memory, who secures immortal fame for himself by his role
as interpreter of his own society to future generations."
9 This, in fact, is exactly what Horace responds to in Ep. 1.19.35 ff.: scire velis mea cur ingratus opuscula
lector | laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniquus: I non ego ventosae plebis suffragia venor I
impensis cenarum et tritae munere vestis. Williams (1968), 27: "If there is a core of fact in this lively piece
[Ep. 1.19], it is that Horace is envied by the less fortunate, and they therefore criticize him in public." For
envy in Horace's works, see also S. 2.47-8, C. 2.20.4 and C. 4.3










defeated Antony (who had adopted Dionysus as his patron deity10), and depicting

Bacchus as the source of inspiration behind his praise poems, Horace reincorporates

Bacchus into Caesar's political regime and demonstrates his primacy in using Latin lyric

for political songs." While C. 2.19 describes a general enthusiasm for the power of

Bacchus, C. 3.25 specifically places Bacchic inspiration in the service of praise poetry.

Horace in C. 3.25 is already intent on praising Caesar but it is Bacchus, also Lyaeus

(C. 3.21, C. 1.7.22, Epod. 9.38) and Liber (C. 1.12, 1.16, 1.18, 2.19), who has the power

to reveal what is already present in Horace, his own unique ingenium.12 In the Odes,

Horace boldly proclaims his own unique talent: at fides et ingeni I benigna vena est,

pauperemque dives I me petit, C. 2.18.9-11.13 Here Horace proudly declares that his

ingenium has made him more powerful than the rich man, who is put in the unflattering

position of seeking Horace out. This "rich vein of talent" is, in Horace's epistle to

Florus, linked with the creative inspiration that only the countryside can afford:

ingenium sibi quod vacuas desumpsit Athenas,

10 See Cass. Dio. 50.25.2-5 where Octavian ridicules Antony's subservience to Cleopatra and his
appropriation of the title of Dionysus-Osiris: 'iq 6' OUK aiv eprjvioEiE Kal aKOucov Kal opcv aurov TOV
AVTCDOVIo Tov 8i1 UTraTOv, Tov TroAAaKXX arToKpTaopa, T Tir pooaTaiav PET' EOU TCOV
KOIVCOV ETrTpaTrEvTa, TOV TooauTag s1v Tr6XAEi TrooauTa GE oTpaT6TrE8a EYxEItptoivTa, vuO
TravTa P1V Ta TraTpta TOO (pou 9rl E KXEXoiTroTa, TravTa 8E TaXXoTpia Kai (3ap(3aptKa
EClXCOK6Ta, Kal 111COV 11Ev n TCOV V6pCOV 1 TCOV 9EcGv TCOV V TrrpoyOVIKCjv n5riEv TrpoTInc1vTra, Tiv 8'
av9pcoTrov EKEIVTV KaeGTrEp Tiva `loiv E 2EXivriv TrpOOKUVO0VTa, Kal TOJ T TE TraTla auTri "HXtov
Kal 2EXriVTIV Ovo1a&ovTa, Kal TO TEXEUTalTo Kal EauTov "Ootpiv Kal AI6vuoov ETrIKEKXrTlKTa, KaK
TOUTCOV, KaeaTrEp Traorls 11v Tris yfi5 TrOarlS 8E Tris aXaooTia KupIEuovTa, Kal VTlOOU 6XaG Kal
TCOV TiTrEIpcov Tiva KEXaptoHavov. That there was a propaganda war between Octavian and Antony is
evident from Suetonius' Aug. 70 where Antony accuses Octavian and his friends of holding a banquet
dressed as gods and goddesses. See Scott (1929), 133: "Connection of the ruler with Dionysus meant
identification with the typical god of world-conquest, the god who had swept through the East conquering
nations, founding cities, and bearing in his train the blessings of civilization. The association of Antony
with this god was no doubt propaganda intended to impress the people of the East with the divinity of the
triumvir, who was ambitious of conquests in the Orient."
11 Commager (1962), 16.
12 N-H (1970), 232, point out that Bacchus was originally identified with Liber, an Italian god of
fruitfulness, and that "The Romans connected Liber with libertas."
13 Cf. AP 408-410 where Horace uses identical language to describe ingenium: naturafieret laudabile
carmen an arte I quaesitum est: ego nec stadium sine divite vena I nec rude quid prosit video ingenium.










et studiis annos septem dedit insenuitque
libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit
plerumque et risu populum quatit; hic ego rerum
fluctibus in mediis et tempestatibus urbis (85)
verba lyrae motura sonum conectere digner?
(Ep. 2.2.81-86)


[A talented man, who has selected leisurely Athens for himself, and has
given seven years to studies and has grown old amidst books and cares,
goes about more silent than a statue and makes many people shake with
laughter; here, am I to condescend to weave words to stir the sound of
the lyre among the waves of business and in the midst of the storms of
the city?]

Certainly it became traditional for a Roman poet who wished to declare his

allegiance to Hellenistic poetry to write of mountains, untrodden paths, and secluded

groves to signal his priority or adherence to a given poetic type, and we need not always

take them literally.14 Yet, Horace appears to be speaking quite literally about the adverse

effects that urban-centers-here represented by Athens and most especially Rome (hic in

line 84 refers to Rome)-have on his ability to tap into his ingenium for creative

purposes. Horace speaks of his own ingenium, always present but not always

accessible,15 and admits that in order to use it for creative purposes, he must seek the

secluded groves: he must follow the god (dulce periculum est I o Lenaee, sequi deum).

The location of Horace's encounters with Bacchus plays a crucial role in poetic

inspiration; Bacchic inspiration must take place in seclusion, which comes dangerously

close to the secret loca that Democritus' poets seek and for which Horace criticizes




14 For similar declarations not only of the poet's primacy, but also of the poet's need to seek out deserted
mountains and wildernesses, see Lucr., 1.926-27: avia Pieridum peragro loca nullius ante I trita solo;
Verg., G. 3.291-93: sed me Parnasi desert per ardua dulcis I raptat amor; iuvat ire iugis qua nulla
priorum I Castaliam molli devertitur orbita clivo. Commager (1962), 12, in his discussion of these
passages states: "The adjectives, like those commonly used of the holy mountain-deserta, vacuum, loca
nullius ante trita solo, avia, intacta-proclaim not so much the poet's necessary isolation in nature as his
literary uniqueness."
15 Batinsky (1990-91), 366.










them.16 Horace, however, in his escape from the city, which may at first appear as an

escape from society, is attempting to compose public poetry. As a vates, he does not

intend that his poetry, written in solitude and quiet, will remain in obscurity, but, as he

indicates in C. 3.25, he will be heard (audiar).17 This intimate communion with Bacchus

is not to be sought in the city, as Horace writes to Florus in Ep.2.2.77-808:

scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus et fugit urbem,
rite clients Bacchi somno gaudentis et umbra:
tu me inter strepitus nocturnos atque diumos
vis canere et contract sequi vestigia vatum?

[The whole band of authors loves the forest and flees the city, duly
observant votaries of Bacchus who delights in sleep and shade. Do you
wish that I amid the nocturnal and daily din should sing and follow the
narrow pathways of the bards?]

Again, Horace insists that he does not compose amid the hustle and bustle of

Rome, but instead his encounters with Bacchus take place away from society on the

"narrow pathways" contracta vestigium) that he as a vates treads.19 As Batinsky notes,

the Callimachean image of the poet taking the paths less traveled have, in Horace's work,

been appropriated by Bacchus in both Ep. 2.2 and C. 3.25: "Bacchus, who had swept

Horace off to these isolated places, has encroached on Apollo's domain."20 Horace has



16 AP 297-8: bona pars non unguis ponere curat, I non barbam, secret petit loca, balnea vitat.
17 Commager (1962), 345: "Horace withdraws from the world, but only to re-create it in his own terms. If
politics are left behind, it is only so that the greatest of political figures may become the subject of his
verse.
18 Cf. C. 1.1.29-32: me doctarum hederae praemia frontium I dis miscent superis, me gelidum nemus
nympharumque levels cum Satyris chori I secernuntpopulo. See also Batinsky (1990-91), 366, "...Horace
suggests that ingenium is part of a poet's nature, but that it is not always operative. He complains that,
while living in Athens, he was unable to employ ingenium. If a poet is to write, he must escape the city and
follow Bacchus."
19 Cf. Ep. 1.19.21-23: liberal per vacuum posui vestigia princeps, I non aliena meo press pede. qui sibi
fidet I dux reget examen.
20 Batinsky (1990-91), 373; see also Callimachus' Aetia 1.1-29 and the Hymn to Apollo (105-13); also
Freudenburg (1993), 107, speaking on S. 1.10: "In lines 31-35, Horace converts the Apollo of
Callimachus's Aetia prologue into Quirinus, who warns him in a dream not to compose Greek verses. This
conversion of Greek to Roman... is very clever, for by it the satirist drives home his point about
independent poetic mimesis: the slavish imitator of Callimachus-his critics, in other words-would have










not merely managed to modify Bacchus/ingenium with a Callimachean aesthetic, he has

succeeded in incorporating Bacchus into his literary program while maintaining Apollo

also as a source of inspiration.21

The image of Horace as a participant in Bacchus' rites amidst lonely groves (C.

3.25.8-14) serves not only to bring the audience into what the poet professes to be an

actual ecstatic state, but it also serves to announce Horace's claim to originality (dicam

insigne recens adhuc I indictum ore alio). Horace takes up a defense of this originality in

his later critical works. In Ep. 1.19, Horace begins his defense of his recently published

collection of odes by addressing the charge that he is a mere imitator of Greek models

without a claim to originality. Horace answers back that, in fact, it is he who is imitated

by a "slavish herd" (servum pecus) who believes that through Bacchic intoxication, they

are able to compose poems like Horace:22

Prisco si credits, Maecenas docte, Cratino,
nulla placere diu nec vivere carmina possunt
quae scribuntur aquae potoribus. ut male sanos
adscripsit Liber Satyris Faunisque poetas,
vina fere dulces oluerunt mane Camenae. (5)
laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Homerus;
Ennius ipse pater numquam nisi potus ad arma
prosiluit dicenda. 'forum putealque Libonis
mandabo siccis, adimam cantare severis':
hoc simul edixi, non cessavere poetae (10)
noctumo certare mero, putere diumo...
o imitatores, servum pecus, ut mihi saepe
bilem, saepe iocum vestri movere tumultus! (20)

[If you believe, learned Maecenas, old Cratinus, no songs are able to
please or to live for very long, which are composed by water drinkers.
Since Liber enrolled mad poets with the Satyrs and Fauns, the sweet
Muses have generally reeked of wine by morning. Homer is said to be a


made Apollo give the warning." In a similar manner, Horace has Bacchus adopt the role of Apollo in
guiding his devotee along unfrequented paths.
21 C. 1.21, 1.31, 3.30, 4.6, 4.15.
22 Cf. Johnson (1993), 50: "When Horace responds to his critics and their attacks on Odes I-III and the
Epodes, he first defends himself against attacks that make him to be nothing more than a winebibber, and in
doing so, he creates room for the use of wine in poetic inspiration."










wine drinker and to praise wine; father Ennius himself never leapt forth
to sing of arms unless intoxicated. "I entrust the Forum and Libo's
well to the abstemious, I will ban the stem from singing." As soon as I
declared this, the poets did not cease to contend by night with wine, and
to stink of it by day... 0 imitators, pack of slaves, how often your
commotion has roused my wrath and laughter!]

The attitude to the poetic process that the imitatores display is exactly what Horace

condemns Democritus' poets for in the Ars Poetica (295-301). These poets that rely

solely on ingenium believe that by merely imitating the appearance of an inspired demens

poeta they may themselves win the title of poet.

Commager contends that "Horace's own indulgence (in wine) was at most an

accident of his life, not an essential element of his creativity."23 But it is not an accident

that Horace depicts himself as inspired by Bacchus in C. 2.19 and 3.25 and that Bacchus

plays a consistent role throughout Horace's many sympotic poems.24 Commager's

contention that Horace's citation of Cratinus in Ep. 1.19 is "satirizing a popular attitude,

not endorsing it"25 ignores that Horace does not deplore the consumption of wine, but

reliance on it alone for writing poetry.26 Bacchus serves as Horace's inspiration for his

unique talent, and one can not help but see a reflection of Horace in the "brain-sick

poets"27 whom Horace satirizes as Commager contends (ut male sanos I adscripsit Liber

Satyris Faunisque poetas, I vinafere dulces oluerunt mane Camenae). Yet Horace is not



23 Commager (1962), 30.
24 C. I. 4, 7, 9, 11, 17, 18, 20, 27, 36, 37, 38; II. 3, 7, 11, 14; III. 8, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 28, 29; IV. 1, 5,
11, 12, 13, 15.
25 Commager (1962), 30.
26 Williams (1968), 25.

27 See Horace's biting self-mockery in S. 2.7.114-117 where he has his slave Davus first ridicule him for
his sloth (iam vino quaerens, iam somno fallere curam, S. 2.7.114), then confuse Horace's verse-making
with madness: 'aut insanit homo aut versusfacit.' Cp. S.2.3.1-4 where Damasippus is the speaker: 'Sic
raro scribis, ut toto non quarter anno I membranam poscas, scriptorum quaeque retexens, I iratus tibi quod
vini somnique benignus I nil dignum sermone canas.' No matter how much Horace tempts the muse with
wine, his writer's block remains.










the same as the male sanospoetas (here associated with the imitatores), but is instead,

through his unique talent, the leader of the herd (qui sibifidet I dux reget examen). As in

Horace's sympotic poems, Bacchus' gifts play an important, if moderated, role. The

sympotic odes are themselves the fruits of those gifts.

Perhaps the most clearly drawn distinction between the benefits and dangers of

Bacchic intoxication comes in C. 1.18, which compresses both aspects of the god within

a sixteen line poem. Life is hard, Horace warns, for those who abstain entirely from

Bacchus' gifts, and, (a commonplace found in Horace's sympotic poetry),28 harsh cares

(mordaces sollicitudines) are cured only by Bacchus.29 Horace further develops his

praises of wine in Ep. 1.5.16 ff., addressed to Torquatus. Wine is here praised for its

almost miraculous multiplicity of uses, capable of inspiring a soldier to battle (contrasted

with the negative rixa at C. 1.18.8) and teaching new arts.

quid non ebrietas dissignat? operta recludit,
spes iubet esse ratas, ad proelia trudit inertem;
sollicitis animis onus eximit, addocet artis.
fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum?
contract quem non in paupertate solutum? (20)
(Ep. 1.5.16-20)

[What does intoxication not reveal? It opens up secrets, it bids hopes to
be fulfilled, it drives the sluggish to battle; it takes away the burden
from worried hearts, it teaches new arts. Whom from restricting
poverty has it not freed?]

Such praises for wine are almost always accompanied and limited by some kind of

warning about the dangers of overindulgence, and this is what we find in C. 1.18. What

begins as an exhortation to Varus to plant the sacred vine in the soil along the Tibur and

Catilus' walls ends with images of Bacchus-inspired excess, which Horace rejects:

2 E.g. Epod. 9, 13; C. 1.7, 2.7,2.11, 3.8, 3.21, 3.29, 4.12.

29 Horace was not unique in depicting the positive and negative influences of wine in sympotic literature.
See Theognis 211-212, 497-498, 499-510 (W.). See Johnson (2004), 10-14 for a discussion of Horace's
Greek sympotic models.










non ego te, candide Bassareu,
invitum quatiam, nec variis obsita frondibus
sub divum rapiam. saeva tene cum Berecyntio
cornu tympana, quae subsequitur caecus Amor sui
et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticem (15)
arcanique Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro.
(C. 1.18.11-16)

[I will not rouse you against your will, illustrious Bassareus, nor in the
light of day will I snatch up your instruments, covered with leaves of
many kinds. Hold off the wild drum with the Berecyntian horn, things
which blind self-love follows and an excessive vanity bearing an empty
head, and a faith unbridled in keeping secrets, more translucent than
glass.]

Horace draws on the example provided by the Centaurs to remind Varus that

intemperate disregard for the powers of Bacchus leads to self-destruction (ac ne quis

modici transiliat munera Liberi, I Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero |

debellata, C. 1.18.7-9).30

Horace asserts in C. 1.27 that Bacchus in fact hates the excesses that result from the

abuse of his gifts. Bacchus is a god of inspiration, but also of moderation (verecundum),

and Horace accordingly chastises violent symposiasts:31

Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis
pugnare Thracum est: tollite barbarum
morem, verecundumque Bacchum
sanguineis prohibete rixis.
(Odes 1.27.1-4)

[To fight with cups made for the use of pleasure is for the Thracians.
Put away barbaric manners, and keep bloody quarrels away from
modest Bacchus.]

For Horace there are appropriate occasions for unrestrained drinking, such as the

return of a friend from war (C. 1.36, 2.7, 3.14), victory over a foreign enemy (1.37),32 and

30
N-H (1970), 234: "As the poem grows more tempestuous Horace no longer uses the kindly names of
Bacche pater and Liber, but the orgiastic cult-titles Euhius and Bassareus." Mero is unmixed wine.
Horace uses this term to denote wine before it is served (1.9.8, 3.29.2), wine used in sacrifice (1.19.15), and
where there is heavy drinking (1.13.10, 1.36.13, 2.12.5); see N-H (1970), 233. Horace usually uses an
adjective of moderation in conjunction with his suggested consumption of merum. See Johnson (2004),
220 n.28.
31 In C. 1.13 a jealous Horace speaks of the violence that can accompany wine: uror, seu tibi candidos
turparunt umeros immodicae mero I rixae, sive puerfurens I impressit memorem dente labris notam.










Horace's annual sacrifice to Liber in commemoration of his encounter with a tree that

nearly fell on him.33 Furthermore, Horace encourages his friend Vergilius to mingle brief

folly and his wisdom with wine (misce stultitiam consiliis brevem, 4.12.27), which echos

Horace's exhortation to lay siege to the fortification of wisdom with wine in 3.28 (prome

reconditum, I Lyde, strenua Caecubum I munitaeque adhibe vim sapientiae). Again,

Horace's invitation to the banquet in C. 4.12 suggests a limited intoxication (brevem),

and Vergilius is encouraged to return to sanity.

Horace specifically links his own creative impulse with Bacchic inspiration in his

odes and in his later critical discussions of his poetic achievement. Odes 2.19 and 3.25

are unique insofar as they profess to be an account of Bacchic inspiration that invites the

audience inside the ecstatic experience. Horace risks the dangers associated with

following the god through unknown paths in order to establish his own ingenuity.

Horace's stance as the magister bibendi and the overarching carpe diem theme that links

together the sympotic odes of books 1-4 establishes Bacchus as a major inspiration in

Horace's poetic program.34 The unrestrained revelry that is advocated in the return odes

(1.36, 2.7, 3.14), the Cleopatra ode (1.37), and 3.19 is a short-lived madness that is

moderated by other sympotic pieces in the collection (C. 1.18, 1.27, 2.11, 4.12).35


32 Johnson (2004), 13-14. Nunc est bibendum seems to fulfill Horace's desire in Epod. 9 to celebrate with
heavy drinking since Caesar is victorious at Actium victore laetus Caesare). The Caecuban had been
stored away for festal banquets (Epod. 9.1) and only in C. 1.37 is it proper to bring it forth for celebration
(antehac nefas depromere Caecubum I cellis avitis, dum Capitolio I regina dementis ruinas, funus et
imperio parabat). Horace depicts Cleopatra as drunk with fortune (quidlibet impotens I sperare fortunaque
dulci | ebria) and she serves as an exemplum of the power that Bacchus has to drive his followers mad with
wild delusions (mentemque lymphatam Mareotico I redegit in veros timores I Caesar).
33 See C. 3.8.13-15 where Horace tells Maecenas to celebrate the Martian Kalends by drinking: sume,
Maecenas, cyathos amici I sospitis centum et vigiles lucernas I perfer in lucem.
34 Johnson (2004), provides a thorough treatment of the symposion with particular regard for the carpe
diem theme and praise poetry.
35 Cf. C. 2.3 and 2.10 which do not specifically call for moderation in drinking, but life in general.






51


Horace's sympotic pieces are themselves the result of his inspiration to compose poems

that explore both the gifts and the dangers of Bacchic intoxication.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Throughout his poetry Horace persistently advocates moderating the creative forces

whose powers have the ability to destroy the poet and his society. This is most clearly

seen in the power of iambic rabies to serve simultaneously as a fount of poetic inspiration

that Horace draws from to compose his collection of epodes, and as a means by which

society commits suicide in civil war. But this moderating ethic is also present in

Horace's unification of ingenium and ars in his poetic theory and in his interactions with

Bacchus throughout the Odes.

Horace's overarching concern in the Ars Poetica is not simply to present a

guidebook on the mechanics of composing poetry, but to offer a more detailed and

intricate look at the poet's vocation. This vocation has a venerable history and includes

such poets as Orpheus, Amphion, and Homer (AP 391-407). An integral part of the

poet's occupation is a proper understanding of the relationship between ingenium and

ars. Horace throughout the entire body of his work persistently advocates a unification

of the two creative elements so that Horace chastises his model Lucilius in the Satires not

for his ingenium, but for his inability to temper it with an art-filled aesthetic. Horace

boasts of his own unique ingenium (C. 2.18) and admits that it is an essential part of the

creative process (AP 408-11). In fact, Horace claims, if Lucilius was writing in Augustan

Rome and was attentive to tempering his ingenium, he would have superceded Horace in

the quality of his poetry since his ingenium surpassed Horace's (S. 1.10).









It is the dominance of ingenium over ars that Horace disavows. The faults of

Democritus' band of mad poets and the concluding image of the vesanuspoeta in the Ars

Poetica serve as a warning to the Pisones to avoid excessive reliance on ingenium. In the

lines preceding the frightening picture of the vesanuspoeta at the conclusion to the Ars

Poetica, Horace begins his most direct treatment of the question of the relationship

between ingenium and ars (AP 408-452). The vesanuspoeta, then, serves as an example

of the poet who shuns a harsh critic who, as a tempering influence, is an essential element

in the creative process. Horace frequently stresses the importance of laboring over his

poems before they are published, a process that he likens to forging iron on an anvil.

This aesthetic is at work not only in his satires, but also in his carmina-even those that

purport to be actual accounts of the divine madness of Bacchic inspiration.

Horace has left us two odes in which he specifically speaks of his possession by

Bacchus and the direct influence this possession has on his creative process. To follow

Bacchus is dangerous (dulce periculum est, I o Lenaee, sequi deum) but like the

Bacchantes in C. 3.25 who are filled with the god's power to do incredible deeds (o

Naiadum potens I Baccharumque valentium I proceras manibus vertere fraxinos), so

Horace is likewise filled with the inspiring power of Bacchus to create poetry.1 The

importance of this declaration must not be mitigated for fear that Horace may be viewed

as little more than an immoderate, raving follower of Bacchus.

Unlike C. 2.19, however, which highlights Bacchic inspiration generally, C. 3.25

specifies that praise poetry will be the fruits of his inspiration. Not only will Horace sing

the praises of Caesar, but his carmina will be unlike any heard before (dicam insigne


1 Fraenkel (1957), 258.









recens adhuc I indictum ore alio). Bacchic inspiration, then, also serves to announce

Horace's originality, a concern reiterated in the very setting of the two odes and in

Horace's later critical writings such as Ep. 1.19. The geographical location of Horace's

visions of Bacchus serves almost as technical language, signaling that Horace's poetic

talents are moving into new territory with Bacchus as guide.

The gifts of Bacchus must be respected, and although there are in Horace's

sympotic pieces instances of excessive drinking that Horace, as magister bibendi, fully

endorses, these occasional odes of exuberant intoxication are tempered by the more

restrained sympotic pieces in the collection. In his sympotic poetry, Horace uses very

strong language in his condemnation of those who have violated the sanctity of the

symposium through violence. The symposium is the space designated above all for peace

and for relief from the dangers of everyday (most often aristocratic) life. To violate that

peace is not only to transgress the decorum of the symposium, but also to offend a

modest god (tollite barbarum | morem, verecundumque Bacchum I sanguineis prohibete

rixis, C. 1.27). The symposium is a space in which social ties are forged and reinforced,

and it thus plays an important role in the way society is (re)fashioned. Through his

sympotic odes, Horace treats the various gifts of wine and the negative effects of its

abuse, thus emphasizing moderate drinking as part of an ideal moderate lifestyle.

Through this presentation of the benefits and dangers of wine, Bacchus serves as

Horace's inspiration throughout his odes, an inspiration dedicated to unity of ingenium

and ars.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Michael Ritter was born in Sagerton, Texas, on January 27, 1980. In 1998 he

graduated from West Holmes High School in Holmes County, Ohio. He graduated from

Ohio University in 2002 with a Bachelor of Arts in classics. He will receive his Master

of Arts in classical philology from the University of Florida in 2006.