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Beauty Match-Up and Self-Concept Congruity in Advertising


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BEAUTY MATCH-UP AND SELF-CONC EPT CONGRUITY IN ADVERTISING By DANAE BARULICH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORI DA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank my family for their guidance and fina ncial support during my whole academic career. I would also like to thank my friends and classmates for their continued support and encourag ement throughout this whole pr ocess. Finally, I would like to thank the members of my committee for their time put into this project. I would especially like to thank the chair of my committee, Dr. John Suth erland. This project would not be complete without his assistance.

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iii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..................................................................................................ii LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................v ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................vi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE..............................................................................5 Beauty......................................................................................................................... ..5 Female Beauty..............................................................................................................5 Commercial Female Beauty.........................................................................................9 Effect of Commercial Beauty................................................................................9 Effect on Female Audiences................................................................................13 Match-Up Effect.........................................................................................................15 The Celebrity Match-Up Hypothesis...................................................................15 The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis......................................................................19 Beauty Types..............................................................................................................23 Self-Concept...............................................................................................................24 Need for Present Research..........................................................................................29 Conclusion..................................................................................................................30 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................31 Research Design.........................................................................................................31 Brand Selection...........................................................................................................32 Instrumentation...........................................................................................................33 Sample........................................................................................................................34 Measurement...............................................................................................................34 Data Processing..........................................................................................................35 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................37 Sample Demographics................................................................................................37

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iv Manipulation Checks..................................................................................................37 Cute/Sexy Validation...........................................................................................37 Attitude Toward Models and Products................................................................39 Models Fit with Beauty Types: Hypothesis Testing.................................................41 Hypothesis 1: A model with a Sensual/S exual beauty type will match up to a product with a Sensual/Sexual brand image....................................................41 Hypothesis 2: A model with a Young Fe minine, or cute beauty type will match up to a product with a Young Feminine, or cute brand image..............42 Relationship Between Fit and Attitude Toward the Model........................................44 Research Question: Is attitude toward a model related to how well the models perceived personality fits the respondents self-concept?..................45 Personality Fit and Product Fit...................................................................................47 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................................................50 Summary of Results....................................................................................................50 Hypothesis One...................................................................................................50 Hypothesis Two...................................................................................................51 Research Question...............................................................................................51 Conclusion..................................................................................................................52 Limitations..................................................................................................................53 Implications for Advertisers.......................................................................................54 Future Research..........................................................................................................55 APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE.......................................................................................56 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................74

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v LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples of Beauty Dimensions.......................24 3-1 Perfume Advertisements........................................................................................33 4-1 Sample Description................................................................................................38 4-2 Means for Girl-next-door/Sex-Kitte n (2 = Very GND, -2 = Very SK).................39 4-3 Means for Cute/Sensual-Exotic (2 = Very C, -2 = Very S/E)...............................39 4-4 Attitudes toward the Models (2 = favorable and -2 = unfavorable)......................40 4-5 Attitudes toward the Products (2 = favorable and -2 =unfavorable).....................40 4-6 Means for Cosmopolitan Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit).......41 4-7 Means for CK Obsession Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)......42 4-8 Means for Seventeen Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit).............43 4-9 Means for Clinique Happy Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)....44 4-10 Fit and Attitude Toward Model Relationship........................................................45 4-11 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model A...........................................46 4-12 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model D...........................................46 4-13 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model C............................................47 4-14 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model B............................................47 4-15 Personality and Product Fits..................................................................................49

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vi Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising BEAUTY MATCH-UP AND SELF-CONC EPT CONGRUITY IN ADVERTISING By Danae Barulich August 2006 Chair: John Sutherland Major Department: Journalism and Communications A beauty match-up seems to exist with endorsers in advertisements. Certain types of beauty are better matched with certain t ypes of products. Also, advertisements have been found to be more effective when the im age of the product matches the self-image of the viewer of the ad. The current study uses two dimensions of beauty, cute and sexy, to determine if there is a match-up effect w ith two product categories, ma gazines and perfumes, using repeated measures analysis of variance. This study also includes a personality dimension. Rather than testing the c ongruence between brand image and respondents self-image, respondents self-images are compared with the models perceived personalities using stepwise multiple regression. The research will determine which models are best suited for use with certain products and a certain target audience.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION While the ideal image of female beauty has changed over the past century, the characteristics of beauty that have remained constant are the youthf ul look, symmetrical facial features, and body ratios. These char acteristics have been found to exemplify the ideal image of beauty both over time and cr oss-culturally (Fallon, 1990; Sarwer, Magee and Clark, 2004). The shared beauty ideal s held across cultures that make up the youthful look are firm breasts and hips, roundne ss instead of angular shapes, fleshiness rather than flab, and smooth unblemished sk in (Fallon, 1990). Symmetry in facial features have also been seen as more at tractive than asymmetrical features (Rhodes, Roberts and Simmons, 1999; Sarw er et al., 2004). Body ratios are another characteristic used over time and across cultures to defi ne beauty (Singh, 1993; Singh, 1994). Fallon (1990) notes that more uniform standards of beauty have been imposed throughout the world since the rise of mass media in the 20th century. Beauty is often used to sell products and services in advertising. Research has shown that physically attractive spokespe ople can add to the e ffectiveness of an advertisement (Joseph, 1982). Physically at tractive spokespeople have been found to have a positive effect on evaluation of the ad, purchase behavior, and can also attract attention (Baker and Churchi ll, 1977; Caballero and Solomon, 1984; Caballero and Pride, 1984). It has also been found that beautiful m odels in advertising at tract attention when women compare themselves to the models in the ads (Martin and Kennedy, 1994; Martin and Gentry, 1997).

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2 Research has found that the image of the model in the ad must match the image of the product being advertised (Peterson and Kerin, 1977; Lync h and Schuler, 1994). This pairing of beauty and products is known as the Match-Up Hypothesis. Research conducted regarding celebrity endorsers reve als that the physical attractiveness of celebrity endorsers would enhance products and advertisements only if the characteristics of the products match-up with the image of a specific celebrity (Friedman and Friedman, 1979; Kamins, 1990). Studies have found that an attractive celebrity leads to higher credibility, purchase intent a nd a more positive attitude towa rd the advertisement than a less attractive celebrity (Kahle and Homer, 1985; Kamins, 1990; Till and Busler, 2000). Building further on the Match-Up Hypothesi s, it was found that multiple categories of beauty exist: Classic Beau ty/Feminine, Sensual/Exotic, Sex-Kitten, Trendy, Cute, and Girl-Next-Door. Of these different beau ty types, certain categories are more appropriately paired with specific products than with others. It ha s been shown that a model whose type of beauty and associated image matches the product with which it is paired in an advertisement provides a more coherent message (Solomon et al., 1992). Also, if this message is consistent with a c onsumers desired self-image this may further enhance acceptance of the advertisement. Studies have shown that th ere are several different t ypes of beauty depicted by female models, and physical attractiveness appears to be a complex multidimensional concept rather than a simple and unitary c ontinuum. Further rese arch on the different beauty types of female models reveals that there are two main contrasting dimensions of beauty Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine (Huckeba, 2005). The study concludes that women desire to be more like the Young Feminine models and in turn will purchase

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3 the products they endorse more readily than they would a product endorsed by a more Sensual/Sexual model (Huckeba, 2005). Self-concept can be defined as the way a person sees themselves including both physical and psychological characteristics. Rath er than an objective point of view, selfconcept is a subjective point of view about oneself (Mehta 1999). Congruence between self-concept and image of products has b een found to enhance the acceptance of advertisements. Research has found that ad vertisements are more effective when the image of the brand in the ad is similar to th e self-images of the viewers of the ads (Hong and Zinkhan, 1995; Mehta, 1999). The current study will build on previous re search regarding mode l beauty types in advertising. Four unknown models (one in the Sensual/Sexual category, one in the Young Feminine, category, one in between th ese categories, and one exhibiting neither beauty type) will be tested against four differe nt brands. The brands will consist of two magazines and two perfumes. One magazine ( Cosmopolitan ) and one perfume (CK Obsession) show characteristics of the Sensual/Sexual categor y while the other magazine ( Seventeen ) and perfume (Clinique Happy) show ch aracteristics of the Young Feminine, or cute category. Building on previous resear ch, the current study will lead to a better understanding of how female co llege students feel about beau ty images in advertising. The study will determine whether or not the models will match-up to the brands that exhibit the same characteristics as their b eauty types. Previous research concentrates on the models looks; this study will also in clude a personality aspect. Respondents will be asked to indicate what they believe each m odels personality to be. In addition, they

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4 will be asked to indicate whether or not each models perceived personality matches the respondents self-concepts.

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5 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Beauty Beauty can be defined as qualities that give pleasure to the senses or exalt the mind (Mish, 1989, 78). Over time, youthfulne ss, symmetry, and body ratios have been identified as the ideal image of human b eauty (Sarwer, Magee and Clark, 2004). For research purposes, physical attr activeness of individuals is most often determined by a panel of judges asked to rate the appearance of one or more individuals (Joseph, 1982). Physical attractiveness of models used in a dvertisements has been shown to have positive effects on viewers. Physic ally attractive models have been found to be credible, attention-getting, persuasive, and were seen as experts, as well as having an effect on purchase (Baker and Churchi ll, 1977; Joseph, 1982; Caball ero and Pride, 1984; Bower and Landreth, 2001). The focus of the current study is on female beauty and how different dimensions of beauty ma tch-up to different products. Female Beauty Sarwer et al. (2004) explain that beauty can be charac terized by physical features including youthfulness, symmetr y, and body ratios. The physical features that are seen as indicators of beauty are clear skin, bright eyes, and lustrous hair (Zerbowitz, Olson and Hoffman, 1993). Youthfulness or a youthful appearance is an important determinant of beauty. Previous research has suggested that attractiveness d eclines with age, especially with women (Zerbowit z et al., 1993).

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6 Symmetry in facial features has also b een found to be a determinant of beauty. Research has shown that both men and women w ith more symmetrical facial features are seen as more attractive than those with asymmetrical features (Rhodes, Roberts and Simmons, 1999; Sarwer et al., 2004). Rhodes et al. (1999) us ed two different ways of transforming a normal face to create a perfect ly symmetrical face. The first technique was to reflect one-half of the face down the middle, vertically. The other technique was to morph the face with its mirror image. R hodes et al. (1999) found that the morphs were more attractive than the original faces, but th e vertical reflections we re less attractive than the original face. The researchers conclude d that the vertical reflections were less attractive because they were f ound to be stranger and more di stinctive than the original face, making them atypical. Rhodes at al. (1999) concluded that facial symmetry is attractive and can be considered an attrib ute that makes a face more attractive. Another determinant of beauty is body ra tios, specifically the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (Singh, 1993; Singh, 1994). With an id eal rating of .7, the WHR is a proportion of fat stored around the waist and hips (Si ngh, 1993). Research has shown that men tend to rate women with a low WH R as more attractive than women with a high WHR (Singh, 1993). Singh (1994) proposed that ideal fe male body shape and attractiveness is more influenced by WHR than body size in general. The researcher used six female figures, three heavier figures with lower WHRs and three thinner figures with higher WHRs. Both male and female responde nts indicated a preference for the heavier figures with the lowest WHR as the ideal female body (Singh, 1994). The figures w ith low WHRs were seen as more attractive and healthy than th e figures with high WHRs. The researcher concluded that the female body shape, indepe ndent of overall body size, is an important

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7 determinant of female attractiveness and h ealthiness (Singh, 1994, 287) Sarwer et al. (2004) note that the preference for the above me ntioned characteristics of female beauty is cross-cultural. Also, preference appears t o be wired-in rather than conditioned by exposure to societal standards of beauty (Sarwer et al., 2004, 31). The characteristics used to define beauty (youthfulness, symmetry, and body ratios) have been stable across time in the United Stat es. The only change in ideal beauty is the result of a change in preferred body ratios. In the United States the ideal image of beauty has changed from thin to voluptuous a nd back to thin again over the last century (Sarwer et al., 2004). During the beginning of the 20th century, two fe male beauty ideals existed. The first ideal was a woman with fr agile and delicate feat ures while the other ideal was a full-figured woman (Mazur, 1986). These two beauty ideals were called the steel engraving lady and the vol uptuous woman. The only phys ical similarity they had was a corseted waistline. The steel engravi ng lady was seen as delicate and frail and was admired for her moral values and social status. On the other hand, the voluptuous woman had a heavy physique and was seen as bei ng sexy (Fallon, 1990). After the steel engraving lady and the voluptuous woman, the Gibson Girl appeared. She was a combination of the previous ideal beauty types along with some new features. The Gibson Girl had a long and slender body but it was not frail and delic ate like the steel engraving ladys build. The Gibson girl had the large bus t and hips of the voluptuous woman. Additionally, the Gibson Girl had a corseted chest, graceful slim legs, rounded calves, and narrow ankles (Fallon, 1990). A more androgynous shape became the ideal image of beauty after World War I (Mazur, 1986). Flat-chested flappers repla ced the curvaceous beauty ideal. In the 1920s

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8 the ideal beauty image for women became almo st boy-like. Rather than a shapely body, make-up and exposed legs played an important role in the ideal beauty image during this time (Fallon, 1990). The flapper beauty id eal ended as the depression began (Fallon, 1990). In the 1940s a more curvaceous ideal image emerged which was demonstrated by the American pinup girls (Mazur, 1986). Also during the 1940s, womens legs began to play a role as an erotic symbol (Fal lon, 1990). The hour-glass figure exhibited by Marilyn Monroe became the ideal of the 1950s (Mazur, 1986). During this time beauty ideals included large busts w ith cleavage, tiny cinched wa ists, and high heels (Fallon, 1990). In the 1960s the beauty ideal shifted back to a taller a nd slimmer figure (Sarwer et al., 2004). Twiggy, a 97 pound model with 31-22-32 measurements was seen as a fashion icon at the time a nd was all over magazines like Seventeen and Vogue (Fallon, 1990). At the beginning of the 1970s, preferre d physical features for a woman included slender bodies, small buttocks, and middle or small sized busts (Fallon, 1990). This thin ideal continued throughout the 1970 s and for the most part is s till seen as the ideal beauty type. In the 1990s a new beauty ideal of de fined muscles along with thinness emerged. In some instances the thin muscular image is accompanied by a larger breast size (Sarwer et al., 2004). Beauty is important to study because it affects everyday life. People judge themselves and others according to their id eal image of beauty. For example, women (more so than men) use their own beauty as a measure of self-worth (Fallon, 1990). There is a general agreement among researcher s that attractiveness leads perceivers to

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9 have positive evaluations of an attractive subject (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani and Longo, 1991). Eagly et al. (1991) re viewed previous literature regarding the beauty-is-good stereotype and predicted that attractive subjects would be assigned more positive qualities than unattractive subjects. It was found that pe rceivers assumed that what is beautiful is good, but the beauty-is-good effects depended on the inference the perceiver was asked to make. The researchers concluded that good l ooks have little imp act on beliefs about attractive subjects integrity and concern for others. However, good looks generated strong inferences about social skills and weaker inference about having influence, adjustment, and intellectual cap ability (Eagly et al., 1991). Beauty is also used by advertisers in a commercial role in or der to sell products and services. Commercial Female Beauty Beauty is used by advertiser s to sell a variety of products and services ranging from cosmetics to electronics. Th e three types of endorsers ty pically used in advertising include the celebrity, the prof essional or expert, and the typical consumer (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Celebrity endorsers includ e those who are known to the public for achievements in areas other than the product they are endorsing, such as an athlete or an actor/actress. An expert e ndorser is one that has extensive knowledge of the product category or the product itself. Lastly, a typica l consumer endorser is an ordinary person (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Effect of Commercial Beauty The advertising industry has recognized the impact and value of using attractive models and celebrities in ads (Joseph, 1982). Advertiser s believe that physically attractive spokespeople can add to the effectiven ess of an advertisement. They also see beautiful spokespeople as being credible and are generally liked more than unattractive

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10 spokespeople (Joseph, 1982). Baker and Chur chill (1977) found that physically attractive models in ads added to the attention-getti ng value of the advertisement as well as the evaluators liking of the adve rtisement. Joseph (1982) found that attractive models contribute to a communications effectiveness in important but limited ways. When an attractive model is used, respondents have more favorable evaluations of both the advertisement and the product being advertise d. However, attractive sources generally have not been perceived to be more e xpert, trustworthy, honest knowledgeable, or intelligent than unattractive sources. Jo seph (1982) found evidence that physical attractiveness can be persuasive. This persuasiveness is weakened when both the attractive and unattractive s ources are described as be ing experts (Joseph, 1982). Caballero and Solomon (1984) found that the presence of a model increased the products appeal by conducting a study to determine if model attractiveness had an effect on purchasing behavior. The researchers us ed point-of-purchase displays with high, medium, and low attractive male and female mo dels paired with beer (a high involvement item) and facial tissue (a low involvement item). The two pr oducts were also advertised without a model. Results of the study indica ted that the point-of-purchase displays with models outperformed the ones without a model, which supports the idea that the presence of a model increases a product s appeal. It was also found that the high involvement product (beer) had higher sales among both male s and females when the model was male. Low attractiveness was found to produce mo re sales for the low involvement product (facial tissue). The researchers concluded that the low attractive model could have increased the awareness of the point-of purch ase display. Caballero and Solomon (1984)

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11 concluded that using models that are rated as being low in attractiv eness could be useful for gaining attention for low involvement products. It has been found that attractive female models have a positive effect on purchase of the product they are advert ising (Caballero and Pride, 1984). Caballero and Pride (1984) used models portrayed as sales repres entatives in a direct mail advertisement to assess purchase behavior of recipients. Lo w, medium, and highly attractive male and female models were placed in a direct ma il advertisement for a book. Additionally, there was one advertisement with no model. The mo del in the advertisements represented the vice president of marketing for the publishing company. Subscribers to a magazine received the direct mail piece with one of the models or no model at all and were allowed six weeks to respond. Results indicated that the advertisement with the highly attractive female produced greater sales than any other version of the ad (Caballero and Pride, 1984). These results indicate that attractive models, particular ly attractive female models have an effect on purchase. Research has determined that attracti ve models are linked to higher quality products (Parekh and Kanekar, 1994). Parekh and Kanekar (1994) studied the expected behavior of an attractive woma n versus the expected behavior of an unattractive woman. One attractive model and one unattractive m odel were both dressed in elegant and nonelegant clothing result ing in four different full-lengt h color photographs. Respondents were asked to indicate the qua lity of four different produc ts, two beauty products (soap and shampoo) and two non-beauty products (sta tionary and a ball-point pen) that they thought each model was likely to choose. Parekh and Kanekar (1994) found that respondents indicated the attr active model was more likely to choose higher quality

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12 products. Higher quality products were also expected to be purchased by the model dressed in elegant clothing. Also, product qua lity for the beauty products was higher for the attractive model (Parekh and Kanekar, 1994). Highly attractive models have been perc eived as experts when paired with enhancing products (Bower and Landreth, 2001). Bower and Landreth (2001) explored the effects of highly attractive models ( HAMs) versus normally attractive models (NAMs) in advertising. HAMs have been de fined as being thin and having beautiful facial features while NAMs are said to have a more average weight, height, and facial beauty. The researchers paired HAMs and NAMs with two different categories of attractiveness related produc ts, problem-solving products and enhancing products. A problem-solving is one that serve s to fix or hide beauty liabi lities or flaws such as acne or dandruff (Bower and Landreth, 2001, 2). Enhancing products are those that serve a more aesthetic purpose rather than conceali ng imperfections (Bower and Landreth, 2001). The researchers hypothesized that NAMs would be percei ved as more trustworthy than HAMs. HAMs were expected to have gr eater perceived expertise when paired with enhancing products while NAMs were expected to have greater perceived expertise when paired with problem-solving products. It was also hypothesized that HAMs would be more effective than NAMs when paired with enhancing products. Finally, the researchers hypothesized that advertisements with problem-solving products would be more effective when paired with NA Ms than HAMs (Bower and Landreth, 2001). The two products chosen from the enhancing product category were lipstick and earrings. The two products chosen from the problem-solving product category were acne concealer and acne medication. Two models that had the same hair and eye color

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13 were chosen to represent the HAM and NAM. Each of the four products was placed with each model in an advertisement (Bower and Landreth, 2001). Results of the study revealed th at there is no difference in using NAMs versus HAMs on perceived trustworthiness, which di d not support the first hypothesis. When associated with enhancing products HAMs were seen as having a greater expertise than NAMs, which supports the second hypothesis. The third hypothesis was not supported because the results showed that NAMs were not seen as having greater expertise with problem-solving products. Respondents indicat ed higher evaluations of the ads for enhancing products when paired with HA Ms. However, ads for problem-solving products were not evaluated more positively when paired with NAMs versus HAMs. Overall the results indicate that HAMs are best paired with enhanci ng products and that there is no advantage in pairing proble m-solving products with HAMs instead of NAMs (Bower and Landreth, 2001, 6). Effect on Female Audiences Previous research provides support that beauty attracts attention when used in advertising. It has been found that viewers compare themselv es to attractive models in advertising (Martin and Kennedy, 1994; Martin and Gentry, 1997). The three motives for comparison include self-evaluation, self-enhanc ement, and self-improvement (Martin and Kennedy, 1994). Martin and Kennedy (1994) conducted a study focused on female adolescents and their motive for comparing thei r physical attractiveness to that of models in advertising. To determine which motiv es predominate when adolescents compare themselves to models, a group of students we re given an illustration with a female looking at a model in a magazine ad. The students were asked to indicate what the female in the illustration mi ght be thinking and what might happen next. Results of the

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14 study revealed that self-evaluation and se lf-improvement were common motives for comparison among adolescents. Self-enhancem ent was not found to be a motive in any of the student answers. Self-evaluati on was the most common motive, with most responses leaning toward the negative side. For example, some respondents thought that the female looking at the magazine wanted to be like the model in the ad and was upset because the model was pr ettier than she was (Martin and Kennedy, 1994). Martin and Gentry (1997) conducted a st udy to determine the impact of highly attractive models on female pre-adolescents an d adolescents. The researchers found that the participants self-perceptions and self-est eem were affected with self-evaluation as the motive for comparison. Participants were given advertisements with highly attractive models paired with three fi ctitious products (hair care, lipstick, and jeans) including headlines and body copy with self-evaluation as a motive for comparison. For example, the headline for the hair care product read Do You Look This Good? (Martin and Gentry, 1997, 25). Self-perception of physi cal attractiveness was lowered in all participants after viewing the ads. Other pa rticipants were given the same ads, but the headlines and body copy used self-improveme nt and self-enhancement as motives for comparison. The self-improvement headline fo r the hair care product read If Only You Knew How to Look This Good! while the self-enhancement headline read If They Only Knew How Good You Look! (Martin a nd Gentry, 1997, 25). These participants self-perceptions of physical a ttractiveness were raised afte r viewing the ads (Martin and Gentry, 1997). These studies clear ly indicate that models in ads attract attention and that females tend to compare themselves to thos e models, which makes selection of the most appropriate model essential.

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15 Match-Up Effect Peterson and Kerin (1977) suggest that model/product congruency is needed in advertisements to enhance viewers perceptions of the ad. In other words, the image of the model must match the image of the produc t. Three different types of models, the demure model, the seductive model, and the nude model were all placed with two different products, body oil and a ratchet wr ench set. The advertisement using the seductive model and body oil was found to be the most appealing one containing the highest quality product produced by the most reputable company in the respondents opinion. This study suggests that product and model congruency in advertising is necessary. When high congruency between a product and a model occurs, the models role in the advertisement is communicative, their presence is necessary to express the desired message (Peterson and Kerin, 1977). Results of a study (Lynch and Schuler, 1994) show that a higher level of perceived expertise was found when there was congrue nce between a model s physical appearance and a product. A study testing the perceived expertise of a male model was conducted by Lynch and Schuler (1994). The researchers used a male model at three different levels of muscularity paired with seve ral products used to help produce muscularity as well as products that are traditionally targeted to males. Results of the study indicated that the models perceived expertise about exerci se equipment and ma le-targeted products increased as muscularity of the mode l increased (Lynch and Schuler, 1994). The Celebrity Match-Up Hypothesis Several studies regarding attractiveness and the use of celebrities in advertisements have been conducted (Friedman and Friedman. 1979; Kahle and Homer, 1985; Kamins,

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16 1990; Till and Busler, 2000). These studies reveal that consumer evaluation of the product in the ad depends on th e endorser/product match-up. Identification and internalization are tw o possible factors that influence how well an endorser will work for a given product. When consumers mimic the behavior of the endorser because they derive satisfaction from the idea that they are like the endorser, this is identification. When consumers mimi c the behavior of the endorser because they believe in the attitude or be havior, this is internalizati on (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). A study conducted by Friedman and Friedman attempted to determine whether or not the effectiveness of an endorser type is dependent upon the type of product being endorsed (Friedman and Friedman, 1979, 64). The researchers hypothesized that the celebrity endorsers would be ev aluated more favorably when pa ired with products high in psychological and/or social ri sk. Expert endorsers were hypothesized to be evaluated more favorably when paired with products high in financial, performance, and/or physical risk. Finally, typical consumer endorsers were hyp othesized to be evaluated more favorably when paired with low risk products (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Three products, one from each category, were chosen to be compared to the three endorser types. The product chosen for hi gh psychological and social risk was costume jewelry. The product chosen for high in fina ncial, performance, and physical risk was a vacuum cleaner. The final product, which was thought to be low on all types of risk, was a box of cookies. Three endorsers were also chosen including a fictitious expert, a typical consumer, and a celebrity. Because she was rated the highest on awareness, likableness, attractiveness, a nd trustworthiness, the celebrity chosen for the study was

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17 Mary Tyler Moore. Twelve different print ad s were made using all endorser and product combinations (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). The results confirmed that consumer eval uation of advertising does depend on the product/endorser combination. Subjects rate d advertisements usi ng the celebrity the highest with costume jewelry as the product and lowest when the product being endorsed was a vacuum cleaner. The advertisement for the vacuum cleaner was rated the highest in combination with the expert endorser. Finally, the advertisement using the typicalconsumer was rated the highest when the pr oduct was the box of cookies (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Kahle and Homer (1985) conducted a study to determine purchase intent and attitude toward a product (dis posable razors) after exposure to advertisements with an attractive and unattractiv e celebrity endorser. Results indicated th at respondents were more likely to purchase the product when th e endorser in the ad was an attractive celebrity versus an unattractiv e celebrity. It was also f ound that respondents who were exposed to the ad with the attractive celebrity liked the product more after seeing to the ads. In addition to purchase intent and positive attitude toward the product, brand recall for the razor was higher among respondents who were shown the ad with the attractive celebrity (Kahle and Homer, 1985). The Celebrity Match-Up Hypothesis suggests that in order for an advertisement to be effective, the message conveyed by the im age of the celebrity e ndorser must converge with the image of the produc t. There must be congruence between the product image and the celebrity image based on attractiveness. Kamins (1990) conducted a study to test the importance of attractiveness of a celebrity endorser in addition to their image matching

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18 up with the products image. The researcher s hypothesized that an attractive celebrity should have a positive impact on evaluations of the advertisement and product that is attractiveness related. It was also hypothesi zed that the attractive celebrity would have no effect on evaluations of the advertisement and product that is not attractiveness related (Kamins, 1990). Two celebrities were chosen for use in the study, Tom Selleck as the attractive celebrity and Telly Savalas as the unattract ive celebrity. The attractiveness related product chosen was a luxury car and the product that was least relate d to attractiveness was a home computer. Four different advertis ements were created using all combinations of the two celebrities and products. Results showed that the attractive celebrity led to higher spokesperson credibility and a more positive attitude towards the ad versus the less attractive celebrity. However, the results were only applicable to the attractivenessrelated product (the luxury car). A match-up between an attractive celebrity spokesperson and an attractiveness-rela ted product was found (Kamins, 1990). Till and Busler (2000) conducted a study to examine not only the physical attractiveness as a match-up factor, but also the role of endorser expertise as a match-up factor. The researchers hypothesi zed that the use of an attr active celebrity endorser for a product used to enhance ones attractivene ss would have a positive effect on attitude towards the brand and purchase intention. A fictitious celebrity endorser was created along with two fictitious products, a pen and a men s cologne to be used in a print ad that was to be shown to undergraduate college students (Till and Busler, 2000). Results showed that both brand attitude and purchase intent were higher for the attractive endorser for both the cologne and the pen. The match-up theory however was

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19 not supported based on the endorsers physical attractiveness. Th e attractive endorser was seen as a better fit and more appropriate for both products (Till and Busler, 2000). The researchers (Till and Busler, 2000) al so hypothesized that a celebrity endorser for a product that matches the endorsers ar ea of expertise will have a greater positive effect on brand attitude and purchase inten tion. Two fictitious products, candy bars and energy bars were used in the study. The products were paired with a fictitious actor and a fictitious athlete. Result s indicated that brand att itude for the energy bar was significantly higher when the endorser was an at hlete. The findings of both studies show that fit plays a major role in the Matc h-Up Hypothesis (Till and Busler, 2000). The research done with spokespeople in advertisements has shown a match-up effect. Celebrities have been found to match-up better with products with high psychological and social risks. Further re search in the Celebrity Match-Up area has shown that attractive celebrities match-up bett er with products that are attractiveness related. In addition to th e Celebrity Match-Up Hypothe sis, a Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis exists. The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis Solomon, Ashmore and Longos study (1992) o ffers the idea that beauty is more complex than just attractiveness versus unattractiveness. The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis introduces the idea that there are several types of beauty, of these beauty types certain types are more appropriately pair ed with specific products than others in advertising. The researchers further pr opose that perceivers mentally associate exemplars of different types of beauty w ith distinct personalities and lifestyles. (Solomon et al., 1992, 24)

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20 Solomon et al.s study (1992) used a conveni ence sample of eighteen major fashion editors based in New York. Two specific el ements of the Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis were tested: (1) are there are multiple types of beauty? (2) Are particular products best associated with specific types of good l ooks? The study used two beauty related products, perfumes and magazines. The perfumes included Opium, Poison, Charlie, Chanel No. 5, and White Linen. The magazines tested included Cosmopolitan Glamour Self Seventeen and Vogue (Solomon et al., 1992). The su rvey participants were each given a set of ninety-six photogr aphs of female models and asked to divide them into categories and then name the categories ba sed on the similarity of the models appearances (Solomon et al., 1992). The results revealed six categories of b eauty: Classic Beauty/Feminine (perfect physical features with a soft or romantic look), Sensual/Exotic (s exual and ethnic look), Sex-Kitten (overt sexual a nd youthful look), Trendy (offbeat look, flawed in contrast to Classic Beauty), Cute (youthf ul physical features and/or clothing), and Girl-Next-Door (natural and unmade-up look). Each category was then rate d for congruence with the set of perfumes and magazines (Solomon et al., 1992). The results of the study (Solomon et al., 1992) supported the idea that there are multiple types of physical attr activeness of models. The final six categories found to exist included (1) Classic Beauty/Feminin e, (2) Sensual/Exotic, (3) Sex-Kitten, (4) Trendy, (5) Cute, and (6) Girl -Next-Door. When a comparison of beauty type and product was conducted, the results showed a good match-up for the Sex-Kitten dimension of beauty and Cosmopolitan magazine. Seventeen magazine was closely associated with the Cute dimension of beauty. Chanel pe rfume showed a strong positive match with

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21 Classic Beauty/Feminine, Poison showed a st rong negative match with Girl-Next-Door, and White Linen showed a strong positive ma tch with Girl-Next-Door and a clear negative match with Trendy. The results support both elements of the Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis (Solomon et al., 1992). A study done by Englis, Solomon and Ashmor e (1994) expands on Solomon et al.s (1992) study and examines beauty types in two different media; fashion magazine advertisements and contemporary music videos The researchers hypot hesized that there would be a variety of looks portrayed in both print and electronic media, both in advertisements and in program content. Th e researchers also hypothe sized that a uniform distribution of beauty would not be found. Also, particular magazines and specific musical genres were hypothesized to result in different beauty types (E nglis et al., 1994). For the magazine portion of the stud y (Englis et al., 1994) three undergraduate students content analyzed 195 models from advertisements in the fashion magazines Cosmopolitan Glamour Mademoiselle Self Seventeen Vogue Esquire GQ and Playboy Results showed that the six beauty types from Solomon et al.s (1992) study were not evenly represented across the ma gazines. The most common looks overall included Trendy, Classic Beauty/Feminine, and Sensual/Exotic. Both the Sensual/Exotic and Trendy beauty types were found most in Glamour and Vogue The Classic Beauty/Feminine look was most often found in Cosmopolitan Mademoiselle and Self (Englis et al., 1994). For the music video portion of the stu dy (Englis et al., 1994), two undergraduate students coded 113 videos using the same pro cedure as the first study. Results revealed that the overall distribution of beauty type s was not evenly represented across musical

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22 genre, with the greatest emphasis on the Se nsual/Exotic look. The next most common looks were Trendy and Classic Beauty/Femin ine. A significant relationship between musical genre and type of beauty was found (Englis et al., 1994). Frith, Shaw and Cheng (2005) used Englis et al.s (1994) beauty types to examine magazine advertisements from Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States. The researchers narrowed down the beauty types to four: Classic, Sensual/Sex Kitten, Cute/Girl-next-door, and Trendy. Advertis ements in popular beauty and fashion magazines containing at least one female model were content analyzed by two coders. It was hypothesized that Caucasian models would be used more in all cultures, the beauty types would differ in all locations, the beauty types of the Caucasian models would differ from the Asian models beauty types, and the products being advertised would be different. Frith et al. (2005) found that Cau casian models were used most in all three cultures and that the models beauty types differed among the three cultures. The researchers found that the Sensual/Sex Kitten b eauty type was used most in U.S. ads, while the Cute/Girl-next-door beauty type was used most in Ta iwanese ads. When examining race, the researchers found that the Sensual/Sex Kitten beauty type was used more often with Caucasian models, and the Cute/Girl-next-door beauty type was used more often with Chinese models. Finally, Frith et al. (2005) di scovered that beauty products were advertised more often in Singapore and Taiwan while clothing was advertised frequently in the U.S. Maynard and Taylor (1999) found that mode ls in Japanese magazines had more of a cute look versus the models in the same American magazine Four Japanese and four American issues of Seventeen magazine were content analyzed to examine the portrayal

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23 of the models in the advertisements. The researchers found that American models were associated more with independence, determ ination, and sometimes defiance. Japanese models portrayed more of a happy, playful, gi rlish image which can be described as Cute (Maynard and Taylor, 1999). The two st udies (Frith et al., 2005 and Maynard and Taylor, 1999) show the difference of models beauty portrayals across cultures. Beauty Types Huckeba (2005) built on Solomon et al.s (1992) study to determine if the categories that divided the models beauty t ypes existed among female college students. The researcher hypothesized that the categorization of the m odels would be consistent with the six categories of beauty from the previous study. Photographs of models from popular fashion magazines such as Vogue Cosmopolitan InStyle and Allure were used in the study. A total of 258 female underg raduates rated fourteen models on how well they fit into each pre-established di mension of beauty (Huckeba, 2005). Results of the study revealed two independent dimensions of beauty exist. The Sex Kitten dimension and Sensual/Exotic dimension were factored together and were renamed Sexual/Sensual. The Girl-Next-Door Cute, and Classic/Feminine dimensions were factored together and renamed Young Feminine. Additionally, the study measured respondents emotional responses to each mode l. Results showed that respondents felt more positively about the models in the Young Feminine category than the Sensual/Sexual models (Huckeba, 2005). See Table 2-1 for examples of the two new beauty dimensions found to exist. The pres ent study tests these two beauty dimensions among unknown models on a female audience to determine if they match-up with products with the same images. In additi on to testing a match-up effect, self-concept congruity between the responde nts and models is tested.

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24 Table 2-1: Strongest, Weakest, and Mi ddle Examples of Beauty Dimensions Sensual/Sexual Young Feminine Strongest Middle Weakest Self-Concept Sirgy (1982) outlines the term self-concept as someones complete thoughts and feelings about themselves. Self-concept can be divided into several dimensions including actual-self or real-self, ideal-self, and social -self. Actual-self refers to how people see themselves, ideal-self refers to how people w ould like to see themselves, and social-self refers to how people present themselves to others (Sirgy, 1982). Zinkhan and Hong (1991) describe the ideal self-c oncept being the reference point with which the actual self

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25 is compared. The real-self and ideal-self are the two main self-concepts that have been frequently studied (Dolich, 1969). It has been found that consumers prefer im ages that are similar to their own selfconcepts (Dolich, 1969; Hong and Zinkha n, 1995; Mehta, 1999). Dolich (1969) conducted a study examining whether consumer s tend to accept brands with images similar to their self-concept and reject brands with images dissimilar to their self-concept. Dolich (1969) concluded that re spondents preferred brands were perceived to be more similar to self-concept than least preferred br ands. For most prefe rred brands, the idealself and real-self images were generally found to have the same relationships. For least preferred brands, significant differences we re found between ideal-self and real-self congruence for all products. Dolichs (1969) re sults verify that individuals tend to relate brands to their own self-concepts. Products can provide a means of self expression; therefore consumers tend to prefer products with images that are compatible, or congruent with their self-concept. Hong and Zinkhan (1995) conducted a study to determine the importance of selfconcept on influencing effectiveness of advertising. The researchers chose the introversion/extroversion dimension of self -concept for the study. It was hypothesized that advertising effectiveness would be enha nced when the ads were congruent with the respondents self-concepts and ideal self-concepts. Congrue nt ads were expected to produce a better brand memory, more favorable attitude toward the product, and stronger purchase intent from respondents. Additiona lly, it was hypothesized that brands with images that are congruent with respondents ideal self-concepts w ould be preferred to brands with images congruent with respondent s actual self-concep ts. Finally, it was

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26 hypothesized that brands consistent with idea l self-concept would reveal greater purchase intent if the discrepancy between the produc t image and actual self -concept is low or moderate. If the discrepancy between the pr oduct image and actual se lf-concept is high, it was hypothesized that brands consistent with actual-self concept would reveal greater purchase intent. Automobiles and shampoo were used in the study (Hong and Zinkhan, 1995) with blue jeans used as a buffer advertisement. Two ads were prepared for each product category, one in an introverted style and one in an extroverted style. There were two parts to the study, a self-evalua tion section and a section to ev aluate the advertisements. The evaluation of the ads cons isted of memory, brand imag e, preference, and purchase intention for each brand. Results for the first hypothesis, brand memo ry would be affected by ads consistent with self-concept, was not supported. However, results for the second and third hypotheses were supported. Brand preference was found to increase when advertising was consistent with respondents self-concept. In other words, the more a brand is similar to the respondents self-concept the more they will like the brand. It was also found that purchase intent is stronger when th e image of the brand is congruent with the respondents self-concep t (Hong and Zinkhan, 1995). Results of the study conducted by Hong a nd Zinkhan (1995) concludes that idealself congruency versus actual-self congruenc y has a higher impact on brand preference. The final hypothesis was not supported. It did not matter how low or extreme the discrepancy between self-concep t and product image, ideal-se lf congruency had a greater effect on purchase intent than actual-self congruency. Over all, it was found that brand

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27 preference and purchase intent were influen ced by self-congruent appeals, while brand memory was not. The researchers conclude d that self-congruent advertising appeals should be used when the primary aim of th e advertisement is to obtain a higher brand preference or purchase intent. Also, if the primary aim is to increase brand preference and purchase intention, ideal se lf-concept congruence is better than actual self-concept congruence. A study done by Mehta (1999) explored self-concept and brand image convergence. A commercial for a cosmetic and fragrance company was tested among a general audience of men and women aged 18 and up. Respondents watched a video with a program and the commercial in their own homes. Telephone interviews were conducted the day after to measure recall, idea communications, and purchase intent. There was also a section for the respondents to indicate their self-c oncepts (Mehta, 1999). Results indicated that the fragrance used in the test advertisement appealed more strongly to the younger respondents. Responde nts were divided into three different groups based on their self-re ported self-concept. The groups included Adventurous (adventurous, exotic, mysterious), Sens ual/Elegant (sensuous, sexy, elegant, sophisticated, stylish), and Se nsitive (sensitive, romantic, traditional). The commercial had significantly different reactions among the three groups. On most dimensions, including recall, purchase intent, br and rating, and commercial liking, both the Adventurous and Sensual/Elegant groups exhi bited strongly favorable reactions. The Sensitive group had consistently negative responses to the commercial. Even though the younger demographic had positive responses to the commercial, the Adventurous and

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28 Sensual/Elegant groups had more positive re actions, indicating that they would be a better target audience (Mehta, 1999). Self-concept and brand-image distance scores were also calculated to determine the level of convergence. The sample was on ce again divided into three groups (high, medium, and low convergence) based on these ca lculations. Purchase intent was then compared for all three groups. Results show ed that purchase inte nt is significantly influenced by the convergence levels. Respondents who have a high convergence with the brand, or see the brand as being similar to who they are, are more interested in purchasing the brand. Conversely, respondent s who have a low convergence with the brand, or see the brand as different from who th ey are, are less likely to be interested in purchasing the brand (Mehta, 1999). Mehta (1999) found that se lf-concept was a good tool for the evaluation of advertisements. Self-concept was used to segment the audience and it was found that the commercial was significantly more effec tive among respondents whose self-concepts were similar. It is also known that peopl e have a strong tendency to li ke other people who share similar characteristics such as demographics, cu lture, personality, attitudes, and beliefs. Based on these ideas, Zinkhan and Hong (1991) hypothesized that advertising effectiveness is enhanced (through memory, attitude towards the product, and purchase intent) when the appeals in the advertisements are congruent with th e viewers actual and ideal self-concept. Therefore, if a models personality is congruent with the viewers self-concept, effectiveness of the advert isement could be enhanced. Self-concept

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29 research overall has shown that people tend to have more positive attitudes towards things and people that match their self-concept. Need for Present Research A large quantity of research exists focuse d on the use of endorsers in advertising, beauty types of models in advertisements, the match-up effect, and self-concept. Currently, there is no research that uses congruence to matc h models in advertising to products and consumers self-concepts. The current study attempts to use the two beauty dimensions found to exist in a previous study (Huckeba, 2005) and match them with specific products; magazines and perfumes. The sexy and cute dimensions of beauty found in Huckebas (2005) study need to be further tested among a female audience in order to determine if the audience will respond as expected to the di fferent dimensions of beauty. According to previous research (H uckeba, 2005), it is expected that a female audience will have a more positive reaction to the models with a cute beauty type. The present research will also determin e whether or not the two dimensions of beauty match-up to products as expected. Solomon et al. (1992) found a match-up for the Sex-Kitten dimension of beauty and Cosmopolitan magazine as well as a match-up for the Cute dimension of beauty and Seventeen magazine. The current study also attempts to add to that body of research by including a self-concept dimension. As found in previous research (Dolich, 1969; Hong and Zinkhan, 1995; Mehta, 1999), it is expected that consumers prefer images that are similar to their own self-concepts. Rather than testing respondents self-concepts with the brand bei ng advertised, they will be tested with the model in the advertisement. The focus of the present study is limited to unknown models rather than celebrity spokespersons. Female college students are used in order to better understand a possible

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30 target audience for both product categories. The study will offer insight about female college students reactions to models in advertising. Conclusion Based on the results of a previous study (H uckeba, 2005), it is expected that that a female audience will react more positively to the models with a cute look versus the models with more of a sexy look. Based on previous research (Solomon et al., 1992; Englis et al., 1994) it is also predicted that the models imag es (cute or sexy) will matchup to products with similar images wh ich leads to the following hypotheses: H1 : A model with a Sensual/Sexual beauty type will match up to a product with a Sensual/Sexual brand image. H2 : A model with a Young Feminine, or cute beauty type will match up to a product with a Young Feminine, or cute brand image. The current study also attempts to answer the following quest ion regarding selfconcept congruity: Is attitude toward a model related to how well the models perceived personality fits the respondents self-concept?

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31 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The primary purpose of this study is to de termine if products with certain brand images will match-up with models with the same image using both beauty types found to exist in Huckebas (2004) study. The study also uses a personality measure to determine if attitude toward a model is related to how well the model fits the respondents selfconcepts. Research Design A survey in the form of a self-adminis tered questionnaire was used to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was in a pe n and paper format and was given to respondents face-to-face. Survey research can be described as the systematic collection of information (typically via a questionnair e) from respondents in order to better understand and/or predict some aspect of their attitudes or behaviors (Davis, 1997, 118). A survey was chosen for the present study becau se surveys are seen as an excellent way to measure the attitudes of la rge populations, such as stude nts in a classroom (Babbie, 2001). The survey used a self-administered questionnaire in which all respondents were asked the same questions in the same order, so bias of the researcher is reduced (Davis, 1997). Because of their standa rdized format, questionnaires are also generally strong on reliability since they eliminate possible prob lems in observations made by the researcher (Babbie, 2001). The fashion models used in the current study were selected based on Huckebas (2005) research. Four different models from Huckebas (2005) research were chosen

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32 using scores for the sexy and cute dimensions Models representing the range of scores were chosen ranging from high sexy, high cute to low sexy, low cute. Model A had a high sexy, low cute score, Model B had a high cute, low sexy score, Model C had a low cute, low sexy score, and Model Ds had a middle cute, middle sexy score. All models chosen were unknown non-celebrities. To remain consistent with previous res earch, four products from two categories, magazines and perfumes were used in the study. The products chosen for the study were Seventeen magazine, Cosmopolitan magazine, CK Obsession perfume, and Clinique Happy perfume. Both Cosmopolitan magazine and CK Obsession perfume have a Sensual/Sexual brand image, while both Seventeen magazine and Clinique Happy perfume have a Young Feminine, or cute brand image. Brand Selection Previous studies have used magazines and perfumes for testing the Match-Up Hypothesis (Solomon et al., 1992). The four brands chosen for the current study exhibited the images of both beauty types found to exist in Huck ebas (2005) research. The two products from the magazine category whose images had been previously identified were Seventeen and Cosmopolitan Seventeen magazine was chosen for the current study because of its Young Feminine, or cute image. In previous research, Solomon et al. (1992) describe the mag azines image as cute and youthful. Cosmopolitan magazine was chosen because of its longsta nding image that celebrates female sexual expression. The magazine has been said to help modernize women's thinking about sex and many other lifestyle issues. It has also pushed the envelo pe at times when the world and American culture were very conservative (Jenkins, 2005).

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33 The two products from the perfume cat egory were Clinique Happy and CK Obsession. Clinique Happy was chosen for its Young Feminine, or cute image portrayed by its print advertisements. The Sens ual/Sexual nature of the CK Obsession advertisements made it a good choice for the current study. Table 3-1 presents examples of advertisements for both perf umes (Images de Parfums, 2006). Table 3-1: Perfume Advertisements Clinique Happy Ad, 2001 CK Obsession Ad, 1999 Instrumentation Questions on the survey (which can be found in the appendix) included indicating the respondents attitude toward all four mode ls and all four products using a five-point semantic differential scale. In order to ach ieve greater reliabilit y, attitude toward the models and products were tested on three dimensions including Pleasant/Unpleasant, Favorable/Unfavorable, and Good/Bad. Respondents were asked to indicate ho w well all models fit into both the Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine, or cute categories using a fi ve-point semantic differential scale. For greater reliability, two dimensions were used to test the models fit with each category including Girl-next-door Sex-Kitten and Sensual/Exotic Cute.

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34 Respondents were also asked to indicate how well each model fit with each product on a five point Likert-type scal e ranging from a very bad fit to a very good fit. Respondents were asked to indicate how cl ose each models personality fit to the respondents real and ideal self-concepts as we ll as their undesired self-concepts. Using a five-point Likert-type scale, three separa te questions were asked for each model: How close is Model Xs personality to who you ar e (your personality)?, How close is Model Xs personality to who you woul d like to be?, and How close is Model Xs personality to who you dont want to be? Demographi c questions were also asked. Sample The participants in the current study were a convenience sample taken from classes in the Journalism and Communication department at a large Southeas tern University. Participants were recruited from four underg raduate classes: Elem ents of Advertising (ADV 3000), Advertising Strategy (ADV 3001), Media Planning (ADV 4300) and Public Relations Writing (PUR 4100). A total of 149 females participated in the study and were awarded extra credit poin ts for participating. One version of the questionnaire was given out to all participan ts by the principal investigator. Instructions were printed at the top of the questionnaire and also read aloud to the participants by the principal inves tigator. The informed consent document was attached to the front of all questionn aires and was collect ed and separated upon completion of the questionnaire. Measurement Participants were first asked if they were familiar with each model and each product. Familiarity of each model was m easured on a four-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) not at all familiar to (4) very familiar. Familiarit y of each product was

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35 measured using a (1) yes or (2) no. The part icipants were then as ked to indicate their attitude toward each model and product on thr ee different five-point semantic differential scales including Good Bad, Favorable Un favorable, and Pleasant Unpleasant which were all rotated and randomize d. Participants were asked to score the models on a fivepoint semantic differential scale incl uding Girl-next-door Sex-Kitten and Sensual/Exotic Cute which were all rotate d and randomized. Participants were then asked to indicate how well they thought each model fit with each product on a Likerttype scale. The scale ranged from (1) very bad fit to (5) very good fit, with the middle level being (3) neutral. Participants were also asked to indicate how they felt about each of the models personalities. They were first asked if the models personalities were close to their own self-concepts. Then they were asked if the models personalities were close to who they wanted to be like. Finally, the participants were asked if the m odels personalities were close to who they did not want to be like. Each of these questions used a Likert-type scale ranging from (1) very bad fit to (5 ) very good fit, whil e (3) was neutral. Respondents were asked about their job st atus, and how much money they spent per week on non-necessities such as entertainment and clothing. They were asked to choose from the following amounts: $0-49, $50-99, $100-149, and $150+. Data Processing Respondents marked their answers on scan -tron sheets. The raw data from the answer sheets was uploaded into SPSS and cl eaned where needed. Variable names were assigned to the data. Variables including attitu de toward the models, attitude towards the brands, models cute/sexy scor es, and models fit to the pr oducts were all recoded. The new values for attitudes toward the models and brands were as follows: 2 = Very Good, -

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36 2 = Very Bad, and 0 = Neutral. The Cute/Se xy measures were also recoded so that 2 = Girl-next-door and Cute, and -2 = Sensual/Exo tic and Sex-Kitten. The final recode was done for the models fit to the products so that 2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit, and 0 = Neutral. The data was then analyzed using frequencies, manipulation checks, repeated measures analysis of variance, and stepwise multiple regression. A .05 level of significance was used for all analyses.

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37 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Sample Demographics A total of 149 female students participat ed in the current st udy. Most respondents were between the ages of 19 and 21 (85.6 valid percent). The majority of respondents describe their race as white, non-Hispanic (74.3 valid percent) followed by Hispanic (12.2 valid percent). The next categories wi th the highest number of respondents were black, non-Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Isla nder with 5.4 valid percent each. Over half of the participants (53.7 valid percent) indicated that they did not currently have a job. Of the participants that indicated they were employed, most (44.3 valid percent) worked part-time while the others (2 valid percent) worked full-time. Just under half of the participants (49.4 valid per cent) indicated that they spent over $100 per month on personal items which were non-necessities. Manipulation Checks Cute/Sexy Validation A manipulation check using re peated measures analysis of variance was performed to determine if the subjects of this study ra ted the models in a manner similar to their selection for inclusion in this study. We e xpected Model A to be high sexy, Model B to be high cute, Model C to be low sexy/cute a nd Model D to be middle sexy/cute. For the semantic differential scale, Girl-next-door/S ex-kitten, the means for all models were significantly different from each other (p<.05). Model A was rated the closest to the Sexkitten dimension with a mean score of -1.624. Model B was rated the closest to the Girl-

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38 next-door dimension with a mean score of 1.772. Models C and D were in the middle with mean scores of -.282 and .295, respect ively. Table 4-2 shows all models mean scores. Table 4-1: Sample Description N % Valid % Age 18 19 20 21 22 25 29 4 34 52 33 13 2 1 2.7 22.8 34.9 22.1 8.7 1.3 .7 2.9 24.5 37.4 23.7 9.4 1.4 .7 Total 139 93.3 100.0 Missing 10 6.7 Race White, nonHispanic Hispanic Black, nonHispanic Asian/Pacific Islander Other 110 18 8 8 4 73.8 12.1 5.4 5.4 2.7 74.3 12.2 5.4 5.4 2.7 Total 148 99.3 100.0 Missing 1 .7 Has a Job No Yes, part-time Yes, full-time 80 66 3 53.7 44.3 2.0 53.7 44.3 2.0 Total 149 100.0 100.0 Money Spent $0-49 $50-99 $100-149 $150+ 22 53 39 34 14.8 35.6 26.2 22.8 14.9 35.8 26.4 23.0 Total 148 99.3 100.0 Missing 1 .7 A second manipulation check was comple ted using the Cute/Sensual-Exotic semantic differential measurement. Mean scores for all models were significantly different from each other (p<.05). Model A wa s rated the closest to the Sensual-Exotic dimension with a mean score of -1.497. M odel B was rated the closest to the Cute

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39 dimension with a mean score of 1.698. Models C and D were in the middle with mean scores of -.416 and .154, respectively. Table 4-3 shows the mean scores for all models. Table 4-2: Means for Girl-next-door/Sex-K itten (2 = Very GND, -2 = Very SK) 95% Confidence Interval Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound B D 1.772 .295 1 2 .041 .085 1.692 .126 1.852 .464 C A -.282 -1.624 3 4 .059 .060 -.398 -1.742 -.166 -1.506 Mauchlys W=.866, df 5, p=.001, indicat ed the need to use the Huynh-Feldt es timates for the within-subjects test of significance, F = 438.18 df =2, p = .000. Table 4-3: Means for Cute/Sensual-Exo tic (2 = Very C, -2 = Very S/E) 95% Confidence Interval Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound B D 1.698 .154 1 2 .042 .084 1.614 -.013 1.782 .321 C A -.416 -1.497 3 4 .056 .066 -.528 -1.627 -.305 -1.367 Mauchlys W=.780, df 5, p=. 000 indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feld t estimates for the wi thin-subjects test of significance, F = 50.34, df = 3, p = .000. The results of the manipulation checks i ndicate that Model A was seen as being high sexy and low cute, which fits the Sensual/ Sexual beauty type. Model B was seen as being high cute, but low sexy which fits the Young Feminine beauty type. Model C was seen as being low cute and low sexy, while Model D was in the middle of both beauty types. Attitude Toward Models and Products As expected, there were significant differences among attitudes toward the models. Model B (high cute/low sexy) (Mean = 1.018) evoked a significantly more positive attitude than all the other models. Likewise, Model D (middle cute/middle sexy) (Mean = .622) had an attitude score more positive th an all the other mode ls except Model B. Model A and C were significantly different fr om each other and had lower attitude scores

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40 than Model B and D. The more cute models were viewed more favorably than were the less cute models. Means for all models are presented in table 4-4. Table 4-4: Attitudes toward the Models (2 = favorable a nd -2 = unfavorable) 95% Confidence Interval Attitude toward the Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Model B (high cute/low sexy) 1.018 1 .062 .895 1.141 Model D (middle-cute/middle sexy) .622 2 .067 .489 .755 Model A (high sexy/low cute) .013 3 .069 -.123 .149 Model C (low cute/low sexy) -.260 4 .062 -.382 -.137 Grand Mean .348 .038 .274 .423 Repeated Measures ANOVA showed significant differen ces among means, df = 3, F = 89.194, p = .000 1Attitude toward Model B was significantly greater than all others 2Attitude toward Model D was significantly less than Model B and greater than all others 3Model A was signifi cantly less than Model B and D and greater than Model C 4Model C was signifi cantly less than all others Also, as expected, there were significan t differences among attitudes toward the four products. Subjects were signi ficantly more favorable toward Cosmopolitan (Mean = .984) than all the other products. Simila rly, Clinique Happy (Mean = .782) had the second most favorable attitude, significantly less than Cosmopolitan and significantly more positive than Seventeen (Mean = .568) and CK Obsession (Mean = .191). Seventeen s attitude was significantly more posi tive than CK Obsession. Means for all products are presented in Table 4-5. Table 4-5: Attitudes toward the Products (2 = favorable and -2 =unfavorable) 95% Confidence Interval Attitude toward the Product Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Cosmopolitan .9841 1 .083 .820 1.147 Clinique Happy .7822 2 .081 .622 .941 Seventeen .5683 3 .070 .430 .706 CK Obsession .1914 4 .065 .061 .320 Grand Mean .631 .048 .537 .725 Because Mauchlys W (.918) was significant (df = 5, p = .033), the Huynh-Feldt Repeated Measures ANOVA was used. It revealed significant differences (df = 2.826, F = 25.688, p = .000). 1Cosmopolitan was significantly grea ter than all others 2Clinique was significantly less than Cosmopolitan and greater than all others 3Seventeen was significantly less than Cosmopolitan and Clinique and greater than CK Obsession. 4CK Obsession was significant ly less than all others

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41 Models Fit with Beauty Types: Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis 1: A model with a Sensual/Sexua l beauty type will match up to a product with a Sensual/Sexual brand image. All models were compared to both products with sexy images, Cosmopolitan magazine and CK Obsession perfume using a repeated measures analysis of variance (Table 4-6) of ratings from the Very Bad Fit to Very Good Fit scale (1 = Very Bad Fit). The model with the best fit score for Cosmopolitan was the model with the high sexy/low cute beauty type (Model A) with a mean of .933. The model with the middle cute/middle sexy beauty type, model D, had the second best fit (Mean = .577). Model C (low cute/low sexy) came in next with a mean of .289, followed by the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) with a mean of -.530. Re sults indicated that the high sexy/low cute model and the middle cute/middle sexy model had the best fit with Cosmopolitan with the high sexy/low cute model having the best fit. The high cute/low sexy model had the worst match-up with Cosmopolitan The results supported the hypothesis. Table 4-6: Means for Cosmopolitan Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit) 95% Confidence Interval Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound A D .933 .577 1 2 .089 .085 .758 .409 1.108 .746 C B .289 -.530 3 4 .098 .089 .095 -.706 .433 -.354 Mauchlys W=.856, df 5, p=. 000 indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feld t estimates for the wi thin-subjects test of significance, F = 49.47, df = 2.823, p = .000. A repeated measures analysis of variance was also used to test the second sexy product, CK Obsession perfume (Table 4-7). The model with the high sexy/low cute beauty type, Model A, had the highest m ean score for CK Obsession (1.020), and the score was significantly greater than all othe rs. The model with the low cute/low sexy

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42 beauty type, model C, had the next highest mean (.510) for CK Obsession perfume. This model had significantly less fit than Model A and significantly more fit than Model D and B. Model D (middle cute/middle sexy) had the next highest mean of .148, followed by the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) w ith a mean of -1.134. The best fit for CK Obsession was the high sexy/low cute model (M odel A) and the worst fit was the high cute/low sexy model (Model B), which supports the hypothesis. Table 4-7 presents mean scores which were all significantly different for all models. Table 4-7: Means for CK Obsession Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit) 95% Confidence Interval Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound A C 1.020 .510 1 2 .093 .102 .837 .309 1.203 .712 D B .148 1.134 3 4 .095 .074 -.040 -1.281 .335 -.988 Mauchlys W=.856, df 5, p=.000, indicat ed the need to use the Huynh-Feldt es timates for the within-subjects test of significance, F = 49.47, df = 2.814, p = .000. Hypothesis 2: A model with a Young Feminine or cute beauty type will match up to a product with a Young Femi nine, or cute brand image. All models were compared to the two cute products, Seventeen (Table 4-8) and Clinique (Table 4-9) with a repeated measur es analysis of variance. Models B (high cute/low sexy) and D (middle cute/middle sexy) were rated as the best fits with Model B (Mean = 1.764) having a significantly higher fit score than Mode l D (Mean = 1.257). The low cute/low sexy model (Model C) and the high sexy/low cu te model (Model A) had the lowest fit scores with mean scores that were significantly different from each other and from models B and D. The low cu te/low sexy models (Model C) mean score was -.696 while the high sexy/low cute m odels (Model A) mean score was -1.514.

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43 While both the high cute/low sexy and middle cute /middle sexy models fit with the cute product, results show that the hi gh cute/low sexy model best fit Seventeen magazine. The hypothesis was supported. Table 4-8: Means for Seventeen Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit) 95% Confidence Interval Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound B D 1.764 1.257 1 2 .055 .077 1.692 1.105 1.852 1.408 C A -.696 1.514 3 4 .098 .073 -.890 -1.657 -.502 -1.370 Mauchlys W=.856, df 5, p=.000, indicat ed the need to use the Huynh-Feldt es timates for the within-subjects test of significance, F = 49.47, df = 2.811, p = .000. The second cute product to be tested with a repeated meas ures analysis of variance was Clinique Happy perfume (Table 4-9). Th e models with the be st fit to Clinique Happy were the high cute/low sexy model (Mod el B) and the middle cute/middle sexy model (Model D). Model Bs mean score (Mean = 1.228) was significantly higher than Model Ds mean score (Mean = .725). The lo w cute/low sexy model (Model C) and the high sexy/low cute model (Model A) had th e lowest fit scores at -1.195 and -1.242, respectively. The low cute/low sexy model (M odel C) and the high sexy/low cute model (Model A) had mean scores that were not si gnificantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than both the middl e cute/middle sexy model (Model D) and high cute/low sexy models (Model B) scores. Results show that the cute models better fit the cute product with the cutest mode l having the best fit. The hypothesis was supported.

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44 Table 4-9: Means for Clinique Happy Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit) 95% Confidence Interval Model Mean Rank Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound B D 1.228 .725 1 2 .083 .083 1.065 .561 1.391 .889 C A 1.195 1.242 3 4 .077 .084 -1.347 -1.407 -1.042 -1.076 Mauchlys W=.856, df 5, p=.000, indicat ed the need to use the Huynh-Feldt es timates for the within-subjects test of significance, F = 49.47, df = 2.789, p = .000 Relationship Between Fit and Attitude Toward the Model Respondents perceptions of how well the models fit the different products, the dependent variable, were related to responde nts attitudes toward the products, the independent variable. Fi t for the cute products ( Seventeen and Clinique Happy) was related to respondents attitude s toward the cute models (M odel B: high cute/low sexy and Model D: middle cute/middle sexy). As expected, fit of the cute models to sexy products was not related to respondents att itude toward the products. The fit of sexy products to attitudes toward th e models was correlated for Cosmopolitan but not CK Obsession. The fit of the low sexy/low cute model was, as might be expected, more diverse. Fit of this model to Seventeen Clinique Happy and Cosmopolitan was related to respondents attitudes toward the model. Because of the models low cute/low sexy rating, she was not perceived to be an extrem e (high cute/low sexy or high sexy/low cute) giving her correlations for fit scores and att itude across cute and sexy products. These results suggested that the fit of a model to a product is related to the models cute/sexy rating as well as individuals like-dislike (attitude) of the model. Models that fit a product are likely to genera te favorable attitudes.

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45 Table 4-10: Fit and Attitude Toward Model Relationship Fit of Model Image to Product Cute Products Sexy Products Seventeen Clinique Happy Cosmopolitan CK Obsession Attitude toward the Model R sig. R sig. R sig. R sig. B (high cute/low sexy) .048 ns .212 .009 .082 ns .138 ns D (middle cute/middle sexy) .256 .002 .341 .000 .096 ns -.159 ns A (high sexy/low cute) .037 ns -.069ns .226 .005 .135 ns C (low sexy/low cute) .208 .011 .204 .013 .317 .000 .053 ns Research Question: Is attitude toward a model related to how well the models perceived personality fits the respondents self-concept? To address this question, stepwise multiple regression was used with attitude toward the model as the dependent variable a nd the three measures of personality fit as the independent variables. These three persona lity fit measures were (1) How close is the models personality to who you are? (2) How close is the models personality to who you would like to be? and (3) How close is the models personality to who you dont want to be? Measurement was with a 1 to 5 scal e, 1 = Very Close and 5 = Very Far. There are two reminders for reading these re sults. First, the independent measures are highly correlated causing the models to be affected by multicollin earity as reported. This limits examining beta weights to iden tify which independen t variable explained more variance. This was not the purpose of this analysis. The pur pose of this analysis was simply to explore which personality fi ts were significant. Second, because the attitude measure was scaled in the opposite direction (2= Very favorable and -2 = Very unfavorable), and one of the measures (Who you do not want to be like ) is scaled in the same direction, negative standardized Beta weights reflect the fo llowing relationship for the Who You Are and Who You Want to Be meas ures: as closeness to a model increases, attitude becomes more favorable. For the Who You Do Not Want to Be measure, a

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46 negative standardized Beta suggests the followi ng relationship: the closer a model is to who the respondent does not want to be , the more negative the attitude. Attitudes toward the high sexy/low cute model (Model A, Table 4-11) the middle cute/middle sexy model (Model D, Table 4-12) and the low cute/low sexy model (Model C, Table 4-13) were similar. Both were related to whom the respondents are now and who they do not want to be like: the furt her the sexy model was from who the subjects are now, the more favorable the attitude. A ttitude toward the hi gh sexy/low cute model was also related to who they do not want to be like: the closer the sexy model was to who the subjects did not want to be like, the more positive the attitude. This suggested that the attitudes toward the high sexy/low cute model (Model A), the middle cute/middle sexy (Model D) and the low cute/low sexy mode l (Model C) were more of avoidance, than aspiration. They did not want to be different from whom they are now and they wanted to be different from the person they did not want to be like. Table 4-11: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model A Collinearity Statistics Independent Variables: Cl ose to Std. Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF Who you are -.284 -3.348 .001 .865 1.156 Who you want to be ns ns Ns ns ns Who you do not want to be .173 2.095 .038 .865 1.156 R = .382, R2 = .146, df = 2, F = 12.424, p = .000 Table 4-12: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model D Collinearity Statistics Independent Variables: Cl ose to Std. Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF Who you are -.233 -2.835 .005.799 1.251 Who you want to be ns ns Ns ns ns Who you do not want to be .387 4.911 .000.799 .1251 R = .526, R2 = .277, df = 2, F = 27.914, p = .000 The results for Model B (high cute /low sexy) (Table 4-14) were the opposite of the avoidance results found for Model A, Model C and Model D. Who respondents want to be was the only significant predictor for the high cute/low sexy model. This suggested

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47 the aspirational role for Model B and reinfor ced the avoidance role for Model A, Model C and Model D. Table 4-13: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model C Collinearity Statistics Independent Variables: Cl ose to Std. Beta T Sig. Tolerance VIF Who you are -.233 -2.835 .005 .813 1.229 Who you want to be ns ns Ns ns ns Who you do not want to be .266 2.624 .010 .813 1.229 R = .345, R2 = .119, df = 2, F = 9.985, p = .000 Table 4-14: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model B Collinearity Statistics Independent Variables: Close to Std. Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF Who you are ns ns Ns ns ns Who you want to be -.221 -2.750 .007 1.000 1.000 Who you do not want to be ns ns Ns ns ns R = .221, R2 = .049, df = 1, F = 7.565, p = .007 These results suggest that high cute/low se xy models that provide an aspirational image and personality are likely to be more accepted by an audience. Conversely, high sexy/low cute, middle cute/middle sexy and low cute/low sexy models will be more accepted when they provide exemplars of whom viewers want to avoid becoming. Personality Fit and Product Fit To determine the relationship between pe rsonality fit and product fit, stepwise multiple regression was used with fit of th e product as the depende nt variable and (1) close to who you are, (2) close to who you wa nt to be and (3) close to who you do not want to be as independent variables. Sixt een analyses were completed: one for each product for each of the four models. As in the previous regression discussion, please remember that the personality fit measures ar e highly correlated. Likewise, since the fit measure was anchored 1 = Very Bad and 5 = Very good, and the closeness measure was anchored 1 = Very close and 5 = Very Far, ne gative standardized Beta weights reflect the

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48 proper relationship: as the more close the mode l to whom the person is or wants to be the better fit of the model to the pr oduct. In terms of whom the subjects did not want to be, a positive Beta suggests that fit increases as the model gets closer to whom the subjects do not want to be. For simplicity purposes, the results of the sixteen multiple regressions are presented in one table. The results of only significant regressions are reported. All had p values less than .05. These results provide insight into how models fit with various products. First, subject-model personality fit is not related to model-product fit in all cases (Table 4-15). In general, the results of the multiple regressions show that proximity to a models personality is most often related to a magazine ( Seventeen or Cosmopolitan) and that proximity of a models personality to who th e subject is is the significant predictor. This suggests a support function. The model f its the product when the model fits with whom someone perceives themselves to be.

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49 Table 4-15: Personality and Product Fits Who You Are Who You Want to Be Who You Do Not Want to Be Model A fit with (low cute/high sexy) Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Seventeen -.164 .046 ns Ns ns ns Cosmopolitan ns ns ns Ns .217 .008 CK Obsession ns ns ns Ns .219 .007 Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns ns ns Who You Are Who You Want to Be Who You Do Not Want to Be Model D fit with (middle cute/middle sexy) Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Seventeen ns ns ns Ns ns ns Cosmopolitan -.161 .049 ns Ns ns ns CK Obsession ns ns ns Ns ns ns Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns .429 .000 Who You Are Who You Want to Be Who You Do Not Want to Be Model C fit with (low cute/middle sexy) Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Seventeen ns ns ns Ns ns ns Cosmopolitan -.161 .049 ns Ns ns ns CK Obsession ns ns ns Ns ns ns Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns .429 .000 Who You Are Who You Want to Be Who You Do Not Want to Be Model B fit with (high cute/low sexy) Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Std. Beta Sig. Seventeen ns ns ns Ns ns Ns Cosmopolitan -.288 .000 ns Ns ns Ns CK Obsession ns ns -.192 .019 ns Ns Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns ns Ns

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50 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Results After completing manipulation checks, it was clear that all four models in the study had a different beauty type. Model A was seen as high sexy/low cute, Model B was high cute/low sexy, Model C was low cute and low sexy, while Model D was middle cute and middle sexy. A repeated measures analysis of varian ce was performed to find the respondents attitudes toward both the models and the pr oducts. The high cute/low sexy model (Model B) was significantly more favorable than all other models. Overall the respondents indicated more favorable attitudes toward the cute models. For the products, Cosmopolitan was the most favorable followed by Clinique Happy, Seventeen and CK Obsession. Hypothesis One H1: A model with a Sensual/Sexual beauty type will match up to a product with a Sensual/Sexual brand image. In order to find the best mode l/product fit, a repeated meas ures analysis of variance was performed. The model with the best fit to the first sexy product, Cosmopolitan was the high sexy/low cute model (Model A). The high cute/low sexy model (Model B) had the worst fit to the first sexy product.

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51 The high sexy/low cute model (Model A) al so had the best fit with the second sexy product, CK Obsession. Once again, the wo rst fit for CK Obsession was the high cute/low sexy model (Model B). Th ese results supporte d hypothesis one. Hypothesis Two H2: A model with a Young Feminine beauty type will match up to a product with a Young Feminine brand image. A repeated measures analysis of varian ce was used to test the fit between the models and products. Both the high cute/l ow sexy model (Model B) and the middle cute/middle sexy model (Model D) fit the first cute product, Seventeen However, the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) had the be st fit, and the high sexy/low cute model (Model A) had the worst fit. The second cute product tested was Clini que Happy. Once again the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) and the middle cute/m iddle sexy model (Model D) fit the cute product the best, with Model B having the best fit. Model A (high sexy/low cute) had the worst fit with Clinique Happy. Th e results supported hypothesis two. Research Question Is attitude toward a model related to how well the models perceived personality fits the respondents self-concept? Stepwise multiple regression was used to explore personality fits with respondents and models. Models A (high sexy/low cute), D (middle cute/middle sexy), and C (low cute/low sexy) were found to have more of an avoidance role. Results for the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) were opposite fr om Models A, C, and D with more of an aspirational role. Therefore, the high cute /low sexy model is more likely to be accepted by an audience.

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52 Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between personality fit and product fit. Results indi cated that a model fits the product when the model fits someones image of themselves. Th is fit was found mostly with a magazine as the product. Results indicat ed that the respondents pref erred the high cute, low sexy model (Model B) and the magazine with the sexy image, Cosmopolitan This could be because the respondents did not view the other magazine, Seventeen as being targeted toward their age group even though it has a cute image which matched that of the preferred model. This is an area wh ere further research could be conducted. Conclusion Results of the current stu dy show that college-aged women aspired to be like the model with a cute beauty image rather than the models with a more sexy beauty image, which supports previous research (Huckeba 2005). The results are in support of Huckebas (2005) findings of two distinct di mensions of beauty among females. If companies want viewers of their ads to aspire to be like the models in them, the models used in the ads should have a cute loo k. On the other hand, if the goal of the advertisement is avoidance, a model with a sexier look would be more effective. Both the Sexy and Cute models fit with products with similar images. This knowledge is useful to companies because it indicates that products with a sexy image are better paired with sexy models and products with a cute image are better paired with cute models. Models with a sexy image would be best paired with sexy products such as the ones used in the present research ( Cosmopolitan and CK Obsession). On the other hand models with more of a cute image would best paired with cute products (such as Seventeen and Clinique Happy). The results of the current study support previous

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53 research regarding the Beauty Match-Up Hypot hesis (Solomon et al., 1992; Englis et al., 1994). Finally, the models fit the product more often when the models personality fit that of the respondent. This information indicates that it is necessary to determine the target audiences self-image. The target audience s self-image is an important determining factor as far as which models to choose fo r certain products. The choice of model should match either the ideal self-image or the actua l self-image of the target audience. When there is a match with the mode ls and audiences self-images, the audience is more likely to think that the model fits the product. The results support the id ea that people prefer images that are congruent w ith their own self-concepts (Dolich, 1969; Hong and Zinkhan, 1995; Mehta, 1999). The findings of the present study indicate th at beauty has two distinct dimensions, cute and sexy. These two dimensions are best paired with products with similar images. In order to select a model for an advertisem ent it is important to determine the models beauty type and the products image so that a match can be formed. Limitations Although there were many significant findi ngs, the study had some limitations. The validity of the study may be questioned because the responde nts consisted of a convenience sample of students rather than a random sample which means the results should not be generalized beyond the sample. The study was restricted by place and time because the sample of students was taken from classes in the same university. Because participants were students, the study was lim ited to an age range of 18 to 29. Another limitation was the survey itself. Some of th e respondents chose not to answer all of the questions, which might have caused non-respons e error. Questions regarding familiarity

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54 of the products were scored on a yes or no scal e. Using a Likert-type scale such as the one used for model familiarity could have elic ited different responses. The pictures of the models used in the questi onnaire were another limitation. The pictures chosen from Huckebas (2005) study were not uniform and c ould possibly have introduced some bias. Some pictures were close-up shots of the m odels face while others showed the models upper torso and clothing. Implications for Advertisers The results of the study provide more in formation on the beliefs of college-aged women. The information could be useful to brands (such as magazines and perfumes) that target this demographic by providi ng a basis of spokes m odel selection. The research supports the importance of c hoosing the right spokes model for their advertisements. Results of the study show that models with a certain image (sexy or cute) are best paired with products with the same image. Previous research has identified that particular products are best associated with specific types of good looks. The present study supports the previous re search done with the Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis. Previous research has also suggested that product and model congruency is necessary. When this occurs, the models presence is necessary to communicate the desired message. In order to communicate the desire d message advertisers should make sure the models image matches that of the product. Previous research using co llege-aged women has shown that these women desire to be more like the models with a cute beauty image rather than the sexy models and would purchase products they endorse more willingl y. The present study c onfirms that college-

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55 aged women prefer the model w ith a cute beauty image and as pire to be like her. The present study supports th e previous research. Future Research Future research should test the match-up eff ects of the different beauty types with a greater variety of products that target colle ge-aged women. Future research should also determine if there are different types of good looks for male models. Additionally, future research should test the match-up effect of male models and certain products. Future research should also test the match-up eff ect for both female and male models using males as the respondents. Also, future resear ch should use a sample that is not limited by age and education. An experimental design could be used to investigate the match-up effect. An experiment would be conducted to determine whether or not a model/product match-up has an effect on recall of the produc t, attitude toward the advertisement, or product purchase intent. Another area for future research is college-aged womens preference for models with a cute image as well as Cosmopolitan (a magazine with a sexy image) which have contradicting images. Finally, rather than using a convenience sample, a random sample should be used.

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APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE

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57 Informed Consent Protocol Title: Beauty Types in Advertisements Please read this document carefully before you decide to partic ipate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to examine differe nt types of models be auty in relation to advertising different types of products. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to rate different models beauty types, answer questions regarding personality, and answer questi ons about different brands. Risks and Benefits: There are no risks or benefits associ ated with taking part in this study. Compensation: There will be no monetary compensation for taki ng part in this study. Extra credit will be offered. The number of extra credit points allo cated will be at the discretion of your instructor, points will not exceed 3% of your grade. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to th e extent provided by law. The study will be completely anonymous. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is complete ly voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. Whom to contact if you have any questions about the study: Danae Barulich, Graduate Student, danaeb@ufl.edu (407) 493-0889 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 3920443 Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: _____________________________________ Date: ___________________ Principal Investigat or: _____________________________ Date: ___________________

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58 Directions: Please read all of the instructions and an swer ALL questions using the answer sheet provided. Please do not fill out your Name, UF ID, or Section. IMPORTANT: Please bubble in your age on the answer sheet under the SPECIAL CODES section. Use the top row to indicate the first digit in your age, and the bottom row to indicate the second digit in your age. (For example, if you are 20, bubble in 2 in the top row and 0 in the bottom row.) How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your answer sheet. Model A 1. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar (D) Very familiar Please indicate your attitude toward Model A using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of th e scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Model A .) 2. Good 1 2 3 4 5 Bad 3. Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 Favorable 4. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant

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59 How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your answer sheet. Model B 5. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar (D) Very familiar Please indicate your attitude toward Model B using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of th e scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Model B .) 6. Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant 7. Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 Favorable 8. Good 1 2 3 4 5 Bad How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your answer sheet. Model C 9. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar (D) Very familiar Please indicate your attitude toward Model C using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of th e scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Model C .) 10. Favorable 1 2 3 4 5 Unfavorable 11. Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant 12. Bad 1 2 3 4 5 Good

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60 How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your answer sheet. Model D 13. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar (D) Very familiar Please indicate your attitude toward Model D using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of th e scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Model D .) 14. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant 15. Favorable 1 2 3 4 5 Unfavorable 16. Good 1 2 3 4 5 Bad 17. Are you familiar with Seventeen magazine? (A) Yes (B) No Please indicate your attitude toward Seventeen magazine using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Seventeen magazine.) 18. Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 Favorable 19. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant 20. Bad 1 2 3 4 5 Good 21. Are you familiar with Cosmopolitan magazine? (A) Yes (B) No Please indicate your attitude toward Cosmopolitan magazine using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one en d of the scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Cosmopolitan magazine.) 22. Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 Favorable 23. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant 24. Good 1 2 3 4 5 Bad

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61 25. Are you familiar with CK Obsession perfume? (A) Yes (B) No Please indicate your attitude toward CK Obsession using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of th e scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward CK Obsession.) 26. Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant 27. Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 Favorable 28. Bad 1 2 3 4 5 Good 29. Are you familiar with Clinique Happy perfume? (A) Yes (B) No Please indicate your attitude toward Clinique Happy using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each pair of words (The closer the number is to one end of th e scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Clinique Happy.) 30. Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 Favorable 31. Good 1 2 3 4 5 Bad 32. Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant For each scale shown below decide where, in your op inion, each model falls on each of the two adjective pairs. Bubble in one number from each pair for each model. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes the model.) Model A 33. Girl-next-door 1 2 3 4 5 Sex-Kitten 34. Sensual/Exotic 1 2 3 4 5 Cute Model B 35. Cute 1 2 3 4 5 Sensual/Exotic 36. Girl-next-door 1 2 3 4 5 Sex-Kitten

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62 Model C 37. Sex-Kitten 1 2 3 4 5 Girl-next-door 38. Cute 1 2 3 4 5 Sensual/Exotic Model D 39. Sex-Kitten 1 2 3 4 5 Girl-next-door 40. Sensual/Exotic 1 2 3 4 5 Cute

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63 For each pair of words below, choose the one of the pairs that best describes your ideal Please answer all questions, choosing either A or B. 41. (A) Logical (B) Emotional 42. (A) Creative, theoretical (B) Practical, functional 43. (A) Rational, reasonable (B) Passionate, perceptive 44. (A) Soft-hearted (B) Firm 45. (A) Sociable (B) Shy 46. (A) Conservative (B) Unconventional 47. (A) Adaptable (B) Deliberate 48. (A) Sensible, factual (B) Instinctual 49. (A) Dependable (B) Changeable 50. (A) Moderate (B) Dynamic 51. (A) Decided (B) Flexible 52. (A) Clear-cut, definite (B) Undecided, variable 53. (A) Idealistic, visionary (B) Realistic, down-to-earth 54. (A) Excitable (B) Stoic 55. (A) Innovative (B) Steadfast 56. (A) Sympathetic (B) Indifferent 57. (A) Assertive (B) Mild 58. (A) Energetic (B) Calm 59. (A) Cold (B) Warm 60. (A) Quiet (B) Outspoken 61. (A) Reserved (B) Active 62. (A) Systematic (B) Imaginative 63. (A) Indistinct (B) Well-defined 64. (A) Wide-interests (B) Precise

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64 For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model A Please answer all questions, choosing either A or B. Model A 65. (A) Clear-cut, definite (B) Undecided, variable 66. (A) Moderate (B) Dynamic 67. (A) Quiet (B) Outspoken 68. (A) Wide-interests (B) Precise 69. (A) Excitable (B) Stoic 70. (A) Reserved (B) Active 71. (A) Sensible, factual (B) Instinctual 72. (A) Creative, theoretical (B) Practical, functional 73. (A) Innovative (B) Steadfast 74. (A) Systematic (B) Imaginative 75. (A) Idealistic, visionary (B) Realistic, down-to-earth 76. (A) Indistinct (B) Well-defined 77. (A) Energetic (B) Calm 78. (A) Cold (B) Warm 79. (A) Sympathetic (B) Indifferent 80. (A) Soft-hearted (B) Firm 81. (A) Logical (B) Emotional 82. (A) Rational, reasonable (B) Passionate, perceptive 83. (A) Decided (B) Flexible 84. (A) Dependable (B) Changeable 85. (A) Adaptable (B) Deliberate 86. (A) Assertive (B) Mild 87. (A) Conservative (B) Unconventional 88. (A) Sociable (B) Shy 89. How close is Model As personality to who you are (your personality)? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 90. How close is Model As personality to who you would like to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 91. How close is Model As personality to who you dont want to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far

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65 For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model B Please answer all questions, choosing either A or B. Model B 92. (A) Excitable (B) Stoic 93. (A) Rational, reasonable (B) Passionate, perceptive 94. (A) Idealistic, visionary (B) Realistic, down-to-earth 95. (A) Adaptable (B) Deliberate 96. (A) Energetic (B) Calm 97. (A) Moderate (B) Dynamic 98. (A) Cold (B) Warm 99. (A) Sociable (B) Shy 100. (A) Clear-cut, definite (B) Undecided, variable 101. (A) Wide-interests (B) Precise 102. (A) Decided (B) Flexible 103. (A) Soft-hearted (B) Firm 104. (A) Assertive (B) Mild 105. (A) Quiet (B) Outspoken 106. (A) Logical (B) Emotional 107. (A) Sympathetic (B) Indifferent 108. (A) Conservative (B) Unconventional 109. (A) Systematic (B) Imaginative 110. (A) Creative, theoretical (B) Practical, functional 111. (A) Sensible, factual (B) Instinctual 112. (A) Indistinct (B) Well-defined 113. (A) Innovative (B) Steadfast 114. (A) Dependable (B) Changeable 115. (A) Reserved (B) Active 116. How close is Model Bs personality to who you are (your personality)? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 117. How close is Model Bs personality to who you would like to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 118. How close is Model Bs personality to who you dont want to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far

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66 For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model C Please answer all questions, choosing either A or B. Model C 119. (A) Excitable (B) Stoic 120. (A) Conservative (B) Unconventional 121. (A) Sympathetic (B) Indifferent 122. (A) Clear-cut, definite (B) Undecided, variable 123. (A) Quiet (B) Outspoken 124. (A) Logical (B) Emotional 125. (A) Soft-hearted (B) Firm 126. (A) Wide-interests (B) Precise 127. (A) Systematic (B) Imaginative 128. (A) Reserved (B) Active 129. (A) Adaptable (B) Deliberate 130. (A) Sensible, factual (B) Instinctual 131. (A) Decided (B) Flexible 132. (A) Energetic (B) Calm 133. (A) Moderate (B) Dynamic 134. (A) Dependable (B) Changeable 135. (A) Rational, reasonable (B) Passionate, perceptive 136. (A) Assertive (B) Mild 137. (A) Creative, theoretical (B) Practical, functional 138. (A) Sociable (B) Shy 139. (A) Indistinct (B) Well-defined 140. (A) Cold (B) Warm 141. (A) Idealistic, visionary (B) Realistic, down-to-earth 142. (A) Innovative (B) Steadfast 143. How close is Model Cs personality to who you are (your personality)? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 144. How close is Model Cs personality to who you would like to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 145. How close is Model Cs personality to who you dont want to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far

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67 For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model D Please answer all questions, choosing either A or B. Model D 146. (A) Innovative (B) Steadfast 147. (A) Indistinct (B) Well-defined 148. (A) Wide-interests (B) Precise 149. (A) Systematic (B) Imaginative 150. (A) Soft-hearted (B) Firm 151. (A) Rational, reasonable (B) Passionate, perceptive 152. (A) Assertive (B) Mild 153. (A) Energetic (B) Calm 154. (A) Creative, theoretical (B) Practical, functional 155. (A) Moderate (B) Dynamic 156. (A) Quiet (B) Outspoken 157. (A) Excitable (B) Stoic 158. (A) Conservative (B) Unconventional 159. (A) Reserved (B) Active 160. (A) Logical (B) Emotional 161. (A) Idealistic, visionary (B) Realistic, down-to-earth 162. (A) Sociable (B) Shy 163. (A) Sympathetic (B) Indifferent 164. (A) Dependable (B) Changeable 165. (A) Clear-cut, definite (B) Undecided, variable 166. (A) Decided (B) Flexible 167. (A) Cold (B) Warm 168. (A) Sensible, factual (B) Instinctual 169. (A) Adaptable (B) Deliberate 170. How close is Model Ds personality to who you are (your personality)? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 171. How close is Model Ds personality to who you would like to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far 172. How close is Model Ds personality to who you dont want to be ? (A) Very Close (B) Close (C) Neither (D) Far (E) Very Far

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68 For each model, indicate whether or not you think she f its the image of each brand listed. Use a 1 5 scale, 1 being a very bad fit, 3 being neutral, and 5 being a very good fit. Bubble in one number from each brand for each model. Model A Very Bad Fit Neutral Very Good Fit 173. Seventeen magazine 1 2 3 4 5 174. Cosmopolitan magazine 1 2 3 4 5 175. CK Obsession perfume 1 2 3 4 5 176. Clinique Happy perfume 1 2 3 4 5 Model B Very Bad Fit Neutral Very Good Fit 177. Seventeen magazine 1 2 3 4 5 178. Cosmopolitan magazine 1 2 3 4 5 179. CK Obsession perfume 1 2 3 4 5 180. Clinique Happy perfume 1 2 3 4 5

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69 Model C Very Bad Fit Neutral Very Good Fit 181. Seventeen magazine 1 2 3 4 5 182. Cosmopolitan magazine 1 2 3 4 5 183. CK Obsession perfume 1 2 3 4 5 184. Clinique Happy perfume 1 2 3 4 5 Model D Very Bad Fit Neutral Very Good Fit 185. Seventeen magazine 1 2 3 4 5 186. Cosmopolitan magazine 1 2 3 4 5 187. CK Obsession perfume 1 2 3 4 5 188. Clinique Happy perfume 1 2 3 4 5

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70 189. Please indicate your gender. (A) Male (B) Female 190. Please indicate your race. (A) White, non-Hispanic (B) Black, non-Hispanic (C)Hispanic (D) Asian/Pacific Islander (E) Other 191. Do you currently have a job? (A) Yes, Full-time (B) Yes, Part-time (C) No 192. How much money do you normally spend per month on personal items ( non-necessities) such as entertainment and clothing? (A) $0-49 (B) $50-99 (C) $100-149 (D) $150+ Thank you for your time and participation.

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71 LIST OF REFERENCES Babbie, Earl (2001), The Practice of Social Research California: Wadsworth. Baker, Michael J., and Gilbert A. Churchill ( 1977), The Impact of Physically Attractive Models on Advertising Evaluations, Journal of Marketing Research 14, 538-555. Bower, Amanda B., and Stacy Landreth ( 2001), Is Beauty Best? Highly Versus Normally Attractive Mode ls in Advertising, Journal of Advertising 30 (1), 1-12. Caballero, Marjorie J., and William M. Prid e (1984), Selected Effects of Salesperson Sex and Attractiveness in Dir ect Mail Advertisements, Journal of Marketing 48, 94-100. Caballero, Marjorie J., and Pa ul J. Solomon (1984), Effect s of Model A ttractiveness on Sales Response, Journal of Advertising 13 (1), 17-33. Davis, Joel J. (1997), Advertising Research: Theory and Practice New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Dolich, Ira J. (1969), Congruence Relationshi ps between Self Images and Product Brands, Journal of Marketing Research 6, 80-84. Eagly, Alice H., Richard D. Ashmore, Mona G. Makhijani, and Laura C. Longo (1991), What is Beautiful is Good, But: A Meta -Analytic Review of Research on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype, Psychological Bulletin 110 (1), 109-128. Englis, Basil G., Michael R. Solomon, and Richard Ashmore (1994), Beauty Before the Eyes of Beholders: The Cultural Enc oding of Beauty Types in Magazine Advertising and Music Television, Journal of Advertising 23 (2), 49-64. Fallon, April (1990), Culture in the Mirror: Socioc ultural Determinants of Body Image, In Thomas F. Cash and Thomas Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body Images: Development, Deviance, and Change (pp. 80-109). New York: The Guilford Press. Friedman, Hershey H., and Linda Friedman (1979), Endorser Eff ectiveness by Product Type, Journal of Advertising Research 19 (October), 63-71. Frith, Katherine, Ping Shaw, and Hong Cheng (2005), The Construction of Beauty: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Wo mens Magazine Advertising, Journal of Communication 55 (1), 56-70.

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72 Hong, Jae W., and George M. Zinkhan (1995), Self-Concept and Advertising Effectiveness: The Influence of Cong ruency, Conspicuousness, and Response Mode, Psychology and Marketing 12 (1), 53-77. Huckeba, Jennifer (2005), Emotional Response to Beauty, Unpublished masters thesis, University of Florida. Images de Parfums: Collection of fragran ce advertisements (2006), Retrieved February 20, 2006, from http://perso.wana doo.fr/imagesdeparfums/en/. Jenkins, Maureen (2005, August 24), Aging Gracefully; Cosmopolitan The Bible for Fun, Fearless Females, Turns 40, Chicago Sun-Times 64. Joseph, W. Benoy (1982), The Credibility of Physically Attrac tive Communicators: A Review, Journal of Advertising 11 (3), 15-24. Kahle, Lynn R., and Pamela M. Homer (1985), Physical Attractivene ss of the Celebrity Endorser: A Social Ad aptation Perspective, Journal of Consumer Research 11, 954-961. Kamins, Michael A. (1990), An Investiga tion into the Match -Up Hypothesis in Celebrity Advertising: When Beauty May be Only Skin Deep, Journal of Advertising 19 (1), 4-13. Lynch, James, and Drue Schuler (1994), The Matchup Effect of Spokesperson and Product Congruency: A Schema Theory Interpretation, Psychology & Marketing 11 (5), 417-445. Martin, Mary C., and James W. Gentry (1997), Stuck in the Model Trap: The Effects of Beautiful Models in Ads on Female Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents, The Journal of Advertising 26 (2), 19-33. Martin, Mary C., and Patricia F. Kennedy (1994), Social Comparis on and the Beauty of Advertising Models: The Role of Motives for Comparison, Advances in Consumer Research 21, 365-371. Martin, Warren S., and Joseph Bellizzi (1982), An Analysis of Congruous Relationships between Self-Images and Product Images, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 10, 473-489. Maynard, Michael L., and Charles R. Taylor (1999), Girlish Images Across Cultures: Analyzing Japanese Versus U.S. Seventeen Magazine Ads, Journal of Advertising 28 (1), 39-48. Mazur, Allan (1986), U.S. Trends in Fe minine Beauty and Overadaptation, The Journal of Sex Research 22 (3), 281-303.

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73 Mehta, Abhilasha (1999), Using Self-Concep t to Assess Advertising Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising Research 81-89. Mish, Frederick C. (Ed.), (1989), The New Merriam-We bster Dictionary Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster Inc. Parekh, Hetal, and Suresh Kanekar (1994), The Physical Attractiven ess Stereotype in a Consumer-Related Situation, The Journal of Social Psychology 134 (3), 297-300. Peterson, Robert A., and Roger A. Kerin (1977 ), The Female Role in Advertisements: Some Experimental Evidence, Journal of Marketing (October), 59-63. Rhodes, Gillian, Johanna Roberts, and Le igh W. Simmons (1999), Reflections on Symmetry and Attractiveness, Psychology, Evolution & Gender 1 (3), 279-295. Sarwer, David B., Leanne Magee, and Vick i Clark (2004), Physical Appearance and Cosmetic Medical Treatments: Physiologi cal and Socio-Cultural Influences, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 2, 29-39. Singh, Devendra (1993), Adaptive Si gnificance of Female Physical Attractiveness: Role of Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65 (2), 293-307. Singh, Devendra (1994), Ideal Body Shape: Role of Body Weight and Waist-to-Hip Ratio, International Journal of Eating Disorders 16 (3), 283-288. Sirgy, Joseph M. (1982), Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review, Journal of Consumer Research 9, 287-300. Solomon, Michael R., Richard D. Ashmore, and Laura C. Longo (1992), The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence Between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising, Journal of Advertising 21 (4), 23-34. Stein, Dena (2004), Testing the Reliability and Validit y of a Brand-Personality Measurement Tool, Unpublished master s thesis, University of Florida. Till, Brian D., and Michael Busler (2000) The Match-Up Hypothesis: Physical Attractiveness, Expertise, and the Role of Fit on Brand Attitude, Purchase Intent and Brand Beliefs, Journal of Advertising 29 (3), 1-13. Zerbowitz, Leslie A., Karen Olson, and Karen Hoffman (1993), Stability of Babyfaceness and Attractiveness Across the Lifespan, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (3), 453-466. Zinkhan, George M., and Jae W. Hong (1991), Self Concept and Advertising Effectiveness: A Conceptual Model of Congruency, Conspicuousness, and Response Mode, Advances in Consumer Research 18, 348-354.

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74 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Danae Barulich was born on February 4, 1982, in Woodside, New York. She moved to Europe with her parents and atte nded the first and second grade in Croatia before moving back to New York. She spen t most of her time growing up in Orlando after moving from New York when she was young. In May, 2000, she earned a B.A. in Advertising and Public Relations at the Univer sity of Central Florida. She expects to receive her Master of Advertising degree from the University of Florida in August 2006. After graduation, she plans to pursue a career in advertising in the Central Florida area.


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BEAUTY MATCH-UP AND SELF-CONCEPT CONGRUITY IN ADVERTISING


By

DANAE BARULICH


















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first like to thank my family for their guidance and financial support during

my whole academic career. I would also like to thank my friends and classmates for their

continued support and encouragement throughout this whole process. Finally, I would

like to thank the members of my committee for their time put into this project. I would

especially like to thank the chair of my committee, Dr. John Sutherland. This project

would not be complete without his assistance.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .................................................................................................. ii

LIST OF TABLES ......................... ...... ............. ....... ..... .... ............... v

ABSTRACT .............. ......................................... vi

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .............................................................................5

B e au ty ......................................................................................................... . 5
F e m a le B e au ty .............................................................................................................. 5
C om m ercial Fem ale B eauty ............................................................................. 9
Effect of Com m ercial B eauty .................................... .... .......................... ...... 9
E effect on F em ale A udiences.................................................................... .. .... 13
M atch -U p E effect ................................................................................................... 15
The Celebrity M atch-Up Hypothesis........................................ ............... 15
The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis ........................................ ...............19
B eauty T ypes ................................................................... 23
S e lf-C o n c e p t .....................................................................................................2 4
N eed for P resent R research ........................................................................... ......... 29
C conclusion ...................................................................................................... ....... 30

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ........................................................................ ....................... 3 1

R e se arch D e sig n ................................................................................................... 3 1
B rand Selection .................................................................................................. .....32
Instrumentation ............... ......... .......................33
S a m p le .................................................................................................................. 3 4
M easurem ent .................................................................................................34
D ata P ro cessin g ................................................................ 3 5

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................3 7

Sample Demographics ..... ........... ........ .......... ........37









M manipulation C hecks ............................................................................ ........... 37
Cute/Sexy Validation.................................................. 37
Attitude Toward Models and Products.....................................................39
Models' Fit with Beauty Types: Hypothesis Testing ..........................................41
Hypothesis 1: A model with a Sensual/Sexual beauty type will match up to a
product with a Sensual/Sexual brand image .............................. ..................41
Hypothesis 2: A model with a Young Feminine, or cute beauty type will
match up to a product with a Young Feminine, or cute brand image .............42
Relationship Between Fit and Attitude Toward the Model.....................................44
Research Question: Is attitude toward a model related to how well the
model's perceived personality fits the respondent's self-concept?..................45
P personality Fit and Product Fit ....................................................................... ...... 47

5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................50

Sum m ary of R esults......... .................................................................. .. .... .. .... .. 50
H y p oth esis O n e .................................................. ................ 50
H hypothesis T w o .................................................................................. 5 1
R research Question ............................................... .. ...... .. ............ 51
C conclusion ............................................................... .... ..... ........ 52
Lim stations ...................................... .......................... .... ..... ........ 53
Im plications for A advertisers ............................................... ............................ 54
F future R research ........................................................................55

APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE...................... ....... ............................ 56

LIST OF REFEREN CES ............................................................................. 71

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................74
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples of Beauty Dimensions....................24

3-1 Perfum e A dvertisem ents......................................................... ............... 33

4-1 Sam ple D description ........ ................................................................ .... .... ... ..38

4-2 Means for Girl-next-door/Sex-Kitten (2 = Very GND, -2 = Very SK) .................39

4-3 Means for Cute/Sensual-Exotic (2 = Very C, -2 = Very S/E) ............................39

4-4 Attitudes toward the Models (2 = favorable and -2 = unfavorable) ....................40

4-5 Attitudes toward the Products (2 = favorable and -2 =unfavorable) ...................40

4-6 Means for Cosmopolitan Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit).......41

4-7 Means for CK Obsession Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)......42

4-8 Means for Seventeen Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit).............43

4-9 Means for Clinique Happy Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)....44

4-10 Fit and Attitude Toward M odel Relationship ................................... ............... 45

4-11 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model A ........................................46

4-12 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model D ........................................46

4-13 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model C...........................................47

4-14 Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model B............................................47

4-15 P personality and P product F its ....................................................... .....................49















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

BEAUTY MATCH-UP AND SELF-CONCEPT CONGRUITY IN ADVERTISING

By

Danae Barulich

August 2006

Chair: John Sutherland
Major Department: Journalism and Communications

A beauty match-up seems to exist with endorsers in advertisements. Certain types

of beauty are better matched with certain types of products. Also, advertisements have

been found to be more effective when the image of the product matches the self-image of

the viewer of the ad.

The current study uses two dimensions of beauty, cute and sexy, to determine if

there is a match-up effect with two product categories, magazines and perfumes, using

repeated measures analysis of variance. This study also includes a personality dimension.

Rather than testing the congruence between brand image and respondents' self-image,

respondents' self-images are compared with the models' perceived personalities using

stepwise multiple regression. The research will determine which models are best suited

for use with certain products and a certain target audience.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

While the ideal image of female beauty has changed over the past century, the

characteristics of beauty that have remained constant are the youthful look, symmetrical

facial features, and body ratios. These characteristics have been found to exemplify the

ideal image of beauty both over time and cross-culturally (Fallon, 1990; Sarwer, Magee

and Clark, 2004). The shared beauty ideals held across cultures that make up the

youthful look are firm breasts and hips, roundness instead of angular shapes, fleshiness

rather than flab, and smooth unblemished skin (Fallon, 1990). Symmetry in facial

features have also been seen as more attractive than asymmetrical features (Rhodes,

Roberts and Simmons, 1999; Sarwer et al., 2004). Body ratios are another characteristic

used over time and across cultures to define beauty (Singh, 1993; Singh, 1994). Fallon

(1990) notes that more uniform standards of beauty have been imposed throughout the

world since the rise of mass media in the 20th century.

Beauty is often used to sell products and services in advertising. Research has

shown that physically attractive spokespeople can add to the effectiveness of an

advertisement (Joseph, 1982). Physically attractive spokespeople have been found to

have a positive effect on evaluation of the ad, purchase behavior, and can also attract

attention (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Caballero and Solomon, 1984; Caballero and Pride,

1984). It has also been found that beautiful models in advertising attract attention when

women compare themselves to the models in the ads (Martin and Kennedy, 1994; Martin

and Gentry, 1997).









Research has found that the image of the model in the ad must match the image of

the product being advertised (Peterson and Kerin, 1977; Lynch and Schuler, 1994). This

pairing of beauty and products is known as the Match-Up Hypothesis. Research

conducted regarding celebrity endorsers reveals that the physical attractiveness of

celebrity endorsers would enhance products and advertisements only if the characteristics

of the products match-up with the image of a specific celebrity (Friedman and Friedman,

1979; Kamins, 1990). Studies have found that an attractive celebrity leads to higher

credibility, purchase intent and a more positive attitude toward the advertisement than a

less attractive celebrity (Kahle and Homer, 1985; Kamins, 1990; Till and Busler, 2000).

Building further on the Match-Up Hypothesis, it was found that multiple categories

of beauty exist: Classic Beauty/Feminine, Sensual/Exotic, Sex-Kitten, Trendy, Cute, and

Girl-Next-Door. Of these different beauty types, certain categories are more

appropriately paired with specific products than with others. It has been shown that a

model whose type of beauty and associated image matches the product with which it is

paired in an advertisement provides a more coherent message (Solomon et al., 1992).

Also, if this message is consistent with a consumer's desired self-image this may further

enhance acceptance of the advertisement.

Studies have shown that there are several different types of beauty depicted by

female models, and physical attractiveness appears to be a complex multidimensional

concept rather than a simple and unitary continuum. Further research on the different

beauty types of female models reveals that there are two main contrasting dimensions of

beauty Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine (Huckeba, 2005). The study concludes

that women desire to be more like the Young Feminine models and in turn will purchase









the products they endorse more readily than they would a product endorsed by a more

Sensual/Sexual model (Huckeba, 2005).

Self-concept can be defined as the way a person sees themselves including both

physical and psychological characteristics. Rather than an objective point of view, self-

concept is a subjective point of view about oneself (Mehta, 1999). Congruence between

self-concept and image of products has been found to enhance the acceptance of

advertisements. Research has found that advertisements are more effective when the

image of the brand in the ad is similar to the self-images of the viewers of the ads (Hong

and Zinkhan, 1995; Mehta, 1999).

The current study will build on previous research regarding model beauty types in

advertising. Four unknown models (one in the Sensual/Sexual category, one in the

Young Feminine, category, one in between these categories, and one exhibiting neither

beauty type) will be tested against four different brands. The brands will consist of two

magazines and two perfumes. One magazine (Cosmopolitan) and one perfume (CK

Obsession) show characteristics of the Sensual/Sexual category while the other magazine

(Seventeen) and perfume (Clinique Happy) show characteristics of the Young Feminine,

or cute category. Building on previous research, the current study will lead to a better

understanding of how female college students feel about beauty images in advertising.

The study will determine whether or not the models will match-up to the brands

that exhibit the same characteristics as their beauty types. Previous research concentrates

on the models' looks; this study will also include a personality aspect. Respondents will

be asked to indicate what they believe each model's personality to be. In addition, they






4


will be asked to indicate whether or not each model's perceived personality matches the

respondents' self-concepts.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Beauty

Beauty can be defined as "qualities that give pleasure to the senses or exalt the

mind" (Mish, 1989, 78). Over time, youthfulness, symmetry, and body ratios have been

identified as the ideal image of human beauty (Sarwer, Magee and Clark, 2004). For

research purposes, physical attractiveness of individuals is most often determined by a

panel of judges asked to rate the appearance of one or more individuals (Joseph, 1982).

Physical attractiveness of models used in advertisements has been shown to have positive

effects on viewers. Physically attractive models have been found to be credible,

attention-getting, persuasive, and were seen as experts, as well as having an effect on

purchase (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Joseph, 1982; Caballero and Pride, 1984; Bower

and Landreth, 2001). The focus of the current study is on female beauty and how

different dimensions of beauty match-up to different products.

Female Beauty

Sarwer et al. (2004) explain that beauty can be characterized by physical features

including youthfulness, symmetry, and body ratios. The physical features that are seen as

indicators of beauty are clear skin, bright eyes, and lustrous hair (Zerbowitz, Olson and

Hoffman, 1993). Youthfulness or a youthful appearance is an important determinant of

beauty. Previous research has suggested that attractiveness declines with age, especially

with women (Zerbowitz et al., 1993).









Symmetry in facial features has also been found to be a determinant of beauty.

Research has shown that both men and women with more symmetrical facial features are

seen as more attractive than those with asymmetrical features (Rhodes, Roberts and

Simmons, 1999; Sarwer et al., 2004). Rhodes et al. (1999) used two different ways of

transforming a normal face to create a perfectly symmetrical face. The first technique

was to reflect one-half of the face down the middle, vertically. The other technique was

to morph the face with its mirror image. Rhodes et al. (1999) found that the morphs were

more attractive than the original faces, but the vertical reflections were less attractive than

the original face. The researchers concluded that the vertical reflections were less

attractive because they were found to be stranger and more distinctive than the original

face, making them atypical. Rhodes at al. (1999) concluded that facial symmetry is

attractive and can be considered an attribute that makes a face more attractive.

Another determinant of beauty is body ratios, specifically the waist-to-hip ratio

(WHR) (Singh, 1993; Singh, 1994). With an ideal rating of .7, the WHR is a proportion

of fat stored around the waist and hips (Singh, 1993). Research has shown that men tend

to rate women with a low WHR as more attractive than women with a high WHR (Singh,

1993). Singh (1994) proposed that ideal female body shape and attractiveness is more

influenced by WHR than body size in general. The researcher used six female figures,

three heavier figures with lower WHRs and three thinner figures with higher WHRs.

Both male and female respondents indicated a preference for the heavier figures with the

lowest WHR as the ideal female body (Singh, 1994). The figures with low WHRs were

seen as more attractive and healthy than the figures with high WHRs. The researcher

concluded that the "female body shape, independent of overall body size, is an important









determinant of female attractiveness and healthiness" (Singh, 1994, 287) Sarwer et al.

(2004) note that the preference for the above mentioned characteristics of female beauty

is cross-cultural. Also, preference appears "to be 'wired-in' rather than conditioned by

exposure to societal standards of beauty" (Sarwer et al., 2004, 31).

The characteristics used to define beauty (youthfulness, symmetry, and body ratios)

have been stable across time in the United States. The only change in ideal beauty is the

result of a change in preferred body ratios. In the United States, the ideal image of

beauty has changed from thin to voluptuous and back to thin again over the last century

(Sarwer et al., 2004). During the beginning of the 20th century, two female beauty ideals

existed. The first ideal was a woman with fragile and delicate features while the other

ideal was a full-figured woman (Mazur, 1986). These two beauty ideals were called the

steel engraving lady and the voluptuous woman. The only physical similarity they had

was a corseted waistline. The steel engraving lady was seen as delicate and frail and was

admired for her moral values and social status. On the other hand, the voluptuous woman

had a heavy physique and was seen as being sexy (Fallon, 1990). After the steel

engraving lady and the voluptuous woman, the Gibson Girl appeared. She was a

combination of the previous ideal beauty types along with some new features. The

Gibson Girl had a long and slender body but it was not frail and delicate like the steel

engraving lady's build. The Gibson girl had the large bust and hips of the voluptuous

woman. Additionally, the Gibson Girl had a corseted chest, graceful slim legs, rounded

calves, and narrow ankles (Fallon, 1990).

A more androgynous shape became the ideal image of beauty after World War I

(Mazur, 1986). Flat-chested flappers replaced the curvaceous beauty ideal. In the 1920s









the ideal beauty image for women became almost boy-like. Rather than a shapely body,

make-up and exposed legs played an important role in the ideal beauty image during this

time (Fallon, 1990). The flapper beauty ideal ended as the depression began (Fallon,

1990).

In the 1940s a more curvaceous ideal image emerged which was demonstrated by

the American pinup girls (Mazur, 1986). Also during the 1940s, women's legs began to

play a role as an erotic symbol (Fallon, 1990). The hour-glass figure exhibited by

Marilyn Monroe became the ideal of the 1950s (Mazur, 1986). During this time beauty

ideals included large busts with cleavage, tiny cinched waists, and high heels (Fallon,

1990).

In the 1960s the beauty ideal shifted back to a taller and slimmer figure (Sarwer et

al., 2004). Twiggy, a 97 pound model with 31-22-32 measurements was seen as a

fashion icon at the time and was all over magazines like Seventeen and Vogue (Fallon,

1990). At the beginning of the 1970s, preferred physical features for a woman included

slender bodies, small buttocks, and middle or small sized busts (Fallon, 1990). This thin

ideal continued throughout the 1970s and for the most part is still seen as the ideal beauty

type. In the 1990s a new beauty ideal of defined muscles along with thinness emerged.

In some instances the thin muscular image is accompanied by a larger breast size (Sarwer

et al., 2004).

Beauty is important to study because it affects everyday life. People judge

themselves and others according to their ideal image of beauty. For example, women

(more so than men) use their own beauty as a measure of self-worth (Fallon, 1990).

There is a general agreement among researchers that attractiveness leads perceivers to









have positive evaluations of an attractive subject (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani and Longo,

1991). Eagly et al. (1991) reviewed previous literature regarding the beauty-is-good

stereotype and predicted that attractive subjects would be assigned more positive qualities

than unattractive subjects. It was found that perceivers assumed that what is beautiful is

good, but the beauty-is-good effects depended on the inference the perceiver was asked to

make. The researchers concluded that good looks have little impact on beliefs about

attractive subjects' integrity and concern for others. However, good looks generated

strong inferences about social skills and weaker inference about having influence,

adjustment, and intellectual capability (Eagly et al., 1991). Beauty is also used by

advertisers in a commercial role in order to sell products and services.

Commercial Female Beauty

Beauty is used by advertisers to sell a variety of products and services ranging from

cosmetics to electronics. The three types of endorsers typically used in advertising

include the celebrity, the professional or expert, and the typical consumer (Friedman and

Friedman, 1979). Celebrity endorsers include those who are known to the public for

achievements in areas other than the product they are endorsing, such as an athlete or an

actor/actress. An expert endorser is one that has extensive knowledge of the product

category or the product itself. Lastly, a typical consumer endorser is an ordinary person

(Friedman and Friedman, 1979).

Effect of Commercial Beauty

The advertising industry has recognized the impact and value of using attractive

models and celebrities in ads (Joseph, 1982). Advertisers believe that physically

attractive spokespeople can add to the effectiveness of an advertisement. They also see

beautiful spokespeople as being credible and are generally liked more than unattractive









spokespeople (Joseph, 1982). Baker and Churchill (1977) found that physically attractive

models in ads added to the attention-getting value of the advertisement as well as the

evaluators' liking of the advertisement. Joseph (1982) found that attractive models

contribute to a communication's effectiveness in important but limited ways. When an

attractive model is used, respondents have more favorable evaluations of both the

advertisement and the product being advertised. However, attractive sources generally

have not been perceived to be more expert, trustworthy, honest, knowledgeable, or

intelligent than unattractive sources. Joseph (1982) found evidence that physical

attractiveness can be persuasive. This persuasiveness is weakened when both the

attractive and unattractive sources are described as being experts (Joseph, 1982).

Caballero and Solomon (1984) found that the presence of a model increased the

product's appeal by conducting a study to determine if model attractiveness had an effect

on purchasing behavior. The researchers used point-of-purchase displays with high,

medium, and low attractive male and female models paired with beer (a high involvement

item) and facial tissue (a low involvement item). The two products were also advertised

without a model. Results of the study indicated that the point-of-purchase displays with

models outperformed the ones without a model, which supports the idea that the presence

of a model increases a product's appeal. It was also found that the high involvement

product (beer) had higher sales among both males and females when the model was male.

Low attractiveness was found to produce more sales for the low involvement product

(facial tissue). The researchers concluded that the low attractive model could have

increased the awareness of the point-of purchase display. Caballero and Solomon (1984)









concluded that using models that are rated as being low in attractiveness could be useful

for gaining attention for low involvement products.

It has been found that attractive female models have a positive effect on purchase

of the product they are advertising (Caballero and Pride, 1984). Caballero and Pride

(1984) used models portrayed as sales representatives in a direct mail advertisement to

assess purchase behavior of recipients. Low, medium, and highly attractive male and

female models were placed in a direct mail advertisement for a book. Additionally, there

was one advertisement with no model. The model in the advertisements represented the

vice president of marketing for the publishing company. Subscribers to a magazine

received the direct mail piece with one of the models or no model at all and were allowed

six weeks to respond. Results indicated that the advertisement with the highly attractive

female produced greater sales than any other version of the ad (Caballero and Pride,

1984). These results indicate that attractive models, particularly attractive female models

have an effect on purchase.

Research has determined that attractive models are linked to higher quality

products (Parekh and Kanekar, 1994). Parekh and Kanekar (1994) studied the expected

behavior of an attractive woman versus the expected behavior of an unattractive woman.

One attractive model and one unattractive model were both dressed in elegant and non-

elegant clothing resulting in four different full-length color photographs. Respondents

were asked to indicate the quality of four different products, two beauty products (soap

and shampoo) and two non-beauty products (stationary and a ball-point pen) that they

thought each model was likely to choose. Parekh and Kanekar (1994) found that

respondents indicated the attractive model was more likely to choose higher quality









products. Higher quality products were also expected to be purchased by the model

dressed in elegant clothing. Also, product quality for the beauty products was higher for

the attractive model (Parekh and Kanekar, 1994).

Highly attractive models have been perceived as experts when paired with

enhancing products (Bower and Landreth, 2001). Bower and Landreth (2001) explored

the effects of highly attractive models (HAMs) versus normally attractive models

(NAMs) in advertising. HAMs have been defined as being thin and having beautiful

facial features while NAMs are said to have a more average weight, height, and facial

beauty. The researchers paired HAMs and NAMs with two different categories of

attractiveness related products, problem-solving products and enhancing products. A

problem-solving is one that "serves to fix or hide beauty liabilities or flaws such as acne

or dandruff" (Bower and Landreth, 2001, 2). Enhancing products are those that serve a

more aesthetic purpose rather than concealing imperfections (Bower and Landreth, 2001).

The researchers hypothesized that NAMs would be perceived as more trustworthy

than HAMs. HAMs were expected to have greater perceived expertise when paired with

enhancing products while NAMs were expected to have greater perceived expertise when

paired with problem-solving products. It was also hypothesized that HAMs would be

more effective than NAMs when paired with enhancing products. Finally, the

researchers hypothesized that advertisements with problem-solving products would be

more effective when paired with NAMs than HAMs (Bower and Landreth, 2001).

The two products chosen from the enhancing product category were lipstick

and earrings. The two products chosen from the problem-solving product category were

acne concealer and acne medication. Two models that had the same hair and eye color









were chosen to represent the HAM and NAM. Each of the four products was placed with

each model in an advertisement (Bower and Landreth, 2001).

Results of the study revealed that there is no difference in using NAMs versus

HAMs on perceived trustworthiness, which did not support the first hypothesis. When

associated with enhancing products HAMs were seen as having a greater expertise than

NAMs, which supports the second hypothesis. The third hypothesis was not supported

because the results showed that NAMs were not seen as having greater expertise with

problem-solving products. Respondents indicated higher evaluations of the ads for

enhancing products when paired with HAMs. However, ads for problem-solving

products were not evaluated more positively when paired with NAMs versus HAMs.

Overall the results indicate that HAMs are best paired with enhancing products and that

"there is no advantage in pairing problem-solving products with HAMs instead of

NAMs" (Bower and Landreth, 2001, 6).

Effect on Female Audiences

Previous research provides support that beauty attracts attention when used in

advertising. It has been found that viewers compare themselves to attractive models in

advertising (Martin and Kennedy, 1994; Martin and Gentry, 1997). The three motives for

comparison include self-evaluation, self-enhancement, and self-improvement (Martin and

Kennedy, 1994). Martin and Kennedy (1994) conducted a study focused on female

adolescents and their motive for comparing their physical attractiveness to that of models

in advertising. To determine which motives predominate when adolescents compare

themselves to models, a group of students were given an illustration with a female

looking at a model in a magazine ad. The students were asked to indicate what the

female in the illustration might be thinking and what might happen next. Results of the









study revealed that self-evaluation and self-improvement were common motives for

comparison among adolescents. Self-enhancement was not found to be a motive in any

of the student answers. Self-evaluation was the most common motive, with most

responses leaning toward the negative side. For example, some respondents thought that

the female looking at the magazine wanted to be like the model in the ad and was upset

because the model was prettier than she was (Martin and Kennedy, 1994).

Martin and Gentry (1997) conducted a study to determine the impact of highly

attractive models on female pre-adolescents and adolescents. The researchers found that

the participants' self-perceptions and self-esteem were affected with self-evaluation as

the motive for comparison. Participants were given advertisements with highly attractive

models paired with three fictitious products (hair care, lipstick, and jeans) including

headlines and body copy with self-evaluation as a motive for comparison. For example,

the headline for the hair care product read "Do You Look This Good?" (Martin and

Gentry, 1997, 25). Self-perception of physical attractiveness was lowered in all

participants after viewing the ads. Other participants were given the same ads, but the

headlines and body copy used self-improvement and self-enhancement as motives for

comparison. The self-improvement headline for the hair care product read "If Only You

Knew How to Look This Good!" while the self-enhancement headline read "If They

Only Knew How Good You Look!" (Martin and Gentry, 1997, 25). These participants'

self-perceptions of physical attractiveness were raised after viewing the ads (Martin and

Gentry, 1997). These studies clearly indicate that models in ads attract attention and that

females tend to compare themselves to those models, which makes selection of the most

appropriate model essential.









Match-Up Effect

Peterson and Kerin (1977) suggest that model/product congruency is needed in

advertisements to enhance viewers' perceptions of the ad. In other words, the image of

the model must match the image of the product. Three different types of models, the

demure model, the seductive model, and the nude model were all placed with two

different products, body oil and a ratchet wrench set. The advertisement using the

seductive model and body oil was found to be the most appealing one containing the

highest quality product produced by the most reputable company in the respondent's

opinion. This study suggests that product and model congruency in advertising is

necessary. When high congruency between a product and a model occurs, the model's

role in the advertisement is communicative, their presence is necessary to express the

desired message (Peterson and Kerin, 1977).

Results of a study (Lynch and Schuler, 1994) show that a higher level of perceived

expertise was found when there was congruence between a model's physical appearance

and a product. A study testing the perceived expertise of a male model was conducted by

Lynch and Schuler (1994). The researchers used a male model at three different levels of

muscularity paired with several products used to help produce muscularity as well as

products that are traditionally targeted to males. Results of the study indicated that the

model's perceived expertise about exercise equipment and male-targeted products

increased as muscularity of the model increased (Lynch and Schuler, 1994).

The Celebrity Match-Up Hypothesis

Several studies regarding attractiveness and the use of celebrities in advertisements

have been conducted (Friedman and Friedman. 1979; Kahle and Homer, 1985; Kamins,









1990; Till and Busier, 2000). These studies reveal that consumer evaluation of the

product in the ad depends on the endorser/product match-up.

Identification and internalization are two possible factors that influence how well

an endorser will work for a given product. When consumers mimic the behavior of the

endorser because they derive satisfaction from the idea that they are like the endorser,

this is identification. When consumers mimic the behavior of the endorser because they

believe in the attitude or behavior, this is internalization (Friedman and Friedman, 1979).

A study conducted by Friedman and Friedman attempted to determine "whether or

not the effectiveness of an endorser type is dependent upon the type of product being

endorsed" (Friedman and Friedman, 1979, 64). The researchers hypothesized that the

celebrity endorsers would be evaluated more favorably when paired with products high in

psychological and/or social risk. Expert endorsers were hypothesized to be evaluated

more favorably when paired with products high in financial, performance, and/or

physical risk. Finally, typical consumer endorsers were hypothesized to be evaluated

more favorably when paired with low risk products (Friedman and Friedman, 1979).

Three products, one from each category, were chosen to be compared to the three

endorser types. The product chosen for high psychological and social risk was costume

jewelry. The product chosen for high in financial, performance, and physical risk was a

vacuum cleaner. The final product, which was thought to be low on all types of risk, was

a box of cookies. Three endorsers were also chosen including a fictitious expert, a

typical consumer, and a celebrity. Because she was rated the highest on awareness,

likableness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness, the celebrity chosen for the study was









Mary Tyler Moore. Twelve different print ads were made using all endorser and product

combinations (Friedman and Friedman, 1979).

The results confirmed that consumer evaluation of advertising does depend on the

product/endorser combination. Subjects rated advertisements using the celebrity the

highest with costume jewelry as the product and lowest when the product being endorsed

was a vacuum cleaner. The advertisement for the vacuum cleaner was rated the highest

in combination with the expert endorser. Finally, the advertisement using the typical-

consumer was rated the highest when the product was the box of cookies (Friedman and

Friedman, 1979).

Kahle and Homer (1985) conducted a study to determine purchase intent and

attitude toward a product (disposable razors) after exposure to advertisements with an

attractive and unattractive celebrity endorser. Results indicated that respondents were

more likely to purchase the product when the endorser in the ad was an attractive

celebrity versus an unattractive celebrity. It was also found that respondents who were

exposed to the ad with the attractive celebrity liked the product more after seeing to the

ads. In addition to purchase intent and positive attitude toward the product, brand recall

for the razor was higher among respondents who were shown the ad with the attractive

celebrity (Kahle and Homer, 1985).

The Celebrity Match-Up Hypothesis suggests that in order for an advertisement to

be effective, the message conveyed by the image of the celebrity endorser must converge

with the image of the product. There must be congruence between the product image and

the celebrity image based on attractiveness. Kamins (1990) conducted a study to test the

importance of attractiveness of a celebrity endorser in addition to their image matching









up with the product's image. The researchers hypothesized that an attractive celebrity

should have a positive impact on evaluations of the advertisement and product that is

attractiveness related. It was also hypothesized that the attractive celebrity would have

no effect on evaluations of the advertisement and product that is not attractiveness related

(Kamins, 1990).

Two celebrities were chosen for use in the study, Tom Selleck as the attractive

celebrity and Telly Savalas as the unattractive celebrity. The attractiveness related

product chosen was a luxury car and the product that was least related to attractiveness

was a home computer. Four different advertisements were created using all combinations

of the two celebrities and products. Results showed that the attractive celebrity led to

higher spokesperson credibility and a more positive attitude towards the ad versus the

less attractive celebrity. However, the results were only applicable to the attractiveness-

related product (the luxury car). A match-up between an attractive celebrity

spokesperson and an attractiveness-related product was found (Kamins, 1990).

Till and Busler (2000) conducted a study to examine not only the physical

attractiveness as a match-up factor, but also the role of endorser expertise as a match-up

factor. The researchers hypothesized that the use of an attractive celebrity endorser for a

product used to enhance one's attractiveness would have a positive effect on attitude

towards the brand and purchase intention. A fictitious celebrity endorser was created

along with two fictitious products, a pen and a men's cologne to be used in a print ad that

was to be shown to undergraduate college students (Till and Busler, 2000).

Results showed that both brand attitude and purchase intent were higher for the

attractive endorser for both the cologne and the pen. The match-up theory however was









not supported based on the endorser's physical attractiveness. The attractive endorser

was seen as a better fit and more appropriate for both products (Till and Busler, 2000).

The researchers (Till and Busler, 2000) also hypothesized that a celebrity endorser

for a product that matches the endorser's area of expertise will have a greater positive

effect on brand attitude and purchase intention. Two fictitious products, candy bars and

energy bars were used in the study. The products were paired with a fictitious actor and a

fictitious athlete. Results indicated that brand attitude for the energy bar was

significantly higher when the endorser was an athlete. The findings of both studies show

that fit plays a major role in the Match-Up Hypothesis (Till and Busler, 2000).

The research done with spokespeople in advertisements has shown a match-up

effect. Celebrities have been found to match-up better with products with high

psychological and social risks. Further research in the Celebrity Match-Up area has

shown that attractive celebrities match-up better with products that are attractiveness

related. In addition to the Celebrity Match-Up Hypothesis, a Beauty Match-Up

Hypothesis exists.

The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis

Solomon, Ashmore and Longo's study (1992) offers the idea that beauty is more

complex than just attractiveness versus unattractiveness. The Beauty Match-Up

Hypothesis introduces the idea that there are several types of beauty, of these beauty

types certain types are more appropriately paired with specific products than others in

advertising. The researchers "further propose that perceivers mentally associate

exemplars of different types of beauty with distinct personalities and lifestyles."

(Solomon et al., 1992, 24)









Solomon et al.'s study (1992) used a convenience sample of eighteen major fashion

editors based in New York. Two specific elements of the Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis

were tested: (1) are there are multiple types of beauty? (2) Are particular products best

associated with specific types of good looks? The study used two beauty related

products, perfumes and magazines. The perfumes included Opium, Poison, Charlie,

Chanel No. 5, and White Linen. The magazines tested included Cosmopolitan, Glamour,

Self, Seventeen, and Vogue (Solomon et al., 1992). The survey participants were each

given a set of ninety-six photographs of female models and asked to divide them into

categories and then name the categories based on the similarity of the models'

appearances (Solomon et al., 1992).

The results revealed six categories of beauty: Classic Beauty/Feminine (perfect

physical features with a soft or romantic look), Sensual/Exotic (sexual and ethnic look),

Sex-Kitten (overt sexual and youthful look), Trendy (offbeat look, flawed in contrast to

Classic Beauty), Cute (youthful physical features and/or clothing), and Girl-Next-Door

(natural and unmade-up look). Each category was then rated for congruence with the set

of perfumes and magazines (Solomon et al., 1992).

The results of the study (Solomon et al., 1992) supported the idea that there are

multiple types of physical attractiveness of models. The final six categories found to

exist included (1) Classic Beauty/Feminine, (2) Sensual/Exotic, (3) Sex-Kitten, (4)

Trendy, (5) Cute, and (6) Girl-Next-Door. When a comparison of beauty type and

product was conducted, the results showed a good match-up for the Sex-Kitten dimension

of beauty and Cosmopolitan magazine. Seventeen magazine was closely associated with

the Cute dimension of beauty. Chanel perfume showed a strong positive match with









Classic Beauty/Feminine, Poison showed a strong negative match with Girl-Next-Door,

and White Linen showed a strong positive match with Girl-Next-Door and a clear

negative match with Trendy. The results support both elements of the Beauty Match-Up

Hypothesis (Solomon et al., 1992).

A study done by Englis, Solomon and Ashmore (1994) expands on Solomon et al.'s

(1992) study and examines beauty types in two different media; fashion magazine

advertisements and contemporary music videos. The researchers hypothesized that there

would be a variety of looks portrayed in both print and electronic media, both in

advertisements and in program content. The researchers also hypothesized that a uniform

distribution of beauty would not be found. Also, particular magazines and specific

musical genres were hypothesized to result in different beauty types (Englis et al., 1994).

For the magazine portion of the study (Englis et al., 1994), three undergraduate

students content analyzed 195 models from advertisements in the fashion magazines

Cosmopolitan, Glamour, Mademoiselle, Self, Seventeen, Vogue, Esquire, GQ, and

Playboy. Results showed that the six beauty types from Solomon et al.'s (1992) study

were not evenly represented across the magazines. The most common looks overall

included Trendy, Classic Beauty/Feminine, and Sensual/Exotic. Both the Sensual/Exotic

and Trendy beauty types were found most in Glamour and Vogue. The Classic

Beauty/Feminine look was most often found in Cosmopolitan, Mademoiselle, and Self

(Englis et al., 1994).

For the music video portion of the study (Englis et al., 1994), two undergraduate

students coded 113 videos using the same procedure as the first study. Results revealed

that the overall distribution of beauty types was not evenly represented across musical









genre, with the greatest emphasis on the Sensual/Exotic look. The next most common

looks were Trendy and Classic Beauty/Feminine. A significant relationship between

musical genre and type of beauty was found (Englis et al., 1994).

Frith, Shaw and Cheng (2005) used Englis et al.'s (1994) beauty types to examine

magazine advertisements from Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States. The

researchers narrowed down the beauty types to four: Classic, Sensual/Sex Kitten,

Cute/Girl-next-door, and Trendy. Advertisements in popular beauty and fashion

magazines containing at least one female model were content analyzed by two coders. It

was hypothesized that Caucasian models would be used more in all cultures, the beauty

types would differ in all locations, the beauty types of the Caucasian models would differ

from the Asian models' beauty types, and the products being advertised would be

different. Frith et al. (2005) found that Caucasian models were used most in all three

cultures and that the models' beauty types differed among the three cultures. The

researchers found that the Sensual/Sex Kitten beauty type was used most in U.S. ads,

while the Cute/Girl-next-door beauty type was used most in Taiwanese ads. When

examining race, the researchers found that the Sensual/Sex Kitten beauty type was used

more often with Caucasian models, and the Cute/Girl-next-door beauty type was used

more often with Chinese models. Finally, Frith et al. (2005) discovered that beauty

products were advertised more often in Singapore and Taiwan while clothing was

advertised frequently in the U.S.

Maynard and Taylor (1999) found that models in Japanese magazines had more of

a cute look versus the models in the same American magazine. Four Japanese and four

American issues of Seventeen magazine were content analyzed to examine the portrayal









of the models in the advertisements. The researchers found that American models were

associated more with independence, determination, and sometimes defiance. Japanese

models portrayed more of a happy, playful, girlish image which can be described as Cute

(Maynard and Taylor, 1999). The two studies (Frith et al., 2005 and Maynard and

Taylor, 1999) show the difference of model's beauty portrayals across cultures.

Beauty Types

Huckeba (2005) built on Solomon et al.'s (1992) study to determine if the

categories that divided the models beauty types existed among female college students.

The researcher hypothesized that the categorization of the models would be consistent

with the six categories of beauty from the previous study. Photographs of models from

popular fashion magazines such as Vogue, Cosmopolitan, InStyle, and Allure were used

in the study. A total of 258 female undergraduates rated fourteen models on how well

they fit into each pre-established dimension of beauty (Huckeba, 2005).

Results of the study revealed two independent dimensions of beauty exist. The Sex

Kitten dimension and Sensual/Exotic dimension were factored together and were

renamed Sexual/Sensual. The Girl-Next-Door, Cute, and Classic/Feminine dimensions

were factored together and renamed Young Feminine. Additionally, the study measured

respondents' emotional responses to each model. Results showed that respondents felt

more positively about the models in the Young Feminine category than the

Sensual/Sexual models (Huckeba, 2005). See Table 2-1 for examples of the two new

beauty dimensions found to exist. The present study tests these two beauty dimensions

among unknown models on a female audience to determine if they match-up with

products with the same images. In addition to testing a match-up effect, self-concept

congruity between the respondents and models is tested.








Table 2-1: Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples of Beauty Dimensions
Sensual/Sexual Young Feminine




Strongest








f3i A
Middle








Weakest





Self-Concept

Sirgy (1982) outlines the term self-concept as someone's complete thoughts and

feelings about themselves. Self-concept can be divided into several dimensions including

actual-self or real-self, ideal-self, and social-self. Actual-self refers to how people see

themselves, ideal-self refers to how people would like to see themselves, and social-self

refers to how people present themselves to others (Sirgy, 1982). Zinkhan and Hong

(1991) describe the ideal self-concept being the reference point with which the actual self









is compared. The real-self and ideal-self are the two main self-concepts that have been

frequently studied (Dolich, 1969).

It has been found that consumers prefer images that are similar to their own self-

concepts (Dolich, 1969; Hong and Zinkhan, 1995; Mehta, 1999). Dolich (1969)

conducted a study examining whether consumers tend to accept brands with images

similar to their self-concept and reject brands with images dissimilar to their self-concept.

Dolich (1969) concluded that respondents' preferred brands were perceived to be more

similar to self-concept than least preferred brands. For most preferred brands, the ideal-

self and real-self images were generally found to have the same relationships. For least

preferred brands, significant differences were found between ideal-self and real-self

congruence for all products. Dolich's (1969) results verify that individuals tend to relate

brands to their own self-concepts. Products can provide a means of self expression;

therefore consumers tend to prefer products with images that are compatible, or

congruent with their self-concept.

Hong and Zinkhan (1995) conducted a study to determine the importance of self-

concept on influencing effectiveness of advertising. The researchers chose the

introversion/extroversion dimension of self-concept for the study. It was hypothesized

that advertising effectiveness would be enhanced when the ads were congruent with the

respondents' self-concepts and ideal self-concepts. Congruent ads were expected to

produce a better brand memory, more favorable attitude toward the product, and stronger

purchase intent from respondents. Additionally, it was hypothesized that brands with

images that are congruent with respondents' ideal self-concepts would be preferred to

brands with images congruent with respondents' actual self-concepts. Finally, it was









hypothesized that brands consistent with ideal self-concept would reveal greater purchase

intent if the discrepancy between the product image and actual self-concept is low or

moderate. If the discrepancy between the product image and actual self-concept is high,

it was hypothesized that brands consistent with actual-self concept would reveal greater

purchase intent.

Automobiles and shampoo were used in the study (Hong and Zinkhan, 1995) with

blue jeans used as a buffer advertisement. Two ads were prepared for each product

category, one in an introverted style and one in an extroverted style. There were two

parts to the study, a self-evaluation section and a section to evaluate the advertisements.

The evaluation of the ads consisted of memory, brand image, preference, and purchase

intention for each brand.

Results for the first hypothesis, brand memory would be affected by ads consistent

with self-concept, was not supported. However, results for the second and third

hypotheses were supported. Brand preference was found to increase when advertising

was consistent with respondents' self-concept. In other words, the more a brand is

similar to the respondent's self-concept the more they will like the brand. It was also

found that purchase intent is stronger when the image of the brand is congruent with the

respondent's self-concept (Hong and Zinkhan, 1995).

Results of the study conducted by Hong and Zinkhan (1995) concludes that ideal-

self congruency versus actual-self congruency has a higher impact on brand preference.

The final hypothesis was not supported. It did not matter how low or extreme the

discrepancy between self-concept and product image, ideal-self congruency had a greater

effect on purchase intent than actual-self congruency. Overall, it was found that brand









preference and purchase intent were influenced by self-congruent appeals, while brand

memory was not. The researchers concluded that self-congruent advertising appeals

should be used when the primary aim of the advertisement is to obtain a higher brand

preference or purchase intent. Also, if the primary aim is to increase brand preference

and purchase intention, ideal self-concept congruence is better than actual self-concept

congruence.

A study done by Mehta (1999) explored self-concept and brand image

convergence. A commercial for a cosmetic and fragrance company was tested among a

general audience of men and women aged 18 and up. Respondents watched a video with

a program and the commercial in their own homes. Telephone interviews were

conducted the day after to measure recall, idea communications, and purchase intent.

There was also a section for the respondents to indicate their self-concepts (Mehta, 1999).

Results indicated that the fragrance used in the test advertisement appealed more

strongly to the younger respondents. Respondents were divided into three different

groups based on their self-reported self-concept. The groups included Adventurous

(adventurous, exotic, mysterious), Sensual/Elegant (sensuous, sexy, elegant,

sophisticated, stylish), and Sensitive (sensitive, romantic, traditional). The commercial

had significantly different reactions among the three groups. On most dimensions,

including recall, purchase intent, brand rating, and commercial liking, both the

Adventurous and Sensual/Elegant groups exhibited strongly favorable reactions. The

Sensitive group had consistently negative responses to the commercial. Even though the

younger demographic had positive responses to the commercial, the Adventurous and









Sensual/Elegant groups had more positive reactions, indicating that they would be a

better target audience (Mehta, 1999).

Self-concept and brand-image distance scores were also calculated to determine the

level of convergence. The sample was once again divided into three groups (high,

medium, and low convergence) based on these calculations. Purchase intent was then

compared for all three groups. Results showed that purchase intent is significantly

influenced by the convergence levels. Respondents who have a high convergence with

the brand, or see the brand as being similar to who they are, are more interested in

purchasing the brand. Conversely, respondents who have a low convergence with the

brand, or see the brand as different from who they are, are less likely to be interested in

purchasing the brand (Mehta, 1999).

Mehta (1999) found that self-concept was a good tool for the evaluation of

advertisements. Self-concept was used to segment the audience and it was found that the

commercial was significantly more effective among respondents whose self-concepts

were similar.

It is also known that people have a strong tendency to like other people who share

similar characteristics such as demographics, culture, personality, attitudes, and beliefs.

Based on these ideas, Zinkhan and Hong (1991) hypothesized that advertising

effectiveness is enhanced (through memory, attitude towards the product, and purchase

intent) when the appeals in the advertisements are congruent with the viewer's actual and

ideal self-concept. Therefore, if a model's personality is congruent with the viewer's

self-concept, effectiveness of the advertisement could be enhanced. Self-concept









research overall has shown that people tend to have more positive attitudes towards

things and people that match their self-concept.

Need for Present Research

A large quantity of research exists focused on the use of endorsers in advertising,

beauty types of models in advertisements, the match-up effect, and self-concept.

Currently, there is no research that uses congruence to match models in advertising to

products and consumers' self-concepts. The current study attempts to use the two beauty

dimensions found to exist in a previous study (Huckeba, 2005) and match them with

specific products; magazines and perfumes. The sexy and cute dimensions of beauty

found in Huckeba's (2005) study need to be further tested among a female audience in

order to determine if the audience will respond as expected to the different dimensions of

beauty. According to previous research (Huckeba, 2005), it is expected that a female

audience will have a more positive reaction to the models with a cute beauty type.

The present research will also determine whether or not the two dimensions of

beauty match-up to products as expected. Solomon et al. (1992) found a match-up for the

Sex-Kitten dimension of beauty and Cosmopolitan magazine as well as a match-up for

the Cute dimension of beauty and Seventeen magazine. The current study also attempts to

add to that body of research by including a self-concept dimension. As found in previous

research (Dolich, 1969; Hong and Zinkhan, 1995; Mehta, 1999), it is expected that

consumers prefer images that are similar to their own self-concepts. Rather than testing

respondents' self-concepts with the brand being advertised, they will be tested with the

model in the advertisement.

The focus of the present study is limited to unknown models rather than celebrity

spokespersons. Female college students are used in order to better understand a possible









target audience for both product categories. The study will offer insight about female

college students' reactions to models in advertising.

Conclusion

Based on the results of a previous study (Huckeba, 2005), it is expected that that a

female audience will react more positively to the models with a cute look versus the

models with more of a sexy look. Based on previous research (Solomon et al., 1992;

Englis et al., 1994) it is also predicted that the models' images (cute or sexy) will match-

up to products with similar images which leads to the following hypotheses:

H1: A model with a Sensual/Sexual beauty type will match up to a product with a

Sensual/Sexual brand image.

H2 : A model with a Young Feminine, or cute beauty type will match up to a

product with a Young Feminine, or cute brand image.

The current study also attempts to answer the following question regarding self-

concept congruity:

* Is attitude toward a model related to how well the model's perceived personality
fits the respondent's self-concept?














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The primary purpose of this study is to determine if products with certain brand

images will match-up with models with the same image using both beauty types found to

exist in Huckeba's (2004) study. The study also uses a personality measure to determine

if attitude toward a model is related to how well the model fits the respondents' self-

concepts.

Research Design

A survey in the form of a self-administered questionnaire was used to test the

hypotheses. The questionnaire was in a pen and paper format and was given to

respondents face-to-face. Survey research can be described as "the systematic collection

of information (typically via a questionnaire) from respondents in order to better

understand and/or predict some aspect of their attitudes or behaviors" (Davis, 1997, 118).

A survey was chosen for the present study because surveys are seen as an excellent way

to measure the attitudes of large populations, such as students in a classroom (Babbie,

2001). The survey used a self-administered questionnaire in which all respondents were

asked the same questions in the same order, so bias of the researcher is reduced (Davis,

1997). Because of their standardized format, questionnaires are also generally strong on

reliability since they eliminate possible problems in observations made by the researcher

(Babbie, 2001).

The fashion models used in the current study were selected based on Huckeba's

(2005) research. Four different models from Huckeba's (2005) research were chosen









using scores for the sexy and cute dimensions. Models representing the range of scores

were chosen ranging from high sexy, high cute to low sexy, low cute. Model A had a

high sexy, low cute score, Model B had a high cute, low sexy score, Model C had a low

cute, low sexy score, and Model D's had a middle cute, middle sexy score. All models

chosen were unknown non-celebrities.

To remain consistent with previous research, four products from two categories,

magazines and perfumes were used in the study. The products chosen for the study were

Seventeen magazine, Cosmopolitan magazine, CK Obsession perfume, and Clinique

Happy perfume. Both Cosmopolitan magazine and CK Obsession perfume have a

Sensual/Sexual brand image, while both Seventeen magazine and Clinique Happy

perfume have a Young Feminine, or cute brand image.

Brand Selection

Previous studies have used magazines and perfumes for testing the Match-Up

Hypothesis (Solomon et al., 1992). The four brands chosen for the current study

exhibited the images of both beauty types found to exist in Huckeba's (2005) research.

The two products from the magazine category whose images had been previously

identified were Seventeen and Cosmopolitan. Seventeen magazine was chosen for the

current study because of its Young Feminine, or cute image. In previous research,

Solomon et al. (1992) describe the magazine's image as cute and youthful. Cosmopolitan

magazine was chosen because of its longstanding image that celebrates female sexual

expression. The magazine has been said to help modernize women's thinking about sex

and many other lifestyle issues. It has also pushed the envelope at times when the world

and American culture were very conservative (Jenkins, 2005).









The two products from the perfume category were Clinique Happy and CK

Obsession. Clinique Happy was chosen for its Young Feminine, or cute image portrayed

by its print advertisements. The Sensual/Sexual nature of the CK Obsession

advertisements made it a good choice for the current study. Table 3-1 presents examples

of advertisements for both perfumes (Images de Parfums, 2006).

Table 3-1: Perfume Advertisements
Clinique Happy Ad, 2001 CK Obsession Ad, 1999


-OBSESSION'






I:



Instrumentation

Questions on the survey (which can be found in the appendix) included indicating

the respondent's attitude toward all four models and all four products using a five-point

semantic differential scale. In order to achieve greater reliability, attitude toward the

models and products were tested on three dimensions including Pleasant/Unpleasant,

Favorable/Unfavorable, and Good/Bad.

Respondents were asked to indicate how well all models fit into both the

Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine, or cute categories using a five-point semantic

differential scale. For greater reliability, two dimensions were used to test the models' fit

with each category including Girl-next-door Sex-Kitten and Sensual/Exotic Cute.









Respondents were also asked to indicate how well each model fit with each product on a

five point Likert-type scale ranging from a very bad fit to a very good fit.

Respondents were asked to indicate how close each model's personality fit to the

respondent's real and ideal self-concepts as well as their undesired self-concepts. Using a

five-point Likert-type scale, three separate questions were asked for each model: How

close is Model X's personality to who you are (your personality)?, How close is Model

X's personality to who you would like to be?, and How close is Model X's personality to

who you don't want to be? Demographic questions were also asked.

Sample

The participants in the current study were a convenience sample taken from classes

in the Journalism and Communication department at a large Southeastern University.

Participants were recruited from four undergraduate classes: Elements of Advertising

(ADV 3000), Advertising Strategy (ADV 3001), Media Planning (ADV 4300) and Public

Relations Writing (PUR 4100). A total of 149 females participated in the study and were

awarded extra credit points for participating.

One version of the questionnaire was given out to all participants by the principal

investigator. Instructions were printed at the top of the questionnaire and also read aloud

to the participants by the principal investigator. The informed consent document was

attached to the front of all questionnaires and was collected and separated upon

completion of the questionnaire.

Measurement

Participants were first asked if they were familiar with each model and each

product. Familiarity of each model was measured on a four-point Likert-type scale

ranging from (1) not at all familiar to (4) very familiar. Familiarity of each product was









measured using a (1) yes or (2) no. The participants were then asked to indicate their

attitude toward each model and product on three different five-point semantic differential

scales including Good Bad, Favorable Unfavorable, and Pleasant Unpleasant which

were all rotated and randomized. Participants were asked to score the models on a five-

point semantic differential scale including Girl-next-door Sex-Kitten and

Sensual/Exotic Cute which were all rotated and randomized. Participants were then

asked to indicate how well they thought each model fit with each product on a Likert-

type scale. The scale ranged from (1) very bad fit to (5) very good fit, with the middle

level being (3) neutral.

Participants were also asked to indicate how they felt about each of the models'

personalities. They were first asked if the models' personalities were close to their own

self-concepts. Then they were asked if the models' personalities were close to who they

wanted to be like. Finally, the participants were asked if the models' personalities were

close to who they did not want to be like. Each of these questions used a Likert-type

scale ranging from (1) very bad fit to (5) very good fit, while (3) was neutral.

Respondents were asked about their job status, and how much money they spent

per week on non-necessities such as entertainment and clothing. They were asked to

choose from the following amounts: $0-49, $50-99, $100-149, and $150+.

Data Processing

Respondents marked their answers on scan-tron sheets. The raw data from the

answer sheets was uploaded into SPSS and cleaned where needed. Variable names were

assigned to the data. Variables including attitude toward the models, attitude towards the

brands, models' cute/sexy scores, and models' fit to the products were all recorded. The

new values for attitudes toward the models and brands were as follows: 2 = Very Good, -






36


2 = Very Bad, and 0 = Neutral. The Cute/Sexy measures were also recorded so that 2 =

Girl-next-door and Cute, and -2 = Sensual/Exotic and Sex-Kitten. The final recode was

done for the models' fit to the products so that 2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit, and

0 = Neutral. The data was then analyzed using frequencies, manipulation checks,

repeated measures analysis of variance, and stepwise multiple regression. A .05 level of

significance was used for all analyses.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Sample Demographics

A total of 149 female students participated in the current study. Most respondents

were between the ages of 19 and 21 (85.6 valid percent). The majority of respondents

describe their race as white, non-Hispanic (74.3 valid percent) followed by Hispanic

(12.2 valid percent). The next categories with the highest number of respondents were

black, non-Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander with 5.4 valid percent each.

Over half of the participants (53.7 valid percent) indicated that they did not

currently have a job. Of the participants that indicated they were employed, most (44.3

valid percent) worked part-time while the others (2 valid percent) worked full-time. Just

under half of the participants (49.4 valid percent) indicated that they spent over $100 per

month on personal items which were non-necessities.

Manipulation Checks

Cute/Sexy Validation

A manipulation check using repeated measures analysis of variance was performed

to determine if the subjects of this study rated the models in a manner similar to their

selection for inclusion in this study. We expected Model A to be high sexy, Model B to

be high cute, Model C to be low sexy/cute and Model D to be middle sexy/cute. For the

semantic differential scale, "Girl-next-door/Sex-kitten," the means for all models were

significantly different from each other (p<.05). Model A was rated the closest to the Sex-

kitten dimension with a mean score of-1.624. Model B was rated the closest to the Girl-









next-door dimension with a mean score of 1.772. Models C and D were in the middle

with mean scores of -.282 and .295, respectively. Table 4-2 shows all models' mean

scores.

Table 4-1: Sample Description
N % Valid %
Age 18 4 2.7 2.9
19 34 22.8 24.5
20 52 34.9 37.4
21 33 22.1 23.7
22 13 8.7 9.4
25 2 1.3 1.4
29 1 .7 .7
Total 139 93.3 100.0
Missing 10 6.7
Race White, non- 110 73.8 74.3
Hispanic 18 12.1 12.2
Hispanic 8 5.4 5.4
Black, non- 8 5.4 5.4
Hispanic 4 2.7 2.7
Asian/Pacific
Islander
Other
Total 148 99.3 100.0
Missing 1 .7
Has a Job No 80 53.7 53.7
Yes, part-time 66 44.3 44.3
Yes, full-time 3 2.0 2.0
Total 149 100.0 100.0
Money $0-49 22 14.8 14.9
Spent $50-99 53 35.6 35.8
$100-149 39 26.2 26.4
$150+ 34 22.8 23.0
Total 148 99.3 100.0
Missing__ 1 .7

A second manipulation check was completed using the "Cute/Sensual-Exotic"

semantic differential measurement. Mean scores for all models were significantly

different from each other (p<.05). Model A was rated the closest to the Sensual-Exotic

dimension with a mean score of -1.497. Model B was rated the closest to the Cute









dimension with a mean score of 1.698. Models C and D were in the middle with mean

scores of -.416 and .154, respectively. Table 4-3 shows the mean scores for all models.

Table 4-2: Means for Girl-next-door/Sex-Kitten (2 = Very GND, -2 = Very SK)
Model Mean Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
B 1.772 1 .041 1.692 1.852
D .295 2 .085 .126 .464
C -.282 3 .059 -.398 -.166
A -1.624 4 .060 -1.742 -1.506
Mauchly's W=.866, df 5, p=.001, indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feldt estimates for the within-subjects test of
significance, F = 438.18, df=2, p = .000.

Table 4-3: Means for Cute/Sensual-Exotic (2 = Very C, -2 = Very S/E)
Model Mean Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
B 1.698 1 .042 1.614 1.782
D .154 2 .084 -.013 .321
C -.416 3 .056 -.528 -.305
A -1.497 4 .066 -1.627 -1.367
Mauchly's W=.780, df 5, p=.000 indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feldt estimates for the within-subjects test of
significance, F = 50.34, df = 3, p = .000.

The results of the manipulation checks indicate that Model A was seen as being

high sexy and low cute, which fits the Sensual/Sexual beauty type. Model B was seen as

being high cute, but low sexy which fits the Young Feminine beauty type. Model C was

seen as being low cute and low sexy, while Model D was in the middle of both beauty

types.

Attitude Toward Models and Products

As expected, there were significant differences among attitudes toward the models.

Model B (high cute/low sexy) (Mean = 1.018) evoked a significantly more positive

attitude than all the other models. Likewise, Model D (middle cute/middle sexy) (Mean

= .622) had an attitude score more positive than all the other models except Model B.

Model A and C were significantly different from each other and had lower attitude scores










than Model B and D. The more cute models were viewed more favorably than were the

less cute models. Means for all models are presented in table 4-4.

Table 4-4: Attitudes toward the Models (2 = favorable and -2 = unfavorable)
Attitude toward the Model Mean Rank Std. 95% Confidence
Error Interval
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
Model B (high cute/low sexy) 1.018 1 .062 .895 1.141
Model D (middle-cute/middle .622 2 .067 .489 .755
sexy)
Model A (high sexy/low cute) .013 3 .069 -.123 .149
Model C (low cute/low sexy) -.260 4 .062 -.382 -.137
Grand Mean .348 .038 .274 .423
Repeated Measures ANOVA showed significant differences among means, df= 3, F = 89.194, p = .000
'Attitude toward Model B was significantly greater than all others
2Attitude toward Model D was significantly less than Model B and greater than all others
3Model A was significantly less than Model B and D and greater than Model C
4Model C was significantly less than all others

Also, as expected, there were significant differences among attitudes toward the

four products. Subjects were significantly more favorable toward Cosmopolitan (Mean =

.984) than all the other products. Similarly, Clinique Happy (Mean = .782) had the

second most favorable attitude, significantly less than Cosmopolitan and significantly

more positive than Seventeen (Mean = .568) and CK Obsession (Mean = .191).

Seventeen's attitude was significantly more positive than CK Obsession. Means for all

products are presented in Table 4-5.

Table 4-5: Attitudes toward the Products (2 = favorable and -2 =unfavorable)
Std. 95% Confidence Interval
Attitude toward the Product Mean Rank Confidene
Error Lower Bound Upper Bound
Cosmopolitan .9841 1 .083 .820 1.147
Clinique Happy .7822 2 .081 .622 .941
Seventeen .5683 3 .070 .430 .706
CK Obsession .1914 4 .065 .061 .320
Grand Mean .631 .048 .537 .725
Because Mauchly's W (.918) was significant (df = 5, p = .033), the Huynh-Feldt Repeated Measures ANOVA was
used. It revealed significant differences (df = 2.826, F = 25.688, p = .000).
'Cosmopolitan was significantly greater than all others
2Clinique was significantly less than Cosmopolitan and greater than all others
3Seventeen was significantly less than Cosmopolitan and Clinique and greater than CK Obsession.
4CK Obsession was significantly less than all others









Models' Fit with Beauty Types: Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis 1: A model with a Sensual/Sexual beauty type will match up to a product
with a Sensual/Sexual brand image.

All models were compared to both products with sexy images, Cosmopolitan

magazine and CK Obsession perfume using a repeated measures analysis of variance

(Table 4-6) of ratings from the Very Bad Fit to Very Good Fit scale (1 = Very Bad Fit).

The model with the best fit score for Cosmopolitan was the model with the high sexy/low

cute beauty type (Model A) with a mean of .933. The model with the middle cute/middle

sexy beauty type, model D, had the second best fit (Mean = .577). Model C (low

cute/low sexy) came in next with a mean of .289, followed by the high cute/low sexy

model (Model B) with a mean of -.530. Results indicated that the high sexy/low cute

model and the middle cute/middle sexy model had the best fit with Cosmopolitan, with

the high sexy/low cute model having the best fit. The high cute/low sexy model had the

worst match-up with Cosmopolitan. The results supported the hypothesis.

Table 4-6: Means for Cosmopolitan Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)
Std 95% Confidence Interval
Model Mean Rank '
Error Lower Bound Upper Bound

A .933 1 .089 .758 1.108
D .577 2 .085 .409 .746
C .289 3 .098 .095 .433
B -.530 4 .089 -.706 -.354
Mauchly's W=.856, df 5, p=.000 indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feldt estimates for the within-subjects test of
significance, F = 49.47, df = 2.823, p = .000.

A repeated measures analysis of variance was also used to test the second sexy

product, CK Obsession perfume (Table 4-7). The model with the high sexy/low cute

beauty type, Model A, had the highest mean score for CK Obsession (1.020), and the

score was significantly greater than all others. The model with the low cute/low sexy









beauty type, model C, had the next highest mean (.510) for CK Obsession perfume. This

model had significantly less fit than Model A and significantly more fit than Model D

and B. Model D (middle cute/middle sexy) had the next highest mean of. 148, followed

by the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) with a mean of -1.134. The best fit for CK

Obsession was the high sexy/low cute model (Model A) and the worst fit was the high

cute/low sexy model (Model B), which supports the hypothesis. Table 4-7 presents mean

scores which were all significantly different for all models.

Table 4-7: Means for CK Obsession Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)
Std. 95% Confidence Interval
Model Mean Rank '
Error Lower Bound Upper Bound

A 1.020 1 .093 .837 1.203
C .510 2 .102 .309 .712
D .148 3 .095 -.040 .335
B 4 .074 -1.281 -.988
1.134
Mauchly's W=.856, df 5, p=.000, indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feldt estimates for the within-subjects test of
significance, F = 49.47, df= 2.814, p = .000.

Hypothesis 2: A model with a Young Feminine, or cute beauty type will match up to
a product with a Young Feminine, or cute brand image.

All models were compared to the two cute products, Seventeen (Table 4-8) and

Clinique (Table 4-9) with a repeated measures analysis of variance. Models B (high

cute/low sexy) and D (middle cute/middle sexy) were rated as the best fits with Model B

(Mean = 1.764) having a significantly higher fit score than Model D (Mean = 1.257).

The low cute/low sexy model (Model C) and the high sexy/low cute model (Model A)

had the lowest fit scores with mean scores that were significantly different from each

other and from models B and D. The low cute/low sexy model's (Model C) mean score

was -.696 while the high sexy/low cute model's (Model A) mean score was -1.514.









While both the high cute/low sexy and middle cute/middle sexy models fit with the cute

product, results show that the high cute/low sexy model best fit Seventeen magazine. The

hypothesis was supported.

Table 4-8: Means for Seventeen Match-Up (2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)
Std. 95% Confidence Interval
Model Mean Rank '
Error Lower Bound Upper Bound

B 1.764 1 .055 1.692 1.852
D 1.257 2 .077 1.105 1.408
C -.696 3 .098 -.890 -.502
A 4 .073 -1.657 -1.370
1.514
Mauchly's W=.856, df 5, p=.000, indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feldt estimates for the within-subjects test of
significance, F= 49.47, df = 2.811, p= .000.

The second cute product to be tested with a repeated measures analysis of variance

was Clinique Happy perfume (Table 4-9). The models with the best fit to Clinique

Happy were the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) and the middle cute/middle sexy

model (Model D). Model B's mean score (Mean = 1.228) was significantly higher than

Model D's mean score (Mean = .725). The low cute/low sexy model (Model C) and the

high sexy/low cute model (Model A) had the lowest fit scores at -1.195 and -1.242,

respectively. The low cute/low sexy model (Model C) and the high sexy/low cute model

(Model A) had mean scores that were not significantly different from each other, but

were significantly lower than both the middle cute/middle sexy model (Model D) and

high cute/low sexy model's (Model B) scores. Results show that the cute models better

fit the cute product with the cutest model having the best fit. The hypothesis was

supported.









Table 4-9: Means for Clinique Happy Match-Up 2 = Very Good Fit, -2 = Very Bad Fit)
Std. 95% Confidence Interval
Model Mean Rank '
Error Lower Bound Upper Bound

B 1.228 1 .083 1.065 1.391
D .725 2 .083 .561 .889
C 3 .077 -1.347 -1.042
A 195 4 .084 -1.407 -1.076

1.242


Mauchly's W=.856, df 5, p=.000, indicated the need to use the Huynh-Feldt estimates for the within-subjects test of
significance, F = 49.47, df = 2.789, p = .000

Relationship Between Fit and Attitude Toward the Model

Respondents' perceptions of how well the models fit the different products, the

dependent variable, were related to respondents' attitudes toward the products, the

independent variable. Fit for the cute products (Seventeen and Clinique Happy) was

related to respondents' attitudes toward the cute models (Model B: high cute/low sexy

and Model D: middle cute/middle sexy). As expected, fit of the cute models to sexy

products was not related to respondents' attitude toward the products. The fit of sexy

products to attitudes toward the models was correlated for Cosmopolitan but not CK

Obsession. The fit of the low sexy/low cute model was, as might be expected, more

diverse. Fit of this model to Seventeen, Clinique Happy and Cosmopolitan was related to

respondents' attitudes toward the model. Because of the model's low cute/low sexy

rating, she was not perceived to be an extreme (high cute/low sexy or high sexy/low cute)

giving her correlations for fit scores and attitude across cute and sexy products. These

results suggested that the fit of a model to a product is related to the models cute/sexy

rating as well as individuals' like-dislike (attitude) of the model. Models that fit a

product are likely to generate favorable attitudes.









Table 4-10: Fit and Attitude Toward Model Relationship
Attitude toward the Model Fit of Model Image to Product
Cute Products Sexy Products
Seventeen Clinique Cosmopolitan CK
Happy Obsession
R sig. R sig. R sig. R sig.
B (high cute/low sexy) .048 ns .212 .009 .082 ns .138 ns
D (middle cute/middle sexy) .256 .002 .341 .000 .096 ns -.159 ns
A (high sexy/low cute) .037 ns -.069 ns .226 .005 .135 ns
C (low sexy/low cute) .208 .011 .204 .013 .317 .000 .053 ns

Research Question: Is attitude toward a model related to how well the model's
perceived personality fits the respondent's self-concept?

To address this question, stepwise multiple regression was used with attitude

toward the model as the dependent variable and the three measures of personality fit as

the independent variables. These three personality fit measures were (1) How close is the

model's personality to who you are? (2) How close is the model's personality to who you

would like to be? and (3) How close is the model's personality to who you don't want to

be? Measurement was with a 1 to 5 scale, 1 = Very Close and 5 = Very Far.

There are two reminders for reading these results. First, the independent measures

are highly correlated causing the models to be affected by multicollinearity as reported.

This limits examining beta weights to identify which independent variable explained

more variance. This was not the purpose of this analysis. The purpose of this analysis

was simply to explore which personality fits were significant. Second, because the

attitude measure was scaled in the opposite direction (2= Very favorable and -2 = Very

unfavorable), and one of the measures (Who you do not want to be like) is scaled in the

same direction, negative standardized Beta weights reflect the following relationship for

the Who You Are and Who You Want to Be measures: as closeness to a model increases,

attitude becomes more favorable. For the Who You Do Not Want to Be measure, a









negative standardized Beta suggests the following relationship: the closer a model is to

"who the respondent does not want to be," the more negative the attitude.

Attitudes toward the high sexy/low cute model (Model A, Table 4-11) the middle

cute/middle sexy model (Model D, Table 4-12) and the low cute/low sexy model (Model

C, Table 4-13) were similar. Both were related to whom the respondents are now and

who they do not want to be like: the further the sexy model was from who the subjects

are now, the more favorable the attitude. Attitude toward the high sexy/low cute model

was also related to who they do not want to be like: the closer the sexy model was to who

the subjects did not want to be like, the more positive the attitude. This suggested that

the attitudes toward the high sexy/low cute model (Model A), the middle cute/middle

sexy (Model D) and the low cute/low sexy model (Model C) were more of avoidance,

than aspiration. They did not want to be different from whom they are now and they

wanted to be different from the person they did not want to be like.

Table 4-11: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model A
Independent Variables: Close to... Std. Beta t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
Who you are -.284 -3.348 .001 .865 1.156
Who you want to be ns ns Ns ns ns
Who you do not want to be .173 2.095 .038 .865 1.156
R =.382, R'= .146, df = 2, F = 12.424, p = .000

Table 4-12: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model D
Independent Variables: Close to... Std. Beta t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
Who you are -.233 -2.835 .005 .799 1.251
Who you want to be ns ns Ns ns ns
Who you do not want to be .387 4.911 .000 .799 .1251
R =.526, R2= .277, df = 2, F = 27.914, p = .000

The results for Model B (high cute /low sexy) (Table 4-14) were the opposite of the

avoidance results found for Model A, Model C and Model D. Who respondents "want to

be" was the only significant predictor for the high cute/low sexy model. This suggested









the aspirational role for Model B and reinforced the avoidance role for Model A, Model

C and Model D.

Table 4-13: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model C
Independent Variables: Close to... Std. Beta T Sig. Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
Who you are -.233 -2.835 .005 .813 1.229
Who you want to be ns ns Ns ns ns
Who you do not want to be .266 2.624 .010 .813 1.229
R =.345, R2= .119, df = 2, F = 9.985, p = .000

Table 4-14: Attitude and Personality Fit Regression for Model B

Independent Variables: Close Std. Beta t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
to... Tolerance VIF
Who you are ns ns Ns ns ns
Who you want to be -.221 -2.750 .007 1.000 1.000
Who you do not want to be ns ns Ns ns ns
R =.221, R2= .049, df = 1, F = 7.565, p =.007

These results suggest that high cute/low sexy models that provide an aspirational

image and personality are likely to be more accepted by an audience. Conversely, high

sexy/low cute, middle cute/middle sexy and low cute/low sexy models will be more

accepted when they provide exemplars of whom viewers want to avoid becoming.

Personality Fit and Product Fit

To determine the relationship between personality fit and product fit, stepwise

multiple regression was used with fit of the product as the dependent variable and (1)

close to who you are, (2) close to who you want to be and (3) close to who you do not

want to be as independent variables. Sixteen analyses were completed: one for each

product for each of the four models. As in the previous regression discussion, please

remember that the personality fit measures are highly correlated. Likewise, since the fit

measure was anchored 1 = Very Bad and 5 = Very good, and the closeness measure was

anchored 1 = Very close and 5 = Very Far, negative standardized Beta weights reflect the









proper relationship: as the more close the model to whom the person is or wants to be the

better fit of the model to the product. In terms of whom the subjects did not want to be, a

positive Beta suggests that fit increases as the model gets closer to whom the subjects do

not want to be. For simplicity purposes, the results of the sixteen multiple regressions are

presented in one table. The results of only significant regressions are reported. All had p

values less than .05.

These results provide insight into how models fit with various products. First,

subject-model personality fit is not related to model-product fit in all cases (Table 4-15).

In general, the results of the multiple regressions show that proximity to a model's

personality is most often related to a magazine (Seventeen or Cosmopolitan), and that

proximity of a model's personality to "who the subject is" is the significant predictor.

This suggests a support function. The model fits the product when the model fits with

whom someone perceives themselves to be.









Table 4-15: Personality and Product Fits
Model A fit with... Who You Are Who You Want Who You Do Not
(low cute/high sexy) to Be Want to Be
Std. Beta Sig. Std. Sig. Std. Beta Sig.
Beta
Seventeen -.164 .046 ns Ns ns ns
Cosmopolitan ns ns ns Ns .217 .008
CK Obsession ns ns ns Ns .219 .007
Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns ns ns
Model D fit with... Who You Are Who You Want Who You Do Not
(middle cute/middle to Be Want to Be
sexy) Std. Beta Sig. Std. Sig. Std. Beta Sig.
Beta
Seventeen ns ns ns Ns ns ns
Cosmopolitan -.161 .049 ns Ns ns ns
CK Obsession ns ns ns Ns ns ns
Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns .429 .000
Model C fit with... Who You Are Who You Want Who You Do Not
(low cute/middle sexy) to Be Want to Be
Std. Beta Sig. Std. Sig. Std. Beta Sig.
Beta
Seventeen ns ns ns Ns ns ns
Cosmopolitan -.161 .049 ns Ns ns ns
CK Obsession ns ns ns Ns ns ns
Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns .429 .000
Model B fit with... Who You Are Who You Want Who You Do Not
(high cute/low sexy) to Be Want to Be
Std. Beta Sig. Std. Sig. Std. Beta Sig.
Beta
Seventeen ns ns ns Ns ns Ns
Cosmopolitan -.288 .000 ns Ns ns Ns
CK Obsession ns ns -.192 .019 ns Ns
Clinique Happy ns ns ns Ns ns Ns














CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Summary of Results

After completing manipulation checks, it was clear that all four models in the study

had a different beauty type. Model A was seen as high sexy/low cute, Model B was high

cute/low sexy, Model C was low cute and low sexy, while Model D was middle cute and

middle sexy.

A repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to find the respondents'

attitudes toward both the models and the products. The high cute/low sexy model (Model

B) was significantly more favorable than all other models. Overall the respondents

indicated more favorable attitudes toward the cute models. For the products,

Cosmopolitan was the most favorable followed by Clinique Happy, Seventeen, and CK

Obsession.

Hypothesis One

HI: A model with a Sensual/Sexual beauty type will match up to a product with a

Sensual/Sexual brand image.

In order to find the best model/product fit, a repeated measures analysis of variance

was performed. The model with the best fit to the first sexy product, Cosmopolitan, was

the high sexy/low cute model (Model A). The high cute/low sexy model (Model B) had

the worst fit to the first sexy product.









The high sexy/low cute model (Model A) also had the best fit with the second sexy

product, CK Obsession. Once again, the worst fit for CK Obsession was the high

cute/low sexy model (Model B). These results supported hypothesis one.

Hypothesis Two

H2: A model with a Young Feminine beauty type will match up to a product with a

Young Feminine brand image.

A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the fit between the

models and products. Both the high cute/low sexy model (Model B) and the middle

cute/middle sexy model (Model D) fit the first cute product, Seventeen. However, the

high cute/low sexy model (Model B) had the best fit, and the high sexy/low cute model

(Model A) had the worst fit.

The second cute product tested was Clinique Happy. Once again the high cute/low

sexy model (Model B) and the middle cute/middle sexy model (Model D) fit the cute

product the best, with Model B having the best fit. Model A (high sexy/low cute) had the

worst fit with Clinique Happy. The results supported hypothesis two.

Research Question

* Is attitude toward a model related to how well the model's perceived personality
fits the respondent's self-concept?

Stepwise multiple regression was used to explore personality fits with respondents

and models. Models A (high sexy/low cute), D (middle cute/middle sexy), and C (low

cute/low sexy) were found to have more of an avoidance role. Results for the high

cute/low sexy model (Model B) were opposite from Models A, C, and D with more of an

aspirational role. Therefore, the high cute/low sexy model is more likely to be accepted

by an audience.









Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between

personality fit and product fit. Results indicated that a model fits the product when the

model fits someone's image of themselves. This fit was found mostly with a magazine as

the product. Results indicated that the respondents preferred the high cute, low sexy

model (Model B) and the magazine with the sexy image, Cosmopolitan. This could be

because the respondents did not view the other magazine, Seventeen, as being targeted

toward their age group even though it has a cute image which matched that of the

preferred model. This is an area where further research could be conducted.

Conclusion

Results of the current study show that college-aged women aspired to be like the

model with a cute beauty image rather than the models with a more sexy beauty image,

which supports previous research (Huckeba, 2005). The results are in support of

Huckeba's (2005) findings of two distinct dimensions of beauty among females. If

companies want viewers of their ads to aspire to be like the models in them, the models

used in the ads should have a cute look. On the other hand, if the goal of the

advertisement is avoidance, a model with a sexier look would be more effective.

Both the Sexy and Cute models fit with products with similar images. This

knowledge is useful to companies because it indicates that products with a sexy image are

better paired with sexy models and products with a cute image are better paired with cute

models. Models with a sexy image would be best paired with sexy products such as the

ones used in the present research (Cosmopolitan and CK Obsession). On the other hand

models with more of a cute image would best paired with cute products (such as

Seventeen and Clinique Happy). The results of the current study support previous









research regarding the Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis (Solomon et al., 1992; Englis et al.,

1994).

Finally, the models fit the product more often when the model's personality fit that

of the respondent. This information indicates that it is necessary to determine the target

audience's self-image. The target audience's self-image is an important determining

factor as far as which models to choose for certain products. The choice of model should

match either the ideal self-image or the actual self-image of the target audience. When

there is a match with the model's and audience's self-images, the audience is more likely

to think that the model fits the product. The results support the idea that people prefer

images that are congruent with their own self-concepts (Dolich, 1969; Hong and Zinkhan,

1995; Mehta, 1999).

The findings of the present study indicate that beauty has two distinct dimensions,

cute and sexy. These two dimensions are best paired with products with similar images.

In order to select a model for an advertisement it is important to determine the model's

beauty type and the product's image so that a match can be formed.

Limitations

Although there were many significant findings, the study had some limitations.

The validity of the study may be questioned because the respondents consisted of a

convenience sample of students rather than a random sample which means the results

should not be generalized beyond the sample. The study was restricted by place and time

because the sample of students was taken from classes in the same university. Because

participants were students, the study was limited to an age range of 18 to 29. Another

limitation was the survey itself. Some of the respondents chose not to answer all of the

questions, which might have caused non-response error. Questions regarding familiarity









of the products were scored on a yes or no scale. Using a Likert-type scale such as the

one used for model familiarity could have elicited different responses. The pictures of

the models used in the questionnaire were another limitation. The pictures chosen from

Huckeba's (2005) study were not uniform and could possibly have introduced some bias.

Some pictures were close-up shots of the model's face while others showed the model's

upper torso and clothing.

Implications for Advertisers

The results of the study provide more information on the beliefs of college-aged

women. The information could be useful to brands (such as magazines and perfumes)

that target this demographic by providing a basis of spokes model selection. The

research supports the importance of choosing the right spokes model for their

advertisements.

Results of the study show that models with a certain image (sexy or cute) are best

paired with products with the same image. Previous research has identified that

particular products are best associated with specific types of good looks. The present

study supports the previous research done with the Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis.

Previous research has also suggested that product and model congruency is necessary.

When this occurs, the model's presence is necessary to communicate the desired

message. In order to communicate the desired message advertisers should make sure the

model's image matches that of the product.

Previous research using college-aged women has shown that these women desire to

be more like the models with a cute beauty image rather than the sexy models and would

purchase products they endorse more willingly. The present study confirms that college-









aged women prefer the model with a cute beauty image and aspire to be like her. The

present study supports the previous research.

Future Research

Future research should test the match-up effects of the different beauty types with a

greater variety of products that target college-aged women. Future research should also

determine if there are different types of good looks for male models. Additionally, future

research should test the match-up effect of male models and certain products. Future

research should also test the match-up effect for both female and male models using

males as the respondents. Also, future research should use a sample that is not limited by

age and education. An experimental design could be used to investigate the match-up

effect. An experiment would be conducted to determine whether or not a model/product

match-up has an effect on recall of the product, attitude toward the advertisement, or

product purchase intent. Another area for future research is college-aged women's

preference for models with a cute image as well as Cosmopolitan (a magazine with a

sexy image) which have contradicting images. Finally, rather than using a convenience

sample, a random sample should be used.















APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE









Informed Consent


Protocol Title: Beauty Types in Advertisements

Please read this document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.

Purpose of the research study:
The purpose of this study is to examine different types of models' beauty in relation to
advertising different types of products.

What you will be asked to do in the study:
You will be asked to rate different models' beauty types, answer questions regarding
personality, and answer questions about different brands.

Risks and Benefits:
There are no risks or benefits associated with taking part in this study.

Compensation:
There will be no monetary compensation for taking part in this study. Extra credit will be
offered. The number of extra credit points allocated will be at the discretion of your
instructor, points will not exceed 3% of your grade.

Confidentiality:
Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The study will be
completely anonymous.

Voluntary participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not
participating. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer.

Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence.

Whom to contact if you have any questions about the study:
Danae Barulich, Graduate Student, danaeb@ufl.edu, (407) 493-0889

Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-
0443

Agreement:
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the
procedure and I have received a copy of this description.

Participant: Date:
Principal Investigator: Date:







58


Directions: Please read all of the instructions and answer ALL questions using the answer sheet provided.
Please do not fill out your Name, UF ID, or Section.

> MIMPORTANT: Please bubble in your age on the answer sheet under the
SPECIAL CODES section. Use the top row to indicate the first digit in your age,
and the bottom row to indicate the second digit in your age. (For example, if you are
20, bubble in 2 in the top row and 0 in the bottom row.)



How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your
answer sheet.


1. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar


(D) Very familiar


Please indicate your attitude toward Model A using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each
pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the
scale describes how you feel toward Model A.)


2. Good


1 2 3 4 5 Bad


3. Unfavorable 1


2 3 4 5 Favorable


4. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant







59


How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your
answer sheet.


5. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar


(D) Very familiar


Please indicate your attitude toward Model B using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each
pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the
scale describes how you feel toward Model B.)


6. Unpleasant 1

7. Unfavorable 1


8. Good


2 3 4 5 Pleasant

2 3 4 5 Favorable


1 2 3 4 5 Bad


How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your
answer sheet.


Model C


9. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar


(D) Very familiar


Please indicate your attitude toward Model C using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each
pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the
scale describes how you feel toward Model C.)


10. Favorable 1

11. Unpleasant 1


2 3 4 5 Unfavorable

2 3 4 5 Pleasant


1 2 3 4 5 Good


12. Bad










How familiar are you with the model pictured below? Please bubble in the corresponding letter on your
answer sheet.


13. (A) Not at all familiar (B) Somewhat familiar (C) Familiar


(D) Very familiar


Please indicate your attitude toward Model D using the scales below. Bubble in one number from each
pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the
scale describes how you feel toward Model D.)


14. Pleasant

15. Favorable

16. Good


1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant

1 2 3 4 5 Unfavorable

1 2 3 4 5 Bad


17. Are you familiar with Seventeen magazine?


(A) Yes


(B) No


Please indicate your attitude toward Seventeen magazine using the scales below. Bubble in one number
from each pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end
of the scale describes how you feel toward Seventeen magazine.)


18. Unfavorable

19. Pleasant

20. Bad


1 2 3 4 5 Favorable

1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant

1 2 3 4 5 Good


21. Are you familiar with Cosmopolitan magazine?


(A) Yes


(B) No


Please indicate your attitude toward Cosmopolitan magazine using the scales below. Bubble in one
number from each pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on
that end of the scale describes how you feel toward Cosmopolitan magazine.)


22. Unfavorable

23. Pleasant


24. Good


1 2 3 4 5 Favorable

1 2 3 4 5 Unpleasant

1 2 3 4 5 Bad










25. Are you familiar with CK Obsession perfume?


Please indicate your attitude toward CK Obsession using the scales below. Bubble in one number from
each pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the
scale describes how you feel toward CK Obsession.)


26. Unpleasant

27. Unfavorable

28. Bad


1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant

1 2 3 4 5 Favorable

1 2 3 4 5 Good


29. Are you familiar with Clinique Happy perfume?


(A) Yes


(B) No


Please indicate your attitude toward Clinique Happy using the scales below. Bubble in one number from
each pair of words. (The closer the number is to one end of the scale, the more the word on that end of the
scale describes how you feel toward Clinique Happy.)


30. Unfavorable


31. Good


32. Unpleasant


1 2 3 4 5 Favorable

1 2 3 4 5 Bad

1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant


For each scale shown below decide where, in your opinion, each model falls on each of the two adjective
pairs. Bubble in one number from each pair for each model. (The closer the number is to one end of
the scale, the more the word on that end of the scale describes the model.)









Model A


33. Girl-next-door
34. Sensual/Exotic


Sex-Kitten
Cute


-. Model B


35. Cute
36. Girl-next-door


2 3 4
2 3 4


Sensual/Exotic
Sex-Kitten


(A) Yes


(B) No























37. Sex-Kitten
38. Cute


Girl-next-door
Sensual/Exotic


Model D


39. Sex-Kitten
40. Sensual/Exotic


1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4


5 Girl-next-door
5 Cute










For each pair of words below, choose the one of the pairs that best describes your ideal. Please answer
all questions, choosing either A or B.

41. (A) Logical (B) Emotional

42. (A) Creative, theoretical (B) Practical, functional

43. (A) Rational, reasonable (B) Passionate, perceptive

44. (A) Soft-hearted (B) Firm

45. (A) Sociable (B) Shy

46. (A) Conservative (B) Unconventional

47. (A) Adaptable (B) Deliberate

48. (A) Sensible, factual (B) Instinctual

49. (A) Dependable (B) Changeable

50. (A) Moderate (B) Dynamic

51. (A) Decided (B) Flexible

52. (A) Clear-cut, definite (B) Undecided, variable

53. (A) Idealistic, visionary (B) Realistic, down-to-earth

54. (A) Excitable (B) Stoic

55. (A) Innovative (B) Steadfast

56. (A) Sympathetic (B) Indifferent

57. (A) Assertive (B) Mild

58. (A) Energetic (B) Calm

59. (A) Cold (B) Warm

60. (A) Quiet (B) Outspoken

61. (A) Reserved (B) Active

62. (A) Systematic (B) Imaginative

63. (A) Indistinct (B) Well-defined

64. (A) Wide-interests (B) Precise










For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model A. Please answer all
questions, choosing either A or B.









Model A


65. (A) Clear-cut, definite
66. (A) Moderate
67. (A) Quiet
68. (A) Wide-interests
69. (A) Excitable
70. (A) Reserved
71. (A) Sensible, factual
72. (A) Creative, theoretical
73. (A) Innovative
74. (A) Systematic
75. (A) Idealistic, visionary
76. (A) Indistinct
77. (A) Energetic
78. (A) Cold
79. (A) Sympathetic
80. (A) Soft-hearted
81. (A) Logical
82. (A) Rational, reasonable
83. (A) Decided
84. (A) Dependable
85. (A) Adaptable
86. (A) Assertive
87. (A) Conservative
88. (A) Sociable


(B) Undecided, variable
(B) Dynamic
(B) Outspoken
(B) Precise
(B) Stoic
(B) Active
(B) Instinctual
(B) Practical, functional
(B) Steadfast
(B) Imaginative
(B) Realistic, down-to-earth
(B) Well-defined
(B) Calm
(B) Warm
(B) Indifferent
(B) Firm
(B) Emotional
(B) Passionate, perceptive
(B) Flexible
(B) Changeable
(B) Deliberate
(B) Mild
(B) Unconventional
(B) Shy


89. How close is Model A's personality to who you are (your personality)?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


90. How close is Model A's personality to who you would like to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


91. How close is Model A's personality to who you don't want to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far










For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model B. Please answer all
questions, choosing either A or B.










S. Model B


92. (A) Excitable
93. (A) Rational, reasonable
94. (A) Idealistic, visionary
95. (A) Adaptable
96. (A) Energetic
97. (A) Moderate
98. (A) Cold
99. (A) Sociable
100. (A) Clear-cut, definite
101. (A) Wide-interests
102. (A) Decided
103. (A) Soft-hearted
104. (A) Assertive
105. (A) Quiet
106. (A) Logical
107. (A) Sympathetic
108. (A) Conservative
109. (A) Systematic
110. (A) Creative, theoretical
111. (A) Sensible, factual
112. (A) Indistinct
113. (A) Innovative
114. (A) Dependable
115. (A) Reserved


(B) Stoic
(B) Passionate, perceptive
(B) Realistic, down-to-earth
(B) Deliberate
(B) Calm
(B) Dynamic
(B) Warm
(B) Shy
(B) Undecided, variable
(B) Precise
(B) Flexible
(B) Firm
(B) Mild
(B) Outspoken
(B) Emotional
(B) Indifferent
(B) Unconventional
(B) Imaginative
(B) Practical, functional
(B) Instinctual
(B) Well-defined
(B) Steadfast
(B) Changeable
(B) Active


116. How close is Model B's personality to who you are (your personality)?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


117. How close is Model B's personality to who you would like to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


118. How close is Model B's personality to who you don't want to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far










For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model C. Please answer all
questions, choosing either A or B.


119. (A) Excitable
120. (A) Conservative
121. (A) Sympathetic
122. (A) Clear-cut, definite
123. (A) Quiet
124. (A) Logical
125. (A) Soft-hearted
126. (A) Wide-interests
127. (A) Systematic
128. (A) Reserved
129. (A) Adaptable
130. (A) Sensible, factual
131. (A) Decided
132. (A) Energetic
133. (A) Moderate
134. (A) Dependable
135. (A) Rational, reasonable
136. (A) Assertive
137. (A) Creative, theoretical
138. (A) Sociable
139. (A) Indistinct
140. (A) Cold
141. (A) Idealistic, visionary
142. (A) Innovative


(B) Stoic
(B) Unconventional
(B) Indifferent
(B) Undecided, variable
(B) Outspoken
(B) Emotional
(B) Firm
(B) Precise
(B) Imaginative
(B) Active
(B) Deliberate
(B) Instinctual
(B) Flexible
(B) Calm
(B) Dynamic
(B) Changeable
(B) Passionate, perceptive
(B) Mild
(B) Practical, functional
(B) Shy
(B) Well-defined
(B) Warm
(B) Realistic, down-to-earth
(B) Steadfast


143. How close is Model C's personality to who you are (your personality)?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


144. How close is Model C's personality to who you would like to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


145. How close is Model C's personality to who you don't want to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far










For each pair of words below, choose the one that you think best describes Model D. Please answer all
questions, choosing either A or B.










SModelD


146. (A) Innovative
147. (A) Indistinct
148. (A) Wide-interests
149. (A) Systematic
150. (A) Soft-hearted
151. (A) Rational, reasonable
152. (A) Assertive
153. (A) Energetic
154. (A) Creative, theoretical
155. (A) Moderate
156. (A) Quiet
157. (A) Excitable
158. (A) Conservative
159. (A) Reserved
160. (A) Logical
161. (A) Idealistic, visionary
162. (A) Sociable
163. (A) Sympathetic
164. (A) Dependable
165. (A) Clear-cut, definite
166. (A) Decided
167. (A) Cold
168. (A) Sensible, factual
169. (A) Adaptable


(B) Steadfast
(B) Well-defined
(B) Precise
(B) Imaginative
(B) Firm
(B) Passionate, perceptive
(B) Mild
(B) Calm
(B) Practical, functional
(B) Dynamic
(B) Outspoken
(B) Stoic
(B) Unconventional
(B) Active
(B) Emotional
(B) Realistic, down-to-earth
(B) Shy
(B) Indifferent
(B) Changeable
(B) Undecided, variable
(B) Flexible
(B) Warm
(B) Instinctual
(B) Deliberate


170. How close is Model D's personality to who you are (your personality)?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


171. How close is Model D's personality to who you would like to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far


172. How close is Model D's personality to who you don't want to be?


(A) Very Close (B) Close


(C) Neither (D) Far


(E) Very Far







68


For each model, indicate whether or not you think she fits the image of each brand listed. Use a 1 5
scale, 1 being a very bad fit, 3 being neutral, and 5 being a very good fit. Bubble in one number from
each brand for each model.


ivioael A

173. Seventeen magazine

174. Cosmopolitan magazine

175. CK Obsession perfume

176. Clinique Happy perfume


iviouel a

177. Seventeen magazine

178. Cosmopolitan magazine

179. CK Obsession perfume

180. Clinique Happy perfume


Very Bad Fit

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2












Very Bad Fit

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2


Neutral

3

3

3

3












Neutral

3

3

3

3


Very Good Fit

5

5

5

5


Very Good Fit

5

5

5

5




















Model C

181. Seventeen magazine

182. Cosmopolitan magazine

183. CK Obsession perfume

184. Clinique Happy perfume


Model D

185. Seventeen magazine

186. Cosmopolitan magazine

187. CK Obsession perfume

188. Clinique Happy perfume


Very Bad Fit

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2


Very Bad Fit

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2


Neutral

3

3

3

3


Neutral

3

3

3

3


Very Good Fit

5

5

5

5


Very Good Fit

5

5

5

5










189. Please indicate your gender.

(A) Male (B) Female

190. Please indicate your race.

(A) White, non-Hispanic
(B) Black, non-Hispanic
(C)Hispanic
(D) Asian/Pacific Islander
(E) Other

191. Do you currently have a job?

(A) Yes, Full-time (B) Yes, Part-time (C) No

192. How much money do you normally spend per month on personal items (non-necessities) such as
entertainment and clothing?

(A) $0-49 (B) $50-99 (C) $100-149 (D) $150+


Thank you for your time and participation.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Danae Barulich was born on February 4, 1982, in Woodside, New York. She

moved to Europe with her parents and attended the first and second grade in Croatia

before moving back to New York. She spent most of her time growing up in Orlando

after moving from New York when she was young. In May, 2000, she earned a B.A. in

Advertising and Public Relations at the University of Central Florida. She expects to

receive her Master of Advertising degree from the University of Florida in August 2006.

After graduation, she plans to pursue a career in advertising in the Central Florida area.