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Improving the Construction Process through Standardizing Daily Logs


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IMPROVING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS THROUGH STANDARDIZING DAILY LOGS By MICHAEL P. CHANDLER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Michael P Chandler

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to first thank my parents and family for all the love and support they have shown me throughout the process of writing my thesis and completing my classes to earn this masters degree. Without their constant guidance and support I would not have been able to accomplish these difficult tasks. I would also like to thank the members of my thesis committee Dr. R. Raymond Issa, Dr. Robert F. Cox and Dr. Robert C. Stroh, Sr. Without the encouragement of these individuals this thesis would have only been an idea. Finally, I would like to thank my friends whom I have met at the University of Florida, and those I have left behind at Holy Cross, Notre Dame and in the construction field. For many years I have known I was supposed to work in the construction industry, but without encouragement from these people, I would not have discovered this great passion I have for construction. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES ..........................................................................................................vii CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................1 Objective of Study........................................................................................................1 Hypothesis Statements...........................................................................................3 Overview...............................................................................................................3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................5 Introduction...................................................................................................................5 Current Methods of Recording Progress......................................................................6 Production Theories......................................................................................................7 Key Performance Indicators in Construction.............................................................10 The Use of Technology in Construction.....................................................................11 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...............................................................................15 4 CASE STUDIES.........................................................................................................19 Phase One Interviews.................................................................................................19 Introduction.........................................................................................................19 CCS Mechanical..................................................................................................19 The Beck Group..................................................................................................21 KHS&S Contractors............................................................................................23 Perry Construction...............................................................................................25 Conclusion...........................................................................................................26 Phase Two Interview Questions.................................................................................27 Introduction.........................................................................................................27 Interview Questions.............................................................................................27 List of Interviewees.............................................................................................28 iv

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Data Collection....................................................................................................28 Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC.....................................................................................29 Hensel Phelps Construction Co...........................................................................31 KHS&S Contractors............................................................................................35 R.A. Rogers.........................................................................................................37 Clancy & Theys Construction Company.............................................................39 J. Raymond Construction Corporation................................................................41 Tilt-Con Corporation...........................................................................................43 Conclusion..................................................................................................................44 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND OBSERVATIONS...........................................................48 Introduction.................................................................................................................48 Description and Criticism of the Preliminary Daily Log....................................48 Conclusion..................................................................................................................54 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSSION.........................................................................55 Conclusion..................................................................................................................55 APPENDIX A PRELIMINARY STANDARD DAILY LOG............................................................59 B CURRENT DAILY LOGS.........................................................................................65 C ANALYSIS MATRIX................................................................................................90 D FINAL STANDARD DAILY LOG...........................................................................94 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................101 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................102 v

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 4-1 Research Results..........................................................................................................46 4-2 Contractor Feedback....................................................................................................47 C-3 Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format.............................................................................91 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page A-1 Preliminary Standard Log..........................................................................................60 B-2 Brasfield & Gorrie Daily Report................................................................................66 B-3 Brasfield & Gorrie Weekly Time Card......................................................................68 B-4 KHS&S Daily Job Log..............................................................................................69 B-5 R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report.................................................................................70 B-6 J.Raymond Daily Construction Report......................................................................73 B-7 J. Raymond Daily Details..........................................................................................77 B-8 J. Raymond Daily Work............................................................................................78 B-9 Tilt-Con Daily Log....................................................................................................79 B-10 Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log........................................................................80 B-11 Tilt-Con Job Cost Summary.....................................................................................81 B-12 Tilt-Con Short Interval Plan......................................................................................82 B-13 Tilt-Con Place Weekly Timecard.............................................................................84 B-14 Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log........................................................................86 B-15 Tilt-Con Concrete Timecards...................................................................................88 D-16 Final Standard Daily Log..........................................................................................95 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction IMPROVING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS THROUGH STANDARDIZING DAILY LOGS By Michael P. Chandler August 2006 Chair: R. Raymond Issa Cochair: Robert F. Cox Major Department: ME. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction The construction industry is constantly under pressure to provide the most accurate information in the form of a budget to prospective owners to be awarded a project. With this goal in mind, estimating departments have been working hard to store the most up-to-date information in the company's database in order to provide the most accurate job estimate. Despite the precautions the estimating departments take, errors will never be eliminated from the estimating process. Efforts can be made to continually update and improve the estimating and overall construction processes by improving the information gathered in the field. Through investigation of current methods of tracking job progress and the current implementations of daily logs, this study will introduce an improved method for tracking job progress. Starting with research on the current methods for tracking job progress and continuing this research to a more narrow scope including the use of daily logs will viii

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provide insight on the current methods of construction. This insight will then be used in the creation of a standardized format for daily logs to be used on every job. A standardized format will provide more reliable and accurate information to all facets of construction. The ultimate goal of every construction company is to complete a project successfully in order to make a profit. A new method for tracking progress through daily logs will promote greater success in all areas of construction including estimating, managing and job tracking. If each aspect of construction can be improved, the end result will be greater success on the project level, which amounts to enhanced profit margins. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The construction industry as a whole is currently at a point where the competition forces all companies to strive to elevate themselves above rival firms in order to promote their ability to get work. Whether participating in a hard bid or negotiated work, every company has a unique method of budgeting future projects. There will always be disparity between firms and how they carry out the estimating process; however, the introduction of standardized forms would promote a more organized approach through the pre-construction and construction processes. The use of daily logs is currently universal in the construction industry, but every company has a unique format for these logs which causes confusion. A standard format for these logs would promote reliability for individual contractors and the industry as a whole. Statement of the Problem When dealing with productivity in construction, the most obvious aspect to be addressed was the limitation of waste. Whether it was wasted time or materials, both played significant roles in the amount of work produced on a job. In order to conquer this problem, more accurate methods of identifying waste and tracking job progress were needed in the future. Objective of Study Every minute of time was precious through the construction process; therefore, wasted time resulted in a loss of potential profit. One way to avoid loss was to keep a precise record of the work produced. Accurate recoding of jobsite data would promote a 1

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2 better comparison between the estimated and actual work. If there was variance between these two, an immediate adjustment could be made to prevent future problems. If this method were in use today, the estimating process would be much more accurate. This method was not in use because many companies depended on the experience of their employees; rather than what was occurring in the field. This was a major flaw that had to be addressed. The tracking of actual job progress played an important role in keeping all projects current with the schedule. Tracking job progress was crucial to the progress of construction; in the same way, it was also important to all pre-construction activities. Every construction company used daily logs as a means of tracking job progress and making records in case of any dispute. Most companies also used the same concept with the daily logs. It would be logical to create a standard format for these logs that both described the state of the job for that day and benefited the process of estimating. The main problem was gathering the right information that all companies needed on the daily log. First hand insight on how corporations used daily logs and tracked production was obtained by gathering information through interviews of various estimators from CentralFlorida-based construction companies. This insight enabled a comparison of the different methods used by each company. These comparisons were then compiled to create one standard format of daily logs to be used by all companies. Recording job progress was a

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3 concept used every day on all construction projects. There was neither a right nor a wrong way of recording data as long as the important information about the job got passed on to the right people in the proper manner. The problem was keeping these logs practical so that they did not require an insubordinate amount of time to fill out. Hypothesis Statements The following Hypotheses were tested in this study: H1: The combination of different formats of daily logs gathered from construction companies of different size and type will enable the creation of a standard format that can be used by all firms and thus improve the current process of recording daily job activities. H2: The accurate recording of jobsite information should refer to daily delays, and other job related conflicts that can be used to prevent these problems in the future. Overview The purpose of this research was to grasp the different approaches to tracking job progress and the methods used in the construction industry. Through a research of the available literature and contractor input, a solution was developed that all contractors were able to use regardless of size or type. Finding this solution was a challenge because all companies operate in different ways. However, personal input from contractors gave better insight on how a standard set of logs would work in the industry. Prior to contractor involvement, research was carried out to fully understand the issues and ideas that were in existence in the construction industry. This was carried out through the literature review which analyzed various works all relating to productivity in the construction industry.

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4 The following chapter takes a detailed look into the literature reviewed to promote a better understanding for the methods of tracking job progress. Beginning with current methods and closing with technological efforts to promote greater success in the industry. This investigation allowed a complete understanding for the basic path this paper took.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction As the competitiveness of the construction industry continues to increase, and separation from the rest becomes more difficult, it is important to ensure the accuracy of the estimates. Keeping prices competitive requires all information in an estimate to be precise in order to protect the company. While this relates well to the performance levels in construction, this concept must be narrowed to only involving the improvement of job production. The first step was to look at current methods of documenting information about the job. There are a number of ways this is carried out from a contractor's point of view (Fisk, 2000). Next, a theory of production aimed directly at the construction industry and more importantly, the reason why construction is so unique that it needs its own theory of production will be discussed (Koskela, 1999). Next, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) (Cox et al. 1997) were investigated to determine the activities that management uses to indicate the performance levels of construction crews. Both KPIs and production theories will give an idea of current principles that are used in construction, but the future will involve more technology in everyday work and therefore must also be discussed. Finally, the work of Treffinger (2005) and El-Mashaleh (1997) both looked at the existing use of technology in business and the direction this movement might take, are discussed. 5

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6 Current Methods of Recording Progress When it comes to recording data on activities taking place on a jobsite, there are many different forms a contractor can use: daily logs, concrete logs, equipment logs, weekly report and weekly time cards just to name a few. Each of these forms plays important roles in documenting the work that occurs on a job. The use of each of these forms is up to the discretion of the contractor or the owner; they are not required by law (Fisk, 2000). Although documentation is not required by law, most companies do keep track of the progress through these forms, especially the daily log. This log or report is viewed as crucial to the construction process because it keeps an accurate record of the daily progress carried out on a job (Fisk, 2000). If this report is not used or filled out properly it could prove costly in the end; often used as a reference if conflict arises, daily logs are highly regarded for what the can prevent. If the records are not complete, the project manager has no way to back up any claims. Prior to the adaptation of daily logs, project superintendents were asked to fill out a construction diary. This diary was a hard bound book full of standard forms that provided room for detail in the description of what occurred on the project that day. This book was used for the same purpose the daily logs are today: maintain an "unimpeachable legal record" (Fisk, 2000). In a way, this book acted as a standardized format for the daily logs. All diaries had the same forms that asked the same questions. This way, if legal action was taken against the company, this official record could be presented in court as a source for the contractor to recall activities that had taken place on the day in question. The process has remained almost unchanged. The only difference is every companys format for the daily log differs slightly. The idea behind this is to eliminate inconsistency in order to produce more reliable results. A contractor would be able to

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7 understand their own log, but a second party would have a difficult time determining what type of information this form presented. When the dairy used was the same between companies, confusion was kept at a minimum. Everyone understood what the questions were asking and what information needed to be provided in these logs. The current format of logs is not consistent between firms, which creates difficultly in filling them out and interpreting the information available. The argument is not that standardized documentation will solve all of the problems in the construction industry. However, it will make it easier for contractors and outside parties to interpret what happened on the jobsite on any given day. This is crucial in legal cases when a dispute arises and the solutions to the problems are in question. Speed and accuracy have always been important concepts in the construction industry. By introducing these concepts back into the process of recording daily logs, the construction process will improve greatly. Keeping up with daily logs and tracking job progress is a timely but crucial aspect in every construction project. The next step to fully understanding the job progress dilemma is to investigate what needs to be recorded and tracked on a daily basis to improve the construction process. Production Theories Due to the unique conditions the construction industry goes through to conduct every day business compared to other industries, it needs to be viewed differently when discussing actual production. Unlike most industries, a construction project is not usually mobile, it has size limitations and also must adapt to the surrounding environmental conditions. These three factors play crucial roles in determining the amount of

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8 productivity that is carried out. Koskela (1999) wrote about an alternate theory of production that should be created for the construction industry. Koskela (1999) defined such a theory in this sense as providing an "explanation of observed behavior, and contributes thus to understanding. Understanding what occurs on a jobsite and how to plan for it is exactly the purpose of this paper. It is possible for a company to be able to discover more about the problems associated with a job and ultimately create a method to plan around these problems simply by observing the surroundings. Koskela (1999) also described the theory as giving direction and providing an ultimate benchmark for practice. Processing, inspecting, waiting and moving are all parts of construction that represent waste. Unfortunately these concepts will never be eliminated. Tracking the waste and learning about possible activities that can be carried out at the same time the wasted time could be converted into production. Reducing waste means making money, this ultimately leads to the success of the project. There are two theories of production discussed by Koskela: the transformation view and the flow view. Transformation is defined as the work that needs to be completed, whereas flow is an attempt to eliminate waste (Koskela, 1999). Koskela's goal is to create a new theory that uses both of these ideas in order to promote more reliability in construction. The reason behind this is that construction is unlike any other industry. There is a comparison between the construction and auto industry because both are similar in the sense that many small pieces are put together by different groups of people to ultimately create one final product. The difference between these two industries is that a car moves along an assembly line, whereas construction workers move around the building. Also, the car makers are in a controlled environment. Construction workers are

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9 exposed to the outside elements, which affects the amount of work completed each day. "Due to the one-of-a-kind nature and temporary organization, drawings and production instructions are the most frequent cause of construction defects" (Koskela, 1999). Planning against potential delays proves difficult because of the nature and environment the construction industry exists. If the goal of a construction production theory is to plan for potential problem areas to avoid them and not necessarily eliminate waste, there maybe some success. The theory must allow the workers to follow a set of guidelines and observe what is happening in the surroundings, understand any potential conflicts and work around other workers so as to not be slowed down (Koskela, 1999). This is defined as the elimination of conflict by understanding the surroundings, which would lead to greater productivity. Another example of how a theory of production would give a sense of direction is through observation of the past to overcome future problems. Koskela discussed passing information on to novices so inexperienced workers are able to participate in activities only experts were able to in the past. This simple task of condensing knowledge or information enables this new process to be carried out (Koskela, 1999). Similar to this approach is transferring situational knowledge to others in different circumstances. The same way prior knowledge is condensed and passed on to younger workers or novices to give direction, past situations can be adapted to a different situation to retrieve the same or similar results (Koskela,1999). The main goal in creating a production theory is to reach success at all levels and all situations. If workers learn before making mistakes, the chances of increasing production rates will increase.

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10 Koskela stated that a theory of production is important to all industries because it ultimately leads toward the design, control and improvement of production in the workplace (Koskela, 1999). That is exactly what the construction industry should attempt to do: improve the way production is viewed so that it can be adapted to introduce greater success on the project levels. Scope management is defining work that needs to be carried out on a job by breaking down every aspect. This is important to construction because it enables workers to be informed so the greatest amount of work will be carried out. It prevents unnecessary work from being attempted, and the work that is completed helps deliver the purpose laid forth in the construction documents (Koskela, 1999). This idea of scope management is based on the transformation view, which depends on certainty. Koskela describes this as the main view used throughout the construction industry. The problem is that certainty is lacking in construction. Every project is different and any situation can change in an instance (Koskela, 1999). This is why Koskela attempts to come up with a new theory of construction that would be based not on consistency or certainty, but on past experiences and how they can contribute to the future projects. Key Performance Indicators in Construction In contrast to Koskela's idea of a perfect theory of production for construction, Cox et al. (1997) suggest using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in construction with the help of upper management to assess performance carried out in the field. Unlike the idea of a standard production theory, KPIs vary between situations and people. Cox et al. (1997) defined KPIs as a compilation of data used to measure the performance of any operation, but this does not mean that it is consistent in all projects. A KPI is anything that helps a job manager understand the crew performance levels better. Cox et al. (1997)

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11 used a historical baseline to determine what KPIs actually are and how they should be used. Looking at past activities to understand problems that have occurred and the end result of these problems will enable a manager to comprehend how to avoid these conflicts in the future. Cox et al. (1997) explored a quantitative approach which looked into factors of progress that can be measured. For example, the most common method is the units per man hour which explores how many units can be constructed in one hour of work (Cox, et al. 1997). Estimating uses historical data to determine these numbers and then applies the answer to the construction schedule. The problem with this approach is that delays need to be taken into consideration. It simply looks at an average production rate that was recorded. If the unit per man hour calculation is a pure average, any delays would already be factored in, thus making the estimate accurate. This all depends on the purity of the information gathered and how it is transferred to the estimating department. If estimators have access to pure and accurate information, the estimate will prove to be accurate itself; a clear agenda for the construction process will then be followed. In this case all possible delays will be planned and accounted for and the surprises in the construction process would be limited. Unfortunately, every construction project has surprises that will eventually arise. Estimators must find a way to plan for these changes from the norm and give the project managers the best opportunity to produce a profit. The Use of Technology in Construction To keep production at its highest level better methods need to be adapted to limit waste and use historical information to promote accurate estimating. El-Mashaleh (2003) discussed many aspects of construction and production. The section best assisting the problem at hand is the impact IT (Information Technology) has on work performance.

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12 Companies from every industry of varying in size and type are using e-Business to organize communications and thus improve the success of their company (Treffinger, 2005). El-Mashaleh addressed a number of propositions for how IT is an excellent source of improving productivity in construction. Three of these proposals fit well with the issue at hand: facilitating coordination and responsiveness, increasing speed and accuracy and increasing coordinating efficiencies (El-Mashaleh, 2003). The introduction of technology to authoritative workers onsite (project managers and superintendents) will help reduce confusion with documentation, which leads to delays. The introduction of hand held internet technologies to jobsite activities will promote a greater understanding for the requirements of the job. Questions can be sent from one person to the next and answers can be retrieved with the push of a button. Using PDAs, workers will be able to send e-mail and pictures through a network to ensure questions are quickly answered making the process of question and answer more efficient (EI-Mashaleh, 2003). In addition to problem of sending questions and answers is sending documentation. Paper documentation is the current standard in the construction industry. When drawings are sent out subcontractors expect to receive them in hard copy form. These construction documents (drawings and specifications) are expensive and range from a few pages to a few hundred pages. More applicable to the business aspect of construction is the cost of these documents, which the general contractor is usually expected to pick up. Equally as important as keeping the work force informed about the job is keeping the owner of the project updated on all activities. Owners are becoming increasingly

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13 more demanding and want information about their projects available at all times. This can be made possible by making jobsites IT friendly (Treffinger, 2005). Business to business sharing connects customers, suppliers and partner applications as well as all business processes across the internet (Treffinger, 2005). IT will be used to implement speed in the process of sending drawings to multiple groups reducing cost and time restraints. Most drawings for construction are created through CAD programs, which area Computer Aided Design programs. The files created can easily be sent electronically to any contractor because they are created in an electronic format (EI-Mashaleh, 2003). These concepts will reduce the cost of printing drawings, the cost of transferring documents and the time it takes to send them. In the quest to improve production, the electronic transfer of drawings and other documents is a logical step to introducing speed to a time consuming process. The speed at which RFIs are answered will be revolutionary. Processes that used to take days or weeks should now take only a few hours. In addition to hand held technologies, most business have adapted to the age of technology in the main office. The office will generally have a network that keeps all the computers in the office connected. This benefits the field workers because information can be stored on the network from any computer or portable device so anyone on the network can see this information. If executive management in the office needs to check the progress of a job, the only requirement would be to look in the job specific folders on the network and see a daily post of what is happening on the site. This concept relies on how the workers submit daily information. While the project manager is ultimately in

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14 control of the project, a person of authority in the office is able to read about the progress and demand greater production on certain aspects. This idea will ensure that the forms are being filled out properly and on a regular basis. This observation through the network will not be exclusive to company executives; anyone involved in the project will be able to look at the projected schedule and observe how close construction is following the schedule (El-Mashaleh, 2003). Not only will the onsite workers be observing the schedule to ensure the job is on track, but office management will also be able to see and react to how the job is progressing. Construction as an industry is continually changing to improve itself. With the availability of new ideas to track work and promote better production, there is no reason to pass up these opportunities. IT, production theories and KPIs are only a few concepts that have progressive ideas about improving the state of construction. The case studies below will give a better understanding for exactly what is occurring in the industry in Florida and some ideas to change current methods to improve the way construction tracks progression. The next chapter will continue the research process by discussing in greater detail how the first hand research will be collected. Titled Research Methodology, this chapter will explain the interview process and the expected results in order to create a standard format for the daily logs that will satisfy all contractors.

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CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Accurate tracking of field production should play an important role in the estimating process just as it does for managing the construction phase. The best method to determine how contractors are tracking field production is to conduct interviews with different companies to determine the concepts of their daily reports. Improving estimating is important to this research. Thus, an estimator from each company should also be interviewed. At the same time, the activities going on in the field would best be interpreted by a project manager or a superintendent. Depending on the type of company and availability of the employees, these interviews should be directed toward estimators and project managers. No two contractors carry out business operations in the same manner. All companies use daily logs but, not necessarily for the same purposes. Data gathered from different companies will allow for combination of the existing processes to develop a standard format for daily logs and tracking job progress. The process of selecting which contractors to interview was based primarily on them having a functioning office based in Orlando. The next criterion that had to be investigated was the size of the company. Some of the contractors selected were national companies and others will strictly be local contractors that work only in the Orlando area. Finally, the focus was on commercial construction managers, general contractors and some of the subcontractors working for these companies. 15

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16 Due to their conflicting interests construction managers, general contractors and sub-contractors will all have different points of view when dealing with tracking job progress. Subcontractors are usually concerned only with their own crews and their direct responsibilities to the job. The only time a subcontractor would need to know the progress of another company would be if delays began to arise on the job. On the other hand, a general contractor is concerned with the project as a whole and not necessarily each individual activity. If any percentage of the work is self performed by the subcontractor, concerns will be raised with regard to the progress of these activities. The subcontractors would not be tracked on this same level of precision. As long as the job as a whole is on schedule, the general contractor will not be concerned with how the subcontractors are working. Finally, a construction manager is most concerned with the project being completed on time. If there is a delay, the construction manager will determine the problem through the general contractor or the subcontractor causing the delay. Otherwise, tracking job progress would not be a major aspect of the construction manager's daily activities. Once the interview pool was selected, personal interviews were used to allow the contractors to answer specific questions about the process of tracking job progress. The contractor was expected to explain the current processes, how these methods benefit the company and any ideas for change. Finally, the contractor was asked about a standard format for daily logs and how this would benefit the process of recording field information to promote more accurate estimating.

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17 At the completion of the interviews, the information was gathered and recorded to review all methods of tracking job progress and possible methods of improvement. The information about the daily logs was organized and interpreted to determine which aspects gathered the most accurate information. From the interpretations a new format was created to address the specific needs laid forth by the individuals interviewed. Once the standard format for the daily logs was created, it then had to be validated through a test stage of constructive criticism. The log was sent back to the contractors that were interviewed for their opinions on whether or not the new log would be used and if it would provide greater benefits than the existing method. The final step was to gather all the critiques from the contractors and organize them in a way that allowed a final draft of the new daily log format. In organizing the criticism of the contractors, priority was given in addressing the concepts and ideas that proved to be conflicting. The first draft was a rough compilation of what job parameters the contractors had collected in their daily logs and what the contractors wanted on a daily log. The second draft was an edited form of the first draft, based on criticism given by the individuals interviewed. The process of interviewing contractors, creating a new daily log, receiving constructive criticism, and the creation of a final draft will promote the concept of improving the current utilitarian value of daily logs. Every company uses these logs for different reasons, which means every company may have a different opinion about the new format created. However, the goal of this research is not to create the perfect form, but one that will promote more accurate recording of all daily activities.

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18 Now that the research process has been explained, the next step is to actually carry out the case studies. This chapter will explore in great detail the exact methods each company current uses, and the changes that need to be made in order to create a more productive process.

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CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDIES Phase One Interviews Introduction The goal of this investigation on tracking job progress was to create a well rounded understanding of how construction companies are expected to operate; the next step was to determine how real companies track progress. By investigating four different companies and the methods they used to keep track of the daily progress that occurs on the jobs, a more complete understanding of production tracking was developed. The information for this study was gathered through phone interviews with individuals from estimating departments of different builders in the state of Florida. CCS Mechanical CCS Mechanical is a Florida based specialty contractor with focus on mechanical systems for institutional and commercial construction projects. The phone interview with CCS Mechanical took place on March 23, 2006 at 4pm with Rob Boyer who is the Director of Field Operations. According to Boyer, the best and only way to track production in terms of keeping all areas of the company informed (field, project management and estimating) is to keep the process as simple and straight forward as possible. If the process is not easy to follow, confusion will occur and conflict will result. In order to get a complete understanding of tracking field progress the estimating process must first be comprehended. The estimating department uses standards set forth 19

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20 by the SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association) and MCAA (Mechanical Contractors Association of America) as a baseline for projecting field production. If the job presents more difficultly than the average job at first glance, the estimating department is responsible for making changes to these numbers so they more accurately fit to what will actually be produced in the field. The estimate should also be broken up into areas of installation. Every area in a building requires different installation types and processes. The installation of equipment in the penthouse will require much more time and equipment than a basic office room would. This must be factored in to how much time is budgeted for each activity. Moving away from the estimating process, the workers in the field are expected to fill out weekly budget sheets which describe in detail the work carried out that week and how much time and money was spent. These weekly budget sheets are simple excel spreadsheets, which are really a combination of time cards and material logs that track what each worker did in a given week. A comparison is then made between what was actually completed versus what was expected to be completed. After each worker displays where the job status is for the given week, the reports are then flipped to summarize the progress of the job as a whole. These time cards are combined with those of previous weeks to determine the total hours that have been worked on a job and the quantities of materials used. This allows the project manager of the job to monitor the man hours and money spent on a continual basis. This process allows each job to be tracked by the job aspects; it also helps in making accurate projections of durations in the future. Once the job is completed, the information is gathered and used as historical data to update future estimates. If there

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21 was a problem in terms of the estimate, the estimating department is able to go back and see the problem to adjust for future projects. This process has proven successful for CCS Mechanical because it continually keeps the estimating department and the rest of the project team updated on what is expected. This method works for this company, but not necessarily for all construction firms. Every company has different goals in terms of what needs to be completed on each job they are working on. The Beck Group The Beck Group has been in the construction business for almost a century and has moved away from general contracting to construction management. Skipper Vaughn is currently the Director of Pre-Construction and has a complete understanding of the way the estimating department operated when the company used to provide general contracting services. His expertise gave an insight on how things used to be run in hopes of making adjustments for the future. This phone interview took place on March 23, 2006 at 3:30pm. Prior to becoming a construction management business, Beck tracked job production through a system of cost reports. This was done by breaking down the job estimate into work items and even further into sub-items. For example, concrete was broken down into subcategories: column forms, place and finish, drop beam bottoms, etc. These subcategories were then given quantities. When the job was being carried out, the superintendent could refer back to the estimate and determine what the projected quantities were for each subcategory. While the role of the superintendent is to monitor the job to insure the work is continuing according to schedule, this is only part of the job. Checking quantities being

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22 used on the job is also an important part of the superintendents job. If there is any inconsistency between the estimate and what is actually being constructed it should be recorded and immediately investigated to determine what went wrong. If all detail is recorded properly, a source of historical data is created that can be used in the future pricing of similar projects. Beck used records from one job and compared them to similar projects to create a learning curve to be followed. Comparing different numbers from different projects would produce an average, which was used towards future estimating needs. Beck placed importance on the superintendents role to record quantities used to prepare a comparison to the estimate, but an order of magnitude was also crucial. The different sizes of the jobs meant that there would be a difference in the time and cost required to complete the project. There are many activities that are carried out in a given day on a construction site and all must be recorded in order to keep track of the progress throughout the project All work carried out should be noted in what is referred to as the daily logs. No information should be left out of these logs because the slightest adjustment of detail from reality can affect the appearance of a phase or even the entire project on paper. In addition to these daily logs, Beck required weekly reports so that all work completed in one week could be recorded on a single spreadsheet to avoid confusion. Management was able to look at the reports and to understand how much work could be completed in a week.

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23 Regardless of the design of these forms, they needed to be kept as simple as possible. There were many different things a superintendent was required to keep track of and to record in a given week and removing complications from the forms would reduce the amount of work necessary to fulfill these tasks. KHS&S Contractors KHS&S Contractors is an interior/exterior subcontractor with offices in Orlando, Tampa and a number of other cities across the western United States. Erik Santiago is the Vice President of the Tampa office and is familiar with the procedures used in the estimating department. This phone interview took place on March 28, 2006 at 11:00am. KHS&S used historical data almost exclusively to create an estimate for a job proposal. Standard take off was carried out to find quantities and the information was put into the Timberline estimating software where an appropriate price was attached to these quantities. Prior to sending out any bid, the final numbers were checked to determine the appropriateness of the prices. This check was an opportunity for the estimating department to factor in the degree of difficulty of the project which would alter the price of the job. When the review of the prices for the proposed job was carried out prior to submitting the bid it was being viewed in the job cost format. This job cost format was a breakdown of the entire job, which spelled out each aspect of construction, how much it would cost and how long it would take to complete. These job cost codes were also used as the production codes. Both are a break down from the Construction Specification Institutes (CSI) (ref!!!!) division level down to the actual process: layout, framing, installation, wire mesh, scratch coat, plaster, etc.

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24 Once the estimating department agreed on the proposed prices, the bid was sent off to the general contractor in hopes of receiving permission to build the job. If the job was granted to KHS&S the estimators and the rest of the project team would meet and began the transition from estimating stage to the construction stage. The superintendents would learn at this meeting what was expected of their own construction crews in terms of what was estimated. At this point, the superintendent is able to question or respond to the expectations set forth. In most cases, the superintendent already had an idea of what the job would require before this meeting. After construction began, time cards were used to track worker progress and productivity. Each time card used the same cost codes developed by the estimators for the activity carried out. The only difference was that these codes were simplified to reduce the amount of work required by the superintendent. If the cost codes were exactly the same as the estimating codes, the superintendent would be spending too much time tracking and recording what each worker was doing. This would ultimately limit the time available to the superintendent to ensure the job was going according to plan. KHS&S used a weekly time card system, which enabled a weekly check on the total amount of money and time being spent. These weekly costs would show the progress of the job and a weekly estimation of the work completed. At the completion of the job, the project manager, superintendent, operations manager and estimating department would all meet again to check the cost code data and to compare it to the job budget. This was a learning opportunity; therefore clarifications were asked for. These clarifications allowed for corrections to be made to improve for the future.

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25 Post completion is not the only time KHS&S attempts to rectify problems. During the project the operations manager was constantly checking for conflicts and immediately worked to solve any dilemma that arose to prevent any loss in profits. This was checked by the project manager filling out the weekly cost reports to check the job progress and come up with an accurate estimate of the percent complete. Perry Construction Established in 1968, Perry Construction has become a strong working force as a general contractor in the state of Florida for over 38 years. Greg Knicely is the Vice President of Pre-Construction at Perry Construction and has comprehensive knowledge of all concepts of tracking production in terms of relating that back to the estimating department. According to Knicley, there was not a great deal of effort that goes into tracking the progress of individual activities. A superintendent did not usually have a lot of time to track job progress; time spent tracking progress was a wasted opportunity to carry out actual work. Job progress tracking adversely affected the company because money was made from actual production, not from tracking production. Keeping track of job progress helped the company understand what was occurring on the job, but it also hindered the superintendents ability to be productive. Perry Construction believed it was necessary to gather information from the superintendents and the project managers; however, spending crucial time to gather this information was a dilemma. The amount of detail that went into creating an estimate for a job was more detailed than the work that occurs in the field. The Perry Construction estimators spent valuable time looking at every aspect of a job to understand the job in its entirety. Field operations were more about the construction of a project and not about planning for the future.

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26 When information was tracked in the form of reports for historical data, the superintendents did not use cost codes like those used in estimating. Field recording was simplified so the superintendent was able to record the hours and number of workers that went into completing an activity. Small jobs were equally as important to Perry Construction as large jobs; however, large jobs required more tracking techniques as a result of the amount of detail that went into the job. If there were any problems, they had to be detected immediately so they could be fixed. On a small job, a problem would be noticed very quickly, and thus could be fixed quickly. However, a problem on a larger job could go unnoticed because of all the activities going on. This could prove disastrous to the job. Perry Construction is a general contractor that is more concerned with job milestones to determine how the job is progressing than they are with looking at each crews progress. This is different from small contractors or subcontractors whose job is to track every detail to ensure they are staying close to the schedule in order to make the expected profit. Conclusion Every contractor has some way of understanding the way their workers perform in the field. Whether it is through filling out logs or updating historical data, all companies know the abilities of their employees. The introduction of a standardized form to the industry might benefit all companies in their ability to track job progress and update their estimating databases. To get a better understanding of how this process would work a number of companies were selected to be interviewed. These interviews would clearly define the uses of daily logs in the industry and how useful a standardized log would be to the project and estimating teams.

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27 Phase Two Interview Questions Introduction At the completion of the phone interviews, a deeper understanding was developed for tracking productivity on the job. A further analysis would be required once the topic had been narrowed down to investigating the use of daily logs and their importance to all facets of construction. This investigation would be carried out through personal interviews with additional contractors. Interview Questions A base set of questions was established that all interviewees would be asked, to get descriptive expression of the methods of tracking production that were used by each company. These uniform questions would give structure to the interviews promoting greater success. The point was to go into each interview with the same intent so getting the proper information and feedback was possible. The interviewee would first be asked how their respective company used the daily logs. It was assumed that every company had some method of maintaining daily logs set up, but not every company used these logs for the same purposes. Some had very descriptive daily logs that required a lot of time and effort to fill out properly. Other companies had basic forms that were not used for any set purposes. It was important to determine how these logs were being used to determine whether or not a new format would even be used by the company. Each interview also addressed the topic of tracking job progress. Just like in the case studies, it was determined that all companies tracked job progress in their own unique ways. Since the goal was to suggest a log to the industry that would improve the process of tracking job progress, current methods should continue to be explored.

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28 Finally, it is crucial to determine if the company is interested in making adjustments to the current methods in order to improve estimating and the construction processes. All construction companies are in business to make a profit. If a new method is introduced that will improve the monitoring of construction process by all companies, it will in turn provide opportunities to increase profits and become increasingly attractive to all companies. List of Interviewees Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC. Terry Butler, Chief Estimator Ren Tilden, Senior Project Manager Hensel Phelps Construction Co. Bryan L. Butcher, Chief Estimator Jim Pappas, Operations Manager KHS&S Contractors (Orlando) Josh Johnson, Estimator Ken Cook, Project Manager R.A. Rogers Construction Company Rob Johnston, Vice President of Pre-Construction Services Clancy & Theys Construction Co. Pete Pace, Vice President/CEO Florida Division J. Raymond Construction Corp. Dan Cramer, Senior Project Manager Tilt-Con Corp. Matt Trail, Estimator Data Collection The interviews described below were conducted with individuals representing various companies with the goal of gathering information to understand the different

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29 methods of tracking job progress and address the possibility of changing these methods. Below is a thorough description of each interview, the concepts each contractor used to track progress and some suggestions to improve future estimating. Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC. Estimators do not get much exposure to construction in the field, but all people involved in construction understand that the daily logs were an important part of construction. Terry Butler, Chief Estimator described the detail that superintendents at Brasfield & Gorrie were required to put into every daily log to prevent any confusion when reviewing the logs at a later date. These logs were not just put in a notebook, never to be looked at again. In fact, three copies of the log were made: one stayed on the job site, one was sent to the company headquarters in Birmingham and a final copy was submitted to the company network electronically. This way, if there was ever a question; the information could easily be located. Tracking actual job progress is the responsibility of the project manager in charge of the job. Each month, the project manager would complete a projection report, which described exactly where the project stood and what to expect for the future. This allowed a comparative analysis between what was actually spent and what was budgeted by the estimate. Once the project manager had this information, changes were made to keep the project on schedule and under budget. The information used to get these projection reports was from the weekly time cards. The largest problem that occurs here though was the inaccurate recording of data. If the information from the field was not being recorded correctly, it would cause problems with the projection reports, the status of the job and the way the estimating department handled a subsequent job.

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30 Project managers had to create a monthly projection report describing what had occurred on the job during the preceding month despite inaccuracies found in the available information. At the completion of the job, a final job report was created by the project manager that showed the gains and losses for each aspect of the job. This labor report, just like the projection report was a product of the weekly time cards. Brasfield & Gorrie valued the process of filling out daily logs to keep track of all activities that occur on the job. This created complete records for the company in case they ever needed to prove what happened on a specific day on a job. In the event of legal action, the project manager or superintendent would be able to look back at the daily logs and to show exactly what happened on that day provided the log was filled out properly. This was the only purpose for filling out the daily logs. The logs are undoubtedly important, but the contemporary information recorded would not help in the estimating process. There were too many forms to go through to determine exactly what was happening throughout the job process. However, if a method could be adopted to introduce ease and structure to the daily logs that would provide help to the estimating department, Brasfield & Gorrie would be interested in learning more. The interview with Ren Tilden, Senior Project Manager, was a reinforcement of the discussion with Terry Butler. Daily logs were only used to protect the company in the situation of legal disputes. While the logs were treated as an important aspect of the job, it was not for any reason outside of protecting the company in the future. Brasfield & Gorrie also used a number of other logs to keep track of important information: RFI, Change Order and Submittal Logs.

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31 As far as tracking job progress goes, Brasfield & Gorrie used software developed by a construction software solutions company CGC (Computer Guidance Corporation) to compile labor numbers, job costs, billings to the owner and all charges associated with the project that the accounting department handles. This program as described by Terry Butler also produced the projection reports and the final job report. The data in the program was constantly being updated by the project managers in order to keep the information about the project up-to-date. If there were any discrepancies, the project manager would be able to detect the problem before it got out of control. Ren Tilden viewed the concept of adapting a new method for daily logs to benefit the estimating process as a difficult one to conquer. The reason was too much information would need to be recorded on a daily basis for the logs to have any meaning. The logs could be altered to gather more information, but this would only complicate the job of the superintendent. According to Tilden, when the job of the superintendent gets more complicated, the project begins to have problems. Hensel Phelps Construction Co. Bryan Butcher is the Chief Estimator for Hensel Phelps, a large general contractor in Orlando, Florida, and works mainly on two types of projects based on project delivery system: Design Build and Negotiated work. The type of contract for the job would delegate the process that goes into estimating the job. Both were thorough and accurate, but because one was usually repeat business with a customer, the company took a bit of a different approach. This was because in most cases, the repeat work would be on a building similar to one that was previously constructed. Regardless of the type of contract, all conceptual estimates were recorded in simple MS Excel spreadsheets showing all the detail of the proposed building, quantities and

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32 costs to each aspect. Once the job started, a cost control and labor recap sheet was given to the project manager that described every aspect of the job and what was estimated in terms of quantities and costs. This is the method of job cost accounting and control that the project manager was required to track closely. The project manager would constantly be filling out these sheets in order to build a production comparison between what was estimated and what was actually performed. It is crucial to the overall life of the project that each project manager keeps a close tab on all activities going on throughout the process of the job. If the activities were not properly recorded, problems would arise. While the project manager was keeping tabs on the job through the cost reporting process, the estimator would be getting these forms and double checking to make sure everything was going according to plan. If there was any deviation from the estimate, both parties would be responsible for calling a meeting to figure out the problem and how it would be fixed. Most of the time problems were caught early as a result of the accurate method of recording and checking job progress. To ensure the projects success, all parties involved in the construction of the project met at what Hensel Phelps referred to as, the 1/3 rd point. This was the point on the job when first 1/3 rd of all construction activities had been completed. It was a time for all management and estimating members to discuss the current state of the job. It was also the last opportunity for the numbers to be adjusted. If the job progressed past this point and things need to be changed, the company would be running the risk of losing money on the project. At the end of the 1/3 rd point meeting, the responsibility of the estimating department was removed from the project so the project management team is able to

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33 focus on completing the job. The estimators were still able to keep track of the project and watch it progress, but they were no longer required to attend job meetings. There was a second meeting at the 2/3 rd point on the job, but this is mostly the project management team gathering to discuss the completion of the job and make sure it is on time and under budget. The numbers could be changed at this point because the job was too far along. However, if adjustments needed to be made, it was the responsibility of the management team to figure out the problem and how it would be handled. The estimating department at Hensel Phelps played a crucial role throughout the construction process. Most companies had a hand off meeting where the estimating department gives all of the job information to the project management team. Unless there was an error in the estimate and the project manager needed an estimators help, this was usually the last time the estimator sees the job. Hensel Phelps operated differently in that the estimating team observed the project up to the 1/3 rd point and sometimes further to ensure that the project is following the proper path. This system of checks and balances between the two departments kept up communications and increased the success rate of all projects. All job tracking by the project management team for their use and the use of the estimating team was through the cost accounting system and production comparison. Like most companies, Hensel Phelps had daily logs that were filled out by the superintendents on a daily basis, but they were not used for estimating purposes. These logs were used to protect themselves against legal action. It is important to note that the estimating department was always trying to update the estimating process with new

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34 productivity numbers so that the future projects were accurate to the way the company was working and progress was made on projects. Hensel Phelps as a company was most concerned with the number of man hours spent on the job as opposed to actual dollar amounts. This was a common misconception because in most cases, the estimators were strictly concerned with the cost of an activity or the entire project. However, the dollar value of each activity often fluctuated with the change in the market. The amount of man hours it took to complete a project should stay consistent regardless of any change in the costs. Since the main concern of Hensel Phelps was the number of man hours put into a certain activity, the creation of a standard daily log would benefit estimating. By keeping track of each crew, how many men were on the job and when activities were complete, the daily logs could provide an excellent source of data that would help keep the estimate current. Even if the logs were secondary to the labor recap sheets, the daily logs could be used to back up this data. Jim Pappas is an Operations Manager for Hensel Phelps Orlando and he reinforced the ideas Bryan Butcher expressed in the previous interview. The most important production tracking resource used is the labor recap sheet that project managers fill out regularly to break down every aspect of the job. This labor recap sheet was compared with the job estimate to ensure activities were being completed in the manner that was set forth in the estimate. These labor reports showed how many hours were going into each activity, giving an accurate idea of production rates in regards to all jobsite activities. The largest problem that could occur here was the recording of inaccurate data. In most cases the superintendent filled out the data necessary for the project manager to

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35 create the labor recap sheets. If the superintendent did not give accurate information, the labor recap sheets would not be accurate. There were many times when the superintendent would see the amount of work being carried out in one area and would see that it was over budget; instead of making the proper records the data would be recorded in another category of work to fit it into the budget. This makes the estimate look perfect, but in reality it hurts the company because this disables the feedback mechanism which displayed any errors in the estimate and allowed future corrections to be made. For this reason daily logs should be adapted into the estimating processes to check for errors in the records. The superintendents at Hensel Phelps were required to fill out the logs on a daily basis to keep accurate records of what was occurring on the job. Even if the detail was lacking on the log, the superintendent was putting in time to at least make a head count, record what occurred on the job and describe any errors. This information alone would be a benefit to the estimating department. By implementing a quicker and more accurate method of recording daily progress, the estimating department could view this progress and use it to create a more accurate estimate improving the state of every job Hensel Phelps performed. KHS&S Contractors KHS&S Contractors is an interior/exterior subcontractor with one office located in Orlando, Florida. Joshua Johnson has only spent a few years in the estimating departments, both in the Tampa and Orlando offices, yet he plays an active role in estimating most jobs that come through the Orlando office. From a subcontractors point of view, the actual production that occurred on a job was more important to the company than the actual price. The reason was prices were always changing, but productivity should remain constant. It was the responsibility of

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36 both the project manager and the superintendent to keep track of production so future jobs could be estimated in the same manner that the work was carried out. Construction projects often encountered problems, which had to be addressed and recorded. Whether the problem was with the estimate or something unforeseen, the problem needed to be recorded. If changes were made to prevent major damage, these would also need to be recorded. This way, the company would learn from these events and plan around them in the future. Most companies had the concept of comparing the job estimate to what actually occurred on the job. This was difficult for KHS&S because the estimate was very different from the way it was recorded in the field. In many cases, the superintendents did not make proper records of what happened on the job. They believed that keeping consistent with the estimate was best for the company; however, the contrary is true. The estimating department needed the superintendents to fill out the progress reports exactly how things occurred so the estimators could later determine errors and how to prevent them in the future. Unfortunately, there was not a direct link existing between the estimators and the project managers who worked on the job. KHS&S estimators were based in the office and rarely got out to the field for interaction. Project managers on the other hand, were always running from job to job and were not concerned with matters that went on in the estimating department. The chief estimator was the only member of the estimating team that had direct contact with the project team. If the estimating department was more involved in the construction process, they would be able to gain knowledge and experience in terms of estimating what the field

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37 would need or use in the future. Experience was crucial to all aspects of business; if estimators had some work experience in the field, the job estimates produced would be more accurate. The estimators were so busy with new work that they never had an opportunity to completely understand the past jobs and obtain any knowledge. The final problem that the estimating department would run into was reviewing old work to fix errors. The process of estimating was so intense that the estimators had time only to work on the projects at hand and then move to the next. There was not time to look at previous projects and make corrections. In order to produce accurate estimates, a better method needed to be introduced to allow estimators to look at the past and learn from the mistakes made in the past. The current format of estimating at KHS&S only allowed the chief estimator to understand the activities that occurred in the field. If a format of logs was developed to deliver jobsite data directly to the estimators, all jobs would become more productive. In this sense, the estimators would have a more complete understanding of what would need to be estimated to help out the workers in the field. More important would be the demand on the chief estimator would also be reduced. R.A. Rogers Rob Johnston is the Vice President of Pre-Construction Services at R.A. Rogers, a Central Florida based general contractor, and is informed on all issues that deal with estimating for this company. As far as keeping track of daily progress goes, this was the responsibility of the superintendents on each job. Daily logs were filled out in the jobsite trailer using software called Pro-log and was subsequently transferred electronically into a corporate database. The log was then submitted online to the project manager of the job. The details of these logs included the number of workers on site, the materials

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38 delivered and the progress of each subcontractor along with any other comments the field superintendent felt was important to the daily description of the job. R.A. Rogers is a general contractor but they operate much like a construction manager because they do not self perform any work. Tracking job progress therefore, was only important to the company in terms of finding out where the job stood currently. The descriptions the subcontractors provided in their own daily reports were used by R.A. Rogers to get a more complete understanding of what work was carried out on a given day and to determine that both companies agreed to this work completed. Every contractor used the daily logs in different manners which made this aspect of the job very complicated. Certain subcontractors would put more effort into tracking job costs and progress than others. Those who put in more effort to tracking activities on the job were more attractive clients to R.A. Rogers because these companies were more concerned with the success of the project. R.A. Rogers used their own computer programs to keep the estimates in working order. There was no set method used to periodically update the estimating process by changes that occurred in the field. The only adjustments made to the future estimating process were through word of mouth from project managers to the estimating department. These adjustments occurred post mortem, not during the progress of the job. Since R.A. Rogers operated much like a construction manager, they were not concerned with production rates like a subcontractor would. Nonetheless, these numbers could be useful to this company. The use of production averages over all projects to check bids and current work carried out would help in the process of dealing with

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39 subcontractors. The use of a standard daily log that would enable a production comparison would prove beneficial to a company like R.A. Rogers. Clancy & Theys Construction Company Clancy & Theys Construction Company is a general contractor/ construction manager focusing on commercial, industrial and institutional buildings primarily in the Southeastern United States. Pete Pace is the Vice President of Clancy & Theys and the CEO of the Florida division. He got his start working in the field and moved his way up through the company to where he is now. Petes experience in both the office and the field, have created valuable opportunities for insight into the way Clancy & Theys tracks job productivity and the importance of their daily logs. The job of every project manager was to make sure a job was completed properly and to ensure the company was making the greatest profit. The only way a company would survive was to make money. An estimate was thus set up as a guide through the process of construction and helped the project manager reach the goals of making money. This did not mean the estimated costs were the exact amounts the project managers had to spend on the job. The estimate showed how much was in the contract; but, if the project manager spent less money than expected in certain areas, the company would benefit from the additional profits. The process of tracking all activities that occurred on the job began with the technology available to the project managers in the jobsite trailer. Every project manager was equipped with a laptop computer to constantly communicate with the office. When information was recorded on the job through the cost codes set up by the estimating department, the project manager put this information into the computer and uploaded it to the company network. This way, the project manager would keep track of the progress

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40 through the cost codes, and the estimating department would be able look into the feedback from the field. This system was set up in case the estimators needed to double check on how work was actually carried out on the job. The information to improve estimating was available. The problem was it needed to be in the proper format to improve the database and adjust for future problems. The process Clancy & Theys was currently using was not accurate because the cost codes that the estimating department used were extremely detailed and the field codes were not. These codes were so detailed that the superintendents recording the activities were being asked to put too much time into determining how each activity would be coded. The point needed to be to save time and make the process more accurate. Unfortunately, accuracy was not occurring because the process was taking too much time and effort. Simplicity was the key to successful data recording; this was a concept that had not yet been established. At Clancy & Theys, every superintendent went through the process of recording the events of the day onto a daily log used to protect the company in the case of legal action. These logs required a minimal amount of time out of the day and kept a good record of the events that took place in that day. Tracking the important information on the job and providing defense against legal action in the future were reasons a standard format of daily logs was necessary. This new format would include the names of the subcontractors on site, the equipment and whether or not it was being used, material delivered and the names of all visitors to the site. In addition, the log would prove beneficial if it included space where photographs of problems on the site could be added so all people involved could get a visual idea of the problem. This would not address the

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41 issue of cost code conflicts, but if the foundation was laid to build a working log, then the next step could be to introduce cost codes to this log. The introduction of a more progressive method to keep open communication between the field and the estimating department would help Clancy & Theys operate smoothly and eliminate problems before they occurred. In construction, the superintendent was the most crucial individual to getting the project completed. These employees saw every aspect of the job day in and day out. The introduction of new methods to promote better communication between the superintendents and the rest of the company would promote greater success on all projects. J. Raymond Construction Corporation J. Raymond Construction Corporation is a small general contractor based in Central Florida. Dan Cramer is a Senior Project Manager with J. Raymond and has experience on many projects of different size and value. The project managers at J. Raymond, unlike most project managers were crucial in running a project from its inception to completion. The role of the project manager began in the estimating phase when the drawings from the owner arrived at the office. J. Raymond worked with 80 to 90% negotiated contracts and mostly with repeat customers. In these cases the project managers had the best relationships with the owners and handled the project from its preliminary planning stages through the construction an on to the completion of the project. The project management team was so involved in the process of estimating, that the estimating department at J. Raymond only consisted of a chief estimator, an assistant estimator and an administrative assistant. There was no reason to employ many other people in this department because only 10 to 20% of the work went through estimating.

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42 Regardless of the size of the estimating department, information was still needed to help whomever was doing the estimating understand what needed to go into the project. Project managers had spent a lot of time in the field to understand what it would take to put a project together. In this sense project managers were good at estimating a job. There was always a need to find information that would support the estimating process. J. Raymond was more of a construction manager than a general contractor because they did not self perform any work. In the estimating process, the project manager was most concerned with getting adequate scope coverage and pricing from the subcontractors. For this reason, tracking job progress in the field was not crucial to the success of the company. When the project was in motion and work was being carried out in the field, the superintendents were in charge of making sure each subcontractor was doing what their contract specified. Records were made on a regular basis to explain where each subcontractor was in regard to their scope of work. This helped the project manager understand the state of the project. At the end of the job, this information was gathered and the project manager went through a check list explaining how each scope of work was carried out. The superintendent filled out a report card for each subcontractor, which provided a project rating on their overall performance for the job. The superintendent was required to fully understand ever aspect of the jobs and keep track of what each subcontractor was doing; therefore, the daily logs were usually not filled out with any detail and accuracy. J. Raymond used these logs on a daily basis, but the information and detail put into these forms could never be used to benefit the process of estimating. If a method were introduced that would allow the superintendent to make notes while walking through the jobsite, it might be developed into a useful tool

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43 to benefit future estimates. The only use J. Raymond had for these logs in the current state was to provide legal documentation for the actual progress of the job. Tilt-Con Corporation Tilt-Con Corporation is a tilt-up concrete contractor providing service throughout the state of Florida. Matt Trail is the estimator at Tilt-Con Corporation and budgets every job that comes into the office. Tilt-Con is not like a general contractor or construction manager, because they use daily production numbers to keep the business productive. There needed to be a method to determine the amount of work each crew had produced in a given day in order to keep up the competitive nature of Tilt-Con. Daily logs and time cards were important to assisting the estimator in understanding what actually took place in the field. Man hour reports were created from the weekly time sheets filled out by the superintendent in the field and were submitted electronically to the company network. From there, the reports went directly into Timberline which was the software Tilt-Con used for estimating. Once submitted, the software automatically updated the man hour reports which kept the software up-to-date with the current production rates of the work crews. This way, the estimating department had the most up-to-date estimating data available. The field logs told exactly what was used on the job and allowed a comparison between the estimated and the actual. The daily logs tracked the number of workers in a specific crew, what work was performed and if there were any problems or delays. There were multiple formats of the daily logs Tilt-Con used; there was one for the carpenters, one for the concrete crew and a separate log for the equipment. This provided information about what was on site, what work it performed and its idle time. These are

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44 useful to the estimator because equipment accumulates major costs to the project. If there was a way to limit idle time, the company would be able to initiate more opportunities for saving. There were the weekly time cards for each employee and each crew which proved to be the most beneficial to the estimator because they explained exactly how much time was charged to each task. As with all companies, saving time means saving money. If Tilt-Con accurately estimated a time of completion for each task, they would be able to limit the risk of losing money due to inaccurately estimating future work. As far as improving the current method of daily logs, the best option for Tilt-Con was to merge the current formats of the daily log, weekly time card and equipment logs all into one. This way the superintendent would not have to repeat information on different forms, it would be combined into one, thus making it easier for estimating and any other department to read the log and understand what took place in actually completing the work on the job. Conclusion The interviews reinforced the concepts that were introduced earlier in the case studies that all companies: had a unique method for tracking job progress, used daily logs even if it is only for protection in disputes and each company was looking for a way to make more money. Although every company explained a different method of tracking progress, there were not any that specifically said they would not entertain the idea of change to produce greater profits. The positive idea taken from this was if a new method were developed different from what already exists in the industry, all of the companies would be interested in it. The new format must assist in legal defense and help in the estimating process. Despite

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45 the confidence all of these companies had in their current methods, they would all be willing to try a new idea if it would help their company make more money. As can be seen in table 4-1, every contract or had different uses for the daily logs. In addition to the current uses, each contract or had different opinions as to how a new format should be adjusted in order to meet the current needs of the individual company and the industry as a whole. The complicated part came in merging all of these concepts into one daily log. To comprehend how these companies would react to a new type a daily log, one must be created. Through the combination of information gathered in the interview process, a preliminary standard format for the daily logs must be created. The completion of this log required an investigation from each contractor interviewed to understand the reactions to this format. This phase included constr uctive criticism from each interviewee in order to develop a log that would be feasible to implement in the construction industry and would address the each companys specific needs. This constructive criticism phase can be more thoroughly understood in table 4-2. This table describes in detail the opinions the contractors gave on wh ether or not the new format was feasible and also what changes needed to be made to the standard format to reach the ultimate goal of improving the process of tracking job progress for all construction firms.

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46 Table 4-1: Research Results Log Purpose Changes For Estimating Name CM GC Sub Defense Daily Records Track Progress Combine Current Link Est & PM Simple Electronic No opinion Brasfield & Gorrie Hensel Phelps KHS&S R.A. Rogers Clancy & Theys J.Raymond Tilt-Con

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47 Table 4-2: Contractor Feedback Feasibility Key Changes Name CM GC Sub Yes No Maybe Content Elect. Sub Size Brasfield & Gorrie Hensel Phelps KHS&S R.A. Rogers Clancy & Theys J.Raymond Tilt-Con 47

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CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND OBSERVATIONS Introduction At the conclusion of the interviews, the data was collected and used to create a preliminary standard format for the daily log. All nine interviews in person and the four over the phone gave different perspectives regarding the methods of tracking job progress. In general, subcontractors were most concerned with keeping track of the performance of the field workers to keep the estimating process updated. In contrast, most general contractors and construction managers were concerned with checking the projects along milestones not how the daily production levels were rated. Regardless of the perspective of each company, the goal was to combine the input to create one format to satisfy all companies. The following section was a discussion of the preliminary daily log that was created and some detailed responses on how this form would fit into each companys daily routine. The point of the preliminary log was to construct a basic form and receive constructive criticism on its format and potential use. This analysis would ultimately give a more precise idea of what the contractors were looking for and enable the creation of a final draft to satisfy the needs of all contractors interviewed. Description and Criticism of the Preliminary Daily Log The log created from the interviewing process was a starting point that would be used to eventually create a final draft of a log that could be used as the industry standard. For this to happen, the log needed to satisfy the requirements of all contractors. The log 48

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49 needed to first have space to list the name of the project, the project number, the log number and the date. This was all basic information, but very important to the make up of the log. Following these entries were two spaces to fill in the names of the project manager and the superintendent. The opinions of the Identification section were generally positive. The only major idea introduced was to have a number of full lines available to include the names of visitors to the job. Pete Pace of Clancy & Theys noted that a visitors list can be the most influential aspect as far as what happened on the job. Depending on who was on the job can determine how much work was completed. The contractor wanted to know the exact time and day an inspector, owner or architect showed up on the job. Other than this addition, there was no feedback on the first section of the log. 49 The next step was to investigate the condition of the jobsite in terms of the weather and how it had affected the workers. There was an area to record the high and low temperatures of the day, whether or not there was precipitation that day and how much, plus a section titled: Adverse Weather Affects. An additional answer section would provide space for the superintendent to explain what happened on the job as a result of the weather. Many times rain or lightning delays work or even shuts down a job for an entire day. If this happened, the superintendent would record this information. This record would help in the planning of rain days in the future. Also, the weather could have caused damage to some part of the building that was already under construction. Any such damage would be recorded so that the delayed start of the project is documented.

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50 There was no feedback about the Weather section of the log. There was not a lot of detail that could have gone into the weather and the goal was to limit the information on the log to aspects crucial to explaining what happened on the job. 50 Construction sites can be dangerous atmospheres and occasionally accidents occur. Once an accident has occurred, it should be recorded in the daily log to provide information on what happened. The information included: the type of accident, who was involved, if any time was lost and if the accident was an emergency or not. Pete Paces comments on this section included listing the accident report number which should be attached to the back of the daily log. This way the information would be available briefly on the daily log and if more information were needed, the page could be flipped to see the actual accident report. Terry Butler of Brasfield & Gorrie adjusted the title of the section from Accidents to Safety/Incidents/Warnings/Accidents. This way all areas of safety were included in the subheading. If the log was to be changed to this, there would have to be a box to specify the type of safety problem being recorded. Ken Cook of KHS&S Contractors also was looking for more detail in this section, specifically dealing with inspection and violation descriptions. Materials ordered and delivered everyday on a job needed to be recorded on the daily log to prevent confusion. There were two separate sections: one for the materials ordered and one for materials delivered to the site. Both had space for 6 materials to be listed. In addition to what the material was, there was space to include the quantity, unit of measure, cost per unit and the total cost. The only difference between the ordered and delivered sections was the delivered section had a space to specify the condition of the material delivered.

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51 Ren Tilden of Brasfield & Gorrie said this section would be good for smaller jobs, but difficult to track the materials delivered and ordered daily for large jobs because of the high numbers. Ren stated that getting an idea of when the materials were delivered in comparison to when they were ordered could be used in scheduling for the future. Terry Butler suggested adding space to list the subcontractors name (for whom the material was supplied) and the name of the supplier who delivered the material. There should also be a space to write about back-orders, items not delivered and items that needed to be returned. Pete Pace took this suggestion one step further and included the suppliers contact name and phone number in the case a conflict arose later. An extra line should be added to list the delivery ticket number. 51 After the Materials section was an area to detail the equipment on the job site and all important information related to these machines. Space was available to write the type of equipment, the name of the operator, the hours the equipment was in use and idle and any problems the equipment had that day. Most equipment used by subcontractors was rented; therefore, Pete Pace suggested including space for the rental company name and contact information along with the date the equipment was delivered to the site the date it was (or will be) returned. Dumpster activity was something that might not seem relevant compared to the other activities being tracked, but they were a critical aspect of everyday work. When a dumpster caused a problem on the job, delays followed. The only concept addressed in this section were the name of the waste removal company and three check boxes specifying whether the dumpster is full, empty or pulled that day. The only feedback was

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52 from Pete Pace regarding a space for the number of containers delivered or pulled that day. The schedule was one of the most important aspects of the construction process. If one company was not working according to schedule, the result would be a delayed job. Three questions were asked with yes or no responses and space to include additional comments. These questions included: 1) all crews in compliance with the job schedule; 2) were there any major milestones reached on the job today; and 3) were there any new future directives that should be addressed. Ken Cook of KHS&S was looking for a basic response. The space to fill in extra information works, but specifically asking if there was any deviation from the schedule would be helpful. 52 After the discussion of the schedule was the area to list the subcontractors on the site. Included in this section were spaces to include: the subcontractor name, employee count, conflicts and future instructions given to the subcontractor. Terry Butler suggested a fifth column to include work completed; this would allow the general contractor to know where each subcontractor stood in terms of their responsibilities. Pete Pace suggested, instead of the future instructions category, it be named description of work activity. This way it was not pointing at something that would happen; rather, it is asking what the subcontractor was currently working on. Ren Tilden suggested adding areas that included housekeeping for subs, which would describe areas left unclean and possibly set up for a back charge. Also, safety checks for the subcontractor which would include violations and warnings. Finally, subcontractor delays or other problems that led to the delay of the project should be added. These delays could lead to problems with

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53 other subcontractors or ultimately the general contractor and result in not hiring them to do work in the future. 53 This section created conflict for the subcontractors. It was at this point they began to believe the intended use for this log is to help general contractors. Ken Cook suggested changing the section to an area to record employees names and locations on the job. Instead of focusing on the general contractors needs to track the subcontractors, it would give the option of filling out crew names or the names of individual employees. The choice should be up to the type of contractor making the records. Matt Trail of Tilt-Con Corporation confirmed this opinion by saying this section makes the log too universal. As a subcontractor, Tilt-Con needed space to record information that was directly related to the work their company was performing. There were not any subcontractors that were genuinely concerned with the performance of other subcontractors. The final section in the preliminary daily log was entitled Additional Information, and asked general questions dealing with the state of the job and how it is progressing. The questions were as follows: what areas of work began today; what areas of work were completed today; were there any questions raised; and any additional comments not specified above. Pete Pace suggested the question topic be changed to Issues Pending. The logic behind this change was that, questions were raised about everything. In order to limit the amount of irrelevant information, the concept of issues that had not been cleared up should go in the area titled Issues Pending.. Terry Butler was looking for an area that included daily clean-up activities, safety meetings and who attended and whether or not there were inspections held on that day.

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54 Rob Johnston of R.A. Rogers was looking for questions regarding anything being back charged and whether or not there were any issues causing delays. Rob and Pete Pace were both interested in having a section where pictures taken on the job that day could be attached to better explain issues that were written about in the log. 54 Overall, the general contractors and construction management firms were satisfied with the preliminary results. There were still some changes and additions that needed to be made to create a working log, but it was on the right track. The subcontractors on the other hand expressed that the log appeared to be directed strictly towards a general contractors responsibilities. To make this log more useful to a subcontractor, there must be sufficient space to record data that was relevant to their own activities. In the interview, Matt Trail had suggested a more technological approach. An electronic format with drop down menus listing activity names, cost codes and descriptions of progress would be the best and most progressive method for a change. Conclusion The creation of this preliminary daily log was just the start of introducing a standard format that could be used by all companies. The feedback painted a clearer picture of what was needed in order to fulfill the many different needs in the construction industry. One thing that was clear, all companies want a straightforward and simplistic approach to make these records. Everyone also wanted a log that had enough information on it to be relevant. More information needed to be added in the Material sections, the Equipment section and the Additional Information section; this information included: subcontractor and supplier information and any problems in the process of ordering and delivering these materials. Once these corrections were made, a daily log would be created that would satisfy most of the needs of all contractors.

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CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSSION Conclusion The issue of production in the construction industry was proven to be important, but only in regard to certain types of contractors. At one point it was assumed that all contractors had concern for the productivity carried out on a construction project. Regardless of the interest a contractor had in jobsite productivity, every contractor was concerned with the way daily activities were carried out and subsequently recorded. If for no other reason than to keep track of activities to prevent legal dispute in the future, all contractors had some way of recording everything that occurred on a job in a given day. While every company had a different method of carrying this out, it had been shown that with the motivation of making larger profits on their jobs contractors were willing to explore new methods for tracking job progress. The preliminary phone interviews demonstrated that every company was different in terms of what types of information they tracked on the job. In fact, one of the companies claimed to not even be concerned with tracking job production because it was a form of wasting productivity in itself. The concept that came from these interviews was that every company used daily logs to keep track of the activities occurring on the job. This finding ultimately led to the idea that daily logs could be used for multiple purposes. Not only should they be used to prevent legal conflict by providing information about the job, but they also could provide information valuable to the estimating department. 55

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56 Once this idea was developed, personal interviews were conducted with ten individuals who worked for contractors in the Central Florida area. The goal was to interview companies with different backgrounds so the research would apply across the board. This variation created an inflow of ideas from a range of contractors differing in type and size. The general consensus was that daily logs were not used as a means to track job progress because the present forms were not suitable for this application. If a standard form was created that was simple, provided a sufficient amount of information and helped the company make money; the new daily log concept might be adopted. The end result was that while creating a standard daily log for the construction industry was possible, it was difficult to produce one which every type of contractor would be pleased. The problem was that every contractor currently used the logs for different reasons. Converting all construction firms to one use of these logs would be nearly impossible. Perhaps a better goal would have been to create a standard daily log that everyone in the industry could use to keep track of daily activities. When the concept of using the log for estimating purposes was introduced, the contractors began to get nervous. No one wanted to have their method of creating a job estimate changed. This is what kept the company in business, and in most cases, the contractors were confident in the way they operated. Limitations of Study In the process of investigating the use of daily logs and how progress was tracked on a regular basis, a few approaches were used. The phone interviews and personal interviews provided insight on the specific methods of operation different companies partook. However, there were a few factors that restricted this research.

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57 Primarily, the number of contractors interviewed was limited because of time restraints. It has already been noted a number of times that every construction company had their own unique way of carrying out day to day operations. The method each company used depended on the size of the company, the type of company and the significance each placed on making their company better. Due to the ways each company operated, it would have been impossible to interview every construction company and completely understand how each operated their business. Instead, taking a small sample of contractors that represented different type of firms that exist allowed for an interpretation on what methods were in existence. The point was not to interview every company and determine the perfect method for tracking job progress. On the contrary, it was to create an improved method of tracking job progress that could be adapted and used by all companies. Despite the time and resource restraints, this goal was accomplished. Need for Further Research A common theme that arose throughout all the interviews was the need to introduce more technology into everyday activities in the construction process. With so many opportunities to promote greater success, technology should not be overlooked. Speed and efficiency were concepts mentioned by every company. With the use of technology in everyday construction, these ideas would be accomplished. The use of hand held devices including PDAs and cellular phones have continued to increase throughout all industries including construction. If a program was developed to implement a daily log such as the one created through this research to be used with PDAs and cellular phones, the construction industry would see enormous benefits. This

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58 way, superintendents who filled out daily logs would not wait to get back to the job trailer to fill out the forms. Instead, the superintendent would be able to fill the form out continually throughout the day. This was only one suggestion, but it seemed to be the most positive concept in terms of what would be useful to contractors of all types and sizes. Every company was attempting to find a better way to find success on each project. The implementation of information technologies on the jobsites would greatly increase the chances of success on a day to day basis.

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APPENDIX A PRELIMINARY STANDARD DAILY LOG

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Standard Daily Log Project Name: Log Number: Project Number: Date: ______ / ______ / ___________ Superintendent: Project Manager: Weather Temperature Adverse Weather Affects: High Low Precipitation Yes _______ INCHES No _______ ___.___" Time Lost? _____:________ Accidents: Type: Name: Lost Time: Emergency? 60 Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log

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Materials Ordered 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Quantity U/M $/Unit Total $ Delivered 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Condition Quantity U/M $/Unit Total $ 61 Equipment On Site No. Type of Equipment: Operator: Hrs. In Use Hrs. Idle Problems: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log

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62 Dumpster Activity Company Name F ull Emp ty P ul l Schedule Questions Yes No Are All Crews In Compliance With The Job Schedule? Explain: Yes No Were There Any Major Milestones Reached On The Job Today? Explain: Yes No Are There Any New Future Directives That Should Be Addressed? Explain: Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log

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Subcontractors On Site No. Subcontractor Name Employee Count Conflicts Future Instructions Given 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 63 Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log

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64 Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log Additional Information What Areas Of Work That Began Today? What Areas Of Work Were Completed Today? Were There Any Questions Raised? Answers? Any Additional Comments Not Specified Above?

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APPENDIX B CURRENT DAILY LOGS

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Figure B-2: Brasfield & Gorrie Daily Report 66

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67 Figure B-2: Brasfield & Gorrie Daily Report

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68 Figure B-3: Brasfield & Gorrie Weekly Time Card

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69 Figure B-4: KHS&S Daily Job Log

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70 Figure B-5: R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report

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71 Figure B-5: R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report

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72 Figure B-5: R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report

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73 Figure B-6: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report

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74 Figure B-6: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report

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75 Figure B-6: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report

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76 Figure B-6c: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report

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77 Figure B-7: J. Raymond Daily Details

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78 Figure B-8: J. Raymond Daily Work

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79 Figure B-9: Tilt-Con Daily Log

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80 Figure B-10: Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log

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81 Figure B-11: Tilt-Con Job Cost Summary

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82 Figure B-12: Tilt-Con Short Interval Plan

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83 Figure B-12: Tilt-Con Short Interval Plan

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84 Figure B-13: Tilt-Con Place Weekly Timecard

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85 Figure B-13: Tilt-Con Place Weekly Timecard

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86 Figure B-14: Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log

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87 Figure B-14: Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log

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88 Figure B-15: Tilt-Con Concrete Timecards

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89 Figure B-15: Tilt-Con Concrete Timecards

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APPENDIX C ANALYSIS MATRIX

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Table C-3: Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format 91 Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format Company Name Who Fills Out The Logs Why Are They Important What Changes Need To Be Made Are The Logs Currently Used For Their Intended Purpose? Document Daily If for Estimating: Activities onsite track labor/job cost Project Superintendent Acts as a defense constantly update mechanism in PM about job Brasfield & Gorrie disputes problems Logs are a very important part of the superintendent's job and they are filled out daily with great detail and precision Brief explanation Need to be more The only intended of what happened on user friendly purpose is to provide Superintendent the job defense in legal Explain problems on The current info is disputes the job site not relevant to Hensel Phelps legal support the estimators Only used to N/A No, the purpose of Crew document activities The only estimator the logs are limited Superintendent from the day for involved in production and they are not future reference is the Chief Est. and usually filled out he is present on the properly KHS&S legal support job, no log needed

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Table C-3: Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format Keep track of Greater simplicity Yes, they are filled Superintendent activities in general Consistent through out and submitted submits log to the terms that take different companies electronically and Project Manager place on the job Include photos can be referenced at who fills it out in that day electronic format any time if Pro-log necessary R.A. Rogers legal support Provides general Equip/Material log Yes, Pro-log is Field Superintendent information about for daily deliveries used to submit the submits to the the activities Have an area to documents Project Manager of the day on that include job photos to the database Clancy & Theys jobsite Electronic No, this company Briefly details the Simplify the content is a CM and not Superintendent work on the job make questions more concerned with relevant to activities production legal support J. Raymond 92

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93 All logs give the Combine all logs Yes, these logs estimating dept. into 1 are crucial Superintendent production information to updating the which keeps the electronic format estimating software company in business would introduce Tilt-Con accuracy Track Job Progress Simplify the log In Crucial Areas of Combine Current The Job Formats N/A Update Estimate Include the Max N/A Provide a Source of Information with the Documentation in the greatest ease to fill Standard Log Michael Chandler Case of a Dispute out Table C-3: Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format

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APPENDIX D FINAL STANDARD DAILY LOG

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95 Standard Daily Log Project Name: Log Number: Project Number: Date: ______ / ______ / ___________ Superintendent: Project Manager: Site Visitors: Weather Temperature Adverse Weather Affects: High Low Precipitation Yes _______ INCHES No _______ ___.___" Time Lost? _____:________ Figure D-16: Final Standard Daily Log

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Safety Incidents Type: Name: Lost Time: Report No. Safety Meeting Held? Attendees: Yes Name No Company Issues Raised Materials Ordered 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Quantity U/M $/Unit Total $ Contact Name Contact Phone # Delivered 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Condition/Problem Quantity U/M $/Unit Total $ Contact Name Contact Phone # 96 Figure D-16: Final Standard Daily Log

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Equipment On Site No. Type of Equipment: Company Name Operator: Hrs. In Use Hrs. Idle Problems: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dumpster Activity Company Name Dumpster Identification Full Container Number Empt y Pull Schedule Questions Yes No Are All Crews In Compliance With The Job Schedule? Explain: 97 Figure D-16: Final Standard Daily Log

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98 Yes No Were There Any Major Milestones Reached On The Job Today? Explain: Yes No Are There Any New Future Directives That Should Be Addressed? Explain: Yes No Were there any Inspections Held Today? Pass/Fail/Explain: Figure D-16: Final Standard Daily Log

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Subcontractors On Site No. Employee/Sub Name Location Employee Count Conflicts Work Completed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 99 Clean Up No. Employee / Company Name Area Problems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure D-16: Final Standard Daily Log

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100 Additional Information What Areas Of Work That Began Today? What Areas Of Work Were Completed Today? Were There Any Questions Raised? Answers? Any Additional Comments Not Specified Above? Figure D-16: Final Standard Daily Log

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LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Cox et al., Managements Perception of Key Performance Indicators for Construction, Gainesville, FL 1997 2. El-Mashjaleh, Mohammad Suleiman, Firm Performance and Information Technology Utilization in the Construction Industry: An Empirical Study, Gainesville, FL 2003. 3. Fisk, Edward R., Construction Project Administration, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2000. 4. Koskela, Lauri, Management of Production in Construction: A Theoretical View, VTT, Finland, 1999 5. Treffinger, Bryce Harris, Status of E-Business Implementation in the Construction Industry, Gainesville, FL 2005. 101

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Michael P. Chandler is seeking a degree of Master of Science in Building Construction from the University of Florida and the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction. He began his graduate work in the fall of 2004, shortly after achieving his lifelong goal of receiving a degree from the University of Notre Dame. At Notre Dame, Michael studied both history and computer applications in order to expand his intellectual capabilities. Prior to his acceptance at the University of Notre Dame, Michael spent two years at Holy Cross College in South Bend, Indiana, where he prepared himself to meet the challenges of a major university. While attending both Holy Cross College and the University of Notre Dame, Michael worked summers in Florida as a laborer on multiple construction crews. This infield experience is what ultimately pushed Michael to pursue a graduate degree in the field of construction. Through the guidance of Dr. R. Raymond Issa, Dr. Robert F. Cox and Dr. Robert C. Stroh, Sr. Michael has worked to complete a thesis that will benefit the future of construction. With a masters degree from the University of Florida, Michael P. Chandler hopes to continue his education from the classroom and field experience to better the construction industry. 102


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Title: Improving the Construction Process through Standardizing Daily Logs
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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IMPROVING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS THROUGH STANDARDIZING
DAILY LOGS















By

MICHAEL P. CHANDLER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Michael P Chandler















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to first thank my parents and family for all the love and support they

have shown me throughout the process of writing my thesis and completing my classes to

earn this master's degree. Without their constant guidance and support I would not have

been able to accomplish these difficult tasks. I would also like to thank the members of

my thesis committee Dr. R. Raymond Issa, Dr. Robert F. Cox and Dr. Robert C. Stroh,

Sr. Without the encouragement of these individuals this thesis would have only been an

idea. Finally, I would like to thank my friends whom I have met at the University of

Florida, and those I have left behind at Holy Cross, Notre Dame and in the construction

field. For many years I have known I was supposed to work in the construction industry,

but without encouragement from these people, I would not have discovered this great

passion I have for construction.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

L IST O F T A B L E S ......... ......................................................... ............. ....... vi

LIST OF FIGURE S ......... ....................... ............. ........... vii

CHAPTERS

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

State ent of the P problem ...................................................................................
O objective of Study ............................................. .. ....... .................. .. 1
H ypothesis Statem ents............. ............................................ ........ .......... .. ..
O v erv iew .................................................................... 3

2 LITER A TU R E REV IEW ............................................................. ........................ 5

Introdu action ................................................................................. 5
Current Methods of Recording Progress ............. ............................... ...............6
Production Theories.............. .... ........ ...................................... .. .... .... .. ..7
Key Performance Indicators in Construction .................................. ................10
The Use of Technology in Construction ........................................... ...............11

3 RESEARCH M ETHODOLOGY ........................................ .......................... 15

4 CASE STUDIES .................. ................................ .. ....... .......... ....19

Phase O ne Interview s .......................................... ................... .. ...... 19
In tro d u ctio n ..................................................... ................ 19
CC S M mechanical .................. ..................................... .. .. .......... 19
The B eck G group .................................. ... .. .................... 21
K H S& S C contractors ............................ ...................... .... ....... ...... ............23
Perry Construction........ ........ ....... .. .. ............. .. ......25
Conclusion................................. .......... 26
Phase Tw o Interview Q questions ........................................ ........................... 27
In tro d u ctio n ................................................................................................... 2 7
Interview Q questions ............................................................................ ..... 27
L ist of Interview ees ............................................................... ..... .................... 28









D ata C collection ............................................... ... ...... .............. .. 28
Brasfield & G orrie, LLC ............................................. ........................... 29
H ensel Phelps Construction Co. ........................................ ....................... 31
K H S& S C contractors .................... .......................... .... ........ .......... .. .... 35
R .A R ogers .................. .......................... 37
Clancy & Theys Construction Company................................. ...............39
J. Raymond Construction Corporation......................................................41
Tilt-C on C corporation ......... ................. ................... ................... ............... 43
C on clu sion ................................................................................................... 4 4

5 DATA ANALYSIS AND OBSERVATIONS ............... ............ .....................48

In tro d u ctio n ............ ................ ....... ........... ........................................ 4 8
Description and Criticism of the Preliminary Daily Log .................................48
C conclusion ............................................................... .... ..... ........ 54

6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSSION......................................................................55

C conclusion .................................. ........................... .... ..... ........ 55

APPENDIX

A PRELIMINARY STANDARD DAILY LOG..........................................................59

B C U R R EN T D A IL Y L O G S .............................................................. .....................65

C A N A LY SIS M A TR IX ............................................... .................. ...............90

D FINAL STANDARD DAILY LOG .................................... .....................................94

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ....................................................................... .................... 10 1

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................... ........102
















LIST OF TABLES



Table Page

4 -1 R research R esu lts.......... ................................................................................ ............... 4 6

4-2 C contractor F eedback .......................................................................... ....................47

C-3 Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format....................................... .......................... 91
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

A -i Prelim inary Standard Log................................................. ............................. 60

B-2 Brasfield & G orrie D aily Report....................................................... .............. 66

B-3 Brasfield & Gorrie W weekly Time Card.................................... ....... ............... 68

B -4 K H S& S D aily Job L og ...................................................................... .................. 69

B -5 R .A R ogers D aily Field R eport........................................... .......................... 70

B-6 J.Raym ond D aily Construction Report ............................. ................................... 73

B -7 J. R aym ond D aily D details ............................................... ............................... 77

B -8 J. R aym ond D aily W ork ................................................. ............................... 78

B-9 Tilt-Con D aily Log .......................... ......... .. .. ...... .. ............79

B-10 Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log................................................80

B-11 Tilt-Con Job Cost Summary .................................. .....................................81

B -12 Tilt-C on Short Interval Plan........................................................... ............... 82

B-13 Tilt-Con Place W eekly Tim ecard ........................................ ........................ 84

B-14 Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log ................................................ ..............86

B-15 Tilt-Con Concrete Tim ecards .............................................................................88

D -16 Final Standard D aily L og............................................................... ............... 95















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

IMPROVING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS THROUGH STANDARDIZING
DAILY LOGS

By

Michael P. Chandler

August 2006

Chair: R. Raymond Issa
Cochair: Robert F. Cox
Major Department: ME. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction

The construction industry is constantly under pressure to provide the most accurate

information in the form of a budget to prospective owners to be awarded a project. With

this goal in mind, estimating departments have been working hard to store the most up-

to-date information in the company's database in order to provide the most accurate job

estimate. Despite the precautions the estimating departments take, errors will never be

eliminated from the estimating process. Efforts can be made to continually update and

improve the estimating and overall construction processes by improving the information

gathered in the field. Through investigation of current methods of tracking job progress

and the current implementations of daily logs, this study will introduce an improved

method for tracking job progress.

Starting with research on the current methods for tracking job progress and

continuing this research to a more narrow scope including the use of daily logs will









provide insight on the current methods of construction. This insight will then be used in

the creation of a standardized format for daily logs to be used on every job. A

standardized format will provide more reliable and accurate information to all facets of

construction.

The ultimate goal of every construction company is to complete a project

successfully in order to make a profit. A new method for tracking progress through daily

logs will promote greater success in all areas of construction including estimating,

managing and job tracking. If each aspect of construction can be improved, the end

result will be greater success on the project level, which amounts to enhanced profit

margins.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The construction industry as a whole is currently at a point where the competition

forces all companies to strive to elevate themselves above rival firms in order to promote

their ability to get work. Whether participating in a hard bid or negotiated work, every

company has a unique method of budgeting future projects. There will always be

disparity between firms and how they carry out the estimating process; however, the

introduction of standardized forms would promote a more organized approach through

the pre-construction and construction processes. The use of daily logs is currently

universal in the construction industry, but every company has a unique format for these

logs which causes confusion. A standard format for these logs would promote reliability

for individual contractors and the industry as a whole.

Statement of the Problem

When dealing with productivity in construction, the most obvious aspect to be

addressed was the limitation of waste. Whether it was wasted time or materials, both

played significant roles in the amount of work produced on a job. In order to conquer this

problem, more accurate methods of identifying waste and tracking job progress were

needed in the future.

Objective of Study

Every minute of time was precious through the construction process; therefore,

wasted time resulted in a loss of potential profit. One way to avoid loss was to keep a

precise record of the work produced. Accurate recoding ofjobsite data would promote a









better comparison between the estimated and actual work. If there was variance between

these two, an immediate adjustment could be made to prevent future problems. If this

method were in use today, the estimating process would be much more accurate. This

method was not in use because many companies depended on the experience of their

employees; rather than what was occurring in the field. This was a major flaw that had to

be addressed.

The tracking of actual job progress played an important role in keeping all

projects current with the schedule. Tracking job progress was crucial to the progress of

construction; in the same way, it was also important to all pre-construction activities.

Every construction company used daily logs as a means of tracking job progress

and making records in case of any dispute. Most companies also used the same concept

with the daily logs. It would be logical to create a standard format for these logs that

both described the state of the job for that day and benefited the process of estimating.

The main problem was gathering the right information that all companies needed on the

daily log.

First hand insight on how corporations used daily logs and tracked production was

obtained by gathering information through interviews of various estimators from Central-

Florida-based construction companies. This insight enabled a comparison of the different

methods used by each company. These comparisons were then compiled to create one

standard format of daily logs to be used by all companies. Recording job progress was a









concept used every day on all construction projects. There was neither a right nor

a wrong way of recording data as long as the important information about the job got

passed on to the right people in the proper manner. The problem was keeping these logs

practical so that they did not require an insubordinate amount of time to fill out.

Hypothesis Statements

The following Hypotheses were tested in this study:

HI: The combination of different formats of daily logs gathered from construction

companies of different size and type will enable the creation of a standard format that can

be used by all firms and thus improve the current process of recording daily job activities.

H2: The accurate recording ofj obsite information should refer to daily delays, and other

job related conflicts that can be used to prevent these problems in the future.

Overview

The purpose of this research was to grasp the different approaches to tracking job

progress and the methods used in the construction industry. Through a research of the

available literature and contractor input, a solution was developed that all contractors

were able to use regardless of size or type. Finding this solution was a challenge because

all companies operate in different ways. However, personal input from contractors gave

better insight on how a standard set of logs would work in the industry.

Prior to contractor involvement, research was carried out to fully understand the

issues and ideas that were in existence in the construction industry. This was carried out

through the literature review which analyzed various works all relating to productivity in

the construction industry.






4


The following chapter takes a detailed look into the literature reviewed to promote

a better understanding for the methods of tracking job progress. Beginning with current

methods and closing with technological efforts to promote greater success in the industry.

This investigation allowed a complete understanding for the basic path this paper took.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

As the competitiveness of the construction industry continues to increase, and

separation from the rest becomes more difficult, it is important to ensure the accuracy of

the estimates. Keeping prices competitive requires all information in an estimate to be

precise in order to protect the company. While this relates well to the performance levels

in construction, this concept must be narrowed to only involving the improvement of job

production.

The first step was to look at current methods of documenting information about the

job. There are a number of ways this is carried out from a contractor's point of view

(Fisk, 2000). Next, a theory of production aimed directly at the construction industry and

more importantly, the reason why construction is so unique that it needs its own theory of

production will be discussed (Koskela, 1999).

Next, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) (Cox et al. 1997) were investigated to

determine the activities that management uses to indicate the performance levels of

construction crews. Both KPIs and production theories will give an idea of current

principles that are used in construction, but the future will involve more technology in

everyday work and therefore must also be discussed. Finally, the work of Treffinger

(2005) and El-Mashaleh (1997) both looked at the existing use of technology in business

and the direction this movement might take, are discussed.









Current Methods of Recording Progress

When it comes to recording data on activities taking place on ajobsite, there are

many different forms a contractor can use: daily logs, concrete logs, equipment logs,

weekly report and weekly time cards just to name a few. Each of these forms plays

important roles in documenting the work that occurs on a job. The use of each of these

forms is up to the discretion of the contractor or the owner; they are not required by law

(Fisk, 2000). Although documentation is not required by law, most companies do keep

track of the progress through these forms, especially the daily log. This log or report is

viewed as crucial to the construction process because it keeps an accurate record of the

daily progress carried out on a job (Fisk, 2000). If this report is not used or filled out

properly it could prove costly in the end; often used as a reference if conflict arises, daily

logs are highly regarded for what the can prevent. If the records are not complete, the

project manager has no way to back up any claims.

Prior to the adaptation of daily logs, project superintendents were asked to fill out a

construction diary. This diary was a hard bound book full of standard forms that provided

room for detail in the description of what occurred on the project that day. This book was

used for the same purpose the daily logs are today: maintain an "unimpeachable legal

record" (Fisk, 2000). In a way, this book acted as a standardized format for the daily logs.

All diaries had the same forms that asked the same questions. This way, if legal action

was taken against the company, this official record could be presented in court as a

source for the contractor to recall activities that had taken place on the day in question.

The process has remained almost unchanged. The only difference is every

company's format for the daily log differs slightly. The idea behind this is to eliminate

inconsistency in order to produce more reliable results. A contractor would be able to









understand their own log, but a second party would have a difficult time determining

what type of information this form presented. When the dairy used was the same between

companies, confusion was kept at a minimum. Everyone understood what the questions

were asking and what information needed to be provided in these logs. The current

format of logs is not consistent between firms, which creates difficultly in filling them

out and interpreting the information available.

The argument is not that standardized documentation will solve all of the problems

in the construction industry. However, it will make it easier for contractors and outside

parties to interpret what happened on the jobsite on any given day. This is crucial in legal

cases when a dispute arises and the solutions to the problems are in question. Speed and

accuracy have always been important concepts in the construction industry. By

introducing these concepts back into the process of recording daily logs, the construction

process will improve greatly.

Keeping up with daily logs and tracking job progress is a timely but crucial aspect

in every construction project. The next step to fully understanding the job progress

dilemma is to investigate what needs to be recorded and tracked on a daily basis to

improve the construction process.

Production Theories

Due to the unique conditions the construction industry goes through to conduct

every day business compared to other industries, it needs to be viewed differently when

discussing actual production. Unlike most industries, a construction project is not usually

mobile, it has size limitations and also must adapt to the surrounding environmental

conditions. These three factors play crucial roles in determining the amount of









productivity that is carried out. Koskela (1999) wrote about an alternate theory of

production that should be created for the construction industry.

Koskela (1999) defined such a theory in this sense as providing an "explanation of

observed behavior, and contributes thus to understanding." Understanding what occurs on

a jobsite and how to plan for it is exactly the purpose of this paper. It is possible for a

company to be able to discover more about the problems associated with a job and

ultimately create a method to plan around these problems simply by observing the

surroundings. Koskela (1999) also described the theory as giving direction and providing

an ultimate benchmark for practice. Processing, inspecting, waiting and moving are all

parts of construction that represent waste. Unfortunately these concepts will never be

eliminated. Tracking the waste and learning about possible activities that can be carried

out at the same time the wasted time could be converted into production. Reducing waste

means making money, this ultimately leads to the success of the project.

There are two theories of production discussed by Koskela: the transformation view

and the flow view. Transformation is defined as the work that needs to be completed,

whereas flow is an attempt to eliminate waste (Koskela, 1999). Koskela's goal is to create

a new theory that uses both of these ideas in order to promote more reliability in

construction. The reason behind this is that construction is unlike any other industry.

There is a comparison between the construction and auto industry because both are

similar in the sense that many small pieces are put together by different groups of people

to ultimately create one final product. The difference between these two industries is that

a car moves along an assembly line, whereas construction workers move around the

building. Also, the car makers are in a controlled environment. Construction workers are









exposed to the outside elements, which affects the amount of work completed each day.

"Due to the one-of-a-kind nature and temporary organization, drawings and production

instructions are the most frequent cause of construction defects" (Koskela, 1999).

Planning against potential delays proves difficult because of the nature and environment

the construction industry exists.

If the goal of a construction production theory is to plan for potential problem areas

to avoid them and not necessarily eliminate waste, there maybe some success. The theory

must allow the workers to follow a set of guidelines and observe what is happening in the

surroundings, understand any potential conflicts and work around other workers so as to

not be slowed down (Koskela, 1999). This is defined as the elimination of conflict by

understanding the surroundings, which would lead to greater productivity.

Another example of how a theory of production would give a sense of direction is

through observation of the past to overcome future problems. Koskela discussed passing

information on to novices so inexperienced workers are able to participate in activities

only experts were able to in the past. This simple task of condensing knowledge or

information enables this new process to be carried out (Koskela, 1999). Similar to this

approach is transferring situational knowledge to others in different circumstances. The

same way prior knowledge is condensed and passed on to younger workers or novices to

give direction, past situations can be adapted to a different situation to retrieve the same

or similar results (Koskela,1999). The main goal in creating a production theory is to

reach success at all levels and all situations. If workers learn before making mistakes, the

chances of increasing production rates will increase.









Koskela stated that a theory of production is important to all industries because it

ultimately leads toward the design, control and improvement of production in the

workplace (Koskela, 1999). That is exactly what the construction industry should attempt

to do: improve the way production is viewed so that it can be adapted to introduce greater

success on the project levels.

Scope management is defining work that needs to be carried out on a job by

breaking down every aspect. This is important to construction because it enables workers

to be informed so the greatest amount of work will be carried out. It prevents unnecessary

work from being attempted, and the work that is completed helps deliver the purpose laid

forth in the construction documents (Koskela, 1999). This idea of scope management is

based on the transformation view, which depends on certainty. Koskela describes this as

the main view used throughout the construction industry. The problem is that certainty is

lacking in construction. Every project is different and any situation can change in an

instance (Koskela, 1999). This is why Koskela attempts to come up with a new theory of

construction that would be based not on consistency or certainty, but on past experiences

and how they can contribute to the future projects.

Key Performance Indicators in Construction

In contrast to Koskela's idea of a perfect theory of production for construction, Cox

et al. (1997) suggest using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in construction with the

help of upper management to assess performance carried out in the field. Unlike the idea

of a standard production theory, KPIs vary between situations and people. Cox et al.

(1997) defined KPIs as a compilation of data used to measure the performance of any

operation, but this does not mean that it is consistent in all projects. A KPI is anything

that helps a job manager understand the crew performance levels better. Cox et al. (1997)









used a historical baseline to determine what KPIs actually are and how they should be

used. Looking at past activities to understand problems that have occurred and the end

result of these problems will enable a manager to comprehend how to avoid these

conflicts in the future.

Cox et al. (1997) explored a quantitative approach which looked into factors of

progress that can be measured. For example, the most common method is the units per

man hour which explores how many units can be constructed in one hour of work (Cox,

et al. 1997). Estimating uses historical data to determine these numbers and then applies

the answer to the construction schedule. The problem with this approach is that delays

need to be taken into consideration. It simply looks at an average production rate that was

recorded. If the unit per man hour calculation is a pure average, any delays would already

be factored in, thus making the estimate accurate. This all depends on the purity of the

information gathered and how it is transferred to the estimating department.

If estimators have access to pure and accurate information, the estimate will prove

to be accurate itself; a clear agenda for the construction process will then be followed. In

this case all possible delays will be planned and accounted for and the surprises in the

construction process would be limited. Unfortunately, every construction project has

surprises that will eventually arise. Estimators must find a way to plan for these changes

from the norm and give the project managers the best opportunity to produce a profit.

The Use of Technology in Construction

To keep production at its highest level better methods need to be adapted to limit

waste and use historical information to promote accurate estimating. El-Mashaleh (2003)

discussed many aspects of construction and production. The section best assisting the

problem at hand is the impact IT (Information Technology) has on work performance.









Companies from every industry of varying in size and type are using e-Business to

organize communications and thus improve the success of their company (Treffinger,

2005). El-Mashaleh addressed a number of propositions for how IT is an excellent source

of improving productivity in construction. Three of these proposals fit well with the issue

at hand: facilitating coordination and responsiveness, increasing speed and accuracy and

increasing coordinating efficiencies (El-Mashaleh, 2003).

The introduction of technology to authoritative workers onsite (project managers

and superintendents) will help reduce confusion with documentation, which leads to

delays. The introduction of hand held internet technologies to jobsite activities will

promote a greater understanding for the requirements of the job. Questions can be sent

from one person to the next and answers can be retrieved with the push of a button. Using

PDAs, workers will be able to send e-mail and pictures through a network to ensure

questions are quickly answered making the process of question and answer more efficient

(EI-Mashaleh, 2003).

In addition to problem of sending questions and answers is sending documentation.

Paper documentation is the current standard in the construction industry. When drawings

are sent out subcontractors expect to receive them in hard copy form. These construction

documents (drawings and specifications) are expensive and range from a few pages to a

few hundred pages. More applicable to the business aspect of construction is the cost of

these documents, which the general contractor is usually expected to pick up.

Equally as important as keeping the work force informed about the job is keeping

the owner of the project updated on all activities. Owners are becoming increasingly









more demanding and want information about their projects available at all times. This can

be made possible by making jobsites IT friendly (Treffinger, 2005).

Business to business sharing connects customers, suppliers and partner applications

as well as all business processes across the internet (Treffinger, 2005). IT will be used to

implement speed in the process of sending drawings to multiple groups reducing cost and

time restraints.

Most drawings for construction are created through CAD programs, which area

Computer Aided Design programs. The files created can easily be sent electronically to

any contractor because they are created in an electronic format (EI-Mashaleh, 2003).

These concepts will reduce the cost of printing drawings, the cost of transferring

documents and the time it takes to send them. In the quest to improve production, the

electronic transfer of drawings and other documents is a logical step to introducing speed

to a time consuming process. The speed at which RFIs are answered will be

revolutionary. Processes that used to take days or weeks should now take only a few

hours.

In addition to hand held technologies, most business have adapted to the age of

technology in the main office. The office will generally have a network that keeps all the

computers in the office connected. This benefits the field workers because information

can be stored on the network from any computer or portable device so anyone on the

network can see this information. If executive management in the office needs to check

the progress of a job, the only requirement would be to look in the job specific folders on

the network and see a daily post of what is happening on the site. This concept relies on

how the workers submit daily information. While the project manager is ultimately in









control of the project, a person of authority in the office is able to read about the progress

and demand greater production on certain aspects. This idea will ensure that the forms are

being filled out properly and on a regular basis. This observation through the network

will not be exclusive to company executives; anyone involved in the project will be able

to look at the projected schedule and observe how close construction is following the

schedule (El-Mashaleh, 2003). Not only will the onsite workers be observing the

schedule to ensure the job is on track, but office management will also be able to see and

react to how the job is progressing.

Construction as an industry is continually changing to improve itself. With the

availability of new ideas to track work and promote better production, there is no reason

to pass up these opportunities. IT, production theories and KPIs are only a few concepts

that have progressive ideas about improving the state of construction. The case studies

below will give a better understanding for exactly what is occurring in the industry in

Florida and some ideas to change current methods to improve the way construction tracks

progression.

The next chapter will continue the research process by discussing in greater detail

how the first hand research will be collected. Titled "Research Methodology," this

chapter will explain the interview process and the expected results in order to create a

standard format for the daily logs that will satisfy all contractors.














CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Accurate tracking of field production should play an important role in the

estimating process just as it does for managing the construction phase. The best method

to determine how contractors are tracking field production is to conduct interviews with

different companies to determine the concepts of their daily reports. Improving

estimating is important to this research. Thus, an estimator from each company should

also be interviewed. At the same time, the activities going on in the field would best be

interpreted by a project manager or a superintendent. Depending on the type of company

and availability of the employees, these interviews should be directed toward estimators

and project managers.

No two contractors carry out business operations in the same manner. All

companies use daily logs but, not necessarily for the same purposes. Data gathered from

different companies will allow for combination of the existing processes to develop a

standard format for daily logs and tracking job progress.

The process of selecting which contractors to interview was based primarily on

them having a functioning office based in Orlando. The next criterion that had to be

investigated was the size of the company. Some of the contractors selected were national

companies and others will strictly be local contractors that work only in the Orlando area.

Finally, the focus was on commercial construction managers, general contractors and

some of the subcontractors working for these companies.









Due to their conflicting interests construction managers, general contractors and

sub-contractors will all have different points of view when dealing with tracking job

progress. Subcontractors are usually concerned only with their own crews and their direct

responsibilities to the job. The only time a subcontractor would need to know the

progress of another company would be if delays began to arise on the job. On the other

hand, a general contractor is concerned with the project as a whole and not necessarily

each individual activity. If any percentage of the work is self performed by the

subcontractor, concerns will be raised with regard to the progress of these activities. The

subcontractors would not be tracked on this same level of precision. As long as the job as

a whole is on schedule, the general contractor will not be concerned with how the

subcontractors are working. Finally, a construction manager is most concerned with the

project being completed on time. If there is a delay, the construction manager will

determine the problem through the general contractor or the subcontractor causing the

delay. Otherwise, tracking job progress would not be a major aspect of the construction

manager's daily activities.

Once the interview pool was selected, personal interviews were used to allow the

contractors to answer specific questions about the process of tracking job progress. The

contractor was expected to explain the current processes, how these methods benefit the

company and any ideas for change. Finally, the contractor was asked about a standard

format for daily logs and how this would benefit the process of recording field

information to promote more accurate estimating.









At the completion of the interviews, the information was gathered and recorded to

review all methods of tracking job progress and possible methods of improvement. The

information about the daily logs was organized and interpreted to determine which

aspects gathered the most accurate information. From the interpretations a new format

was created to address the specific needs laid forth by the individuals interviewed.

Once the standard format for the daily logs was created, it then had to be validated

through a test stage of constructive criticism. The log was sent back to the contractors

that were interviewed for their opinions on whether or not the new log would be used and

if it would provide greater benefits than the existing method.

The final step was to gather all the critiques from the contractors and organize

them in a way that allowed a final draft of the new daily log format. In organizing the

criticism of the contractors, priority was given in addressing the concepts and ideas that

proved to be conflicting. The first draft was a rough compilation of what job parameters

the contractors had collected in their daily logs and what the contractors wanted on a

daily log. The second draft was an edited form of the first draft, based on criticism given

by the individuals interviewed.

The process of interviewing contractors, creating a new daily log, receiving

constructive criticism, and the creation of a final draft will promote the concept of

improving the current utilitarian value of daily logs. Every company uses these logs for

different reasons, which means every company may have a different opinion about the

new format created. However, the goal of this research is not to create the perfect form,

but one that will promote more accurate recording of all daily activities.






18


Now that the research process has been explained, the next step is to actually

carry out the case studies. This chapter will explore in great detail the exact methods

each company current uses, and the changes that need to be made in order to create a

more productive process.














CHAPTER 4
CASE STUDIES

Phase One Interviews

Introduction

The goal of this investigation on tracking job progress was to create a well rounded

understanding of how construction companies are expected to operate; the next step was

to determine how real companies track progress. By investigating four different

companies and the methods they used to keep track of the daily progress that occurs on

the jobs, a more complete understanding of production tracking was developed. The

information for this study was gathered through phone interviews with individuals from

estimating departments of different builders in the state of Florida.

CCS Mechanical

CCS Mechanical is a Florida based specialty contractor with focus on mechanical

systems for institutional and commercial construction projects. The phone interview with

CCS Mechanical took place on March 23, 2006 at 4pm with Rob Boyer who is the

Director of Field Operations.

According to Boyer, the best and only way to track production in terms of keeping

all areas of the company informed (field, project management and estimating) is to keep

the process as simple and straight forward as possible. If the process is not easy to

follow, confusion will occur and conflict will result.

In order to get a complete understanding of tracking field progress the estimating

process must first be comprehended. The estimating department uses standards set forth









by the SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association)

and MCAA (Mechanical Contractors Association of America) as a baseline for projecting

field production. If the job presents more difficultly than the average job at first glance,

the estimating department is responsible for making changes to these numbers so they

more accurately fit to what will actually be produced in the field. The estimate should

also be broken up into areas of installation. Every area in a building requires different

installation types and processes. The installation of equipment in the penthouse will

require much more time and equipment than a basic office room would. This must be

factored in to how much time is budgeted for each activity.

Moving away from the estimating process, the workers in the field are expected to

fill out weekly budget sheets which describe in detail the work carried out that week and

how much time and money was spent. These weekly budget sheets are simple excel

spreadsheets, which are really a combination of time cards and material logs that track

what each worker did in a given week. A comparison is then made between what was

actually completed versus what was expected to be completed. After each worker

displays where the job status is for the given week, the reports are then flipped to

summarize the progress of the job as a whole. These time cards are combined with those

of previous weeks to determine the total hours that have been worked on a job and the

quantities of materials used. This allows the project manager of the job to monitor the

man hours and money spent on a continual basis.

This process allows each job to be tracked by the job aspects; it also helps in

making accurate projections of durations in the future. Once the job is completed, the

information is gathered and used as historical data to update future estimates. If there









was a problem in terms of the estimate, the estimating department is able to go back and

see the problem to adjust for future projects.

This process has proven successful for CCS Mechanical because it continually

keeps the estimating department and the rest of the project team updated on what is

expected. This method works for this company, but not necessarily for all construction

firms. Every company has different goals in terms of what needs to be completed on each

job they are working on.

The Beck Group

The Beck Group has been in the construction business for almost a century and has

moved away from general contracting to construction management. Skipper Vaughn is

currently the Director of Pre-Construction and has a complete understanding of the way

the estimating department operated when the company used to provide general

contracting services. His expertise gave an insight on how things used to be run in hopes

of making adjustments for the future. This phone interview took place on March 23,

2006 at 3:30pm.

Prior to becoming a construction management business, Beck tracked job

production through a system of cost reports. This was done by breaking down the job

estimate into work items and even further into sub-items. For example, concrete was

broken down into subcategories: column forms, place and finish, drop beam bottoms,

etc. These subcategories were then given quantities. When the job was being carried out,

the superintendent could refer back to the estimate and determine what the projected

quantities were for each subcategory.

While the role of the superintendent is to monitor the job to insure the work is

continuing according to schedule, this is only part of the job. Checking quantities being









used on the job is also an important part of the superintendent's job. If there is any

inconsistency between the estimate and what is actually being constructed it should be

recorded and immediately investigated to determine what went wrong.

If all detail is recorded properly, a source of historical data is created that can be

used in the future pricing of similar projects. Beck used records from one job and

compared them to similar projects to create a learning curve to be followed. Comparing

different numbers from different projects would produce an average, which was used

towards future estimating needs.

Beck placed importance on the superintendent's role to record quantities used to

prepare a comparison to the estimate, but an order of magnitude was also crucial. The

different sizes of the jobs meant that there would be a difference in the time and cost

required to complete the project. There are many activities that are carried out in a given

day on a construction site and all must be recorded in order to keep track of the progress

throughout the project

All work carried out should be noted in what is referred to as the daily logs. No

information should be left out of these logs because the slightest adjustment of detail

from reality can affect the appearance of a phase or even the entire project on paper. In

addition to these daily logs, Beck required weekly reports so that all work completed in

one week could be recorded on a single spreadsheet to avoid confusion. Management

was able to look at the reports and to understand how much work could be completed in a

week.









Regardless of the design of these forms, they needed to be kept as simple as

possible. There were many different things a superintendent was required to keep track of

and to record in a given week and removing complications from the forms would reduce

the amount of work necessary to fulfill these tasks.

KHS&S Contractors

KHS&S Contractors is an interior/exterior subcontractor with offices in Orlando,

Tampa and a number of other cities across the western United States. Erik Santiago is the

Vice President of the Tampa office and is familiar with the procedures used in the

estimating department. This phone interview took place on March 28, 2006 at 11:00am.

KHS&S used historical data almost exclusively to create an estimate for ajob

proposal. Standard take off was carried out to find quantities and the information was put

into the Timberline estimating software where an appropriate price was attached to these

quantities. Prior to sending out any bid, the final numbers were checked to determine the

appropriateness of the prices. This check was an opportunity for the estimating

department to factor in the degree of difficulty of the project which would alter the price

of the job.

When the review of the prices for the proposed job was carried out prior to

submitting the bid it was being viewed in the job cost format. This job cost format was a

breakdown of the entire job, which spelled out each aspect of construction, how much it

would cost and how long it would take to complete. These job cost codes were also used

as the production codes. Both are a break down from the Construction Specification

Institute's (CSI) (ref!!!!) division level down to the actual process: layout, framing,

installation, wire mesh, scratch coat, plaster, etc.









Once the estimating department agreed on the proposed prices, the bid was sent off

to the general contractor in hopes of receiving permission to build the job. If the job was

granted to KHS&S the estimators and the rest of the project team would meet and began

the transition from estimating stage to the construction stage. The superintendents would

learn at this meeting what was expected of their own construction crews in terms of what

was estimated. At this point, the superintendent is able to question or respond to the

expectations set forth. In most cases, the superintendent already had an idea of what the

job would require before this meeting.

After construction began, time cards were used to track worker progress and

productivity. Each time card used the same cost codes developed by the estimators for

the activity carried out. The only difference was that these codes were simplified to

reduce the amount of work required by the superintendent. If the cost codes were exactly

the same as the estimating codes, the superintendent would be spending too much time

tracking and recording what each worker was doing. This would ultimately limit the time

available to the superintendent to ensure the job was going according to plan.

KHS&S used a weekly time card system, which enabled a weekly check on the

total amount of money and time being spent. These weekly costs would show the

progress of the job and a weekly estimation of the work completed.

At the completion of the job, the project manager, superintendent, operations

manager and estimating department would all meet again to check the cost code data and

to compare it to the job budget. This was a learning opportunity; therefore clarifications

were asked for. These clarifications allowed for corrections to be made to improve for

the future.









Post completion is not the only time KHS&S attempts to rectify problems. During

the project the operations manager was constantly checking for conflicts and immediately

worked to solve any dilemma that arose to prevent any loss in profits. This was checked

by the project manager filling out the weekly cost reports to check the job progress and

come up with an accurate estimate of the percent complete.

Perry Construction

Established in 1968, Perry Construction has become a strong working force as a

general contractor in the state of Florida for over 38 years. Greg Knicely is the Vice

President of Pre-Construction at Perry Construction and has comprehensive knowledge of

all concepts of tracking production in terms of relating that back to the estimating

department.

According to Knicley, there was not a great deal of effort that goes into tracking the

progress of individual activities. A superintendent did not usually have a lot of time to

track job progress; time spent tracking progress was a wasted opportunity to carry out

actual work. Job progress tracking adversely affected the company because money was

made from actual production, not from tracking production. Keeping track of job

progress helped the company understand what was occurring on the job, but it also

hindered the superintendent's ability to be productive. Perry Construction believed it was

necessary to gather information from the superintendents and the project managers;

however, spending crucial time to gather this information was a dilemma.

The amount of detail that went into creating an estimate for a job was more detailed

than the work that occurs in the field. The Perry Construction estimators spent valuable

time looking at every aspect of a job to understand the job in its entirety. Field operations

were more about the construction of a project and not about planning for the future.









When information was tracked in the form of reports for historical data, the

superintendents did not use cost codes like those used in estimating. Field recording was

simplified so the superintendent was able to record the hours and number of workers that

went into completing an activity.

Small jobs were equally as important to Perry Construction as large jobs; however,

large jobs required more tracking techniques as a result of the amount of detail that went

into the job. If there were any problems, they had to be detected immediately so they

could be fixed. On a small job, a problem would be noticed very quickly, and thus could

be fixed quickly. However, a problem on a larger job could go unnoticed because of all

the activities going on. This could prove disastrous to the job.

Perry Construction is a general contractor that is more concerned with job

milestones to determine how the job is progressing than they are with looking at each

crew's progress. This is different from small contractors or subcontractors whose job is

to track every detail to ensure they are staying close to the schedule in order to make the

expected profit.

Conclusion

Every contractor has some way of understanding the way their workers perform in

the field. Whether it is through filling out logs or updating historical data, all companies

know the abilities of their employees. The introduction of a standardized form to the

industry might benefit all companies in their ability to track job progress and update their

estimating databases. To get a better understanding of how this process would work a

number of companies were selected to be interviewed. These interviews would clearly

define the uses of daily logs in the industry and how useful a standardized log would be

to the project and estimating teams.









Phase Two Interview Questions

Introduction

At the completion of the phone interviews, a deeper understanding was developed

for tracking productivity on the job. A further analysis would be required once the topic

had been narrowed down to investigating the use of daily logs and their importance to all

facets of construction. This investigation would be carried out through personal

interviews with additional contractors.

Interview Questions

A base set of questions was established that all interviewees would be asked, to get

descriptive expression of the methods of tracking production that were used by each

company. These uniform questions would give structure to the interviews promoting

greater success. The point was to go into each interview with the same intent so getting

the proper information and feedback was possible.

The interviewee would first be asked how their respective company used the daily

logs. It was assumed that every company had some method of maintaining daily logs set

up, but not every company used these logs for the same purposes. Some had very

descriptive daily logs that required a lot of time and effort to fill out properly. Other

companies had basic forms that were not used for any set purposes. It was important to

determine how these logs were being used to determine whether or not a new format

would even be used by the company.

Each interview also addressed the topic of tracking job progress. Just like in the

case studies, it was determined that all companies tracked job progress in their own

unique ways. Since the goal was to suggest a log to the industry that would improve the

process of tracking job progress, current methods should continue to be explored.









Finally, it is crucial to determine if the company is interested in making

adjustments to the current methods in order to improve estimating and the construction

processes. All construction companies are in business to make a profit. If a new method

is introduced that will improve the monitoring of construction process by all companies,

it will in turn provide opportunities to increase profits and become increasingly attractive

to all companies.

List of Interviewees

Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC.
Terry Butler, Chief Estimator

Ren Tilden, Senior Project Manager

Hensel Phelps Construction Co.
Bryan L. Butcher, Chief Estimator

Jim Pappas, Operations Manager

KHS&S Contractors (Orlando)
Josh Johnson, Estimator

Ken Cook, Project Manager

R.A. Rogers Construction Company
Rob Johnston, Vice President of Pre-Construction Services

Clancy & Theys Construction Co.
Pete Pace, Vice President/CEO Florida Division

J. Raymond Construction Corp.
Dan Cramer, Senior Project Manager

Tilt-Con Corp.
Matt Trail, Estimator

Data Collection

The interviews described below were conducted with individuals representing

various companies with the goal of gathering information to understand the different









methods of tracking job progress and address the possibility of changing these methods.

Below is a thorough description of each interview, the concepts each contractor used to

track progress and some suggestions to improve future estimating.

Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC.

Estimators do not get much exposure to construction in the field, but all people

involved in construction understand that the daily logs were an important part of

construction. Terry Butler, Chief Estimator described the detail that superintendents at

Brasfield & Gorrie were required to put into every daily log to prevent any confusion

when reviewing the logs at a later date. These logs were not just put in a notebook, never

to be looked at again. In fact, three copies of the log were made: one stayed on the job

site, one was sent to the company headquarters in Birmingham and a final copy was

submitted to the company network electronically. This way, if there was ever a question;

the information could easily be located.

Tracking actual job progress is the responsibility of the project manager in charge

of the job. Each month, the project manager would complete a projection report, which

described exactly where the project stood and what to expect for the future. This allowed

a comparative analysis between what was actually spent and what was budgeted by the

estimate. Once the project manager had this information, changes were made to keep the

project on schedule and under budget. The information used to get these projection

reports was from the weekly time cards. The largest problem that occurs here though was

the inaccurate recording of data. If the information from the field was not being recorded

correctly, it would cause problems with the projection reports, the status of the job and

the way the estimating department handled a subsequent job.









Project managers had to create a monthly projection report describing what had

occurred on the job during the preceding month despite inaccuracies found in the

available information. At the completion of the job, a final job report was created by the

project manager that showed the gains and losses for each aspect of the job. This labor

report, just like the projection report was a product of the weekly time cards.

Brasfield & Gorrie valued the process of filling out daily logs to keep track of all

activities that occur on the job. This created complete records for the company in case

they ever needed to prove what happened on a specific day on a job. In the event of legal

action, the project manager or superintendent would be able to look back at the daily logs

and to show exactly what happened on that day provided the log was filled out properly.

This was the only purpose for filling out the daily logs. The logs are undoubtedly

important, but the contemporary information recorded would not help in the estimating

process. There were too many forms to go through to determine exactly what was

happening throughout the job process. However, if a method could be adopted to

introduce ease and structure to the daily logs that would provide help to the estimating

department, Brasfield & Gorrie would be interested in learning more.

The interview with Ren Tilden, Senior Project Manager, was a reinforcement of the

discussion with Terry Butler. Daily logs were only used to protect the company in the

situation of legal disputes. While the logs were treated as an important aspect of the job,

it was not for any reason outside of protecting the company in the future. Brasfield &

Gorrie also used a number of other logs to keep track of important information: RFI,

Change Order and Submittal Logs.









As far as tracking job progress goes, Brasfield & Gorrie used software developed

by a construction software solutions company CGC (Computer Guidance Corporation) to

compile labor numbers, job costs, billings to the owner and all charges associated with

the project that the accounting department handles. This program as described by Terry

Butler also produced the projection reports and the final job report. The data in the

program was constantly being updated by the project managers in order to keep the

information about the project up-to-date. If there were any discrepancies, the project

manager would be able to detect the problem before it got out of control.

Ren Tilden viewed the concept of adapting a new method for daily logs to benefit

the estimating process as a difficult one to conquer. The reason was too much

information would need to be recorded on a daily basis for the logs to have any meaning.

The logs could be altered to gather more information, but this would only complicate the

job of the superintendent. According to Tilden, when the job of the superintendent gets

more complicated, the project begins to have problems.

Hensel Phelps Construction Co.

Bryan Butcher is the Chief Estimator for Hensel Phelps, a large general contractor

in Orlando, Florida, and works mainly on two types of projects based on project delivery

system: Design Build and Negotiated work. The type of contract for the job would

delegate the process that goes into estimating the job. Both were thorough and accurate,

but because one was usually repeat business with a customer, the company took a bit of a

different approach. This was because in most cases, the repeat work would be on a

building similar to one that was previously constructed.

Regardless of the type of contract, all conceptual estimates were recorded in simple

MS Excel spreadsheets showing all the detail of the proposed building, quantities and









costs to each aspect. Once the job started, a cost control and labor recap sheet was given

to the project manager that described every aspect of the job and what was estimated in

terms of quantities and costs. This is the method of job cost accounting and control that

the project manager was required to track closely. The project manager would constantly

be filling out these sheets in order to build a production comparison between what was

estimated and what was actually performed.

It is crucial to the overall life of the project that each project manager keeps a close

tab on all activities going on throughout the process of the job. If the activities were not

properly recorded, problems would arise. While the project manager was keeping tabs on

the job through the cost reporting process, the estimator would be getting these forms and

double checking to make sure everything was going according to plan. If there was any

deviation from the estimate, both parties would be responsible for calling a meeting to

figure out the problem and how it would be fixed.

Most of the time problems were caught early as a result of the accurate method of

recording and checking job progress. To ensure the project's success, all parties involved

in the construction of the project met at what Hensel Phelps referred to as, the 1/3rd point.

This was the point on the job when first 1/3rd of all construction activities had been

completed. It was a time for all management and estimating members to discuss the

current state of the job. It was also the last opportunity for the numbers to be adjusted. If

the job progressed past this point and things need to be changed, the company would be

running the risk of losing money on the project.

At the end of the 1/3rd point meeting, the responsibility of the estimating

department was removed from the project so the project management team is able to









focus on completing the job. The estimators were still able to keep track of the project

and watch it progress, but they were no longer required to attend job meetings. There

was a second meeting at the 2/3rd point on the job, but this is mostly the project

management team gathering to discuss the completion of the job and make sure it is on

time and under budget. The numbers could be changed at this point because the job was

too far along. However, if adjustments needed to be made, it was the responsibility of the

management team to figure out the problem and how it would be handled.

The estimating department at Hensel Phelps played a crucial role throughout the

construction process. Most companies had a hand off meeting where the estimating

department gives all of the job information to the project management team. Unless there

was an error in the estimate and the project manager needed an estimator's help, this was

usually the last time the estimator sees the job. Hensel Phelps operated differently in that

the estimating team observed the project up to the 1/3rd point and sometimes further to

ensure that the project is following the proper path. This system of checks and balances

between the two departments kept up communications and increased the success rate of

all projects.

All job tracking by the project management team for their use and the use of the

estimating team was through the cost accounting system and production comparison.

Like most companies, Hensel Phelps had daily logs that were filled out by the

superintendents on a daily basis, but they were not used for estimating purposes. These

logs were used to protect themselves against legal action. It is important to note that the

estimating department was always trying to update the estimating process with new









productivity numbers so that the future projects were accurate to the way the company

was working and progress was made on projects.

Hensel Phelps as a company was most concerned with the number of man hours

spent on the job as opposed to actual dollar amounts. This was a common misconception

because in most cases, the estimators were strictly concerned with the cost of an activity

or the entire project. However, the dollar value of each activity often fluctuated with the

change in the market. The amount of man hours it took to complete a project should stay

consistent regardless of any change in the costs.

Since the main concern of Hensel Phelps was the number of man hours put into a

certain activity, the creation of a standard daily log would benefit estimating. By keeping

track of each crew, how many men were on the job and when activities were complete,

the daily logs could provide an excellent source of data that would help keep the estimate

current. Even if the logs were secondary to the labor recap sheets, the daily logs could be

used to back up this data.

Jim Pappas is an Operations Manager for Hensel Phelps Orlando and he reinforced

the ideas Bryan Butcher expressed in the previous interview. The most important

production tracking resource used is the labor recap sheet that project managers fill out

regularly to break down every aspect of the job. This labor recap sheet was compared

with the job estimate to ensure activities were being completed in the manner that was set

forth in the estimate. These labor reports showed how many hours were going into each

activity, giving an accurate idea of production rates in regards to all jobsite activities.

The largest problem that could occur here was the recording of inaccurate data. In

most cases the superintendent filled out the data necessary for the project manager to









create the labor recap sheets. If the superintendent did not give accurate information, the

labor recap sheets would not be accurate. There were many times when the

superintendent would see the amount of work being carried out in one area and would see

that it was over budget; instead of making the proper records the data would be recorded

in another category of work to fit it into the budget. This makes the estimate look

perfect, but in reality it hurts the company because this disables the feedback mechanism

which displayed any errors in the estimate and allowed future corrections to be made.

For this reason daily logs should be adapted into the estimating processes to check

for errors in the records. The superintendents at Hensel Phelps were required to fill out

the logs on a daily basis to keep accurate records of what was occurring on the job. Even

if the detail was lacking on the log, the superintendent was putting in time to at least

make a head count, record what occurred on the job and describe any errors. This

information alone would be a benefit to the estimating department. By implementing a

quicker and more accurate method of recording daily progress, the estimating department

could view this progress and use it to create a more accurate estimate improving the state

of every job Hensel Phelps performed.

KHS&S Contractors

KHS&S Contractors is an interior/exterior subcontractor with one office located in

Orlando, Florida. Joshua Johnson has only spent a few years in the estimating

departments, both in the Tampa and Orlando offices, yet he plays an active role in

estimating most jobs that come through the Orlando office.

From a subcontractor's point of view, the actual production that occurred on a job

was more important to the company than the actual price. The reason was prices were

always changing, but productivity should remain constant. It was the responsibility of









both the project manager and the superintendent to keep track of production so future

jobs could be estimated in the same manner that the work was carried out.

Construction projects often encountered problems, which had to be addressed and

recorded. Whether the problem was with the estimate or something unforeseen, the

problem needed to be recorded. If changes were made to prevent major damage, these

would also need to be recorded. This way, the company would learn from these events

and plan around them in the future.

Most companies had the concept of comparing the job estimate to what actually

occurred on the job. This was difficult for KHS&S because the estimate was very

different from the way it was recorded in the field. In many cases, the superintendents

did not make proper records of what happened on the job. They believed that keeping

consistent with the estimate was best for the company; however, the contrary is true. The

estimating department needed the superintendents to fill out the progress reports exactly

how things occurred so the estimators could later determine errors and how to prevent

them in the future.

Unfortunately, there was not a direct link existing between the estimators and the

project managers who worked on the job. KHS&S estimators were based in the office

and rarely got out to the field for interaction. Project managers on the other hand, were

always running from job to job and were not concerned with matters that went on in the

estimating department. The chief estimator was the only member of the estimating team

that had direct contact with the project team.

If the estimating department was more involved in the construction process, they

would be able to gain knowledge and experience in terms of estimating what the field









would need or use in the future. Experience was crucial to all aspects of business; if

estimators had some work experience in the field, the job estimates produced would be

more accurate. The estimators were so busy with new work that they never had an

opportunity to completely understand the past jobs and obtain any knowledge.

The final problem that the estimating department would run into was reviewing old

work to fix errors. The process of estimating was so intense that the estimators had time

only to work on the projects at hand and then move to the next. There was not time to

look at previous projects and make corrections. In order to produce accurate estimates, a

better method needed to be introduced to allow estimators to look at the past and learn

from the mistakes made in the past.

The current format of estimating at KHS&S only allowed the chief estimator to

understand the activities that occurred in the field. If a format of logs was developed to

deliver jobsite data directly to the estimators, all jobs would become more productive. In

this sense, the estimators would have a more complete understanding of what would need

to be estimated to help out the workers in the field. More important would be the demand

on the chief estimator would also be reduced.

R.A. Rogers

Rob Johnston is the Vice President of Pre-Construction Services at R.A. Rogers, a

Central Florida based general contractor, and is informed on all issues that deal with

estimating for this company. As far as keeping track of daily progress goes, this was the

responsibility of the superintendents on each job. Daily logs were filled out in the jobsite

trailer using software called Pro-log and was subsequently transferred electronically into

a corporate database. The log was then submitted online to the project manager of the

job. The details of these logs included the number of workers on site, the materials









delivered and the progress of each subcontractor along with any other comments the field

superintendent felt was important to the daily description of the job.

R.A. Rogers is a general contractor but they operate much like a construction

manager because they do not self perform any work. Tracking job progress therefore,

was only important to the company in terms of finding out where the job stood currently.

The descriptions the subcontractors provided in their own daily reports were used by

R.A. Rogers to get a more complete understanding of what work was carried out on a

given day and to determine that both companies agreed to this work completed. Every

contractor used the daily logs in different manners which made this aspect of the job very

complicated. Certain subcontractors would put more effort into tracking job costs and

progress than others. Those who put in more effort to tracking activities on the job were

more attractive clients to R.A. Rogers because these companies were more concerned

with the success of the project.

R.A. Rogers used their own computer programs to keep the estimates in working

order. There was no set method used to periodically update the estimating process by

changes that occurred in the field. The only adjustments made to the future estimating

process were through word of mouth from project managers to the estimating department.

These adjustments occurred post mortem, not during the progress of the job.

Since R.A. Rogers operated much like a construction manager, they were not

concerned with production rates like a subcontractor would. Nonetheless, these numbers

could be useful to this company. The use of production averages over all projects to

check bids and current work carried out would help in the process of dealing with









subcontractors. The use of a standard daily log that would enable a production

comparison would prove beneficial to a company like R.A. Rogers.

Clancy & Theys Construction Company

Clancy & Theys Construction Company is a general contractor/ construction

manager focusing on commercial, industrial and institutional buildings primarily in the

Southeastern United States. Pete Pace is the Vice President of Clancy & Theys and the

CEO of the Florida division. He got his start working in the field and moved his way up

through the company to where he is now. Pete's experience in both the office and the

field, have created valuable opportunities for insight into the way Clancy & Theys tracks

job productivity and the importance of their daily logs.

The job of every project manager was to make sure a job was completed properly

and to ensure the company was making the greatest profit. The only way a company

would survive was to make money. An estimate was thus set up as a guide through the

process of construction and helped the project manager reach the goals of making money.

This did not mean the estimated costs were the exact amounts the project managers had

to spend on the job. The estimate showed how much was in the contract; but, if the

project manager spent less money than expected in certain areas, the company would

benefit from the additional profits.

The process of tracking all activities that occurred on the job began with the

technology available to the project managers in the jobsite trailer. Every project manager

was equipped with a laptop computer to constantly communicate with the office. When

information was recorded on the job through the cost codes set up by the estimating

department, the project manager put this information into the computer and uploaded it to

the company network. This way, the project manager would keep track of the progress









through the cost codes, and the estimating department would be able look into the

feedback from the field. This system was set up in case the estimators needed to double

check on how work was actually carried out on the job.

The information to improve estimating was available. The problem was it needed

to be in the proper format to improve the database and adjust for future problems. The

process Clancy & Theys was currently using was not accurate because the cost codes that

the estimating department used were extremely detailed and the field codes were not.

These codes were so detailed that the superintendents recording the activities were being

asked to put too much time into determining how each activity would be coded. The

point needed to be to save time and make the process more accurate. Unfortunately,

accuracy was not occurring because the process was taking too much time and effort.

Simplicity was the key to successful data recording; this was a concept that had not yet

been established.

At Clancy & Theys, every superintendent went through the process of recording the

events of the day onto a daily log used to protect the company in the case of legal action.

These logs required a minimal amount of time out of the day and kept a good record of

the events that took place in that day. Tracking the important information on the job and

providing defense against legal action in the future were reasons a standard format of

daily logs was necessary. This new format would include the names of the

subcontractors on site, the equipment and whether or not it was being used, material

delivered and the names of all visitors to the site. In addition, the log would prove

beneficial if it included space where photographs of problems on the site could be added

so all people involved could get a visual idea of the problem. This would not address the









issue of cost code conflicts, but if the foundation was laid to build a working log, then the

next step could be to introduce cost codes to this log.

The introduction of a more progressive method to keep open communication

between the field and the estimating department would help Clancy & Theys operate

smoothly and eliminate problems before they occurred. In construction, the

superintendent was the most crucial individual to getting the project completed. These

employees saw every aspect of the job day in and day out. The introduction of new

methods to promote better communication between the superintendents and the rest of the

company would promote greater success on all projects.

J. Raymond Construction Corporation

J. Raymond Construction Corporation is a small general contractor based in Central

Florida. Dan Cramer is a Senior Project Manager with J. Raymond and has experience

on many projects of different size and value.

The project managers at J. Raymond, unlike most project managers were crucial in

running a project from its inception to completion. The role of the project manager began

in the estimating phase when the drawings from the owner arrived at the office. J.

Raymond worked with 80 to 90% negotiated contracts and mostly with repeat customers.

In these cases the project managers had the best relationships with the owners and

handled the project from its preliminary planning stages through the construction an on to

the completion of the project.

The project management team was so involved in the process of estimating, that the

estimating department at J. Raymond only consisted of a chief estimator, an assistant

estimator and an administrative assistant. There was no reason to employ many other

people in this department because only 10 to 20% of the work went through estimating.









Regardless of the size of the estimating department, information was still needed to

help whomever was doing the estimating understand what needed to go into the project.

Project managers had spent a lot of time in the field to understand what it would take to

put a project together. In this sense project managers were good at estimating a job.

There was always a need to find information that would support the estimating process.

J. Raymond was more of a construction manager than a general contractor because

they did not self perform any work. In the estimating process, the project manager was

most concerned with getting adequate scope coverage and pricing from the

subcontractors. For this reason, tracking job progress in the field was not crucial to the

success of the company. When the project was in motion and work was being carried out

in the field, the superintendents were in charge of making sure each subcontractor was

doing what their contract specified. Records were made on a regular basis to explain

where each subcontractor was in regard to their scope of work. This helped the project

manager understand the state of the project. At the end of the job, this information was

gathered and the project manager went through a check list explaining how each scope of

work was carried out. The superintendent filled out a report card for each subcontractor,

which provided a project rating on their overall performance for the job.

The superintendent was required to fully understand ever aspect of the jobs and

keep track of what each subcontractor was doing; therefore, the daily logs were usually

not filled out with any detail and accuracy. J. Raymond used these logs on a daily basis,

but the information and detail put into these forms could never be used to benefit the

process of estimating. If a method were introduced that would allow the superintendent

to make notes while walking through the jobsite, it might be developed into a useful tool









to benefit future estimates. The only use J. Raymond had for these logs in the current

state was to provide legal documentation for the actual progress of the job.

Tilt-Con Corporation

Tilt-Con Corporation is a tilt-up concrete contractor providing service throughout

the state of Florida. Matt Trail is the estimator at Tilt-Con Corporation and budgets every

job that comes into the office. Tilt-Con is not like a general contractor or construction

manager, because they use daily production numbers to keep the business productive.

There needed to be a method to determine the amount of work each crew had

produced in a given day in order to keep up the competitive nature of Tilt-Con. Daily

logs and time cards were important to assisting the estimator in understanding what

actually took place in the field.

Man hour reports were created from the weekly time sheets filled out by the

superintendent in the field and were submitted electronically to the company network.

From there, the reports went directly into Timberline which was the software Tilt-Con

used for estimating. Once submitted, the software automatically updated the man hour

reports which kept the software up-to-date with the current production rates of the work

crews. This way, the estimating department had the most up-to-date estimating data

available.

The field logs told exactly what was used on the job and allowed a comparison

between the estimated and the actual. The daily logs tracked the number of workers in a

specific crew, what work was performed and if there were any problems or delays. There

were multiple formats of the daily logs Tilt-Con used; there was one for the carpenters,

one for the concrete crew and a separate log for the equipment. This provided

information about what was on site, what work it performed and its idle time. These are









useful to the estimator because equipment accumulates major costs to the project. If

there was a way to limit idle time, the company would be able to initiate more

opportunities for saving. There were the weekly time cards for each employee and each

crew which proved to be the most beneficial to the estimator because they explained

exactly how much time was charged to each task. As with all companies, saving time

means saving money. If Tilt-Con accurately estimated a time of completion for each

task, they would be able to limit the risk of losing money due to inaccurately estimating

future work.

As far as improving the current method of daily logs, the best option for Tilt-Con

was to merge the current formats of the daily log, weekly time card and equipment logs

all into one. This way the superintendent would not have to repeat information on

different forms, it would be combined into one, thus making it easier for estimating and

any other department to read the log and understand what took place in actually

completing the work on the job.

Conclusion

The interviews reinforced the concepts that were introduced earlier in the case

studies that all companies: had a unique method for tracking job progress, used daily logs

even if it is only for protection in disputes and each company was looking for a way to

make more money. Although every company explained a different method of tracking

progress, there were not any that specifically said they would not entertain the idea of

change to produce greater profits.

The positive idea taken from this was if a new method were developed different

from what already exists in the industry, all of the companies would be interested in it.

The new format must assist in legal defense and help in the estimating process. Despite









the confidence all of these companies had in their current methods, they would all be

willing to try a new idea if it would help their company make more money.

As can be seen in table 4-1, every contractor had different uses for the daily logs.

In addition to the current uses, each contractor had different opinions as to how a new

format should be adjusted in order to meet the current needs of the individual company

and the industry as a whole. The complicated part came in merging all of these concepts

into one daily log.

To comprehend how these companies would react to a new type a daily log, one

must be created. Through the combination of information gathered in the interview

process, a preliminary standard format for the daily logs must be created. The

completion of this log required an investigation from each contractor interviewed to

understand the reactions to this format. This phase included constructive criticism from

each interviewee in order to develop a log that would be feasible to implement in the

construction industry and would address the each company's specific needs. This

constructive criticism phase can be more thoroughly understood in table 4-2. This table

describes in detail the opinions the contractors gave on whether or not the new format

was feasible and also what changes needed to be made to the standard format to reach the

ultimate goal of improving the process of tracking job progress for all construction firms.












Table 4-1: Research Results


Name


CM GC Sub


Brasfield &
Gorrie

Hensel Phelps

KHS&S

R.A. Rogers

Clancy &
Theys

J.Raymond


Tilt-Con


N'


Log Purpose


Daily Track
Defense Records Progress


Changes For Estimating
Link
Est
Combine & No
Current PM Simple Electronic opinion













_


'' ''








Table 4-2: Contractor Feedback


Name


CM I GC ISub


Brasfield &
Gorrie
Hensel /
Phelps

KHS&S

R.A. Rogers

Clancy &
Theys

J.Raymond

Tilt-Con "


Feasibility
Yes No Maybe







__^i

__^i

_1_


Key Changes
Content Elect. Sub Size

_^ __

_^___^

_^__1_






211 ^














CHAPTER 5
DATA ANALYSIS AND OBSERVATIONS

Introduction

At the conclusion of the interviews, the data was collected and used to create a

preliminary standard format for the daily log. All nine interviews in person and the four

over the phone gave different perspectives regarding the methods of tracking job

progress. In general, subcontractors were most concerned with keeping track of the

performance of the field workers to keep the estimating process updated. In contrast,

most general contractors and construction managers were concerned with checking the

projects along milestones not how the daily production levels were rated. Regardless of

the perspective of each company, the goal was to combine the input to create one format

to satisfy all companies.

The following section was a discussion of the preliminary daily log that was

created and some detailed responses on how this form would fit into each company's

daily routine. The point of the preliminary log was to construct a basic form and receive

constructive criticism on its format and potential use. This analysis would ultimately

give a more precise idea of what the contractors were looking for and enable the creation

of a final draft to satisfy the needs of all contractors interviewed.

Description and Criticism of the Preliminary Daily Log

The log created from the interviewing process was a starting point that would be

used to eventually create a final draft of a log that could be used as the industry standard.

For this to happen, the log needed to satisfy the requirements of all contractors. The log









needed to first have space to list the name of the project, the project number, the log

number and the date. This was all basic information, but very important to the make up

of the log. Following these entries were two spaces to fill in the names of the project

manager and the superintendent.

The opinions of the Identification section were generally positive. The only

major idea introduced was to have a number of full lines available to include the names

of visitors to the job. Pete Pace of Clancy & Theys noted that a visitors list can be the

most influential aspect as far as what happened on the job. Depending on who was on the

job can determine how much work was completed. The contractor wanted to know the

exact time and day an inspector, owner or architect showed up on the job. Other than this

addition, there was no feedback on the first section of the log.

The next step was to investigate the condition of the jobsite in terms of the

weather and how it had affected the workers. There was an area to record the high and

low temperatures of the day, whether or not there was precipitation that day and how

much, plus a section titled: "Adverse Weather Affects." An additional answer section

would provide space for the superintendent to explain what happened on the job as a

result of the weather. Many times rain or lightning delays work or even shuts down a job

for an entire day. If this happened, the superintendent would record this information.

This record would help in the planning of rain days in the future. Also, the weather could

have caused damage to some part of the building that was already under construction.

Any such damage would be recorded so that the delayed start of the project is

documented.









There was no feedback about the Weather section of the log. There was not a lot

of detail that could have gone into the weather and the goal was to limit the information

on the log to aspects crucial to explaining what happened on the job.

Construction sites can be dangerous atmospheres and occasionally accidents

occur. Once an accident has occurred, it should be recorded in the daily log to provide

information on what happened. The information included: the type of accident, who was

involved, if any time was lost and if the accident was an emergency or not. Pete Pace's

comments on this section included listing the accident report number which should be

attached to the back of the daily log. This way the information would be available briefly

on the daily log and if more information were needed, the page could be flipped to see the

actual accident report. Terry Butler of Brasfield & Gorrie adjusted the title of the section

from "Accidents" to "Safety/Incidents/Warnings/Accidents." This way all areas of

safety were included in the subheading. If the log was to be changed to this, there would

have to be a box to specify the type of safety problem being recorded. Ken Cook of

KHS&S Contractors also was looking for more detail in this section, specifically dealing

with inspection and violation descriptions.

Materials ordered and delivered everyday on a job needed to be recorded on the

daily log to prevent confusion. There were two separate sections: one for the materials

ordered and one for materials delivered to the site. Both had space for 6 materials to be

listed. In addition to what the material was, there was space to include the quantity, unit

of measure, cost per unit and the total cost. The only difference between the ordered and

delivered sections was the delivered section had a space to specify the condition of the

material delivered.









Ren Tilden ofBrasfield & Gorrie said this section would be good for smallerjobs,

but difficult to track the materials delivered and ordered daily for large jobs because of

the high numbers. Ren stated that getting an idea of when the materials were delivered in

comparison to when they were ordered could be used in scheduling for the future. Terry

Butler suggested adding space to list the subcontractor's name (for whom the material

was supplied) and the name of the supplier who delivered the material. There should also

be a space to write about back-orders, items not delivered and items that needed to be

returned. Pete Pace took this suggestion one step further and included the supplier's

contact name and phone number in the case a conflict arose later. An extra line should be

added to list the delivery ticket number.

After the Materials section was an area to detail the equipment on the job site and

all important information related to these machines. Space was available to write the

type of equipment, the name of the operator, the hours the equipment was in use and idle

and any problems the equipment had that day. Most equipment used by subcontractors

was rented; therefore, Pete Pace suggested including space for the rental company name

and contact information along with the date the equipment was delivered to the site the

date it was (or will be) returned.

Dumpster activity was something that might not seem relevant compared to the

other activities being tracked, but they were a critical aspect of everyday work. When a

dumpster caused a problem on the job, delays followed. The only concept addressed in

this section were the name of the waste removal company and three check boxes

specifying whether the dumpster is full, empty or pulled that day. The only feedback was









from Pete Pace regarding a space for the number of containers delivered or pulled that

day.

The schedule was one of the most important aspects of the construction process.

If one company was not working according to schedule, the result would be a delayed

job. Three questions were asked with yes or no responses and space to include additional

comments. These questions included: 1) all crews in compliance with the job schedule;

2) were there any major milestones reached on the job today; and 3) were there any new

future directives that should be addressed. Ken Cook of KHS&S was looking for a basic

response. The space to fill in extra information works, but specifically asking if there

was any deviation from the schedule would be helpful.

After the discussion of the schedule was the area to list the subcontractors on the

site. Included in this section were spaces to include: the subcontractor name,

employee count, conflicts and future instructions given to the subcontractor. Terry Butler

suggested a fifth column to include work completed; this would allow the general

contractor to know where each subcontractor stood in terms of their responsibilities. Pete

Pace suggested, instead of the future instructions category, it be named "description of

work activity." This way it was not pointing at something that would happen; rather, it is

asking what the subcontractor was currently working on. Ren Tilden suggested adding

areas that included housekeeping for subs, which would describe areas left unclean and

possibly set up for a back charge. Also, safety checks for the subcontractor which would

include violations and warnings. Finally, subcontractor delays or other problems that led

to the delay of the project should be added. These delays could lead to problems with









other subcontractors or ultimately the general contractor and result in not hiring them to

do work in the future.

This section created conflict for the subcontractors. It was at this point they

began to believe the intended use for this log is to help general contractors. Ken Cook

suggested changing the section to an area to record employee's names and locations on

the job. Instead of focusing on the general contractors needs to track the subcontractors,

it would give the option of filling out crew names or the names of individual employees.

The choice should be up to the type of contractor making the records. Matt Trail of Tilt-

Con Corporation confirmed this opinion by saying this section makes the log too

universal. As a subcontractor, Tilt-Con needed space to record information that was

directly related to the work their company was performing. There were not any

subcontractors that were genuinely concerned with the performance of other

subcontractors.

The final section in the preliminary daily log was entitled "Additional

Information," and asked general questions dealing with the state of the job and how it is

progressing. The questions were as follows: what areas of work began today; what areas

of work were completed today; were there any questions raised; and any additional

comments not specified above. Pete Pace suggested the question topic be changed to

"Issues Pending". The logic behind this change was that, questions were raised about

everything. In order to limit the amount of irrelevant information, the concept of issues

that had not been cleared up should go in the area titled "Issues Pending"..

Terry Butler was looking for an area that included daily clean-up activities, safety

meetings and who attended and whether or not there were inspections held on that day.









Rob Johnston of R.A. Rogers was looking for questions regarding anything being back

charged and whether or not there were any issues causing delays. Rob and Pete Pace

were both interested in having a section where pictures taken on the job that day could be

attached to better explain issues that were written about in the log.

Overall, the general contractors and construction management firms were satisfied

with the preliminary results. There were still some changes and additions that needed to

be made to create a working log, but it was on the right track. The subcontractors on the

other hand expressed that the log appeared to be directed strictly towards a general

contractors responsibilities. To make this log more useful to a subcontractor, there must

be sufficient space to record data that was relevant to their own activities. In the

interview, Matt Trail had suggested a more technological approach. An electronic format

with drop down menus listing activity names, cost codes and descriptions of progress

would be the best and most progressive method for a change.

Conclusion

The creation of this preliminary daily log was just the start of introducing a

standard format that could be used by all companies. The feedback painted a clearer

picture of what was needed in order to fulfill the many different needs in the construction

industry. One thing that was clear, all companies want a straightforward and simplistic

approach to make these records. Everyone also wanted a log that had enough

information on it to be relevant. More information needed to be added in the Material

sections, the Equipment section and the Additional Information section; this information

included: subcontractor and supplier information and any problems in the process of

ordering and delivering these materials. Once these corrections were made, a daily log

would be created that would satisfy most of the needs of all contractors.














CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Conclusion

The issue of production in the construction industry was proven to be important,

but only in regard to certain types of contractors. At one point it was assumed that all

contractors had concern for the productivity carried out on a construction project.

Regardless of the interest a contractor had in jobsite productivity, every contractor was

concerned with the way daily activities were carried out and subsequently recorded. If

for no other reason than to keep track of activities to prevent legal dispute in the future,

all contractors had some way of recording everything that occurred on a job in a given

day. While every company had a different method of carrying this out, it had been shown

that with the motivation of making larger profits on their jobs contractors were willing to

explore new methods for tracking job progress.

The preliminary phone interviews demonstrated that every company was different

in terms of what types of information they tracked on the job. In fact, one of the

companies claimed to not even be concerned with tracking job production because it was

a form of wasting productivity in itself. The concept that came from these interviews was

that every company used daily logs to keep track of the activities occurring on the job.

This finding ultimately led to the idea that daily logs could be used for multiple purposes.

Not only should they be used to prevent legal conflict by providing information about the

job, but they also could provide information valuable to the estimating department.









Once this idea was developed, personal interviews were conducted with ten

individuals who worked for contractors in the Central Florida area. The goal was to

interview companies with different backgrounds so the research would apply across the

board. This variation created an inflow of ideas from a range of contractors differing in

type and size. The general consensus was that daily logs were not used as a means to

track job progress because the present forms were not suitable for this application. If a

standard form was created that was simple, provided a sufficient amount of information

and helped the company make money; the new daily log concept might be adopted.

The end result was that while creating a standard daily log for the construction

industry was possible, it was difficult to produce one which every type of contractor

would be pleased. The problem was that every contractor currently used the logs for

different reasons. Converting all construction firms to one use of these logs would be

nearly impossible. Perhaps a better goal would have been to create a standard daily log

that everyone in the industry could use to keep track of daily activities. When the

concept of using the log for estimating purposes was introduced, the contractors began to

get nervous. No one wanted to have their method of creating a job estimate changed.

This is what kept the company in business, and in most cases, the contractors were

confident in the way they operated.

Limitations of Study

In the process of investigating the use of daily logs and how progress was tracked

on a regular basis, a few approaches were used. The phone interviews and personal

interviews provided insight on the specific methods of operation different companies

partook. However, there were a few factors that restricted this research.









Primarily, the number of contractors interviewed was limited because of time

restraints. It has already been noted a number of times that every construction company

had their own unique way of carrying out day to day operations. The method each

company used depended on the size of the company, the type of company and the

significance each placed on making their company better. Due to the ways each

company operated, it would have been impossible to interview every construction

company and completely understand how each operated their business.

Instead, taking a small sample of contractors that represented different type of firms

that exist allowed for an interpretation on what methods were in existence. The point was

not to interview every company and determine the perfect method for tracking job

progress. On the contrary, it was to create an improved method of tracking job progress

that could be adapted and used by all companies. Despite the time and resource

restraints, this goal was accomplished.

Need for Further Research

A common theme that arose throughout all the interviews was the need to introduce

more technology into everyday activities in the construction process. With so many

opportunities to promote greater success, technology should not be overlooked. Speed

and efficiency were concepts mentioned by every company. With the use of technology

in everyday construction, these ideas would be accomplished.

The use of hand held devices including PDAs and cellular phones have continued

to increase throughout all industries including construction. If a program was developed

to implement a daily log such as the one created through this research to be used with

PDAs and cellular phones, the construction industry would see enormous benefits. This









way, superintendents who filled out daily logs would not wait to get back to the job

trailer to fill out the forms. Instead, the superintendent would be able to fill the form out

continually throughout the day.

This was only one suggestion, but it seemed to be the most positive concept in

terms of what would be useful to contractors of all types and sizes. Every company was

attempting to find a better way to find success on each project. The implementation of

information technologies on the jobsites would greatly increase the chances of success on

a day to day basis.















APPENDIX A
PRELIMINARY STANDARD DAILY LOG















Standard Daily Log


Project Name: Log Number:

Project / _
Number: Date:

Superintendent: Project Manager:

Weather

Adverse Weather
Temperature Affects:
High
Low

Precipitation
Yes INCHES
No
Time Lost?

Accidents:
Type:
Name:
Lost Time:
Emergency?


Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log

















Description
Quantity
U/M
$/Unit
Total $


Delivered
1 2 3 4 5 6
Description
Condition
Quantity
U/M
$/Unit
Total $

Equipment On Site
No. Type of Equipment: Operator: Hrs. In Use Hrs. Idle Problems:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log


Materials
Ordered _
S2 3 4 5 6


+ + + i i i












Dumpster Activity
Company Name
Full
Empty
Pull


Schedule Questions

Are All Crews In Compliance
With The Job Schedule?
Explain:




Yes No
Were There Any Major Milestones Reached On The Job Today?
Explain: |




Are There Any New Future Directives That Should Be Addressed?
Explain: |


Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log













Subcontractors On Site
No. Subcontractor Name Employee Count Conflicts Future Instructions Given
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14


Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log






Additional Information
What Areas Of Work That Began Today?










What Areas Of Work Were Completed Today?










Were There Any Questions Raised? Answers?










Any Additional Comments Not Specified Above?


Figure A-1: Preliminary Standard Log















APPENDIX B
CURRENT DAILY LOGS











BRASFIELD
&GORRIE


SUPERINTENDENTS DAILY REPORT


Project
Superintendent


Job No.:
Date:


TODAY'S WEATHER CONDITIONS AND TEMPERATURE

High: o Low: Comments:
Rainfall:

BRASFIELD & GORRIE EMPLOYEES ON SITE
LABORER SUPERINTENDENT
CARPENTER ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT
CONCRETE FINISHER CLERK
OPERATOR FOREMAN
IRONWORKER FIELD ENGINEER
PIPELAYER RODMAN
MILLWRIGHT
TOTAL BRASFIELD & GORRIE EMPLOYEES

SUBCONTRACTOR & SUB-SUBCONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES ON SITE
Company Name No. Company Name No.










TOTAL SUBCONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES

TOTAL ALL PERSONNEL ON SITE I

LIST ACCIDENTS:


EXTRA WORK ORDERS:




MATERIAL RECEIVED FROM CONDITION INSPECTED BY


Figure B-2: Brasfield & Gorrie Daily Report













EQUIPMENT RENTAL
RENTAL EQUIPMENT RECEIVED TODAY FROM RENTAL RATE








RENTAL EQUIPMENT RETURNED TO








CONCRETE PLACING LOG
Labor Code Quantity Labor Code I anti Labor Code Quanti




TOTAL C. Y. PLACE TODAY TOTAL CONCRETE PLACED TO DATE


DESCRIPTION OF TODAY'S ACTIVITIES, PROBLEMS, AND SUB. WORK


Figure B-2: Brasfield & Gorrie Daily Report


---
------
--
----




























a'


i











C







~1~1~181~1ti1~151Sl~l~191~1a161~1~1~1~1~1


I I I


I-0i


I I I I


I I


Figure B-3: Brasfield & Gorrie Weekly Time Card


............... I I d I


g


Y
"
In
I
@

N
I-
0 0









KEENAN, HOPKINS, SCHMIDT & STOWELL
CONTRACTORS, INC.


DAILY JOB LOG


DATE: 3/ 4 F
tw SirF M T
(Circle One)


CONDITIONS: S eo ,


CHANGE ORDERS OR DOCUMENTS RECEIVED: R F' R es cn, _L J 7k 1~ t 7


JOB MEETINGS, PROBLEMS OR REMARKS:
e,'C Cce 1e QQCJ:
IF^ R P ^Q~,- CDi --^i1-SLer F'^i/- /^,/,r C


(- pJ L 4- h Ci Fc O PN p


S- --"- | 1-- -- --- t--- -- .... ...--



feJA E^Acricr, haroJId e iD gr'^,hoJ (3 kv 'o"
1A/ Towr' Ca -l o CMU Cn,,aei cel __

-fl c Ieft '-" r Cof Sup isri__ ______


b~e r ,,o 0 ,, "


"; -ou,-" VAC E, 0f6e, ccI".,od Supervisor's Signature

J) ,ol ,' ;<;o,.
F:\APPS\TEMPLATE DAILYJOB.
REVISED 04/27/98


Figure B-4: KHS&S Daily Job Log


JOB# #/f5 -c?


'0 n^or













R.A.ROGERS
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY


Daily Field Report
Report No: 031 Page 1 of 3


Report Date: Monday, May 8, 2006 Weather: Partly Cloudy
Project No: 65393 Temperatures: High: 88 Low: 68
Project Name: Work Condition: Good
Superintendent: Site Condition: Good

Ref. Company Personnel No. Company Progress/Areas Worked
1 Supervision 2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Employee Total 2

Ref. Subcontractors No. Sub Trade Subcontractor Progress/Areas Worked
1 Cicero Masonry, Inc 6 Bricklayers
2
3 Magruder 6 Labors Fine grading base material and compacting.
4 Lundquist Excavating, 8 Operators Grade work on base material on building slab area.
5 Tharp Plumbing 1 Plumbers Repairing broken pipe.
6 Quinco Electrical, Inc. 3 Electricans working on building rough-in
7 Field Welding 4 Ironworkers Misc. welding on building structure
8 Cellucrete Corp 12 Cement Masons Installing lite wt. concrete deck and insulation
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Subcontract Total 40

Delivery Time Suppliers Name Material Description (Note Any Damage Or Shortages)


Figure B-5: R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report












R.A.ROGERS


Daily Field Report
Report No: 031 Page 2 of 3


Phone/Con Person Time Company Phone/Con Description:










Visitors Name Time Company Visitation Remarks








Were you required to do T&M work or extra work beyond the requirements of the contract? Was it authorized and by whom?
O Yes
O No



Did you perform work for a subcontractor or material supplier that should be backcharged? Indicate the Field Work Order No.
O Yes
O No


Were any operations delayed or suspended by action of the owner, architect, subcontractors, suppliers, or other circumstances?
SYes
ONo



Equipment Item Qty Worked Performed with Equipment


Figure B-5: R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report


OurN RUCTIDN


COMPANY












R.A.ROGERS


CONSTRUCTION


Daily Field Report
Report No: 031 Page 3 of 3


COMPANY


General Comments: Safety, Quality, Inspections, Meetings, Etc.


Certified by:


Date:


Signed:




Figure B-5: R.A. Rogers Daily Field Report
















I Daily Construction Report

Detailed, Grouped by Date


Co ructio Carp.


Pompano Citi Centre Project # 05-043 J. Raymond Construction Corp
One Pompano Square Tel: 407-506-7146 Fax: (407) 712-6868
Pompano Beach, FL 33062


Number Temp @ NIA Temp @ NIA Temp @ NA Precip Cumul Precip Wind Velocity
083 0 2
Partly Cloudy

Notes: Visitors:
> Inspector looked at roof installation in progress. Peter Delgado
> Conducted Sub coordination and Owner/Arch. week meetings. Tom Lowell
Joe Faith
Dan Cramer
Peter Fimiani w/ Howard Miller
Company Crew Event Type Qty Cumulative Qty Units Description
NIA



No Crew Assigned
> Mobilized equipment and material to begin fireproofing at Ross interior tomorrow.
> Began mineral wool and caulking of 4 hr rated joints adjacent to Macy's.
> Installed protection plastic to control overspray.
Manpower Trade CLASSIFICATION Quantity UOM
Thermal and Moisture Protection Apprentice 3 Mandays
Waterproofing Technician 1 Mandays
Crew Total Today: 4 Crew Total to Date: 0
EQUIPMENT Quantity UOM

Total:
Task Unique ID Name WBS Notes



Company Total: 4 Company Total To Date: 5












Prolog Manager Printed on: 5/12/2006 PMJRCC Page 1


Figure B-6: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report












Daily Construction Report
Detailed, Grouped by Date


No Crew Assigned
> Continued metal deck installation at L/T and OD.
> Repaired six RTU curb opening supports that were too large for JAG Air.
Manpower Trade CLASSIFICATION Quantity UOM
Metals Iron Worker 4 Mandays
Crew Total Today: 4 Crew Total to Date: 0
EQUIPMENT Quantity UOM
Fork Lift 1
Total: 1
Task Unique ID Name WBS Notes



Company Total: 4 Company Total To Date: 127



No Crew Assigned
> Completed roof membrane at Ross area roof.

Manpower Trade CLASSIFICATION Quantity UOM
Roofer Joumeyman 19 Mandays
Crew Total Today: 19 Crew Total to Date: 0
EQUIPMENT Quantity UOM
Tar Kettle 1
Total: 1
Task Unique ID Name WBS Notes



Company Total: 19 Company Total To Date: 107





















Prolog Manager Printed on: 5/12/2006 PM_JRCC Page 2


Figure B-6: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report


J. Raym
RV -~~m
M134












SDally Construction Report
Detailed, Grouped by Date
J.on Re


kiini16fga W Jag Air Mechanical, Inc.
No Crew Assigned
> Installed duct hangers at rear of Ross.
> Set curbs at L/T after repairs by iron workers.
> Install visqueen over EF curbs for protection from rain.
Manpower Trade CLASSIFICATION Quantity UOM
Mechanical HVAC Joumeyman 3 Mandays
Mechanical HVAC Supervisor 1 Mandays
Crew Total Today: 4 Crew Total to Date: 0
EQUIPMENT Quantity UOM
Scissor Lift 1
Total: 1
Task Unique ID Name WBS Notes



Company Total: 4 Company Total To Date: 14



No Crew Assigned
> Ground rough drains at stairwell 1 & 3. Inspection called for tomorrow.

Manpower Trade CLASSIFICATION Quantity UOM
Mechanical HVAC Equipment Operator 1 Mandays
Mechanical- Plumbing Foreman 1 Mandays
Crew Total Today: 2 Crew Total to Date: 0
EQUIPMENT Quantity UOM
Excavator 1
Total: 1
Task Unique ID Name WBS Notes



Company Total: 2 Company Total To Date: 13


















Prolog Menager Printed on: 5/12/2006 PMJRCC Page 3


Figure B-6: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report













Dally Construction Report
Detailed, Grouped by Date


J. Ry


No Crew Assigned
> Poured Off. Depot truck well retaining walls.
> Compacted Stair 1 & 3 slab subgrade.
> Formed pedestals for exterior columns framing support at Ross canopy.
> Grouted columns.
> Grind & patch rear elevation wall panels.


Manpower Trade CLASSIFICATION Quantity UOM
Concrete Finisher 2 Mandays
Concrete Journeyman 5 Mandays
Crew Total Today: 7 Crew Total to Date: 0
EQUIPMENT Quantity UOM
Snorkel Lift 1
Total: 1
Task Unique ID Name WBS Notes



Company Total: 7 Company Total To Date: 839

Manpower Today: 40 To Date: 1,190


Prolog Manager Printed on: 5/122006 PMJRCC


Figure B-6c: J. Raymond Daily Construction Report


Page 4













Daily Details

Detailed, Grouped by Date


J.Ramiond
Coaruuctioa Corp.


Pompano Citi Centre Project# 05-043 J. Raymond Construction Corp
One Pompano Square Tel: 407-506-7146 Fax (407) 712-686
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Date: Friday 11/11/2005
Number Temp @ NIA Temp @ NIA Temp @ N/A Precip Cumul Preclp Wind Velocity
001 0.00 0.00

Conditions: Clear. Windy

Reported By Company Reported By
The Scott Partnership Architecture, Inc. Amy Victor

Notes: Visitors:
American committed to the following; Art Roth Faison
> Complete bldg. pad and certification by Monday 11/14 for JRCC Dario Herrero American
access to stake bldg. Tues. a.m.
> Sewer manhole removed and backfilled also by Monday.
> Grading and balance of area outside and directly behind Bldg. B
pad.
> Will stabilize equipment access ways from paved area to bldg. pad
using stockpiled base rock.
> Water @ new hydrants to be available In 3 to 4 weeks.
Art Roth to handle demolition of piling adjacent to Macy's that
conflicts with our foundation.



Date: Monday 11114/2005
Number Temp @ N/A Temp @ N/A Temp @ NIA Precip Cumul Precip Wind Velocity
002 0.00 0.00

Conditions: Overcast, Windy, Light Rain

Reported By Company Reported By
J. Raymond Construction Corp Kermit Wenkstem

Notes: Visitors:
> Floyd Kelley the P. Bch. structural inspector said O.K. to earthen
forms for foundation const. as long as the ground was stable and the
specified footing dimensions are maintained.
>Site contractor re-excavated to three different depths at Col. line B
and Universal performed density tests at each. All surpassed required
min. 98% compaction.
> David and Gerchar played out bldg. comers. Will return tomorrow to
verify subgrade elevation.


Date: Tuesday 11115/2005


Prolog ManagWe


Printed on: 5/12/2006 PMJRCC


Page 1


Figure B-7: J. Raymond Daily Details














I Daily Work

Detailed, Grouped by Company


Cosucmnion Corp.


Pompano Citi Centre Project # 05-043 J. Raymond Construction Corp
One Pompano Square Tel: 407-506-7146 Fax: (407) 712-6868
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Date Crew Dally Work Description


12/29/2005 N/A > Apply elevator pit wall waterproofing.
3/29/2006 N/A > Mobilized equipment and material to begin fireproofing at Ross interior tomorrow.
> Began mineral wool and caulking of 4 hr rated joints adjacent to Macy's.
> Installed protection plastic to control overspray.
3/30/2006 N/A > Began and completed approx. 3200 sf of fireproofing at Ross interior.
> Continued mineral wool and caulking of 4 hr rated joints adjacent to Macy's.
3/31/2006 N/A > Continued spray fireproofing at Ross interior.
> Continued mineral wool and caulking of 4 hr rated joints adjacent to JC Penney's.
4/3/2006 N/A > Continued spray fireproofing at Ross interior. At start of shift they had completed
approx. 8,000 s.f.
> Continued mineral wool and caulking of 4 hr rated joints adjacent to JC Penneys.
> Received and unloaded additional materials.
4/4/2006 N/A > Approx. 50% complete at Ross.
> Water proofer not on site. Gary Kelly said he would retum tomorrow.
> Cleaned overspray from rear bay of Ross to allow access by other trades.
4/5/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior.
> Waterproofer returned and worked on 4 hr panel joints at Macy's side.
4/6/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior.
> Waterproofer completed 4 hr panel joints at Macys side including above roof deck.
> The need to do a better job of cleaning floor when moving to a new area.
4/7/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior. Approx. 85% complete with that area.
> Waterproofer continued caulking panel joints.
> Sent notice comply re: cleanup. Dumpster has been full for two days and they
apparently cannot get service.
4/8/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior. Approx. 85% complete with that area.
> Waterproofer continued caulking panel joints.
> Dumpster remains full and unserviced. Began just hauling material out of bldg. and
piling it next to container.
4/10/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior. Approx. 90% complete with that area.
> Waterproofer continued caulking panel joints.
> Dumpster remains full and unsenriced. Began just hauling material out of bldg. and
piling it next to container.
4/11/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior. Approx. 95% complete with that area.
> Waterproofer continued caulking panel joints.
> Dumpster finally serviced.
4/12/2006 N/A > Continued spray at Ross Interior to 100% complete with that area.
> Waterproofer continued caulking panel joints.
> Began removal of protective plastic and cleanup of Ross.
4/13/2006 N/A > Continued panel caulk joints.
> Spray complete at Ross. Clean and removal of overspray and plastic.
4/14/2006 N/A > Continued panel caulk joints.
> Spray crew not on-site. Will resume at L/T on Monday 4/17.
4/17/2006 N/A > Relocate equipment to west rear of bldg. in preparation to begin spray on at Linens &
Off. Depot.
> Hang protective visqueen in Linens space.


Page 1


Prolog Manager Printed on: 5/12/2006 PM_JRCC



Figure B-8: J. Raymond Daily Work














DAILY LOG


TILT-CON
CORPOd ATIoda
Work Performed Today


JOB NAME:


SUPERINTENDENT:_


Subcontractors on Job (Sub name & # of employees)


Subcontractor Progress:





Problems/Delays












Extra Work/Changes Authorized By Time Spent (man hrs)




Equipment On Rent/Off Rent Rented From


JOB NO:

DATE:


Figure B-9: Tilt-Con Daily Log


Copies: 1 Office-White O Superintendent-Yellow 0 General Contractor-Pink


Weather
Temp am pm
Work Force No.
Superintendent
Foreman
Laborers
Carpenter
Finishers
Pump Op
Laser Scd Op
Equipment Op


Total
Tilt-Con Mech.
Equipment /Hrs
(F)orklift (D)ozer
(B)ackhoe (S)kidsteer





Material Deliveries
Concrete:
CY
PSI
Ticket #
Estimated:
CY
PSI
Ticket #
Lumber LF/EA
Ticket #
Rebar LBS
Ticket #
Misc







80




PLACE & FINISH DAILY LOG


JOB NO:


TILT-CON CONCRETE SUPER:
coo I AT no SITE SUPERINTENDENT:
Work Performed Today (inc. Quanties i.e. slab SF, # of Panels, etc.) Weather
Temp


DATE:


____am _pm


Work Force
Superintendent
Laborers
Finishers
Pump Op
Laser Screed Op
Total


Subcontractors on Job (pump co./P&Fsub, etc.):


Delivery Times:
First batch on job:
Last batch on job:


(am) (pm)
(am) (pm)


Work Prep Problems/Delays and or
Service/ Concrete Mix Problems/Delays:
(Note any quality issues with either concrete mi or vendor service below.
Be specific about problems that may have occurred, and time impact.


Concrete Deliveries
Actual Quantity:
CY
PSI
Ticket #
Estimated Quantity:
CY
PSI
Ticket #


Equipment On Rent/Off Rent Rented From





Extra Work/Changes Authorized By Time Spent (manhrs)



Copies: 0 Office-White "1 Site Superintendent-Yellow 0 Concrete Superintendent-Pink


Figure B-10: Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log


JOB NAME:


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Figure B- 1: Tilt-Con Job Cost Summary







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Figure B-12: Tilt-Con Short Interval Plan



















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EMPLOYEE NAME


New Address:


Mailing Address


New Phone: ( )

LEAVE OF ABSENCE
Authorized a leave of absence beginning to return to work
Date Date
State reason for leave:

Note: Failure to return to work on the date specified above, or failure to request an extension by phoning Human
Resources at 1-800-1 GO-TILT could result in the termination of your employment. Please keep us advised of your
situation.


Employee Signature and Date


Supervisor's Approval


EMPLOYEE RELEASE

Effective Date:
Reason:
O Unsatisfactory work performance during 90 day probationary period.
O Voluntary Quit (State reason in remarks section)
O Quit JOB ABANDONMENT (no phone calls and did not show up for 3 consecutive work days)
o Lay Off (Temporary)
O Lay Off (Permanent)
O Discharge due to misconduct or sustained poor performance (explain in remarks)
REMARKS (Note dates of any verbal warnings and attach any related documents. Continue remarks on separate sheet,
if necessary.)


This individual O is O


Supervisor


Is not recommended for rehire.

Supervisor's Notes:


Figure B-13: Tilt-Con Place Weekly Timecard


EXPENSE REPORT
SUN MON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT TOTALS
Meals
Gas
Tolls
Supplies
Miscellaneous
DUE EMPLOYEE
Attach receipts to Tlmecard DEDUCT FROM EMPLOYEE
I Supervisor Signature:


EMPLOYEE RECORD CHANGES


State


New~ Address








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Figure B-14: Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log












EXPENSE REPORT
SUN MON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT TOTALS
Meals
Gas
Tolls
Supplies
Mlscelaneous
______ __ __ __ DUE EMPLOYEE
Attach receipts to Timecard _DEDUCT FROM EMPLOYEE
I Supervisor's signature:


EMPLOYEE NAME
EMPLOYEE RECORD CHANGES


New Address:


Mailing aaaress


State Zip


New Phone: )

LEAVE OF ABSENCE
Authorized a leave of absence beginning to return to work
Date Date
State reason for leave:

Note: Failure to retum to work on the date specified above, or failure to request an extension by phoning Human
Resources at 1-800- I GO TILT could result in the termination of your employment. Please keep us advised of your
situation.


Employee Signature and Date


Supervisor's Approval


EMPLOYEE RELEASE
Effective Date:
Reason:
0 Unsatisfactory work performance during 90 day probationary period.
O Voluntary Quit (State reason in remarks section)
0 Quit JOB ABANDONMENT (no phone calls and did not show up for work for 3 consecutive work days)
O Lay Off (Temporary)
O Lay Off (Permanent)
O Discharge due to misconduct or sustained poor performance (explain in remarks)
REMARKS (Note dates of any verbal warnings and attach any related documents. Continue remarks on separate sheet,
if necessary.)


This individual 0 is


C is not recommended for rehire.


Figure B-14: Tilt-Con Place and Finish Daily Log


Supervisor


Supervisor Notes:
















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Figure B-15: Tilt-Con Concrete Timecards












EXPENSE REPORT
SUN MON TUES
Meals
Gas
Tolls
Supplies
Miscellaneous

Attach recipt to Tmcecard
I SUervior'a alnamture


WED


FRI SAT 1





DUE EMPLOYEE
DEDUCT FROM EMPLOYEE


TOTALS


EMPLOYEE NAME


EMPLOYEE RECORD CHANGES


New Address:


Mailing address


State Zip


New Phone: ( )

LEAVE OF ABSENCE
Authorized a leave of absence beginning to return to work
Date Date
State reason for leave:

Note: Failure to return to work on the date specified above, or failure to request an extension by phoning Human
Resources at 1-800- I GO TILT could result in the termination of your employment. Please keep us advised of your
situation.


Employee Signature and Date


Supervisor's Approval


EMPLOYEE RELEASE
Effective Date:
Reason:
0 Unsatisfactory work performance during 90 day probationary period.
O Voluntary Quit (State reason in remarks section)
O Quit JOB ABANDONMENT (no phone calls and did not show up for work for 3 consecutive work days)
o Lay Off (Temporary)
O Lay Off (Permanent)
O Discharge due to misconduct or sustained poor performance (explain in remarks)
REMARKS (Note dates of any verbal warnings and attach any related documents. Continue remarks on separate sheet,
if necessary.)


This individual 0 Is 0 is not recommended for rehire.


Figure B-15: Tilt-Con Concrete Timecards


Supervisor


Supervisor Notes:


II1NUR8


I SuDerwsor's sionsture:


THURS















APPENDIX C
ANALYSIS MATRIX













Table C-3: Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format


Analysis Matrix Daily Log Format





Are The Logs Currently
Who Fills Out The What Changes Need To Used For Their
Company Name Logs Why Are They Important Be Made Intended Purpose?
Document Daily If for Estimating:
Activities onsite track labor/job cost Logs are a very
Project important part of the
superintendent's job
Superintendent Acts as a defense constantly update and they are filled out
mechanism in PM about job daily with great detail
Brasfield & Gorrie disputes problems and precision
Brief explanation Need to be more The only intended
of what happened on user friendly purpose is to provide
Superintendent the job defense in legal
Explain problems on The current info is disputes
the job site not relevant to
Hensel Phelps legal support the estimators
Only used to N/A No, the purpose of
Crew document activities The only estimator the logs are limited
Superintendent from the day for involved in production and they are not
future reference is the Chief Est. and usually filled out
he is present on the properly
KHS&S legal support job, no log needed