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Compact Muon Solenoid Discovery Potential for the Minimal Supergravity Model of Supersymmetry in Single Muon Events with...


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A6n$Qn J W †ŠD >hŽ]‡bd‰]Yo„dCj6degvAvcegu+hij=b+‚G† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W † W >hŽ]‡bd‰]Yo„dCj6degv ,.]‡sm=e J j=‚„j=b‚G† †.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W † z`cok]YvA]Yb+dCm=]Ysm=e‚ks+uegok_^svŠhi`yuvce—hi‚-`yb9hkze\1l† †\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† D€ W †œF ]Y‚„‚(]‡bd*m=]Ysm=eeg`cm=egb‚„hi]‡hieg‚(`ybxhize\1+•† †.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† DpF W † AjwLeGoAvy`c_H`yhk‚j=b‚„suegok‚ K _H_Heghio„`c~4u‰]‡o„hi`y~GvyeO_]Y‚k‚„eG‚]Y‚„‚ks_H`cbm-hkze_x6r, ‚k~geGb‰]Yo„`cj† †.†\†.†.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† WYX +†ŠD 1‘‚ksuTeGo@#~GjYbds~—hi`cb+m‚„j=vcegbj=`cd9u‰]‡oi]Y_HeghkeGok‚g† †\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† +D +† W nze.Aeg}=egvŠ@iD\n ok`ym=m=eGo*eGb3s1]qh) Wr D XY# ~g_9>k‚—‰ † †.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† X +† nze'(`ym=z6@#e—}=egv–n ok`cmYm=eGo-*eGb3s*]‡h W. D X # ~G_ > ‚ ‰ t‹j=o]Yb‘j=s6hius+h jYtO]Yuuo„j€Ÿ6`y_]‡hkeGv K D W‡X '¤Y† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W Z †ŠD O]Yok]Y_Heghiegok‚…jYtHt‹svyv K ‚k`c_sv]‡hkeGd]Yb+d!o„eG~gj=b‚„hkoks~—hiegd+r’ fegb~Žz_]Yokˆ ujY`cb’hi‚‚hisd`yeGdC`cb‘hiz+`c‚-wLj=okˆ† †.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† ’ Z † W eG~gj=_uTj=‚„`yhi`yj=bt‹j=o‚„`cbm=vye—@M]Yb+dd`@#_^s+j=b{hiok`ym=m=egok‚It‹j=o4hiz+e(_+r,:MlD ujY`cb’hp† †\†.†\†.†.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† Z 6†ŠD ,eG]Yb’hf‰]Y‚„eGd|t‹s+vcv K ‚„`c_^svc]‡hiegdCU-_svyhk`Š@yƒ„e—hf]Y~Žˆ3m=okj=s+bd*‚k]Y_Huvceg‚-s‚kegd `cbxhkz`c‚wLj=okˆ† †.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† = 6† W ,eG]Yb’hf‰]Y‚„eGd|‰t‹svyv K ‚k`c_sv]‡hkeGdx  f‰]Y~Žˆ3m=okjYsbd‚k]Y_Huvceg‚s‚kegd`cb‘hkz`c‚-wLj=okˆ† D XYX 6† ,eG]Yb’h.f‰]Y‚kegd|Mt‹s+vcv K ‚k`y_^sv]qhieGdl4vceg~ghkokj‡@8™eG]Yˆ1f‰]Y~Žˆ3m=o„j=sbd•‚i]Y_HuvyeG‚s‚kegd `cbxhkz`c‚wLj=okˆ† †.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.†¦D X=W 6†œF ,eG]Yb’hf‰]Y‚„eGd|t‹svcv K ‚k`c_sv]‡hkeGdd`@4vceg~ghkokj‡@8™eG]Yˆf‰]Y~Žˆ3m=okjYsbd‚k]Y_Huvceg‚s‚kegd `cbxhkz`c‚wLj=okˆ† †.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.†¦D X  D X †ŠDSI~g`cegb~G`yeG‚/hkjx‚kegvceG~—hd`Š“–egokeGb’h(}Y]‡vc`cd]‡hi`yj=b‡fTeGb~Žz+_]Yo„ˆx_+r,hi]Ybd‰]‡okd*j6d+eGvAf‰]Y~Žˆ3m=o„j=sbd+‚(~gj=b‚k`ydeGo„eGd† †.†\†.†.†¦D€Y D=D=†7A`c‚„hj‡tO‚ K ‚hieg_]‡hk`c~sb+~GeGohŽ]Y`yb’hi`ceg‚~Gj=b‚„`cdegokegd`cbxhkz`c‚wLj=okˆ† ††\†.†\†.†.†¦D€‡F }6`y`

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>nB$S$O,.r((" W †ŠD $‰eGok_H`cjYbx~Gj=b’hkok`cf+s+hi`yj=b‘hijH'(`ym=m=‚_]Y‚k‚g† ††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† D=D W † W 6~p]‡v]Yo-~gj=b’hio„`cfs+hk`cj=b‘hkj'`cm=mY‚_]Y‚„‚G† †\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† D W W † I}=j=vys+hi`yj=b•j‡t`cb’}=egok‚„exm’]YsmYe~gj=suvy`cbm=‚.`cblhizex>hŽ]‡bd‰]Yo„dQ*j>deGv/šd]Y‚kzegd vc`ybeG‚i]Ybd9hize\1+ ‹‚kj=vy`cd‘vc`ybeG‚i—† †\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† D Z W †œF I}=j=vys+hi`yj=b™jYt‚„~p]Yvc]Yo^]Yb+d%m’]YsmY`cbj*_]Y‚„‚^u‰]Yok]Y_Heghiegok‚^`yb•hkzeC1l|O`c_{@ ujY‚k`cb+m{sb`yŒ~p]‡hk`cj=b9fTj=sbd‰]‡o K ~gj=bd`Šhi`cjYb‚G† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† D W † OŸ+~gvcsd+eGdCokeGmY`cj=b‚`ybxhize_+r,Bs+b`y}YeGok‚k]Yv"š‘€|‰ ¨R u+v]Ybe‡† †\†.†.† D€ +†ŠD '[mYeGj=m=ok]Yuz`y~p]Yv‚k`Šhis‰]‡hk`cj=b–† †.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W=W +† W #b~Gvys‚k`Š}=e.uokj‡hij=b6@Ruokj‡hij=b9~Go„j=‚k‚(‚keg~ghi`yj=b‚t‹j=ouz K ‚k`c~g‚/uo„j6~geG‚„‚keG‚/jYtI`yb3hkeGo„eG‚„h ]‡hhiz+e\'//† †.†.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W F +† '[(~G~geGvcegoi]‡hkj=o~Žz‰]Y`yb† †.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W +†œF Aj6~G]‡hi`yj=b‘jYtO '/[e Ÿ+uTeGo„`c_HeGb’hi‚]Yvyj=bm{_]Y`cb‘o„`cbm+† †.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† WYZ +† 6~Žzeg_]‡hk`c~jYt hiz+eCde—hieG~—hij=o‚ K ‚hieg_*† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W +† Z 6`cd+e}6`yegwVjYt4C‚kz+jw`ybm{hize\1~Gj>j=o„d`cb‰]qhieY† †\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† W +† Us‰]Yo„hkeGouo„jYŒ‰vye}6`yegwVjYt4C‚kz+jw`ybmrhizex~gj6j=o„d`cb]‡hie‡† †.††\†.†\†.†.†  X +† 6~Žzeg_]‡hk`c~jYt hiz+e*4`ŠŸ6eGvAd+eghieg~ghkj=oG† ††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† = +† `]YmYoi]Y_‚kz+jw`ybm]ru+`ŠŸ6eGvAde—hieg~ghijYo(egvceG_HeGb’hG† †.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† = +†ŠD X 4zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+zCj‡tI]ru`ŠŸ6egvdeghkeG~—hij=o_j>dsvyerš~gj=sohieG‚ K 1 † †.††\†.†\†.†.† = +†ŠD=DS`]YmYoi]Y_jYtMdeG_Hj=b‚hiok]‡hi`ybm{hizeu`Ÿ+egvAdeghkeG~—hij=o~GjYb~Gegu+hp† †\†.††\†.†\†.†.† YF +†ŠD W Us‰]Yo„hkeGo-}>`ce—wjYtI19‚„hio„`cu9de—hieG~—hij=ovc] K j=s+hG† †.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† ’ +†ŠD€7eg‚kj=vys+hi`yj=b1t‹j=o‚k`ybm=vye{_^sj=b‚w`Šhiznhioi]‡b‚„}YeGok‚„e_Hj=_HeGb’hŽ]…D=|"D X | ]Ybd2D X=X ,e—Yt‹j=ogšs+uuegoŽ-hiok]Yb‚„}YeGo„‚ke{_Hj=_egb’his_C|Mšvcj€wLeGovce—th -hioi]‡b‚„}YeGok‚„e^`c_{@ u‰]Y~—hu‰]Yoi]‡_e—hieGog|]Ybd•švyj€wegoo„`cm=z’hŽvcj=bmY`yhis+d`cb‰]‡v`y_u‰]‡~ghu‰]‡oi]Y_HeghkeGoG† †.†  Z +†ŠDpF[Us‰]Yo„hkeGo-}>`ce—wjYtO"%vc] K j=s+hG† †\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† ’ +†ŠD)4zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+zCj‡tI]r‚k`ybm=vceL/™~Go K ‚„hŽ]‡v‹~Gj=s+o„hieg‚ K 1+—† †.††\†.†\†.†.† ’ `ŠŸ

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+†ŠD Z `]YmYoi]Y_!jYt–]Ybegvceg~ghio„j=_]Ym=be—hi`c~‚kzj€wLeGod+eg}=egvcj=u+`cbmt‹okjY_5]YbH`cb`Šhi`]‡v6uz+jYhij=b–† = +†ŠD)"™‚„suegok_Hj6d+svceegbeGo„m K okeg‚kj=vys+hi`yj=b9]Y‚]^t‹sb~—hi`cjYbCj‡tOegvceG~—hio„j=b9eGbegokm K eGb’hiegok`ybmH] r]Yo„oi] K jYtM~Go K ‚hŽ]Yvy‚G† †\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† = +†ŠD€:6~Žzeg_]‡hk`c~wLeGdmYe\s‚„eGdChijrfs`yvcd‘suCf‰]Yo„okeGvAo„eGm=`yj=b9jYt hize.'/™‚ K ‚hieG_C† F X +†ŠD€74zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+zjYt(f‰]Yo„okegvuTj=ohi`cjYbQjYt/hkzeC'd+eghieg~ghkj=oHw`Šhiz2`cbd+`y}>`cds]Yv wegdm=eg‚(~gvcep]‡okv K }>`c‚k`yfvce{š~GjYso„hkeG‚ K —† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† FD +† WYX 4zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+zjYthkzeegbd~G]Yu^uTj=o„hk`cj=b.jYthkze-'/‘deghkeG~—hij=o-š~GjYso„hkeG‚ K 1 † FD +† W D2Us‰]Yo„hkeGo-}>`ce—w‚„zj€w`cbm*sj=b K ‚„hkeG_C† ††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† F’ +† W=W 4zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+z‘jYtMok`yth@Rhksfe(deghkeG~—hij=o„‚`ybhiz+ef‰]Yoko„eGvo„eGm=`yj=blš~gj=sohieG‚ K 1 † F=F +† W 74zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+zCj‡tOj=b+e.‚hŽ]‡hk`cj=b9jYt hiz+e.egbd~G]Yu*_sj=bC‚ K ‚„hkeG_£š~gj=sohieG‚ K 1 † F3 +† W F[-]Yo„hkj6jYbC`yvcvys‚„hkoi]‡hk`cbm.hize~GjYb~Gegu+h/j‡t4:deG‚„`cm=b–† †\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† F3 +† W 7-]Yo„hkj6jYbC`yvcvys‚„hkoi]‡hk`cbm.hize~GjYb~Gegu+h/j‡tI"[deg‚k`cmYb† †\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† F Z +† WYZ *sj=b_j=_HeGb’hks_Bokeg‚kj=vys+hi`yj=b\}YeGok‚„s‚4_Hj=_egb’his_Bt‹j=ošvyegth hiz+ef‰]Yo„okegv+]Yb+d šo„`cm=z’h hizeeGb+d~p]Yu*okegm=`cj=b+‚G† †.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† F Z +† W 7/}=eGo}>`cegwjYtIAe—}=eGv@ŽDn ok`cmYm=eGo‚ K ‚hieg_*† †.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† F’ +† W :6`c_sv]‡hkeGd9Aeg}YeGv@ŽDnMo„`cm=mYeGooi]qhiet‹j=oP W{ D XY# ~G_‘>k‚ ‰—† ††\†.†\†.†.† F’ F†ŠD OŸ]‡_uvye-jYtAeg}YeGvŠ@iD‚k`ybm=vce_^sj=b{ok]‡hieuTeGoIs+b`yh4ok]Yu`yd`yh K t‹okj=_hiz+e]Y‚ ]Ht‹sb+~ghi`yj=bj‡tIhiok]Yb‚„}YeGo„‚ke{_Hj=_egb’his_hkzokeg‚kzj=vyd*t‹j=ouTj=‚k‚„`cfvye\o„eG~GjYb‚„hkoks~ @ hi`yj=b‘okeg‚kj=vys+hi`yj=b‚G† †\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† ‡F F† W `]YmYoi]Y_eGb+d6@#~G]Yu*_sj=bC‚keG~—hij=o„‚G† †.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† = F† /o„~Žz`yhkeG~ghksokejYt hiz+e\Ae—}=eGv@ŽD:hkok`ym=m=eGog† †.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† Z F†œF `]YmYoi]Y_‚kz+jw`ybmHnMok]Y~Žˆ=@$O`ybdeGovc] K j=s+hG† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† Z F† 6eG~—hij=o4okj>~Geg‚k‚„j=ovcj=m=`y~uo„`cb~g`cuvyeY† †.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† = F† Z `]YmYoi]Y_‚kz+jw`ybmhi`y_e-o„eG§3s`yokeGdrhij~gj=_u+vceghke-ep]‡~Žz‚hŽ]Ym=ejYthkoi]Y~Žˆ=@RŒbd`cb+m uokj>~Geg‚k‚g† †.†\†.†.†\††.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† Y F† 4zjYhijYm=oi]Yu+zCj‡tMhkze\+ WYX=X’W uo„e—@#u+okj>ds~ghk`cj=b9uo„jYhij‡h K uTefj=]Yokd† †\†.†\†.†.† Z D F† ‚k~p]qhkhiegouvyjYhjYtLhized`y“eGo„eGb~ge`yb•_Hep]Y‚„sokegd™uz+`"~gj6jYokd`yb‰]‡hieg‚fe—h#wegeGb ‚„hi]‡hi`yj=b‚ W ]Yb+d9}=eGo„‚ks‚‚„hi]‡hi`yj=b‚D]‡bd W `cb‘ok]Yd`]‡b‚t‹j=oŒ6Ÿ+egd‘hioi]‡b‚„}YeGok‚„e _jY_egb3hks_ f`cb‚‘j‡t^2,eg‡Qšo„eGd |Q,eg‡Qšfvyse€ |]Yb+d!D X ,e—Y šm=o„eGegb-`cb W^<" "3:W6" D=† †\†.†.†\†.†\†.††\†.†.†\†.†\†.†.†\†.††\†.†\†.†.† Z  Ÿ

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F’ threshold (GeV/c)Tp 2 3 4 5 6 10 20 30 100 threshold (GeV/c)Tp 2 3 4 5 6 10 20 30 100 Single muon rate (Hz) 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 GMT rate DT/CSC rate RPC rate generated rate a) threshold (GeV/c)Tsymmetric p 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 20 threshold (GeV/c)Tsymmetric p 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 20 Dimuon rate (Hz) 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 GMT dimuons diff. events GMT dimuons same event GMT dimuons total rate dimuons generated rate b) $O`ym=soke.+† W +6`c_^s+v]‡hkeGdCAeg}=egvŠ@iDn ok`cmYm=eGooi]‡hke.t‹jYo(: Wr D XY# ~g_9>i‚ ‰—†]’‚„zj€w‚/hiz+e ‚k`ybm=vye—@#_sj=bnoi]‡hkeH]Ybd™f‰‚„zj€w‚\hkzed+`Š@#_sj=b…hio„`cm=m=egooi]‡hke]‡‚]‘t‹sb~—hi`cjYb•jYtLhiok]Yb‚„}YeGo„‚ke _Hj=_egb’his_0hizo„eG‚kz+j=vcd† Y ‡¨† hijhize\nMo„`cm=m=egoG|Tn`c_H`cbm+|]Ybdnj=b’hkokj=v K ‚„hieg_‹nn—†–nz+eG‚ke^hkzokeg‚kzjYvcd‚^šde—Œ‰beGd…`ybhiz+e hkok`cmYm=eGo"_egb3s3]Yo„ede—hieGo„_`ybeGdf K hize/beGegd‚]Ybd‘o„eG§3s`co„eG_HeGb’hi‚jYthizee Ÿ6uegok`c_HeGb’hG†4 uTj=‚k‚„`cfvyee—}=egvŠ@ŽDhio„`cm=mYeGoI_HeGb3srt‹j=o4vcj€w)vys_H`cbj=‚„`yh K ~GjYbd`yhk`cj=b+‚4`c‚4‚kz+jwb`cbrnM]Yfvce +† W †  X ‡† XnX, YP¡ v¢¢4 MJNpp¢… nze'(`ym=z6@#e—}=egv6n ok`ym=m=eGo¨'(6nM`y‚O~gj=_uTj=‚„eGd^jYt‰h#wLjhio„`cm=mYeGo vceg}YeGvy‚G†Onz+eAeg}=egvŠ@ W nMo„`cm‡@ m=egoL`y‚"e Ÿ6eG~Gs6hieGd‘jYb~gj=__HeGo„~G`c]Yvuo„j6~geG‚k‚„j=ok‚g†nz`c‚"‚„hi]Ym=es‚keg‚Lt‹svyv‰uokeg~G`c‚„`cj=bHde—hieG~—hij=o"d‰]‡hi] t‹okjY_hiz+e_^sj=bC]Ybd9~G]Yvcj=o„`c_HeghkeGo‚ K ‚„hieg_‚hijro„eG~GjYb‚„hkoks~—hhkzeuz K ‚k`c~g‚j=f>ƒ„eG~—hi‚g†LRhk‚`cbus6h d‰]‡hi]ok]‡hie.`c‚okegds~Gegd…f K ]rtš]Y~ghkj=ojYtD X ~Gj=_Hu‰]Yo„eGdChijhkze\e—}=egvŠ@ŽD\nMo„`cm=mYeGoG†nz+e^Aeg}YeGvŠ@# n ok`cmYm=eGos‚keg‚]Ydd`Šhi`yj=b‰]YvA`yb+t‹j=ok_]‡hk`cj=b‘t‹okjY_hkzehkoi]Y~Žˆ‡eGo‚ K ‚hieg_¢hijt‹svcv K okeG~gj=b‚hioks+~ghhiz+e eg}YeGb’h{]‡bd™`y‚hkzeGo„egt‹j=o„e_Hj=o„erhk`c_He{~Gj=b+‚ks_H`cbm+†nz`y‚]Yvyvcj€w‚]Yb•]Ydd`Šhi`yj=b‰]YvIok]‡hiero„eGds~ @ hi`yj=bxhij‘D X=X '(¤‡† J"K s‚„`cbmH]^~GjY__HeGo„~G`]‡v–uo„j6~geG‚k‚„j=o-tš]Yo„_*|>hize'(6nV‚ K ‚„hieg_`c‚e Ÿ>hiokeg_egv K œ‰e Ÿ+`yfvce‡|]Ybdl`c‚svŠhi`y_]‡hkeGv K _j=o„e{~Gj=‚heg“eG~—hi`y}YeHhkz‰]Ybns‚„`cbmC]‘‚ K ‚„hkeG_ f‰]Y‚„eGdlj=bn~Gs‚hij=_ eGvyeG~—hiokjYb`c~g‚G† J eg~p]Ys+‚ke{hizeH'(6n!`c‚‚„jYth#w-]‡okerf‰]Y‚„eGd|hize{o„eG~gj=b‚„hkoks~—hi`yj=bl]Yvcm=jYok`yhkz_H‚/s‚„eGd hij`cdegb3hk`yt K uz K ‚k`y~G‚{j=f3ƒ„eG~ghk‚^t‹okj=_”hkzez`ym=z6@R§>s]Yvc`Šh K deghkeG~—hij=o^d]‡hŽ]~G]YbQfTehiz+ex‚i]Y_Hex]‡‚ hiz]‡hs‚kegd*t‹j=ojƒ„eg~ghk‚]Yoke.okeg~Gj=b+‚„hio„s~ghkeGd f‰]Y‚„eGdHj=b{de—hieG~—hij=o4d]‡hŽ]j=o„`cm=`yb‰]‡hi`ybmt‹okj=_!okegm=`cj=b+‚IjYtT`cb’hiegokeg‚„h"]Y‚4`ydeGb’hi`ŠŒ‰eGdrf K hkzeAeg}YeGvŠ@iD

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+D Ž Ž l Ž – BDŽ ‘1›Ž Ž Z † W nze"‚keg~Gj=bd>@#vc`ym=z’hieg‚„hMbeGs+hkoi]Yvy`cbjw`yvcvYh K u`y~p]Yvyv K d+eG~p] K hijh#wLj`c‚„j=v]‡hkeGdvcegu+hijYb‚uvcs‚ _H`c‚k‚„`cbm hiok]Yb‚}=eGo„‚keegbeGo„m K †M#b^u‰]Yohi`c~gsv]‡oG|hizeUŽ w`cvyv>s+‚ks‰]Yvyv K d+eG~p] K `cb\j=bej‡t+hiz+eLt‹j=vyvcj€w`cbmw] K ‚g Ž Ž Ž L Ž Ž Ž Z †= nze.dj=_H`cb‰]‡b3hŽ ]YbdŽ w`yhizCokeg‚kuTeG~—h(hkjHuTj=‚„`yhi`yj=b‘`cb‘hkzeš‘ ‡ ¨R -uvc]Ybe]Yo„e‚kzj€wb `cbC$O`ym=so„e Z † Z † 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 m 0 (GeV)m1/2 (GeV)MSUGRA, tan b = 10, A 0 = 0, m > 0 t ~ 01 LSP NO EWSB m(e ~ L) < m( c2 0)m(u~ L) > m(g~)m(t~ 1) < m(g~) Teva tron m h = 114 GeV m h = 120 GeVmh = 122 GeV m c = 103 GeV l ~ Br( c ~ 2 0 h 0 c ~ 1 0 ) > 0.5 Br( c ~ 2 0 Z 0 c ~ 1 0 ) > 0.5Br( c~ 2 0 l ~ l) > 0.15 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 m 0 (GeV)m1/2 (GeV)MSUGRA, tan b = 10, A 0 = 0, m > 0 t ~ 01 LSP NO EWSB m(e ~ L) < m( c2 0)m(u~ L) > m(g~)m(t~ 1) < m(g~) Teva tron m h = 114 GeV m h = 120 GeVmh = 122 GeV m c = 103 GeV l ~ Br( c ~ 1 A W A c ~ 1 0 ) > 0.5Br( c~ 1 A l ~n ) > 0.15 $O`ym=soke Z † Z 9egm=`cj=b+‚{jYt(hkzelš‘€|" ¨R uvc]Ybexw`yhkzS_]Y`ybQ deg~p] K ‚1‹vce—th ]Yb+d_]Y`cb deg~p] K ‚(jYtO ‹ok`ym=z’h d†  X ‡¨†

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YF ]YfTj€}=e/hkzed`@#_^sjYbhio„`cm=mYeGohizo„eG‚kz+j=vcd|>hize/‚keG~gj=bd9vceG]Yd`ybm_^s+j=bx_] K ‚hi`cvyvvc`cefTeGvcj€w:hiz+e d`@#_^sjYb•hio„`cm=mYeGo\hkzokeg‚kzjYvcd™t‹j=o]1v]Yo„m=eHoi]YbmYexjYtvceG]Yd`ybm_^s+j=b1' }‡]Yvcs+eG‚G†…nz+e‘`cbe—r@ ~G`yeGb~ K j‡tIhize\~p]Yvyj=ok`y_e—hiego`y‚kj=vc]‡hi`yj=b9okeg§>s+`cokeg_egb’h]‡he—}=egvŠ@ W t‹j=o •D`c‚(]Yvc‚„jeg}>`ydeGb’h`yb hiz+e.d+`Š@#_sj=bxhio„`cm=mYeGoG† 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 L1T L2_hits L2_vertex L2_pt L2_eta L2_ISO L3_hits L3_vertex L3_pt L3_eta L3_ISO Œ  Ž ’‘ “ Ž ” zŽ…h – •-– ™ 7—]€D† €~„—z   | ™ ~   ~y{’‘“~„uV•ˆ‹  !™ h™ ~š›šœ› 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 L1T L2_hits L2_vertex L2_pt L2_eta L2_ISO L3_hits L3_vertex L3_pt L3_eta L3_ISO Œ Ž  ‘ “ Ž ” • z   |Œƒ4~?…h a 7Ÿ z4…h – •-– ™ 7—]€D† €~„—z   | ™ ~   ~y{’‘“~„uV•—‹   ™ h™ ~š›šœ„› $O`ym=soke Z †+ AegthpM`Š@*sj=b.n ok`cmYm=eGoMI~g`cegb~G`yeG‚Ot‹j=oMAeg}YeGvŠ@iD=|=Ae—}=eGv@ W |Y]Ybd{Ae—}=eGv@{š'/>n }=egok‚„s‚.hkzervceG]Yd`cb+mxm=eGb+eGoi]qhieGdl_^sjYbnhkoi]Yb+‚„}=egok‚„e_Hj=_HeGb’his_`cbn_+r,5 •Dreg}=egb’hi‚ ‹t‹jYoOm=egbeGok]‡hiegd{_^sj=b‚Mw`yhiz+`cb\hkze-de—hieg~ghijYo4]Y~G~geGu+hi]Yb~ge€—†I`ym=z’hp I~g`cegb~ K t‹j=oMhkzeri jYtLhizeH‚k`ybm=vce @/]Ybd•`Š@#_sj=bnnMo„`cm=mYeGok‚t‹j=o.Aeg}YeGv@ŽD=|MAeg}=egvŠ@ W |I]Yb+d™Aeg}YeGv@%š'/>n}YeGok‚„s‚ hiz+e.vyep]Yd+`cbm{m=egbeGok]‡hiegd*_sj=b9hioi]‡b‚„}YeGok‚„e\_Hj=_HeGb’his+_`cb‘_+r,MlD\e—}=eGb’hk‚G† nz`c‚"]Yb]Yv K ‚k`y‚]Yuuvy`ceg‚OhizeijYtThize‚k`ybm=vye—@#_sj=b^hio„`cm=mYeGo4]Yb+drhkzed`Š@R_^sj=b^hkok`ym=m=eGo ]Ybdn$M`cm=so„e Z † ‚„zj€w‚hize^o„eG‚„svyhk`cbmHhiok`ym=m=ego/egH~g`ceGb+~ K t‹jYoAeg}YeGvŠ@iD=|Ae—}=eGv@ W |–]YbdnAeg}YeGv@ ¨'/>n{}YeGo„‚ks‚hkzeCvcep]‡d`cbmnm=egbeGok]‡hiegdP_^s+j=b•' t‹j=or_x6r, •DCeg}=egb’hi‚G†:nM]Yfvye Z † W ‚„zj€w‚/hize\deG~gj=_Huj=‚„`yhk`cj=bCjYtIhkze\h#wLjhio„`cm=mYeGok‚g† J eG~G]Ys‚„ehize\_x6r,< •D_^s+j=b ‚kuTeG~—hio„s_?tš]Yvcvy‚4oi]Yu+`cdv K w`yhkzr`cb~gokep]‡‚k`cb+m' |3hkzej}YeGok]Yvcvhkok`cmYm=eGo]Y~g~Gegu+hŽ]Yb+~Ge(t‹jYoIhize‚k`ym=b‰]Yv eg}YeGb’h‘`y‚j=b+v K W +† Z x†[#b7=+† X aj‡thizeChio„`cm=m=egokegdPeg}YeGb’hi‚g|hkze‚„`cbmYvce—@]Yb+dPd`@#_^sjYb hio„`cm=mYeGok‚\~Gj=_Hehkj=m=e—hizegoG†1#b~gvcs‚„`y}YeGv K |Ihize‚k`cb+m=vce @#_^sjYb•hio„`cm=mYeGo\]Y~G~gj=sb’hi‚^t‹j=o X † W jYt hiz+e(‚k]Y_u+vceY|’wz`yvc‚he Ÿ+~gvcs‚„`y}YeGv K `Šh]‡~G~GjYsb’hi‚Lt‹jYo"F+D=† W x†Inze/d+`Š@#_sj=brhiok`ym=m=ego"`yb~Gvys‚k`Š}=egv K ]Y~g~Gj=sb’hk‚t‹j=o‡+†j‡thize/‚i]Y_Huvce‡|>wz+`cvc‚h/Dp+†j‡thize/‚i]Y_HuvcefTeGvcjYbm=‚"e—Ÿ6~Gvys‚k`Š}=eGv K hkj hiz+e.d+`Š@#_sj=bxhio„`cm=mYeGokegd9eg}=egb’hi‚G†

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’ nM]Yfvce Z † W 9eg~Gj=_HuTj=‚k`Šhi`cjYb•t‹j=o{‚„`cbm=vye—@.]‡bdd+`Š@#_sj=b™hkok`cmYm=eGo„‚^t‹j=o^hize9_+r,¡ •D uTj=`cb’hp† jYbd`yhk`cj=b n ok`cmYm=eGo I}=eGb’hk‚{ r (jYbe j=be Y W X D X=X H -hvcep]‡‚„hj=be j=be =r ZYZ š= r #b~gvcs‚„`y}Ye 6`ybm=vye—@#7iH`Š@R D=D\= X D=D r #b~gvcs‚„`y}Ye >`cbm=vye—@R:„(H`Š@# F X D‹F "Z r #b~gvcs‚„`y}Ye 6`cb+m=vce @# WYZ=W š Fr #b~gvcs‚„`y}Ye `Š@# Z YY* Z+" r OŸ6~Gvys‚k`Š}=e 6`cb+m=vce @# F Z D‹F r OŸ6~Gvys‚k`Š}=e `Š@# WrW Y* W6" r

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qZ -WG""Z‚`]I^" 'n&0?f6nlkŽ8@•0?ƒƒ,¦#t3#+#f0?)6'3xƒ& % 3 no€""@ r0r?7 <6n78760?kr) <1‹ˆnr}?0&n$ f :<@<6nr}<<‡nl<¨/nl>nr&d3^8q'

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0015695/00001

Material Information

Title: Compact Muon Solenoid Discovery Potential for the Minimal Supergravity Model of Supersymmetry in Single Muon Events with Jets and Large Missing Transverse Energy in Proton-Proton Collisions at Center-of-Mass Energy 14 TEV
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Title: Compact Muon Solenoid Discovery Potential for the Minimal Supergravity Model of Supersymmetry in Single Muon Events with Jets and Large Missing Transverse Energy in Proton-Proton Collisions at Center-of-Mass Energy 14 TEV
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Copyright Date: 2008

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CO',IPACT ,IUON SOLENOID DISCOVERY POTENTIAL FOR THE ,IINIMAL
SUPERGRAVITY I ODEL OF SUPERSY:, I I-TRY IN SINGLE IUON
EVENTS WITH JETS AND LARGE lISSING TRANSVERSE ENERGY IN
PROTON-PROTON COLLISIONS AT CENTER-OF-MI.ASS ENERGY 14 TEV












By

BOBBY SCURLOCK


A DISTERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFII.I.LEIINT
OF THE REQUIREB:IENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006















ACKNOWLEDGi : lENTS

I am indebted to a great number of people without whom, I never could have

completed this very long journey in science. I would like to thank my wife Belinda

for her near infinite patience over the past 13 years during which time I have pursued

this end. I am willing to wager that she did not believe me when I first told her of my

plan back in the 11th grade. I thank my beautiful two month old daughter, Emilia,

for keeping me company during the writing of most of this work. Despite her best

efforts to pull me away from it, I managed to finish, and hopefully one day it will

teach her what can be accomplished if she is willing to put forth the effort-just as

her grandfather's work taught me. I would also like to thank my parents Dr. Bob

Scurlock and Bonnie Rancel for their encouragement and support throughout this

process. I thank my brother Tyrone Purvis as well as my most dear friends Garrett

Cohen, Julio Blandon, and Raymond Chow for always reminding me that this career

path is a noble one.

I would like to thank Mdi. David Jones for delivering his lectures with the excite-

ment and enthusiasm that are far too rare in the high school classroom. His Honors

Physics class was the starting point for my journey. I am grateful to Professor Darin

Acosta for hiring a nearly useless undergraduate eight years ago. Throughout our

work together over the years, he maintained his usual degree of healthy skepticism

towards my results, while showing me nothing but the utmost respect and kindness in

voicing it. I've learned many valuable lessons from his leadership. I am also grateful

to Dr. Richard Cavanaugh for his constant optimism and encouragement regarding

our research. His support in this effort over the last two years has helped make this

final step possible. I would like to thank ;'li I,-wl Schmitt for our daily, and at times









contentious, debates which thankfully had nothing to do with physics. I would also

like to sincerely thank him for efforts in helping with this work.

I would also like to acknowledge the contributions from Yuriy Pakhotin, Kon-

stantin lli Iilrv, Kyoungchul Kong, C!ii., Tully, Jim Rohlf, ,1iii,!i Spiropulu, Luc

Pape, Andre Korytov, Guenakh ,ii:.-'-l!ii-lli'i-, and Salavat Abdullin to this work. In

addition, this work would not have been possible without the excellent support from

Craig Prescott, Yu Fu, and my old neighbor Jorge Rodriguez at the University of

Florida CMS Tier-2 Center. I gratefully acknowledge my extensive use of computing

resources from the LHC Computing Grid and the Open Science Grid, which were

critical to the success of this thesis. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to

Lev Uvarov for making my service work on the Sector Processor so -iij. iy.ill. Lev is

a truly unique individual.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGE : IENTS ......

LIST OF TABLES .. . .........


LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . .

A BSTRACT . . . . . . . .


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION .. ..........

2 THE STANDARD ,IODEL AND BEYOND .
2.1 The Standard ,l.,del .............
2.1.1 Standard ,li.del Fermions ........
2.1.2 Standard '-didel Gauge Bosons .....
2.1.3 H ii,., Boson . . . .
2.1.4 Beyond the Standard 'dildel .......
2.2 Supersymmetry ..................
2.2.1 The \,li!iiiiii! Supersymmetric Standard ,
2.2.2 \ ;Si1 Particle Content .........
2.2.3 R-Parity . . . . .
2.2.4 Soft Supersymmetry Breaking ......
2.2.5 1,iiiiin,!i Supergravity ...........
2.2.6 Past Searches and Limits .........


II I(*I


3 EXPERIM:I'ENTAL APPARATUS .
3.1 The Large Hadron Collider .....
3.1.1 Overview of the Collider .
3.1.2 Proton Source ........
3.1.3 Detector Systems ......
3.2 The Compact ,lii.!i Solenoid .
3.2.1 Coordinate System .....
3.2.2 M agnet .. .........
3.2.3 Inner Tracking System ..
3.2.4 El-i i romagnetic Calorimeter
3.2.5 Hadron Calorimeter .....
3.2.6 ,ll.ii System ........
3.3 CMS Trigger System ........
3.3.1 Level-1 Trigger .......









3.3.2 High Level Trigger .................. .... .. 49
3.3.3 Single-muon trigger .................. .... .. 50
3.3.4 Di-muon Trigger .................. ..... .. 51

4 LEVEL-1 ENDCAP ,IUON TRIGGER SYSTEM . .... 53
4.1 ,1il.i!i Track-Finding in the Endcap Region ....... ...... 55
4.2 Simulated Performance of the Sector Processor ............. 62
4.3 Hardware Bench Tests .................. ..... .. 65
4.4 Hardware Tests using Cosmic Ray ,il l.,! s ............... 66
4.5 Hardware Tests using Particle Beams ..... . . ..... 67
4.5.1 Fii-i Beam-Test .................. ..... .. 67
4.5.2 Second Beam-Test .................. .... .. 69
4.5.3 Third Beam-Test .................. ..... .. 69
4.5.4 Fourth Beam-Test. .................. .... .. 72
4.6 Current Status .................. ......... .. .. 75

5 SIMULATION SOFTWARE . . . . . 80
5.1 Event Generation .................. ........ .. .. 80
5.2 Full Detector Simulation .................. ..... .. 81
5.3 Fast Detector Simulation .................. ..... .. 82

6 SIG NAL . . . . . . . 83
6.1 SUSY Test Points .................. .......... .. 83
6.2 Sparticle Decays .................. ......... .. .. 90
6.2.1 Cl.-nig! iis and \''n l-i.il .is .................. .. 91
6.2.2 Sleptons . . . . . . .. 93
6.2.3 Squarks and Gluinos ................ .... .. 93
6.3 Trigger Efficiency to Select I.l I .................. ... .. 93

7 STANDARD ,IODEL BACKGROUNDS . . . 97
7.1 ll;l i-Jet QCD Production .................. .... .. 97
7.2 Top (tt) Production. ........ . . . 98
7.3 Single-Boson E1-.i i roweak Production with Jets . . .... 100
7.4 FlT-. iro-Weak Di-Boson + Jets ................... .. 103

8 PHYSICS OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION AND PRE-SELECTION 104
8.1 .li. .s ....... ....... .. ........ ....... 104
8.2 Jets ...... .......... ................ 105
8.3 il.-.-iLig Transverse Energy ................ ... ..108

9 DISCRIMINATING SIGNAL FROM BACKGROUND . . 113

10 SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIE . . . . 119
10.1 Limited Amount of Simulated Data ..... . . ..... 119
10.2 Jet Energy Scale .................. .......... .. 121
10.3 Jet Energy Resolution .................. .. ..... .. 122









Ailiiii Identification Efficiency and Fake Rate . .
Effect of Fake VT due to Beam Halo Background . .
T heory . . . . . . .
Luminosity ........... . .. .......
Differences Between the CMS Full and Fast Simulation
struction . . . . . . .


123
123
124
125


and Recon-


11 RESULTS .. . . .
11.1 Search for Signal . . . .....
11.2 Estimator used for Significance Calculation . . . ..
11.3 Reach for 10 fb- . . . . .....
11.4 Reach beyond 10 fb- . . ..
11.5 Conclusion .................. . . . .....

APPENDICES

A ORCA RECQUERIES USED FOR PHYSICS OBJECTS . .

B CUT-SET EFFICIENCIE ..... . . . ...
B.1 ORCA Cut-set Efficiencies for Standard Mil.!'I Backgrounds . .
B.2 ORCA Cut-set Efficiencies for mSUGRA Signal Benchmark points .
B.3 FAMIOS Cut-set Efficiencies for mSUGRA Signal Benchmark points

C BACKGROUND NOR ,IA LIZATION . . .

D OTHER THEORIES BEYOND THE STANDARD ODEL . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH........ . . .


10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8


130
130
131
135
140
141


143

144
144
146
147

148

150

152

157














LIST OF TABLES


2.1 Standard lil.ir'l leptons. ................... .. 7

2.2 Standard ll.i'-l Gauge Bosons.......... . . ... 7

2.3 Chiral and gauge supermultiplets in the ,II. . . ... 13

2.4 ,i.-., and gauge eigenstates in the ,I;I;,. ............. ..14

2.5 Lower limits on supersymmetric particle masses assuming the mSUGRA
scenario. . . . . . .. . . 20

3.1 CMS super-conducting solenoid parameters. .. . ..... 31

3.2 The Level-1 Trigger '-lilin at = 2 x 1033 cm-2-1 . ... 50

3.3 The High-Level Trigger '-Il!iin at = 2 x 1033 cm-2S-1 for an output
of approximately 120 Hz. .................. .... 52

6.1 Parameters of fully simulated and reconstructed SUSY benchmark
points studied in this work. .................. .... 85

6.2 Decomposition for single- and di-muon ti i''-_,!. for the mSUGRA I.lI 1
point. .................. ...... ........ ..... 96

7.1 Geant based, fully simulated QCD multi-jet background samples used
in this work. .................. .. ....... 99

7.2 Geant based, fully simulated tt background samples used in this work. 100

7.3 Geant based, fully simulated E1-,i i ro-Weak background samples used
in this work. .................. .. ........ 102

7.4 Geant based, fully simulated di-E1'-i i ro-Weak background samples used
in this work. .................. .. ........ 103

10.1 Efficiencies to select different validation/benchmark mSUGRA points
between FA\,IOS and OSCAR/ORCA. . . 126

11.1 All selection cuts as applied in this work. ..... . ..... 131

11.2 Summary of the efficiency to select the I., I mSUGRA signal compared
with the sum of all Standard 'I, ldel backgrounds considered. . 133

11.3 List of systematic uncertainties considered in this work. ...... ..134









11.4 Total number of background and signal events which pass the I.l, I
optimized selection cuts for 10 fb- together with the corresponding
significance (with and without systematic uncertainties) to discover the
different signal benchmark points. ................... ..136

11.5 Cuts optimized to select HM1 as determined by the genetic algorithm
for 100 fb-1 ................... ....... ........ .140

B.1 Efficiency of EI-i i, ro-weak Standard 'I, I. l- backgrounds to pass selec-
tion cuts calculated using ORCA. ................... ..144

B.2 Efficiency of QCD di-jet events and ttbar Standard 'I. idel backgrounds
to pass selection cuts calculated using ORCA. . . .... 145

B.3 This table shows the decomposition of the ORCA samples which con-
tribute to the background estimate using I. ll optimized cuts. . 145

B.4 Efficiency of mSUGRA signal points to pass selection cuts calculated
using ORCA. ....... ........ ........ ...... 146

B.5 Efficiency of mSUGRA signal points to pass selection cuts calculated
using FA I OS ........... .... ........ 147














LIST OF FIGURES

2.1 Fermion contribution to Ii,. mass. ................ .. 11

2.2 Scalar contribution to li''., mass. .................. 12

2.3 Evolution of inverse gauge couplings in the Standard 'idl.!(-l (dashed
lines) and the ,IK;,I (solid lines). .................. 16

2.4 Evolution of scalar and gaugino mass parameters in the ,I\;,I, im-
posing unification boundary conditions. ............... .. 17

2.5 Excluded regions in the mSUGRA universal (mo, ml/2) plane. . 19

3.1 LHC geographical situation. .................. .... 22

3.2 Inclusive proton-proton cross sections for physics processes of interest
at the LHC ................. ....... ...... 24

3.3 LHC Accelerator chain. .................. ..... 25

3.4 Location of LHC experiments along main ring. . . ..... 26

3.5 Schematic of the CMS detector system. ............... ..28

3.6 Side view of CMS showing the 0 coordinate. .. . ..... 29

3.7 Quarter profile view of CMS showing the r7 coordinate. . ... 30

3.8 Schematic of the CMS Pixel detector. ................ ..33

3.9 Diagram showing a pixel detector element. ............. ..33

3.10 Photograph of a pixel detector module (courtesy CMS) . .... 33

3.11 Diagram of demonstrating the pixel detector concept. . ... 34

3.12 Quarter view of CMS strip detector layout. ............. ..35

3.13 Resolution for single muons with transverse moment 1, 10, and 100
GeV/c for: (upper) transverse momentum, (lower left) transverse im-
pact parameter, and (lower right) longitudinal impact parameter. 36

3.14 Quarter view of ECAL layout. ................ ..... 37

3.15 Photograph of a single ECAL crystal (courtesy CMS). . ... 37









3.16 Diagram of an electromagnetic shower developing from an initial photon. 38

3.17 ECAL supermodule energy resolution as a function of electron energy
entering a 3 x 3 array of crystals. .................. 39

3.18 Schematic wedge used to build up barrel region of the HCAL system. 40

3.19 Photograph of barrel portion of the HCAL detector with individual
wedges clearly visible (courtesy CMS). ............... ..41

3.20 Photograph of the endcap portion of the HCAL detector (courtesy CMS). 41

3.21 Quarter view showing ',li i!, System. ................ ..43

3.22 Photograph of Drift-tube detectors in the barrel region (courtesy CMS). 44

3.23 Photograph of one station of the endcap muon system (courtesy CMS). 45

3.24 Cartoon illustrating the concept of CSC design. . . .... 45

3.25 Cartoon illustrating the concept of RPC design. . . .... 46

3.26 :lil iin momentum resolution versus momentum for (left) the barrel and
(right) the endcap regions. ................... ....... 46

3.27 Overview of Level-1 Trigger system. ................. ..48

3.28 Simulated Level-1 Trigger rate for C = 2 x 1033 cm-2-1. ..... .49

4.1 Example of Level-1 single muon rate per unit rapidity from the CSC as
a function of transverse momentum threshold for possible reconstruc-
tion resolutions. .................. .. ...... 54

4.2 Diagram end-cap muon sectors. ................... .... 55

4.3 Architecture of the Level-1 CSC trigger. .............. ..56

4.4 Diagram showing Track-Fiiil'- layout. ............... ..56

4.5 Sector Processor logic principle. .................. ... 57

4.6 Diagram showing time required to complete each stage of track-finding
process. . . . . . .. . . 59

4.7 Photograph of the SP2002 pre-production prototype board. . 61

4.8 A scatter plot of the difference in measured phi coordinates between
stations 2 and 3 versus stations 1 and 2 in radians for fixed transverse
momentum bins of 3 GeV/c (red), 5 GeV/c (blue), and 10 GeV/c
(green) in 2 < 17r < 2.1. .................. .... 63









4.9 Residual distribution of 1/PT measured for generated sample of single-
muon events with 3 < pT < 35 GeV/c in 1.2 < 1r7| < 2 .. ......

4.10 Photograph of University of Florida Cosmic test stand .. ......

4.11 Time structure of test beam . ..................

4.12 Detector and electronics configuration used during beam-test.....

4.13 Photograph of June 2004 test beam configuration .. ........

4.14 Diagram of May 2004 test beam configuration .. ..........

4.15 Track-Fi il1'- event display showing the relative bunch-crossing on which
LCT data was collected after L1A signal .. ............

4.16 Plots showing comparison of track-finder data found in hardware vs
results of emulation . .....................


Photograph of October 2004 Testbeam. .......

October 2004 test beam configuration .. ....

Plots showing "r7" vs ",, ," distributions for various

Global "<, distributions. ..............

Global "r7" distributions ..............

Distributions of differences in ." .........

Distributions of differences in "r." .. .......

Photograph of the SP04 board .. .......

Photograph of the final SP05 cards to be used at


chambers .


CMS.


6.1 Cartoon showing qualitative features of benchmark points in the (mo,
m i/2) plane . . . . . . . . .

6.2 mSUGRA cross section in the (mo ml/2) plane .. ...........

6.3 Studied CMS mSUGRA benchmark points are shown as stars.....

6.4 Comparison of SUSY mass spectra of the benchmark points fully sim-
ulated for this study . .....................

6.5 Squark and gluino isomass contours in the (mo, ml/2) plane ......

6.6 Regions of the (mo, ml/2) plane with main Xo decays (left) and main
decays of X' (right) . .....................


4.17

4.18

4.19

4.20

4.21

4.22

4.23

4.24

4.25









6.7 Left: Inclusive 'lilliio Trigger Efficiencies for Level-1, Level-2, and
Level-3 (HLT) versus the leading generated muon transverse momen-
tum in mSUGRA I.l I events (for generated muons within the detector
acceptance). ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... ... .. 94

6.8 Left: Di- liliin Trigger Efficiencies for Level-1, Level-2, and Level-3
(HLT) versus the leading generated muon transverse momentum in
mSUGRA I. ,l Ievents (for generated muons within the detector ac-
ceptance). ....... ..... .... .......... ..... 95

7.1 Diagram showing typical QCD process. ............... .. 98

7.2 _niliiil, s of events expected for 10 fb-1 (shaded area), and numbers of
events produced (full curve) as a function of . . .... 99

7.3 Diagram showing typical tt diagram. .. . . ...... 100

7.4 Typical W+jets diagram (left) and Z+jets diagram (right). . 101

7.5 i_\iiilis! of events expected for 10 fb-1 (shaded area), and numbers of
events produced (full curve) as a function of r. . . ... 101

7.6 Diagram showing typical electroweak di-boson production of ZW + jets. 103

8.1 Mlill in reconstruction efficiency as a function of 7r for a) the Standalone
reconstruction and b) the Global reconstruction. . . ... 105

8.2 Mlil i reconstruction 1/pr resolution as a function of momentum using
the Global reconstruction in the region a) Barrel and b) Endcap. 106

8.3 Global muon reconstruction efficiencies for ORCA (solid line) and FA, IOS
(dotted line) versus the generated transverse momentum (left) and eta
(right) .......... ........ ..... .............. 106

8.4 Jet transverse energy resolution plot for iterative cone algorithm (R =
0.5) for barrel region. .................. ........ 108

8.5 Left: Jet reconstruction efficiency for ORCA (solid line) and FAMIOS
(dotted line) versus the generated transverse energy . .... 109

8.6 Comparison of ,i.-.-ing Transverse Energy with no corrections (shaded
area) and with muon corrections (solid black line) for (left plot) mSUGRA
I.lI-1 events and (right plot) QCD di-jet events. . . ... 110

8.7 Left: Probability to reconstruct a fake muon versus the calorimeter
transverse energy contained within a cone of radius 0.3 around the
muon ................. .. ...... ........ 112









9.1 Physics distributions showing Standard ,li.l! background (shaded
area) and the mSUGRA I.l, I signal (solid black line) before any trigger
or pre-selection cuts have been applied. . . ...... 114

9.2 Physics distributions used for discriminating signal from background
showing the Standard ll. 'del (shaded area) and the mSUGRA I. I1
(solid black line) after the trigger and pre-selection cuts have been
applied. ...... ..... ..... .......... ...... 116

9.3 Physics distributions used for discriminating signal from background
showing the Standard ll. 'del (shaded area) and the mSUGRA I. I1
(solid black line) after the trigger and pre-selection cuts have been
applied. ...... ..... ..... .......... ...... 117

10.1 Left Plot: Systematic uncertainties (in total number of events pass-
ing) versus rT cut: jet energy scale (solid line), jet energy resolution
(dashed line), and finite simulated events (dotted line). . ... 120

10.2 Distribution showing the difference between missing transverse energy
and projected sum of jet transverse energies using I., I1 data. . 122

10.3 Comparison of FAMIOS (shaded area) with ORCA (solid black line)
for different reconstructed quantities used in this analysis. . 127

10.4 Comparison of FAMIOS (shaded area) with ORCA (solid black line)
for different reconstructed quantities used in this analysis. . 128

10.5 Comparison of FAMIOS (shaded area) with ORCA (solid black line)
for different reconstructed quantities used in this analysis. . 129

11.1 Sequence of plots (left to right, top to bottom) showing the effect of
applying the cut-set solution as derived from the genetic algorithm. 132

11.2 The inclusive muon 5o CMS reach contours in the (mo, mi12) plane
for 10 fb-1, 30 fb-1, and 60 fb-1 including systematics, but without
considering the uncertainty due to finite simulated events. . 137

11.3 The inclusive muon 5o CMS reach contours in the (mo, mi/2) plane
for 10 fb-1, 30 fb-1, and 60 fb-1 including systematics (with the un-
certainty due to finite simulated events). . . ..... 138

11.4 The top plot displays the iso-mass contours for different gluino masses
as a function of universal scalar-gaugino mass. . . .... 139

11.5 Comparison of this work to an earlier CMS study given for 100 fb-1. 141

C.1 Inclusive Z+jets cross section versus jet multiplicity. . ... 148















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

CO',IPACT ,IUON SOLENOID DISCOVERY POTENTIAL FOR THE ,IINIMAL
SUPERGRAVITY IlODEL OF SUPERSY:,, I-TRY IN SINGLE IUON
EVENTS WITH JETS AND LARGE :llSlING TRANSVERSE ENERGY IN
PROTON-PROTON COLLISIONS AT CENTER-OF-,IAkSS ENERGY 14 TEV

By

Bobby Scurlock

August 2006


Chairman: D. Acosta

l,-ij. r Department: Physics

This dissertation estimates the ability of CMS to discover mSUGRA model of

Supersymmetry in the single muon plus jets with missing transverse energy topology

for 10 fb-1 of collected data using the inclusive-muon and di-muon High Level Trigger

paths. A single low mass benchmark point (mo = 60 GeV/c2, ml/ = 250 GeV/c2,

Ao = 0, p > 0, and tan(3) = 10) is used to optimize the selection criteria and to

study systematic uncertainties related to detector effects. Five sigma reach contours,

including expected systematic uncertainties, are presented for 10, 30, and 60 fb-1.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

\Il dern particle physicists are reductionists; that is, they believe that all observ-

able properties of macroscopic bodies can be explained in terms of the behavior of

the more fundamental particles which compose them. So macroscopic states such as

the temperature of a given object can be understood by the microscopic states of the

particles from which it is composed. Perhaps the first scientifically useful ontology

was offered by John Dalton in 1808. In his A New System of Cl,, ,u.:i ., Philosophy,

Dalton postulated the ancient idea that matter is composed of fundamental building

blocks (atoms), which have particular properties such as weight, and can combine in

particular ways to form larger structures. Dalton's postulates and laws offered a sys-

tematic way to study and understand matter. i\'i, ly a century later, hints of atomic

substructure began to emerge from the laboratories of Thomson and Rutherford. Of

course we now know atoms are made of combinations of protons and neutrons which

reside in the nucleus, and electrons which are in various orbital states outside of the

nucleus. Over the last century, physicists have come to understand that the universe

can be reduced even further to more fundamental particles (where fundamental is

understood to mean having no additional sub-structure). The tradition of reduction-

ism has ultimately led modern science to a mathematically consistent model (the

Standard Model) of matter and its interactions, in which the smallest components of

the universe are modeled to be point-like particles of infinitesimally small size with

intrinsic properties.

The Standard 'I, idel of particle physics is a collection of theories from which pre-

dictions regarding the behavior of fundamental particles, and the forces which govern









their interactions (excluding gravity), can be derived. In the Standard ll.'i,-l there

are twelve types of matter particles (six leptons and six quarks). The electrons (e),

muons (p), taus (T), and their corresponding neutrinos (vt, v1, and vT) compose the

lepton group. The e's, p's, and T's have electromagnetic charge, while the v's re-

main electrically neutral. In the Standard 'i. '-, the v's are massless part 1'-.-: that

can only interact through the weak interaction. From the six quarks, a vast array

of particles called hadrons can be constructed. For example, protons and neutrons

are constructed from different mixtures of up- and down- type quarks. The Stan-

dard I. 'del fermions interact through the exchange of '-I,'i'I bosons: the photon (7)

mediates the infinite range electromagnetic interaction between electrically charged

particles, the massive W and Z bosons mediate the short range weak interaction,

and the color charged gluons (g) mediate the strong interaction between particles

with color charge. Particle masses are imparted in the Standard '-li del through the

massive scalar Ili,,., boson: this critical piece of the Standard ,I. ,del has thus far

eluded detection, but if it does exist, will likely be discovered with the next generation

collider machines.

The Standard i. 'del contains equations that describe the dynamics of particle

interactions. Although it provides a consistent mathematical framework within which

calculations can be made, the Standard ll. 'del requires various input parameters

based on measurements, such as particle masses and coupling constants, in order

to ultimately obtain predictions of measurable quantities. For example, the decay

width Fwt for the W boson can be expressed in terms of Fermi constant GFp and
*Recent measurements of neutrino flavor oscillations demonstrate the neutrinos are likely massive
particles. Popular extensions to the Standard Model, such as Grand Unified T1.ti, provide
mechanisms for neutrinos to acquire mass thus indicating these results may provide the first liiii,-.
at new physics beyond the Standard Model [1, 2].

tThe inverse of F can be understood as the particle lifetime.

GF can be understood as the coupling -i i 1,H ili of the q 1i.1._ ,1 current weak interaction.









the W mass. Comparing the predicted value to the measured value shows a relative

difference at the one percent level [3]. The Standard 'I, ,del has allowed physicists to

predict the behavior of the fundamental interactions of the known particles, and has

been tested with precision measurements and has generally shown to be in excellent

agreement with theoretical calculations [4].

Ultimately, the goal of particle physics is a complete description of all fundamental

particles and forces through a set of a few basic equations, just as electromagnetism

can be fully described through Maxwell's four equations. Unfortunately, laboratories

are only able to reproduce conditions at energies far below that of the early universe.

This likely implies that the Standard i'-l, Ir, which was developed through the anal-

yses of low energy data, is likely to be at most a low energy effective theory which

successfully describes particle phenomena at currently accessible energies. Indeed,

despite the predictive success of the Standard 1.,'I.li, many questions remain, thus

hinting that a new theory is needed.

One such theory, Supersymmetry (SUSY), may solve many problems with the

Standard I.,'i'-l, by enforcing a new type of symmetry between half-integral-spin

particles fermionss) and integral-spin particles bosonss). This new symmetry intro-

duces many new particles (by more than a factor of two) and parameters into the

theory. Some regions of SUSY parameter space are open to discovery at energies

offered by the next generation colliders. Therefore, future experiments will be very

important for the evolution of particle theory.

The proton-proton collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is scheduled to

begin in late 2007. The LHC will offer the ability to study particle phenomena at

unprecedented energies. The LHC will collide proton bunches together with center-

of-mass energy likely starting at 0.9 TeV3, and will ramp up to 14 TeV in 2008. This

energy will be available for the creation of particles rarely seen because of their large
1 eV (electron-volt) = 1.6 x 10-19 Joules.









masses, and typically short lifetimes. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experi-

ment will surround one of the proton bunch crossing sites along the LHC ring, and

will collect data from which the trajectories, energies, and moment of the particle

decays (which are products of the initial particle interactions), can be reconstructed.

This task is accomplished with a series of specialized, yet complementary, detector

subsystems, each of which is designed to be sensitive to particular kinematic param-

eters.

While the LHC is not currently colliding proton beams, analyses are being con-

ducted using simulation software for both the underlying physics li'-ii. i'!l,.! ,1,. ,v and

the CMS detector response, to study the ability of the CMS detector system to dis-

cover new physics. These analyses are useful in outlining strategies which may be

employed to conduct searches with actual data. They also allow the CMS software

framework to be exercised and tested for potential problems. In this dissertation, a

study is presented on the feasibly to observe an excess of supersymmetric events over

Standard 'I, idel events in the jets + missing transverse energy + muon topology. The

dissertation is organized as follows:



Chapter 2 briefly describes the Standard 'I. r ,-I and one of its possible extentions
Supersymmetry.

Cll-,isipii 3 and 4 describe details of the next generation particle accelerator
machine, the Large Hadron Collider and one of its experiments, the Compact
,il!'ii Solenoid experiment.

C1ii-lpi'i.s 5 through 11 describe the methods and results of a simulation based
study on the feasibility of the Compact Mli i'ii Solenoid detector system to pro-
vide evidence for the existence Supersymmetric particles.















CHAPTER 2
THE STANDARD ;IODEL AND BEYOND

2.1 The Standard Model

The Standard '- I del is considered a low energy effective theory of all known matter

and their interactions [1, 5, 6, 7]. The theory consists of three interacting sectors

which ideally, completely describe the constituents of the universe: the fermionic,

gauge, and scalar sectors. The dynamics of these sectors is governed by the Standard

\I del Lagrangian and its gauge symmetries, where the Lagrangian is


1
C = qy {(i0, gTaG,) q 1 G`,G

t+ L i9 gBPY L + R O i9 2BY R


4 4 "

2 2

Ge (L6R + R& tL + h.c.). (2.1)


Here, the first line describes the strong interaction where q is three component SU(3)

quark color field, G1 is the gluon field, G/ is the gluon fields strength term, Ta is

the SU(3) generator, and gs is the strong coupling strength. The second and third

lines describe the electroweak interaction, where L is the left-1i-,!iii1'-1 fermion SU(2)

isospin doublet, R is right-handed isosinglet, W, is the W boson three-vector; the
'Ri,_11, and left-handedness indicate the helicity state of a given particle, where left is understood
as negative helicity and 1ili' as positive. Helcity can be understood as a particle's intrinsic-spin
projection along its momentum direction. Handedness plays a particularly important role in the
theory.









B, boson couples to the weak hypercharge,t t is the SU(2) generator, Y is the U(1)

generator, and the coupling strengths are given by g and g'. The first three lines

would be enough for a massless particle theory; however, the final two lines must be

included to generate mass in the theory through interactions with the Hii,., scalar

field 01.

2.1.1 Standard Model Fermions

The fermionic sector contains the matter content, which is composed of spin-1/2

particles called fermions. These particles obey the Pauli exclusion principle, and

therefore, Fermi-Dirac statistics. There are two types of fermions, leptons and quarks

(Table 2.1), each of which have six possible flavors that can be grouped into three

generations, each heavier than the next.

2.1.2 Standard Model Gauge Bosons

The gauge sector contains the force carriers (',.I,',I bosons); these gauge bosons

allow the fermions to interact (Table 2.2). The most familiar of these gauge bosons

is perhaps the neutral and massless photon (7), which is described by the theory

of quantum electrodynamics (QED), based on the U(1) gauge group. The W+,

W-, and the Zo are massive particles, which are capable of self-interaction, and are

responsible for the weak nuclear force. These three massive vector-bosons, and the

massless photon can be described in a unified way by the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam

model [8, 9, 10]. This model is based on the gauge group SU(2)L x U(1)y, where the

generator of the U(1)y group is the hypercharge Y (defined such that Q = T3 Y/2),

Q is the electric charge, and T3 the third component of the weak isospin. The
'Ni. the W1, W2, W3, and B are not physically observable but .ii.,. -. i,_. ,-i.,i. The mass-
S;,_. i-i.,i. Zo, Ao, and W are linear combinations of the .i...-. i_. n-.i.li, fields.

lIncluding a potential energy terms into the Lagrangian such as V(4) = tp(24 + A(t ()2, which
has a U(1) -1.. 1 i. symmetry, allows the inclusion of mass terms in the Lagrangian by spontaneously
breaking the i.. I i- symmetry.









Table 2.1: Standard '-ll del leptons.


Particle Name Symbol Charge (e) ,i-.-., (GeV/c2)
Leptons (spin-1/2)
.,-ir on e -1 5.11 x 10-4
'--' ll 1 i, e 0 < 3 x 10 8
i 1i. ,i p- -1 0.106
i,- '-ii n II., I 0 < 0.19 x 10-4
Tau 7 -1 1.78
T- '(-il in[., VT 0 < 18.2 x 10-4
On,.!.ks (spin-1/2)
Down d -1/3 0.008
Up u 2/3 0.004
Strange s -1/3 0.15
Charm c 2/3 1.2
Bottom b -1/3 4.5
Top t 2/3 175


three generators of the SU(2)L group are Ti = ci/2, where ac are the three Pauli

matrices. ,i:.-. is imparted to the electroweak vector-bosons through Spontaneous

Symmetry Breaking (SSB), via the Hii,,., mechanism of the SU(2)L x U(1)y gauge

group [11, 12]. The U(1)em gauge group, which is responsible for the electromagnetic

interaction, remains a symmetry of the broken vacuum state and therefore gives rise

to a massless photon.


Table 2.2: Standard '-li del Gauge Bosons.









Through gluon exchange (the strong interaction), quarks are allowed to form

hadrons. This interaction is described by the theory of Quantum Chromodynam-

ics (QCD), which is based on the SU(3)c gauge group. This theory gives rise to

eight gluons; each gluon is different mixture of two color charges (mixtures of red,

blue, or green), therefore allowing gluons to interact with each other. The quarks

are given one of three possible color charges. Quarks may interact through gluon

exchange such that colorless (color-singlet) hadrons are formed in combinations of

quark-antiquark pairs called mesons (e.g., 7r+ = ud) or more complex combinations

called baryons (e.g., p = uud). As quarks and gluons are the only Standard ll. del

particles which have color charge, only they can interact through the strong force.

An interesting consequence of the uncertainty principleO is that the vacuum can be

understood to be active with the production of so called virtual particle-antiparticle

pairs. These pairs contribute to the "vacuum polarization" causes charge screening.

For example, an electron can be surrounded by virtual electron-positron pairs. These

pairs then act like a dielectric, aligning such that there is an effective cloud of negative

charge surrounding the initial electron. Thus, the true charge of the electron is

screened by this cloud. The electric charge, or coupling, can be probed by scattering

this electron with another electron. As the energy of the probe electron increases, the

effective coupling will change (or "run") as the distance between them decreases [13].

For the electromagnetic coupling, the strength increases with decreasing distance,

as the probe penetrates the charge cloud. Because gluons are color-charged, and

therefore self-interact, this type of screening effect for the strong coupling is more

complicated. The vacuum can give rise to color-charged gluon pairs surrounding a
Ilii.i.,, are required to be color-neutral objects, therefore mesons can be expressed by the
combination Ea= ,. '/ '7 while baryons can be expressed by I Eae, =I. /7, /.4 q where
the e is anti-symmetric permutation tensor [1].

%II, i. I,1 i,'- uncertainty principle essentially establishes a fundamental limit on the precision of
energy measurements for a given quantum system, AEAt > h/2.









parton,II these pairs then attract other color-charged virtual pairs from the vacuum.

Therefore, a very complex color-charged cloud develops around the initial parton. The

strong coupling constant also changes with the distance away from a parton probe;

however, the coupling increases with increasing distance [14]. This result is called

'-i!, i.-i'' !-'-ni!i,." and is responsible for "asymptotic freedom." Because antiscreening

effects are small for close quarks, they behave as free particles. As quarks move apart,

antiscreening causes an increase in interaction strength, thus increasing the required

energy to pull the quarks apart. In principle, this causes quarks to be 'i,!iili-.,l"

inside hadrons. If enough energy is provided, quarks may be pulled apart, building

up enough energy to produce other quark-antiquark pairs which then combine to form

new hadrons. These two examples provide hints that the Standard ll. del coupling

constants may unify at some large energy.

2.1.3 Higgs Boson

The as of yet experimentally unverified scalar sector consists of the uncharged,

massive, lli''., boson. The Hiia,., boson is required by the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam

model in order to break the electroweak gauge symmetry by acquiring a non-zero

vacuum expectation value. The electroweak model based on the SU(2)L x U(1)y

gauge group leads to massless electroweak vector bosons; however, these bosons are

in fact massive, indicating that the SU(2)L x U(1)y gauge symmetry is not respected

by the vacuum, but broken through the Ti,__., mechanism. Through electroweak

symmetry breaking, the W and Zo bosons acquire their masses while preserving

the massless gluon and photon interactions. The remaining Standard 'I, idel fermions

also acquire their masses through interactions with the Hi,,!.
I Quarks and gluons, the constituents of hadrons, are collectively known as partons.









2.1.4 Beyond the Standard Model

The Standard ;'l. del has been extremely successful in yielding experimentally

confirmed predictions. Despite its great success, it is well known that the Standard

\1 I del is not a complete theory, but generally regarded as a low-energy effective theory

for the following reasons [4]:



The Standard ';I -del contains no description of the gravitational force.

No piece of the Standard 'l,. del requires the existence of three generations of
quarks and three generations of leptons.

In total the Standard :'-i. ir- depends on nineteen parameters: the three gauge
coupling constants, the two parameters p2 and A which determine the mass and
self-coupling of the Hii,,.m field, the nine quark and charged lepton masses, the
three angles and one phase specifying the quark mixing matrix, and the OQCD
phase which characterizes the QCD vacuum state. A satisfactory theory should
have a way to predict these values and their relations.

E.1-i i roweak symmetry breaking through the Ti,,,.i mechanism is inserted into
the theory ad hoc in order to yield particle masses.

In order to keep the Hii,.m, mass of order 100 GeV/c2, which satisfies Standard
I.ldel constraints, the effect of radiative corrections (Fig. 2.1) to the Hii,,.>
mass calculations must be cut off at some scale A. The IIi,,.m mass, given by
mH2 = m2 g2A2, where m is the bare Hii,.m, mass and g is a dimensionless
coupling constant, needs m2 and g2A2 to cancel up to 22 decimal places. This
unlikely solution is called the fine-tuning (or naturalness) problem.

The Standard ;ll. del provides no good candidate to explain the existence of
"Dark ;,il li!,"** which is supported through Astrophysical observation [16],
provided for by the Standard ';I -del.


Many theories have been developed to solve the aforementioned problems of the

Standard M'ili.r-. In composite models quarks and leptons are given a substructure
**Astrophysical observation supports the idea that the universe is made up of three ingredients
of which baryons account for .,-l,1,il. :i ', I.,,il, matter" 25%, and 1,.I I, i. i, ." l" .' [15]. Dark
matter should be color and electrically neutral, otherwise it would likely have been detected. In the
Standard Model, only the neutrino could satisfy these constraints; however, neutrino masses are too
small to make up the needed abundance.









f

H



Figure 2.1: Fermion contribution to Iii,,., mass.

formed by common -"rlii'' constituents; such models have been theoretically chal-

lenging as they do not explain the three generations of fermions, and none of the

predicted excited states of quarks and leptons have been observed. Technicolor mod-

els, which propose a new --"I'-iiiiii .!i I!i -" and "'-i 1,nil,-!! 'iii.-, can avoid the

introduction of scalar particles which have problems with radiative corrections, but

such models conflict with experimental bounds on flavor-changing neutral currents.

In Grand Ui f:l, J T1,, .:, (GUTs), a new unified gauge group is sought which could

contain both the electroweak and color gauge groups. This pictures leads to the

unification of electroweak and color couplings at some large energy scale; however,

these models typically predict proton decays which have not be observed. One of the

more promising theories, which addresses the challenges to the Standard I w-I, while

having the flexibility to avoid contradictions with observation is Supersymmetry [1].

2.2 Supersymmetry

In Supersymmetry, each Standard 1I. Il-! particle is associated with a superpartner

[17, 18]. The superpartner has a spin quantum number different by 1/2. This associa-

tion more than doubles the particle content of the Standard 'I, -del. Supersymmetric

models can be constructed in a variety of ways which can naturally ameliorate the

previously mentioned difficulties faced by the Standard '-I l.!r. For example, impos-

ing this new symmetry allows the cancelation of the divergent contributions to the

lHii_., mass from fermion loops by introducing corrections from scalar particles (Fig









2.2), therefore solving the fine-tuning by forming the a new IHi,,., mass correction


2L (A ) + (A2 2
167r2 (167r2A
= 0{( 2r -B m ). (2.2)



S

II

H

Figure 2.2: Scalar contribution to Hi.,,., mass.

A supersymmetry is a symmetry relating fermions to bosons in a new way through

the operation

Q B) = F); Qt IF)= B), (2.3)

where Q, the transformation operator, is an anticommuting spinor with spin 1/2 [19].

This operator transforms bosonic states to fermionic states, and vice versa. The Stan-

dard ,I. del fermions transform to bosonic 4; i;.:i, and the Standard 'I. i'lI! gauge

bosons transform to 'I.ii.:i The resulting supersymmetric particles particlese)

share the number of degrees of freedom as their superpartners.

In a supersymmetric gauge theory, superpartners are grouped into a supermul-

tiplet whose elements are connected by the Q operator. This operator commutes

with Hamiltonian, and thus the elements of the supermultiplet share the same mass.

However, there have been no observed superpartners to the Standard ll. del parti-

cles. This implies if a supersymmetric description of nature is correct, the symmetry

must be a broken one, as the superpartner masses must be at energies previously

inaccessible by experiment.









2.2.1 The Miniimil Supersymmetric Standard Model

The ,lifiiiiIni Supersymmetric Standard ,lldel (\,Is\I) provides the simplest

means to extend the Standard i'-l. I r- to include superpartners and their interactions

by requiring the fewest number of particles and interactions needed to generate the

proper supersymmetric pli1',-l'. ~ 1i 'i' i-'".

2.2.2 MSSM Particle Content

The I I Lagrangian maintains the same gauge group symmetry of the Standard

Il. del, SU(3)c x SU(2)L x U(1)y, and contains all of the Standard lI. del particles

plus their new superpartners (Table 2.3). Each Standard 'I, -del particle is combined

with its superpartner, with spin differing by 1/2, in a supermultiplet.

Table 2.3: Chiral and gauge supermultiplets in the \,IHI.


Name spin 0 spin 1/2 spin 1
squarks, quarks (tL, dL) (UL, dL)
(x 3 families) f*, ut
d dt
sleptons, leptons (iT, eL) (v, eL)
(x 3 families) e et
Hinn.-.lli,,, -il,, .. (H+. Ho) Hf/ Ho
(H.,Hd) H-, Hf
gluino, gluon g g
winos, W bosons W, WO W, W
bino, B boson Bo Bo


The left- and right-handed Standard I', Il.i-l leptons are assigned scalar superpart-

ners individually, as indicated by the "L" and "R" subscripts. The "lil-i!!:;.-' and

.-Iliii i;.-' maintain color charge. Both the squarks and sleptons maintain the same

interactions as their Standard Mlldel superpartners. The Standard ,lilir Hii,,_., is

replaced by two complex chiral HiI .-multiplets. These impart mass to the up- and









down-type quarks, as well as the leptons. These new Hii,.m particles have their own

superpartners called ii,,,.-ii.i.-. Three of the eight degrees of freedom of the two Hi,,,.,

doublets are absorbed to impart mass to the W and Zo bosons. This leaves five

lHi,,., bosons: {H, HO, ho,AO}. The superpartners to the Hi,,,., and electroweak

bosons mix to form the neutralinos (8 i = 1, 2, 3, 4) and the 1 liIqI:,' (i, i = 1, 2)

(Table 2.4).

Table 2.4: i, .-., and gauge eigenstates in the \,I%,I.


Name spin ,i,.-. Eig. ii.--ti s Gauge Eig,!.-i-Iti-s
UL, uR, dL, dR iL, R, dL, dR
squarks 0 CL,CR,SL,SR CL,CR,SL,SR
ti,ti2, 61,b1 tL,tR,bL,bR
eL, eR, Ve eL, eR, Ve
sleptons 0 PL, PR, i, PL, PR, i,,
T1,T2, lT TL,fiTR, IT
neutralinos 1/2 12oo, A3, B04d
charginos 1/2 X~i, Xi2 WV, +H, Hd
gluino 1/2 g


2.2.3 R-Parity

The ,I%),I includes terms in its Lagrangian which allow baryon number and

lepton number violating interactions [20]. Such violations, which can lead to proton

decay, are strongly constrained by experiment. These violations can be handled in

the ,I^YI by requiring that R-Parity be conserved, where R-parity is defined as:


Rp = (-1)(3B+L+2s), (2.4)


where B is baryon number, L is lepton number, and s is the particle spin. As a result

of this definition, the Standard ,I. ,del particles have the value Rp = +1, while their

superpartners have Rp = -1.









Imposing R-parity conservation on Supersymmetric interactions has very impor-

tant consequences for the pi,'-ii. i'll.1. II v of the theory as all sparticles must be pair

produced and finally decay to the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). Since this

LSP is heavy and weakly-interacting, it could be good candidate for dark matter.

2.2.4 Soft Supersymmetry Breaking

Because Supersymmetry is a broken symmetry, as low mass SUSY particles have

yet to be observed, the Lagrangian must contain terms which violate invariance under

the SUSY transformation. In the ,I ;,I, this can be accomplished by writing the

Lagrangian to include a .,ft-1,reaking term [21]


C = CSUSY + soft- (2.5)


Here, susy describes the generalization of the Standard ,. II r and remains invariant

under the Supersymmetry transformation. The soft-breaking term, soft, contains the

masses and couplings while still allowing the cancelation of quadratic divergences.

This term is constructed to become negligible at high energy scales.

This soft-breaking term introduces over 100 new free parameters into the theory

of which, the new mass parameters introduce the needed mass splitting between

superpartners contained in the same supermultiplets. The large number of free pa-

rameters allow the \,INYI the flexibility to assume gauge coupling unification at the

scale of 0(1016 GeV). This is another ingredient of the theory that makes SUSY

so attractive, as the Standard 'I. idel has no mechanism for unifying the strong and

electroweak coupling constants in a natural way (Fig. 2.3) [22].

Although soft-breaking in the ,IY;;,I gives the needed mass splitting and solves

many of the problems in the Standard ',I l.. -l listed above, nearly the full parameter

space is forbidden by observation due to effects in the theory such as Flavor Changing

_-"i,,!l Currents (FCNC), CP violation, and violations of lepton number conserva-










60

50 --, --- -


40 --"-

c 30
-1

20

10
O3
0 I
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Logo(Q/1 GeV)

Figure 2.3: Evolution of inverse gauge couplings in the Standard ', 1.del (dashed lines)
and the ,I\;,I (solid lines). The ,I;;I lines are drawn with variations in sparticle
masses and the strong coupling [19].


tion. There is also no understanding of the origin of the SUSY breaking parameters,

or choice of parameters which leads to electroweak symmetry breaking. By embed-

ding SUSY in a Grand Unification Theory (GUT) framework, it becomes possible to

solve these problems.

2.2.5 Minimal Supergravity

The soft breaking terms run as a function of energy scale as do the gauge couplings.

Parameters such as gaugino and scalar particle mass terms unify at some large scale

\Ix. SUSY breaking is mediated from the hidden sector to the visible sector by

flavor-blind interactions such as gravity. This is the mechanism described in the

minimal Supergravity (mSUGRA) scenario [23]. By forcing the soft-breaking terms

to be consistent with observable phenomena, and imposing the initial conditions of

the model parameters at the unification scale, the number of free parameters in the

theory is significantly reduced and includes:









mo, the common scalar mass term at the unification scale

ml/2, the common gaugino mass term at the unification scale

tan /, the ratio of vacuum expectation values of the two IIi'I'-,. doublets

Ao, a common trilinear coupling constant at unification scale

sign(p), the sign of the lIi I,,-ini mass parameter

By evolving these parameters from energies at the GUT scale to the electroweak scale,

the SUSY particle spectrum and mixing angles become determined (Fig. 2.4) [24].


600

500 Hd
-* -*--.*-.--.. --2. 2 21/2
I Z (_: ,,! +mo)
>400 "" Hu

1 300 .
"..1 ml/2
200- 1

/" '- Ssquarks
100-
sleptons mo

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Log0l(Q/1 GeV)

Figure 2.4: Evolution of scalar and gaugino mass parameters in the M I l;. imposing
unification boundary conditions [19].


The Hii,., mass parameter is given by solving [19]


P 2 2H2 + m/2
/2 2 mH + m /2


As the free SUSY parameters are evolved down to the electroweak scale, p is driven

negative. This is precisely what is required to induce electroweak symmetry breaking,

which now becomes a natural consequence of the theory.


(2.6)









2.2.6 Past Searches and Limits

At present, no experiment has been able to yield a measurement which confirms

the existence of sparticles; however, previous studies can restrict the allowable pa-

rameter space for supersymmetric models, for example by setting lower bounds on

sparticle mass spectra, as well as restricting the allowed values of other model pa-

rameters such as those in mSUGRA. Below is a brief summary of past experimental

searches. A summary is given in Table 2.5, and combined limits are shown in Figure

2.5.



The LEP experiments (ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, OPAL): results were ob-
tained using e+e- collisions at /S energies from the Z peak to ~ 200 GeV/c2. In
these collisions, the sparticle production cross-section is dominated by charginos
and neutralinos, typically decaying directly to SM particles and LSP's. The
typical signature consists of jets, leptons, and missing energy [25]. For exam-
ple, finding no excess of events over Standard 1:.I'I,! expectations in acopla-
nar opposite-charge-same-flavor lepton pairs plus missing energy topology, the
ALEPH experiment was able to establish lower bounds on the masses of m(e~) >
95 GeV/c2, m(PR) > 88 GeV/c2, and m(Rf) > 79 GeV/c2 at 95% C.L., assum-
ing p = -200 GeV/c2 and tan / = 2 [26]. The dominate slepton decay is
through -* /2, and slepton pairs produced through s-channel exchange of
a Z or 7.

The Tevatron experiments (CDF, DO): results were obtained using p -
collisions at v = 1.8 TeV/c2. The sparticle production cross section is domi-
nated squark and gluino production due to the effect of strong coupling. These
are pair produced, and typically cascade decay down through lower mass spar-
ticles such that events have at least two LSPs, therefore leading to a signature
of leptons + !iiill i-j'-l., + missing transverse energy [27, 28]. For example, the
CDF collaboration has searched for the pair produced t1 in the two jets plus
missing transverse energy topology from the decay ti -* cj Searches were
also conducted examining events with b-tagged jets plus muons and missing
transverse energy from the decay t1 -* bl,. In both cases, no excess events
above Standard 1 '-.I l-! expectations were found [29].














400
> 350
U 300
E- 250
200
150
100 -
50
0
0 I I I I I '
0 200 400 600 800 1000
mo(GeV/c)

Figure 2.5: Excluded regions in the mSUGRA universal (mo, ml/2) plane. The
different regions in this plot are: Yellow forbidden by theory, Light blue inconsistent
with measurement of the electroweak parameters at LEP1, Green regions excluded
by chargino searches, Red regions excluded by selection or stau searches, Dark
blue regions excluded by Hii,,., searches, Brown regions excluded by neutralino stau
cascade searches, Magenta regions excluded by the search for heavy stable charged
particles applied to staus [25].

























Table 2.5: Lower limits on supersymmetric particle masses assuming the mSUGRA
scenario [3].


Particle Condition Lower Limit Source
(GeV/c2)
I ,... _i,.I Mr > 200 GeV/c2 103 LEP 2
Mi > Mj 85 LEP 2
any MF 45 Z width
Higgisino M2 < 1 TeV/c2 99 LEP 2
o indirect any tan M, M > 500 GeV/c2 39 LEP 2
any tan /, any mo 36 LEP 2
any tan g, any mo, SUGRA Higgs 59 LEP 2 combined
R AM > 10 GeV/c2 99 LEP 2 combined
PR 6 ,'' AM > 10 GeV/c2 95 LEP 2 combined
TR r '' Mjo > 20 GeV/c2 80 LEP 2 combined
v 43 Z width
PR,TR stable 86 LEP 2 combined
ti c, any ,Omi, AM > 10 GeV/c2 95 LEP 2 combined
any Omix, M; o M 115 CDF
any Omix, any AM 59 ALEPH
bev any mix, AM > 7 GeV/c2 96 LEP 2 combined
g any M 195 CDF jets + YT
S Mq M 300 CDF jets + YT















CHAPTER 3
EXPERIf lEN' TAL APPARATUS

3.1 The Large Hadron Collider

3.1.1 Overview of the Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is scheduled to become operational during the

third quarter of 2007 [30]. It consists of two 27 kilometer long proton synchrotrons,

which have been designed to share the same tunnel as that which housed the previous

Large Election Positron Collider (LEP), and sits 100 m beneath the Swiss/French

countryside near Geneva (Fig. 3.1). The LHC will provide proton-proton collisions

at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV; this is approximately 7 times higher than

the worlds highest energy collider, the Tevatron at Fermilab in Chicago. Figure 3.2

illustrates the cross sections and event rates of the phenomena expected to be studied

at the LHC [31]. In addition to proton-proton collisions, the LHC will provide heavy-

ion collisions subsequent to the first physics runs with protons.

Proton bunches will collide at a frequency of 40 \', I I ., or every 25 ns, when the LHC

is running at full design iil iii i. -i i- at 1034 cm-2S-1 nearly 100 times that achievable

by the Tevatron. This is accomplished by accelerating 2835 proton bunches, where

each bunch is composed of 1011 protons.

The commissioning of the LHC will commence during the third quarter of 2007,

first accelerating single beams containing a few bunches, followed by a low luminos-

ity pilot run consisting of machine development periods and data-taking runs [33].

*The luminosity = f N1N where f is the collision frequency, Ni is the number of particles per
bunch, and aj is the rms bunch transverse 1. I_ iil A physics process with a particular production
cross-section a, will then result in an event rate of R = La [32].




















'4,



S'WITZERLAND
FRANQ 'I.,


I N













Jid -i
An,,'y
V- ."



yri SERLA / '


Fu 3ENEVA








(LAPP) E A

Figure 3.1: LHC geographical situation.
/ V)"^-/'-.
> '"""M~n-^^I / wjfww

*,~rr< ....../**"
6 EEAS-









During this debugging phase, only 43 or 156 bunches per beam will be accelerated.

A luminosity of 2 x 1031 cm-2s-1 is achievable during runs with 156 bunches: a

month-long pilot physics run could lead to 10 pb-1 of integrated luminosity.

The LHC will increase to 936 bunches with 75 ns spacing in 2008, and will even-

tually be changed to 25 ns -plw in-. increasing the beam content to 2808 bunches. An

instantaneous luminosity of 2 x 1033 cm-2S-1 is anticipated until 2010, with the first

year of physics running delivering 5 fb-1.

Since the LHC will collide proton bunches, each of the two synchrotrons will re-

quire its own magnetic field such that the protons can be held in counter rotating

orbits during spill cycles. Protons are kept in orbit around the LHC ring through

Lorentz forced induced by a 8.33 Telsa magnetic field provided by 1296 superconduct-

ing dipole magnets.

Since the proton-proton interaction cross-section (or probability) is proportional

to 1/Energy2, a high beam luminosity is required to ensure an interaction rate high

enough to facilitate a successful physics program. Because of the high collision lumi-

nosity, and total proton-proton inelastic cross-section 0(100 mb) at the LHC, nearly

20 proton interactions per bunch crossing are expected at full design luminosity or

800 million proton interactions per second. The large interactions rate presents a

considerable challenge for readout electronics, triggering, and data acquisition. The

LHC accelerator chain is described below.
1t barn = 10-24 cm2. T1 I,.i.,, we have = 2 x 1031 cm-2-1 = 2 x 10-5 pb-ls-1. This
means f1 month dt ~ 10 pb.

tA particle of electric 11.11i. ,1 q moving with velocity J' i lIh ._1l an electric field of i .,,1i1 El
and a magnetic field of -i. 11 i il B, will experience a force given by F = q(E + x fB) [34]. This
relation along with the centripetal force equation, can be used to determine the momentum p of a
particle held in circular orbit of radius r, which is given by p(GeV) = 0.3Br.



















LHC /s=14TeV


o inel



bb


0
barn





mb





pb





nb





pb





fb


L=1034cm-2s-1


astic L1 input







Li output = HLT input





Smax HLT output


SUSy qq+qg~gg
tanal=2, g=m-/2
tanl3=2, pt=mgmq:


jet ET or particle mass (GeV)

Figure 3.2: Inclusive proton-proton cross sections for physics processes
the LHC [31].


of interest at


rate


GHz


MHz


*
* W-lv
SZl Iv
*0 tt


ev/year
10 17

10 16

-10 15

10 14

10 13

- 10 12

10 11

10 10
10

S10 8


S10

-10

10

10
- 10 3



S10 2

- 10

- 1
-1









3.1.2 Proton Source

The LHC accelerator chain is shown in Figure 3.3 [35]. Fil-i, a duoplasmatron

source is used to extract protons from hydrogen gas. Bunches of these protons are

then accelerated to 50 MeV by a linear accelerator (Li.ii- 2) and sent separately into

one of four booster rings. These booster rings are then used to further accelerate

the protons an additional 1.0 GeV, thus preparing them for next injection. The LHC

receives protons from the older 200 meter diameter Proton Synchrotron (PS). The PS

is an all purpose accelerator ring that in particular will be used for the acceleration

and injection into the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) ring. The PS takes bunches

from each booster, combines them into larger bunches, and accelerates them to 0.026

TeV. A 40 :;'Ill RF system takes the bunches from the PS and inj1-i .., them into the

SPS, where the bunches are separated by 25 ns. This proton bunch structure is very

important for data synchronization. The CMS readout electronics for the detector

systems is synchronized to the LHC collision frequency, latching in data from each

25 ns window.


Potoion
linacs


Figure 3.3: LHC Accelerator chain.









The 6 km long SPS ring will accelerate the protons to 0.45 TeV before injection

into the LHC, where they are then accelerated to 7 TeV in about 20 minutes. The

LHC ring will require new proton bunches every 10 hours due to inefficiencies in

keeping them in orbit over four-hundred-million times; one such inefficiency is caused

by deflections from the beam-beam interactions during a bunch crossing. The additive

effect of multiple deflections can cause proton losses within the beam.

3.1.3 Detector Systems

The LHC will host five detector systems (Fig. 3.4) with each served their own

beam crossing. Point 2 will contain ALICE, A Large Ion Collider Experiment, a detec-

tor that is specialized for heavy ion collisions. Point 8 hosts the LHC-B experiment,

which is a dedicated B-physics detector. The remaining two detectors are considered

multi-purpose, and are in some sense competing experiments: they are A Toroidal

LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) at Point 1, and The Compact 'liln.,i Solenoid (CMS) at

Point 5. The TOTEM (Total Cross Section, Elastic Scattering and Diffraction Dis-

sociation) experiment shares point 5 with CMS and will study forward physics.

3.2 The Compact MIton Solenoid

Because we cannot directly observe the interactions which govern the behavior of

subatomic particles, but rather their final decay products, we must enclose the volume

around the proton bunch collisions with detectors whose data results in measurements

of various kinematic parameters. Parameters such as position, momentum, energy,

mass, are the measurable quantities that can uniquely describe the underlying initial

particle interactions. Thus, the goal of the CMS detector is the measure these quan-

tities as completely and precisely as possible using an array of specialized detectors,

each of which will supply a piece of the complete event structure [36]. These detector

systems are arranged in a series of concentric cylinders about the beam axis. Start-

ing from the layer nearest the beam pipe, CMS has the following detector systems











Point 5











I a
Point 8

A: id r. |


LHC 'B'
LHC Project Buildings L C
ATLAS

Figure 3.4: Location of LHC experiments along main ring.


(Fig. 3.5): Fi.-i is the inner tracker system, capable of charged track reconstruction

and high resolution momentum measurements with good efficiency. Based on pixel

and microstrip detectors, the tracker has good special resolution that allows for the

tagging of heavy flavor jets originating from b and c quark decays. After the tracker

system is the El-,i i romagnetic Calorimeter system (ECAL). A PbWO4 scintillating

crystal calorimeter, the ECAL system measures the energy and direction of electrons

and photons. It must have good energy measurement resolution such that a di-photon

and di-electron mass resolution of better than 1% at 100 GeV is possible. The third

layer is the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) system. Working in conjunction with the

ECAL system, this sampling calorimeter measures the energy and direction of particle

jets. This system must provide good hermetic coverage such that reasonable energy

measurements can be made. After the HCAL system is the 4 Tesla superconducting

solenoid which provides the magnetic field that causes bending in particle trajectories.

The final detector system is the muon system. Benefiting from the muons relatively

long lifetime and large mass, muons provide a clean signature of new physics. The









muon system is placed outside both calorimeters. The muon system provides good

muon identification, charge assignment, and is able to reconstructed di-muon masses

at better than 1% resolution for 100 GeV muons. Each detector subsystem will be

described in more detail below.

3.2.1 Coordinate System

The CMS detector is approximately 21.6 m in length from end-to-end, has a diam-

eter of approximately 15 m, and weighs 12500 t. CMS uses a cylindrical coordinate

system in which the x-axis points towards the LHC center, y-axis points vertically,

and the z-axis runs parallel to the beam line and points towards the Jura mountains.

The azimuthal angle 0 (Fig. 3.6) is measured away from the x-axis, and the polar

angle 0 is measured away from the z-axis. It is usually more convenient to work with

the pseudorapidity r = ln(tan 0/2) rather than 0 (Fig. 3.7), as particle production

is roughly uniform as a function of 77.

3.2.2 Magnet.

The magnetic field is at the heart of CMS (Table 3.1) [37]. The liquid helium

superconducting solenoid at CMS is 13 m long, and generates a 4 T field. This

field is sufficiently strong enough to allow for precise muon tracking and momentum

measurements using track curvature caused by the Lorentz force up to 7rll < 2.5.

As of this writing, the magnet has been installed, and has began undergoing tests,

including a successful cool-down period. The magnet will be used during the CMS

Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (,I I'CC). The primary goal of the magnet test is

to check functionality of the magnet including its cooling, power supply and control

systems. In addition, tests will be conducted to map the magnetic field, check closure

tolerances and the field tolerance of yoke mounted components [38].


















Superconducting Solenoid
Silicon Tracker
Pixel Detector


Very-forward
7 Calorimeter





















Hadron
co

r I







r


Compact Muon Solenoid









































Figure 3.6: Side view of CMS showing the 0 coordinate.


Table 3.1: CMS super-conducting solenoid parameters.


Field 4 T
Inner Bore 5.9 m
Length 12.9 m
_\iinli, of Turns 2168
Current 19.5 kA
Stored Energy 2.7 GJ


















EE E E E E E E E





0.00 m 0.000 m
CO I 1 C I I 4 I a














3.00 m
J CO CO C


I.1 ] I II





4.03 m-




F 7r.60 m


m. m{ m
571 m- -




iNTB.44 M



MF2
S- .4.67 m


10.60 m
10.8 m ve

., E
I N







F 37 u p-, 4.10 m







Figure 3.7: Quarter profile view of !S' showing the q coordinate.









3.2.3 Inner Tracking System

With its location being closest to the beam collision vertex, the tracker system is

used to provide precise measurements of lepton and jet moment at high resolution.

\Il.!ii-ii miii measurements are important in order to define isolated physics objects

such as e's, p's, 7's, and T's. Because heavy particles such as the c- and b- quarks have

relatively long lifetimes, they can travel a measurable distance before d'-i ,i\ in,: for

example, the D meson has cT = 317 micrometers. Such heavy flavored objects, which

can decay hundreds of micrometers away from the primary interaction vertex, pro-

duce secondary vertices. The tracker system must be able to resolve these secondary

vertices with sufficient precision to accommodate the identification of the decaying

parent particle. The tracker must perform these functions while minimally interfering

with the particles themselves; therefore, a minimal number of active detector layers

are used such that good performance is ensured, but at the cost of a few radiation

and interaction 1 ,iigil .

Its close proximity to the primary collision vertex implies that the tracker must

be radiation hard, as at full luminosity, over 1000 particles per bunch crossing are

expected to traverse its volume. This high particle multiplicity also means that in

order to achieve a minimal occupancy, which would allow for reasonable position

resolution, a large number of detector channels must be used. The Tracker consists

of three regions [40]:

At 10 cm < r < 20 cm, Pixel detectors are used. The typical Pixel size is 100x150

Pm2 thus allowing for an occupancy of 10-4 particles/pixel/bx at 10 cm from the

collision point. Designed to provide 3-dimensional positional information with high

precision, the Pixel detector system is composed of 3 barrel and 4 endcap detector

layers (Fig. 3.8).

1B.....i-. energy loss of a I.1iL 1 particle (from radiation) traversing a material is given by
dE= E the ..r i.i 1. I_ 11 1,'1" can be understood as the 1. Ii il1 of material that reduces the mean
dx YOo




























Figure 3.8: Schematic of the CMS Pixel detector.


The pixel detector system is built from an array of individual pixel modules. Each

module is composed of a sensor layer bump bonded to the readout circuitry. The

sensor layer is partitioned into individual pixel cells 150 x 150 Pm2 in size (Figures

3.9 and 3.10).


.. ............. ...".:... -..




.. .





Figure 3.9: Diagram showing a pixel detector element.


The detection mechanism for the pixel detectors is shown in Figure 3.11. An

potential difference is induced between the upper and lower surfaces of the pixel. As

a charged particle traverses the p-type medium, electrons excited to the conduction

energy of a particle by a factor of e [39].

















Figure 3.10: Photograph of a pixel detector module (courtesy CMS).

band drift towards the n-type pixels which act as collectors. In the barrel region, these

electrons have a large dispersion angle (Lorentz angle) caused by the CMS magnetic

field. This dispersion helps to distribute electrons to neighboring pixels which can

improve the position resolution. The Silicon ,li rostrip detectors, described below,

work in a similar manner.

( B Field ( 4 T) n- pixel implants
-/\
electrons

depleted ,,lion-
EI O
holes
undepleted E 0

ionizing particle track
p+- implant (- 300 V)

Figure 3.11: Diagram of demonstrating the pixel detector concept.


With its 15 pm resolution, vertex construction can be accomplished in 3-dimensions

which allows b and 7-jets to be efficiently reconstructed. The barrel layers are posi-

tioned at an average distance of 4.4 cm, 7.3 cm, and 10.2 cm away from the beam

axis, and have a total length of 53 cm. The endcaps are positioned at a distance

z = 34.5 cm and z = 46.5 cm away from the collision region. The radial coverage

is 6 cm < r < 15 cm away from the beam axis. Each endcap layer is composed of 24

wedges, rotated at 200 to benefit from the Lorentz effect, and so have a turbine-like

geometry.









The barrel has a total of 768 pixel modules, while the endcap has 672 modules

for a total of 1440. The pixels are bonded to readout circuits on readout chips which

have a total of 52 x 53 pixels each. Thus, about 40 million pixel channels are read out

for an active area of 0.92 m2. The pixels can achieve an r 0 resolution of 10 pm

and a z resolution of 20 pm over |17| < 2.4.

At 20 cm < r < 55 cm, Silicon -lidi rostrip detectors are used. The reduced flux

is low enough such that the cell size can be increased to 10 cm x 80 Pm, allowing

a 2-:',' occupancy/bx. The TIB (Tracker Inner Barrel) consists of 4 detector layers

extending to z < 65 cm. The TIB is built from 300 pm thick sensors, with 80-120

pm pitch, and 7-12.5 cm length. The first two layers provide stereo measurements,

with an angle of 100 mrad, which allows for a r 0 resolution of 23-34 Pm, and a z

resolution of 23 pm.

At 55 cm < r < 120 cm, more course Silicon ,lili rostrips are used, with cell

size of 25 cm x 180 pm, allowing a 1% occupancy (Fig. 3.12). The TOB (Tracker

Outer Barrel) consists of six detector layers extending to z < 110 cm, and uses

500 mm thick sensors with a strip pitch from 120 to 180pm. This coarse readout

is acceptable because of the decreased particle flux. The first two layers provide

stereo measurements. This layer can measure r 4 at a 35-52 pm resolution and a z

resolution at 52 pm. The TEC (Tracker End-Cap) consists of nine large disks in the

region 120 cm < z < 280 cm along the beam axis.

The tracker is expected to reconstruct charged particles with PT > 1 GeV/c, as

particles below this threshold ("!I.,p,'. ") are expected to be bent such that they

will not make it far enough in the r-direction to be detected by the pixels. Charged

hadrons above this threshold are expected to be reconstructed with 85% efficiency.

This efficiency will improve with higher PT up to 95%. llni!.i.- will be reconstructed

with an efficiency of better than Is' in the barrel region, while electrons will be

reconstructed with an efficiency of 90%. The resolution of transverse momentum,








.O .1 0.2 .0.3 0.4 0.5 .6 0.7 0.8 09 1 0 11 12 ,1.4 1 5

____i..::;-:/; I X I J 10-:4:::I ^

~-^ -I- I -

ar1









Figure 3.12: Quarter view of CMS strip detector layout.

transverse impact parameter, and longitudinal impact parameter for single muons is

shown in Figure 3.13.

As of this writing, the silicon microstrip tracker system is scheduled to be delivered

to point 5 at the beginning of 2007. The pixel system is expected to be delivered at

the beginning of 2008.

3.2.4 Electromagnetic Calorimeter

Situated between the tracker system and the hadron calorimeter (Fig. 3.14), the

El1-i i romagnetic Calorimeter is designed to precisely measure electrons and photons

using nearly 80,000 lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillating crystals (Fig. 3.15) covering

the pseudorapidity range of 1r7| < 3 [41]. The high resolution performance of the

ECAL system is dictated by the requirement to measure di-photon final states.

The ECAL crystals induce electromagnetic showers within their volume through

Coulomb interactions between incoming electrons or photons and the nuclei of the

crystal. This interaction causes a strong deflection in the path an incoming electron,

which intern causes the electron to radiate photons (l,!i-!i!ii-l bnn!I!). These pho-

tons will then typically produce electron-positron pairs. These pairs then interact

in the same manner as the initial electron. This propagation leads to an electro-
















10 -- pt=1GeV
-A- pt=10GeV
-- pt=100GeV


.. .... ..
S.!***
,ii. i = i 6i6


0 0.5 1 1.5 2


S- pt=1GeV E
-- pt=10GeV -
S, pt=100GeV a 10
-o a'
e;.. og eL : : : -


I 0 "*. ..5. 2.


0 0.5 1 1.5 2


-- pt=1GeV
-- pt=10GeV
,- pt=100GeV '
A:



A -


Ai : A : :


0 0.5 1 1.5 2


Figure 3.13: Resolution for single muons with transverse moment 1, 10, and 100

GeV/c for: (upper) transverse momentum, (lower left) transverse impact parameter,

and (lower right) longitudinal impact parameter [33].


2.6 ___-- ----------|^&
.0 -Endcap
- ---- ---- Endcap
ECAL (EE)


Figure 3.14: Quarter view of ECAL layout.


~Ei





















Figure 3.15: Photograph of a single ECAL crystal (courtesy CMS).


magnetic shower formation within the crystal (Fig. 3.16). Photons which initially

enter the crystal volume initiate shower production in the a similar manner. As more

particles are produced, the energy per new particle decreases until finally particle

pair-production stops, and most of the energy is absorbed by the crystal resulting in

light emission that is collected by detectors at the end of the crystal [39]. The light

yield is proportional the initial energy of the incoming particle.








e
e





Figure 3.16: Diagram of an electromagnetic shower developing from an initial photon.


The ECAL crystals have a short radiation length (Xo = 0.89 cm), a ',li,-i.!.

radius (2.2 cm), and are about 23 cm long. This allows narrow electromagnetic

showers to form in the crystals, of which 99% of the energy is contained therefore
In an electromagnetic shower, the Moleire radius RM characterizes the transverse shower size
[39].










making a very small ECAL system overall with good energy and position resolution

(Fig. 3.17). These crystals work well with the LHC timing structure as 85% of the

light is emitted in 20 ns. In the barrel region, the ECAL crystals have an area of

20.5 x 20.5 mm2 (or Ar7 x AO = 0.014 x 0.014) facing the radial direction, while in

the endcap, they range from 27 x 29 mm2 to 18 x 20 mm2 (Ar] x Aq = 0.05 x 0.05).


1.4 --3x3
II S=3.63 +/-0.1%l
N=124 MeV
IJ 1.2 C=0.26 +/- 0.01%-
------ 3x3 Hodo Cuts
0 S= 2.83 +/- 0.3%
1N=124 MeV
.C= 0.26 +- 0.04%
0.8 -

0.6

0.4-

0.2

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
E (GeV)

Figure 3.17: ECAL supermodule energy resolution as a function of electron energy
entering a 3 x 3 array of crystals [33].


In order to enhance the ability to separate 7r's from 7's, CMS employs a preshower

detector in front of the ECAL crystals in the forward region (1.65 < 1r77 < 2.6). This

detector contains two lead converters. Each lead converter layer is followed by a plane

of silicon strip detectors with a pitch of 1.9 mm. 7r's can be distinguished from 7's

by examining the charge distribution of along the detector strips as di-7 production

from 7ro decays should result in broad charge distributions on the strip detectors.

As of this writing, nearly SlI, of the ECAL crystals have been delivered. More

than half of the 36 ECAL l.-uplii ii ln I-" have been assembled and calibrated. Two

supermodules have been installed for use during the \,ITCC.









3.2.5 Hadron Calorimeter

In between the ECAL system and the superconducting solenoid sits the Hadron

Calorimeter system [42]. The HCAL system works in concert with the ECAL system

to provide full coverage up to r17| < 5 and to measure the energy and direction of

particle jets caused by quarks and gluons, as well as missing transverse energy caused

by ii -ill! i ii. (or other exotic phenomena).

\l il Ii like the ECAL, the HCAL system relies on shower development and en-

ergy absorption to detect the initial incoming particles [39]. Because the incoming

hadrons lose energy primarily through strong interaction with the nuclei of the ab-

sorber material, the HCAL system must be much larger than ECAL. The HCAL

system is a sampling calorimeter which consist of 4 mm thick plastic scintillator tiles

with wavelength-shifting fiber readout, interleaved with 5 cm thick brass absorber

plates (Fig. 3.18).







r-- N_= -,.



rV --- --- -- ,,

Figure 3.18: Schematic wedge used to build up barrel region of the HCAL system.


As a hadronic shower passes through each layer of absorber, more energy is lost which

is then measured by the subsequent scintillator layer. The total energy collected

by the scintillators is then proportional to that of the initial incoming hadron. A

I.Il--1_L transverse energy is measured by taking the negative vector sum of the calorimeter
energy content in the x y plane. This quantity is important in hadron collisions as the total initial
transverse energy in hadron beam collision is considered a conserved quantity (whose initial state is
0); therefore, the ii;--i;iL transverse energy indicates invisible particle content.









granularity of Arj x AO = 0.087 x 0.087 is used in the barrel region |r7| < 2 (Fig.

3.19). This granularity is suitable for good di-jet separation and mass resolution. In

the endcap region, 1.3 < 1]7r < 3.0, the r7 granularity ranges from 0.087 to 0.35, while

the 0 segmentation ranges from 0.087 to 0.175 radians (Fig. 3.20).


Figure 3.19: Photograph of barrel portion of the HCAL detector with individual
wedges clearly visible (courtesy CMS).


In the region 1r7l < 1.4, CMS has an hadron outer calorimeter which sits outside of

the solenoid and serves to measure the low-energy tails that result from late developing

or highly energetic showers which are not contained by the barrel HCAL. This detector

helps ensure a robust energy measurement.

In order to give full geometrical coverage of the calorimeter system, enabling the

reconstruction of very forward jets, a separate forward calorimeter system is used in

the region 3 < 1r7] < 5. It is a located 11 m away from the interaction region. This

detector uses a steel absorber with embedded quartz fibers which act as the active

material.























Figure 3.20: Photograph of the endcap portion of the HCAL detector (courtesy CMS).

As of this writing, the HB portion of the HCAL system has been inserted into

the solenoid. Part of this system will participate in the ':I I'CC. The endcap modules

have also been assembled.

3.2.6 IMuon System

\ il i i.s will provide a clean signature of interesting physics at the LHC as they are

often in the final states of heavy particle decays and minimally interact with inner

detector systems; therefore, CMS has an extremely robust muon system. The CMS

muon system efficiently identifies muons up to 17r| < 2.4 and measures their moment

with good resolution (Fig. 3.21). Its fast detector response and custom electronics

allow this system to provide CMS a with very efficient muon trigger [43].

The muon system is composed of a barrel and endcap system, each with four

layers (or stations). The outer volume of CMS is instrumented with muon detectors

mounted on to the iron support structure that also serves as the return yoke for the

4 T magnetic field.

Because of the low occupancy in the barrel region and a near uniform magnetic

field, the barrel region of the muon system uses drift tubes (Fig. 3.22). The drift

tubes are drift chambers filled with a gas mixture of Ar-CO2. They have 1.2 mm thick

aluminum cathodes, as well as stainless steel anode wires strung along the center of










800
SDT eta= 0.8 / 1.04
RPC 1.2
700
MB3
600


500 1.
1.6

400


300 /l/ 0 2.1

202.4


100 M VI E 2 M E E4
200.0
-/ -CSC
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Z (cm)

Figure 3.21: Quarter view showing :'lln.' System.


the tube. As muons traverse the gas volume, the free electrons liberated from the gas

drift toward the anode wires which provide the signal information for the detector.

By knowing the drift velocity and drift time, the position of an incoming particle's

distance from the anode wire can be reconstructed. These detectors are capable of

a spatial resolution better than 250 pm, and have a timing resolution of about 5 ns,

which is adequate for bunch crossing identification.

With higher particle rates and a non-uniform magnetic field, the endcap region

employees cathode strip chamber technology. The endcap region consists of four

stations of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC). These are Ar-C02-CF4 filled multiwire

proportional chambers providing CMS complete azimuth coverage (in 0), as well as

0.9 < lrT < 2.4. Six cathode strip and anode wire layers compose a single station in

the endcap system. The chambers are trapezoidal in shape, extending 100 or 20 in

0, and are composed of cathode strips aligned radially from the beam axis, and gold
































Figure 3.22: Photograph of Drift-tube detectors in the barrel region (courtesy CMS).

plated anode wires aligned in the orthogonal direction. These chambers are arranged

to form a complete disk (Fig. 3.23).

A muon entering the gas volume of a CSC will caused ionization. The resulting

electrons will accelerate towards the anode wires causing a charge avalanche. These

electrons are then collected by the anode wires, inducing an image charge on the

cathode strips. By interpolating the charge distribution between neighboring strips,

a precise measurement of the 0 coordinate can be made (Fig. 3.24). The anode signals

provides fast timing information and a course measurement of the 77 coordinate. These

chambers are typically able to provide a spatial resolution of about 200 Pm (100 Pm

for the chambers on the inner most ring closest to the interaction region). The 5

resolution is 0(10 mrad).

The barrel and endcap regions will also contain Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs),

used to provide additional timing information (~ 1 ns) to service the trigger system








































Figure 3.23: Photograph of one station of the endcap muon system (courtesy CMS).











Position is obtained from
gaussian fit to'---

-low
l J. ._4nals
[ .m
i: lhodes
,: held
r, Irack










Figure 3.24: Cartoon illustrating the concept of CSC design.








46


and provide additional muon detection capabilities. A RPC is made from two paral-

lel plates with high bulk resistivity, separated by a gas gap a few millimeters wide.

El.i I rodes are formed by the outer surfaces of the plates, which are coated with a con-

ductive graphite paint. The detector signal is produced when an electron avalanche,

induced by incoming muons crossing the gas region, drifts toward the anode, thus

inducing an image charge on the readout cathodes.

current

Ionizing Detecting strips o e
particle


Ga gapl seHV -4.q mmResistive
mutpiaiplates





Figure 3.25: Cartoon illustrating the concept of RPC design.



Figure 3.26 shows the muon momentum resolution achievable by CMS.


0. 0. C
0.0<11<0.2 1.8
A
..... ----------...- #
to ,.- ,------.--- to
;:;: I--------->---- -* ;





10 10 2

*Full system Full system
Muon system only 0 Muon system only


103 103
10 102 103 10 102 103
p[GeV/c] p[GeV/c]


Figure 3.26: -lil ,!l momentum resolution versus momentum for (left) the barrel and
(right) the endcap regions [33].



As of this writing, nearly 90% of the muon detectors have been installed. A slice of

this system will participate in the I'CC.









3.3 CMS Trigger System

At full luminosity, the LHC collisions will result in an enormous amount of detector

data (approximately 40 TB/s) from the near 109 interactions per second. At CMS

three levels of trigger systems are implemented to reduce the data bandwidth to a

manageable 100 'llH/s. While the trigger system forms its decision for a particular

collision, the collision event detector data is held in memory and is ultimately sent

to permanent storage upon the formation of a positive trigger decision.

The Level-1 Trigger must reduce the data rate to (100 kHz) in 3.2 ps (128

proton bunch-crossings). This trigger is based on custom electronics, and forms its

decision with no dead-time by identifying muons, electrons, photons, jets, and missing

transverse energy with the lowest possible thresholds while satisfying the Level-1 rate

requirement. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is based on commercial processors and

uses the full resolution available from the detectors to further reduce the rate to 100

Hz.

3.3.1 Level-1 Trigger

The first trigger level (Level-1) reduces the data size by a factor of 400 in just 3.2

ps. The algorithms employed to facilitate this reduction are executed by custom elec-

tronics, and are motivated by knowledge of the standard model, as well as particular

physics processes and decay channels of interest such as new physics phenomena that

result in high-pT decay products. Only the calorimeters and muon system participate

in the Level-1 trigger system, which provide fast reconstruction of muons, electrons,

taus, jets, and missing transverse energy using coarse detector data.

While the Level-1 decision is being formed, the full precision detector data is held

in a pipeline. Every 25 ns, a new event is received by the Level-1 system. The Level-1

Trigger decision is determined by its two detector subsystems: the Level-1 calorimeter










trigger and the Level-1 muon trigger, while the tracker system does not participate

in the Level-1 Trigger formation (Fig. 3.27).



HF HCAL ECAL RPC CSC DT
Energy energy energy hits hits hits
trig.
primi-
Itive segment segment
data Regional. inder inder
Cal. Trigger Pattern
DAQ quiet Comp-
regions arator
& mip track track
Global. bits finder finder
input Cal.Trigger
data
.--- -*-*-*.--*. Global Muon Trigger
:trigger
.objects TRKECAL
GlobalTrigger T System HCAL MU


Figure 3.27: Overview of Level-1 Trigger system [31].


Using the HCAL and ECAL systems, the Calorimeter trigger sends the best can-

didate isolated and non-isolated e/7 objects, T-jet objects, and forward and central

jets, as well as the sum of transverse energy (EET) and missing transverse energy

(gT) of the event to the Global Trigger each event. Additional information is used in

conjunction with the Global ',lii. o Trigger to identify isolated muons.

The Global li~ioi Trigger accepts the best muon candidate tracks formed by

the Resistive Plate Chamber, the Barrel il! 'ii, Drift Tube, and the Cathode Strip

Chamber systems. The tracks provided by these systems must be placed into a

common (r7],) coordinate space and PT scale. Using information from the Calorimeter

trigger, isolated muons are also found. A final list of the four best muons are sent

to the Global Trigger. Figure 3.28 shows the simulated single- and di- muon trigger

rates for various muon PT thresholds.

The Global Trigger uses a logical combination of the Calorimeter and Global ,I i 11

t!ii _,-!.-. The Global Trigger processes the list of oli,j'i ., passed to it by the lower

level trigger systems, applies thresholds, and passes the final Level-1 accept command










S* GMT rate GMT dimuons diff events
106 DT/CSC rate
o10 o DT I C rate 105 GMT dimuons same event
: . RPC rate
Generated rate GMT dimuons total rate
1,, 0 0 *- --- dimuons generated rate
S1 r : : 4
O .. O
E E
10 10
C 1" 102

102 .. 10
a) b)
2 3 456 10 20 30 10C 2 3 4 5 678 10 20
p threshold (GeV/c) symmetric p threshold (GeV/c)

Figure 3.28: Simulated Level-1 Trigger rate for = 2 x 1033 cm-2S-1. a) shows the
single-muon rate and b) shows the di-muon trigger rate as a function of transverse
momentum threshold [33].


to the Trigger, Timing, and Control system (TTC). These thresholds (defined in the

"i! ii,, menu") are determined by the needs and requirements of the experiment. A

possible Level-1 trigger menu for low luminosity conditions is shown in Table 3.2 [30].

3.3.2 High Level Trigger

The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is composed of two trigger levels. The Level-2 Trig-

ger is executed on commercial processors. This stage uses full precision detector data

from the muon and calorimeter systems to reconstruct the physics objects. Its input

data rate is reduced by a factor of 10 compared to the Level-1 Trigger. The Level-3

Trigger uses additional information from the tracker system to fully reconstruct the

event and is therefore more time consuming. This allows an additional rate reduc-

tion to 100 Hz. By using a commercial processor farm, the HLT system is extremely

flexible, and is ultimately more cost effective than using a system based on custom

electronics. Because the HLT is software based, the reconstruction algorithms used

to identify physics (ol,j-i i., from the high-quality detector data can be the same as

that used for offline analysis.

The HLT uses regional reconstruction whereby physics objects are reconstructed

based on detector data originating from regions of interest as identified by the Level-1










Table 3.2: The Level-1 Trigger Menu at C = 2 x 1033 cm-2S-1. Individual and cumu-
lative rates are given for the different trigger paths and selected kinematic thresholds.


Trigger Level-1 Tlo-li-n 1i Level-1 Rate Cumulative Level-1 Rate
(GeV) (kHz) (kHz)
Inclusive e y 22 3.9 0.3 3.9 0.3
Double e7 11 1.0 0.1 4.6 0.3
Inclusive P 14 2.5 0.2 7.1 0.3
Double p 3 4.0 0.3 11.0 0.4
Inclusive T 100 2.2 0.2 12.9 0.5
Double T 60 3.0 0.2 14.9 0.5
1-,2-,3-,4-jets 150,100,70,50 2.2 0.2 15.8 0.5
HT 275 2.0 0.2 16.2 0.5
9T 60 0.4 0.1 16.3 0.5
HT+ ST 200, 40 1.1 0.1 16.6 0.5
jet + gT 100, 40 1.1 0.1 16.7 0.5
T + -T 60, 40 2.7 0.2 18.8 0.5
P + -T 5, 30 0.3 0.1 19.0 0.6
ey + gT 15, 30 0.5 0.1 19.1 0.6
p + jet 7, 100 0.2 0.1 19.1 0.6
ey + jet 15, 100 0.6 0.1 19.2 0.6
P + T 7, 40 1.2 0.1 19.8 0.6
ey + T 15, 60 2.6 0.2 20.5 0.6
ey + p 15, 7 0.2 0.1 20.5 0.6
Prescaled 22.3 0.6
Total Level-1 Rate 22.3 0.6


Trigger. A detailed description of single- and di-p triggering is provided below. A

possible High-Level trigger table for low luminosity conditions is shown in Table 3.3.

This work uses event samples selected by two HLT t ii,-!,.-. the inclusive single-muon

and the di-muon t!rii'!'.-: these tii ';'-!. are described in more detail below.

3.3.3 Single-muon trigger

A single-muon inclusive trigger is formed by requiring that either (1) in the end-

caps, low quality Level-1 cathode strip chamber (CSC) tracks be matched with re-

sistive plate chambers (RPC) tracks by the Global 'lil !ii Trigger and at least one

Level-2 muon be reconstructed with a valid extrapolation to the collision vertex, or

(2) in the barrel, at least one drift tube (DT) track segment be reconstructed with









the sum of the number of DT segments and RPC hits greater than three. At Level-3,

a muon must have more than five tracker hits. Finally, for the HLT, the Level-2 muon

must satisfy calorimeter isolation (at the 97' efficiency point), and the Level-3 muon

must satisfy the tracker isolation (at the 97' i efficiency point). For low-luminosity

running, the single-muon trigger pT threshold is set at Level-1 to be 14 GeV/c, corre-

sponding to 2.7 kHz and 95% efficiency, and at HLT to be 19 GeV/c, corresponding

to 25 Hz and 90% efficiency.

3.3.4 Di-muon Trigger

A di-muon trigger is formed by the same criteria as for the single-muon trigger,

but the isolation criteria are relaxed so that only one of the two muons need satisfy

it. Further, at Level-3, both muons are required to originate from the same vertex

(within 5 mm) and di-muons which are close in space/momentum (AO < 0.05 radians,

Ar7 < 0.01, ApT < 0.1 GeV/c) are rejected to remove ghost tracks which may result

from a single muon resulting in two reconstructed muon tracks. For low-luminosity

running, the symmetric PT threshold for the di-muon trigger is lowered at Level-1 to

be 3 GeV/c, corresponding to a rate of 0.9 kHz and 95% efficiency, and at HLT to be

7 GeV/c, corresponding to a rate of 4 Hz and 90% efficiency.



















Table 3.3: The High-Level Trigger \'-Iil at C = 2 x 1033 cm-2S-1 for an output of


approximately 120 Hz. The
the different trigger paths.


transverse energy values are the kinematic thresholds for


Trigger Level-1 Level-1 HLT Threshold HLT Rate
bits used Prescale (GeV) (Hz)
Inclusive e 2 1 26 23.5 6.7
e-e 3 1 12, 12 1.0 0.1
Relaxed e-e 4 1 19, 19 1.3 0.1
Inclusive y 2 1 80 3.1 0.2
-y 3 1 30, 20 1.6 0.7
Relaxed y-y 4 1 30, 20 1.2 0.6

Inclusive y 0 1 19 25.8 0.8
Relaxed 0 1 37 11.9 0.5
11-1 1 1 7, 7 4.8 0.4
Relaxed i-y 1 1 10, 10 8.6 0.6

T +-T 10 1 65 (lr) 0.5 0.1
Pixel 7-T 10, 13 1 -4.1 1.1
Tracker T-T 10, 13 1 -6.0 1.1
r + e 26 1 52, 16 < 1.0
r + i 0 1 40, 15 < 1.0
b-jet (leading jet) 36, 37, 38, 39 1 350, 150, 55 10.3 0.3
b-jet (2nd leading jet) 36, 37, 38, 39 1 350, 150, 55 8.7 0.3

1, -1, 1 36 1 400 4.8 0.0
Double-jet 36, 37 1 350 3.9 0.0
Triple-jet 36, 37, 38 1 195 1.1 0.0
Quadruple-jet 36, 37, 38, 39 1 80 8.9 0.2
7VT 32 1 91 2.5 0.2

jet +liT 32 1 180, 80 3.2 0.1
acoplanar 2 jets 36, 37 1 200, 200 0.2 0.0
acoplanar jet +-VT 32 1 100, 80 0.1 0.0
2 jets +-T 32 1 155, 80 1.6 0.0
3 jets +-T 32 1 85, 80 0.9 0.1
4 jets +-T 32 1 35, 80 1.7 0.2

Diffractive Sec. ?? 1 40, 40 < 1.0
HT-+-T 31 1 350, 80 5.6 0.2
HT+ e 31 1 350, 20 0.4 0.1

Inclusive y 2 400 23 0.3 0.0
-Y 3 20 12, 12 2.5 1.4
Relaxed y-y 4 20 19, 19 0.1 0.0
-1. -1. 33 10 250 5.2 0.0
1.. 34 1 000 120 1.6 0.0
-"1.. -1. 35 100 000 60 0.4 0.0

Total HLT rate 119.3 7.2















CHAPTER 4
LEVEL-1 ENDCAP ,IUON TRIGGER SYSTEM

The Level-1 trigger receives trigger decisions form both the calorimeter and muon

systems. The muon system trigger decision is derived from the Global '-il. ,1 Trigger

(GMT) which uses data from at most four reconstructed muons reported from the

barrel and endcap portions of the trigger.

The challenge for the CSC muon trigger is to report muon candidates with the

lowest possible PT threshold, and yet maintain a single muon trigger rate below 1

kHz/rj at full LHC luminosity. Therefore, the CSC muon trigger must reconstruct

tracks using the reduced granularity data given in the trigger stream, with the best

possible resolution (Fig. 4.1) in order to prohibit fakes. This task is made difficult

because reconstructing muons from physically interesting heavy object decays admits

a large muon background associated with heavy quark decays, decays of Tr's and K's,

hadronic punch-through, beam halo, cosmic rays, and the large neutron background

that results in 7- -> e+e- processes within muon detectors. These backgrounds can

result in both legitimate muon tracks through the detector volume as well as random

muon track-segments formed in the muon detectors, both of which can lead to muon

track reconstruction. The background rate must be controlled by taking advantage

of its decreasing spectrum as a function of muon pr. This allows the trigger rate to

be effectively throttled by the PT trigger threshold. The rate can also be controlled

by restricting the patterns of detector hits from which reconstructed muon tracks are

formed. By restricting these patterns, the trigger threshold can be lowered such that

events with prompt muons from heavy decays such as from W's might be stored.

The endcap muon track-finding system was designed and tested by the University of










Florida: this work accounts for much of the time and effort spent over the last few

years by professors, engineers, and students who are involved with the project at the

University of Florida. The design and numerous tests of the track-finding system are

described below.

107

_10
Resolution
S10

10

101-

10 2 ,0

10


------ CSC 2-station resolution
10
.. PYTHI6 0%
10 2
1 10 10
PT Threshold (GeV/c)

Figure 4.1: Example of Level-1 single muon rate per unit rapidity from the CSC as
a function of transverse momentum threshold for possible reconstruction resolutions
[44].


In the endcap system, muon track-finding is electronically partitioned into six 600

sectors in each endcap (Fig. 4.2) covering 0.9 < ]rl\ < 2.4. A Sector Processor (SP)

unit is used in each sector to form muon tracks within its 0 boundaries. A single SP

receives trigger primitives from front-end electronics, which sit on or near the CSCs

(Fig. 4.3). The front-end electronics form Local Charged Tracks (LCTs) from the

six detector layers of a station. The cathode and anode LCT (CLCT and ALCT)

trigger cards search for valid patterns in the anode wire and cathode strip planes of a

CSC. The ALCT provides precise timing and r position data, while the CLCTs use

comparators to localize hit clusters to within a half-strip for each of the six chamber

layers, which is used to calculate 0. A Trigger ;i -lther Board (TMB) card combines

the ALCT and CLCT data from a given chamber by associating wire data to cathode









data along with a bunch-crossing time. The TMB sends the best two LCT candidates

to a ,lil. i Port Card (MIPC). The ,lil. i Port Card (MIPC) collects all of the LCTs

(up to 18) for a given station within a sector, sorts them, and sends the best three to

an SP via optical fibers. A single SP collects LCTs sent via fifteen 1.6 Gbit/s optical

links, and is responsible for linking LCTs in p and r7 in order to form full tracks, and

to report the transverse momentum (PT), a, and 77 for each full track. The entire

Track-Finding processor is composed of twelve such SPs housed in a single 9U V Il"*

crate (Fig. 4.4) 33].

75

1351






1951


315"

255

Figure 4.2: Diagram end-cap muon sectors.


4.1 IMuon Track-Finding in the Endcap Region

The principle of the TF logic [31] is illustrated in Figure 4.5. The Track-Fii,1'i

searches in 7 and 0 roads for LCTs received within a three bunch-crossing window

that are consistent with a muon trajectory through the endcap. By measuring the

sagitta induced by the magnetic field, a PT measurement can be made.

*Versa Module Europe bus provides an IEEE standard used for communication between electronic
modules. This allows engineers the freedom to design hardware modules with the assurance of a
standard interface for data flow [45].





























RPC Interface
Module

On chamber In peripheral
crate


RPC DT
4, 4Glo Tn 4 4 G

Global Trngger Global L1


Figure 4.3: Architecture of the Level-1 CSC trigger.


Figure 4.4: Diagram showing Track-Fii'-i layout.










Track
Extrapolation Assember
12 2 3

Bunch m Final
Crosing Selection
Analyzer Unit




nAssignment

Quality, i
Alignment
Corrections

AnodeiCanod SR
Pa'e" Logic



Figure 4.5: Sector Processor logic principle.


The track-finding process is partitioned into several steps. A given station within

a sector may have as many as three LCTs reported to the SP. These LCTs are

then converted into track-segments, which are described in terms of their 0 and

77 coordinates. Each track-segment in each station should be checked against the

segments in other stations to determine the likelihood to have originated from the

same muon. Therefore, each track-segment is extrapolated through to other stations

and compared against existing segments. If an extrapolation is successful, these

segments are linked to form a single track. Each possible pairwise combination is

tested in parallel. After extrapolation, doublets are then linked to assemble full

tracks. Redundant tracks are canceled, the best three tracks are selected, and the

track parameters are then measured.

The SP has the ability to handle LCTs received out of step from the bunch crossing

time in which the actual muon traversed the detector volume: this can be the result

of slight time shifts in electronic synchronization or because of electron drift time

effects within the chambers. Handling these out of time LCTs is accomplished by









the Bunch Crossing Analyzer, which allows the Sector Processor to form tracks from

LCTs received up to one bunch crossing later than the earliest LCT.

The first step in the track-finding process is to extrapolate pairwise combinations

of track-segments. This is accomplished by requiring the two segments to be consistent

with a muon originating from the collision vertex and with an appropriate curvature

induced by the non-uniform magnetic field. A successful extrapolation is assigned

when two track-segments lie within allowed windows of AT] and AO neither LCT

should be parallel to the beam axis, and both should appear to originate from the

interaction region.

The Track Assembler Units (TAUs) examine successfully extrapolated track-segment

pairs to see if a larger track can be formed. If so, those segments are combined and a

code is assigned to denote which muon stations are involved. For example, Figure 4.5

illustrates three LCTs (in stations "1", "2", and "3") being linked to form a single

muon track. These tracks are first formed in pairwise combinations: an extrapolation

of stations "1 -* 2" is successfully made, as well as a successful extrapolation of sta-

tions "2 -* 3". From the illustration, it is evident that these smaller tracks actually

originate from the same muon, therefore, the TAU will combine the smaller tracks

together to form a larger "1 -* 2 -* 3" association.

A list of nine possible tracks is sent to the Final Selection Unit (FSU). Since

different data streams may contain data from the same muons, the FSU must cancel

redundant tracks, and select the best three distinct candidates.

The final stage of processing in the TF, performed by the Assignment Unit, is the

measurement of the track parameters which includes the 0 and 77 coordinates of the

muon, the magnitude of the transverse momentum PT, the sign of the muon, and an

overall quality (interpreted as the uncertainty of the momentum measurement). The

most important quantity to calculate accurately is the muon PT, as this quantity has









a direct impact on the trigger rate and on the efficiency. The total latency of the

Sector Processor is 13 bx (Fig 4.6).


Figure 4.6: Diagram showing time required to complete each stage of track-finding
process.


The Sector Processor board (Fig. 4.7) accepts fifteen optical links from five 'lil l!ii

Port Cards, where each link carries information corresponding to one muon track

segment each bunch-( i .-.-ii!_. which is described by a 32-bit word. Each link transmits

a 32-bit word every 25 ns serialized over a 1.6 Gb/s optical link. Optical transceivers

are used by the \,IPC for transmission, and by the SP for reception of LCT data.

Additionally, the board receives up to 8 muon track segments, sent synchronous to

the 40 ,llz. LHC clock, from the Barrel ,lil~oi system via a transition card behind

the Track-FiiI'-i crate's custom backplane.

Because the track segment information arrives from 15 different optical links, it

is aligned to the proper bunch crossing number by use of front-end FIFOs and syn-













tsr
S
n 4 .
IC th a


ft
-I
CL
C


Figure 4.7: Photograph of the SP2002 pre-production prototype board.









chronization procedures. The Sector Receiver algorithm is implemented in a series of

cascaded look-up memories, in order to minimize the size of static memories (SRA ,I)

chips required: chamber specific LCT data is sent to the first memory, this memory

then sends a local 0 measurement to two more memories which then use this local 0

measurement along with the original LCT data to form a global 0 and r7 measurement

for the given sector.

The angular information for all track segments is then passed to the main FPGA,

which executes the entire 3-dimensional tracking algorithm of the Sector Processor.

This FPGA sits on a mezzanine card on the SP, thus allowing for maximum design

flexibility for future improvements. The output of the Sector Processor FPGA is sent

to the PT assignment lookup tables, also SRA;, I and the results of the pr assignment

for the three best muons are sent via the custom backplane to the ',il.- 1 Sorter.

Upon receiving a "Level-1 A i -pi" command from the Global Trigger, the SP

will send data that is useful for diagnostics as well as for seeding HLT candidates to

a Data Acquisition (DAQ) readout board over the SPs sixteenth optical link. This

board receives the LCT data received by the SP from the 0,IPC, and the final results

completed by the SP. Communication between the SP and the DAQ readout board

is currently undergoing tests.

4.2 Simulated Performance of the Sector Processor

In order to test the hardware functionality against the expectations during LHC

running, an object-oriented software emulation of the Track-Fiil]'-! was written. Each

of the stages involved in the muon track finding process was programmed so as to

faithfully emulate the electronic data-flow and operation. This method has the ad-

vantage of allowing the track-finding algorithms to be developed and verified in a

simulation environment. The results of the simulation can then guide the overall

design and demands of the hardware.







62


The contents of the PT look-up-tables used on the Sector Processor is derived from

a parameterization of two- and three-station PT measurements obtained through sim-

ulation studies. These studies show that the sagitta of the muon tracks induced by the

magnetic field can be determined by taking the differences between the 0 coordinates

of track-segments at given stations. Because the sagitta is inversely proportional to

the muon PT, a two-station functional relation A,' i = A[r ]/pT + B[r ]/pp can be

defined such that PT is uniquely determined for possible AO values. Alternatively,

information from three stations may be used so that pT = f (A1, A02, rl). The func-

tion can be found by studying the correlated distributions of AO between stations for

particular pr and rl bins (Fig. 4.8).

00

004 .

002

A023 0

-002- .... ."

-004-


S06 -002 0 002 004 006 008 01 012 014
A012

Figure 4.8: A scatter plot of the difference in measured phi coordinates between
stations 2 and 3 versus stations 1 and 2 in radians for fixed transverse momentum
bins of 3 GeV/c (red), 5 GeV/c (blue), and 10 GeV/c (green) in 2 < 1r7| < 2.1. The
three-station parameterization contours are shown in the same colors [46].


For either two- or three-station measurements, the parameters may be found by

using simulated muon data that is uniformly distributed over the detector volume in

77 and 0 for fixed pT values. These parameters can then be stored in memories on the

SP and used in the AU. Depending on which stations are used, the track-finder is at

best able to reconstruct muons with a pT resolution of 22' (Fig. 4.9).










140 Mean 1 1' 018 01
RMS 02772
120 X n 72/ndf 5230 / 43
100 Constant 117 1
Mean 02212E-01
so with F/R correction Sigma 0 2229-
60
40
20
-1 08 -06 -04 -02 0 02 04 06 08 1
(1/PT, l/pgen)*pgen

Figure 4.9: Residual distribution of 1/pr measured for generated sample of single-
muon events with 3 < pr < 35 GeV/c in 1.2 < 77 < 2 [46].


The current performance of the track-finder is such that the single-muon pr thresh-

old applied by the Global Trigger is set at 19 GeV/c and di-muon thresholds at 7

GeV/c, while the track-finder still satisfies the Level-1 Trigger rate requirements.

The past six years have been extremely active for those involved in designing

and testing the Sector Processor. The first prototype (SP2000) board design was

significantly different than the production model [47]. The Sector Receiver portion of

the track-finding logic was housed on three separate 9U V-ll- boards. The SP2000

received track-stub data from these three boards and executed the tracking logic

using a variety of memories and FPGAs on a single board. A total of six 9U ViI-

crates are required to house the total Track-Fiil,'-i design. Although a prototype

track-finder for a single sector was successfully built and tested to be in complete

agreement with offline emulation, the bunch-crossing latency exceeded the allowed

budget. New technologies, such as small and fast optical transceivers and new high-

density FPGAs, allowed the overall design of the track-finder to be greatly simplified

such that the Sector Receiver logic could be contained on the same 9U VIll- board as

the Sector Processor logic. The Sector Receiver logic could then be implemented by

on-board memory-chips (SRA ,iS), and the entire Sector Processor algorithm could

be executed by a single FPGA and some SRAi.-. This has lead to the design of the

SP2002 board. This board has undergone numerous tests over the past two years,









which are described below. With a few more improvements, the production level

SP2004 board has now been completed and is currently undergoing tests.

Below is a summary of the tests completed on the SP2002 board. These tests

began with simple bench tests at the University of Florida followed by a series of

cosmic ray tests and four muon beam-tests at CERN over a two year period. With

each new beam-test, the number of detectors used for triggering and readout generally

increased which allowed the trigger and data acquisition hardware and event-building

software to be stress-tested.

4.3 Hardware Bench Tests

During the first half of 2003, testing began on the second prototype Sector Proces-

sor hardware. In order to test the Sector Processor's functionality, custom software

was needed to communicate through the V, I-I interface. This interface consists of a

bus adaptor card on a PCI bus connected through optical fiber to a V Ill- control card

which communicates to the SP through the VdIll- backplane. The Hardware Access

Library (HAL), which is part of the XDAQ software package from CMS DAQ [48],

facilitated this purpose by providing a generic set of read and write commands inde-

pendent of the particular bus adapter used for V Ill- communication, thus maximizing

the portability of command sequences generated to control a given VIll- hardware

module. All tests performed on the ',IPC and SP used special C++ classes developed

from the same primitive commands.

The SP control and readout software modules were created to be used within a

XDAQ environment. This allowed communication of VlI .- modules in multiple V I I

crates over a network. With these XDAQ classes, one can control multiple modules

in multiple crates with the use of a single interface, therefore concealing the control

register layer, offered by the firmware of each hardware module, from the user. These

tools can then be used for the development of a run-control system of the endcap

system.









During this initial test period, the following tasks were completed:



The FPGAs were successfully programmed.

Both the Vl I- interface and the on-board databus were validated.

All I/O were tested.

The Sector Processor was also successfully interfaced with a '-li.ii Port Card.

Test routines were written which load test LCT patterns into the \,IPC input
buffer, and transmit a subset of these patterns over the optical links into the
SP.

The output LCTs from the ',IPC were checked against the SP input LCTs, and
were found to be in agreement.


4.4 Hardware Tests using Cosmic Ray MIuons

In July 2003, the University of Florida hosted a cosmic ray test stand (Fig. 4.10).

The cosmic test stand consisted of two CSCs fixed with faces pointing vertically.

Scintillators were positioned above and below the two CSCs to provide a primitive

trigger to the CSC electronics and SP. The scintillators were connected to a NIM

analog-to-digital converter and then a coincidence unit which provided a trigger when

a muon caused coincident signals between scintillator layers. This trigger allowed the

CSC data to be read out of the front-end and SP electronics.














Figure 4.10: Photograph of University of Florida Cosmic test stand.









Some of the successes of this stand include:



Both the trigger and DAQ data streams were checked and compared for consis-
tency.

A common data read out and configuration software package to be debugged
which could be used to configure the whole CSC trigger system, read out data,
and store the data to disk using a single data format.


4.5 Hardware Tests using Particle Beams


4.5.1 First Beam-Test

During the time from May 15 through July 1, 2003, the SP2002 front-end optical

communication was tested using both muon and pion beams in the X5A area at

CERN. Periods of both time-unstructured and time-structured muon beams were

provided. The time-structured beam muon was divided into bunches, and arrived

synchronously to the machine clock (Fig. 4.11).


, -- ---.12.0s .
/ SPS s ill \ SP


. 2.2 s 2.2



23 ps


48 bunches
I


12.0 s


Sill


s


SPS sill


2.2 s
2.2s8


924 BX

/ 48 bunches
I I


1.2 ps 1.2 ps ,


48 bunches



Figure 4.11: Time structure of test beam.

Figure 4.11: Time structure of test beam.









Figure 4.12 illustrates the configuration of the detector and electronics used during

the test. It consisted of two CSCs placed in the beam-line along with three scintillators

used to externally trigger the detector readout. The TTC crate contained a TTC

module, which served the CCB cards in the Peripheral and Track-Fini ,-] crates, both

the clock and control signals. The Peripheral Crate also contained two DAQ ';I theirr

Boards (D)B.-l) used to serve the precision DAQ data to the DDU board, two TIlB.-

used to serve the trigger primitives to the ,I PC, and one ,I PC used to sort and send

the best three trigger primitives to the Track-Fin il]' crate through optical-links.


STTC crate


---------------- II -
SDAQ Data

Track Finder Peripheral Crate FED crate
Crate 2 DMB, 2 TMB 1 DDU
TRIDAS 1 CCB, 1 MPC




beam
--------------------------------O-- --------------
S1 S2 S3


CSC 1 CSC 2

Figure 4.12: Detector and electronics configuration used during beam-test.


While proving useful for understanding the procedures needed to properly con-

figure the numerous delay settings of the electronic modules in the trigger and DAQ

paths, LCT data could not be retrieved from the SP front-end FIFOs. This beam-test

period demonstrated that using the CCB clock (phased locked to the TTC system

clock) to drive SP optical link transceivers can be problematic as link synchronization

between the lI PC and SP was not possible. The original design for the SPs optical

links called for a common clock, provided by the TTC system and distributed by the

CCB module, for the operation of transceivers and for trigger logic. An adequate









solution developed after the beam-test was to have a low-jitter clock (e.g. from a

crystal phase locked to the TTC clock) operating at the transmitter frequency, which

acts as a reference for the transceivers, and a second clock driving the SP logic; this

design allowed the links to operate more robustly with respect to clock jitter in the

distributed LHC clock.

4.5.2 Second Beam-Test

The period from September 9 to September 24 2003 marked another beam-test

with the same configuration as in May. The primary purpose was to demonstrate

synchronous operation of the trigger system up to through the SP2002 optical links.

The front-end electronics formed LCTs and sent them to a ,IIPC, which then sent the

best three of a possible four LCTs to the SP over optical links. Using custom data

acquisition software, the SP's input data buffers were read out, and the results were

compared event-by-event with the front-end electronics data. Because the front-end

data contained a possible four LCTs, the ',IPC sorting logic was simulated and 100%

agreement between front-end and SP data was found.

During this same period at CERN (separate from the beam-test), interface tests

were successfully conducted with the Drift-Tube Track-Fiii l-i electronics. The SP

communicates with this DT Track-FiiIl'-i through a special backplane connection.

Random track data was successfully sent and received by both the DT track-finder

and the SP.

4.5.3 Third Beam-Test

CERN hosted another beam-test period from May 18 to June 14 2004. The

first half of this time was detected for asynchronous beam and the second half for

synchronous beam. The goals for this period were to test the final CSC production

electronics, demonstrate -.1i-l i,_ i -i i_,: by use of the track-finder, and to increase the

system complexity over the previous test beams in order to more closely approximate









actual running conditions. These test were very important as the next steps were

production and installation. Two extra CSCs were added in the beam line (,II-l/1

and ,11- 1/2) and a RPC was mounted onto the 1i- 1/2 chamber (Fig. 4.13 and Fig.

4.14). In addition, for some runs an iron block was placed in the beam line to scatter

the muon beam in a similar manner as the iron disks on which the CSCs are mounted.



ME 3/2

ME 2/2

ME 1/2


RE1/2






Figure 4.13: Photograph of June 2004 test beam configuration.











Peripherial Crate #1 Peripherial Crate #2





Figure 4.14: Diagram of May 2004 test beam configuration.


During this four week time, many additional tests were completed and include:










The Track-Finii1'- run control was integrated with the Peripheral Crate software.

nilillipl peripheral crates were used to send LCT data to either one or two
Sector Processors.

New logic configurations of the front end electronics were tested.

Communication between the SP and ,lil~'ii Sorter card was tested. The raw
data was injected into the hardware emulation and successfully tested against
hardware performance.

Using the SP2002, the system was able to -lf-ii i-' .


This beam-test period marks the first time the Track-Finding logic was used to

form tracks from front-end data. From these tracks, the Track-Fiilll1 was able to

provide a trigger to the full system to readout the DAQ data. This required the time

alignment of LCT data coming over optical links (Fig. 4.15).

.PB .l.iv.BXCY C | SP Bl.ti .. C ..




4B 46L -
4. -










Figure 4.15: Track-F;ii 1.i event display showing the relative bunch-crossing on which
LCT data was collected after L1A signal. The bottom right plot shows a mistimed
CSC with respect to the other three.


In addition to tests of data flow and hardware functionality, the trigger logic was

checked by sending LCT data into the hardware emulation. The final list of LCT

inputs and linked track outputs were compared between emulation and hardware,

and perfect agreement was found between the two (Fig. 4.16).










I SPeta:OSPa,' (SPmodel i I ItpllK .ropnpt rian0al U I |sg SPod SPmodpoId,.1I

251 ,A "mode"


Is I
I ISO
100

0Z I .I 2
10 12 14 1 18 20 2 26 2 0 50 100 15 200 250 1

Figure 4.16: Plots showing comparison of track-finder data found in hardware vs
results of emulation.


Because four chambers were used during this test, it was possible to track-find

and therefore trigger using two Sector Processor cards in the same crate. Each Sector

Processor received LCT data from two of the four chambers. This allowed the ,lil ii

Sorter card to be checked by sending it tracks from two Sector Processor cards across

the custom backplane.


4.5.4 Fourth Beam-Test


From September 22 to October 11, 2004, the H2 area at CERN hosted a time-

structure test beam. During this period, a full trigger detector slice-test was con-

ducted using one HCAL wedge, four CSCs (plus one additional CSC not used in the

CSC trigger), and three RPCs (Fig. 4.17 and Fig. 4.18).


Figure 4.17: Photograph of October 2004 Testbeam.






















Figure 4.18: October 2004 test beam configuration.


Three peripheral crates were used, and therefore three independent ,lPCs syn-

chronously sent LCT data to the Sector Processor. The 'IlPCs were programmed not

to sort the LCTs so that the data from each chamber could be routed to a specific SP

input link. The simultaneous operation of two SP2002 boards was also tested during

this period such that one received LCT data from the ,-II 1/1 and l, I 1/2 chambers,

and the other received LCT data from the ,-112/2 and I:11-:i/2 chambers.

The lil l'i Sorter card was also tested by examining the output in both one and

two Sector Processor cards. Comparisons between the lIS winner bits of best SP

tracks, and those reported by the emulation show perfect agreement in 270,000 events.

The SP functionality was also tested and found to be in perfect agreement with the

software emulation. Figure 4.19 shows the (rl, 0) coordinates of hits that occurred in

various chambers. In order for data to be recorded to disk, the trigger bit must be

set which requires at least two chambers have LCTs in coincidence. Therefore, figure

4.19 demonstrates it is possible to see the "profile" of one chamber with respect to

the other in a given pair.

Figures 4.20 and 4.21 show the LCT 'gI.I,!-" p and r7 coordinates of the hits in

the various chambers. These coordinates are calculated using the SP front FPGA's,

which contain a rough mapping of wire group and strip number to global- 0 and r7.





























"3r


Mean A
990 Meanl
SMSi
800- RMS
600





a00
400



100 ME1/1

ID 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 D 10[


I Phvs.Eta
2123
--o----
^i 900^


700


00 -
400-
40 ^


S- ME1/2


0 10 20 30 40 50


60 70 80 9 100


11
Phi vs.Eta MI
100EI 7AD23
Mean x 6.82
Soo- teny i'?
500r RMS s187
700_
600
5o0-
400
300 --


O-- ME2/2
t 10 '20 0 "40 50 60' 0 9ID 0 100


I Phivs.Eta
I0 EMaly 55499

V 100
g no Pm ,I $y 1 3 .1



700


300 -
200-

101 ME2/3
-0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Be 00


Figure 4.19: Plots showing "77" vs ",." distributions for various chambers. il1/1

shows a position offset in the upper left side of distribution due to ganged strips in

chamber, resulting in small 0 positions being mapped to larger values.


I Phl. Ha |


9P


Mean 53592
Meanvy MS
RMS 5H11
Mjy *11.4


0











For beam-test purposes, these are programmed such that the 77 and 0 coordinates

roughly corresponded to wire-group and strip number in the CSCs.

| ME11 Phi Global scPh2 ME12 Phi Global
Entries 84591 Entr 124351
1600 Man 5451 "- '
RMS 117.3 18o00 14.4
1400 1 ~0
1200- 1 1400 -

1000 i 1200
800- I 1000 -

0600 -
400 20 2
400

200 2 00

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

SME2/2 Phi Global hc h I ME3/2 Phi Global hci
Ena t14"921 Enler 1i4421
3500 dn Mpsn 551b3 c Mbn 5f4.1
R.nS 188. 3500 RMS u194.6
3000 -
3000
2500-
2500-
20000 2000 -

1500 1500

1000 1000

500 '" 500

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000


Figure 4.20: Global ", distributions.



The differences in "<,." and "77" positions between chambers for these hits are shown in

figures 4.22 and 4.23. These distributions demonstrate that the beam indeed traverses

roughly the same linear path through all chambers in the beam line.


4.6 Current Status


In 071.i 2005, the first two SP pre-production grade boards (SP04) were completed

(Fig. 4.24). While remaining fully compatible with the prototype SP2002 board, the

SP04 design includes the following improvements:


















ME111 Eta hcsct MEl2 Eta
Entries 84591

2000( RS 3.708 2000

18000- 1800(

16000- 1600T

1400 1400(

12000- 1200-

100010 1000 1

8000 IJ 8000

6000 6000
4000 4000

2000- 2000 -

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10


Figure 4.21: Global "r77 distributions.











I ME1/1 ME Delta P MEI1 DetaPhi loal thaa ME1 22 Delta Pill Global I hhih I ME22 ME312 Delta Phi Global
9000 -. 1400(-
8000 10001 12
1200
7000
8DD 1- 000 -
6000 -
5000 0000 -OOO
4000 6000
3000 4000
4000
2000
2000
1000 2-

-200 -100 0 100 200 -200 -100 0 100 200 200 -100 0 100 200


Figure 4.22: Distributions of differences in "0."


















Figure 4.23: Distributions of differences in "77."


256 'llhii, flash RA;' now allows all LUTs to load on power-up. This saves the
user from having to reprogram all memories after each hard reset.

QPLL daughterboard is now used to provide a stable clock to the optical links.

On-board 40 ;i111 crystal oscillator is used for DDU optical link.

LEDs specifically to indicate the arrival of LCTs to the SP front-end.

Board i.d. switches.


These two SP04 boards required extensive repair as a result of the vendors used to

build them. After switching vendors, 26 final SP05 boards have been completed as of

this writing (Fig. 4.25). Each board has undergone a series of validations including:



Basic chip, link, and clocking validations.

Verify data inj,-i lin !., and readouts.

Comparison of streamed random data through boards with emulation software
using real LUTs and random LUTs.

;'lil'ii Sorter interface test. This includes checking clock synchronization be-
tween two boards, as well as verification of ;,lI winner bits.


Other CSC Track-Fiii 1- modules have been produced and tested in addition to the

SP05:



26 SP 'Il...,iiiiii'; l cards have been completed and tested. These cards are also
used on the 'lili.o Sorter board.









* The QPLL daughterboards used to provide a stable clock to the optical links
have been tested.

* 21 transition cards which send data to and receive data from the Drift Tube
Track-Fiil,'-i have been tested.

* The DAQ interface card, which serves the DAQ system with CSC Track-Fiii'-!
data, has been tested.


Figure 4.24: Photograph of the SP04 board.


A final CSC Track-Fiii 1-i crate has been installed at SX5 for the 'l I'CC and will

provide a CSC trigger for cosmic ray muon data coming from a single sector used in

the test. The goals of the ',ITCC are to check the magnet functionality, including

cooling, power supply and control systems, as well as commission the RPC, CSC,

DT, HCAL, ECAL, and Tracker systems.











































Figure 4.25: Photograph of the final SP05 cards to be used at CMS.















CHAPTER 5
SIMULATION SOFTWARE

This study is executed using simulated CMS detector data which is simulated in

three steps: event ', i l.,il:,. trigger and detector simulation, and event reconstruc-

tion. Ultimately, the final product of this simulation chain is a dataset containing

reconstructed physics objects such as muons and electrons, whose kinematic param-

eters faithfully match what reality will provide not only in magnitude, but in its

systematic limitations.

5.1 Event Generation

Because the dynamics of particle interactions is fundamentally probabilistic, Monte

Carlo techniques can be used to simulate physics from the initial state proton-proton

collisions to the final state which contains the outgoing stable particles to be detected

[49]. In this study the PYTHIA 6.225 [50] generator is used to simulate the proton-

proton collisions in various steps. Fi.- the initial proton, which is composed of

partons (quarks and gluons), is characterized by its parton density function (PDF).

This function defines what fraction of a proton's momentum is carried by a particular

parton. These partons will usually radiate (e.g. qi -* qi + g) color-charged particles,

which make up the event's initial state radiation (ISR). A parton from each proton

then interacts in a hard scattering process, which could typically lead to a resonance

such as Z or exotic particle production that ultimately decay according to the branch-

ing ratios obtained using the matrix element ('Il I-) calculations. Electrically charged

particles may further radiate photons throughout the process. The other partons

that are left in the protons may participate in semi-hard interactions giving rise to

multiple parton interactions. The remaining portion of the protons which did not









interact (beam remnant) are hadronized to form a shower of color singlet states. The

unstable heavy hadrons with short lifetimes are decayed to their final state particles

which traverse the detector volume. A list of these final state particles and their

moment are passed up stream to the detector simulation package.

The ISASUGRA 7.69 package is used to calculated the mSUGRA spectrum of

SUSY masses and mixings, and is part of the event generator ISAJET 7.69 [51]. This

generator takes the five mSUGRA parameters as inputs, evolves the SUSY parameters

down to the electroweak scale in order to get the mass spectrum and branching

ratios. Cross sections and decay widths are then derived by PYTHIA 6.225. The

CTE .jL [52] library is used for the parton distribution functions.

5.2 Full Detector Simulation

This work simulates the response of the CMS detector to simulated incident par-

ticles using a Geant4 [53] based framework, known as the Object-oriented Simulation

for CMS Analysis and Reconstruction (OSCAR) [33]. The OSCAR framework is used

to simulate the response of the CMS detector. It includes a description of the CMS

detector geometry, materials, and magnetic field. It takes the list of generated parti-

cles in each event and propagates them through the detector material. In doing so,

energy loss, multiple -i -, I,-i ir!. and showering are taken in to account. A particle's

deposited energy in a particular portion of the detector, location, time of interaction,

entry and exit points, and species are stored as -1iI.-'' data which are then used in

simulated detector response and reconstruction of the event.

The Object-oriented Reconstruction for CMS Analysis (ORCA) [33] software

framework is used to simulate the readout electronics, which for example converts

energy deposits into digital ADC counts to form so-called "ligi-." The inclusion of

pile-up, the conversion of -' ligi." to reconstructed detector objects (I111.-''), the recon-

struction of analysis objects muonss, jets, etc) from hits, and the trigger simulation

are also performed by ORCA.









5.3 Fast Detector Simulation

Running the full CMS detector simulation package can be very CPU intensive.

As not all studies need to be done using this full simulation in order to obtain rea-

sonable results of CMS simulated performance, a fast detector simulation package

known as the CMS FAst ;,lOnte Carlo Simulation (FA:'IOS) framework [33] has been

developed which includes a parameterization of the full Geant based simulation and

reconstruction. This allows the most time consuming part of full reconstruction, the

propagation of particles through the detector material, to be substituted by param-

eterizations of energy loss. 0(100) seconds per event is saved by not simulating the

detailed propagation. FA ,IOS is used in this work to facilitate simulations involving

- -1.-'' of the mSUGRA parameter space.

Because the fully simulated mSUGRA study points are simulated using pile-up

conditions that include diffractive processes (corresponding to ~ 5 min-bias collisions

per beam crossing instead of the default 3.5), the amount of pile-up included in

FA;lOS is tuned to 5 min-bias collisions per beam crossing in order to achieve good

agreement between ORCA and FA;,IOS with respect to the average of the sum of the

transverse energy measured from calorimetry.















CHAPTER 6
SIGNAL

6.1 SUSY Test Points

This dissertation presents the feasibility to discover Supersymmetry using the

CMS detector by using simulated SUSY signal data generated under the mSUGRA

scenario. Ideally, it is desirable to provide general experimental limits that are model-

independent; however, because of the extensive number of free SUSY parameters, the

only hope of obtaining experimentally useful results is to work with the limited num-

ber of free parameters offered by SUSY scenarios such as mSUGRA. As many studies

have been conducted to this end, the model parameters have been standardized such

that a set of "benchmark" points have been defined in mSUGRA parameter space to

facilitate comparisons and discussions of results [54]. These points of interest are gen-

erally chosen in such a way as to be consistent with current experimental constraints

such as the current value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g, 2) [55], the

branching ratios of b -* sy processes [56], and the relic LSP density ,hh2 [16].

The benchmark points are generally chosen by constraining all five mSUGRA

parameters. These points, cross sections, mass contours, and 5o reach-contours are

usually displayed in the (mo, ml/2) plane. This is usually convenient as sparticle

masses and production cross-sections generally scale strongly with these two model

parameters: Figure 6.1 illustrates some common features of these plots.

A brief review of mSUGRA is given in Section 2.2. For all signal points studied,

ORCA is used to fully reconstruct the digitized information into (b,jri., (such as

muons, jets, etc) used for analysis. Table 6.1 displays the different parameters for all

Geant based simulated and reconstructed mSUGRA points used in this analysis and




















+




S"----- h, b~-sy


mo
Figure 6.1: Cartoon showing qualitative features of benchmark points in the (mo,
mi/2) plane. The light turquoise region shows the region most consistent with Qxh2.
The left red region is excluded by because the LSP is the charged stau. The lower
pink region is excluded as points in this region do not allow for electroweak symmetry
breaking. Experimental constraints on the Hii,,., mass, rare B decays, and (g, 2)
are shown to favor bottom left region in the plane. The blue crosses show potential
benchmark points [54].


. I .... .... .... .... M .-I .... r"'M









Figure 6.2 shows the mSUGRA cross section as a function of the universal mSUGRA

scalar mo and gaugino ml/2 masses.


Table 6.1: Parameters of fully simulated and reconstructed SUSY benchmark points
studied in this work. The number of simulated events and the equivalent integrated
luminosity are given.



mo (GeV/c ) mnl2 (GeV/c ) tang3 Ao sign(p) TaL (pb) Noen AL (fb-1)
LM1 60 250 10 0 + 41.9 98 250 2.3
LM4 210 285 10 0 + 19 96 500 5.1
LM5 230 360 10 0 + 6 84 000 13.9
LM6 85 400 10 0 + 4 99 250 24.6
HM1 180 850 10 0 + 0.052 80 000 1538.5


These points were selected in order to examine different experimental signatures.

The so-called low mass points (points labeled "I. "), were chosen such that they

are suited for early discovery, whereas the high mass points (points labeled "-IlI r")

are suited for later discovery after a few years of data have been collected. The points

I.l I, I.L'I2, and I.,I; are compatible with constraints given by WMAP Cold Dark

Matter limits [57]. The other points, while not compatible with these limits, can be

made so by modifying certain theoretical assumptions [58].

These points can be seen along with other benchmark points in Figure 6.3. The

mass spectrum for each point is shown in Figure 6.4. Unless stated otherwise, the

I.L, I benchmark point is used for selection optimization in this study. This point

is interesting as it is close to the current Tevatron limit, and therefore its signature

would present itself very early during LHC running. Using I.L I as point of reference,

an optimization is performed to select events with I.L II like signature, and its applica-

bility to neighboring points in the common region of parameter space is demonstrated

in the following sections.

The selection cuts derived for I. I are applied across the (mo, mi/2) plane. A

fast, parameterized, simulation and reconstruction is performed by FAMIOS in order

to scan the (m0,ml/2) plane for fixed mSUGRA parameters tan/ = 10, p > 0,
























MSUGRA, tan# = 10, Ao = 0, A > 0


o(sg) o~sq)




10 f ------------
------------bf



0100 fbfb....
1 0 Tb'"""---------------^


o 100 p ----"--''"^^ .


10 NO SB
NO EWSB


mo (GeV)

Figure 6.2: mSUGRA cross section in the (mo, ml/2) plane. Other mSUGRA pa-
rameters are fixed. The dashed line indicates the gluino cross-section, the solid line
indicates the squark cross-section [30].






























MSUGRA, tan3 = 10, A, = 0, P > 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000


1400 LSP
r1 LSP


- 122 GeV
+r+J


1200


1000


N 800
E


600


mI LM6
SK LM5
LM2
-- LM4 LMR
%LM1 X LM3
l L5 ,6
STeva
tron

0 200 400 600


5EHM2 *HM3


9
Br( x-hOx )> 0.5
SHM4


Br(itjZO) 0).5
mh = 114 GeV
K LM9


NO EWSB
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

mo (GeV)


Figure 6.3: Studied CMS mSUGRA benchmark points are shown as stars. Excluded
regions by theory (charged LSP and no electroweak symmetry breaking -shaded

areas) and particle experiments (LEP mass of Hiti,., boson -long dashed line, LEP

mass of chargino -dot-dashed line, LEP direct search for sleptons -solid line,

Tevatron direct search for superpartners -short dashed line) are also shown [30].


1200


1000


mh =120 GeV


800


600

LM10

400


20&M7