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Student Perceptions on Self-Development Variables in Selected Community College Study Abroad Programs: A Quantitative St...


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STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON SELF-DEVELOPMENT VA RIABLES IN SELECTED COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY USING CHICKERINGS THEO RY OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT By DEVI S. DREXLER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Devi S. Drexler

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To my grandfather, Krishnanand Shookla for his love, support, and great wisdom-his loyal advocacy for the pursu it of education will forever remain in my heart and soul.

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i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my beloved husband, Marc Drexler, for his inspiration and motivation in helping me fulfill this proj ect; my wonderful parents, Kaishmati and Mangal Singh, and loving brother, Amar Singh for their constant support and encouragement. To my dearest friends, Kathy Scheuch, Nadene Francis, and Julie Haltiwanger, thanks for always listening and being there for me. This research study would not have been successful without the support of my chairman, Dale Campbell, as well as co mmittee members: David Honeyman, Katherine Gratto and Lynn Leverty, Larry Tyree (reti red) and John Hall, who are the greatest faculty members and mentors I have ever known. Special thanks to Effie P., who, without he r expertise and guidance, this research study would not have been possible. Thanks also to the expert committee led by Ken Osfield, whose knowledge of international re lations and student affairs is impeccable. Special recognition goes to Laura Girtman, Gayle Fisher, and Ethel Guinyard of the academic panel for their feedback and assistance. And last but not least, I would like to th ank the faculty, staff, and administrators from community colleges across the nation who supported this project, particularly Mark Tromans, Donna Apgar, Shirley Oakley, Jeannie Horlacher, Dale Hoover, Aleta Anderson, Rosalina Beard, Nora A. Reyes, Mary A. Stewart, Robin Hardee, and Fernando Ojeda.

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ii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...................................................................................................i LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................v ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Overview of Study Abroad Programs...........................................................................1 Purpose of Study........................................................................................................ ...4 Research Hypothesis..................................................................................................... 5 Research Questions...................................................................................................... .5 Significance of Study................................................................................................... .6 University of Florida Study Abroad Program Evaluation............................................6 Summary................................................................................................................. ......7 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................8 Chickering's Theory of Student Development..............................................................8 Student Development Theory: Definition of Vectors.................................................10 Student Development Theory: Environmental Variables...........................................10 Application of Chickering' s Environmental Variables...............................................12 Academic Environment..............................................................................................13 Community College Student Profile...............................................................13 Articulation and Transfer................................................................................14 Academic Program Quality.............................................................................16 Identity Transforma tion and Internationalization...........................................18 Globalization............................................................................................... ....19 Key Stakeholders and Program Success.........................................................21 Faculty Role in Student Learning...................................................................25 Teaching Satisfaction......................................................................................2 8 Faculty Development......................................................................................31 Classroom Learning Environment..............................................................................32 Learning Models............................................................................................. 32

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iii Teaching and Learning Strategies...................................................................36 Language Learning.........................................................................................39 Student Learning Process................................................................................42 Curriculum.................................................................................................. ....43 Student H ousing and Friendships...............................................................................46 Student Support Services and Programs.....................................................................51 Types of Support Services .............................................................................52 Safetey and Security.......................................................................................5 3 Student Orientation and Workshops...............................................................54 Medical and Emergency Concerns.................................................................58 Field Trips and Excursions.........................................................................................59 Cultural Awareness.....................................................................................................6 1 Applications of Classroom Learning..............................................................62 Cultural Competence......................................................................................63 Cultural Identity........................................................................................... ...64 Technology.............................................................................................................. ...66 Technology Impact on Faculty.......................................................................67 Technology Impact on Students......................................................................72 Summary................................................................................................................. ....75 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................79 Purpose................................................................................................................ .......79 Community College Study Abroad Programs...........................................................79 Participants........................................................................................................... ......80 Data Collection........................................................................................................ ..80 Reliability............................................................................................................ .......81 Validity............................................................................................................... .......82 Research Hypothesis..................................................................................................84 Research Questions....................................................................................................8 4 Instrumentation........................................................................................................ ..84 Research Question 1......................................................................................84 Research Question 2......................................................................................89 Research Question 3......................................................................................90 Summary................................................................................................................ ....92 Operational Definitions of Variables.........................................................................93 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................95 Survey Response......................................................................................................... 95 Research Question 1...................................................................................................97 Research Question 2...................................................................................................99 Individual Student Development Vector Results............................................99 Dependent Samples Paired T-Test................................................................100 Research Question 3 and Student Profile..................................................................102 Summary................................................................................................................. ..103

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iv 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................109 Research Hypothesis................................................................................................109 Research Questions..................................................................................................109 Research Question 1................................................................................................110 Research Question 2 ...............................................................................................111 Developing Competence..............................................................................111 Deve loping Mature Interper sonal Relationships.........................................113 Overall Student Development......................................................................113 Research Question 3................................................................................................114 Trends and Patterns......................................................................................11 4 Previous Experience Abroad........................................................................115 Power of ANOVA........................................................................................115 Biserial Co rrelation Analysis and Pa ired T-Test Comparisons...................116 Summary................................................................................................................ ..117 Limitations............................................................................................................ ...118 Environmental Variables.............................................................................118 Moving Through Autonomy Towards Interdependence..............................119 Sample Size................................................................................................ ..119 Participant Diversity....................................................................................12 0 Other Demographic Variables.....................................................................121 Implications........................................................................................................... ...121 Key Stakeholders.........................................................................................12 1 Caucasian Female Population......................................................................122 Previous Experience Abroad........................................................................123 Degree Major............................................................................................... 123 Recommendations for Further Research..................................................................124 APPENDIX A LETTER OF INVI TATION (EXPERT PANEL)....................................................126 B LETTER OF INVITATION (ACADEMIC PANEL)..............................................128 C EMAIL INVITATION (REQUEST TO PARTICIPATE)......................................130 D INVITATION LETTER (PARTI CIPATING COLLEGE OFFICIALS)................132 E DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING SURVEY................................................134 F STUDY ABROAD ST UDENT DEVELOPMENT SURVEY................................136 G INFORMED CONSENT..........................................................................................141 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................150

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v LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Student development vector scale..........................................................................94 3-2 Environmental variable scale items........................................................................94 3-3 ANOVA independent variables..............................................................................94 4-1 Community college participant table....................................................................105 4-2 Biserial correlation between the student development vectors and the overall study abroad student developm ent survey scale during the pretest and posttest period............................................................................................................. ......105 4-3 Study abroad students response to developing competence................................105 4-4 Study abroad students response to managing emotions......................................106 4-5 Study abroad students response to moving through autonomy toward interdependence....................................................................................................1 06 4-6 Study abroad students response to developing mature in terpersonal relationships....................................................................................................... ...106 4-7 Study abroad students response to establishing identity.....................................106 4-8 Study abroad students response to developing purpose......................................107 4-9 Study abroad students response to developing integrity.....................................107 4-10 Paired t-test results of responses to the st udent development vector a nd the overall study abroad student develo pment survey scale during pre and post period........107 4-11 Percentage lift sc ores from paired t-test...............................................................107 4-12 Previous experience abroad..................................................................................108 4-13 One-way ANOVA: Relationship between su m of developmental vectors and previous experience abroad..................................................................................108

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Biserial correlation between the st udent development vectors and the ove rall study abroad student developmen t during the pretest and posttest period................98 4-2 Percentage lift scores of st atistically significant vectors from pretest and posttest comparisons (alpha = .01).......................................................................................102

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vii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON SELF-DEVELOPMENT VA RIABLES IN SELECTED COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY USING CHICKERINGS THEO RY OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT By Devi S. Drexler December 2006 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major Department: Higher Education Administration This research study explored how Ameri can undergraduate students perceive their own self-development changes before and after participation in their community college, or community college affiliated study abroad program. In order to achieve this purpose, the focus of this study was on Chickerings Theory of Student Development and the environmental variables that undoubtedly in fluence student development abroad. The statistical analysis component addressed thre e research questions to substantiate the research hypothesis. Using a variety of processes, a test -retest method was used to validate both the reliability and validity the rese arch instrument. Furthermore, the internal

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viii validity of the instrument was evaluated by way of a Biserial correlati on analysis in order to determine the relationship between the student development vectors and the overall evaluation scale during the pre and post su rvey period. A Dependent Samples Paired TTest was used to examine whether student development increased from pretest to posttest. In addition, a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine whether there was a relationship between any of the student demographic variables and the student development vector s. Next, the results section evaluated the methods described above, revealing the overa ll students response of their study abroad experience and subsequent data analysis. Fi nally, the conclusions section expanded upon all the areas presented in the previous chapters and culminated with various recommendations by the author.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Overview of Study Abroad Programs Study abroad programs have been esta blished as important components of undergraduate students academic learning a nd cultural awareness since the founding of some of the earliest institutions. Bolen (2001) suggested that the first programs began in the late 1880s, with Indiana University sponsoring a summer study tour in 1882 and Princeton running a volunteer program in Asia in 1898 (p. 185). Since then, there has been significan t progress in study abroad programming initiatives not only in four-year institutions, but also in two-year institutions. However, the catastrophic events that launched the Unite d States into war coul d have deterred study abroad students from traveling. On Sept ember 11, 2001, anti-American terrorists groups hijacked a plane and crashed in to the Twin Towers in New York City. Shortly following, additional attacks targeted the Pentagon and ot her American sites. Allies of the United States, such as England, also found themselves under terrorist attacks on the tube station and many other areas. Yet, despite these attacks, a report pub lished by the Institute of International Education (2004), concluded that: There was an 8.5% increase in U.S. stude nts receiving credit for study abroad in academic year 2002/03, which represents si gnificantly stronger growth than the previous year's 4.4 % increase. This incr ease remains a strong indicator of the tremendous interest in study abroad, both in spite of and in response to the changing geopolitical climate following 9/ 11. As study abroad opportunities have become more plentiful, varied and more affordable, the number of students taking advantage of an academic experience abroad has increased dramatically. Since

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2 1991/92, the number of students studying abro ad for credit has more than doubled (from 71,154 to 174,629, an increase of 145%). With students continued interests in inte rnational education, it seems very likely that study abroad programs enhance the academic quality as well as social and cultural interaction among undergraduate students. These programs also enhance students awareness of racial, ethnic, and diverse populations in a ddition to textbook learning. Johnston and Spalding (1997) suggested: International educationfosters pe rsonal growth through reflection on assumptions, values, and moral choices. It may challenge students to confront the relativity of things, but also to make their own grounded judgments. It is often active and experiential, putting a premium on competenceon putting what one has learned into effective pract ice. It may be the best co ntext in which to learn and appreciate the need for multidisciplinaryf or looking at things comparatively, in context, and in their full complexity. (p. 418) Therefore, since international education plays such an important role in student learning, it is important to examine whether academic disciplines w ith an international context or study abroad program learning have a greater impact on shaping students into global learners. Sheppard (2004) explained the integration of international programming into all areas of the university or college community can meet the needs of both the individual and the in stitution (p. 40). Although many colleges and universiti es provide diversity components throughout their academic disciplines, it is im portant to offer such academic programs as well as study abroad opportunities to unde rgraduate students. Study abroad programs incorporate a multicultural component where students can explore the new environment and truly become surrounded by the new culture s and societies that may not necessarily be available in their domestic homelands.

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3 Sheppard (2004) further explained that international education offers students the opportunity to explore diffe rent countries, cultures, view s, and idealsinternational education offers students an experiential le arning opportunity, where they can engage the factual knowledge they have about the world with a reality that may be different from their own. Students gain a sense of ownershi p over what they learn, because learning through experience fosters involveme nt and responsibility (pp. 38-39). Similarly, Kitsantas (2004) conducte d a study on study abroad programs and global understanding. The author surveyed two hundred and thirty two students enrolled in study abroad courses offered in England, Italy, Greece, France, and Spain in 2002 and found that study abroad programs significantly contribute to the prep aration of students to function in a multicultural world and prom ote international understanding (p. 443). In addition, there are a number of advant ageous points to make for students who wish to study abroad during their academic career either for spring break, summers, or semesters. The value of learning and encounter ing new cultures, races, religions, different academic and teaching styles, as well as the opportunity to visit various cities and countries not only broaden ones view of th e world and society in which one lives, but also adds to the intellectual compet ence and development of a student. Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) explaine d that internati onal education, and specifically study abroad programs, is an inte gral component of experience-based student learning. Study abroad programs have enormous potent ial for meaningful learning (pp. 61-62). Therefore, study abroad programs have a major effect on students because such freedom to explore different countries, cultures, customs and religions provide them with a basis for study, communi cation, and interaction with different populations coupled

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4 with a strong academic component. This alone is a valuable learning experience, but tutorials from international instructors native to the study abroad country can be a very powerful and interactive educational tool for st udents wishing to elevate themselves into global learners. Sheppard (2004) stated it s hould be clear from the begi nning of the process that education abroad is not an experience that starts when a student leaves and ends when they get home (p. 39). It is a life-changing e xperience, one that the student uses in all aspects of their life; such as conversations with family and friends, choosing coursework, applying for internships, and continue to have an educational and so cial impact long after graduation. Dolby (2004) claimed that study abroads significance lies not in its current numbers but in its growing popularity on Amer ican university and college campuses, and its symbolic place in many universities a nd colleges new commitments to preparing students for life in an increasingly globaliz ed world (pp. 152-153). Therefore, as educators and administrators, it is imperati ve to prepare students both academically and globally so they can interact and communicate with peoples of all nationalities and ethnicities. Study abroad programs are indeed a step in the right direction in creating a true nation of learners (Wingspread report, 1993). Purpose of Study While there is evidence to support successful student learning as a result of study abroad initiatives, ther e is very little research that explores how and why undergraduate students transform and redevel op their thinking into a global context as a result of study abroad participation. Therefor e, the purpose of this study is to explore how American

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5 undergraduate students perceive their own se lf-development changes via participation in their community college study abroad progr am. By surveying undergraduate students before and after the completion of their academic study abroad programs, this study will reveal the extent to which students gained in creased levels of self-development, based on their international academic and social experiences. Thus, this study employs Chickerings se ven vectors of student development to understand the changes in student developm ent. Furthermore, the environmental variables incorporated in th is study include academic envi ronment, classroom learning environment, student housing and friendships student support services and programs, field trips and excursions, cultural awareness and technol ogy and were adapted from Chickerings environmental variables. Research Hypothesis H0 : Undergraduate students who participated in thei r community college study abroad program reported no difference in self-development as represented by Chickerings Theory of Student Development H1 : Undergraduate students who participated in thei r community college study abroad program reported enhanced se lf-development as represented by Chickerings Theory of Student Development Research Questions RQ1: To determine the relationship between the individual student development vectors and overall student development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis RQ2: To determine whether student devel opment increased as a result of study abroad participation by examini ng pretest and posttest results RQ3: To determine whether specific socioeconomic variables influenced student development among study abroad participants using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method

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6 Significance of Study Although there are numerous stud ent development theories, there are few theories dedicated to international st udent development or to the application of environmental factors on American undergraduate students pu rsuing study abroad in terests in foreign countries. Therefore, this study uncovered the academic and social developmental changes experienced by study abroad college students due to various environmental factors as presented by Chickerings Theory of Student Development. Such research endeavors have not been addressed in prev ious studies to date and is increasingly important to the growing population of study ab road participants worldwide. It is the hope that this study will furt her our understanding of how student development and the environmental factors affect American stude nts within the context of international education in the community college system and provide a framework for future studies on study abroad student development theory. University of Florida Study Abroad Program Evaluation The University of Florida Internationa l Center (UFIC) maintains the UF Study Abroad Survey, of which was a modified version will be used as the major evaluation tool in this national study of community co llege study abroad programs. In addition, the UFIC houses various study abroad programs and offers students a variet y of services that are available on the website at http://www.ufic.ufl.edu/oss/studyabroad.htm (Other aspects of interest on the web site include health, safety, and tr avel information, study abroad applications and various forms, pr e-departure information, financial aid and scholarship information, insura nce and other resources).

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7 Summary This chapter provided a brief overvie w of the importance of study abroad participation and the need to expand student s awareness of the di fferent cultures around them. While there is evidence that courses w ith a diversity or international emphasis are beneficial to student development, thes e courses cannot compensate for practical knowledge and experience ac quired abroad. It is for this purpo se that students continue to travel abroad to study even in the midst of terrorist activity both in the homeland and abroad. Thus, study abroad program participation is a major aspect of student learning, especially in community colleges where educa tional objectives target the varying levels of student educational and social needs. Chickerings Seven Vectors of Student Development and the environmental variable s was employed to measure the depth of student learning while abroad. Taken together, these vectors of student development and environmental variables illustrate the importance of cognitive, social, and international learning on collegiate student developm ent and global education, overall.

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8 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chickerings Theory of Student Development This chapter examines Chickerings Theory of Student Development and further research related to the theory, in order to explore how students can increase development by encountering and engaging in various enviro nmental variables. The literature review examines the academic environment, classr oom learning environment, student housing and friendships, student suppor t services and programs, field trips and excursions, cultural awareness and technology. These variable s, taken together, impact students while studying abroad and help students develop a va riety of cognitive and social skills. A summary is provided at the end of the chapter. There are numerous student developmen t theories that hypothesize student developmental stages as e xplored by Komives and Woodard (1996), such as Piagets cognitive-structural theory, Pe rrys theory of Intellectua l and Ethical Development, Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Developmen t, Gilligans Theory of Womens Moral Development (pp. 172-178). But, of utmost importance is the re search conducted by Arthur Chickering between 1959 and 1965 wh ile employed at Goddard College, that led him to formulate the seven vectors of student development theory (pp. 36-37). Chickerings research reaches beyond traditional models because of his intricate analysis of the student intellect as we ll as certain factors, both academic and nonacademic, that influence the student as they ma triculate through their collegiate years. His research explored ways to:

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9 Incorporate findings from recent research on gender, race, and national origin Acknowledge the greater range of options students now have Adjust the theory to fit adult learners as well as traditional aged students Alter the definitions of several of the vectors to reflect changes in societal conditions and to acknowledge the wo rk of other theorists. (p. 37) Chickerings Student Development theory is very applicable to undergraduate students as they matriculate th rough their college years. Ther e are newer versions of the theory as well as other modified versions; however, this original version explicitly expounds the basic underlying themes of student development and the major factors that influence student development (Evans Forney, and Guido-DiBrito, 1998). These seven vectors include: 1. Developing competence (to include: intellectual competence, physical competence, and interpersonal competence) 2. Managing emotions 3. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence 4. Developing mature interpersonal relationships 5. Establishing identity 6. Developing purpose 7. Developing integrity Furthermore, Chickering argued that e ducational environmen ts exert powerful influences on student development (p. 40). Thus, these following environmental factors were crucial in examining student developm ent changes, especially in study abroad programs. 1. Institutional objectives 2. Institutional size 3. Student-faculty relationships 4. Curriculum 5. Teaching 6. Friendships and student communities 7. Student development programs and services 8. Integration of work and learning

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10 9. Recognition and respect for individual differences 10. Acknowledgement of the cyclical nature of learning and development. (pp 37-42) Student Development Theory : Definition of Vectors 1. Intellectual competence: Acquisition of knowledge and skills related to particular subject matter. Physical Competence comes through athletic and recreational activities. Interpers onal Competence includes skills in communication, leadership, and work ing effectively with others 2. Managing emotions: Students develop the ability to recognize and accept emotions as well as to appropria tely express and control them 3. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence: Result in increased emotional independence, which is defi ned as freedom from continual and pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval from others 4. Developing mature interpersonal rela tionships: Include development of intercultural and interpersonal toleran ce and appreciation of differences, as well as the capacity for healthy and las ting intimate relationships with partners and close friends 5. Establishing identity: Acknowledgeme nt of differences in identity development is based on gender, ethn ic background, and sexual orientation 6. Developing purpose: Development of clear vocational goals, making meaningful commitments to specific personal interests and activities, and establishing strong inte rpersonal commitments 7. Developing Integrity: Includes three sequential but overlapping stages: humanizing values, personalizing va lues, and developing congruence Student Development Theory: Environmental Variables 1. Institutional objectives: Cl ear and specific objectives to which personnel pay attention and use to guide the developm ent of programs and services have a powerful impact 2. Institutional size: Significan t participation in campus life and satisfaction with the college experience 3. Student-faculty relationships : Extensive and varied interaction among faculty and students

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11 4. Curriculum: Relevant and sensitive to individual differen ce, offers diverse perspectives, and helps students make sense of what they are learning 5. Teaching: Active learning, student-faculty interaction, timely feedback, high expectations, and respect for i ndividual learning differences 6. Friendships and student communities: Meaningful friendships and diverse student communities in which shared interests exist and significant interactions occur encourage deve lopment along all seven vectors 7. Student development programs and servic es: Collaborative efforts by faculty and student affairs profe ssionals are necessary to provide developmental programs and services 8. Integration of work and learning: Co llaborative relationships are needed between business, the comm unity, and institutions of higher education that will maximize the development potential of work and volunteer experiences 9. Recognition and respect for individual differences: Educators must be cognizant of the different backgrounds a nd needs of their students and adjust their interactions and interventi ons to address these differences 10. Acknowledgement of the cyclical na ture of learning and development: Learning involves periods of differentia tion and integration, equilibrium and disequilibrium. New experiences and challenges provide opportunities for new perspectives and more complex understanding to occur Other researchers have similarly noted the importance of the environmental vectors in student development. Kodama, Mc Ewen, Liang, and Lee (2002) explained that a change in identity for a student may result in a change of purpos e (or vice versa) and may subsequently cause changes to other ar eas of development such as competency, emotions, interdependence, re lationships, and integritythe circular pattern of these vectors represents their nonhierarchical and fluid nature, not assigning primacy to one over another (pp. 48-49). In addition, Strange (2004) noted from a widely applied model of identity development, articulated by Chickering and Reisser (1993), comes an understanding of the role of interdependence, tolerance for differences, and a sense of competence in the

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12 maturation of young adults (p. 53). These ar e precisely the variables that will be examined in this research project, but taken to a higher level, a le vel that examines not only student development, but student devel opment in the context of an international atmosphere. Thus, the seven vectors of stude nt development were a main component of this research study because they directly impacted student development changes and were important in evaluating how students res pond about their overall academic success of their study abroad program and ultimatel y on their individual progression. Application of Chickerings Environmental Variables In order to measuring Chickerings envir onmental variables as presented in his Theory of Student Development, it was neces sary to adapt certain variables from the theory and incorporate them into the survey questions. These variables included academic environment, classroom learning environment, student housing and friendships, student support services and programs, field trips and excursions, cultural awareness, and technology. Since student development is not a linear process, the variables that were used to measure development also overlap within the context of Chickerings environmental variables. In other words, academic environment incorporated institutional size and objective, and student-f aculty relationships and teaching. Similarly, classroom learning environment incorporated student-faculty relati onships, curriculum, teaching, and the integration of work and learning, student housing and friendships incorporated friendships and student communities, and recognition and respect for individual differences, student support services and programs incorporated student development programs and services, field trips and excursions incorporated integration of work and

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13 learning, cultural awareness incorporated recognition and respect for individual differences and integration of work and learning, and technology incorporated studentfaculty relationships, curriculum, teaching, as well as the integr ation of work and learning. Taken together, each of the variables represented in this study either indirectly or directly influenced the students acknowledge ment of the cyclical nature of learning and development which can be considered overall student development (Chickerings Theory of Student Development). Furthermore, it is important to note that while this study served to uncover student development changes before and after study abroad, such environmental variables may impact students indirectly or may have a grea ter impact long after th e completion of their study abroad program. Finally, what types of student development patterns emerged among student participants while studying abroad? In order to examin e how student development changes occurred abroad, it is important to review these main environmental variables and view how they impacted student lear ning. The following environmental variables presented in this chapter will elucidate the importance of Chickerings Theory of Student Development on community college undergradu ate students. These include: community college student population, articulation and tr ansfer, internationa lization, globalization, and other important aspects that are importa nt functions of the academic environment. Academic Environment Community College Student Profile Although there is very little research on the profiles of undergraduate students in community college institutions, it is im portant to examine the varying student

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14 characteristics in order to understand their student development. A report by the National Center for Educational Statisti cs (2003/2004) suggested that: Compared with students attending 4year colleges and universities, community college students are more likely to be older, female, and from lowincome families and are less like to be White 47 percent of community college st udents were younger than 24, while those 30 or older, constituted 35 percent of community colleges (larger group than 4 year institutions 63 percent of 4 year college students attended exclusive full-time, compared with 31 percent of community college students 47 percent of community college students received some form of financial aid, primarily grants and were more likely to work part-time or full-time than 4 year college students Undergraduates atte nding community colleges were more likely to be women (59 percent) compared to those attend ing four-year institu tions (55 percent) 63 percent of all undergraduates were White, 14 percent Black, 13 percent Hispanic, and 5 percent were Asian White dependent students were more likely to be from high-income families than Black dependent students. (pp. 9-80) Articulation and Transfer Cohen and Brawer (2003) expl ained that articulation re fers to the movement of students or more precisely, th e students academic credits from one point to another. Articulation is not a linear se quencing or progression (p. 212). Relative to study abroad programming, faculty and staff must make sure that student credits are valid and easily transferable by supporting important articu lation agreements between the foreign institutions and American community colleg es. Without proper authorization supporting students completion of course, credit transfer could become problematic not only abroad, but after the students return back to their home institutions.

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15 Festervand and Tillery (2001) indicated first and foremost, the program's requirements must meet (minimally) or ex ceed (as planned) university, college of business, graduate, and accreditation standard s. Though each program must decide on the amount of time to be spent on academic versus personal pursuits, this program limits the latter, given temporal, academic, and financial parameters (p. 108). But what happens if there are no stan dard set of articulation or program guidelines? Marshall (2004) stat ed the diploma is the trad itional credential of the Canadian college (community), and as such, all public colleges are subject to government approval and accountability processes. But, by-in-large, there is no common national or even provincial standard regard ing the substances or outcome of the diploma credential (p. 74). If study abroad programs have courses approved but lack academic standards, the result could be catastrophic for transfer and ev aluation of credit. Therefore, in order for a program to be credible, it must maintain a st able academic standard, one that is accepted nationwide. Thus, internationa l colleges and universities must pass the accreditation process and make sure that student credits are transferable betw een international and domestic colleges. In addition, there is a need for strong pa rtnerships and articulations agreements between the US and Canada, and ot her foreign institutions to make sure that the credit transfer process is smooth and seam less, especially in study abroad programs. Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) suggested so me excellent guidelines at both the policy level and the community college level in order to examine articulation and transfer policies in study abroad programs:

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16 Articulate broad transfer agreements that ensure senior colleges and universities will accept credits from st udents who enroll in courses that incorporate study abroad opportunities Encourage and support innovation a nd collaboration w ithin and among community colleges Lead efforts to ensure that international educational experiences, including study abroad, are woven clearly into the academic mission and programs of the college. (pp.66-68) Burn (2002) reflected that colleges are giving students academic credit for study abroad, not counting the academic work for el ective credit only, and are even approving courses taken abroad toward general education requirements (p. 256). In addition, it is not uncommon to find that both community co lleges and universities approve academic coursework toward their general education re quirements as well as use other study abroad credits toward students major a nd minor degree requirements. In further evaluation of academic program s, Weeks (2000) explained during this era of rapid change in higher education, we realized the benchmarking project was timely if we were going to both improve our cour se and be involved in the international discussion about the accreditation of teachi ng in higher education (p. 66). Faculty, administrators, staff, and students must be willing to discuss and implement guidelines on such aspects as academic program credit, co urse content, tuitio n, and ease of credit transfer back to home institution in order to be successful in academic programming for study abroad initiatives. Academic Program Quality In addition, study abroad academic programs should include a multicultural component to help students learn and embr ace diversity abroad. Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) suggested that curriculum analysts ha ve focused increasingly on the need to

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17 internationalize the curriculum and expose st udents to multiculturalism. Students need to become more familiar with, and more able to respond to, the incr easing globalization of society. They also need to learn more a bout people of color and members of other cultures as the proportion of minorities in our society increases rapidly (p. 272). Besides academic credit transfer an d multiculturalism, students look at the reputation of study abroad programs and tend to converse with other students, friends, and family about program satisfaction befo re committing to an overseas experience. Michael, Armstrong, and King (2003) noted that the main reason for choosing Australia as a destination for study was the qua lity of education and that students learnt this through word-of-mouth from friends. This choice was supported by information about course content and the cost (p. 64) Along with the reputation of the program, administrators are also interested in the quality of the program. Campbell (1999) explained that in instru ctional programs and services, the top five issues [identified by leaders at the co mmunity college futures assembly] were (1) acquiring, training, and keeping qualified facu lty, (2) increasing competition from other institutions and distance education, (3) commitment of funding for institutions, (4) maintaining the level of quality, a nd (5) articulation issues (p. 23). All of these issues are pr ofoundly important in mainta ining strong, quality-based study abroad programs and choosing superior f aculty to teach and support students while abroad. In addition, it is imperative to ha ve strong alliances with international institutions, their faculty and institutional resources, and of course legitimate articulation agreements.

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18 Identity Transformation and Internationalization Joseph, Marginson, Yang (2005) stated the openness of identities in education becomes more obvious when we consider cros s-border aspects such as what happens to students who enroll in a foreign country, and wh at happens to the inst itutions that educate them (p. 3). There is an indeed a strong connection between stude nt learning in study abroad programs and identity development. Only when leaders accept this key principle can they begin to evaluate how academics a nd cultural awareness im pact student learning and development. Joseph, Marginson, Yang (2005) further explained that in contemporary educational settings, changes in personal identities and dail y practices are manifest not just in international relations hips per se but in intra-cu ltural and inter-cultural-and intra/inter class and gender-encounters 'international education'education that is understood to be inflected by global flows and more fluid, changing identities (pp. 4-6). International relationships are very impor tant in helping students develop new identities and stronger intell ectual competencies by studying abroad. Even while abroad, the presence of a diverse classroom can greatly influence stud ent cognitive skills. Furthermore, even short term study abroad pr ograms have an impact on student cognition and global awareness as long as the student is open to lear ning new cultures, customs, language, and national differences. In addition, Cudmore (2005) explained that In 2000, there were 1.8 million international st udents enrolled in institutions of higher education around the world, and pr ojected that this global demand for international higher education will exceed 7 million places by 2025. The traditional view of internationaliza tion includes the academic activities one could find under a ca talogue heading of International Studies. These include a variety of interdisciplinary programs in languages, political science, cultural

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19 anthropology, and sociology, which have as their goal the development of knowledge about other nations and cultures, and the ability to function well in the languages and customs of t hose cultures. (p. 42) As long as students, faculty and staff acknowledge that inte rnational education and study abroad programming are truly importa nt in student learning and development, the participation levels will continue to increase in the future as the world becomes more globalized. In addition to interdiscip linary programs offered in study abroad programming, there should also be areas of st udy that could be part of a students major or minor degree requirement, such as earth and biological sciences, math, literature, architecture, and other collegiate fields. McCabe (2001) discussed that interna tionalization is more oriented toward bilateral and/or multilateral processes invol ving knowledge of specific countries, which leads to the development of business, educational, soci al, and cultural relationships (p. 141). Therefore, internati onalization has an impact on stud ent educational and cultural relationships, which foster growth in cognitive and social development. Cudmore (2005) also explained, a second view of internatio nalization include the range of activities that facilitate the interaction of domestic students with students and faculty from other nations to build a sense of global community (p. 42). Interaction with nationals of the host country can create a powerful learning environment. For example, field trips, guest speakers, and site visits are excellent sources for communication with international hosts. Globalization Joseph, Marginson, Yang (2005) noted that Globalisation in education involves not just transformations of economic and cultural circumstances but transformations in

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20 people themselves (p. 3). If study abroad pr ograms are successful in internationalization and globalization, then the program participan ts will come away with a changed identity and a deeper understanding of the importance of culture, peop le, and nation as it relates to them and the world they live in. McCabe (2001) also suggested that s pecifically, globalization is seen to represent a worldwide process. In this case, it implies standardization across cultures that occurs as technology, migration, and education become dispersed around the globe (p. 140). Taken together, intern ationalization and globalizati on are two major aspects of study abroad programming that must receive ev aluation and cultivation from all faculty, staff, and administrators in order for pr ograms to grow and be successful. To lack community college study abroad programming is to deny a core part of student learning and international education. Dalton (1999) stated more than ever before, college students are preparing themselves for a global future by combining in ternational studies w ith a wide range of college majors (p. 7). Therefore, study abro ad program leaders must match educational degree majors and educational objectives with appropriate destina tions in order for students to gain maximum learning. For exampl e, an African literature course may well incorporate literary leaders in Africa to speak in the cl assroom, or a Spanish language course in Spain could help students gain in creased language learni ng by interaction with native speakers. Dalton (1999) further advised we have much to learn about our own domestic diversity in particular by closer contact and communi cation with higher education institutions in Latin America, the Cari bbean, Europe, Canada, and the Pacific Rim

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21 countries. These regions have contributed so greatly to our multicul tural society and are such an integral part of our own historical legacy that we can benefit greatly from greater contact and understanding of th eir cultures and traditions (p. 11). This is important not only for students, but also for faculty and sta ff. Lifelong learning is an important concept that can be applied to all study abroad and in ternational programs; t hus, faculty, staff, and students can benefit from co mmunication with internationa l partners to learn about cultures, lifestyles, and traditions. Sheppard (2004) emphasized that in order to ensure students receive the value out of international education programs a nd choose to become global citizens and leaders, it is necessary that they are able to reflect on the experiences that they are able to have. Whether a student is retu rning from a study abroad prog ram, learning about another culture in class, there should be the opportunity to take what is learned and incorporate the learned knowledge, skills, and attitudes in to their life as a part of the campus community (p. 39). This is exactly how student s can transform themselves into global leaders. For example, by taking what was learned abroad and using that knowledge in campus or community activities, students have the capacity to share, reflect, and emphasize to others how important study abroad programs can be in the microcosm of educational attainment and success. Key Stakeholders and Program Success Tseng and Newton (2002) recommended that specifically, in the respondents view, a meaningful study-abroad life included a series of achievement outcomes, such as completing school work, planning for the future achieving an individu al career vision,

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22 pursuing success in academic studies, seeki ng a development of professional knowledge, experiencing a different world, and increasi ng knowledge about the world (p. 594). If the study abroad program meets or exceeds the goals set by students, faculty, and staff, then it is possible to assume students had a remarkable experience, one that fulfills their academic and international expectations. International education can be a powerful tool in educating students and helping them understand the context of human nature an d different civilizations. But, the student must be an active participant in the study ab road experience to acquire success. This brings up the question, who determines the su ccess of the academic program? There are a variety of key players, such as students, instructors, administrators, and external constituents that determine the success of study abroad programs and international education. First and foremost is the student, and only the student can decide whether he or she was truly involved in the study abroad e xperience and whether it was successful with the personal and academic goals they had in itially set for themselves before travel. Grayson (2004) explained that while there may be little relationshi p between professors' performance and GPA, it is clear that good teaching results in enhanced program satisfactionand good grades result in incr eased program satisfaction (p. 30). And increased program satisfaction leads to increas ed participation, expansion of the program to other international des tinations, and overall increased program quality/reputation. Furthermore, Tseng and Newton (2002) noted that internationa l students eight strategies for adjusting to st udy abroad life: 1) knowing self and others, 2) making friends and building relationships, 3) expanding indi vidual worldview, 4) asking help and

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23 handling problems, 5) establishing cultural and social contacts, 6) building relationships with advisors and instructors, 7) becoming proficient in the English language, 8) using the tactic of letting go (p. 596). The author s strategies directly support Chickerings theory and environmental factors, as discusse d earlier. These strate gies are prevalent and very important in student development and a powerful force in he lping students acclimate to their new international climate. Geelhoed, Abe, and Talbot (2003) also e xplained that three related, but not necessarily sequential, attributes that affected a students ab ility to have a successful or positive experience in the IPP: the students (a ) fulfilling or not fulfilling expectations of and motivation for participating in the program ; (b) ability or inabi lity to get past the initial discomfort associated with an inte rcultural interaction; and (c) having or not having the willingness and commitment to invest in the relationship (p. 15). All of these are important in helping students acc limate to study abroad destinations. Program officials must provide support for students during their period of adjustment and understand this adjustment period is para mount in having an enjoyable experience abroad. Sheppard found that on a micro level, or that of the indivi dual, the success of international education programming comes dow n to personal outcomes. It is tied to impact on students, which is difficult to measure (p. 34). Although it is difficult to measure exactly what impact international programming can have on students because of their varying and individual need s, it is possible to measur e what students desire, what they want in international pr ograms, where they travel, and what they want to achieve personally and academically.

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24 If study abroad program officials view students as consumers they are much more likely to be successful in recruiting st udents and promoting study abroad initiatives. Levine and Cureton (1998) st ated that students want th eir colleges nearby and operating at the hours most useful to them, preferab ly around the clock. They want convenience: easy, accessible parking (in the classroom woul d not be at all bad); no lines; and polite, helpful and efficient staff service. They also want high-quality educat ion but are eager for low costs.Their focus is on convenience, quality, service, and cost (p. 50). Like any service, students want to gain something from their program expense. In study abroad programs, most students want to gain academic or international education learning within a diverse social context. Th erefore, study abroad program officials should market study abroad programs to students and pa rents in such a way that it is consumerfocused in order to be successful. Sheppard (2004) suggested that no one pers on starts at the same point or finishes with the same outcome. Not only is the impact of an international education experience different for each individual, both the length of the experience and the motivations for participating may differ as well. For many st udents one experience abroad, regardless of duration, can last a lifetime (p. 35). Student s who study abroad may elect a summer, a semester, or a year-long program, but it is those life-changing experiences of contact with new cultures, values, persons and society th at ultimately influence students uniquely. Second, the instructor is a key player in providing an academic learning environment similar to that in their home in stitutions and must evaluate their style of teaching and learning. To be successful, the instructor must heavily depend on their own goals set for the class, the class grades and expectations, and outcomes. In addition,

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25 faculty must balance their goals of student su ccess set for the course as well as the need to recruit, support, and increase enrollment in study abroad programming. Third, the next key players are the admini strators and collegiate representatives who may have initiated or helped fu nd the program. Success depends on how many students volunteered for the program, and if th at number will double in subsequent years. Finally, there a variety of external key players, from private foundations, grant and scholarship program leaders, community and civic organizations and many others. These external players may have helped launch and support the study abroad program, especially at the community college level wh ere partnerships are crucial in successful programming. Sheppard (2004) concluded that on a m acro level, success in international programming is determined by numbers: th e number of study abroad programs, the percentage of international students of the student body, and the number of courses that contain international content (p. 34). Taken together, stude nts, faculty, administration and external constituents determine whethe r the study abroad program will be successful at present and in the future. Faculty Role in Student Learning In examining faculty and the roles they pl ay in student learning, it is important to accommodate the different learning styles of unique learners. There are a variety of aspects of study abroad programming that can help teacher satisfacti on and the role they play in student learning. Smith (2002) expl ained that planning courses and teaching sessions with a range of learning styles in mind is a powerful way of responding to differences in students (p. 69). Instructor s should use visual aid tools, such as

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26 blackboards, projectors, billboards and handout s in addition to traditional lecture based instruction to accommodate the unique learning styles of their student population, especially in study abroad programs. Often times, students range in gender, ag e, background, culture and maturity, so instructors need to support th eir individual learning needs. Smith (2002) argued that in order to accommodate learning styles, inst ructors should be aware of the value judgments implicit in the learning style cl assifications they are using; their own preferences and the effect this is having on the way they teach; and their students individual prefer ences (p. 69). Even when abroad, instructors should hold office hours after classroom instruction to help those st udents who may need additional clarification on the topics taught, as they would normally do in their homeland. Additionally, instructors should understand the learning styles of their students by meeti ng them individually in the beginning and during the semester. Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) stated that: It is incumbent upon the instructor to s ee that students develop an appropriate context for the trip. Each instructors r ecipe for grading will vary depending on the purpose of the course, length of travel and the number of credits offered. An example of a syllabi should include the following componentscourse description, objective, course grading (to include citizenship or attitude, interaction, responsibility, willingness to share, enthusiasm, openness, and respect), research papers, journal entries, oral cla ss report, students final assessment, group exercises, reading assi gnments, class lecture, field trips, research topics, participation, attenda nce, and guest lectures. (pp. 208-211) If instructors are dedicated with helpi ng their students overcome obstacles in global learning, they must incl ude a variety of learning tech niques with opportunities for students to integrate their academic envi ronment with their host countries.

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27 Furthermore, Osborne (2005) defended that the fragility of student development is a strong argument for intentionality in se tting goals and in designing assignments and other activities to further thes e goals. Certainly, students who ha ve participated in debates do begin to think more critically about hist ory (p. 49). Thus, another key component that instructors should incorporate in desi gning curricula include debate with other students and foreign nationals. This is a good recipe for study abroad academic development and course purpose. Of course, each instructor has different goals and outcomes he or she wishes students to learn, but the end result is the same; that is to provide a solid academic foundation where students will link study/resear ch to practice/environment. Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) also sugge sted a guideline to help instructors prepare for study abroad programs and student concerns (pp. 205-206): 1. Set up course accounting system and accounts 2. Prepare two copies of syllabus/detaile d itinerary (extra copies to parents) 3. Prepare readings for students (books, j ournal, newspapers) and develop field guide 4. Determine passport, visa, medical requirements 5. Discuss course goals and content, count ry/regions to be visited, registration guidelines, clear expectations for pa rticipation and grad ing, deadlines for papers/projects, behavior and appropriate dress 6. Encourage students to speak with past participants (set up a social event) 7. First Aid products, emergency numbers, c onsider renting an international cell phone 8. Revise syllabus based on experiences

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28 Zhao, Kuh, Carini (2005) stated that assuming institutions view these as legitimate concerns, faculty members could be encouraged to promote the mingling of Asian international students with students of different cultures or backgrounds in group study and collaborative projects (p. 226). The purpose of inte rcultural mingling is a powerful tool in encouraging students to communicate and appreciate diversity. In addition, group work can promote tolerance a nd respect of individuality, especially in study abroad programs. Teaching Satisfaction Weeks (2000) explained the need to impr ove current teaching practice or prepare teachers to cope with a changed and ever changing environmentwe came to know our strengths and our weaknesses. We recognized th e need to make our course more flexible and customer focused. We needed to take a practical and scholarly approach to teaching development (pp. 65-66). But in order to provide instructors with th e right educational tools to help students achieve higher learning, the quest ion is not which objective to use, rather how to use both objectives in satisfying the main goal of educational improvement for educators. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the inst ructors individual role and satisfaction. For example, the instructor should self-evaluate himself or herself, highlight both strength and weakness in the course su ccess. Only then can teaching satisfaction be improved and emphasis placed on student learning and educational improvement. Duke (2000) found that as more univers ities become involved in study abroad programs, matching instructional activities with the style of study abroad tour will help professors to develop effective course delive ry for various levels of learning activities

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29 (p. 164). This helps increase student cognitive development by incorporating educational practices in an international setting; therefore, instructors must be willing to explore new aspects of teaching and learning, such as site visits and excursions and relate external visits to classroom instruction. Furthermore, by engaging instructors in pr ofessional development activities, they can then develop the necessary instructional goals and academic guidelines for classroom practice. In addition, Festervand and Tillery (2001) proposed that one of the most direct professional development results sought and pr ovided by a study abroad experience is the grounding of concept and theory in reality, an ou tcome directly transfer able to both future teaching and research activities (p. 109). Ju st as students need learning and development tools to help them succeed, instructors need strategies and tools to help them develop their necessary skills to suppor t positive program outcomes. Festervand and Tillery (2001) further advised that the faculty members participation in a short-term internationa l experience will result in the generation of significant intellectual growth. In some in stances, new knowledge is acquired through overt, concerted effortsand provide the ba sis for developing new and richer teaching and learning materials gleaned from direct visits with representatives of industry, education, and government in another country and participation in its daily activities (pp. 109-111). If instructors participate and collaborate with inte rnational partners (both academic and non-academic), the opportunities for cultural and international higher learning is very great. Faculty can enjoy meeting and connecting with international faculty and officials that help them devel op strong curriculum and program components.

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30 In addition, instructors who ar e able to adjust to the in ternational academic setting are likely to bring a positive learning attitude to the classroom, in turn helping students understand the new culture. Festervand and Tillery (2001) explained that regretably, faculty often carry biases, sterotypical images, and mispercepti ons into their everyday activities. Awareness of such attitudes, inaccuracies, and behaviors is critical, as faculty may perpetuate these misrepresentations through the classroom. Specifically, in teaching and researching international subjects, faculty members must be mindful of how such biases may be transferred to their students and colleagues (p. 110). Although it is possible for some faculty to encounter negative situations abroad and may bring that negativity to the classroom, such bias can be reduced by preparing faculty ahead of the trip for cultural di fferences, providing professional development tools to help them cope with difficult s ituations, and providing counseling and other resources for faculty while abroad. For exam ple, on-call advisors and program officials should be available to assist with faculty with concerns or problems. Good instructor preparator y is necessary to ensure that highly qualified and trained individuals can lead and instruct educational programs abroad. Stachowski, Richardson, and Henderson (2003) recommended that before going abroad, instructors are required to undergo extens ive preparation (including se minars, readings, abstracts and papers, workshops, sessions with consulta nts from the host cultural groups) for the cultural values, beliefs, lifestyles, and edu cational practices in the placement sites they have selected (p. 54). Although preparatory programs are important, is it possible to engage instructors in study abroad programming?

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31 Stachowski, Richardson, and Henderson ( 2003) noted that careful observation, reflective study, and cultural participation will allow teachers to gain knowledge, appreciation, and insights, moving them beyond stereotypes to a deep er understanding of the backgrounds, beliefs, and trad itions of their pupils. Only then can they begin to teach in culturally relevant ways, incorporating their pupils' cultural values into classroom instruction at every level (p. 62). Faculty Development In order to engage the instructor, prog ram officials must provide avenues for teacher support, learning and particip ation opportunities, sa tisfaction and bonus incentives; in other words, to equip the in structor with the necessary intellectual and social competencies so that he or she can educate and help students learn in an international environment. Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) suggested that some ways to support faculty development could include the following: Create a policy that identifies internat ional activity as a criterion for faculty advancement and support policies for encouraging facu lty "first-hand experiences abroad Support faculty who design and implemen t curricular options for experiential learning, including study abroad Provide administrative and staff assistan ce for faculty to encourage faculty to devote their time to focusing on learni ng and not simply on the technical aspects of planning details of a trip (pp. 66-68). Gleazer (1998) explained faculty and admi nistrative personnel alike can benefit from utilization of job enrichment theory which will improve the quality of their participation by providing new approaches to establishing roles and the reorganization of institutional structures (p. 168). In add ition, Cohen and Brawer (2003) defended that

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32 compared with university faculty, community co llege instructors are more satisfied with their salary, the reputation of their department, and their institution.they are less satisfied with the quality of their students, t eaching load, rigidity of their work schedule, and opportunities for scholarly pursuits and professional recognition (p. 93). College administrators and program offi cials must work with instructors and faculty boards to avoid dissatisfaction and burnout of faculty from overloaded teaching schedules. In addition, instructor s must have course flexibility and administrative support to help them achieve student success while abroad and continue to have support when they return, including profe ssional development opportunities. Classroom Learning Environment There are a variety of le arning tools and techniques that instructors must incorporate into their study abroad classr oom environment. Textbook assignments, host speakers, and interactive group sessions are all important pa rts of helping students be actively involved in the learni ng process and instructors must also take into account their unique backgrounds and unique styles of learni ng. But also important are learning models and techniques that suggest best practices. Learning Models The Wingspread Report (1993) raised three ma in issues and questions important to student learning: 1. Taking Values Seriously: In what ways do our institutional programs promote shared values among our students? How does our core curriculum of required courses respond to the needs of our stude nts for a rigorous lib eral education? 2. Putting Students Learning First: In wh at ways could we do a better job of helping our students at tain higher levels of knowledge and skills?

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33 3. Creating a Nation of Learners: In what ways have we organized our programs to develop and support a capacity for lifelong learning among students? These three questions should also be ev aluated in study abroad programming in order to provide effective student learning. In viewing community college study abroad programs as a learning program, then it is possible to apply the l earning college principles suggested by OBanion and Cross (1997): The learning college creates substan tial change in indi vidual learners The learning college engages learners as full partners in the learning process, with learners assuming primary re sponsibility for their own choices The learning college creates and offe rs as many options for learning as possible The learning college assists learners to form and participate in collaborative learning activities The learning college defines the roles of learning facilitators by the needs of the learners The learning college and its learning f acilitators succeed only when improved and expanded learning can be docum ented for its learners. (p. 47). Simply put, most community college study abroad programs accomplish many of the above tasks by providing students excelle nt learning opportuni ties abroad, helping students make collaborative communication efforts with other students, allowing the instructor to be more of a guide and supporte r of student learning, a nd of course helping students with their own choices and decisi on-making in their learning process. De Vita (2001) proposed eight types of learning styles (table 4, p. 172): Active: group projects; brainstorming; learn-by-doing and problem-solving exercises Reflective statements: functional pa uses for reflection and evaluation

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34 Sensing case studies: examples and explic it links to the real world of business Intuitive theories and models: space fo r abstraction and conceptualization Visual trigger videos an d visual organizers: such as charts, maps, Venn diagrams, etc. Verbal traditional lectur e: oral presentation Sequential integrated progression of t opics: breaking information down into smaller parts Global: a two-step approach combining specific-to-general and general-tospecific elements These types of learning can be applied to different learner modes. For example, students may learn from typical oral presentations and lectur e styles, but may find active, problem solving type material more inter active and more beneficial to suit their individual learning styles. In addition, Hung, Chee, Hedberg, and Seng (2005) proposed that scaffolding envisages a learning struct ure and framework for a learner to gradually move along a continuum (figure 1) (p. 163). Hung, Chee, Hedberg, and Seng (2005) further explained that the effort is to develop appropriate identities in learners. At each stage of the scaffolding process, an evolving process of interactions between stude nts, instructors, problems, and the supports given must be a dynamically negotia ted interaction (pp. 166-175). This addresses the concept of identity formation and participation. Furthermore, scaffolding can be used in creating a commun ity of learners who are all responsible for

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35 their own learning experiences in study abroad programs. This allows the learner to gain an academic foundation and social experien ce abroad, but with the support of the instructor, program officials, a nd other student participants. In addition, Smith (2002) advocated that there are positive benefits for all students in recognizing and valuing differe nces inside and outside the classroom, acknowledging how background and experience shape individual perceptions and attitudes, and how learning how to le arn can be the most empowering lear ning of all (p. 69). This is especially true in stu dy abroad learning where students have the opportunity to really understa nd a countrys historical and social demographics and link classroom knowledge to practice outside of the classroom (i.e. la nguage learning, visiting historical sites, etc). Sheppard (2004) explained in order to achieve the desired outcome of international education programming, and in or der to get students to think outside their boxes, it only makes sense to start from insi de the box (p. 37). Most students would have likely taken courses at their home institution and experience traditional academic learning by way of lecture and examination. In order to get students to think outside the box, educators must engage them at a higher level; that is, help the student link theory (textbook learning) to pr actice (environment). For example, if an instructor teaches a subject on Greek mythology in Greece, the student should be encouraged to visit the ar chitectural ruins or my thological statues to link the pages in the textbook to actual reality. Only then can the student begin to have a deeper understanding and greater value of the course mate rial being taught and the culture.

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36 Teaching and Learning Strategies Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) advised that it is also likely that that some specific topics may be best covered through independent projects, presentations, or labs in the field, while others areengage d using guest lecture/guided tour format-either by faculty or guest speakers from the area or st udy or simply by observation (p. 204). Depending on the type of models the instru ctor wishes to use in student learning, students learn in very different capacities, a nd should have a variet y of learning options to choose from to meet their course goals. Instructors who meet the needs of their students will most likely see a positive educational outcome re flected in their grades and course evaluations. Duke (2000) explained often, experientia l learning methods use the concepts of collaborative learning activities that typically involve students working in groups to solve problems or understand meanings (p. 157). This allows students to learn and work with other students who may have a completely di fferent way of thinki ng and learning. But at the same time, instructors using these methods of learning must take the necessary steps to ensure that all students have an equal stake in the group project and that no one student in the group is left to finish the project. Classroom lectures coupled with guest speakers, interactive group work, and technology can provide different types of learning for all types of students. Duke (2000) noted that lectures are perhaps the most fam iliar technique for a professor leading a tour and for the students who are participating. Ad justing lectures to use the international setting for special examples is common and advisable (p. 157). Thus, for those students

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37 that may not learn as readily from lectures then have other opti ons to successfully complete the course in a fun and new environment. Depending on the course, open book exams may be a possibility, but study abroad programs must be careful to maintain a str ong level of academic quality as well as some flexibility. Duke (2000) found that conven tional test formats (multiple choice and closed-book exams) are less popular in study abroad tours apparently because other learning activities in the courses are so much more engaging. Students have suggested that, where possible, open exams (open book or open notes) with more integrative question styles are preferable in the study abro ad setting (p. 159). Therefore, instructors must be able to alter course content using a variety of test formats and suiting individual learner styles as necessary. In addition, Duke (2000) indicated that journal writing has been suggested for many different applications in education. Observations, analysis, and insights are communicated through active involvement by fi nding examples, integrating concepts, increasing cultural awareness, and encouragi ng discussion of global marketing issues (p. 159). Student journals can be an excel lent source of enrichment and personal reflection without the stress of deadlines. St udents often enjoy the ch ance to reflect on daily activities or aspects of the program and instructors should encourage this type of participation, whether for grading, extra credit, or other assignment. Henning (2005) noted that p erhaps most important, prof essors show they care by valuing student thinking-by listening closely, by regularly crediting and referring to student answers, and by incorporating student thinking into their own (p. 93). If the

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38 instructor is willing to help students unde rstand and learn by giving them constructive feedback, students can then feel responsible for their own learning and development. Henning (2005) further explained that stu dents need to feel comfortable with each other, as well as with the professor. Wo rking together in groups gives them a chance to build relationships, to hear different perspectives, and to tr y out risky ideas (p. 93). In addition, language learning can be truly succes sful with group discussions as well as allows students to develop friendships a nd peer relationships within the classroom. Duke (2000) suggested a number of ways to engage faculty and students in effective teaching and learning strategies: As with conventional domestic courses, te sts may be varied in style. With single locations and longer tours, students have more opportunity to prepare for exams Traveling between multiple locations reduces study time available and increases the diversions Conventional test formats (multiple choice and closed-book exams) are less popular in study abroad tours apparently because other learning activities in the courses are so much more engaging. Students have suggested that, where possible, open exams (open book or open notes) with more integrative question styles are preferable in the study abroad setting Journal writing has been suggested for ma ny different applicat ions in education Observations, analysis, and insight s are communicated through active involvement by finding examples, integr ating concepts, increasing cultural awareness, and encouraging discus sion of global marketing issues Group projects offer the opportunity for interactive learning from peers and challenge all group members to be fully engaged in the process Smaller individual projects can be used to cover specific topics in a course. Conventional comprehensive group projec ts may be used to integrate many topics across the entire lengt h of the course. (pp. 159-163) Besides structuring the academic program to meet the needs of students and faculty members, another interesting point that can be raised is whether courses should be graded

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39 on a pass/fail or letter grade basis. Mervin (2003) found that if the grading policy of study-abroad programs is on a pass/fail basis and this is found to have a significant affect on study effort, then students may be syst ematically underachieving academically in these programs (p. 150). Pass/fail could also reduce the amount of st ress of achieving grades while abroad in appropriate classes. Given the variety of courses, a reason able assessment would be for major courses to be letter grades, while leis ure or general educati on courses are available as pass/fail or letter grade, giving the students the opportunity to be responsible for their own learning and development. Terenzini et al. (2001) res earched claims about the educational benefits of racially or ethnically diverse classrooms. Le vel of classroom dive rsity was related at small but statistically significant levels to students reported gains in both their problem-solving and their group skills (p. 527). Therefore, student learning is impacted by diversity, and at a higher level, internationa l education can play a vi tal role in identity development and global awareness. Language Learning McKeown (2003) stated that the percenta ge [of students] answering that they became interested in study abroad because "I wanted to learn another language" increased from 22.73% to 41.56% (p. 90). One learning t ool in language lear ning that instructors can force students to think outside the box is to encourage students to exchange conversations in class with other class memb ers and with a native learner from the host country. After the student is confident in language learning, he or she can begin to explore their newly learned language with the native popul ation. Language attainment

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40 and immersion in foreign language acquisi tion are two of the most common reasons study abroad, but not the only reasons. Astin (1993) found that participation in a study-abroad program has its strongest effect on self-reported growth in foreign language skills (Beta =.23). It also has weak, but significant positive effects on most satisfaction outcomes and on self-reported growth in Cultural Awareness (p. 380). Therefore, study abroad programs do increase competencies in language learning and cultu ral awareness. Study abroad programs should encourage and promote advanced foreign la nguage learning and assessment of credits based on level of competency. For example, Lambert (2001) explained th at a number of college and university language departments discount high school langu age instruction, putting students back to the beginning level as they enter collegiate language in struction, or they allow very limited credit (p. 349). This can illustrate the im portance of study abroad programming; that is, students not only lear n in the classroom, but as an added incentive, they have the opportunity to practice language conversati ons with nationals of the host country. Lambert (2001) further proposed that if we are to nurture the cumulative growth of language competence in individuals we will al so need diagnostic instruments, that is, tests that will enable teachers and learners to determine how far th e learner has come and which aspects of competency need to be rejuvenated or built upon (p. 348). These tests or evaluation techniques are imperative in college-level courses. Study abroad programs could become innovative leaders in this type of evaluation since language learning abroad is very common and popular and can serve to correctly measure la nguage proficiency.

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41 Whereas language learning in the Unite d States may be limited to mostly classroom instruction, students abroad will ha ve the opportunity to converse with natives of the country and learn specific dialects of that region that may also help language proficiency. McCabe (2001) explained that the exposure to another country, and the development of language skills, no doubt provide s the student with a frame of reference, which allows him or her to consider e xperiences, thoughts, and ideas, outside the immediate framework of just two cultures (U nited States and Fran ce) (p. 142). These experiences, thoughts, and ideas are important in helping students learn the new language and use that language while abroad. Lambert (2001) also advised that students returning from study abroad programs represent a similar resource. For students who have devel oped substantial FL [foreign language] competencies, new peda gogical strategies beyond the study of literature should be developed to enable them to reach truly hi gh levels of proficiency (p. 351). Therefore, students must be able to ap ply there newly learned languages in their US home institutions by way of student pr ograms and services. Without the adequate support services in place, student language le arning will suffer due to lack of usage; thus, study abroad programs must provide meetings socials, and other program events so students can reconnect and form friendships that will enable them to continue to practice language skills. Lambert (2001) suggested in truth, if stude nts will ever need to use a FL [foreign language] as adults, the chances are great that it will be different from the language they studied its school (p. 360). So clearly, there is an advantag e of study abroad programs in

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42 the areas of foreign language learning becau se students have the opportunities to practice their languages in conversati ons with native speakers. Student Learning Process Kozma (2003) explained that constructiv ism envisions a learning process in which students set their own goals, plan their learning activities, and monitor their current levels of mastery and understanding in preparation for lifelong learning (p. 2). Therefore, bridging qualitative thought with modern reality can be applied to various student activities, such as sh aring group work, understanding and critiquing class work, embarking on tours, fulfilling extra credit a ssignments, exchanging journals with other classmates, and allowing classmates to comm ent and analyze the work which in totality forces the student in a more responsible role. If educators and staff give students the specific tools they needs to gain the necessary skills and understanding of diversity and different values, can they truly become successful global citiz ens. Levine and Cureton (19 98) found specific elements that undergraduate students need in thei r curriculum include : communication and thinking skillscritical thi nking, continuous learning, and creativity. They need to comprehend how values function in our society and in their lives: th e changing nature of values over time, how values f it into cultures, the place of va lues in an individuals life, and what happens to minority values in a society (pp.161-165). In addition, Gleazer (1998) emphasized that the overall mission of the community college is to encourage and fac ilitate lifelong learning, with community as a process and product. In addition to the learning requirements imposed by changing culture and environment, changes in the maturation of the individual will affect

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43 educational needs (pp. 16-18). Lifelong learning is the key ingredient in study abroad programming. As the student pa rticipant reaches out to learn and understand new cultures and people, they grow and begin to develop a more global identity. Northedge (2003) stated that students need practice at participating both vicariously, as listeners and r eaders, and generatively, as speakers and writers, so that they can develop identities as members of the knowledge community and move from peripheral forums to more active, competen t engagement with the communitys central debates (p. 31). Therefore, active learning and curriculum th at engages the learner are key concepts to build a strong knowledge base and facilitate lifelong learning. Curriculum Smith (2002) explained that there has b een a shift towards a more vocationally relevant higher education, towards a broade r curriculum allowing more student choice, and towards helping students learn how to learn. Students are coming into further and higher education from a more varied ra nge of backgrounds, and responding to their individual strengths and needs is righ tly a concern for teachers (p. 63). For example, in programs that emphasize cultural, ethnic, a nd global differences, such as study abroad programs, the need for teachers to be sensitive to and apply different learning techniques in the clas sroom is paramount for higher student learning, especially in a foreign environment. The instructor must be aware of not only the individual student needs, but must be able to provide prope r resources that help link their classroom learning to their new environment. Smith (2002) also noted th at courses with a strong element of practical and individual project work are mo re likely to draw on the full range of these learning styles

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44 (p. 67). Depending on the individua l student learner needs, a variety of academic work, such as traditional tests, oral communicat ion, group and individual work, external site visits and journal writing would give learners a variety of tools to not only receive a successful grade in the course, but to al so gain valuable learning experiences. McKeown (2003) found in his research study that students who responded, it was good for my major increased from 38.64% to 57.14% (Z=1.96, P=.050) (p. 91). Clearly, students are concerned with atta ining a well rounded academic experience as well as pursuing a global understanding. In addition, the course goals and clas s material must meet or exceed the expectations set by both instruct or and program officials in order for students to gain a well rounded academic and cultural experience. Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) explained that a critical and related pedagogical concer n that must be addre ssed is precisely how the various goals of the course will be me t and the types of activities that will be undertaken to support those goals key issues revolve around prer equisites, course content, location, the learning goals of th e trip, and of course, cost (pp. 204-207). Instructors should dedicate a po rtion of class time to expl ain how the course goals are related to certain class activities, such as tour s, excursions, or other external trips as well as provide a breakdown of additi onal costs before the trip. Weeks (2000) suggested that benchmarking, can in f act, be applied to whole courses or to the processes involved in the development and implementation of a course (p. 64). This is important because admini strators can benchmark community college study abroad programs to see if this in fact will help instructors apply various tools and techniques to improve classroom instruction and student learning.

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45 Furthermore, allowing students to be in control of their own learning and development is crucially important in helpi ng them not only adjust to the study abroad program, but also in evaluating their own academic progress and aw areness of cultural and ethnic differences. Emes and Cleveland-Innes (2003) described eight core competencies that can be very important in assessing student progr ess in academic courses while abroad: Critical and creative thinking Analysis of problems Effective oral and written communication Gathering and organizing information Logical calculation, mathematical ability Abstract reasoning and its applications Insight and intuition in generating knowledge Interpretative and assessment skills. (pp. 57-58) The authors further explained that: Learner-centered curriculum will allow stude nts to participate more fully in the arrangement of their own learning experien ces, such that they can continue to do so for a life-time. This is a role adjustment for students that will require a complementary role adjustment in exp ectations of facult ywhile faculty set boundaries around the sequence in whic h courses will be delivered, the knowledge outcomes, and the standards of assessment. (pp. 62-63) Thus, faculty and program coordinators must recognize that innovative curriculum changes will impact both student and instructor. Lifelong learning will play an important role in helping students mature and develop st rong global identities, and at the same time allow faculty to assess stude nt performance and course success.

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46 Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) noted that the programincludes five central elements: language, lectures, a field excurs ion, a family experience, and independent research and writing (p. 275). It is also ve ry important that the courses and overall curriculum be appropriately assessed by all academic institutions, the faculty/staff and their departments, as well as internal and external committees that can have an impact on the structure and transfer of the course. But equally important is the relationship between faculty and students when abroad. Student Housing and Friendships In evaluating housing and accommodations for students in study abroad programs, it is important for student affairs professionals to provide information about location and proximity to classrooms, room mate matching, study areas, and recreating areas. Equally important are laundry facilitie s, computer areas, re strooms, and dining areas that must be addressed before stude nts embark on study abroad programs and should be included when addressing housi ng options. Festervand and Tillery (2001) stated as in other developed countries, Ja pan offers a number of lodging alternatives including university dormito ries, hotels, hostels, and hom e-stay options (p. 108). Study abroad student affairs coordinators and instructors must be included in helping students become acclimated to their new surroundings, including housing facilities and social areas. Hill (2004) explai ned that administrators were especially eager to introduce a new residential prototype, even if it meant that density had to be reduced. They worked closely with student groups to find a balance between academic life and social interact ion that is so critical to th e life of the school (p. 28).

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47 In addition, students should be consulte d about types of housing and facilities they need in order to be su ccessful. Often times, students will socialize, make friendships, and study in their residence housing, so study abroad programmers should consider these aspects in the planning stages Hill (2004) also proposed that the benefits of oncampus housing can be measured and market ed: access, convenience, security, and support. To maintain current rates of occupa ncy, however, new facilitie s must be able to accommodate the types of services and living conditions that students want and need (p. 34). If program officials expect students to be successful in study abroad programs, then they must provide easy access to classroom and housing options, convenient locations of housing and servic es, good security systems, especially for students taking night classes, and of course student support se rvices, such as dining and laundry facilities and resident advisors and/or counselors. Hill (2004) further recommended many colleges are grouping students in residential suites to facilitate better communi cation to foster social exchangethe "living and learning" policies that ar e fast becoming the educati onal standard (p. 35). Thus, housing facilities abroad must have clean a nd inviting living conditi ons, especially if students elect roommate options. It is logical that cramped, unclean quarters would not be conducive to a healthy living environment nor a student learning environment. In addition, study abroad programs must carefully consider the living a nd learning idea to accommodate student needs. The authors of the Interna tional Association of Stude nt Affairs and Services Professionals (IASAS) manual explained that student housing must provide a safe,

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48 comfortable, well-maintained and supportive on-campus accommodation for students; integrate student accommodation goals with those of the academic programme of the institution; and create oppor tunities for students to get i nvolved in leadership and governance opportunities in resi dence life, organizations, and activities (p. 47). For example, study abroad program official s should implement such activities like welcome socials and group functions so Amer ican students can meet other students from around the world. Also of great importance is for students to elect a group leader, have choices in excursion and field trip options, and create friendship ci rcles that ultimately will impact their international experience. Without a social ne twork, feelings of isolation and loneliness could become problematic; t hus, student affairs professionals must carefully plan the program structure and activ ities for students starting with the first day abroad. In addition, research conducted by the Au stralian Department of Employment, Education, and Training (1993) discovered that Australian institutions provide a range of student services...include cat ering, retail facilities, spor ting facilities, social, and cultural activities, and political representation and advocacy (p. 21). Therefore, student affairs personnel must try to meet the demands and needs of the students by providing such services that would help them adjust to life abroad. For example, simple excursions to shopping centers and cultural events (representative of the host country) are bound to peak th e interests of students wishi ng to learn more about that culture. In addition, food services and other approved venues near the foreign institutions are much more interesting a nd appealing for students to try new tastes and delicacies. Simply providing residence hall foods that tr y to cater to Americ an tastes, such as

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49 burgers and fries do not allow the student to really explore the tastes and differences of their new environment. Macintyre (2003) explained th at housing that acts to group students close to the teaching areas gives a coherence and unity to the broader student population (p. 111). For example, students enrolled in a German language course abroad will have course content and language learning in common a nd can communicate and socialize with one another in their liv ing and learning housing area. Si milarly, students enrolled in a literature course could form study groups in the housing area to study class materials. Macintyre (2003) further suggested that it is clearly in the interests of universities to encourage high qua lity student housing, since th is will act to attract new students and it will act to encourage st rong links between universities and their surrounding localities (p. 117). Bu t, universities are not the on ly institutions that should provide quality housing. Community colleges should form partnerships with other colleges and universities abroad when ex amining acceptable living accommodations for American students. However, partnerships with the local communities abroad will allow students to interact with the hos t countries people and cultures. Kaya and Weber (2003) noted that the results showed that students who feel crowded in their residence hall rooms te nd to have poorer social and personal adjustmenthousing administrators might c onsider implementing programs to assist student's transition to a college environmen t. These developmental programs could be formed to enhance social contact or avoid unw anted social interaction in their residential settings (pp. 88-89). Study abroad official s must make sure that overcrowding in housing does not occur in the de stination country and must en sure that living quarters are

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50 clean and spacious. Students may often return to their rooms after an early class to study or other activities. Kaya and Weber (2003) further explained programs that assist students with adjustment to campus life and interpersonal re lationships could also benefit residential life staff by reducing the number of roomma te conflicts and in creasing university retention (p. 89). Thus, a br ochure with roommate checkl ist could be developed to eliminate roommate tensions and set a sche dule to ensure respect for each other. An excellent suggestion to alleviate cons tant roommate problems or tension could be for program officials to intervene. Fo r example, Dusselier et al. (2005) suggested residence hall staff who wish to ease the stress caused by roommates may wish to consider roommate matching when doing r oommate assignmentsand provide a series of questions for roommates to discuss with one another, such as preferences for room temperature, lighting, sleeping schedules, and rules for invited guests (p. 22). Study abroad program coordinators must try to al leviate unnecessary stress factors for students while abroad. One source is to promote r oommate matching, perhaps allow the students to converse with each other before the program and get to know one another better. Dusselier et al. (2005) also found that r esidence hall environment factors played a prominent role in the amount of students self-reported stress. Students who were unable to study in the residence halls experienced highe r levels of stress, probably because most students living in residence ha lls prefer to study in the residence halls when they are engaged in study outside of class (p. 22). Study abroad officials must have adequate facilities for students to be able to study in the residence halls, whether that is an actual designated study area or library, or a desk and chair in each dormitory room, officials

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51 must support student academic success as the primary goal. Student Support Services and Programs Sheppard (2004) stated that internati onal education takes a commitment to working with individual stude nts to use international educ ation opportunities to foster personal growth and meet individual educat ional and career goals (p. 40). Student services and student support staff must be willing to work with individual students, academically, and personally, so they can achieve their goals. In addition, students must also have access to various aspects of student services, like housing, meal options, trav el opportunities with in the host country and many other student service necessities while abroad. St udent support staff must make sure that students are well prepared for their travel abroad and even designate a student support staff member to accompany students abroad. Festervand and Tillery (2001) explained that faculty members, administration, and the university as a whole must accept and satisfy the responsibility for preparing students, as well as faculty, for the challeng es and opportunities in creasingly found in the global marketplace (p. 106). Along with spec ific program components, faculty and program officials must set time aside to discuss course conten t, culture, and the environment they will be living in as we ll as providing ample resources for student recruitment in study abroad programs. Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) sugg ested the following strategies: Engage stakeholders such as faculty, st udent affairs staff, students, trustees, community members, and support staff in meaningful ways to address the educational benefits, issues, and obs tacles of study abroad programs Implement student orientation program s prior to every study abroad event

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52 Collaborate with similar community colle ges to form meaningful alliances. (pp. 66-68) The manual that was developed from the UNESCO world conference is a wonderful and useful tool in guiding progr ams and services in student affairs. The authors suggested that hi gher education plays in the improvement of the social, cultural, political, economic, and environmental aspects of the global society (p. 1). Types of Support Services There are a variety of services that are not only important to domestic students, but also students who travel abroad. Some of these servi ces include: academic advising, counseling, admission process, bookstore serv ices, community service learning, dining and food services, disability services, health services, orientation services, sports and recreational services, disciplinary conduct, registration, and housing optio ns (pp. 25-48). Each of these areas should be examin ed when assessing student support services in study abroad programs. In addition, Cohe n and Brawer (2003) suggested some other areas for evaluation: students need to be ma naged for the sake of institutional order, a rationale underlying not only th e counseling of students into proper programs, but also registration, student activities orientation, student govern ment, and record keeping functions (p. 197). All of these areas are especially impor tant in student abroad programming. Students must be able to have a variety of serv ices that meet their needs while at the same time keeps the program function organized and well planned. Such activities like orientation and registration must take place in pre-de parture and post-departure workshops and socials, so that the student has ample time to become familiar with

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53 important travel and study abroad aspects rangi ng from course curriculum and content to field excursions. Safety and Security McKeown (2003) stated that like many Americans, many study abroad students and their parents have expressed an increas ed concern about air travel safety and heightened awareness of U.S. interests be ing targets for terrorism abroad (p. 85). However, with good support serv ice departments at the univ ersity or college coupled with informative support staff, parents and st udents should be ready to ask questions and have concerns about safety abroad. Support staff should be able to address questions about political problems, monetary theft, or violence against Americans as well as typical pre-departure advisement. Hoye (2003) advised that: Some colleges give each program pa rticipant a small booklet containing emergency information, including: what -to do and where to go in the event of an emergency; names and local telephone numbers of all f aculty members and administrators for the program; 24-hour contact information for the home campus; the telephone numbers and addresses of th e local hospital, the U.S. Embassy, and embassies of governments friendly to th e United States; and local addresses and telephone numbers for each student. (pp. 14 -15) In addition, law enforcement and other agen cies can also be excellent resources for study abroad students that are unsure of who to contact in an emergency. Furthermore, McKeown (2003) concluded th at these results suggest that since September 11, more students c onsider study abroad an experi ence that will enhance their academic and professional careers (p. 94). Students are concerned with safety, but will not allow the threats of terrorism and politic al conflict sway them from studying abroad because they want to discover the bene fits of academic and global learning.

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54 Thus, safety and communication must be important components of study abroad programming, so that students and faculty are safe while abroad and have adequate resources and communication with program offi cials if problems should arise. Cudmore (2005) explained that Ontario and Canada have a well-deserved reputation for safety, tolerance, and the strong suppor t for multiculturalism that make it a desirable destination for international students (p. 55). Scharman (2002) suggested that to adap t an at-home policy appropriately to a new setting, it is vital to have accurate in formation about the host country and city, current political situation, laws transportation, and other pert inent issues (p. 70). It is important for study abroad officials to presen t accurate and specific information about the international host country and this inform ation should not only be presented to the students, but also to their parents so that everyone is properly e ducated about possible risks abroad. Student Orientation and Workshops Just as students must understand the risks and threats abroad, they must also be aware of the culture, lifestyle, and la nguage of the host country. Many students underestimate what a study abroad experi ence might entail, and for outgoing students willing to learn and explore, the possibilities abroad are endless! For other students that may be reserved, quiet, and recluse, st udy abroad programs may be the source of homesickness and unhappiness for them. Thus, pre-departure orientation workshops are essential for providing information for student s, allowing students to get to know one another and form friendships, and determine whether a study abroad program will fit their needs.

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55 Kitsantas (2004) noted that it may be suggested that cross-cultural training programs take into consideration the critical role that goals play on student's development of cross-cultural skills and de vise pre departure workshops to (a) assist study abroad students establish goals for their interna tional experience, which primarily include aspiration to learn more about the culture and people in the country in which they will study; (b) reinforce students goals to become more cros s-culturally sensitive and knowledgeable and (c) change students social goals into goals which focus on gaining cross-cultural sens itivity and understanding (p. 448). This allows students to be well prepared before leaving their home institutions while allowing students to ask questions in a comfortable setting and allowing students to socialize, a vital part of the educational experience. Dolby (2004) described the first challenge to their idea of an American identity came early, at the mandatory orientation mee ting for all students traveling to Australia the following semester. As is customary at these meetings, nationals of the host country and former American study abroad participants are invited to briefly address the students on what to expect from their stay (p. 163). For example, students and parents can have one-on-one discussions with pa rticipants and can determine whether that particular study abroad program is right for them and gives them an understanding of what it would be like abroad. Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) explained all students should be advised to take at least one credit card, to purchase the International Student Identity Card (ISIC), for discounts and limited travel insurance coverage, to make sure that their health insurance policies apply when abroad, and to be sure that they have obtained (or renewed) their

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56 passport and all necessary visasand photocopi es of all important documents be left with appropriate personnel at the university in case of emergency (p. 201). Therefore, students should make sure they have an item checklist of necessary items to take abroad such as Student ID, cl othing and toiletries, shoes, first aid kit and other items. Staff and administrative personnel must make sure that parents and students are advised of appropriate person al items to take abroad in addition to course materials, such as textbooks, pens, and a backpack. Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) stated that they held several formal and informal orientation meetings to show slides and to lecture on special requirements of Nepali social life (p. 277). Hosting only one works hop prior to departure is inadequate in preparing students for study abroa d. Prior participants, program officials, instructors, and others affiliated with the pr ogram must be available to an swer both student and parent questions in both workshops, seminars, one-onone panels all prior to studying abroad. Yet there must be an emphasis on responsib ility, maturity, attitude, and behavior of student participants while abroad. These areas should be discussed along with the actual components of the program, academic, s upport services, student life, and any other areas that pertain to the st udy abroad program. Wagenaar a nd Subedi (1996) explained we also meet with students and their parents in groups and/or one to one and identify all the concernshousing, sufficient money, extr acurricular trav el, coursework, language, local transportation, meeting people and maki ng friends, unfamiliar currency, adjusting to new customs, local food, health, homesickness, and climatewhat behaviors, clothes, and the like are acceptable and unaccept able in Nepali society (p. 278).

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57 In addition, Zhao, Kuh, Carini (2005) expl ained that student affairs personnel might focus on designing programs and activitie s to bring Asian students into contact with students from other backgrounds. Most campuses, for example, sponsor celebrations of different cultures (p. 226). Program leaders can plan and implement special celebrations abroad. For example, if the study abroad program takes place over the 4th of July, a special picnic or barbeque celebrati on could provide a wonderful social event for interaction among international st udents and American students. It is necessary to address certain aspect s of study abroad, such as culture shock, daily activities, and many other functions in pre-study abroad workshops or mandatory meetings before students engage on study abro ad trips. Scharman (2002) suggested that some still underestimate the magnitude of adjustments required during an extended period of time away from home: exposure to a new culture, new customs, climate, monetary system, routines, f ood, living arrangements, and room matesall in the absence of familiar support systemsfeelings of home sickness, loneliness, and anxiety are not unusual and should be expected (p. 71). Equally important is student behavior ab road and understanding different customs and rituals before studying abroad. Scharman (2002) further discussed the important of understanding communicating abroad: It is important to avoid offensive beha viors such as ina ppropriate dress as determined by local customs; greetings that may be misunderstood; lack of observance of quiet times or religious days; and disres pect for shrines, special markers, or sacred sites. Students shou ld be aware that certain hand gestures, phrases, tones or levels of voice, and general deportment may convey unintended messages. Being respectful of restric tions regarding photography and off-limits areas, using neutral language when po ssible, and being open-minded can be helpful. (p. 73)

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58 These topics should be addressed in pr e-seminars. In order for colleges to accurately prepare their students for the cultur al differences abroad, they must prepare their students, and even have their student s read a brief program that should include cultural, religious, and ethnic differences. Medical and Emergency Concerns Going abroad is educational and exciting, but returning healthy and energized is just as critical. Knowing where to go and w ho to contact in a medical emergency should be discussed in both pre-de parture and mid-departure wo rkshops as well as having adequate health and medical coverage while abroad. Some programs will require that students have vaccination shots required for tr avel to foreign countries, such as India. Hoye (2003) noted that colleges should also ask students and faculty members-to verify that they will have adequate health insurance during the time while they are abroad. Some health-insurance policies do not provide such coverage outside the country, so institutions should advise everyone participating in overs eas programs that they may need to purchase additional c overage on their own (p. 17). And lastly, students should be aware of their own common ailments, such as a flu or common cold, and should bri ng medications that they are used to taking rather than depending on the international country for supplies. Scharman (2002) suggested that students should be encouraged to focus on eating a balanced diet drinking plenty of water, getting adequate rest, maintaining hygi ene routines, and bringing personal supplies (contact lenses, bug spray, Band-Aids, sun block, antiseptic, nail cli ppers) that may be hard to find on the tripand keep medications in the original drugsto re containers [with prescription copies] (p. 75).

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59 Kitsantas (2004) recommended as businesses globalize and the demand for employees prepared for international assi gnments steadily increas es, training programs designed to enhance and support students goals to develop their cross-cultural skills may be useful in maximizing these skills (p. 448) This is important for support services to allow students continued edu cational growth by introducing mo re interactive internship opportunities while abroad to he lp support the study abroad experience. By interactive learning, students are more likely to gain a deeper understanding of the host culture than textbook learning alone. Field Trips and Excursions Schroth and McCormack (2000) explored that study abroad students high scores on the Experience Seeking subs cale suggest that their need s consist of seeking new experiences through the mind and sens es by traveling abroad (p. 534). Whether these experience are exploring different regions, ex ploring new customs and cultures, or tasting a variet y of delectable foods from di fferent countries, the need for exploration (both from persona l field trips and academic related excursions) is to be expected from students traveling abroad. In addition, it is each individual and unique experiences of students that will help them expand their mind and external boundaries to other aspects of their lives. Schroth and McCormack (2000) also noted that the pr esent data also provide inferences with which to speculate about the cognitive processes that may explain different ways that indivi duals respond to cross-cultu ral situations (p. 535). That is, each student learns and enco unters new experiences differently, but service learning (i.e., volunteer work, or sp ecialized activities) during study abroad

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60 programs can be important in allowing student s to explore, learn, a nd work side-by-side culturally different people. Only then will students begin to understand and respond to cross cultural situations with a fresh g limpse into different civilizations, thus unknowingly transforming themselv es into global citizens. In order for students to have access to travel, it is imperative that program officials examine all travel possibilities, su ch as train, subway system, bus, taxi and suggest the most cost effective soluti on for students to get around in their new surroundings. Festervand and Tillery (2001) explained that for groups of up to 15 students, such as our class, the use of public transportation is recommended. In planning ground transportation, both longhaul and local transport must be considered. As an option, unlimited mileage rail pass es may be purchased (p. 108). In addition, there are other means of trav el, such as multilocation tours that should be included in the study abroad program. D uke (2000) explained that multilocation tours move from one location, city, or countr y to another during the academic session and attract students who are interest ed in seeing several different cultural areas (p. 155). This is very important because it allows students th e opportunity to view, learn, and participate in different regions, cultures, and meet with different citizens. But tours should remain only a portion of the study abroad program, the academic component must be the main focus of the program. Furthermore, Langley and Breese (2005) proposed that for students studying abroad to have a fully enriching cultural experience, they shou ld live and study with students of the host culture. Study-abroad pr ograms should include opportunities for both directed and serendipitous tr avel (p. 320). Travel should be included as part of the

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61 curriculum because the opportuni ties for students to explore and visit new areas, gives them tremendous confidence and control over their own learning and development. Duke (2000) also noted when arranging a company visit, it is advisable for the professor to provide the company with a disc ussion guide to ensure that the discussion focuses on the issues that are relevant to the course. By attempting to manage the presentation, the professor is more likely to have successful visits that maximize the course objectives (p. 159). In addition, students should also have an overview of the company or international institution so they can prepare educated questions and discussion items for the guest speaker. It is th is ability to seek out and investigate new environments, whether travel or visiting a company, that plays a vital role in their cognitive and intellectual development. Cultural Awareness How do program officials begi n to assess elevated leve ls of cultural awareness and ethnic sensitivity in students that go on study abroad programs? How can they assess what that student has learned from the cour se and whether that student has connected what is learned in the classroom to actua l reality? And how do they know if the study abroad program is successful? Sheppard (2004) noted that while different factors dr ive internationalization on individual campuses, there seems to be a common acknowledgement that the goal is to create an environment where students can become interculturally effective people and global citizens. International education o ffers students the opportunity to explore different countries, cultures, views, and idea ls (p. 34). And it is this interaction and

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62 cultural awareness of the student about their surroundings that allows them to begin to understand their own benchmarks and goals of the program. Applications of Classroom Learning With proper instructional techniques and exploration of the country, the student can then begin to take what is learned in the classroom and apply it to the real-life situations. Whether it is language acquisiti on, archeological/historical knowledge, or cultural awareness of the de stination country, the ability for students to make the connection between classroom academics and worldly comprehension and at the same time understand their own personal and academic obj ectives, is priceless. This is exactly what study abroad programs set out to accomp lish, to empower the learner to be selfsufficient and responsible for their own learning. There is a level of success th at study abroad programs n eed to achieve in addition to the student, faculty, and administrative i ndividual goals. Sheppard (2004) questioned whether study abroad programs make st udents global citizens? What role does international education play in devel oping global citizens? Who determines if international education progr ams are a success? (p. 34). Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) suggested that students also visit sites such as temples or monasteries, museums, hosp itals, marketplaces, cremation grounds, and government offices to increase their exposure to and their understand ing of Nepali social life and social structure (p. 275). Instructor s must help educate students about the link between what is learned in th e classroom and actual sites so they can truly gain a deeper understanding of the culture and lifes tyle of the international country.

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63 In addition, Hellman, Hoppes, and Ellison ( 2006) suggested that service learning moves students and faculty from the classr oom into the community to work with underserved populations; resulting in enha nced critical reasoning, personal and interpersonal development, understanding the application of core knowledge, reflective practice, and citizenship for the student ( p. 30). Instructors c ould incorporate such service learning credit as part of the curriculum, which allows the student full immersion with host nationals. Geelhoed, Abe, and Talbot (2003) fo und that encouraging intercultural interaction significantly influenced the level of intercultural acceptance and cross-cultural knowledge and openness of the Australian student s. These students were also more likely to interact with other cult ural groups within the larger campus community (p. 5). Students who study abroad are more likely to be interested in l earning new cultures and talking with native students. Instructor s can encourage and support intercultural communication by assigning specific coursework to cultural awareness and group work. Cultural Competence De Vita (2001) explained that the importance of cultural background in the development of individual le arning style finds further s upport in the influence that culture-based educational experiences have in predisposing individuals to certain ways of learning (p. 167). Thus, faculty must identify different learner t echniques and target student needs. Caffrey, Neander, Markle, and Stewart (2005) proposed that: Cultural competence, then, is an ongoing process requiring more than formal knowledge. Values and attitudes are the foundation for a commitment to providing culturally competent care, and their development requires experiences with culturally diverse individuals and communitiesan immersion clinical

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64 experience in another country can result in dramatic a ffective changes in students values and attitudes, which affect their cultural competence. (pp. 234-240). Students are more likely to adjust their values and attitudes based on encountering of different people and cultures; therefore, pa rticipation in study abroad programs directly influence changes in student identity development. Thus, cultural competence is a major part of identity development and the forma tion of new levels of global understanding. Of most significance is students respect of new cultures and persons. Kitsantas (2004) advocated that study ab road programs significantly, c ontribute to the preparation of students to function in a multicultural world and promote international understanding (p. 447). But program officials must also take into consideration that students who are truly interested in learning the new host culture will dedicate a greater amount of time and energy than students who are not as in terested. Therefore, to function in a multicultural world is to have a unive rsal respect of internationalism. Cultural Identity Dolby (2004) argued that stude nts national ident ity shifts from a passive to an active identity in the global context (p. 162). This suggest s that as students encounter their new environment, they begin to an alyze their own nationa l identity, whether subconsciously or not, students compare the ne w environment to their home environment and begin to modify their identity based on new learning. Dolby (2004) also stated that most si gnificantly, all students encountered the multiple articulations of Ame rica that exist around the globe and the disjuncture that exists between the United States and America (p. 171). Therefore, students became familiar with how others perceive and unde rstand America and the American Culture and how American pop culture (music, movies, clothing labels, etc) impact others around

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65 the globe. And as students begin to see how othe rs perceive them, they start to evaluate their own biases and prejudices of other cultur es, leading to a change in their intellectual development. There is a very positive aspect between students living and learning in foreign countries that is evident in learning cultu re and language. Duke (2000) explained that study abroad programs are accessible and al low students to experi ence different places and cultures (p. 155). And it is this exposure to cultural that allows students to practice their language skills in a relaxed environment. For students that go abroad to practice and improve their foreign language skills, the impact is obviously greater to speak with citizens in their native environment. Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) indicated that because the culture is so different from their own, study in a developing country provides American students with unique opportunities to learn about cu lture and society. In short, the experience enhances multiculturalism: the practice of emphasizing the contributions to modern society of diverse racial/ethnic, gender, class, and ot her groups and of other cultures (p. 272). Therefore, the major goal of study abroad programs is to provide academic learning within a new and exciting environmen t that will broaden students thinking not only about academics, but about the culture and society that they reside in. Merva (2003) explained that study-abroad programs have among their goals to provide students with an intercultural experience enriching student s understanding and pe rsonal growth in the context of continuing their a cademic studies (p. 154). This intercultural experience is an added benefit that may not be readily av ailable on domestic college campuses because students are comfortable and relaxed within their common environments.

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66 Technology In order to explore how technology can be infused into academic curricula, Surrey et al. (2005) explained the concept of th e RIPPLES model is resources (fiscal), infrastructure (network), people, policies, learning, evaluation, and support are all major components of successful integration of instru ctional technology into higher education (p. 328). Without adequate financial support for ne w technologies, the in frastructure would be weak. Surrey et al. (2005) fu rther advised that the infrast ructure refers to a colleges hardware, software, facilities, and networ k (p. 328). Therefore, providing computer labs, computers, and important programming co upled with other resources are necessary elements of creating a cohesive t echnological academic environment. Arias and Clark (2004) stated that issues of poor connectivity, lack of human capacity, scarcity of appropriate content and ever diminishing budgets are dealt with on a regular basis (p. 52). These issues will continue to challenge the technology initiatives presently and in the future, but program leader s can help alleviate some of these problems by working with international representatives. Leh and Kennedy (2004) found that proje cts in developing countries often require partnerships with universities a nd medical health organizations because physicians and university professionals meet the prerequisites for literacy and basic technology skills (p. 97). Partnerships am ong international colleges are extremely important in promoting and ma intaining literacy and educatio n in all fields, not only the medical field. In order to pr ovide a strong educational f oundation for students abroad, program leaders must also understand and he lp with poorer conditions in underdeveloped

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67 countries. This is more important than a coll ege mission; it must be a global priority for all colleges and universities, es pecially from technologically advanced nations, to support universal educational objectives. Another issue concerns safety. Leh a nd Kennedy (2004) explained that school administrators hesitate to invest money in computers because of burglary and theft, a widespread problem in PNG [Papua, New Guin ea] (p. 98). Official s must support efforts to educate and protect valuable equipment in underdeveloped countries so that their citizens and our students have the best educational opportu nities available to them. But, school administrators who avoid technology because of theft concerns undermine the very essence and meaning of e ducation. If officials expect to see great progress from our future generation of student s, then they must provide the necessary technological tools with securi ty features for them to be successful, or how can they expect to promote a nation of learners? Arias and Clark (2004) indicated that the developing world has indeed turned to instructional technology, whether it is th rough distance learning, tr aining or classroom instruction, and all of these educational a pplications of technology are explicitly or implicitly being designed using the instruc tional systems design process (p. 53). Study abroad programs can indeed be successful ab road and in distance le arning initiatives with the appropriate technological tools. Technology Impact on Faculty Golden (2004) explained that while these efforts will include resources and training for higher education faculty, the major fo cus of this initiative is to assist teacher candidates in implementing instructional tec hnology effectively, as well as using student

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68 data to assess and modify instruction (p. 44). Program coordinators and administrators must take the necessary steps to training facu lty on the technological software they will be using abroad and provide support and curriculum development options. Owen and Demb (2004) stated that the question of intellectual property is another tension-filled topic for faculty a nd administration. Faculty put countless hours into the development of online courses a nd programs for technology-enhanced classes, and the idea of just giving away these products is distre ssing (p. 650). Faculty should not be forced to give away th eir technological class materials, so to ensure that it is not duplicated; collegiate leaders must make sure such materials are copyrighted to the institution where they are teaching. Depending on the length of the study abro ad program, the facultys tenure, and salary contract, administrators must take in to consideration that the faculty member may serve additional roles, such as advisor and counselor. A discounted travel, program cost, and salary compensation must be negotiated a nd discussed with the in structor so that a satisfactory compromise is reached prior to travel. Owen and Demb (2004) further explained that compensation is another centr al issue for faculty and relates to the amount of faculty time associated with l earning technology, developi ng courses, working with the students, and updating programs (p. 651). Williams and Kingham (2003) found that it is possible to conclude that there is still a lack of infusion of t echnology into the curriculum. In order for teachers to infuse teaching with technology, they need profe ssional development opportunities to learn to use and implement technology in their clas srooms (p. 183). Study abroad programs can be a forerunner in the race for technology advances in the classroom. Instructors can

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69 implement software in classroom activities a nd visit nearby host colleges to learn new techniques and tools used in their classrooms. In addition, instructors mu st be afforded the oppor tunities for professional technological development opportunities befo re implementing programs abroad for the first time. With new sites to explore, covering various educational aspects, and acclimating students to their new countries, inst ructors must be able to rely on technology and software programs that have previous ly been approved in other study abroad programs. Faculty, staff, and administrators must in tegrate policies to guide and structure the uses of technology programs and must have adequate support services such as technological support, pedagogical support, a nd administrative leadership to provide technological learning for students. Thus, e ducators must examine how successful or unsuccessful specific technologi cal programs are for students academic learning process. Kozma (2003) stated that the interactiv ity of technologies is cited as a key feature that enables students to receive feedback, on their pe rformance, test and reflect on their ideas, and revise their understanding (p. 1). Study abroad in structors should have already used such programs, for example, b lackboard or other te chnological software to provide academic feedback and test scores to students. But such programs must be approved by both home and host institutions before travel, and the instructor must have a good working knowledge of these programs in order to help students use these programs abroad. Having these programs abroad can prove to be vital, especially when stude nts have a pre-approved itinerary merging academics with excursions and may not be able to visit instructors during office hours.

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70 Similarly, instructors using blackboard or other educational software to provide student feedback will have more time and oppor tunities to network with other academic professionals in their host country and a ttend seminars that can benefit their own professional development. Duke (2000) explained that simulations are well liked by students and allow the students to interact on a more personal level w ith the instructor outside of the classroom. The suitability of simulations for study abro ad courses is dependent on the need for computers and other technology, which will likel y have to be carried by the instructor. Simulations may not be appropriate when tec hnology and facilities ar e limited (p. 164). To solve one of these problems, Golden (2004) suggested that funded projects will use handheld computers to facilitate th e creation of easily replicable models that support an inexpensive and versatile t echnology, as well as focus on innovative applications that directly imp act student performance (p. 42). In poorer countries, there may not be ade quate facilities to promote technology in the classroom, but the instru ctor can still provide resour ces for laptop assignments or other portable tech equipment available from their academic departments and community colleges. In addition, study abroad programmers, administrators, as well as local and state officials, must partner with disadvanta ged countries to facilitate and promote technological support to students. Kozma (2003) concluded that when teach ers go beyond these basic practices and use technology to also plan and prepare inst ruction and collaborate with outside actors, and when students also use technology to condu ct research projects, analyze data, solve problems, design products, and assess thei r own work, students are more likely to

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71 develop new ICT, problem solving, information management, collaboration, and communication skills (p. 13). If officials are to promot e lifelong learning and allow students to be responsible for their own lear ning and development, then instructors must take on a supportive role to help them acclimate to technological assignments and activities while abroad. Arias and Clark (2004) proposed that instr uctional technologies in varying forms of delivery and formats such as radio, televi sion, personal computers, the internet, print, audio cassettes and CD-ROMs are being deploy ed throughout the developing world in an effort to meet the critical educational problems of quantity, resources and quality at all levels (p. 53). These are some major uses of IT that can be beneficial both in the classroom and out of the classroom to help student learning. Inst ructors should use many of the available technologi cal tools available to suppor t individual learner needs. Zhang, Perris and Yeung (2005) explained that individual pr actitioners should examine what they want to do with online learning and how they intend to meet their learning objectives. (p. 802). In addition, Smyt h (2005) noted there is great potential for broadband videoconferencing to provide greater opportunities for teachers and students to engage interactively in their disciplinesit similarly enables teachers to engage in experimentation, collaboration, research, and reflec tion about potential teaching techniques (p. 816). For example, if simultaneous courses are occurring abroad and at US community colleges, a panel of in ternational speakers or corporate leaders abroad could be a part of a videoconferenc ing initiative back to the home institution. What better way to introduce diversity a nd internationalism into the classroom?

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72 Technology Impact on Students Smyth (2005) found that the richness of the medium [videoconferencing] makes it possible for students to be involved in expe riences extending from a traditional lecture to dialogue and virtual participation in practical work.In addition, it enhance the experiences of full-time students by providing them with opportunities to interact with peers or experts working professiona lly in the field (pp. 810-817). In study abroad programs, videoconferen cing can be a strong tool in helping students abroad connect with other students in the classroom. In addition, a panel of experts or international stude nts can be part of a group pr oject that can discuss and collaborate on projects globally. Liu and Lee (2005) advised that a web-based learning system was presented to enable students to exchange their personal unde rstandings of concepts regarding database design and applications, allowing them to ad just their personal perspectives (p. 834). Therefore, the inclusion of web based tec hnology and peer group work increased overall learning and helped them develop higher level thinking skills. Williams and Kingham (2003) stated that through the Internet, students have access to libraries, databases, museums, govern ment offices, satellite data, and experts in the fieldanother powerful characteristic of the Internet is its timeliness: information is updated continually, and where textbooks beco me outdated quickly, the Internet is a source of real-time information (p. 179). It is imperative that students have ac cess to the same type s of technological services that they would have had at their home institutions. Study abroad program officials must decide whether to supply stude nts with laptops abroad or whether the host

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73 country has technological hard ware and software that ca n support students learning initiatives. Even in foreign countries, access to the internet is very important for students to research and gather informa tion to meet course objectives. Zhang, Perris and Yeung (2005) found that s tudents were most comfortable, and found the most purpose for using computers and the Internet, for independent work such as submitting assignments, conducting searches, and retrieving course content (p. 801). These are useful and necessary tools to help students not only keep track of assignments, but also help them adapt technology to their individual learning styles. It is important for instructors to enga ge students with technology and building a web site can add a fun incentive to study ab road initiatives. Reber (2005) noted that building a web site allowed working in accord ance with the individual's interests, made the course more motivating, more fun and le ss boring than the trad itional approach to teaching (p. 95). Students can then upload photos, essays, even video slides of their favorite places, people, and experi ences with new cultures. Lambert (2001) recommended the widespread availability of personal computers (PCs) for both teacher and learner has brought healthy experimentation in the use of' computers in language teaching (p. 359). Pe rsonal computers can be used in both language learning and regular co urse content. Interactive pr ograms that help writing, reading, and language skills are vital in he lping students develop their own learning objectives. Windschitl (1998) stated that classroom teachers are engaging in innovative practices using the Web either as an inform ation resource or as a way of communicating with others, and these initiatives are almost certain to establis h patterns for use of internet

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74 technology in other classrooms (p. 28). C oupled with classroom instruction and international and multicultural elements, web utilization in the classroom, especially in study abroad programs, can be a very powerful tool in student learning. For study abroad purposes, computers can serve a variety of purposes, from helping students with mathematical anal ysis to assignment submission and grade accessibility. Windschitl (1998) explained that instant access to information is one attractive feature of the WWW; another is its global domain. The novelty and excitement of accessing Web pages from places like France or Malaysia is stimulating for learners. Students in many classrooms routinely use em ail and news groups to communicate with students abroad for a variet y of purposes (p. 30). But the opposite scenario is just as po ssible and exciting. For example, internet classroom activities and web assignments ar e help students learn and communicate with other students from their country. But, the inte rnet can also serve as an abundant resource in relaying international panels and activiti es occurring in classrooms abroad back to other classrooms in the United States. Windschitl (1998) indicated that whe n students study abroad, parents and teachers hope that they return with more than an academic understanding of the host countries. A major purposeis to cultivate a de ep appreciation of other countries, their cultures, and their people (p. 31). Therefore, study abroad classroom instruction must incorporate technology and intern ational aspects that will he lp students gain a deeper understanding, and provide opportun ities such as web based exercises with international students, faculty, officials, etc. while abroad.

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75 Because of technological advancements, Ko zma (2003) explained that teams of students are engaged in solving complex, au thentic problems that cross disciplinary boundaries. Instead of dispensing knowledge, te achers set up projects, arrange for access to appropriate resources, and create organi zational structures and support that can help student succeed (p. 2). Such strategies can be used in study abroad programming and allows for more student-teacher in teraction as well as group work. Zhao, Kuh, Carini (2005) advi sed that it is also possi ble international students are more comfortable and confident usi ng computer technology, for preparing class assignments as well as for communicating wi th their instructors and other students. Although technology may help ease the transi tion to the American college campus, it may also play a part in social isolati on if it substitutes for face-to-face intera ction (p. 223). Similarly, American students may also wa nt to shy away from interaction with foreign natives by immersing themselves in technology, but this problem can be easily avoided as long as instructors use both technology and international inter action as part of the course objective. Instructors should also encourage friendship circles within classrooms especially abroad, to help minimize isolation. Summary In this chapter, Chickerings Theory of Student Development along with the environmental variables was presented in order to examine study abroad student development. Study abroad programs, like many collegiate academic programs, must have a sound, legitimate academic program. Accreditation, along with articulation and transfer agreements between the host institution and the domestic institution must be

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76 reliable and approved in order to have ease of transfer of cred its and application of credits to either general education requirements, major, or minor requirements towards the degree. Similarly, student interest in the st udy abroad program is vital not only to boost internationalization and globa lization, but also to promot e increased interest and individual student development. Other important factors that must be c onsidered in study abroad programs are the faculty role, teaching, and student imp act, curriculum and classroom learning environment, student housing and friendships student support services and programs, field trips, cultural awareness, and technology. Of paramount interest is the faculty role in student learning, as well as f aculty development. If program leaders expect faculty members to educate and promote student le arning, then they mu st have the right educational tools to do so. Such tools can be obtained through prof essional development opportunities, and advanced teac hing programs and services. Similarly, faculty must be compensated appropriately and overload of courses must be avoided to prevent burnout and dissatisfaction. The facu lty role in student learning is not simple, as each student is uni quely different and therefore each will learn differently. This brings us to the next main variable of cl assroom learning. Faculty have the responsibility of providing an academic learning experience while abroad, but at the same time, employ different methods of l earning techniques. From traditional lecture methods to international panel members and group projects, students must the opportunity to be creative, learn, and understa nd the materials in a fun and interactive environment.

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77 Such a mix of learning techniques can allo w students to appreciate and learn all content areas, especi ally if technology is used in the classroom. Instructors can incorporate many aspects of technology that most likely are employed at their home institutions. For example, blackboard or some form of program that allows students to retrieve assignments and subm it homework can be very bene ficial to both student and instructor. In addition, the instructor can inco rporate PowerPoint into lecture materials, and if the technology is advanced enough, can use video conferencing to talk with nationals or even students at their home institution. Furthermore, the classroom can provide a great avenue for student to interact and learn from one another. Another aspect of promoting student communities and friendships is the living and learning environment of housi ng. Whether student elect to stay with a host family or prefer the appr oved residence halls, th e interaction with new and different cultures and peopl es are strong factors in student development. If colleges offer an approved housing option for students wh ile abroad, they must ensure that the living quarters are clean, fu rnished, and allow for student interaction, whether that incorporated floor socials or study areas. Thes e are important factors that also promote student learning and development. Finally, student support programs must be incorporated into the study abroad program to allow students the opportunity to go on field trips and provide important aspects of academic life needed to support and encourage student learning. An on-site coordinator or counselor should be available to help with homesickness or loneliness. In addition, registration, book services and extracurricular activities, such as field trips must be available to students to help them pr epare for class and enjoy the study abroad

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78 experience. Thus, having reviewed the resear ch related to the major variables of the student development theory, it is important to evaluate the variety methods used in the collection and evalua tion of data as presented in the next chapter.

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79 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter contains the methods used in the evaluation of the research study. First, a review of the participants, and da ta collection process will be explained, along with the study methodologies. Next, the res earch hypothesis, research questions, and instrumentation will be examined. In addition, a variety of test-retest methods and a Biserial correlation analysis wi ll be used to examine the research questions as well as a list of operational definitions is indi cated at the end of the chapter. Purpose The purpose of this study explored how American undergraduate students perceive their self-development changes afte r participation in a community college study abroad program. This study reviewed the extent to which students gained increased levels of self-development based on their international academic and social experiences while studying abroad using Chickerings Th eory of Student Development. Community College Study Abroad Programs In order to conduct a national study of st udy abroad programs, a complete search of all community colleges (or colleges formerly known as co mmunity colleges) websites was conducted from the League for Innovati on directory. In addition, emails and phone calls were made to follow up on recruited co lleges. Some of the colleges emailed a declined response because they did not possess a study abroad program, while other programs responded favorably if they did posse ss a study abroad program and wanted to participate. It is also important to note th at some college websites were inactive, while other schools provided a list of independent or private study abroad companies or study

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80 abroad student organizations that did not ma intain sufficient information to become a participant in this study. Participants The participants consisted of 46 underg raduate students whose host institutions were selected national community colleges a nd who decided to study abroad either for elective or major credit. The participants el ected to participate in their study abroad program and were asked to complete the St udy Abroad Student Development Survey. In addition, the study abroad coordinators and a dvisors also assisted with the research process by administering, proctoring, and reco llection of the evaluation forms. Informed consent was acknowledged on each survey and was confirmed when each student completed the survey. Data Collection Colleges were selected based on suffici ent evidence that their study abroad program was current and accepting student pa rticipants for the upcoming summer study abroad programs. The study abroad director coordinator and/or instructors were contacted via email on the following date s: 1/17/06, 1/18/2006, 1/30/2006, and 2/20/2006 and asked to complete an information sheet and return to the researcher. After consent was received from the prospective college s, the study was conducted via survey method before and after the students returned from their study abroad destinations. A modified version of the University of Floridas Study Abroad Questionnaire was administered to all students who comp leted their community college study abroad program by their respective study abroad coordinator or chie f instructor. The length of time varied depending on what type of study abroad academic program they attended, but

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81 mostly took place in the summer session. In ge neral, data was collected from students who studied abroad from May 2006 to August 2006. The main method of inquiry used in this research project was quantitative with a static pretest-posttest desi gn. First, the overall hypothesi s was formulated and then additional research questions were evaluated to test the main hypothe sis and to determine whether the seven vectors of student development actually em erged and if those patterns had significant impact on the students identity development. Reliability According to Penfield (2003), reliabili ty concerns the extent to which a variables outcomes correspond to levels of th e entity in a consistent and stable manner (p. 34). Therefore, reliability is concerned w ith the data analysis and data measurements in duplication of the study. Fo r example, how reliable will the study be if duplicated using the exact same measurement techniques? There are a number of indicat ors that attest to the reliability of a study, such as sample size, effect size, and lack of confounding variables whic h will be discussed in the following chapter. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals that were sampled relative to the population of students studying abroad is high because the sample population is the total population of students studyi ng abroad from that particular college. In other words, those students freely elected to participate in the program and all individuals in the program were surveyed, thus representing th e entirety of the study abroad program. In addition, the examination of select attrib utes among the sample population, such as gender, race, major, and previous experience abroad will also be crucial in eliminating confounding variables between pret est and posttest comparisons.

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82 Another direct proponent of reliability success is measurement error because it causes the outcomes of a variable to become unstable, inconsistent, or unreliable (p. 35). The goal of quantitative researchers is to minimize the amount of error by making sure that rating scales appropriat ely represent the subject be ing studied. Penfield (2003) further noted the reliability of scores obtai ned from scales or te sts are affected by two primary sources: (a) the degree to which all items measure the same general entity, and thus are interrelated; and (b) the number of items on the scale or test (p. 47). So how many questions or items being m easured should the rating scale have to be reliable? Penfield suggested typically, acceptable reliability of tests composed of multiple choice questions is obtained with approximately 30 or more items. For rating scales, however, acceptable reliability is ofte n obtained with 10 or more items. For our purposes, the rating scale measured 7 items w ith a total of 40 ques tions, all directly related to student development and interrelate d in measuring the environmental variables, thus providing rich sources of reliabilit y, please see Instrumentation section. Validity There are two main types of validity that must be addressed in this study, internal validity and external va lidity. Penfield (2003) explained that internal validity of a research study is the degree to which the e ffects of all confounding variables have been controlled for and can be observed with the fo llowing two factors: (1) random variability in the sample means is due to the random natu re of the selection of the samples, and (2) the effect of the independent vari able (confounding variables) (p. 299). In this study, students who applied to thei r study abroad program also decided to participate in this study and can be consid ered a true representation of their home

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83 institution population. Thus, it was necessa ry to eliminate some possible confounding variables, such as student se lection variability, race, and ge nder biases by surveying the same group of students before and after (prete st-posttest) while examining their attributes and student development progression. Second, external validity is just as important to review as internal validity. Penfield (2003) explained exte rnal validity concerns the exte nt to which the findings of a study generalize to other intended settings a nd can be examined by two questions: (1) is the population from which the sample was dr awn representative of the population of which the research question is asked? (2) Is the environment in which the study was conducted representative of the environment surrounding the research question in the real world? (p. 300). To address these concerns, the sample population was representative of the college campus, since the students who particip ated in the program attend their respective colleges. Participants were asked to name their home institution on the survey form, which was examined more completely in th e next chapter. Furthermore, nationally recognized community colleges were asked to participate in the study to maximize student population and dive rsity. In addition, the e nvironment is unique and representative of the real world since each program was located in a different region in the United States and offered their study abroad programs in different destinations around the world. Finally, the evaluations were admini stered before the students arrived at their destination and after th ey had completed the program, whet her this took place in the host country or destination country.

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84 Research Hypothesis The overall research hypothesis examin ed whether undergraduate students who participated in their community college st udy abroad program reported enhanced selfdevelopment consistent with Chickering s Theory of Student Development. Research Questions In order to answer the research hypoth esis, three research questions were investigated: RQ1: To determine the relationship between the individual student development vectors and overall student development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis RQ2: To determine whether student devel opment increased as a result of study abroad participation by examining pretest and posttest results RQ3: To determine whether specific socioeconomic variables influenced student development among study abroad participants using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method Instrumentation Research Question #1 To answer the first research question, a number of methods were used to test the internal and external validity of the instrument. Penfie ld (2003) suggested four methods to test validity and explained that each source informs different aspects of validity (p. 50): 1. Evidence based on item content 2. Evidence based on response process 3. Evidence based on how the variables outcomes relate to the outcomes of other variables, such as an established criterion. 4. Evidence based on the internal st ructure of the scale or test.

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85 The first method used was evidence base d on item content and was endorsed by an expert panel. An expert panel evaluate d and approved the modified version of the program evaluation in order to confirm reliab ility of the instrument used in this study. The members consisted of a variety of stude nt affairs leaders and have significant expertise in the area of student development and student learning. The expert panel was led by Dr. Ken Osfi eld, University of Florida, and the members included Mr. Roger Ludeman, Chair, International Association of Student Affairs and Services Professiona ls (IASAS), Dr. Lisa Bardill, Associate Dean at Florida Atlantic University and C oordinator of the Semester at Sea program, Dr. Martha Sullivan, former Vice President of Student Affa irs and currently Special Assistant to the President at Tulane University, Dr. Harold Holmes, Dean of Students and Associate Vice President of Student Affairs at Wake Forest Dr. Sandy Hubler, Vice President of Student Affairs, at George Mason University and Dr. Howard, Wang, Vice President of Student Affairs, University of California, Fullerton. The panel rated both the pretest and postte st surveys and noted how each question compared to the environmental variables of Chickerings Theory of Student Development to determine whether each question accurately reflected the student development vector being measured. The panel used a Likert rati ng scale of 1-5, (with a 1 signifying strongly disagree and a 5 signifying st rongly agree) to rate the validity of each environmental variable within the student developm ent vector (Table 3-1 and 3-2). The seven Student Developmental V ectors were defined as follows: 8. Intellectual competence: Acquisition of knowledge and skills related to particular subject matter. Physical Competence comes through athletic and recreational activities. Interpers onal Competence includes skills in communication, leadership, and work ing effectively with others.

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86 9. Managing emotions: Students develop the ability to recognize and accept emotions as well as to appropria tely express and control them. 10. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence: Result in increased emotional independence, which is defi ned as freedom from continual and pressing needs for reassurance, aff ection, or approval from others. 11. Developing mature interpersonal rela tionships: Include development of intercultural and interpersonal toleran ce and appreciation of differences, as well as the capacity for healthy and las ting intimate relationships with partners and close friends. 12. Establishing identity: Acknowledgeme nt of differences in identity development is based on gender, ethn ic background, and sexual orientation. 13. Developing purpose: Development of clear vocational goals, making meaningful commitments to specific personal interests and activities, and establishing strong interp ersonal commitments. 14. Developing Integrity: Includes three sequential but overlapping stages: humanizing values, personalizing va lues, and developing congruence. In addition, the Environmental Variable Scale Items included: Academics Classroom learning environment Student housing/communities and friendships Student support services and programs Field trips and excursions Cultural awareness Technology satisfaction Furthermore, an academic panel was create d to also analyze the survey items in the same fashion as the expert panel. The academic panel members were also all program chairs and have significant e xpertise in the areas of study and of designing curriculum. The members of the panel included: Mrs. Ethel Guinyard, mathematics program chair

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87 and instructor, Mrs. Laura Girtman, English and reading program chair and instructor, and Mrs. Gayle Fisher, student succe ss program chair and instructor. The second validation method of response process was confirmed by a student group who were selected at random to analy ze the pretest and posttest survey questions. The student group was comprise d of only undergraduate studen ts who either had studied abroad or plan to study abroad in the futu re. A group discussion method was employed to review each item on the survey and substant iate whether each item was measuring its intended purpose. The third method employed the University of Floridas Study Abroad Evaluation form as the established criterion. This fo rm has previously been used to record information about students pr ior experiences and satisfac tion for their study abroad program. University of Florida program official s have previously admi nistered the survey to examine program improvement. The surv ey evaluated the following components: Program information, participant data Instructor and course evaluation Extracurricular activities Major/career information On site services Teaching/computer facility Budget/travel Language studies

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88 Therefore, the instrument was modified in order to reflect this particular research study and validate by administrators, faculty, staff, and students in order to examine Chickerings Theory of Student Development. The fourth and final method of validity ex amined the internal structure of the scale. Penfield noted that the internal struct ure of a scale or test concerns the properties of the individual items, and how the items relate to one anothersuch that (a) the properties of the items are consistent w ith the intended properties, and (b) the relationships between the items match the constructs underlying the proposed interpretations of the obt ained scores (pp. 53-55). Therefore, a statistical method was used to examine the interrelationships of the items on the research instrument by way of a Biserial correlation analysis in order to determine the relationship between the st udent development vectors and the overall evaluation scale during the pre and post survey period (SAS statistical software was used to perform the analysis). Biserial correlation analysis is used in many behavioral research studies, especially when examining pretest and posttest survey items. The Biserial Correlation is a measure of correlation that estimates the degr ee of association between two variables: a single test item and total test score on the ra ting scale. Researchers generally use the data yielded by the Biserial correlation to examine the quality of particular items. In this research study, the single test item repres ented the student development vector and the total test score represented the overall student development. The Biserial correlation should not be conf used with the point-biserial correlation That is, the Biserial correlation is used when an interval variable is correlated with a

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89 dichotomous variable (or cate gorical variable) which reflec ts an underlying continuous variable (http://www.statisticssolutions.com ). Tate (1955) explained that in 1909, Karl Pearson intr oduced the estimator r (Biserial r) which can be expressed in the following form: _ r* = 1/n (Xi X) (Zi Z) = {1/n (Zi Z)2}1/2 (E 3-1) {1/n (Xi X)2}1/2 (T) (T) Furthermore, Attali and Fraenkel (2000) discussed that the measurement of item discrimination in the test or scale usually involves a dichotomous variable (performance on the item) and a continuous variable (perfo rmance on the criterion) which is extremely important in correlation analysis (p. 77). Therefore, the Biserial correlation anal ysis served to evaluate not only the students performance on the individual scale items (environmental variable items), but also examined whether the seven major vectors in the survey instrument were consistent with Chickerings theory of Student Development. Research Question #2 A Dependent Samples Paired T-Test wa s used to examine whether student development increased from pretest to posttest Penfield (2003) noted that when there are only two levels of the repeated variable, su ch as the case of a pretest-posttest design, a dependent samples t-test may be used instea d of a repeated measures ANOVA to test if the mean of a quantitative va riable is the same across a ll levels of an independent variable (p. 434). Penfield (2003) noted that this desi gn helps in proving causation by using the same individuals in every level of the inde pendent variable, thereby reducing the chance of confounding variables differentially imp acting the groups defined by the independent

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90 variable. An additional advantag e of this design is that by us ing the same individuals at every level of the independent variable, we ar e able to reduce the am ount of error in the dependent variable by eliminating that part of the dependent variable variance due to the random differences between the in dividuals in the group (p. 419). In the case of a Pretest-Posttest design, the difference score is equal to the posttest score minus the pretest score (Posttest Pret est). Next, the mean value was obtained as the difference in scores across the sample (D), as well as the standard deviation of the difference scores (SD). Thus, the sample t-st atistic is obtained by: __ tobs = D (E 3-2) SD n Where, the t-statistic follows a t-distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the sample size minus one (n 1). In addition, a % lift was calculated for each student development vector to examine the pre to post development and de termine which vector was statistically significant in comparison to the results yielded from the Biseri al correlation analysis. The formula used to calculate the pe rcentage lift is listed below: Percentage Lift* = Post ScoresPre Scores (E 3-3) Pre Scores *Scores that did not yield statisticall y significant data was recorded as 0.00. Research Question #3 In order to determine whether specific socio-economic variables influenced development among students who participated in their study abroad programs, an ANOVA model was incorporated in this research study. A one-way ANOVA was run

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91 based on Table 3-3. The present analysis used a model where the dependent variable was coded as the continuous variable and the independent variable was coded as the categorical variables. Penfield (2003) explained that a one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) method is used to answer the question of wh ether there are differences in a variables mean between two or more populations when the populations are specified by a single independent variable (p. 316). Furthermore, there are three assumptions of the one-way ANOVA to ensure purity in the data colle ction. The three assumptions include: (a) Independence (each individual in the gr oup are independent of one another) (b) Normality (the values of the dependent vari able should be normally distributed) and (c) Homogeneity of Variance (the variance of the dependent variable is equal for each population as defined by the levels of the independent variable). In this research study, the one-way ANOV A model was examined on each student demographic variable to see whether the de mographic variable ha d an impact on overall student development. Form ally, the ANOVA model utilized in this study can be expressed as follows: SST = dT2 = (Xij XT)2 (E 3-4) _ SSB = dB2 = (Xj XT)2 SSW = dw2 = (Xij Xj)2 Where, the sum of squares associated with the total, between, and within deviations are denoted SST, SSB, SSW. Furthermore, the F-statis tic tests whether each of the populations has an equal mean for the dependent variable (i.e. whether the means are statistically significant) and is computed as follows:

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92 F = MSB / MSW (E 3-5) Where, the components MSB and MSW are called the mean squares between and the mean squares within. In a ddition, Spiess (2001) explaine d that the coefficient of determination, usually denoted R2, is used to assess the goodn ess of fit of univariate models in many applicationsand pseudo-R2 to assess general multivariate models with binary or ordered categorical responses (p. 325). Therefore, R2 will be computed to analyze power in the next chapter. Summary This chapter discussed the importance of validating the instrument along with numerous other techniques to ensure that the methods used in evaluating the research questions would be clearly defined. One of th e most important tools is the use of the Biserial correlation analysis in evaluating the student development vectors and internal consistency of the research instrument. In addition, the Dependent T-Test was used to answer the second research question in determining the effects of student development from pretest to posttest. In addition, an ANOVA model was used to answer the third re search question as to whether specific socio-economic variables influenced student development among study abroad participants. Furthermore, the reliability and validity of the research instrume nt is paramount in conducting this research study by use of a test-retest methodology. Various methods of internal and external validation techniques were employe d, such as the use of Expert, Academic, and student panels to intrinsic te sts using the statistical software programs, SAS. Finally, the reliability and validity of any study must be warranted and accurate so

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93 that the results can be accurately assessed and evaluated. This chapter provided various methods of reliability and validity, s ubstantiated by mathematical equations. Operational Definitions of Variables The variables were taken from the Study Abroad Student Development Survey before and after the students returned from their study abroad destin ations. Each of the seven vectors of Chickerings Theory of Student Development was measured using a Likert Scale type with 1= Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Undecided, 4=Agree, and 5=Strongly Agree. In addition, each student development vector indicated a set of questions that represented th e environmental variables bei ng measured ranging from five to seven questions per stude nt development vector.

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94 Table 3-1. Student development vector scale Main Response Item 1 (SA) 2 (A) 3 (U) 4 (A) 5 (SA) Developing competence 1 2 3 4 5 Managing emotions 1 2 3 4 5 Moving through autonomy towards interdependence 1 2 3 4 5 Developing mature interpersonal relationships 1 2 3 4 5 Establishing identity 1 2 3 4 5 Developing purpose 1 2 3 4 5 Developing integrity 1 2 3 4 5 Table 3-2. Environmenta l variable scale items Main Response Item 1 (SA) 2 (A) 3 (U) 4 (A) 5 (SA) Academics 1 2 3 4 5 Classroom learning environment 1 2 3 4 5 Housing (residence living/friendships) 1 2 3 4 5 Support services 1 2 3 4 5 Field trips/excursions 1 2 3 4 5 Cultural awareness 1 2 3 4 5 Technology 1 2 3 4 5 Table 3-3. ANOVA inde pendent variables Student Development Vectors Socio-Demographic Variables Developing competence Class level Managing emotions Major/minor Moving through autonomy towards interdependence Gender Developing mature interpersonal relationships Previous experience abroad Establishing identity Ethnic background Developing purpose Developing integrity

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95 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study explored how American underg raduate students perceive their selfdevelopment changes after par ticipation in a community college study abroad program as represented by Chickerings Theory of Student Development. This study also examined the extent to which students gained increased le vels of self-development based on their international academic and social experiences while studying abroad. In other words, the overall research hypothesis examined whether undergraduate students who participated in their community college study abroad progr am reported enhanced self-development. Therefore, in order to answer the research hypothesis, three additional research questions were investigated: RQ1: To determine the relationship between the individual student development vectors and overall student development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis RQ2: To determine whether student devel opment increased as a result of study abroad participation by examining pretest and posttest results RQ3: To determine whether specific socioeconomic variables influenced student development among study abroad participants using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method The investigation begins by examini ng the survey responses, followed by a complete review of the variables of interest used in the analysis of this research study. Survey Response The participating colleges we re recruited from the League for Innovation website and were League for Innovation members. Once prospective college representatives

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96 agreed to participate in the research study, they were sent a letter of participation, directions on how to administering the surv eys, pretest and posttest surveys, and IRB approved informed consent in mid-April. Informed consent was acknowledged by students who agreed to participate and willingly filled out the surveys. Also located in the packets sent to the participating colleges wa s a self-addressed stamped envelope for all completed surveys as well as a deadline of August 8, 2006 was requested for all survey returns. A follow up email was sent to representatives of the participating colleges to confirm receipt of package and materials. Overall, two hundred Student Developmen t Study Abroad Surveys were sent out to prospective community colleges across the nation, with an anticipated return rate of one hundred surveys or 50%. McCormack ( 2006) found that many universities based their decisions to cancel or continue thei r overseas programs partly or completely on travel warnings from the US State Depart mentIn July, Michigan State University brought eight students studying in Jerusalem home early out of concern for violence spreading (Chronicle of Higher Education, 9/8/2006) Therefore, due to political unrest and incr eased terrorist activities both in the United States, Europe, Middle East, and abroad, many programs cancelled or postponed their programs due to low or no enrollmen t and other internat ional concerns. Two administrator/faculty members forgot to admini ster the test before the program, therefore the posttest results unfortunately were not us ed in the final statistical analysis. In addition, some survey responses that were illegible or missing responses were not calculated in the final results.

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97 In general, out of the twenty-two colleges that agreed to participate, nine colleges returned participated in the research study (Table 4-1). Seve nty surveys were returned of which, forty-six pretest and posttest survey responses were accurate, legible, and incorporated in the statistical analysis. Th is can be calculated as a 46% return rate compared to the anticipated survey returns of the number of student s participating in the study abroad program. Research Question 1 The first research question assessed th e relationship between the individual student development vectors and overall stude nt development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis; that is, whether Chic kerings Theory of Student De velopment is consistent with the Student Development Study Ab road Survey. This tested the validity of the research instrument, that indeed the survey instrume nts paralleled the seve n vectors of student development in order to examine those sa me vectors within study abroad students. The internal structure of a scale or test concern the properties of the individual items, and how the items relate to one another, such that (a) the properties of the items are consistent with the intended properties, and (b) the relationships between the items match the constructs underlying the proposed interpretations of the obtained scores (Penfield, 2003). Therefore, a Biserial corr elation analysis was employed to determine the relationship between the st udent development vectors a nd the overall evaluation scale items during the pretest and posttest survey peri od and consistency of the research survey instrument. In calculating the Biserial correlation for each vector each individual student score for each student development vector was averaged and compared to the total

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98 development score on the rating scale in orde r to determine the relationship between the student development vectors and the overall evaluation scale dur ing the pretest and posttest survey period and a statistical significance was calculated for the internal consistency. In addition, the hi gher the correlation the greater the indication that the scale was internally consistent and therefore the items of the scale did in fact have a strong relationship or correlation with the additional items on the scale in measuring the environmental variables (see Table 4-2). From the results, six out of the seven student development vectors had a positive correlation with the items on the scale being measured. The strongest posttest relationships existed with Developing Integrity (88 %) and Developing Competence (87%) and the weakest item on the scal e was Moving Through Autonomy Towards Interdependence (55%). Furthermore, the Bi serial correlation for the Sum of Student Development Vectors (Overall Development) on the posttest survey scale indicated 98% item effectiveness. This is a strong indicator that taken toge ther, the environmental items on the scale did effectively measure the seven vectors of Chickerings Theory of Student Development when examined during the pr etest and posttest periods (Figure 1). Figure 4-1. Biserial correlat ion between the student develo pment vectors and the overall study abroad student development dur ing the pretest and posttest period 0 20 40 60 80 100C o m p e t e n c e E m o t i o n s I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e R e l a t i o n s h i p s I d e n t i t y P u r p o s e I n t e g r i t y O v e r a l l D e v e l o p m e n t Pretest Posttest

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99 Research Question 2 The study abroad student participants were asked to rate each of the seven vectors of student development by responding to questi ons on the survey using a Likert scale of (1) to (5). A response of (1) = strongly disa greed, (2) = disagreed, (3) = undecided, (4) = agreed, and (5) = strongly agreed. The data an alysis revealed that student development increased in all areas of the individual measured student development vectors. Furthermore, a paired t-test was conducted to examine the strongest and weakest student development vectors that will be discussed later in this chapter. Individual Student Develo pment Vector Results In examining the individual student de velopment vectors, students responded favorably on the Developing Competence vector from pretest (28%) to posttest (40%). That is, 28% strongly agreed that they had de veloped a level of inte llectual, physical and emotional competence before study abroad, but after studying ab road, 40% strongly agreed that their development had increas ed within this comp etency after studying abroad. Only 1% strongly disagreed that this development competence was impacted by study abroad participation (Table 4-3). In the second student development vector, the data revealed that 44% of students rated themselves as having a high level of managing emotions, but after studying abroad, 54% strongly agreed that this vector was much influenced by the international educational experience due to in teractions with faculty, sta ff, and students while abroad. In other words, students were more likely to modify and change their emotions while abroad to adjust to their new surroundings. Fu rthermore, only 2% strongly disagreed that managing emotions was impacted by study ab road interactions (Table 4-4).

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100 In Table 4-5, the data supports that 24% of students agreed they had a high level of interdependence before studying abroa d, but afterwards, 35% of students strongly agreed that they had become more interdep endent. Similarly, 24% of students had already formed mature interpersonal relationships w ith friends, family, faculty, and other persons, but after studying abroad, 45% had developed a greater appreciation of relationships with others than previously formed (Table 4-6). The next three vectors, establishing iden tity, developing purpose, and developing integrity all exhibit similar characteristics th at students responded highly favorably to both pretest and posttest survey questions. It is important to note that development did occur from pretest to postte st; that is, in al l cases, the largest percentage amount represented a high level of student developmen t. Therefore, students strongly agreed to having a high level of development in esta blishing identity (4 8%), developing purpose (54%), and developing integrity (56%), respectively (Tables 4-7, 4-8, 4-9). Dependent Samples Paired T-Test The second research question addressed whether student development increased as a result of study abroad participation by exam ining pretest and posttest results. In order to examine whether an increase occurred, a De pendent Samples Paired T-Test was used to compare the posttest survey responses to pretest survey results. Although it was possible to use a Repeated M easures ANOVA for more than two levels, this research study employed two levels, a pretest and posttes t result, so a Depende nt T-test was more effective in testing whether the mean of a quantitative variable was the same across all levels of the independent variable (Penfield, 2003). Did development occur from pretest to posttest based on student responses?

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101 Specifically, student development did occur in three of the seven vectors, and student development did occur overall from pre to post, therefore the null hypothesis can be rejected that based on the ev idence, undergraduate students who participated in their community college study abroad program reporte d enhanced levels of self-development. At alpha = .01, development did occur in three areas, Developing Competence, Developing Mature Interpersonal Relations hips, and Overall Student Development (Table 4-10). In order to examine the interrelations hip between the responses to the items contained in the test or scale, the paired t-test results that showed statistical significance was evaluated and compared the percentage lif t scores the Biserial correlation for those specific student development vectors. A st rong posttest relationship on the Biserial correlation table existed w ith Developing Competence ( 87%), Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships (84%) and that the Sum of Student Development Vectors (Overall Student Development) on the pos ttest survey scale indicated 98% item effectiveness. To further validate the research finding, it is important to note that the percentage lift scores in Table 4-11 likewis e indicated that at the .01 alpha level, Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships showed the str ongest change between pretest and posttest development (13.44%). In addition, Devel oping Competence was strongly associated with students development abroad (9.17). Fu rthermore, the Sum of Student Development Vectors highly indicated that overall devel opment did occur from pretest to posttest due to study abroad partic ipation (Figure 2).

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102 Figure 4-2. Percentage lift sc ores of statistically signifi cant vectors from pretest and posttest comparisons (alpha = .01). Research Question 3 The third question examined whethe r specific socio-economic variables influenced student development among st udy abroad participants using an ANOVA method. These specific socio-economic variables are identified below. Student Profile Out of the 46 student participants, 45 responded with class level, major/minor degree information, and previous experien ce abroad. All 46 students responded on gender and ethnicity. The data showed that the la rgest group of students studying abroad were either undecided or did not have a major (27%). But, the second largest group of students that were studying abroad represented pre-pr ofessional majors such as medicine, law, dentistry, and other specialized areas (16%), followed by liberal arts and sciences, and business majors (13%). It is also interesting to note that ther e were a higher percentage of women (61%) studying abroad than men (39%) and that the largest ethnic group was found to be 0 5 10 15 C o m p e t e n c e * V e c t o r 2 I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e R e l a t i o n s h i p s * V e c t o r 5 V e c t o r 6 V e c t o r 7 O v e r a l l D e v e l o p m e n t % Lift Scores

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103 Caucasian in this research study. Furtherm ore, the second largest ethnic group studying abroad was Hispanic / Latino (17%). From the one-way ANOVA data analysis, there was a strong correlation between previous experience abroad and the student development vectors (see Table 4-12). That in other words, individuals who had some experience abroad before studying abroad rated a higher student development than t hose individuals who ha d no prior experience abroad. The table below shows that there wa s a much higher correlation between overall student development and previous experience abroad (168.0) compared to no experience abroad (154.5). Furthermore, the one-way ANOVA model, in respect to experience abroad revealed that the F-statistic = 5.95, p = .02, and R2 = .119 with an alpha = .05 (Table 413). Therefore, the null hypothe sis is rejected based on the evidence that students with some experience abroad before studying abroad had increased overall student development than those who had no experience abroad. In addition, Penfield (2003) noted that effect size is one factor in evaluating the power of the research study and can be determined using the following guide: small effect = .010, medium effect = .09, large effect = .25 (p. 346). Thus, based on effect size, group size, and sample size, the power of this ANOVA model is greater than .995 or 99.5% (Power of ANOVA table, p. 442). Summary In this chapter, three research questions were examined in order to determine whether undergraduate students who partic ipated in their community college study abroad program reported enhanced self-dev elopment as represented by Chickerings

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104 Theory of Student Development. First, the survey responses were analyzed and explanation was given to address the smaller sample size than expected. Next, the three research questions were analyzed based on the data results using SAS statistical software. The internal cons istency of the research instrument was examined using a Biserial correlation analysis to explain the interr elationships between the items on the scale and the student developm ent vectors. Six of the seven vectors were proven statistically significant and measured the items on the scale as was intended. The overall sum of the vectors demonstrated 98% e ffectiveness, thus an excellent indicator of the survey instrument validity. The second research question addresse d the subject as to whether students perceived an increase in development from pr etest to posttest as a result of study abroad participation. The data revealed that overal l student development increased from pretest to posttest, while emphasis was placed on spec ific student developmen t vectors that were statistically significant in this research study. These development vectors included: Developing Competence, Devel oping Mature Interpersonal Relationships, and Overall Student Development. Lastly, the student demographic variab les were examined and an ANOVA model was employed to address whether these va riables had any significant impact on study abroad participation. It was found that out of the five socio-economic variables, previous experience abroad did in fact influence ove rall student development abroad based on the one-way ANOVA and power. A detailed descrip tion of the results a nd conclusion for all methods utilized in this study follo ws in the subsequent chapter.

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105 Table 4-1. Community co llege participant table NAME OF COMMUNITY COLLE GE EMAIL RESPONSES (1/17-1/18, 1/30, 2/20/2006) (COLLEGE / CAMPUS / STATE) (YES) Broward Community College, FL Yes Central Piedmont Community College, NC Yes Coastal Georgia Community College, GA Yes Edison College, FL Yes Grand Rapids Community College, MI Yes Harrisburg Area Community College, PA Yes Mesa Community College, AZ Yes Santa Fe Community College, FL Yes St. Petersburg College, FL Yes Table 4-2. Biserial correlation between the student development vectors and the overall study abroad student development survey scal e* during the pretest and posttest period Biserial Correlation Student Development Vector Pretest Posttest Developing competence 0.62 0.8657 Managing emotions 0.53 0.7713 Moving through autonomy towards interdependence 0.27 0.549 Developing mature interpersonal relationships 0.57 0.8417 Establishing identity 0.47 0.7922 Developing purpose 0.49 0.8059 Developing integrity 0.52 0.8788 Sum of student development vectors 0.64 0.9815 Scale was restructured as dichotomous be tween responses with a 5 and the remaining responses during the posttest period. Table 4-3. Study abroad students response to developing competence Response to Developing Competence N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 12 4.34 4 1.45 Disagree 28 10.14 12 4.35 Undecided 55 19.92 51 18.48 Agree 105 38.04 98 35.50 Strongly agree (high dev) 76 27.53 111 40.22

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106 Table 4-4. Study abroad students response to managing emotions Response to Managing Emotions N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 9 3.26 6 2.17 Disagree 14 50.72 8 2.90 Undecided 23 8.33 30 10.87 Agree 109 39.49 81 29.35 Strongly agree (high dev) 121 43.84 151 54.71 Table 4-5. Study abroad students res ponse to moving through autonomy toward interdependence Response to Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 28 12.17 24 10.43 Disagree 40 17.39 41 17.83 Undecided 46 20.00 40 17.39 Agree 60 26.09 45 19.57 Strongly agree (high dev) 56 24.35 80 34.78 Table 4-6. Study abroad st udents response to developing mature interpersonal relationships Response to Establishing Identity N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 15 6.52 5 2.17 Disagree 26 11.30 12 5.22 Undecided 44 19.13 38 16.52 Agree 89 38.70 71 30.87 Strongly agree (high dev) 56 24.35 104 45.22 Table 4-7. Study abroad students response to establishing identity Response to Establishing Identity N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 6 2.61 2 0.87 Disagree 6 2.61 2 0.87 Undecided 40 17.39 33 14.35 Agree 80 34.78 82 35.65 Strongly agree (high dev) 98 42.61 111 48.26

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107 Table 4-8. Study abroad students response to developing purpose Response to Developing Purpose N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 5 2.17 1 0.43 Disagree 3 1.30 4 1.74 Undecided 24 10.43 20 8.70 Agree 95 41.30 81 35.22 Strongly agree (high dev) 103 44.78 124 53.91 Table 4-9. Study abroad students response to developing integrity Response to Developing Integrity N (Pretest) Percentage (%) (Pretest) N (Posttest) Percentage (%) (Posttest) Strongly disagree (lea st dev) 9 2.80 2 0.62 Disagree 6 1.86 4 1.24 Undecided 31 9.63 26 8.07 Agree 129 40.06 109 33.85 Strongly agree (high dev) 147 45.65 181 56.21 Table 4-10. Paired t-test resu lts of responses to the student development vector and the overall study abroad student development survey scale during pre and post period Student Development Vector Pretest Posttest Difference Developing competence 22.46 24.52 2.06** Managing emotions 24.93 25.89 0.96 Moving through autonomy towards interdependence 16.65 17.52 0.87 Developing mature interpersonal relationships 18.15 20.59 2.44** Establishing identity 20.61 21.48 0.87 Developing purpose 21.26 21.96 0.70 Developing integrity 29.67 31.07 1.39 Sum of student development vectors 4.00 4.46 0.46** **Statistically si gnificant at the .01 alpha level Table 4-11. Percentage lift sc ores from paired t-test Student Development Vector Po sttest Pretest Percentage (%) Developing competence 24.52 22.46 9.17 Managing emotions 25.89 24.93 0.00 Moving through autonomy towards interdependence 17.52 16.65 5.22 Developing mature interpersonal relationships 20.59 18.15 13.44 Establishing identity 21.48 20.61 0.00 Developing purpose 21.96 21.26 0.00 Developing integrity 31.07 29.67 0.00 Sum of student development vectors 4.46 4.00 11.5

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108 Table 4-12. Previous experience abroad Previous Experience Abroad N Percentage (%) None 18 39 Travel 20 44 Study 1 2 Travel and study 4 9 Former resident 1 2 Travel and former resident 2 4 Table 4-13. One-way ANOVA: Re lationship between sum of developmental vectors and previous experience abroad One-Way ANOVA Model Student Demographic Variable Average Post-Total Score No Experience Abroad 154.5** Some Experience Abroad 168.0** F-Value = 5.95 P = .02 R2 = .119 **Statistically si gnificant at the .05 alpha level

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109 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this study explored how American undergraduate students perceive their own self-development changes vi a participation in their community college study abroad program using Chickerings seven vectors of student development; in other words, did students gain increased levels of self-development based on their international academic and social experiences? If so, wh ich ones? Furthermore, did the underlying environmental variables present in the su rvey questions (academic environment, classroom learning environment, student housing and friendships, student support services and programs, field trips and ex cursions, cultural awar eness and technology) impact student development? Research Hypothesis H0 : Undergraduate students who participated in thei r community college study abroad program reported no difference in self-development as represented by Chickerings Theory of Student Development H1 : Undergraduate students who participated in thei r community college study abroad program reported enhanced se lf-development as represented by Chickerings Theory of Student Development In order to answer these questions, three additional research questions were employed to provide a statistical framework in which to answer the main research questions. The three research questions were: Research Questions RQ1: To determine the relationship between the individual student development vectors and overall student development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis

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110 RQ2: To determine whether student devel opment increased as a result of study abroad participation by examining pretest and posttest results RQ3: To determine whether specific socioeconomic variables influenced student development among study abroad participants using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method Thus, a complete analysis of the thre e research questions was conducted to determine whether student development di d occur before and after study abroad participation. Research Question 1 First, four methods of validity was ex amined and included various statistical components to ensure that the items measur ed the functional areas correctly, namely student development vectors. The main st atistical component us ed was a Biserial correlation analysis to determine the rela tionship between the student development vectors and the overall evaluation scale during the pretest and posttest survey period and internal consistency of the re search survey instrument. From the results, it is clear that six ou t of the seven student development vectors had a high correlation with the items on th e scale being measured. Strong posttest relationships existed with Developing Integrity (88%) and also with Developing Competence (87%). Furthermore, the Biseri al correlation for the Sum of Student Development Vectors on the posttest survey sc ale indicated 98% item effectiveness. This suggests that the student development vect or items on the scale, taken together, effectively measured the seven vectors of Ch ickerings Theory of Student Development. Furthermore, in each of the student development vector heading, the individual items effectively measured the environmental variab les, which influenced student development.

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111 Research Question 2 The second research question addressed wh ether student development increased as a result of study abroad participation by examining pretest and posttest results. A Dependent Samples Paired T-Te st was used to compare the posttest survey responses to pretest survey results. Thus, did developm ent occur from pretest to posttest based on student responses? Student development was statistically signi ficant in two out of the seven vectors, and student development did occur overal l from pretest to posttest, therefore undergraduate students who pa rticipated in their commun ity college study abroad program reported enhanced levels of self-dev elopment in specific development vectors and overall student development. These vectors (Developing Competence, Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships, and Overall Student Developmen t) were statistically significant over the other vectors. To further validate the resear ch findings, the student development vector that showed the greatest stat istical significance on the paired t-test in comparison to the percentage lift scores from the Biserial correlation analysis was the Developing Competence vector (2.06 at = .01, 87%, respectively). Developing Competence According to Chickerings Theory of Student Development, Developing Competence included three specific elements of competence: Intellectual, Physical, and Interpersonal Competence. All three work in overlapping capacities in gaining confidence and goal setting in student developm ent. Noonan et al. ( 2005) explained that community college students had the highest NCQ scores on self-concept, long-term

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112 goals, and leadership (p. 468). These three aspects must be considered in developing competence and most likely influenced self -confidence and interper sonal confidence in the Developing Competence vector. Furthermore, intellectual competence invol ved the development of intellectual, cultural, and aesthetic sophist ication. Physical competence was acquired through athletic and recreational activities, and interpers onal skills included comm unication, leadership and working effectively with others (Chick ering, 1993). In addition, the development of intellectual competence in the context of l earning was influen tial especially when abroad since the learning occurred both in academic and social environments. Student cognition and learning often occurs in social c ontexts, such as classrooms, computer labs, residence halls, and sn ack bars (King, 1996). Miller et al. (2005) found that comm unity college students indicated that balancing academic and personal life was a cha llenge (p. 73). But in this research study, community college students who studied abro ad felt self-directed in their own goals, leadership development, and worked effectiv ely with other, and believed they had a high level of communication and problem-solving ab ilities (including tec hnology applications) as evident in the development of interpersonal competence. In this research study, six overlapping e nvironmental themes were paramount in measuring the Developing Competence vector as supported by a significance level of 2.06 ( = .01). These included increased specif ic knowledge in certa in areas such as: course material, countrys history, and fore ign language, critical th inking and reasoning ability, athletic and recreati onal activity, communication ski lls with diverse populations,

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113 student contact, and technology sk ills. Thus, students had perceived an increase in all three aspects of developing competence by studying abroad. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships The next vector, Developi ng Mature Interpersonal Re lationships explored the development of intercultural and interpersona l tolerance and appreci ation of differences as well as the capacity to have long lasting relationships with partners and close friends as explained by Chickerings Theo ry of Student Development. Students in this research study adopted a multicultural identity; that is, continually learn about th e new culture, communicate with people from different cultures, and adapt successfully to a variety of different cultural se ttings (Talbot, 1996). In this vector, students were measured in the development of friendships and relationships with persons of other cultures, roommates and classmates, people they met through clubs, organizations, and their academic programs, as well as friends and family (sig. 2.44, = .01). Therefore, students who elected to study abroad had developed an appreciation for intercultural relationships, or desired to develop this appreci ation and understanding of other unique persons and cultures as evid ent by the Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships vector. Taken together, thes e two vectors, Developing Competence an Developing Mature Interpers onal Relationships showed th at students had successfully formed friendships and lasting relationships in the study abroad program and abroad to effectively support their own academic, athletic, and interpersonal goals. Overall Student Development And lastly, the Overall Student Developmen t vector was significant in both the

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114 paired t-test analysis and Biserial correl ation analysis. There was a strong posttest relationship on the Biserial co rrelation analysis for the Sum of Student Development Vectors on the posttest survey scale (98% item effectiveness). Similarly, the paired t-test analysis pr oved that the Sum of Student Development Vectors exhibited a statis tical significance of 0.46 ( = .01). This indicated that not only did the student development scale items para llel that of Chickerings Seven Vectors of Student Development accurately, but answered the second research question that overall student development did occur from pretest to posttest due to study abroad participation. This suggested that students who studied abroad perceived that their own overall development had increased from before th e program to after the program had ended. Therefore, students perceived that study abro ad participation was a vital component in overall student development changes, but es pecially important in the development of competence and mature interpersonal relationships. Research Question 3 Trends and Patterns From the one-way ANOVA met hod, there were some patte rns that emerged from the data analysis. For example, females were the greatest participants compared to males (61% versus 39%), which suggests that fe males represent a higher proportion of the general population in commun ity colleges than males. Also, Caucasian students represented the largest ethnic group studying abroad (74%). Furthermore, although the majority of students were undecide d or did not have a major, the second largest group studying abro ad included pre-prof essional students as

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115 opposed to students majoring in language lear ning as consistent with other research studies (McKeown, 2003). Ellis found that white students lacked racial/ethnic identity development.and the combination of low self-esteem and low racial/ethnic identity development could impair students in achieving a well-rounded education (p. 756). However, in this research study, the results proved otherwise. Although Caucasian females represented the majority of students studying abroad, they also had developed an appreciation for cultural differences and interpersonal tolerance as reflected in the Developing Ma ture Interpersonal Relationships student development vector. Thus, by studying abroad, Caucasian female students recognized the needs to increase or improve their own inte rcultural relations w ith diverse populations and were satisfied after the completion of the program that this goal was satisfied. Previous Experience Abroad There was a strong correla tion between previous e xperience abroad and the student development vectors (Table 4-12). T hus, students with some experience abroad (before studying abroad) had increased overall student deve lopment than those who had no experience abroad. This is an interesting paradox because in general, students with no experience abroad tend to have the same if not higher student development than students who do have prior experience abroad. Thus, in order to validate these findings, an examination of the power in ANOVA methods is discussed below. Power of ANOVA The power of a one-way ANOVA can be thought of as the chance that the sample data lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis when in fact not all population means are

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116 equal (Penfield, 2003). In other words a Type I error such as the rejection of a null hypothesis, when in fact the null hypothesis was true (low power) or a Type II error whereby the accepted null hypothesis when in fact the null hypothesis was actually false (low power). In this study, the power of the ANO VA model was greater than .995 for the measure of previous experience abroad/no e xperience abroad versus overall student development. Therefore, our findings are ac curate in that students who had prior experience abroad (whether travel, previous st udy, or former resident ) did have increased overall student development than t hose who had no experience abroad. Thus, students perceived a change in th eir overall student development because they had already experienced international de stinations in another capacity, such as, previous travel, study or former residence ab road. In addition, these students were more likely to have a reduced level of culture shock and homesickness (Scharman, 2002). They were also more likely to gain a deep er understanding of cu ltural differences and development of interpersonal and athletic goa ls because they had previous experience abroad and therefore a greater appreci ation for learning and development. Biserial Correlation Analysis a nd Paired T-Test Comparisons Based on the evidence gathered from the Bi serial correlation analysis and Paired Dependent Samples T-Test, the null hypothesis was rejected at alpha =.01 since students reported increased levels of self-developmen t based on their international academic and social experiences as represented by Chickeri ngs Theory of Student Development. In examining the environmental variables, all va riables presented in this study (academic environment, classroom learning environment, student housing and friendships, student

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117 support services and programs, field trips and excursions, cultural awareness and technology) were interrelat ed and impacted student development abroad. To what extent these variables impact student development is unknown because each individual and their learning process is unique. However, Developing Competence and the Overall Student Development were highly correlated and showed a strong statistical significance. This indicates that students felt th at they had increased their abilities to develop academic, interpersonal, and athletic competencies as well as an overall development change due to study abroad participation. Summary Study abroad participation had an important impact on student development abroad from examination of the pretest and posttest results based on Chickerings Theory of Student Development. From the Biserial Co rrelation analysis, six of the seven vectors of student development were highly correlate d with the items on the scale. In other words, the data analysis showed that the seve n vectors of student development did in fact measure what it was intended to measure and that the environmental variables accurately supported the measure of each student development vector. The paired t-test data analysis, found a strong emergence of three of the seven student development vectors as being statis tically significant in pretest to posttest comparisons: Developing Competence a nd Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships, and Overall Student Developmen t. In other words, students perceived a developmental change in academic, athletic, and interpersonal competence as well as the ability to respect and communicate with pers ons of different cultu ral backgrounds as a result of studying abroad. The data analysis also revealed the emergence of two major

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118 student development vectors in both the Bise rial item analysis and pretest to posttest development which included Developing Co mpetence, 87%, and Overall Student Development, 98%. The third research question examined various student demographic variables which suggested that there was a large number of female students in comparison to male student who elected to study abroad was 61% versus 39%. In addition, students who had previous study abroad experience had increase d levels of student development than those without prior experience abroad. Lastly, students perceived that study abro ad participation was a vital component in overall student development changes, but es pecially important in the development of competence and mature interpersonal rela tionships. This suggests that by studying abroad, students believed they had both a c ognitive and behavioral learning experience, overall. Limitations There were a number of limitations that must be addressed concerning this research study. Five main themes surfaced during the investigation and warrant further analysis in future studies. Environmental Variables The first theme applied to the discussi on of environmental variables and the relationship to that of the st udent development vectors. In this study, the environmental variables represented many areas that contri bute to or indirectly effect student development while abroad. Examining how great this effect was on student development

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119 was a difficult task and cannot be quantita tively determined since each student experienced development in unique and different ways. In addition, the title of the student deve lopment vector as the category heading on the study abroad student development survey co uld have been negatively associated with the questions to some students filling out th e survey. Nevertheless, students overall rated themselves higher on the post-su rvey indicating that student development did occur and the environmental variables did in fact influence student development abroad as explained by the research instru ments statistical measurement. Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence The second theme that emerged was the Moving through Autonomy vector and its weaker correlation on the Biserial Correlation analysis. It can be discussed that this particular vector measured the movement of development; that is, development occurred in many development stages throughout ones lifetime and therefore justification over a summer study abroad pr ogram would be difficult to quantitatively assess. Thus, further research is necessa ry to examine the Moving through Autonomy vector over longer periods of time. Sample Size The third theme addressed sample si ze. Although two hundred surveys were mailed and agreements from the participating college officials suggest ed that a response rate of 50% would be received, many program s cancelled programs at the last minute and could not participate. Political unrest, increased terrorism, and uncertainty were all major factors that influenced students, parents, f aculty and administrators in deciding whether studying abroad would be a safe and positiv e experience during the summer of 2006.

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120 There is no way to change the political climate at home and abroad, but there are safeguards that can be set in place to assure the security of students, such as cell phones and other communication mediums, embassy and military procedures, knowledge of safety and evacuation routes, etc. To further account for the smaller samp le size, the chosen environment of the research project is important to review. American community colleges or junior colleges generally have smaller populations than univers ities and other larger private colleges, and therefore a smaller sample size would be exp ected to represent the college environments. In addition, many community colleges did not ma intain study abroad programs or did not partner with other colleges (such as state consortium or independent study abroad programs, such as AIFS), but planned to create such programs in the future. Nevertheless, those community college programs that were successful in maintaining effective study abroad programs and student development init iatives are equally important to that of four-year institutions and need to be r ecognized in student development research. Furthermore, the small sample size may have limited the methods on assessing the dimensionality of the scale as well as fu rther analysis on the demographic variables. Nevertheless, the sample size was sufficient to conduct the study based on the statistical methods used and yielded positive results based on Chickerings Theory of Student Development. Participant Diversity The fourth theme examined diversity am ong student participants The majority of student participants were mostly White/Ca ucasian, and female. Females almost doubled male participation in their study abroad pr ograms according to this research study. This

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121 suggested that the overall population in the United States from which the sample population was drawn is still predominantly Ca ucasian and mostly female, in general. To balance internal and external valid ity is an intricate task. Although it was possible to have controlled the research study to limit female student participants, this could have indirectly added a gender-base d confounding variable into the research project, which is always undesirable. Thus, no limitation was set for female participants, giving an accurate account of the general community college study abroad population. Other Demographic Variables The final limitation included other aspect s of the student demographic variables that were not measured in this study. Such va riables include financial aid, income level, and age. Given the important aspects of thes e variables and subsequent impact on study abroad, it would be beneficial for future st udies to address these variables in detail in order to assess additional intrinsi c impacts on student development. Implications There are a number of im plications for higher educ ation administrators and faculty members interested in study abroad programs and should c onsider the research examined in this study such as program cancellations, gender and race, previous experience abroad, and major. The first major aspect concerns key st akeholders in study abroad programming and cancellations of study abroad programs. Key Stakeholders Out of the twenty-two colleges that ag reed to participate in the study, four community colleges from Colorado, Minneso ta, Washington, Virginia, and Florida cancelled programs due to political unrest or heightened terrori st alert (personal

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122 communication, 8/28/06). In addition, two comm unity colleges in Georgia and New York did not effectively distribute or collect the surveys after the study abroad program was completed. Student, faculty, administrators, and external constituents should all participate in study abroad programming in itiatives and devise plans for secondary international sites if there ex ists political and te rrorist instability in first choice study abroad locations. Thus, cancellations of study abroad programs should be the last choice in order to afford students both cognitive and social development experiences. However, if this is the only option, administrators should offer alternat e travel or diversity programs to support cultural and diversity le arning and development. Caucasian Female Population Second, the findings revealed that Ca ucasian females were the largest group studying abroad. Although the resu lts indicated that this gr oup represented the greater gender proportion on community college campuses, there is another important consideration: Wealth. The research shows th at Caucasian students generally come from higher-income families than Black or Hispan ic students; therefore, the number of students studying abroad could be highly in fluenced by Caucasian students having the funding to study abroad versus minority gr oups who cannot afford to study abroad. Administrators, faculty, and ex ternal constituents must offer financial support to minority students who want to study abroad, especially at commun ity colleges where the majority of students are worki ng either part-time or full-tim e to support their educational endeavors (NCES, 2003/2004).

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123 Previous Experience Abroad From the data analysis, students who had prior experience abroad had a higher overall development than those who had not st udied abroad. In other words, the political climate did not deter students from studying abroad; however, it is interesting that the majority of students who studied abroad ha d already traveled, studied, or had been a former resident abroad. It is possible that students who had never studied abroad decided not to travel this year because of political concerns, terrorism, and heightened security; and thus opted not to go this year beca use of fear and apprehension. Therefore, administrators must carefully consider this implication of future study abroad programming and keep in mind that a decr ease in student support for study abroad initiatives would be detrimental to the need for cultural and diversity goals. Degree Major And lastly, choice of majo r was an interesting para dox. Research studies show that students who study abroad are more li kely to be language majors since the opportunities for increased language skills are gr eater abroad than at home (Astin, 1993). Yet, the data analysis showed that the great est number of students who studied abroad in the summer of 2006 had no degree major or was undecided. Therefore, students in community college programs had not decided on a course of study, which is interesting because many degree programs on community college campuses are highly specialized, such as computer technology, nursing, dental hygiene in addition to general liberal arts transfer programs. Furthermore, the second largest major represented by students studying abroad included pre-professional areas, such as pre-me dicine, pre-law, etc. This suggests that a

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124 large number of students who studied abroad we re more likely to transfer to four-year institutions to complete their chosen major. Similarly, students may have already been in a four-year community college that was prev iously a two-year community college (such as St. Petersburg College and Edison College) and therefore had already selected in preprofessional tracks. Thus, students who were undecided in thei r majors or pre-professional majors were highly interested in study abroad and cu ltural learning; thus, ad ministrators should carefully consider such academic ar eas in study abroad program planning. Recommendations for Further Research This research study applied Chickerings Seven Vectors of Student Development Theory to students in various community college summer study abroad programs. In conducting the research, a number of topics su rfaced that may support future research studies: A follow-up study* examining Individual St udent Development Vectors as they pertain to Study Abroad Students usi ng Chickerings Theory of Student Development, Seven Vectors of Student Development. (*Note: a two to five year period is pr eferred to examine changes in student development behavior over a longer period of time) Study Abroad Administrators and Fa culty: A thorough investigation of administrators, faculty, and students that elect to proctor study abroad students. Topics of interest could include sa lary compensation, burnout, engaging students abroad, conflict abroad, and other issues (Chickerings Theory of Student Development, Student-Faculty Relationships) Budget and Fiscal Allocations: An investig ation of statewide funds allocated to study abroad and/or international educati on in comparison to institutions abroad (Chickerings Theory of Student Development, Institutional Objectives/ Institutional Size) Student Development Comparisons betw een Community College Students and University Students in Study Abroad Progr ams (Chickerings Theory of Student Development, Institutional Size)

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125 Examination of Student Internship, CO-OP, or Volunteerism Abroad as part of Academic Program (Chickerings Theory of Student Development, Integration of Work and Learning) Emergence or Decline of Study Abro ad Programs in the United States (Chickerings Theory of Student Deve lopment, Student Development Programs and Services) Examination of Worldwide University Study Abroad Programs using Principle Component Analysis* and Logistic Regression Note: *PCA is a dimensionality reduc tion technique (Narayanaswamy, 1991) and should be used in studies that yield a large sample size, such as 300-400 students

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APPENDIX A LETTER OF INVITATION (EXPERT PANEL)

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127 January 10, 2006 Dear Potential Reviewer/s, Thank you for considering my request to be a member on my expert panel for review of my research instrument. My name is Devi S. Drexler and I am a doctoral student working on my PhD in Higher Education, Policy and Foundations at the Universi ty of Florida, FL. I am also currently working at Tallahassee Community College as the Assistant to th e Dean, and have a background in both academic affa irs and student affairs. I have truly enjoyed my coursework and work experience, which has led me to write a dissertation on study abroad students and their development through participation in their elected community college study abroad programs. I have requested the help of my former instructor, Dr. Ken Osfield, who really introduced me to the international aspect of higher education, and ultimately my interest in this topic. My chair, Dr. Dale Campbell has requested that I seek the advice of experts in the field to solidify my main research instrument (surve ys) so that my study can meet the standards set by my committee, college, and university. I am requesting your help to review the theo ry materials and provide any feedback and comments about my research instrument as part of the expert panel. Please email the Survey Evaluation Form to Dr. Ken Osfield by 5:00pm on Wednesday, March 1, 2006. Again, thank you so much for your consideration, Devi S. Drexler drexlerd@tcc.fl.edu Office: (850) 201-6094 Home: (850) 385-9861

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APPENDIX B LETTER OF INVITATION (ACADEMIC PANEL)

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129 January 10, 2006 Dear Potential Reviewer/s, Thank you for considering my request to be a member on my academic panel for review of my research instrument. My name is Devi S. Drexler and I am a doctoral student working on my PhD in Higher Education, Policy and Foundations at the Universi ty of Florida, FL. I am also currently working at Tallahassee Community College as the Assistant to th e Dean, and have a background in both academic affa irs and student affairs. I have truly enjoyed my coursework and work experience, which has led me to write a dissertation on study abroad students and their development through participation in their elected community college study abroad programs. I have requested the help of my former instructor, Dr. Ken Osfield, who really introduced me to the international aspect of higher education, and ultimately my interest in this topic. My chair, Dr. Dale Campbell has requested th at I seek the advice of academic experts in the field to solidify my main research instru ment (surveys) so that my study can meet the standards set by my committee, college, and university. I am requesting your help to review the theo ry materials and provide any feedback and comments about my research instrument as part of the expert panel. Please email me the Survey Evaluation Form by 5:00pm on Wednesday, March 1, 2006. Again, thank you so much for your consideration, Devi S. Drexler drexlerd@tcc.fl.edu Office: (850) 201-6094 Home: (850) 385-9861

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APPENDIX C EMAIL INVITATION (REQUE ST TO PARTICIPATE)

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131 Date: 2/15/2006 5:03:11 PM Subject: Nationwide Community College Research Study Dear College Official, Greetings from Tallahassee, Florida! My name is Devi Drexler and I am the Assistant to the Dean at Tallahassee Community College and also a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida. I am writing a di ssertation on study abroad students and their development through participation in their selected community college study abroad programs. I am requesting your assistance with my Ph D program as I continue the process of working on a national study of community college study abroad programs (summer programs, 2006). My goal in this research project is to validate student development theory. Please note that if your study abroad program is new or improving, this will be a great opportunity for your college to be r ecognized along with ma jor community college study abroad programs in various states. Wh ether your program has just a few or many students that participate, th e student population will be evaluated as a whole when examining student development. If you will be able to particip ate in this study, I will mail you the survey's and directions to administer to your summer study ab road students by the end of March Your students information will not be revealed and the st udy will remain confidential beforehand, to be submitted before the doctoral committee, UF College of Education, and possible future publication. Attached is an Information Sheet for you to f ill out as the official representative from your community college. Please complete the form and return to me via email before February 20, 2006 Feel free to complete as many forms as you would like for each study abroad program offered! I would defini tely like to recognize in my dissertation all administrators and instructors affiliat ed with your program and this study. Again, this is a wonderful opportunity for our community colleges to be recognized for their outstanding student services and I hope you w ill be able to particip ate! If this email has reached you in error, please forward to the appropriate college official. If your community college does not currently offe r a study abroad program, please email me with a response so I can keep it for my records. Thank you once again for your help and consideration, Devi S. Drexler

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APPENDIX D INVITATION LETTER (PARTICI PATING COLLEGE OFFICIALS)

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133 April 17, 2006 Dear Administrator / Instructor, This letter serves as an inv itation to request your participa tion in a resear ch study that evaluates study abroad students and student development vari ables before and after the study abroad program. We have invited select ed nationwide community colleges that are members of the League for Innovation to take part in this research study and value your support and assistance with this project. Please find enclosed the following documents: Directions for Administer ing the Study Abroad Student Development (SASD) Survey Informed Consent Forms The Study Abroad Student Development Survey (Pretest and Posttest) Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope Please fill out and sign the bottom of th e Directions for Ad ministering the Study Abroad Student Development Survey and return along with the Study Abroad Student Development Survey (Pretest and Postte st) in the SASE provided by August 8, 2006 Please do not return the Informed Consent fo rms, these forms should be retained by the students. The results of the research can add to the understanding of study abroad students and their academics and activities abroad. It can promote discussions and further research on study abroad initiatives and st udent development theory and research. If you would like a copy of the results of this study, please subm it a request in writing to the address listed below. The data results will be used in pa rtial fulfillment for the requirements of the Ph.D. degree in Higher Education. Any questions pertaining to the rights of the research particip ant should be directed to the University of Florida, IRB office, P.O. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250. Phone (352) 392-0433. Thank you in advance for your help with par ticipating in this research study! Your timely response is truly appreciated! Sincerely, Devi S. Drexler Dr. Dale F. Campbell Principal Investigator Supervisor/Committee Chair

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APPENDIX E DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING SURVEY

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135 DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE STUDY ABROAD STUDEN T DEVELOPMENT SURVEY BEFORE THE PROGRAM STARTS: 1. Please pass out the enclo sed Informed Consent Form and the Study Abroad Student Development Survey (Pretest) to each student who will be participating in the study abroad program. 2. Please advise your students to answer every question on the survey. 3. By answering the questions on the survey, the student has given consent. In addition, no personal data (SS#, date of birth) will be obtained in this research project to protect participant identity. The only required information is student name to measure pre-post development and will not be revealed to the public. 4. When your students have completed the pretest survey, please collect and keep secure until the end of the program. The students keep the Informed Consent Form. AFTER COMPLETION OF THE PROGRAM: 1. Please pass out the enclosed Study Abro ad Student Development Survey (Posttest) to each student who has participated in the study abroad program. 2. Please advise your students to answer every question on the survey. 3. When your students have completed the postt est survey, please place all surveys (pretest and posttest), including this form, in the SASE provided. PLEASE MAIL THIS FORM & THE PRETEST/POSTTEST SURVEYS IN THE SASE PROVIDED ON OR BEFORE: AUGUST 8, 2006** The information collected will be used in eval uating student development changes as a result of study abroad participation. In addition, the in formation collected will not be used to reflect individual college data; rather the information w ill be used as a whole to evaluate the student development variables. This is to protect smalle r study abroad programs or programs that are new and/or affiliated with other colleges/universities. By signing below, I am giving authorization for th is survey to be administered and used by my students in this research project. I am also con senting that the principal investigator may publish my name and the names of my colleagues, and community college for research purposes, only. Primary Administrator/Instructor (print) Administrator/Instructor (sign) Date Additional Administrator/Instructor (print) Administrator/Instructor (print) Name of Community College Study Abroad Location **Materials received after this deadline date may or may not be included in the research study due to college deadlines.

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APPENDIX F STUDY ABROAD STUDENT DEVELOPMENT SURVEY

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137 STUDY ABROAD STUDENT DEVELOPMENT SURVEY (PRETEST) BY COMPLETING THIS SURVEY, YOU ARE GIVING INFORMED CONSENT THAT ALL INFORMATION PROVIDED IS TRUTHFUL AND ACCURATE TO YOUR KNOWLEDGE Study Abroad Program Information: (Please clearly print all information requ ested in each field listed below) Program Name: ________________________________Program Term/Year: ________________________ International Location: __________________________College Institution: __________________________ If participating from another college Name of College/University: _________________________________ Student Information: (Names will not be revealed in study, but is necessary to measure individual studen t progress before & after the program) Last Name: ____________________________ First Name: ____________________________________ Class level: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Grad. Student Major (s) _______________________________ Minor (s) ________________________________ Sex: Male Female Previous experience abroad: None Travel Study Former Resident Ethnic Background: Native American Hispanic/Latino Caucasian Black/African-American Asian/Pacific Islander Prefer not to answer PLEASE USE THE FOLLOWING SCALE TO ANSWER THE SURVEY QUESTIONS: 1= STRONGLY DISAGREE 2= DISAGREE 3= UNDECIDED 4=AGREE 5= STRONGLY AGREE DEVELOPING COMPETENCE Before studying abroad I have a very strong knowledge of the course mate rial, countrys history, or foreign language 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very strong level of critical thinking and reasoning ability 1 2 3 4 5 I am highly involved in athletic & recreational activities 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very high level of communication skills with persons of other races and cultures 1 2 3 4 5 I work very effectively with other students both in and out of class 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very high level of technology skills (email, blackboard, web, etc) 1 2 3 4 5 MANAGING EMOTIONS Before studying abroad I have a very high level of recognizing an d controlling my own emotions in class 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very high level of emotional cont rol even when my roommates upset me 1 2 3 4 5 I never become frustrated when internet and emai l services do not work properly and always look for viable solutions to solve the problem 1 2 3 4 5 I am very excited and eager to meet people from different cultures and races 1 2 3 4 5

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138 PLEASE USE THE FOLLOWING SCALE TO ANSWER THE SURVEY QUESTIONS: 1= STRONGLY DISAGREE 2= DISAGREE 3= UNDECIDED 4=AGREE 5= STRONGLY AGREE I am very relaxed and calm before participa ting in group field trips and excursions 1 2 3 4 5 I greatly enjoy participating in clubs & organiza tions that allow me to express my opinions 1 2 3 4 5 MOVING THROUGH AUTONOMY TOWARDS INTERDEPENDENCE Before studying abroad I am very self-directed in my academic pursuits 1 2 3 4 5 I have a high level of problem -solving abilities 1 2 3 4 5 I highly depend on my roommates for approval of personal and social activities 1 2 3 4 5 I highly depend on my classmates for approv al of class work or projects 1 2 3 4 5 I highly use technology independently to struct ure my academic and nonacademic act ivities 1 2 3 4 5 DEVELOPING MATURE INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Before studying abroad I have many friendships/relati onships with persons of cult ures other than my own 1 2 3 4 5 I have many friendships/relat ionships with my roommate s and/or classmates 1 2 3 4 5 I have many friendships with people I have met through organizations and field trips 1 2 3 4 5 I have many friendships with other stude nts throughout my academic program 1 2 3 4 5 I highly depend on connecting with friends and fa mily through internet and email services 1 2 3 4 5 ESTABLISHING IDENTITY Before studying abroad I am very comfortable with my own ge nder, race, and cultural identity 1 2 3 4 5 I highly value interacting with my peers and instructor in the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 I greatly enjoy socializing with roommates/ other students in my residence hall 1 2 3 4 5 I am very comfortable in leadin g, organizing, & participating in organizations & field trips 1 2 3 4 5 I highly value interacting with friends and family through emai l and technology applications 1 2 3 4 5 DEVELOPING PURPOSE Before studying abroad I have a high level of persona l commitment to achieving my academic and/or athletic goals 1 2 3 4 5 I make very important, independent decisions wi thout relying on my roommates for help 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very strong commitment to particip ating in classroom and group activities 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very strong commitment of experi encing different cultural activities 1 2 3 4 5 I am very deeply committed to exploring new areas and visiting new sites 1 2 3 4 5 DEVELOPING INTEGRITY Before studying abroad My attitude & behavior indica te that I highly value the importance of academic success 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value the impor tance of cultural diversity 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly respect the belie fs/opinions of my classmates 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly respect the beliefs/opinions of my roommates 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value participa ting in clubs and organizations 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value participating in field trips and excursions 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value the use of technology in academic, social, and personal endeavors (t) 1 2 3 4 5 PLEASE RATE YOUR OVERALL STUDENT DEVELOPMENT (1= lowest, 5=highest) 1 2 3 4 5 Please return this evaluation to the designated instru ctor or program coordinator of your study abroad program. Thank you for your participation in this survey!

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139 STUDY ABROAD STUDENT DEVELOPMENT SURVEY (POSTTEST) BY COMPLETING THIS SURVEY, YOU ARE GIVING INFORMED CONSENT THAT ALL INFORMATION PROVIDED IS TRUTHFUL AND ACCURATE TO YOUR KNOWLEDGE Study Abroad Program Information: (Please clearly print all information requ ested in each field listed below) Program Name: ________________________________Program Term/Year: ________________________ International Location: __________________________College Institution: __________________________ If participating from another college Name of College/University: _________________________________ Student Information: (Names will not be revealed in study, but is necessary to measure individual studen t progress before & after the program) Last Name: ____________________________ First Name: ____________________________________ Class level: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Grad. Student Major (s) _______________________________ Minor (s) ________________________________ Sex: Male Female Previous experience abroad: None Travel Study Former Resident Ethnic Background: Native American Hispanic/Latino Caucasian Black/African-American Asian/Pacific Islander Prefer not to answer PLEASE USE THE FOLLOWING SCALE TO ANSWER THE SURVEY QUESTIONS: 1= STRONGLY DISAGREE 2= DISAGREE 3= UNDECIDED 4=AGREE 5= STRONGLY AGREE DEVELOPING COMPETENCE After studying abroad I have a very strong knowledge of the course mate rial, countrys history, or foreign language 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very strong level of critical thinking and reasoning ability 1 2 3 4 5 I am highly involved in athletic & recreational activities 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very high level of communication skills with persons of other races and cultures 1 2 3 4 5 I work very effectively with other students both in and out of class 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very high level of technology skills (email, blackboard, web, etc) 1 2 3 4 5 MANAGING EMOTIONS After studying abroad I have a very high level of recognizing an d controlling my own emotions in class 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very high level of emotional cont rol even when my roommates upset me 1 2 3 4 5 I never become frustrated when internet and emai l services do not work properly and always look for viable solutions to solve the problem 1 2 3 4 5 I am very excited and eager to meet people from different cultures and races 1 2 3 4 5

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140 PLEASE USE THE FOLLOWING SCALE TO ANSWER THE SURVEY QUESTIONS: 1= STRONGLY DISAGREE 2= DISAGREE 3= UNDECIDED 4=AGREE 5= STRONGLY AGREE I am very relaxed and calm before participa ting in group field trips and excursions 1 2 3 4 5 I greatly enjoy participating in clubs & organiza tions that allow me to express my opinions 1 2 3 4 5 MOVING THROUGH AUTONOMY TOWARDS INTERDEPENDENCE After studying abroad I am very self-directed in my academic pursuits 1 2 3 4 5 I have a high level of problem -solving abilities 1 2 3 4 5 I highly depend on my roommates for approval of personal and social activities 1 2 3 4 5 I highly depend on my classmates for approv al of class work or projects 1 2 3 4 5 I highly use technology independently to struct ure my academic and nonacademic act ivities 1 2 3 4 5 DEVELOPING MATURE INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS After studying abroad I have many friendships/relati onships with persons of cult ures other than my own 1 2 3 4 5 I have many friendships/relat ionships with my roommate s and/or classmates 1 2 3 4 5 I have many friendships with people I have met through organizations and field trips 1 2 3 4 5 I have many friendships with other stude nts throughout my academic program 1 2 3 4 5 I highly depend on connecting with friends and fa mily through internet and email services 1 2 3 4 5 ESTABLISHING IDENTITY After studying abroad I am very comfortable with my own ge nder, race, and cultural identity 1 2 3 4 5 I highly value interacting with my peers and instructor in the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 I greatly enjoy socializing with roommates/ other students in my residence hall 1 2 3 4 5 I am very comfortable in leadin g, organizing, & participating in organizations & field trips 1 2 3 4 5 I highly value interacting with friends and family through emai l and technology applications 1 2 3 4 5 DEVELOPING PURPOSE After studying abroad I have a high level of persona l commitment to achieving my academic and/or athletic goals 1 2 3 4 5 I make very important, independent decisions wi thout relying on my roommates for help 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very strong commitment to particip ating in classroom and group activities 1 2 3 4 5 I have a very strong commitment of experi encing different cultural activities 1 2 3 4 5 I am very deeply committed to exploring new areas and visiting new sites 1 2 3 4 5 DEVELOPING INTEGRITY After studying abroad My attitude & behavior indica te that I highly value the importance of academic success 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value the impor tance of cultural diversity 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly respect the belie fs/opinions of my classmates 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly respect the beliefs/opinions of my roommates 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value participa ting in clubs and organizations 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value participating in field trips and excursions 1 2 3 4 5 My attitude & behavior indicate that I highly value the use of technology in academic, social, and personal endeavors (t) 1 2 3 4 5 I have developed more intrinsic values and integrity by st udying abroad 1 2 3 4 5 PLEASE RATE YOUR OVERALL STUDENT DEVELOPMENT (1= lowest, 5=highest) 1 2 3 4 5 Please return this evaluation to the designated instru ctor or program coordinator of your study abroad program. Thank you for your participation in this survey!

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APPENDIX G INFORMED CONSENT

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142 INFORMED CONSENT TITLE OF PROTOCOL: An Examination of Student Perceptions on Self-Development Variables in Select Community College Stud y Abroad Programs: A Quantitative Study Using Chickerings Theory of Student Development PLEASE READ THIS CONSENT DOCUMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE YOU DECIDE TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS STUDY. PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: To understand how student development theory impacts study abroad student participants as they undergo academic and environmental learning abroad. PROCESS: You will be asked to complete the Stud y Abroad Student Development Survey (pretest and posttest) about your academics abro ad and activities. Please answer every question on the survey. TIME REQUIRED: 15 20 Minutes per test (pretest and posttest). POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK: No more than minimal risk. There is no direct benefit to the participant in this r esearch. However, this research can add to the understanding of study abroad students and thei r academic and activities abroad. It can promote discussions and further research on study abroad initiatives and student development theory and research. CONFIDENTIALITY: Your identity will remain anonymous and the final research will reveal only the statistical results from the survey compilation. COMPENSATION: There is no compensation. VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION: Your participation in this st udy is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. RIGHT TO WITHDRAW FROM STUDY: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. CONTACTS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Devi S. Drexler, Doctoral Candidate, Tallahassee Community College, Academic Support Building, 444 Appley ard Drive, AP 261, Tallahassee, FL 32304-2895. Phone: 850-201-6094, Fa x: 850-201-8245, Email: devi@ufl.edu SUPERVISOR/CHAIR: Dr. Dale Campbell, University of Fl orida, College of Education, 229A Norman Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. Phone: 352-392-2391 ext.281, Email: dfc@coe.ufl.edu RIGHTS AS RESEARCH PARTICIPANT: University of Florida, IRB Office, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250. Phone: 352-392-0433 Disclosure: I have read the procedure outlined a bove. I voluntarily agree to participate in this study and have received a copy of this desc ription. (You may keep this document. No signature is necessary)

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143 LIST OF REFERENCES Arias, S., & Clark, K. A. (2004). Instructi onal technologies in de veloping countries: A contextual analysis approach. TechTrends, 48 (4), 52-5, 70. Astin, Alexander W. (1993). What Matters in College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Attali, Y., & Fraenkel, T. (2000). The point -biserial as a discrimination index for distractors in multiple-choice items: Deficiencies in usage and an alternative. Journal of Educational Measurement, 37 (1), 77-86. Bolen, M. (2001). Consumerism and U.S. study abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 5 (3), 182-200. Burn, B. (2002). The curriculum as a global domain. Journal of Studies in International Education 6 (3), 253-261. Caffrey, R. A., Neander, W., Markle, D., & St ewart, B. (2005). Improving the cultural competence of nursing students: Results of integrating cultural content in the curriculum and an internationa l immersion experience (2005). Journal of Nursing Education, 44 (5), 234-240. Campbell, D. F. & Leverty, L. H. (1999). Futu re concerns: Key values for community colleges. The Community College Journal (Aug/Sept), 18-24. Cohen, A. M. & Brawer, F. B. (2003). The American community college (4th ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cudmore, G. (2005). Globalization, internat ionalization, and the recruitment of international students in higher education, and in the Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 35 (1), 37-60. Dalton, J. C. (1999). Beyond borders: How international developments are changing student affairs practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Department of Employment, Education, and Training. Higher E ducation Division, Evaluations and Investig ations Program (1993). Student support services: Management, delivery, and effectiveness. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

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144 DeVita, G. (2001). Learning styles, culture a nd inclusive instruction in the multicultural classroom: A business and management perspective. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 38 (2), 165-174. Dolby, N. (2004). Encountering an American self: Study abroad and national identity. Comparative Education Review, 48 (2), 150-173. Duke, C. R. (2000). Study abroad learni ng activities: A synthesis and comparison. Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (2), 155-165. Dusslier L., Dunn, B., Wang, Y., Shelley II, M. C., & Whalen, D. F. (2005). Personal, health, academic, and environmental predic tors of stress for residence hall students. Journal of American College Health 54 (1), 15-24. Ellis, P. H. (2004). White identity de velopment at a two-year institution. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 28 745-761. Emes, C., Cleveland-Innes, M. (2003). A j ourney toward learner-c entered curriculum. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 33 (3), 47-69. Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998 ). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Festervand, T., Tillery, K. (2001, November /December). Short-term study-abroad programs-a professional development tool for international business faculty. Journal of Education for Business 77 (2), 106-11. Floyd, D. L., Walker, D. A., & Hurd, D. (2002). Community college study abroad programs: A learning college imperative. International Education, 32 (1), 58-71. Gardner, D. & Witherell S. (2004, November 15). Study abroad surging among American students. In Institute of International Education Report Retrieved June 7, 2005, from http://opendoors.iienetwork.org/?p=50138 Geelhoed, R. J., Abe, J., & Talbot, d. M. (2003). A qualitative investigation of U.S. students experiences in an international peer program Journal of College Student Development 44 (1), 5-17. Gleazer, E. J. (1998). The community college: Values, vision, & vitality. Washington: Community College Press. Golden, M. (2004). Technology's potential, promise for enhancing student learning. T.H.E.Journal, 31 (12), 42, 44. Grayson, J. (2004). The relationship between grades and academic program satisfaction over four years of study. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 34 (2), 1-34.

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145 Gustafson, K. (2003). The impact of technologies on learning. Planning for Higher Education,32 (2), 37-43. Hellman, C. M., Hoppes, S., & Ellison, G. C. (2006). Factors associated with college student intent to engage in community service. The Journal of Psychology, 140 (1), 29-39. Henning, J. (2005). Leading Discussi ons: Opening up the Conversation. College Teaching 53 (3), 90-4. Hill, C. (2004). Housing strategies for the 21st century: Revitalizing residential life on campus. Planning for Higher Education, 32 (3), 25-36. Hoye, W. P. (2003). U.S. student s abroad after 9/11: How safe? The Education Digest 69 (1), 12-17. Hung, D., Chee, T. S., & Hedberg, J. G. (2005) A framework for fostering a community of practice: Scaffolding learne rs through an evolving continuum. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (2), 159-176. Johnston, J. S. & Spalding, J. R. (1997). Internat ionalizing the curriculum. In G. G. Gaff, J. L. Ratcliff, & Associates (Eds.), Handbook of the undergraduate curriculum: A comprehensive guide to purposes, structures, and change (pp. 416-435). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Joseph, C., Marginson, S., Yang, R. (2005, April) International educ ation in the AsiaPacific region: Introduction. Australian Journal of Education 49 (1), 3-9. Kaya, N. & Weber, M. J. (2003). Privacy regulation and college adjustment: A comparison of American and Turkish freshmen living in residence halls. College Student Journal, 37 (1), 79-92. Kodama, C. M., McEwen, M. K., Liang, C. T. H., & Liang, S. L. (2002). An Asian American perspective on psychosocial student development theory. New Directions for Student Services, 97 45-59. Kitsantas, A (2004). Studying abroad: The ro le of college students' goals on the development of cross-cultural skills and global understanding. College Student Journal 38 (3), 441-452. Komives, S. R., & Woodard, D. B. (1996). Student Services: A handbook for the profession (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kozma, R. B. (2003). Technology and clas sroom practices: An international study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36 (1), 1-14.

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146 Lambert, R. D. (2001). Updati ng the foreign language agenda. The Modern Language Journal, 85 (3), 347-362. Langley, C. S. & Breese, J. R. (2005). In teracting sojourners: A study of students studying abroad. The Social Science Journal 42 (2), 313-321. Leh, A. S. C., & Kennedy, R. (2004). Instructi onal and information t echnology in Papua, New Guinea. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52 (1), 96-101. Levine, A. & Cureton, J. S. (1998). When hope and fear collide: A portrait of todays college students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Lindsey, E. (2005, Spring/Summer). Study abroad and values development in social work students. Journal of Social Work Education 41 (2), 229-49. Liu, C., Lee, J. (2005, September). Prompti ng conceptual understanding with computermediated peer discourse and knowledge acquisition techniques. British Journal of Educational Technology 36 (5), 821-37. Macintyre, C. (2003). New m odels of student housing and their impact on local communities. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 25 (2), 109118. Marshall, D. (2004). Degree accreditation in Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 34 (2), 69-96. McCabe, L. T. (2001). Globalization and intern ationalization: The impact on education abroad programs. Journal of Studies in International Education 5 (2), 138-145. McKeown, J. S. (2003). The impact of Septembe r 11 on study abroad student interest and concern: An exploratory study. International Education, 32 (3), 85-95. Merva, M. (2003). Grades as incentives: A quantitative assessment with implications for study abroad programs. Journal of Studies in International Education 7 (2), 149156. Michael, I., Armstrong, A., & King, B. (2003). The travel behaviour of international students: The relationship between studyi ng abroad and their choice of tourist destinations. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10 (1), 57-66. Miller, M. T., Pope, M. L., & Steinmann, T. D. (2005). Dealing with the challenges and stressors faced by community college students: The old college try. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 29 63-74.

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147 Narayanaswamy, C. R., & Raghavarao D. (1991). Principle component analysis of large dispersion matrices. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), 40 (2) 309-316. Noonan, B. M., Sedlacek, W. E., & Veer asamy, S. (2005). Employing noncognitive variables in admitting and advising community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 29 463-469. Northedge, A. (2003). Rethinking teach ing in the contex t of diversity. Teaching in Higher Education, 8 (1), 17-32. OBanion, T., & Cross, P. (1997). A learning college for the 21st century Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. Osborne, A. (2005). Debate and student development in the history classroom. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 103, 39-50. Owen, P. S., & Demb, A. (2004). Change dynamics and leadership in technology implementation. The Journal of Higher Education (Columbus, Ohio), 75 (6), 636666. Reber, R. (2005). Assessing motivational factor s in educational tec hnology: The case of building a web site as course assignment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (1), 93-95. Penfield, R. D. (2003). Quantitative methods for the behavioral sciences Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Peng, C. Y. J., & So, T. S. H. (2002). Logist ic regression analysis and reporting: A primer. Understanding Statistics 1 (1), 31-70. Pooi, A. H. (2003). Performance of the lik elihood ratio test when fitting logistic regression models w ith small samples. Communications in Statistics: Simulation and Computation 32 (2), 411-418. Scharman, J. S. (2002). The extended campus-safety abroad. New Directions for Student Services, 99 69-76. Schroth, M., McCormack, W. (2000, August) Sensation seeking and need for achievement among study-abroad students. The Journal of Social Psychology 140 (4), 533-5. Shephard, K. (2003). Questioning, promoting an d evaluating the use of streaming video to support student learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34 (3), 295-308.

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148 Sheppard, K. (2004). Global citizenship: The human face of intern ational education. International Education, 34 (1), 34-40. Smith, J. (2002). Learning styles: Fashion fa d or lever for change? The application of learning style theory to inclusive curriculum delivery. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39 (1), 63-70. Smyth, R. (2005, September). Broadband vide oconferencing as a tool for learnercentered distance learning in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology 36 (5), 805-20. Spiess, M. (2001). Evaluation of a pseudo-R2 measure for panel probit models. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 54 325-333. Stachowski, L. L., Richardson, J. W., & Hende rson, M. (2003). Student teachers report on the influence of cultural values on classroom practice and community involvement: Perspectives from the Navajo reservation and from abroad. The Teacher Educator, 39 (1), 52-63. Stanitski, D., & Fuellhart, K. (2003). Tool s for developing short-term study abroad classes for geography studies. Journal of Geography, 102 (5), 202-215. Strange, C. C. (2004). Constructions of st udent development across the generations. New Directions for Student Services, 106 47-57. Surry, D. W., Ensminger, D. C., & Haa b, M. (2005). A model for integrating instructional technology in to higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (2), 327-329. Tate, R. F. (1955). The theory of correlati on between two continuous variables when one is dichotomized. Biometrika 42 (1/2), 205-216. Terenzini, P. T., Cabrera, A. F., Colbeck, C. L., Bjorklund, S. A., & Parente, J. M. (2001). Racial and ethnic dive rsity in the classroom. The Journal of Higher Education 72 (5), 509-531. Tseng, W., Newton, F. (2002, December). Intern ational Students' Strategies for WellBeing. College Student Journal 36 (4), 591-7. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (2002). The role of student affairs and services in higher education: A pract ical manual for developing, implementing, and assessi ng student affair s programmes and services. Paris: UNESCO. Wagenaar, T. C., & Subedi, J. (1996). Inte rnationalizing the curri culum: Study in Nepal. Teaching Sociology, 24 (3), 272-283.

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149 Weeks, P. (2000). Benchmarking in highe r education: An Australian case study. Innovations in Education and Training International, 37 (1), 59. Wilkinson, S. (2002). The omnipresent classroom during summer study abroad: American students in conversat ion with their french hosts. The Modern Language Journal, 86 (2), 157-173. Williams, D. L., Boone, R., & Kingsley, K. V. (2004). Teacher beliefs about educational software: A Delphi study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36 (3), 213-229. Williams, H. S., & Kingham, M. (2003). In fusion of technology into the curriculum. Journal of Instruct ional Psychology, 30 (3), 178-184. Windschitl, M. (1998). The WWW and classroom research: Wh at path should we take? Educational Researcher, 27 (1), 28-33. Wingspread Group on Higher Education (1993). An American imperative: Higher expectations for higher education. Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation, Inc. Zhao, C., Kuh, G. D., & Carini, R. M. (2005). A comparison of international student and American student engagement in effective educa tional practices. The Journal of Higher Education (Columbus, Ohio), 76 (2), 209-231. Zhang, W., Perris, K., Yeung, L. (2005, September). Online tutorial supp ort in open and distance learning: stud ents' perceptions. British Journal of Educational Technology 36 (5), 789-804.

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150 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Devi S. Drexler was born and raised in Leicestershire, England and came to the United States in the 1980s. She obtained a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Florida and Master of Scien ce in Higher Education from the Florida State University before completing her Doct or of Philosophy in Higher Education Administration from the University of Florid a. She has worked in many areas of higher education at the University of Florida, Fl orida State Universit y, Santa Fe Community College and currently at Ta llahassee Community College. She is an avid traveler and has enjoyed visits to many exotic and exciting places such as France, Belgium, Canada, Greece, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Mexico, Aruba, and many other notable areas of the world. She has been and remains a strong advocate for global education a nd international awareness.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0015629/00001

Material Information

Title: Student Perceptions on Self-Development Variables in Selected Community College Study Abroad Programs: A Quantitative Study using Chickering's Theory of Student Development
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0015629:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0015629/00001

Material Information

Title: Student Perceptions on Self-Development Variables in Selected Community College Study Abroad Programs: A Quantitative Study using Chickering's Theory of Student Development
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0015629:00001


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STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON SELF-DEVELOPMENT VARIABLES IN SELECTED
COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS: A QUANTITATIVE
STUDY USING CHICKERING'S THEORY OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT















By

DEVI S. DREXLER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006



































Copyright 2006

by

Devi S. Drexler
































To my grandfather, Krishnanand Shookla for his love, support, and great wisdom-his
loyal advocacy for the pursuit of education will forever remain in my heart and soul.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my beloved husband, Marc Drexler, for his inspiration and

motivation in helping me fulfill this project; my wonderful parents, Kaishmati and

Mangal Singh, and loving brother, Amar Singh for their constant support and

encouragement. To my dearest friends, Kathy Scheuch, Nadene Francis, and Julie

Haltiwanger, thanks for always listening and being there for me.

This research study would not have been successful without the support of my

chairman, Dale Campbell, as well as committee members: David Honeyman, Katherine

Gratto and Lynn Leverty, Larry Tyree (retired) and John Hall, who are the greatest

faculty members and mentors I have ever known.

Special thanks to Effie P., who, without her expertise and guidance, this research

study would not have been possible. Thanks also to the expert committee led by Ken

Osfield, whose knowledge of international relations and student affairs is impeccable.

Special recognition goes to Laura Girtman, Gayle Fisher, and Ethel Guinyard of the

academic panel for their feedback and assistance.

And last but not least, I would like to thank the faculty, staff, and administrators

from community colleges across the nation who supported this project, particularly Mark

Tromans, Donna Apgar, Shirley Oakley, Jeannie Horlacher, Dale Hoover, Aleta

Anderson, Rosalina Beard, Nora A. Reyes, Mary A. Stewart, Robin Hardee, and

Fernando Ojeda.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................... i

LIST OF TABLES ............ .................................. ........ ... .... .............

L IST O F FIG U R E S .... .............................. ....................... ........ .. ............... vi

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. .. ...... .......... .......... vii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

Overview of Study Abroad Program s............................................... ..................
Purpose of Study .................................... ................................ .........4
R research H hypothesis .................. ................................ ....... .. ........ .. ..
R research Questions ................................................... .................... .... 5
Significance of Study ................................ .. .... .............................. .6
University of Florida Study Abroad Program Evaluation ................. ...............6
Su m m ary ...................................... .................................. ..................... 7

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................... .............. 8

Chickering's Theory of Student Development............... .............................................8
Student Development Theory: Definition of Vectors...............................................10
Student Development Theory: Environmental Variables..................................10
Application of Chickering's Environmental Variables .............................................12
Academic Environment ............................................................ 13
Community College Student Profile............... ..............................................13
A rticulation and T transfer ................................................... ............... ...... 14
A cadem ic Program Q uality................. ....................... ............... ...16
Identity Transformation and Internationalization ................. ...................18
Globalization..................................... 19
Key Stakeholders and Program Success.............. .... .................21
Faculty Role in Student Learning ....................................... ............... 25
T teaching Satisfaction ........................................................... ............... 28
Faculty Development ........... ...... ........ ..... ............... 1
Classroom Learning Environment .. ... ........................ ...................32
Learning M models ................................ ........ ..... .... .. ........ .... 32









Teaching and Learning Strategies........................................ ............... 36
Language Learning ..................................... ............... ..... ..... 39
Student L earning Process.......................................... ........... ............... 42
C u rricu lu m ............................................................4 3
Student H housing and Friendships ........................................ .......................... 46
Student Support Services and Programs..... .................... ...............51
Types of Support Services ........................................ ........................ 52
Safetey and Security ........................................ .................. ............... 53
Student Orientation and W workshops .................................... ............... 54
M medical and Emergency Concerns ...................................... ............... 58
F ield T rip s and E x cursion s .............................................................. .....................59
C u ltu ral A w aren ess .................. ...... ........................................ ............ .... 6 1
Applications of Classroom Learning ................................... ............... ..62
C u ltu ral C om p eten ce ........................................................... .....................63
C cultural Identity ............ ...... .... ... . .. ........... ..... .............. .. 64
Technology ....................... ....................66
Technology Im pact on Faculty ............................................ ............... 67
Technology Im pact on Students................................... ....................... 72
Sum m ary .................................................................................................................. 75

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 79

P purpose ............................... ..................... 79
Community College Study Abroad Programs ................................. ............... 79
Participants ......................... .............................80
D ata C collection ................................................................80
R e lia b ility ............................................................................................................. 8 1
V a lid ity ..............................................................................8 2
Research Hypothesis............................................. 84
R e search Q u e stio n s ....................................................................................................8 4
In strum entation ................................................................84
R research Q question 1 ................................................ ........ 84
R research Q question 2 .............................................. ............... 89
R research Q question 3 .............................................. ............... 90
Sum m ary ..................................................... ......... ............... 92
Operational Definitions of Variables ............................ ......... 93

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................9 5

Survey Response ............... ......... .......................95
R research Q u e stio n 1 ............................................................................................. 9 7
R research Q question 2 ................................. ... ..................99
Individual Student Development Vector Results ................ ......... .......99
Dependent Samples Paired T-Test........................................... 100
Research Question 3 and Student Profile................................... .. ...............102
Sum m ary ....................... ...... ...... .... .. ..... ............... 103









5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............................109

R research H y p oth esis ..................................................................... .................... 10 9
R research Questions ........................................................ ................. 109
Research Question 1 .................. ...................................... .. ........ .. 110
R research Q question 2 ........................... .. ...................... ........ .. ... ............... 111
D developing C om petence .................................................... ... ................. .. 111
Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships .............. ... ...............113
Overall Student Development .............. ..............................................113
R research Question 3 .................. ...................................... .. ........ .. 114
Trends and Patterns .................. ...................... ..... ...... .. .............. 114
Previous Experience Abroad............................................... ...............115
Pow er of A N O V A .................... ........... ............................................. ... 115
Biserial Correlation Analysis and Paired T-Test Comparisons................. 116
Sum m ary ..................................... .................................. ......... 117
L im itatio n s ....................................................................... ............... 1 1 8
Environm mental V ariables ....................... .............................. ............... 118
Moving Through Autonomy Towards Interdependence..............................119
S am p le S ize .................................................................. 1 19
Participant D diversity ............................................................................. 120
Other D em graphic V ariables ........................................ ............... 121
Im p licatio n s.................................................... ................ 12 1
K ey Stakeholders ..................................... ...... .. ........................121
Caucasian Female Population .............. ............................................. 122
Previous Experience Abroad.................................. ........................ 123
D egree M ajor .................................................................. ............... 12 3
Recommendations for Further Research......................................................124

APPENDIX

A LETTER OF INVITATION (EXPERT PANEL)............................... ...............126

B LETTER OF INVITATION (ACADEMIC PANEL)....... ...... ...................128

C EMAIL INVITATION (REQUEST TO PARTICIPATE) .....................................130

D INVITATION LETTER (PARTICIPATING COLLEGE OFFICIALS)..............132

E DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING SURVEY.............................................134

F STUDY ABROAD STUDENT DEVELOPMENT SURVEY ..............................136

G IN F O R M E D C O N SE N T ............................................................... ..................... 14 1

LIST OF REFEREN CES .................................................................. ............... 143

BIO GR A PH ICA L SK ETCH .................................... ........... ......................................150
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

3-1 Student develop ent vector scale ............................................... ............... 94

3-2 Environmental variable scale item s ............................ ........ ............. .................. 94

3-3 AN OV A independent variables........................................ .......................... 94

4-1 Com m unity college participant table................................................................ 105

4-2 Biserial correlation between the student development vectors and the overall
study abroad student development survey scale during the pretest and posttest
p erio d ............................................................................10 5

4-3 Study abroad students' response to developing competence..............................105

4-4 Study abroad students' response to managing emotions.................................... 106

4-5 Study abroad students' response to moving through autonomy toward
interdependence ...................... ...................... .. .. ............. .. .... .. 106

4-6 Study abroad students' response to developing mature interpersonal
relationships .................................... ............................... ......... 106

4-7 Study abroad students' response to establishing identity ...................................106

4-8 Study abroad students' response to developing purpose.................................... 107

4-9 Study abroad students' response to developing integrity ...................................107

4-10 Paired t-test results of responses to the student development vector and the overall
study abroad student development survey scale during pre and post period........107

4-11 Percentage lift scores from paired t-test ....... ....... ....................................... 107

4-12 Previous experience abroad ........................................................ ............... 108

4-13 One-way ANOVA: Relationship between sum of developmental vectors and
previous experience abroad....................................................... ............... 108

















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

4-1 Biserial correlation between the student development vectors and the overall
study abroad student development during the pretest and posttest period................98

4-2 Percentage lift scores of statistically significant vectors from pretest and posttest
com prisons (alpha = .01)............................................ ............................... 102
























Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON SELF-DEVELOPMENT VARIABLES IN SELECTED
COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS: A QUANTITATIVE
STUDY USING CHICKERING'S THEORY OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT

By

Devi S. Drexler

December 2006

Chair: Dale F. Campbell
Major Department: Higher Education Administration

This research study explored how American undergraduate students perceive their

own self-development changes before and after participation in their community college,

or community college affiliated study abroad program. In order to achieve this purpose,

the focus of this study was on Chickering's Theory of Student Development and the

environmental variables that undoubtedly influence student development abroad. The

statistical analysis component addressed three research questions to substantiate the

research hypothesis. Using a variety of processes, a test-retest method was used to

validate both the reliability and validity the research instrument. Furthermore, the internal









validity of the instrument was evaluated by way of a Biserial correlation analysis in order

to determine the relationship between the student development vectors and the overall

evaluation scale during the pre and post survey period. A Dependent Samples Paired T-

Test was used to examine whether student development increased from pretest to

posttest. In addition, a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to

determine whether there was a relationship between any of the student demographic

variables and the student development vectors. Next, the results section evaluated the

methods described above, revealing the overall students' response of their study abroad

experience and subsequent data analysis. Finally, the conclusions section expanded upon

all the areas presented in the previous chapters and culminated with various

recommendations by the author.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Overview of Study Abroad Programs

Study abroad programs have been established as important components of

undergraduate students academic learning and cultural awareness since the founding of

some of the earliest institutions. Bolen (2001) suggested that "the first programs began in

the late 1880s, with Indiana University sponsoring a summer study tour in 1882 and

Princeton running a volunteer program in Asia in 1898" (p. 185).

Since then, there has been significant progress in study abroad programming

initiatives not only in four-year institutions, but also in two-year institutions. However,

the catastrophic events that launched the United States into war could have deterred study

abroad students from traveling. On September 11, 2001, anti-American terrorists groups

hijacked a plane and crashed into the Twin Towers in New York City. Shortly following,

additional attacks targeted the Pentagon and other American sites. Allies of the United

States, such as England, also found themselves under terrorist attacks on the tube station

and many other areas.

Yet, despite these attacks, a report published by the Institute of International

Education (2004), concluded that:

There was an 8.5% increase in U.S. students receiving credit for study abroad in
academic year 2002/03, which represents significantly stronger growth than the
previous year's 4.4 % increase. This increase remains a strong indicator of the
tremendous interest in study abroad, both in spite of and in response to the
changing geopolitical climate following 9/11. As study abroad opportunities have
become more plentiful, varied and more affordable, the number of students taking
advantage of an academic experience abroad has increased dramatically. Since









1991/92, the number of students studying abroad for credit has more than doubled
(from 71,154 to 174,629, an increase of 145%).

With students continued interests in international education, it seems very likely

that study abroad programs enhance the academic quality as well as social and cultural

interaction among undergraduate students. These programs also enhance students

awareness of racial, ethnic, and diverse populations in addition to textbook learning.

Johnston and Spalding (1997) suggested:

International education...fosters personal growth through reflection on
assumptions, values, and moral choices. It may challenge students to confront the
relativity of things, but also to make their own grounded judgments. It is often
active and experiential, putting a premium on competence-on putting what one
has learned into effective practice. It may be the best context in which to learn and
appreciate the need for multidisciplinary-for looking at things comparatively, in
context, and in their full complexity. (p. 418)

Therefore, since international education plays such an important role in student

learning, it is important to examine whether academic disciplines with an international

context or study abroad program learning have a greater impact on shaping students into

global learners. Sheppard (2004) explained "the integration of international programming

into all areas of the university or college community can meet the needs of both the

individual and the institution" (p. 40).

Although many colleges and universities provide diversity components

throughout their academic disciplines, it is important to offer such academic programs as

well as study abroad opportunities to undergraduate students. Study abroad programs

incorporate a multicultural component where students can explore the new environment

and truly become surrounded by the new cultures and societies that may not necessarily

be available in their domestic homelands.









Sheppard (2004) further explained "that international education offers students

the opportunity to explore different countries, cultures, views, and ideals... international

education offers students an experiential learning opportunity, where they can engage the

factual knowledge they have about the world with a reality that may be different from

their own. Students gain a sense of ownership over what they learn, because learning

through experience fosters involvement and responsibility" (pp. 38-39).

Similarly, Kitsantas (2004) conducted a study on study abroad programs and

global understanding. The author surveyed two hundred and thirty two students enrolled

in study abroad courses offered in England, Italy, Greece, France, and Spain in 2002 and

found that "study abroad programs significantly contribute to the preparation of students

to function in a multicultural world and promote international understanding" (p. 443).

In addition, there are a number of advantageous points to make for students who

wish to study abroad during their academic career either for spring break, summers, or

semesters. The value of learning and encountering new cultures, races, religions, different

academic and teaching styles, as well as the opportunity to visit various cities and

countries not only broaden one's view of the world and society in which one lives, but

also adds to the intellectual competence and development of a student.

Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) explained that "international education, and

specifically study abroad programs, is an integral component of experience-based student

learning. Study abroad programs have enormous potential for meaningful learning"

(pp. 61-62). Therefore, study abroad programs have a major effect on students because

such freedom to explore different countries, cultures, customs and religions provide them

with a basis for study, communication, and interaction with different populations coupled









with a strong academic component. This alone is a valuable learning experience, but

tutorials from international instructors native to the study abroad country can be a very

powerful and interactive educational tool for students wishing to elevate themselves into

global learners.

Sheppard (2004) stated "it should be clear from the beginning of the process that

education abroad is not an experience that starts when a student leaves and ends when

they get home" (p. 39). It is a life-changing experience, one that the student uses in all

aspects of their life; such as conversations with family and friends, choosing coursework,

applying for internships, and continue to have an educational and social impact long after

graduation.

Dolby (2004) claimed that "study abroad's significance lies not in its current

numbers but in its growing popularity on American university and college campuses, and

its symbolic place in many universities' and colleges' new commitments to preparing

students for life in an increasingly globalized world" (pp. 152-153). Therefore, as

educators and administrators, it is imperative to prepare students both academically and

globally so they can interact and communicate with peoples of all nationalities and

ethnicities. Study abroad programs are indeed a step in the right direction in creating a

true "nation of learners" (Wingspread report, 1993).

Purpose of Study

While there is evidence to support successful student learning as a result of study

abroad initiatives, there is very little research that explores how and why undergraduate

students transform and redevelop their thinking into a global context as a result of study

abroad participation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore how American









undergraduate students perceive their own self-development changes via participation in

their community college study abroad program. By surveying undergraduate students

before and after the completion of their academic study abroad programs, this study will

reveal the extent to which students gained increased levels of self-development, based on

their international academic and social experiences.

Thus, this study employs Chickering's seven vectors of student development to

understand the changes in student development. Furthermore, the environmental

variables incorporated in this study include academic environment, classroom learning

environment, student housing and friendships, student support services and programs,

field trips and excursions, cultural awareness and technology and were adapted from

Chickering's environmental variables.

Research Hypothesis

HO: Undergraduate students who participated in their community college study
abroad program reported no difference in self-development as represented by
Chickering's Theory of Student Development

HI: Undergraduate students who participated in their community college study
abroad program reported enhanced self-development as represented by
Chickering's Theory of Student Development

Research Questions

RQ1: To determine the relationship between the individual student development
vectors and overall student development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis

RQ2: To determine whether student development increased as a result of study
abroad participation by examining pretest and posttest results

RQ3: To determine whether specific socio-economic variables influenced student
development among study abroad participants using an Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) method









Significance of Study

Although there are numerous student development theories, there are few theories

dedicated to international student development or to the application of environmental

factors on American undergraduate students pursuing study abroad interests in foreign

countries. Therefore, this study uncovered the academic and social developmental

changes experienced by study abroad college students due to various environmental

factors as presented by Chickering's Theory of Student Development. Such research

endeavors have not been addressed in previous studies to date and is increasingly

important to the growing population of study abroad participants worldwide. It is the

hope that this study will further our understanding of how student development and the

environmental factors affect American students within the context of international

education in the community college system and provide a framework for future studies

on study abroad student development theory.

University of Florida Study Abroad Program Evaluation

The University of Florida International Center (UFIC) maintains the UF Study

Abroad Survey, of which was a modified version will be used as the major evaluation

tool in this national study of community college study abroad programs. In addition, the

UFIC houses various study abroad programs and offers students a variety of services that

are available on the website at http://www.ufic.ufl.edu/oss/studyabroad.htm. (Other

aspects of interest on the web site include health, safety, and travel information, study

abroad applications and various forms, pre-departure information, financial aid and

scholarship information, insurance and other resources).









Summary

This chapter provided a brief overview of the importance of study abroad

participation and the need to expand students awareness of the different cultures around

them. While there is evidence that courses with a diversity or international emphasis are

beneficial to student development, these courses cannot compensate for practical

knowledge and experience acquired abroad. It is for this purpose that students continue to

travel abroad to study even in the midst of terrorist activity both in the homeland and

abroad.

Thus, study abroad program participation is a major aspect of student learning,

especially in community colleges where educational objectives target the varying levels

of student educational and social needs. Chickering's Seven Vectors of Student

Development and the environmental variables was employed to measure the depth of

student learning while abroad. Taken together, these vectors of student development and

environmental variables illustrate the importance of cognitive, social, and international

learning on collegiate student development and global education, overall.















CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Chickering's Theory of Student Development

This chapter examines Chickering's Theory of Student Development and further

research related to the theory, in order to explore how students can increase development

by encountering and engaging in various environmental variables. The literature review

examines the academic environment, classroom learning environment, student housing

and friendships, student support services and programs, field trips and excursions,

cultural awareness and technology. These variables, taken together, impact students while

studying abroad and help students develop a variety of cognitive and social skills. A

summary is provided at the end of the chapter.

There are numerous student development theories that hypothesize student

developmental stages as explored by Komives and Woodard (1996), such as "Piaget's

cognitive-structural theory, Perry's theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development,

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development, Gilligan's Theory of Women's Moral

Development" (pp. 172-178). But, of utmost importance is the research conducted by

Arthur Chickering "...between 1959 and 1965 while employed at Goddard College, that

led him to formulate the seven vectors of student development theory" (pp. 36-37).

Chickering's research reaches beyond traditional models because of his intricate

analysis of the student intellect as well as certain factors, both academic and non-

academic, that influence the student as they matriculate through their collegiate years. His

research explored ways to:









Incorporate findings from recent research on gender, race, and national origin

Acknowledge the greater range of options students now have

Adjust the theory to fit adult learners as well as traditional aged students

Alter the definitions of several of the vectors to reflect changes in societal
conditions and to acknowledge the work of other theorists. (p. 37)

Chickering's Student Development theory is very applicable to undergraduate

students as they matriculate through their college years. There are newer versions of the

theory as well as other modified versions; however, this original version explicitly

expounds the basic underlying themes of student development and the major factors that

influence student development (Evans, Forney, and Guido-DiBrito, 1998).

These seven vectors include:

1. Developing competence (to include: intellectual competence, physical
competence, and interpersonal competence)
2. Managing emotions
3. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence
4. Developing mature interpersonal relationships
5. Establishing identity
6. Developing purpose
7. Developing integrity

Furthermore, "Chickering argued that educational environments exert powerful

influences on student development" (p. 40). Thus, these following environmental factors

were crucial in examining student development changes, especially in study abroad

programs.

1. Institutional objectives
2. Institutional size
3. Student-faculty relationships
4. Curriculum
5. Teaching
6. Friendships and student communities
7. Student development programs and services
8. Integration of work and learning









9. Recognition and respect for individual differences
10. Acknowledgement of the cyclical nature of learning and development.
(pp 37-42)

Student Development Theory: Definition of Vectors

1. Intellectual competence: Acquisition of knowledge and skills related to
particular subject matter. Physical Competence comes through athletic and
recreational activities. Interpersonal Competence includes skills in
communication, leadership, and working effectively with others

2. Managing emotions: Students develop the ability to recognize and accept
emotions as well as to appropriately express and control them

3. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence: Result in increased
emotional independence, which is defined as 'freedom from continual and
pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval from others'

4. Developing mature interpersonal relationships: Include development of
intercultural and interpersonal tolerance and appreciation of differences, as
well as the capacity for healthy and lasting intimate relationships with partners
and close friends

5. Establishing identity: Acknowledgement of differences in identity
development is based on gender, ethnic background, and sexual orientation

6. Developing purpose: Development of clear vocational goals, making
meaningful commitments to specific personal interests and activities, and
establishing strong interpersonal commitments

7. Developing Integrity: Includes three sequential but overlapping stages:
humanizing values, personalizing values, and developing congruence

Student Development Theory: Environmental Variables

1. Institutional objectives: Clear and specific objectives to which personnel pay
attention and use to guide the development of programs and services have a
powerful impact

2. Institutional size: Significant participation in campus life and satisfaction with
the college experience

3. Student-faculty relationships: Extensive and varied interaction among faculty
and students









4. Curriculum: Relevant and sensitive to individual difference, offers diverse
perspectives, and helps students make sense of what they are learning

5. Teaching: Active learning, student-faculty interaction, timely feedback, high
expectations, and respect for individual learning differences

6. Friendships and student communities: Meaningful friendships and diverse
student communities in which shared interests exist and significant
interactions occur encourage development along all seven vectors

7. Student development programs and services: Collaborative efforts by faculty
and student affairs professionals are necessary to provide developmental
programs and services

8. Integration of work and learning: Collaborative relationships are needed
between business, the community, and institutions of higher education that
will maximize the development potential of work and volunteer experiences

9. Recognition and respect for individual differences: Educators must be
cognizant of the different backgrounds and needs of their students and adjust
their interactions and interventions to address these differences

10. Acknowledgement of the cyclical nature of learning and development:
Learning involves periods of differentiation and integration, equilibrium and
disequilibrium. New experiences and challenges provide opportunities for
new perspectives and more complex understanding to occur

Other researchers have similarly noted the importance of the environmental

vectors in student development. Kodama, McEwen, Liang, and Lee (2002) explained that

"a change in identity for a student may result in a change of purpose (or vice versa) and

may subsequently cause changes to other areas of development such as competency,

emotions, interdependence, relationships, and integrity...the circular pattern of these

vectors represents their nonhierarchical and fluid nature, not assigning primacy to one

over another" (pp. 48-49).

In addition, Strange (2004) noted "from a widely applied model of identity

development, articulated by Chickering and Reisser (1993), comes an understanding of

the role of interdependence, tolerance for differences, and a sense of competence in the









maturation of young adults" (p. 53). These are precisely the variables that will be

examined in this research project, but taken to a higher level, a level that examines not

only student development, but student development in the context of an international

atmosphere. Thus, the seven vectors of student development were a main component of

this research study because they directly impacted student development changes and were

important in evaluating how students respond about their overall academic success of

their study abroad program and ultimately on their individual progression.

Application of Chickering's Environmental Variables

In order to measuring Chickering's environmental variables as presented in his

Theory of Student Development, it was necessary to adapt certain variables from the

theory and incorporate them into the survey questions. These variables included academic

environment, classroom learning environment, student housing and friendships, student

support services and programs, field trips and excursions, cultural awareness, and

technology. Since student development is not a linear process, the variables that were

used to measure development also overlap within the context of Chickering's

environmental variables.

In other words, academic environment incorporated "institutional size and

objective, and student-faculty relationships and teaching." Similarly, classroom learning

environment incorporated "student-faculty relationships, curriculum, teaching, and the

integration of work and learning," student housing and friendships incorporated

"friendships and student communities, and recognition and respect for individual

differences," student support services and programs incorporated "student development

programs and services,"field trips and excursions incorporated "integration of work and









learning," cultural awareness incorporated "recognition and respect for individual

differences and integration of work and learning," and technology incorporated "student-

faculty relationships, curriculum, teaching, as well as the integration of work and

learning." Taken together, each of the variables represented in this study either indirectly

or directly influenced the students "acknowledgement of the cyclical nature of learning

and development" which can be considered overall student development (Chickering's

Theory of Student Development).

Furthermore, it is important to note that while this study served to uncover student

development changes before and after study abroad, such environmental variables may

impact students indirectly or may have a greater impact long after the completion of their

study abroad program.

Finally, what types of student development patterns emerged among student

participants while studying abroad? In order to examine how student development

changes occurred abroad, it is important to review these main environmental variables

and view how they impacted student learning. The following environmental variables

presented in this chapter will elucidate the importance of Chickering's Theory of Student

Development on community college undergraduate students. These include: community

college student population, articulation and transfer, internationalization, globalization,

and other important aspects that are important functions of the academic environment.

Academic Environment

Community College Student Profile

Although there is very little research on the profiles of undergraduate students in

community college institutions, it is important to examine the varying student









characteristics in order to understand their student development. A report by the National

Center for Educational Statistics (2003/2004) suggested that:

Compared with students attending 4-year colleges and universities,
community college students are more likely to be older, female, and from low-
income families and are less like to be White

47 percent of community college students were younger than 24, while those
30 or older, constituted 35 percent of community colleges (larger group than 4
year institutions

63 percent of 4 year college students attended exclusive full-time, compared
with 31 percent of community college students

47 percent of community college students received some form of financial aid,
primarily grants and were more likely to work part-time or full-time than 4
year college students

Undergraduates attending community colleges were more likely to be women
(59 percent) compared to those attending four-year institutions (55 percent)

63 percent of all undergraduates were White, 14 percent Black, 13 percent
Hispanic, and 5 percent were Asian

White dependent students were more likely to be from high-income families
than Black dependent students. (pp. 9-80)

Articulation and Transfer

Cohen and Brawer (2003) explained that "articulation refers to the movement of

students or more precisely, the students academic credits from one point to another.

Articulation is not a linear sequencing or progression" (p. 212). Relative to study abroad

programming, faculty and staff must make sure that student credits are valid and easily

transferable by supporting important articulation agreements between the foreign

institutions and American community colleges. Without proper authorization supporting

students completion of course, credit transfer could become problematic not only abroad,

but after the students return back to their home institutions.









Festervand and Tillery (2001) indicated "first and foremost, the program's

requirements must meet (minimally) or exceed (as planned) university, college of

business, graduate, and accreditation standards. Though each program must decide on the

amount of time to be spent on academic versus personal pursuits, this program limits the

latter, given temporal, academic, and financial parameters" (p. 108).

But what happens if there are no standard set of articulation or program

guidelines? Marshall (2004) stated "the diploma is the traditional credential of the

Canadian college (community), and as such, all public colleges are subject to government

approval and accountability processes. But, by-in-large, there is no common national or

even provincial standard regarding the substances or outcome of the diploma credential"

(p. 74).

If study abroad programs have courses approved but lack academic standards, the

result could be catastrophic for transfer and evaluation of credit. Therefore, in order for a

program to be credible, it must maintain a stable academic standard, one that is accepted

nationwide. Thus, international colleges and universities must pass the accreditation

process and make sure that student credits are transferable between international and

domestic colleges. In addition, there is a need for strong partnerships and articulations

agreements between the US and Canada, and other foreign institutions to make sure that

the credit transfer process is smooth and seamless, especially in study abroad programs.

Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) suggested some excellent guidelines at both the

policy level and the community college level in order to examine articulation and transfer

policies in study abroad programs:









Articulate broad transfer agreements that ensure senior colleges and
universities will accept credits from students who enroll in courses that
incorporate study abroad opportunities

Encourage and support innovation and collaboration within and among
community colleges

Lead efforts to ensure that international educational experiences, including
study abroad, are woven clearly into the academic mission and programs of
the college. (pp.66-68)

Burn (2002) reflected that colleges "are giving students academic credit for study

abroad, not counting the academic work for elective credit only, and are even approving

courses taken abroad toward general education requirements" (p. 256). In addition, it is

not uncommon to find that both community colleges and universities approve academic

coursework toward their general education requirements as well as use other study abroad

credits toward students major and minor degree requirements.

In further evaluation of academic programs, Weeks (2000) explained "during this

era of rapid change in higher education, we realized the benchmarking project was timely

if we were going to both improve our course and be involved in the international

discussion about the accreditation of teaching in higher education" (p. 66). Faculty,

administrators, staff, and students must be willing to discuss and implement guidelines on

such aspects as academic program credit, course content, tuition, and ease of credit

transfer back to home institution in order to be successful in academic programming for

study abroad initiatives.

Academic Program Quality

In addition, study abroad academic programs should include a multicultural

component to help students learn and embrace diversity abroad. Wagenaar and Subedi

(1996) suggested that "curriculum analysts have focused increasingly on the need to









internationalize the curriculum and expose students to multiculturalism. Students need to

become more familiar with, and more able to respond to, the increasing globalization of

society. They also need to learn more about people of color and members of other

cultures as the proportion of minorities in our society increases rapidly" (p. 272).

Besides academic credit transfer and multiculturalism, students look at the

reputation of study abroad programs and tend to converse with other students, friends,

and family about program satisfaction before committing to an overseas experience.

Michael, Armstrong, and King (2003) noted that "...the main reason for choosing

Australia as a destination for study was the quality of education and that students learnt

this through word-of-mouth from friends. This choice was supported by information

about course content and the cost" (p. 64). Along with the reputation of the program,

administrators are also interested in the quality of the program.

Campbell (1999) explained that "in instructional programs and services, the top

five issues [identified by leaders at the community college futures assembly] were (1)

acquiring, training, and keeping qualified faculty, (2) increasing competition from other

institutions and distance education, (3) commitment of funding for institutions, (4)

maintaining the level of quality, and (5) articulation issues" (p. 23).

All of these issues are profoundly important in maintaining strong, quality-based

study abroad programs and choosing superior faculty to teach and support students while

abroad. In addition, it is imperative to have strong alliances with international

institutions, their faculty and institutional resources, and of course legitimate articulation

agreements.









Identity Transformation and Internationalization

Joseph, Marginson, Yang (2005) stated "the openness of identities in education

becomes more obvious when we consider cross-border aspects such as what happens to

students who enroll in a foreign country, and what happens to the institutions that educate

them..." (p. 3). There is an indeed a strong connection between student learning in study

abroad programs and identity development. Only when leaders accept this key principle

can they begin to evaluate how academics and cultural awareness impact student learning

and development.

Joseph, Marginson, Yang (2005) further explained that "in contemporary

educational settings, changes in personal identities and daily practices are manifest not

just in international relationships per se but in intra-cultural and inter-cultural-and

intra/inter class and gender-encounters 'international education'.., education that is

understood to be inflected by global flows and more fluid, changing identities" (pp. 4-6).

International relationships are very important in helping students develop new

identities and stronger intellectual competencies by studying abroad. Even while abroad,

the presence of a diverse classroom can greatly influence student cognitive skills.

Furthermore, even short term study abroad programs have an impact on student cognition

and global awareness as long as the student is open to learning new cultures, customs,

language, and national differences.

In addition, Cudmore (2005) explained that

In 2000, there were 1.8 million international students enrolled in institutions of
higher education around the world, and projected that this global demand for
international higher education will exceed 7 million places by 2025. The
'traditional' view of internationalization includes the academic activities one
could find under a catalogue heading of International Studies. These include a
variety of interdisciplinary programs in languages, political science, cultural









anthropology, and sociology, which have as their goal the development of
knowledge about other nations and cultures, and the ability to function well in the
languages and customs of those cultures. (p. 42)

As long as students, faculty and staff acknowledge that international education

and study abroad programming are truly important in student learning and development,

the participation levels will continue to increase in the future as the world becomes more

globalized. In addition to interdisciplinary programs offered in study abroad

programming, there should also be areas of study that could be part of a student's major

or minor degree requirement, such as earth and biological sciences, math, literature,

architecture, and other collegiate fields.

McCabe (2001) discussed that "internationalization is more oriented toward

bilateral and/or multilateral processes involving knowledge of specific countries, which

leads to the development of business, educational, social, and cultural relationships"

(p. 141). Therefore, internationalization has an impact on student educational and cultural

relationships, which foster growth in cognitive and social development.

Cudmore (2005) also explained, "a second view of internationalization include

the range of activities that facilitate the interaction of domestic students with students and

faculty from other nations to build a sense of global community" (p. 42). Interaction with

nationals of the host country can create a powerful learning environment. For example,

field trips, guest speakers, and site visits are excellent sources for communication with

international hosts.

Globalization

Joseph, Marginson, Yang (2005) noted that "Globalisation in education involves

not just transformations of economic and cultural circumstances but transformations in









people themselves" (p. 3). If study abroad programs are successful in internationalization

and globalization, then the program participants will come away with a changed identity

and a deeper understanding of the importance of culture, people, and nation as it relates

to them and the world they live in.

McCabe (2001) also suggested that "specifically, globalization is seen to

represent a worldwide process. In this case, it implies standardization across cultures that

occurs as technology, migration, and education become dispersed around the globe"

(p. 140). Taken together, internationalization and globalization are two major aspects of

study abroad programming that must receive evaluation and cultivation from all faculty,

staff, and administrators in order for programs to grow and be successful. To lack

community college study abroad programming is to deny a core part of student learning

and international education.

Dalton (1999) stated "more than ever before, college students are preparing

themselves for a global future by combining international studies with a wide range of

college majors" (p. 7). Therefore, study abroad program leaders must match educational

degree majors and educational objectives with appropriate destinations in order for

students to gain maximum learning. For example, an African literature course may well

incorporate literary leaders in Africa to speak in the classroom, or a Spanish language

course in Spain could help students gain increased language learning by interaction with

native speakers.

Dalton (1999) further advised "we have much to learn about our own domestic

diversity in particular by closer contact and communication with higher education

institutions in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, Canada, and the Pacific Rim









countries. These regions have contributed so greatly to our multicultural society and are

such an integral part of our own historical legacy that we can benefit greatly from greater

contact and understanding of their cultures and traditions" (p. 11). This is important not

only for students, but also for faculty and staff. Lifelong learning is an important concept

that can be applied to all study abroad and international programs; thus, faculty, staff, and

students can benefit from communication with international partners to learn about

cultures, lifestyles, and traditions.

Sheppard (2004) emphasized that "in order to ensure students receive the value

out of international education programs and choose to become global citizens and

leaders, it is necessary that they are able to reflect on the experiences that they are able to

have. Whether a student is returning from a study abroad program, learning about another

culture in class, there should be the opportunity to take what is learned and incorporate

the learned knowledge, skills, and attitudes into their life as a part of the campus

community" (p. 39).

This is exactly how students can transform themselves into global leaders. For

example, by taking what was learned abroad and using that knowledge in campus or

community activities, students have the capacity to share, reflect, and emphasize to others

how important study abroad programs can be in the microcosm of educational attainment

and success.

Key Stakeholders and Program Success

Tseng and Newton (2002) recommended that "specifically, in the respondents'

view, a meaningful study-abroad life included a series of achievement outcomes, such as

completing school work, planning for the future, achieving an individual career vision,









pursuing success in academic studies, seeking a development of professional knowledge,

experiencing a different world, and increasing knowledge about the world" (p. 594). If

the study abroad program meets or exceeds the goals set by students, faculty, and staff,

then it is possible to assume students had a remarkable experience, one that fulfills their

academic and international expectations.

International education can be a powerful tool in educating students and helping

them understand the context of human nature and different civilizations. But, the student

must be an active participant in the study abroad experience to acquire success. This

brings up the question, who determines the success of the academic program? There are a

variety of key players, such as students, instructors, administrators, and external

constituents that determine the success of study abroad programs and international

education.

First and foremost is the student, and only the student can decide whether he or

she was truly involved in the study abroad experience and whether it was successful with

the personal and academic goals they had initially set for themselves before travel.

Grayson (2004) explained that "while there may be little relationship between professors'

performance and GPA, it is clear that good teaching results in enhanced program

satisfaction...and good grades result in increased program satisfaction" (p. 30). And

increased program satisfaction leads to increased participation, expansion of the program

to other international destinations, and overall increased program quality/reputation.

Furthermore, Tseng and Newton (2002) noted that "international students eight

strategies for adjusting to study abroad life: 1) knowing self and others, 2) making friends

and building relationships, 3) expanding individual worldview, 4) asking help and









handling problems, 5) establishing cultural and social contacts, 6) building relationships

with advisors and instructors, 7) becoming proficient in the English language, 8) using

the tactic of letting go" (p. 596). The authors' strategies directly support Chickering's

theory and environmental factors, as discussed earlier. These strategies are prevalent and

very important in student development and a powerful force in helping students acclimate

to their new international climate.

Geelhoed, Abe, and Talbot (2003) also explained that "three related, but not

necessarily sequential, attributes that affected a student's ability to have a successful or

positive experience in the IPP: the student's (a) fulfilling or not fulfilling expectations of

and motivation for participating in the program; (b) ability or inability to get past the

initial discomfort associated with an intercultural interaction; and (c) having or not

having the willingness and commitment to invest in the relationship" (p. 15). All of

these are important in helping students acclimate to study abroad destinations. Program

officials must provide support for students during their period of adjustment and

understand this adjustment period is paramount in having an enjoyable experience

abroad.

Sheppard found that "on a micro level, or that of the individual, the success of

international education programming comes down to personal outcomes. It is tied to

impact on students, which is difficult to measure" (p. 34). Although it is difficult to

measure exactly what impact international programming can have on students because of

their varying and individual needs, it is possible to measure what students desire, what

they want in international programs, where they travel, and what they want to achieve

personally and academically.









If study abroad program officials view students as "consumers" they are much

more likely to be successful in recruiting students and promoting study abroad initiatives.

Levine and Cureton (1998) stated that students "want their colleges nearby and operating

at the hours most useful to them, preferably around the clock. They want convenience:

easy, accessible parking (in the classroom would not be at all bad); no lines; and polite,

helpful and efficient staff service. They also want high-quality education but are eager for

low costs....Their focus is on convenience, quality, service, and cost" (p. 50).

Like any service, students want to gain something from their program expense. In

study abroad programs, most students want to gain academic or international education

learning within a diverse social context. Therefore, study abroad program officials should

market study abroad programs to students and parents in such a way that it is consumer-

focused in order to be successful.

Sheppard (2004) suggested that "no one person starts at the same point or finishes

with the same outcome. Not only is the impact of an international education experience

different for each individual, both the length of the experience and the motivations for

participating may differ as well. For many students one experience abroad, regardless of

duration, can last a lifetime" (p. 35). Students who study abroad may elect a summer, a

semester, or a year-long program, but it is those life-changing experiences of contact with

new cultures, values, persons and society that ultimately influence students uniquely.

Second, the instructor is a key player in providing an academic learning

environment similar to that in their home institutions and must evaluate their style of

teaching and learning. To be successful, the instructor must heavily depend on their own

goals set for the class, the class grades and expectations, and outcomes. In addition,









faculty must balance their goals of student success set for the course as well as the need

to recruit, support, and increase enrollment in study abroad programming.

Third, the next key players are the administrators and collegiate representatives

who may have initiated or helped fund the program. Success depends on how many

students volunteered for the program, and if that number will double in subsequent years.

Finally, there a variety of external key players, from private foundations, grant

and scholarship program leaders, community and civic organizations and many others.

These external players may have helped launch and support the study abroad program,

especially at the community college level where partnerships are crucial in successful

programming.

Sheppard (2004) concluded that "on a macro level, success in international

programming is determined by numbers: the number of study abroad programs, the

percentage of international students of the student body, and the number of courses that

contain international content" (p. 34). Taken together, students, faculty, administration

and external constituents determine whether the study abroad program will be successful

at present and in the future.

Faculty Role in Student Learning

In examining faculty and the roles they play in student learning, it is important to

accommodate the different learning styles of unique learners. There are a variety of

aspects of study abroad programming that can help teacher satisfaction and the role they

play in student learning. Smith (2002) explained that "planning courses and teaching

sessions with a range of learning styles in mind is a powerful way of responding to

differences in students" (p. 69). Instructors should use visual aid tools, such as









blackboards, projectors, billboards and handouts in addition to traditional lecture based

instruction to accommodate the unique learning styles of their student population,

especially in study abroad programs.

Often times, students range in gender, age, background, culture and maturity, so

instructors need to support their individual learning needs. Smith (2002) argued that in

order to accommodate learning styles, instructors should "...be aware of the value

judgments implicit in the learning style classifications they are using; their own

preferences and the effect this is having on the way they teach; and their students

individual preferences" (p. 69).

Even when abroad, instructors should hold "office hours" after classroom

instruction to help those students who may need additional clarification on the topics

taught, as they would normally do in their homeland. Additionally, instructors should

understand the "learning styles" of their students by meeting them individually in the

beginning and during the semester.

Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) stated that:

It is incumbent upon the instructor to see that students develop an appropriate
context for the trip. Each instructor's recipe for grading will vary depending on
the purpose of the course, length of travel, and the number of credits offered. An
example of a syllabi should include the following components...course
description, objective, course grading (to include citizenship or attitude,
interaction, responsibility, willingness to share, enthusiasm, openness, and
respect), research papers, journal entries, oral class report, students final
assessment, group exercises, reading assignments, class lecture, field trips,
research topics, participation, attendance, and guest lectures. (pp. 208-211)

If instructors are dedicated with helping their students overcome obstacles in

global learning, they must include a variety of learning techniques with opportunities for

students to integrate their academic environment with their host countries.









Furthermore, Osborne (2005) defended that "the fragility of student development

is a strong argument for intentionality in setting goals and in designing assignments and

other activities to further these goals. Certainly, students who have participated in debates

do begin to think more critically about history..." (p. 49). Thus, another key component

that instructors should incorporate in designing curricula include debate with other

students and foreign nationals.

This is a good recipe for study abroad academic development and course purpose.

Of course, each instructor has different goals and outcomes he or she wishes students to

learn, but the end result is the same; that is, to provide a solid academic foundation where

students will link study/research to practice/environment.

Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) also suggested a guideline to help instructors

prepare for study abroad programs and student concerns (pp. 205-206):

1. Set up course accounting system and accounts

2. Prepare two copies of syllabus/detailed itinerary (extra copies to parents)

3. Prepare readings for students (books, journal, newspapers) and develop field
guide

4. Determine passport, visa, medical requirements

5. Discuss course goals and content, country/regions to be visited, registration
guidelines, clear expectations for participation and grading, deadlines for
papers/projects, behavior and appropriate dress

6. Encourage students to speak with past participants (set up a social event)

7. First Aid products, emergency numbers, consider renting an international cell
phone

8. Revise syllabus based on experiences









Zhao, Kuh, Carini (2005) stated that "assuming institutions view these as

legitimate concerns, faculty members could be encouraged to promote the mingling of

Asian international students with students of different cultures or backgrounds in group

study and collaborative projects" (p. 226). The purpose of intercultural "mingling" is a

powerful tool in encouraging students to communicate and appreciate diversity. In

addition, group work can promote tolerance and respect of individuality, especially in

study abroad programs.

Teaching Satisfaction

Weeks (2000) explained the need to "improve current teaching practice or prepare

teachers to cope with a changed and ever changing environment...we came to know our

strengths and our weaknesses. We recognized the need to make our course more flexible

and customer focused. We needed to take a practical and scholarly approach to teaching

development" (pp. 65-66).

But in order to provide instructors with the right educational tools to help students

achieve higher learning, the question is not which objective to use, rather how to use both

objectives in satisfying the main goal of educational improvement for educators.

Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the instructor's individual role and satisfaction. For

example, the instructor should self-evaluate himself or herself, highlight both strength

and weakness in the course success. Only then can teaching satisfaction be improved and

emphasis placed on student learning and educational improvement.

Duke (2000) found that "as more universities become involved in study abroad

programs, matching instructional activities with the style of study abroad tour will help

professors to develop effective course delivery for various levels of learning activities"









(p. 164). This helps increase student cognitive development by incorporating educational

practices in an international setting; therefore, instructors must be willing to explore new

aspects of teaching and learning, such as site visits and excursions and relate external

visits to classroom instruction.

Furthermore, by engaging instructors in professional development activities, they

can then develop the necessary instructional goals and academic guidelines for classroom

practice. In addition, Festervand and Tillery (2001) proposed that "one of the most direct

professional development results sought and provided by a study abroad experience is the

grounding of concept and theory in reality, an outcome directly transferable to both future

teaching and research activities" (p. 109). Just as students need learning and development

tools to help them succeed, instructors need strategies and tools to help them develop

their necessary skills to support positive program outcomes.

Festervand and Tillery (2001) further advised that "the faculty members

participation in a short-term international experience will result in the generation of

significant intellectual growth. In some instances, new knowledge is acquired through

overt, concerted efforts... and provide the basis for developing new and richer teaching

and learning materials gleaned from direct visits with representatives of industry,

education, and government in another country and participation in its daily activities"

(pp. 109-111).

If instructors participate and collaborate with international partners (both

academic and non-academic), the opportunities for cultural and international higher

learning is very great. Faculty can enjoy meeting and connecting with international

faculty and officials that help them develop strong curriculum and program components.









In addition, instructors who are able to adjust to the international academic setting are

likely to bring a positive learning attitude to the classroom, in turn helping students

understand the new culture.

Festervand and Tillery (2001) explained that "regretably, faculty often carry

biases, stereotypical images, and misperceptions into their everyday activities. Awareness

of such attitudes, inaccuracies, and behaviors is critical, as faculty may perpetuate these

misrepresentations through the classroom. Specifically, in teaching and researching

international subjects, faculty members must be mindful of how such biases may be

transferred to their students and colleagues" (p. 110).

Although it is possible for some faculty to encounter negative situations abroad

and may bring that negativity to the classroom, such bias can be reduced by preparing

faculty ahead of the trip for cultural differences, providing professional development

tools to help them cope with difficult situations, and providing counseling and other

resources for faculty while abroad. For example, on-call advisors and program officials

should be available to assist with faculty with concerns or problems.

Good instructor preparatory is necessary to ensure that highly qualified and

trained individuals can lead and instruct educational programs abroad. Stachowski,

Richardson, and Henderson (2003) recommended that before going abroad, instructors

"are required to undergo extensive preparation (including seminars, readings, abstracts

and papers, workshops, sessions with consultants from the host cultural groups) for the

cultural values, beliefs, lifestyles, and educational practices in the placement sites they

have selected" (p. 54). Although preparatory programs are important, is it possible to

engage instructors in study abroad programming?









Stachowski, Richardson, and Henderson (2003) noted that "careful observation,

reflective study, and cultural participation will allow teachers to gain knowledge,

appreciation, and insights, moving them beyond stereotypes to a deeper understanding of

the backgrounds, beliefs, and traditions of their pupils. Only then can they begin to teach

in culturally relevant ways, incorporating their pupils' cultural values into classroom

instruction at every level" (p. 62).

Faculty Development

In order to engage the instructor, program officials must provide avenues for

teacher support, learning and participation opportunities, satisfaction and bonus

incentives; in other words, to equip the instructor with the necessary intellectual and

social competencies so that he or she can educate and help students learn in an

international environment.

Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) suggested that some ways to support faculty

development could include the following:

Create a policy that identifies international activity as a criterion for faculty
advancement and support policies for encouraging faculty "first-hand
experiences abroad

Support faculty who design and implement curricular options for experiential
learning, including study abroad

Provide administrative and staff assistance for faculty to encourage faculty to
devote their time to focusing on learning and not simply on the technical
aspects of planning details of a trip (pp. 66-68).

Gleazer (1998) explained "faculty and administrative personnel alike can benefit

from utilization of job enrichment theory which will improve the quality of their

participation by providing new approaches to establishing roles and the reorganization of

institutional structures" (p. 168). In addition, Cohen and Brawer (2003) defended that









"compared with university faculty, community college instructors are more satisfied with

their salary, the reputation of their department, and their institution....they are less

satisfied with the quality of their students, teaching load, rigidity of their work schedule,

and opportunities for scholarly pursuits and professional recognition" (p. 93).

College administrators and program officials must work with instructors and

faculty boards to avoid dissatisfaction and "burnout" of faculty from overloaded teaching

schedules. In addition, instructors must have course flexibility and administrative support

to help them achieve student success while abroad and continue to have support when

they return, including professional development opportunities.

Classroom Learning Environment

There are a variety of learning tools and techniques that instructors must

incorporate into their study abroad classroom environment. Textbook assignments, host

speakers, and interactive group sessions are all important parts of helping students be

actively involved in the learning process and instructors must also take into account their

unique backgrounds and unique styles of learning. But also important are learning models

and techniques that suggest best practices.

Learning Models

The Wingspread Report (1993) raised three main issues and questions important to

student learning:

1. Taking Values Seriously: In what ways do our institutional programs promote
shared values among our students? How does our core curriculum of required
courses respond to the needs of our students for a rigorous liberal education?

2. Putting Students Learning First: In what ways could we do a better job of
helping our students attain higher levels of knowledge and skills?









3. Creating a Nation of Learners: In what ways have we organized our programs
to develop and support a capacity for lifelong learning among students?

These three questions should also be evaluated in study abroad programming in

order to provide effective student learning.

In viewing community college study abroad programs as a learning program, then

it is possible to apply the learning college principles suggested by O'Banion and Cross

(1997):

The learning college creates substantial change in individual learners

The learning college engages learners as full partners in the learning process,
with learners assuming primary responsibility for their own choices

The learning college creates and offers as many options for learning as
possible

The learning college assists learners to form and participate in collaborative
learning activities

The learning college defines the roles of learning facilitators by the needs of
the learners

The learning college and its learning facilitators succeed only when improved
and expanded learning can be documented for its learners. (p. 47).

Simply put, most community college study abroad programs accomplish many of

the above tasks by providing students excellent learning opportunities abroad, helping

students make collaborative communication efforts with other students, allowing the

instructor to be more of a guide and supporter of student learning, and of course helping

students with their own choices and decision-making in their learning process.

De Vita (2001) proposed eight types of learning styles (table 4, p. 172):

Active: group projects; brainstorming; learn-by-doing and problem-solving
exercises

Reflective statements: 'functional pauses' for reflection and evaluation











Sensing case studies: examples and explicit links to the real world of business

Intuitive theories and models: space for abstraction and conceptualization

Visual trigger videos and visual organizers: such as charts, maps, Venn
diagrams, etc.

Verbal traditional lecture: oral presentation

Sequential integrated progression of topics: breaking information down into
smaller parts

Global: a two-step approach combining specific-to-general and general-to-
specific elements

These types of learning can be applied to different learner modes. For example,

students may learn from typical oral presentations and lecture styles, but may find active,

problem solving type material more interactive and more beneficial to suit their

individual learning styles. In addition, Hung, Chee, Hedberg, and Seng (2005) proposed

that "scaffolding envisages a learning structure and framework for a learner to gradually

move along a continuum (figure 1)" (p. 163).


Legitimate peripheral participation Central participation
Learner is a novice observer participant active contributor
Simulation model Participation model -- Codetermined
interactions model
Figure 1: T7he evolving continuum

Hung, Chee, Hedberg, and Seng (2005) further explained that "the effort is to

develop appropriate identities in learners. At each stage of the scaffolding process, an

evolving process of interactions between students, instructors, problems, and the supports

given must be a dynamically negotiated interaction" (pp. 166-175).

This addresses the concept of identity formation and participation. Furthermore,

scaffolding can be used in creating a community of learners who are all responsible for









their own learning experiences in study abroad programs. This allows the learner to gain

an academic foundation and social experience abroad, but with the support of the

instructor, program officials, and other student participants.

In addition, Smith (2002) advocated that "there are positive benefits for all

students in recognizing and valuing differences inside and outside the classroom,

acknowledging how background and experience shape individual perceptions and

attitudes, and how learning how to learn can be the most empowering learning of all"

(p. 69). This is especially true in study abroad learning where students have the

opportunity to really understand a country's historical and social demographics and link

classroom knowledge to practice outside of the classroom (i.e. language learning, visiting

historical sites, etc).

Sheppard (2004) explained "in order to achieve the desired outcome of

international education programming, and in order to get students to think outside their

boxes, it only makes sense to start from inside the box" (p. 37). Most students would

have likely taken courses at their home institution and experience "traditional" academic

learning by way of lecture and examination. In order to get students to "think outside the

box," educators must engage them at a higher level; that is, help the student link theory

(textbook learning) to practice (environment).

For example, if an instructor teaches a subject on Greek mythology in Greece, the

student should be encouraged to visit the architectural ruins or mythological statues to

link the pages in the textbook to actual reality. Only then can the student begin to have a

deeper understanding and greater value of the course material being taught and the

culture.









Teaching and Learning Strategies

Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) advised that "it is also likely that that some specific

topics may be best covered through independent projects, presentations, or labs in the

field, while others are...engaged using guest lecture/guided tour format-either by faculty

or guest speakers from the area or study or simply by observation" (p. 204).

Depending on the type of models the instructor wishes to use in student learning,

students learn in very different capacities, and should have a variety of learning options

to choose from to meet their course goals. Instructors who meet the needs of their

students will most likely see a positive educational outcome reflected in their grades and

course evaluations.

Duke (2000) explained "often, experiential learning methods use the concepts of

collaborative learning activities that typically involve students working in groups to solve

problems or understand meanings" (p. 157). This allows students to learn and work with

other students who may have a completely different way of thinking and learning. But at

the same time, instructors using these methods of learning must take the necessary steps

to ensure that all students have an "equal" stake in the group project and that no one

student in the group is left to finish the project.

Classroom lectures coupled with guest speakers, interactive group work, and

technology can provide different types of learning for all types of students. Duke (2000)

noted that "lectures are perhaps the most familiar technique for a professor leading a tour

and for the students who are participating. Adjusting lectures to use the international

setting for special examples is common and advisable" (p. 157). Thus, for those students









that may not learn as readily from lectures then have other options to successfully

complete the course in a fun and new environment.

Depending on the course, open book exams may be a possibility, but study abroad

programs must be careful to maintain a strong level of academic quality as well as some

flexibility. Duke (2000) found that "conventional test formats (multiple choice and

closed-book exams) are less popular in study abroad tours apparently because other

learning activities in the courses are so much more engaging. Students have suggested

that, where possible, open exams (open book or open notes) with more integrative

question styles are preferable in the study abroad setting" (p. 159). Therefore, instructors

must be able to alter course content using a variety of test formats and suiting individual

learner styles as necessary.

In addition, Duke (2000) indicated that "journal writing has been suggested for

many different applications in education. Observations, analysis, and insights are

communicated through active involvement by finding examples, integrating concepts,

increasing cultural awareness, and encouraging discussion of global marketing issues"

(p. 159). Student journals can be an excellent source of enrichment and personal

reflection without the stress of deadlines. Students often enjoy the chance to reflect on

daily activities or aspects of the program and instructors should encourage this type of

participation, whether for grading, extra credit, or other assignment.

Henning (2005) noted that "perhaps most important, professors show they care by

valuing student thinking-by listening closely, by regularly crediting and referring to

student answers, and by incorporating student thinking into their own" (p. 93). If the









instructor is willing to help students understand and learn by giving them constructive

feedback, students can then feel responsible for their own learning and development.

Henning (2005) further explained that "students need to feel comfortable with

each other, as well as with the professor. Working together in groups gives them a chance

to build relationships, to hear different perspectives, and to try out risky ideas" (p. 93). In

addition, language learning can be truly successful with group discussions as well as

allows students to develop friendships and peer relationships within the classroom.

Duke (2000) suggested a number of ways to engage faculty and students in effective

teaching and learning strategies:

As with conventional domestic courses, tests may be varied in style. With single
locations and longer tours, students have more opportunity to prepare for exams

Traveling between multiple locations reduces study time available and increases
the diversions

Conventional test formats (multiple choice and closed-book exams) are less
popular in study abroad tours apparently because other learning activities in the
courses are so much more engaging. Students have suggested that, where
possible, open exams (open book or open notes) with more integrative question
styles are preferable in the study abroad setting

Journal writing has been suggested for many different applications in education

Observations, analysis, and insights are communicated through active
involvement by finding examples, integrating concepts, increasing cultural
awareness, and encouraging discussion of global marketing issues

Group projects offer the opportunity for interactive learning from peers and
challenge all group members to be fully engaged in the process

Smaller individual projects can be used to cover specific topics in a course.
Conventional comprehensive group projects may be used to integrate many
topics across the entire length of the course. (pp. 159-163)

Besides structuring the academic program to meet the needs of students and faculty

members, another interesting point that can be raised is whether courses should be graded









on a pass/fail or letter grade basis. Mervin (2003) found that "if the grading policy of

study-abroad programs is on a pass/fail basis and this is found to have a significant affect

on study effort, then students may be systematically underachieving academically in

these programs" (p. 150).

Pass/fail could also reduce the amount of stress of achieving grades while abroad in

appropriate classes. Given the variety of courses, a reasonable assessment would be for

major courses to be letter grades, while leisure or general education courses are available

as pass/fail or letter grade, giving the students the opportunity to be responsible for their

own learning and development.

Terenzini et al. (2001) researched "claims about the educational benefits of

racially or ethnically diverse classrooms. Level of classroom diversity was related at

small but statistically significant levels to students reported gains in both their

problem-solving and their group skills" (p. 527). Therefore, student learning is impacted

by diversity, and at a higher level, international education can play a vital role in identity

development and global awareness.

Language Learning

McKeown (2003) stated that "the percentage [of students] answering that they

became interested in study abroad because "I wanted to learn another language" increased

from 22.73% to 41.56%" (p. 90). One learning tool in language learning that instructors

can force students to "think outside the box" is to encourage students to exchange

conversations in class with other class members and with a native learner from the host

country. After the student is confident in language learning, he or she can begin to

explore their newly learned language with the native population. Language attainment









and immersion in foreign language acquisition are two of the most common reasons

study abroad, but not the only reasons.

Astin (1993) found that "participation in a study-abroad program has its strongest

effect on self-reported growth in foreign language skills (Beta =.23). It also has weak, but

significant positive effects on most satisfaction outcomes and on self-reported growth in

Cultural Awareness" (p. 380). Therefore, study abroad programs do increase

competencies in language learning and cultural awareness. Study abroad programs should

encourage and promote advanced foreign language learning and assessment of credits

based on level of competency.

For example, Lambert (2001) explained that "a number of college and university

language departments discount high school language instruction, putting students back to

the beginning level as they enter collegiate language instruction, or they allow very

limited credit" (p. 349). This can illustrate the importance of study abroad programming;

that is, students not only learn in the classroom, but as an added incentive, they have the

opportunity to practice language conversations with nationals of the host country.

Lambert (2001) further proposed that "if we are to nurture the cumulative growth

of language competence in individuals we will also need diagnostic instruments, that is,

tests that will enable teachers and learners to determine how far the learner has come and

which aspects of competency need to be rejuvenated or built upon" (p. 348). These tests

or evaluation techniques are imperative in college-level courses. Study abroad programs

could become innovative leaders in this type of evaluation since language learning abroad

is very common and popular and can serve to correctly measure language proficiency.









Whereas language learning in the United States may be limited to mostly

classroom instruction, students abroad will have the opportunity to converse with natives

of the country and learn specific dialects of that region that may also help language

proficiency. McCabe (2001) explained that "the exposure to another country, and the

development of language skills, no doubt provides the student with a frame of reference,

which allows him or her to consider experiences, thoughts, and ideas, outside the

immediate framework of just two cultures (United States and France)" (p. 142). These

experiences, thoughts, and ideas are important in helping students learn the new language

and use that language while abroad.

Lambert (2001) also advised that "students returning from study abroad programs

represent a similar resource. For students who have developed substantial FL [foreign

language] competencies, new pedagogical strategies beyond the study of literature should

be developed to enable them to reach truly high levels of proficiency" (p. 351).

Therefore, students must be able to apply there newly learned languages in their

US home institutions by way of student programs and services. Without the adequate

support services in place, student language learning will suffer due to lack of usage; thus,

study abroad programs must provide meetings, socials, and other program events so

students can reconnect and form friendships that will enable them to continue to practice

language skills.

Lambert (2001) suggested "in truth, if students will ever need to use a FL [foreign

language] as adults, the chances are great that it will be different from the language they

studied its school" (p. 360). So clearly, there is an advantage of study abroad programs in









the areas of foreign language learning because students have the opportunities to practice

their languages in conversations with native speakers.

Student Learning Process

Kozma (2003) explained that "constructivism envisions a learning process in

which students set their own goals, plan their learning activities, and monitor their current

levels of mastery and understanding in preparation for lifelong learning" (p. 2).

Therefore, bridging qualitative thought with modern reality can be applied to various

student activities, such as sharing group work, understanding and critiquing class work,

embarking on tours, fulfilling extra credit assignments, exchanging journals with other

classmates, and allowing classmates to comment and analyze the work which in totality

forces the student in a more responsible role.

If educators and staff give students the specific tools they needs to gain the

necessary skills and understanding of diversity and different values, can they truly

become successful global citizens. Levine and Cureton (1998) found specific elements

that undergraduate students need in their curriculum include: "communication and

thinking skills... critical thinking, continuous learning, and creativity. They need to

comprehend how values function in our society and in their lives: the changing nature of

values over time, how values fit into cultures, the place of values in an individual's life,

and what happens to minority values in a society" (pp.161-165).

In addition, Gleazer (1998) emphasized that "the overall mission of the

community college is to encourage and facilitate lifelong learning, with community as a

process and product. In addition to the learning requirements imposed by changing

culture and environment, changes in the maturation of the individual will affect









educational needs" (pp. 16-18). Lifelong learning is the key ingredient in study abroad

programming. As the student participant reaches out to learn and understand new cultures

and people, they grow and begin to develop a more global identity.

Northedge (2003) stated that "students need practice at participating both

vicariously, as listeners and readers, and generatively, as speakers and writers, so that

they can develop identities as members of the knowledge community and move from

peripheral forums to more active, competent engagement with the community's central

debates" (p. 31). Therefore, active learning and curriculum that engages the learner are

key concepts to build a strong knowledge base and facilitate lifelong learning.

Curriculum

Smith (2002) explained that "there has been a shift towards a more vocationally

relevant higher education, towards a broader curriculum allowing more student choice,

and towards helping students learn how to learn. Students are coming into further and

higher education from a more varied range of backgrounds, and responding to their

individual strengths and needs is rightly a concern for teachers" (p. 63).

For example, in programs that emphasize cultural, ethnic, and global differences,

such as study abroad programs, the need for teachers to be sensitive to and apply different

learning techniques in the classroom is paramount for higher student learning, especially

in a foreign environment. The instructor must be aware of not only the individual student

needs, but must be able to provide proper resources that help link their classroom

learning to their new environment.

Smith (2002) also noted that "courses with a strong element of practical and

individual project work are more likely to draw on the full range of these learning styles"









(p. 67). Depending on the individual student learner needs, a variety of academic work,

such as traditional tests, oral communication, group and individual work, external site

visits and journal writing would give learners a variety of tools to not only receive a

successful grade in the course, but to also gain valuable learning experiences.

McKeown (2003) found in his research study that "students who responded, 'it

was good for my major' increased from 38.64% to 57.14% (Z=1.96, P=.050)" (p. 91).

Clearly, students are concerned with attaining a well rounded academic experience as

well as pursuing a global understanding.

In addition, the course goals and class material must meet or exceed the

expectations set by both instructor and program officials in order for students to gain a

well rounded academic and cultural experience. Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) explained

that "a critical and related pedagogical concern that must be addressed is precisely how

the various goals of the course will be met and the types of activities that will be

undertaken to support those goals... key issues revolve around prerequisites, course

content, location, the learning goals of the trip, and of course, cost" (pp. 204-207).

Instructors should dedicate a portion of class time to explain how the course goals are

related to certain class activities, such as tours, excursions, or other external trips as well

as provide a breakdown of additional costs before the trip.

Weeks (2000) suggested that "benchmarking, can in fact, be applied to whole

courses or to the processes involved in the development and implementation of a course"

(p. 64). This is important because administrators can benchmark community college

study abroad programs to see if this in fact will help instructors apply various tools and

techniques to improve classroom instruction and student learning.









Furthermore, allowing students to be in control of their own learning and

development is crucially important in helping them not only adjust to the study abroad

program, but also in evaluating their own academic progress and awareness of cultural

and ethnic differences.

Emes and Cleveland-Innes (2003) described eight core competencies that can be

very important in assessing student progress in academic courses while abroad:

Critical and creative thinking

Analysis of problems

Effective oral and written communication

Gathering and organizing information

Logical calculation, mathematical ability

Abstract reasoning and its applications

Insight and intuition in generating knowledge

Interpretative and assessment skills. (pp. 57-58)

The authors further explained that:

Learner-centered curriculum will allow students to participate more fully in the
arrangement of their own learning experiences, such that they can continue to do
so for a life-time. This is a role adjustment for students that will require a
complementary role adjustment in expectations of faculty.. while faculty set
boundaries around the sequence in which courses will be delivered, the
knowledge outcomes, and the standards of assessment. (pp. 62-63)

Thus, faculty and program coordinators must recognize that innovative

curriculum changes will impact both student and instructor. Lifelong learning will play

an important role in helping students mature and develop strong global identities, and at

the same time allow faculty to assess student performance and course success.









Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) noted that "the program... includes five central

elements: language, lectures, a field excursion, a family experience, and independent

research and writing" (p. 275). It is also very important that the courses and overall

curriculum be appropriately assessed by all academic institutions, the faculty/staff and

their departments, as well as internal and external committees that can have an impact on

the structure and transfer of the course. But equally important is the relationship between

faculty and students when abroad.

Student Housing and Friendships

In evaluating housing and accommodations for students in study abroad

programs, it is important for student affairs professionals to provide information about

location and proximity to classrooms, roommate matching, study areas, and recreating

areas. Equally important are laundry facilities, computer areas, restrooms, and dining

areas that must be addressed before students embark on study abroad programs and

should be included when addressing housing options. Festervand and Tillery (2001)

stated "as in other developed countries, Japan offers a number of lodging alternatives

including university dormitories, hotels, hostels, and home-stay options" (p. 108).

Study abroad student affairs coordinators and instructors must be included in

helping students become acclimated to their new surroundings, including housing

facilities and social areas. Hill (2004) explained that "administrators were especially

eager to introduce a new residential prototype, even if it meant that density had to be

reduced. They worked closely with student groups to find a balance between academic

life and social interaction that is so critical to the life of the school" (p. 28).









In addition, students should be consulted about types of housing and facilities

they need in order to be successful. Often times, students will socialize, make friendships,

and study in their residence housing, so study abroad programmers should consider these

aspects in the planning stages. Hill (2004) also proposed that "...the benefits of on-

campus housing can be measured and marketed: access, convenience, security, and

support. To maintain current rates of occupancy, however, new facilities must be able to

accommodate the types of services and living conditions that students want and need"

(p. 34).

If program officials expect students to be successful in study abroad programs,

then they must provide easy access to classroom and housing options, convenient

locations of housing and services, good security systems, especially for students taking

night classes, and of course student support services, such as dining and laundry facilities

and resident advisors and/or counselors.

Hill (2004) further recommended "many colleges are grouping students in

residential suites to facilitate better communication to foster social exchange...the "living

and learning" policies that are fast becoming the educational standard" (p. 35). Thus,

housing facilities abroad must have clean and inviting living conditions, especially if

students elect roommate options. It is logical that cramped, unclean quarters would not be

conducive to a healthy living environment nor a student learning environment. In

addition, study abroad programs must carefully consider the "living and learning" idea to

accommodate student needs.

The authors of the International Association of Student Affairs and Services

Professionals (IASAS) manual explained that "student housing must provide a safe,









comfortable, well-maintained and supportive on-campus accommodation for students;

integrate student accommodation goals with those of the academic programme of the

institution; and create opportunities for students to get involved in leadership and

governance opportunities in residence life, organizations, and activities" (p. 47).

For example, study abroad program officials should implement such activities like

welcome socials and group functions so American students can meet other students from

around the world. Also of great importance is for students to elect a group leader, have

choices in excursion and field trip options, and create friendship circles that ultimately

will impact their international experience. Without a social network, feelings of isolation

and loneliness could become problematic; thus, student affairs professionals must

carefully plan the program structure and activities for students starting with the first day

abroad.

In addition, research conducted by the Australian Department of Employment,

Education, and Training (1993) discovered that "Australian institutions provide a range

of student services...include catering, retail facilities, sporting facilities, social, and

cultural activities, and political representation and advocacy" (p. 21).

Therefore, student affairs personnel must try to meet the demands and needs of

the students by providing such services that would help them adjust to life abroad. For

example, simple excursions to shopping centers and cultural events (representative of the

host country) are bound to peak the interests of students wishing to learn more about that

culture. In addition, food services and other approved venues near the foreign institutions

are much more interesting and appealing for students to try new tastes and delicacies.

Simply providing residence hall foods that try to cater to American tastes, such as









"burgers and fries" do not allow the student to really explore the tastes and differences of

their new environment.

Macintyre (2003) explained that "housing that acts to group students close to the

teaching areas gives a coherence and unity to the broader student population" (p. 111).

For example, students enrolled in a German language course abroad will have course

content and language learning in common and can communicate and socialize with one

another in their "living and learning" housing area. Similarly, students enrolled in a

literature course could form study groups in the housing area to study class materials.

Macintyre (2003) further suggested that "it is clearly in the interests of

universities to encourage high quality student housing, since this will act to attract new

students and it will act to encourage strong links between universities and their

surrounding localities" (p. 117). But, universities are not the only institutions that should

provide quality housing. Community colleges should form partnerships with other

colleges and universities abroad when examining acceptable living accommodations for

American students. However, partnerships with the local communities abroad will allow

students to interact with the host countries people and cultures.

Kaya and Weber (2003) noted that "the results showed that students who feel

crowded in their residence hall rooms tend to have poorer social and personal

adjustment... housing administrators might consider implementing programs to assist

student's transition to a college environment. These developmental programs could be

formed to enhance social contact or avoid unwanted social interaction in their residential

settings" (pp. 88-89). Study abroad officials must make sure that overcrowding in

housing does not occur in the destination country and must ensure that living quarters are









clean and spacious. Students may often return to their rooms after an early class to study

or other activities.

Kaya and Weber (2003) further explained "programs that assist students with

adjustment to campus life and interpersonal relationships could also benefit residential

life staff by reducing the number of roommate conflicts and increasing university

retention" (p. 89). Thus, a brochure with roommate checklist could be developed to

eliminate roommate tensions and set a schedule to ensure respect for each other.

An excellent suggestion to alleviate constant roommate problems or tension could

be for program officials to intervene. For example, Dusselier et al. (2005) suggested

"residence hall staff who wish to ease the stress caused by roommates may wish to

consider roommate matching when doing roommate assignments... and provide a series

of questions for roommates to discuss with one another, such as preferences for room

temperature, lighting, sleeping schedules, and rules for invited guests" (p. 22). Study

abroad program coordinators must try to alleviate unnecessary stress factors for students

while abroad. One source is to promote roommate matching, perhaps allow the students

to converse with each other before the program and get to know one another better.

Dusselier et al. (2005) also found that "residence hall environment factors played

a prominent role in the amount of students self-reported stress. Students who were unable

to study in the residence halls experienced higher levels of stress, probably because most

students living in residence halls prefer to study in the residence halls when they are

engaged in study outside of class" (p. 22). Study abroad officials must have adequate

facilities for students to be able to study in the residence halls, whether that is an actual

designated "study area" or library, or a desk and chair in each dormitory room, officials









must support student academic success as the primary goal.

Student Support Services and Programs

Sheppard (2004) stated that "international education takes a commitment to

working with individual students to use international education opportunities to foster

personal growth and meet individual educational and career goals" (p. 40). Student

services and student support staff must be willing to work with individual students,

academically, and personally, so they can achieve their goals.

In addition, students must also have access to various aspects of student services,

like housing, meal options, travel opportunities within the host country and many other

student service necessities while abroad. Student support staff must make sure that

students are well prepared for their travel abroad and even designate a student support

staff member to accompany students abroad.

Festervand and Tillery (2001) explained that "faculty members, administration,

and the university as a whole must accept and satisfy the responsibility for preparing

students, as well as faculty, for the challenges and opportunities increasingly found in the

global marketplace" (p. 106). Along with specific program components, faculty and

program officials must set time aside to discuss course content, culture, and the

environment they will be living in as well as providing ample resources for student

recruitment in study abroad programs.

Floyd, Walker, and Hurd (2002) suggested the following strategies:

Engage stakeholders such as faculty, student affairs staff, students, trustees,
community members, and support staff in meaningful ways to address the
educational benefits, issues, and obstacles of study abroad programs

Implement student orientation programs prior to every study abroad event









Collaborate with similar community colleges to form meaningful alliances.
(pp. 66-68)

The manual that was developed from the UNESCO world conference is a

wonderful and useful tool in guiding programs and services in student affairs. The

authors suggested "...that higher education plays in the improvement of the social,

cultural, political, economic, and environmental aspects of the global society" (p. 1).

Types of Support Services

There are a variety of services that are not only important to domestic students,

but also students who travel abroad. Some of these services include: "academic advising,

counseling, admission process, bookstore services, community service learning, dining

and food services, disability services, health services, orientation services, sports and

recreational services, disciplinary conduct, registration, and housing options"

(pp. 25-48).

Each of these areas should be examined when assessing student support services

in study abroad programs. In addition, Cohen and Brawer (2003) suggested some other

areas for evaluation: "students need to be managed for the sake of institutional order, a

rationale underlying not only the counseling of students into proper programs, but also

registration, student activities, orientation, student government, and record keeping

functions" (p. 197).

All of these areas are especially important in student abroad programming.

Students must be able to have a variety of services that meet their needs while at the same

time keeps the program function organized and well planned. Such activities like

orientation and registration must take place in pre-departure and post-departure

workshops and socials, so that the student has ample time to become familiar with









important travel and study abroad aspects ranging from course curriculum and content to

field excursions.

Safety and Security

McKeown (2003) stated that "like many Americans, many study abroad students

and their parents have expressed an increased concern about air travel safety and

heightened awareness of U.S. interests being targets for terrorism abroad" (p. 85).

However, with good support service departments at the university or college coupled

with informative support staff, parents and students should be ready to ask questions and

have concerns about safety abroad. Support staff should be able to address questions

about political problems, monetary theft, or violence against Americans as well as typical

pre-departure advisement.

Hoye (2003) advised that:

Some colleges give each program participant a small booklet containing
emergency information, including: what -to do and where to go in the event of an
emergency; names and local telephone numbers of all faculty members and
administrators for the program; 24-hour contact information for the home campus;
the telephone numbers and addresses of the local hospital, the U.S. Embassy, and
embassies of governments friendly to the United States; and local addresses and
telephone numbers for each student. (pp. 14 -15)

In addition, law enforcement and other agencies can also be excellent resources

for study abroad students that are unsure of who to contact in an emergency.

Furthermore, McKeown (2003) concluded that "these results suggest that since

September 11, more students consider study abroad an experience that will enhance their

academic and professional careers" (p. 94). Students are concerned with safety, but will

not allow the threats of terrorism and political conflict sway them from studying abroad

because they want to discover the benefits of academic and global learning.









Thus, safety and communication must be important components of study abroad

programming, so that students and faculty are safe while abroad and have adequate

resources and communication with program officials if problems should arise. Cudmore

(2005) explained that "Ontario and Canada have a well-deserved reputation for safety,

tolerance, and the strong support for multiculturalism that make it a desirable destination

for international students" (p. 55).

Scharman (2002) suggested that "to adapt an at-home policy appropriately to a

new setting, it is vital to have accurate information about the host country and city,

current political situation, laws, transportation, and other pertinent issues" (p. 70). It is

important for study abroad officials to present accurate and specific information about the

international host country and this information should not only be presented to the

students, but also to their parents so that everyone is properly educated about possible

risks abroad.

Student Orientation and Workshops

Just as students must understand the risks and threats abroad, they must also be

aware of the culture, lifestyle, and language of the host country. Many students

underestimate what a study abroad experience might entail, and for outgoing students

willing to learn and explore, the possibilities abroad are endless! For other students that

may be reserved, quiet, and recluse, study abroad programs may be the source of

homesickness and unhappiness for them. Thus, pre-departure orientation workshops are

essential for providing information for students, allowing students to get to know one

another and form friendships, and determine whether a study abroad program will fit their

needs.









Kitsantas (2004) noted that "it may be suggested that cross-cultural training

programs take into consideration the critical role that goals play on student's development

of cross-cultural skills and devise pre departure workshops to (a) assist study abroad

students establish goals for their international experience, which primarily include

aspiration to learn more about the culture and people in the country in which they will

study; (b) reinforce students goals to become more cross-culturally sensitive and

knowledgeable and (c) change students social goals into goals which focus on gaining

cross-cultural sensitivity and understanding" (p. 448).

This allows students to be well prepared before leaving their home institutions

while allowing students to ask questions in a comfortable setting and allowing students to

socialize, a vital part of the educational experience.

Dolby (2004) described "the first challenge to their idea of an American identity

came early, at the mandatory orientation meeting for all students traveling to Australia

the following semester. As is customary at these meetings, nationals of the host country

and former American study abroad participants are invited to briefly address the students

on what to expect from their stay" (p. 163). For example, students and parents can have

one-on-one discussions with participants and can determine whether that particular study

abroad program is right for them and gives them an understanding of what it would be

like abroad.

Stanitski and Fuellhart (2003) explained "all students should be advised to take at

least one credit card, to purchase the International Student Identity Card (ISIC), for

discounts and limited travel insurance coverage, to make sure that their health insurance

policies apply when abroad, and to be sure that they have obtained (or renewed) their









passport and all necessary visas...and photocopies of all important documents be left

with appropriate personnel at the university in case of emergency" (p. 201).

Therefore, students should make sure they have an item checklist of necessary

items to take abroad such as Student ID, clothing and toiletries, shoes, first aid kit and

other items. Staff and administrative personnel must make sure that parents and students

are advised of appropriate personal items to take abroad in addition to course materials,

such as textbooks, pens, and a backpack.

Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) stated that they "held several formal and informal

orientation meetings to show slides and to lecture on special requirements of Nepali

social life" (p. 277). Hosting only one workshop prior to departure is inadequate in

preparing students for study abroad. Prior participants, program officials, instructors, and

others affiliated with the program must be available to answer both student and parent

questions in both workshops, seminars, one-on-one panels all prior to studying abroad.

Yet there must be an emphasis on responsibility, maturity, attitude, and behavior

of student participants while abroad. These areas should be discussed along with the

actual components of the program, academic, support services, student life, and any other

areas that pertain to the study abroad program. Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) explained

"we also meet with students and their parents in groups and/or one to one and identify all

the concerns... housing, sufficient money, extracurricular travel, coursework, language,

local transportation, meeting people and making friends, unfamiliar currency, adjusting to

new customs, local food, health, homesickness, and climate...what behaviors, clothes,

and the like are acceptable and unacceptable in Nepali society" (p. 278).









In addition, Zhao, Kuh, Carini (2005) explained that "student affairs personnel

might focus on designing programs and activities to bring Asian students into contact

with students from other backgrounds. Most campuses, for example, sponsor celebrations

of different cultures" (p. 226). Program leaders can plan and implement special

celebrations abroad. For example, if the study abroad program takes place over the 4th of

July, a special picnic or barbeque celebration could provide a wonderful social event for

interaction among international students and American students.

It is necessary to address certain aspects of study abroad, such as culture shock,

daily activities, and many other functions in pre-study abroad workshops or mandatory

meetings before students engage on study abroad trips. Scharman (2002) suggested that

"some still underestimate the magnitude of adjustments required during an extended

period of time away from home: exposure to a new culture, new customs, climate,

monetary system, routines, food, living arrangements, and roommates- all in the absence

of familiar support systems... feelings of homesickness, loneliness, and anxiety are not

unusual and should be expected" (p. 71).

Equally important is student behavior abroad and understanding different customs

and rituals before studying abroad. Scharman (2002) further discussed the important of

understanding "communicating" abroad:

It is important to avoid offensive behaviors such as inappropriate dress as
determined by local customs; greetings that may be misunderstood; lack of
observance of quiet times or religious days; and disrespect for shrines, special
markers, or sacred sites. Students should be aware that certain hand gestures,
phrases, tones or levels of voice, and general deportment may convey unintended
messages. Being respectful of restrictions regarding photography and off-limits
areas, using neutral language when possible, and being open-minded can be
helpful. (p. 73)









These topics should be addressed in pre-seminars. In order for colleges to

accurately prepare their students for the cultural differences abroad, they must prepare

their students, and even have their students read a brief program that should include

cultural, religious, and ethnic differences.

Medical and Emergency Concerns

Going abroad is educational and exciting, but returning healthy and energized is

just as critical. Knowing where to go and who to contact in a medical emergency should

be discussed in both pre-departure and mid-departure workshops as well as having

adequate health and medical coverage while abroad. Some programs will require that

students have vaccination shots required for travel to foreign countries, such as India.

Hoye (2003) noted that "colleges should also ask students and faculty members-to

verify that they will have adequate health insurance during the time while they are

abroad. Some health-insurance policies do not provide such coverage outside the country,

so institutions should advise everyone participating in overseas programs that they may

need to purchase additional coverage on their own" (p. 17).

And lastly, students should be aware of their own common ailments, such as a flu

or common cold, and should bring medications that they are used to taking rather than

depending on the international country for supplies. Scharman (2002) suggested that

"students should be encouraged to focus on eating a balanced diet, drinking plenty of

water, getting adequate rest, maintaining hygiene routines, and bringing personal supplies

(contact lenses, bug spray, Band-Aids, sun block, antiseptic, nail clippers) that may be

hard to find on the trip.., and keep medications in the original drugstore containers [with

prescription copies]" (p. 75).









Kitsantas (2004) recommended "as businesses globalize and the demand for

employees prepared for international assignments steadily increases, training programs

designed to enhance and support students goals to develop their cross-cultural skills may

be useful in maximizing these skills" (p. 448). This is important for support services to

allow students continued educational growth by introducing more interactive internship

opportunities while abroad to help support the study abroad experience. By interactive

learning, students are more likely to gain a deeper understanding of the host culture than

textbook learning alone.

Field Trips and Excursions

Schroth and McCormack (2000) explored that "study abroad students high scores

on the Experience Seeking subscale suggest that their needs consist of seeking new

experiences through the mind and senses by traveling abroad" (p. 534).

Whether these experience are exploring different regions, exploring new customs

and cultures, or tasting a variety of delectable foods from different countries, the need for

exploration (both from personal field trips and academic related excursions) is to be

expected from students traveling abroad. In addition, it is each individual and unique

experiences of students that will help them expand their mind and external boundaries to

other aspects of their lives.

Schroth and McCormack (2000) also noted that "the present data also provide

inferences with which to speculate about the cognitive processes that may explain

different ways that individuals respond to cross-cultural situations" (p. 535).

That is, each student learns and encounters new experiences differently, but

service learning (i.e., volunteer work, or specialized activities) during study abroad









programs can be important in allowing students to explore, learn, and work side-by-side

culturally different people. Only then will students begin to understand and respond to

"cross cultural situations" with a fresh glimpse into different civilizations, thus

unknowingly transforming themselves into global citizens.

In order for students to have access to travel, it is imperative that program

officials examine all travel possibilities, such as train, subway system, bus, taxi and

suggest the most cost effective solution for students to get around in their new

surroundings. Festervand and Tillery (2001) explained that "for groups of up to 15

students, such as our class, the use of public transportation is recommended. In planning

ground transportation, both long-haul and local transport must be considered. As an

option, unlimited mileage rail passes may be purchased" (p. 108).

In addition, there are other means of travel, such as multilocation tours that should

be included in the study abroad program. Duke (2000) explained that multilocationn tours

move from one location, city, or country to another during the academic session and

attract students who are interested in seeing several different cultural areas" (p. 155). This

is very important because it allows students the opportunity to view, learn, and participate

in different regions, cultures, and meet with different citizens. But tours should remain

only a portion of the study abroad program, the academic component must be the main

focus of the program.

Furthermore, Langley and Breese (2005) proposed that "for students studying

abroad to have a fully enriching cultural experience, they should live and study with

students of the host culture. Study-abroad programs should include opportunities for both

directed and serendipitous travel" (p. 320). Travel should be included as part of the









curriculum because the opportunities for students to explore and visit new areas, gives

them tremendous confidence and control over their own learning and development.

Duke (2000) also noted "when arranging a company visit, it is advisable for the

professor to provide the company with a discussion guide to ensure that the discussion

focuses on the issues that are relevant to the course. By attempting to manage the

presentation, the professor is more likely to have successful visits that maximize the

course objectives" (p. 159). In addition, students should also have an overview of the

company or international institution so they can prepare educated questions and

discussion items for the guest speaker. It is this ability to seek out and investigate new

environments, whether travel or visiting a company, that plays a vital role in their

cognitive and intellectual development.

Cultural Awareness

How do program officials begin to assess elevated levels of cultural awareness

and ethnic sensitivity in students that go on study abroad programs? How can they assess

what that student has learned from the course and whether that student has connected

what is learned in the classroom to actual reality? And how do they know if the study

abroad program is successful?

Sheppard (2004) noted that "while different factors drive internationalization on

individual campuses, there seems to be a common acknowledgement that the goal is to

create an environment where students can become interculturally effective people and

global citizens. International education offers students the opportunity to explore

different countries, cultures, views, and ideals" (p. 34). And it is this interaction and









cultural awareness of the student about their surroundings that allows them to begin to

understand their own benchmarks and goals of the program.

Applications of Classroom Learning

With proper instructional techniques and exploration of the country, the student

can then begin to take what is learned in the classroom and apply it to the real-life

situations. Whether it is language acquisition, archeological/historical knowledge, or

cultural awareness of the destination country, the ability for students to make the

connection between classroom academics and worldly comprehension and at the same

time understand their own personal and academic objectives, is priceless. This is exactly

what study abroad programs set out to accomplish, to empower the learner to be self-

sufficient and responsible for their own learning.

There is a level of success that study abroad programs need to achieve in addition

to the student, faculty, and administrative individual goals. Sheppard (2004) questioned

whether study abroad programs "make students global citizens? What role does

international education play in developing global citizens? Who determines if

international education programs are a success?" (p. 34).

Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) suggested that "students also visit sites such as

temples or monasteries, museums, hospitals, marketplaces, cremation grounds, and

government offices to increase their exposure to and their understanding of Nepali social

life and social structure" (p. 275). Instructors must help educate students about the link

between what is learned in the classroom and actual sites so they can truly gain a deeper

understanding of the culture and lifestyle of the international country.









In addition, Hellman, Hoppes, and Ellison (2006) suggested that "service learning

moves students and faculty from the classroom into the community to work with

underserved populations; resulting in enhanced critical reasoning, personal and

interpersonal development, understanding the application of core knowledge, reflective

practice, and citizenship for the student..." (p. 30). Instructors could incorporate such

service learning credit as part of the curriculum, which allows the student full immersion

with host nationals.

Geelhoed, Abe, and Talbot (2003) found that "encouraging intercultural

interaction significantly influenced the level of intercultural acceptance and cross-cultural

knowledge and openness of the Australian students. These students were also more likely

to interact with other cultural groups within the larger campus community" (p. 5).

Students who study abroad are more likely to be interested in learning new cultures and

talking with native students. Instructors can encourage and support intercultural

communication by assigning specific coursework to cultural awareness and group work.

Cultural Competence

De Vita (2001) explained that "the importance of cultural background in the

development of individual learning style finds further support in the influence that

culture-based educational experiences have in predisposing individuals to certain ways of

learning" (p. 167). Thus, faculty must identify different learner techniques and target

student needs.

Caffrey, Neander, Markle, and Stewart (2005) proposed that:

Cultural competence, then, is an ongoing process requiring more than formal
knowledge. Values and attitudes are the foundation for a commitment to
providing culturally competent care, and their development requires experiences
with culturally diverse individuals and communities...an immersion clinical









experience in another country can result in dramatic affective changes in students
values and attitudes, which affect their cultural competence. (pp. 234-240).

Students are more likely to adjust their values and attitudes based on encountering

of different people and cultures; therefore, participation in study abroad programs directly

influence changes in student identity development. Thus, cultural competence is a major

part of identity development and the formation of new levels of global understanding.

Of most significance is students respect of new cultures and persons. Kitsantas

(2004) advocated that "study abroad programs significantly, contribute to the preparation

of students to function in a multicultural world and promote international understanding"

(p. 447). But program officials must also take into consideration that students who are

truly interested in learning the new host culture will dedicate a greater amount of time

and energy than students who are not as interested. Therefore, to function in a

multicultural world is to have a universal respect of internationalism.

Cultural Identity

Dolby (2004) argued that students "national identity shifts from a passive to an

active identity in the global context" (p. 162). This suggests that as students encounter

their new environment, they begin to analyze their own national identity, whether

subconsciously or not, students compare the new environment to their home environment

and begin to modify their identity based on new learning.

Dolby (2004) also stated that "most significantly, all students encountered the

multiple articulations of 'America' that exist around the globe and the disjuncture that

exists between the United States and America" (p. 171). Therefore, students became

familiar with how others perceive and understand "America" and the "American Culture"

and how American pop culture (music, movies, clothing labels, etc) impact others around









the globe. And as students begin to see how others perceive them, they start to evaluate

their own biases and prejudices of other cultures, leading to a change in their intellectual

development.

There is a very positive aspect between students living and learning in foreign

countries that is evident in learning culture and language. Duke (2000) explained that

"study abroad programs are accessible and allow students to experience different places

and cultures" (p. 155). And it is this exposure to cultural that allows students to practice

their language skills in a relaxed environment. For students that go abroad to practice and

improve their foreign language skills, the impact is obviously greater to speak with

citizens in their native environment.

Wagenaar and Subedi (1996) indicated that "because the culture is so different

from their own, study in a developing country provides American students with unique

opportunities to learn about culture and society. In short, the experience enhances

multiculturalism: the practice of emphasizing the contributions to modern society of

diverse racial/ethnic, gender, class, and other groups and of other cultures" (p. 272).

Therefore, the major goal of study abroad programs is to provide academic

learning within a new and exciting environment that will broaden students thinking not

only about academics, but about the culture and society that they reside in. Merva (2003)

explained that "study-abroad programs have among their goals to provide students with

an intercultural experience enriching students understanding and personal growth in the

context of continuing their academic studies" (p. 154). This "intercultural experience" is

an added benefit that may not be readily available on domestic college campuses because

students are comfortable and relaxed within their common environments.









Technology

In order to explore how technology can be infused into academic curricula, Surrey

et al. (2005) explained the concept of the RIPPLES model is "resources (fiscal),

infrastructure (network), people, policies, learning, evaluation, and support" are all major

components of successful integration of instructional technology into higher education"

(p. 328).

Without adequate financial support for new technologies, the infrastructure would

be weak. Surrey et al. (2005) further advised that the "infrastructure refers to a college's

hardware, software, facilities, and network..." (p. 328). Therefore, providing computer

labs, computers, and important programming coupled with other resources are necessary

elements of creating a cohesive technological academic environment.

Arias and Clark (2004) stated that "issues of poor connectivity, lack of human

capacity, scarcity of appropriate content and ever diminishing budgets are dealt with on a

regular basis" (p. 52). These issues will continue to challenge the technology initiatives

presently and in the future, but program leaders can help alleviate some of these problems

by working with international representatives.

Leh and Kennedy (2004) found that "projects in developing countries often

require partnerships with universities and medical health organizations because

physicians and university professionals meet the prerequisites for literacy and basic

technology skills" (p. 97). Partnerships among international colleges are extremely

important in promoting and maintaining literacy and education in all fields, not only the

medical field. In order to provide a strong educational foundation for students abroad,

program leaders must also understand and help with poorer conditions in underdeveloped









countries. This is more important than a college mission; it must be a global priority for

all colleges and universities, especially from technologically advanced nations, to support

universal educational objectives.

Another issue concerns safety. Leh and Kennedy (2004) explained that "...school

administrators hesitate to invest money in computers because of burglary and theft, a

widespread problem in PNG [Papua, New Guinea]" (p. 98). Officials must support efforts

to educate and protect valuable equipment in underdeveloped countries so that their

citizens and our students have the best educational opportunities available to them.

But, school administrators who avoid technology because of theft concerns

undermine the very essence and meaning of education. If officials expect to see great

progress from our future generation of students, then they must provide the necessary

technological tools with security features for them to be successful, or how can they

expect to promote a "nation of learners"?

Arias and Clark (2004) indicated that "the developing world has indeed turned to

instructional technology, whether it is through distance learning, training or classroom

instruction, and all of these educational applications of technology are explicitly or

implicitly being designed using the instructional systems design process" (p. 53). Study

abroad programs can indeed be successful abroad and in distance learning initiatives with

the appropriate technological tools.

Technology Impact on Faculty

Golden (2004) explained that "while these efforts will include resources and

training for higher education faculty, the major focus of this initiative is to assist teacher

candidates in implementing instructional technology effectively, as well as using student









data to assess and modify instruction" (p. 44). Program coordinators and administrators

must take the necessary steps to training faculty on the technological software they will

be using abroad and provide support and curriculum development options.

Owen and Demb (2004) stated that "the question of intellectual property is

another tension-filled topic for faculty and administration. Faculty put countless hours

into the development of online courses and programs for technology-enhanced classes,

and the idea of just giving away these products is distressing" (p. 650). Faculty should

not be forced to "give away" their technological class materials, so to ensure that it is not

duplicated; collegiate leaders must make sure such materials are copyrighted to the

institution where they are teaching.

Depending on the length of the study abroad program, the faculty's tenure, and

salary contract, administrators must take into consideration that the faculty member may

serve additional roles, such as advisor and counselor. A discounted travel, program cost,

and salary compensation must be negotiated and discussed with the instructor so that a

satisfactory compromise is reached prior to travel. Owen and Demb (2004) further

explained that "compensation is another central issue for faculty and relates to the

amount of faculty time associated with learning technology, developing courses, working

with the students, and updating programs" (p. 651).

Williams and Kingham (2003) found that "it is possible to conclude that there is

still a lack of infusion of technology into the curriculum. In order for teachers to infuse

teaching with technology, they need professional development opportunities to learn to

use and implement technology in their classrooms" (p. 183). Study abroad programs can

be a forerunner in the race for technology advances in the classroom. Instructors can









implement software in classroom activities and visit nearby host colleges to learn new

techniques and tools used in their classrooms.

In addition, instructors must be afforded the opportunities for professional

technological development opportunities before implementing programs abroad for the

first time. With new sites to explore, covering various educational aspects, and

acclimating students to their new countries, instructors must be able to rely on technology

and software programs that have previously been approved in other study abroad

programs.

Faculty, staff, and administrators must integrate policies to guide and structure the

uses of technology programs and must have adequate support services such as

"technological support, pedagogical support, and administrative leadership" to provide

technological learning for students. Thus, educators must examine how successful or

unsuccessful specific technological programs are for students academic learning process.

Kozma (2003) stated that "the interactivity of technologies is cited as a key

feature that enables students to receive feedback, on their performance, test and reflect on

their ideas, and revise their understanding" (p. 1). Study abroad instructors should have

already used such programs, for example, "blackboard" or other technological software

to provide academic feedback and test scores to students.

But such programs must be approved by both home and host institutions before

travel, and the instructor must have a good working knowledge of these programs in

order to help students use these programs abroad. Having these programs abroad can

prove to be vital, especially when students have a pre-approved itinerary merging

academics with excursions and may not be able to visit instructors during "office hours."









Similarly, instructors using blackboard or other educational software to provide

student feedback will have more time and opportunities to network with other academic

professionals in their host country and attend seminars that can benefit their own

professional development.

Duke (2000) explained that "simulations are well liked by students and allow the

students to interact on a more personal level with the instructor outside of the classroom.

The suitability of simulations for study abroad courses is dependent on the need for

computers and other technology, which will likely have to be carried by the instructor.

Simulations may not be appropriate when technology and facilities are limited" (p. 164).

To solve one of these problems, Golden (2004) suggested that "funded projects

will use handheld computers to facilitate the creation of easily replicable models that

support an inexpensive and versatile technology, as well as focus on innovative

applications that directly impact student performance" (p. 42).

In poorer countries, there may not be adequate facilities to promote technology in

the classroom, but the instructor can still provide resources for laptop assignments or

other portable tech equipment available from their academic departments and community

colleges. In addition, study abroad programmers, administrators, as well as local and state

officials, must partner with disadvantaged countries to facilitate and promote

technological support to students.

Kozma (2003) concluded that "when teachers go beyond these basic practices and

use technology to also plan and prepare instruction and collaborate with outside actors,

and when students also use technology to conduct research projects, analyze data, solve

problems, design products, and assess their own work, students are more likely to









develop new ICT, problem solving, information management, collaboration, and

communication skills" (p. 13). If officials are to promote lifelong learning and allow

students to be responsible for their own learning and development, then instructors must

take on a supportive role to help them acclimate to technological assignments and

activities while abroad.

Arias and Clark (2004) proposed that "instructional technologies in varying forms

of delivery and formats such as radio, television, personal computers, the internet, print,

audio cassettes and CD-ROMs are being deployed throughout the developing world in an

effort to meet the critical educational problems of quantity, resources and quality at all

levels" (p. 53). These are some major uses of IT that can be beneficial both in the

classroom and out of the classroom to help student learning. Instructors should use many

of the available technological tools available to support individual learner needs.

Zhang, Perris and Yeung (2005) explained that "individual practitioners should

examine what they want to do with online learning and how they intend to meet their

learning objectives." (p. 802). In addition, Smyth (2005) noted "there is great potential

for broadband videoconferencing ... to provide greater opportunities for teachers and

students to engage interactively in their disciplines.., it similarly enables teachers to

engage in experimentation, collaboration, research, and reflection about potential

teaching techniques" (p. 816). For example, if simultaneous courses are occurring abroad

and at US community colleges, a panel of international speakers or corporate leaders

abroad could be a part of a videoconferencing initiative back to the home institution.

What better way to introduce diversity and internationalism into the classroom?









Technology Impact on Students

Smyth (2005) found that "the richness of the medium [videoconferencing] makes

it possible for students to be involved in experiences extending from a traditional lecture

to dialogue and virtual participation in practical work....In addition, it enhance the

experiences of full-time students by providing them with opportunities to interact with

peers or experts working professionally in the field" (pp. 810-817).

In study abroad programs, videoconferencing can be a strong tool in helping

students abroad connect with other students in the classroom. In addition, a panel of

experts or international students can be part of a group project that can discuss and

collaborate on projects globally.

Liu and Lee (2005) advised that "a web-based learning system was presented to

enable students to exchange their personal understandings of concepts regarding database

design and applications, allowing them to adjust their personal perspectives" (p. 834).

Therefore, the inclusion of web based technology and peer group work increased overall

learning and helped them develop higher level thinking skills.

Williams and Kingham (2003) stated that "through the Internet, students have

access to libraries, databases, museums, government offices, satellite data, and experts in

the field... another powerful characteristic of the Internet is its timeliness: information is

updated continually, and where textbooks become outdated quickly, the Internet is a

source of real-time information" (p. 179).

It is imperative that students have access to the same types of technological

services that they would have had at their home institutions. Study abroad program

officials must decide whether to supply students with laptops abroad or whether the host









country has technological hardware and software that can support students learning

initiatives. Even in foreign countries, access to the internet is very important for students

to research and gather information to meet course objectives.

Zhang, Perris and Yeung (2005) found that "students were most comfortable, and

found the most purpose for using computers and the Internet, for independent work such

as submitting assignments, conducting searches, and retrieving course content" (p. 801).

These are useful and necessary tools to help students not only keep track of assignments,

but also help them adapt technology to their individual learning styles.

It is important for instructors to engage students with technology and building a

web site can add a fun incentive to study abroad initiatives. Reber (2005) noted that

"building a web site allowed working in accordance with the individual's interests, made

the course more motivating, more fun and less boring than the traditional approach to

teaching" (p. 95). Students can then upload photos, essays, even video slides of their

favorite places, people, and experiences with new cultures.

Lambert (2001) recommended "the widespread availability of personal computers

(PCs) for both teacher and learner has brought healthy experimentation in the use of

computers in language teaching" (p. 359). Personal computers can be used in both

language learning and regular course content. Interactive programs that help writing,

reading, and language skills are vital in helping students develop their own learning

objectives.

Windschitl (1998) stated that "classroom teachers are engaging in innovative

practices using the Web either as an information resource or as a way of communicating

with others, and these initiatives are almost certain to establish patterns for use of internet









technology in other classrooms" (p. 28). Coupled with classroom instruction and

international and multicultural elements, web utilization in the classroom, especially in

study abroad programs, can be a very powerful tool in student learning.

For study abroad purposes, computers can serve a variety of purposes, from

helping students with mathematical analysis to assignment submission and grade

accessibility. Windschitl (1998) explained that "instant access to information is one

attractive feature of the WWW; another is its global domain. The novelty and excitement

of accessing Web pages from places like France or Malaysia is stimulating for learners.

Students in many classrooms routinely use email and news groups to communicate with

students abroad for a variety of purposes" (p. 30).

But the opposite scenario is just as possible and exciting. For example, internet

classroom activities and web assignments are help students learn and communicate with

other students from their country. But, the internet can also serve as an abundant resource

in relaying international panels and activities occurring in classrooms abroad back to

other classrooms in the United States.

Windschitl (1998) indicated that "when students study abroad, parents and

teachers hope that they return with more than an academic understanding of the host

countries. A major purpose... is to cultivate a deep appreciation of other countries, their

cultures, and their people" (p. 31). Therefore, study abroad classroom instruction must

incorporate technology and international aspects that will help students gain a deeper

understanding, and provide opportunities such as web based exercises with international

students, faculty, officials, etc. while abroad.









Because of technological advancements, Kozma (2003) explained that "teams of

students are engaged in solving complex, authentic problems that cross disciplinary

boundaries. Instead of dispensing knowledge, teachers set up projects, arrange for access

to appropriate resources, and create organizational structures and support that can help

student succeed" (p. 2). Such strategies can be used in study abroad programming and

allows for more student-teacher interaction as well as group work.

Zhao, Kuh, Carini (2005) advised that "it is also possible international students

are more comfortable and confident using computer technology, for preparing class

assignments as well as for communicating with their instructors and other students.

Although technology may help ease the transition to the American college campus, it

may also play a part in social isolation if it substitutes for face-to-face interaction"

(p. 223).

Similarly, American students may also want to shy away from interaction with

foreign natives by immersing themselves in technology, but this problem can be easily

avoided as long as instructors use both technology and international interaction as part of

the course objective. Instructors should also encourage friendship circles within

classrooms especially abroad, to help minimize isolation.

Summary

In this chapter, Chickering's Theory of Student Development along with the

environmental variables was presented in order to examine study abroad student

development. Study abroad programs, like many collegiate academic programs, must

have a sound, legitimate academic program. Accreditation, along with articulation and

transfer agreements between the host institution and the domestic institution must be









reliable and approved in order to have ease of transfer of credits and application of credits

to either general education requirements, major, or minor requirements towards the

degree. Similarly, student interest in the study abroad program is vital not only to boost

internationalization and globalization, but also to promote increased interest and

individual student development.

Other important factors that must be considered in study abroad programs are the

faculty role, teaching, and student impact, curriculum and classroom learning

environment, student housing and friendships, student support services and programs,

field trips, cultural awareness, and technology. Of paramount interest is the faculty role in

student learning, as well as faculty development. If program leaders expect faculty

members to educate and promote student learning, then they must have the right

educational tools to do so. Such tools can be obtained through professional development

opportunities, and advanced teaching programs and services.

Similarly, faculty must be compensated appropriately and overload of courses

must be avoided to prevent "burnout" and dissatisfaction. The faculty role in student

learning is not simple, as each student is uniquely different and therefore each will learn

differently. This brings us to the next main variable of classroom learning. Faculty have

the responsibility of providing an academic learning experience while abroad, but at the

same time, employ different methods of learning techniques. From traditional lecture

methods to international panel members and group projects, students must the

opportunity to be creative, learn, and understand the materials in a fun and interactive

environment.









Such a mix of learning techniques can allow students to appreciate and learn all

content areas, especially if technology is used in the classroom. Instructors can

incorporate many aspects of technology that most likely are employed at their home

institutions. For example, "blackboard" or some form of program that allows students to

retrieve assignments and submit homework can be very beneficial to both student and

instructor. In addition, the instructor can incorporate PowerPoint into lecture materials,

and if the technology is advanced enough, can use video conferencing to talk with

nationals or even students at their home institution.

Furthermore, the classroom can provide a great avenue for student to interact and

learn from one another. Another aspect of promoting student communities and

friendships is the living and learning environment of housing. Whether student elect to

stay with a host family or prefer the approved residence halls, the interaction with new

and different cultures and peoples are strong factors in student development. If colleges

offer an approved housing option for students while abroad, they must ensure that the

living quarters are clean, furnished, and allow for student interaction, whether that

incorporated floor socials or study areas. These are important factors that also promote

student learning and development.

Finally, student support programs must be incorporated into the study abroad

program to allow students the opportunity to go on field trips and provide important

aspects of academic life needed to support and encourage student learning. An on-site

coordinator or counselor should be available to help with homesickness or loneliness. In

addition, registration, book services, and extracurricular activities, such as field trips must

be available to students to help them prepare for class and enjoy the study abroad









experience. Thus, having reviewed the research related to the major variables of the

student development theory, it is important to evaluate the variety methods used in the

collection and evaluation of data as presented in the next chapter.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains the methods used in the evaluation of the research study.

First, a review of the participants, and data collection process will be explained, along

with the study methodologies. Next, the research hypothesis, research questions, and

instrumentation will be examined. In addition, a variety of test-retest methods and a

Biserial correlation analysis will be used to examine the research questions as well as a

list of operational definitions is indicated at the end of the chapter.

Purpose

The purpose of this study explored how American undergraduate students

perceive their self-development changes after participation in a community college study

abroad program. This study reviewed the extent to which students gained increased levels

of self-development based on their international academic and social experiences while

studying abroad using Chickering's Theory of Student Development.

Community College Study Abroad Programs

In order to conduct a national study of study abroad programs, a complete search

of all community colleges (or colleges formerly known as community colleges) websites

was conducted from the League for Innovation directory. In addition, emails and phone

calls were made to follow up on recruited colleges. Some of the colleges emailed a

"declined" response because they did not possess a study abroad program, while other

programs responded favorably if they did possess a study abroad program and wanted to

participate. It is also important to note that some college websites were inactive, while

other schools provided a list of independent or private study abroad companies or study









abroad student organizations that did not maintain sufficient information to become a

participant in this study.

Participants

The participants consisted of 46 undergraduate students whose host institutions

were selected national community colleges and who decided to study abroad either for

elective or major credit. The participants elected to participate in their study abroad

program and were asked to complete the Study Abroad Student Development Survey. In

addition, the study abroad coordinators and advisors also assisted with the research

process by administering, proctoring, and recollection of the evaluation forms. Informed

consent was acknowledged on each survey and was confirmed when each student

completed the survey.

Data Collection

Colleges were selected based on sufficient evidence that their study abroad

program was current and accepting student participants for the upcoming summer study

abroad programs. The study abroad director, coordinator and/or instructors were

contacted via email on the following dates: 1/17/06, 1/18/2006, 1/30/2006, and 2/20/2006

and asked to complete an information sheet and return to the researcher. After consent

was received from the prospective colleges, the study was conducted via survey method

before and after the students returned from their study abroad destinations.

A modified version of the University of Florida's Study Abroad Questionnaire

was administered to all students who completed their community college study abroad

program by their respective study abroad coordinator or chief instructor. The length of

time varied depending on what type of study abroad academic program they attended, but









mostly took place in the summer session. In general, data was collected from students

who studied abroad from May 2006 to August 2006.

The main method of inquiry used in this research project was quantitative with a

static pretest-posttest design. First, the overall hypothesis was formulated and then

additional research questions were evaluated to test the main hypothesis and to determine

whether the seven vectors of student development actually emerged and if those patterns

had significant impact on the students identity development.

Reliability

According to Penfield (2003), "reliability concerns the extent to which a

variable's outcomes correspond to levels of the entity in a consistent and stable manner"

(p. 34). Therefore, reliability is concerned with the data analysis and data measurements

in duplication of the study. For example, how reliable will the study be if duplicated

using the exact same measurement techniques?

There are a number of indicators that attest to the reliability of a study, such as

sample size, effect size, and lack of confounding variables which will be discussed in the

following chapter. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals that were sampled relative

to the population of students studying abroad is high because the sample population is the

total population of students studying abroad from that particular college. In other words,

those students freely elected to participate in the program and all individuals in the

program were surveyed, thus representing the entirety of the study abroad program. In

addition, the examination of select attributes among the sample population, such as

gender, race, major, and previous experience abroad will also be crucial in eliminating

confounding variables between pretest and posttest comparisons.









Another direct proponent of reliability success is "measurement error because it

causes the outcomes of a variable to become unstable, inconsistent, or unreliable" (p. 35).

The goal of quantitative researchers is to minimize the amount of error by making sure

that rating scales appropriately represent the subject being studied. Penfield (2003)

further noted "the reliability of scores obtained from scales or tests are affected by two

primary sources: (a) the degree to which all items measure the same general entity, and

thus are interrelated; and (b) the number of items on the scale or test" (p. 47).

So how many questions or items being measured should the rating scale have to

be reliable? Penfield suggested "typically, acceptable reliability of tests composed of

multiple choice questions is obtained with approximately 30 or more items. For rating

scales, however, acceptable reliability is often obtained with 10 or more items." For our

purposes, the rating scale measured 7 items with a total of 40 questions, all directly

related to student development and interrelated in measuring the environmental variables,

thus providing rich sources of reliability, please see "Instrumentation" section.

Validity

There are two main types of validity that must be addressed in this study, internal

validity and external validity. Penfield (2003) explained that "internal validity of a

research study is the degree to which the effects of all confounding variables have been

controlled for and can be observed with the following two factors: (1) random variability

in the sample means is due to the random nature of the selection of the samples, and (2)

the effect of the independent variable (confounding variables)" (p. 299).

In this study, students who applied to their study abroad program also decided to

participate in this study and can be considered a true representation of their home









institution population. Thus, it was necessary to eliminate some possible confounding

variables, such as student selection variability, race, and gender biases by surveying the

same group of students before and after (pretest-posttest) while examining their attributes

and student development progression.

Second, external validity is just as important to review as internal validity.

Penfield (2003) explained "external validity concerns the extent to which the findings of

a study generalize to other intended settings and can be examined by two questions: (1) is

the population from which the sample was drawn representative of the population of

which the research question is asked? (2) Is the environment in which the study was

conducted representative of the environment surrounding the research question in the real

world?" (p. 300).

To address these concerns, the sample population was representative of the

college campus, since the students who participated in the program attend their respective

colleges. Participants were asked to name their home institution on the survey form,

which was examined more completely in the next chapter. Furthermore, nationally

recognized community colleges were asked to participate in the study to maximize

student population and diversity. In addition, the environment is unique and

representative of the "real world" since each program was located in a different region in

the United States and offered their study abroad programs in different destinations around

the world. Finally, the evaluations were administered before the students arrived at their

destination and after they had completed the program, whether this took place in the host

country or destination country.









Research Hypothesis

The overall research hypothesis examined whether undergraduate students who

participated in their community college study abroad program reported enhanced self-

development consistent with Chickering's Theory of Student Development.

Research Questions

In order to answer the research hypothesis, three research questions were

investigated:

RQ1: To determine the relationship between the individual student development
vectors and overall student development using a Biserial Correlation Analysis

RQ2: To determine whether student development increased as a result of study
abroad participation by examining pretest and posttest results

RQ3: To determine whether specific socio-economic variables influenced student
development among study abroad participants using an Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) method

Instrumentation

Research Question #1

To answer the first research question, a number of methods were used to test the

internal and external validity of the instrument. Penfield (2003) suggested four methods

to test validity and explained that "...each source informs different aspects of validity"

(p. 50):

1. Evidence based on item content

2. Evidence based on response process

3. Evidence based on how the variable's outcomes relate to the outcomes of
other variables, such as an established criterion.

4. Evidence based on the internal structure of the scale or test.









The first method used was evidence based on item content and was endorsed by

an "expert panel." An expert panel evaluated and approved the modified version of the

program evaluation in order to confirm reliability of the instrument used in this study.

The members consisted of a variety of student affairs leaders and have significant

expertise in the area of student development and student learning.

The expert panel was led by Dr. Ken Osfield, University of Florida, and the

members included Mr. Roger Ludeman, Chair, International Association of Student

Affairs and Services Professionals (IASAS), Dr. Lisa Bardill, Associate Dean at Florida

Atlantic University and Coordinator of the Semester at Sea program, Dr. Martha

Sullivan, former Vice President of Student Affairs and currently Special Assistant to the

President at Tulane University, Dr. Harold Holmes, Dean of Students and Associate Vice

President of Student Affairs at Wake Forest, Dr. Sandy Hubler, Vice President of Student

Affairs, at George Mason University and Dr. Howard, Wang, Vice President of Student

Affairs, University of California, Fullerton.

The panel rated both the pretest and posttest surveys and noted how each question

compared to the environmental variables of Chickering's Theory of Student Development

to determine whether each question accurately reflected the student development vector

being measured. The panel used a Likert rating scale of 1-5, (with a 1 signifying strongly

disagree and a 5 signifying strongly agree) to rate the validity of each environmental

variable within the student development vector (Table 3-1 and 3-2).

The seven Student Developmental Vectors were defined as follows:

8. Intellectual competence: Acquisition of knowledge and skills related to
particular subject matter. Physical Competence comes through athletic and
recreational activities. Interpersonal Competence includes skills in
communication, leadership, and working effectively with others.










9. Managing emotions: Students develop the ability to recognize and accept
emotions as well as to appropriately express and control them.

10. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence: Result in increased
emotional independence, which is defined as 'freedom from continual and
pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval from others.'

11. Developing mature interpersonal relationships: Include development of
intercultural and interpersonal tolerance and appreciation of differences, as
well as the capacity for healthy and lasting intimate relationships with partners
and close friends.

12. Establishing identity: Acknowledgement of differences in identity
development is based on gender, ethnic background, and sexual orientation.

13. Developing purpose: Development of clear vocational goals, making
meaningful commitments to specific personal interests and activities, and
establishing strong interpersonal commitments.

14. Developing Integrity: Includes three sequential but overlapping stages:
humanizing values, personalizing values, and developing congruence.

In addition, the Environmental Variable Scale Items included:

Academics

Classroom learning environment

Student housing/communities and friendships

Student support services and programs

Field trips and excursions

Cultural awareness

Technology satisfaction

Furthermore, an academic panel was created to also analyze the survey items in

the same fashion as the expert panel. The academic panel members were also all program

chairs and have significant expertise in the areas of study and of designing curriculum.

The members of the panel included: Mrs. Ethel Guinyard, mathematics program chair









and instructor, Mrs. Laura Girtman, English and reading program chair and instructor,

and Mrs. Gayle Fisher, student success program chair and instructor.

The second validation method of "response process" was confirmed by a student

group who were selected at random to analyze the pretest and posttest survey questions.

The student group was comprised of only undergraduate students who either had studied

abroad or plan to study abroad in the future. A group discussion method was employed to

review each item on the survey and substantiate whether each item was measuring its

intended purpose.

The third method employed the University of Florida's Study Abroad Evaluation

form as the "established criterion." This form has previously been used to record

information about students prior experiences and satisfaction for their study abroad

program. University of Florida program officials have previously administered the survey

to examine program improvement. The survey evaluated the following components:

Program information, participant data

Instructor and course evaluation

Extracurricular activities

Major/career information

On site services

Teaching/computer facility

Budget/travel

Language studies









Therefore, the instrument was modified in order to reflect this particular research

study and validate by administrators, faculty, staff, and students in order to examine

Chickering's Theory of Student Development.

The fourth and final method of validity examined the internal structure of the

scale. Penfield noted that "the internal structure of a scale or test concerns the properties

of the individual items, and how the items relate to one another... such that (a) the

properties of the items are consistent with the intended properties, and (b) the

relationships between the items match the constructs underlying the proposed

interpretations of the obtained scores" (pp. 53-55).

Therefore, a statistical method was used to examine the interrelationships of the

items on the research instrument by way of a Biserial correlation analysis in order to

determine the relationship between the student development vectors and the overall

evaluation scale during the pre and post survey period (SAS statistical software was used

to perform the analysis).

Biserial correlation analysis is used in many behavioral research studies,

especially when examining pretest and posttest survey items. The Biserial Correlation is a

measure of correlation that estimates the degree of association between two variables: a

single test item and total test score on the rating scale. Researchers generally use the data

yielded by the Biserial correlation to examine the quality of particular items. In this

research study, the single test item represented the student development vector and the

total test score represented the overall student development.

The Biserial correlation should not be confused with the point-biserial correlation

That is, the Biserial correlation is used when an interval variable is correlated with a









dichotomous variable (or categorical variable) which reflects an underlying continuous

variable (http://www.statisticssolutions.com).

Tate (1955) explained that "in 1909, Karl Pearson introduced the estimator 'r'

(Biserial 'r') which can be expressed in the following form:

r* = 1/n Y (Xi X) (Zi Z) = 1/n y (Zi- Z)2}1/2 (E 3-1)
{ /n I (Xi X)2}1/2 X (T) X (T)

Furthermore, Attali and Fraenkel (2000) discussed that "the measurement of item

discrimination in the test or scale usually involves a dichotomous variable (performance

on the item) and a continuous variable (performance on the criterion) which is extremely

important in correlation analysis" (p. 77).

Therefore, the Biserial correlation analysis served to evaluate not only the

students performance on the individual scale items (environmental variable items), but

also examined whether the seven major vectors in the survey instrument were consistent

with Chickering's theory of Student Development.

Research Question #2

A Dependent Samples Paired T-Test was used to examine whether student

development increased from pretest to posttest. Penfield (2003) noted that "when there

are only two levels of the repeated variable, such as the case of a pretest-posttest design, a

dependent samples t-test may be used instead of a repeated measures ANOVA to test if

the mean of a quantitative variable is the same across all levels of an independent

variable" (p. 434).

Penfield (2003) noted that "this design helps in proving causation by using the

same individuals in every level of the independent variable, thereby reducing the chance

of confounding variables differentially impacting the groups defined by the independent