<%BANNER%>

Conceptions of and Orientation to Teaching Science of Beginning Secondary Science Teachers

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0015628/00001

Material Information

Title: Conceptions of and Orientation to Teaching Science of Beginning Secondary Science Teachers
Physical Description: 1 online resource (285 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mayne, Dinah L
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: beginning, conceptions, content, knowledge, orientations, pedagogical, science, secondary, teachers, teaching
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The pressure-driven flow in a micro-channel is an important component of the micro-scale fluid dynamics and widely applied in many fields such as cooling of IC chips, micro-fuel cell fluid transport, and lab-on-a-chip. To enrich the current fundamental knowledge of micro-scale fluid dynamics, some experimental and numerical investigations were performed. The pressure drops of liquid flow in straight and serpentine micro-channels with hydraulic diameters of 0.209 mm, 0.412 mm, and 0.622 mm were evaluated. To segregate the bends and entrance effects individually from the total pressure drop, for each size, three types of micro-channels: straight short, straight long, and long serpentine, were fabricated. An in-house micron-resolution particle image velocimetry system (micro-PIV) was built at the University of Florida and used to obtain the detailed velocity vector field in micro-scale channels. The friction factor result shows that the conventional theory is still valid under the current channel size. The additional pressure drop is consistent with the flow structure around the bend measured by the micro-PIV. Adiabatic nitrogen-water flow patterns and void fractions in straight micro-channels were experimentally investigated. Gas and liquid superficial velocities were varied from 0.06-72.3 m/s and 0.02-7.13 m/s, respectively. The instability of flow patterns was observed. Four groups of flow patterns including bubbly-slug flow, slug-ring flow, dispersed-churn flow and annular flow were observed in micro-channels of 0.412 mm and, 0.622 mm while in the micro-channel of 0.209 mm, the bubbly-slug flow became the slug-flow and the dispersed-churn flow disappeared. The current flow regime maps showed that the transition lines shifted to a higher gas superficial velocity due to a dominant surface tension effect as the channel size was reduced. The void fractions hold a non-linear relationship with the homogeneous void fraction as oppose to the relatively linear trend for the mini-channels. A new correlation was developed to predict the non-linear relationship that fits most of the current experimental data within plus or minus 15%. Bubble generation in a simple co-flowing micro-channel with a cross-section area of 1.69x0.07 mm2 was also investigated. Mixtures of water-glycerol and water-Tween 20 were also used to obtain the effects of viscosity and surface tension. The break-up dynamics can be predicted using a three dimensional incompressible two-phase flow numerical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The bubble length L is dependent on the liquid flow rate Ql and gas flow rate Qg. Further more the ratio of L to the channel width w is a function of the ratio of gas and liquid flow rates Qg/Ql which is similar to that previously used in the T-junction case. The bubble frequency is found to be related to w, channel depth h, and QlQg/(Qg+Ql.pi/4), and shows a good agreement with the experimental data at the low frequency region. Different bubble shapes can be obtained at different liquid viscosities and surface tensions. The ratio L/w can still be predicted by a modified equation which uses the real bubble width wb or an equivalent bubble length Le.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dinah L Mayne.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Pringle, Rose M.
Local: Co-adviser: Dana, Thomas M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0015628:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0015628/00001

Material Information

Title: Conceptions of and Orientation to Teaching Science of Beginning Secondary Science Teachers
Physical Description: 1 online resource (285 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mayne, Dinah L
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: beginning, conceptions, content, knowledge, orientations, pedagogical, science, secondary, teachers, teaching
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The pressure-driven flow in a micro-channel is an important component of the micro-scale fluid dynamics and widely applied in many fields such as cooling of IC chips, micro-fuel cell fluid transport, and lab-on-a-chip. To enrich the current fundamental knowledge of micro-scale fluid dynamics, some experimental and numerical investigations were performed. The pressure drops of liquid flow in straight and serpentine micro-channels with hydraulic diameters of 0.209 mm, 0.412 mm, and 0.622 mm were evaluated. To segregate the bends and entrance effects individually from the total pressure drop, for each size, three types of micro-channels: straight short, straight long, and long serpentine, were fabricated. An in-house micron-resolution particle image velocimetry system (micro-PIV) was built at the University of Florida and used to obtain the detailed velocity vector field in micro-scale channels. The friction factor result shows that the conventional theory is still valid under the current channel size. The additional pressure drop is consistent with the flow structure around the bend measured by the micro-PIV. Adiabatic nitrogen-water flow patterns and void fractions in straight micro-channels were experimentally investigated. Gas and liquid superficial velocities were varied from 0.06-72.3 m/s and 0.02-7.13 m/s, respectively. The instability of flow patterns was observed. Four groups of flow patterns including bubbly-slug flow, slug-ring flow, dispersed-churn flow and annular flow were observed in micro-channels of 0.412 mm and, 0.622 mm while in the micro-channel of 0.209 mm, the bubbly-slug flow became the slug-flow and the dispersed-churn flow disappeared. The current flow regime maps showed that the transition lines shifted to a higher gas superficial velocity due to a dominant surface tension effect as the channel size was reduced. The void fractions hold a non-linear relationship with the homogeneous void fraction as oppose to the relatively linear trend for the mini-channels. A new correlation was developed to predict the non-linear relationship that fits most of the current experimental data within plus or minus 15%. Bubble generation in a simple co-flowing micro-channel with a cross-section area of 1.69x0.07 mm2 was also investigated. Mixtures of water-glycerol and water-Tween 20 were also used to obtain the effects of viscosity and surface tension. The break-up dynamics can be predicted using a three dimensional incompressible two-phase flow numerical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The bubble length L is dependent on the liquid flow rate Ql and gas flow rate Qg. Further more the ratio of L to the channel width w is a function of the ratio of gas and liquid flow rates Qg/Ql which is similar to that previously used in the T-junction case. The bubble frequency is found to be related to w, channel depth h, and QlQg/(Qg+Ql.pi/4), and shows a good agreement with the experimental data at the low frequency region. Different bubble shapes can be obtained at different liquid viscosities and surface tensions. The ratio L/w can still be predicted by a modified equation which uses the real bubble width wb or an equivalent bubble length Le.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dinah L Mayne.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Pringle, Rose M.
Local: Co-adviser: Dana, Thomas M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0015628:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20110209_AAAACI INGEST_TIME 2011-02-09T14:14:03Z PACKAGE UFE0015628_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 54002 DFID F20110209_AABFIX ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH mayne_d_Page_164.pro GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
4d98ceab4fb337784885beb4f458ba80
SHA-1
56de9784ee2e41970d6e1347cb99816e456bd749
54633 F20110209_AABDUD mayne_d_Page_212.pro
9565860cd33bf57119b1bcc94d745943
969d1fa105c2f011db9ad14657c3694a6b0bce19
49711 F20110209_AABFIY mayne_d_Page_170.pro
2d3b93bdfc4e60b8b533f27354b0a067
c7d71b7e4e80a62117bb0b3e33d8d61b62261c92
1051964 F20110209_AABDUE mayne_d_Page_029.jp2
aaed59c8b87096546e4d396921a4f555
792821f79320ed33d46fd33bca57e3a9804d0102
49950 F20110209_AABFIZ mayne_d_Page_172.pro
6d3ce85f5a9ab3da9e6a5e9d14fdfcfc
4894ea5d224eb4b3301df88c453b74da7e892d51
8309 F20110209_AABDUF mayne_d_Page_073thm.jpg
bb84c8487bb7bb1ca04e6ecffd0d4dd0
df2960025cfb7013253682782e32a7eca472816f
8669 F20110209_AABDUG mayne_d_Page_059thm.jpg
eea6d15f5aab1dc06dd1a2f5a6b6fccc
cbcffdbf636ecf23c987c3cd032ca3677443e8f5
36639 F20110209_AABERA mayne_d_Page_202.pro
fd12083f78908ed349bbb27234f9d203
33da3fb97a0a2eb39d674488b6f51ca4cdca86d8
52453 F20110209_AABDUH mayne_d_Page_099.pro
4afb0b9110bf327075b7c9d691348f03
84e15a37805363a84c4a0da734feef492e8639ed
8318 F20110209_AABERB mayne_d_Page_223thm.jpg
30ed52fe69deedff36d917f6add9dda4
7ff047d2392275c28731120daf47429beed032d2
32720 F20110209_AABDUI mayne_d_Page_073.QC.jpg
5f9e4085a916a385bca1b8b6de7bddd5
14bab25de5441337361a54c81c398824292dcd76
116009 F20110209_AABERC mayne_d_Page_171.jpg
d15c354d38ac9b9a9cf0923a2a8339f7
c2102d1a39dbcd0b9ffa5fb5f052d040218d8aa9
7866 F20110209_AABDUJ mayne_d_Page_213thm.jpg
43dbdcaecf429fcab98f69c7de0d7862
2ce4652bdda485ce4172358d00aed2592ddb7072
85535 F20110209_AABERD mayne_d_Page_216.jpg
3be1db48108ee307581483ac9d7dd942
3cf13c7bffd1358161b4bc0d28b970b055c6430b
62253 F20110209_AABDUK mayne_d_Page_232.jp2
fdc040098b1e476e18d64a856753f914
a62185b7fbf6cce12779511ff05e5703c3c75716
8423998 F20110209_AABERE mayne_d_Page_020.tif
e6f8b5b6eff525a8c208d38f68e1c9d0
0ccb2f797472afe117852a6d5e59e479d1cfb1b3
43451 F20110209_AABDHA mayne_d_Page_157.pro
39d2ac804c5d696e8b675ae30a047f21
a72ff7c346d67d4eacf814b84ef02374e9355f1e
58310 F20110209_AABDUL mayne_d_Page_255.jpg
ea0b4ae2a7724ffff70cc02d28c0bb0d
b3f5bf351344dbae751a39c3b0c7bac2cc6ac1f4
8840 F20110209_AABERF mayne_d_Page_197thm.jpg
ccc909d324de60c099ea055b0bf2523d
6da2a9d8337f52d034d2aefa721c6b0d9f19df24
34058 F20110209_AABDHB mayne_d_Page_174.QC.jpg
72f8ae8c4d6012e27b001565ce2d3de1
11ae5aace0ea520444365782454e22ecf42a52eb
35977 F20110209_AABDUM mayne_d_Page_195.QC.jpg
f0320360690d938f1d560dfe9031b2e8
4c0119d0512ba25bb2ab5b5cd253b4b210f5a314
9313 F20110209_AABERG mayne_d_Page_134thm.jpg
abb73c40f45884cfab681902eabd02e2
dc2abfd056e0a23243ed653f44ff451f846d440d
33980 F20110209_AABDHC mayne_d_Page_039.QC.jpg
78680408b550c16d7bbbb8f9ab4d25f0
53c891254a0e8dd264c476dfd32766567d8fb105
8625 F20110209_AABDUN mayne_d_Page_081thm.jpg
ab6264093749a1e6acbb57976d013cfe
903f11752719b7b68c75a702c5d988245bba146e
52721 F20110209_AABERH mayne_d_Page_056.pro
838e90694a9bf3f8c182c98b36794772
500f7fa0e610d29a1adda61af2415091af5aaee9
52375 F20110209_AABFOA mayne_d_Page_261.jpg
23215dd73efbb3f9f625e17cf968dafa
4a4f6de698471d38525003ee9dc095d791823f15
F20110209_AABDHD mayne_d_Page_261.tif
3665559a34668e692e39477c8223ea3f
bb598e2ec57961ce114903bf06c69c7e4a63339a
8555 F20110209_AABDUO mayne_d_Page_184thm.jpg
644e2160e5d039f485bc2e091b3b6506
1cbc9c3cdf184d9ea329e78c768877d02b85449e
F20110209_AABERI mayne_d_Page_021.tif
5219bfb970f9bc33fd81997c117c42f0
bbe6c48845f0ab18f7074603457c999061da4a8b
46597 F20110209_AABFOB mayne_d_Page_263.jpg
eca8cc8ad9c85dd210ab02a0dfe567d9
c6e832319f2d432fb8948e8640f284df756daebf
19163 F20110209_AABDHE mayne_d_Page_012.QC.jpg
6168b601c50f4d7f36ca9a6a480992f9
7ce990b7d57d3883b47e9bb9b965211f61ccad5b
53058 F20110209_AABDUP mayne_d_Page_097.pro
a9c7803c0208a15b27fb750668cd2d2f
dd8d87b73801fb0caebaff730c5a805ba959257c
35524 F20110209_AABERJ mayne_d_Page_020.QC.jpg
8803cd45aa46b546239a1a4a8dd1c014
e3af4c187d99c385b663e186b193dfa08b237f81
43169 F20110209_AABFOC mayne_d_Page_264.jpg
46f2d8dc680a647caa521a52bc423713
99c9ff1044f6195e84136d7631dd1ad36261f6e1
F20110209_AABDHF mayne_d_Page_242.tif
8b9509004aae18b6a2602046bd5515e8
12e5f8233f40f6628371263e322ea93d350eaf79
27907 F20110209_AABDUQ mayne_d_Page_271.pro
6c8e2fb0841090a91d5333162d32b4ef
fc663e2f1d9952e456d8dd18053c75d6691c64e4
58423 F20110209_AABERK mayne_d_Page_206.pro
5bb4fc804ca87967f86a16012b1b3904
5e199bc6aa62155a8885a970c2b686a7a5440dce
46711 F20110209_AABFOD mayne_d_Page_265.jpg
879dfc3c87d2e21dbfa4ea4aaec69339
f24052a61b2bfa650c3c888a7b7455744f263410
33754 F20110209_AABDHG mayne_d_Page_122.QC.jpg
6c306a68f4a52804fe7ecd093399f7bc
6266d7f9810740816f85df932501a01dd068acea
2090 F20110209_AABDUR mayne_d_Page_090.txt
95f9b30eae011a8c78eeb4baab5b7cd7
40252031cfd7e40ad475fa87f2c5b95c2aa113b1
51972 F20110209_AABERL mayne_d_Page_107.pro
8fa5e0c882827a9bc0085ad42e598e16
2dc1d9ee42dec3f633c586067aa5ad4774322e8e
66216 F20110209_AABFOE mayne_d_Page_266.jpg
91a3a237fa45230530290da821c1616e
7bbf8987f1981ec5d24dfb48304d3d709785e1e2
1051986 F20110209_AABDHH mayne_d_Page_109.jp2
31b0e7194e536665807e41d3fb253b32
2a33b3ac7e294579ec968f88f5e8fe4f744fc1be
F20110209_AABEEA mayne_d_Page_225.tif
365e473b570966b8a0279d94a12cc309
e10f7cbe047d16a6b5ef0263bf596c9f95af17d1
8595 F20110209_AABDUS mayne_d_Page_102thm.jpg
27d8a4d4c95fde57ca46161a4fecbcb1
e55a0713f363ba8be6b2dcbe9f07273f877b918e
102090 F20110209_AABERM mayne_d_Page_023.jpg
1f2b9527d110a3efb8f73a7d48ae934e
4148f308253be8e02ea71df1ccb8a1499fb2382e
63309 F20110209_AABFOF mayne_d_Page_269.jpg
338c9cc76bdac9fedf86b23918e9fc6d
81595ed850e80e97c0fdfa8d0150f1c649840327
54475 F20110209_AABDHI mayne_d_Page_252.jpg
701662a68503224c91ddc936afb541ee
9888a80ff5e2a9074c00da8a7e5c2b8e63bcf29b
8356 F20110209_AABEEB mayne_d_Page_096thm.jpg
eba823401bb95bc4e177c99b9e1946bb
e28dc40bcaa41b73f5b816b1724f74bd18b68265
F20110209_AABDUT mayne_d_Page_170.jp2
68b4025c684da87f05d89fe5d762f309
fe5ba742af731a4fe3e7e190cce793e75738a9d1
8611 F20110209_AABERN mayne_d_Page_142thm.jpg
7092b29510c0a9d65ae094049a42a219
09c783b06bf933d3fb44d91ddbd81713f7432d85
56951 F20110209_AABFOG mayne_d_Page_270.jpg
c9d776957642126b77e4fe26ac0792f9
aac78d8bf9aa3ef7c243b7a4ba045f18b0aadfa3
105584 F20110209_AABDHJ mayne_d_Page_227.jpg
feea67a0ac904bef0d37049590d003df
e3c0f5a56c3c8e2dcb5eff3d8562fae04688cb9c
4698406 F20110209_AABEEC mayne_d.pdf
31aba9c7963bef715b96afa54adfb730
5a594fadc3c994f1f743621eb93409fb235c4886
33826 F20110209_AABDUU mayne_d_Page_182.QC.jpg
2028db268066c3aad77ba7c4f4cbb34b
113a5fabb60b98e03342ae8d474dd3305a8c6c99
110059 F20110209_AABERO mayne_d_Page_156.jpg
75752934808a05061039ef2620ab5024
e571c8f946d6cc5c297c88da4de4cbe38ca2002f
57388 F20110209_AABFOH mayne_d_Page_271.jpg
180624016566726335aee7dd05e54c4f
e60d321a74e5c9d8c7b88790d6e9a13a2be9810f
23204 F20110209_AABDHK mayne_d_Page_155.QC.jpg
716000987c127888518cdc991fbaa78c
6f6d1ed64cafd4f65e37f2d6690b32f9197ca0d3
103565 F20110209_AABEED mayne_d_Page_130.jpg
c31cc5bf2334f718de281814f411fafe
f831756214cd59efdf2884ca8d49fe537e3ba9ec
F20110209_AABDUV mayne_d_Page_253.tif
2a17cc6504d4c96b6728e378c65380a1
70c67b3e9a42a88da52574f559062ad5a9233ba6
528414 F20110209_AABERP mayne_d_Page_011.jp2
f438c799cf9d0ba2ecdd097ba50c0923
9fa0d74c6a2999e8505a95f102077e0da8cfd310
51694 F20110209_AABFOI mayne_d_Page_272.jpg
801f53e91e1194fb0eab37b05180609e
bf65b5c2da78a2532ed08ba35e91fe3eb672482b
51924 F20110209_AABDHL mayne_d_Page_102.pro
cd9d4e11d8f2743fc64066e0c732aec1
ccf2c4a93d7352fb645bb5dd441b9cbac5705a9e
F20110209_AABEEE mayne_d_Page_040.tif
67e9c9695dbcd2be263d36443a8995d4
623ce91ec9b5cbe0c947cb94c4890d5f7a8ecdcd
104230 F20110209_AABDUW mayne_d_Page_016.jpg
504748a0c70693db88218f244d480d30
bbab6c6c6f0e3d1550d8d223fe729f6c8f2b3ebf
102587 F20110209_AABERQ mayne_d_Page_179.jpg
e2f591797ab1e319bbf740dd011f1aea
a26b850b993b1110b1450acfc3734c7d94f9edb6
125380 F20110209_AABFOJ mayne_d_Page_280.jpg
0152a70ff8e9c72a5311751e410c8fd7
00bdcfa13bc627acc51fc5b2d125550a9fca056d
1051984 F20110209_AABDHM mayne_d_Page_092.jp2
ca5c5a502e856c6b5b64221e23523c30
8c5cc6b161b6ca38784a800c16715c9bdfd1f960
1051985 F20110209_AABEEF mayne_d_Page_137.jp2
db1c01ab7069c3d0e4ab7f61fa12b62f
36af3eab40b05fe6d06bb7ef2cd5be937e8eacba
86414 F20110209_AABDUX mayne_d_Page_021.jpg
ece2feefc315814cf99064e25e2adb1b
f348f4a15595332ccdcd408f22806eb4f92a937f
40218 F20110209_AABERR mayne_d_Page_183.pro
59569c4a6e40922dfa80267dc0570d26
551667d23982b2aac8bbcb23032cece02b478310
123523 F20110209_AABFOK mayne_d_Page_282.jpg
89392dae7fa456e8d2345a4080d57e06
1e8c0f1891b0c8eb2f68aeba7ebc00e93d8f1dfe
1051973 F20110209_AABDHN mayne_d_Page_181.jp2
564a8a3b5a93296d5fd75e4fb9f6074b
f38122fa830911c2c792407d298bc897a6289d5b
1051952 F20110209_AABEEG mayne_d_Page_223.jp2
d80b281bafe8bb4d25bacd6ab610caf7
89be76e31a46883eaa8151d3efc71a4ce32144a9
93919 F20110209_AABDUY mayne_d_Page_071.jpg
a4ce461cb17c97ada1170674b19f15a2
0439ca230af1cb4944d2ebdce5393c26a22d0c74
F20110209_AABFBA mayne_d_Page_186.tif
5c150cb66ded3102caee1e07623d927f
caa61217584e1f6c976c5068b50ce96584d316d2
F20110209_AABERS mayne_d_Page_057.jp2
5a99bed391a276449523a4fcc63d0de8
3e7f194b98bc6b9d7cf8ceff870e803d4a303c7b
122978 F20110209_AABFOL mayne_d_Page_283.jpg
a35fc5ec92ed1cd28690200d902ca195
de2d80779645241f2653a5c48b9936f6a6c6abe3
8565 F20110209_AABDHO mayne_d_Page_139thm.jpg
ba4de6cfbe9fa308c40c4eec03c7c74b
c909a08d727aabdf2cc8a6db98ce46309d6b8d92
F20110209_AABEEH mayne_d_Page_052.tif
30cab37285d51b8085a7efe08fdb2400
e6d1e0ef95d528bb236a896a70922199b5244b81
26006 F20110209_AABDUZ mayne_d_Page_052.QC.jpg
acb0efe9511c50a6af864ce02f6b913b
8dbc5b5937b427ebc7798b12a3d3ead390389892
F20110209_AABFBB mayne_d_Page_187.tif
bb5973a5b251d1379893b63160d30ac6
899c06fece7455dee060f512d9d660200a93ffbc
114055 F20110209_AABERT mayne_d_Page_281.jpg
6b5471aa9a97a1f00eedda618b980b40
6c1c59faf2335c1b5cf5eab9cec269ca1e61f4df
19322 F20110209_AABFOM mayne_d_Page_002.jp2
f38a64896bd18007432ca4446e5bbe1f
7e9ee971a5a6c44859cb563baec515c913707a6c
109666 F20110209_AABDHP mayne_d_Page_176.jpg
78259a0dbce0fd794485aa4647961cf7
7fd5124091f3b2426edf88e94a26897d57ebda94
34601 F20110209_AABEEI mayne_d_Page_178.QC.jpg
ed4a91a74e268e8b56b9df07e8c66a9d
f2b0f8f15b91383fb66fc873c52e8676af4f6c44
34124 F20110209_AABERU mayne_d_Page_099.QC.jpg
845306c4f4e89628186df13f9ba9cabd
953e53e2b1d34b067000a5116f0ad8863e498519
993532 F20110209_AABFON mayne_d_Page_004.jp2
da665a7b66ae45b76884115f3b9a1925
db7a9660b318cde41e2ba0f278e0d7f23984c13e
7987 F20110209_AABDHQ mayne_d_Page_113thm.jpg
7110ec84de48b806db00896ec9057e3f
250f82e100b9cfa790cd38c9a28a50b0de579d11
711994 F20110209_AABEEJ mayne_d_Page_037.jp2
1d350f9680ecc4bbdce1247188ac19da
1cfa75cc2d86688f3bbf4750f1c34242651903af
F20110209_AABFBC mayne_d_Page_192.tif
d2c5d88a97e39d6676c7fb09e9eb11ce
3d145bb92476514f647a60bc35d1e2964f5d8a69
105834 F20110209_AABERV mayne_d_Page_047.jpg
886c1110c72186414a546fd48439eabc
ad925ee807aa5c166866dbd5c3f168c379285dbf
1051928 F20110209_AABFOO mayne_d_Page_007.jp2
eeb2c5522c7d1b726a2e4f21b2f078a1
5d435c62a9078a50ada7fd617e97eddbb6f457f1
53632 F20110209_AABDHR mayne_d_Page_035.pro
c48f09d0353d0e0eb72ad7d8194ab869
5a3b81dab95bdaf90e53ab5bf39f56c51588de9a
36804 F20110209_AABEEK mayne_d_Page_248.QC.jpg
06dae940d3d68ef4aa83eb83e30fc16a
84afa1bd78b345400bb06ca532d4bcaf1fa90cd0
F20110209_AABFBD mayne_d_Page_196.tif
0cc7ddcb1beee2ce6faa0441a09b6186
2d7163a21fbc8d7ac2d635a42327343edc1dcd61
1051983 F20110209_AABERW mayne_d_Page_096.jp2
73f7e9b63747674a05054530d0f84706
a1002c75bedd956d831a73f687583e3c2d5aad1b
669568 F20110209_AABFOP mayne_d_Page_012.jp2
4fdc0a8176d561b34fed8bcab2abd7a8
b1f8efa0ada54fdd048dca0d114fcf42c65daad7
F20110209_AABDHS mayne_d_Page_284.tif
5fc09514ccf1b2eb7c7eb540154f8cf4
e3994111b6e2ccd68de2531f5734d0af93644fa9
F20110209_AABEEL mayne_d_Page_256.tif
287d87daa639289b304d92270bd598de
f0e8f5fc9b9e7a049d03533a73009c2469dc4ce4
F20110209_AABFBE mayne_d_Page_197.tif
56bee2c3f2522c0675cfa8c16ab9e842
c5cf2cd410f1771c5e694681997aea0ba8e9dc72
22864 F20110209_AABERX mayne_d_Page_285.pro
3abc9db7da8eb03af42398e6039f1ad9
9a245702d08b5fd135f00fad3e12c3c24d49a8ce
944982 F20110209_AABFOQ mayne_d_Page_013.jp2
b33d91bad2b0e56a91fdbae60077b559
90f8e53f412e8fe2519a61f32ee0f807b8071883
1941 F20110209_AABDHT mayne_d_Page_095.txt
83a7789a9b06c3ecf3840acc66cda5b6
4200bb1c54c472b7296cd5d108d921d65e930191
1051940 F20110209_AABEEM mayne_d_Page_079.jp2
bc0fd56b0b9c56ea9163083c55cc168f
cc13c9d51a29bd402aba5690a998105bde7eff49
F20110209_AABFBF mayne_d_Page_198.tif
737639629f6e450b47aa5ad8d796d365
d73cb0b73935a9bc082a484a7cdb0a19130e5d55
32419 F20110209_AABERY mayne_d_Page_184.QC.jpg
fe1aaa76e03ca95813ce12fa42d8acc7
7a83c21dbdd726b61ec157dc85e62586c0b2a0f2
810370 F20110209_AABFOR mayne_d_Page_014.jp2
ab9aa6979cc6c70cb65b842c11e1d12a
212e57dd036fe2ad3e71442f393da781cbeb09be
107574 F20110209_AABDHU mayne_d_Page_063.jpg
28606aa1303448cebd0c5f0c9d49efb5
d6a582db29e4f75ade47db35bb5067e1779e96ba
2451 F20110209_AABEEN mayne_d_Page_251thm.jpg
5ddb27c0e4be9a62606e7b3e4f5918b3
bfce70458e61ba5b42602d596fd8008f5acf0536
F20110209_AABFBG mayne_d_Page_199.tif
d2a983d7c9013b0952b857f9aba16825
43742e725a842b32b32397537d07e929840611dd
F20110209_AABERZ mayne_d_Page_128.tif
ee7aa69555fb9d491b9a2d041abd8dd1
d5f8710a8badb394ba68bb192a6e84aacea87265
848834 F20110209_AABFOS mayne_d_Page_015.jp2
2041c7166b7aaad5878a33becc5e9144
f06617b45d7897a0ccf97fded66ad31debac4e5b
2055 F20110209_AABEEO mayne_d_Page_130.txt
a950871d6ffb685a038f35fde6be7d43
c630df1366db2f73eeb986880c2bf67ed46ea2f7
F20110209_AABFBH mayne_d_Page_200.tif
a0fe8cbc1d7c5b75844d36f728efdb42
2bb51f41935fe644553120ee29c6a77a59dcee7d
1051955 F20110209_AABFOT mayne_d_Page_016.jp2
2ba4e353f5d65867905973020a021f97
ca7bd2c4890093c22eee1245ba40987df0020944
105494 F20110209_AABDHV mayne_d_Page_062.jpg
1ad13aecef90c7724733cb6c782ac8fc
2ec79ee2d6e8a21af742ecaaff6fa822f7e08cf9
8504 F20110209_AABEEP mayne_d_Page_130thm.jpg
c7a6fdcbe81d1a9c4b4fcfe6e6a87abc
a267f8f0d3a6114cc3964acbaf03967b97ae2a82
F20110209_AABFBI mayne_d_Page_201.tif
1d80bbc65e2c3ec1d452704288da6a7d
043eba40955b72199f483c9b15a0175fd9bbc976
1051967 F20110209_AABFOU mayne_d_Page_017.jp2
0c50dbada8648e3dbc4506b5204c10ce
2e897a0f403998f4858b61a5f0577cb6245198be
9149 F20110209_AABDHW mayne_d_Page_138thm.jpg
e3f1ee7348cbf0e0a0afa98eeefe9ac6
6c078b55681a5aa2c7d6fef70fde6bea65cb249f
55181 F20110209_AABEEQ mayne_d_Page_184.pro
ace42f08e553a61ee9cf231e1fbf5eac
9c0d041c31aad191fa3fcc17d90489722c40d4e8
F20110209_AABFBJ mayne_d_Page_213.tif
9f1386a5f9f5dd41f37ee719f23be461
8cfb38d6d0d93833ab31efa13e29733ec4b44df8
1051963 F20110209_AABFOV mayne_d_Page_019.jp2
199c7eb4660de6b954ee9aeac049bd78
e94232d66bf33d54d455e08255553e61c0c08a42
F20110209_AABDHX mayne_d_Page_203.tif
122bf2ebd2d84b657614e11c2b5b9a3c
41a0d2227812c8d2e01d14711fd8979367e45c90
F20110209_AABFBK mayne_d_Page_215.tif
cc40e849255bb145273a3f67ede9a48a
6e0955c856ec464139006c90633e3ad64905c36d
1051977 F20110209_AABFOW mayne_d_Page_020.jp2
de60d35b576dd07ca948c78650e6b957
a127da4af872c3f1a7b91d887eb2e3a43fe10b3c
8842 F20110209_AABDHY mayne_d_Page_125thm.jpg
3a67b1983ff45a42f2e99e9a395cfc27
d8e90740967b0b8a0fee2e992a806f4058131322
8101 F20110209_AABEER mayne_d_Page_018thm.jpg
9ea626ff49f82579978147a371f2013e
8d4b86b6fca6ef4d61926f89ba86629b940d0589
F20110209_AABFBL mayne_d_Page_217.tif
149d4b9114396794a7c2811abbaadadf
9a85fdf8b5a602c765f4a69cb01a4a0c8248bb7a
1051916 F20110209_AABFOX mayne_d_Page_022.jp2
8db776e543582ebe56d9611177152355
a970fd539800d0197fc7ce104529b6df1d326260
8254 F20110209_AABDHZ mayne_d_Page_227thm.jpg
6c396d2ba68be3f942915b6152063520
675c6a5e2b2b79039655a010d1d8b9a66cb6229d
116379 F20110209_AABEES mayne_d_Page_009.jpg
838f350b38c954e4c39bb392400186c4
72b37dcba7274479a8a4f1d341bae1a10427f730
F20110209_AABFBM mayne_d_Page_218.tif
96c415635f486d26f9fcc0d9993802ce
2e9944741ebd9042d68f2da5abcd5807100a7d90
1051962 F20110209_AABFOY mayne_d_Page_023.jp2
7615b70faaad6936d8ac234d0d5e63f1
a01147967e03ffd6a1f71c634f55046bb454b24e
520 F20110209_AABEET mayne_d_Page_002thm.jpg
8dc687b9665dd56887e96ceedd4fe784
95d4b7a04728ff327cad40bbaac0e1ff086b0f26
138915 F20110209_AABFOZ mayne_d_Page_024.jp2
7189b09cad25a1a97118b128b1fe3fc8
a31697271194eb7b63ded1a315f13bc71650e9bb
107133 F20110209_AABEEU mayne_d_Page_163.jpg
819fc35751595317d8ea145dccd391aa
7ebcc00606cc0cc4378085b6301ea94e4cae6b26
F20110209_AABFBN mayne_d_Page_222.tif
3ae81932e2163acda0ca812db9594638
2ba74b33a2c235ff8068b2d7068367a0d15f64b1
8526 F20110209_AABEEV mayne_d_Page_068thm.jpg
9ed94500b0126ab0c6dd187fefc9bb05
6e74b6a237b5597c4a94561f06a947892f0852c8
F20110209_AABFBO mayne_d_Page_223.tif
f577fafff9f03e7f4ef959c4e1d7178c
e061f47dea9a0fe094b1c8fe71dcbf21ff3f3272
32489 F20110209_AABEEW mayne_d_Page_233.QC.jpg
3b69aeed3418dd31e742177d57b7591d
650ddce46b362210368a4251f0dc964a680f05a6
6265 F20110209_AABEXA mayne_d_Page_015thm.jpg
1e47f3ad2d765dc96af86e8845fc2765
12df430e3e2e22abd2eb525345285d5cc5d89302
F20110209_AABFBP mayne_d_Page_227.tif
b7a922e24dda9e606a46b541dbb7b263
17edec8b6302ae84cbe42e73cd17677c5dd4984e
8442 F20110209_AABEEX mayne_d_Page_135thm.jpg
17097d945528702ec3106097bca53362
b8d1c510071ac939f0bfeace58a0cebce0e02a2c
2095 F20110209_AABEXB mayne_d_Page_046.txt
354a45277096cb48d06ae4246cf518b5
f5633b061306a4e185a00e9114acf365cdc4afdb
F20110209_AABFBQ mayne_d_Page_228.tif
44480c04a80e802a2a8516e1a49a62d1
9c3da90c730271b319ac60e1e40a6ef7724d9156
32901 F20110209_AABEEY mayne_d_Page_058.QC.jpg
3c1dffdc3111261cb50fee79d3c2d3bc
5cb49a5b6547c752c39eceeacf115467e7f7b978
106044 F20110209_AABEXC mayne_d_Page_099.jpg
2cbd602a9437a6a28d0a0904c1849e83
4f02f7366a49de3039323b100ca44d0931eec19a
F20110209_AABFBR mayne_d_Page_229.tif
83e6ee04990520d0f265a1a250b61b81
240c5c4d95809917584c83b339177aec153c160a
F20110209_AABEEZ mayne_d_Page_126.tif
6b01a59c616e62888d4ee68afb5bb2ce
9a92cf40a864bab8d36592fb47dd1853210fb718
F20110209_AABEXD mayne_d_Page_120.tif
de150633bfaf7ab0b3d28ff75462f3f6
861bb0e6f868080543bd68931df67d7a41183ec8
F20110209_AABFBS mayne_d_Page_230.tif
00659b50142f9548c80ac833618a99a2
efe421b4bab0796ec007fb770c6924537c79d734
F20110209_AABFBT mayne_d_Page_231.tif
277d2a5d67877e437bafb0d834dc43b4
36a6842a3d25accf13b84f28e27c33bc9a2d80c6
2028 F20110209_AABDNA mayne_d_Page_104.txt
3e567d7359186be171536224ba85af35
2f57d34718374a5ef36b7be6dc54f008802f79d5
2063 F20110209_AABEXE mayne_d_Page_038.txt
1da8d3079a9e2836c07d4b637149fdc2
50250cc0418d346a11f3bb72cae1ec5aeb0c625b
F20110209_AABFBU mayne_d_Page_232.tif
f82428e2aab176014c75a186fb91af5f
8ec44b9835148b7b521c182c6d3bcce8d6283473
33233 F20110209_AABDNB mayne_d_Page_215.QC.jpg
a0cb42bbced0d029ace4c5a67bed4bbd
ded3e21bd44fffe85bf48b22d693475f4b042bd8
103737 F20110209_AABEXF mayne_d_Page_010.pro
dd9279c67d2b7e56ccc442ee1dfb0eaa
47ec90c089eadeb0dc438a13721ec3a9186565ff
F20110209_AABFBV mayne_d_Page_234.tif
5fbd02ad1510f3fa0746495d2fb9dc70
cf6b21e6f35d49b78e972ff9ad83342a2c737ccb
26308 F20110209_AABDNC mayne_d_Page_220.QC.jpg
6cf45178c307a1ceaba91ab207eda0ba
afe61035115ce5315696ac3ae3b0acd25d2d0132
124709 F20110209_AABEXG mayne_d_Page_006.pro
8f9e5cd4dc96ea8454bd33a64621133c
fb5f4c663f821ed2f0cc3569168042dc00a11ef3
F20110209_AABFBW mayne_d_Page_236.tif
35b103d5dfc4155443da819916df966a
54cb3558106aff321e473c9415587778ed274198
8820 F20110209_AABFUA mayne_d_Page_164thm.jpg
2a57ae470da0c10b28d8a8741c532675
f49edcc37bc13db24d74549a141256c9148b6c80
8310 F20110209_AABDND mayne_d_Page_170thm.jpg
86e3a04c17fc3f452abd08e91758f969
ec77767ea4fb72ede6e084bf0fc81eaf3b76db60
F20110209_AABEXH mayne_d_Page_150.tif
20dc18164f5a3accc8fa4cc2557e4356
c6fd01321a6feeffe670508b4c6542ac295580ff
F20110209_AABFBX mayne_d_Page_238.tif
47e3c275c49f0b28398cbb31c150d44e
d0948281611b781d2e7e9b4f9c3a4013b8499222
14655 F20110209_AABFUB mayne_d_Page_253.QC.jpg
c9877ca83700ee52cae32b0aef8049db
08454486b77b257c43e8dd7e43b473f4e18196b9
144706 F20110209_AABDNE mayne_d_Page_248.jpg
71e167bbec7b0527cfef7d8ec889ca9b
99bb47f077cdd7f937d670e183c58da49f22a123
16927 F20110209_AABEXI mayne_d_Page_256.QC.jpg
ff85c6c9a6ec3ca4be0fa01479bc5c47
551f075076463f23735c4d7a8cd496b7658e2518
F20110209_AABFBY mayne_d_Page_243.tif
4e627e1ae29c192cfb9407b7957a3e10
d9b68f4cd302a13528aedca566d309eba46ea108
4065 F20110209_AABFUC mayne_d_Page_261thm.jpg
b6236a714d9bf2fd4a7d87aa436285e0
e9afed7c89c961f5ecea1dfd603d57887e2bcae9
655909 F20110209_AABDNF mayne_d_Page_256.jp2
b6ebee2287ef8cbeb0b26c2c39cd8a72
1c9189844e43d72eeaaa2dca84711e010768da12
670464 F20110209_AABEXJ mayne_d_Page_237.jp2
653902364f29ba280b42595c0187581e
a0a380a7613ff9d9c2ba24f0fba14144a8c23ea8
F20110209_AABFBZ mayne_d_Page_246.tif
9f1dbeb013c7241e5f7c53c095f2052d
e0ee48ade780d0c0b81bc2c3f15b6d33130e252b
8961 F20110209_AABFUD mayne_d_Page_103thm.jpg
30e595cf42b4ce4c2b09842fd69875bf
a9b7ac5dceb1b1d60d4b26e9b7928cc34eef196d
520642 F20110209_AABDNG mayne_d_Page_262.jp2
6074fa196c46cf63be24210f748c4daf
bd4221ea6f4a5baeff468d0296466e317e9dfbc9
1988 F20110209_AABEXK mayne_d_Page_151.txt
774aa4f4a1c17aa2194cd0f90a522790
e2185c10e8df831f1d6ef44d49225dd6a54a67e3
32718 F20110209_AABFUE mayne_d_Page_079.QC.jpg
255709f517fdae517a5bcb5037d6f2d7
dc7f81fd92f394daa8c1f0559fa0e5ca52a7d955
F20110209_AABDNH mayne_d_Page_164.tif
3e3d5d8e746782a95b1862bad830df06
f338025698576738b4f828aa31ee86b9e68a7902
1051938 F20110209_AABEKA mayne_d_Page_126.jp2
3b3a2deb82278763b65e10f83a67bda8
ab5a534b91b39531807463182cdbfa256018099f
17951 F20110209_AABEXL mayne_d_Page_005.QC.jpg
eea6b2c9a94ab4aec1ff26ac0b27e1de
2799bd1aae1e3bdb83046d2e3bfc9a59f26d8d13
7307 F20110209_AABFUF mayne_d_Page_064thm.jpg
16c794a01772bb7313f7371ee4062945
a19e0ced6201b39837144d95cb44f002f5ac3f12
50216 F20110209_AABDNI mayne_d_Page_115.pro
cee253b404b39edeef33d3ef97ae374f
cca204c155b558549d15311b6a783d1e40a96adb
F20110209_AABEKB mayne_d_Page_235.tif
0603341b527c2d41b7fa4a4a7fd39ccf
7a0d2805367b86266bfc91792e1a1383a4ff311c
104109 F20110209_AABEXM mayne_d_Page_174.jpg
773e7a1ecbcf6d446a3c563c92cba1c6
0e2346bfcf007978ed623c823aa7b79900e4986f
8206 F20110209_AABFUG mayne_d_Page_099thm.jpg
6a7dea67710552feea4a9c2ac259cb9d
ef456ddbcdd83d9fe5ca6ddd7a8ca186b7d7de6c
F20110209_AABDNJ mayne_d_Page_091.tif
584e09f4461caccf625533d9c8806967
66a4f9dce92d821c4f642998af175f96a4975a5e
4967 F20110209_AABEKC mayne_d_Page_084.pro
761e9b8fd38ea67b48890c6227a06eaa
b77a0d011c4f28203feace06e3c10fd743fd8b9f
11013 F20110209_AABEXN mayne_d_Page_234.pro
fa93b0f65605faec3c15733ffd78a1f3
84ebb7f4d2cc23caae27740a1e6c289dea4ce4a4
31220 F20110209_AABFUH mayne_d_Page_144.QC.jpg
519c9d5fae490ef3e8b9d8406eefd48e
aec98c2e6ec3d2ef29b17723851c92ee5d9d5647
1051912 F20110209_AABDNK mayne_d_Page_073.jp2
4b11785446bc6e9bb650eaa0615a1e76
46a0a35d55003551b4675ea9345c587c25cc3d4b
1051924 F20110209_AABEKD mayne_d_Page_171.jp2
2677d9762733d0a49ced2a28450fcdc9
6d77a6051c6d3dd9bfaf285115430aac3a8e56d2
4405 F20110209_AABEXO mayne_d_Page_274thm.jpg
2906f88e3b8b601df6caf61763374715
01530f2de2fee339660a86a69c0fc558439b7d7f
8821 F20110209_AABFUI mayne_d_Page_214thm.jpg
92cbb12443977307fade2d4720dd5f1b
3d9268a98a702539c3a50a54d6874ab86014812e
93282 F20110209_AABDNL mayne_d_Page_089.jpg
b6587ab59333eacf9af72cb9bc23698f
beffcf7ad05bf31f3f3696330a649ee7f2d4277e
4198 F20110209_AABEKE mayne_d_Page_089.pro
fc55bea5292dca56dcc152dbd5b157fc
ecb78c27f55bb1a0d27cb3209005bf2698f6d77e
331173 F20110209_AABEXP UFE0015628_00001.mets FULL
532f89955f0afe7ac839a87861cb66c0
1c51d700f4090dc57ebb4449ed2d272516627262
4028 F20110209_AABFUJ mayne_d_Page_253thm.jpg
b426173f785bf4b76614f4aa0791721a
928d6301f52da6c8549836628700b56dff830b55
105947 F20110209_AABDNM mayne_d_Page_148.jpg
7c75eb71c082b3c302e2b261236de5f1
7777ce65444bcb6b869664490e157e70df6c2176
39800 F20110209_AABEKF mayne_d_Page_021.pro
ee73b00ecca38bcfa8b43a66162113be
0181c564df935d8dc86867e7d9e5346a3c6f3a1a
5663 F20110209_AABFUK mayne_d_Page_024.QC.jpg
18c02eca58dbae817fbc7c8d08cbca90
7174a2a9c3612d7d49839e8294bb2cbbe3ee6435
34278 F20110209_AABDNN mayne_d_Page_107.QC.jpg
12f1cf7ee391a99d53688dbc9bf394f4
7c3e0c27ce057f3e9fd51d3634d2cff7c6242f54
104061 F20110209_AABEKG mayne_d_Page_142.jpg
64eedfe74428a1ade7d13dd80231c6b1
dd6f12bec4836728085ff78583b858600b262ed5
9124 F20110209_AABFUL mayne_d_Page_190thm.jpg
882300f58579bf430bd590510db34c65
d8dca602d452d218d864bcb398f8712cc483d2fb
53504 F20110209_AABDNO mayne_d_Page_072.pro
032de434a5ae94c25b164ed9a8543f27
bab40e172508e7aff358e9b7601c9711765b4310
50472 F20110209_AABEKH mayne_d_Page_174.pro
dd25e42216c41717dbed99b882887f92
a11a02570cfec755dbeb932b7035a80aebb5aa0f
54576 F20110209_AABFHA mayne_d_Page_028.pro
fe3ae59369f53b6c137945da2fd90f1f
e7dec996f53fadf65c2fbc816b71ce868114535e
F20110209_AABEXS mayne_d_Page_002.tif
b98f1abbd7e3fe255e1e91f8ae31b28d
22fcdd088c074ae45777dc38d7ba56993b151618
28077 F20110209_AABFUM mayne_d_Page_084.QC.jpg
4e8dbdb3a110c3a4fda62bd1119683af
24c1ab6550f82f4880ca663a27927aaa33876082
1944 F20110209_AABDNP mayne_d_Page_052.txt
76b46b37b0cc0f852cdc5c4c00a5170e
136dd668b1671e28dc01b484a4eea0182ae1ca44
271044 F20110209_AABEKI mayne_d_Page_239.jp2
971d60dcc1663b866045f9ae9613bf2c
5b84bc73de872b528e5203be5aa1f285fa6014ff
50635 F20110209_AABFHB mayne_d_Page_033.pro
6ca094b406b07967de73b56c4c8f396b
701afa6311966f065d3d0df5259cf52b7a6b693c
F20110209_AABEXT mayne_d_Page_010.tif
bc7573df4f27cb672b36681d14f5a448
b305988581097c4df98d85050207593a6b9d48b0
9158 F20110209_AABFUN mayne_d_Page_221thm.jpg
87e35e0ceaf873c8f06ea434a2b7ffa5
7c94832d455ec1a20564d3f8431704c11c6c3ecd
690 F20110209_AABDNQ mayne_d_Page_279.txt
20d688bcc631daf5b798fb213ccbe73a
76cbb96ead94c461b2b619204d452ee53d88d6c6
F20110209_AABEKJ mayne_d_Page_113.tif
6157e7f30f8f023b7cb051a500c68d28
fd800717a79dac83d7acba0b53090d41628307b2
5451 F20110209_AABFHC mayne_d_Page_037.pro
4b6eac4b8a073609d74badc413900a35
8492cdd9aa510867ef7b02cd8a279a14a381bcfe
F20110209_AABEXU mayne_d_Page_011.tif
7fd29a8fd97ca232382c762e47b6225e
9102398fb80ad718b497dad90fb9b1cfabea9bc5
8768 F20110209_AABFUO mayne_d_Page_017thm.jpg
5ddf81c498cbc75f9a74e2c2d1cd34d8
c971ed9d0a5f361f9adb7615753ab0c37e5acb93
29978 F20110209_AABDNR mayne_d_Page_118.QC.jpg
72b4e1ee69b4a2d5248c7e692f2a2e9f
67c7bbb78326429d69eb4e67e6d2709a16773a0d
1961 F20110209_AABEKK mayne_d_Page_182.txt
19754fed42798f6840f8f51be2f6ee93
d4b23a21a6a939000290a5f3b2078f02ae7dc47a
52322 F20110209_AABFHD mayne_d_Page_038.pro
c3009c4a9e64380db576c2f9c9f5b385
3b82c9f750e04f5fd5630e2b94e69645fc9b7a0a
F20110209_AABEXV mayne_d_Page_014.tif
987464a21067a37b26139ae42c59d696
b6b296e7237861d807b82b773e237fb5e0efefc2
23457 F20110209_AABFUP mayne_d_Page_031.QC.jpg
50257f12400bc66d0a5290c1f29b813b
dc197dea8b117f82bd5553dadd63c54a1e509623
98111 F20110209_AABDNS mayne_d_Page_192.jpg
18498dfd2a690a4451e7371344475833
7806ba447c13e48ebb34f145846fe58314a764da
109365 F20110209_AABEKL mayne_d_Page_027.jpg
f2086566c9130402ce9374a3211555f0
47014710287e9d841f5d90e22f0e053eee670006
52249 F20110209_AABFHE mayne_d_Page_039.pro
8bb145f48ea2963ad7d8f93906ca5d1c
b86c72c12e6ebcf45ff20fbf871b2797c5b68444
F20110209_AABEXW mayne_d_Page_019.tif
264a1203fab99de60192a0183cafbbf0
40aae6843cab83fb0601f086207d84355fe992e3
4203 F20110209_AABFUQ mayne_d_Page_270thm.jpg
b742db87ffeb633bd854cf0909cce0c9
9e7fdc181a8d7a745ecc7e87bbf0b8e6c4d1c673
F20110209_AABDNT mayne_d_Page_037.tif
e0da61d67102cbd1badf619c517d9290
d527320618cfd58e23d05d28b3b2ab67256fd712
1051980 F20110209_AABEKM mayne_d_Page_093.jp2
632dbf713b54822f9420b41178e523a4
827a885cbf9b4479f3aee4d32a60a607436ef3fc
23302 F20110209_AABFHF mayne_d_Page_041.pro
650c0817d98a7b09274dbddfe65c2286
842807a018e75f237b9c0168446819b9d97f9974
F20110209_AABEXX mayne_d_Page_023.tif
02b6ad4ac35c10c67954901f435a53d7
9362f325431802a686d0e50a47ed8f28f0ea41eb
9642 F20110209_AABFUR mayne_d_Page_245.QC.jpg
9074ee1d847561bb7d4e1ef359190f51
4a1cc9641429e2af6c69e4b909473003962cc0ab
F20110209_AABDNU mayne_d_Page_064.tif
d58886554ff8edabc4418df7710b920a
abd3f36d25af39c6f621d2d46998be68c89b9cb8
100117 F20110209_AABEKN mayne_d_Page_106.jpg
beeafd35094fa27746b65a8b28d92288
26803ef8d49a2a4fa677d4ecfcc0980c936ad5e7
47631 F20110209_AABFHG mayne_d_Page_044.pro
2cbe3c428bbeff695c6575016ff7c0c5
fe156592030216bf6ea2b2708c088c9325fb4f27
F20110209_AABEXY mayne_d_Page_024.tif
b2b2b70c4c690fafdcd9e97ac601d762
84578b47453046ea9592445eb3852be5f7823611
36969 F20110209_AABFUS mayne_d_Page_176.QC.jpg
31d3ecaa4d5c79a67b5eac4b8e3c45a7
57771f1cfa9f520d5ed01a7cdb50b6b869385f46
F20110209_AABDNV mayne_d_Page_279.tif
6512f561a5ebe5cb9d267d9f7f431397
4f48dbb2e48123c2a1900003d3a3aabd9a2f0ac7
F20110209_AABEKO mayne_d_Page_240.tif
b3102e85bf324b5c55c4667407e8e5c1
7a5e24cc0fd97b3a79a6731440414255a50d6e61
53136 F20110209_AABFHH mayne_d_Page_045.pro
55afa21e43eaee58e31cb369f07a2c4a
27337a994d6590014c1e3a3500f9aa1cfef7e399
F20110209_AABEXZ mayne_d_Page_026.tif
2bfe0f2942bb6a2ba8bacfffc4925b1b
f29f7401f401e1d0f1fe1831cd2b7aaab054d500
15054 F20110209_AABFUT mayne_d_Page_260.QC.jpg
243fca3d5fdb38d2e04221e47c4e22e6
2ad6990ba06acd65bccab20d4d1e2101f8398e3c
F20110209_AABDNW mayne_d_Page_216.tif
f893dc881674b97ae50c94c7990f5286
5a0a4facaedaf5b0539b26301e6a01a93f3b3627
101303 F20110209_AABEKP mayne_d_Page_079.jpg
a05fe57b84c76ca0865334af880519f9
6974bf3e61781f7c5a1f61f3bd4add35821118a5
53335 F20110209_AABFHI mayne_d_Page_046.pro
b22984bb6db97f3e3f10fd690f89fe77
5968cb3d4e58eb1e0901a42ac2196b2b11f44bd6
15759 F20110209_AABFUU mayne_d_Page_274.QC.jpg
e6316b06f9b2f95f01a436846f81ed74
110517619a08e89f8350cf4eaa657f6cc8622c2b
1051978 F20110209_AABDNX mayne_d_Page_244.jp2
4f2667cb758c397af1dbe6791677d963
16ad45a9ee08abaa1e9eaa1b9b3e1ce7e3e91ff6
627 F20110209_AABEKQ mayne_d_Page_229.txt
fad9e351fccc44d7e3f22c7a53482329
1f7b9c290f2fb91041773551afc90dce61a99eeb
45413 F20110209_AABFHJ mayne_d_Page_048.pro
9a01783064a861c780d81251539f9f91
a895c1bf43ecc8fe4bd8b78aec3f55e448cbc49c
455887 F20110209_AABFUV UFE0015628_00001.xml
f6bab2f7ffc7708a80a811cc9a77faf7
8cea3697dca59c51e04a413ce86757f7a56dfdc0
54599 F20110209_AABDNY mayne_d_Page_069.pro
f8a6825a775a6dd20f83af04ecc81d2c
f2a708c25792b6d47c72d2490ed9b1c0002b8e3e
2369 F20110209_AABEKR mayne_d_Page_184.txt
d0e0b30c4087f261fe73e9521ec8903d
34e18aab588b86fbca1caa6855c3b61e93d19ec8
52935 F20110209_AABFHK mayne_d_Page_050.pro
3ea51e76107f84fa0932dc2697aa4102
52ac18e9332c2a90018479bd5976342114b30a8d
1143 F20110209_AABFUW mayne_d_Page_002.QC.jpg
514ac8459d341e80aadd929143a43b8b
3f660163d0369807f678305edf94b1bace61c608
8428 F20110209_AABDNZ mayne_d_Page_201thm.jpg
9122a2350a45540d3587d32829e0be05
8e3b50a5dbfe46a4188137237f9c5dfe9d399c8f
33937 F20110209_AABEKS mayne_d_Page_150.QC.jpg
47c8d51a47b594105d699b66e594974d
af35f6108960dfd3ca50418eca48472ec31d4ffc
46068 F20110209_AABFHL mayne_d_Page_051.pro
62f1d25334b8e2ca8c7a5e365b99e843
c8be792d0ff5a093215680e7fc3f884ae016e60a
2383 F20110209_AABFUX mayne_d_Page_003.QC.jpg
5ba6dd927863d48a15a7fbc0b986fc2b
d91a0c0de1c5230a9875a9f0c927ae75c63f496f
1051979 F20110209_AABEKT mayne_d_Page_046.jp2
cce767e1d539b51e3d135fab779cf019
bf3ea2cfb441cf7940a3fc7b9330840bc8b4b0fc
47758 F20110209_AABFHM mayne_d_Page_052.pro
cdf9b4e7c6926f09eb63f8a534486fc3
eef018d98c3f10a2ed6e0d56ca56fbd4345c5b8a
22221 F20110209_AABFUY mayne_d_Page_007.QC.jpg
859da965670f0d684e356e05ef336e50
b04b65dbe66427ef08b34b0c97d3e66b8e25d01a
34141 F20110209_AABEKU mayne_d_Page_056.QC.jpg
bb11a7104ffd6075b4b1809ef9d7e1c5
789857e85943906952f98b6ec4026fb4b6d9bb2b
55523 F20110209_AABFHN mayne_d_Page_055.pro
27d55d4be80b1e138fedb7313e1e5862
4c3e57efe6e62fc8aaab9647ed703567cf70c884
26312 F20110209_AABFUZ mayne_d_Page_010.QC.jpg
002c68078b5c3c50e013f4ead2c2df78
87347a93cda56f35ff6e9e9c7f876c81e023b276
98715 F20110209_AABEKV mayne_d_Page_215.jpg
0d62ea50f64c9f8f11b2aec931c2db4a
e5283ba9ee1e9179400dbbe621fb1aa760ac8f0b
51042 F20110209_AABFHO mayne_d_Page_058.pro
9582ded4447f13f47a2006afb5156efd
6cccbc9fd04f1dd319077006ff97b3abc25bc7d3
87641 F20110209_AABEKW mayne_d_Page_037.jpg
86540dce341acd852a8cda2894ef250f
a964428a5a943503e94a33603fa3c1e0cb7fc9a9
52216 F20110209_AABFHP mayne_d_Page_060.pro
9398c439b720fed130ace0abbf858865
c65c6538b0af08a2128996b2da3dcf42fe11751f
52961 F20110209_AABFHQ mayne_d_Page_062.pro
146d45f3005ab83bab4795c7463b8612
9ee9f7ac45d519e9d6588b0f44dcc7c72df68090
5239 F20110209_AABEKX mayne_d_Page_246thm.jpg
7894b8988bdb29698cd9427234f3b546
40565ceca5112ea7813d8badf8ea5d3e35f69914
54270 F20110209_AABFHR mayne_d_Page_066.pro
88fbc7ab8eee04bbc631d56cdc23e64c
78cc6eb025c57ef586e77312038340f17ed23a8f
7277 F20110209_AABEKY mayne_d_Page_021thm.jpg
50c07af028ff952671b391d13252cb57
fcde81b336d0d2d0110328c644836cffed6576f1
53550 F20110209_AABFHS mayne_d_Page_067.pro
ab2d9532dbdaccf5efaa29af06b8f61b
608aa9f7d557a89c01f1bb06ddb75e561e4d31c2
1051965 F20110209_AABEKZ mayne_d_Page_123.jp2
fa8f10ae6a756524bb703ea4fb0a70b5
aef4de28bcc91e0c9450113ad8927b491b1478ab
50983 F20110209_AABFHT mayne_d_Page_075.pro
e16a7df72b416f60825b43f8c8b689f0
120eff968d5f00e956a1908eb933a67827c7a535
32675 F20110209_AABDTA mayne_d_Page_074.QC.jpg
ec4d8966aa1d1ea7b79b88e5244a51db
186acae5d759d83b222760c90de92cbc58c65770
53005 F20110209_AABFHU mayne_d_Page_078.pro
2c7e1b573d036dc9d0a879d22248d2eb
eb2d955d9e113f7979e1e8c0dbed745921584b3e
50912 F20110209_AABFHV mayne_d_Page_079.pro
ed23125cc6bb500c017749daa253bae2
3a7d83fd66eb32750d13e1d9721dd6c560d43071
53840 F20110209_AABDTB mayne_d_Page_133.pro
99116fadb18d3bb1dbb731673922d8d9
c9edaf0ab98efb55c30c615d1f349e13c00c70d1
51020 F20110209_AABFHW mayne_d_Page_083.pro
61fcc2a64d2a7752bbbe6bae1d3cc036
f3dc5bf08dc8b5a19c0d0ce278e6b076e00dfbd8
29350 F20110209_AABDTC mayne_d_Page_004.QC.jpg
091ac7dec18fc1c7ef01028058c0ea33
6bcef8f986e12445ebec9af2abec844bc555029a
50562 F20110209_AABFHX mayne_d_Page_086.pro
4fb21044a4143c363d8e3ba6aa119f87
fcbfd4a90c5cf7cc79fb03c26563648eae9735a0
100763 F20110209_AABDTD mayne_d_Page_091.jpg
34ac7a8934cbdb65be86921a3781403a
03b7c89c6368d50f2902d764407f138cdd1ff7f0
52652 F20110209_AABFHY mayne_d_Page_088.pro
9461154044bbdd6c8f4514193c8b1391
eaee63f7fee4566f240d367e8a1f0df33c8b66e0
F20110209_AABDTE mayne_d_Page_138.tif
a84efcb1e2c21fa7b4e951301b755bed
2ab21309b5e1065fa0e8b75f95fb159ca479a60d
49308 F20110209_AABFHZ mayne_d_Page_091.pro
40e79edcd3ea4bdc0c2745cded0a81d3
62e02f9c98083d8ae95faa1f9e6c7ca46cc8e5c1
106715 F20110209_AABDTF mayne_d_Page_019.jpg
ebc483063b0e27ec81964bd99a685e69
496076548f96699790a43dd217e8b2f8fa6f0a09
7858 F20110209_AABDTG mayne_d_Page_034thm.jpg
3c8f78ed53a4ceee9de8ad5e2cb6dc37
e8ecaa13da2d4159ce68fa28ebe1e03de852544d
2699 F20110209_AABEQA mayne_d_Page_200.txt
29b58fe3d3387f50b607da43fefd31ec
540cf967645accd496d75501645bfb603b2292f0
1997 F20110209_AABDTH mayne_d_Page_145.txt
9d17f0bc51b8d68b2a2fb77c6f05147b
b32d0f64f2c4d54d9c37d5a86be96a1702d24089
954501 F20110209_AABEQB mayne_d_Page_065.jp2
8ab3ddc0e81520a15d759d5239c27f30
368c8a1c9e30d1b4ec634ab319fbc90821a68b8b
F20110209_AABDTI mayne_d_Page_219.tif
305a6c3590b21c38cb3a94ef2745aab8
ff16454c951ca11886f4e578071afe3406132912
1847 F20110209_AABEQC mayne_d_Page_048.txt
a2e131e5bda1a915becedf251136eec7
4319ebe96c086b2f2c9fa4924eab2e158d16113b
2118 F20110209_AABDTJ mayne_d_Page_195.txt
6f4f0775fb89456e548c697884d46d79
7441ad9341285623f8dcd5c0e76fa9c524254043
2680 F20110209_AABEQD mayne_d_Page_247.txt
ea14728f61f045d78adafea88f8859c6
06d7ee58ecb65d88d033a4b20322af8706be6d90
F20110209_AABDTK mayne_d_Page_068.tif
d194818bc60777c1ca802e4f1e8ec60e
2f96822dd069236c8c9182d09e1d8664e29c96de
1051971 F20110209_AABEQE mayne_d_Page_130.jp2
d1f09195c9ab7b90ce5fdccc64d0354a
ce4a8b3833e81ac32b1261f1d8742cfbef93413a
99451 F20110209_AABDGA mayne_d_Page_141.jpg
cb152d7980a95cb8d70cc8bf94e844cc
5eb3fa2ada273dc109c78022816caac42715225a
54526 F20110209_AABDTL mayne_d_Page_117.pro
a78ca3a0c934ecad80f392ea3d9350ab
262a2e23b9e87bd2d63c0bda53ba33f3e9858cda
15509 F20110209_AABEQF mayne_d_Page_024.jpg
ac7c5ee2eee2fc12b432758b10fe4931
20bbe7c18f7f4a2f4f94466e29acc499ea727ef4
62738 F20110209_AABDGB mayne_d_Page_235.pro
13c7b9ee5bf8174389e29cc01e0fc549
444ddecfc954942de28071924eb564e2c4b6f162
38182 F20110209_AABDTM mayne_d_Page_087.QC.jpg
2f10030dffc2c4b4d5fb98311fd77e49
153de25c0f11310a1a49821519d1f3888a6c71be
F20110209_AABEQG mayne_d_Page_136.jp2
4362991db429b6d0782c1f6f3b3ca997
a9269074c0227f3e4e43f2a264154e26133c41dd
51437 F20110209_AABDGC mayne_d_Page_132.pro
4de933894984a34931c7ce40f66d7c3e
df0855404ddff668ea96bd6a468cbda5cc560f28
108753 F20110209_AABDTN mayne_d_Page_029.jpg
b421e8df749f8faf796b824544f80745
bbeac49635da2de2ecccf88d2a6ce619a403e170
8435 F20110209_AABEQH mayne_d_Page_038thm.jpg
9065935d8bc97c4ff551638ac512f466
b25743b93f0085edaa9a1359a1f2bed0880de60f
107888 F20110209_AABFNA mayne_d_Page_195.jpg
2eb73cb73876a19bcb811fbc1c7f820d
11c7a12f3798db4a09a9c064696c946353f1e7f5
95663 F20110209_AABDGD mayne_d_Page_098.jpg
72a4f7a033f4e40492bab4f5e26bda4e
acccc5598e79dacdc831d8e9bf3b720c58b9e9ff
F20110209_AABDTO mayne_d_Page_193.tif
2574ef799d379ca41dbb6d79767ca760
8f552c45af3d1360ad3867de14222b31b35bc57f
7767 F20110209_AABEQI mayne_d_Page_235thm.jpg
ea1117eafc710a91ec4ecc0e33a47eef
6128ee5451c26da7246eb5c3dfd53a71a666c9a8
112124 F20110209_AABFNB mayne_d_Page_197.jpg
7621be662e24d36b612672c0e9c26251
5f57d4bb16bb9389fafbf33fdbba6cfc37d42399
8981 F20110209_AABDGE mayne_d_Page_163thm.jpg
1879432fb5a9d422210810e3d8535e38
c8291caa72e87ec8e53dd4dcf6a9ffb741099a29
F20110209_AABDTP mayne_d_Page_145.tif
96a2cf7afee92da82638475d38e8af4a
a592378ca26bea286e0be3cd0721f267d7ccb3ea
F20110209_AABEQJ mayne_d_Page_205.tif
0e43372710b6ea8e19a327a225aae597
fb75e344d5455e5927bdfd310d4c23d03ec021b2
98639 F20110209_AABFNC mayne_d_Page_200.jpg
d0f2810321388d63d5d8e577abb025de
7d60df81c42a212283abd9dfcc61d1abbedfa7d1
16581 F20110209_AABDGF mayne_d_Page_268.QC.jpg
345a5b6410efdd83f1144d23fc28c458
e78b64eb421eb9e6723f72be7d655a2f8b0fa149
233 F20110209_AABDTQ mayne_d_Page_098.txt
821f84dfc723ec523be05bfafe2d6d5e
52af5fccb3925702c152aa82e161da8dac6ff940
8828 F20110209_AABEQK mayne_d_Page_153thm.jpg
2fcf079ab64cf78db99f95e08af2c905
2620f9cb8dbdce213b2ce4d747f59801d911f8b7
77207 F20110209_AABFND mayne_d_Page_202.jpg
28c804664fd60cc66e15e62602bcc0cf
3d42c4a52daac5ce1bfddfea3eae4bdf8d06cfd6
106217 F20110209_AABDGG mayne_d_Page_190.jpg
189b36a02b94e462cf142ba72d179d62
8735e6df34a0ffbb9618cbbaeaf6ec3071bde160
6706 F20110209_AABDTR mayne_d_Page_284thm.jpg
1142203ae76114c9388244a5fee12943
e6fa9deff87f1b25c5b1b7f8e74683cc5a975db9
8900 F20110209_AABEQL mayne_d_Page_186thm.jpg
a4703fd6635502ee09839d0d55395cc3
3ecb4c1ceefb5aa9d5626c9447912c710031cdd6
104389 F20110209_AABFNE mayne_d_Page_204.jpg
2cec2b8704a32b3c330fa3306703e53c
63f359923e0ac73c287e2e05ea5f13d00d6912df
8508 F20110209_AABDGH mayne_d_Page_188thm.jpg
4448c2831f10fa6a7ec23bed7484fa73
367b9c530c407ab2e6e1b3e0df6f65b6d3167a42
1051950 F20110209_AABEDA mayne_d_Page_133.jp2
85cbf80b053979283b8030964a5a16b6
7180afbe226c53c283e1e1d49735aac709fc1647
1777 F20110209_AABDTS mayne_d_Page_004.txt
0c07a86785bc6700ddadf1c6c70894ef
843807c563337c83069d7664474dd11a5b1a50f7
2144 F20110209_AABEQM mayne_d_Page_191.txt
2d5bab967ca8d36ca32c42162b96ec6f
59347ec651bfc3bb3bc555245d250b02333e0e9e
108790 F20110209_AABFNF mayne_d_Page_207.jpg
7f070093ad281e6c78bba697ab38b885
40bbd927b7815998af5a7257a6c751e5b4bf732c
4127 F20110209_AABDGI mayne_d_Page_272thm.jpg
4935e19a004e621db315151996d2794e
90809dd0482efdeb2db51a45a446fe47c97afcfd
7902 F20110209_AABEDB mayne_d_Page_215thm.jpg
af757c18968f02454300003b96aa556f
4fcc59e1b53cc1e32fc216e29ba08357802c0501
104579 F20110209_AABDTT mayne_d_Page_076.jpg
fe05f7c339090c50774f53bf20cfef4f
5a3bf725a17d7a9f7eccad9c71e9180443c105ed
F20110209_AABEQN mayne_d_Page_018.tif
dd003443a90a7572b03fd58a21b7eec3
7499d2ddc8b1348547465a726a62e56e072ee147
92617 F20110209_AABFNG mayne_d_Page_213.jpg
1501b10f5d0776c6fede56708d180881
d5038cdd691cd17f0e09a447fb1a224cf6908340
2129 F20110209_AABDGJ mayne_d_Page_169.txt
50e93053d3ae1bb8e6135c272d4f3bfd
c7c72a66659d206130151a2853a7dbde257c4069
8404 F20110209_AABEDC mayne_d_Page_079thm.jpg
c5554a79bbb34257a9afdb1d2bf3e825
77717de25efce5054187f6363f32cee9d2ddd1fd
1051959 F20110209_AABDTU mayne_d_Page_204.jp2
9a8797a211505d9e8204cdf147463c99
7d7d8f05f937ab463b4a1846b7a5f0e37ee1f032
F20110209_AABEQO mayne_d_Page_071.tif
859bf6d3e853c617912b284ee8d9284b
aa6650c95f945a9478d45a1ed59ba4978ef60bc6
65078 F20110209_AABFNH mayne_d_Page_217.jpg
1f18a5fa2772d796e4c7085e4ddc8cf4
40410292516486c1139bc79cdf86ad626bc97192
69601 F20110209_AABDGK mayne_d_Page_031.jpg
e0127be9f63723438dd34770ee737611
03658abab941a3c5995d6e1b09cdd017d9623cde
911558 F20110209_AABEDD mayne_d_Page_064.jp2
db9de3ff63fdb97532457f2f42ed5848
16eea76abb3371602fab0536f2a8d8633a4c4142
32717 F20110209_AABDTV mayne_d_Page_276.pro
e546afcdf0f964e5c595ed88856cb4be
d8febf5ed8326cd0f9b829a25a788530313b8492
49676 F20110209_AABEQP mayne_d_Page_074.pro
7662ae38621977e7e7b3c213134a9f0a
acfcde93d6c64acdd5a2c94e9e0b24d8b461659f
111044 F20110209_AABFNI mayne_d_Page_218.jpg
0865fd4b2dbb288fabb0720a28c59913
1bf163c84badac998d4678c0b6a06d237091ce0e
104947 F20110209_AABDGL mayne_d_Page_081.jpg
eaaff82505372ceafa54d47c2805d15b
d8e259897d040e128a3ed446c8cd39aad6d9e1c9
491 F20110209_AABEDE mayne_d_Page_001.txt
9f005968808bca31bf010b6cdcc43152
8d0f9f5caa64f86ea4fa3a223a348390240e6558
48251 F20110209_AABDTW mayne_d_Page_146.pro
60dda0bb56a8185e36e3e09252c79a8b
37895f949e7c7584d3974b9caa9aa37486d2294d
2425 F20110209_AABEQQ mayne_d_Page_197.txt
76e87fc62d984c1b811c657cda5d1d75
d51f71763f9083f7903f71e21e00ad9ac75b7b39
80247 F20110209_AABFNJ mayne_d_Page_220.jpg
006d5c84fa8f88b6e05e165a39a2ce6a
97c4e62dc9ee95e91dd88640bf9e6e52ddc48e9a
50964 F20110209_AABDGM mayne_d_Page_043.pro
ead0631bb86829a1b4f1a610d9344be0
89050a1f55e47a2f275101310c8c12ff3c826356
101142 F20110209_AABEDF mayne_d_Page_149.jpg
adc891e9e70a65bc4b10825a985f40ad
781760b067ebc4753b19bea191cc98aaf3472c62
1051947 F20110209_AABDTX mayne_d_Page_044.jp2
8de0c1625949dbec2f68394fc081e84a
234bc18c01af3bc94568941c6f1301bbc30ece3c
35701 F20110209_AABEQR mayne_d_Page_123.QC.jpg
40ba46a78ac6dae7a3ead72a4aa70785
b1a3029df0bc62758c6195d97b87ddab5b817a29
113244 F20110209_AABFNK mayne_d_Page_221.jpg
72d5401a8ccae2fd757ea542b3c0adca
cf946790f11bda8f083bd79c0e4a6f87c78efbdc
8606 F20110209_AABDGN mayne_d_Page_207thm.jpg
eeb59c8f4cdf12e2f2efbc6a9e8a9f94
301108ce8b4ae827e52c6dffe243244ca0a1441b
F20110209_AABEDG mayne_d_Page_212.tif
d859d1b6007b4b283e58957abc6e482e
4e621b8f948f0aad50ac9049e950a19678448402
8720 F20110209_AABDTY mayne_d_Page_133thm.jpg
7c0049280ee603d443f05386e3bb07bf
f3416d5e96b441a9c158647adb855450fac29d25
F20110209_AABFAA mayne_d_Page_144.tif
fd56c5e7a889f3cfc3e0a36492089e49
74db397dd689c9167d89ee3f507f5ccd042310c1
F20110209_AABEQS mayne_d_Page_269.tif
b6922d9aef9507e1b365f88f8360775b
ac19cd9cd897f9dbf90403bcd86dd3f8786dd86a
107578 F20110209_AABFNL mayne_d_Page_224.jpg
1e0e8b128c29ba8f999efd4e2faa69f2
0c456a83ee44600e58c5b9bd5ce6ebfb7a77caf6
29973 F20110209_AABDGO mayne_d_Page_044.QC.jpg
8ccbcbffee2765cd4d6dbbe941f48840
026903563708d368d3ba650b340e1853a9e14648
32809 F20110209_AABEDH mayne_d_Page_170.QC.jpg
eb8a56222869cb51d20b282a1764b936
8da44d8c4a7fa997d9342104793aa07af16270cf
37285 F20110209_AABDTZ mayne_d_Page_014.pro
26a501c9a41511013b9b072617e6779d
3f9be07cf6fdfd15c4eff7781afbacde0c190acb
F20110209_AABFAB mayne_d_Page_146.tif
aa25f13df42c165c369454d3d45e0914
56a9b34231364436503c1feb74437285b7590411
4259 F20110209_AABEQT mayne_d_Page_268thm.jpg
45f7d14477017876f8d7b96181660aeb
8be160ccd0b05aa9f62354ed67dce9dea7c9cf18
99339 F20110209_AABFNM mayne_d_Page_228.jpg
6572cc6e5207e1318af8fc5edc970745
02e87a4a303f12e13fefa64c2218f1fcd51e2b72
15934 F20110209_AABDGP mayne_d_Page_252.QC.jpg
a24742566b2a9a72c92ed6739b8e0762
673bfb2e49151b97b1cf50c648483d5cc22d29a1
27953 F20110209_AABEDI mayne_d_Page_230.QC.jpg
8ab65d8219a5f8216dd2c8a31a7083d6
1ab1899eabc35dd34dedd5c28b6b0abaa22026db
F20110209_AABFAC mayne_d_Page_148.tif
506e50b103a042230e4feb482d61a2c1
07d332ac1671010ff4c6f6b766b12c5fff8dce50
52009 F20110209_AABEQU mayne_d_Page_068.pro
741520048f2b76bd435044cb74475bfa
992b7821fa267790d34982fc54b84c5d1c0d7f03
8015 F20110209_AABFNN mayne_d_Page_232.jpg
528f4cd0ede92399b489c4041f5c3c54
a72318032d10c889f6a298494d8de1349c991908
31919 F20110209_AABDGQ mayne_d_Page_124.QC.jpg
0893f65a077fdb111858a9c0d1e6a48b
a4ad2057389769f54dd2c9875f4de8892ca6afa5
2418 F20110209_AABEDJ mayne_d_Page_239thm.jpg
d421aed427e48b879e26a4d6d6d9d4a5
e68d168ce633072a5a39349b6877222eb4618ec6
F20110209_AABFAD mayne_d_Page_149.tif
8e9dbcc6652d4c8ec7114400a8949830
b0a24cce5662c8e7bb4bb938fd2034128423d470
1012555 F20110209_AABEQV mayne_d_Page_048.jp2
5dc7be89e3170060f9b47cfe718c8234
72c5866e2d96ddd8987d5f8bded7c915b1b807f7
26100 F20110209_AABFNO mayne_d_Page_234.jpg
82d31c60e98fea0b73bd5f242dc2a53a
969adb4c2487d577f87ccfa28c7b553928083dd6
36353 F20110209_AABDGR mayne_d_Page_092.QC.jpg
d6d09d05dfaeac781cb8bbb7a8e94b6d
8afc472737ad84b086c9505c5d917fe1c316f678
54644 F20110209_AABEDK mayne_d_Page_176.pro
126f21389c7987c56ed95a93836702d0
978baf2f6da9f59668dcd66fc227bb2dd7480ef4
F20110209_AABFAE mayne_d_Page_151.tif
9a72f7d036b761d8b5eaf50813f3c092
9afa08dac1ee9d1d9b029247bba75a535d1aa356
17780 F20110209_AABEQW mayne_d_Page_276.QC.jpg
e1b9ab2e08a21c64bef7b1a9ae2aeb5e
ab623e41ddb15d83668d9d65729cdd7d504b8796
63111 F20110209_AABFNP mayne_d_Page_237.jpg
f47272faf4c2b0585ebb06418e70b2a0
caff4325c9cb455c5af9dc6d5bea3de7d4eb6d90
F20110209_AABDGS mayne_d_Page_239.tif
f862521093d183c8c237fb9699bf9f9f
4658046831938f793cba55b807fe8d14d5c663e1
51446 F20110209_AABEDL mayne_d_Page_032.pro
b041f57fa1f4205c19ba8112257b52c5
a8dabc7c76d28a8037c4536a16d3969ed41c0568
F20110209_AABFAF mayne_d_Page_152.tif
e4622708c1950207c310d482182204a0
6b6d69f6093804e3c731e6d57252471130204a26
110576 F20110209_AABEQX mayne_d_Page_057.jpg
3a6b4dffc68f69279705a1e7e73ad7a4
7a915ff8f64fe5561f5d829b58762c85ee28fedd
73671 F20110209_AABFNQ mayne_d_Page_241.jpg
d329267d61ad26dfd25e23e721c1a802
e26aee1b586f0dacc923d81a02315cf80eb34c53
9241 F20110209_AABDGT mayne_d_Page_168thm.jpg
a547132c20879af8af5c58bdc9527206
63668cc36be691201a08e9e2e4c536efba812696
104059 F20110209_AABEDM mayne_d_Page_038.jpg
a63f19ee707df273f39b58f02fb5da19
8d5011000f743b31701500514a2dffd916e0e4ed
F20110209_AABFAG mayne_d_Page_153.tif
88f1a5b3b6a7ab6c444ceb997202fe7a
be751585426a3d3ae3516933878d39f634cf0251
34340 F20110209_AABEQY mayne_d_Page_143.QC.jpg
562e8c160fe2dd665253f0f8bc81988e
489b8cd4b4fd13148867966593e9a75147b5c662
93622 F20110209_AABFNR mayne_d_Page_243.jpg
210734273ffb9bda891c1d3826891bcb
aa4930d727cae220ac2ef9468c0d93713f747566
102966 F20110209_AABEDN mayne_d_Page_188.jpg
91e908a6fcbac052ec2aa11d207bc573
04067c5dc932e7c5af742105ec76dfac10bf49fc
F20110209_AABFAH mayne_d_Page_154.tif
54958ef984fe9ea09a25969e449ed10b
69ec26412884483a77a5da5204bd0b46a1ff4ab4
F20110209_AABEQZ mayne_d_Page_255.txt
32b9f61c637e7fc86bf8d9474dcbc47d
d88ee9f6232261b511143ccac69ffe7e35736ace
29603 F20110209_AABFNS mayne_d_Page_245.jpg
7f01ce099ac5de1fd9ec65617fe337d5
17c99ca5715e837fed60a583615ad2f20db747bd
F20110209_AABDGU mayne_d_Page_115.tif
ab544acf9a95b28193415c7a694a3d36
6e90b65eb9a2651ecd4dd31ad32af3833e942ee5
8699 F20110209_AABEDO mayne_d_Page_204thm.jpg
ff4978071e82b4e14723713bae838ab8
4f8b7064ea735af61b4f5bd7441fe3ff62816b58
F20110209_AABFAI mayne_d_Page_156.tif
7ccccddc3775a20091776f1278d3011d
40a0bacbd2ccf85a1e340ede584250e1104d4a28
129278 F20110209_AABFNT mayne_d_Page_247.jpg
b7019fd4eeaffefcc36c181d5dc4c7ed
8952f0ef1b2932d35b3dc6048d604cddce6ae95c
8750 F20110209_AABDGV mayne_d_Page_027thm.jpg
fe5fbbbbe972bda97d9f8cac47772bfd
cf002df3abbc6b30dce37a9f2dc8c620df790383
3814 F20110209_AABEDP mayne_d_Page_002.jpg
2a0a9e4dd4e309110e7c824803c8d534
731a3126258b27617a4c75cc84b1419210ca2188
F20110209_AABFAJ mayne_d_Page_157.tif
4282439319d5a886935b534e2647ab2e
c9b86f49286862d88a7487be39dcb4c5eed1edb2
82459 F20110209_AABFNU mayne_d_Page_250.jpg
cc3fd077449c7cae856a3494ab576747
8f5057cf489d29ee9005ff211c828d3c16843e1f
1051942 F20110209_AABDGW mayne_d_Page_010.jp2
331828577b897b47a7df951ed3846005
eed08716a5b6200ff66f8480c9bc315d1a0f85f4
33450 F20110209_AABDZA mayne_d_Page_266.pro
aad68ce857c3ba5adc934fd04b0316b7
26cc23d34d92ca3be901f3d0969945fcf176c153
F20110209_AABFAK mayne_d_Page_158.tif
7779f782debb8e482bd47080b39beb3b
f4e7a300a93f0f2b53c568809bb1e737b0e2dabc
22998 F20110209_AABFNV mayne_d_Page_251.jpg
ed97762aec6e382f11fcd606e8db63c8
3a496f9656a7150347f545dd4d68ab8f246120a7
2137 F20110209_AABDGX mayne_d_Page_128.txt
2e1f684aa7ce5644b698e362b23ed1a0
06904b60a867318abe6a60d76aba28901cf79a6f
F20110209_AABDZB mayne_d_Page_278.tif
3a8a9311b1570b265fa9bb5ef909d470
62bb8e1a9a6b0d5c65e223b495ca53ec1887e7a6
666 F20110209_AABEDQ mayne_d_Page_249.txt
44b64042d5365a7ccbdf18d044e8363c
d991b648b361c2fb89cbf0dd9b86406a2f134546
F20110209_AABFAL mayne_d_Page_159.tif
d6dc4b5e082c1972bb75373c13fbb75f
6eab89bf4e92d8fe36e17dcae91976fca80b0bf9
51886 F20110209_AABFNW mayne_d_Page_253.jpg
9e56f4bfa1876ea05c4dd71ca1cb831c
38829e42c078cc1f8ae4d4f60c9254a1721a5973
2159 F20110209_AABDGY mayne_d_Page_108.txt
04bb29457c4e53e491e691b8b96ac341
e8761f0f0602398aaa7e379822ddc7a688fd3047
1051946 F20110209_AABDZC mayne_d_Page_009.jp2
360c060ddfd2fb8685e293f67ac26eee
e65bfb2852316c1dadf25b1dc9fa28fba985caf5
1051982 F20110209_AABEDR mayne_d_Page_066.jp2
c40e5e0206bfce40cd3af862995799c1
8ddfba452328bd1bf2bfcf729d67faf3a7916330
58791 F20110209_AABFNX mayne_d_Page_257.jpg
a1ded4f1d54cd0e1b3c16519b6013412
0042524c68898a6e6ed415ad6c9102943c2e15c4
51220 F20110209_AABDGZ mayne_d_Page_154.pro
e528f6bc4f6dfebfa581558c2617f7bb
bcde5c168acce70150750aab6930baa7f039b075
8327 F20110209_AABDZD mayne_d_Page_001.QC.jpg
7dc099be524ec3b22e5c62435ca6ed1f
fc1c48c3acd33b8ee3ca2e253b8ae9ce49699dcc
36049 F20110209_AABEDS mayne_d_Page_049.QC.jpg
9384232faef791d01bc15d88fd8ac8ab
93f76a4954c22a746dd773e386c00183d149c976
F20110209_AABFAM mayne_d_Page_160.tif
f453bcf302165192f2a7da68dfb0459a
60d2d5393c4a8d64c9b153d6646c4b9a7dc7b80d
64529 F20110209_AABFNY mayne_d_Page_258.jpg
fc91d4cb79c8e80d4ba53fc9c732d8b5
06f9bea9dea5803e0656c67fcf567f7701fc0113
52266 F20110209_AABDZE mayne_d_Page_204.pro
565b5ea6142368b4704258cd06918c0f
b0c62113dfe4261cc15ff0611a4cdc07d4a242c3
F20110209_AABEDT mayne_d_Page_025.tif
ff798964b05fa00a882ce673a4685fff
5cbbaa030f2944802120384a14c6ca4c9ed5e761
F20110209_AABDZF mayne_d_Page_153.jp2
d1b2afb7ce2600b83663b09e3580f5c4
d834985533a07dd71a2e4501c59d7e703d68a87b
2136 F20110209_AABEDU mayne_d_Page_036.txt
e5d0967b8c1672c68f603744cdd90bd8
7f38478cb0ef4603db61eafd01d30000f975c51f
F20110209_AABFAN mayne_d_Page_161.tif
42e6ce01014d6ebff66a31e7abd747ad
3fac0b514a9439dd3eae4ba929a470e2d682f28f
51895 F20110209_AABFNZ mayne_d_Page_260.jpg
ab96a89623c69bd474964bc2ccb56706
d1fa20490848e606394811d62b8801f2b790d801
2139 F20110209_AABDZG mayne_d_Page_152.txt
64f33d6857f2fb0f6cf3875a30175485
192320ddcea93d8adfa5c08e4a5d3394e22f68bb
F20110209_AABEDV mayne_d_Page_004.tif
48910a2a5a633f32d7cef2257db56158
85a9fc374f7c07b978db030df2220886f3bb30c3
F20110209_AABFAO mayne_d_Page_162.tif
6650a087243b613b4628fed9f027b1cb
b8dbfc0d8edb84b67a4cc4868a47011317504e57
F20110209_AABEDW mayne_d_Page_188.tif
c47b7143d70f1e40feb6afecb3fcf9b4
52f62afff9aa1a1a38054900dee1bd38e6bd2fb6
F20110209_AABEWA mayne_d_Page_207.tif
32a593475d6e85dcef93bc7607da8c1c
b783aea244cb230ba99dbb62c8a2c30e3e567a94
F20110209_AABFAP mayne_d_Page_165.tif
158b0de4d79b699ba6841bff157430d1
413de9d32de2e3332e4536099fc3e6cc35c085e8
30545 F20110209_AABDZH mayne_d_Page_213.QC.jpg
11c63356358f9158c47cbc55cdbaf50a
4b8fd42668d808c565ec2a4c0192e3d28ed5051d
72784 F20110209_AABEDX mayne_d_Page_240.jpg
0a02a9541172347cf4af2bb5ef84ab2d
ef2ed46ddf7ef1c079a8c7c3703fa4770aa95ca0
F20110209_AABEWB mayne_d_Page_259.tif
de46e7c98f3152d2aabc01562cc59248
51f2f960dc26f91324d2295c2e1ea43c24ec64cd
F20110209_AABFAQ mayne_d_Page_166.tif
1f3120ef203ab33d1676f1077df105eb
79475f045dc4bcfc261afa50e06b534b9f901f65
1734 F20110209_AABDZI mayne_d_Page_216.txt
00e587bc40f9e6157c14b9522a6202c5
213842a20c6f85fe143ac2db948c81b00336d0cf
98189 F20110209_AABEDY mayne_d_Page_145.jpg
102f0adcd8a024f860c115777547b861
651a39671015d498b19aaaf495a995a2d2116a69
32699 F20110209_AABEWC mayne_d_Page_061.QC.jpg
acf0db0ef90e2a58050daa29a910406c
a0ee2fda58226a4290de4a330feaa0efacbfc5b7
F20110209_AABFAR mayne_d_Page_169.tif
014c52cf4640eead6754c17af12682e1
eb031f272a9097bf6c3c02aa920df51c1196ac10
36230 F20110209_AABDZJ mayne_d_Page_100.QC.jpg
4a76c8879573c061fee8cf4031e0bb55
fde6561f0b2e41dca364407130261952266cf3cc
65465 F20110209_AABEDZ mayne_d_Page_012.jpg
5e6e1223b2fb51673c0708a54df02d51
9d3849f25879850ca3b1bb800e9c5a2f9ca45a4a
F20110209_AABFAS mayne_d_Page_173.tif
0b9fe4a49d9822a0bc62afd7f26bbaee
0b6618a40d40e4a88396a7bf59574da8ff7f960d
50861 F20110209_AABDZK mayne_d_Page_023.pro
5316aeaff9d3a13b0d03e267d34657e5
e9efea3eaaedcd3189394e00b9b8c062ace33c47
F20110209_AABEWD mayne_d_Page_096.tif
37d9a3dd823933ce4585a9e67495b147
569573f1563f2bcb8ef8912404b00ac2e2a610b3
F20110209_AABFAT mayne_d_Page_174.tif
d9f0ee12399d8e5d05bcffc36d9c9081
ce35fc59e389d846169bf249fb2bf81cd164e912
1977 F20110209_AABDMA mayne_d_Page_044.txt
bc2c3aa98dcc198a979cffe59de8a778
65f70cccee8109c6f3a526192f35156fd8353b59
8795 F20110209_AABDZL mayne_d_Page_035thm.jpg
3c2b9ab1799f7a40182de5a9be25f961
4a16c296f648df024bd288b5783489fce04674bf
2205 F20110209_AABEWE mayne_d_Page_276.txt
540066a8a395caacf1e00e5c5eeb628f
98a350e327a0fc6bb606014ffb9d62729006082c
F20110209_AABFAU mayne_d_Page_176.tif
03ff4a6d4b8d12afe20bf7f72bffc333
73c2d619090b033fcee7a2fc93ce81ac451d83ff
F20110209_AABDMB mayne_d_Page_214.tif
ab75f3e472fbf69a9f657775857dd71c
897c4ca18070fa36e030e5def963135668992ecb
1051930 F20110209_AABDZM mayne_d_Page_139.jp2
556a9a5301c898107462f034a8625c91
2a193ff6c9868ba480a73876f0140685442acaa7
1490 F20110209_AABEWF mayne_d_Page_242.txt
65b1bd4072456f0a683a8de87b7761fc
f18062d10738eece97227fa981d81963941efc00
F20110209_AABFAV mayne_d_Page_178.tif
a1e8fb03e93c3e2ab4b9af1d70cba452
4b45df6d44707629ee50dc96de6857e22c6a82b3
104425 F20110209_AABDMC mayne_d_Page_056.jpg
1a04ac688cac60363898cd0685e73269
d2d6a6a35995e2f79d2146607db5027cab3098d9
536753 F20110209_AABDZN mayne_d_Page_261.jp2
1e34d0d201dfc2e56057cdcf3e1efbc1
1c6dc5adcea4e87839c118d4b51d97969fade7a7
26681 F20110209_AABEWG mayne_d_Page_243.QC.jpg
c50928d734bfba3529308536b08c1199
cdd0cb59de06b84b924dab06a41cc7f6a90b8e81
F20110209_AABFAW mayne_d_Page_179.tif
fb2e0b70f0e97b3a46f6de282f58c481
3b7380784cca8e9b2d8dc4fb45cbea845cfac9c4
32802 F20110209_AABFTA mayne_d_Page_235.QC.jpg
58702d35f2b70eec6af3a256885c851e
8361a82a4da68352107d6d341c35ce227098f144
51803 F20110209_AABDMD mayne_d_Page_130.pro
1dd77ac244de762c011090aa956048e9
bb55feac2b9ab35bf92b12e83613959b746a1d33
34821 F20110209_AABDZO mayne_d_Page_063.QC.jpg
19fac17c5e228fbe5f5f8b7907ade40e
b2ffa1d072b573423213505bdb89f37cbe0b70f5
52567 F20110209_AABEWH mayne_d_Page_150.pro
30e065c85183beeba48dac2313575805
bd0890f240ba9cc10181266ce49975420b13f1f0
F20110209_AABFAX mayne_d_Page_180.tif
adbd2a2f74c38b92038f0e4e280a7e90
350243daa135b5a85e36f85efd5784475570452a
6306 F20110209_AABFTB mayne_d_Page_013thm.jpg
41d95de6677fb009112cbedd503c044b
fc1bafd9a0329cce9cd77fad35fb6718d1ef3d0a
F20110209_AABDME mayne_d_Page_176.jp2
ee15943afa4dd4e41fb82b97edcee0ab
65b9c77f909304a983a3f8b592038c3a0625431d
F20110209_AABDZP mayne_d_Page_133.tif
bfade4dd65fb781fb05b3339b3ec69e4
e61f865361573fcc5c1a3984d396eb561f4f8cdf
185 F20110209_AABEWI mayne_d_Page_119.txt
c5757e53961b166ebb291b71ccc18472
be09c022978c52ba843e05fd03dbe9ac56d0f0ea
F20110209_AABFAY mayne_d_Page_181.tif
be73f4b6bb5409e8c20838a8993d30c3
296653b2f5eb12abb81061a7da77f9545eed13e2
8390 F20110209_AABFTC mayne_d_Page_067thm.jpg
b6aee28388b0fc94b42c909fc044649c
a85719a2dee7fc4c7f2d08a169e49b3cacd9a419
8126 F20110209_AABDMF mayne_d_Page_023thm.jpg
48e5aba8c6bc4b52adfa2e5e594d16b3
dad61294e0e17275fceb862ea6a5a9036e84994d
F20110209_AABDZQ mayne_d_Page_072.tif
d685858896af50ae32035dc905e5e857
b2cb97341f508770e11150924d9ed6fbcedf5841
1051906 F20110209_AABEWJ mayne_d_Page_165.jp2
7d8e190d4e22a7c1ed70102a33db8f48
756607697738e0d0252eb66e762ff53b3726d97b
F20110209_AABFAZ mayne_d_Page_183.tif
6206679a5b13b503fbe69dd46d77e99a
323423907df000ecffc509498272f63696cbd587
35685 F20110209_AABFTD mayne_d_Page_282.QC.jpg
d8479ab3a3f920b3e3a30aaaf7fcd65c
f6eb456457a91045d967fc2164dbebd494719c67
55622 F20110209_AABDMG mayne_d_Page_040.pro
87c86798d6b4c7a25a7e8e6d932ccdc2
bff2bf128dcfe76d6f76b9a14d092b3824f7880d
2156 F20110209_AABDZR mayne_d_Page_027.txt
9dd8979a2745b64582fffce815c598ab
ea7510c9f44c5b4d4fba98e1fa64e72da85d332f
1711 F20110209_AABEWK mayne_d_Page_183.txt
511498a827812f55490ab1a8443cde99
a9a684a404f002a1eeaeee290780e71298067cc0
27924 F20110209_AABFTE mayne_d_Page_064.QC.jpg
c99a254d13f400c1ec56418b088b3fb1
b2e85047acab80d4b9bdb18720e52e5009c19e37
F20110209_AABDMH mayne_d_Page_260.tif
36e061f983b905fcc2b553ac6b572d06
7c34735ec6f23d5d04329270042b5e6de02525d3
113839 F20110209_AABEJA mayne_d_Page_007.jpg
cdc6ac9b7bf79ca3d9659c6bdebdceb9
765130cfb60496f94e1774ca6a095082a82757a1
48971 F20110209_AABDZS mayne_d_Page_215.pro
564ba704e21f3421fe466601c28a32b1
87caa617cad80acc410328ee1632f5d4ad983ff2
2932 F20110209_AABEWL mayne_d_Page_244.txt
019767aaf3da638eb309f230f2caa669
dbf3d5365a395c748a7833295be25ae512cd3688
4139 F20110209_AABFTF mayne_d_Page_254thm.jpg
bd49db172c8d1f1f04b1f7d003832437
d939a1b30f1504c8885c2dbe0263d0bee220bc21
F20110209_AABDMI mayne_d_Page_248.jp2
3de4e5f17cb8f0033a4a12592234c068
b97f2a72e96381c9007c585e604925f706905614
F20110209_AABEJB mayne_d_Page_155.tif
cf0066133aaded5118fb6a3593a95f12
75a4ee748225b5471cbf94fe4f08eeb069b3a80c
F20110209_AABDZT mayne_d_Page_069.tif
620d916b2bef1afa765bad1eb8795293
ddc3599ae51d7ec571af777970ea96130207a4e8
12124 F20110209_AABEWM mayne_d_Page_076.pro
d965bf3dc3d5acae97ca9fa5401fb737
0ac49fc622b9ac76e035ddd6db332773586d5bcd
26774 F20110209_AABFTG mayne_d_Page_034.QC.jpg
a92a1830d6a11f5b90fd2ddaff152ebc
43ced042fb85ccd381dfe5b67de34a5f19930f50
9073 F20110209_AABDMJ mayne_d_Page_283thm.jpg
fa2e301293d72dba2f6e2509f5676c12
a667d6733362b1e7973f6a42aea0a52758e364bd
53565 F20110209_AABEJC mayne_d_Page_036.pro
252d3c5146734df8278a0aacd5dbc2ec
941835e9871d4559a38dfade3cd6830b4a6fc803
876343 F20110209_AABDZU mayne_d_Page_005.jp2
63047c6df58f0bf71d3811d12f2ced6d
3c7dd53f997969b5ea6ca4aad8926b1e26bc34d4
36253 F20110209_AABEWN mayne_d_Page_128.QC.jpg
3ca5a8c32074d39db3a99c642b80e878
4f100566dbeaffd9577b0e19da89ad03f5d44240
8854 F20110209_AABFTH mayne_d_Page_066thm.jpg
43bb83941f76f5fc370e92cf85ab8eff
e55e814079666a22cce3505b5615e43fd090f580
F20110209_AABDMK mayne_d_Page_136thm.jpg
ea559bffea07e8977303f8dd75c464b2
6d8cba74c223f4fa2960af2891715e2d7f06d66b
2179 F20110209_AABEJD mayne_d_Page_026.txt
0fcffc394c7bf6cc69d5ebbd3c3126c2
5b14fbfaa6ec613fd84769aaf8a7e5f06bfe42d6
4476 F20110209_AABDZV mayne_d_Page_271thm.jpg
04e3f3ab7a9f5dc90a09025b43c2474e
f0bd539d2e509014d654b845a6c755422a55c5d8
14813 F20110209_AABEWO mayne_d_Page_259.QC.jpg
ac87944b79f7a7c41238b8ac1be05af1
2315a051db9d89b3bb183336ed3e9d1c1d75626d
8566 F20110209_AABFTI mayne_d_Page_175thm.jpg
5706fbd953ee14eec18c6a0b8929eee1
59ef48b39bc80093a0b546f71ec6b839954f4fe1
F20110209_AABDML mayne_d_Page_036.tif
103a2dad2beec3844c96edab8195ab85
20b069fac121e88a71086e6f7e5fcd9cf3e1172f
2020 F20110209_AABEJE mayne_d_Page_082.txt
23876933bab0e957e5f74d911daef921
ff68d607ad2c1403adb01877a399a29b5b094f47
3638 F20110209_AABDZW mayne_d_Page_264thm.jpg
c0c9f9bcbbeb875cc1b45db415cc9a63
ee9090ce337b41f157ad85b0cf603f6ee04c7775
6962 F20110209_AABEWP mayne_d_Page_157thm.jpg
9aede51e14b302a096fad89a9b7066bd
de3f1d8a3092ba2b8b2489680bd9724e8e88032b
34488 F20110209_AABFTJ mayne_d_Page_197.QC.jpg
f557efb83a418046ab91a10352be7532
aa66e1e55d478bb4b695644d1e2333fda1d30f95
F20110209_AABDMM mayne_d_Page_280thm.jpg
44de85b8193eb6a36eaaa2b7db910aef
bcc98c1250141407b702510b786efda180ac6467
920 F20110209_AABEJF mayne_d_Page_003thm.jpg
346a18506a4c5897ca52a25a4dc93263
82f11e0112e58ab4389a44862eec319d9ac41c09
1873 F20110209_AABDZX mayne_d_Page_243.txt
37fc45004bbad2a19157e07e681eacf7
553975eb73d56bbb7eba973f673db1ba7c3e912a
F20110209_AABEWQ mayne_d_Page_268.tif
cb2e61cd131fc6a31353eaa1060f0302
7e9490f84e6481e2128c5eb0f8f4237b8d6b7076
3846 F20110209_AABFTK mayne_d_Page_263thm.jpg
7df19a897f4e642689096a5a7e9052fa
dc1ed6d5ea9428c019c8d2497bd9ce14eac7523c
17027 F20110209_AABDMN mayne_d_Page_277.QC.jpg
4c3e7b8cc6449536b3a44876e255398b
dc7f86b2699af249fe9e6c588a820b27c10c7158
9163 F20110209_AABEJG mayne_d_Page_282thm.jpg
3a0be85e4ab901673e991067a38237a7
9ada6e9552553e5a1ebea4336de07772af5a4f57
8458 F20110209_AABDZY mayne_d_Page_209thm.jpg
800273a8858f4db3a02c9760a8472c86
26221eba15f59ff60a7b9b82bdb7087e77b5df26
2246 F20110209_AABEWR mayne_d_Page_109.txt
a7b4f50dedb57b92da27893f6752b25a
4f3e074c1a765bee143a8700f5be7cca0aac4fee
6708 F20110209_AABFTL mayne_d_Page_183thm.jpg
51695c0400e970c43c40d6e6f95ac4e1
5e157ddfd919502609e3283dc0a0cfe62ee4ebe2
3970 F20110209_AABDMO mayne_d_Page_278thm.jpg
9c7b161866e1053ece2e7c597b17e653
934d03f8bbeca412ec20a87915269ba63d4d4914
F20110209_AABEJH mayne_d_Page_049.txt
350b0d87e7c755df7720a5e22a03103d
4953341fed6b7bfe473cde579cc5fc5e53532be5
6880 F20110209_AABDZZ mayne_d_Page_230thm.jpg
8011b5948f74325979fd23295433e1dd
2a30e7d2384b7d1c951d22e1ee038a99f50fa31c
1496 F20110209_AABFGA mayne_d_Page_240.txt
a94567269fde254857951f92c52f593a
9760e11860af6dc84e6348d5220ba252759c1da8
51316 F20110209_AABEWS mayne_d_Page_198.pro
c8d91eb8bdf141f822ca383392ed2dfe
8dfcd48ebb94cf6464c890f637bd030f9e90ee2f
8636 F20110209_AABFTM mayne_d_Page_054thm.jpg
4d26eada0f319ffeeb56a7ca804884d6
6a06095738c8595b41c146532d128295778df75b
50109 F20110209_AABDMP mayne_d_Page_025.pro
6b8498646a6dd8e99cfa82dc4431d839
69201fa939b47d05114437928909c6cd15825e71
F20110209_AABEJI mayne_d_Page_211.jp2
090dce2bc6cc064f39cc2f6847a7b69e
1548716e95c9138e98ccb70fbd8d36904a293c45
948 F20110209_AABFGB mayne_d_Page_245.txt
1ecc5bd72d612ad5a028d2e73c9c8c84
26874272183f4368368a167a954f82f61444e523
36030 F20110209_AABEWT mayne_d_Page_088.QC.jpg
44d89c72d204fae96d8cfed9a8fc16db
e17e866ed0ffbff902243b4a9dd597f67e493bbf
35468 F20110209_AABFTN mayne_d_Page_211.QC.jpg
0439e6723f2d425f14aa41aeeb8dbf75
aa2fe6509f501f909ff5b2b3b749ca0175bfa205
101728 F20110209_AABDMQ mayne_d_Page_151.jpg
5ebe7ec6c256b66e0860363d7977f1b3
27a8f29a3af85c03a00bdd715359bbc9301334f5
93149 F20110209_AABEJJ mayne_d_Page_118.jpg
d7211d3c12ca4bfef8374b35736f2238
6c1247ed0c7bf59bad925565b53e79848ddf99a2
1223 F20110209_AABFGC mayne_d_Page_246.txt
f85b4dd0cf29b7456cbc7c6a3a08c25b
c7931b938639b977ec2a15ec4a6da78b2dc214d8
35559 F20110209_AABEWU mayne_d_Page_117.QC.jpg
ed6ab4efceaeb876b24efc6680371e2d
4e136b96a0dca87a8643bbab9b553ec739afd0bf
33807 F20110209_AABFTO mayne_d_Page_225.QC.jpg
126ef983f22b0322d32d0cf018cd34e3
70f1673722c31b496d42be65fcaab5d973de41d9
37529 F20110209_AABDMR mayne_d_Page_093.QC.jpg
d104841864919be4ba0b20ff114df934
cace31d250266526175c65e7d0ecf191cf69ba6b
44271 F20110209_AABEJK mayne_d_Page_222.pro
e94cf13b672e943e82cfc9f7a05ec63b
4d977650283cd9a78f702f1f0602eec22c82e083
1894 F20110209_AABFGD mayne_d_Page_252.txt
3f026af1bc3b78aef5a39215704ca2ec
91668920f6cef5b94f2437af8de9cae2caf80ee2
18514 F20110209_AABEWV mayne_d_Page_245.pro
124761e1cea2ed26d97e3cdd5c27777f
5342c03514a60a5028243ca78cabf0ef8e2f3356
8467 F20110209_AABFTP mayne_d_Page_033thm.jpg
39d29c7a1a45d75eb7f98034af81b88a
45e7911aaeb75984df97ae978ca56ae03a0da8ac
4612 F20110209_AABDMS mayne_d_Page_005thm.jpg
4b1741a4b009e4d443ba905cc04316a9
9cbccf075f18f483a9a3e122fce88eb68231db60
2681 F20110209_AABEJL mayne_d_Page_162.txt
cf33f66584f03a471db62e1275d9fe99
934be98b469d02d9a4f5f3477beb786d911db7e8
2022 F20110209_AABFGE mayne_d_Page_256.txt
cf297255f07c43b9799960c1301b1537
24e91571b679957638845a7cf8723462c1c1e239
52423 F20110209_AABEWW mayne_d_Page_259.jpg
7059660362305dc500ad9bced28194b3
26fe4d02ffe5444d41b813f963275597f90d8c03
36255 F20110209_AABFTQ mayne_d_Page_214.QC.jpg
2317fee083ef752cb3139778a68acdd4
499aa4bef67026e4ec0e3fcd429b16bbdb9a76bd
1593 F20110209_AABDMT mayne_d_Page_274.txt
c65e186a2d5d9412267b7841d00ccdf0
e72cb34f32d1af7b5523f210a0af51f9bc193fab
F20110209_AABEJM mayne_d_Page_245.tif
4ed7054cde8023699b66dd4645e1801f
1374483b75a6d77b0032853c8aaadeb5c26439e4
1807 F20110209_AABFGF mayne_d_Page_260.txt
424707b5eac9c853344d79f239c614d4
361f4741c04f5cdcdca62c3de8549da0d96cda25
1924 F20110209_AABEWX mayne_d_Page_192.txt
cbd4e1c3c5c7857d4858f7e57fe14338
e59f8a1983ba7eb6497e1778c9686a43fcec38ea
15928 F20110209_AABFTR mayne_d_Page_285.QC.jpg
aa8869dbcc958fe371fa4ea1c487a5d4
0cad43b6824fd96c6f1b1a0e9e23f3ac9644c4cf
102444 F20110209_AABDMU mayne_d_Page_154.jpg
6297dd430a50485e62d0a8d067f10999
6569dd807facbeb1b0207b5c2424aee6b9118137
110663 F20110209_AABEJN mayne_d_Page_164.jpg
6503d6806565dda5bddac24428089d2a
423d3dc4058c036dc38826089de91174eb95ede4
1529 F20110209_AABFGG mayne_d_Page_262.txt
d5cc500788c0d42b82b8e57803f59236
5dac4c63906631d6e4c40af83574b3637446875d
4524 F20110209_AABEWY mayne_d_Page_267thm.jpg
98964dee0476d3f9e067353eac538d41
2e8f5da3696266b72d372465871e4284a86a214e
8835 F20110209_AABFTS mayne_d_Page_089thm.jpg
4f60a5befb857595c2c30908ed969c9e
59f2c71c438f78ac2d5a9fd7dbd3968cb7e03087
97821 F20110209_AABDMV mayne_d_Page_119.jpg
ac91d4b3b5a18083e627caf67e72ccdd
eb7288898adcac205331a30ee4f77a2e7f0f3a5a
F20110209_AABEJO mayne_d_Page_194.tif
292e3823d74666854773965372845377
3b762ac173325f3bda3a0b7a40bf91df93e960db
1264 F20110209_AABFGH mayne_d_Page_264.txt
4a59a2903c0858487ce4ea70a320c6cc
b3c9f552ece3ffe1c26f6073c34f7b9e12ba467c
8758 F20110209_AABEWZ mayne_d_Page_020thm.jpg
ecb8ae4d64557bf2ade4b7a8e956aa82
f35befd33205b1e6c30a26e5b156de033fb5223e
9046 F20110209_AABFTT mayne_d_Page_159thm.jpg
5b45334e1a5951cdfa2e3d60b2d56a7d
20a99622ca73cb8c652b67ebb0e14f4f0007b3c6
4068 F20110209_AABDMW mayne_d_Page_259thm.jpg
aaa20a2f34644f8fd6f16418b9cc0ab3
5f3f9a13ed593816d3dc30216998beeba3e6056c
820 F20110209_AABEJP mayne_d_Page_220.txt
2f96acf00a96c2d85c7feafb6dece27f
85ed2cdc421f7939173e9d39a02628aa12e10b2b
2073 F20110209_AABFGI mayne_d_Page_266.txt
9e9eb5b9878c74c03e4808fbe57358f8
fda039181f075b6a12b844fd474cff837539699c
9083 F20110209_AABFTU mayne_d_Page_114thm.jpg
164844ff6f1f936ae8d36b9d19c70827
12bc5085cf448bcc7e4856d32e8d49ccceae2843
109802 F20110209_AABDMX mayne_d_Page_212.jpg
beaf4fadffdb51908374711cc72940f9
e77640f7f02582a38807e639f47aaa4cbf2b5d01
24492 F20110209_AABEJQ mayne_d_Page_015.QC.jpg
dfee98d226e05fe3b4eea3603de59a05
ecb9b113e9824caabeec7e50946b41d2ca214301
1818 F20110209_AABFGJ mayne_d_Page_267.txt
2e4af6ff45e6a979c1c0fd6364ccbd5e
96de7569bacdba43772410bb116fa88213fee8a8
8400 F20110209_AABFTV mayne_d_Page_150thm.jpg
c404d125ff91820125710a3ff264dc4e
37bd92c21c4a494c5ff51422cc48b7b6251c696c
15088 F20110209_AABDMY mayne_d_Page_261.QC.jpg
900cbf266e7526b345fad5e25d6f1bc6
aec125cd33a21c66847b5cfd2b55f12d05aa1888
8479 F20110209_AABEJR mayne_d_Page_192thm.jpg
4440c026dd74bb549377469406283c05
0b60a2267828d43a0376cce71aaaa6e39e20efcf
1875 F20110209_AABFGK mayne_d_Page_268.txt
29fa23f095e897ec8d1020ae5d89c9f4
0497e676eb3fd2fbd797fe269974dcff9598cc36
32929 F20110209_AABFTW mayne_d_Page_198.QC.jpg
2fdf574cf5f7727605841e6e734cbc9c
91aa7155ae7f4628c0d3b78e28694650e2d4c247
9739 F20110209_AABDMZ mayne_d_Page_076thm.jpg
416a9e13a66b0edeb61f0bf141c7ede0
e2de9120ab357dd6850fb4520e6bb5f03559ae9a
537402 F20110209_AABEJS mayne_d_Page_253.jp2
bcf4228dcabb0ac76f6a03d2c991a3db
80e9719b5000bb419343389c299bcd86098d9ee9
2002 F20110209_AABFGL mayne_d_Page_277.txt
6724205fb99f332fd90906cb16903cfd
07319d5f97cec5297a81f34e379986d448ddd509
8644 F20110209_AABFTX mayne_d_Page_092thm.jpg
30119eb3ff2709a87765827546f481f0
120d99453ec482178097761020918c74ca749127
82752 F20110209_AABEJT mayne_d_Page_064.jpg
b5edec97375534cdef9b6eb1f219c7d9
9501f830dc985108b5c67dcee724080afa9019d3
2551 F20110209_AABFGM mayne_d_Page_280.txt
550af09b581b3eec51a163472f6f0c1d
71ab3907bc8e74153bdd35eb1f3f18919a2717b8
33743 F20110209_AABFTY mayne_d_Page_104.QC.jpg
64eb679cf74d27261b34dfa25eed725c
297646d0cf08b7b4b5acdb741d76feb4b45ce993
8107 F20110209_AABEJU mayne_d_Page_141thm.jpg
9040b92f810be59d7ab7c1db0bfa0997
acc4233f966e4106d90b7639c8609b5436276e28
2250 F20110209_AABFGN mayne_d_Page_281.txt
9caf9094cccaf375cbc648346f7ef19e
3d1124d34e74b062e7ed352c77dcabd8cf02f401
33625 F20110209_AABFTZ mayne_d_Page_219.QC.jpg
3137818420ea48a67165752714001d35
0581a2fb8a39fed51427f080a188a6ffab0f468a
F20110209_AABEJV mayne_d_Page_146.jp2
be6630e80019161e73de2e03309a136e
61d59caa8ed4ff5725c746da0b88d4571c88e1ab
2540 F20110209_AABFGO mayne_d_Page_282.txt
3b16db927aff50b6c7d41e4bb955b870
7f0ba34ac0a4e1ad93328f254a43086e670c5436
2507 F20110209_AABFGP mayne_d_Page_283.txt
5cdb6625024f050583a253fefcf46740
b50f006c0e0953b6b2800827af2aaa4d179e27e2
27922 F20110209_AABEJW mayne_d_Page_239.jpg
422a641231e4a63f2c7923646e1919f7
cbefdb0f27b275717d9753c3b8781972828a5503
1793 F20110209_AABFGQ mayne_d_Page_284.txt
d4dcef32fea7a4cb8144dda8eb920574
1666f5560e339fb9e83692231ef0673606c5988f
1051966 F20110209_AABEJX mayne_d_Page_226.jp2
3ec3478f441223d507d7abb6c73db2d6
59c8859023b3040767d2d0367f0e8f1d7a7f8bd0
808 F20110209_AABFGR mayne_d_Page_002.pro
13053da5f103508543aa8d779c407589
08fd306c405cc8f63c9040f07a13f92bfa506698
2177 F20110209_AABEJY mayne_d_Page_214.txt
de402117e6af0f4e8c80e64a656ad96c
33afae4f4b895d43904966ec3e3bc23cffea68d2
2071 F20110209_AABEJZ mayne_d_Page_088.txt
7b9a3331ffec2b4cf904c1a7292a13a6
dad4b6078c1d6bd7582c1119681f108cdc48f57f
2678 F20110209_AABFGS mayne_d_Page_003.pro
023b739081d251bbb443f3eb4182b54e
fcf9f350d99b4b1a86854883ff14be71610f6805
99007 F20110209_AABFGT mayne_d_Page_005.pro
3b369d6564c704b543595cbc8a671e85
06c285ad808269037cf3e17c40cf19f0f7e91f13
10856 F20110209_AABDSA mayne_d_Page_229.QC.jpg
71d4d428df3e78dccb9b3a24051764d5
5c27b6e0d6d0a75f1f645136d89f2e4d5c568e41
128439 F20110209_AABFGU mayne_d_Page_008.pro
966d8285efaeba95f8a4ed0a454a7d89
a5feaf094f9ac265c13fbdb448e6262f3df76f23
8617 F20110209_AABDSB mayne_d_Page_196thm.jpg
6a421dc943895d0fc87f518d20ffa387
d4f14c98e62388ffd5621ab4cea4b60a933dcc34
127952 F20110209_AABFGV mayne_d_Page_009.pro
26cb49d9a38e5daa4bebe688b967134f
a359cd622789f1f862d5397a613cff947f3864da
8648 F20110209_AABFZA mayne_d_Page_062thm.jpg
976dd3ee29f644a005e29036e865a125
be401e175fb20f9512e5232d363da086b1709b06
105066 F20110209_AABDSC mayne_d_Page_050.jpg
3b364cca4f0696b5e79739ee6b85d868
c053f4bc8d8768b4365d8580d02a3eb64fd021c8
70352 F20110209_AABFGW mayne_d_Page_013.pro
61a66b26d6937693a82cf83096b4e807
48ab2f22c71cea04f6bdcf9c6a43825dc51346c2
8562 F20110209_AABFZB mayne_d_Page_063thm.jpg
69a6120e9f551e3844281ed11782ad9a
26f02cfa2fd2bf411f3a0308a363a1f6c8d893da
78033 F20110209_AABDSD mayne_d_Page_238.jpg
4ef5a927b30eaa8775d90948753d6f51
2964f336584ad2f2203d3565190520ee50829b28
53584 F20110209_AABFGX mayne_d_Page_017.pro
a6b6928e667bf8c36ec715409d020ab3
10dbbc097b8c07b802670f7ce18be7fc0f377b8b
9081 F20110209_AABFZC mayne_d_Page_069thm.jpg
cf0fe6c4060fd664e71b874827d75541
fc38be6e3e8320f135998fdaf18f38b0eae3f661
796801 F20110209_AABDSE mayne_d_Page_240.jp2
1257725112320efe3809509b9b804664
e191d9cc43f0e6e669edce50e4a059c8e5b9ddbf
52534 F20110209_AABFGY mayne_d_Page_019.pro
a9acb06e65e76d91b11ef7bb67b91e86
ee81d1a9b59dc99438bd9223e75b83c8820a1526
9176 F20110209_AABFZD mayne_d_Page_071thm.jpg
ce8d449a33b12ece92df3ce750a98d12
03b740b17010dcb736b6569bddf513fbfa238ffd
62871 F20110209_AABFGZ mayne_d_Page_022.pro
232656547565422c56abc7af8b564c7b
16c1a0d30b0e71b915e0a8c1505768190a76a137
F20110209_AABDSF mayne_d_Page_204.tif
1cd349561bb57a60747cf501ff84f8b4
e6405c17c75a132b004bb83e578d1a1a59a18d54
8313 F20110209_AABFZE mayne_d_Page_075thm.jpg
26239cd3cae86cef885361b91474c08c
49e169536cae6941c3aadd5184976a6f4a14b6b3
104899 F20110209_AABDSG mayne_d_Page_097.jpg
198842a81b5de0eb22d2f84ce50bfc55
14075c9cdbd3b7c03e2ad4de28c997ba17124f32
53033 F20110209_AABEPA mayne_d_Page_029.pro
3aefe6960338d3e5cacd7dec3e1fe1e3
c59f68045c7768bb37ed758ef5d5039a58ca6287
54134 F20110209_AABDSH mayne_d_Page_128.pro
debfe39ba36ade101db3a9b7cbc1fc63
a95cea9fd111342d537a5d35a0fc2fc9e856bb2f
8628 F20110209_AABFZF mayne_d_Page_077thm.jpg
9fcfb321d7b789b765d69b0bf4548517
2cb6396cbc2086982c039148eb849ba664900a90
2147 F20110209_AABEPB mayne_d_Page_137.txt
47436c13e8c93d38862dbd85a6a41513
e762417b5d07784e344f12ef78b5676f7a5193b9
33952 F20110209_AABDSI mayne_d_Page_022.QC.jpg
f89f1e35ad5f08821e33e5f06e5c4a05
a9fc24fdca52398ae48bc99b0743bd982ccf8b8c
8801 F20110209_AABFZG mayne_d_Page_090thm.jpg
5fc5807e75f01e862e9dee5d153a7ff7
da29fd7c6beb3212138f77a2e6bf855ad611dd58
8640 F20110209_AABEPC mayne_d_Page_036thm.jpg
1546b231ed85d5f03e5cb39ab789602e
a30ca3c515b51c17910de21d66fe4defbec6f968
7649 F20110209_AABDSJ mayne_d_Page_044thm.jpg
d851ac0356fbec7113965751cdf24e73
30a81ce8504db6a3873168c40b6646974d632b38
8369 F20110209_AABFZH mayne_d_Page_091thm.jpg
ef4e445d3431422ddfc31d765a72f73e
4d346e767fc560cdc175df61d19d5fae552af16a
1051975 F20110209_AABEPD mayne_d_Page_036.jp2
5c03d775e3f65f1691b5850adf444ca9
3a5a12bf4ec662549931e186947b1d0c9c8ad31a
32761 F20110209_AABDSK mayne_d_Page_106.QC.jpg
87f23a9e8847311b37c54a7de40f3513
74eef315aea7719d19e8900014e9101cb2e163dc
8901 F20110209_AABFZI mayne_d_Page_093thm.jpg
90dc506974c4cf7d0dd2f32212463bdb
112c8db337fd307605d48ecc9bcae11d01e2d358
28707 F20110209_AABEPE mayne_d_Page_257.pro
4214d2a9b19e5f4efdc6b91dcc284185
e587edcb46d9c121656447fe319898b744fc3643
831494 F20110209_AABDFA mayne_d_Page_202.jp2
c8c680a4dd5240849ecf1f7d744a0860
eebee1b6d042f2e42d41b2f0632302e234f913b2
53940 F20110209_AABDSL mayne_d_Page_274.jpg
49380859a355e15a217e48149b849791
54b2ec6ec48b7cd84286633bfc27e98136c41d11
8418 F20110209_AABFZJ mayne_d_Page_094thm.jpg
d263f6f7f9de48bf2c33237e78984826
9933b2065e71c3b4a8557ab2f60c2ea0ad700688
51319 F20110209_AABEPF mayne_d_Page_104.pro
65f3110fa707104a9a400b7bea2ef68e
07daef5d84d9d6f1109f917817e6871b18f3e914
F20110209_AABDFB mayne_d_Page_120.pro
7fb85b21a3269bc934ca9c35ac1eed6f
13b3ddbe71c839fa36002b1e959d1336928b4831
2152 F20110209_AABDSM mayne_d_Page_218.txt
2ba1397d3f18f5e3593b5f72647878ee
27a1df248ac7fac886d93351c04d8f023527016d
7863 F20110209_AABFZK mayne_d_Page_095thm.jpg
fa546d4c2a380afb84f4d063c62d25ab
58571838ee695316c99efba460d9344a7535e850
200 F20110209_AABEPG mayne_d_Page_134.txt
04ea2c2719dd6a467d3784d88870972a
d45a0e09df93696fe0e5422afda02bfe24a1d9c3
3227 F20110209_AABDFC mayne_d_Page_011thm.jpg
6bd96dc732a9c10076ad46ca2cf9e3af
e35b7c2db60562c5108e44856211763c3552b2a1
1051961 F20110209_AABDSN mayne_d_Page_117.jp2
5e82177d256956784956f80ade08ece8
6a7d41be6b785b7c1d39b4cd8dd18a39061e160f
8594 F20110209_AABFZL mayne_d_Page_097thm.jpg
119d46567d691dc71c6c02b0b4e45ba6
8dcd33e45ea8533470441a00c62acee56856df41
57752 F20110209_AABEPH mayne_d_Page_180.pro
d510c6f4767207a0e46d804e71a2915b
65aea307f9b81a9deea9d91a56e27d661c39526e
99465 F20110209_AABFMA mayne_d_Page_124.jpg
d30d510a6a3f07d6b0dde85975764483
6e9e62f93ee27c7ba476c0ae32cc43bc5e00084e
33528 F20110209_AABDFD mayne_d_Page_025.QC.jpg
9a81a7cbf09d08b86aca496ed0e53bf2
cc4eb8f43eeeccb508ccd79264d8a5317972c35d
8739 F20110209_AABDSO mayne_d_Page_193thm.jpg
808395913b55cd8fe16002f109484125
c614bd5919f17c92d5449d810b146d3595c3ad57
9542 F20110209_AABFZM mayne_d_Page_098thm.jpg
b9c7df43cdd33cdca27cb190cbd903a8
7b21e5a8bd72e7e9188e6fdd99e05f9dbebbf314
F20110209_AABEPI mayne_d_Page_106.jp2
bae5840c64d3cc5bc5c71ff41abef301
829f7b76d426219e9d49b58c41b456108204884a
103735 F20110209_AABFMB mayne_d_Page_125.jpg
55aaef82cbbdb88fb218b96465f8586d
73860edef1ee7e6608296561ff5a51cda1852262
F20110209_AABDFE mayne_d_Page_026.jp2
c6d9bf4dca4eac16f349ac3eb6a15231
3b62d06ffc07c67e2277b2a7acada9b23054b5bc
131459 F20110209_AABDSP mayne_d_Page_007.pro
c8e59e7793cbaaf197c3d8f8f3270497
b5d658ee03ddc7a0dce864a32e8908a9acd3570c
8185 F20110209_AABFZN mayne_d_Page_106thm.jpg
02a79b2f7980626c4408fb36115d6f5e
3719d42b5ae04bd8bc938404e2db260b8bd754f1
F20110209_AABEPJ mayne_d_Page_033.jp2
8bc1f87b864d18274c880e9d90053825
72852d42fc789b8916a4b9f36b9f1542dc5bd8a4
97816 F20110209_AABFMC mayne_d_Page_127.jpg
0a7d6a8b4c35a4282d132027bbf7a2d8
a79b9a76947c904b45d706410e0dac7541e7c8ee
4525 F20110209_AABDFF mayne_d_Page_276thm.jpg
7e4c122f8ced1ca918ec2962a6a0518d
dc40639d643bdf1d5e058be5c8abb78d45c58953
1051939 F20110209_AABDSQ mayne_d_Page_087.jp2
e5860570c064b73748e621a3bc7cf18b
921d23a3f592ab36c06a1bc82164f1a6516fb1c0
8405 F20110209_AABFZO mayne_d_Page_111thm.jpg
13aa1397a16a1e0f34d99115b416b633
23dacc7541053b1453f56fa9e1d4d75ef4aa0276
F20110209_AABEPK mayne_d_Page_270.tif
c79889a03c6c5e68328ed0db2aba3f97
62383d8bae19678eeff30b0753ef51914545f69a
109393 F20110209_AABFMD mayne_d_Page_128.jpg
b436a0b3df6d55e2d5b34e0e04657d30
51fa8738ec86442094cf992ea3a70ea2619a6e00
F20110209_AABDFG mayne_d_Page_056.jp2
e3060f4dddd47c502d945ff32009f18a
0598111fd4f44ed30c627832c4d219ab72540ef9
60383 F20110209_AABDSR mayne_d_Page_268.jpg
3bcacd36d123ee60062c6d7f26c4abd0
808e8eaa3a1cc430f22c098ed758256440eb99c1
8105 F20110209_AABFZP mayne_d_Page_115thm.jpg
96090c2dbc843a8c88a1508a099ee780
b92b7bd03d02475304b42d98ef76cb775e06fc3f
2008 F20110209_AABEPL mayne_d_Page_188.txt
92d2292ac4a5f088fddabd5811f80083
b216ec15aa0b644af9dd090591d8beeee4cbd7be
94522 F20110209_AABFME mayne_d_Page_129.jpg
b197edd74bb11a680e4da80282bcdb07
4aab6dc50a28aa82999ee6bb30d3d6f00cb525fa
F20110209_AABDFH mayne_d_Page_065.tif
9bfa0785685ad737e67fa103b9e6f299
0749f7e47e9525c137576360aac8459029c5979f
8299 F20110209_AABECA mayne_d_Page_151thm.jpg
59fe503a6d3aa4bb678e7a706a401e18
9f05f06862d7f7829bffdf29e6a9aa3fe09b9fb5
301230 F20110209_AABDSS mayne_d_Page_245.jp2
3d44f09991fd4496d59cc8ffd408532d
2d4b6e347d869ed3c8571b2f26197a46beb28631
9193 F20110209_AABFZQ mayne_d_Page_116thm.jpg
aa1752da3326d206694a9b4603a7c3cd
419a0350edffd705cc1c271c406fa9c41d498eb9
1051969 F20110209_AABEPM mayne_d_Page_091.jp2
26a1e7f102a7cb9bdf43d80ff6e11b38
b4ea17b872bd0cdd4fe35dcb021f7dd3336ad671
104278 F20110209_AABFMF mayne_d_Page_132.jpg
b2284acbbe292b4d0dbe5c90d8717ca0
f22fe3a4d9267f24864d61245b474d42e385acf7
34935 F20110209_AABDFI mayne_d_Page_105.QC.jpg
7973dd8d09545b510ec01ae740d6499f
346b43e016a14379174d1467ad553e2516c4599b
50246 F20110209_AABECB mayne_d_Page_194.pro
d3b91f2713ea802ae6d0c5b4e521da0d
db6f155ae7495c680e07bbcfa9f64f4b53651765
35428 F20110209_AABDST mayne_d_Page_139.QC.jpg
a1548875be84f2e409bd8a6898b54ef4
35ac6dcc5dd997f398ebfabfae5b1859ce6a9ae9
7852 F20110209_AABFZR mayne_d_Page_118thm.jpg
e3d5cf3ead95dea83c79a7d38de0fb07
48d0656ffc6faf5815be39f0c50de90fa292ea1f
49603 F20110209_AABEPN mayne_d_Page_167.pro
e518e442f656ba4b428bf94818986986
9f7347f7a757d86cb8e9f3297d2bf708c919ab7b
101333 F20110209_AABFMG mayne_d_Page_143.jpg
8e751ce1aa1e9aa487426e0fe31e5709
cb44d7e7a5345e87c0168435f3bae682c908952f
2072 F20110209_AABDFJ mayne_d_Page_163.txt
d990c2cb77122e274ff4a45f7788cd14
6b8bb330dfd862bef8719184b5274f45f5585540
F20110209_AABECC mayne_d_Page_285.tif
4c359ad286159cf7de63d87606c14259
6f1ffa068fb3a65adce9bf4a1414d38591ade2a1
F20110209_AABDSU mayne_d_Page_171.tif
1f2fa8fb9fd6d28f8cc26b78b3471ab7
0dc3d73796b0d6b818dfcc682ee552c1b6f0e93d
9034 F20110209_AABFZS mayne_d_Page_119thm.jpg
48c353be4671b00dc486e5ab8f40f6dc
b461811034a5bbebe5835db362b0f0f6d80484b3
F20110209_AABEPO mayne_d_Page_038.tif
24cf4b9fb6889b42c6e2e00cc49bcafb
821aca0e9de465b30c37eeddbd2486fb809772e9
95632 F20110209_AABFMH mayne_d_Page_144.jpg
ee79b090e334abf31166d8ba3cb8169a
11faeb51cf42430967d83958ab8fbea5bd1190c8
F20110209_AABDFK mayne_d_Page_063.jp2
1c08e8e13d3344fef18bb51a9cba787f
9cf8f62bbe5b2aea6211565359d0014ea7682938
34898 F20110209_AABECD mayne_d_Page_054.QC.jpg
9d9f612605d1eae88376837bf148c2c5
6f4551ccf4a47970a05ed31f189013cce97cd85a
F20110209_AABDSV mayne_d_Page_063.tif
9571f6210f459802602875c1fb596a24
3afda520071d10e0586c27514d770d337f916887
8406 F20110209_AABFZT mayne_d_Page_126thm.jpg
89d5208123d09068ba6773349642a33a
421d7d7c529d6522b07eb6f3b34166bb794cafab
280 F20110209_AABEPP mayne_d_Page_127.txt
2f6c906f9252132b71489e97cab9c8f9
a17b337d93e2e7bf32f3a6ea9d08affcf16c1eba
110194 F20110209_AABFMI mayne_d_Page_147.jpg
1c436d97b3a8687be40e2e242577330a
1b57a9d69c0d4ab3592d148bb97b4ca46b8d8b5a
486666 F20110209_AABDFL mayne_d_Page_265.jp2
e4cedb7597df5f2daf0ffb8b52df6b70
b6a81cacf38c853fc4ad2c20b741a3d8ab8a1604
2091 F20110209_AABECE mayne_d_Page_185.txt
d33b44a5faeb2e8ad16b051cd72024e4
72653d9b5c3317ffa1874307303db91ae66ada2f
33543 F20110209_AABDSW mayne_d_Page_091.QC.jpg
483262e6bc63e0462e2280e7c6cfaef6
64513f132d3320c01ecfb574ace33bfe200892f9
9120 F20110209_AABFZU mayne_d_Page_127thm.jpg
84cd200d1bcb454917f19f9d8acfc19f
355dcfcc46b4b9273ecbb810578130ccba21c564
F20110209_AABEPQ mayne_d_Page_056.tif
a0aa7b1da9eafdd41d424e8a259f542a
0e91fb5fad72e43c350ad0336503780664d18d8f
105809 F20110209_AABFMJ mayne_d_Page_152.jpg
064d8b6a9528dff32aa523a93187e0bd
cc1588bc415671e79b33cefef4c03ad5e81d8e83
53897 F20110209_AABDFM mayne_d_Page_169.pro
cd18e5b8e24e47ce852cc6dd7aa0760e
ba11d0df6141559f6ac8ddda5639f146185c8c6e
F20110209_AABECF mayne_d_Page_082.jp2
6630665e00601a424358e7c9f9feea19
2cb063f3e3cfd069077e288d439b13a01b3bb6b9
111535 F20110209_AABDSX mayne_d_Page_116.jpg
c8ab6af28a02b1df8e8efd315719a987
5a4d857e5d9921d8e485be36ae28fcc29309c317
9003 F20110209_AABFZV mayne_d_Page_128thm.jpg
6661ff593f84321f540fb688cd027180
b64d1f3024409b3f4ebf43381615bb393bb36962
8696 F20110209_AABEPR mayne_d_Page_180thm.jpg
e4faf34ea91ab7750887b3d713e08b2f
67864f3a98b47ea91900240bd95f64e7a87cce02
109231 F20110209_AABFMK mayne_d_Page_153.jpg
c4d40675d1021d73d321d97ce6aa0bab
68bcc7d0d35ab25e9f5b19654cb92cebadd11169
34753 F20110209_AABDFN mayne_d_Page_224.QC.jpg
3b56cb1c88ea7ab2b4756c0b05024b9d
2c7c4f313f28a5ca378094643bd7b42b1f60aafc
1051970 F20110209_AABECG mayne_d_Page_055.jp2
9fc994645d83081b50d971d92375441f
6a1238be7f4ce42e46ed3ca980972988f4beaeaa
119628 F20110209_AABDSY mayne_d_Page_235.jpg
575720939537ca61b3603cd149b41672
535b7c6868fa1148ae1147b99af733fa43651c66
8907 F20110209_AABFZW mayne_d_Page_131thm.jpg
cbaa8600a9cc1de81929782331354a70
9d7af9c2e5ee652d782d9e2627a88e12bb4f4d38
34678 F20110209_AABEPS mayne_d_Page_097.QC.jpg
bf41c8285ef65465ae42ded28c55d850
02ad377f62d9ecfa586cd409e932970bfbea1246
89456 F20110209_AABFML mayne_d_Page_157.jpg
f7191f6aca1196af29dd3676d814361e
0bdd658fe9af77861e6a667e21c29538a86f13bc
F20110209_AABDFO mayne_d_Page_227.jp2
5df65e273153dc45742bc5e86d03f5c2
1c0d3c46ff038c03f0755afcefb0cb467fcb0741
2150 F20110209_AABECH mayne_d_Page_140.txt
6e5b4a89cb7935aec233840455097651
484af4c773d44bccef6ec4bfbf1dac3f3c964b56
14824 F20110209_AABDSZ mayne_d_Page_262.QC.jpg
a800e9187e08292bb4293cc2f1e7b7af
c3823dd5032ef5624cd4658ac3d76f28b92da9aa
F20110209_AABFZX mayne_d_Page_143thm.jpg
97ae5440d6fc46a70c25a961d6ae163d
668b91e7525eb110a846abed296b2598b8e3e3ac
F20110209_AABEPT mayne_d_Page_080.tif
7708d2881c090bdaf9b2a16981d91d16
fa083095bcf7557dc36a6e0e2f5a92ff5ad24db2
111827 F20110209_AABFMM mayne_d_Page_159.jpg
cc37a755fa9d1ef20b26b7b3c9405163
8884907f695b383171a24668c857f5bef3fe0cfc
2587 F20110209_AABDFP mayne_d_Page_193.txt
93254c6f2722dfad2d407acb6e67a3eb
c8a3b8b50bc4c847f4a8901abce8da8afb229ab8
1998 F20110209_AABECI mayne_d_Page_113.txt
50721aaf7392d7dfd43f2172b8c21c80
25fd4f09d361d8f0eaca3e45871c379d92672d2d
8733 F20110209_AABFZY mayne_d_Page_147thm.jpg
63094420d0be8748b515a59aafcb79f6
91654e994a50487973da2ed94b4130e36a27905d
F20110209_AABEPU mayne_d_Page_241.tif
c9b04e0ba72e4bf953862727a660b665
2772da9b813a2aff5663a42db8553343d7fbac11
105958 F20110209_AABFMN mayne_d_Page_160.jpg
de4934e032ea1e64b77b951570e4f014
79deff307a14c09268756bd549e2e594efae6334
8469 F20110209_AABDFQ mayne_d_Page_208thm.jpg
07ac221bcfcc871adb952890fae1d066
4b9861dd875f1b7320be7adf707d8e40d626f727
105804 F20110209_AABECJ mayne_d_Page_140.jpg
b4f0adbccedf20159f92a1c2132dd2e4
1e19bce4653886bab8dbd664a116fbd666c436ba
8951 F20110209_AABFZZ mayne_d_Page_160thm.jpg
813844798bb8191be7a3c5f7eacf380e
bf641c17719c6a1ae99de0ecf84d46d98df71ed2
F20110209_AABEPV mayne_d_Page_208.jp2
795c40d0195c4042c00fda8f7aadfc39
3a5fb982086cc1532c9287ac93708b210c861bf3
104985 F20110209_AABFMO mayne_d_Page_161.jpg
3c87019f5cf7b89748d41295ebe219e0
7cfde886ef74c726ae31c464d9ecb7e98fbd3888
6869 F20110209_AABDFR mayne_d_Page_216thm.jpg
370d8eed6f12024dbd640968866cb2c5
c341f76ca3c4076cde0d7f23df7f2132412737ca
2146 F20110209_AABECK mayne_d_Page_117.txt
5a3c11a62b088e5ace61a3591979a53a
ace5afe483ba86ebdbdcf015e4eb72ad485d6f22
1495 F20110209_AABEPW mayne_d_Page_241.txt
13b4753e7ff12f5fb90e4bf45284269f
d7e20a02a861723dd04c1c2a7884495764452c92
116452 F20110209_AABFMP mayne_d_Page_162.jpg
4506318d0c010170e8e94d4ae38ea877
41bebe469b74f104c38eb5e453602a99851d2c19
6412 F20110209_AABDFS mayne_d_Page_031thm.jpg
aa4a7319fb48e142c99d59d35d960165
0bb58411e1fc2d3b039877b785e93306f697d00b
F20110209_AABECL mayne_d_Page_167.tif
b1a0adb1b9e9c59cf7e0c49bcd48e249
94479249574f1c46c1ba2897294c1faee6d5fc79
1642 F20110209_AABEPX mayne_d_Page_275.txt
67d772145d15b324339985a6c1da8d93
8125f12b4160e9a93274a8dd25cd4639cebc4da3
106220 F20110209_AABFMQ mayne_d_Page_166.jpg
dff73aabce3c88774619514839d253bf
76abd6eb9e6dc87d128bfc1374c9e49f1f63d148
34347 F20110209_AABECM mayne_d_Page_036.QC.jpg
f40dd4a51b11c5a38b651aad03ce63e7
73652d8a9a58943dadb518a3a1edaf34087784bd
85004 F20110209_AABEPY mayne_d_Page_005.jpg
358db489c421158157be01ffdb95567d
f7cbb5d7c1920d8dea3a0f8619b9449d06c57daf
100056 F20110209_AABFMR mayne_d_Page_167.jpg
13131780e29470493686662bc14ec842
b148bf333c78abe79d9cdfebedbcf39ddbf21573
61108 F20110209_AABDFT mayne_d_Page_159.pro
aac468241bd9b2d674201a4ad662ea35
b5b3cb54f117d722904aafd6932ae4e43a006d29
49071 F20110209_AABECN mayne_d_Page_111.pro
55e43b5960cf1d38ad4d2cb39f2ffe85
50d5b9ebc9be376635f858fc940b498a89bb306f
53742 F20110209_AABEPZ mayne_d_Page_063.pro
a9d8464ddbcf1774d17f64a5e3309e49
f6b59d0061c4b363c5eddc5795618923fded8ddf
108265 F20110209_AABFMS mayne_d_Page_169.jpg
d2a04fbb4bfd6b768bee7c8c5c837781
8a1de1ec8ad419c1904c597ce52ea4d76dc9368f
F20110209_AABDFU mayne_d_Page_028.txt
8421fb226b01c7b900e3a70b5111de42
eaf815144b85c40b6ece6520c50802e620d18894
1051956 F20110209_AABECO mayne_d_Page_150.jp2
5f1823decd14897ae399c236f9a4b2b8
7016a8bc7996a7e4cc02f8999ee3fccb26623cf4
99366 F20110209_AABFMT mayne_d_Page_170.jpg
ec70385653db52ce06591ce8cba31a06
5322740f7588d055d0056e54ea9ff130c3a2d01f
35619 F20110209_AABDFV mayne_d_Page_191.QC.jpg
2e8246816726bf8d51542b17d5b687ee
5704d8c8940442887e60c298ea8935b2ae9b4eac
105899 F20110209_AABFMU mayne_d_Page_178.jpg
4aeee00272e686195d613195d44228fe
719d09de3e7ce0dacdf30a1646d58f220108a25f
F20110209_AABDFW mayne_d_Page_054.txt
9118020688a9daf7c6c35f01a951dc74
b8d7e91968cea75d0951b0bac7586850aeef67d0
F20110209_AABDYA mayne_d_Page_164.jp2
73fb7bc9f7b981f795817b56d065e2de
8fcb22abe6fdef591632d5246d194d4815daf6f7
8208 F20110209_AABECP mayne_d_Page_145thm.jpg
1a6e685690b50205635ec83131effb9a
d31e3ff305215e6478138a82c72fa4d727d79de0
105284 F20110209_AABFMV mayne_d_Page_180.jpg
83272bb6850b795aad798969ea081809
fbe757f4b6c2d6b2fcd0747ef7d8c0a692f31749
F20110209_AABDFX mayne_d_Page_208.tif
c4377d55717d5b25ec455a2aa12ab419
181d78cb6c0f28a9024bd7c513a0a5a048f4063f
101397 F20110209_AABDYB mayne_d_Page_172.jpg
bb0d8be3f05defddd782f5628dedcf2b
0ca5157636e1bc841851543d1c7c4a866dc7b73b
98939 F20110209_AABECQ mayne_d_Page_018.jpg
b064eaeba86a7a069a437eb65c42481f
38694deb1db027fcd71e883c59dcbc0978fc4a56
101093 F20110209_AABFMW mayne_d_Page_181.jpg
364e708853b79ba9d33187ba43ac2fdf
f04e789fb246434f760807ef40faf003605565f7
831033 F20110209_AABDFY mayne_d_Page_089.jp2
59ddb6b32f2147a7719504c33da66ab0
09d355f58670fb80c16c905f9ce960923b7808b2
954462 F20110209_AABDYC mayne_d_Page_158.jp2
1ad32c9a96e47a23d5b856ceb5962dc8
dc0b399a2447a67827aa666b449556b07048a1fd
106752 F20110209_AABECR mayne_d_Page_078.jpg
09734f98b7ddf11cc9ff6731d00ca403
07897f42b879e86a17c614f659e6d77b7b63efb8
73525 F20110209_AABFMX mayne_d_Page_183.jpg
fd594b6f3cecfd6ae31de09cf48ea5b5
61c3d1d7bccc1502d5d5d556b621f3b804fd10ca
104502 F20110209_AABDFZ mayne_d_Page_100.jpg
4701bf7b5b817760b46f4ffd3e7b730b
0548bbcd4df706ee3a3b776f368e85c915b855e1
2093 F20110209_AABDYD mayne_d_Page_105.txt
0d76188399a7dcba8fba876e81bdeda6
436cdfbafcf9b5638ce57a789aaa1ffda5bc44d9
2844 F20110209_AABECS mayne_d_Page_013.txt
08acafb94b21d6433458f150aa0956ab
60d0dcfbd51d4d1a4dc05f392791014f3ebf9a01
8856 F20110209_AABDYE mayne_d_Page_206thm.jpg
1e2d92614e331fea322103ee8aeaf273
3117c9e34baafcfa0c62e95a1604ac7605758a37
2029 F20110209_AABECT mayne_d_Page_201.txt
5df0c3b46daa4343151570e023350a1d
5b60dd1dc95cfcded8f6f1eab1965067616550b9
102839 F20110209_AABFMY mayne_d_Page_184.jpg
6e4eb4fab25f986923836373fc0025ea
f4b15f30023bfd4d6d004ffce02116604577e3de
102446 F20110209_AABDYF mayne_d_Page_223.jpg
f23282672090c92bf2efd4a801771361
e3b24daab6da7ea6fc3a0c62074d0d413feccad5
54718 F20110209_AABECU mayne_d_Page_027.pro
f983df7c1e717943be6cb43a6da76cb8
77a9de87045efccbb3b32f0d8904637830fc82c6
104659 F20110209_AABFMZ mayne_d_Page_185.jpg
9baf8186fcf8defab058818253f65549
5a23ed60ea8875817a238e4e2675ef3de489432d
3862 F20110209_AABECV mayne_d_Page_149.pro
cebbd4c1d19a76cc9417d4cd10cb702c
7cf04bbdb3fd23038ba1e12b90efba54273367df
F20110209_AABEVA mayne_d_Page_131.tif
13804fcddf829bc8332c3e6e2183141b
75db2bbbb4016f076d05020b054199c920acb593
F20110209_AABDYG mayne_d_Page_061.tif
a8db0d0c608b741c1a3308a2217f608b
4e545137e863ab9c473cdfc6f0af7baaac74c582
F20110209_AABECW mayne_d_Page_030.tif
b1f76ff3f24ee36c297c8717343e190c
ecb84071294e7d08780f8a3da9788b609f5ed70a
F20110209_AABEVB mayne_d_Page_148.QC.jpg
d810e9d8fd4c61fa3d281005a071193f
9091d4847dde6c7ff74ca6775f473c1d11b57af1
52759 F20110209_AABDYH mayne_d_Page_278.jpg
2ebbcfe93378b40eeaae1f6d9ef6821a
3df23810b278826d0f28257f7ea832a3e42d0f1f
107940 F20110209_AABECX mayne_d_Page_133.jpg
5a5b3f88634ff8210287a8f0f3417931
c0c2b06ae64a3f8ce56d34231317a14f55df46d6
24484 F20110209_AABDYI mayne_d_Page_008.QC.jpg
8ac8a74daf35b7ce636af91214f08f82
dddad0a943a761135956e6f08581b9e7cf5ef4ef
4192 F20110209_AABECY mayne_d_Page_071.pro
c27534c425025c110a4ad7a1276d95c8
d0d2936c6bf074d88d3ab583de2265b5ffd4233e
8922 F20110209_AABEVC mayne_d_Page_140thm.jpg
f0e0c0914411fb5048ab24b9714bafed
31184eb04ea326fb6490d4c10bdc3b57dfbe7078
F20110209_AABDYJ mayne_d_Page_094.tif
a5478164ccada70c0173b01536554e6c
60f41f68430805df3d9e46383cecfa591efa4b60
51315 F20110209_AABECZ mayne_d_Page_201.pro
c4ec991474e424f9d98c2960025fd7c7
f2f2bcf4ee3b94039f01973b5e8dbee77cf9fc8c
8659 F20110209_AABEVD mayne_d_Page_166thm.jpg
6be311804ff7da3f2a66a3a8ce8e26c9
53d85e56c5e6c3418f9c2cf1acdf59ad72d0a6b8
6087 F20110209_AABDYK mayne_d_Page_241thm.jpg
b6dffb2eb1e4a321c1d0426265753ebf
ccbaff8bae24e9def046a1a592359d17b7b4b6fa
32848 F20110209_AABEVE mayne_d_Page_258.pro
1981da9c3d71f73c3c02bf5e4b9c41c5
0b48a4a4bab2920d7919ca4d5110dfafeb6804ae
213 F20110209_AABDLA mayne_d_Page_103.txt
78c7299bbde12015b24b3b887cb1efb3
cbf90203afbe08a94367386ea4bbc15af605b89a
25640 F20110209_AABDYL mayne_d_Page_272.pro
4804fdebb77dd3d80ff52bf4620b5211
39a687b20c94e3cb4a2f9fe30c6e3476a8a2a90e
53388 F20110209_AABEVF mayne_d_Page_140.pro
094ea1f7251fafc03968e6bfd23ba380
ce98078507b01f2647ea3850433776dae2f03aba
56472 F20110209_AABDLB mayne_d_Page_199.pro
e948b871ff5ce282ea8e158d23c3d82c
454943c90d797666dac854465b4ee9045118e73f
34006 F20110209_AABDYM mayne_d_Page_047.QC.jpg
2a0fd30713ed1f8461365eeb073f2abd
c952f0efd9cca278f102f9a72fbf49b9c41d5f21
53091 F20110209_AABEVG mayne_d_Page_139.pro
88df52ea4da6864729b1c9a93767644d
48acd3546c2d2ffa2b57238a699e21dea640a7e9
54014 F20110209_AABDLC mayne_d_Page_030.pro
c107776761b08a62c97cfa05b477083f
7de113fede0998bf4d6a32544cc1c0a4c9274749
234720 F20110209_AABDYN mayne_d_Page_234.jp2
5d319ef5a0fbadcbe5196dfdc31c748c
9c71340bd81c8f89209a1fb7b7874d76c37f667a
F20110209_AABFSA mayne_d_Page_224.jp2
b762d55c8dff85fa3fe165df01b35c1a
26121c85c8029285e6ab527a84630da9dfaae702
2834 F20110209_AABDLD mayne_d_Page_231.txt
3559156219323226963592040351bd5f
980b1465ab1fd59686bab57fe9099005ee231a93
26985 F20110209_AABDYO mayne_d_Page_213.pro
392545dbadebbbde63c8fb99397200f0
0f95f3d97fc1e12cd9e5a417f6efbef28b3df21c
48331 F20110209_AABEVH mayne_d_Page_228.pro
47cb4a46492a1e3f602d7085b05e957a
9daae74a9d3c1914d24fdb9048d3f40e089b9adc
1051981 F20110209_AABFSB mayne_d_Page_233.jp2
f763abb0f96fe8927caacef967ebb108
8a23dbd857de6d3b8763b9d85a6c93f320fecacb
55860 F20110209_AABDLE mayne_d_Page_057.pro
afb9d630da8dc64d0fd763e5f01d1a0d
4bf40fdd525e462853f7026586d137f38688befb
43517 F20110209_AABDYP mayne_d_Page_284.pro
6de1dd4f66365c31337ff58d56beadee
0ede867a467952a258ccc614fcfe24d65ad86d6e
50416 F20110209_AABEVI mayne_d_Page_073.pro
f38cd6538ebc195ea3ea936e739508bd
6d8218c6ca067a72e457f8bbd91b291b2e770641
831493 F20110209_AABFSC mayne_d_Page_238.jp2
f97120695ea653ee02989fdf90946e16
d18aad51864091d01f03d1d43a0bb4eea510bb28
2007 F20110209_AABDLF mayne_d_Page_075.txt
f1501864fbe4ca639d02825b65862637
10ff45bf0e5c26870b284b1e81e67b9075565e60
F20110209_AABDYQ mayne_d_Page_226.tif
947f6d1faf3a65df67b8c4dd208e6c48
bbba763a6b93b258ff272bd4075f196834b8748c
F20110209_AABEVJ mayne_d_Page_014.txt
e0a095668077d6c998fb3affeecee523
363152fba8b18544d5fcc199c5274c0edca26061
804510 F20110209_AABFSD mayne_d_Page_241.jp2
4b0c486b9aad813017205078003e0ea6
5762a647e32dca3354b026e802506e579664f17b
F20110209_AABDLG mayne_d_Page_006.jp2
94aa507f056d6482a90a06dacad468c9
12702a19ffd4b08b2b8ceb2da0b6d6b179e267bb
35703 F20110209_AABDYR mayne_d_Page_218.QC.jpg
ebdb544b82783d0a7ce095a5a34e4da6
946dd9e822d366779fd165c1018c674a4d597b53
F20110209_AABEVK mayne_d_Page_031.txt
d99550daebeb02840a8d37b1459e5620
872dca6fb1c70b06d045ae49e23c6a69ce4aceba
807177 F20110209_AABFSE mayne_d_Page_242.jp2
19bef709795bda299ae906187bb77808
1cf97af6e90145dcb9988fc0c89f9540596f0afc
F20110209_AABDLH mayne_d_Page_136.tif
748ab7ebcd7a9f4ec44614e3cf13c7b4
b284fdb91a83b71ca4059c9f4ec658fbef4a9fde
101779 F20110209_AABEIA mayne_d_Page_104.jpg
e96f2f1c250647547fddf8e2b3d2a6ef
d26389bea883498bbf4c4f354b68e985f9124f1c
7846 F20110209_AABDYS mayne_d_Page_146thm.jpg
23767ca6b436df38dab6701cebc92f95
9ace490877db46fc87dd7b3d5582de8043a2b7f1
35776 F20110209_AABEVL mayne_d_Page_029.QC.jpg
c75426fd29fa60ecd26287c2dacfd72a
0d676e9fd807ce7ae324678b8e56ff24c74341c1
F20110209_AABFSF mayne_d_Page_247.jp2
1ca9baa49d21217ea3d78463b52c0fc0
635e61713dfe2cab5bd4d1d09657f30800d6e411
809642 F20110209_AABDLI mayne_d_Page_098.jp2
85f9ce60f2b85a7492b8e8d2825f493a
529351aa5a416c25bf3c5b15a94e69f48527f5ed
8802 F20110209_AABEIB mayne_d_Page_055thm.jpg
d0b41c0e8b74e08feac451fe6d2ef371
243e0ac74d6f3b08d252df82b12e783b8e5c1276
1051932 F20110209_AABDYT mayne_d_Page_050.jp2
4586d7f90a645f3defe63bee4be1a8dc
c852d1b8d934a56fae40417f169f264fd073bd0f
53735 F20110209_AABEVM mayne_d_Page_224.pro
ce93c6050c0d2ea19e90308890e4b752
b2384ff55bc4abdc3ef3bd981a02122de15a8252
220752 F20110209_AABFSG mayne_d_Page_251.jp2
f0d499b228bec82b9d9408daa3610443
9c1735ff3ecf44b8fb549078f68d7a794a501bce
F20110209_AABDLJ mayne_d_Page_124.tif
d61f1c353df4ff37b4d2c7ed5972b0b7
986ea58a8899b54f3841bf1bf711ef5c12320c0d
14624 F20110209_AABEIC mayne_d_Page_229.pro
52fca455048a32752b375a912c1ede0a
6f5a1e3069aed53b15c3bd288dda63e6d2db0cfe
F20110209_AABDYU mayne_d_Page_255.tif
622039b23c467198e6c78ee48343f1fb
47a6cfbf67304e784e290844cedf7a6577edaf5f
2163 F20110209_AABEVN mayne_d_Page_121.txt
1073b0317bf6d571de9a9d3a5d861823
4af45050dc49a9809c8ade659daba46a7c6e9f72
559045 F20110209_AABFSH mayne_d_Page_252.jp2
2791db095f352229a06269fec66530dc
f6d4251650592da96d23ed04d0597877a5971e0d
102217 F20110209_AABDLK mayne_d_Page_135.jpg
d1025ba375bd1c2e49d9196b182b8c9d
2c7cf5e43beaed4971cb4fb73e752753ba719f53
2123 F20110209_AABEID mayne_d_Page_030.txt
f6eb87ae4349fac0654a50af7b805cd0
33528e96af120fb3f77745280fe79f1cdad1e9d3
1051933 F20110209_AABDYV mayne_d_Page_225.jp2
b526ea5531aa43bf62bdbcb3a4d7cccd
121b09440f93dfb9b9a716764d0db4dc1252498c
F20110209_AABEVO mayne_d_Page_075.jp2
e42f43b31c2997d60075d4dbdf0bb4f5
f3a8be5425dfe48d6adc04b0fa66aa90939dfaf2
538276 F20110209_AABFSI mayne_d_Page_259.jp2
e641061dbece35efd52653645d6e427d
99cb3d9f1aa09c0fb4398300024fc030e1e8cf1c
8760 F20110209_AABDLL mayne_d_Page_210thm.jpg
f2cafa097beecbd9795bd5d0ca093575
b5bdd64d6546d22d073156ac48fa3f0b26ff7c7f
98495 F20110209_AABEIE mayne_d_Page_189.jpg
aa0a7dcb71e1337d97dd48338353f3fb
453165cf1dbc74345c065c87129d33519ee31d87
111483 F20110209_AABDYW mayne_d_Page_205.jpg
0124aba48277ea91ce5643e808f4afd4
faa6e57ede37e6921c54b1b84fd9a9bb83a91209
F20110209_AABEVP mayne_d_Page_139.tif
6999088359931172cd37f95265422a46
e8dc56b0205f870e658475aed5a75d0d155298ed
544071 F20110209_AABFSJ mayne_d_Page_260.jp2
c6a8bc9a58443b5f0fd2a28edf8cfa0a
3170aeb6ae7daa26782c8605d85e63b2f61f05a1
35262 F20110209_AABDLM mayne_d_Page_135.QC.jpg
4e0f721f60472e5a400fce847db3f9fa
2b9d49fda04d1c3c3fbca8264169612880984ee4
547842 F20110209_AABEIF mayne_d_Page_278.jp2
ecbf23bfb7a8d1ae461a75b8258281f6
3e153cb4977d91b8a90defc5deecc704b369f14e
F20110209_AABDYX mayne_d_Page_017.tif
71af67502f133f9b3a19219f7dc1b37b
9547f7c587024566d69d293c765bf3b6919646b6
F20110209_AABEVQ mayne_d_Page_001.tif
f09c828c9556ae77b63b4162f589a624
78b89e6424a988d69164d39be5a6bd9cd77880c4
654263 F20110209_AABFSK mayne_d_Page_267.jp2
d3f5dca6100c1b5e42a25c1484d8f1c4
f3977bde03c581917b87bc06e7a04d3c3644a604
58870 F20110209_AABDLN mayne_d_Page_246.jpg
184cf69acbaf58b7400ccaf9dad7719d
f093b9a5cdc6f004f9fa187351d92d5eab315464
69369 F20110209_AABEIG mayne_d_Page_231.pro
3349878d4529b77afe489f21367f674f
2c1c5b86c660283b3dc89e0b1dd4de5b85d6ed9b
50970 F20110209_AABDYY mayne_d_Page_016.pro
38ae59b186aff8d3f8af3c0fae34d7df
0ff872d9e1f93bc1e5e546397e5b16c875db5074
37147 F20110209_AABEVR mayne_d_Page_169.QC.jpg
8b68e1707efacd1b57a822722f2da86f
efb8507e49fc74cc1882dcf5e5971c24f5828993
657116 F20110209_AABFSL mayne_d_Page_269.jp2
47f9fa335e25d4c247f978a1d3fe355c
e5b48d2cdc64e1d4eba02e61b76e03bb2bd57ace
2194 F20110209_AABDLO mayne_d_Page_131.txt
e4f5e1c22da1076d8353f23033bcf09b
87a234d7f8b746605eff0df371116177397b6213
8407 F20110209_AABEIH mayne_d_Page_032thm.jpg
64c641c1c3a1e0aceaffb2702db57997
0438082ea0eb29b11277ab78158bdc5666dfc4fd
F20110209_AABDYZ mayne_d_Page_214.jp2
3c2099a5d92e73b48c68b2d1de1394b4
e8ab529795667cd1b88fa994f509c9a5ddc36133
F20110209_AABFFA mayne_d_Page_176.txt
097379bbcf687dd23f2c96f010b51e92
ee8ff4f216d8e1c07fa581faa2515e0695d2d283
9181 F20110209_AABEVS mayne_d_Page_162thm.jpg
4fdb827f250db0cdec8cf4b92f68d110
59873c82aeea709adb697b91138257be41975378
597681 F20110209_AABFSM mayne_d_Page_271.jp2
9d7aa8cb012fb5e962e0c5d1dd6dc0fc
22c2797a488ad0478b6db7bfcc041311b4667c04
1919 F20110209_AABDLP mayne_d_Page_146.txt
72617f08685260826aa42de32e2ad047
cc79f308f8df7d2aedc221219dfc709e163dd73f
1051968 F20110209_AABEII mayne_d_Page_072.jp2
1789fcdffc500d956148afe9d1f91836
ccebfa4a6a225e55b163e25a23cb17233d67aa74
2026 F20110209_AABFFB mayne_d_Page_178.txt
cfa5347ccb1bda187cfd877cb1df4280
0f1ac2e055c44f230d028c2df79c316668767678
32547 F20110209_AABEVT mayne_d_Page_112.QC.jpg
0ed5c147545fee29571ba441c3325f71
f57fa9332d7583524d46de2d7138200a90f8bf78
545049 F20110209_AABFSN mayne_d_Page_272.jp2
ba3726fde7affac7fd96b7b67dd73227
1d17602e5fd9b9d027764b4d4712dbf128bd7860
8342 F20110209_AABDLQ mayne_d_Page_082thm.jpg
fa3c51f8d10c096a135e9a3b96f26798
352c4b7722e9897ed9b61c2bc3b3aca472dba3d0
33918 F20110209_AABEIJ mayne_d_Page_060.QC.jpg
d84d894b3b0698f288aa5677dd426d79
abafc4e8a734d82af31ad2106d7b046d334a1dd5
2011 F20110209_AABFFC mayne_d_Page_179.txt
42ac947a04afd3e869da3dbea18d00ef
66378055ea954aeeca72b05bf4d83d257ed6778e
8337 F20110209_AABEVU mayne_d_Page_154thm.jpg
524bb3e508b220f6987515c3f83199c6
b22a49a213b2bd008d20257061dfc933b6956a4e
677163 F20110209_AABFSO mayne_d_Page_276.jp2
07f90fb7d673e8bc533b0670544d8745
2624a90a562f3a86edbfcb8bc3e5157fb619c384
1851 F20110209_AABDLR mayne_d_Page_253.txt
19a9ba1a20db2e6a6700d21befc748e9
d31c8f634b090cd1b10d33fc5eee2aa4f31eb4fd
9042 F20110209_AABEIK mayne_d_Page_191thm.jpg
d15a8ca78b4a36ed053b679c28d4ae24
5e010e2f61368581fe6261ed900d416f9725465b
2541 F20110209_AABFFD mayne_d_Page_187.txt
e9b7427148dec32d84057b76790e914b
c0e0359e049013af531ffca30af646fe7bbfb25b
F20110209_AABEVV mayne_d_Page_076.tif
8f693a441805621236dd31d227e22e4e
3151e2c9ea7bff8c71cb2227f2155f1716ee94e1
643724 F20110209_AABFSP mayne_d_Page_277.jp2
1673a743b8623d34168d1ad385ee3c3c
04b1863af69396cec30913fdcb48c92337dc12cc
1051976 F20110209_AABDLS mayne_d_Page_159.jp2
b20515f4f81c6dc99beef69dc37c5aed
2fc2ee87f10831440bdc9885418799e47aa01984
25354 F20110209_AABEIL mayne_d_Page_261.pro
19690bdc61f6f77c5f5ce5f2744f4ad6
116bf2bcea064a802174058705ced9a2dca4cae0
2361 F20110209_AABFFE mayne_d_Page_189.txt
0bf390ad5d1f3e349eae268ecbac39bd
c296bfd29e106a605cb869f776fb6b9b9ffc9f6f
F20110209_AABEVW mayne_d_Page_200.jp2
1f85bc5dcae9ec59313a51f352145cdd
76463c8199d940b818af9794efce9955bd66e5be
231646 F20110209_AABFSQ mayne_d_Page_279.jp2
c43dd94168285acfd534cc077b889c32
15e06143f6acc0af62fb665c3cb9495f1b4c04e7
1051918 F20110209_AABDLT mayne_d_Page_174.jp2
160842ea26777a318b0bf11c5f6df292
314b9f92fcaef4e1a2112305b85471629e4042d2
62986 F20110209_AABEIM mayne_d_Page_003.jp2
f91fea60975b18fffeb52093f0972ca7
261d13642b027ca76cbd6e308ae8077e2b130f45
2079 F20110209_AABFFF mayne_d_Page_190.txt
2726a2d6750cc79520cc5f8f8a0d0baf
fd2463cf0b60bb78f258fa2cc5387628e4e6d27c
F20110209_AABEVX mayne_d_Page_032.tif
91698ca3da166dde4fa0040b8961f264
e5c1d33f5aa4a4b856219798d70fba0f3cd0640b
F20110209_AABFSR mayne_d_Page_282.jp2
671b64ae73325ca107dbbbb28f9b4abc
27a5796510154452567f4619d86d7dd82b1e0190
F20110209_AABDLU mayne_d_Page_032.jp2
b663fc6078f34eb94a62445802b3da1f
b2de0488f79819ead1ae406e2568873ba28543d0
F20110209_AABEIN mayne_d_Page_175.tif
0ea6184ae69c2b3867ce2426e72753b8
9656a8c74b8ee31b8a3b994c07b5112d3f3c5be0
2089 F20110209_AABFFG mayne_d_Page_196.txt
9b1ee9ba814608a8c8458b51afe462fc
3a6f29f78f7ee5a2267893a5ff2bb23798e56850
1727 F20110209_AABEVY mayne_d_Page_278.txt
2e7b5ad00008d38a79ed158ba2d25c98
5cfb28c6c5d180aaf15398142b7818816b960ca9
8884 F20110209_AABFSS mayne_d_Page_078thm.jpg
2671cb21141fac595dae3071daf62121
7ec5553c4f07b45656401682015a3f9c94c2afad
6973 F20110209_AABDLV mayne_d_Page_243thm.jpg
cfbd2ebe9597452bfeb018a46365f20b
ffdefcc462b574b7a5701f6e893a709b314523da
32300 F20110209_AABEIO mayne_d_Page_177.QC.jpg
24d3c490617257976c55a7eed4296591
e2018a8958cff265e61bcb7574a6585c5e7fcf21
F20110209_AABFFH mayne_d_Page_198.txt
c1c79e4dadbae68dd17ab2030b1869b4
67cbe399c9af75ad28f58b4f0f7a84f07b9fd48d
34652 F20110209_AABEVZ mayne_d_Page_283.QC.jpg
73ef6fb51594001c741545aa597cf944
30a4518672db3156dd5cbb5393a8ca59c47d9b34
2752 F20110209_AABFST mayne_d_Page_245thm.jpg
42f0cdf23019d6230e6a88adff773926
d4382336921de547c59c23f8eee95f9c329e85d6
345 F20110209_AABDLW mayne_d_Page_042thm.jpg
7220a9ab9d3055b7a73b52ad5dfa2258
cdbacf9d071fd28897fef52536bfe6fc1ba3e3aa
54855 F20110209_AABEIP mayne_d_Page_108.pro
52fd57589096749e9405b41b06f5f11d
1280281e145e1758616a2256be706d26e752099c
2222 F20110209_AABFFI mayne_d_Page_199.txt
1d57e24a3c1937ff4838951d3a73fe33
1ba900270e9cebb3f1ab2903f475b9119411a766
35458 F20110209_AABFSU mayne_d_Page_027.QC.jpg
428677914fe134a9c12d747b70beafb7
a718960ee04d326d785064e71ffe674fe666372a
34402 F20110209_AABDLX mayne_d_Page_208.QC.jpg
ae38a262d0d37549ee211cc0ae60640c
c8bbc61701d6132a70f9ed6b3535ddcc562c447d
1051953 F20110209_AABEIQ mayne_d_Page_097.jp2
ea13ed73d1e336c5e85b3c3d49e641c3
43e4ddbc822312577f2dcdabe5f64cdec1ce6bba
1466 F20110209_AABFFJ mayne_d_Page_202.txt
650ef4797b9aa547fede7773a9205ec2
6a14cb45d0f92abd7db11968ca2c3a5a73db471d
36815 F20110209_AABFSV mayne_d_Page_212.QC.jpg
e220a6b0fc885ea7a2e9f1f2402ae365
d93a878580e9afccf3cdad8d1be2205765c06d91
F20110209_AABDLY mayne_d_Page_251.txt
edc8ae264f1a4b5b4b9cecbc410bd64d
7e848d1fdf807f769978c0e7f4a917e1a1853ab3
8157 F20110209_AABEIR mayne_d_Page_110thm.jpg
1bcd36ceec1bfebc81309eb2ec8ae25d
f1d8a64c52d8b5884ae9f451aed97a37692445ac
2208 F20110209_AABFFK mayne_d_Page_203.txt
eb911e13165fdd9c8a3bccf2d5def816
36e3a6a6584d0ca402821fc722e9b245eb3235b1
37283 F20110209_AABFSW mayne_d_Page_109.QC.jpg
e5111da468bdb4ced6cfa4a5c57eb821
e47399a4321641f743391a7d819b7069e6878e1f
F20110209_AABEIS mayne_d_Page_180.jp2
4450bbe79d63f8c399de9448466c9b7b
2bd0914f63ae9cc9dc77b7d55617091f9d312b14
2217 F20110209_AABFFL mayne_d_Page_205.txt
99f13751ff06e7edecd1b29b26914472
14eb6ea33317a59237b4292e998b0038b2d85fcc
8384 F20110209_AABFSX mayne_d_Page_172thm.jpg
ae2a54c6ef47a1c4809fd79c277dc825
cd6d7f2300fb983812a8b1b1ac5e1f1aea430bd6
F20110209_AABDLZ mayne_d_Page_025.txt
5320b9dc6d9b87e55b16881b3d72d9d5
d1b72ace9412c8a3d97de56d29b2b3c137c49d5e
102550 F20110209_AABEIT mayne_d_Page_187.jpg
e9549fddc637fdb8ea68716be06f146d
7764d89b126428494b00010a3ad20baf0b459c31
2119 F20110209_AABFFM mayne_d_Page_207.txt
d323ea915b17f5d3dd31fdb572fbd2e6
45569147dbd519eb733c00bc94d35a4f027ffb4d
25030 F20110209_AABFSY mayne_d_Page_202.QC.jpg
88b4d5661a6161df2cae806b39175e0b
bd958451b120601524f359e783a45fe551fdc029
34707 F20110209_AABEIU mayne_d_Page_142.QC.jpg
55c048075de74fa21b8e7a4021d18ba4
9af00831740f4bf0d0f7f9c7db7559583333bc9e
F20110209_AABFFN mayne_d_Page_208.txt
59d3fab40191a1267d70b3f299ee89a7
81267bb23e1df42e9ed67999f5ab3c101ecd71f1
34361 F20110209_AABFSZ mayne_d_Page_226.QC.jpg
d11d6d38033e52f69098b0f73e5b0338
d62badcf1a015a49d1b920838c7033d565ad624f
2195 F20110209_AABFFO mayne_d_Page_210.txt
42c3ea46ec9193f96a3111ab1ca4cb35
25a5d31d7dfc9148263d30ed59791464e11ed292
F20110209_AABEIV mayne_d_Page_209.tif
c962514f09b09422deb23946d8d66c01
e6bbe4f97797e0619c1f944d0f92c370f7989f1c
1989 F20110209_AABFFP mayne_d_Page_215.txt
af3fcd024f5a92d62ac63c0555bc4a6e
c8fad634515653f66116294eb45315d42ed828a4
2145 F20110209_AABEIW mayne_d_Page_067.txt
9154cbb15d3beb49e52609d68da6d6b2
9aee4d3ed813cfc7038114f088f346a15a24df60
1569 F20110209_AABFFQ mayne_d_Page_217.txt
a72bd87371befb4da21a2f9cdc60b216
83ebc2dd79e0f7d99fde894af88b104819518128
F20110209_AABEIX mayne_d_Page_170.tif
51a6474f75e31abcd44e9cacc4ce7d37
c3fc677daf5c4c93a454e48ca65d6fe814b47476
F20110209_AABEIY mayne_d_Page_132.tif
0e25ad2d5e4cff7b50630df9ae1c6d1b
881c0d521ec2d76a423117d4cb9f7d3898e5fd2f
2044 F20110209_AABFFR mayne_d_Page_219.txt
ab0718ad54c174872c3a742cbad21f7f
47c09773c82367cd40b003dc7fa6248e50956cf1
48299 F20110209_AABEIZ mayne_d_Page_070.pro
6c73326785d397ad80b64e1e07319137
8d41eaf1d844ce081b54f2735271cbb84cdf6cfc
2224 F20110209_AABFFS mayne_d_Page_221.txt
09f02066366d49f239bd26a2bc963651
93769b05d1fb1b853bed61516d8d2e35f4953d02
1985 F20110209_AABFFT mayne_d_Page_223.txt
8ddecb3dbb896717aefc82ceae9d9f78
033d8cf99222031031905046c0ca84e01cf60277
51217 F20110209_AABDRA mayne_d_Page_186.pro
c4a847578ba2dbbde5c4f27be42550ab
02c3b5086cd88532a9cec58e29a659f2a59ca7a6
1913 F20110209_AABFFU mayne_d_Page_228.txt
f437c7b6a2a5f73424d9f7d25405a227
aacf3ce8a7fefb368e05a1dce822b0a233151b50
2096 F20110209_AABDRB mayne_d_Page_078.txt
64f858c6dae550a9f6b2524f6a20e5f0
bc4c3eea8f49bb7d66797f583bb85125249b986b
1867 F20110209_AABFFV mayne_d_Page_230.txt
7b4e895ea661dfc2ed7e83ee92318e00
afd691dd087339474b340d88ca4e53dbd5c971c4
16766 F20110209_AABFYA mayne_d_Page_255.QC.jpg
210dc61a55806379d92452380fba992d
0b5bea0983286c4f33a45b0270ab7ce1969c5e11
2330 F20110209_AABDRC mayne_d_Page_206.txt
b2d8ff74ba72dfa32998c39d52eca6ea
a32adb86bb916198b40cc565016d9c82a4bd5ead
107 F20110209_AABFFW mayne_d_Page_232.txt
597e947884d817be1b46e5df1746047b
490889899299664d1bd8daf205834dd9ad3dfa86
16376 F20110209_AABFYB mayne_d_Page_257.QC.jpg
b00c52d799c1c6c0fa4c02f2881249c6
b198b9b80436d523b0ad636dae2a11ed82a929f9
111896 F20110209_AABDRD mayne_d_Page_199.jpg
17edeab228669351876e5a5f1a03c5c0
e83bbac965a4a7b7c8e158394de26b37e2fbcc65
1511 F20110209_AABFFX mayne_d_Page_236.txt
880011de7e9bb18eafdef4d23a310407
0f684f41bafc3673c8100b1e1dfdde5c48c5c0b9
17723 F20110209_AABFYC mayne_d_Page_258.QC.jpg
5e50175ef5c23de2181772a811f30b3a
c86764cf50df8c5a14df1fc1dda013bbdadb61eb
8252 F20110209_AABDRE mayne_d_Page_247thm.jpg
ab6bbca2b39a2d564adf32814eb16801
72d8ef23cf652a200929fd6319c9dbc9db9815aa
1608 F20110209_AABFFY mayne_d_Page_238.txt
f8d734357b02f0ceb258a2dbad1dcf77
5dd6befb6f9a4640d8c1ce3b059e758afb1c8c66
13659 F20110209_AABFYD mayne_d_Page_263.QC.jpg
45e49be24682a29af8ef853cfb6ab2cd
ade02bf937f0020f332d5209267ee2eddae41486
F20110209_AABDRF mayne_d_Page_007.tif
a7e5bc89f4b09b43799c2fb89e2154b1
593bc9a643b5fcd775019232ae58afdb0e042d64
580 F20110209_AABFFZ mayne_d_Page_239.txt
d42fb347000c6cc8e84a82a32bac0d29
52c67ad021084d3b7f5f9db51e9548a8fb51968e
64375 F20110209_AABDRG mayne_d_Page_162.pro
a8b365c1857b8fdc8e2ed6eb85f6cbf9
2c6578d9d3e8022ee01f493346f449e124ead3b9
17177 F20110209_AABFYE mayne_d_Page_267.QC.jpg
41fef68fd438e029206a671e5db6e945
dbaafa05ecdc55d871485f335c6c3d2707226490
90415 F20110209_AABDRH mayne_d_Page_013.jpg
8d7a1f810b0feecd5180903b09e65bb6
cd9cc024c661cf4d8cacf0926da1cd79d0f4648b
F20110209_AABEOA mayne_d_Page_248.tif
e952da38a0a10cf76469795143fe83dd
9c010c5665f9865ecc5551e0af8433690768f2e4
17345 F20110209_AABFYF mayne_d_Page_269.QC.jpg
291222bbdc7b9edcb49223062a363c0e
dd5023acc838e18be5a2a0137a9f28eec25ed9e1
107266 F20110209_AABDRI mayne_d_Page_203.jpg
86a89d2dfcadd75fe2dd4087864ee863
f41db7fd9f06afca5e5f5ca8bac40e2aa0745f5e
102680 F20110209_AABEOB mayne_d_Page_198.jpg
1d592131e7a6108664448345fb5c1461
d03f96772e558c00acb74f2e68d80d04f9b28233
15036 F20110209_AABFYG mayne_d_Page_272.QC.jpg
a058a8d6ec0bc5f5695e17827a44e61d
22ae050768b8223e9db70572524ccb98fdbd6042
56704 F20110209_AABDRJ mayne_d_Page_221.pro
42f464552535390511505500127e30d8
e7e47c4f6d45769091ba0bd7a11e6d597b225448
F20110209_AABEOC mayne_d_Page_107.tif
906fc537bddd3daaa3f72211a0671c03
a683eec0d16ea87fc776bc044594712405287a66
36142 F20110209_AABFYH mayne_d_Page_280.QC.jpg
d1687fb658b93fed19c0e0f31c219ff1
1171304bf2dabf7202676425a7cfbf7cae726f9f
33924 F20110209_AABDRK mayne_d_Page_132.QC.jpg
838f0aa7e02eeb61d455b09eb1c97a28
f751824b77a888cc36a1777ebe039fe52d51a897
8552 F20110209_AABEOD mayne_d_Page_169thm.jpg
9a81a20b6d0f2c5ca9c335da430e0b83
1cac1623903b0e43fe66be48fb6765beb954bfc8
32418 F20110209_AABFYI mayne_d_Page_281.QC.jpg
110a818bfd26b226fcb1520c844ff0c3
148016247c8e93e966e35c45d588f2f2996374ef
50603 F20110209_AABDRL mayne_d_Page_126.pro
89dcf59a43eaae8eb00a749442cd4b32
b34bd97667f25837517f4fe65d41e3317130aac9
F20110209_AABEOE mayne_d_Page_003.tif
5e1fc6d1eaa3937955a22af6d1684da8
a8cc029d011f2eca1faecd2c24be1df19c35a45c
61722 F20110209_AABDEA mayne_d_Page_256.jpg
e839ec2455c40c85a57f28359a75fd78
4d60517b2c1b9f9b9ceba3cebe59849c1485bbdd
4897 F20110209_AABFYJ mayne_d_Page_006thm.jpg
f86d5b3b83dd291117b2b05b0a327c00
d656e51e804cd821bfe31159c486fbf3fec9b748
F20110209_AABDRM mayne_d_Page_147.tif
2828247b5a46b1ad2e88fb25ceccb364
63aea41eccac9a00950d46dab5697f78a4572c50
8890 F20110209_AABEOF mayne_d_Page_171thm.jpg
6525119c82681ff48124abb7275cdd83
8083747f794f8528e6fdf6a040811ce49219aad9
2005 F20110209_AABDEB mayne_d_Page_258.txt
8d363ddf160d5aefb7b305ef9730c8bf
ad76a0c2fca611ef15a2504758d12b311f6f3beb
8121 F20110209_AABFYK mayne_d_Page_016thm.jpg
d19e5a599397f20369aefff29eace35b
3233e62566b1d3eb7d1d8d53b8da5f75acc9a771
40667 F20110209_AABDRN mayne_d_Page_216.pro
0ee63a04103755454c12b81483354380
4dab9c1c6179456da2b807ef5526a4b8aa298b2b
8818 F20110209_AABEOG mayne_d_Page_108thm.jpg
16389f076f7ec1015a5bd205d20f7504
2691e2674d6080164da9433c019ad9b0c2187131
33633 F20110209_AABDEC mayne_d_Page_167.QC.jpg
62b1a06a5e831c24b32d1bd0d3325bdc
6be2e7ce70aacd4cdd8d1884b04f0cb9a645f971
8117 F20110209_AABFYL mayne_d_Page_022thm.jpg
d099f6a8d2850bfb4692ba37e6ddc599
86a2363698432c24f5fccc2b80dc14c653539c11
104996 F20110209_AABDRO mayne_d_Page_105.jpg
a056736946183d5635c35db6b3c70758
dc3f21526bfac482c5cb50dfa62308428066616a
51656 F20110209_AABEOH mayne_d_Page_125.pro
3058fa04f072b941fa7c38c948ce5540
e88b45cdbb925d536bf24ef6318cb6d2686324d0
107637 F20110209_AABFLA mayne_d_Page_068.jpg
4c806117609b044521a1bdd4c1af8fa0
22b8f3527ccfc1224c9e3b00e31cd9df8caf48ca
F20110209_AABDED mayne_d_Page_008.tif
183800467feb51168e67b456f459f6b7
164ef841a7fcc756b243b3b4c87a9db238689c2b
1485 F20110209_AABFYM mayne_d_Page_024thm.jpg
ac7389d3ae410a603fe68bfd9eb86b23
0c4dc56cf4b1ddc4fff106a0f9ea2c407e65b55c
2085 F20110209_AABDRP mayne_d_Page_142.txt
03d77e93a492c5934c75490e16c8d6bb
48d86c69b981100f41705d292e9d928c0f6d142a
2064 F20110209_AABEOI mayne_d_Page_058.txt
a596845ee517261d40f5d287a3f63131
0cfee230fc2071322064a79fa6ad547807d5bdc3
109047 F20110209_AABFLB mayne_d_Page_069.jpg
e96b0a478f47bdcc15f895ef78a9d610
3c65da0214db896a7255202616cb326f71781c52
805200 F20110209_AABDEE mayne_d_Page_071.jp2
13f59dc0407c599d592092851889487e
359869b47a68fdc322dd61509399ba5f81743312
8344 F20110209_AABFYN mayne_d_Page_025thm.jpg
22d85e7dc2f39ab94999b9c1b6971946
4e4f9d26cfd2e787511d5263f3728605291fee08
110290 F20110209_AABDRQ mayne_d_Page_049.jpg
5d441b277675ec3cf6e17c649cb41e3d
4b8be3716dd6ab7b8b35e6c8ce2879b0f172d874
59406 F20110209_AABEOJ mayne_d_Page_193.pro
b036b365cb15cd025f335a5be81d2651
6f06ff3f04a0e80870d065767b8adfa00974fc01
99331 F20110209_AABFLC mayne_d_Page_074.jpg
680e0bf8f331345ac4f6cfd052200b54
90e10443e6144461a7aa12622204416b27d0967d
110910 F20110209_AABDEF mayne_d_Page_244.jpg
23929e6228b94783e4dfb01e2eb3752c
7501596ffed13c443bcd6650a09775c0ee11659e
9164 F20110209_AABFYO mayne_d_Page_026thm.jpg
008884a09b82375f17997ecd2ce5fc9c
1cc4e55a42c2819719be20ba280d17e2df964b8e
F20110209_AABEOK mayne_d_Page_215.jp2
4a57dffddd31ac9d35fe815d318397bc
7bd00a90b0fd5255ace2011c5159a0ef28912620
F20110209_AABFLD mayne_d_Page_075.jpg
3c8e1e3ab6434dc381cdb67282c3355e
d29529306040c35553c1cb6aaa9c800a1f2fe299
51911 F20110209_AABDEG mayne_d_Page_011.jpg
9d5388f49ad7e9e6963812e96763360a
2bca62dfa4c5e166dc0fd93ca38aef61cd98bfb4
F20110209_AABDRR mayne_d_Page_030.jp2
1bd91d238b1e9c3455e8bd4fea1b6b20
25fe65f899f2ceefb38b9a9b160b0a14f9cef79b
8499 F20110209_AABFYP mayne_d_Page_029thm.jpg
9b7bea7bc26119bac4f9ca5760a7b372
f07430ea00d2ff5e3e6e55eddfe8e21466e15f30
204 F20110209_AABEOL mayne_d_Page_089.txt
cf25e97bf0f4c598d04ae4fc8550aa81
3754c62a0a7b2563c631fd5971babff1a1da3966
108273 F20110209_AABFLE mayne_d_Page_080.jpg
1fcf2ae8b7a45f5d77de06566dffd29a
07d21b9e3768aa13316964994154cd0db3e9fe4e
72913 F20110209_AABDEH mayne_d_Page_236.jpg
d3fcf6d273f446854830fe61a85ebf5f
6373018f2c083e6b583e419eafe20c8f60fe633f
F20110209_AABEBA mayne_d_Page_054.jp2
0101fc9c3adb3e523c6929633d8ce0a9
8a02049e470f052e91fa246e019dc16fa302db00
24086 F20110209_AABDRS mayne_d_Page_279.jpg
05c6fe4013902d70aedce6ffe62b3ce6
0cae54f32b88caed2bacce50e9064cb4062685bf
9109 F20110209_AABFYQ mayne_d_Page_030thm.jpg
aef6b9a630508d19a1ae7b0fa047c1a9
5e0e68db445e86b6c324f0d9239964b8a706923c
8108 F20110209_AABEOM mayne_d_Page_124thm.jpg
2289ba24e08d63ab23d67ce834f64c46
8100ec05c8966e9159881a10c1c77ec63e088e67
102917 F20110209_AABFLF mayne_d_Page_082.jpg
fafed6a39f0159e58fbd303a151d9e5a
f114cda9fd828aaaf15031bc7bb1ce618a7f8356
F20110209_AABDEI mayne_d_Page_035.tif
8b7e1ecf5937c89181cb45d615686d18
add51a34d9a7c25b0409f78e02acadec18f28586
50844 F20110209_AABEBB mayne_d_Page_101.pro
ea8378c9e68b0c96f68ddf086518a0d3
94648abac6f57f126c1d3885cab9ac011d315ba6
8474 F20110209_AABDRT mayne_d_Page_226thm.jpg
eb8395f9d56a4de28ae289c837cf9061
4c0725504f694af87dd5eeefbeb1fa46c568b14e
8351 F20110209_AABFYR mayne_d_Page_039thm.jpg
97b9ac6e18fe0d0b4e41219481b864fa
8ddecdb8a1432fcc55eee3e27c6c3467baac2756
22325 F20110209_AABEON mayne_d_Page_265.pro
8891f8eef06e84f456dc3d5d83d32645
db89b1c5c1d17034c37c30a8912ee1dc365f8425
101923 F20110209_AABFLG mayne_d_Page_083.jpg
c204cf478402407f79c9310c3b44309c
828ea8a5343d9463d8be5e87e10a6975e8652710
30366 F20110209_AABDEJ mayne_d_Page_089.QC.jpg
2555c420ccc172db35a717695d046cf7
04db7b3df39f1c1a7327de3337d6b170af10441f
2376 F20110209_AABEBC mayne_d_Page_180.txt
d3649bbb788a62c9bfa6b54ed6f2103a
4ed035bb927032d73f5b967ed66c40e917c18e56
2166 F20110209_AABDRU mayne_d_Page_250.txt
8d63f7ddc22b710a6d737d882ed0a1d0
ff1a4e19df8aa80c3d5456b928d7ad93f489ab54
8125 F20110209_AABFYS mayne_d_Page_043thm.jpg
dd6ab0a4172430be798a5a5dea0daa34
9b2988499ba6a7971bafe90274af261fe230e3b4
F20110209_AABEOO mayne_d_Page_280.jp2
76d7be3f3f312139e4c220cfe5587c31
7c8e36d8ef5f7eff6988c5c64d7774ff6199c34e
107842 F20110209_AABFLH mayne_d_Page_085.jpg
4c97a5bbd576d871ac1ba4709d0a95f8
7bedb79359cfe8370a442d928a1acc8747800ae9
51111 F20110209_AABDEK mayne_d_Page_165.pro
6598fc0ef2a0dc4ebfd57ca7f13dbf96
77e5d9fb3bf2a939803dc02d7f0baf7941f6bd51
103594 F20110209_AABEBD mayne_d_Page_201.jpg
ce26048df385d75627588b794cb49957
859ed73e9d36b364bcaaadf29683299f12ee6a27
F20110209_AABDRV mayne_d_Page_173.jp2
4188e9807e3b6c6db0e1c40f9a1bf8d9
9aa32d0193533fb97766081b7f2a47d44fbc5044
8630 F20110209_AABFYT mayne_d_Page_045thm.jpg
1001a2d44ac3447d668ca054d7dc087d
662e6a73393a13181d7c2cb6e81d6ca1249ef4dc
F20110209_AABEOP mayne_d_Page_044.tif
fee9dcb1f75842261a45a739a418a127
ba45ec4c106b69eb3dec160bb504e9f723866331
102392 F20110209_AABFLI mayne_d_Page_086.jpg
cca95c5d94e461ca688a7e412de041ac
9f0e7ab949221f7101ce92b4732d574f7a3eeadc
5263 F20110209_AABDEL mayne_d_Page_008thm.jpg
1630385136ea1f6387419759a2c86508
99390cebf44b3bdbc19cc268fc80d965544540cb
106452 F20110209_AABEBE mayne_d_Page_139.jpg
b333fe313816a4ddb021393646d13e39
eae68b9cfe6b24deccc824e6d13afadd98c48dce
20431 F20110209_AABDRW mayne_d_Page_246.pro
91a1de2363a8334ceeb83e96216d2b35
bd816bd224ed07daea21cccb1b4a90f21fa37db9
8860 F20110209_AABFYU mayne_d_Page_047thm.jpg
935a540bda6eafee14d704a833ac9127
8972bb495e3a9bf2e2dd713159871e7d2905cfa4
11124 F20110209_AABEOQ mayne_d_Page_279.pro
35b56b86bdbe29b4fdc29de444cd1e74
6f682fad8685e9d2cbebf877f398d64c48d40f10
113103 F20110209_AABFLJ mayne_d_Page_087.jpg
39ba65cbd61136231e0a9c73474f9665
cafe555238aab29b8f39950c261137e2a27ea380
F20110209_AABDEM mayne_d_Page_161thm.jpg
516338183c624368b8d8fee151d822db
c09a36cce55baf84465ae15123ab5b202bb2db7e
100805 F20110209_AABEBF mayne_d_Page_077.jpg
f33de654b2e5248683a71d8f7f2e5571
1b1545db4055b5d720434c43cbed9590e9f96fe3
1551 F20110209_AABDRX mayne_d_Page_011.txt
e24a6373b43c02158bc9a6c7113c9ab2
a99d0396ea0010fa80b1c2eb4cc725c078684c4f
7411 F20110209_AABFYV mayne_d_Page_048thm.jpg
be2fb3876affe67adf0a5d347294adec
7b44467ce3c052641403259de2cae3eea580003d
F20110209_AABEOR mayne_d_Page_115.jp2
f6bd22b920d62229535b68beec1a025d
7650aecae97adb7c4116461cdba4066219c60f40
106139 F20110209_AABFLK mayne_d_Page_088.jpg
83a7e3488a9c1f4293b7d1b5736855a5
d5a8d3d09bc7e049895200fc61794d884059c784
34702 F20110209_AABDEN mayne_d_Page_166.QC.jpg
9a251cb8c978dde49a76556627bfe846
8d9385b7ae98163aecfde6d603941d1ba06552c2
8169 F20110209_AABEBG mayne_d_Page_244thm.jpg
f86bc859c340b9fe8ba56f95a3618c8f
db74d190653a04915b903d71079770a6e44846e5
7985 F20110209_AABDRY mayne_d_Page_070thm.jpg
f95ed3e269c519b0b5c1fc1cf79344b9
edf6a969bb08183da941242a5a555a5a8e15682c
8452 F20110209_AABFYW mayne_d_Page_049thm.jpg
b1daa7250170ce50ee0a73ae0c25ff94
43edece427836e49879b78ac6137c22a7fb48873
8098 F20110209_AABEOS mayne_d_Page_187thm.jpg
7ce1e70916500d563f34eefeb4f5e76e
d9f76dcdef65e62ba12533dd308337190e9a8cec
107178 F20110209_AABFLL mayne_d_Page_090.jpg
1b96b26ed436dc4eee044295309e6a8a
cfb3a913d2421294c8bc81fbf15624651ea52830
111546 F20110209_AABDEO mayne_d_Page_131.jpg
92516816085da217bdd415e7fd784f41
0d262ab7de6cc6a4be8070212aefad3316df7961
2110 F20110209_AABEBH mayne_d_Page_211.txt
e57856ba68b2bb7028fad9c7961fc2b8
93460a010e94276470bb90fffdc34a7086503b70
1051941 F20110209_AABDRZ mayne_d_Page_008.jp2
c88e6b0fabea58e30759846ee9c54edf
0155a7e148223bab44bf60dfd8022ed0286b39f5
8634 F20110209_AABFYX mayne_d_Page_050thm.jpg
a8248c4f852ea61a69ec3de928714f8a
e22520bcd1845485c57f400e914f4123dafc1c8a
2088 F20110209_AABEOT mayne_d_Page_271.txt
d17e086a75df15f21855aa0b82acfde5
876b572d8851362012a3a82239e349baba432f8b
112751 F20110209_AABFLM mayne_d_Page_093.jpg
667364ccd63f71c0f730babbf51f1f26
20734b60de4ed57afa5e86385f5c9eb69d0910d8
F20110209_AABDEP mayne_d_Page_221.tif
17b66628d7b07bd5e41a195aea48518d
9cca67ead0de172466f37f893a00fb3da5cba5ac
21850 F20110209_AABEBI mayne_d_Page_217.QC.jpg
ed87f223ebf2348ccf26ca2779f1cc3a
e1896dc30a9a9f8676ff4f5b39003cd7433111ec
8402 F20110209_AABFYY mayne_d_Page_056thm.jpg
8d220d34cdc10e28a8de6bc310021876
22ed9712098ea0b258b0904fd859fe6fd1ab3db8
7980 F20110209_AABEOU mayne_d_Page_251.QC.jpg
f66c88c8dd2a03e365c3e479649e55c7
574d4490e4ecdb855781dcfcf29eac3188960aa3
97906 F20110209_AABFLN mayne_d_Page_095.jpg
9665a4d37b97bf045f9d9bc9b23024ca
6d4a097eac1990db23a99247c23447c4dfddf176
F20110209_AABDEQ mayne_d_Page_249.jpg
20e4b185ea7ddfa0f362b90874ff1fc0
4f5a04b6c5d691be5daf5466ff229e98188cc3d0
5880 F20110209_AABEBJ mayne_d_Page_010thm.jpg
f9c1032a5b2579ca7cf336a90cfa954c
30322422adf7f41564492eb0d9c3bc1f2b50338f
9154 F20110209_AABFYZ mayne_d_Page_057thm.jpg
01f08ab6b4e9d29b30def2a8de145489
3aa962bf8356abd346b64ef5f667e42fc6ed2b2c
1959 F20110209_AABEOV mayne_d_Page_106.txt
1e7b00fc59fbaa1170ca7459015a6225
460df0f2832e0dc89981e5566f43ba914984da81
99579 F20110209_AABFLO mayne_d_Page_096.jpg
d2efd5a9f56b0a432af21487725b32a9
4b7ff2fceac54f850e6b6dc35f1e66d3343d0422
33234 F20110209_AABDER mayne_d_Page_180.QC.jpg
a0a2a190d5596e1faa5c55bf6ba04656
7a98a5446e3ccb2acd39c9fc029492cbfa597532
F20110209_AABEBK mayne_d_Page_191.tif
89c35fb203661dcdbc47d65bee876b13
db502ee060ddb6f256252ab5e168de9ce55cd9a7
8915 F20110209_AABEOW mayne_d_Page_028thm.jpg
7ea958f161abe5552ce0e0ff6fc66763
09ead4e2348c7642048635603be00073aa667b9b
105022 F20110209_AABFLP mayne_d_Page_102.jpg
278ece042b2d50ef32d2a61c829108c8
510182636e3f4452572580a7e776501951481ad4
F20110209_AABEBL mayne_d_Page_039.jp2
f761ea6c53b297499a4f512596c10c94
a564b6085ec7529ffc1a4b3367dc17a68bb31f36
2833 F20110209_AABEOX mayne_d_Page_168.txt
74f050b6fd77a1a6bfebd7331c299f03
c6f7ef5bc9e54e96e55d037dbcc6f05a85773b8a
98482 F20110209_AABFLQ mayne_d_Page_103.jpg
9f29f9f0deb55f921a257332304ec207
b2937ce62ec3fb9b6910673343134eb829c316aa
103869 F20110209_AABDES mayne_d_Page_060.jpg
3986dce3daf1b006a90a1d198d77c659
beb75cea2a294b97243f7e9658c540e42cf2e401
954691 F20110209_AABEBM mayne_d_Page_076.jp2
73a66598c384c8090ebe830f0ef5f210
3fc65046035897f3667d931d04bc3adfc385d400
6933 F20110209_AABEOY mayne_d_Page_052thm.jpg
39b9783b4cea20fa85327ee2ea8f16e4
2f07ffa4aa30a097579326e72e3451db637369e7
103756 F20110209_AABFLR mayne_d_Page_107.jpg
7b2b8fe8b0d3374f52a19e86e9d59e8a
4c4c193e8b0a114b50c93b58c209719506d265cd
31121 F20110209_AABDET mayne_d_Page_200.QC.jpg
cff2b716b74ff9246a2e836c5be05da8
902994a22df9e3a5111e5735c01178c40f401d51
48244 F20110209_AABEBN mayne_d_Page_158.pro
34053178fce08b88b929624b09952f83
a12dca861c860ed4e04511d0a74934f7e9c7854a
428986 F20110209_AABEOZ mayne_d_Page_264.jp2
d66886b717c40015e3b0015a67117ca3
af8e9ac3f3060058ee15368d36b6e47d0cc23f0f
112903 F20110209_AABFLS mayne_d_Page_109.jpg
3ee7e1394c26314aaf8a6546d5eb9511
09f8b15d3e420983e380bc28cd186d20b5328ba7
26249 F20110209_AABDEU mayne_d_Page_216.QC.jpg
d81186a3fe75561d37a07675c0684884
1d5fd9f1f062cfd5a60ae2c431002ee15ff9ed87
100907 F20110209_AABFLT mayne_d_Page_110.jpg
7ac4d4eda0baadfa1c1fa43d4eb3eaf7
d6f76a2531c89df2dc4e15afa9d60442f2fe9e68
275 F20110209_AABDEV mayne_d_Page_144.txt
d98898ac955de30392fc7309d81b34ef
18e5897035c2b54851a8fff9294edc8201f0c486
8545 F20110209_AABEBO mayne_d_Page_083thm.jpg
8a7770f7406be7e15fcdeae59cb748b2
8010f9a45c18f12334eae8c8581ba5f237bdec0c
101265 F20110209_AABFLU mayne_d_Page_113.jpg
799fc58aec8453808a0819b880c3aa45
05bcc389f4730a082753f2b4a03b0e814f6482eb
F20110209_AABDEW mayne_d_Page_128.jp2
a47516d7255e6c306d089e030518c792
6b2f6a285861c72a70289d35c82fa84e7b3f6b3b
F20110209_AABDXA mayne_d_Page_160.jp2
d81fc227a968c217450f98028650fc58
c30fbb7c508c123d07e0d701c715da8bc1dd352f
F20110209_AABEBP mayne_d_Page_109.tif
b2c998b0c8a56946a1aba8b10bd41917
6c83553a1671fd43e294f66fb834c6dac3a4212a
99169 F20110209_AABFLV mayne_d_Page_114.jpg
0ea1878cbc4cd96ea64c404c0bdb533b
91962cfd6d1e48261ada72b58ecc249ed48f8a0b
46051 F20110209_AABDEX mayne_d_Page_129.pro
443d87a130af16a6fc050bbf11421ebd
28af556cd8f9ed644a196b27136da18efb822072
8334 F20110209_AABDXB mayne_d_Page_074thm.jpg
2a9db4e67811622746e681db351eb9e2
d87d5e0fb69e96db8c5e968538614017b7b18a91
F20110209_AABEBQ mayne_d_Page_027.tif
1335eddb1896ece6f15a9608d790bffd
56663f00bad03d56231d4dcbdc070ab64316bd11
101494 F20110209_AABFLW mayne_d_Page_115.jpg
8c8d4d04c436c797837a3d3313c4e990
e837ca5e37293fba827a73336d565a153433e498
F20110209_AABDEY mayne_d_Page_184.jp2
ce60415d26c5b11fcd5fc57972c7c778
ef11d6a4aeb63f167c321bebb26321c4d57f26a9
1051888 F20110209_AABDXC mayne_d_Page_201.jp2
6d8e3588639be0fea58003e9047ea87c
6234a820ba4e64efd45db9cdce3793dfb15936b2
107151 F20110209_AABEBR mayne_d_Page_054.jpg
c5d0822fabf03b406f7457a3d13603c2
1b815ce9cdf90bddc4b835b8d399069807ab3ee2
32490 F20110209_AABDEZ mayne_d_Page_151.QC.jpg
f918db5b30ab6dceb08dd66b5397485a
d322737ae81aaa5698bca9cf28bb2173cb39a693
109736 F20110209_AABDXD mayne_d_Page_092.jpg
753cd7543695b7caa501b8d0b0ef2c10
aa745b823871b51ecbeeb0193344eeb2f480e51a
39057 F20110209_AABEBS mayne_d_Page_138.QC.jpg
8b3708c5c9c59fb215db5dbfb291b7b9
17ff0762f9ee9cd5e9c71f959b8ba3a8e2cc2818
103480 F20110209_AABFLX mayne_d_Page_120.jpg
3835a0a3a61c16ae0e94e82b6da3722e
c243d916e11a437b068fc6af3d4edfc4b53d7b0c
114574 F20110209_AABDXE mayne_d_Page_006.jpg
341e543dd133d62b636ecb48b12bfc3a
8e6e017629cc44691c4efa92767615f039351046
33645 F20110209_AABEBT mayne_d_Page_201.QC.jpg
c940ae3cfe1fcbee6d5ccb05062b2594
8bc3cb7c7a77b6fe2587918b9d0969b135f9b0be
110043 F20110209_AABFLY mayne_d_Page_121.jpg
7f60baf2f5e59de0dc4b5c8ea7f1fe1a
90e1f99ebc858eb7328cd846cf2b2069c4ec4315
F20110209_AABEBU mayne_d_Page_282.tif
3391774d6d4371ab21d2b0bcc59bf051
e99815f454ced50fb139eda6cced7fc1fa02d323
102762 F20110209_AABFLZ mayne_d_Page_122.jpg
91f34120327e07ff25446b66c5b3a3eb
46f21d04a8c9e4560d76fa068c65b99fd65a57fc
881002 F20110209_AABDXF mayne_d_Page_021.jp2
594fefffc73660218a6103cea06efa20
ed0996e7c72a2adf30231c281587177bd3fbcfd2
102709 F20110209_AABEBV mayne_d_Page_226.jpg
c4ffb70739fbb7c90f0559da3b2d834f
c6744215a590fe17b045f850ccb9df244317bb23
35869 F20110209_AABEUA mayne_d_Page_015.pro
b83e1307a37f46b7aaca1a91b113e6ac
d9746e1cab499b86bfeedce19557b5979f2c5f2b
F20110209_AABDXG mayne_d_Page_228.jp2
16f0f35695edbf4c34b1873a8d615557
be6f65b4ab690c0779f8b1c45780f721258e0ed6
110429 F20110209_AABEBW mayne_d_Page_108.jpg
84a1a24d03c55c1f6642e8f180bf167f
eb94799641e802700e9592e17e30e841a1788206
34861 F20110209_AABDXH mayne_d_Page_190.QC.jpg
918d6ca8050a652be5c686a4d94229e8
e466d05a1f0e4b495612767646933402f1cd4879
2459 F20110209_AABEBX mayne_d_Page_059.txt
fd4443d816678a8ab3ff2c3945cf8b91
5c3991f9ba4fcaea87b4def567240e72f36fac8b
F20110209_AABEUB mayne_d_Page_086.jp2
7d01df28a4762369a2b39f1fe64284b5
0cb2838b9a4ce33ff194e7dbb4fe2738ce81c24f
7996 F20110209_AABDXI mayne_d_Page_058thm.jpg
d98f274220a6179354af965518f59234
71d0114d86e36fd75c4435e4c71cc851df40f52d
F20110209_AABEBY mayne_d_Page_206.jp2
595801f434b8ecd76067b34d05d10af1
f58754ea42a69d7ca21c70bb5b3768e87435a534
103741 F20110209_AABEUC mayne_d_Page_209.jpg
9b3fc2e6fe31966a1de4670d26a0a503
05ab18ee4d74fd90dc47c310958b3b48b6bf3b0e
F20110209_AABDXJ mayne_d_Page_112thm.jpg
2cd5295112bb07beec99500bc05f734d
ed25549594e524e8789c5b8f8e5d5035a0b68cfe
1051960 F20110209_AABEBZ mayne_d_Page_281.jp2
e409a667108adbc0d15be191fdbf06e6
b484f783bfbf522de3b1cc3a31fdce2b5e28179a
F20110209_AABEUD mayne_d_Page_019.txt
83d6dc1e602eeb943e7d2a40633a9410
b73b94bc21e1880846b749d0c6fe91e347d28753
8330 F20110209_AABDXK mayne_d_Page_084thm.jpg
60ce0203cb5c9bd532fe2da1aaa898d2
4176354cf407cb43fe137601839ebe1c217e5d63
109794 F20110209_AABEUE mayne_d_Page_117.jpg
604297fc210d1ab180a34702fa4c59d9
9e511eeb191ce33ebb70bbc5b8c203bef8a4de16
4024 F20110209_AABDKA mayne_d_Page_005.txt
b34823a9dea1036621418837d0440a8b
841328bf00b4a75c3bdc0aad4e4a7900def412ae
F20110209_AABDXL mayne_d_Page_121.jp2
cf68ac7a68c00b2ac87915e1a1e24264
d2c5bf1d89e9262b43dfd9d599aa228d867be6c0
1051958 F20110209_AABEUF mayne_d_Page_179.jp2
fcd0652d71aa34e99a0dd58bd148b7c2
e1cb2dbeea0127d8583fd7f0431ce9aee4c839d4
F20110209_AABDKB mayne_d_Page_116.tif
1ef020b279ff26391e16e19589d6340c
fc59d516531e468602340b2fc9a9d367393b5be4
26497 F20110209_AABDXM mayne_d_Page_252.pro
0c3340181e808a8407b77f415727037c
7ef3f424f3be0a2904c2c306377156943f8b0d96
105433 F20110209_AABEUG mayne_d_Page_175.jpg
364a6c030bec4d9404a33a8281f980fa
d094040cdbb6a791f21f4d3df02c46a5f67a092f
102397 F20110209_AABDKC mayne_d_Page_043.jpg
0380649626a81f2392969c978b52cd3b
215c99f865ade206b93a370dec6c3ba831758f41
101646 F20110209_AABDXN mayne_d_Page_058.jpg
0ad41a7e9e1155e4114daff86d964d4b
bb2e910a021a8e83fef7b30eab590b99a36d7c9b
F20110209_AABFRA mayne_d_Page_167.jp2
f166e8a8cbaf094f4521380d46b97185
f3245750144adae25362ed17c70e26a1e579e0f3
4048 F20110209_AABEUH mayne_d_Page_265thm.jpg
23750a6c93ed73a6676925c711eb3af8
734a7a467f19ab04fadc3c9593004e7c89f15543
F20110209_AABDKD mayne_d_Page_277thm.jpg
ef98da5fb1083edc9a34c5de101d10b7
f1b13f9ee47e40f8219609242d232230646a27f8
36772 F20110209_AABDXO mayne_d_Page_164.QC.jpg
d0d630de9c3317d1eca83deb7ef0b5b2
37605df41e7b92a61aaff8b83652e08d5122f31f
F20110209_AABFRB mayne_d_Page_168.jp2
43793f3d392b4475aba0084278a17355
739b550661d68bc026e4e2b0b9a7b2efc570ee0c
1939 F20110209_AABEUI mayne_d_Page_257.txt
c18321eaddb0eaa143d1d540891b46f7
23db900aeb0f9ae7e5cd7fcc2de209823e09bb28
26000 F20110209_AABDKE mayne_d_Page_001.jpg
945862821618774ea39710ac81ed9706
22fce2d7a3588fbe89913b7862d0db2ec2023c0a
32984 F20110209_AABDXP mayne_d_Page_111.QC.jpg
bda0e3024d8575c7b77df8959b20582b
2701d5ebdf37b34ca8d710d7f073dbf70060f405
F20110209_AABFRC mayne_d_Page_169.jp2
365d540d8e80f0089fbba9d6cf528083
56b3fd91c54b592f696d66519ea7afeda138719d
F20110209_AABEUJ mayne_d_Page_009.tif
ae3d439b0236164c7e70b392a00e6633
84b0be484540379cf7e7cc27853a4ceb57dd099d
52749 F20110209_AABDKF mayne_d_Page_090.pro
d2cd43a637e90e5d10639f7472c3be49
24ebe710ba4c7b35ea98bfd090128ba8c001954f
56910 F20110209_AABDXQ mayne_d_Page_200.pro
0c2b5df60daf5651686e626f2ed8b16f
b6acd8c696aa59fed09c101276f8d5c763dcf92f
F20110209_AABFRD mayne_d_Page_172.jp2
0d23efdd1bbf5ca8c8883aafb6afbc72
a600382d9cfb83813aaafe31bd0433adb27c9b82
32925 F20110209_AABEUK mayne_d_Page_181.QC.jpg
bb2910d1dbdf1611255df365222a7499
a54bbf230cacfe3641e607fac6855db4b6b9e659
23551 F20110209_AABDKG mayne_d_Page_009.QC.jpg
d0ce50883c2f3652abd781123caa064e
31b2882cad1c6cbfeba178c98d70d038c80eabea
1051920 F20110209_AABDXR mayne_d_Page_283.jp2
56e0774be451106b7d818f0c22041658
139dc439850f200df53a9d3572d3e700453063c9
F20110209_AABFRE mayne_d_Page_175.jp2
a40bd7f8ccf6d86032f2e563e7d6e080
3d26794f49b41826ce32a84e1f1f01f7be63947c
F20110209_AABEUL mayne_d_Page_006.tif
30376acd79eed8e8cc41648ad1f9a2bf
336176da65efc5a6482c43b2be3e5ed849a3374c
106617 F20110209_AABDKH mayne_d_Page_067.jpg
506b311ed83ae2736f43e07b0ee314fc
2a4b8989e8758fc351e48432ea70c958230db123
63042 F20110209_AABEHA mayne_d_Page_171.pro
90b2222314111d09e7b3d7768f9002be
a57abb71df1cb32f769fa75a785100aa88587504
1979 F20110209_AABDXS mayne_d_Page_074.txt
77667245cd3cf754297add6eb7e99c99
d6eab472a97f53aaa894f89271ba1bc64a3735b4
F20110209_AABFRF mayne_d_Page_178.jp2
72fa56766a327988a5c6940fa380f4a8
7644dc239711ccb87770726689fb402aa2dea09f
F20110209_AABEUM mayne_d_Page_042.tif
d12d065c4f4cd65505a2eda467b2994e
3c05aaa347812b109da6276c537da1349fa5da8c
7912 F20110209_AABDKI mayne_d_Page_222thm.jpg
41129809f9973036a234c1fa62557fdd
c63c8a3cd15bbc1882c54fa970e0710ea4f329e8
2134 F20110209_AABEHB mayne_d_Page_147.txt
03988790cd15a3c09f8dda3887ff9cf7
c32efa3924eef5aaeb20a83e131300adb7eacd0a
145 F20110209_AABDXT mayne_d_Page_003.txt
f12e7c67c09d21c9931ec659e962d271
fd28e547cb09ce7e6eaeee2c15aa5144fec58172
F20110209_AABFRG mayne_d_Page_182.jp2
999d3692c11e619ce647a4241d47a501
6ee72652a4027998de832263173067cb92de80c5
F20110209_AABEUN mayne_d_Page_005.tif
fb96d7638a05cb0f4b6a0a001b2c4b8f
0e507afbd68246338023322bd48d96bb7eb2fd9d
51628 F20110209_AABDKJ mayne_d_Page_227.pro
3a43df916df0dd5e77c140c914921ba4
50ec8ef0f2cd916ca0e86278aae1f2ed236e53fc
1018871 F20110209_AABEHC mayne_d_Page_051.jp2
033f03bdab29afb283af075ce3f3dcdd
f3daff7f5a02956b5a73f8c97cbe9ee938d616d1
118750 F20110209_AABDXU mayne_d_Page_059.jpg
eeac6da9659abdc423fe64a6a60d8b7b
e7deeed04be5104c8790cec5f061fbaca89140f3
1051972 F20110209_AABFRH mayne_d_Page_186.jp2
e9acf10bc40b50065ad396b06115f70d
e81c23385542e7e529fd4f4713520613f6c3ec15
32516 F20110209_AABEUO mayne_d_Page_018.QC.jpg
5e85b1ec1ccce262421ff0e801431326
524f9520a956a3d3df22d232223e45f10eab2bc5
F20110209_AABDKK mayne_d_Page_184.tif
d87c34cfeb32de8c212f604be031334c
644df4d8b494600ee35433b2fd59c2b675d18ccd
21436 F20110209_AABEHD mayne_d_Page_236.QC.jpg
ccb075e3483f1085aed36db364863644
dacaf61145d82b91d48c779bfaaa082b8be6b035
F20110209_AABDXV mayne_d_Page_016.tif
402d2a9f548265c26ca283ba582a8814
9794434c02d8eaf809203952b9832beed3e89f6c
F20110209_AABFRI mayne_d_Page_187.jp2
c775c6a127bc38952edd44b0aabf9250
853f407c13ed6f716a9ad24430d296a1ae0817ea
F20110209_AABEUP mayne_d_Page_237.tif
57fdb56e192fbe684ba3885ab6c20666
e12dc4d0eedaff43256eb718f9dea60b00501d42
F20110209_AABDKL mayne_d_Page_272.tif
7279004001ba58a676707c7c0caaf53e
fdff73a7a7bba817878764fae92ff4da28031799
F20110209_AABEHE mayne_d_Page_185.jp2
abd59fe6419dc5da71ff0ec07470581d
5f2d34faecb7a5243870e716409ffb18bcea5b09
1051957 F20110209_AABDXW mayne_d_Page_193.jp2
503fea4ae9bf1e53196cdadc8e258d96
358a921cbb05ad74c405f6104297337211a96cea
F20110209_AABFRJ mayne_d_Page_190.jp2
6ebb3ba9e651e1bc777d2a56cd60e1b7
e176bd7efd520b0aa536501b4a3c4d67d513217d
33803 F20110209_AABEUQ mayne_d_Page_155.pro
d8c7d2de7043e825038579791f48d2eb
1ffc1327c63be9186697133d677bd0f97ab7bda8
2201 F20110209_AABDKM mayne_d_Page_156.txt
b6f836d7532fb931a87fbc7a87b9e3d9
c35707160b4d19f9f97be7d4385ccedc53e3ed4c
F20110209_AABEHF mayne_d_Page_163.tif
fd54105d1fbc5cbdd72cbb58256b5aa9
7ff78f75b19369a7189895649e739a7f98628190
31839 F20110209_AABDXX mayne_d_Page_269.pro
560f158e16da23c5ce0ae65408cf3569
27971667c8dbbc6d96ac221f7a6390fe87eddaf9
F20110209_AABFRK mayne_d_Page_191.jp2
ba5b564e2b0ca4c760493c2ead2c20b0
a08e40592efbc6046c98877a47c2b75b5f1ee529
106343 F20110209_AABEUR mayne_d_Page_211.jpg
c72e0e17b8d07fe53d2e06669952b3bd
5119639b197a79f9353f7665d2e2cb880dfa1012
53855 F20110209_AABDKN mayne_d_Page_195.pro
4ef9f06110391ae1b1d54786663e6450
7921355a94ae7287e5267a42d01f1ad758d8cdd1
F20110209_AABEHG mayne_d_Page_062.jp2
a93f46f4af8678bbc922e4bdfdd2f2b1
55982294ecebc528d09a0794657285feb5ad0fcd
F20110209_AABDXY mayne_d_Page_140.jp2
2def1c8435f24d09a68b606e0a58b334
2452de8b999c864f36d4127d51313d75287af249
1051954 F20110209_AABFRL mayne_d_Page_192.jp2
32c1b0d3d9b6d8a9d6c3065f7d43eed7
a45be075e9e40286aefc00884d56ad8fbdc3fb29
1051909 F20110209_AABEUS mayne_d_Page_177.jp2
307f83a455a52c7c6e30dbf71015d80e
97af16849c7fb9751b86fcaeaaadd90cc6d352df
8392 F20110209_AABDKO mayne_d_Page_152thm.jpg
908e5a97f7f532db630b1c42a7519fac
272430bff51647d2dca5ebbc9e93b289b2f41ef9
74454 F20110209_AABEHH mayne_d_Page_242.jpg
6f1b88a188e5835fa25d35380bac8cc0
537eac3082a01be3fecc4eb9f9d83b798af68268
F20110209_AABDXZ mayne_d_Page_097.tif
d0310be356b11dd4e985c2e636c37602
3c63a836e17e4b8683e67d1b5a2d482a8f6d32ac
1981 F20110209_AABFEA mayne_d_Page_111.txt
bdb0c55db2df4aa59bc0175bdf0bcfc5
47fc64f2b4c172a710d33928f89a0f8802240f49
F20110209_AABFRM mayne_d_Page_195.jp2
f551203dfd644ad877d7fa1fe5cfca8e
b4b013d413adafec2241ba6b26adb4f24064a3f9
8434 F20110209_AABDKP mayne_d_Page_072thm.jpg
dc103d62532a47d6c6019725de63fbda
a85fcf74acc2b6300904af3fee5a57eeaa9dbcc2
2640 F20110209_AABEHI mayne_d_Page_235.txt
492937b6b4ab68633b56a5f0fb323417
b74fd60bf3b22c91c03c451b90f325f0c855245a
F20110209_AABFEB mayne_d_Page_112.txt
3132947066ac1e89ef9bc7bb065ae7d6
e95c238ecc8dd0a80bf40c99331412c231de6cc5
32697 F20110209_AABEUT mayne_d_Page_033.QC.jpg
17adb3b971a5f895ea62731ca0a8d5d3
36482b596cdc046c977dc45e1afcc7764828bcb2
F20110209_AABFRN mayne_d_Page_197.jp2
733bd4888fd4270e2cae1f1c5ceb3d1e
69782c3ca8a18b9f7bbb8ef4ffc2cffd3b4d8b9b
45420 F20110209_AABDKQ mayne_d_Page_118.pro
46d2c247949e87cb88fad433fdf45cb2
3d80ce0f7b0218f9779b04cbab71792615c8f403
26441 F20110209_AABEHJ mayne_d_Page_274.pro
26d577f31a4eb0b45790bcfdbe8afe36
7cac3fecf503ede9ef16c8cfef95885d97571cad
260 F20110209_AABFEC mayne_d_Page_114.txt
50be1200cb4c7bab80c89ef5085834d7
57b2a1d8072fb99b198f777691574f4f157bb0b0
109293 F20110209_AABEUU mayne_d_Page_123.jpg
4cc0f22949dd0eafb793b884daf925be
f9bd149f4a5aa9d1e6da1dec4313ce1ab29b52aa
F20110209_AABFRO mayne_d_Page_203.jp2
376d877c8206c876806ce2d3db0c8c9c
6341c9b2010ff0f675026a99021933c59b57f7fb
2204 F20110209_AABDKR mayne_d_Page_055.txt
8b9b82371bb36c07512c01dffa8aea9c
be7b7a88a1b3d2e5fc7c771fde20173f164a776a
470834 F20110209_AABEHK mayne_d_Page_275.jp2
545a7e159e853fc04403123dd0494685
8e1be4a3f24f6355470830a32df10b83ea4fccb2
2181 F20110209_AABFED mayne_d_Page_116.txt
d46eaf02971033011ba4ed9f7ced48ea
9ccae2ffe94583545b46e31aed58a887b09899a9
2511 F20110209_AABEUV mayne_d_Page_232.pro
1f17f09ecf5de7d99a8b2a14cf195209
3bee6c2c3e821868bd58d5dacd76049349d5976d
F20110209_AABFRP mayne_d_Page_207.jp2
bf984a9bcd750cee35984c4fbb718a0f
18c63aec9c8a0917c53b94ac44bd7d235fe63460
8378 F20110209_AABDKS mayne_d_Page_228thm.jpg
3c2e33fd548b902c565cd99b958d81ca
22a7141918d2dfba056176b9de3a912c9c6fd9ef
15023 F20110209_AABEHL mayne_d_Page_278.QC.jpg
04b5adf74088f137b9904bb9773ba794
7768cd6656c81e8071b2e2d1d85ec5d6b5b79250
F20110209_AABFEE mayne_d_Page_120.txt
dabd02cf396c758403bc436b42aeb227
cd997d425f94bc5a88c238c8d3798ea01bf5b1e1
109040 F20110209_AABEUW mayne_d_Page_137.jpg
df721ecfda61d9716ad362fde3c1a22f
4f8775d23426ce088fb4d6db1a6e447e43037313
F20110209_AABFRQ mayne_d_Page_210.jp2
dd3a8c42dd7cc435f6940890657932ab
b4e2f404fc114e84d5e8b025f9569092d283d687
34921 F20110209_AABDKT mayne_d_Page_203.QC.jpg
42e4d92083807f4759ef324b6c598e27
9c7abb63335650925a5b7643f91a3259ab7d1b2b
2122 F20110209_AABEHM mayne_d_Page_001thm.jpg
6a1ac7ef873a61c8cf419f1e2c61a74f
0211d728c42cae77b7971aeefe05a753949d8251
1958 F20110209_AABFEF mayne_d_Page_124.txt
77febb612fbf72de5173c3ac610cc74d
a6552656172f576a70c8630f36fd61d1b8729444
35150 F20110209_AABEUX mayne_d_Page_045.QC.jpg
a7a8979fb76f11a888d909d4365b6100
2170e7c1fc124c26d7443c1b683462495509ef1d
F20110209_AABFRR mayne_d_Page_212.jp2
b5042be4f0c1e3604c3f36715bd40f19
a2b7d6b4cf8796f002375b61fbef42c6184a956d
6664 F20110209_AABDKU mayne_d_Page_065thm.jpg
fb858b79470a1a3376d27cbad2573fbb
c9dab93bcd7f3fec4e4cb30d6e861c10fa310b5e
54086 F20110209_AABEHN mayne_d_Page_080.pro
459659bb307f4ca71ef3909334250233
1e4af3bd83b01ad19f9d40dc25cacff91836acf4
F20110209_AABFEG mayne_d_Page_126.txt
aeb579e41bcc45e73f812f0ac681e5c8
bdae065506b0e795a91da23812197e1af6ef1360
2049 F20110209_AABEUY mayne_d_Page_107.txt
af614450a167b28f6aaa91ac198bebb0
e44ba0f883f42d587d1eaf345a1886a889331c18
4389 F20110209_AABGBA mayne_d_Page_257thm.jpg
478cc77d6ce2c9ff332f17c74c2c5f90
f67c656ac8b48659768e01dbec8a4468fc7f3da2
947520 F20110209_AABFRS mayne_d_Page_213.jp2
75ea238ef4dfce4c061950d0762560bd
8bcf2c0e39b49faefaaf890c0707ef86c11beb18
30778 F20110209_AABDKV mayne_d_Page_071.QC.jpg
0e241ec07cb6ede69076a058089b749c
64b0c994f498e50c0e38e1004770b7d19f1d404c
1996 F20110209_AABEHO mayne_d_Page_194.txt
a3151abbc4a545e322bb254d817f8900
f190b3f4eb8335675113537b728b662702b978a4
1843 F20110209_AABFEH mayne_d_Page_129.txt
a18b2e5380301125ce4d2b6825166f0a
823ec43f59dabd9d517a859a2ee4836c1742f239
F20110209_AABEUZ mayne_d_Page_120.jp2
5452cdd88c53bdd707ed79326849f021
629714ad3728bd53935a45c9fc26d0b27cd6ca24
4547 F20110209_AABGBB mayne_d_Page_258thm.jpg
53ef332eafdfb47b3c8ed4b0ed1c2c47
7b20e837981b242511a181d3466a84ea8c07e467
930667 F20110209_AABFRT mayne_d_Page_216.jp2
8e4bd5d717d0f09385c03d3a6242fd7e
c112d5b7dbe45742c1353299fa8640c533924052
31428 F20110209_AABDKW mayne_d_Page_098.QC.jpg
8b452975b22701ebc12e327afae1770b
d675d55cd7378bd5f2a82b5705d529d999b0ab35
103102 F20110209_AABEHP mayne_d_Page_025.jpg
bedaa3bd36b5fd279fd55a2464e8afb7
0bff6fd5cf76aac2d54de64959013ffab6e78b6c
2033 F20110209_AABFEI mayne_d_Page_132.txt
0fc27b1f587c4bd64a87fcbf82bee4a0
49b214a99d397acbc1bfa26eb10b3325dff91226
4623 F20110209_AABGBC mayne_d_Page_266thm.jpg
baca9dcd1c07d6ed5b42d2d92f45324b
3dff552d54394496a61c48d6615c3c3458784dd8
683842 F20110209_AABFRU mayne_d_Page_217.jp2
6489a680c9728a48d8731c7f54f0a87a
14f9e59042a8dc2931ddc2458426a593ed7c30e4
31872 F20110209_AABDKX mayne_d_Page_095.QC.jpg
5a58b4cccd0c8b14db0d5d2a9142f591
0723811312a26d6cc9f8345d1671e6a0db7a7ad4
8999 F20110209_AABEHQ mayne_d_Page_037thm.jpg
4dd40e4f90d4fbe6b92280484a5d3604
0f3fbbf8220581e2b82a320662faef56d454e6b4
2117 F20110209_AABFEJ mayne_d_Page_133.txt
dcec77565dcf4d5d26b5c976c4de96da
57086eab8326f57463df7f69d9d89582a6ccb2b7
3499 F20110209_AABGBD mayne_d_Page_275thm.jpg
fa21bdd820973c051473793e6b6b5d52
362e4b3d301bfdf693503630b80e64bb3b3297af
F20110209_AABFRV mayne_d_Page_218.jp2
cfa7d79e2d8c6c3a97c32796bdc4e50d
9f58bd5ea7e238f88a2404c09925b9e84c3e3956
53749 F20110209_AABEHR mayne_d_Page_207.pro
cbd912300c549a802584efeb3ec34cc3
7dbc45e23382917f9971809ac137b26a6765e6a8
F20110209_AABFEK mayne_d_Page_135.txt
cb65a2622ce630b126b38aef818210d3
6756c297338e34ff982a6d0098cfd3ed385c9d6c
F20110209_AABGBE mayne_d_Page_285thm.jpg
48644270e38159c5fbb260cca44ae9f7
632b6733624f1b4b2e80b577aa2346ff0f1a0611
F20110209_AABFRW mayne_d_Page_219.jp2
c3b4f922afd51828a6b4daffb35247a2
51045fb2902700ca53c10e414ef231e699db9041
1344 F20110209_AABDKY mayne_d_Page_237.txt
bad6477e43d8a4f295dd0d7071451d87
cdb5f1bb8159123303835085d59eaada158a620e
113580 F20110209_AABEHS mayne_d_Page_233.jpg
0a6d285cf60fa4bf0a96141cd0ef5e05
97e1980f20bae24d6639437be1b315862a3ec5f0
F20110209_AABFEL mayne_d_Page_136.txt
60aaec7bc8dce0442a5e917367c26774
f84b48d7467a49cf3e466428fc94c680d5b9ac87
702789 F20110209_AABFRX mayne_d_Page_220.jp2
0b5c0473209316051276bcfa6338fdab
d89526c0b5a7a1c8f016702f893fdc33a546d268
33007 F20110209_AABDKZ mayne_d_Page_134.QC.jpg
c6f117a7ed60a4e6c92ee250694c04a4
3ba365e703e3158cad2df1bbfa46f6128008e3ac
55477 F20110209_AABEHT mayne_d_Page_093.pro
e28a881c108439a8a0d1a9c042f27c00
fe22e05dc1ac318baeb9198961759b159ccd0a6a
2265 F20110209_AABFEM mayne_d_Page_138.txt
cc3930569592a4f89d166714c385ed29
ce42226a5b5fc9b261719141f15676be3019a337
F20110209_AABFRY mayne_d_Page_221.jp2
cd474d37c7541adf627b8742e337be91
411edad65c617a00654c5772168a28c761ed4111
2025 F20110209_AABFEN mayne_d_Page_143.txt
e10301e1397ac15e704fd4ac008775a8
042e1abd5c36e494a23aee1fb2887306857a1d74
959197 F20110209_AABFRZ mayne_d_Page_222.jp2
6b96ed8c5e8b9905f464ce97507aba75
a53b1e13832904c61423882b4676b9cff30e84c7
4559 F20110209_AABEHU mayne_d_Page_012thm.jpg
a41a09d6af2c13f24cbd372528fdaea1
902f8739e101b4974fa4dae2d3d431ad9330c51b
2082 F20110209_AABFEO mayne_d_Page_148.txt
2c2968099a3c834d00f533cb18520730
edc7baa4dc33749e52e96ed76da5bbdc3beedb44
6027 F20110209_AABEHV mayne_d_Page_238thm.jpg
7ccfa0eec3afe1fc7bb69548f47a5d43
9c60419e405a88f465f1631135bd4704e8e520a1
186 F20110209_AABFEP mayne_d_Page_149.txt
7d97c3f837748e921017b5a4d4ea2bcc
c92f7140b3a255ad9e5ab78609237fba6180d433
8748 F20110209_AABEHW mayne_d_Page_107thm.jpg
94243bf020930df6eea19e7eb8f40180
fc1e6f2bb8a40b5cc5974508ff41de9528b53c45
113138 F20110209_AABEHX mayne_d_Page_173.jpg
3e3b1b3cca4b0fa94862cb51e0b1a25a
2fa691da6648d427c881df7dbc8f66774e2ddaf6
F20110209_AABFEQ mayne_d_Page_150.txt
d0b98fcbc925189780d91d22a95cddbc
4ef4f3e8194c3ee721a9e19c0356363ad3eb4aa5
8710 F20110209_AABEHY mayne_d_Page_088thm.jpg
fbeb24e24a465c1cd134bb85561b4adf
1ab6f192ef85e44e97c43238d962394d4e47a858
1749 F20110209_AABFER mayne_d_Page_157.txt
422845ae1e80f6db066c1d46ad684fbe
64cdf6d65ade841ba41b6161c3ed022948d6a36b
F20110209_AABEHZ mayne_d_Page_107.jp2
8b2a21782eaad1123b8e0b1b06b63666
5c0e77ddceaa6eeb9dc2b0e3968950d61a8a6f90
2305 F20110209_AABFES mayne_d_Page_158.txt
3a62206ce3b383c3f17215cc97066011
5b8f2b4123d67e6381556a52ba2a79d60ff5c36d
F20110209_AABFET mayne_d_Page_161.txt
518cf5dc6360895bb92ae863df257c17
65a8a036bd250a1659c6feab035e18353a5fa21d
F20110209_AABDQA mayne_d_Page_018.jp2
9306a6d7a62fb6162dc51b32f9be63d8
b9f4b81fdf899480e038a5eefa697995e0a5f583
2128 F20110209_AABFEU mayne_d_Page_164.txt
e10ab0cda1f6a19023f28d6aa7cae451
791f0995ce7f880945d2c21100a69c0b68c453d2
93929 F20110209_AABDQB mayne_d_Page_230.jpg
3e9053d014a4740297efc6b82e9ad098
8eaf465d22906bc1a5b614fb56c0c0137d00b171
2010 F20110209_AABFEV mayne_d_Page_165.txt
454e2cb620a1c0387e07f2b50d804167
2064973f95b39b13f51d84fb26fbbb726ec4e637
37269 F20110209_AABFXA mayne_d_Page_168.QC.jpg
0b0abbcb92343cb95525c360d3b22b0f
1cee4b095cf411f225e315bebab31a140937f351
5021 F20110209_AABDQC mayne_d_Page_236thm.jpg
59c7d149fcbb025d376561f9c72f225b
2b3cac12cabb6e8c8c8a9a07a322800a53817f9c
2097 F20110209_AABFEW mayne_d_Page_166.txt
29a466a48242bf339b702496336824f2
8f202fdfeb0a65909553a1a5fc968ed5da582adb
34063 F20110209_AABFXB mayne_d_Page_172.QC.jpg
5e1f1758ae8128973e80de194e76e203
49dffa33b9cffef63cb8b36c5cf0de0ec87b3879
33858 F20110209_AABDQD mayne_d_Page_077.QC.jpg
c1885e615bfc52102515714fc91b52c3
ba4b4900d77865ea1f6e547f9bf7c8fcd83a9c9c
1965 F20110209_AABFEX mayne_d_Page_170.txt
97f1f2db7d239f713b260df7e154065c
aab41f1245a70e4d6453b79e1470e5d8925f9bb7
34826 F20110209_AABFXC mayne_d_Page_175.QC.jpg
ee98e3fb42483f71d7a9d54ce69717f0
974fd9e43e259a9284714054ebeeea070b730713
71602 F20110209_AABDQE mayne_d_Page_155.jpg
35781d44e3acbd4b8d946e2602cca9d4
9bf166b8d31a108f9edf8f4e6b6479708aaaf95f
2801 F20110209_AABFEY mayne_d_Page_171.txt
2f4d90408233cbdd6cdc2587ebca25ba
b75a860c9c25c0b95f2c33661cb262b23c3c8938
13017 F20110209_AABDQF mayne_d_Page_275.QC.jpg
8b9ce52aecc073bac7f8c9739667f856
ed787de28d40d295788fb77867d1131a7f37ce68
2070 F20110209_AABFEZ mayne_d_Page_175.txt
ee7473182a2a50b88c2747aaee4e8bb0
099997c72a804cd61c7c6674173cc83b0d9fe09c
33880 F20110209_AABFXD mayne_d_Page_179.QC.jpg
8e17b2ee6d7833c60f0faa0c3111b5aa
2b745b358b4b36a99136690be32ac21a5afdbf1b
F20110209_AABDQG mayne_d_Page_081.tif
f23262a6191aec04a9007c10b9ef17cd
acc85846da57ae305fabea34109055e38a69c442
24864 F20110209_AABFXE mayne_d_Page_183.QC.jpg
961e0016de78d38fbaac30b471bca506
2f28fab4f517a365bb126ab8c931ede36beed271
4470 F20110209_AABDQH mayne_d_Page_256thm.jpg
7327dbc55f532694b0fd3e78cf76aa2b
442c33981cc2e386c7e3be5eb6b979f280eb7fe8
8312 F20110209_AABENA mayne_d_Page_185thm.jpg
7a2aa45e42da2765be9208909239fd7c
8efe39003d3b388badf3fc08f490379d178d4c92
35238 F20110209_AABFXF mayne_d_Page_185.QC.jpg
c498e439d7feae6d5b43ccab7515dc83
7fe8c3144a2c29897c557855d02ff88615225255
F20110209_AABDQI mayne_d_Page_110.jp2
51908a3850461540c87b3bc8fb88eb60
5b61767a0c08b9c3c68e3ab2b94bc51a8b35a463
34994 F20110209_AABENB mayne_d_Page_035.QC.jpg
ccc73eae066048885aa25016a01602ea
77a0c2673a452203b32688e0c9e755016cf11fc7
34229 F20110209_AABFXG mayne_d_Page_186.QC.jpg
1c60c5757e9c8b7993146d8814c0f9a0
e6914d3f0da8f837f5dda5bf528ebd14b96710cd
105323 F20110209_AABDQJ mayne_d_Page_208.jpg
573188fb3c82cd172bc89e1fcfdc4ad0
a479ff471717b6ff2c37cf454b74244ab77676d7
51936 F20110209_AABENC mayne_d_Page_254.jpg
e79eaa3cf9dd75d78c7611049d18edbb
10e6932cd3a8539a20d76d7fa37b6fb92ed4116d
32350 F20110209_AABFXH mayne_d_Page_187.QC.jpg
409aead2e01a67f13341445ec3425851
b5671c8496660666e34ffbf51fede73b35752ab1
F20110209_AABDQK mayne_d_Page_117.tif
a897afba291f13ee1827b1c4850accfb
e4a6f5cc89391ebef90e1930294ecbe5482d8012
46201 F20110209_AABEND mayne_d_Page_273.jpg
aab8539b9c264082606f2a6d4f728804
46dadebcad9631aacf6bc0c6ea592931f43d9e48
F20110209_AABFXI mayne_d_Page_188.QC.jpg
0940b4838763d086a083ceb4c8cc8a1e
ee2298ccaa33744ab17edff6b74b08847b743347
101780 F20110209_AABDQL mayne_d_Page_194.jpg
0665400d3fa99b1ad2183a11e2897e5a
c3968eb105dea853f101e6aae712d50483a51764
2992 F20110209_AABENE mayne_d_Page_232.QC.jpg
60dd1878248375820a0eeeeef4be02e4
43130d1910552be224d12a26a83bc68c5329a54d
999650 F20110209_AABDDA mayne_d_Page_243.jp2
81f3c6705b3c4f37610f4ba48bafd9a5
00c49c5ad63ceb0175c79f584e3c7cb1e04c817f
28861 F20110209_AABFXJ mayne_d_Page_189.QC.jpg
b01f7716dc7a12a57262c96938c2cb27
e33ebb80282dc09b8f16687261c3a0171773d2a3
287 F20110209_AABDQM mayne_d_Page_084.txt
ad5d303af389533464b598ca2ad858f5
10527acf3a7b84de56a4e5577d7a513abfd2b6ec
50539 F20110209_AABENF mayne_d_Page_113.pro
110f980eb7b3f219a3698840a5f808c1
8781dc78c28939ce985669bf37670366b4617328
25755 F20110209_AABDDB mayne_d_Page_284.QC.jpg
f6e090494c1b14d4c418fa1a40c06270
1f3c844121422d0a4962b41f607c73325f2d165b
33015 F20110209_AABFXK mayne_d_Page_193.QC.jpg
af0604706ce9d6c7442e21bc05263a93
894a344c7663551dc42375c8006f2384c656df35
96699 F20110209_AABDQN mayne_d_Page_070.jpg
16e2691128210798be286e33aefd2bad
a31ba5a16528634f35f5caae6e9343bd9fa6e67f
2031 F20110209_AABENG mayne_d_Page_094.txt
da59136fe02d0e528a18648cef46604e
778bef7347bbf7253e37ba9674d7342f9c59f2b0
13995 F20110209_AABDDC mayne_d_Page_273.QC.jpg
831967db68beaa0259196e2b3255c9de
d029d7850df59d045f2ba5f064b3d7ebcdb81314
35728 F20110209_AABFXL mayne_d_Page_196.QC.jpg
f16911f616195b7a13fb087939b6cb39
b0ab961f18777f61aa54f760897d97e2dc3dde92
59778 F20110209_AABDQO mayne_d_Page_197.pro
7e49ec3684d88ec9fda50f3c90fe9952
b32cdabbff315b37e1f93153a37208d97ed685f5
35710 F20110209_AABENH mayne_d_Page_147.QC.jpg
db990731bb9d15d78599b49b20a55e9b
24d9a6c665c747f8c47b7f31a56eeab72901e0db
30981 F20110209_AABFKA mayne_d_Page_267.pro
9c3bbee3fc97ed5f33eefc3f06f4c52e
e0f1281114d3af754250d511617d25b8fd40ecd6
5142 F20110209_AABDDD mayne_d_Page_014thm.jpg
e3063984ce5bbe900a60bf591499b7f8
3a5e1509de9eecbda27c5007a3138167466fbf71
F20110209_AABFXM mayne_d_Page_199.QC.jpg
3d9b904b85471efad927a25be76323ce
c9b481f6e59406c45388b23fc9d579c960066989
3132 F20110209_AABDQP mayne_d_Page_248.txt
073c1cc6bf1859438f1f8b4f20e7901a
1b6168438011f9d2a2d87e1d313546b54ae29665
5383 F20110209_AABENI mayne_d_Page_008.txt
134f86dcfc8e4489ac9b0b5ae730ba61
352b90d2d5bfa48e1dbb5ef497877a148a328e6d
28434 F20110209_AABFKB mayne_d_Page_270.pro
ea713797cc6fd7fb88c6ecf68256563d
ac1f1c5320def419b500ab504c3f30898223456a
F20110209_AABDDE mayne_d_Page_196.jp2
e7bbc1d6f23bb49646868800e8c050a9
92e303dab9d754b6e30a98f66b3dca7e1356b130
34708 F20110209_AABFXN mayne_d_Page_204.QC.jpg
730d4d54e83882adacfb2250fe44234f
2433693981bb0560d5461a01872ef486c03f8f4b
F20110209_AABDQQ mayne_d_Page_035.jp2
cde9d855289f188cfd2ca44c3534eb3a
e7a204f2df09976b7e34513fb0310b2d3dc6afe9
31816 F20110209_AABENJ mayne_d_Page_145.QC.jpg
4658300401211eb6ad421d4e50ef9cdf
09503c097b4eb4e3a1a44f4682c29b6bd38ac1b6
21759 F20110209_AABFKC mayne_d_Page_273.pro
aee67fcd44a1408293651858c35b1407
49f5cef1df60e779ee9e6d407af4994957a2354f
111020 F20110209_AABDDF mayne_d_Page_026.jpg
f2aca88f5b8942c336688fae6a44f381
39c9dca1449d5ebd3e5637ee4996412621ec4e2e
35432 F20110209_AABFXO mayne_d_Page_207.QC.jpg
534743295601ee1b729c0608ab09a96b
bb8a9661adc346014299acd3bb39629e3efabdd5
F20110209_AABDQR mayne_d_Page_143.tif
52deadb7e39dcdf824ae8643e968da2d
d4d19a8a4153af1a5cbe0adcbae6685c0b0e3ba5
2573 F20110209_AABENK mayne_d_Page_173.txt
32a3dda55f75cf5f0f09c748e2a0306c
748e9ae01600c935235fd3efee8fba99bb97ec70
22041 F20110209_AABFKD mayne_d_Page_275.pro
b21d67c64fdfbeb1e60a508ca6e4f6e5
3e063636161a504b940d04617ae0860b6a2487b2
F20110209_AABDDG mayne_d_Page_143.jp2
7d8a6668f424474704db50cc8df15a01
fd5fe4295e35c95289a9c3d7f8d26249b370dd83
33481 F20110209_AABFXP mayne_d_Page_209.QC.jpg
1e113cbcb984c1c61b4d8f945eea1557
b189b1b25b978a45f7b392360d037aee1930c94b
43653 F20110209_AABDQS mayne_d_Page_004.pro
5e486ccad2b0094186df485a225ca8d6
5415aaaa39d25921f1e9b6b245a188a1bd041b6d
F20110209_AABENL mayne_d_Page_122.tif
a32b6c9e8b12c9b880380d89e10b3a7c
daf41e49b5c0d1e49a0ba15f1dd5587430915146
30152 F20110209_AABFKE mayne_d_Page_277.pro
64c2f1292a9c98877a29b8295c4bbd8a
04330a0716e776a873997ee02f5e0e0329ad2651
2066 F20110209_AABDDH mayne_d_Page_279thm.jpg
f0c8fcc61e93ccac342b80c6376512de
7a0a4aca64652a40558311865b07ca4484bbfdd2
1051893 F20110209_AABEAA mayne_d_Page_090.jp2
784ec2d374f826d88325fed145825376
4cc39763b3b11a30e5b555cb5603a5836f7cad65
36927 F20110209_AABFXQ mayne_d_Page_221.QC.jpg
84dbd53e6b28e5041574829609332145
856e99661cbe8a88c0eeee71bd58ca44dc84e846
8654 F20110209_AABDQT mayne_d_Page_046thm.jpg
3c744cb870cfe7f5e370b1c963d40c88
27ce9338907c9d6b218facf0394f80c8e09c3ff9
14828 F20110209_AABENM mayne_d_Page_254.QC.jpg
6f146630ff3fcaeffd3b7ec172c43713
19655efb4ed42feeaaaf3824cd8483cf2473745f
26149 F20110209_AABFKF mayne_d_Page_278.pro
f119a9372bb7f3bf0460a90e9d2535de
bb532bedc1e431926429896d03536907d67085b1
33812 F20110209_AABDDI mayne_d_Page_096.QC.jpg
c46e158f34a7364c0aa992c153207535
b5054bb04571cc9697a413b2bebf02acb75b9ef3
F20110209_AABEAB mayne_d_Page_153.txt
da539227fcb0226d276c515b52ff383f
492600d0b420f553a34ed44d1213e553848b1d2f
32962 F20110209_AABFXR mayne_d_Page_223.QC.jpg
5147b246622832726d34930282c82b2d
16fc58cd9879a672b99ff91585d2387a3b638195
F20110209_AABDQU mayne_d_Page_186.txt
5cbf944a16b9b504810446f18ee94b8a
d2acb15887ea0f80ae953f91dfc5c8f34e7aa194
45021 F20110209_AABENN mayne_d_Page_034.pro
9e4cb8e3d52d224e0a852d0cabddef6e
42339322c22e08ffdf0fc6dcbe11c983bc0fa85b
62786 F20110209_AABFKG mayne_d_Page_280.pro
3b13b9871f41e25083a2402a2b72c16d
6f2758d2e81605877f7c58a0bea0f060b3c4f888
1909 F20110209_AABDDJ mayne_d_Page_070.txt
26a5483f15e9f37a99e6dbf1dd5a75b0
de42db5b4a5e46e5b3c46bb0f38409ba7ddd1e21
802955 F20110209_AABEAC mayne_d_Page_236.jp2
42ee5a83e53ad7fdf8173cf200d38aba
e6a57234c5d55146cc63cfa3993825ced04f9ddc
37540 F20110209_AABFXS mayne_d_Page_231.QC.jpg
a8e66d22e03b0b3695231add91b6ae40
8aee561c20c6f586af1722d5b6da22168cecca57
38622 F20110209_AABDQV mayne_d_Page_011.pro
4c93fb57aa9a48e18d405074a3265e4d
95f06251d60899f52417b4bc10a7bee56d1fc7d5
102661 F20110209_AABENO mayne_d_Page_061.jpg
7c28e6b477d7500e5a28390a5a6bc6e2
cf48287b72928ebc614885e9460edfa49f199552
61137 F20110209_AABFKH mayne_d_Page_283.pro
3bd4e29ccf18454c625c94a5bc08fb7f
621c7c0a76cc1eecd8cf32b3c5bd41f2e820384f
107895 F20110209_AABDDK mayne_d_Page_136.jpg
441d7e0c848c8b14b83e8a14c426ab58
f8ae7be45153695f0cb7830a1b75be523592ed00
2086 F20110209_AABEAD mayne_d_Page_160.txt
d8a57c8ce13af835b8ae6e36c057f7a5
92876b39a986ec4e5562066d45d708a83b98e8ff
8066 F20110209_AABFXT mayne_d_Page_234.QC.jpg
d197c91a932f87cf54d8ef8ff50da7ce
f34dd5791be40f85a61c86d885010efd1948297e
51056 F20110209_AABDQW mayne_d_Page_082.pro
3b881ed619a94754bac7c2a9502740bd
9016106636a4cab0d516f80fd4f48556575d62d0
2301 F20110209_AABENP mayne_d_Page_249thm.jpg
aee9e1ab2db19eeed09140e3745c13b6
563891134fb7c7950ea2a62ad76f8f89a571dd00
7757 F20110209_AABFKI mayne_d_Page_003.jpg
2825d89664fffb7f05b63a0bd5e4cc4f
4efa7c39710faa2b1f895ad50a3c4f80cdbb0ce9
2593 F20110209_AABDDL mayne_d_Page_177.txt
5a8c7199590df9982d71afd27ba282fd
717da6427268531bf73c7247842b192d48fc1225
51649 F20110209_AABEAE mayne_d_Page_262.jpg
e1223d28fbca12dd61b87b69ad13df8b
158d8c596968dfc826d3dd26b25b182892bc248f
24550 F20110209_AABFXU mayne_d_Page_238.QC.jpg
1d749764a9d837e72ab0f1b432437435
05ee2788f9e6c8b14ad0f480ea4182f3d9eba230
F20110209_AABDQX mayne_d_Page_261.txt
5cd449ce1a7a1d543ba018a8f8a37a43
7b6eb3759d53d3c65cdc59b08e44297349b8dd6c
55461 F20110209_AABENQ mayne_d_Page_214.pro
3b57026d5957fee2c8d7e87e6cb40472
8d4719fd93efd70946cd6499b0a2fd1cd66fdbf0
116255 F20110209_AABFKJ mayne_d_Page_008.jpg
768b879189527be7e11fad60abb271b2
6b454757f4ac47c5ed96d33c88da0c42a61e120d
2099 F20110209_AABDDM mayne_d_Page_039.txt
220a3f62416147b9ff4582034c9a41aa
11411109ceeaef1323de159a9a6580eab63b2523
112812 F20110209_AABEAF mayne_d_Page_210.jpg
758a22d38bbd8f33c400f3ba91f62b67
7d22912f551da3a82ab5a149b3cd9f72410dec33
21906 F20110209_AABFXV mayne_d_Page_240.QC.jpg
68837b517d683afc2e71da8ed2fe21cb
1b4160d8e76056b539d7adc4c42ec776e8299587
F20110209_AABDQY mayne_d_Page_090.tif
8a8b10f0c221cf205b983cdbb776e64d
aa627231ef75319c2eba296e176bf539ea7740ff
54325 F20110209_AABENR mayne_d_Page_092.pro
ba4b26c1029ed7151d10e1a233bd8975
3b06e75082679a1f017d2d25a1185ab5143771a2
106310 F20110209_AABFKK mayne_d_Page_010.jpg
b48152c6dada2ba7d60333509c871147
3f0b5e2bad74f4b10887ccd08324fbcbedb48d9e
2490 F20110209_AABDDN mayne_d_Page_022.txt
7403f18fdf151d4c9f3ce34fba738f5b
fbd3384a670c6634cdee94002030c2bbcc5f4c11
2135 F20110209_AABEAG mayne_d_Page_080.txt
a3a2eef37cdd25621e460f0246a240fb
84e18fd48e1385fcf12b6b6aeb4ce514163fa705
22468 F20110209_AABFXW mayne_d_Page_241.QC.jpg
c1a40f1d8d497bb95fbc93980c160337
0b9d2846eb5c119aa0f2d308642d2ec9c3890cdb
F20110209_AABDQZ mayne_d_Page_137.tif
fbfe980fc8d9944b390d58e757a8eaf2
53e82b92aee54fafff163ce259d70f8f0f24ace4
108628 F20110209_AABENS mayne_d_Page_017.jpg
85c011707ca1c489eb07f86336d4ca21
5502f04909d1dd598b4c221e594e4aafc4810921
80031 F20110209_AABFKL mayne_d_Page_015.jpg
093daca44f4c6024aeb4015d71f20858
a4fb340463e18b2b5b1bfd4871c2d6149a677773
1356 F20110209_AABDDO mayne_d_Page_263.txt
ec0a1768084079a30be4705a449f2e94
58bf25b80628eee6a87419d45c643823bb039386
62985 F20110209_AABEAH mayne_d_Page_168.pro
47d9fc6ef3939d4e0b7fc52296122857
0453ccabb1655a488158e56a604df43ac6293ad5
22539 F20110209_AABFXX mayne_d_Page_242.QC.jpg
40a58f80341f842c0069c948888c04f4
2c68f8cb188d7d3bdae2c861b9d69a4b61f8add0
F20110209_AABENT mayne_d_Page_205.jp2
377c775c31fd7eeaad89529bf57791d8
6da6b66f036ee38224641a6b03658c799dfff2e2
109604 F20110209_AABFKM mayne_d_Page_020.jpg
3643cc0e088cb21e43b85a549e4f68e0
dff87b76728a9690a9269dc66b53209118b2b9a6
54984 F20110209_AABDDP mayne_d_Page_053.pro
3532eb480e291242b98c056ea8428c55
4a8de3b4fe1c5ec72e15eec853669ce4073127f3
F20110209_AABEAI mayne_d_Page_069.txt
42e4d4fbbd089a271f3fa196c14094a2
2a868204e5ebee8b04a3fbfa22bba8ee675280a8
33706 F20110209_AABFXY mayne_d_Page_244.QC.jpg
c09e5095346a72cce94d7b3d95ed999a
8950fe036cbcae2781294ddcaee4d81dbc7ebb80
35215 F20110209_AABENU mayne_d_Page_046.QC.jpg
6180328df040a56c6630c66e78ce6ab6
e9498952a32e3c098cab445c8a7293076836f39f
121730 F20110209_AABFKN mayne_d_Page_022.jpg
7a339b8d36cc902f8d2d9aa36e49f095
73b0de58a4354f5b57c85c4464de3279492dbace
F20110209_AABDDQ mayne_d_Page_262.tif
9c66d3bf93fa69f31e8f735542c38842
0b59bf1d05a4dbed551be9c92eb4a48c959ce40b
8370 F20110209_AABEAJ mayne_d_Page_104thm.jpg
3045743e3a095eaf1a105120c740057a
a31444d4ef465be34f8753cdec8910f883f123e1
18288 F20110209_AABFXZ mayne_d_Page_246.QC.jpg
84fc1558acbb518420cf1f57c09d664b
c64ec66b793166169bb8198c28b5b743b2388027
110665 F20110209_AABENV mayne_d_Page_214.jpg
2f3052169009bf355992d56fa131f271
b1afa8ed3039d37e03b07df3b0280aee2d665365
109032 F20110209_AABFKO mayne_d_Page_028.jpg
47674e6ec28cee3b989b85911cfd7602
751e1a7a2aa8ef356b0542bf22a0708294c87abb
33687 F20110209_AABEAK mayne_d_Page_194.QC.jpg
33e4c2466fe7df21055b0d65d7bfbf9c
2581b015bb3487a2fdba7c4b7528e7330dbb236e
111384 F20110209_AABENW mayne_d_Page_040.jpg
23faba2bd05f57ffeede3c5078ffde57
23de5694f2cc133471089e49ab493bd47fc7dcfa
105954 F20110209_AABFKP mayne_d_Page_032.jpg
8f3d15ddf2cf6274d6f5cc707603204d
7610cbd4ebf6676aa29d2ccb6b4d7e1daf027839
1010187 F20110209_AABDDR mayne_d_Page_230.jp2
d8849649b93369b02a45b0ada2986284
ee86af689e184d38f2705fb12c45ad226e84b482
99437 F20110209_AABEAL mayne_d_Page_182.jpg
3c59cf2602285a3eb466d4611024e930
795d8d8f2691cf4a16ae3d91600dfd179d186b2f
F20110209_AABENX mayne_d_Page_086.tif
37017508f077d1a4cee5d3936095f4d9
c642fc34eb80a7b07ef27ba1e7107dd39f206479
80455 F20110209_AABFKQ mayne_d_Page_034.jpg
a857f84007178ac458c42819eba301fe
7706439aaa87a93ea21954f61c18001ae4ea57e4
31754 F20110209_AABDDS mayne_d_Page_268.pro
1095afa1aa21b1c79513c4d450f44efe
1955dbe7e51b6d417ff58a5fb4f2b86e8e7254f5
65093 F20110209_AABEAM mayne_d_Page_276.jpg
81d740ea997997ab2766ee1273e9b07c
d01d632ce79300ca3601e9d121d72d5615f54c61
109854 F20110209_AABENY mayne_d_Page_055.jpg
c0d7302611176216747f226347360b2e
84272a1d9f74f441170e6caef564f927da6de325
107489 F20110209_AABFKR mayne_d_Page_035.jpg
e93c20c02cec8b2dde9bd546f907c8f8
ed3cf1d4c40d4ff10b270b6b89f3659fb99403a4
56422 F20110209_AABDDT mayne_d_Page_177.pro
48ee530733adcd436465adde40ac49fd
5c34e0c30837b66031b38701f0c4fcc9c3f5bcfe
84460 F20110209_AABENZ mayne_d_Page_084.jpg
3a95f6b88602e29bf5361f8c3d64d8c6
05322a746a182792df6cf9ade8dba3a9ffe72dba
106797 F20110209_AABFKS mayne_d_Page_036.jpg
1b99b87afc81cb7ef20a3c7cd7ed72a6
f2b9f961b7538c66145a7c0ea2b55a1eb2d316c3
35693 F20110209_AABDDU mayne_d_Page_102.QC.jpg
641d54b60692e4c0435fae8b9b42e5b0
98ab27e87e152ca4dd9408b4a5475a35ebea166b
101086 F20110209_AABEAN mayne_d_Page_126.jpg
3c8f771b6abbe5bd41f6fa0ada7c0617
82572258e542214b753fa03086f092535bb25ce6
104237 F20110209_AABFKT mayne_d_Page_039.jpg
447f875c2752d66f9c5f6c93c1cd7f4e
41b720371ecc73e0c41cff4625435cef8da546f2
13170 F20110209_AABDDV mayne_d_Page_264.QC.jpg
4d93961062e37cc9a85f0b527be5b77f
8282224231892778214281fc781dead02a477618
4238 F20110209_AABEAO mayne_d_Page_252thm.jpg
f43f1e9ec13d210e6deedc8cac28592e
557a53676d494725bdec25a78b3f7945c2c084c5
2380 F20110209_AABFKU mayne_d_Page_042.jpg
ee3c323531cd28fe5bc19c4d9a235424
847511542ff4cacf28fefb98ee4044d6458e9055
F20110209_AABDDW mayne_d_Page_017.QC.jpg
61d9c60272a43977e3a1ed6473e9356f
aee6ec4dc5413c7f7ccd5d46fa1e8441f55cb421
1990 F20110209_AABDWA mayne_d_Page_115.txt
4320843616e7d5f4056e013d54ebd19e
cebe8b568e9fc7a6a3e90ca68bba94beca4108d9
5214 F20110209_AABEAP mayne_d_Page_009thm.jpg
b554d86e45a427c53535065ad22dc007
c42a809dba4bed3da648b0461a6580b39982c2fa
105271 F20110209_AABFKV mayne_d_Page_045.jpg
22e0b40a24af6cc801b12f68e0ab1ef4
71329a72cc0740c7b533fdaffcdd59a77aa5059e
F20110209_AABDDX mayne_d_Page_185.tif
cbd0fa3c2a2751501ca7e3709af26f39
9c404774b7142a9946aacb226f9d6e1e26fe9338
102807 F20110209_AABDWB mayne_d_Page_033.jpg
43b8bf30b6753d8a276115cf50fabaee
6b4f86acfc24f9d6aae769603666be72c3cec859
F20110209_AABEAQ mayne_d_Page_105.tif
189dba69f58deeec12af71d755255abc
b281bead923ed2e803a931ff121b3e9070ab4b25
87041 F20110209_AABDDY mayne_d_Page_065.jpg
9754fecf647aacb6db005fea2b8f7e28
21cd48254688b449d7e5e706a591c4577375023a
42495 F20110209_AABDWC mayne_d_Page_065.pro
9aec5b5b85da359c5b5dd7f4ff5b7c46
5679035e61998f5af7ca5b064879d8a28c29e9c1
107824 F20110209_AABEAR mayne_d_Page_046.jpg
270ea5f840f65ff68a0f924828b15584
cf7d703874e2a5f8304f3804784f449c930138b2
94457 F20110209_AABFKW mayne_d_Page_048.jpg
6f20c06735d61e277688f70e5551b6c5
d6fecd9f841aebc7b0f7afbcc6b44e915d04ca2c
F20110209_AABDDZ mayne_d_Page_206.tif
8169487463115bd400bb512c19a9fa00
b057b5501809c5fccf232f5ad0d057c1adaaba37
F20110209_AABDWD mayne_d_Page_048.tif
25422f1d64c3f6c84cdd584fe53153aa
eb9764d0ffa82669917240737c4f61558427bb8f
101468 F20110209_AABEAS mayne_d_Page_101.jpg
c527a3fe85a938260871be00887c3a45
4730ba1c76dc87f1d2180b91ae55ee7c070bd3fe
92566 F20110209_AABFKX mayne_d_Page_051.jpg
b8fdf12f977e6d6ec88a132c5e472a1a
43fbcfc112ea1293b0f7e714ff6a8742f2da831a
54422 F20110209_AABEAT mayne_d_Page_136.pro
0a771b4b93ffa6e04acf3098178f263b
25bc8d07e677916cbf7350677325b65b0379b162
110625 F20110209_AABFKY mayne_d_Page_053.jpg
01b3b99c7ea40db93220e5a98fed14d7
a9d471072a4fb96784ee0b5152c552bd55510833
54189 F20110209_AABDWE mayne_d_Page_049.pro
3a27bdbb7830d86171bc5d879234ccf1
b4a2b1e4749cdb07a1fce166745ad0c652c7144f
1982 F20110209_AABEAU mayne_d_Page_172.txt
bcac1dd81b0bdec73ec3ac42cce51eb9
6756a8e347f07472432f2f6f31dcfe8c12bd9db2
111995 F20110209_AABFKZ mayne_d_Page_066.jpg
fdbc3d68d43fcf4761a64e30bad3a813
097b0f4fb1ab4374142388ceee298c89edd71568
110306 F20110209_AABDWF mayne_d_Page_030.jpg
4acba7c50ad664eb64605356b44db241
9eb220e66a889c7daefd939b08389a88c5511ba6
31205 F20110209_AABEAV mayne_d_Page_129.QC.jpg
3f97073ef529956c3f0685090343c63e
4f7d225f13f070e28524de8d29b940bc7f000720
54168 F20110209_AABDWG mayne_d_Page_020.pro
f97c5e4510b05ca513d99f43b6497fa2
bbbfaf1d95c4144500958e0a2c00b72f1103e2ea
2045 F20110209_AABEAW mayne_d_Page_225.txt
ef41e8abe81736651374cbd6a1acc7f8
6d6566e66c77ce190c4b891040dff0fe0a08c55a
602113 F20110209_AABETA mayne_d_Page_255.jp2
7549c16fe716765126e8e69e86a8c2f9
9867c992f69a8e7f4291c432e3dfdd09808bb140
9195 F20110209_AABDWH mayne_d_Page_087thm.jpg
cd7a8f76655aabac46373c85f564dab2
95f8d58ffeb3a16888989c089ce3d66bb9bf2249
F20110209_AABEAX mayne_d_Page_251.tif
a3adf25344787fb97a45c513a1490f96
d006c5c7eb8ffbfbd9545ee729764c3686bd4a4e
F20110209_AABETB mayne_d_Page_112.jp2
3191a138effabfd161ec84b4e6a41cd4
b82e298f54b1a07ab5e79dd964839346b83588fd
55484 F20110209_AABDWI mayne_d_Page_205.pro
f3e34be8923b560ace82522cf664adf9
2b8297a9b5b622a84ce84709915c8c237812f72a
8142 F20110209_AABEAY mayne_d_Page_061thm.jpg
fd312fcb689ddc5bb75fd757e34cd4ef
45f4615729ca97ea7a948db531ed21b8aa7ac63f
334937 F20110209_AABETC mayne_d_Page_229.jp2
db9aa7187f3de630bdea0d1904fd93d6
b132616679ea492168a1c03efc3b067daee19852
F20110209_AABDWJ mayne_d_Page_049.tif
d28e6c78c9fe9a6ebb0fe6e7bb821bf5
96f0852986cee5ecac7a710e6f8d6007a0710d7c
62079 F20110209_AABEAZ mayne_d_Page_277.jpg
f027561283afecf345f505e7be0f7124
525d922ae74049a86dd0e48bc07ba4a6519af6b4
2111 F20110209_AABETD mayne_d_Page_017.txt
cbb241fd08b6d8ea775c4b1ab551bf5d
2832c814b419615a85cc0a87ff7d4910d56d31d8
55731 F20110209_AABDWK mayne_d_Page_131.pro
c499dcde87083652a8264ef10897bf40
1d81381d57f2f6102a9123de452042b465e6042a
8137 F20110209_AABETE mayne_d_Page_086thm.jpg
5f665a8d380da56a48c2661469e78bec
26fa9e762d8eedeb196c03a46e76ac568abd7020
33856 F20110209_AABDJA mayne_d_Page_075.QC.jpg
08d67197cb63e58584ccdac9673076f7
8e734f23f5ebee7ab956b464fd2aa70b0ed335d7
F20110209_AABDWL mayne_d_Page_125.QC.jpg
2ad7f7a33cd82741465b18e480bea181
1813b297e0c2a304a1330f2f6257b0c86e1d8bcf
35300 F20110209_AABETF mayne_d_Page_082.QC.jpg
bb186abfb8724e6ed01595816667f857
f5bc68eeb38306cbf882514817dc70f9c22c37fd
30823 F20110209_AABDJB mayne_d_Page_119.QC.jpg
0496c230d4d45b02d59224e794c0732c
b2dd9cea7250fd06f98cb59d4b5f615d4bda2ab1
3774 F20110209_AABDWM mayne_d_Page_098.pro
56834ff475e8ead87e5febebdeec1099
e23661bda7a9a7dea5f285d9fa20c6394c9479a4
101521 F20110209_AABETG mayne_d_Page_073.jpg
b1b08cc23d34c6c7f2a3a9c08313976e
adaf19423496dc9cac8c20378beb429b2e528554
33655 F20110209_AABDJC mayne_d_Page_227.QC.jpg
06316132a0cbb1b08203cec622461ab9
14822a2bf335aa41fe7be37e37dbee4926ce819c
F20110209_AABDWN mayne_d_Page_231.jp2
0bd0e2bb63348188a6da18d5088fe765
5fd8a66b0ce9343f8416835bc87cef3ee9971c8e
F20110209_AABFQA mayne_d_Page_102.jp2
4c0fe86110abea3e93fda22322840447
2162a0ed1491ef176c459f239a1c60a8b1d8eb78
13482 F20110209_AABETH mayne_d_Page_265.QC.jpg
9bdebc6a2384b7cbedc0f90fa5dee0d9
6f88326f35cbeaacb9de372827138dde189e2fc2
7608 F20110209_AABDJD mayne_d_Page_004thm.jpg
ae2e2eb94ab608158bbaa073c75de4cb
4153aca944c36f728da43f2eaaa3ba5bcad725c7
F20110209_AABDWO mayne_d_Page_168.tif
cd763511347d858fee5c2700be4b5e8d
704f4a0954be6e1e4a2289cf5ef9a450c3626ae0
863974 F20110209_AABFQB mayne_d_Page_103.jp2
5bc187eaaa8fd121eaef8a20a3735509
55e745dbab16e91c1c68225feebba77c74d784c2
F20110209_AABETI mayne_d_Page_283.tif
9e33a25763febcc5aa1dbc26de77486e
02eef4fd25a97d7ee86a7db3f40750be77ba2b3c
9249 F20110209_AABDJE mayne_d_Page_251.pro
34efdc9c0a22efa0ce8c70d4a3c7409b
18aaf2c6cea317347962186de0ba49e42f392c03
58392 F20110209_AABDWP mayne_d_Page_012.pro
2afa440a6eeec6f593c65d521b39f1b8
da8d28f5cc082d30edad3b779368f549a0cb9cc0
1051974 F20110209_AABFQC mayne_d_Page_104.jp2
5425efb96a3c4d2e4fa3a19d2ab74001
a0b1311f687b8a7d9dc8c93b42c61a1d117190d5
51322 F20110209_AABETJ mayne_d_Page_135.pro
ca1e25217fd7b3babcd7e64c7f75d83b
2ec8e88ef05bdb00b9aecc11a9b51576025979a7
F20110209_AABDJF mayne_d_Page_123.txt
884136e9d3e369880ab74c492d6bc165
d6d0a37888052baa5e34e1630879ca4ddae67b6d
52848 F20110209_AABDWQ mayne_d_Page_105.pro
42088f8072f52ff4a51788e7cb57d9cd
621bd280f6a2a1ff17d9c639a3c71d7b0fef54ee
1051949 F20110209_AABFQD mayne_d_Page_105.jp2
ee432347244c88dea8e10747b91ab9fa
25f5ebfed08439756bb558cb121c503ffc95fbcf
52071 F20110209_AABETK mayne_d_Page_081.pro
92492e9c405e3e27395a606761e9ec62
78b9016260601ba3ce77567bf0109083c7135e4d
52623 F20110209_AABDJG mayne_d_Page_175.pro
b3550936d9fe880ed31661fefb35e3b5
ff370dc344d35eb53b3efa167351e00dfc299a8b
8763 F20110209_AABDWR mayne_d_Page_121thm.jpg
4ecaa3926091a296d8c2d4b10b0485d5
0f399d21e489b4b2412470c20ad77c39727e2247
F20110209_AABFQE mayne_d_Page_108.jp2
33742db536766aacc48b649bcba52449
8c4bc28272b405b7b9e335bee3a91b490eb2a61b
F20110209_AABETL mayne_d_Page_092.txt
8366a174cf1d597b2e655177405bc0fb
e224640944082ef0c485034abbf4995e8c2a597f
F20110209_AABDJH mayne_d_Page_227.txt
60c807a69c88dc308ab3def84b4eae41
a514ddfacf042cdf305519a034441df5c4a40b2a
5932 F20110209_AABEGA mayne_d_Page_240thm.jpg
3d8b81277c79adcca984188ac59ba83a
241b859ac753bf38dd0251b05198500c856dee47
72714 F20110209_AABDWS mayne_d_Page_014.jpg
e6791fc3f4046aae4e4a62dc59228b8b
4c7da61026923ea6e3bf05431db25540a07fb371
F20110209_AABFQF mayne_d_Page_111.jp2
185d2c9eed01ab76ca759377903bdde6
34c9428566056feb3b2c95e19d0e2482072c13c8
41980 F20110209_AABETM mayne_d_Page_064.pro
693eea43ea23f417b0fc72ef60b45059
e0c45d574d99adda84b103cf0745eb07c08448ca
55433 F20110209_AABDJI mayne_d_Page_187.pro
7da496b36cd586b819be1014c382f2aa
ada1a7a7e0dd8ddce0f1cb573943e2082864f1ab
2094 F20110209_AABEGB mayne_d_Page_081.txt
51f33d6d34716b1163a26bf9a72d50e5
137245cfca529b1909bed0d719dd143ce081f813
F20110209_AABDWT mayne_d_Page_021.txt
def03c0c9ef36a994c6dc96015d93335
c726840253a688200bbf7e1b5e7a9d53af8dd0e0
F20110209_AABFQG mayne_d_Page_113.jp2
c21e0aaf6ae44432f31937428834fdf1
0a5a20e284808afc8abb6e975a5d6b5d3180217d
F20110209_AABETN mayne_d_Page_116.jp2
0a4f5ebed9eb06dcd5d4a198168a8230
d25ca8bc56cf9125c4e5bf475bd69e48e6ba6197
9007 F20110209_AABDJJ mayne_d_Page_144thm.jpg
3dfac3de9c2cac7a824b0eeabb565be7
202899a6721ab52f1dc83a189b7d53f306e550b2
8336 F20110209_AABEGC mayne_d_Page_001.pro
5be418330644dfbb0afb3b8be4fcfec6
497ea90ac76cf5d4ade66602e902cfc59558fe40
1455 F20110209_AABDWU mayne_d_Page_265.txt
54d0ecefa3653ff23a3acfd87f877f1f
84a87c3d055227c61ff70a966d22631f5ef0e948
1014051 F20110209_AABFQH mayne_d_Page_118.jp2
14880f959bbf7f9e49a2419acf77425d
93d5c858a30b5894f4860fb3f55e6f3c605bb56e
367435 F20110209_AABETO mayne_d_Page_249.jp2
0936ce4a1d80f92266f5f08837d0679d
148c4bc3ba93f7176699fb07691566cb40813600
F20110209_AABDJK mayne_d_Page_265.tif
43f63b013c3790f6e6ed9b582818a5a5
02c5486ec25de3b8b6e9cdd869461fb313a7c582
34339 F20110209_AABEGD mayne_d_Page_206.QC.jpg
b6b4efee8fe49726570422b146f9b088
68a583280e655043c250635fd7eb6d78200cd9f3
F20110209_AABDWV mayne_d_Page_047.jp2
c0a1d37753022d5f328234df4dcc276b
0dd9c64c8ea3eaee1cb4d0ad81b6992e776bb3c9
860006 F20110209_AABFQI mayne_d_Page_119.jp2
169170d7c4640be7235393ba38b12d4c
e4ba1c4dad21febc787a0cb5e02b8471741594a1
F20110209_AABETP mayne_d_Page_083.jp2
25d0c8b52f907b9da860b18cd65e5841
37a3c20f42e1fe2d788d0d0fe812b431e8e882a7
119216 F20110209_AABDJL mayne_d_Page_168.jpg
f63aa1a3ab0f796a0268f63d5195cccd
8fd21873021bd6d524aa39b73f4b60a2f27f0cb0
36762 F20110209_AABEGE mayne_d_Page_205.QC.jpg
4a2caa2c2f4a0f5e3b560faaa3b5269a
ebdd3ce3687233dbc55f5625f261e2080256bbb7
F20110209_AABDWW mayne_d_Page_141.jp2
851efe2b4b2b9e85f40106cf0fa0434d
329fe3e70dad8e1f71c4132586391f803889584a
F20110209_AABFQJ mayne_d_Page_122.jp2
54851c6862e6b994f2b1f1151b8a37f5
1c66d7cdcdbeb4104eb7f2d5405195eccc39e5ac
8741 F20110209_AABETQ mayne_d_Page_100thm.jpg
52ea9c9c5ef67c9db6dc286da69dd463
e5ad9a5f1a478e3b706b5af84377317c5f21ed5c
3934 F20110209_AABDJM mayne_d_Page_262thm.jpg
1fb1730f289bb09fd87d7b44f5d3f7c4
819e392f6540d8c5a1871fb4bbbcc11bd09e32a3
4747 F20110209_AABEGF mayne_d_Page_007thm.jpg
1ed5e9f5b9104cfa22036b9b81db33bd
d5e8299b7e5b2af0aa52b17e77ef1424f91e173f
8944 F20110209_AABDWX mayne_d_Page_117thm.jpg
13c5d4a91ab62873d9ef240c442cef39
6538b3ecd552428f227d2475c9b7ab14ddf08a18
F20110209_AABFQK mayne_d_Page_124.jp2
be88dc107df677efa9f95e82ef29550e
2d7636b7f1dbcc83b60ced639ba78ab28448a470
476675 F20110209_AABETR mayne_d_Page_273.jp2
9a2d7859fe2d9a66cbfcaca9ba9e2e0a
68381dc9ce176b0e5c6768aa51c9361773393c59
532650 F20110209_AABDJN mayne_d_Page_285.jp2
013287cac9387fbdb483e95ebbd3e772
0b4b6a07e03aa3b795ab98dcf26ad4904bcdd51a
8670 F20110209_AABEGG mayne_d_Page_156thm.jpg
8e02f18a9ffef267b993e7588babe541
d10787b20c17daee25f0e5bc299120fdb4ec0bfc
98710 F20110209_AABDWY mayne_d_Page_146.jpg
b73dcc86cd542061341bc9565f30699a
8a6b9fca742c8dac3cb914c1b58248f2ce1c9b60
F20110209_AABFQL mayne_d_Page_125.jp2
1b412467a2d0d87b7c75f4096fe1d2f0
634a39fe4f9a85c73542a87d638587b675f07a55
F20110209_AABETS mayne_d_Page_194.jp2
76be961ebfea8a01339b1b028a6c4d89
6c8e29c7063286494e22ac349f0375cf96926930
797762 F20110209_AABDJO mayne_d_Page_183.jp2
2e103bafb0fb80f0cce903643ac9d2c5
d6ab15976cd793b07354b76ea13c76c0f7a80c63
F20110209_AABEGH mayne_d_Page_210.tif
bac60ad151d2782544964b68f66402f9
959a1b8104567b5ab5c6652566fa1a65f3f9d436
8791 F20110209_AABDWZ mayne_d_Page_212thm.jpg
263ad252e7405f78e9abf160fb692fa9
207d7c3953777d7c405c7538ddefe32133e735d0
924 F20110209_AABFDA mayne_d_Page_041.txt
fafad4dad8e9c1c05d8632375f3d782e
c7169c3844669e3a93d8c10e6fb2991f515b3976
856968 F20110209_AABFQM mayne_d_Page_127.jp2
27050943e2f899da3898f6bea6c61811
4569ac51ee66711e138f2ac9e9785ceb33997f45
88391 F20110209_AABETT mayne_d_Page_052.jpg
f22de8bdf9cd20a25970b53e187d7ce7
fbf91d6ff7217c30df4961683c40eed0a76dc890
36171 F20110209_AABDJP mayne_d_Page_156.QC.jpg
a2e536f1f2856c8ef5a071cecad1b809
95108cc8b79cbded9030caddc80cc5ae9ccfeafe
F20110209_AABEGI mayne_d_Page_125.tif
1eb02b8aae2fc4b362e241458bfb024d
5bd820aa4c1a4d17874a8e71850a67dbd3194919
133 F20110209_AABFDB mayne_d_Page_042.txt
f2044b83eec5c61dbbb947bea2d604b9
e9a7c157de5b532d8900588ad074be40c7ba0b8e
1032302 F20110209_AABFQN mayne_d_Page_129.jp2
fc1740b14a71d5e4b01fc641054a4997
87fb1ceeda8379c7a9c88994e994279df4f8f79b
52799 F20110209_AABETU mayne_d_Page_185.pro
47ee8fc6321128825bb251c1de0abdc3
dd6a0c2a25e4a15cf03aecf9f39fc4b401842993
5992 F20110209_AABDJQ mayne_d_Page_155thm.jpg
95e7aab4a62d36fe9458c05aa5c6a926
0928101a0929cf9df31e52bb79bf6d44fb72f15d
F20110209_AABEGJ mayne_d_Page_244.tif
9b0b42119b33d6b779ab2bd49278b8df
b64b7373d0f95f9b9ce81051b544dea4153afbd5
2120 F20110209_AABFDC mayne_d_Page_043.txt
46674633665fc5fdb190d0a9d2f36622
08753778a3ba71e9ba525b85565dc81758b08152
F20110209_AABFQO mayne_d_Page_131.jp2
2b37f6c8d466402a9e4e598fee98425c
8e248182e55a40a935c3bcf6fa92b109c4f2fa97
F20110209_AABETV mayne_d_Page_275.tif
e2975964dcbb14b066e448389b99adbb
8444a1a1aa7d61062d95700a0d6917fee28ed4ae
F20110209_AABDJR mayne_d_Page_148thm.jpg
58dd11c6973e98ed62ce19c739f92092
55d3ce26df1447de4aa20377c9e5e1b3649a94fc
33604 F20110209_AABEGK mayne_d_Page_043.QC.jpg
2d8a53e3ecfa6c10d22d8d9be24179f4
c24b81c666144d349f274c54f114a22f36792c6c
2092 F20110209_AABFDD mayne_d_Page_045.txt
b06e8ec1e457e9f1281eff118e0a8902
2e353e08dfd968dd5adea758e612b06f7937a0e9
F20110209_AABFQP mayne_d_Page_132.jp2
9c4886a918c387c700b5ee9f4b209ace
d1b57d5231dd1919f14884ce0d05086d7f7f734b
7867 F20110209_AABETW mayne_d_Page_220thm.jpg
88dd831439437d91344776b05ff8e2db
534718662b2743929b75749c67c7ff8bdfe13536
18498 F20110209_AABDJS mayne_d_Page_266.QC.jpg
22080018f790ffb4ccbae9a9d7636da5
ddfd46a030a527a45287d79f4f7195bbc97ea642
105468 F20110209_AABEGL mayne_d_Page_219.jpg
60976e8bca997d86e3a716b584bf498c
dd7ffc8c931cbd9eea8fcc8cc91fe3faa667bd87
F20110209_AABFDE mayne_d_Page_047.txt
e59de744c6cc2b64f8c327414b868846
e0f42d5a8fe1e8dc49bdd2291974e0c78f5e7d87
F20110209_AABFQQ mayne_d_Page_138.jp2
2d1bb00c688339cdaf0cebb1f3cbae2f
4283567608561cb337917313039213d843b36f11
629032 F20110209_AABETX mayne_d_Page_246.jp2
ab57c2e016f90afdbeccaf0f628a068d
ff3fc7fa8506e825e86887851f2000b18379222d
F20110209_AABDJT mayne_d_Page_061.jp2
09e3ed9ff0ac1f81952ae1cf78b7c4aa
391fc6c4400070962e30ae4541765dd6d38d9b6a
F20110209_AABEGM mayne_d_Page_101thm.jpg
310d635e8764010e68d06c3a8370aef1
de6e268b4351c0b6b990cc9de03cd74a12ca70ee
F20110209_AABFDF mayne_d_Page_050.txt
2f1be8ddae4cc9d251c297fd861c659d
06f02ca771521438c24dbe8c0fa8e126882ff60b
F20110209_AABFQR mayne_d_Page_142.jp2
10f312e06db5933427452bc446763c8c
f6a0686e5349303008abaf84f7bcaf8804cd1fe8
31407 F20110209_AABETY mayne_d_Page_127.QC.jpg
6da386ee09b0080c90a1919b60107d87
fa4737e9daf99234f1e098a7e8f411b4604dfe91
55518 F20110209_AABDJU mayne_d_Page_116.pro
fa84ba723c0d707eca616b8b3fa866fc
3b49f867de6b0cf930d49bdfa4b2e735a1d6006e
F20110209_AABEGN mayne_d_Page_163.jp2
96b84ea85f5130ed41b6ca5aa6787f30
43128064c7a84d7db5b3d9b467c8e5c1efd49551
1872 F20110209_AABFDG mayne_d_Page_051.txt
d75c50e5b7eeca6ef5be89e48f45be09
48d8aadc05733cab66ce96dbfa3e157ad8f8d1ae
8576 F20110209_AABGAA mayne_d_Page_165thm.jpg
7cbc5caf774d0a8758cc092984dbecbb
ccceb9e6a1a116090371e798f1a60bc0a0043c01
F20110209_AABFQS mayne_d_Page_145.jp2
c2aa4345fa80773aa5bfa80ca058017c
7a5e237900bf566ea665b25108291b7db670cc69
52497 F20110209_AABETZ mayne_d_Page_054.pro
6d7764ab122a65c4e9d6fe30368c7118
d5fced00144a89226441babd3d283fc57cfef54d
22936 F20110209_AABDJV mayne_d_Page_006.QC.jpg
d0955563b300382237fce97c43b1c945
8bbc6b6654410f80ed09cdd108e6052c4c37d328
60258 F20110209_AABEGO mayne_d_Page_059.pro
b2dfb74381ee7da88eba880ba3e6a9c3
2e0b30c4702d67971b15814f5344bab7c7d52104
2170 F20110209_AABFDH mayne_d_Page_053.txt
7fdab772dcdfe95c30aa5e802e22bf99
db873df2551dd674266592bf411c6284deb34004
8214 F20110209_AABGAB mayne_d_Page_167thm.jpg
a93634d4d9aa24190fed182bd77aa9fa
52a0234872cfe108ea7292095ff3d21ff071c433
F20110209_AABFQT mayne_d_Page_147.jp2
f4d9c1a25dd24c3378ae0b6744f386b2
8e4abd183e78a20d81d943137ddbef9b55dbad8a
F20110209_AABDJW mayne_d_Page_162.jp2
710d7a3c70ec274643228ea5abef6aa6
465211ab02679a000476f113ccbc822d417da68d
F20110209_AABEGP mayne_d_Page_199.jp2
dc6da07d8786ac27afc530e883775edd
c7a28df1ad92d2434283b50175ad3a05300e951d
2191 F20110209_AABFDI mayne_d_Page_057.txt
c74db2ca9b8298228a87d5cdac6bfdb4
0323c9cccca641557f16f7383fd4fa4203bf7e27
9023 F20110209_AABGAC mayne_d_Page_173thm.jpg
4a7a3f032ad0e3b0f187e6841e7f8e03
f457ebf5410ebec23b74ce58789d59b1eb8c9099
1051889 F20110209_AABFQU mayne_d_Page_148.jp2
9852e08dba68ab3db656e30f031005ac
5bcd7b47d1aaf83a5101c316e1e8462408bd020a
F20110209_AABEGQ mayne_d_Page_156.jp2
f39fcf9a6302040774f4e80ba198d0d1
0fdbaa97c1083ffc6fd195899e620a8a32e040c6
2125 F20110209_AABFDJ mayne_d_Page_062.txt
4dbaad8e0a46f24e2af18c526b7657bd
4ee3c0a42827e0bad5ad20b312d90508d79c25a4
F20110209_AABGAD mayne_d_Page_174thm.jpg
f553b124a434ff7ff0473f25a0086c79
736a9a74b6dede9774d2eac94ccc374368034e30
F20110209_AABFQV mayne_d_Page_152.jp2
ad48c34d89accf12e53ed47b483b740f
6535a668a847bfe5e10f1f9254c0a1405762709c
60729 F20110209_AABDJX mayne_d_Page_267.jpg
bb2df16d088ff400d2f5eff992f92ed0
3c3ef567e200efac797905cb82b6ebd4b4378c8e
51888 F20110209_AABEGR mayne_d_Page_219.pro
f289287cf8a51229521066dee9db9d3a
1ae6b6b774310a59cdc5d5fafacd1ce9412a926e
F20110209_AABFDK mayne_d_Page_063.txt
b78d607048bcac05c4dde379368d286c
9753cbc64e9b2d589401db6b01b100183760e0af
8672 F20110209_AABGAE mayne_d_Page_178thm.jpg
e93bec3412d48c6b36ab25e5f416ffa7
c2b43019c17fb314b3e8d78e71dcf18a338d2bde
F20110209_AABFQW mayne_d_Page_154.jp2
ef513a6b8d705fb2c77114188547c3e9
3e8de94f9132ffa3014f325319ef2a40e063f565
51830 F20110209_AABDJY mayne_d_Page_209.pro
78aa5bbe7822993db48075d9fec82dc0
a7a0ebc0b7b52b8983ee10036b6c052581a4606a
88101 F20110209_AABEGS mayne_d_Page_284.jpg
bbd7a7dea46bd2ccd73279e1b9b589e2
d5ac0961aa399c11bf17df52dd33d3adb1c60af7
1815 F20110209_AABFDL mayne_d_Page_064.txt
6be51c0da16dfbd4cf3185635225185b
9821b6227633571e10cd7ef137b1b9ad0555c6d4
F20110209_AABGAF mayne_d_Page_182thm.jpg
5f2b7ea1bdc5e10031ace6ef25ee9a33
1a9c79bb1501238e3cb61de84ae7588b5e57ceda
988554 F20110209_AABFQX mayne_d_Page_157.jp2
5cf17f5f7400a0813916b6cbd4afff78
a4a5297dcaf82835bc513b67fa7d3460d17eb90c
6082 F20110209_AABDJZ mayne_d_Page_242thm.jpg
37a645b8a9994707913a18e4803f9cb8
a93abb3dbf104bf1571716aa5a622066a5b7a7f5
1740 F20110209_AABFDM mayne_d_Page_065.txt
81b6e0088dfad756734acc52376eb1b0
a06ff9fc0d51a8b9d727d264c612d4e544ba096d
8055 F20110209_AABGAG mayne_d_Page_189thm.jpg
48fe737b39c99c06fc7b325ea0e80169
32a37309d8c4d324c4a6f87355905cfcc7dc2c47
F20110209_AABFQY mayne_d_Page_161.jp2
fd3f1260d04a464d5f24fd8bf49f6485
bbcfd6748dc0e92674761dcd12b4a21f347e9b61
34620 F20110209_AABEGT mayne_d_Page_120.QC.jpg
99b48bcb19d896f2736b94ebb5bdf5d9
09bff6455dd490666ca025744938af9a473b712c
2227 F20110209_AABFDN mayne_d_Page_066.txt
e04fd4510e9bbe81dc70f0a57bd29a8d
d865f1f2172714cb4365258b0a1a7d6d133ca7d7
8087 F20110209_AABGAH mayne_d_Page_194thm.jpg
a8752612cba2ae3f779c618767f639ed
2c60501f928118eecd457dce643293e197034cf8
1051885 F20110209_AABFQZ mayne_d_Page_166.jp2
7bbcaeba203d47ee763e300a2b6d5f4f
dae686e6e80fc519eeda5b599725c57761a6deb8
50444 F20110209_AABEGU mayne_d_Page_181.pro
e8db0678c06a0ca4901229eb90498dca
67aa81a63fefaba5242037c4e85a9a33668813f8
2081 F20110209_AABFDO mayne_d_Page_068.txt
1bb6debe6c5925bf595a9e4f5a38792f
9ec11f4fc4d93ed33012ecbf7e602985fff80f89
8775 F20110209_AABGAI mayne_d_Page_195thm.jpg
ef6c69000d35aceedb077a5ce55b57e4
4698a3f7a0ec26b0b3c6f901e649e1dff48c7f66
F20110209_AABEGV mayne_d_Page_102.tif
39ba6d81003f5cdc7fa0771cd512f9d3
4abbc92b665c919ad3e862ed59b75ab4feb5dc1c
8684 F20110209_AABGAJ mayne_d_Page_198thm.jpg
91c81ce1fd2f3ef73bc1c4b489673272
b7087fce98cfe5b2dc1dc726ef1557551bb0e561
16672 F20110209_AABEGW mayne_d_Page_249.pro
b7860883edd6f7824ac45668dc370db4
d1b7bd6cb1d3c246177176579d621f37d2cad7ad
F20110209_AABEZA mayne_d_Page_082.tif
d54b159872dd8f7680f0d1e5512366df
17df73974aa608fe21b751b9e6f1fdddbefc6482
F20110209_AABFDP mayne_d_Page_072.txt
d11f8e8caf2e1b3347ee1474090be037
843a649a4097e1d8ebd05600ddb9d116dfd7ac1d
7636 F20110209_AABGAK mayne_d_Page_200thm.jpg
5f52c967d00222823ac6fe5961f23d80
cc9bb81d1cf22061fe41e2c0e6348f854c872581
2062 F20110209_AABEGX mayne_d_Page_060.txt
c1568ecfc1a102e34d97629a0ec3696f
11f2594f29b84f5ca93ec850710fa3037abdd813
F20110209_AABEZB mayne_d_Page_083.tif
8ba2503403914453f17d1c995219aaed
4df01cfc56baac28684d0c967f75c77871a8fca8
1991 F20110209_AABFDQ mayne_d_Page_073.txt
6cfc6920b07f1df5b5c880755714ad69
ae3832ab6708f43efa0a66fc28736d8363baecf1
33607 F20110209_AABEGY mayne_d_Page_113.QC.jpg
0cbbec4919c9f871c05269ae66257973
ed29e046352190e3dd94ef1c83a14fa412914bec
F20110209_AABEZC mayne_d_Page_084.tif
d21b7f30611303321ac2b449fe79e92d
80ca70fd3d42f90dd3811c68415cf388d29625f6
519 F20110209_AABFDR mayne_d_Page_076.txt
f40f393c5a7a67001ebb66036a2fcca1
4e7cc106a6ba937df66a9cc1ddbd184db4262776
6403 F20110209_AABGAL mayne_d_Page_202thm.jpg
e622a2941c0e908cc8a5c4119e6411a0
109dd1b8fd97145b4bcd4e1dfb571172c378b3e3
F20110209_AABEGZ mayne_d_Page_135.jp2
c7d56e19dcb3d6fa6123f19f8c271558
75cb2a636a52769322043b35bbe3f6465db88f76
F20110209_AABEZD mayne_d_Page_087.tif
e8b363929f8e895b797d5e45c069b279
f23a91925120783652a5d2584046300485cf438b
2015 F20110209_AABFDS mayne_d_Page_079.txt
7cde051069e09910a8c23b7488bdc5e1
260153efd0f1e56c9870512f01668eeb44ce8bec
8666 F20110209_AABGAM mayne_d_Page_203thm.jpg
61094b2b943577966dcb7220e325c2a0
758da051d8f5872f9d6791f794a52409b7b9cb06
F20110209_AABEZE mayne_d_Page_089.tif
1ead82ee1619f894300c0158bcbccb7d
174d0d271f13d682d28fb73314203705a484bf54
2021 F20110209_AABFDT mayne_d_Page_083.txt
0652a596f0048bb86ea04e2b0da5c36d
ad15243e19a5e487bd9dbf24f47922b5706fabd2
8844 F20110209_AABGAN mayne_d_Page_205thm.jpg
ff1fb0c6974bab772b39f155061639fc
4950af6bc9dc90868446a3a1336fb8a8d1f8eebd
650544 F20110209_AABDPA mayne_d_Page_268.jp2
c9ec4bd5c4a2c347cf327fe45e26730a
4d757d4a946087cd4c8eb379e6358afd88cdb41e
F20110209_AABEZF mayne_d_Page_093.tif
b21f895c71b41b7a828fd22ac8c8f13e
c9fd5010995b2d39fc76b8fb07682396afe50c52
F20110209_AABFDU mayne_d_Page_085.txt
4fd69b8f418a8a2569cdbd361ba68ec1
6b507eb8c1b18c889dfa8a36743ad00f2530c26f
8661 F20110209_AABGAO mayne_d_Page_211thm.jpg
841eb2553ce6609fced92f16a8e785ff
134e4879788898295765b6ccf5631125021ca2da
F20110209_AABDPB mayne_d_Page_106.tif
805e9ba3c7500d294c2e8aed8f33b036
f93b7e32915c5fcd199eceefdc84ac3983412bc6
F20110209_AABFDV mayne_d_Page_086.txt
f572e2a071507f3f52bc64520e596ec9
f0c877e028521782e96833afb49ec259728eefa2
8862 F20110209_AABGAP mayne_d_Page_218thm.jpg
4233f5a8d170b54fcd6e965e8c4e67dc
13f9d74943e3a9a893caf9beb967b42ab0841901
34345 F20110209_AABFWA mayne_d_Page_081.QC.jpg
df6512db78cc78f1429a90d11d2043d6
093418b978a4390a9771b68cdca919ad715eeecc
51806 F20110209_AABDPC mayne_d_Page_225.pro
caa80a875f577c02a039b3b2c132231a
1760f4c086652f58e09b2968d19063d8cf4601aa
F20110209_AABEZG mayne_d_Page_095.tif
bb362e0f8a5ea866853c2a83e2a85759
a7e6e4c472d90788900f862d75ae09c90d1f6205
1947 F20110209_AABFDW mayne_d_Page_091.txt
ca513bcb44d31a531ecdb37cd20498ff
c77eebd06b05a8df3aeb45107282177e0c64f816
F20110209_AABGAQ mayne_d_Page_219thm.jpg
9a8cbcb63e43a83869a1c9ad44bfbcce
64a61e9cb1955e5915784dd780873aba830cc393
33712 F20110209_AABFWB mayne_d_Page_083.QC.jpg
5da43f292463ed50ac8fe61ae099c12b
a1bea31d7633e936fdc3dae702036255111fa9a3
F20110209_AABDPD mayne_d_Page_012.tif
d8f2a255c6a0e0e3011160e0229e9026
22e60d3fd59d3f8e6dd5397fc462b0db93761a14
F20110209_AABEZH mayne_d_Page_098.tif
da9902905fbae8aefb1a12687ba6ecd5
723bf28b6217a3489e80f63dea9525a6eef972f0
1971 F20110209_AABFDX mayne_d_Page_096.txt
2341c33a1c825f3082279a29ec022f55
2172b96bf00b00c8082f7eab36730c39ee868255
8836 F20110209_AABGAR mayne_d_Page_224thm.jpg
20b53e23614119da66e5694f1d827ced
8440f2e8314e834ed74d3b68ad9f86c37cccd710
2052 F20110209_AABDPE mayne_d_Page_102.txt
9c8853e413978bfdb8f7c2f3ea36d24c
d8553a4381ec6ec231d426146ec6797f0f3c3a89
F20110209_AABEZI mayne_d_Page_099.tif
5f6528ade20344714dfa85c26ac0942f
ab5be9bac1e98cedbfcff16923d6a454ff16e5b1
2068 F20110209_AABFDY mayne_d_Page_100.txt
29092d97df6141603d98861689590256
a6a10a9813df14e577f078656b14620b3185dde1
8429 F20110209_AABGAS mayne_d_Page_225thm.jpg
e61fe1994f68182b6d03d3b754611968
283df82d8cd3f4e26c0bf77518f936226de79831
34886 F20110209_AABFWC mayne_d_Page_085.QC.jpg
3c2264d57fc8724bba0bd9dcd80e7c52
e5906b47d510b585606e520cee4b2f229155069f
33315 F20110209_AABDPF mayne_d_Page_229.jpg
5505ac27d00a1050887f6a8f42edf552
4ccec318d62e80a6b8f5e5c6f2196468986d31c1
F20110209_AABEZJ mayne_d_Page_101.tif
99e2e9901c3b5e57d3a0fe8677c5ba29
8df15c10818c44a9a9aa9c5471ccb80347c7664e
2000 F20110209_AABFDZ mayne_d_Page_101.txt
c18c6dd53e429148c5105e8601e99705
a19ef38d8b068852db2cb738b4c10e0a1233df95
2663 F20110209_AABGAT mayne_d_Page_229thm.jpg
426eac07710f563ea494a2e9f7c06e3e
7de21454fce22f67f3c452e4a11d1e071802e697
32992 F20110209_AABFWD mayne_d_Page_086.QC.jpg
4bffbfa4331945f6ca34c7e40f2b66e1
85b4c56f8e6c545b81c6f2d9482f57973c6c9c46
52183 F20110209_AABDPG mayne_d_Page_100.pro
d2e8f0057472483fd86dc8d25a52e39e
1bdcee8fa425ce7fa07806c2cd7aec300e1698ba
F20110209_AABEZK mayne_d_Page_103.tif
cb356126c2a5b7c3c0afedf32010fe32
f8fc746d3193ddd23a8ab6205ea59fa5c91e3459
8548 F20110209_AABGAU mayne_d_Page_231thm.jpg
0f4d6c4d102d47414bd3c7155565cee9
1b4a7747d848d6f62d13fe16302192f2cf16aa2e
33340 F20110209_AABFWE mayne_d_Page_101.QC.jpg
bae579a0006277d56dd0f2924744c4d3
23d50f21e107796cc0ebef56b47ae9d638e89605
1068 F20110209_AABDPH mayne_d_Page_213.txt
531748195645b86b79da45ebc4f1fb22
1c36a4d4ff45bb365232154cb7a3b42aa76dfedf
29110 F20110209_AABEMA mayne_d_Page_237.pro
b53b98ee8357464c6d0a9656319a37b8
6afbe7831dec7fb8608afc4fb9b2c3db54aa2474
F20110209_AABEZL mayne_d_Page_104.tif
3c2e971211d46aea580407e1aec13b7f
7649f97714c183f1870fe0f9102108e74faed539
873 F20110209_AABGAV mayne_d_Page_232thm.jpg
b33f0eb1751b30352bc3d0733ffe6941
25f7aae3816fe570fd2d57e0c192e4a1580d6451
36228 F20110209_AABFWF mayne_d_Page_108.QC.jpg
b08f3ec57718e501950d8ab86d7c7794
c0a5d5f46cf1c96395aca7683994fed8edf25b0b
F20110209_AABDPI mayne_d_Page_069.jp2
9110008568345e0e8c93807cce0e800a
1ba21d2eaef4457db935f925f1a0374e1d9df9db
1393 F20110209_AABEMB mayne_d_Page_155.txt
7f83205dd7db38d27bfa3fdc192ede14
c0c6cccd6fa995e2a7d11bc099b2d6bb0f7e1aa4
F20110209_AABEZM mayne_d_Page_108.tif
6f7a9eb2449fa70e3df8434025734057
0649212cd150ba491b473b54a6604d23433d37a7
8177 F20110209_AABGAW mayne_d_Page_233thm.jpg
91e973df6b2d4331f76ae92e5b9fe6d7
d1a644156c750b0e94fa5df7e5a2a6d26c79c469
31720 F20110209_AABFWG mayne_d_Page_114.QC.jpg
9c4de14b589a0d97077d589920c35ed3
e6aa09f3aa6024c8ab45fc718db2999e12fc7846
1926 F20110209_AABDPJ mayne_d_Page_254.txt
b40c07a84b078a28a98f66cd0d102ad8
a090fd307c4b847a1796f776b423f74a09f65d75
2107 F20110209_AABEMC mayne_d_Page_035.txt
682544de4e1ba614ec03cd44ca801b30
e9ac30e95df9039194a10f5fcb8793ee532ef798
F20110209_AABEZN mayne_d_Page_110.tif
937c2a44c7fd84d97dd781c7cc29813d
2e7b8da34f251f25801f7f688aa00fbe542863ae
5194 F20110209_AABGAX mayne_d_Page_237thm.jpg
ac9991ed08f9bef5059b20be124ea535
c3a2386d8719a78105843f008e5bf17ebbd5aff9
33716 F20110209_AABFWH mayne_d_Page_115.QC.jpg
3a524a11263635922e5867d77f79d925
09166f6d4e47044dbf1a70cb9d28a82763a6d2d6
F20110209_AABDPK mayne_d_Page_029.tif
123a1fe65a797d33ff2f29722913fe8f
b6351b5ad339750d301583ac1cdf64a25e1bec9c
2030 F20110209_AABEMD mayne_d_Page_110.txt
3fc4ccae8e55a082c77a2db3f66a2d16
c76f7c726bb97309c35473f1752e52c246580dbe
F20110209_AABEZO mayne_d_Page_111.tif
13238a647b58dab7a0d4872ad33923d3
a94259106f8d93540337814961449b36a5f416d7
7526 F20110209_AABGAY mayne_d_Page_250thm.jpg
0c331c893125efc10a3f69b14df3b256
f39f46b9c5b90bb91c7a28769359f7148883b665
37452 F20110209_AABFWI mayne_d_Page_116.QC.jpg
ae481c86de79078297e3689fc939fc51
0d8991a2b0c2b97795f605a1d089a5d5a652d621
32834 F20110209_AABDPL mayne_d_Page_192.QC.jpg
67232cb4d063e497cf8994b3b65d8ae0
added1d4be5f09c5ea7f0d60f9d75669576214b8
1987 F20110209_AABEME mayne_d_Page_181.txt
dc02aed77e9ddf90cd4dd23483b0209c
6e41dc4fd1385a5508fb6f98c696d460be4ad49a
F20110209_AABEZP mayne_d_Page_112.tif
d9f05cae500338c5dd8f9878a5c0f87a
0bf1f15e84b7d6697ebd12493410266270fa801c
4383 F20110209_AABGAZ mayne_d_Page_255thm.jpg
ca78d21235fd41306d13cfcacc0da3ac
7a5e35e10cde3716abf8772ec99913173936418e
36109 F20110209_AABFWJ mayne_d_Page_121.QC.jpg
eaab98990f68d126e0d6ef809467cbcf
5dd2219d684a01ff95620c4c5a5b2184916a250e
48423 F20110209_AABDPM mayne_d_Page_095.pro
5b04a181970b9d33114a3c96003db3e6
7084e7afef0ecf3e01b88d639eae2b5cf4c3c024
1599 F20110209_AABEMF mayne_d_Page_272.txt
189146e47ac9f25347a84384a48ed7c5
b94a1a2b0cc51c9b2337792d7ab278d45e868d8f
F20110209_AABEZQ mayne_d_Page_114.tif
ef0dd4a8507500d2b73cf7bf51b46dff
2c38889ccb5c961fb71ac8b7d6d1b77888f31bd4
33549 F20110209_AABFWK mayne_d_Page_130.QC.jpg
168114b037181141e94c80477860ca32
236cff4f0b5b462fa2ff5ad27814147a517accf1
874702 F20110209_AABDPN mayne_d_Page_114.jp2
e61f4b8da202a191972a90e3d84712ff
7aa21c4607baa6b8c62d4232a596401e9a9b03aa
9155 F20110209_AABEMG mayne_d_Page_149thm.jpg
46f6e8ac5bd7e593e3e5ac47316ba977
9d07c272c7f7bc6e939668d82aad16c6d193e148
F20110209_AABEZR mayne_d_Page_118.tif
472384af19ab68404534b6a0cfb37185
68aa84d1cd982c17c0118597de8bf39f4c503a44
36746 F20110209_AABFWL mayne_d_Page_131.QC.jpg
f926448c89b542a7f50ce65f2fc1b30f
5cff2ec0f55910cb04b2801318f68c7e4bf16537
34639 F20110209_AABDPO mayne_d_Page_165.QC.jpg
dc07241f4432a5ca11a84d551a27498e
cddc6dd80dbd22206f3e61b1f664eb054ff23232
896383 F20110209_AABEMH mayne_d_Page_149.jp2
f7dc6d49a16627d903b774791329cf0e
0d1919bbe541d731abf8f2e4a9df283c34992f5d
61588 F20110209_AABFJA mayne_d_Page_173.pro
0298d465be1790745a7d441f9a609fad
a0aa1e3e342d8282fbd2e31bc7c9a7b19fdc05e0
F20110209_AABEZS mayne_d_Page_119.tif
f69c5d09dca92933e500391794184393
4c0f7cb2fe601a2e206ed7f9af7337126625fcd6
36042 F20110209_AABFWM mayne_d_Page_133.QC.jpg
4999c20c8c3ec3f0ad54dd0c92c1e117
913a756981e3808d5bb6cd33abed44744e363722
533683 F20110209_AABDPP mayne_d_Page_041.jp2
7088dfba9dbe71c979c625c1477c1a52
5eb3622e26f8980078d774fbdf4e2aedcaa60ec2
8940 F20110209_AABEMI mayne_d_Page_176thm.jpg
e55aca21e5d2d75b9686f11f2f23d1b2
c6cf4e19171ecc90ed1dadd73163421a07cc2d05
50827 F20110209_AABFJB mayne_d_Page_188.pro
6690238325c88107db5897a7c5e9bc9f
6732446a341f78c4826289ca987aec565270b91c
F20110209_AABEZT mayne_d_Page_121.tif
40f1355953a4d054369aef65fca6cf4e
9e9d05db7a3f8d5197bca8fc0f46e7c90f5c32b6
36149 F20110209_AABFWN mayne_d_Page_136.QC.jpg
f6cefab95151976e11774fd7e801e1af
867a3f231a28943655c0a0f9501c7d701027aa39
105512 F20110209_AABDPQ mayne_d_Page_196.jpg
917d4d8aae14bf78859b7a0c93611bde
d1b25a6f6cd5ae55338c8798622a123ec4c1425b
2116 F20110209_AABEMJ mayne_d_Page_139.txt
e10eb7d933688cc17f649cbcce6672da
1e8b158ca3f9b3f2f066aecb6aff8bb4d8c73cd1
54556 F20110209_AABFJC mayne_d_Page_189.pro
0d574081dfbaaaeaff3158eb19d40ee1
a3b9aef55ab31dc9f6485edbdb90a5076d9144c3
F20110209_AABEZU mayne_d_Page_123.tif
882556b848b9d90f04c4b792c75c9047
460d205dc5ce5a25be59d2e6ddb1fa21d2a965b3
36968 F20110209_AABFWO mayne_d_Page_137.QC.jpg
2ba16cfbea2274df9a1a8515dde89217
f259d750e929b6fc1c45e408c6f854cf23f64f42
9285 F20110209_AABDPR mayne_d_Page_199thm.jpg
372a74245d25f52da1cad48d43ff6661
8656b4c09081860d95baf7a85552425b3a8a7d43
F20110209_AABEMK mayne_d_Page_195.tif
d3ac639bc3e9c0dc9ffb27761846dd95
677462a06d3e6071486e4b9fc23d2b4b217e7c48
52716 F20110209_AABFJD mayne_d_Page_190.pro
b20df4f34b7af62aa2edfc5fe27086e1
609b05236e91b2a7358a6579e0714fab238d4828
F20110209_AABEZV mayne_d_Page_127.tif
9ff8471b82f519ba6aa2686d4b60628e
14bed811160dedebf3fc1b86e63028220ccbc3a6
32801 F20110209_AABFWP mayne_d_Page_141.QC.jpg
050e3e504b089c8b84c25e20776d8946
9f9edda131a893108b2839418ec7feda8336a5bc
36038 F20110209_AABDPS mayne_d_Page_055.QC.jpg
258e4aad53d5b0fb6aff05a48e27c1cc
c28d0480ed3d50b02209750345d93bdac249b7dd
4140 F20110209_AABEML mayne_d_Page_134.pro
12aa2c0cbf82eff98af4fb61e235b03e
319635cfeea673cb9b520bd23e40214b30f76c30
48502 F20110209_AABFJE mayne_d_Page_192.pro
4ca5c0b663b928c8e2dace4503c73f3d
5e106771637f22907fb6a786a239ae16b4c083ad
31274 F20110209_AABDCH mayne_d_Page_103.QC.jpg
0fe92fa111848adb1a46f8fb34b258ba
b17c91059f69a177025cf511ddb03fc8f4f65d09
F20110209_AABEZW mayne_d_Page_129.tif
cc51089ae63f2c703748ee9f896c76e9
9148930e33454866a3a0161cee85067b5a55e7f4
32383 F20110209_AABFWQ mayne_d_Page_149.QC.jpg
1566087b52eb5ab9fb30f8897aecd006
502b809bdfff0c712ea93fedd574ac32c95774b8
905561 F20110209_AABDPT mayne_d_Page_134.jp2
0165ee6683de2897364c94af341646c8
cb76285c1f579e5f9060de48e6e13a4ac0317762
F20110209_AABEMM mayne_d_Page_235.jp2
e3d480b2c7d82664261ea9ede6b31440
5bf03b598ee54370b70d7cbff72c93d0379dd066
53105 F20110209_AABFJF mayne_d_Page_196.pro
17a76805c34e08252ea75fb5212190f6
7347e0bd0dbdc1a0407cdc365ec6a511cd426c21
481 F20110209_AABDCI mayne_d_Page_234.txt
07d63158e0393d58f40359323375a2b0
016f3fecf9af5c9d740d84ab28cd369cceaf5b87
F20110209_AABEZX mayne_d_Page_134.tif
c62c812bffbe6269cb2478b81550dac8
2d65ca92e9ded68cb17d3709ecb379a1b806c8e3
34471 F20110209_AABFWR mayne_d_Page_152.QC.jpg
4445e7daa74f250b8689b6a7990dbdf3
5a375bfaee97139145ca06537f90a9db2bce473c
F20110209_AABDPU mayne_d_Page_099.txt
e4d745196a110c7dcbabaabc2128eddd
e41e56a65de8ed41fe36f7706d91ebb3d3a5ed7b
F20110209_AABEMN mayne_d_Page_085.tif
da9e2b57afb28980fc803839efdb9eab
c2c8fefca4319545024a7354cb625c1f5110b491
53501 F20110209_AABFJG mayne_d_Page_203.pro
15c4d81a7910f46129a701ebb721b1e5
93da53557ab335d54a4d6b305e4b86092cbd9eaa
8292 F20110209_AABDCJ mayne_d_Page_281thm.jpg
45b209dcd185b645b1dbaa6db4de0b48
1a269683862b3939773c535352c8cc386a226b00
F20110209_AABEZY mayne_d_Page_141.tif
06c3828178aab8b92d27e35b6a80bd12
2e1ae6263c20daa374ff3d2726b09b372c788415
37111 F20110209_AABFWS mayne_d_Page_153.QC.jpg
241c60eefd5c14ae8c1fe2813d7ba73f
8cd99157287b44a67e53231dba28c971fecc7631
28975 F20110209_AABDPV mayne_d_Page_021.QC.jpg
a398902365628bc04dc38745be97f135
598a08a525d87980a48aaab4b9ccdf110ca5d5e3
F20110209_AABEMO mayne_d_Page_151.jp2
bbc800ac6005b021892ea978a07528db
feeb49ff198c053f2a9f0314b695ff357741d8e8
52157 F20110209_AABFJH mayne_d_Page_208.pro
e049f51103485e0f284ff4f01c77dfa9
86a0faa75d9b0e05ec52538880ec9d5d15d9148a
1000938 F20110209_AABDCK mayne_d_Page_284.jp2
bf1dedcf800a05cfcefe1ccc85d2c5e0
662b85ea2eb9569ea547184f3d47506950e5b22e
F20110209_AABEZZ mayne_d_Page_142.tif
f604f65b07d79ce12971a6d19d86b0fd
dcb717b7bfd333754e9ef5305d70875f2491e7d9
29659 F20110209_AABFWT mayne_d_Page_157.QC.jpg
ca9a1dcdfa9b0243d3415b5a8f7d2c67
4c7886f3b9f93a1842fb7ce0eaa1fbffc10b8488
F20110209_AABDPW mayne_d_Page_056.txt
47c8d9d3595c7d72ccc45d7c27c72a31
4895033c04ec0aff3cf880f64772c635cc389d87
F20110209_AABEMP mayne_d_Page_277.tif
021ec6dcab89350191d4ac9420e6c399
273abb96351e5f08ba4b89dbad707641067e3a01
56018 F20110209_AABFJI mayne_d_Page_210.pro
27a2712e6c29d9ce6b57b2b5a287c23e
460ed11f1c3c6f82499fc2607b4c449ace13213e
25500 F20110209_AABDCL mayne_d_Page_254.pro
b88e9965f70472bc4450a1c104165438
6009fd343c31d809e1bc806b5f5d061d786d44ce
28391 F20110209_AABFWU mayne_d_Page_158.QC.jpg
1ee6bbb65c3b0740c34b52c26872422f
fedbcf09909823a52aa3342d32bd692ccb143a99
F20110209_AABDPX mayne_d_Page_211.tif
b2f1dccd0b0c8db39b804296a76c0ddc
2d0387c40e19ae182455c3e0c554b71f0f29bb8a
257 F20110209_AABEMQ mayne_d_Page_071.txt
fa5fdbc7bf880070549eef605b0dc282
8d49961aed4507218f1a8585b191b073332aa283
53489 F20110209_AABFJJ mayne_d_Page_211.pro
1bba2b755c34bc1320a29aa7976920de
13c671fa514c7ad210e4420494715bb7481e6649
F20110209_AABDCM mayne_d_Page_135.tif
f0d41afd2f6f740957adde9d1d43e305
c49ff720976f7d85fcde9fff2ad2ac1ba8102f48
35995 F20110209_AABFWV mayne_d_Page_159.QC.jpg
43253d7dead174bbb779f27e71048bcd
1679db1024177546c51b4a9e78a6234e9573e8ff
106082 F20110209_AABDPY mayne_d_Page_193.jpg
178c8ff9c2a768040e8a7bae102cf99b
cf5779c7e6d65aefa6753ffcd75c90bec3251cde
36004 F20110209_AABEMR mayne_d_Page_171.QC.jpg
8ef3667133337d8584903726105a4656
64f58baf2e5a7cdfe665f19f52942074dba477db
27989 F20110209_AABFJK mayne_d_Page_217.pro
c89e43205c296f8cf771b2e272b4fe4f
125d62ca36c9a81587e64c8d140303702f1fb84a
91850 F20110209_AABDCN mayne_d_Page_222.jpg
42d81193e14ba9d5dc10b6b7cd0810f5
d3179f1e2ffbae6f954a7a7622b9e1ea3cd5d089
35423 F20110209_AABFWW mayne_d_Page_160.QC.jpg
ea39229dc295b944498004892f15bbd6
a02d2e63daf6981019242a17b98c0edd100bfb60
F20110209_AABDPZ mayne_d_Page_099.jp2
c44d91bed2c9b174ba94a2d83713c295
a5093b7906ffa7851b768c0553748647e90dafc3
F20110209_AABEMS mayne_d_Page_092.tif
436f16e8a2788706f599f2896452c02b
b1e0680abdc3f52f271761a1ac6b53ab7708234c
50089 F20110209_AABFJL mayne_d_Page_223.pro
3153c320a2adada81e59630af050061f
a2274cdc80b46ce3f204c98efbf1372e7ca7dd25
109207 F20110209_AABDCO mayne_d_Page_206.jpg
8824445b01e653f4b5e9b0f74b6177a8
ed16d97b86679229d027f03d7eba096ca8491e63
F20110209_AABFWX mayne_d_Page_161.QC.jpg
aff1bc0c45b3522bab3303142dd3640d
0d20597943b06cef4b3d0b66b552c16c30d977bb
8688 F20110209_AABEMT mayne_d_Page_105thm.jpg
45bbf966ccdb386688558ef8969e3b0d
6de0173721e7103433a64f16c7ad81b8db2c7d9b
50546 F20110209_AABFJM mayne_d_Page_226.pro
034678cd61fc5464473f6a6aa5680642
cb0523788c90aa0059fde30b48a625585d5ff796
30007 F20110209_AABDCP mayne_d_Page_031.pro
c82bd5806086dd0e768bf29735fc69dd
55bba4ef5b36ad9c3d3cc716c24e85ca40d4c944
35025 F20110209_AABFWY mayne_d_Page_162.QC.jpg
79cbe2fda3dedab5ba0c3784ca2ef186
9ce4e6e00bebc91aa6412ad5662c7d3216585cfb
888945 F20110209_AABEMU mayne_d_Page_250.jp2
a74221f09ca49897d3bd7bd21a3e077e
007378be680bf165fdeb553f7586583115a18c33
42645 F20110209_AABFJN mayne_d_Page_230.pro
7c5729106db77efc499e3b0d50d2f826
511dc8390fb40f4258dffd4bd375d10c13dcdb0f
36226 F20110209_AABFWZ mayne_d_Page_163.QC.jpg
2b27c7aece96854f37b60b9afc8dd30d
93ee5840755e85d70e58979f66d16aa8af2588e1
F20110209_AABEMV mayne_d_Page_059.jp2
5931d49976e18e2142344c11a952e221
d202910f549cd50fe4088fe9db249eac52127e5c
58151 F20110209_AABFJO mayne_d_Page_233.pro
96e8b05d22cb9e024bff951ed251d2a7
3bf5aec71df206f9f42036921906645e439be06a
F20110209_AABDCQ mayne_d_Page_198.jp2
79591cb46d278b67554f51966b502065
d688b9b829bc0e5c7a86de3e6aaa39e0bc790412
467999 F20110209_AABEMW mayne_d_Page_263.jp2
dc2afce758c703390afe0dc61674fa02
f4c3edf19c8606d14554c4d7c1134c63539afb3c
36211 F20110209_AABFJP mayne_d_Page_238.pro
7cae8264dd4f296d0babba3e3b70dacf
d92e6ec232dcc299f411cd3d2d815be465b32a86
37058 F20110209_AABDCR mayne_d_Page_242.pro
9ed068af504120322fb81fe250e1a688
3134d2112cda0a290c56962789f68bd68cd803d2
46009 F20110209_AABEMX mayne_d_Page_275.jpg
f0106eb6f7b4bcbe94117f7c6384817a
b57c2d86702fc58374ec39987e9072924757c865
37106 F20110209_AABFJQ mayne_d_Page_241.pro
d8cc278bdaaa487841c5b65aea58c9e6
09d2d0a6cc0e1c8baaec1cd4a66c867c53949843
98204 F20110209_AABDCS mayne_d_Page_111.jpg
0efb7edf0c5503c834b3bcbf48e43f24
aab9610aa49e8684f98511a8390c9c95754a5027
8793 F20110209_AABEMY mayne_d_Page_177thm.jpg
20ad48a46b05c0d12f1c62e4db3a04b6
288d17e6f0ecd6eeb7965881c2d38489588a6eef
45609 F20110209_AABFJR mayne_d_Page_243.pro
45faadf6c4401bb4baca0ace1a9eb9f7
2af625843c9e30e9b690628067300669891d8495
2051 F20110209_AABDCT mayne_d_Page_270.txt
8df9434655c79503d4a273f6abc01600
fd05ea81562590ae22e4998d75f7ec0ea1dc20ea
69078 F20110209_AABFJS mayne_d_Page_244.pro
e585f2f3165c6a97e38db990bffad799
bb1b42a5a447a053b28b10b5c9a8735f1a250be2
8289 F20110209_AABDCU mayne_d_Page_060thm.jpg
6bbfffe001fe29f490f7c7a17b538915
cbf459281d2bebb32d04182c7de99a2e09d2ddc7
2098 F20110209_AABEMZ mayne_d_Page_097.txt
c2befceb3b783a07ba3953c4db5e1d0f
75452f38a8da8661c767bf3ad03451901786ebe6
66364 F20110209_AABFJT mayne_d_Page_247.pro
1378c9aa2bb2eabd7746241f2284bfaa
6fda40e0fc18127bd9aca50c275ff125ae9aac54
19170 F20110209_AABDCV mayne_d_Page_237.QC.jpg
a967520235e042f7d0f03cfb2dcddc74
84e86edb9aa4816ccb7e1278bde4f2d9a7b42220
78105 F20110209_AABFJU mayne_d_Page_248.pro
b2a02ff716d9209069da5bff7aa7b1b8
664b49911377347716877abf84c86d66074f3972
8933 F20110209_AABDCW mayne_d_Page_040thm.jpg
2c7d58853304a57eb64ed40e85a2163d
be5c77cfacc86e1fa8985e45125e6bef84b40e75
F20110209_AABDVA mayne_d_Page_271.tif
3b14faa78265f6c8c69328f19fb68a78
cf6bb27127d47dffd75cd90361a23735923ac16b
36430 F20110209_AABDCX mayne_d_Page_080.QC.jpg
afb80678977b184525e96a9df63300a5
b300c9049dfdd8c02cde36f3d9bd7695e966803a
8590 F20110209_AABDVB mayne_d_Page_019thm.jpg
45b70d37f5137583619384246392ce51
4931b31893a476f8d06e9bc4326f763b2536d287
25151 F20110209_AABFJV mayne_d_Page_253.pro
d48b4bb7c206f6cf4722eeadb2244f0d
c2fd660407bd6ee26706519f9061b72a8287e31d
8371 F20110209_AABDCY mayne_d_Page_181thm.jpg
110f414dd22741691c3faf8da8861e24
8fd2911741d183b4070f51ff3576cd0b61cb0e41
20311 F20110209_AABDVC mayne_d_Page_264.pro
54e1ad941099d9d3f303625c6bb9f2df
42efd34646a48546230032a34b3e874f809074e7
28586 F20110209_AABFJW mayne_d_Page_255.pro
88522946a522731a26c3975c196bab42
b2310e15fdd1de1cf9407a3db8bc2fe8944ccc28
53074 F20110209_AABDCZ mayne_d_Page_156.pro
cdeb9b6b99c3650b24431f6edc47de7b
8a393b431108fcdeb11dcee38807328912b4241d
30942 F20110209_AABFJX mayne_d_Page_256.pro
ac4f186c0415dcc7adc5a9b7a8f5ddeb
d557bfbe46e709efd37d7802df84d7c8f79beeb9
49420 F20110209_AABDVD mayne_d_Page_182.pro
c0a58d93da42004707e8249f07347067
df53f4a814c110ffafddd1a6eec9d2ab3a52557a
24637 F20110209_AABFJY mayne_d_Page_262.pro
7cbea5a4c45ca890aad0539a5ef819bb
52779fc553720e366bf10ea55b8302ac34fb4d81
33977 F20110209_AABDVE mayne_d_Page_062.QC.jpg
4018eff4a97494474ba15c2a98a7074f
1be492554c27ae48d2b43c5783fa67fa6526db5c
21895 F20110209_AABFJZ mayne_d_Page_263.pro
725c0feef7b56268c2f1622a61af9ffd
f14dd691611954e7605a00032746e81dffa5ffe7
107877 F20110209_AABDVF mayne_d_Page_072.jpg
673c6386d00bd835288d8af47ff82160
ea1d8122beb3cabbf58d68f3017241018e0dc983
691022 F20110209_AABDVG mayne_d_Page_258.jp2
96f837611adcbb8a46f63993ede14798
411e3f63c50896962fe43458b8c0893dd6d8a5da
52874 F20110209_AABESA mayne_d_Page_047.pro
fef59ab2910da88e18ff662241b4b06f
d9c9e44318598a7114bbc387149c9c1ee0f93458
50320 F20110209_AABDVH mayne_d_Page_151.pro
d8a964662f5f831a4c1ce6eb21748987
4c05a2cfe58e7b7d9adf00cf0688bd7e4c7f6f91
4479 F20110209_AABESB mayne_d_Page_269thm.jpg
2a1fb24a3c37012a9e640b1d8c210a90
8227918281f2c8e77a03a95549c214dd4184b08a
115295 F20110209_AABDVI mayne_d_Page_138.jpg
e05c35b8ac6e85e4d1d7d7c75edfd5c4
4c12952bb1412b2fbf0eb20abd2bbf9f7df31655
F20110209_AABESC mayne_d_Page_259.txt
345cd98ede25fac4edc7b39fd5da8f68
aaa6a18ef6be86893f2071514aac98e6a54f91df
35404 F20110209_AABDVJ mayne_d_Page_140.QC.jpg
ac0383935e08f1fd10afa9191cf98bea
3a1c7ddd923ac1e17d507136ec6cb07cab9db0c7
F20110209_AABESD mayne_d_Page_013.tif
ce365fcc09fd1f8e15dd5bd01f3a4bab
180e0564ca24c9ec654c471536831e377754d8a4
7679 F20110209_AABDVK mayne_d_Page_129thm.jpg
39d92a109e174176fa1f4cebaab66813
7d9cca84a3451fedcd7ee864dd4fd42b75d8fbc5
8898 F20110209_AABESE mayne_d_Page_109thm.jpg
de0eaff18ce31bcc062cf38689c38a23
2fb417a5f0f4a72907d908c6d8067748009a66f8
8307 F20110209_AABDIA mayne_d_Page_085thm.jpg
b140726b546bf0d44f80b0a108cd2200
475e24b7b1863cde61e2f6759fbf903a4a2ff2ad
35627 F20110209_AABDVL mayne_d_Page_069.QC.jpg
d473cab64f12f1d72dbc28161093d8ae
b6a125006664b2a6ede2f1470968417753f37e43
91895 F20110209_AABESF mayne_d_Page_004.jpg
ebdb71aace6eabf43d79afd706f0096e
806f0c80a2de85aa19a22dc0212af509ff7fe816
8411 F20110209_AABDIB mayne_d_Page_132thm.jpg
cbdfb7449cb64f92c675c725db00b307
1120b93d54bee393de65b3505a797f8fcce23c60
49839 F20110209_AABDVM mayne_d_Page_285.jpg
313118e734f5c2b66e80d85e403b62d6
952011d05ed8ffa9bb92017dd84e7cd2d7482818
F20110209_AABESG mayne_d_Page_125.txt
59ac866047e83bc31bd63626b68ecd42
ceb14a9e4134e5fbd7cb8afbd35e6e37c3fe3461
26944 F20110209_AABDIC mayne_d_Page_250.QC.jpg
ceda446542373e5adf15ab2bc24187e2
84ae01ff6bd22e7099855775fb2f808b87621063
101754 F20110209_AABDVN mayne_d_Page_186.jpg
cff5212920d9078fd1e67dde67a6d455
d43aa7481be636cc75237acc081ef9919b8e7d9b
2188 F20110209_AABESH mayne_d_Page_087.txt
d80ed74b08b157159977b38287666da7
2e9600bdb5c4e67371ca4d9484535d5acff84c86
F20110209_AABFPA mayne_d_Page_027.jp2
b76f44ad8a9313f2e2cd308b282d0d99
21fd997a245d4e0f65d38a3980b22334b44914c4
538561 F20110209_AABDID mayne_d_Page_254.jp2
bd934b16589beb3e58b8866ca407aa56
9c8dd800f7ddb7270b6d81fefc588ecd9f89b235
F20110209_AABDVO mayne_d_Page_190.tif
ea21ed46cabe84efee97b5e14dbe3a9e
4ca120580e1d85d44c18f7ddd6481e48d12e63df
F20110209_AABESI mayne_d_Page_028.tif
ef94578c68a3ebdbe72fae4acc3dcd0a
d957a49f8d580c3f1933e3105733cc23fa94cf77
F20110209_AABFPB mayne_d_Page_028.jp2
dc19934f77a321eb3674450ab2bbb9c4
b8da82f8bc2c8dea10bf63abf99bb6c86ff89ba4
571358 F20110209_AABDIE mayne_d_Page_274.jp2
b47387453300c1b5a561bd8e5a4be7b9
3abd1ce69be010ab22aaa3cbf7ded4aed3cc5ded
33387 F20110209_AABDVP mayne_d_Page_110.QC.jpg
27bc8c03adf3d90b1417a9fedd094280
e96abcf057bad5eaa290354670cfd18469ab7968
594262 F20110209_AABESJ mayne_d_Page_270.jp2
0406af6475e358a2cf1e6ce3de38c2d6
5070190982522803a1ab838cb4144d348bfa224f
743643 F20110209_AABFPC mayne_d_Page_031.jp2
a14754cdd6e2defa3abb98e2d783c3ae
548b670de1ffb1280fd35443e97e94c6f7de3d57
1051900 F20110209_AABDIF mayne_d_Page_025.jp2
6edd24e3b53c707830164f5a26a0859e
3a884b7531987b49007897f20a0d66258fb6f85d
36241 F20110209_AABDVQ mayne_d_Page_173.QC.jpg
15de03a9f56117bc4596924f3852cd53
b15df769e53957aec8454174369836ae3163f7f9
5174 F20110209_AABESK mayne_d_Page_006.txt
78924cac1ee1785bc13a6a7077b84ebc
ab5da0d299f9cb5ebc66a618e16b9992eb3d25a6
770699 F20110209_AABFPD mayne_d_Page_034.jp2
cf736c1f82c3b633b861153ec8dd4e66
15a103611b67d4ce7ac275f7e1e76a81612e4e6a
103686 F20110209_AABDIG mayne_d_Page_150.jpg
8a13cb2bb4bcfd6ce5f75019d49d9824
06a30a8e3f0d6f22444aff21ca2dc8c1be00d99f
103405 F20110209_AABDVR mayne_d_Page_177.jpg
c2c2f488718d0a0e1d4a185193a70172
133a0291cd6db25e7b4b90e98070431340d752a3
699738 F20110209_AABESL mayne_d_Page_266.jp2
6cf64a4f3265af8e1de4dafab27c25c8
93e193bef55ba5b910c8b85706411b5f49e401c0
F20110209_AABFPE mayne_d_Page_038.jp2
39fdab6c6c5f033694cfd59f7d1dc22c
f92209ba7abf0a428e77ff8ac21ecbbf7cc1d7e5
7958 F20110209_AABDIH mayne_d_Page_051thm.jpg
132a64eb08df7f21c9b3019d1a9d2a15
a9188699382f48b5dae2d87e2a49cb84f72228f3
103667 F20110209_AABEFA mayne_d_Page_134.jpg
8d3f577bc7d04b52c6418d002bbeb0bc
120d6e2d5af872339f540ad0b3e3282f2679024b
36842 F20110209_AABDVS mayne_d_Page_236.pro
e045d4295893fcddb7da90e9f9e5be85
f05ece3701dd93bc4c2698df566f94ff190b5ef2
16347 F20110209_AABESM mayne_d_Page_271.QC.jpg
c9fa6570bdd4c36e39c0a7c8a9be1b9c
a922f24d45a3edeae6d98b87458e76c978aac4ec
F20110209_AABFPF mayne_d_Page_040.jp2
9af058c3a3cb4067c7eb69174d1f6797
c8dc1b217df685e9e493fe8a0c74514fc24587e0
95156 F20110209_AABDII mayne_d_Page_044.jpg
d44a1855f219ad8d4ff2558c0eede470
d2a3a30063c32bbcb62f0570e99e9ed88e03ca6f
30089 F20110209_AABEFB mayne_d_Page_051.QC.jpg
ad86e43f0d29cb3eb844630c052702a9
df2c0f5431772eab929e8f30a4d514367d2ff7ba
52587 F20110209_AABDVT mayne_d_Page_142.pro
410234f60d8fec06715846ae9697e450
0e81393c5ff05bd2d913a5d3e462db138647dd45
8376 F20110209_AABESN mayne_d_Page_120thm.jpg
168b3a74c7eb061017dc6e6e08ead899
f22d31f5d89df71f9fa7b9139a6461187feabc58
5769 F20110209_AABFPG mayne_d_Page_042.jp2
e385d9549d5999ce0d333dfe91682ec4
14a2cc560a0c215066818f9571d4b497261acfc2
32536 F20110209_AABDIJ mayne_d_Page_228.QC.jpg
13f4d77578cce7783351a7eaa09456c2
4d8138893a8f74a5e897f53bc2cc2a232c9b8ae2
4107 F20110209_AABEFC mayne_d_Page_041thm.jpg
49c09d2995a3fd4740d66f9a88980978
92716ead82d25c5126cb1a5a83275855b59f879d
33176 F20110209_AABDVU mayne_d_Page_023.QC.jpg
449b1da5cef6a7f59f210dbc093e7fcb
7302ab55911f828fea8b3ccf472999aade66409c
49231 F20110209_AABESO mayne_d_Page_018.pro
275969f772ca8e5342811cddce66388b
ccb0466944502abbfc6eced0b3d741b71cac5261
F20110209_AABFPH mayne_d_Page_043.jp2
f482ce1bbf46446a2bee97b4074e36aa
a89642834597785b0c8053ef259b868b10dfc64d
F20110209_AABDIK mayne_d_Page_100.tif
663e53770a874f702b60b0c5698fcdf8
faed3afa59d40e3f07ad9b8078603a0a6144b9b5
F20110209_AABEFD mayne_d_Page_220.tif
94775351e42eec183a11490e0ac31fef
f9b7b3180b4b7cc73086edeb554a4977dda9feda
7343 F20110209_AABDVV mayne_d_Page_279.QC.jpg
f687f190faeee9d72771c1c7fe02f011
159b18966203fd7aed0c2570d2ba826fbcaaf41b
8875 F20110209_AABESP mayne_d_Page_137thm.jpg
4098bb581aaa3f1ddbcac83aa66a8046
6e674c65605fbb330174fb3599d60ebbb9aaf44f
F20110209_AABFPI mayne_d_Page_049.jp2
badeca6eaa64d78b87e66ff0c2b59e4d
f1469a0f7ed047405a48787ac7110c335be378d1
F20110209_AABDIL mayne_d_Page_123thm.jpg
83f76b4b8c4d6b061adb4fefec2d36d5
1aa7f0aab4a4995f34571cfad8818979af45ce1d
5865 F20110209_AABEFE mayne_d_Page_217thm.jpg
55690546edd77fbefa60e995460f9867
b7ae2480981235e7a2db2f0d4d3b098bba153632
140829 F20110209_AABDVW mayne_d_Page_231.jpg
bed02c45c6ed1f5c1e262263f3f94ea6
f630d5c5bd9b931f8aed7dd03ee5bef80a1e1002
4102 F20110209_AABESQ mayne_d_Page_260thm.jpg
b0e542780fc736f0125be20248c28ffa
793a16de8473a8689f89819a8d12078099988fef
981237 F20110209_AABFPJ mayne_d_Page_052.jp2
a1a41c0827ac58e5c8253e6fbe3d1ad5
93ae48e619a4fe92642ab7ad3478908a0264da02
F20110209_AABDIM mayne_d_Page_051.tif
8ec5f464a06e55c2f0ce341c227418a6
f6b35663f4cf4a4399731a3a037df076ed5a7019
7501 F20110209_AABEFF mayne_d_Page_158thm.jpg
dc8a02f1a38b1e07a011acf8454165d5
0aad1964afd7dd8384d2c566428f1b34d0393bd8
F20110209_AABDVX mayne_d_Page_188.jp2
d1b6462c1f2f99f1ab26be1e627810eb
df8df5ce2182ce577d54820f49e799ef10769065
F20110209_AABESR mayne_d_Page_189.jp2
6e1f9cbe2920afe51af18ef7a0766d77
3a475baecdb66579486730f8b4aea187b3223c6e
F20110209_AABFPK mayne_d_Page_058.jp2
e70bf0ea6fef6a186cc9edc38a7c9e41
0823c4cc062c12812d48de7e46c3eade08da52c5
2037 F20110209_AABDIN mayne_d_Page_269.txt
553a72140964fc9e15112e432990f3c7
57a92145205f6f7a2073a31c1108fbbb1565d692
50370 F20110209_AABEFG mayne_d_Page_110.pro
e47ff12e665276f10cb9a2eca3af9a0d
e8e601af9f9a8aba5ecb12a04c30bf9c2ec3656c
F20110209_AABDVY mayne_d_Page_182.tif
29f8b8b2f01c890eb6e741387e53dcc2
b10526aac93564fed8a0a5d489c0138762685f94
104443 F20110209_AABESS mayne_d_Page_094.jpg
6fce1bd190f2a3d8ab49c5fc85b2ee6e
470f34cecfd6d99a8caa4c18d3c830b5e8e9d6d7
F20110209_AABFPL mayne_d_Page_060.jp2
49446d1dc1b3db8f89ef09ccf81725d7
d384496315c25ac37d6e295c2e5224d7c5aaeec2
F20110209_AABDIO mayne_d_Page_172.tif
f675705a74b7d225bf77d32b25cbefe6
b4fe454dd3fac0d36c1033a02346a4f518aae8f8
F20110209_AABEFH mayne_d_Page_140.tif
ed7552ef509a1be5bf45f6bab4d9927f
8c0f27e74e65b3491ba280160ffd9fd60ae92339
53787 F20110209_AABDVZ mayne_d_Page_085.pro
34463e751eaf0e87082ad2e46a070899
475a0d585e765eea1428234ba5ea4fc892d104b7
F20110209_AABFCA mayne_d_Page_247.tif
c3ebdd2f711ea8c94f5448ffc7bd781a
a0515322fd081dc11e6e809b3f970cb1ec43237f
F20110209_AABEST mayne_d_Page_053.jp2
c87e6e1c76a813c9cc007afb27edc415
564a8bac72176622d6821e4267ef31baaf5ee1d3
F20110209_AABFPM mayne_d_Page_068.jp2
fecbcdb217df1aa3edd86534f0d07ffd
d42acf37ebcac02d80af2192595cab02aa17b107
F20110209_AABDIP mayne_d_Page_023.txt
bc92994f677d683644a96ef9ca7a3a32
23bf5c69f732ff8c398bf54e52c4fc863eeb90fa
F20110209_AABEFI mayne_d_Page_088.tif
3134b55f3caf1fc33dd6e37efc30ca3c
ba885f0cd9545ad59031f50ecc52043f1bb40827
F20110209_AABFCB mayne_d_Page_249.tif
b042b8d84951936b59f4591f0169f2fb
20afc3046face23cef5f24d0d18863cf9e92da6b
4616 F20110209_AABESU mayne_d_Page_144.pro
72fed1c01c3cc794cf616df43e8657c1
59412213d7629c959c071e868b39b4ee6f7e4972
F20110209_AABFPN mayne_d_Page_070.jp2
28291d7d020e20dcb62cad69070de075
dcc736d092e2849f1baaeacc78fed5cf8f49e520
F20110209_AABDIQ mayne_d_Page_057.tif
7baaa7f5554a22e8194a5d86b1f0b05d
8ca3bf7ebfcc854b300c13b0de583773f8a129d1
F20110209_AABEFJ mayne_d_Page_177.tif
a3cce17fd63b059620e8e3095ac1c14d
68ecc26577c8cbeb92ddef632020ef4097a5bc4f
F20110209_AABFCC mayne_d_Page_252.tif
60da1887b15f429570f0f60baad896fc
37b17e0267b6cd593668992898c6164a8a31eedb
9461 F20110209_AABESV mayne_d_Page_249.QC.jpg
2969defb8cb4c4a7fcb0f42c28a8f54a
5d1b5d1022af5f3be0c293c03e91603edb3bd253
F20110209_AABFPO mayne_d_Page_074.jp2
9868051894197856c88cff82186437d6
da7667ae1ff74265dd251603db0a36f32b376ce7
109570 F20110209_AABDIR mayne_d_Page_191.jpg
17f46936f6272b56fc0494101e15a9f3
8ec88c576d9cd6f3696d45d051f21dbfe515fb9f
2185 F20110209_AABEFK mayne_d_Page_093.txt
7c1ed2d0fe2c7d2296d5f2788daaf0e8
f90db16ee340d76615ae68da81cb32d45932e150
F20110209_AABFCD mayne_d_Page_254.tif
974ed7fac6f4fadf73916aefe354cca6
659975e9f0b94d232e503d8bd296f11d5af10757
1051937 F20110209_AABFPP mayne_d_Page_077.jp2
53b2050c72bdf12c7754a7dbf08961f8
a52c515bd5c1f72d22dacfd7e6b8f5291c4e0039
25662 F20110209_AABESW mayne_d_Page_259.pro
422ca10a0cecc0bdd85852cd63d19933
fb8bcb11d8b871fafd7187bfbbd96ad91a3ba77c
F20110209_AABDIS mayne_d_Page_250.tif
4d55fb4a032d409204bcdfc17f7000e2
63825f48063d39795bb1bc0bcf0a217c178f6cd2
50118 F20110209_AABEFL mayne_d_Page_061.pro
4b636e6e5e4183ed19a788671d89ffc9
e25382bd45b2faa72bdcb0be51c2b99fff214441
F20110209_AABFCE mayne_d_Page_257.tif
73533f539a96285c42be1e03006264c7
aaec8aab5dff17a584cb05fa63e4dfd59e12318a
F20110209_AABFPQ mayne_d_Page_078.jp2
95ff7da96a21332f3a9a5431172a7b39
64b5280cdde6797a3ea8e0a9c51fe2707157b055
1051903 F20110209_AABESX mayne_d_Page_067.jp2
55d9ab2db46a28cef50ac1cba89b84e4
cb4cbc171de318e0de74feff8b5303b896f2310b
2115 F20110209_AABDIT mayne_d_Page_016.txt
cd58c4acc7cd0e241bb5550bb83689f3
ed10f91e46618e557244e6a9b49df6fea76704b5
344 F20110209_AABEFM mayne_d_Page_042.pro
9639c983edc0b67401f1424b75d6b075
81d502ab161b633dcb70ec9859a2c92084c3651b
F20110209_AABFCF mayne_d_Page_258.tif
eacdf8ca7a7f61c3da92d37f9c3d3c4a
a47d5a74e210754ac9552d84977c31a3acb434eb
F20110209_AABFPR mayne_d_Page_080.jp2
067f9de02a9e05829ddeabf9dd7287b3
4b1b89216e78f788c58cc3bc6aca27211a7ac885
F20110209_AABESY mayne_d_Page_022.tif
17c9bb5cdd801998ed2db5b76af88eb5
e2fe0afe5aceb59b850cd7d0208dd4a1672e48b7
62086 F20110209_AABDIU mayne_d_Page_282.pro
fc9867d54ce7dc9fa8a6c8658037205a
b4dfa0d43c10b3b7249ac302ee8efe7263bc49e3
2106 F20110209_AABEFN mayne_d_Page_204.txt
53bba6eb1636d52e53ebc9c3fa29a0d3
717528390c4aeee0d22d8e947e4bae92a96da7bf
F20110209_AABFCG mayne_d_Page_263.tif
eeb267fe60dc45a7d19ca4591ec8eae4
efdf9f6fafd68ced37aff55576769cf8048f6a1e
F20110209_AABFPS mayne_d_Page_081.jp2
99dc028a1f2f22a7e1a89e36b798cf82
d1a00ddc66d5711ba34db671ea6cb75f83e5aafc
2024 F20110209_AABESZ mayne_d_Page_226.txt
1454a7d28d7df0b791eca06f468f4c3f
86c7e83fe835c3efd5cbc2169bfbd23e50e91ca4
9218 F20110209_AABDIV mayne_d_Page_239.QC.jpg
a99715833bd9db31882c8235f31ccfd8
536e5364ab1a2bc7788d4e3df016d11171da2fbf
34405 F20110209_AABEFO mayne_d_Page_090.QC.jpg
9f81e3672876ca2235f85d61e394a12d
c8b7a13a88aa3c65c3554086568cf38e49a847fd
F20110209_AABFCH mayne_d_Page_264.tif
56fd8132b78e6404d7468ca10e6b32fc
167331ef3f6549f9ca34ef3ddc12136ff1d3463e
741703 F20110209_AABFPT mayne_d_Page_084.jp2
7087a149166c1332296a98df57ebd9d3
ec3563481024f9c644d283b5ecf3719d76033d6c
11508 F20110209_AABEFP mayne_d_Page_239.pro
e6d8b167dd4349d827f3048649ded86d
aa6fd7255228a029f99b597a69b34db59f06575d
F20110209_AABFCI mayne_d_Page_266.tif
cd45b2a612997db60d909ab6284a214b
565822a9a36d7de1a03d3bc578fdc368c3190d39
F20110209_AABFPU mayne_d_Page_085.jp2
9d240cc8cba9b4f8bddad910dd0fc8ab
e9079d813c8370722126ee497650769ba956c4ac
49500 F20110209_AABDIW mayne_d_Page_041.jpg
bfdd2732e3e589f1c92ddaced2423d10
3001d568bd11573b28e5ba4e0b6fbeed8276c270
90973 F20110209_AABEFQ mayne_d_Page_158.jpg
017fb94fc45770d1ae651f196d51f998
954201df7360dc5866b4671739f0ad216dc86e6f
F20110209_AABFCJ mayne_d_Page_267.tif
b55915a75c069f2c56b25abf170579b8
23315f8a5d67f1c0579316b98bcff061179d17b6
F20110209_AABFPV mayne_d_Page_088.jp2
5e6ee88e4491e4c97ea2de223cec4550
962196ae93fd7a1bcbb8135b88c4954e68ee0ce9
F20110209_AABDIX mayne_d_Page_015.tif
994e9e2ee7acb43140b16a80fe6670ee
06771bfa9f22cbe45e52e8bf20e84e147ad3ea7d
99656 F20110209_AABEFR mayne_d_Page_112.jpg
ba6205227e1629b8cf9bc0706477f925
048460192feeb607242069d66203c2d6bca9443b
F20110209_AABFCK mayne_d_Page_273.tif
ee3881f5236115d2aa2b92d34db3253f
3fdea63b05f30c10e397505a10c15e8f22bfae91
F20110209_AABFPW mayne_d_Page_094.jp2
71bdf3a8c2227f1766765b8e8678e28a
9ed30a4a1518470a39ee855824ea9e82987fd296
8276 F20110209_AABDIY mayne_d_Page_179thm.jpg
17dda8c54be7e88f8f39417a1cbb3695
a252b367b205abec6e629ca7d918b5eab0067e36
F20110209_AABFCL mayne_d_Page_274.tif
6cfd74f81a8b9c7257f92fe32a1dbee9
c0bc6e4f2dc6101fd9e9ef3fc59ff041b8aced0a
1051926 F20110209_AABFPX mayne_d_Page_095.jp2
dcc85c082863c51b14b320955a1e1406
be563977f824b85abfff32878cddafba26a290fe
F20110209_AABDIZ mayne_d_Page_061.txt
42b8a3fe981e0c8a74de6b945058fd3f
15b58a7de332f49b6cdcc7f2bba2f9680248a0ac
F20110209_AABEFS mayne_d_Page_202.tif
5f6c8343fba5d7beac756d7f2aa6fcef
2fd6b545ea6f716a1ddac423855d07a6b70f5ab1
F20110209_AABFCM mayne_d_Page_276.tif
b235f5cf2b3dc57da6ecf7173c883b74
10e536cf534e9667a7f87ee607c2a899732d03ca
F20110209_AABFPY mayne_d_Page_100.jp2
56a92d1c268e61f23ad73758e740f9ba
7a1115f79767fa167ffc4b7564ac73e61cf9d85f
F20110209_AABEFT mayne_d_Page_130.tif
8ecb3395771ed56fe05d1aef8a0cc72a
120f0b967fd99ee6b38c8c68c026bbfe896630e8
F20110209_AABFCN mayne_d_Page_280.tif
2679eb653dcb3c383eca08ce6c1a9a28
13c692e12a35ad224f62ad0092650f34e47f92ad
F20110209_AABFPZ mayne_d_Page_101.jp2
c4df213971f7553965428155100bbca4
dcdadd3a696575fe6cf9e5935a6be110a894bbf3
764421 F20110209_AABEFU mayne_d_Page_155.jp2
fb09bd9bb9a4ac650caf39308a5fc269
463079d9f613a677f4a355e0166ffb5cec47e97e
F20110209_AABEFV mayne_d_Page_240.pro
fd5d9a8b61b9a08bf16c5a7a0fcfc2a7
e950a41b5e7ecb3dc36d7823225deaef236fb10e
91 F20110209_AABFCO mayne_d_Page_002.txt
a3bcad1f8e55ecaf183ccf678152a8e4
30e68adefabdf164ae7cf620baee4848d6d14de7
31051 F20110209_AABEFW mayne_d_Page_146.QC.jpg
9f70a05c9ae244d25528edff7984f44b
6cadc1843255b6806a3ef5e0194992a943795f1d
F20110209_AABEYA mayne_d_Page_031.tif
74bcc284f92bde80fe1f2cb5ae27b2ba
9d153fbcd4e7ea5918d555c74f3c74c219baa49b
5370 F20110209_AABFCP mayne_d_Page_009.txt
ef321901187bf297c6339672e2acfc64
2c2b9fedba2500b22aa16803e39e8e0154911f8a
837387 F20110209_AABEFX mayne_d_Page_144.jp2
c9a4ccb4e1eb06fa8d41e8f91c54d3dc
cf2b1c984367739a214f584b1df9a602eb0106ce
F20110209_AABEYB mayne_d_Page_033.tif
f71f2e2b0ff49afc9916067a5263d251
609de778e047c4fb834bc310ea7be6a197a94026
4230 F20110209_AABFCQ mayne_d_Page_010.txt
fd42dc348bfd84d4b8a4581c625e67fe
e43cde9858e218e00da530d8a767f43f14520f33
2553 F20110209_AABEFY mayne_d_Page_222.txt
99c536f995139d11bd149eaed9c8fe32
0de70199f3c7cf60b4ba36c1a1542d6d2c6c9f61
F20110209_AABEYC mayne_d_Page_034.tif
ea1016da59620c670fbb784d02772a4b
2a4ce02912b4b9843a308dd63a83f89ce020453a
2447 F20110209_AABFCR mayne_d_Page_012.txt
b2f6bd60815c8f9965a27b446007e785
7e8e7aa6c59fe5caeedd34c067a719da2f58ac71
33950 F20110209_AABEFZ mayne_d_Page_154.QC.jpg
ff1bb660d423e7072d0f5355bd679afc
398151f6bdfc1b15a0b4f28b791acc88cdd12a1f
F20110209_AABEYD mayne_d_Page_039.tif
adf85e894f2e44e0cd777ae134b56ae4
42d47502d61c7451fac94cb0af29339d3d63f363
1631 F20110209_AABFCS mayne_d_Page_015.txt
8f60598738a33762d4f95696d8dd34a6
54ebfb762e304c621e6310e1804dad2dbacf94ba
F20110209_AABEYE mayne_d_Page_041.tif
366aea8732a46bbae84737400a33ffa0
2883326929d46f1c2a39553e98475b450be79340
1946 F20110209_AABFCT mayne_d_Page_018.txt
7d24df3454a27358785bd888bda78039
a14662427697fe959fa0cf828a83bc0325599045
34458 F20110209_AABDOA mayne_d_Page_126.QC.jpg
4db90a28ec2a2144b1e12751fe24197d
f4c0c0f252b480e2b0edfe3478e4dffa5af03e84
2133 F20110209_AABFCU mayne_d_Page_020.txt
5176372f53e3bc7f4a456f717e02ccf9
d398d18ccc42e74b8577e65b590c04e2f436951e
8044 F20110209_AABDOB mayne_d_Page_248thm.jpg
056ed37fd08d681a2456d0ae25bcf955
cd95351f31fed5b7cc8e827078b633020e4a8fad
F20110209_AABEYF mayne_d_Page_043.tif
4e9a386f25ce12f135393134e2a3ffe5
f5c2d67332099d098bf63452f99e94d6172b67d2
2126 F20110209_AABFCV mayne_d_Page_029.txt
05c4fd4a54753fe72b1ea4f09a365848
48fcc00648c856eb4105d19b12da017621b3f492
13727 F20110209_AABFVA mayne_d_Page_011.QC.jpg
73913e0bc9743f50b9e848b494575d30
b7f4525c2291c90f53ba3a8980b8b516966edb7a
29974 F20110209_AABDOC mayne_d_Page_222.QC.jpg
ad25dd0151d1003233b1a337c02e6575
cb2f42c875f8e545db44a4c013bd27ccacc8bde2
F20110209_AABEYG mayne_d_Page_045.tif
901ad21f6df614de92e726a8441ab970
049fb1a4e2d5c49d041e224584824ba6ce511ae6
F20110209_AABFCW mayne_d_Page_032.txt
3e15ffadb5f36847639f303d0fc4bd25
24c521db991793107ff1994b594473bd01b76133
55843 F20110209_AABDOD mayne_d_Page_087.pro
a40b3e7a7cbd934f5e39c603598ba4b6
7c5154fa2609267d97781030e9890009798a17f8
F20110209_AABEYH mayne_d_Page_046.tif
a2e8a36850ca3b87527299d7fb9d8954
b9b4fbd386e2777a470b912020142cc8ab0b677a
2027 F20110209_AABFCX mayne_d_Page_033.txt
793a799da6f1b17e4677bb40eff05390
ef26030a58c4bae85a7e047a63ef3bfa36cde69e
26123 F20110209_AABFVB mayne_d_Page_013.QC.jpg
fe840f91d13af74d640ec53082d0665a
f2ee15ab31a3d2c0e46a01dc539131afaea4453b
51471 F20110209_AABDOE mayne_d_Page_178.pro
198800fefef25acfd90b8623d817665c
8edc219cbd51634ca3545f119a306e0e78f5c42c
F20110209_AABEYI mayne_d_Page_047.tif
79abc86871877461768ad666263a6cb0
127ad5d907d506f311c7992afaf8c6669e8fd4f2
2386 F20110209_AABFCY mayne_d_Page_034.txt
af750e4a7049b7e7272f573313703fb3
110371634497e9e0e073041e6059c994a6c6ebb7
20618 F20110209_AABFVC mayne_d_Page_014.QC.jpg
e2ff62d6c945ca7d8df522e13b93bcc5
7d48c9582e420a68758c3a0fd3a8f9c8e9273017
52841 F20110209_AABDOF mayne_d_Page_160.pro
4e988ed11a941974f8c669b9badefbce
f5d872cda907ec28e315e1eeb89ce3c2cd03b3b3
F20110209_AABEYJ mayne_d_Page_050.tif
607dbce64755608e39c4da13d3e7a107
3225c2f1a7b57b6a9119ccd6ca3854bfabe85e68
F20110209_AABFCZ mayne_d_Page_040.txt
e74b5b4c30fc32409ef996e2b1e1bdcb
01ebdfadca26271a318285970cd6cb21083b9c52
33972 F20110209_AABFVD mayne_d_Page_016.QC.jpg
d2d24421a917edb66b956a2b61b37cf3
475a1745e556b889523d90e428b9e4153520ba41
2124 F20110209_AABDOG mayne_d_Page_209.txt
9ba1403267a759ee7d5fd70c108093fc
fdbf6ebc9bff541209e4c17c93b88c790abc4a71
F20110209_AABEYK mayne_d_Page_053.tif
1a8c5e4343b7a22b8339ba2af0db6f89
a3e82da87b3a80ca788be2156e06ed0c025c4b79
34172 F20110209_AABFVE mayne_d_Page_019.QC.jpg
efd4da564f37ee48cc9f8028551b1543
aec96d23cf8372ce4edb9ef2479e5935dd4287a3
1051905 F20110209_AABDOH mayne_d_Page_045.jp2
6f59e6fee4e1505ed047e70c0b7b30e1
f778c3fba44bd80699d92d82c63a071fd89bb66a
6194 F20110209_AABELA mayne_d_Page_024.pro
0a3ee5f7ecf1afba9fe2d12e486a165f
3e2abec3bab936b725ef3dafad99b9a4f1316444
F20110209_AABEYL mayne_d_Page_054.tif
cd3c10f1cff432f441e93ca4024d2df8
059b510ceea59d1faced542177fdb5d8d8ef682d
35979 F20110209_AABFVF mayne_d_Page_026.QC.jpg
18d8ce2cb43d5458aef7b87369c8af2c
6ef18bfeecc15a1546e1aa8a04b4ae2d2f96f52e
55470 F20110209_AABDOI mayne_d_Page_026.pro
cdd760dbeedb718e335c5e1dbf38de5f
9054ca7aaf757b471b8ae33ab41996a3034a46ef
F20110209_AABELB mayne_d_Page_077.txt
098cd1439ea383a385e3e075a4b35b4f
d6fc84a14271c826365781850ef95927d9a1d97b
F20110209_AABEYM mayne_d_Page_055.tif
cc6230f9293bce3f054abc4edd1304e3
4a7dc07af8ee9ce8fa5c7aaa79c113ddf879a73d
35270 F20110209_AABFVG mayne_d_Page_028.QC.jpg
f10c3816e3eda195f4c501923c23761d
792c614d197955cc3f0423446ce1617a4adbdcab
F20110209_AABDOJ mayne_d_Page_122.txt
a2f16b39445d2b66f42e1276ad62f229
f7913560fa6c3ef2afd298e16a633f203e6df57d
1992 F20110209_AABELC mayne_d_Page_174.txt
df842636061fca41b1b5851e8c8363b9
f8eb51e5a9aa1e977ba701b013ffddd671cbb3df
F20110209_AABEYN mayne_d_Page_058.tif
14c3c2335a432b3d48594be74b917c45
665cbad88e6a14435161b87ce1053004686fa667
35563 F20110209_AABFVH mayne_d_Page_030.QC.jpg
bf5eebab65f5b358eacfd384aa9457cc
1d7849a11b86096498d135c1a443cb4187b20a32
F20110209_AABDOK mayne_d_Page_281.tif
e034ba7d843fa81b4bd329943ce31a25
478059c1dff9d241ee9e9f4383346c7b951b96a2
15680 F20110209_AABELD mayne_d_Page_270.QC.jpg
cca83d03470d46b5f4c978506a0a261b
f3795417ca3241f03b4bb5e58ead51edffffb4f2
F20110209_AABEYO mayne_d_Page_059.tif
0dd56c6ce039a20211dd9a3bdb760d2a
e415c1e44e5bdeee846129da0cd8a1b71f23dda8
34074 F20110209_AABFVI mayne_d_Page_032.QC.jpg
9849d8a0a3a8073f423f121b706a88a9
b84b26653d11982c723eea6081848b2cc7153d83
F20110209_AABDOL mayne_d_Page_233.txt
f3f11543363ef61ce49f99f835867455
a1995c788ea3bf2e828fb3645456866655d27619
958 F20110209_AABELE mayne_d_Page_285.txt
b37f8c0301c3a72612da62d7228c4a95
1d1d134939c04690d52325f1899fbea6abfa3f00
F20110209_AABEYP mayne_d_Page_060.tif
b71ce04dbd59c24dba94f50d978b1784
72d6ff325fda1170a82357f8a9342e6fa0e7d34a
28630 F20110209_AABFVJ mayne_d_Page_037.QC.jpg
491fe425c307effc81c4bfa636881a8a
44491d18efab46108455f6a27eac8152dbaf9d2c
50934 F20110209_AABDOM mayne_d_Page_179.pro
b26ceae99552253b4273a4fedd68d3d8
c93f30e8343166b087eb43de39120924c9cd4964
35127 F20110209_AABELF mayne_d_Page_247.QC.jpg
38fbc4c3fbe48d32b0ca6a1619295dbd
9098d28180cf3c9d6c4e7b3b30b63f0d51ef8c51
F20110209_AABEYQ mayne_d_Page_062.tif
8081518f92e738594c3b1d09898d3473
01d655ac153804a2f9a9153553abf1a119d1c302
34186 F20110209_AABFVK mayne_d_Page_038.QC.jpg
19c8915d5cdafe348752a2d882db7d7c
3db69ed5b8ff4cf9ac2894d71179a677d5ee3179
53951 F20110209_AABDON mayne_d_Page_123.pro
263b576a1eeddb6e011b8b9007f7d671
1951eb394d0cc37dd4179ef3311cdb3cf8be5974
F20110209_AABELG mayne_d_Page_122thm.jpg
117360edf6a968d83104fbed4015d3ce
1e57ed3f6ee11edcb6fea04ec3fc8e92206334a9
F20110209_AABEYR mayne_d_Page_066.tif
ee47a30f1f19987bdd0b3559829b5fb4
657b67e45450485073bcbbd021aeaa74fc85afc2
37385 F20110209_AABFVL mayne_d_Page_040.QC.jpg
7bf08022eaa0a5a627fee5087aff97d4
d09e51f841b60aadd8ea37cbba372a668c62961d
620796 F20110209_AABDOO mayne_d_Page_257.jp2
3f8315a402743ccd359736df689613ce
a1db58f969cefab79c39f5f901a567fb06481679
F20110209_AABELH mayne_d_Page_224.tif
26fa9be37acffbc4262d6ff72010b332
015fae0702c9993a47c760a9f9fb25be69d6e9a4
51373 F20110209_AABFIA mayne_d_Page_094.pro
5a65845612dd4ac914029f5c9dc256c6
0b5192d9eaeaf44e7ea730f55f7e5dd731b5f17c
F20110209_AABEYS mayne_d_Page_067.tif
f7d940b356938109664c46facd435cb9
709726c9b9e14f25ccc59f865246408af39c63df
16317 F20110209_AABFVM mayne_d_Page_041.QC.jpg
9acb4e213a7d647f9b32739b12a264a7
34a062fa5ccbf2bcf98243b407f2dc15a315f96d
F20110209_AABDOP mayne_d_Page_224.txt
5e550f15a7f1366a786f5ead6b7382b3
a51cce7d901b61f69858b82c257801f766a3ad83
1228 F20110209_AABELI mayne_d_Page_273.txt
96bb75290411d6a603f15112325284b5
1763038df47876c7c5b9c3e3ffc7b0faa80fd4ea
49690 F20110209_AABFIB mayne_d_Page_096.pro
728de4c9e390b3ffc081ffb887dc25aa
578e24747c0ff8a224c5439a48dd29753e72ed7a
F20110209_AABEYT mayne_d_Page_070.tif
4fcc8d7026f671def7ee86e8dcf21a07
40cd311011e7d942208db4aeb2bc9e019bf0f0cb
784 F20110209_AABFVN mayne_d_Page_042.QC.jpg
c32ee498bdf837139b9c9c2b47b0f724
a2e52b99a80c38b71c9617e707e7d8db985c4732
220 F20110209_AABDOQ mayne_d_Page_037.txt
d146f98b635929c6003d58c4a32d751d
07073c90672878b2407d949c3805b92a04b1412c
25533 F20110209_AABELJ mayne_d_Page_260.pro
7c992bd4138e130b715561675c4a8825
6a09f72dfa997c9dc8321b031a5f53f9b30e6549
4253 F20110209_AABFIC mayne_d_Page_103.pro
7f5e006be574b9006bea390b3ed716d7
7cd3040a8d7d4b53406c8f36b3df913b31d42718
F20110209_AABEYU mayne_d_Page_073.tif
f1beff9efe7477ea5adc720d9466fc5b
babf09d2a962543b0d8d8f9ad3d29c47ce770be4
30098 F20110209_AABFVO mayne_d_Page_048.QC.jpg
304f24054557f1ac539a72f02bb48cfd
954b5fd9b85d866d9fc1102247c06b1247310646
1932 F20110209_AABDOR mayne_d_Page_141.txt
1e6cd722c552c4935f2d747b7f76e502
0869c1dc3ee9d17f4423f74654e34a0525f1296b
36818 F20110209_AABELK mayne_d_Page_066.QC.jpg
60da99eb9c7c30453243c764a658f32e
6f5cba2b1d0b2591befba515da111125b92d7bad
49351 F20110209_AABFID mayne_d_Page_106.pro
fdc2047b5db68afe3656601c278dbbc1
dcc964fc58aa04612decc8724b43fb23acc63c12
F20110209_AABEYV mayne_d_Page_074.tif
0282e09a128ed6ee02d57885d97246d0
ead3ce79ec6e3537ec69c6a7a3ef4b8344c8e3f3
35482 F20110209_AABFVP mayne_d_Page_050.QC.jpg
ba0d85cb3993b00f0bb9af901806239f
c1b37ed4b4714f08aae8d85acd4ab2fc455597d0
104384 F20110209_AABDOS mayne_d_Page_165.jpg
fd917968f252df7c5ad99fe0198d8bed
fb3149408f6ffab859005fa9b182dd5bb113a137
F20110209_AABELL mayne_d_Page_118.txt
3bbd223236983d08ea6d5945a0e5c3ba
2a52a484766d0c527c5bdee36539fc2b7d031322
56988 F20110209_AABFIE mayne_d_Page_109.pro
64c23454bb073e15eeb0d68da0fb5186
0ef6503ff4919a84131c90f5c710965b9f5fab4b
F20110209_AABEYW mayne_d_Page_075.tif
e0ab4e5638df36a9da2291825d85e78d
bfb6d931474bb581653c81c9c68d181f7ec85295
35796 F20110209_AABFVQ mayne_d_Page_053.QC.jpg
8a8d26fbf4777269339f45ab0f3ef4c3
cf37d3b47824d0994267e92ccd46c2950c2cd9fc
F20110209_AABDOT mayne_d_Page_024.txt
8f50c25c0ff84b180e1e183e1cef3ddd
22465a9c8ae8b1917521e01b4f047e72527edada
F20110209_AABELM mayne_d_Page_053thm.jpg
efc145a29c64fd125fa1caf70c97154b
be838a12dd21a1cd223ee49dad9cfa01f95d22ea
49346 F20110209_AABFIF mayne_d_Page_112.pro
cfe585c5d91e11f06919aa8bf1a5ca9d
21968d9da34a1446f93abb87fe7aa3249cd58ed1
F20110209_AABEYX mayne_d_Page_077.tif
701f0e940d2b0696a50a9905f7a78c5e
027f08389349cfce9fe8ec42627cfeedf19d9da6
36722 F20110209_AABFVR mayne_d_Page_057.QC.jpg
5d3fe087b5108a2881aa46871fd68c34
96dd7680443d6abe21d46b252899701938a8bac8
1962 F20110209_AABDOU mayne_d_Page_167.txt
03d999575f80aac6a0c68d4fb07462fb
eb730d7b202f2327a933f0478205ccdbe632aeb7
34253 F20110209_AABELN mayne_d_Page_094.QC.jpg
7fbfc5b8374b950f39fc16b988316018
002f79d58e19541b93db532f0b396e0db7fade0e
4205 F20110209_AABFIG mayne_d_Page_114.pro
d9987f5253c232ab80f37a87717bec14
f4ba9bc3465bd69b1943447b29034960b33f53cf
F20110209_AABEYY mayne_d_Page_078.tif
72148e7da40d567d63674db6d9861dc0
5fd111671a9ba83fdbaed85f3b38f6a4ee939392
35413 F20110209_AABFVS mayne_d_Page_059.QC.jpg
6da4a3805857dcbdd37c62fbd3af11af
64da0ae4ea44e9a72a3b037d6f0af48e6d0c8db9
54324 F20110209_AABDOV mayne_d_Page_191.pro
478d17dee93905d35dc7a41fcdaf286a
7de7277d51f07677fff7f80feb50ebc5a6373402
5376 F20110209_AABELO mayne_d_Page_007.txt
35d708f737f57ddef7cd0b09bfa39d0a
932fa6106780afc1596e83cab7c3d05bf3586b22
3841 F20110209_AABFIH mayne_d_Page_119.pro
80f95a6794a41d28644c1a776dc93058
846119d9d82413aeea44cc1b4b8e96007d7a4881
F20110209_AABEYZ mayne_d_Page_079.tif
75c79ce9e94edcb01fea6c5dbef1b70a
52fd88527982fe88a13917eb323bd7d7814873bf
29300 F20110209_AABFVT mayne_d_Page_065.QC.jpg
f715deb93016518367afc607e35235ab
542b668e07d8501ccc854475106d11b00eb3e71b
F20110209_AABDOW mayne_d_Page_233.tif
a560eecd7141cd5e78786f174fe76243
8019f323f02351cbe0652511b33e280e0ab7807a
2151 F20110209_AABELP mayne_d_Page_212.txt
c3472e113ac0da066d074ab85f703de0
e270f3a3e59ccdae396a37531f12b85baa8b52c8
54803 F20110209_AABFII mayne_d_Page_121.pro
03819d54064d0aed20a0e7db0eb6a087
a25bba6c843c98cfa08de855cdaf09fbafac518c
35335 F20110209_AABFVU mayne_d_Page_067.QC.jpg
8f277d807267b24deb1c636a32fd9ca3
f8b50ebf192d5d54de47d9bbe825401628ebba99
F20110209_AABDOX mayne_d_Page_154.txt
962a17cbe937e5b38b78f3c124c0cbdd
a00480e0511ebeedd076166c5e979a4441b83c81
50517 F20110209_AABELQ mayne_d_Page_077.pro
56caa05987b5158ca3e0b96e97293731
9df74ad03d6f7b0f27900cdafb8111ffbbc28268
51079 F20110209_AABFIJ mayne_d_Page_122.pro
6696f7ff1d6daff0ff050becd7ebd9a0
ed819e000079b9cd89eba20e35b79aa7ccf9bd70
35014 F20110209_AABFVV mayne_d_Page_068.QC.jpg
2d2e1064dfcddb87e9698bbb1215333c
ee57629f8bac11934ef9582fbe2af1ffea7dc472
53382 F20110209_AABDOY mayne_d_Page_166.pro
5b3647db28489300cf2096ccd4cb7278
d03dd38904af6f15f7ae5cbecfe21fac9d96e61d
37104 F20110209_AABELR mayne_d_Page_210.QC.jpg
57e76ad0579fa4a49819627bf363acaf
9f54c38cf625a06a1422266f36a3001c70bfb123
48550 F20110209_AABFIK mayne_d_Page_124.pro
dfebdf0fdab650e71095f7bc24df46f5
0093055a02ae757d82fe8d5d8576c6eacc97cbf4
32467 F20110209_AABFVW mayne_d_Page_070.QC.jpg
81e77739f8f34240bed208a77d9c5f73
8e9aefbb4a863f9d4a31c60f5c43e643e681c49c
F20110209_AABDOZ mayne_d_Page_189.tif
68ebd7a460a49203fa96cdc7487fc940
0636da296e0175a73a4778460cc07849eb291cf5
F20110209_AABELS mayne_d_Page_080thm.jpg
29c0befc62473a6d4037088c887c148b
b71e68a40bd1bb5bc9f1a21e3dc2776b79a51f18
4793 F20110209_AABFIL mayne_d_Page_127.pro
6acfebcc56776eed2725f3d09d114e04
6db0658daa59bbe590db6b2159d885159659d2e9
35969 F20110209_AABFVX mayne_d_Page_072.QC.jpg
f0e9ae56f04d82a6b905213d77645751
4564f27b24b07bed152187505cc2c3aa674649f3
248039 F20110209_AABELT mayne_d_Page_001.jp2
611bd830004387bf2c8453cb6f457215
5693a33913e3aa40f942853ec4c4dc2fcc4cddda
54508 F20110209_AABFIM mayne_d_Page_137.pro
9d40b8bb8fe5487e57bb5ef50cd3789d
690fa7bd9e9f235a2a41e90a0d9903a26cb76694
33830 F20110209_AABFVY mayne_d_Page_076.QC.jpg
ecdf14aa82c8782240e3120c1710d301
4b107927aa1ac89fe97aa66b6c80564f7a732921
2404 F20110209_AABELU mayne_d_Page_234thm.jpg
bade7a8ea4b5aec75dfe812593e7386a
56b448b44e40810964964733826c4b771b61d8bf
57883 F20110209_AABFIN mayne_d_Page_138.pro
80d4ec5411c461393764031599c1c8bf
0f9d57b7ef23acd5ac40caf0225d8ca8d42c0c3b
34617 F20110209_AABFVZ mayne_d_Page_078.QC.jpg
146a52bf55ce4094caf277c191fa3213
f11689f028309f6bc11a910e0b09a14849fce0bd
3999 F20110209_AABELV mayne_d_Page_273thm.jpg
5ec68605e6dba4d8affe0e902e9ece7f
99a10bb254a4400f0e18dde72f48f11588e1e080
48091 F20110209_AABFIO mayne_d_Page_141.pro
d21c73f884b9a0780d3d738be3022496
f1a08f775cf8726c4c262cb22295377784f623ea
103117 F20110209_AABELW mayne_d_Page_225.jpg
03a855b3e535dad93dcfe85ef231193b
9a631b93566ce5f1e5f8417679c8cf8fe1e253cb
51246 F20110209_AABFIP mayne_d_Page_143.pro
f1ffe357c10f7999d135eac50f76c7b0
62505e9bc97fc39e4ea0216b73354671c41e97bd
54857 F20110209_AABELX mayne_d_Page_281.pro
c740e1b0f31d3f0d4793f3314d7bd576
bd0fd46f3eac8a28867e5b2131a4aad48c0857e2
48252 F20110209_AABFIQ mayne_d_Page_145.pro
4dcbb6440dd4984cbff4028d4ee40b1d
5ddda2e9b571d1a1a8256829af208f3dc9e3c0ce
54201 F20110209_AABFIR mayne_d_Page_147.pro
0989a63863f681c185e478bf3937d661
800959600d620572c1cc46e328d86b2ee06ece68
2732 F20110209_AABELY mayne_d_Page_159.txt
a1e3fc7633269b66e65cd296bbe14b55
0687e8e895ee96e0c054ef24a147f6bded51eb32
52555 F20110209_AABFIS mayne_d_Page_148.pro
a5f6be749450056f5c1832522f4a857e
39d0abb038b3a65c23df3c7008d321635fe80787
F20110209_AABELZ mayne_d_Page_209.jp2
514ba2df09b2c03c595f24da63c2cf4d
62024dcf351b7c3776fd7a6c533eacd26c5a1927
52577 F20110209_AABFIT mayne_d_Page_152.pro
dcc9990aed861d33411018baf7294069
6c4508305937f74effb9f42dd1aaf52e74c3173f
19610 F20110209_AABDUA mayne_d_Page_220.pro
483593b1ab019144b645c8ac614bbb9b
dc8e4b3c1f47021ea3a8d795cf304e18c3b703bf
54365 F20110209_AABFIU mayne_d_Page_153.pro
206135e56388471fac62935022eeb255
f6bf96d2df06d6cfae4a374ae0535a37a0e06cf8
47341 F20110209_AABDUB mayne_d_Page_250.pro
642ce5d2a4ad7492fe44916cf6afcbb5
3163b48a09ca6f4092abafcbe857d7999d133361
51880 F20110209_AABFIV mayne_d_Page_161.pro
8bec502dcd2219c91ea7122d02ddc4a9
e5617ba2c73c364f1d8d1201f79f96f436d505c2
52381 F20110209_AABFIW mayne_d_Page_163.pro
bae7bb4c5cefde4326bf723d1b212ba6
b2600d7005e4ce2da31be05d9d8b00f680e9a2d8
54354 F20110209_AABDUC mayne_d_Page_218.pro
2577779b5eda14087fe337ca11a4f2dc
ccd2359f45b6ec76dfd34929986d2be6dab27157







CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATION TO TEACHING SCIENCE OF BEGINNING
SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS




















By

Dina L. Mayne


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007



































2007 Dina L. Mayne



























In memory of my mother, Yvonne, and to my husband, Jeffrey, my constant supporter and friend









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the members of my committee for their support and guidance

throughout my doctoral studies and dissertation process. Rose Pringle has worked tirelessly to

help me complete my dissertation providing suggestions and support during every stage of the

dissertation process. Thomas Dana has given me the benefit of his expertise and directed my

interest toward my topic as well as demystifying the dissertation process and providing support

and revision suggestions. My thanks go out to Linda Behar-Horenstein for her unwavering

guidance in the proposal process and her professionalism. Dr. Richard Ferdig directed my

interest in technology and was the impetus for my first technology publication. My committee

members have been examples to me of concern for their students, professionalism, and passion

for learning and research.

A huge thank you goes out to the six wonderful novice teachers who participated in this

study. They allowed me to spend hours with them interviewing and observing them during a very

difficult and stressful time, their first year of teaching and it is their thoughts and actions that I

have been able to report and reflect upon. I wish them good luck and a rewarding teaching

career.

Thanks also go to my peer mentoring triad, Marty Mayers and Barbara Rodgers who

refused to allow me to entertain any thought that I would not finish. Without their phone calls,

emails, and "sleepovers" I wouldn't have finished the journey.

Finally, much love and thanks to my husband who has been a constant source of

encouragement and to my family who have kept me grounded throughout this journey.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IS T O F T A B L E S ...................... .. ............. .. ........................................................12

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. .... ..... ................... 13

L IST O F A B B R E V IA T IO N S ...................... .. .. .......... ............................................14

A B S T R A C T ......... ....................... ............................................................ 15

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................. .............. ........... ............................. 16

B a c k g ro u n d ........................ ............................................................................................... 1 6
P u rp o se o f th e S tu dy ............ ..................................................... .......................... .... 2 1
Research Questions.......... ................. .. .... .... ..................22
Definition of Terms .................. ... ........... ..... ........... ........ 22
Significance of the Study .................. .................... ........ ............ .............. .. 23
Lim stations of the Study ......................... ........... .. .. ......... ..... ..... 23

2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IE W ............................................................................. ....................25

T each er T h in k in g ..........................................................................................2 5
Pedagogical C ontent K now ledge............................ ......... ........................... ............... 29
O rientations to T teaching Science ........................................ ............................................33
C onceptions of Teaching Science.......................... .. .................................... ............... 36
Routes to Certification .................... .......... ............ ......................39
S u m m ary ........................... ............. ... .............................................................. 4 0

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ................................................................................... ........................43

T heoretical F ram ew ork .......... .................................................................... .......... ....... 43
The Study............... ........................................... ........ 44
R e se a rc h D e sig n ............................................................................................................... 4 4
Setting and Participants ................................... .. .......... ............... 47
G ain in g access ................................................................4 8
C ou nty O n e .........................................................4 8
C county Tw o ....................................................................................... .................... 49
C county Three ............. ............................................................................................. 50
Private Schools in Counties Two and Four ........................................ 50
D ata C collection ........................................................................................ ................ 5 1
In terv iew s ............................... .. ......... .............................................................. 52
Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science ..................................... 54









O b serv atio n s ................................................................................. 5 6
D ata A nalysis........................................................ 58
A analysis of C T S T ask D ata ..................................................................... ..................58
Analysis of Interview and Observation Data........................................ ............... 59
Subjectivity Statem ent ..................................................... ............ .... ..... 62
V a lid ity ............................................................................6 4
C re d ib ility ................... ...................6...................4..........
T ru stw o rth in e ss ....................................................................................................................... 6 5

4 SETTING THE STAGE: INTRODUCING THE TEACHERS AND EXAMINING
THEIR CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE ............66

B background ............................................................................ ..........................66
P trick ..................................... ........................................... 67
Introduction and School Setting .............................................................. .............67
C la ssro o m S ettin g ...................................................................................................... 6 8
C onception for Teaching Science ........................................................................ ........... 70
T teachers and teaching ...........................................................70
Instructional strategies............................................. 72
Conceptions of science ............................................................... .. ........ 73
L earn in g an d learn ers ......................................................................................... 7 3
Conditions for instruction.....................................74
Orientation to Teaching Science ................................................75
G oals for teaching ..............................................................75
Science curriculum .................................. ........................... ...........77
S c h o o l c o n tex t .................................................................. ................................7 7
Learner characteristics.................................. 78
R ation ale for in stru action ..................................................................................... 79
In stru action al strategy ies........................................................................................ 80
M e re d ith .................................................................................................................................. 8 1
Introduction and School Setting .............................................................. .............81
C la ssro o m S ettin g ...................................................................................................... 8 2
C onception for Teaching Science ........................................................................ ........... 83
T teachers and teaching ...........................................................85
Instructional strategies............................................. 85
Conceptions of science ............................................................... .. ........ 86
L earn in g an d learn ers ......................................................................................... 86
Conditions for instruction.....................................87
Orientation to Teaching Science ................................................88
G oals for teaching ............................................................................................ ....... 88
Science curriculum .................................. ........................... ...........90
S c h o o l c o n tex t .................................................................. ................................ 9 1
Learner characteristics................................. 91
R ation ale for in stru action ..................................................................................... 92
Instructional strategies............................................. 93
A lex...................... .................................. ........ 95
Introduction and School Setting .............................................................. .............95


6









C classroom Setting ........................................... ..................... ...... .... 96
Conception of Teaching Science .............................................................................. 99
T teachers and teaching ......................... .. .................... ......... ........... 99
Instructional strategies............ ... .................................................. ..... .... ..... 100
C onceptions of science ........................................................................... 100
Learning and learners .................. ............................ .... .. .. .. ........ .... 101
C conditions for instruction .................................................................. ............... 102
Orientation to Teaching Science ............................................................................102
G oals for teaching ........................... ........ .. ....... ...............104
Science curriculum .................. ............................ .. ...... ................. 105
School context .......................................... ................... .... ........ 106
L earn er ch aracteristics............................................. ......................................... 107
R ationale for instruction ............................................................ ............... 108
Instructional strategies........... ...................................................... ...... .... ..... 109
C ristin a .......................................................................1 1 0
Introduction and School Setting ........................................................ ............. ..110
Classroom Setting .................................................................. ............... 111
Conception of Teaching Science ........................................................ ............. ..113
Teachers and teaching ..................................... ...... .. ...... ................ 113
Instructional Strategies .................. .......................... .... .. .. ................115
Conceptions of science .................. .......................... .... .. ... .. ........ .... 115
Learning and learners .................. ............................ .... .... .. ........ .... 116
C conditions for instruction .................................................................. ............... 117
O orientation to Teaching Science ........................................................ ............. ..118
G oals for teaching ..................................... ................ .............. ... 118
Science curriculum .................. ............................ .. ...... ................. 120
School context ................................................................................................120
L earn er ch aracteristics............................................. ......................................... 12 1
R ationale for instruction .......................................................... ............... 122
Instructional strategies........... ...................................................... ...... .... ..... 123
Isobel.............................. ................................ .........123
Introduction and School Setting ........................................................ ............. 123
Classroom Setting ..................................... ............... ............... .. ....... 125
Conception of Teaching Science ........................................................ ............. 126
T teachers and teaching .................................... .................................................. 126
Instructional strategies............ ... .................................................. ..... .... ..... 129
C onceptions of science ........................................................................... 129
Learning and learners .................. ............................ .... .. .. .. ........ .... 130
C conditions for instruction .................................................................. ............... 13 1
Orientation to Teaching Science ............................................................................133
G oals for teaching ........................... ........ .. ....... ...............133
Science Curriculum .............................................. .. ....... .............. ... 135
L earn er ch aracteristics............................................. ......................................... 13 7
R ationale for instruction .......................................................... ............... 138
Instructional strategies........... ...................................................... ...... .... ..... 139
G e o rg e ..................................................................



7









Introduction and School Setting ........................................................ ............. 140
Classroom Setting ..................................... ............... ............... .. ....... 141
Conception of Teaching Science ........................................................ ............. 143
Teachers and teaching ..................................... ...... .. ....... ................. 143
Instructional strategies........... ...................................................... ...... .... ..... 146
C onceptions of science ........................................................................... 146
Learning and learners .................. ............................ .... .. .. .. ........ .... 147
C conditions for instruction .................................................................. ............... 148
Orientation to Teaching Science ............................................................................148
G oals for teaching ........................... ........ .. ....... ............. 150
Science curriculum .................. ............................ .. ...... ................. 151
School context .......................................... ................... .... ........ 151
L earn er ch aracteristics............................................. ......................................... 152
Rationale for instruction ...................................... .............. ............... 153
Instructional strategies........... ... .................................................. ..... .... ... ... 154
S u m m ary ................... ...................1...................5.........5

5 CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPANTS' CONCEPTIONS OF AND
ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE......................................... ............... 156

B ack g ro u n d ...................................................................... .. ....................... ............... 15 6
Comparisons between Components of Conceptions of Teaching Science...........................157
T teacher C characteristics .......................................... ........................... 158
General teacher characteristics......................................... ............... ........... 159
Ability to teach at different cognitive/age levels ................................................160
C onceptions of Teaching ............................................................................. .............. 161
G general conception of teaching............................ ......................... .... ........... 161
U se of textbook ............................................................................................ 163
Use of Inquiry ...................................................................... ............. ................. 164
Teaching from m edia ...................................... ................... ........ 165
Self-teaching ........................ ................................................................ .......166
C onceptions of Science .......................................... .......................... 167
G general conception of science .......................... ...................... ..... .................. 167
N atu re of scien ce .. ........... .................................................. ..................... 16 9
Conceptions of Learning ............ ................ ...................................170
Teacher needed for learning ......... ......................................... ..... ............... 170
L earning from m edia .. ......................................................... .. .................. 17 1
V iew of learning ......... ........................................................ .... ..... 172
L earner C characteristics .. ........................................................... ..................... 173
Prior know ledge ............................................ .. .. ............. .......... 173
M motivation ................................. .......................... .... .... ......... 175
A ge and cognitive level ............................ .................. ................................ 175
C conditions for Instruction ........................................................................................ 176
Conditions for teaching and learning ........................................ ............... 177
Q u ality com p on ent ............................................................ .......... ..................... 17 8
O th er factors .................................................. ... ........................................ 179
Instructional Strategies .................................. .. ... ... ..... ...............179


8









F favored strategies.......... ............................................................. ........ .... 180
Types of questions .............................................. .. ..... ................. 181
K in esth etic active cities ...................................................................... ..................18 1
T extb ook strategy ............................................................... .... ..... .. ... 18 1
P presentation ......................................................................... ...................182
Comparisons between Components of Orientations to Teaching Science .........................182
B a c k g ro u n d .............................................................................................................. 1 8 2
Goals for Teaching .................................... .. .......... .. ........... 183
S c ie n c e g o a ls ................................................................. .................................1 8 4
General goals............................................. 185
A ffectiv e g oals ...............................................................186
Science C curriculum ...............................................................187
Purpose of curriculum ... .......... ........... .... ................ 187
T e x tb o o k ........................................................................................................... 1 8 8
S ch o o l C o n tex t .............................................................................................................. 1 8 9
School type ...................................................................... ......... 189
T e a c h e r issue e s .................................................................................................. 1 9 0
O their factors ........................................................................................... ....... 192
Learner Characteristics ............................... ........................... ..........192
Cognitive ability and develop ental level ............................................................192
M o tiv a tio n ................................ ................. ............................................1 9 4
Understanding of content ........... ........... .... ................ 195
Rationale for Instruction.........................................................196
Lesson planning.............................................. 196
Assessment ............... ......... .......................198
In stru action al Strategies ............................................................................................ 2 0 0
T each er-led strategy ies....................................................................................... 2 0 0
Student-led strategies ...........................................................20 1
G rou p in g strategy ies .......................................................................................... 2 02

6 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS ................................. .......................... ...203

O v erv iew o f th e Stu dy ................................................................................................2 0 3
R ev iew o f M eth o d s ......................................................................................................... 2 0 4
Findings and Discussion ................................. ........................... ...........205
R research Q question 1 .......................... ...................................................................... 206
Teacher- or student-centered conception .................................... .....207
C onceptions of teaching science ...........................................................................208
Research Question 2 ......................... ................ 209
Didactic/academic rigor orientation ................................................. 210
Process/guided inquiry orientation .................. ................................................210
Proj ect-based orientation .............................................................. ..............211
A ctivity-driven orientation .............................................................. .............211
R research Q question 3 ....................... .. .............. .. .....................2 12
Teacher-centered conception to teaching science and subsequent orientations .....212
Student-centered conceptions of teaching science and subsequent orientations....214
C o n clu sio n ................................2 15.............................


9









Theoretical Fram ew ork Revisited ...........................................................................215
Pedagogical Content K now ledge ............................ ......... ...... .. ............... .... 216
Combining Conceptions of Teaching Science and Orientations to Teaching Science .220
Modifying Friedrichsen's Model of Science Teaching Orientations to Combine
OTS and CTS ............ ............................................................222
Perceptions of school context........................................... .......................... 223
Beliefs about learners and learning ............................................. ............... 223
Beliefs about teachers and teaching ............................................ ............... 224
G oals for teaching ....................... .. .......................... .. ....... ...............224
R ationale for instruction ...................... .. .. ......... .. ..................... ............... 225
V isible teaching strategies............................................. ............................. 225
Im plications of the Study ........... ......... .. ..................................................... ............ 226
T theoretical Im plications ...................... .. .. ......... .. ............................ ............... 226
Practical Implications ............................... .. ..... ......... .. ............226
Further Research................................... ......................... ... 228
F in al T h o u g h ts ...................... .. ............. .. ........................................................2 2 9

APPENDIX

A IRB-2 PROPOSAL AND INFORMED CONSENT FORMS ..........................................230

IR B -2 P rop o sal F orm ................... .. .. .... ...... .. .. .. .................................. ....................2 3 0
Inform ed C consent F orm ...................... .. .. ......... .. ............................... ..........................233

B FIRST SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL......... ............... 235

P purpose of the Interview ............................................................................ ....................235
Initial Interview Tasks .................................. ..... .. ...... .. ............235
Interview Questions ....................... ...... ......... ....... ..................235
Task for Identifying Conceptions of Science Teaching (30 minutes) ...............................236
C losing C om m ents........... ............................................................................... ...... ......236

C SECOND THROUGH FOURTH SEMI-STRUCTURED AND INTERVIEW GUIDE
P R O T O C O L ...............................................................................237

P purpose of the Interview ........................................................................ .. .......................237
Interview Q questions and G uide ................................................. ............................... 237

D FIFTH SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL.....................................238

P u rp o se of th e Interview ............................................................................ .....................2 3 8
Interview Q questions ......................... .................................. ........ ...... .... 238
Final Thoughts and Closure of Study ............................................................................238

E CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING SCIENCE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ........................239

T a sk P ro to c o l .................................................................................................................. 2 3 9
Instances about B biology .................................................... .. .......................... .. 240


10









Instances about Physics ......................... ......... .. .. ........ .. ............241
Instances about C hem istry ............................................................................ .......... .... .........242
Instances about Earth/Space Science............................. ......................... ............... 243

F PERMISSION FORMS USED FOR RESEARCH IN LOCAL COUNTY SCHOOLS .....244

Sample Application for Research Form Used for Gaining Access in County One ..............244
Signed Dissertation Proposal Used for Gaining Access in County Two............................246
Project Summary Used for Gaining Access in County Two.................... ................247
Project Summary Used for Gaining Access in County Two............................. .............247

G D A TA COLLECTION SCH EDU LE ........................................................ .....................250

H CTS AND OTS STUDY CODE BOOK ............................................... 251

Codebook Key for Codes and Themes Developed from Interviews of Participants ..........251
Them es and Codes Found in Data ....................................................................... 252

LIST O F R EFER EN CE S ................................................................................................ 280

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................. ....................285









LIST OF TABLES

Table page

3-1 E explanation of interview types. .................................... ........................... .....................52

5-1 Participant's conceptions of teacher characteristics. ..................................................... 159

5-2 Participant's conceptions of teaching. .....................................................................162

5-3 Participant's conceptions of science. ...................................................... ....................167

5-4 Participant's conceptions of learning ............................ ........................... .... .......... 171

5-5 Participant's statements of learner characteristics............................. ...............173

5-6 Participant's conditions for instruction....... ............................ ....... ...... ......... 177

5-7 Participant's instructional strategies. ...................................................... ....................180

5-8 Participant's goals for teaching ...................... ..................... ................. ............... 184

5-9 Participant's focus on science curriculum ........................................... ...................187

5-10 Participant's school context. ..................................................................... ......... ..... 189

5-11 Participant's view of learner characteristics. ................ .................... ...................193

5-12 Participant's rationale for instruction.................................. ....................... 197

5-13 Participant's instructional strategies. .......................... .............................................. 200

6-1 Participant's Conception of Teaching Science. .....................................................206

6-2 Participant's Orientations to Teaching Science. ...................................... .................209

6-3 Key Concepts of Teacher Thinking about Science Teaching.......................................216

G Schedule of data collection. ..................................................................... ..................250













12









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 Conceptual framework for research derived from reading of the literature. ...................21

2-1 Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK........... ................ ..............31

2-2 Components of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. ..........................34

2-3 Conceptions of teaching science......._...................... ............. ............... 37

4-1 Patrick's Conception of Teaching Science. ............... ...... ................... ............... 71

4-2 Patrick's Orientation to Teaching Science ......... ... .......... .................... .............. 76

4-3 M eredith's Conception of Teaching Science. ........................................ ............... 84

4-4 M eredith's Orientation to Teaching Science. ....................................... ............... 89

4-5 Alex's Conception of Teaching Science ........................................ ........................ 98

4-6 Alex's Orientation to Teaching Science. .............................................. ............... 103

4-7 Cristina's Conception of Teaching Science ............................................. ............... 114

4-8 Cristina's Orientation to Teaching Science. ................................... ......................... 119

4-9 Isobel's Conception of Teaching Science ............................... ..............127

4-10 Isobel's Orientation to Teaching Science. ............................................ ............... 134

4-11 George's Conception of Teaching Science ................................................ ............... 144

4-12 George's Project-based Orientation to Teaching Science. ............. ............... 149

5-1 Components of participant's Conceptions of Teaching Science. ...............................158

5-2 Categories for Orientations to Teaching Science................................. ............... 183

6-1 Conceptual Framework of intersection between Conceptions of Teaching Science
and O rientations to Teaching Science .......... .......................................... ....... ........ 213

6-2 Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK.....................................................217

6-3 P C K and its com ponents......................................................................... ...................220

6-4 Mayne's emergent theory of beginning teacher's PCK via their Conceptions of and
Orientations to Science Teaching. ............................................ ........................... 222









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


ACP Alternative Certification Program, a three-year on-the-job program
instituted in Florida to prepare uncertified teachers for state certification
including classes in education and pedagogy while they are teaching in the
public schools.

CTS Conceptions of teaching science refers to a teacher's view of science,
content knowledge, learners and learning, rationale for instruction and
effective instructional strategies (Hewson & Hewson, 1988).

OTS Orientations to teaching science, refers to a teacher's knowledge and
beliefs about the purposes and goals of teaching science Grossman, 1990,
Magnusson et al., 1999).

PCK Pedagogical content knowledge refers to a teacher's ability to explain
concepts within a discipline to students that requires expertise in subject
matter and teaching skills as well as a knowledge of students and
classroom context (Shulman, 1986).

PCKg Pedagogical content knowing refers to a teacher's understanding of
pedagogy, subject matter content, student characteristics, and learning
context (Cochran, DeRuiter & King, 1993).

STTF Science Teacher Thinking Framework developed by Roberts and Chastko
(1990) to show how science teachers think about science teaching events.

TPC Teacher pedagogical constructions refer to a model that blends PCK with
other teacher knowledge and beliefs (Hashweh, 2005).









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

BEGINNING SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS CONCEPTIONS OF AND
ORIENTATION TO TEACHING SCIENCE

By

Dina L. Mayne

August 2007

Chair, Rose Pringle
Major: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC)

This study aimed to determine Conceptions to Teaching Science (CTS) and Orientations to

Teaching Science (OTS) of six beginning secondary science teachers. The teacher participants

were in their first year of teaching and came from both traditional and alternative certification

preparation programs. The study also examined how useful CTS and OTS were to explore

beginning teachers thinking about teaching science. Through interviews and classroom

observations, participants articulated CTS that were largely teacher centered. Also, some viewed

science teaching as transmission of facts, whereas others saw themselves as facilitating students'

learning. Participants held OTS which mostly complemented their CTS. Overall, they appeared

to hold multiple CTS and OTS simultaneously. These results can be used to design new or

modify existing pre-service and in-service teacher professional development programs. Also, this

study provides a framework for science teachers combining both the CTS and OTS construct.










CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background

Science teachers guide their students to construct meaning when making sense of their

world. Children's meaning-making is structured by their cultures and histories and occurs during

interactions with students, teachers, parents, and others (Creswell, 2003). During science

instruction, to further students' understanding, their instructors have to be adept at making

connections between the concepts to be learned and their student's prior knowledge. Teachers

must therefore have a deep understanding of content and the ability to represent the content in

ways that their students will understand through explanation, activities and experiments. Studies

on teacher thinking (Bryan & Abell, 2002; Zohar, 2004) have tried to make visible teacher

decisions about what to teach, how to teach it, and activities that will best explicate these

decisions.

For students to understand and remember scientific concepts, the teacher needs to provide

the best content knowledge learning experiences in ways that are understandable for learners.

Shulman (1986) speaks about a "particular form of content knowledge that embodies the aspects

of content most germane to its teachability" (p. 9). This form of content knowledge Shulman

classifies as pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)

encompasses the "decisions about content and activities that teachers make, their interactions

with students, the selection of assessments, the habits of mind that teachers demonstrate and

nurture among their students, and the attitudes conveyed wittingly and unwittingly all effect the

knowledge, understanding abilities, and attitudes that students develop" (NRC, 1996, p. 28). The

content knowledge a teacher has together with their pedagogical knowledge is transformed by

teaching experience and reflection into their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986).









PCK embodies a unique form of teacher problem solving that consists of teacher thinking

about what difficulties students may have in understanding a particular topic as well as their

preconceptions and conceptions about a subject (Shulman, 1986). Teachers need to have both a

deep understanding of their subject matter and the pedagogical knowledge to decide what

strategies are needed to guide students to realign their conceptions about a topic. They must have

curricular knowledge of their science subject matter, how it aligns with the science curriculum,

and its position in the total or macrocurriculum of the school (Shulman, 1986).

Individual empirical and meta-syntheses studies have shown how teacher preparation

courses and experiences, actual teaching experience, and teacher's certification status, provide

knowledge of teaching and learning, and are strongly related to student achievement (Cochran-

Smith, 2002). Adams and Krockover (1997) studied teacher cognition and found that pre-service

teaching and learning experiences that is, science methods classes, pre-internship and internship

teaching experiences, help develop pedagogical content knowledge. PCK is also mediated by

pre-service teacher's most significant learning or teaching experiences prior to training (Adams

& Krockover, 1997).

There are many sources of pedagogical content knowledge besides content and

pedagogical knowledge. A teacher must have curriculum knowledge, an understanding of

learners and their learning styles, assessment procedures and their evaluation, and an

understanding of the various contexts in the classroom (Magnusson et al., 1999). Teacher

education programs are designed to prepare new teachers for the classroom by developing their

curricular and pedagogical knowledge as well as giving them an understanding of how children

learn and strategies to teach and assess them. Personal pedagogical knowledge or the

understanding of teaching and management strategies to use in a classroom cannot develop









without practical teaching experiences. These are provided to pre-service teachers through their

pre-internship, internship classroom practice as well as other field experiences. As prospective

teachers reflect on classroom events as they transpire, they start to identify elements, that is,

instructional strategies, teacher-student and student-student interactions, and management

techniques, that promote student participation and their subsequent learning in a particular

classroom setting (Morine-Desshimer & Kent, 1999). When beginning science teachers enter

their first classroom, research indicates that they use their pre-service teaching experiences,

academic learning experiences, and belief systems to construct their personal pedagogical

knowledge (Morine-Desshimer & Kent, 1999).

One of the current research challenges for educators is to understand teacher thinking when

using PCK in the classroom to elucidate concepts about a particular science topic. Studies have

shown how teachers (pre-service, new and experienced in-service) conceptualize the particular

science they are teaching and the orientations/conceptions they have for teaching science,

discovering these through self-efficacy questionnaires, interviews, concept maps, card sorts, and

observation.

Pre-service teachers both before, during and after internship have been observed and tested

to try to understand how PCK is developed and expanded. New teachers are assumed to have

developed a beginning PCK that is fixed but it can be expanded as they become more

experienced teachers. New teachers are still developing their PCK and determining their

orientation to teaching. Pedagogical content knowledge is not fixed until after that first, second,

or third year when the fledgling teacher starts to feel competent to teach the particular subject

(Adams & Krockover, 1997).









Because of the many components of pedagogical content knowledge which comprise it,

PCK is very difficult to observe. Generally researchers look at a component or components of

PCK such as a teacher's goals and purposes for teaching or their beliefs about teaching which

result in instructional strategies used in teaching (Adams & Krockover, 1997; Bryan & Abell,

1999; Friedrichsen, 2002). Two of the ways to examine PCK are by investigating an educator's

orientation to and conceptions of teaching science.

A teacher's orientation to teaching science encompasses their goals and purposes for

teaching particular science content and is observable in the instructional strategies that individual

teachers choose when instructing students during specific lessons (Magnusson et al., 1999).

Conceptions of teaching science are an educator's knowledge and beliefs about teaching, the

nature of science, and student knowledge and capabilities which result in that teacher's rationale

for instruction and instructional techniques used during teaching (Hewson & Hewson, 1988). It

should be possible to determine both of these components of PCK, that is, orientations to

teaching science and conceptions of teaching science through observing beginning secondary

science teachers instructional strategies and inquiring into their beliefs, goals, and purposes for

teaching science.

Beginning secondary science teachers come from a variety of different certification

programs, from traditional four or five-year programs to alternative certification programs.

Alternative routes to teacher certification generally have specific requirements, that is, that

candidates have at least a bachelor's degree, pass some screening process, like a test or content

mastery, use on-the-job teacher training, and take required coursework while teaching either

during the school year or in the summer. They also typically have mentor teachers. Such

programs last from one to two years (NCEI, 2005).









Darling-Hammond, Chung, and Frelow (2002) using data from a 1998 survey of 3000

beginning teachers teaching in New York City schools, determined teacher comfort with their

preparation for teaching. Survey participants were from both traditional college and university

four and five-year teacher certification programs and alternate certification programs varying

from summer training programs to 1 or 2 year post-baccalaureate programs. The survey of

beginning teachers found that 34% of the certified teachers earned it through transcript review

and less than half had attained certification through traditional 4-year undergraduate programs

(Darling-Hammond et al., 2002).

Teachers from alternate certification programs surveyed felt less prepared than

traditionally certified teachers in areas of curriculum, instructional strategies, subject matter

content, and understanding and knowing how to meet student needs (Darling-Hammond et al.,

2002). All of these areas are components of a teacher's pedagogical content knowledge,

specifically elements of their conceptions of teaching and orientations to teaching. The study also

found that teachers from certified programs had a higher sense of responsibility for student

learning whereas, teachers from alternative programs felt that students were responsible when

they were not learning the material (Darling-Hammond et al., 2002).

One of the topics that is yet unknown is, what a teacher is thinking when s/he uses PCK in

the classroom to elucidate concepts about a particular science topic. Studies have shown through

self-efficacy questionnaires, interviews, concept maps, card sorts, and observation how pre-

service, novice and expert teachers conceptualize the particular science they are teaching based

on their orientations and conceptions about teaching science (Adams & Krockover, 1997;

Friedrichsen, 2002; Zohar, 2004). Orientations toward teaching science and conceptions of

teaching science are distinct components of pedagogical content knowledge with some overlap.










Conceptions of Teaching Science

Conceptions Conceptions Learner
of of Learner
of of
characteristics
teaching science


r--------- ----\ ----------------

Rationale for Instructional
instruction strategies

L-------------- ---- ------J------;-


Goals
Goals Science School Learner
for
teaching curriculum context characteristics
teaching

Orientations to Teaching Science

Figure 1-1. Conceptual framework for research derived from reading of the literature.


Both orientations to teaching science (OTC) and conceptions of teaching science (CTC)

contain a teacher's rationale for teaching and preferred teaching strategies, but conceptions of

teaching science view the rationale for instruction and preferred strategies as only two of its five

components whereas orientations toward teaching science sees them as the evidence that

exemplifies a teacher's goals for teaching (Magnusson et al., 1999). Exploring the nexus (Figure

1-1) between a beginning teacher's orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching

science should illustrate the beginning teacher's thinking on secondary science instruction.

Purpose of the Study

The present study will explore the orientations to teaching science and conceptions of

teaching science of first year secondary science teachers from both traditional and alternate

teacher certification programs. The researcher poses these questions to guide the study:









Research Questions


* RESEARCH QUESTION 1 :What are the conceptions of teaching science of the six beginning
secondary science teachers in this study?

* RESEARCH QUESTION 2:What is the nature of orientations to teaching science of the six
beginning secondary science teachers in this study?

* RESEARCH QUESTION 3:To what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science
teachers thinking (PCK)?

Definition of Terms

* CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING SCIENCE (CTS). A teacher's view of science as well as their
"knowledge of the particular content to be taught, the particular students they will be teaching,
and effective instructional strategies to plan and perform to achieve the intention of helping these
students learn the desired content" (Hewson & Hewson, 1988, p. 611).

* ORIENTATION TO TEACHING SCIENCE (OTS). A teacher's knowledge and beliefs about the
purposes and goals of teaching science (Grossman, 1990; Magnusson et al., 1999).

* PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (PCK). A teacher's ability to explain concepts within
a discipline to students that requires expertise in subject matter and teaching skills as well as a
knowledge of students and classroom context (Shulman, 1986).

* BEGINNING SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS. Individuals who are starting their first
assignment as a science instructor in a middle school or high school environment.

* ROUTE TO TEACHER PREPARATION. The different pathways that an individual can take to be
licensed as an educator. Two different pathways are considered:

* TRADITIONAL CERTIFICATION. A college or university-based four-year program to train
individuals to teach a particular subject matter. This program includes coursework in the content
individuals will be teaching, education and pedagogy courses, and practice teaching with varying
levels of support and supervision. At the culmination of the program, individuals take state tests
to certify them as subject matter or grade level teachers.

* ALTERNATIVE CERTIFICATION. A one to three year program administered by colleges or
universities, states, or other agencies to train individuals having a bachelor's degree to teach and
generally includes coursework in education and pedagogy, on-the-job training while teaching,
mentoring by seasoned teachers, and passing general knowledge, subject area, and professional
educator's exams to become certified.









Significance of the Study

This study will explore first year secondary science teachers' orientations to teaching

science and their conceptions of teaching science. The findings will contribute to the body of

scholarly research in science teacher thinking regarding teachers' orientations to teaching science

and conceptions of teaching science. The findings may be helpful in designing or modifying pre-

service teacher education programs. The findings may also guide professional development of

in-service teachers and encourage participants to examine prior teaching or mentoring

experiences and how they influence teacher practice, carefully selecting cooperating teachers to

give pre-service teachers a chance to see and practice teaching strategies they may be unfamiliar

with and resistant to, and ensuring education classes are current and relevant to the student

population and school climate new and practicing teachers encounter. This study will contribute

to theoretical key concepts of teacher thinking by combining CTS and OTS and providing a new

model for beginning science teacher thinking.

Furthermore, this study should contribute to the literature on science teacher thinking that

uses the CTS and OTS constructs. These constructs are used differently in some literature and

interchangeably in others. It is hoped that this study will provide new insights into the usefulness

of these constructs for describing how beginning science teachers think about their teaching.

Limitations of the Study

1. Only individuals who met the criterion of being beginning secondary science teachers were

eligible for participation in this study.

2. Participants in this study were not necessarily representative of all beginning science

teachers.

3. Perceptions of individuals are limited to their point of view.

4. Possible sources of participant's orientation to teaching science were not reported on.









5. Data was chosen to be collected after participants had been teaching for at least one month

to enable them to settle into their classrooms and resolve any administrative issues that

would have distracted from the teaching.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

How an educator teaches depends on their beliefs, vision of teaching, content knowledge,

pedagogical knowledge, understanding of students and of the context of instruction within their

classroom, school and community (Magnusson, Krajcik & Borko, 1999). Teaching is not an

automatic act but a purposeful action that requires each educator to take all of the components

and construct their conception of and orientation to teaching. This is not done in a vacuum, rather

"all knowledge, and therefore all meaningful reality as such, is contingent upon human practices,

being constructed in and out of interaction between human beings and their world, and

developed and transmitted within an essentially social context" (Crotty, 1998, p. 42). A

constructivist framework is necessary to guide any observations into teacher thinking,

pedagogical content knowledge, and orientations to teaching. In this chapter I will provide an

overview of research related to the study. The following topics, teacher thinking, pedagogical

content knowledge, science teaching orientations and conceptions of teaching science will

precede a summary.

Teacher Thinking

Teacher thinking comprises a huge body of research on reflection where teachers engage

in thoughtful, deliberative self-examination of teaching events. Two studies (Halkes & Deijkers,

2003; Roberts & Chastko, 1990) developed frameworks for teacher thinking, but the remainder

of the studies (Zohar, 2004; Windschitl, 2003; Bryan and Abell, 2002; Shapiro, 1996; Adams &

Krockover, 1997) discussed teacher thinking in general.

Halkes & Deijkers (2003) suggested a cognitive action framework to guide teaching.

They asserted that the novice or experienced teacher needs to have built a routine or theory about

what to do in the pre- or inter-active teaching-learning situation. Teacher beliefs determine what









to do, what to avoid and what to work toward in teaching. A teacher's personal values are

important and the teacher tries to keep them constant while teaching (Halkes & Deijkers, 2003).

From the literature the authors compiled a teacher's criteria for instruction: 1) student activity

and participation; 2) adaptations to student differences; 3) subject matter; 4) teacher's

pedagogical aims or objectives; 5) nature of teacher-student and student-student interactions; 6)

teacher's needs for certainty, autonomy, respect; and 7) what orientation teacher held on basic

knowledge, discipline and objectivity (Halkes & Deijkers, 2003). In this study on teacher

thinking they found that science teachers were like language teachers in that they wanted more

teacher control, needed less work ethos, and preferred direct instruction as their teaching

orientation within their classrooms.

Roberts and Chastko (1990) developed the Science Teacher Thinking Framework (STTF)

to show how science teachers think about science teaching events. They posited that reflection or

thinking about the events of science teaching is compared with absorption (simply taking

information in) and refraction (bending away or ignoring the information). A science methods

course was taught using the STTF construct which had four parts, i.e., subject matter, teaching

strategy, objectives, and student response. First reflective category is subject matter, which

shows student's theoretical framework. The next category, teaching strategy, shows the

intentional character of teaching where subject matter is blended with teaching strategies.

Objectives, the third category, are concerned with outcomes for students and how they are linked

to the actions of the teacher. The fourth category was student's responses comprised as feedback

to teachers on how their lesson is being understood by students (Roberts & Chastko, 1990).

In the study the researchers examined whether the quality of student's reflection can be

affected by the content and instruction in the methods course. Pre-service secondary science









teachers come to the methods course with preconceived notions about the purpose of learning

which Roberts and Chastko called absorption. Students see coursework as something to be

learned as fact. The methods course was taught from a constructivist stance to help students learn

concepts as a lens to look at events and make sense of them. Authors found that some students

resisted the reflection of microteaching and talking about the teaching because of their subject-

matter-as-fact orientation. Three refractory styles, i.e., "who needs this", "everything-was-fine",

and "haven't you forgotten something" were the ways that students resisted the constructivist

style and STTF construct they were being taught (Roberts & Chastko, 1990). The authors found

that their students developed reflective abilities at different levels and from resistance of

reflection to acceptance of it, and the reflective stance supported their teaching orientation.

Zohar (2004) found that secondary science teachers, when trained in a new teaching

curriculum, resisted the concept of allowing students to create their own scientific meaning.

Teachers were more comfortable with the transmission-of-knowledge form of teaching and

believed teacher thinking should have the same focus. In the study two-thirds of the teachers

used the transmission-of-knowledge model and less than one-fourth used constructivism. The

author found that the kind of inquiry pre-service teachers experienced as students in science

classes was confirmatory or cookbook labs i.e., follow the steps and get the prescribed answer.

These labs patterned the kind of experiences pre-service teachers had in high school science.

Their high school teachers also did not engage students in discussions about science topics

(Zohar, 2004).

Another finding was (Zohar, 2004) that pre-service teachers had never experienced

inquiry so they had no schema for understanding it. Without discussion and activities to help

understand science, teachers will not be able to learn new information or discuss why something









is or is not correct knowledge. The experiences that influence teachers' conceptions and beliefs

about inquiry are their K-12 experiences, lab work at the college level and teacher education

courses (Zohar, 2004).

In Windschitl's (2003) study, reflective journals were used in a preservice science

methods class to examine teacher thinking. The student's reflections ranged from foci on aspects

of teaching, learning and subject matter to the moral, social, and political aspects of teaching. He

found that the beliefs each pre-service teacher carried strongly influenced their thinking and

actions. He believed that teachers make instructional decisions based on their knowledge and

beliefs and the interaction between them. From interviews and reflections he discovered that

preservice teachers understanding of inquiry was learned when they are undergraduates. Those

teachers who understood inquiry had more rich reflections and tended to think more about how

they would present the activity to their own students. Those who thought inquiry was a linear

process just kept a log-like journal with only the data. Only half of the pre-service teachers used

inquiry in their classrooms and those who had done inquiry before were those who transferred it

to their classrooms (Windschitl, 2003).

Bryan and Abell (2002) reported in a single case study about a pre-service teacher's

beliefs, experiences and tensions in her teaching. The teacher's vision of science included beliefs

on how children learn science, goals of science instruction and the role of the science teacher,

components of a teacher's orientation to and conceptions of teaching science. As her teaching

progressed she was able to think about her student's lack of science concept understanding.

These reflections led her to see disconnects between her beliefs and her actions. She began to

look at her teaching instead of the students' perceived shortcomings and process her beliefs,

visions, and practice into the orientations to teaching that were most realistic for her (Bryan &









Abell, 1999).

In a study of changes in elementary student teacher thinking in science methods classes

(Shapiro, 1996) looked at inquiry projects done outside the class with a partner. Most students in

a method class changed their thinking about science and investigations as a result of their

project-based inquiry. A participant, chosen as a model case study, reversed her ideas about how

to perform open-ended investigations, what science is, and the usefulness of investigations as a

learning approach in the classroom (Shapiro, 1996).

In "Beginning teacher cognition" (Adams & Krockover, 1997), the authors give Kagan's

(1990) definition of teacher orientation as "pre- or in-service teachers' self-reflections beliefs and

knowledge about teaching, students, and content; and awareness of problem-solving strategies

endemic to classroom teaching" (p. 635). They studied four beginning secondary science

teachers to examine their thinking and how it relates to the program experiences they say built

their knowledge. The four participants included three biology teachers and one earth science

teacher. While the participants credited the pre-service program with helping them develop

constructs on student-centered learning, general pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content

knowledge, models for instructional strategies or orientations to teaching came from experiences

other than the education classes for two of the four teachers. These two used lecture extensively

as they had been taught most of their student lives. "The degree of translation from the program

to the teacher's understanding of their classrooms appears to be modulated by their most

significant learning experiences and the context of their teaching situations" (Adams &

Krockover, 1997, p. 649).

Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a context specific knowledge of how to teach a

particular subject to a particular group of students. Representations, demonstrations, questioning









techniques, and other strategies can be used to explain specific concepts within their subject

matter to students. Experienced teachers tend to have higher PCK due to their amount of time in

the classroom. The term was first coined by Shulman who placed it within the seven categories

of knowledge that teachers must have to perform well, i.e., knowledge of content; knowledge of

pedagogy; knowledge of curriculum; knowledge of learners and learning; knowledge of contexts

of schooling; pedagogical content knowledge; and knowledge of educational philosophies, goals,

and objectives (Shulman, 1986). He defined PCK as the combination of content knowledge and

pedagogy transforming by teaching experience and reflection, used to explain concepts within a

particular discipline to students in the classroom and stated that it "goes beyond knowledge of

subject matter per se to the dimension of subject matter knowledgefor teaching" (Shulman,

1986, p. 9).

Grossman (1990) took the seven categories of knowledge and refined them into four

categories: subject matter knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content

knowledge and knowledge of context. General pedagogical knowledge was redefined to include

knowledge of educational philosophies, goals, and objectives. Within pedagogical content

knowledge there were four components, i.e., conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter,

knowledge of learners and learning, curricular knowledge and knowledge of instructional

strategies. Each component was fed from the other categories of knowledge, namely subject

matter, general pedagogical knowledge, and knowledge of content (Figure 2-1).

What drove PCK was a teachers understanding of purposes for teaching their particular

subject and their beliefs about them. These conceptions showed themselves as goals for a

specific subject, explicating different beliefs by the different aims teachers had for instruction.

Knowledge about students included not only students' conceptions but their misconceptions on a









particular subject at specific grade levels. Curricular knowledge demonstrated teachers' depth

and breadth of a particular subject, showing their understanding not only of the concepts within a

subject but how it fit within the overall discipline. Knowledge of instructional strategies

explained the techniques used in teaching a subject. Master teachers developed "rich repertoires

of metaphors, experiments, activities, or explanations" (p. 9) to guide their instruction

(Grossman, 1990). Magnussen, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) used Grossman's model of PCK but

added a fifth component, assessment in scientific literacy.


Substantive Syntactic
Knowledge Knowledge
and Beliefs and Beliefs



Subject Matter
Knowledge
and Beliefs


Influences


Classroom
Management
Instructional Educational
Principles Aims


Pedagogical
Knowledge
and Beliefs


Influences


Pedagogical
Content
Knowledge
4
Influences

Knowledge and
Beliefs about
Context


Community Students School District


Figure 2-1. Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK. Modified from Magnusson,
Krajcik, and Borko (1999)









In the literature, PCK appears to be related to the concepts of functional paradigms

(Lantz & Kass, 1987), craft knowledge and pedagogical content knowing (Van Driel et al.,

1998), and achievement goal theory (Deemer, 2004),. Functional paradigms (Lantz & Kass,

1987) was first presented by Crocker (1983) who used it as a way to investigate why teachers

function as they do and how this affects the classrooms they teach in, and vice versa. Lantz and

Kass looked at the reflective practices of high school chemistry teachers whereby they translated

particular curricular materials (ALCHEM) into classroom practices. From interviews of 20 in-

service teachers they formulated a picture of functional paradigms of teaching chemistry. As

with Grossman's study, the authors found three sources for teachers' functional paradigms,

namely curriculum materials, teachers' background, and their teaching situation. All of these

sources were colored by a teacher's perception of high school chemistry.

A team of researchers (Van Driel et al., 1998) searched the literature on pedagogical

content knowledge (PCK) and craft knowledge to determine if they were synonymous and what

ties they had to each other. They found that craft knowledge was greatly influenced by a

teacher's conceptions of teaching science. They defined craft knowledge as "integrated

knowledge which represents teachers' accumulated wisdom with respect to their teaching

practice." (Van Driel et al, 1998, p. 674) The authors also agreed with Shulman's (1986) sources

of PCK, namely observation of classes; disciplinary education; specific courses during teacher

education; and classroom teaching experience.

A slight variant on PCK was PCKg or pedagogical content knowing, defined as "a

teacher's integrated understanding of four components of pedagogy, subject matter content,

student characteristics, and the environmental context of learning" coined by Cochran, DeRuiter









and King (1993, p. 264) and was believed to be a synthesis of all four components developed at

the same time.

Achievement goal theory was used in another study (Deemer, 2004) to study the

influence of teachers' teaching efficacy on their classroom goals. This seems to parallel the

overarching component of Grossman's PCK, namely conceptions for teaching. Deemer saw a

correlation between efficacy and instructional practice in her study that is how confident a

teacher was translated to the structure and goals of their classroom. Other factors fed into these

teacher efficacies, such as beliefs about student intelligence, and perception of school climate,

which resulted in a teacher's classroom goal orientation (Deemer, 2004).

Orientations to Teaching Science

Orientations to teaching science (OTS) is placed within PCK as the overarching

component (figure 2-2) but different researchers have named or defined each term in slightly

different ways and cited as many as nine orientations or as few as two depending on the study.

Hewson and Hewson (1988) identified four distinct teaching approaches based on the study by

Anderson and Smith (1983) as activity-driven, didactic, discovery, and conceptual change

teaching. The authors placed them on a continuum from inexperienced to experienced teachers,

placing the activity-driven teaching technique as that chosen by least experienced teachers, and

didactic as used by those who see teaching as a process for presenting information to students,

and discovery and conceptual change teaching as that chosen by most experienced teachers.

Grossman (1990) called this component of pedagogical content knowledge the "conceptions of

purposes for teaching" and made it the overarching component within PCK. Although she did

not name specific conceptions she believed that a teacher's perspectives seemed to suggest their

different conceptions of teaching.












Areas of Science
student Goals and
Difficulty includes the Objectives
t Overarching
including component i
Knowledge ofKn
students' Knowledge
understanding c c ahi
of Science ch Orientations chaes
A to Teaching iCg
SScience Specific
Requirements Science
for learning \ Curricula

which shapes
which shapes
Strategies

Methods of o Science
Assessing Knowledge d / Topics
Science of Knowledge
Learning Assessment of
of Scientific Instructional
Literacy Strategies in s
Science-
Dimensions specific
of science Strategies
Learning to (for any
Assess topic)

Figure 2-2. Components of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. Modified from
Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999)


Magnussen, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) also felt that there was an overarching component

within PCK but named the umbrella component "orientations to teaching science" (Figure 2-1)

and had it shaping the other four components of pedagogical content knowledge. They defined

OTC as "teachers' knowledge and beliefs about the purposes and goals for teaching science at a

particular grade level" (p. 97) and found what they termed nine orientations to teaching science









within the literature. The orientations were organized on a chart from process or content to a

combination of both that would fit into the new inquiry-based standards. Process and activity-

driven orientations fit on the process end of the continuum whereas academic rigor and didactic

orientations were on the content end. Conceptual change, discovery, project-based science,

inquiry and guided inquiry were both process and content oriented and would be located in the

middle. A second continuum depicted teacher-to-student centered instruction where academic

rigor and didactic orientations existed on the teacher-centered end and activity-driven, guided

inquiry, project-based science, conceptual change, and inquiry moved along the continuum

toward a purely student-centered orientation that terminated with discovery learning (Magnusson

et al., 1999). All orientations were teaching strategies chosen depending on what teachers felt

were the goals for teaching science.

In a study (2002) of four highly-regarded student-centered biology teachers Friedrichsen

found that the orientations Magnussen, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) identified did not fit her

teachers' views of instruction. She discovered that the teachers had complex science teaching

orientations and appeared to hold more general beliefs of a teacher's role in instruction. Her

substantive-level theory proposed that science teaching orientations had multiple components

with different components having more important roles where other roles were on the periphery

(Friedrichsen, 2002).

Sandra Deemer (2004) used a simple achievement goal orientation system for studying

teacher's behaviors. Teachers would either use mastery or performance orientations in their

classrooms depending on several factors, specifically teacher's personal beliefs or self-efficacy,

how they define intelligence, and their beliefs about school access and resources. High self-

efficacy was equated to experience and comfort with teaching. How teachers viewed their









students abilities depended on their view of intelligence. An entity belief of intelligence was

viewed as fixed whereas an incremental belief imagined that intelligence is malleable and can be

increased. Finally, teachers in school cultures with a mastery or performance goal outlook were

usually given materials and training to support innovation and provide equal access. A

performance-oriented focus supported competition among teachers and selective access to

resources (Deemer, 2004). High self-efficacy and a belief in incremental intelligence usually

supported a teacher with a mastery orientation whereas low self-efficacy and an entity

intelligence belief usually resulted in a teacher with a performance-oriented teaching disposition.

School context played into these orientations in many cases but not all.

Conceptions of Teaching Science

Science teachers need to be able to facilitate students actively constructing their own

knowledge. They need to plan lessons around whatever students know and need to know. The

skills, knowledge, and altitudes a teacher possesses depend on their own conceptual structures of

classroom events, combined with their pedagogy and how they explain concepts. These also

depend on a teacher's rationale for teaching, view of science, orientations to teaching, science

content, student understanding and school context. Hewson and Hewson called this construct the

teacher's conception of teaching science and gave it five components (figure 2-3), conceptions of

science, conceptions of teaching, learner characteristics, rationale for instruction, and preferred

instructional techniques (Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

Hewson and Hewson's (1988) conception of teaching was based on the Hirst-

Fenstermacher framework (1971; 1986) which requires four components for an activity to be

classified as a teaching activity. First, for teaching to occur, there must be learning. Second, the

learning must be focused toward an outcome. Third, the teacher must support the student and










Teachers
expectations,
concerns,
capabilities,
and
knowledge


Figure 2-3. Conceptions of teaching science. Modified from Hewson and Hewson (1989)


Conceptions
of Teaching
Science










improve their capacity to achieve their learning goals. Fourth, the teacher has an end object, to

teach a student.

Hewson and Hewson (1988) state that "science teaching should of necessity consist of

tasks and activities which are intended to help particular students learn particular content...

indicative of the particular content to be learned, and expressed so that it is possible for the

particular students to learn it" (p. 601). Internal characteristics science teachers should possess,

called conceptions of teaching science, include: 1) a clear conception of teaching; 2) knowledge

of content; 3) an understanding of student conceptions and alternate conceptions about the topics

to be taught; 4) knowledge and use of instructional strategies that bring about student conceptual

change; and 5) the ability to use all of the knowledge to facilitate student learning (Hewson &

Hewson, 1988).

Hewson and Hewson (1989) developed a task for identifying teacher's conceptions of

teaching science and a clear analysis of the task. They defined conceptions for teaching as a "set

of ideas, understandings and interpretations of experience concerning the teacher and teaching,

the nature and content of science and the learners and learning which the teacher uses in making

decisions about teaching, both planning and execution (p 194). The task presented the teacher

with instances from their science field and asked whether it was an example of teaching or not. It

provided instances and non-instances of science teaching in and out of class. The conceptions of

science teaching task was tested on 30 secondary science pre-service teachers and was analyzed

using six categories, i.e., a teacher's understanding of the nature of science, whether they felt

learning was happening, what learner characteristics were involved, their rationale for

instruction, their preferred instructional techniques, and their conception of teaching science

(Hewson & Hewson, 1989).









Routes to Certification

Teacher certification means that an individual who wishes to teach is qualified and

licensed to do so. Licensure is meant to assure the public that professionals such as doctors,

lawyers, and teachers are competent, fully qualified, and will do no harm (Diez, 2002). States

control licensing of teachers and other professionals and require proof of education and a

background free of criminal offenses. These state standards also prescribe specific coursework

that teacher candidates must have. States also screen candidates for competency with tests of

basic literacy skills and mathematics.

In recent years the passage of the No Child Left Behind mandate requires that all teachers

must be fully qualified by 2005-2006 (Sindelar, Daunic & Rennells, 2004). Now state and

federal agencies must assess professional skills and subject matter understanding to determine

whether a teacher is highly qualified (Diez, 2002). There are two routes to teacher certification,

the traditional route and alternative certification.

Traditional certification refers to the college or university-based four-year program to train

individuals to teach a particular subject matter. This program includes coursework in the content

individuals will be teaching, education and pedagogy courses, and practice teaching with varying

levels of support and supervision. At the culmination of the program, individuals take state tests

to certify them as subject matter or grade level teachers.

A huge turnover in teachers is expected in the next few years. The U.S. Department of

Education (2001) reports that a much as two million new teachers will be needed by 2010 and

programs in 46 states and the District of Columbia that provide an alternate route to attaining

teacher certification are getting more attention (Thomas, Friedman-Nimz, Mathlios, and O'Brien,

2005). Alternate certification is a relatively new path to teaching being used more frequently by









school systems and states due to the shortage of traditionally certified teachers specifically in the

fields of science, mathematics, and special education (Sindelar, Daunic & Rennells, 2004).

Alternative certification refers to a 1 to 3 year program administered by colleges or

universities, states, or other agencies to train individuals having a bachelor's degree to teach and

generally includes rigorous screening process, professional education coursework, on-the-job

training while teaching, mentoring by seasoned teachers, high performance standards (Thomas,

et al., 2005) and passing general knowledge, subject area, and professional educator's exams to

become certified.

Summary

Studies on pedagogical content knowledge and orientations to or conceptions of teaching

science demonstrate that there is a paucity of research on the PCK of beginning teachers. Pre-

service teachers both before, during and after internship have been observed and tested to try to

understand how PCK is developed and expanded. New teachers are assumed to have developed a

small amount of fixed PCK that can expand until they become experienced and/or exemplary

teachers. It has been posited that new teachers are still developing their pedagogical content

knowledge and determining their orientation to teaching. Bryan and Abell (1999) reported that

these two areas of teacher thinking and practice are not fixed until after that first, or second, or

third year when the novice teachers start to feel competent to teach the particular subject.

Additionally when the teacher is asked to teach a different science discipline, pedagogical

content knowledge for the new subject also has to be developed. (Bryan & Abell, 1999).

One of the topics that is yet unknown is what a teacher is thinking when s/he uses PCK in

the classroom to elucidate concepts about a particular science topic. Studies have shown how

pre-service, novice and expert teachers conceptualize the particular science they are teaching

based on their orientations and conceptions about teaching science (Adams & Krockover, 1997;









Friedrichsen, 2002; Zohar, 2004), and findings illustrate this through self-efficacy

questionnaires, interviews, concept maps, card sorts, and observation.. Orientations toward

teaching science and conceptions of teaching science are distinct components of pedagogical

content knowledge with some overlap. Both OTC and CTC contain a teacher's rationale for

teaching and preferred teaching strategies, but conceptions of teaching science sees the rationale

for instruction and preferred strategies as only two of its five components whereas orientations

toward teaching science sees them as the evidence that exemplifies a teacher's goals for teaching

(Magnusson et al., 1999). Exploring the nexus between a beginning teacher's orientations to

teaching science and conceptions of teaching science should illustrate the beginning teacher's

thinking on secondary science instruction.


































































42









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Theoretical Framework

"Interpretivism is a defining element of all qualitative research" says Hatch (2002) and

"permeates everything that is done" (p. 179). Interpretivists believe that "social actors" negotiate

meaning about their world by attempting to interpret it and "subscribe to a realist ontology"

(Scott & Morrison, 2006, p. 131). Researchers engage in taking a reported account of an

individual's actions and explaining it. In other words, they interpret data by giving a particular

thing meaning in alignment with their beliefs and understanding and make sense of it by giving

their explanations of what it means (Hatch, 2002). Interpretivism gives a model which aligns the

researcher as one of the active members in research. The problem is whether the researcher can

adequately interpret the participant's account without distorting what they try to describe.

Interpretation is expressed best in studies using interviews which focus on how the

participants construct meaning of their reported activities and actions (Scott & Morrison,

2006).The researcher therefore chose interpretivism as the methodological theoretical framework

analyzing data collected in the study. The steps of interpretive analysis clarified by Hatch (2002)

were followed in this study. First, the researcher reads all of the data through, then looks to

research for impressions of the data that might have been found and reported on. Second, he/she

reads the data again looking for these and other impressions. Data are read a third time and coded

based on support for or challenges to the researcher's interpretations. Fourth, the researcher

writes the summary. A member check is performed with participants for the fifth step, and

finally, the researcher writes the revised summary. By ensuring that all of these steps are taken

the study allows the data to speak both for the participants and researcher.









The Study

This study explores the orientations to and conceptions of teaching science of first year

secondary science teachers. The researcher posed these questions to guide the data collection

within the confines of the study:

* RESEARCH QUESTION 1:What are the conceptions of teaching science of the six beginning
secondary science teachers in this study?

* RESEARCH QUESTION 2:What is the nature of orientations to teaching science of the six
beginning secondary science teachers in this study?

* RESEARCH QUESTION 3:To what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science
teachers thinking (PCK)?

Research Design

The qualitative research design for this study was chosen for a variety of reasons. First, the

researcher was "interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed," (p. 6)

specifically how these beginning science teachers make sense of their experiences within the

context of their beliefs and goals (Merriam, 1998). Second, the researcher was the primary

instrument of this study, acting as interviewer and participant observer of the teachers as they

experienced teaching in their first year. Third, the research questions required the researcher to

collect information in the field about beginning secondary science teachers in their natural

setting, the classroom. Fourth, the data consisted of observation and interview which were

interpreted within the context of each participant's background. Analyzing the data, the

researcher would "build toward theory from observations and intuitive understandings gained in

the field" (p. 7). Finally, data from this study produced rich descriptive data about these

beginning secondary science teachers, their beliefs, goals, and purposes of science instruction

and their preferred instructional strategies.









Since several teachers were observed and interviewed to learn about their orientations to

and their conceptions of teaching science, the multiple case study methodology was chosen.

Multiple case studies are used where there are several cases which are fully described from the

data, collected and analyzed, then cross-case analysis is done of the similarities and differences

between cases (Merriam, 1998). This type of study tends to enhance the generalizability and

external validity of the findings. The case in this collective study was a group of teachers. It also

needs to be about a specific person or phenomena, otherwise known as a bounded system (Stake,

1995).

An attempt was made to select study participants for this research on the basis of

maximum variations sampling where the researcher looked for teachers with the widest possible

range of characteristics (Merriam, 1998) like type of certification, different teaching

environment, prior teaching experience, and so on. These differing characteristics gave the study

variety and balance, while also allowing the researcher to learn about the phenomena being

studied (Stake, 1995). Due to the paucity of available candidates, selection was made on their

status as beginning secondary science teachers and willingness to be part of the study. It was

fortuitous that due to the wide range of experiences, content specialty, different teaching

environment and type teaching certification of the participants this balance occurredwithout

using sampling.

Qualitative research has a strong emphasis on interpretation rather than generalizations.

Since there are only a few elements within the case study, they are traditionally not used to make

generalizations. The researcher doing fieldwork attempts to record what happens objectively but

also makes meaning of what is seen. Observation was then focused to look for support or non-

support of this meaning-making and finally, assertions or conclusions to the meanings of the data









collected are found. Conclusions like inferences in science are the mixture of what we observe,

what we know and what we believe (Stake, 1995).

Case study data like data from other methodologies can come from artifacts, interviews,

observation and other documentation. The design consists of five parts: research questions,

propositions, units of analysis, showing how the data are linked to the propositions and criteria

that allows interpretations of the findings (Zucker, 2001). My unit of analysis was beginning

secondary science teachers in their first classroom assignment so my case study goal was to

describe the case, beginning secondary science teachers' orientations to science and conceptions

of science as fully as possible. To do this I observed patterns in the data, clustered like data

together, made metaphors and comparisons, noted relations between teachers, built a logical

chain of evidence for what I saw, and made conceptual/theoretical coherence of the data (Zucker,

2001).

Beginning science teachers are relatively inexperienced with teaching in real-world

classrooms, having in most cases spent only limited time observing and instructing students

under the cognizance of a cooperating teacher. They have attained a science content degree in

physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy or other related science fields from an

accredited college or university. To be certified as a secondary science teacher, teacher

candidates must have successfully completed educational pedagogy and curriculum course work.

Graduates of a certified teacher education program have experienced classroom observation and

teaching in a protected environment under the direction of cooperating teachers and college

administrators whereas teachers from alternative certification programs have content knowledge

but may have little pedagogical knowledge and limited classroom observation and practice

teaching depending on the program (Cochran-Smith, 2002). Both groups of teachers have their









first opportunity to prepare and teach meaningful learning activities in their own classroom to

explain science content knowledge to groups of adolescents. Developing the techniques needed

to teach a subject requires the development of pedagogical content knowledge, some conception

of science teaching, and an orientation or orientations to teaching that guide their practice.

Setting and Participants

All of the beginning teachers earned a Bachelor of Science degree in a range of subjects,

that is, sports medicine, biology, ecology, and biology/earth science education. They all started

their first year of teaching in a public or private K-12 school in the fall of the year this study was

begun.

Six individuals beginning their first year of teaching secondary earth and space science,

chemistry, anatomy and physiology, or biology were selected. Only one of the participants was

from a traditional university-based teacher certification program. The remaining five teachers

had degrees that ranged from a bachelor's to a master's degree in science and were in the process

of becoming alternatively certified through the state or schools. One of the five participants

obtaining his alternate certification passed his certification exams prior to starting his first year as

a science teacher. The researcher focused on four science disciplines, that is, secondary earth and

space science, chemistry, anatomy and physiology, and biology as they corresponded with

participants' degrees and teaching assignments.

Additionally, finding one traditionally certified and five alternately certified beginning

secondary science teachers allowed me to examine the similarities and differences related to their

route to teacher preparation. To locate beginning secondary science teachers, local principals,

school boards, and university professors were contacted to develop a pool of possible candidates.

Participants were selected based upon their willingness to participate in the study.









Gaining access

Secondary school systems have only a finite number of new science teachers and of these,

few chose to be participants in my study. In order to develop a sizeable pool of participants I

elected to expand my search to as many counties near my location as I needed to find the

requisite number of participants for my study. Each county had specific requirements for access

to their teachers.

County One

County One is the home to seventy-three schools teaching 29,108 students and within the

county there are twenty-five elementary schools, eight middle schools, seven high schools, and

fifteen special needs schools (FL DOE, 2005a). I contacted the Science Coordinator for County

One who provided me with a list of potential teacher candidates. The Director of Research,

Evaluation, and Testing for this county informed me that the school district was the location for

over 300 studies per year since a large research intensive university resides within the district. He

made all determinations concerning researchers allowed access to County One and required a

completed permission form for each requested school (see Appendix F), an approved IRB

request and IRB protocol (see Appendix A), and one copy of any instrument to be used. Ten

days after receiving all documentation, the director approved the request.

Next he sent each form to the named school to allow principals to determine whether they

would allow a researcher access to their teachers. Of the six schools requested, only three

principals responded, one conditionally, and of the four teachers within the schools, only two

agreed to the study. Both teachers were in rural schools, one to the north of the county and one to

the south.









County Two

To the southeast of County One and adjoining it County Two was located, approximately

twice as large as large as county one and with one medium size city and many small townships.

The school system included twenty-seven elementary schools, seven middle schools, one

combined elementary and middle school, seven high schools, three charter schools, and fourteen

special needs schools with a total of 39,650 students enrolled (FL DOE, 2005b). I contacted the

Director of Guidance and Assessment by phone who requested a project summary of my

research study and a copy of my approved Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocol.

Subsequent email communications wherein the materials were sent and received resulted in

approval being given for the study. The director then requested written documentation from my

supervising professor indicating that the study of beginning teachers was approved. Contacting

the senior secretary of the department at my university, I attained the signed dissertation proposal

form (see Appendix F) and faxed it to the director.

Subsequently I sent a summary of my plan for teachers and their principals and a letter of

informed consent. The director requested copies of whatever written communications I planned

to use with principals and teachers. I contacted the principals via email using the same project

summary given to the director but tailored to each school (see Appendix F), and followed-up

with phone contact to attain access.

The Director of Guidance and Assessment for County Two also offered the services of

their personnel department to create a database to identify any first-year secondary science

teachers that they had. I received a written authorization from the director that my study was

approved in her county and two weeks later purchased a database of the beginning secondary

science teachers in their county. The list included the names of seventeen teachers as well as

those with temporary three-year certification. Of these, thirteen teachers from nine middle









schools and high schools were in their first year of instruction. I emailed and phoned the

principals from all of the schools with new teachers but was refused access by three of them

citing worries that their new teachers were busy teaching and attaining certification and had no

time for participation in the study. Principals from an additional three schools never returned

emails or phone calls. Two teachers from the remaining schools refused to participate and one

dropped the study after the initial interview explaining that his large workload prohibited

participation. I was able to secure one participant from the public schools in this county.

County Three

I found one principal in County Three who wanted me to meet his two new teachers and

invite them to participate in my study. County three is a rural county in central Florida with five

elementary schools, two junior high/middle schools, one combined middle and high school, two

high schools, three charter schools, an adult school and three other non-specified schools with a

total of 7,022 students enrolled (FL DOE, 2005c). I contacted both teachers via email and one

contacted me, becoming the fourth teacher in my study.

Private Schools in Counties Two and Four

Finally it was suggested to me that I might find likely candidates for the study among

teachers at private schools in the area. I developed a list of private schools in four surrounding

counties, preparing to widen the search to more outlying counties if necessary. County Two had

several schools with religious affiliation. When I contacted a well-established private protestant

school, the headmaster suggested I contact a recently built local Catholic high school where he

believed there were two new science teachers. I contacted the high school and was given

permission to contact their two beginning secondary science teachers. One teacher accepted my

invitation to join the study making five participants. Canvassing the private schools in County









Four I located my sixth teacher candidate at a non-sectarian private academy. The entire process

of finding study participants took five months.

Data Collection

In this qualitative research study, the researcher is the primary instrument, acting as

interviewer and participant observer of the participants, the secondary science teachers as they

developed experience teaching in their first year. The research questions presented earlier in this

chapter required the researcher to collect information about beginning secondary science

teachers in their natural setting, the classroom. Data from this study provided data about the

beginning secondary science teachers, their beliefs, goals, and stated purposes of science

instruction and their preferred instructional strategies.

The data collected consisted of observations and interviews. Data were interpreted within

the context of each participant's background. This allowed the researcher to use the data

collected to develop unstinting description of the beginning science teachers' profiles. Other data

sources used were semi-structured interviews, unstructured observation, and researcher field and

analytical notes.

The researcher strategically selected to collect data from participants after they taught for

one month to allow them to settle into teaching and resolve administrative issues. Data was

collected for each participant over a one-week period at the start of a teaching unit. This

timeframe allowed the researcher to see a snapshot in time of the participant's teaching practice.

Due to access issues and teacher convenience, beginning secondary science teachers were

interviewed and observed between the periods of October 2005 through June 2006 (see

Appendix G).










Interviews

The interview was used to elicit participants' perspectives and since its quality was largely

dependent on the skill of the interviewer (Patton, 2002) the researcher needed to be experienced

in interviewing or have a well-structured interview protocol. Semi- and unstructured interviews

encouraged participants to respond open-endedly and allowed the researcher to look for in-depth

understanding of the experiences of these individuals (Scott & Morrison, 2005). For this study,

the researcher combined approaches, and used the standardized open-ended interview for the

initial interview and a semi-structured interview guide for post-observation interviews (Table 3-


1).

Table 3-1. Explanation of interview types.
Type and timing of contact Type of interview
First interview at beginning of Standardized open-ended
study interview
(90 minutes)


Second interview after first
observation
(30 to 60 minutes)

Third interview after second
observation
(30 minutes)

Fourth interview after third
observation
(30 minutes)

Final interview after last
observation
(30 to 60 minutes)


Standardized open-ended
interview and/ or interview
guide

Interview guide



Interview guide



Interview guide


Purpose
* Explain study and sign
informed consent
Ask prepared questions on
participant background,
goals for teaching, etc.
CTS task interview to
determine participant's
conceptions of teaching
science

Probe teacher practices for
rationale for instruction and
preferred teaching techniques

Probe teacher practices for
rationale for instruction and
preferred teaching techniques

Probe teacher practices for
rationale for instruction and
preferred teaching techniques

Probe teacher practices for
rationale for instruction and
preferred teaching techniques









The standardized open-ended interview was used for the first interview and exact interview

questions were included so that the study could be duplicated. The six participants were asked

the same questions and their responses were compared (Patton, 2002). The initial interview

(Table 3-1) lasting approximately 90 minutes was scheduled at the teacher's convenience, before

the beginning of a new teaching unit. It included prepared questions on participant's background,

goals for teaching science and other topics as well as a modified version of Hewson & Hewson's

Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science (1989).

The second interview (Table 3-1) scheduled after the first observation, was used to gather

more information regarding participants' conceptions of teaching science and their orientations

to teaching science as well as probing for information about teacher practices while seeking

clarifications from the earlier interview or from observations.

Three shorter interviews (Table 3-1) using interview guides were conducted after each

observation to probe teachers about their practices as it related to the participants' rationale for

instruction and preferred teaching techniques. Interview guides were developed for the post-

observation interviews to provide a framework of topics or subject areas that allowed the

interviewer to freely probe interesting statements, explore diverging avenues of information, and

ask questions that clarified instances viewed during observation.

To focus the topics being asked and elicit clear responses to each question, the researcher

developed a clear set of interview questions (Appendices B through D), using special terms or

acronyms employed by participants in a particular setting, the language of the participants, and

avoiding the use of labels to describe programs or events (Patton, 2002). The reviewer asked

secondary science teacher participants a range of questions from their academic background,

school demographics, experiences, behaviors, and knowledge, to those relating to teacher's









opinions, values, feelings, and observations. Patton (2002) suggested that questions be sequenced

starting with those about present behaviors, activities, and experiences designed to encourage the

respondent to answer in greater detail. After eliciting an experience, the researcher asked the

interviewee what his/her feelings or opinions were about the experience to allow them to fully

describe the phenomena. As advised by Patton (2002), knowledge questions were asked as

follow-up information to minimize threatening participants. Also there were a minimum of

background and interview questions to avoid boring respondents or making them uncomfortable.

Utilizing all of Patton's (2002) suggestions for interviews resulted in extensive data.

Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science

Hewson and Hewson (1989) felt that teacher thinking about teaching students and

selecting content influence the way that they choose to teach. To discover participant's

conceptions of teaching science they developed a series of teaching and learning scenarios

tailored for specific science subjects. Subsequently they asked thirty teachers examine each

scenario to determine whether they felt teaching was occurring within each of the scenarios

(Hewson & Hewson, 1989). The scenarios, Hewson and Hewson's Task for Identifying

Conceptions of Teaching Science together with probing questions, used to elicit teacher's

choices were designed for use within an interview format to determine a science teacher's initial

CTS.

The task protocol with variations for physics, chemistry, and earth/space science,

(Appendix F) consisted of a set often scenarios depicting instances, non-instances, and

ambiguous instances of science teaching and learning. The scenarios gave the participant a

context for their responses which was practical. In addition, it required them to focus only on

instances of science teaching in a classroom (Hewson & Hewson, 1989). Participants determined









what is or is not teaching and learning and gave their reasons for their stance based on three

questions:

In your view, is there science teaching happening here?

If you cannot tell, what else would you need to know in order to be able to tell? What
would this information tell you? Please give reasons for your answer.

If you answered 'yes' or 'no', what tells you that this is the case? Please give reasons
for your answer" (Hewson & Hewson, 1989, p. 198).

The responses participants made to the task protocol assisted the researcher in determining their

conceptions for teaching science. All responses were audiotaped.

Hewson and Hewson's (1989) Task for Identifying Conceptions of Science had several

desirable characteristics for my study. First, by providing scenarios which give instances and

non-instances of science teaching, it provided a realistic structure for participant responses.

Second, since the scenarios were specifically of science teaching, this constrained the participant

to focus unambiguously on science teaching instead of management or other prevalent issues in

the classroom. Third, the scenarios did not specify what was important or necessary to attend to

but left this decision up to the respondent. Finally, using an interview allowed participants to

have more thoughtful answers that reflected their ideas and they could revise earlier statements if

desired (Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

There are some limitations of the Task for Identifying Conceptions of Science (Hewson &

Hewson, 1989). The CTS task addresses teacher's beliefs about teaching science but not what

value participants place on them. The ambiguity of each task varies and allows each participant

to construct meaning of each task in their own way. Asking for participants to explain the

reasons for their answers only presents teacher thinking about an instructional event, not how

they act within a classroom (Hewson et al., 1995). Due to these limitations, Hewson (1989)

suggested observing the teaching of participants in addition to the researcher's administration of









the task. During the first or, in two cases, second interview, I used Hewson and Hewson's (1989)

Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science. Each of the six beginning secondary

science teachers read the ten scenarios and responded to each scenario based on the above-

mentioned three questions. All responses were audiotaped for later analysis and were used to

develop a concept map and written summary of each participant's conceptions of teaching

science.

Observations

Observation was used to examine the classroom setting of each participant as well as

teacher-student and student-student interactions to provide insight into determining each

secondary science teachers' actual instructional techniques and to observe their enacted rationale

for science instruction. Some advantages of direct observation included allowing the researcher

to better understand and catch the context of classroom interactions, see things that might be

missed by the participants or they would be unwilling to share during interviews, and to give the

researcher personal experience with the classroom setting (Patton, 2002). This was important to

this research because it helped the researcher determine each secondary science teacher's

orientation to teaching science and conception of teaching science.

When observation is used for research purposes, it must meet four conditions, that is, 1)

serve a research purpose, 2) be deliberately planned, 3) be systematically recorded and 4) be

subjected to checks to determine that it meets standards for validity and reliability (Merriam,

1998). The observer needed training and mental preparation for systematic observation. One of

the most important skills was to write descriptively. Observation was used to provide a check on

other data collection, to see things participants may not notice, to provide the context of a

situation and specific incidents, as well as noting things a subject may not want to report on

(Merriam, 1998).









Five dimensions of observational methods determine how the researcher will conduct

fieldwork. Each dimension of fieldwork, that is, the role of observerss, type of perspective, who

will observe, how much disclosure about the study will be shared, how many observations, and

their focus is arranged on a continuum demonstrating the variations possible in observing

participants in a study and the researcher needs to decide on each dimension (Patton, 2002). This

study required the observer to be an onlooker in the classroom, to scrutinize the actual events of

instruction. The researcher was an observer, giving each participant full disclosure of the aims of

the research by fully explaining the study prior to observation and allowing the participant to

comment on researcher observations during subsequent interviews. Observations were conducted

in the participants' classes, during the fall or early in the spring semester of the first year of their

teaching depending on when the participant started a new science teaching unit. Time frames for

observations were determined by teacher schedule and availability but occurred during the first

week of a new teaching unit. Due to the difficulty of finding teachers for the study, issues that

were addressed in the former section entitled "Gaining access"; all new teachers were

interviewed and observed late in the first semester or early in the second semester, allowing them

more time to negotiate classroom management issues and focus on their subject matter

instruction.

The school setting was observed by describing the physical environment of the school and

classroom in rich detail. This was accomplished by the researcher spending time before or after a

particular interview or observation, or in some cases prior to or after the school day writing down

observations of the classroom and school. All participants eagerly showed me their school and

classroom, and allowed ample time for both written and audiotaped observations. Patton (2002)

proposed the social environment of the classroom was best described by looking at patterns of









student organization into groups and subgroups, frequency and quality of teacher-student and

student-student interactions, and decision-making patterns within the learning setting and this

was accomplished by the researcher. He further suggested that field workers pay close attention

to informal interactions and unplanned activities to help clarify phenomena happening in each

classroom. These interactions and activities were not only observed but also incorporated as

questions that were asked of participants during their subsequent interviews to gain a clear

understanding of the interactions and activities and participants beliefs about them.

Data Analysis

There were two types of data analysis which occurred. First, the Task for Determining

Conceptions of Teaching Science (Hewson & Hewson, 1989) was analyzed using the analysis

scheme the authors devised with biology and chemistry scenarios developed by the authors and

earth/space science scenarios developed by the researcher (see Appendix E). Second, all other

interview and observation data was analyzed using thematic network analysis (Attride-Stirling,

2001).

Analysis of CTS Task Data

During the first interview for four participants and the second interview for two of the

participants, the CTS task was performed. Data from the task was analyzed using the analysis

scheme proposed by Hewson and Hewson (1989) modified by Attride-Stirling's (2001) thematic

network:

1. The task transcript was read and all statements by each respondent which explicated their
view recorded. Specific words of the respondent were used when possible for accuracy.

2. Every respondent statement was placed into one of seven categories that were suggested by
the data, modifying the six categories that Hewson and Hewson (1989) suggested:

TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS: beliefs participants hold about characteristics that
determine an individual's teaching









TEACHING: beliefs participants hold about teaching

LEARNING: beliefs participants hold about learning

LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS: beliefs participants hold about characteristics that
determine an individual's learning

CONDITIONS FOR INSTRUCTION: what a participant believes are necessary conditions in
order to teach effectively

PREFERRED INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: a teacher's strategies, techniques, methods,
and practices for successful science instruction

CONCEPTION OF SCIENCE: a participant's conception of any of the components of
teaching science, that is, nature of science, learning, learner characteristics, rationale for
instruction or preferred instructional techniques (Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

3. Categories for "Teacher characteristics" and "Teaching" were added from analyzing the
data. The category "Rationale for instruction was renamed to be "Conditions for
instruction", combining two categories: "Conditions for teaching" and "Conditions for
learning." The category "Nature of Science" was combined with "Conception of science"
as there were few if any statements which fell in this category. Any statement was placed
into as many categories as it applied to.

4. Statements that seemed to concern similar features were grouped together and written in a
single sentence summary.

5. These summaries were used to summarize the respondent's conception of teaching science
(Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

6. The researcher constructed concept maps of each participant's conceptions of teaching
science to guide in writing the summaries for clarity and to tie the CTS analysis with the
thematic network analysis technique.

Analysis of Interview and Observation Data

Analysis of interview and observation data other than that collected by the Task for

Determining Conceptions of Teaching Science (Hewson & Hewson, 1989) were accomplished

using thematic analysis (Attride-Stirling, 2001). This type of analysis attempts to interpret text to

find the themes within it at three different levels, basic, organizing, and global. After the three

thematic levels are extracted from the data they are put into a concept web or thematic network

which is described and summarized in the report (Attride-Stirling, 2001). The goal of thematic









networks is to produce concept maps which summarize the main themes within text being

analyzed. Thematic networks were used as an analytic tool because they graphically illustrate

relationships among themes within the research. Although thematic networks were relatively a

new analytic tool, it was used for both critical ethnographic research about breastfeeding (Dykes,

2005), and a descriptive qualitative study that focused on identifying critical issues in rural

hospitals in Australia (Kenny & Duckett, 2004).

To begin the analysis, all interviews and observations were carefully transcribed to text. To

aid in the transcription, participants were asked during the first interview to read a fifteen to

twenty minute text that was used to train voice recognition software to their particular voice. All

participants were willing to perform this task and further wore a headset with attached

microphone which recorded their responses to all questions into a digital recorder. A second

audio recorder with directional microphone also recorded researcher questions and participant

responses.

All data called .wav files from the digital recorder were copied onto the researcher's

computer where they underwent analysis. The researcher used Dragon Naturally Speaking 7.0

voice recognition software and a Sony SX25 digital recorder to record participant speech for a

high level of compatibility as was suggested by the software manufacturer. The text generated by

the voice recognition software was then edited by the researcher using an audio transcriber and

the backup audiotape. This allowed faster transcription of the interview data, in most cases

cutting transcription time in half.

Observation was made using a special device called an 102 pen which allowed the

researcher to write observations on a digitized pad in regular ink. The writing was also recorded

digitally in the pen and was uploaded into the computer where a software program translated the









handwriting into text using optical character recognition (OCR) software. The text that was

generated by the OCR software was then checked against the handwritten data on the digitized

pad and edited for correctness. Using the 102 pen allowed the researcher to unobtrusively

observe classroom interactions and avoid transcription errors associated with writing

observations and then later transcribing by providing a recording and transcription environment

within one device.

Next, the text was examined and coded and a codebook developed. Codes were examined

and deconstructed into words and phrases under a basic theme. As each piece of data was

examined it was compared against the initial themes of the last piece of data (Merriam, 1998).

The basic theme was the lowest theme and came directly from the text found in observations,

interviews, and other transcribed data. Next, the basic themes were grouped together into a

middle order category called the organizing theme. Its role was to both organize the basic themes

and "enhance the meaning and significance of a broader theme" (Attride-Stirling, 2001, p. 389).

Third, global themes, the categories which made a statement about the data were formed

from gathering together group sets of organizing themes. Global themes "present an argument, or

a position or an assertion about a given issue or reality" (p. 389) and made sense of all the lower-

level themes (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Developing global themes paralleled Merriam's (1998)

explanation of the process of grouping categories into larger headings thereby identifying a small

number of manageable themes.

At this point, a thematic network was developed using symbols, arrows and text to

illustrate each global theme and its corresponding organizing and basic themes. One thematic

network was created for each global theme. Once the thematic network or networks were









constructed, the researcher described the contents of each network using text segments to

illustrate the description and underlying patterns began to appear (Attride-Stirling, 2001).

The thematic networks were used as the researcher re-read the data within the context of

the three levels of theme. Summarization of the thematic networks) brought out principle

themes and patterns in the data. The researcher brought together deductions used in summarizing

all networks and interprets patterns that had been illuminated in the data (Attride-Stirling, 2001).

The findings from this research were a case study defined as "an intensive, holistic

description and analysis of a bounded phenomenon such as a program, an institution, a person, a

process or a social unit" (Merriam, 1998, p. 27). The case study design seemed appropriate due

to the nature of research questions asked. This topic was suited to a case study as it was

particular, or focused on the phenomenon of beginning secondary science teachers' conceptions

of teaching science and orientations to teaching science. Case studies were descriptive and

findings provided rich, thick description of the situation under study. They illuminated the

understanding of those who read the study, possibly triggering discovery of new meaning,

extending experience, or confirming that which is already known (Merriam, 1998). A complete

analysis of the data in each case study should provide a thick description of a group of beginning

secondary science teachers' conceptions of and orientations toward teaching science as they

progress through the beginning of their first year teaching.

Subjectivity Statement

Qualitative research demands that the researcher is the instrument in the study being

conducted (Creswell, 2003). Thus, because data collection and analysis are potentially influenced

by researcher bias, the researcher must explicate any experiences and beliefs that could affect the

study and the interpretation of the findings.









I graduated from a university teacher education program as a secondary science teacher

and have a strong background in chemistry, geology, astronomy and physical science. I taught

general science, physical science, chemistry 1, honors chemistry, chemistry 2, and integrated

science for seven years prior to commencing doctoral studies. During my doctoral studies I

instructed pre-service elementary teachers in science methods, co-taught a graduate course on the

foundations of elementary science and presented research on teaching, using educational

technology in science, and elementary science education at regional and national conferences.

Based on my background, I felt a strong connection to the study participants having shared

both their science content focus and many of the experiences they encountered as first year

teachers. This allowed me to quickly develop rapport with all of the participants in the study but

may have caused participants to assume that I knew and understood their perspective in

interviews without making it explicit.

I became interested in orientations to teaching science as well as conceptions of teaching

science as a construct of teacher thinking while studying pedagogical content knowledge for my

comprehensive exams. As a researcher, one of my interests is the lack of research into beginning

science teachers thinking about instructional decisions on teaching science. While there have

been studies on pre-service and seasoned in-service elementary and secondary teachers, there is a

paucity of research on first year unsupervised teachers, their thoughts about preferred

instructional styles and their rationale for teaching science.

One of my hardest tasks during the analysis of the data and writing of this document was to

not make instant judgments of participant's conceptions of and orientations to science but to

rather rely on the data to illustrate their particular CTS or OTS. To separate myself as much as

possible from the data, I used the following strategies:









transcribed the interview data with pauses, exact terminology, and vocal
inflections to ensure accurate transcription,

read and analyzed the data and wrote first draft of manuscript,

asked participants to member check their data for accuracy,

re-read and re-analyzed the data before making modifications,

asked independent reviewers to proofread the manuscript,

read data and checked analysis of data a third time prior to final revision of the
manuscript.

It is my hope that these strategies assisted me in removing as many subjective judgments as

humanly possible.

Validity

It is crucial for the validity of a research project to ensure that a true picture of the

phenomena under study is honestly and fully reported. This is achieved through participant

observation, in-depth interviewing, detailed description and case studies (Patton, 2002). Validity

in qualitative research is checking to see whether the findings of the study are accurate. To

accomplish this task the researcher triangulated several different sources of data, namely

observation and interviews, used member-checking to ensure accuracy of the findings, clarified

the bias she brought to the study, and used rich, thick description to elucidate her findings

(Creswell, 2003).

Credibility

As the instrument of quantitative research, the credibility of any study "hinges to a great

extent on the skill, competence, and rigor of the person doing fieldwork-as well as things going

on in a person's life that might prove a distraction" (Patton, 2002, p. 14). The researcher has









hopefully made her/his biases explicit and has been open to data that supported more than one

explanation of phenomena for the research to be considered credible (Glesne, 1999).

Additionally the researcher has eight years of education and training as a researcher. She

has conducted action research in her science classroom during a three-year period and reported

the research. During the four years preceding this study she has been observer, interviewer, and

analyst in several studies. One study dealt with elementary education while two others

investigated educational technology use in science methods classrooms. Each study resulted in

presentation of the data and several articles written from their findings.

Additionally rigor requires the researcher to look for data which support alternative

explanations of the phenomenon he/she is investigating. As Patton (2002) states, "Failing to find

strong supporting evidence for alternative ways of representing the data or contrary explanations

helps increase confidence in the original, principal explanation you generated" (p. 553).

Trustworthiness

Trustworthiness or rigor of the study could be adversely affected by observer bias, that is,

certain characteristics of observers that could possibly bias what they observe. To prevent this,

the researcher observed and interviewed each participant five times at respective school sites.

These interviews and observations in addition to analytical notes generated large amounts of

data. Finally the researcher wrote detailed field notes which included reflections on my

subjectivity (Wallen & Fraenkel, 2001).









CHAPTER 4
SETTING THE STAGE: INTRODUCING THE TEACHERS AND EXAMINING THEIR
CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE

Background

Geertz (1973) believed thick description provided the foundation for explaining the

statements and actions of participants being observed and interviewed. Qualitative analysis and

reporting requires this descriptive technique in order to not "obscure most of what we need to

comprehend a particular event, ritual, custom, idea, or whatever is insinuated as background

information" (Geertz, 1973, p. 9) when reporting on data. Patton (2002) envisioned the

background for analysis as the "setting being described" (p. 137). In this exploratory multi-case

study I examined beginning secondary science teachers' conceptions of and orientations to

teaching science. This chapter introduces the six teachers I chose for my study and the setting of

their schools and classes thereby setting the stage for examining each beginning teacher's

conceptions of teaching science followed by their orientation to teaching science within their

defined role as new science teacher in each section.

My study was exploratory due to the small number of participants and the inequality of

participants in each of my two categories, namely one participant traditionally certified, and five

in the process of becoming alternatively certified. The exploratory nature of the study allowed

me to describe my participants and look at their differences and similarities without generalizing

from these descriptions. For each individual I studied I attempted to give the school context, a

summary of their conceptions of teaching science CTS, and a summary of their OTS. This

permits the reader to examine the different science teaching conceptions and orientations to

teaching science held by these teachers and to draw their own inferences.

A diagram was used to present each teacher's conception of teaching science, and their

orientation to science. It was used as a visual aid to viewing the beginning teacher's CTS and









CTS. The development of each teacher's CTS and OTS is an active process which takes time and

reflection to develop and is not in the scope of this study. I was only able to spend a small period

of time with each participant, observing a week in the life of each science teacher in only a few

different classes. Most of my participants taught more than one subject but to better observe their

teaching strategies and how these supported their conceptions of teaching I chose to observe

them in one subject over different classes. This provided a snapshot of their CTS and OTS at a

point in time during their first year of teaching.

These beginning secondary science teachers were my primary unit of analysis so I focused

on the case studies of the six individuals in their various settings. Each of the teachers was

unique in their background and prior experiences and each took an individual path to teaching.

The introduction, school and classroom setting, conception of and orientation to teaching science

for each participant are presented below.

Patrick

Introduction and School Setting

Patrick was in his late twenties, working toward alternative certification and a first year

secondary science teacher at a local rural high school in the north corer of County One. He had

a bachelor's degree in sports medicine from a university in the northeast United States and took

two education classes as an undergraduate in addition to his science courses. For a few years

after attaining his degree Patrick was a fitness coach for his alma mater and later a director of

sports and education for a prestigious university in his area for a few years. As part of his

coaching duties Patrick had to teach undergraduate weight lifting and exercise science classes for

two semesters. During his term as a director, Patrick started teaching physical education classes

part-time and found he enjoyed it. This led to his working two days a week at a private school

instructing elementary pupils in science activities.









Patrick started a master's degree in education but had to cancel classes and relocate to the

south when his wife was accepted as a doctoral student at a large university in Florida. I asked

Patrick when he decided to become a teacher:

"well I [always] knew I was going the teaching route. Ijust did not know this early.

I was planning on getting my master's first and then do some student teaching,

whatever else needed to be done. But upon moving down here it was basically the

only thing open to me with my field" (PI1:150-153).

Patrick searched for a coaching job at the local university but found these positions filled

by local graduates. After being told teachers were desperately needed he decided to apply, and

took and passed all of the Florida teacher subject area exams including those certifying him to

teach secondary biology and grades five through nine general science courses.

Patrick's school was located in the town of Country Meadows in the northeast section of

County One. Country Meadows has a population of roughly 6800 people, and all the amenities

of a small town including a picturesque Main Street. Spring High School educates students in

grades nine through twelve and has 1,288 students who are predominantly white (74%). The next

largest student ethnicity is African-American (19%) and there is a small Hispanic and multiracial

population (5% and 1% respectively). Twenty-five percent of the students are being provided

free or reduced lunches. Sixteen percent of the teachers were in their beginning year of teaching

and teacher education levels range from bachelor's to a small number of teachers who possess

doctorate degrees.

Classroom Setting

Patrick's high school was a '60s style one story building of cinder block construction.

There were two main buildings and five long separate buildings containing classrooms radiating

out from them attached by covered breezeways and walkways. The next to the last building was









the science wing with Patrick's classroom at the end of the wing. The cream colored walls of his

classroom were filled with science posters and paraphernalia. Against the wall right by the door

he had a periodic table of the elements and several posters, one of which had a title which

proclaimed "no sweat!" about physical training and electrolytes and minerals that you lose in

your body when exercising.

Three student-made posters on mitosis hung on the side walls and a large poster detailing

research presented at a conference suspended on the front wall to the left. There were jars of

pickled brains and other types of organs of the body on a bookcase to the right upon entering the

room. Books on anatomy and physiology and the skull of a bison were placed on the shelves as

well as a TV to the left. An overhead projector was placed on a rolling cart on the right. He had a

large chart of a skeleton on the wall and a mounted skeleton against the rear wall and both

appeared well used. Patrick's desk was up front, mounted on a dais and also used as a

demonstration table. A stool sat by the desk and a chair was placed behind it.

Another desk sat to the left of the mounted one and held his computer monitor, mouse, and

keyboard as well as a mounted microscope display hooked up to the LCD projector on a cart in

the middle of the room. The student desks in his classroom were aligned in rows pointed toward

the dry erase board mounted behind his demonstration desk on the dais. The back and side walls

of the classroom had sinks with running water mounted into a slate tabletop that runs the length

of both of the walls. Stools were placed below the tabletops at intervals.

The back wall had several mounted cabinets where science equipment was stored. At the

rear of the room in the corner by a window emergency equipment was mounted including

goggles, a fire blanket, a shower, an eyewash station, and a paper towel dispenser. There was an

area rug mounted on the floor of the room with a 2-foot area between the rug and wall all around









the room. The room looked worn but organized, neat and clean. Additionally there were four

aquariums on a long table on the side of the room.

Patrick's students appeared to be in their late teens and enrolled in grades ten to twelve as

this was an elective science course. He shared with me that many students took this course as a

third science course because they were interested in the body or planned to continue studies in

medicine of some kind. The classes I observed had between twenty and twenty-four students in

each.

Conception for Teaching Science

Hewson and Hewson (1988) discussed an appropriate conception of teaching science

wherein science teachers should be convinced that science was a particular type of teaching

different from others and had its own set of tasks and activities geared to help specific students

learn a specific content. They felt that teachers needed to know their students and understand

different ways to teach for concept understanding (Hewson & Hewson, 1988). Patrick had a

teacher-centered conception for teaching science which is focused on the teacher as authority

figure in the learning process. Figure 4-1 consists of his conceptions of the teacher and teaching,

specific instructional strategies, science, learning and the learner, and various conditions for

instruction.

Teachers and teaching

Patrick saw the teacher as the source of knowledge and believed a teacher needed formal

training and experience in order to teach effectively. He felt strongly that someone with

advanced education could teach at any level as relates to his comment about a teacher lecturing

to a group of first-graders that "a college professor can do it. .. I've seen it done" (PCI: 164-

165). Teaching was described by him as asking a question, leading discussion and using specific
















































Figure 4-1. Patrick's Conception of Teaching Science.


Presenting
science
concepts /
providing
sequence of
science learning
experiences









strategies to teach. Patrick believed it was the teacher's job to lead students in learning. He

stated: "you're posing a question and hopefully they will answer it" (PCI: 212-213).

Teaching was about outcomes in Patrick's view and "you want [students] to think about it

and either look it up or recall information that you've taught" (PCI: 214-215). Patrick felt that

teaching "puts something in front of you and asks a question." He viewed teaching and learning

both as going on when "you're asking what's happening next so you know what's happened

prior" (PCI: 210-211). Patrick did not use inquiry but preferred a more guided approach or "a

little more lead to get the questions rolling" (PCI: 51). He believed students had little prior

knowledge and felt he needed to prepare them for a topic (PCI: 194-195). Additionally Patrick

felt students could learn on their own "trying to teach themselves" but believed this was not

teaching (PCI: 251). Patrick thought learning could occur from students viewing media if it was

good quality (PCI: 105-106).

Instructional strategies

Patrick believed in using teaching strategies because there was "learning going on just

depending on what you're using to present the material" (PCI: 185-186). He felt visual aids were

the best teaching strategy for real learning and stated that "students need "some sort of visual aid

just to show where it is happening" (PCI: 180-181). In Patrick's classroom, lecturing was used

extensively but there needed to be some sort of visual aid to help the student process the

material.

"[Students] might not be able to visualize it without some other aid or whether I say you

know, open to page hundred and two in your book. Follow along in the diagram. I mean if

that's all you have, that's all you have but I think more the merrier" (PCI: 187-190).

Because of these beliefs all of his beginning lessons on a topic were done on PowerPoint

and presented to students with film clips and diagrams from the book. Patrick also used









worksheets in his classroom to set up the learning or "do a little something before hand or even

just a worksheet" (PCI: 59). These were followed up by activities where the students produced

something (a human outline with the muscles sketched in and labeled, a poster of the articulated

skeleton of a rodent or other prey creature from an owl pellet) in order to practice the knowledge

that they learned from the original lectures.

Conceptions of science

Patrick saw the learning of science as a progression of the content, and viewed learning as

being built upon prior knowledge given by the teacher (PCI: 194-195). When looking at a

question of particular knowledge a student was learning on digestion he viewed it in terms of

what had been already covered "you know the acids in the stomach and stuff like that before we

even got to digestion" (PCI: 182-183).

Science content was extremely important to Patrick. In his anatomy and physiology class it

was essential that his students know every bone of the human body and he spent much time

during the first semester ensuring they had learned this information. It baffled him that it took

them so long to learn the content. Patrick's concept of the nature of science dealt with science as

theory-laden and human-constructed. In the movie Medicine Man he viewed science as being

derailed by economic development and talked about "the ups and downs of you know, global

trade encroaching in on someone just trying to do research" (PCI: 125-126).

Learning and learners

Learning for Patrick was an active experience where students performed tasks in order to

learn about the world. He envisioned students learning by themselves, from their peers, and by

teachers and others but always in a task-oriented environment. In a particular scenario he saw

learning happening between students "whether they're just adding calories together or fats or









transfats or whatever, they are learning about the foods that they're trying to do the calculations

on" (PCI: 150-152). Later he expressed his feelings about task-oriented learning by his statement:

"yeah, they're learning. They have to mix chemicals together, compounds together

an, they're reading, they're following directions, they're, they're going to have a

product at the end that's different from what they started with, the different

products they started with" (PCI: 257-260).

He separated learning from teaching in that he thought a teacher was needed for teaching. Patrick

posited "there is learning. I don't know if there's teaching going on. The student's trying to

attempt to understand something" (PCI: 251-252).

Patrick visualized learners as needing to be motivated to learn especially away from the

teacher. He viewed them as having little prior knowledge and felt the need for students to have

specific tasks assigned to them in order to promote the right conditions for learning. He stated

that "they have to have done questions in the book by then just to get themselves orientated"

(PCI: 194-195). Additionally he considered that a student's age determined whether learning

could be accomplished (PCI: 49-50).

Conditions for instruction

A condition for instruction Patrick talked about for teaching to be accomplished was that

the materials be reliable, that is, from an accepted educational source or approved by the teacher.

He worried that students when watching a program away from school were "probably going to

get a lot of information from it. It is just, I don't [know] what type of information they're getting

from it" (PCI: 131-133). His major concerns about the information students were receiving was

its reliability and that it be unbiased or present both sides to allow students to have a balanced

understanding (PCI: 106-107).









Orientation to Teaching Science

A teacher's orientation to teaching science (OTS) stems from a teacher's "knowledge and beliefs

about the purposes and goals for teaching science at a particular grade level" says Magnusson,

Krajcik, and Borko (1999). Patrick had a combination academic rigor/didactic orientation to

teaching science (Figure 4-2) that was driven by his goals for his students and learner

characteristics. His OTS was also reflected in his rationale for teaching, that is, how he planned

for lessons and his scheme of assessment and was evidenced by his teaching style and strategies

for teaching.

Goals for teaching

An academic rigor orientation was proposed by Lantz and Kass (1987) and has as its goal

to represent a particular body of knowledge. This was in line with Patrick's primary science goal

for his students as he wanted them to gain content knowledge or as he stated, "just knowing the

subject material" (PI: 349) of anatomy and physiology. For Patrick, students needed to know the

terminology and have knowledge of the subject matter: "I mean they have to know where these

muscles are and the names of them and you know the proper names too" (PI: 472-474). He felt

strongly that they needed to "visualize" the structure and systems of the body and the proper

placement and had his students spend a large part of class in demonstrations and laboratory

learning these structures thoroughly.

Concept knowledge for Patrick was biology literacy. He felt that students need "just a

better understanding of themselves and I think it will help them" (PI1: 390) and comments "It is

good to know what's wrong with you" and to be able to "apply it too." He spent part of class

time in what he calls "going to the clinic" to develop his student's knowledge of illness. "You

have to at least understand what's going on with your body ... to ask some of the questions"

(PI3: 165-166) he posited.









ology \ / Academic
Ius I \preparation
General
Goals for
Teaching
Science
Science careers


Patrick's
Academic
Rigor/
Didactic
Orientation to
Teaching
Science


Figure 4-2. Patrick's Orientation to Teaching Science.

Patrick also wanted students to explore science careers. He designed an assignment for

students to learn about a career field and answer questions on it concerning the "schooling, pay









scale, clubs and organizations you'd have to belong to, societies, and that actually opened the

eyes of a lot of kids" (PI1: 370-374). Patrick had an internship in college where he was able to

work in a career field he was interested in and found that it was not for him. Patrick wanted this

knowledge for his students.

Two general goals for Patrick required that students have academic preparation, "reach my

expectations", and gain technology skills. He wanted to prepare his students for college and felt

that he needed to get them "using audiovisual stuff, technology stuff, like working in

PowerPoint's and becoming familiar with PowerPoint and also you know be able to pull stuff

from reference books and asking questions" (PI3: 7-9).

Science curriculum

Patrick was concerned that his students understand the science curriculum and be prepared

academically for anatomy and physiology in college. Starting at the beginning of the year he

taught orientations or as he commented "just learning root words and orientations of the body

and the terminology (PI2: 309-311). Later in the year systems of the body were taught (PI2:

315). He tried to sequence instruction and introduce concepts when studying those systems of the

body (PI3: 115). The textbook was good, Patrick felt but "too watered down" (PI1: 484). He

wanted a textbook which had more "rigor" (PI1: 486).

School context

Patrick taught in a rural public school in County One. He taught five periods of anatomy

and physiology but was looking forward to the next year where he would be allowed to teach

Advanced Placement anatomy and physiology.

Patrick had issues with the facilities in his classroom. He had a rug on his floor that made it

difficult to perform science experiments and laboratory facilities for his students. "I mean I

would really love to have benches in here instead of these desks but you know you work with









what you got" (PI1: 372-373) he stated. Another problem he faced was technology availability.

Patrick had problems getting equipment ordered from the media center at the times he needed it

(PI4: 9-11). A lack of materials made it hard for him to order dissection supplies. When

discussing the size of groups for activities he commented "ideally you could do this in groups of

two but I just don't have enough paper" (PI2: 159-160).

Other issues dealt with time. "People say 'Oh you're first year is always the worst' because

you're making everything from scratch. And that's true.. .worksheets and dittos and stuff I've

been making from scratch and it is a lot of time. It is a lot of effort" (PI2: 349-353). Another

factor of school context Patrick managed were classroom visits by the principal on a regular

basis. This is also district policy for all public schools.

Learner characteristics

Patrick taught anatomy and physiology, an option class for high school juniors and seniors

and saw his students as having high ability. "They're all bright kids some of them I have are

bored with class I bet there's everybody in those classes" (PI2: 37-38) he states, continuing,

"I've got kids who are taking honors history, I got kids are in remedial math, you know AP

science and eighth grade English classes" (PI2: 38-40). Patrick felt his students were attentive

and motivated commenting "for the most part I mean it is a pretty good group" (AI3: 176).

Student concept understanding was positively viewed by Patrick in his classes. "They

understand it. I know they understand it because of some of the questions I get" (AI3: 164) but

explaining his testing concerns he continued "It all goes out the window for testing sometimes

but they, I think for the most part they get it" (PI3: 166-167).

Patrick tried to touch on multiple learning styles in his lecture strategy stating, "I read it

through so they hear it, I hear it, and I see it. Then they and I kind of try to break each other









down and then I will just read it through again to reiterate everything that's on the slide and

being ready for audio too. .kids that might be listening more than writing" (PI3:140-143).

Grouping students by ability was a problem in his class as he did not trust that his students

would fairly apportion work. "I try to but sometimes I find with some of the group projects you

get the best student doing all the work", (PI2: 140-141) he muses.

Rationale for instruction

Lantz and Kass (1987) believed that a teacher's background, curriculum materials, and

teaching situation mediated a teacher's orientation to teaching science, what they called their

functional paradigms and was evidenced in their classroom practice. Patrick took the curriculum

he was given and mediated it with his academic background to determine what he taught and

how he sequenced instruction.

His lesson planning was directed toward teaching the concepts of anatomy and physiology

and covering the material. As Patrick commented, "all I can hope for is just to hopefully get a

good guideline that let's me make sure I cover all the material that's in there" (PI2: 464-465).

The textbook was not rigorous enough for Patrick. He felt "its kind of a watered down version"

(PI1: 485) of the college text and wanted to change to a different textbook next year. He did not

like the "depth of the text" and felt that students should know the actual names and functions of

all bones, muscles, and systems of the body as well as their functions and the diseases associated

with them.

Patrick's assessment of student learning focused on homework, labs, projects and tests

making up student's grades. Testing was for him "the tried and true method of learning" and

getting a good grade on the test was going to "definitely depend on how much they retain you

know from our notes and the review and what we've done" (PI3: 240-242). Patrick used









homework and extra credit to help struggling students "get a higher grade in class" as he felt that

"students who are getting A's on tests usually blow off homework assignments" (PI2: 415-416).

Instructional strategies

Patrick used many teaching strategies but relied heavily on lecture, note taking, and

technology placing a "high value on pedagogical efficiency" (Lentz & Kass, 1987). He used a

focal space in the front of the room filled with charts and a hanging skeleton to give students

additional information when they worked on assignments and projects. "Well they always look

up here for answers in general so I try to fill the space with much of the topic" (PI2: 247-248).

The PowerPoint presentations he used always had a chart or diagram.

His activities during the time I observed consisted of students working on charts of the

body musculature and crossword puzzles, and he liked to use and have students create models or

charts of various science concepts. Grouping in his class was assigned and changed each

semester and there were a "set of rules." He did not care "what [students] have done or what has

been done in the past but this is why this is so" (PI2: 106-108) as he related to me concerning his

rules.

Patrick used questioning as a teaching strategy. "I get excited about the subject material

and sometime I find we can waste a good twenty minutes of class just answering questions that I

posed." (PI1: 328-330) He felt that questions could be used to keep students on task "just to let

them know that I'm watching them" (PI2: 179-180) as well as to help them apply the material.

Worksheets were used on a weekly basis as a "reinforcement of the terms" presented in his

lectures and to act as a review of the material.

"I try to do a project with each unit too whether it be a summary on something, a short

paper on something" Patrick stated, and was very rigorous in his requirements and grading. One

project, dissecting owl pellets, was performed during the unit on the skeleton and he had students









articulate the bones they found into a skeleton of the rodent to give them practice in naming and

placing the bones in the proper place.

His teaching style was strongly lecture driven. "What I do is I lecture", he avers, and

expects students to take copious notes having them "write them down or I copy them up and they

have to follow along and I delete words so they have to pay attention" (PI1: 251-253). Patrick

was the authority figure stating that "I do not like to be their friend" (PI2: 42) using proximity to

keep student's focus on him and the lesson at hand. The crux of his teaching style was to "go

straight through the aspects of anatomy and physiology and we start small and get big" (PI2:

306-307). He stressed the "small to big" philosophy several times in our conversations. Patrick

believed strongly that he should tailor the information, not teaching out of the book but teaching

"the information that they need to know." His teaching style was very technology-oriented, using

PowerPoint slides to lecture with, putting class notes on his web site for students to download

and using video to "try to give [the material] more dimensions than just looking at words on a

projector" (PI3: 59-60).

Meredith

Introduction and School Setting

Meredith, in her early twenties, was in her first year teaching secondary science at River

Middle/High School in County One. She had a bachelor's degree in biology/earth science

education. During her internship she taught anatomy and physiology and biology in a secondary

classroom. She took fifteen hours of sciences for her degree. Meredith also performed some

scientific research where she worked with one of the professors conducting an experiment

heating up copper molecules to determine if they would move.

When she was in high school Meredith realized she loved science and knew she wanted to

do something in this field. At university Meredith majored in biology. She moved to another city









with a different university, started to substitute teach and fell in love with it. At the time she said,

"you know, I really like this. I like being able to see them catch things and see them understand"

Meredith transferred into the Biology/Earth Science Education program and attained her degree.

River Middle/High School was a rural education center in the small town of Crossroads in

the south eastern comer of County One in central Florida. Crossroads had 1,500 residents. From

the main road you could see the marquee for the school, the bus bar and sports fields. River

Middle/High School educated students in grades six through twelve and had 510 students who

are white (62%), African-American (34%), Hispanic (2%) and other ethnicities (2%). There was

a large population of students being provided free or reduced lunches (62%). One-third of the

teachers at River M/HS were in their beginning year of teaching and teacher education levels

range from bachelor's (50%) to a small number of teachers (3%) who possessed doctorate

degrees.

Classroom Setting

Meredith's school building was located six blocks from the sports fields in a quiet area

with little traffic. It consisted of a long one story edifice. The room where Meredith teaches was

located in the western end of the building. It was a large cinderblock structure having two doors

at the rear of the room with counters on three walls. The counter running the entire left wall of

the room had four sinks placed every four feet with drawers and cabinets underneath. There were

two shelves containing lab manuals and other reference books mounted on the wall in the left

rear of the room over the counter. Stacks of text books were piled on the counter between the

sinks.

Another counter with sinks, drawers, and cabinets ran across the rear of the room between

both doors and had only three sinks. The right wall of the room had another long counter which









stretched along the entire length with no sinks and gas jets mounted on the counter at four foot

intervals, and drawers and cabinets below. All wall counters acted as lab stations for the room.

The teacher area in the front of the room was elevated on a semicircular dais one step

above the classroom. A fume hood was built in the right front corer of the dais with a portable

projector screen next to it. The large teacher desk appeared to be a science demonstration

platform with water and gas hookups. A long chalkboard covered the front wall of the classroom.

To the right of the chalkboard a bulletin board was mounted.

There were desks with attached chairs in this room set up in rows of four or five desks

facing the teacher dais. A mounted metal cabinet on the left wall appeared to hold lab goggles.

Stools were scattered around the room in front of the counters. All walls had posters and

decoration, including the area above the chalkboard which had a series of pictures. On the left

edge of the chalkboard were schedules written in chalk for all classes.

A television and clock were mounted on the left wall above the counters. Stacking trays for

student's homework sat on the left counter of the room. To the right side of the demonstration

platform perched a desk holding a desktop computer, monitor and printer. A small student desk

was on the left side of the dais against the chalkboard with animal cages containing guinea pigs

placed on it.

Conception for Teaching Science

Meredith had a student-centered conception of teaching science (Figure 4-3) based on the

"need to use instructional strategies which take into account student's existing conceptions,

especially when they conflict with those being taught" (Hewson & Hewson, 1988, p. 610). Her

CTS had several parts including her concept of teaching, teaching strategies, science, learning

and the learner, and her conditions for instruction.
















































Figure 4-3. Meredith's Conception of Teaching Science.


Facilitating development
of
students' understandings
about science and
changing science-related
conceptions









Teachers and teaching

Meredith understood that learning must occur for teaching to happen (Fenstermacher,

1986) illustrated by her clarification of the scenario of a professor lecturing first-graders when

she states that "there's science teaching being attempted." On other scenarios though she

questioned this belief: "I think they all could be science teaching. .. I just do not know if it

would be science learning" (MCI: 126-127).

Meredith viewed teaching as happening in a variety of situations with and without a

teacher in front of a typical class and stated "I can see how all of these have been teaching,

they're just different ways of teaching" (MCI: 153-155). She supported inquiry and teaching for

conceptual change as evidenced in her statements that a student question "gives the teacher a

really good opportunity to answer this question, correct misconceptions of there are any" (MCI:

189-191) and "by doing an activity like that you're having the kids not only look at different

types of organisms but they're going to be classifying them in some way or another by

something that they can observe plus they're practicing observation skills" (MCI: 26-30).

Meredith believed good teachers "made that personal connection with the students" (MIl:

125). She discussed modeling her mentors: "I thought they did a good job for me so obviously

they were doing something right" (MIl: 118-119). Modeling her former teachers, Meredith kept

in touch them, used many of their teaching strategies and borrowed activities.

Instructional strategies

Meredith's used inquiry and saw it as "sneaking knowledge in because I think that works

best especially if kids are initially hesitant to learning anyway" (MCI: 23-24). She viewed

teaching strategies as dependent on the age and cognitive level of the child and commented about

one scenario involving elementary students that "lecturing probably is not going to work or as

much as having then do something like looking at fish and saying what happens when you know









the predators come to eat the fish and then that they can visually see happening" (MCI: 106-

109). Meredith used media as a teaching strategy, choosing popular film as a motivator but

asking goal-oriented questions. She commented: "it depends on what your goals would be for

watching something like that. Like I showed 'The Little Mermaid' and at face value ... it is a

Disney movie but I chose to ask students questions based upon what we were talking about in

osmosis and things like that" (MCI: 59-61).

She suggested using diagrams and visuals in teaching and when talking about science

vocabulary mentioned that "you could show that relationship and then if they've seen the word,

heard the word, than they might have a better chance of being able to produce the word on their

own" (MCI: 177-180)

Conceptions of science

Meredith was comfortable with science content and saw the importance of scientific

terminology. She explained that there was a "difference between academic vocabulary and

regular speaking which can be applied lots of different things. There are lots of words that are

common used in everyday language. That is different when it comes to science" (MCI: 139-142).

She discussed student misconceptions in discussing a student question that "it gives the teacher a

really good opportunity to answer this question, correct misconceptions of there are any or

whenever." (MCI: 189-191).

Learning and learners

Meredith constantly asked herself "is this learning?" She viewed students as learning

without a teacher at hand: "they're teaching each other in addition to working it out but I can see

how they would be helping each other if one of them did not understand and another one could

help out" (MCI: 73-75) but later stated that "it could be [learning]" (MCI: 75-76). Meredith

believed questions were an avenue to learning. She posited when looking at students baking









something "what is the difference in a physical and a chemical change? Well it started off as

blueberry batter and now it is blueberry muffin. How did it get there? Can you make it go back to

blueberry batter from blueberry muffin?" (MCI: 205-208) and stated that teaching and learning

could happen "because of the type of question this is."

Meredith discussed some learner characteristics. She saw student interest and motivation

as important when she commented that "because they've chosen to watch this they will probably

be more receptive to the information there" (MCI: 50-51). Meredith looked at a student's age and

cognitive level when examining teaching and learning. She stated, "[first-graders] might grasp -

they probably would not get the terminology but they might grasp the concept" (MCI: 109-

110) and judged other material as "completely appropriate for that class." She comprehended

different learning styles in her explanation that "some students can learn with the teacher

standing there giving them information and they're capable of applying and/or regurgitating"

(MCI: 129-131). Meredith showed an understanding of her student's capabilities by her

statement that "if this were hypothetically for my students well how do they know how to spell

the words" (MCI: 162-163) and "that's a lot asking them to remember."

Conditions for instruction

Her conditions for instruction formed the last part of her conception of teaching science.

Meredith looked at the quality of media when determining whether to use it for instruction. She

commented on the educational value of students watching video at home when she stated "it

probably is some type of documentary or educational programming" (MCI: 51-52). She

continued: "if this were a documentary type program at least they're getting true factual

information hopefully as opposed to some imagination from someone" (MCI: 66-68). Meredith

determined there had to be a goal or purpose for a particular teaching strategy in class. When

asked if she would show a video like Madagascar she observed that "it depends on what your









goals would be for watching something like that" (MCI: 58-59) and further posited "depends on

the perspective one is looking at this from. What was the assignment?" (MCI: 211-212).

Orientation to Teaching Science

A teacher's goals about and purposes for teaching science "act as an implicit framework"

by which teachers make pedagogical decisions for teaching strategies and influences

considerations about learning tasks, student assessment, curricular materials, and instructional

strategies (Freidrichsen & Dana, 2005). I believe that Meredith had a combination

process/guided inquiry orientation to teaching science (Figure 4-4) that was driven by her goals

for her students and how she perceived their abilities, understanding and learning style. Her

rationale for teaching, that is, how she planned for lessons and her scheme of assessment, and as

well as her teaching style and strategies for teaching demonstrated her OTS.

Goals for teaching

Her process orientation was evidenced by her teaching goals of academic success and

excitement for science and guided inquiry by her goals of life skills, concept knowledge, and

careers in science for her students. The guided inquiry orientation was proposed by Magnusson

and Palincsar (1995) and is an inquiry based approach that "emphasizes the conceptual

understandings of science" (p. 44). Meredith had two science goals for her students, namely

concept understanding and a career in science. Her science goal for students was that of concept

understanding. She spoke of evolution: "quite honestly I do not care what their opinion is ... it is

kind of like that distinguishing that this is the science part and it is not to be confused with the

belief system but it also helps to potentially become more open-minded towards other things and

to see that things in science change" (MI1: 272-276). A second science goal for her students was

a career in science or as she stated she wanted them to "do something with science."
























Meredith's
Process/
Guided Inquiry
Orientation to
Teaching
Science


Figure 4-4. Meredith's Orientation to Teaching Science.


Formative









She had two general goals for students. A general goal she set for herself was to help her

students with life skills. "you know, the how to speak appropriately to one another 'cause if they

were to talk to their boss the way that they talk to each other they would not be employed for

very long" (MI1:239-241) Meredith feels that with the more immature students a lot of what she

does is "helping them with the functioning in society part." Meredith's second general goal of

academic success directly correlated to the high-stakes tests her students were required to pass

every few years. She spent the first ten minutes of every class period working with her students

on test strategies, that is, how to read a table, determine correct answers, etc. She wanted them to

question "what do they have in common? What is similar? What is different? So then they can

distinguish on things that are the same and different" (MI4: 13-14). She wanted to model for her

students how to examine things and start looking at a question scientifically.

An affective goal for Meredith was to generate in her students excitement for science. "I

would really love for them to suddenly develop an interest or love for science like I have 'cause

it was definitely my teachers that did that for me" (MI1: 232-233) she commented.

Science curriculum

Meredith believed that curriculum was important to teaching science. She liked to "plan

out the entire unit" at a time when looking at her biology curriculum (MI4: 201). "The standards

ultimately drive what ends up happening" (MI1: 368) she commented about curriculum. Her

county stressed that curriculum should be aligned with standards and Meredith supported that

alignment.

She used the textbook as a guide for curriculum but was not happy with it. "The way the

book has it set up I do not really care for" (MI4: 207-208) Meredith explains. She chatted about

her assignment on the curriculum committee and being given a new copy of the textbook with all









supplements. Meredith added, "the new book comes with a lot of extra resources also" (MI2:

203).

School context

Meredith taught in a rural public school in the south of County One. She instructed

students in one period of 8th grade general science, three periods of biology and one period of

honors biology. Having three courses to prepare for could cause lesson planning to be a burden

but Meredith never mentioned issues with preparation.

Although Meredith had no issues with the facilities in her classroom, she did need

technology equipment. When displaying a web site on the LCD projector she needed to be in the

front of the room as it had no pointer to move the mouse on her computer. "I would like to move

around more but because the computer is upfront and projectors upfront that kind of inhibits my

range of motion especially when we are trying to get through a series of things that are moving

quickly" (MI4: 24-28). Meredith also suffered from a lack of materials and tends to use different

supplies when performing activities utilizing what she has (MI3: 105-107).

Learner characteristics

The students I observed Meredith teaching were in her biology classes. She viewed her

students in these classes to have good ability but was disappointed with their motivation.

"Individually they're very sweet. As a group they're goofy and they wander and they have a hard

time staying focused on anything" (MI2: 99-100) she noted. Meredith continued: "they were

reluctant to actually do anything. They thought that they could just sit there and not do anything.

That THAT would be OK" (MI3: 28-29) she comments. Grouping was a tough problem for her

because of her student' friendliness to each other and she stated, "it is a lot harder on me if I have

to pick the groups. .it is much more time and then they all complain about the groups and









nothing. They do not just comply with anything. So for my sake Ijust let them pick their groups"

(MI3: 67-69).

Student understanding was viewed as varying by Meredith in her classes. Of one student

understanding she measured during a recent assessment: "oh, I'm beginning to think very little

[retention]. When they took their quiz on mitosis, overall they did not do well." (MI2: 102-103).

She was conflicted about their performance due to the motivation problems "I have different

feelings. I think that that's their responsibility" she stated about student's paying attention and

studying for assessment (MI4: 168) and continued "you just have to use your brain".

Meredith was aware of student multiple learning styles in her teaching: "they were able to

see a visual in addition to them talking about for while" (MI4: 10-11) but struggled with finding

the ones that worked with most students. "I've tried a lot of different things and so far have not

really found something that seems to be a good way or that they're really perceptive of but I'm

still working on it" (MI2: 192-194).

Rationale for instruction

Curriculum and assessment play a role in shaping a teacher's OTS and are seen in their

teaching strategies (Lantz & Kass, 1987). Meredith served on the textbook committee and was

pleased with her new textbook. They are getting the new version "which comes with a lot of

extra resources" which she is using to bring a fresh look to her classroom activities and

demonstrations. Looking forward to next year she pondered "possibly next year there's a chance

I could completely and totally rearrange how I do every thing" (MI2: 269-271). This depended

on whether she would be the only biology teacher which would give her more flexibility. Lesson

planning for Meredith was creative. About one activity doing Venn diagrams to look at

similarities and differences in mitosis and meiosis she added "I do not even know where it came

from. My brain just decided hmm, let's do this!" (MI2: 164-165). She searched the World Wide









Web to find sites to use in her class and discovered an awesome one when she "accidentally

stumbled on the web site" (MI4: 145-146) which she used in class (M04).

Standards were a large part of the curriculum where Meredith teaches. "The standards

ultimately drive what ends up happening ... The standards ultimately drive what ends up

happening they're outlined essentially for what goes on" (MI: 316-317) she commented.

Meredith used the biology curriculum outline from another county to help her align her class

with the curriculum and standards for her county and state. She was not following the chapters in

the book in her unit on cells because the book chopped up the concept with other issues that were

not necessary at that time. Another important mediator in curriculum for her was holidays and

Meredith did not "want to bore them to death before Christmas" (MI4: 210). She rearranged

topics for high interest ones when students were distracted.

Meredith's assessment of student learning relied greatly on her checking student's

formative understanding of concepts. She observed "I mean technically your assessing when

you're watching them whether they're doing it correctly or not" (MI2: 254-256). She used

quizzes, especially pop quizzes to confirm their participation in group activities as well as to

check student's knowledge prior to more formal assessments. "I wanted to know if they had

questions, if they understood what they were doing. Kind of wanted to checkup and see how they

were doing" (MI3: 93-94). She assessed with class work, activities, labs, quizzes, projects, and

tests making up student's grades. Testing was for her "the one I just immediately associate with

assessment" (MI2: 254) and she continued "it is just ingrained in my head" (MI4: 273).

Instructional strategies

Meredith used questioning, hands on activities, web sites, warm-ups at the beginning of

class, group work, reading and taking notes, and teaching science skills. Her learning style

leaned toward taking notes as she stated: "like I can totally function that way, You know, you









give me the notes ...which is why I like to give notes even though the students I have right now

do not respond near as well as I did to the notes" (MI1: 128-130).

Meredith had activities and projects for her students most days and used the artifacts

created in earlier classes to demonstrate to later classes what a product could look like (MI3:61-

62). Her hands-on strategy appeared to appeal to most of her students who worked productively

on tasks given them. Knowing her students have many different learning styles she stated "it

helps to do lots of strategies here to help them with when they're in their other classes" (MI2:

194-195).

She used proximity for classroom management confiding "if they know I'm walking

around it deters them from doing other things they should not be doing" (MI2: 97-98). She

employed questioning for testing strategies as well as to check for concept understanding. She

utilized the compare and contrast question format working on the process step by step and

believed "they had a much higher chance of success because I was helping" (MI4: 247-248).

Warm-up activities in her class were applied as "a bit of the metacognition ... How I was

thinking and hopefully how they would see how I was thinking" (MI2: 117-118).

Her teaching style was informal with her encouraging and modeling what she expected of

students. "I had to do a lot more provoking and encouraging", she averred, and expected students

to take responsibility with work habits and behavior commenting "I'm not going to walk around

and chase them around and say 'Oh, well you were absent yesterday so you really need to get

this done'" (MI4: 170-171). Meredith took prompt action when students misbehaved, sending

them to another room to sit with a different science teacher and take notes. All of the science

teachers in her wing practiced this form of academic time-out and it worked well as students

hated to miss her class.









Alex


Introduction and School Setting

Alex at fifty-three, was an older instructor than his fellow beginning secondary science

teachers earning his alternate certification for teaching through the state's program. He taught

ninth grade integrated science, also known as physical science, and tenth grade biology in a

small city in the north portion of County Two. He earned a bachelor's of science degree in

biology in the mid 1970s from a Florida university, specializing in cellular and molecular

biology. Alex was enrolled in the three-year alternative certification program (ACP) set up by

the state of Florida which trained persons with non-teaching degrees to get the pedagogy and

training to teach within a structured plan of courses and mentoring. The courses and mentoring

were offered during the school year, some as computer classes.

Besides science courses in college he spent six months in laboratory technician training in

Mobile Infirmary, in Mobile, Alabama, learning about blood gases and urinalysis. He was among

the first group to use a cell microscope in the state of Florida in 1974. Alex worked in hospitals

for four or five years as a laboratory technician and held a hospital lab license for many years.

He then worked in medical homecare for over twenty years until it changed, "becoming less

about healthcare and help than it was about how much money you can make for doing less care"

(All: 57-58).

As to why he decided to become a science teacher, he stated:

"I always got told by people I worked with that I should be a teacher [because of]

the way I taught people at work how to do certain things and how to correct their

problems. I have just always wanted to believe I could make a difference in some

child... You're not going to make a difference in all of them but if you can make a









difference in some child's world maybe help a kid that might be thinking of

dropping." (All: 60-65)

His desire to help children, to make a difference is what drove him and made him work hard to

be a good teacher and role model.

Alex taught at Laurel High School in Rolling Hills, a small city in the north portion of

County Two with a population of around 50,000 people. Three-quarters of its residents were

white, with one-quarter African-American and other ethnicities. There were 1,790 students at

Laurel HS who were white (70%), African-American (20%), Hispanic (5%), Asian (2%) and

other ethnicities (3%). Thirty-eight percent of the students were being provided free or reduced

lunches. The high school had an experienced teacher population with only 10% in their first year

of instruction. Two-thirds of Laurel's teachers had a bachelor's degree and one-third attained a

master's degree.

Classroom Setting

Alex's school had a circular structure with classrooms, library and cafeteria placed in a

wheel formation around the circle. A secondary building, built in a rectangle held classrooms and

restrooms. There were numerous portables, attesting to the reality of more students than the

original structure was built for.

The classroom where Alex taught was located in a portable trailer to the east of the main

school building by the tennis courts. His was one of a pair of portables to the far eastern side of

the school property. The interior of the portable classroom held desks all facing front to the

teacher's desk. Three rows of desks were on the right of the room with an aisle separating the

last row of desks placed against the left wall. Behind this row of desks there was an additional

desk with eight 2-liter bottles filled with plant matter and soil. Alex explained that this was an

experiment being accomplished by his biology class.









Two sets of shelves filled with reference materials were placed at the back of the room.

An additional set of shelves was to the right of the entrance door. These shelves contained the

classroom set of textbooks for both courses Alex taught. Students did not have a personal set of

books but could check them out as needed. A semi-circular table at the back of the room used as

overflow seating leaned against the reference shelves with three chairs situated around it and

portable cart next to it. The cart held potting soil and a gallon jug half full of water. Alex

explained that there was no water source in his classroom so he brought in water for any

experiments.

The teacher's desk was piled high with books and papers. A table situated next to the

desk provided additional room for stacking. At the edge of the table, an overhead projector sat

perched on seven textbooks to raise it high enough to illuminate a 4' X 4' piece of dry erase

board being used as a screen. This attached between two chalk boards which stretched the entire

front of the room. The right chalk board was filled with names in two columns. Alex explained

that it was school policy to announce the high scorers in recent science tests. He had a second

column to display the names of students who improved test scores the most in those tests. All

students whose names were on the board were awarded a Rice Crispie's treat.

To the far right, class schedules and other information was posted on the chalk board.

The chalk board to the left was employed to illustrate different science concepts and students

were allowed at the end of class to draw on the board as they lined up awaiting the bell sounding.

Two file cabinets sat on the right side of the room directly in front of the farthest right row of

student desks. A TV cart with television and VCR player was next to the file cabinets. Alex's

school computer and printer were jammed into the corner of the room below the far right side of

the right chalk board.
















































Figure 4-5. Alex's Conception of Teaching Science.


Presenting
science concepts
/ engaging in
hands-on
science activities









Conception of Teaching Science

Alex had a teacher-centered conception for teaching science (Figure 4-5 above) and held a

strong belief that the teacher was needed for any type of teaching and learning to occur. His CTS

consisted of the teacher and teaching, teaching strategies, conceptions of science, the learner and

learning, and conditions for instruction.

Teachers and teaching

Alex perceived the teacher as the source of knowledge and believed a teacher needed to

teach out of a book. He conceived that a teacher could not teach those in grade levels higher or

lower than they were trained for. He affirmed this when talking of a particular teaching scenario

"a college professor lecturing to first graders. .I'm not sure that's the right level either ... college

professors to me teach on a little higher level than first grade unless they were specialists in

elementary teaching" (ACI: 113-115).

His view of teaching was textbook-oriented: "I'd probably rip the college professor out and

put a elementary school teacher in there and I, I would have to find a book down to that level,

down to first or down to elementary level" (ACI: 126-128). For Alex, teaching was about

enthusiasm for his subject and he commented about this throughout his interviews with

statements like "I love genetics" and "you start talking genetics, microbiology and statistics,

you're in my class" (ACI: 165-166).

Teaching for Alex consisted of"students telling you what they know and ... then you can

point out to them what they need to know" (ACI: 46-49). He was unsure whether students can be

taught from media and averred "I'm not a big fan of learning a whole lot off of TV" (ACI: 67).

He questioned what students would learn and commented "I do not think you get the level of

education out of watching TV. .. even if a teacher sent the student home to watch this particular

thing" (ACI: 70-71). He saw the possibility of self-teaching but stated "I am kind of borderline









on this. I really do not consider this total teaching" (ACI: 89-90). Alex questioned self-teaching

and the motivation students have when he maintained "is it teaching for the ones that do it?" He

believed that he could teach students anything with the right materials and student motivation.

Instructional strategies

Alex viewed the teacher as the leader in teaching and learning and had several teaching

strategies. He discussed the KWL method of teaching where you ask the student what they

know, what they want to learn and then after the lesson quiz them on what they have learned.

Alex explained about a particular inquiry activity "you're passing this around and saying 'what

do you already know about these specimens?' You're finding out what a student knows in the

first place" (ACI: 20-22) and later stated "I would have them show me what they know first and

then teach from that point" (ACI: 222-223). Alex saw questioning as teacher-driven and used it

to assess what students know or have learned.

He commented about the possibility of students learning from media: I would have the

student after they had watched the program tell me exactly what they saw on the TV if I told

them to watch this program to see if they could learn ... I would quiz the students and find out

exactly what they learned when they watched." (ACI: 60-67)

Alex used the textbook daily and stated he "would teach it out of the book first" (ACI:

156). Alex's strategies were activity-oriented or "hands-on." He felt that any activity needed

prior teaching first and added "not let them do hands-on the first day. Make them work up to

that" (ACI: 158). Alex employed worksheets to focus the student on the learning and envisioned

his teaching as very standards-oriented.

Conceptions of science

Alex used common terms for science but understood terminology: "I use that [science]

terminology quite a bit and with blueberry muffins you have a few chemical reactions there, not









many. You know you got milk and dough and blueberries or whatever" (ACI: 241-243) he

commented. He explained the misconception students have between fruits and vegetables:

"tomatoes are one of those things that are kind of an oddity in the world that people call a

vegetable when they're a fruit" (ACI: 173-175). Alex believed in the nature of science as fact

that can be proved formulaically and stated, "the scientific method is like following a recipe"

(ACI: 241).

Learning and learners

Student learning for Alex was visual and kinesthetic with students performing a task in

order to learn. He declared that for learning to occur "you have something in front of the students

that they can actually look at and put their hands on" (ACI: 33-34). Alex felt that a teacher was

needed for learning. He also conceived that media was not a good learning venue for his

students: "I think TV, you watch it and at the same time you're, you're distracted" (ACI: 68-69).

He deemed that in order for learning to occur the teacher needed to question their students

specifically about what they learned, to "see well you know what species did you learn about and

if they could tell you that then maybe they did gather something from it" (ACI: 73-74) but

suspected that "unless [students] wrote it down they probably would not remember" (ACI: 74-

75). Alex saw learning as step-wise, stating: "I think the student would actually learn something

if they follow a recipe. .First place, they have to read and second place, they have to follow

directions" (ACI:244-245).

He struggled with what teaching and learning was and asserted "is it teaching for the ones

that do it? I think they learn how to use something, they learn how to weigh something...the part

about it being done at home probably means it would not be, everybody would not get the same

teaching level because not everybody is going to do it" (ACI:276-279).









Alex's view of learners revolved around management issues in his classroom. He viewed

learners as untrustworthy: "now frankly if I did this in mine I'd probably by the time I got the

box back I'd be missing a few insects" (ACI: 34-35) and "I like a very hands-on thing but in

today's world you have to know what students you're dealing with for hands-on. I mean there's

classes that I'd give them tomatoes and they'd be splattered up against another child's head"

(ACI: 193-196). He further comprehended them as needing to be motivated to learn especially

away from the teacher when he claimed "a student watching a TV program, I'd be surprised if

any of my students did that" (ACI: 54-55). Alex perceived students as having prior knowledge

and felt he needed to "know what knowledge level the kids already have" (ACI: 24-26). He

struggled with what would be age appropriate; "ninth grade I'm not sure is ready for fruit flies"

he mused (ACI: 140-141).

Conditions for instruction

Alex had few conditions for instruction but his primary one was that a teacher was needed

for it to occur. He felt that self-teaching was not real teaching: "is it teaching ...? It is kind of

self-teaching themselves" (ACI: 88). His major concern was that the standards be taught and had

concern about changing standards in his county. "Our school board tells us we have to teach

intelligent design along with Darwin's theory" (ACI: 118-119). Like any first year teacher Alex

concerned himself with a lack of materials. He had only two light microscopes for his biology

class of twelve students and his concern for enough materials for his students was evidenced by

his statement: "in the regular classes we do not have enough to go around" (ACI: 141-143).

Orientation to Teaching Science

Alex's orientation to teaching science was activity-driven (Figure 4-6) based on his goals

for instruction, science curriculum, school context, learner characteristics, rationale for
























Textbook/
supplements
Lesson


Alex's
Activity-driven
Orientation to
Teaching
Science


Figure 4-6. Alex's Orientation to Teaching Science.









instruction and instructional strategies. His orientation was evidenced by his science teaching

goals of science skills and content knowledge, and general goal of life skills. This activity-driven

approach was proposed by Anderson and Smith (1987, cited in Magnusson, Krajcik & Borko,

1999) and had as its goal to "have students be active with materials; 'hands-on' experiences" (p.

16). This epitomized Alex's oft-stated practices of having students "do the hands-on" activities

and his lesson planning focus of building models and demonstrations that allowed students to

verify or discover science concepts kinesthetically.

Goals for teaching

Alex had several science goals and one of his most important was to give student's concept

understanding or as he stated a science base that they can build upon in future classes. "Newton's

laws, Aristotle's laws, you know, momentum, gravity, because they and I tell them they use

these in other facets of life for instance, in momentum in stopping distances" (All:224-226) he

explained about his view of concept understanding in his integrated science class. About another

class he spoke: "the goal again is to get them to learn what a projectile is, what a satellite is, what

the curvature is called" (AI1:176-277).

A second important science goal for Alex was science skills. In talking of a class on

microscopes and looking at cells he stated "the basic goal was for them to at least use a

microscope ... at least get them some hands-on with a microscope and with slides, with cover

slips, things of that sort" (113:111-113). He discussed science skills on several occasions in

interviews.

Alex's third science goal was to guide students in a choice of science careers: "what I want

them to get out of it is to decide if they really think science is something they want to pursue"

(All: 195-196). Alex counseled students and stated "I try to figure out which students are better









adapted for like maybe taking biology next year or which students may be better on the

chemistry side or even get to a physics side" (All:197-199).

Alex cherished two general goals as well. He spent time working to motivate his students

to do well in school as his academic success goal. "You're not going to always achieve it but

always shoot for an A in class and if you do your work and a C's the best you can do then that's

fine but if you sit there and shoot for a C you're probably going to get a D or an F." (All:442-

445) he commented. A part of this goal was to help them pass the state high-stakes test necessary

for their graduation from high school. When speaking of his goals for his students he exclaimed

"well to pass the test would be nice" but became serious in talking of the high-stakes test "I

would like to see students leave here and be able to do as well as possible when it comes time to

take that FCAT" (AI2:124-125).

A second general goal was to help students develop life skills. This was part of his strong

desire to work with children. "If I can I can help them through not only the science part but also

any problems they have in the 9th grade" and expressed what brought him into teaching was to

"make a difference in a kid's life" (AI: 71-73).

Alex's affective goal was to motivate students and stimulate their interest in science. When

he spoke of his demonstrations, Alex explained "I try to give them those kinds of things for

science to relate gravity as something in modem-day that they may find the gravity to relate

momentum." (AI2:233-235). Getting students to relate science to the real world is the route by

which he motivated students to learn science.

Science curriculum

Alex believed that curriculum was important and ensured that it was taught in a

progression of concepts (AI3: 222-223). Curriculum must "fit into the standard" (AI3: 224) he

stated, adding "the school curriculum just makes us follow the state's curriculum" (AI2: 483).









Alex was very dependant on the textbook and commented "you can only teach what the book

says to teach" (All: 185-187). Although very dependent on the textbook he also jumped around

in text when teaching (All: 221-223) to tie like concepts together in a progression that his

students would understand.

School context

Alex taught at an urban public school in a small city in the northern part of County Two.

He instructed students in four classes of integrated science and one class of biology on the block

schedule. This participant was the only one who taught science on a block schedule.

There were numerous teacher issues Alex faced. His most critical one was a lack of proper

equipment and facilities. "Our only handicap is that we have only two microscopes. I'd like to

have a microscope for every student" (AI3: 160-161). His classroom being portable there were

no facilities for experiments including a lack of plumbing for water and sinks, lab stations or

cabinets. Alex also had only a classroom set of books so his students could only do seatwork and

no homework (All: 308-309).

Other issues for Alex were no budget for materials, lack of time to lesson plan, and high-

stakes testing. "Mainly I end up getting my own materials. There's not a lot of materials (All:

154-155) Alex stated. A lack of time to lesson plan was an issue he shared with other participants

spending up to "six to seven hours" planning and constructing demo materials (AI2: 389-391).

High-stakes testing was accomplished in his school and he worried about student preparedness

for the tests.

Alex had other factors which were part of his school context. He was required to submit

lesson plans to the administration. "Our [administrator] just requires us to have copies or have

them on the computer" (AI2: 534) he added. In public schools the principal or vice principal









observes teaching several times a year. Observations are more frequent during a teacher's first

year instructing.

Learner characteristics

Alex taught an integrated science course, considered in his school the lower track in

science for freshman high school students. Many of his students had special needs. Alex saw

student ability in these classes as going "from the lower standard to the higher standard

education-wise" (AI2: 88) and expressed concern about the difficulty of teaching such a wide

range of students for a first-year teacher. "It is tough, it really is and especially being a first-year

teacher the way I'm teaching it is tough teaching that whole gamut of students" (AI2: 122-124).

Discipline was a difficult issue in these classes and Alex expressed concern about a

particular student: "this child has a hearing, hearing problem. He has eye problems and he has a

learning disability but he sits up front right in front of me and sometimes he's so far off the

subject on questions and Ijust let him talk" (AI2: 841-843). Talking in his classes was a difficult

management problem for him. When sharing issues about his biology class he remarked: "you

still have the problems. You still have the talkative ones. You still have the ones a couple of

them do not pay attention. But I don't think it is as noticeable at the tenth grade level or the

eleventh grade level" (AI2: 169-172)

Student motivation was another issue that Alex worked on in all his classes. He was happy

when students showed interest by asking questions and noted "even though sometimes the

questions are far off the track at least they're asking questions" (114: 171-172). When speaking of

his biology class, Alex had a differing opinion "most are there because they are interested in

biology. There's a few that are there just because it is a core, it is a second science for them"

(AI3: 35-36) but felt that most are there because they "chose to be in biology."









Student understanding was positively viewed by Alex in his biology class. "the biology

students seem to, from the testing, have a good grasp on the subject and seem to have a good

interest in the subject on the whole" (AI2: 151-152). He shared a different view of his integrated

science student's understanding of topics when he stated, "the ones I can get through to I think

are grasping some of the major facets of the science" (AI2: 111-112). Alex continued "I think

this particular type of student thinks 'once I'm finished with chapter one I'm finished with

everything.' And they do not realize it goes from one chapter to another" (AI2: 181-183).

Alex distinguished his student's main learning styles as group work and asking questions.

In talking about one of his biology students, he explained, "this child's trying to learn something

and the questions this particular student asks are very good questions about the world and about

biology" (AI2: 324-325). One problem he found is that when he assigned groups students did not

stay where they were assigned. "You know, I do not think it is just me. I think that is probably a

commonplace event", he mused (AI: 288-289).

Rationale for instruction

Alex's OTS was shaped by curriculum choices as seen in lesson planning and assessment.

His main curriculum source remained the textbook and he spent hours planning lessons using the

text and supplemental materials his school provided him. "Just to do the first three sections of

chapter eight probably took me six to seven hours to get everything prepared by the time I went

and got the stuff I needed" (AI2: 389-391). Having learned this text, Alex shared his views about

the new text they were acquiring, "the sad part is that this book is going away after this year so

next year we will, we will be changing totally to a different book which can be good and bad"

(AI2: 490-492). He used state standards to ensure that all topics of the required curriculum were

covered and commented "it is a case of having to pick out what is important and you know I









have to look at the state standards and see what the state says has to be accentuated out of that

particular chapter" (AI3: 202-204).

Alex carefully crafted his lessons, explaining: "I read the entire unit through and it tells me

where to go to the other resource books and any other type of exercises or handouts we can find

for them. I read exactly what the kids will be reading, highlight or find the words that need to be

expounded on and then use the other resources to accentuate them to add to it" (AI4: 112-118).

He preferred to summarize the chapters and units providing "a decent summary before a test"

and accomplished this using "all the preparation materials I can find" and many times borrowed

ideas, activities, and worksheets from other teachers (AI3: 182-186).

Alex assessed student learning by testing. He, like other teachers in his school was tasked

with raising student's reading scores on the high-stakes tests. He observed "it has been identified

as one of the big weaknesses of students is reading" (112: 44-45). To improve scores students

were required to read at least 10 minutes in each class. Since his school day was set on the block

schedule, Alex used this time to have students read sections in their science textbook.

In addition he used other assessment tools "things like homework or lab or sometimes you

know just how well they participate in class to arrive at the grade" (AI3: 310-312). Class

participation was an important alternate assessment tool for Alex. "[Of] my total assessment of

the course, testing is one way but I also look at them and see how interested they actually are and

some of that is from their feedback as far as acting, asking questions" (AI4: 177-180) he stated.

Instructional strategies

Alex employed various strategies for teaching science. He drew on written questions,

definitions on the transparencies, questioning, demos, activities, labs, lecture, and discussion to

keep his classes interested. Of one of the demos he had done he stated, "of course the purpose is

to try to get it across to the students effectively. What does that best is really just like the little









demonstrations model I've done" (AI2:15-17). Alex spent long hours making models for his

integrated science classes to illustrate and demonstrate concepts. Labs were especially important

for him in his biology classes. "Anytime I do a lesson that goes well I try to have some sort of

experiment that the kids like to do" (All: 115-116). Alex preferred his biology students

experience individual labs to develop their skills with science equipment and to get experience

doing experiments.

Alex's teaching style was informal and kinesthetic, with him rolling balls down the aisles

to students to illustrate physical science concepts or having students swing a pail of water over

their heads to demonstrate centrifugal force. "Anything they can see even dropping a ball rather

than simply walking about or pointing to it in the book" (AI2:17-18) was the teaching style he

most espoused. His style for concept understanding was to "break it down into sections and try to

get a further understanding" (All: 180-181). Although very activity-driven, Alex felt "hands-on

sometimes takes a back seat to what you have to learn to build up to the hands-on" (All: 122-

123).

Cristina

Introduction and School Setting

Cristina, in her early twenties, was in her first year teaching high school biology and

marine science at a private Catholic school in Rolling Hills, in County Two. She was working

towards alternative certification in teaching and required by her school to attend teacher

education classes and pass her certification exams within two years as well as some catechism

courses through the Catholic dioceses.

Cristina earned her degree in biology with a specialization in marine science in 2004 from

a university in the northeast United States. She focused her course work on zoology, animal

behavior, evolutionary biology, marine science, and marine mammalogy at the organismal level.









As part of a course, she took a field trip for two weeks to study sperm whales aboard a boat off

the coast of Dominica in the West Indies.

When I asked Cristina how she decided on teaching as a career she stated:

"I was planning on going to graduate school ... and then at the last minute the

professor lost funding so I was not able to [go to] the grad school and my sister

suggested that I teach at a Catholic school for two years and that's kind of how I

became a teacher. And through all of this I'm beginning to think that my role

maybe, this is where I'm supposed to be because I'm, I cannot believe how happy I

am here, what I'm doing. So I think that God kind of gave me a kick in the right

direction here" (CI1: 53-59).

Cristina taught at Sacred Heart High School in Rolling Hills, in the same city as Alex. The

private Catholic school was built in 2002 and there were 454 students, including white (79%),

African-American (6%), Hispanic (12%) and Asian or other ethnicities (3%). The science

department consisted of five teachers and had two teachers in their first year of instruction. Fifty-

nine percent of Sacred Heart's teachers had a bachelor's degree, thirty-eight percent attained a

master's degree and one had a doctorate.

Classroom Setting

Because her school was built in 2002, Cristina's classroom was new and well-equipped.

The left side of the room featured three windows that looked out on a lawn dotted with trees and

picnic tables. Between each window pictures and posters depicting different concepts of science

were hung. The television was mounted in the left front corer of the room directly above a

bookcase holding books of various types. Atop the bookcase sat a terrarium. As she lectured to

her classes Christina advanced PowerPoint slides on the TV assuming a hookup from the

computer to television.









The front of the room displayed a Whiteboard in the center and a bulletin board between

Whiteboard and door. The bulletin board showcased posters of estuaries and other habitats and a

poster with a religious figure affixed to it. On the right side of the room were two doors, one at

the front of the room and the other at the back of the room. Between the two doors sat a

terrarium, a two-door cabinet in a large alcove and another two-door cabinet in a second roomy

alcove.

To the back of room were mounted two bulletin boards, one with biome posters on it and

one with a world map. Below the bulletin boards two tables were placed with four plastic

rectangular trays on each. The trays each held four six-inch flower pots with grasses planted in

them. Two trays on the first table were labeled '10% organic amendment' and the other two

labeled '5% organic amendment'. On the second table two trays were labeled 'Miracle Gro' and

'H20'. They were the implements of one of the actual studies that Cristina explained were in

progress.

Against the back wall stood a large blue plastic trash can, two student desks and a long

table with three student chairs pulled up underneath. The long table had four aquariums each

labeled 'H20', Miracle Gro', '5% organic amendment' and '10% organic amendment' on their

sides. I assumed these were for the second grant that Cristina is accomplishing during her school

year. On the left rear of the room (before the first window) lies a long low bookcase with three

shelves. On each of the shelves shells and marine specimens were located.

To the right of the TV were about five or six different posters on science tacked to the

wall. In front of them was placed a computer with monitor, keyboard, and mouse attached to it.

The teacher's desk faced the room at an angle. A small aquarium lay to the left of the teacher's









desk on a small end table. Desks were aligned in rows facing the front of the classroom, each

with a chair and four or five chairs per vertical row.

Conception of Teaching Science

Cristina had a teacher-centered conception for teaching science (Figure 4-7) consisting of

teachers and teaching, instructional strategies, conceptions of science, learners and learning, and

conditions for instruction.

Teachers and teaching

She perceived the teacher as the source of knowledge and believed a good teacher could

"take any subject and teach it in a way that [students] can understand" (CCI: 118-120). Cristina

further felt a teacher's attitude determined whether they "could teach the kid you know why and

how [something occurs]" (CCI: 213). Her college professor advisor was a strong mentor and she

had a belief he could teach anyone at their level: "I have a picture in my head of my college

professor lecturing to first graders" (CCI: 124-125).

"Kind of for me teaching is active teaching" (CCI: 191) was how Cristina described her

conception of teaching. She categorized the ways a teacher instructed into what was or was not

"active teaching." Cristina envisioned inquiry as in her words, "a general open-ended question .

S.it is more of an inquiry process. .it is not active teaching" (CCI: 45-46). She further explained,

"I use inquiry kind of like open-ended inquiry like that at the start and then I begin my teaching"

(CCI: 47-48).

Cristina separated her teaching into parts, seeing questioning as "the beginning part of

teaching." Inquiry for her was not teaching but only the start. She felt strongly that students

should learn in conjunction with a teacher and questioned if self-teaching were possible. Cristina

averred "I do not think that just reading a guide is, is again it is not active teaching. .I think

that's more of research and gathering information" (CCI: 262-265).


















































Figure 4-7. Cristina's Conception of Teaching Science.


Presenting
science concepts /
providing
sequence of
science learning
experiences









Instructional Strategies

Cristina used questioning as an important strategy and stated "I always try to use scientific

terms" when questioning students (CCI: 27-28). She employed probing questions to find out

student prior knowledge and to keep them "on task" (CCI: 48-50). If Cristina used inquiry she

would use only elements of it as a precursor to teaching (CCI: 46-47). She utilized media to

illustrate or introduce topics stating, "I feel that that is an excellent way for the kids to see the

organisms and they are actively participating most of them," (CCI: 74-75).

Cristina used labs but was still building her library of appropriate lab activities. She

purchased a teaching aid having activities she drew on in her instruction. She also had students

accomplish seatwork. As Cristina explained, "I do assignments with the kids in which I'm not

actively teaching" (CCI: 191-192).

Conceptions of science

Cristina viewed science as a body of knowledge driven by a questions and she saw the

learning of science as a progression of the content. She felt learning was built upon prior

knowledge given by the teacher. When looking at a question of particular knowledge a student

had on bones she visualized student background knowledge in terms of what had been already

covered. "So they have to have learned it at some point so how did they learn the bones to begin

with? If they had had a big unit where they did an activity to learn the bones together then this

would be part of that lesson" (CCI: 184-187) she muses.

Cristina believed the nature of science was human-conceived when she claimed that the

student needed to "start to think about the difference between what we perceive and like [what

is] common in society and science" (CCI: 171-172). She perceived that students had

misconceptions and tried to inform her students that "there [are] misconceptions in the world and









what science really teaches us" (CCI: 173-174). Cristina also understands that science is

tentative. "In science there is no such thing as a right answer" she conceded (CI3: 15-16).

Learning and learners

Learning for Cristina was active with students performing a task or actively paying

attention in order to learn. "If the student is sitting there and actually responding to what's going

on ... I would know that there is teaching and learning going on" (CCI: 81-84) she commented

about using media for learning. In a particular scenario she saw learning happening between

students "if one of them did not understand ... what a calorie is or ... to figure out the caloric

value for different foods and the other person was explaining somehow then that would be

science teaching" (CCI: 101-104) but was hesitant about a student learning alone when cooking

commenting "there'd probably be someone to help them follow that recipe" (CCI: 229-230).

She understood her students had misconceptions and would inform them "there [are]

misconceptions in the world and what science really teaches us" (CCI: 173-174). Cristina

realizes that her students had some prior knowledge about science topics. "Once I started talking

about the material they will say 'Oh I remember that from last year' and I knew that they knew

what it was" (CI2: 229-230).

Cristina viewed learners as needing to be guided to learn and refocused onto the learning

task. In class she would scan the room and challenge students to focus and pay attention. She

also felt the need for students to have specific questions asked of them in order to promote the

right conditions for learning. "When I'm teaching and I ask questions they're more specific

questions to help keep the kids on task. .. If they do not have a specific question they just kind of

turn it into a joke" (CCI: 49-50, 53). Finally she believed a student's age and cognitive level

determined whether learning were accomplished. When talking of inquiry she felt "for my

students anyways it is just something that they could not handle" (CCI: 61-62).









Conditions for instruction

Cristina had many conditions for teaching. She believed teaching was accomplished when

"you're describing the steps ... and not just listing them" (CCI: 148-149). Cristina stated for a

teacher to simply give students a worksheet was wrong. "If the teacher simply stood in front of

the class and passed out this is and said 'label this', that's not really teaching. .that's more like

note taking before the teaching" (CCI: 188-189) she averred. Cristina believed that student

participation determined the quality of teaching. She commented about students watching a

video "if they're just sitting there with their hand on their cheek spacing out you know I do not

think that is teaching happening" (CCI: 75-76).

Cristina deemed questioning as a strong condition for teaching and demanded the

questions be specific: "[if] it is a specific question then ... it is going to make them start to think

about the difference between what we perceive and like [what is] common in society and

science" (CCI: 169-172). How the teacher responded to a question was also important, she

declared. "I always try to ask, 'what can we hypothesize about this?'" (CCI: 40) A student

working alone and doing calculations was not a good condition of teaching to her. "You know

they are probably just following standard procedure that they have to do ... following a formula,

plugging it in" (CCI: 97-98) and further posited "I do not think that's science teaching."

Cristina also had conditions for learning. It was important to her that the knowledge

learned be first-time knowledge. She talked about cooking and questioned "is this the first time

that they're making muffins? If it is the first time they've made anything in baking they're going

to be learning" (CCI: 226-227). In discussing a scenario of a teacher writing a self-study guide

she commented "I do not think the teacher would be learning and I do not necessarily agree that

like a self-study course is real learning" (CCI: 254-256). A final condition for learning she felt









was student interest and Cristina felt students were actively learning if they commented about it

(CCI: 85-89).

Orientation to Teaching Science

Cristina had a combination academic rigor/didactic orientation to teaching science (Figure

4-8) powered by her teaching goals for her students and learner characteristics, science

curriculum, school context, rationale for teaching and instructional strategies. "An orientation

represents a general way of viewing or conceptualizing science teaching" (Magnusson, Krajcik

& Borko, 1999, p. 97) and helps guide decisions of teaching strategies and curriculum.

Goals for teaching

The goal of teachers with an academic rigor orientation is to represent a particular body of

knowledge and this was the primary science goal Cristina held. She wanted her students to get

concept knowledge "outside of what we were talking about and to you know I like them to

visualize what's going on" (CI: 87-88) and "get them comfortable using science terms" A

secondary science goal for students was for them to view science as real-world. Cristina related a

science connection she had taught recently: "I remember spending five solid minutes in class

talking about weightlifting and lactic acid and all those guys, their eyes were right on me" (CI1:

361-364). She tried to tie her lessons to what interested students and helped them to retain

information.

She had a general goal for her students of academic preparation. This Cristina felt could be

achieved partly by learning how to research and write about it. She stated, "I want them at the

end of the year to write a research paper in which they found all their resources by using a

database like you do in college" (PI: 266-268).























Cristina's
Academic
Rigor/Didactic
Orientation to
Teaching
Science


Figure 4-8. Cristina's Orientation to Teaching Science.









Christina had an affective goal of excitement for science. First, she wanted her students

"engaged in the lesson" and tried to encourage them daily to keep involved. If she saw students

going off task she would have them stand and refocus them with several statements that they had

to repeat. Cristina believed that the teacher needed to move quickly through the topics and have

"like a crash course of everything at the beginning or something like that just so the kids can see

that there's really exciting stuff that can be had" (CI1:389-391) and repeats "I just want them

excited about the material." She called this her ultimate goal.

Science curriculum

Curriculum was important to Cristina: "this is just the beginning of the stuff that I want

them to learn this semester. We want to talk about genetics and DNA and move as quickly as we

can into the organismal levels" (CI2: 257-259). She viewed curriculum as the textbook and

discussed sections she wants to cover. "I want to cover all of the areas in the book" (CI1: 284)

she commented. Cristina feels she cannot teach without the textbook (CI1: 384).

Even though she used the textbook as course curriculum there were problems with it to

her. "There's too much detail in these books for kids and I wish that they had more ideas for

hands-on activities" (CI1: 387-388) Cristina bemoaned. An ideal textbook would have the topics

broken into small sections to teach. As she worked through the text Cristina simplified concepts

she felt would not be understood (CI1: 351-354).

School context

Cristina taught at an urban private school in County Two. Her school was a parochial high

school which was two years old. She instructed her students in three classes of biology and two

classes of marine science daily.

There were many teacher issues Cristina dealt with. She had a lack of proper teaching aids

and purchased her own (CI3: 157-158). Her classroom was fitted with a television, computer,









and video equipment to enable her to present her lessons using PowerPoint slides. Unfortunately

she had no pointing device needed to hover close to her computer to change slides. Cristina did

not have a budget for materials and had to use what she had on hand (CI1: 172-174). Finally,

there was little time for her to lesson plan as she worked as a tutor after school (CI1: 121-122).

Learner characteristics

I observed Cristina teaching two different biology classes. She viewed her students'

abilities as varying, stating "well it is kind of a mixed class. There are some of them that just do

not get it and you have to really, really work with them and there's some that are, they think

higher but not to the extent that my third period class does" (CI2:103-105).

Cristina found she had to motivate students as they got bored with the amount of note-

taking done in her classes. She got excited with her student's excitement, "you know kids they

get excited when they can figure something out for themselves" (CI2:84-85). To stimulate

motivation she used questioning stating "I am sure you could tell who I kept calling on, the

people who are not actively participating" (CI2:174-175).

Student understanding was viewed positively by Cristina in her classes. "I think overall

they do understand it and they're really excited about this stuff that I teach" (CI2:122-123). She

worked to improve student performance due to the motivation problems. "A lot of them will

think that they know the material so that they can just sit back and you know say 'Well I already

know Punnett squares so I'm not going to pay attention" (CI4:57-60) so she called on them to

answer questions.

Cristina was attempting to understand student learning styles and wondered "they're just

blindly like writing down whatever we throw on the overhead or you know if it is fill-in-the-

blank notes they will fill the blank or whatever so you can feel that the kids, they just shut down"

(CI1:259-261) but struggled with finding a strategy that worked with most students "I'm always









trying to get kids to do problems in their head 'cause I'm a visual person so I can always

visualize stuff like that in my head." (CI4:89-91).

Rationale for instruction

Curriculum and assessment affect and are affected by a teacher's OTS (Magnusson,

Krajcik & Borko, 1999). Cristina was dependent on her text and believed she "could not teach

without a textbook obviously." She tried to cover all of the chapters of the book but felt rushed

as the "fun stuff' on animals was in the back. Cristina was unhappy with her text stating that

"there is too much detail in these books for kids and I wish that they had more ideas for hands-on

activities" (CI: 387-388) and wanted to reorder sections of the book to be able to spend more

time on organisms. Her school, being private had no high-stakes testing or standards for her to

follow so she had to teach within the construct of what the textbook presented.

Lesson planning for Cristina was difficult due to lack of preparation time (she tutored

afternoons and evenings) and her limited knowledge of appropriate activities and labs. During

her lesson planning sessions she "might use the internet, college textbooks, online lesson plans"

(CI2:246) and was always trying to add extra material. Her school did not give her a budget for

materials so she purchased a packet of activities to use in biology instruction.

Assessment of student learning was very traditional for Cristina both through personal

preference "I do not really do alternative assessment" and because the school only allowed

traditional methods. Her student's grades were based on homework, labs, quizzes and tests with

an occasional project thrown in. When I mentioned assessment she talked to me of the types of

questions she would have on the test. She commented that assessments were "helping me with

knowing if they understand the chapter, were paying attention and were taking notes" (CI4:141-

142).









Instructional strategies

The teaching strategies used by Cristina were focused around her didactic orientation and

relied heavily on lecture, note taking, and technology. She attempted to "rush through" parts of

the book she felt were difficult or boring. She used many pen and paper in-class assignments

which could be taken home to complete stating "that's like a teacher's saving grace when you're

just so overwhelmed by things and you just say 'okay, read these pages, answer these questions'

and then you can spend that hour catching up on whatever you have to do" (CI1:230-233).

Cristina relied on questioning to review concepts and keep students focused. Her teaching

strategy was to just "keep on asking them questions instead of just sitting there and giving them

notes" (CI4:17-18) She employed questions to keep students on task feeling "if they know that

I'm going to randomly call on them" her students would remain focused throughout the period.

Worksheets were used as a review of the material and done several times a week. Cristina had

one project during the fall where her students constructed a cell. Daily at the beginning of class

students were questioned about terms and content covered the day before.

Cristina's teaching style was formal with her as the authority figure in the classroom. She

required her students to focus on her and respond to her. Her classes were strongly lecture driven

and her students took numerous notes. Cristina believed, "you have to take notes; it is almost

impossible not to take any notes" (CI1:257-258). The core of her teaching style was to make

connections averring, "I tried not to just jump right in to a new topic. I think it is important that

we tried to link what they already know about it with what we talked about before" (CI2:33-34).

Isobel

Introduction and School Setting

Isobel, in her early thirties, taught at a high school in a small town in County Three and

was becoming alternatively certified. This required her to take education courses and to pass the









general knowledge, subject area, and professional educator's exams. She earned two bachelor's

degrees, one in marine biology and one in ecology as well as a master's in science.

Coursework for her undergraduate science degrees consisted of various courses on fish

structure and behavior, fish biology, coral reef fish ecology, plant classes, developmental

biology, evolution, and many ecology courses. For her master's she completed aquatic and

environmental chemistry, engineering, hydro-geology, groundwater flow modeling, and biome

restoration coursework.

She completed a work study with a plasmobiologist studying sharks and stingrays. During

her master's degree she had an internship with a local water management district and designed a

project to measure whether phosphorus could be naturally removed using wetlands, collected the

data and made feasibility calculations.

When I asked why she became a science teacher, Isobel responded with:

"I was going to be a marine biologist. .. decided I can not live on eight dollars an

hour so I got into business and I found skills that I did not know I had. .I went

back to school and I really got into it. I found I was really good at presentations and

I liked public speaking... [after college in a job] I got tired of computers and I

thought you know I'm going to try this and I have been pleasantly surprised."

Isobel taught environmental science, honors chemistry, and anatomy and physiology at

Forest High School in Forest, a small city of about 4,000 in County Three. The 477 students at

Forest HS were white (56%), African-American (40%), Hispanic (3%) and other ethnicities

(1%). Fifty-eight percent of the students were being provided free or reduced lunches. The high

school had an experienced teacher population with only 16% in their first year of instruction.









Three-quarters of Forest's teachers had a bachelor's degree and one-quarter attained a master's

degree.

Classroom Setting

Isobel's classroom was a cinderblock structure with two doors, one opening to the outside

and another that opens into a science preparation area. Doors were positioned at the front and

rear of the room on the left side. Most of the left wall was taken up by cabinets. Sixteen narrow

cabinets with doors on the bottom and middle portions were attached to the wall with two square

shelves above them. These bookcases had their shelves filled with books, workbooks and science

materials.

A three-door cabinet wash placed on the left side of the room near the rear door. At the

rear door of her classroom on the left were mounted a fire blanket and fire alarm. The rear of the

room to the right of the door displayed mounted posters and a skeleton hung next to the rear wall

in the right rear corer of the room. On the left rear corner of the room the fume hood with a

light was installed. It contained gas and water jets and experiments could be performed inside it.

Forward of the fume hood on a simulated wood counter stood a blue metal cabinet marked

"Corrosive". Forward of this cabinet stood a yellow metal cabinet labeled "Flammable" also atop

a simulated wood counter. Both cabinets held chemicals used in her classes.

Forward of the cabinets a long computer carrel was setup for three computers. The

counter top appeared to be a blue laminate material with the legs of the structure painted blue.

Three monitors with keyboards and mice sit atop the counter and three computer towers are

placed directly below each set of equipment. Under each of the three sections of counter is

shoved a formed plastic chair. At the front of the room stand a tan four-drawer metal file cabinet

and two brown metal four-drawer cabinets.

A rolling one-drawer black metal cabinet sat forward of other file cabinets. A square









table was arranged in the front corer and atop it a large stack of papers was placed on left side

and a small stack of papers on the right. Directly above a wooden platform was attached to the

wall with a VHS player, DVD player and switcher resting atop it. A black twenty-inch color

television was mounted to left wall near front of room.

Bulletin boards were hung to the left and right of two seven foot wide dry erase boards

attached to the center and a projector screen mounted above them. A retractable map was located

to left of the screen. The right-hand bulletin board was decorated with vocabulary words and the

right with sports memorabilia.

Conception of Teaching Science

Isobel had a developing student-centered conception of teaching science that was teacher-

centered (Figure 4-9) consisting her conceptions of teachers and teaching, instructional

strategies, conceptions of science, conceptions of learners and learning, and conditions for

instruction.

Teachers and teaching

She viewed the teacher as the source of knowledge who can teach only to a specific age

group unless specially trained. When speaking of a professor teaching first graders she stated "if

he can break it down to where six-year olds can understand that, the man's a genius" (ICI:78-79).

She believed that activities should be tailored to fit the age or cognitive level of the learner and

was developing an understanding of how to modify content. Isobel felt a teacher have the ability

to demonstrate a topic in order for teaching to be happening. She averred "that's probably the

biggest key for me. You can describe it but can you demonstrate it? Can you show?" (ICI: 101-

102). Isobel was knowledgeable in science, and content knowledge was important to her. She

believed that teachers "have to be knowledgeable. .they have to know what's going on. If they

do not, they better find out" (ICI: 215-216).

















































Figure 4-9. Isobel's Conception of Teaching Science.


Facilitating
development of
science
understanding /
providing
sequence of
science learning
experiences









Teaching came in various forms for Isobel. She viewed teaching as interactive and hands-

on: "so you are saying it and then showing them and having them do it with you so not only do

they hear it, they see it but then they do it then you've probably got teaching" (ICI:90-92).

Isobel's say it, show it, have them do it form of teaching permeated her classroom instruction

and led her to use demonstration and experimentation as a part of her daily teaching strategies. In

each class I observed she used this format to present new material to students.

Isobel believed students could teach themselves through activities like cooking. When

talking of teaching stoichiometry to her students she stated "we kept going through it. I finally

got them to understand with cooking and cookies [as] limiting reagents. You do not have enough

chocolate chips you're going to make less chocolate chip cookies" (112:72-75). She perceived

students need to "grasp following methodology to a T and if you do not, what the repercussions

are going to be so even though it is real simple" (ICI: 182-184).

Student's teaching each other was also possible to Isobel but she had trouble visualizing

what it looked like as she posed to herself "are they asking each other questions and kind of

teaching each other?" (ICI: 61-62) and later explained what kinds of student interactions would

be teaching to her "like one knows one part, one knows another and they're saying 'Well I do not

understand this. Can you explain this to me?' that would definitely be more teaching" (ICI: 62-

64).

Isobel perceived teaching could be accomplished using media both through video and the

written word. Of video she felt it could teach if students make a conscious decision to watch

something educational and stated "they are not flipping it around to MTV. They are not flipping

it around to The Simpson's. They are actually watching something that they could get something

from and ask questions about later" (ICI: 41-44). Self-study guides could be teaching tools but









Isobel averred "you are going to have to be able to read it and understand it." She grasped the

importance of teaching to a student's learning style but felt that a teacher should explain things

first. Isobel asked "did you give them any background?" when questioned about whether

teaching was going on in a particular instance.

Instructional strategies

Isobel recognized that questioning was important as a strategy and required her

questioning be focused. When asked about an assignment for students to draw apparatus and

label something they have observed she questioned:

"Then in addition to label it, what is its function? What does it do? Otherwise I

would ask more of 'well what really happened? Can you explain it using as much

science as possible? You may use apparatus. You may use theory, whenever you

need to do. Can you explain what you saw?'" (ICI: 136-139).

Demonstrating was very important to her. In her class to illustrate gas laws, Isobel used a

balloon, diagrams, dry ice, aluminum cans, and other items to show her students how gases acted

in a closed system. She wanted to have students perform experiments in her class but worried

about lack of equipment or supplies for many labs. Looking for labs that could be done with

household materials and simple equipment was something she most wished she had more time

for.

Conceptions of science

Science content was important to Isobel hence her two bachelors and one master's degree

in science. She conceived science as a body of knowledge whose outcomes impact society. A

project she designed for her students examined medicine's impact: "I wanted some different

sources. I wanted one 'Oh, medicine is great' because that's what we think [when] we really









need to rethink about these medical advances. How maybe they're not being handled right, a kind

of a more of a negative spin or a different look at it" (113:211-215).

Isobel used the book as a resource for her students and had them work through problems in

it to demonstrate the process in problem-solving. She was in the process of choosing texts for

next year and very carefully assessed which text would teach the concepts her students required

at the level they read and understood. In her chemistry class she was "jumping around" the book

progressing from concept to concept as she viewed them tied together as curriculum.

Isobel never spoke directly of the nature of science but saw science as empirical and

flexible utilizing problem-solving, observation and inference with her students to teach concepts.

She understood the scientific process and saw her students as scientists when they would bake at

home stating: "Well first of all can he follow directions, methodology? If the student did not and

it was incorrect what was his reaction and how would he deal with it? ... So it is kind of like

'well my hypothesis failed. Did not come out so what are my errors in can I go back and

replicate it' which is what you do and try to get the correct outcome" (ICI: 190-191, 193-194).

Learning and learners

Learning for Isobel was visual and kinesthetic with students performing a task in order to

learn (ICI: 133-136). Learning from doing was important for her. She stated "anytime you write

on how to do something you're learning" and further commented "a lot of times when you write

and when you explain things you find out that you have to know it a lot better than just knowing

it" (ICI: 204-205).

She saw students also making a conscious decision to learn. "First of all you've got a

student at home whose watching a TV program on chemical plants. That's not something that

[they're forced to do], that's a conscious decision (ICI: 40-41).









Isobel felt that students could learn on their own without a teacher present. On self-

learning she saw it as practicing and observing: "it is more of learning on your own thing. Yes

you've been taught. Now can you do it? Can you replicate?" (ICI: 65-66) She saw clearly that

peer learning was social and stated "if they're working together and talking to one then yeah they

are teaching one another" (ICI: 66-67).

Isobel saw learners as needing motivation in order to learn away from the teacher and

mentioned of her students "the fact that they're watching chemical plants and plastics from coal

I, my students would not watch this. Not at home" (ICI: 51-53). Age and cognitive level were

also characteristics she recognized in learners when she acknowledged "It may be you have to

start at that level for those students 'cause I've got a class I'd have to start at that level" (ICI: 7-

8) but was unsure of exactly what grade level this should be stating "middle schools kind of'

when searching for the age or cognitive level to present an inquiry lesson on crystals.

Isobel, when presented with a scenario where a student stated a misconception, felt that

"maybe they do not know when those things happen" and declared "it is a prime opportunity [to]

go 'Well those are good questions this is how you would figure it out. Why do not you come on

up and check and then you can do. .'" (ICI: 164-167). Isobel felt she could explain concepts

and have students accept her explanation but was developing an understanding of student

conceptions and how to teach for conceptual change.

Conditions for instruction

Isobel had specific conditions for teaching. She did not perceive inquiry as teaching but

rather viewed open-ended questions as a "kind of an opening icebreaker to get you to start

talking about it [science topic]" (ICI: 19) and stated "that's fine because then they will go 'Well I

use crystals in this' and 'we do this and this' and it may lead to something bigger [like] 'Where

would you find crystals? Where do they form?' you know and that kind of thing" (ICI: 16-18).









Isobel believed inquiry questions were not scientific stating "the type of question that

they're asking does not, they're not science type questions. 'What can you tell me about this?' It

is kind of a generic thing" (ICI: 25-26). Instead of open-ended questions she preferred more

focused questions feeling students would give general answers to a generic question and this

would stop the learning. Inquiry could be used as a "kind of icebreaker" in her classes Isobel felt

(ICI: 19).

Isobel thought there were specific components required for teaching to occur. There must

be "observation occurring" was one condition she required. Quality teachers demonstrated a

topic to their student she maintained "are they standing up in front of the class and actually doing

it for the students like going along with them?" (ICI: 89-90). She required that instructors talk

about a subject, show it, and have students do an activity with the teacher for teaching to occur,

and wanted to know "kind of what the background was" before students were exposed to an

experiment or demonstration. Isobel required purposeful responses to questions in order for

teaching to occur and the questions asked must be focused and "science type questions." Video

must be of high quality to be used as a teaching tool. She queried "Are we talking' MTV or are

we talking' you know the History Channel or Discovery Channel. That would kind of tell me

what kind of quality program that it is" (ICI: 50-51).

Isobel had a few conditions for learning. When questioned, she felt that the quality of

response a student had determined the learning. She also required proof of learning as when she

declared "I would love to know how those blueberry muffins came out. Did they come out right

or not?" (ICI: 187-188) when asked if teaching and learning were happening when students

baked muffins. For learning to occur Isobel required a match between the teacher and the age









and cognitive level of the students. She felt that writing stimulated learning and stated

categorically "anytime you write on how to do something you're learning."

Orientation to Teaching Science

Grossman (1990) explained that an orientation to teaching science consisted of

"knowledge and beliefs about the purposes for teaching [science] at different grade levels" (p. 9).

I felt Isobel's orientation to teaching science was in the process of changing from process-

oriented to guided inquiry-focused (Figure 4-10). Her orientation was driven by her goals for her

students and how she perceived their abilities, understanding and learning style. Her process

orientation was evidenced by her teaching goals of interest in science and developing skills. This

inquiry-based approach was proposed by Magnusson and Palincsar (1995) and "emphasizes the

conceptual understandings of science" (p. 44). Her orientation also reflected Isobel's developing

guided inquiry goals of concept understanding, life skills, and excitement for science.

Goals for teaching

Isobel had a science goal of students' understanding concepts which she called science

literacy. She related events in a recent class where she felt her goal of understanding concepts

was met: "they figured out Combined Gas Law on their own [without] me telling them about it.

Because they were able to take what they had learned the day before and pull together ... They

were able to take bits and pieces of the different laws, put them together, that made sense to

come up with the Combined Gas Law and understand it before they even saw it" (114: 13-14, 17-

18). Isobel had the students in her environmental science classes read a series of science articles

and discuss them. "If they have a basic understanding even if they do not go into this field. .if

they can take up a newspaper and read about medical advances and they can make an opinion

poll, this is good or this is bad because of x, y and z then I have done what I am supposed to do"

(113: 202-206).






















Isobel's
Developing
Process to
Guided Inquiry
Orientation to
Teaching
Science


Figure 4-10. Isobel's Orientation to Teaching Science.









Another science goal for Isobel was her desire for students to have a career in science.

Isobel viewed herself as a guide and spent time talking with her students: "Just asking the kids

what they wanted to do; you know kind of guide them to possible schools, scholarships,

professors they can talk to types of things 'cause their juniors so they need to be kind of guided"

(II1: 564-566). A third science goal for Isobel was for students to develop science skills. "One of

the things that this semester I really want them to do is to do more labs, to get familiar with the

different types of equipment, the scientific method, things that work, things that do not work"

(112:147-149).

Isobel had a general goal of life skills for her students. The goal she has set for herself was

to help students develop teamwork to "learn to work together." Isobel noted, "They need to learn

how to assist one another. They need to realize that they can not do everything on their own"

(112:90-92).

An affective goal for Isobel was to develop student's excitement for science which

encompassed not only interest but possible careers in science. She talked of her students when

they had "seen things in the lab, actually getting excited about things" (112:164-166) and the

importance of student motivation to her.

Science Curriculum

Curriculum was important for Isobel. She wanted to provide her students with the full

curriculum and discussed concepts already taught: "We've covered already states of matter

obviously, balancing equations, naming elements" (II1: 389-390) she enumerated. It was

important her students "got" the concepts and she was overjoyed when her students told her they

were doing well in her class (II1: 353-355). Isobel felt that curriculum must be aligned with

standards. "We tie [curriculum] into Sunshine State Standards. We tie it into the homework. We

tie everything together" (II1: 230-231) she declared.









The textbook was used as a reference in her class and she found problems from different

sections of the book to develop student's problem solving skills (II1: 299-301). Isobel stated:

"I'm not following the book order. I'm bouncing all over" (II1: 516) in her quest to give her

students a solid concept knowledge of chemistry. The anatomy and physiology text she declared

"too hard for students" and "more on a college level" (II1: 291-293). Other textbooks she

declared tolerable but seldom taught directly from them.

School context

Isobel taught at a rural public school in County Three in the center of the state. She

instructed in three courses: one section of anatomy and physiology, three sections of

environmental science and one section of honors chemistry. Daily she prepared lesson plans and

followed the curriculum of these three separate courses. This can be very stressful and difficult

for a beginning science teacher but Isobel never directly mentioned this.

Several issues impacted her teaching science. Isobel lacked proper equipment in her

laboratory having to order Bunsen burners and other equipment to perform chemistry

experiments. The classroom facilities needed renovating as the gas lines did not work when she

started teaching and electric power was absent in most lab stations.

Other issues that affect her teaching were the lack of time for lesson planning and high-

stakes tests. Isobel commented "I do not plan way, way, way in advance because it is a lot of

work and typically you have to redo it anyway" (112: 141-142). In talking about high-stakes

testing in her state she stated "I have looked at the [state high-stakes test for] science and that is

kind of scary too considering that these are juniors and some students would like to take

chemistry is a senior class and it is already on the [test]" (II: 573-575).

Two additional factors affected her teaching. Isobel was required to submit lesson plans

but was allowed to do so after she has taught the lesson. She related what the administrator told









her "Look, you can have lesson plans. You can have all you want. We know chances are that's

not what's going to happen. So we want to know what really happened in the class room" (114:

226-228). Public schools have a policy of the principal observing teachers instructing. Normally

this occurs a few times a year but for new teachers, the observations are more frequent.

Learner characteristics

Isobel saw her students as very able. "I think they're very bright however I think they lack

motivation" (112:50-51). She clarified, "They think I should tell them and they should understand

it immediately and they should never have to study. .It is not going to happen" (12:62-63, 66).

She pushed them to work and made them responsible for their own productivity. Many of her

students were inexperienced and "have never done experiments before." Isobel envisioned her

role as building student confidence and helping them to succeed. She noted that "a lot of them do

not feel that they are smart enough" and used demos and student participation in hands-on

activities to increase their confidence.

Student understanding was seen by Isobel as "pulling it together" and she helped them

accomplish this by asking questions, performing experiments, with seat work and having them

read and discuss articles. "They take the information from the article and they start pulling in

personal experiences and their own knowledge and they start synthesizing stuff" (113: 193-194).

She allowed them to make mistakes on their own and shared with me how her students problem-

solved, "It taught them to go back and troubleshoot. If that does not make sense, look at your

answer. Does that make sense? If it does not make sense, does not match the book, where was

your error?" (114: 82-84).

Isobel perceived her student's main learning style as group work, especially her male

students. As she explained it boys have "the good old boy network. How the boys help one

another and girls are like 'you have to do it on your own' and they do not help one another"









(114: 174-176). Lab partnering was another style of group learning Isobel observed. She accepted

and even encouraged this observing "if it takes someone else doing it first .. then so be it" (112:

248-250) when discussing a recent experiment using air pressure to crush aluminum cans.

Another learning style she discovered was her student's resistance to writing things down. They,

especially the boys, liked to do problems in their head many times getting them wrong. Isobel

explained why writing down was so important: "once you see it and you may run through your

head but if you have to write it you have to understand what you're writing" (112: 217-218).

Rationale for instruction

A teacher's OTS is shaped partially by curriculum and assessment and seen in their

teaching strategies (Lantz & Kass, 1987). How Isobel viewed curriculum, plans for lessons and

her scheme of assessment, and as well as her teaching style and strategies for teaching

demonstrated this. Isobel served on the science textbook committee, and chose all new textbooks

for each of her classes next year and was looking forward to teaching chemistry and honors

chemistry. When using her current text she remarked, "I'm not following the book order. I'm

bouncing all over" (Ill: 516). She used the state standards to ensure that she covered all required

curriculum but used her content knowledge to guide the curriculum. "I have a textbook to use

and I kind of pick and choose amongst that and what they say they need to know and then what I

think that they need to know especially if they go on to college" (Ill: 551-553).

Isobel had a general plan for her lessons. "I have in my mind what I want to do but when it

gets right down to it what actually we're going to do I kind of do it about 2 or three days at a

time" (112: 133-136). She always allowed an extra day as "a play day" where she can go over

concepts which students might have not completely understood. She used print media, video, and

the internet in her classes. When searching for articles on technology and medicine, she looked

for "two different viewpoints" so that her students were exposed to different ideas, allowing









them to make up their minds. Isobel's school required teachers to turn in lesson plans but

allowed them to be submitted after they are taught as they "want to know what really happened

in the classroom" (114: 228).

One way Isobel assessed student learning was to check student's formative understanding

of concepts. She observed "I can tell a lot of times how well they comprehended something

based on their homework and based on the conversation that we have" (113: 98-99). She

employed essays, lab reports, quizzes, and tests for formal assessments and also used something

she calls exit tickets for more informal assessment:

"sometimes before the kids are allowed to leave the room they have to write an

exit ticket and what an exit ticket will entail is they have to tell me something that

they learned and possibly have a real quick example or write an example in words

or use the formula to describe it" (113: 106-109).

All assessments were used in calculating student's grades. Isobel saw testing as extremely

important and worked to prepare students for this assessment. One way she accomplished this

was by having students "make up a five point or a five question quiz based on information that

they have and they have to attach a separate answer sheet" (114: 295-297). Students then swapped

quizzes and took someone else's hand-made quiz. "That way not only did they do their five but

they did somebody else's five. And they can pull things together" (114: 300-301) she explained.

Instructional strategies

Various strategies made up Isobel's teaching techniques. She utilized questioning, story

problems, demos, activities, labs and discussion to keep her classes lively. In a recent class she

felt that the demo at the end was important "because it brought everything together and it

culminated [in understanding] because they thought about what they did and they were still

really unsure themselves" (113: 41-43). Labs were especially important to Isobel as it taught her









students to work together. "It helps if someone's doing it, someone is writing it down then switch

so that way if you had a problem the first time, the second time 'Oh, now I see what we did.' It is

repetition. They have to do it twice." (112: 93-95)

She applied technology as a teaching tool, stating "I go through and I'm like 'Okay, what

are the basic things I need them to know' and I go through and I pull everything out and I make

PowerPoint slides and I say 'in reference, turn to page so-and-so and you an see a picture'" (II1:

310-313). Isobel also used video to illustrate her lessons. She employed modeling as a teaching

strategy explaining "I purposely make mistakes when I'm speaking, on the board, when I spell so

they realize 'Oh, well ... everyone makes mistakes.' Just as long as you correct them it is OK"

(112: 105-107).

Isobel's teaching style was informal and enthusiastic, with her telling stories to her

students to illustrate concepts or her difficulties with problem-solving. "I do not stand behind the

podium because it is a small class. I usually walk around the room, walk amongst them", she

averred. She expected students to be responsible for their knowledge commenting "It is your

responsibility. You need to learn it. You need to grab hold" (112: 69). About her storytelling: "the

stories help them relate to what we're doing or maybe if they don't understand something 'Oh

well. She's been through this. She understands'" (112: 112-114). About science teaching, Isobel

felt "we've got to start off basic. It works best." Her philosophy was simply stated "It wasn't

about the answer. It was about the process because the answer was already there" (114: 88-89).

George

Introduction and School Setting

George was in his early twenties teaching science at a private pre-kindergarten through

twelfth grade school in Bay, a suburb of a large coastal city in County Four. He earned a

Bachelor of Arts degree in environmental science from a southeastern university in 2003 but had









no teaching degree. George was working toward becoming alternatively certified and was

required by his school to take three education courses and pass his subject area and teacher

professional competency exams.

Being an environmental science major his course work was in on geology and geographic

information systems but general science course work was focused in physics, his favorite

subject. George took several education courses on child development, child psychology and

teacher development.

He was a laboratory research assistant for six months after attaining his degree where he

performed all tests and analyzed all of the data using his extensive GIS background. George

became a teacher because:

"I've always kind of enjoyed science and so as far as teaching goes that would be

the most natural subject for me to teach. My degree's in environmental science ...

there's always more hands-on things possible to do. It is not always the easiest in

earth science to find big you know monumental experiments but there's always

little things, demonstrations or activities you can do."

George taught seventh grade earth science and an upper school elective called vertebrate

biology at Bayside Country Day School in Bay. The private non-sectarian school had a student

population of 758. The student body was comprised of white (91%), African-American (5%),

and Asian and Hispanic (4%) students. There were 80 teachers with an average of 15 years of

teaching experience, over fifty percent with advanced degrees.

Classroom Setting

George's school was located in a large fairly new complex tucked into a wooded area.

Behind the upper school there was a block of rooms designated the middle school. George's

room appeared large and more wide than long. There were two rear doors, one on the left wall









and one on the right wall which led to the outside.

A large counter was mounted along the left wall with three chairs underneath. Three

iMacs with keyboards and mice sat atop the counter. Shelves stretched above the counter the full

length of the wall. The left pair of shelves by the door held test tube racks in the top shelf and

videos in the bottom. The rest of the shelves were filled with books. Along the rear wall hung

three canvas and plastic goggle holders with student lab goggles placed in them. Against the wall

next to them stood a two-person student desk with two posters depicting the experimental

method mounted above.

Two-thirds of the way to the right rear door along the rear wall sat a large blue door.

Inside revealed a storage room with shelves floor-to-ceiling on all three walls. Lab supplies and

equipment rested on the shelves. Out of the supply room along the right wall two double

windows were located high up. Below the windows the wall space was decorated with pictures

and posters. A ten-inch bulletin board hung below the windows and straddled them containing

various posters and pictures of planets and scientists. Book bags, rolled up posters, books and a

microwave sat atop a long blue three-shelf bookcase. The shelves were empty. Against the rear

wall by the door stood a black metal file cabinet with a landform model atop it.

Along the front wall on the left a bulletin board was mounted on the wall with various

notices attached. Directly below it was a blue plastic container with clothing items filling it;

probably functioning as the class area for lost and found. Next to it stood two metal filing

cabinets, one gray and one cream colored. There was a clutter of objects atop the file cabinets

including a poster, a brown paper bag, tissues, and a globe.

Next to the file cabinets stretched a dry erase board sixteen feet long with class

assignments written on it. A screen was mounted above the dry erase board. The teacher desk









which doubled as a demonstration table sat in front. Another desk next to it housed an iMac

computer, two or three buckets of pens and markers and various papers. A first aid kit was

mounted on the front of the teacher demo table and an eye wash station sat to the right of it.

Above this a television mounted on the wall was tuned to a sports channel. A cartographic map

of the world dangled below the TV. The room was filled with six four-person tables and one

two-person table and chairs were grouped around the tables.

Conception of Teaching Science

George had a student-centered conception of teaching science (Figure 4-11) with several

parts including teachers and teaching, instructional strategies, science, learners and learning, and

conditions for instruction.

Teachers and teaching

George saw teachers as guides, using their personality to teach. When talking to students

about geothermal power he commented, "Iceland, I've actually been there too so I got to tell

them some good stories about burning myself in the shower and stuff' (GCI: 37-38). He

additionally conceived teachers as having the ability to teach at a specific grade or cognitive

level and having an interest in the subject matter. He could not see professors as being able to

teach to a younger, less interested group and stated "I can pretty much guarantee that if any of

my college professors came into any of my classes here that I teach you know any of my earth

science classes I do not think any teaching would really go on" (GCI: 76-79). George explained

that a professor's teaching style was "just not as conducive to this level of student or level of

interest" (GCI: 85-86).

There could be no teaching without learning George understood. For learning to occur

teaching must happen and he called it "a sort of two-way process." Concept development was

very important to him. When talking about an inquiry activity with rocks he stated:

















































Figure 4-11. George's Conception of Teaching Science.


Facilitating
development of
students' under-
standing and
changing science-
related
conceptions









"it is kind of getting' the kids to go beyond just what they normally see in rocks

and more than just like the color you know that it is big or heavy or whatever so

they're looking at more of the texture or hopefully looking at more than just the

initial thing so they're starting to think about rocks as more than just you know

what they normally thought of it as." (GCI: 22-26)

He perceived many teaching activities such as self-study, group work, teaching others and

using different mediums as possible methods of teaching. When talking of the possibility of

teaching by video he averred "there's definitely teaching going on even though it is not an actual

person" and defends his position further commenting "just because it is a TV show does not

mean that it is not educational so it is just a different medium" (GCI: 44-45).

George supported inquiry and used real-world examples in teaching for conceptual change

as evidenced in a discussion with his students:

"we talked about that FedEx commercial from the Super Bowl with the

pterodactyls or whatever- because a lot of the kids really liked it and I was like

'that commercial really bothered me' and then asked them if they knew why it

really bothered me. What was really wrong about it from a science standpoint and

... most of the kids thought like the whole cartoon thing that caveman ate

dinosaurs and they did not know that the Flintstones was not like a biography of

some of it so they thought that that was historically accurate" (GCI: 182-183, 185-

192, 195-196).

When I asked him how he would deal with these misconceptions, he outlined a discussion

session about the geologic time scale and declared "Dinosaurs and humans are separated by a

few million years which I think is pretty easy grasp [for student understanding]" (GCI: 214-215).









Instructional strategies

George had a well-defined set of teaching strategies. He used inquiry as a chance of

"getting' the kids to go beyond just what they normally see" and develop deep concept

knowledge. George used storytelling as a learning and motivation tool and spoke of his travels to

his students. He stated "we actually just finished up with tectonics plates and we were talking

about Iceland. They use geothermal power ... to heat their homes and stuff' (GCI: 35-37).

George supported interdisciplinary teaching especially using mathematics as he felt that "it

is a practical real-world, everyday kind of thing and ... I think math is a tool that is, and should

be commonly used in the sciences" (GCI: 108-109). Other techniques he used were student

group work, as well as projects and labs. He supported "different sorts of environments and

different mediums" such as video in his teaching as well as using diagrams and visuals. George

relied on his LCD projector in class but since it malfunctioned he started drawing diagrams on

the chalkboard and using balls, Slinky's, and jump ropes to demonstrate the concepts he teaches.

Conceptions of science

George saw science as a body of knowledge used to explain phenomena. He was

comfortable with science content, his speech interlarded with scientific terminology. George was

concerned that students not just learn the material but tie concepts together and clarifies with

concerns of student memorization: "If they're not learning something else to go along with it is

not going to be useful for science" (GCI: 169-170). He understood the concept of student

misconceptions and preconceptions and mentally formulated plans for debunking them but did

not express his views on the nature of science or the impact that science has on man or the

environment.









Learning and learners

George viewed students as being able to learn from media, from teaching each other, from

social learning and self-learning. He realized that an "actual person" does not have to be present

for teaching or learning to occur (GCI: 39-40). George stated that "sometimes the best way to

learn something is to actually teach it" (GCI: 58-59). He appeared to support a constructivist

approach to learning averring "some [students] may get some things better than other things and

then the person they're working with may get those things that they do not get so well" (GCI:

62-64). George was very concerned about concept building and stressed he wanted "kids to go

beyond what they normally see" when talking of inquiry activities (GCI: 23). He commented that

memorization was not learning "it is just asking to have something reproduced from memory"

but laughingly comments on his students dependence on it by observing "the kids love telling me

that memorization is in a method of learning" (GCI: 165-166).

George realized differences in specific populations of learners and appeared to understand

his students, their interests and motivations. In class he worked with his learners to interest them,

using storytelling, diagrams, manipulatives, and other devices to trigger learning. George knew

the knowledge and skills level of the students he taught: "kids typically do not have much of a

grasp on weather or anything at this point" (GCI: 106-107) and maintained "I can guarantee you

that most kids could not properly work a triple-beam balance."

He looked at a student's age and cognitive level when examining teaching and learning.

When talking of a particular scenario he declared "this particular example would be over the

level of first-graders and probably be on the level of most middle school kids, depending on I

guess how you taught it" (GCI: 89-92). He had confidence his students could transfer skills

between disciplines and stated "it should not be that much of a stretch for the kids to apply math









skills in a science class" (GCI: 99-100). Finally George recognized that students come to class

with preconceptions and misconceptions which have to be dealt with.

Conditions for instruction

George had clear conditions for teaching. He saw the possibility of teaching without

interaction but felt "it may not be ideal" (GCI: 47-49). George believed teaching could occur

with students working together. "I encourage them to work together on their homework and

really any out of class assignments and sometimes some in-class stuff" (GCI: 56-57) he added as

he felt one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others. George felt that teaching

would only occur in the presence of learning and stated "I do not think any teaching would really

go on" (GCI: 76-79) when asked about a particular teaching scenario.

One of the most important conditions for teaching to George was the intent of instruction.

George asked "what is the purpose" for a particular activity and "what the intent was" for a self-

study guide (GCI: 248-249; 284). He saw self-study as important and something that could be

used for science teaching but stated "that's not really teaching" (GCI: 292).

George had few conditions for learning. He was concerned that misconceptions could

block learning especially with a long-held misconception such as the dinosaur and humans time

scale separation. George believed that concepts must be tied together else "there's nothing

behind it. If they're not learning something else to go along with it it is not going to be useful for

science" (GCI: 169-170). Finally he believed that memorization was not learning and had a

strong bias against it.

Orientation to Teaching Science

I feel that George's orientation to teaching science, what Grossman (1990) explained

consisted of "knowledge and beliefs about the purposes for teaching" (p. 9) was project-based,

(Figure 4-12) and driven by his goals for his students and how he perceived their abilities,
























George's
Project-Based
Orientation to
Teaching
Science


Figure 4-12. George's Project-based Orientation to Teaching Science.









understanding and learning style. This project-based approach was proposed by Marx and his

colleagues (1994) where "teacher and student activity centers around a 'driving' question that

organizes concepts and principles and drives activities within a topic of study" (Magnusson,

Krajcik and Borko, 1999, p. 16). This reflected George's goals of students developing concept

knowledge, developing their life skills, and generating excitement for science.

Goals for teaching

George had several science goals for his students. He enjoyed telling stories, the route by

which he illustrated concept knowledge stating, "I like to give them examples, if not from my

life then hopefully something from their lives that I can maybe relate back to whatever we're

doing" (GI2: 5-7). George was constantly attempting to show his students that science was real-

world, storytelling and explaining the function of science objects. "I just kind of want them to get

an idea of how things around them work" (GI2: 15-16) he stated.

His primary general goal and one he was focused on was student academic success. "I try

and get them out of this mediocre you know average is the best of the worst. That's all right but

you know it is best of the worst but it is also the worst of the best" (GIl: 265-266) telling the

story of his rise in high school from a C student to a straight A, all-state in a couple of sports by

his graduation. A second general goal was to teach students life skills declaring, "I want them to

actually think instead of just falling into these patterns and things which they do a lot of' (GIl:

307-308).

An affective goal for George was to promote student's excitement for science, to "try and

keep their interest but still give them as much facts and things as I can so they will be prepared"

(GIl: 74-275) for possible careers in science which was another goal. He reiterates, "I try more, I

try really hard to keep or get them interested in school" (GIl: 260-261).









Science curriculum

Curriculum was important to George and he discussed the concepts he covered in class:

"We've gone over weather and general science practices, the basic landforms, mountains,

erosion and deposition, plate tectonics and continental drift, sea floor spreading, then we're

going to go to space and cover the solar system and all the planets" he elucidates (GIl: 366-369,

371-372). The curriculum for his earth/space science class was aligned with a past teacher.

George explained, "I have basically the curriculum that they used last year" (GI2: 244). He used

the textbook as a reference when teaching "I use the book as my guide ... I sort of follow the

progression in the book" (GI2: 233-234).

School context

An urban private school in County Four was the location where George taught. The school

was secular and considered a college preparatory academy for students in kindergarten through

12th grade. He instructed 7th grade students in earth and space science and juniors and seniors in

vertebrate biology.

Certain teaching issues had an impact on his teaching. George had a large equipment and

supplies cabinet to the rear of his room. Unfortunately, the contents of the cabinet had not been

inventoried nor had the use of many pieces of equipment been explained to him. This made the

equipment unusable and materials unorganized and difficult to locate. George preferred using

technology when he taught but his LCD projector which hooks to his computer had been broken

for over a month and he had to use dry erase boards, diagrams, and manipulatives to teach

instead of his PowerPoint slides and internet sites. Another issue was his lack of time to lesson

plan. George discussed lack of preparation in an interview: "well I had to do some grading and

stuff today so I really was not able to plan for this lesson" (GI4: 202-203). This happened

frequently to him.









Learner characteristics

George taught 7th grade science and saw his students as having ability but lacking maturity

and life experience. Being a special needs student himself he recognized that he had many

exceptional students but felt some might be wrongly labeled:

"there are a lot of kids in this class that get diagnosed because they do not do well

in school or because they are having other issues or because you know they are

just middle schoolers and dealing with everything. There are probably a few that

actually need those sorts of special needs and things." (GI2: 122-125).

He had a wide range of abilities in his classes as he taught the entire 7th grade in his private

school. "The classes are really different so I kind of have to treat them differently but as far as

the material I covered it was not much different" (GI2: 270-271) he commented. Some of the

classes were difficult discipline-wise which caused students in those classes to lag farther behind

and have the ability to tie things together. George believed of these students that "they knew less

about [the topic] because they were not able to make those connections" (GI3: 139-140).

Another issue was student focus on grades and their particular roles and stereotypes. George

related, "you hear them all the time, 'Oh, he's the smart kid. I'm the stupid one'" (GIl: 311).

Student understanding was viewed by George as "starting to connect the dots" and he

helped them accomplish this by asking questions, performing demonstrations, lecturing and

discussing, and having them use the internet to research a real-world topic:

"we started out doing the general stuff and then hurricane Katrina started bearing

down on us so we switched over and started doing weather and hurricanes in

particular. Katrina ended up being a really big storm and it ended up being really

good for lots of material to study and there was always stuff to look up and show

things from the internet" (GIl: 92-94, 97-100).









This became a several week project and at its culmination George printed a 60-page booklet for

his students of all of the hurricane information they had amassed. Final task consisted of students

writing a two or three page essay on what they'd learned.

George worked all year to change his student's main learning style of memorization adding

"they just do not seem to be able to adapt very will if I do not just let them memorize" (GIl: 252-

253). His students were visual and he liked to draw diagrams on the board, use PowerPoint

presentations and display pictorial information and web sites from the internet.

Rationale for instruction

George's orientation for teaching science was shaped partially by curriculum and

assessment and seen in his teaching strategies (Lantz & Kass, 1987). How he viewed curriculum,

lesson plans and his assessment scheme, as well as his teaching style and strategies for teaching

demonstrated this. George used the curriculum set up by a former teacher and was not forced to

follow any standards in his private school. He stated he followede] the progression of the book"

and used the curriculum that the teacher before him taught.

Lesson planning was straight-forward also for him. George taught the "basic stuff' of

geology and his content knowledge is such that "the stuff in the book is so elementary that it is

not really even worth going over" (GI3: 234-235). He made himself "a page of notes just to

make sure" he knew what he was teaching that day and when his LCD projector was working,

made up a PowerPoint presentation of the topic. His comfort with the material was such that he

shared, "I will look at it just to make sure I got it all straight maybe and then I will usually go

into the more complex things that I remembered that were maybe a little more interesting that I

can talk about to them" (GI3: 235-238).

George allowed an extra day or "enough space into my syllabus and things" (GI2: 235)

where he can get off topic. He used video and technology in his classes when it was working









properly. As George described: "I usually do a lot of cut-and-paste and things so that I can click

on something and it will go to a web site or I will just have them minimized up on the screen and

ready to go so I can just bring it up" (GI3: 74-76, 78).

Most of George's assessment consisted of testing his student's understanding of the

concepts he taught. He used essays, projects, and tests for formal assessment. George used pop

quizzes to assess formative knowledge and keep students on task:

"It is both 'cause I give it to them as a management tool from the fact that if

they're not paying attention or anything then ... That is why I give them pop

quizzes as opposed to regular quizzes. It kind of keeps them a little bit more on

their toes, the fact that they have this and they know that they pretty much are

going to get a pop quiz" (GI3:301-305).

Instructional strategies

George's teaching strategies consisted of questioning, classroom management, demos,

activities, labs, projects, lecture, and discussion. Classroom management was hard to balance

with pre-teens and he commented, "I usually try and give them a little bit of leeway because I

find a lot of times when you try and be more strict it just ends up being a tug of war or like

butting heads" (GI3: 191-193). Earth science activities for students were hard to find: "It is not

always the easiest in earth science to find big you know monumental experiments but there's

always little things, demonstrations or activities you can do" (GIl: 75-77).

Technology was used as a teaching tool by George when his LCD projector was not

broken. While it was being fixed he diagramed the different geological fault types on the dry

erase board and used manipulatives to show the forces of land formation. "I just like to be able to

give them as much as possible so that they can visualize the way that the faults move and

things," (GI3: 17-18) he stated.









George had an informal teaching style, telling stories to his students to illustrate concepts

or to teach them life skills. He liked to give his students background taking a couple of days to

"kind of get through the nuts and bolts like the meat and potatoes and then we can go and we can

do something or we can go back and discuss a little bit more beyond just the homework and

things" (GI3: 215-217). He felt it important for the teacher to "demonstrate you know what

you're talking about" so students would listen to the instructor (GI3: 238-240). "I try and mess

around with them as much as possible" (GI2: 167) George commented. Having been classified as

a student with special needs, he tried to present the material in different ways especially having

"a lot of those visuals" to keep them interested (GI3: 63-65). Questioning was used by George as

a focus because he believed teaching and classroom management went together.

Summary

The six beginning secondary science teachers in this study had specific beliefs and goals

about teaching science derived from varying sources. The researcher has attempted to describe

and represent the beliefs and goals of these new teachers found in their conceptions of teaching

science and orientations to teaching science in this study.









CHAPTER 5
CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPANTS' CONCEPTIONS OF AND
ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE

Background

Six beginning secondary science teachers in their first year of teaching were observed and

interviewed to learn their Orientations to Teaching Science, defined as a teacher's knowledge

and beliefs about the purposes and goals of teaching science (Grossman, 1990; Magnusson et al.,

1999). At the same time, I observed and interviewed these beginning teachers to discover their

Conceptions of Teaching Science consisting of their conceptions of the particular content to be

taught, the particular students they will be teaching, and effective instructional strategies to plan

and perform to achieve the intention of helping these students learn the desired content"

(Hewson & Hewson, 1988, p. 611). A multiple case studies model was chosen to fully describe

the six cases from the data, and a cross-case analysis was accomplished to illustrate the

similarities and differences between them (Merriam, 1998).

I first performed within-case analysis examining the data collected for each participant (see

Chapter 4). Second, I completed cross-case analysis using comparative analysis to yield similar

and discrepant cases which were used to form general explanations amid the cases of the

beginning secondary science teachers. Three research questions guided my exploration of

similarities and differences in conceptions of teaching science, orientations to teaching science

and the possible sources for those orientations: (1) what are the conceptions of teaching science

of the six beginning secondary science teachers in this study, (2) what is the nature of

orientations to teaching science of the six beginning secondary science teachers in this study, and

(3) to what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science teachers thinking (PCK)?

In this chapter, I present a multi-case analysis highlighting the similarities and differences

in these participants OTS and CTS.









Comparisons between Components of Conceptions of Teaching Science

Teachers instruct students in particular science classes based on "conceptual structures"

they have built "in which they incorporate classroom events, instructional concepts, socially

approved behaviors and explanatory patterns (Hewson, Kerby & Cook, 1995, p. 505). These

conceptual structures, called conceptions of teaching science are "[a] set of ideas,

understandings, and interpretations of experience concerning the teacher and teaching, the nature

and content of science and the learners and learning which the teacher uses in making decisions

about teaching, both in planning and execution" (p. 194).

A teachers' understanding of how to teach a specific science subject to a particular group

of students encompasses every aspect of their teaching from choosing what activities and

demonstrations to use to the explanations they employ when teaching particular topics. Different

teachers have their own beliefs about students, teaching, and science, leading to each educator's

unique CTS.

I evaluated similarities and differences between the conceptions of teaching science for

each of the beginning secondary science teachers. Seven components, that is, teacher

characteristics, teaching, conceptions of science, learning, learner characteristics, conditions for

instruction, and preferred instructional techniques, (see Figure 5-1) were suggested by the data,

modifying Hewson and Hewson's (1989) six categories as were discussed in chapter 3. This

cross-case analysis compared all of the components of CTS between the six participants as

Hewson and Hewson (1989) suggest.














Teacher Conceptions Conceptions Conceptions Learner
Characteristics of of of Characteristics
Teaching Science Learning


Beliefs about
teaching
include how
teachers teach,
textbook use,
and use of
inquiry, media
and student
self-teaching


Beliefs about
what science is
made up of
and how it is
used, and the
nature of
science


Beliefs about
learning
including
definition,
whether
teacher needed
to learn,
learning from
media


Beliefs about
learners
including
their prior
knowledge,
motivation,
ability, age
and cognitive
level
I


Conditions for Instructional
Instruction Strategies

Beliefs about what is Beliefs about
needed for teaching, techniques needed for
quality of teaching successful teaching
materials needed, and including textbook,
other factors activities, and
presentation

Figure 5-1. Components of participant's Conceptions of Teaching Science (Modified from
Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

The seven components of participant's conceptions of teaching science are discussed

below in each of the subsections. At the beginning of each subsection the reader will find the

definition of that particular component.

Teacher Characteristics

Teacher characteristics are a participant's beliefs about teachers including knowledge,

training, skills, personality, and attitude needed to teach. Using Hewson and Hewson's (1989)

task for determining Conceptions for Teaching Science to examine teachers' understanding of

conceptions of science I interviewed all six participants. Data were analyzed for each participant

and categories created to organize their responses. Looking across the "cases" two larger


Beliefs about
teachers
including
knowledge,
training,
skills,
personality,
and attitude
needed









categories emerged: general teacher characteristics, and ability to teach at different cognitive/age

levels. A definition for each category is presented in the corresponding subsections below. The

summary of each participant's conceptions of teacher characteristics is summarized in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1. Participant's conceptions of teacher characteristics.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
General Teachers as Teachers as Teachers as Teachers as Teacher as Teachers as
Teacher source of guide source of source of source of guide use
Character- knowledge make knowledge knowledge knowledge personality
istics pose "personal should love for student & know and
questions connection subject learning what's knowledge
with the they teach going on to teach
students"

Ability to "Trained" "Trained" Need trained "Good" Teacher Not
Teach at teacher can teacher can teacher and teacher can would find conducive
Different teach at teach at book at teach at it hard to for teacher
Cognitive different different specific different break to teach at
/ Age cognitive cognitive level cognitive down different
Levels /age levels /age levels /age levels information levels
at all levels

General teacher characteristics

General teacher characteristics are how each participant "sees" or conceptualizes the

teacher. I found that Patrick, Alex, and Cristina conceptualized the teacher as the source of

knowledge in the classroom. Patrick stated that for teaching to be happening the teacher was

"asking what happens because you know what happened prior...posing a question...you want

[students] to think about it and either look it up or recall information that you've taught" (PCI:

210-212, 214-215). Alex also perceived teachers as the source of knowledge finding student

knowledge and teaching from that point (ACI: 47-49). This view of the teacher relates to Boz

and Uzantiryaki's (2006) traditional conception of the teacher as the authority figure who

controls students.

Patrick and Isobel believed that a teacher needed formal training and experience. Patrick

explained how a college professor could teach first graders: "I mean that's her specialization,









bringing it down to all levels. So it can be done" (PCI: 166-167). Isobel also felt a teacher must

be knowledgeable in order to teach effectively stating "they have to understand, they have to be

knowledgeable, and they have to know what's going on" (ICI: 214-215). All other participants

did not specifically comment on training and experience.

Both Meredith and George viewed the teacher as a guide, a constructivist view of teaching

(Boz & Uzuntiryaki, 2006). George mentioned, "I was able to make some jokes and things that

like I think kept them more interested" (GI4: 33-34) using personality as a teaching strategy.

Meredith talked of modeling her mentors stating "I thought they did a good job for me so

obviously they were doing something right" (MI1: 118-119). She also felt that good teachers

"made that personal connection with the students" (MI1: 125).

Teacher personality and attitude was discussed by four of the participants. Alex felt that

the teacher must love the subject they were teaching. He commented "it does not matter ... I

could teach that and I could excite them" (ACI: 146-147). Cristina and George believed that a

teacher's personality determined whether they could teach effectively. "I think a college

professor depending on their personality can alter any subject to whatever age group," Cristina

stated (CCI: 117-118). Meredith felt a good teacher made a personal connection with students.

Ability to teach at different cognitive/age levels

Participants held differing beliefs of whether a teacher could teach only at a single

cognitive or age level or at all ages and levels depending on their training, experience, or the

quality of their teaching. Isobel and George believed the teacher had the ability to teach at a

specific level and questioned whether a professor could teach on a low enough cognitive level

for young students. Isobel stated, "if he can break it down to where six-year olds can understand

that, the man's a genius" (ICI: 78-79).









Alex felt that not only does a teacher teach at specific levels but the requisite text was also

needed to teach children at different age and cognitive levels. "I'd probably rip the college

professor out and put an elementary school teacher in there and I would have to find a book

down to that level" when discussing whether a college professor could teach first graders (ACI:

126-128).

Patrick, Meredith, and Christina believed that a professor could teach any level depending

on specialization, training, or whether they were "good." Patrick averred "a college professor can

do it... that's a specialization, bringing it down to all levels" (PCI: 164, 167-168). Meredith

wanted to know "if the college professor is experienced with speaking to first-graders or if he's

accustomed to speaking to college students" (MCI: 90-91) when deciding whether they could

teach first grade students. Cristina stated, "If they're a good teacher he can take any subject and

teach it in a way that first graders can understand" (CCI: 118-120).

Conceptions of Teaching

Participant's beliefs about teaching include how they teach, textbook use, and use of

inquiry, media and student self-teaching. Using Hewson and Hewson's (1989) Task for

determining Conceptions for Teaching Science, I interviewed all six participants. Data were

analyzed for each participant and categories created to organize these responses. Looking across

the "cases" five larger categories emerged, that is, General Conceptions of Teaching, Use of

Textbook, Use of Inquiry, Teaching from Media, and Self-teaching. A definition for each

category is presented in the corresponding subsection and a summary of each participant's

conceptions of teaching are summarized in Table 5-2.

General conception of teaching

An overarching belief about how teachers instruct comprises a participant's general

conception of teaching. In a study by Porlan and del Poso (2004) of teachers' conceptions of










teaching science, Gallagher's (1993; 2004) six types of viewpoints they held about teaching.

They were that teaching was 1) the transmission of knowledge, 2) the organization of science


Table 5-2. Participant's conceptions of teaching.


General
Concep-
tion of
Teaching


Patrick
Teaching is
knowledge
transmis-
sion and
starts with
questions


Use of Textbook
Textbook used for
illustrating;
assigned
work


Use of
Inquiry


Teaching
from
Media




Self-
teaching


Inquiry is
not guided
enough for
teaching


Can teach
from good
quality
media


Self-
teaching is
students
working
together at
a task


Meredith
Teaching
not possible
without
learning


Textbook
used for
planning
and
reference


Uses inquiry
to 'sneak
the learning
in'


Can apply
current topic
to teach
with media


Self-teaching
-"can relate
just about
anything to
science"


Alex
Teaching is
knowledge
transmis-
sion and
hands-on


Teacher can
only teach
what book
says


Inquiry is a
great start -
need to
teach
subject first

Teaching
from media
not "total
teaching"


Self-teaching
not total
teaching -
"borderline
on this"


Cristina
Teaching is
knowledge
transmis-
sion and
starts with
questions

Could not
teach
without
using book


Inquiry is
too open-
ended, a
starting
point

To teach
from media
must see
evidence
of learning

Self-
teaching
only occurs
in certain
instances


Isobel
Teaching is
Interactive
and hands-
on "show
'em, have
'em do it"

Textbook
used in
class for
problem
solving

Inquiry is a
kind of
opening
icebreaker


Can teach
from media
if there is
student
interest

Self-
teaching is
student
grasping
concepts


George
Teaching
not possible
without
learning
"two-way
process

Textbook
used for
illustrating;
assigned
work

Uses inquiry
with
geology
classes


Media just a
different
medium for
teaching


Self-teaching
only occurs
in certain
instances


content, 3) a set of manipulative activities, 4) a learning cycle, 5) conceptual change, and 6) a

guide through a constructivist process. These viewpoints are helpful in aligning my six

participants' general conceptions of teaching.

Three new secondary science teachers, Patrick, Alex and Cristina, conceived teaching as

knowledge transmission. Patrick saw teaching as "It puts something in front of you and asks a

question" (PCI: 76-77). He believed the teacher led the discussion "to get the questions rolling"









(PCI: 51). Cristina viewed teacher questions as the beginning of "active teaching" where the

teacher was in front of a classroom full of students and led the learning. "Kind of for me teaching

is active teaching" (CCI: 191) she explained. Alex perceived teaching as finding out what

students knew and telling them what they needed to know (ACI: 222-223).

Both Isobel and Alex viewed teaching as a set of manipulative activities (Porlan & del

Pozo, 2004), both calling it hands-on. Isobel explained her vision of teaching as three-fold: "So

are you saying it and then showing them and having them do it with you so not only do they hear

it, they see it but then they do it" (ICI:90-91). Alex also believed in hands-on teaching but felt

teaching must precede the hands-on component (ACI: 158). Both teachers liked to use

demonstration and activity on a daily basis to explain and cement the learning occurring in their

classes.

Meredith and George believed that teaching was not possible without learning, having the

teacher as a guide through a constructivist process (Porlan & del Pozo, 2004). When asked if a

professor were teaching when lecturing first graders on Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection

Meredith felt that teaching was occurring but not learning. "Lecturing probably is not going to

work as much as having then do something like looking at fish and saying what happens when

you know the predators come to eat the fish and then they can visually see happening"

(MCI: 106-109). George saw teaching as a two-way process with students interacting with the

teacher (GCI: 79-80). He stated, "I mean really any way that you can get students to think about

or apply any kind of knowledge, especially scientific knowledge causes them to learn" (GCI:

117-119).

Use of textbook

Use of textbook is defined as whether a teacher uses a textbook to teach from or just as a

reference in teaching. Two participants felt that a textbook was needed for teaching. Alex and









Cristina believed the teacher needed to teach out of a book. Alex stated, "you can only teach

what the book says to teach" (All:185) and followed the chapters in his text mostly in sequence.

"I could not teach without a textbook obviously" (CI1:384) Cristina averred.

Patrick, Meredith, Isobel and George used books in class as references. Patrick used the

book as a visual aid stating "They might not be able to visualize it without some other aid or

whether I say you know, open to page hundred and two in your book. Follow along in the

diagram" (PCI: 187-189). Meredith in an interview explained her classroom textbook use as a

resource for completing seatwork or activities (MI4:207-208). When observing Isobel and

George I noticed they would also direct students to information in the book or to use for

completing activities but they did not teach directly from a particular chapter.

Use of Inquiry

Whether a teacher uses inquiry for teaching and how they use it is another ingredient of

participant's conceptions of teaching. Inquiry is a form of teacher-supported, student-centered

instruction characterized by students defining problems and investigating them, drawing

conclusions, and determining the whether their conclusions are correct (Magnusson, Krajcik &

Borko, 1999). Both Meredith and George conceived inquiry as a form of teaching. George

viewed the inquiry process as concept development or "kind of getting the kids to go beyond just

what they normally see" (GCI: 22-23). Meredith saw inquiry as "sneaking knowledge in" when

students were hesitant about learning. She commented "if you can get [students] to learn

something without them knowing their learning then there's a good chance they will retain it

(MCI: 25-26).

Four participants felt that inquiry could only be used to start teaching. Cristina believed

that with inquiry open-ended questions were not focused enough for learning and lacked what

she termed active teaching. She added, "I use inquiry kind of like open-ended inquiry like that at









the start and then I begin my teaching" (CCI: 47-48). Isobel, like Cristina, envisioned inquiry as

"just kind of an opening icebreaker to get you to start talking" (CCI: 19) with the questions too

unfocused. Alex also saw inquiry as "a great start to let you know...what knowledge level the

kids already have" (ACI: 24-26). Patrick felt that the open-ended questions which characterize

inquiry were too vague. He believed that the learning should be framed prior to inquiry and

stated, "maybe okay we will do a little something beforehand or even just a worksheet quick

synopsis" (PCI:58-60).

Teaching from media

Media in education represents many different presentation formats for instruction

including films, filmstrips, and web sites and participants had viewpoints on the whether

teaching could occur from media. Four participants felt that teaching could be accomplished with

media. Meredith supposed that a conscious decision by students was made "because they've

chosen to watch this [and] they will probably be more receptive to the information there" (MCI:

50-51). She believed moreover that the questions used to focus viewing of media allowed

teachers to use even popular media like "The Little Mermaid" to teach concepts. George

asserted, "I think its good to be taught and to learn from different sorts of environments and

different mediums' (GCI: 33-34) and added "just because its a TV show does not mean that it is

not educational" (GCI: 44-45).

Patrick and Isobel also believed that teaching could be accomplished through video but

were concerned that the program be educational. For Patrick, his concerns focused on "what the

actual program was. Who produced it? If it was produced by Hollywood; if it was produced by

National Geographic or NSF you know, any, any one of these" (PCI: 103-105). Isobel concurred

with Patrick. "Are we talking' MTV or are we talking' you know the History Channel or









Discovery Channel. That would kind of tell me what kind of quality program that it is" (ICI: 50-

51) she maintained.

Both Alex and Cristina were hesitant that media could be used for teaching. Alex felt that

his students could not get much from "the TV" (GCI: 54, 56-57). He additionally needed proof

learning was occurring and "would quiz the students" (ACI: 65-66). Cristina felt media could be

used in the presence of the teacher but she needed to ascertain if students were paying attention.

"The one's that are [actively participating] when I'm showing the videos the ones that are

learning from the videos and video's teaching them they will go "Miss did you hear that?

Did you see that? That's so cool! I did not know that" (CCI: 84-87).

Self-teaching

Self-teaching is defined as whether students can teach themselves or others without a

teacher present. Three participants believed that self-teaching could occur. Meredith claimed:

"you can relate just about anything to science" (MCI: 202-203). Isobel explained her thinking:

"first of all the student is grasping following methodology to a T and if you do not, what the

repercussions are going to be."(ICI: 182-183). Of baking as self-teaching Patrick said, "They

have to mix chemicals together, compounds together and they are reading, they are following

directions, they are going to have a product at the end that's different from what they started

with" (PCI: 257-258). He felt also that students working together at a task demonstrated science

teaching.

Two participants believed that self-teaching occurred only in certain circumstances.

George felt that baking was not self-teaching, stating "it could be a skill that could be applied to

a science class" (GCI: 244). "Sometimes the best way to learn something is to actually teach it"

(GCI: 58-59) George commented about students problem solving. Cristina claimed that baking

could only be self-teaching if it was the first time they had attempted it and believed that there









should be someone to show them what to do. She additionally felt students working together to

be self-teaching "if one of them did not understand...and the other person was explaining

somehow then that would be science teaching" (CCI: 101, 103-104).

Alex was not convinced of the quality of self-teaching. He saw students working on

problems by themselves as "kind of self-teaching themselves" but continued "I'm kind of

borderline on this. I really do not consider this total teaching" (ACI: 88-90).

Conceptions of Science

Beliefs about what science is made up of, how it is used, and the nature of science

comprise participant's conceptions of science. All six participants were interviewed, data were

analyzed for each participant and categories created to organize their responses. Looking across

the "cases" two larger categories emerged: general conception of science and Nature of Science.

A definition of each category is presented in the corresponding subsection below and summaries

are listed in Table 5-3.

General conception of science

Overarching statements of how participants viewed what science is made up of and how it

is used comprise their general conceptions of science. All six participants seemed to have an

understanding of science as a body of knowledge. Patrick and Cristina both saw science as a

body of knowledge driven by a question. Patrick's conception of science is that "[science] puts

something in front of you and asks a question" (PCI: 76-77). He feels that in teaching science the

teacher is "posing a question" and students may not be "thinking the same question but you're

posing a question and hopefully they will answer it" (PCI: 211-214). Cristina also talked of the

teacher posing questions and asked "what can I hypothesis hypothesize from this?" (CCI: 40).

This she termed the "beginning parts of teaching" (CCI: 211).









Table 5-3. Participant's conceptions of science.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
General Science as a Science as a Science as a Science as Science as a Science as
Conception body of body of body of a body of body of a body of
of science knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge
that's driven used to and learned that's whose used to
by a explain "hands-on" driven by a outcomes explain
question phenomena skills question impact phenomena
society

Nature of Science is Science is Science is Science is Science is Not
Science human- human- fact based human- empirical mentioned
generated generated on generated and
and and empirical & tentative generated
examines tentative evidence "no such using
the "impact "things in and proved thing as a accepted
of what's science formulai- right research
going on" change" cally" answer" approaches

Alex believed that science was a body of knowledge and skills that could be understood

best by learning science concepts and then "hands-on" using scientific equipment. He felt when

wanting to show his students the genetics of fruit flies that he would "teach it out of the book

first and ... have them ready to do it hands-on" (ACI: 156-158) he stated during an interview. He

further explained, "you have to use the [Punnett] square first in a simple [way] saying you know

you're mother's a blonde, you're father's got brown hair and you know this is the probability and

why you have this color hair. And then going to the fruit flies from there" (ACI: 159-161).

Meredith and George saw science as a body of knowledge used to explain phenomenon.

When talking of an inquiry activity on rocks, George felt that the activity of asking students to

examine the rocks and "kind of getting the kids to go beyond just what they normally see" (GCI:

22-23). He continued, "so they're looking at more of the texture or hopefully looking at more

than just the initial thing so they're starting to think about rocks as more than just you know what

they normally thought of it as" (GCI: 24-26). Meredith's beliefs of how science explained

phenomena were seen in her understanding of biology and other sciences: "it kind of let's you

know what you're made of and how stuff happens" (MI1: 308).









Isobel believed science a body of knowledge whose outcomes impact society and taught

her environmental science class to examine different outlooks on this. She looked for articles

about medicine which had different viewpoints. "I wanted one 'Oh, medicines are [bad]' a

couple 'medicine is great' because that's what we think [but] we really, really need to rethink

these medical advances.... How maybe they're not being handled right, to kind of a more of a

negative spin or a different look at it" (113: 212-215). In another class they examined "different

ideas" on medical technology research (113: 218).

Nature of science

NOS as agreed upon by researchers is comprised of the understanding that "science

knowledge is tentative and generated through empirical work; that all observations are theory-

laden and human-generated; that claims involve inferences; and that there are imaginative and

creative elements in doing science" (Trumball, Scarano & Bonney, 2006).

Patrick, Meredith, and Cristina focused on the human-generated aspect of science. Patrick

discussed the "ecological impact of what's going on" when discussing a film he used in teaching

(PCI: 127-128). Meredith talked of educating her students in evolution helping them "distinguish

that this is the science part and it is not to be confused with the belief system but it also helps

them potentially become more open-minded towards other things" (MIl: 74-75). Cristina talked

about getting her students to "start to think about the difference between what we perceive and

[what is] common in society and science" CCI: 171-172). Meredith additionally contended that

science was tentative when she talked of helping her students "to see that things in science

change" (MI1:76).

Isobel had the understanding that science was empirical explaining that her students should

be, "following methodology to a T and if you do not what the repercussions are going to be"

(ICI: 182-183). She explained how she wanted her students to work through the problem, "well









my hypothesis failed. Did not come out so what are my errors and can I go back and replicate it"

(ICI: 192-194). Cristina also saw scientific knowledge as empirical. When discussing a genetics

activity using corn she talked about her students wanting to know what the correct answer of the

activity was. She told them "it doesn't matter if you have the right answer. There is no right

answer. It is what you are finding" (CI3:15-16) explaining how science is about evidence, what

is observed and experienced.

Alex saw science as fact based on empirical evidence and proved using a formulaic process "just

like in a lab. You have to follow steps in a lab or steps to find the [answer]. The scientific

method is like following a recipe" (ACI: 240-241).

Conceptions of Learning

Beliefs about learning include the definition or what learning is, whether a teacher is

needed for students to learn, and learning from media. To find out the beginning science

teacher's conceptions of learning, I interviewed all six participants. Data were analyzed for each

participant and categories created to organize their responses. Looking across the "cases," three

larger categories emerged: Teacher Present for Learning, Learning from media, and definition of

learning. Categories are summarized in Table 5-4 and a definition for each category is presented

in the corresponding subsection below.

Teacher needed for learning

Whether a teacher needs to be present for learning to occur is discussed by the participants.

Two participants felt that there must be a teacher present for learning to occur and questioned

whether students could learn alone or from other students. Alex felt that "you would have to

teach a lot more" for students to be able to do something from memory (ACI: 209) and

questioned whether students would even do an assignment unless the teacher was present.









Cristina felt that a teacher needed to be present to determine if learning could occur and felt

students needed someone to direct them when following a recipe the first time (CCI: 229-230).

Table 5-4. Participant's conceptions of learning.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
Teacher Do not need Do not need Must have Must have Do not Do not need
Needed teacher teacher teacher teacher need teacher
for present for present for present present teacher present for
Learning learning learning for for present for learning
learning learning learning

Learning Can learn Can learn Need Need Can learn Can learn
from from media from media teacher to teacher to from media from media
Media & and self- and self- learn from learn from and self- and self-
Self-teach teaching teaching media media teaching teaching

View of Learning Make Learning is Learning Learning is Learning is
Learning should be conscious visual and should be visual and deep
active decision to kinesthetic "active" kinesthetic; understand-
"because learn; learn "I like the conscious ing, social;
they're from every hands-on" decision to learn from
doing experience learn everything
calculations"

Four participants believed learning could occur without a teacher. Patrick explained;

"they're learning. They have to mix chemicals together, compounds together and they're

reading, following directions (PCI: 257-258). Self-teaching was a "learning experience" to

Meredith (MCI: 195). Isobel also felt that one student making something or working together

with other students was learning (ICI: 182-184). "Sometimes the best way to learn something is

to actually teach it (GCI: 58-59) George noted when discussing students working together.

Learning from media

Learning from media is defined as whether students can obtain knowledge from media

without a teacher present. Four participants felt that there could be learning from media. Patrick

felt that his students could "get information from it" (PCI: 131-132). Choosing to watch media

meant to Meredith there was interest in the topic and students would be receptive to the

information (MCI: 49-51). Isobel like Meredith saw learning as a conscious decision: "They're









actually watching something that they could get something from and ask questions about later"

(ICI: 43-44). "It is good to learn from different sorts of environments and different mediums"

(GCI: 34) George acknowledged.

Two participants were not convinced that any learning could take place from media.

Cristina believed that she needed to be in the room while students were watching to get their

reactions to see if they were learning (CCI: 84-87). Alex felt that there are too many distractions

when watching media at home (ACI: 67-69).

View of learning

What learning looks like is how participants view learning. Patrick and Alex envisioned

learning as visual and kinesthetic. Alex stated "you have something in front of the students that

they can actually look at and put their hands on" (ACI: 33-34). Patrick felt students "might not

be able to visualize it without some other aid" (PCI: 187). Christina termed learning as active

always wanting to know how "active the students is" (CCI: 72) to determine whether learning

had occurred. Isobel, on the other hand, saw learning as doing and observing elucidating "when

you're doing it on your own ... you're learning it" (ICI: 201,202).

Both Meredith and Isobel believed there had to be self-motivation or a conscious decision

to learn. Isobel discussed a student watching an educational program, "you've got a student at

home who is watching a TV program on chemical plants. That's a conscious decision." (ICI: 40-

41). Meredith concurred: "unless the child is tied down and forced to watch this that shows that

there's some interest in this topic" (MCI: 48-49).

Meredith and George embraced the whole gamut of learning from the media, by

experience, by teaching self or others. Meredith talked of learning from every experience.

George also expressed a belief that learning was deep understanding and was social averring










"some of them [students] may get some things better than other things and then the person

they're working with may get those things that they do not get" (GCI: 63-64).

Learner Characteristics

Learner characteristics are beliefs about learners including their level of prior knowledge,

motivation, ability, age and cognitive level. The six beginning teachers were interviewed, data

were analyzed and categories created to organize their responses. Three categories of learner

characteristics emerged across the individual cases: prior learning, motivation and age and

cognitive level. A definition of each category is presented in the corresponding subsection and

the summary of the participant's beliefs of learner characteristics are listed on Table 5-5.


Table 5-5. Participant's statements of learner characteristics.


Prior
knowledge


Patrick
Learners
come to
science
with little
prior
knowledge


Motivation Students
interested
and do
work -
"overall
they try"


Age and
cognitive
level


Specific
learning
activities
tied to
age/
cognitive
level


Meredith
Learners
have prior
knowledge,
preconcep-
tions, and
misconcep-
tions

Student
interest
shown by
choosing to
do tasks


Learning
activities
tailored &
tied to age/
cognitive
level


Alex
Learners
come to
science with
some prior
knowledge



Students lack
motivation
and not
trust-worthy


Specific
learning
activities
tied to
age/
cognitive
level


Christina
Learners
have prior
knowledge
and
misconcep-
tions


Student
interest
shown by
physical
response to
tasks

Specific
learning
activities
tied to age/
cognitive
level


Isobel
Learners
have little
prior
knowledge
and
misconcep-
tions

Student
interest
shown by
choosing to
do tasks


Learning
activities
tailored &
appropriate
for age/
cognitive
level


George
Learners
have little
prior
knowledge
and
misconcep-
tions

Students
have low
motivation,
a "lacka-
daisical
attitude"

Learning
activities
tailored &
tied to age/
cognitive
level


Prior knowledge

What a learner knows about science prior to walking into a class is termed the learner's

prior knowledge. All participants expressed beliefs about learner's prior knowledge of science.

Patrick felt his students needed prepping to prepare them for the topic as when he stated "they









have to have done questions in the book by then just to get themselves orientated" (PCI: 194-

195). George also felt his students had little prior knowledge claiming "kids typically do not

have much of a grasp on weather or anything at this point" (GCI: 106-107). Isobel felt surprised

at student's lack of prior knowledge commenting "they did not know when they flushed the toilet

what happened" (II1: 451).

Three participants talked about student's having prior knowledge. Meredith spoke of

student's "preconceived ideas" being a good starting point for learning to occur (MCI: 192).

Alex believed students came to class with prior knowledge and felt he first needed to "know

what knowledge level the kids already have" in order to teach (ACI: 25-26). Cristina realized

that her students had some prior knowledge because they told her. She reflects, "Once I started

talking about the material they will say 'Oh I remember that from last year' and I knew that they

knew what it was" (CI2: 229-230).

George, Meredith, Cristina, and Isobel all discussed misconceptions students held about

science. Meredith shared how she felt a teacher could use a student's mistaken statement about

the difference of color in arterial and venous blood, "well it gives the teacher a really good

opportunity to answer this question, correct misconceptions of there are any" (MCI: 189-191).

Cristina understood that students have misconceptions and tried to inform her students that

"there [are] misconceptions in the world and what science really teaches us" (CCI: 173-174).

Isobel also felt that when students had misconceptions about certain concepts, "they do not know

when those things happen...it is a prime opportunity" to direct their investigations (ICI: 164-

168). George talked in depth about student misconceptions on the geologic time cycle and how

he would work to change those conceptions (GCI: 208-224).









Motivation

A learner's motivation is defined as their interest in and engagement with science. Four

participants questioned their student's motivation. Alex had a negative view of his student's

motivation and believed they would damage or destroy materials when passed around (ACI 34-

35). George saw a "sort of a lackadaisical attitude" (GI1:263-264) and felt his 7th grade students

did not take learning science seriously enough. Patrick stated "overall they try" speaking of his

students but talked of "hovering around the room making sure everybody kind of stayed on task"

(PI2: 73-74). Christina tied motivation to physical response "if the student is sitting there and

actually responding to what's going on" (CCI: 82-83) she felt they were motivated. She called it

active learning.

Meredith and Isobel saw motivation as student interest and choosing to do something.

Meredith talked about students watching a science documentary: "that shows that there's some

interest in this topic anyway because they've chosen to watch this they will probably be more

receptive to the information there" (MCI: 49-51). Isobel called it a "conscious decision" and

continued. "They're actually watching something that they could get something from and ask

questions about" (ICI: 41, 43-44).

Age and cognitive level

Age and cognitive level were viewed as the beliefs participant's possessed about whether

learners were of an appropriate age or cognitive level to understand the science being taught

them. All respondents had beliefs about student age and cognitive level. Patrick, Alex and

Cristina felt that different types of learning activities might be difficult for different age level

students. Patrick commented, "I think middle school, that age bracket may be a little more of a

leap to get them [understanding the material] (PCI: 49-50) when talking about using boxes of

butterflies for inquiry learning. "I'm not sure that's the right level" Alex responded when asked









if there was learning going on when a professor lectured first graders (ACI: 113). He also stated

"ninth grade I'm not sure is ready for fruit flies" (ACI: 140). When talking of a genetics project.

Cristina commented about inquiry "I think for my students anyways it is just something that they

could not handle so I don't use that when I am teaching" (CCI: 61-62).

Meredith and Isobel, and George all believed that learning activities needed to be tailored

to age and cognitive level. "I think the material though is completely appropriate for that class"

(MCI: 132-133) Meredith averred when discussing Punnett squares being introduced to 9th grade

students. Both Meredith and George linked concept understanding to both age and cognitive

level. "[They should] do something like looking at fish and saying what happens when predators

come to eat the fish and then that they can visually see [it] happening. They might grasp the

concept" (MCI: 107-110) Meredith felt when discussing how to teach first graders about natural

selection. When asked about lecturing on Darwin's theory George commented, "this particular

example would ... probably be on the level of most middle school kids GCI: 89-91). Isobel

conceptualized that materials and topic needed to be appropriate to the student's age and

cognitive level (ICI: 77-78).

Conditions for Instruction

Hewson and Hewson (1988) based their conditions for instruction on the Hirst-

Fenstermacher framework (1971; 1986) having four components for teaching: 1) for teaching to

occur, there must be learning, 2) the learning have an outcome, 3) the teacher must support the

student, and 4) the goal is to teach a student. Conditions for instruction are beliefs about what is

needed for teaching and learning to occur.

All six beginning teachers were interviewed, data were analyzed and categories created to

organize their responses. Three categories emerged across the individual cases: conditions for

teaching and learning, a quality component, and other factors. A definition for each category is









presented in the corresponding subsection below and a summary of the participant's conditions

for teaching and learning are listed on Table 5-6.

Conditions for teaching and learning

Conditions for teaching and learning are beliefs about what is needed for teaching and

learning to occur. Two of the respondents felt that teaching required an instructor. Alex

questioned: "is it teaching when you have them open a book in the library and have them read on

their own?" (ACI: 87-88). Cristina needed in most cases to see student response to determine

whether learning was occurring (CCI: 81-84).

Table 5-6. Participant's conditions for instruction.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
Conditions Teaching Questions Good Teacher Need Material
for aids to used to teaching presents student presented
Teaching present stimulate to present material response must be
and material learning material/ & evidence and tied to
Learning & student standards of learning follow-up concepts
response questions

Quality Quality of Quality of Quality of Quality of Quality of Quality of
Component materials materials materials teaching questions materials
used used and used
teaching

Other None Must have Have to None Must have Must have
Factors mentioned goals and take into mentioned proof of goals and
purposes account learning purposes
for district having for
instruction values occurred instruction

Patrick required teaching aids for teaching and learning to occur. He stated that "learning

[is] going on just depending on what you're using to present the material" (PCI: 185-186). He

felt students might not be able to visualize concepts without teaching aids (PCI: 187-190).

Three respondents felt that questions were needed for teaching and learning. Patrick

believed learning was occurring when students asked questions "because you're asking what's

happening next so you know what's happened prior (PCI: 209-210). Meredith perceived there









needed to be questions to stimulate student learning (MCI: 205-208). She talked of using a

Disney-produced video to focus students on concepts they were studying: "I chose to ask

students questions based upon what we were talking about in osmosis and things like that."

(MCI: 60-62). Isobel thought that the quality of student response and follow-up questions posed

determined whether teaching and learning occurred (ICI: 12-13).

George conceptualized that material presented needed to be tied to the concepts. He mused

"if there's nothing behind it. If they're not learning something else to go along with it is not

going to be useful for science (GCI: 168-170). George liked to tell stories when presenting

material but always made them relevant to the topic. When speaking of geothermal power he told

the story of him burning himself on hot water in a shower in Iceland where they use this power

source (GCI: 37-38).

Quality component

The quality of materials and equipment, and quality of the teacher are defined as the

quality component. All respondents discussed quality when talking of conditions of teaching and

learning. Quality of materials was important to Patrick, Meredith, Alex and George. Patrick

illustrated his concern in his statement about students watching a video at home, "[they're]

probably going to get a lot of information from it. It is just I do not [know] what type of

information they are getting from it." (PCI: 131-133). Meredith looked at the quality of media

watched by her students: "probably is some type of documentary or educational programming. It

is probably not some cartoon" (MCI: 51-52) she posited. Making materials and borrowing from

other teachers fueled Alex's concern over the quality of materials (AI2: 379-380). George was

pleased with the amount and quality of media for student use during and after Hurricane Katrina

which made hurricanes a great instructional unit (GCI: 97-101).









Alex, Cristina and Isobel were anxious about the quality of teaching and the teacher in

teaching and learning. For Alex quality teaching was what he called "total teaching" (ACI: 89-

90). Cristina felt that learning could occur only if it was the first time a student learned the

material and with a quality called "real learning" when she discussed students using a self-study

aid (CCI:255-256). Isobel focused on quality of teacher response and student participation (ICI:

12-13).

Other factors

Other factors are defined by participants as values of the district that need to be adhered to,

proof that teaching and learning occur and goals of instruction. Alex felt that values of his

district had to be closely adhered to and stated, "Our school board tells us we have to teach

intelligent design along with Darwin's theory. We had a meeting after class on that because

they're trying to cover all their bases so nobody gets upset about what's taught." (ACI: 117-120).

Isobel looked for proof that learning had occurred as when she felt that students who where

cooking at home should bring samples of their project in for her. Meredith questioned the goals

and purposes behind a particular type of instruction (MCI: 232). George also searching for the

goal of instruction asked "What is the intent of this?" (GCI: 284).

Instructional Strategies

Instructional strategies are teacher's beliefs about the techniques needed for successful

teaching including textbook strategies, kinesthetic activities, and presentation. This is one of the

two observable components of Hewson and Hewson's (1988) Conceptions for Teaching Science.

Six participants were observed and interviewed, data were analyzed and categories chosen to

organize their responses. Five categories emerged across the individual cases: favored

instructional strategies, types of questions, kinesthetic activities, textbook strategies, and ways of










presenting material. A definition for each category is presented in the corresponding subsection

and a summary of the participant's conditions for teaching and learning are listed on Table 5-7.


Table 5-7. Participant's instructional strategies.


Patrick
Lecture,
projects,
activities,
examples

Focused
questions
and teacher-
led
discussion

Dissect,
draw, label,
and create


Textbook Use textbook
Strategies as guide and
reference


Presentation


Visual aids
and Power
Point to
present


Meredith
Activities,
projects,
internet,
examples

Open-ended
and inquiry
questions


Models and
memory
aids


Use textbook
as reference


Visual aids
and intemet
to present


Alex
Lecture,
KWL,
demos,
activities


Favored
Teaching
Strategies


Types of
Questions


Christina
Lecture,
activities,
examples


Focused
questions
and
teacher-led
discussion

Learning
aids and
experi-
ments

Use
textbook
to teach
and in
activities

Visual aids
and Power
Point to
present


Isobel
Discuss,
demos,
examples,
problems

Focused
questions
and
teacher-led
discussion

Experi-
ments and
activities


Use
textbook
as
reference,
activities

Story-
telling
and visual
aids to
present


George
Story-telling,
demos,
projects


Open-ended
and inquiry
questions


Projects and
activities


Use textbook
as reference


Focused
questions
and
teacher-led
discussion

Hands-on
activities
and
projects

Use textbook
to teach
and in
activities


Visual aids
for demo
and to
present


Favored strategies

The instructional techniques used most by participants were defined as their favored

strategies. Strategies that were used most often ranged from lecture (Patrick, Alex and Cristina)

to examples to projects to storytelling to the simple KWL put forward by Alex. KWL is a three

step process to learning which begins with what the student Knows of the subject, continues with

what they Want to know about the subject, and concludes with what is Learned after the subject

is taught. Projects were used by Patrick, Meredith and George and all participants used activities


Story-telling,
visual aids
& intemet
to present


Kinesthetic
Activities









and demos. George used storytelling as a favorite strategy and three participants (Patrick,

Meredith, and Isobel) used examples to teach.

Types of questions

Types of questions as a category is defined as those questions participants used in teaching

science. All participants felt that questioning and discussion were important strategies but

Patrick, Cristina, Alex, and Isobel felt they should be focused questions and teacher-led

discussion. Isobel felt that inquiry questions should be more focused maintaining she would ask

her students "what can you tell me about the type of crystal, if there was a question about maybe

structure or where would you find them?" (ICI: 27-29). Meredith and George used open-ended

questions and inquiry.

Kinesthetic activities

Kinesthetic activities are those activities where students have to move around such as in

laboratory experiments, projects, and activities. All participants used some sort of kinesthetic

activities for the student which Alex called hands-on and projects, Cristina termed active, George

labeled experimenting and Meredith dubbed as activities. Although Patrick never mentioned

activities he was very activity-focused in class having students dissect, draw, label, and create

science items. All participants used demonstration and examples.

Textbook strategy

Textbook strategy is defined as using the textbook as part of an activity in class such as

reading aloud or in seatwork. Using the book was a teaching strategy supported by Patrick, Alex,

and Isobel. Patrick used the book as a guide for the information he was teaching and had

crosswords, activities, and worksheets designed to focus on students learning information from

the book. Alex followed the book in sequence from front to back and used activities and demos it

suggested as he taught concepts directly from it. Isobel also used problems and examples from









the book when teaching her unit on gases but brought in demos and labs which illustrated

concepts in the chapters.

Meredith, George and Cristina referred to the book, using it as a reference. Meredith used

the book as a guide to instruction, changing it as needed and using a new version of the book and

web sites for activities. George followed the book loosely using the web for supplementary

information and review questions from it as a jumping off point for discussion. Cristina used the

book exclusively to plan and followed the book, using textbook questions for review.

Presentation

Presentation is defined as the medium that the teacher uses to deliver information to the

class. All teachers used visual aids to present material. Patrick and Cristina developed slides

using PowerPoint to teach each lesson while Meredith used internet science sites. George also

talked of using PowerPoint and the internet but his ICD projector had been broken for a month.

Alex constructed his own visual aids to demonstrate different science concepts. While Isobel and

George preferred storytelling, Patrick was very forceful about the necessity of visual aids to

teaching and learning, stating "there's definitely learning going on just depending on what you're

using to, to present the material" (PCI: 185-186).


Comparisons between Components of Orientations to Teaching Science

Background

Orientations toward teaching science are a component of pedagogical content knowledge

first named by Grossman (1990) and seen as the overarching component of PCK which shaped

all others (Figure 5-2). "An orientation" says Magnusson, Krajcik and Borko (1999) "represents

a general way of viewing or conceptualizing science teaching" and "serves as a 'conceptual map'

that guides instructional decisions" (p. 97). My six teacher's orientations were driven by their










goals and beliefs about teaching, and restricted by the context of their schools, districts, and

student populations. Mentors played a huge role in orientation for all of my participants, many of

them teaching as their mentors taught.

Goals for Teaching

Specific objectives a teacher has for their students' education; can be science, general, and

affective goals are the goals for teaching. Six participants were observed and interviewed, data

analyzed and categories created to organize their responses. Three categories emerged across the


Goals Science School Learner
for
for Curriculum Context Characteristics
Teaching


Specific
objectives a
teacher has for
their students'
education; can
be science,
general, and
affective goals


Science subject
matter needed
to be taught to
students as
mandated by
federal, state,
and local
standards


Constraints
placed on
teaching due to
type of school,
teaching
assignment,
teacher issues,
and other
factors


Beliefs about
learners
including their
prior
knowledge,
motivation,
ability, age
and cognitive
level


Rationale for
Instruction


How the teacher
chooses to lesson plan
and assess learning of
science and the
reasoning behind both
tasks


Instructional
Strategies


Techniques needed for
successful teaching
including textbook,
kinesthetic activities,
and presentation
methods


Figure 5-2. Categories for Orientations to Teaching Science (Modified from Magnusson,
Krajcik & Borko, 1999).










individual cases: science goals, general goals and affective goals. Categories are defined in

corresponding subsections below and a summary of the participant's goals for teaching are listed

on Table 5-8.

Table 5-8. Participant's goals for teaching.


Patrick
Science Students
Goals understand
science
content;
gain science
skills;
explore
career in
science

General Students need
Goals academic
preparation


Affective None
Goals mentioned


Meredith
Students
understand
science
content;
explore
career in
science



Students
develop life
skills;
attain
academic
success

Develop
excitement
for science


Alex
Students
understand
science
content; gain
science
skills; career
in science;
science as
real-world

Students
develop life
skills; Attain
academic
success


Develop
interest in
science


Christina
Students
understand
science
content; see
science as
real-world





Students
need
academic
preparation


Develop
excitement
for science


Isobel
Students
understand
science
content and
gain science
skills





Students
need to
develop life
skills


Develop
excitement
for science


George
Students
understand
science
content;
see science
as real-
world



Students
develop life
skills;
attain
academic
success

Develop
excitement
for science


Science goals

Science goals are specific objectives teacher has for student learning in science. All

beginning secondary science teachers shared the goal of student's understanding science content.

Alex called it getting a good science base (All: 243) where Patrick expressed the desire "just for

[students] to try to learn the material, do well" (PI2: 49). George claimed, "I'm just trying to get

them prepared as best I can for the science which is next" (GIl:390-391). Science literacy was

the goal of both Meredith and Isobel. Isobel expressed her goal for students: "if they have a basic

understanding ... if they can take up a newspaper and read about medical advances and they can

take an opinion poll ... then I've done what I'm supposed to do" (113: 202-206). Cristina had two









different elements of her goal of science literacy for her students; them being able to visualize

concepts and to engage them in the content (CI4: 74, 87-88).

Three participants wanted their students to gain science skill. Patrick's goal for students

was to learn dissection: "I would love for them to be able to dissect a muscle like cow muscles or

something like that" (PI2: 250-251). "The basic goal was for them to at least use a microscope ...

get them some hands-on with a microscope and with slides, cover slips, things of that sort" (AI3:

111,113) Alex stated. Isobel wanted students to "do more labs, to get familiar with the different

types of equipment" (112: 148).

Three participants shared they wanted students to be interested in a career in science. "Part

of our job assignment was to pick a field, learn about it ... that actually opened the eyes of a lot

of kids" (PI1: 370, 374) Patrick shared. Meredith commented, "I really would love for them to

suddenly develop an interest in or a love for science like I have ... my teachers that did that for

me (MI1: 232-233). "I try to encourage them all to go further in science" (All: 206) Alex

remarked.

Alex, Cristina and George really wanted for their students to see how science relates to the

real world. "So I just try to take the text and relate it to something that they can relate to" Alex

shared (All: 256-257). Cristina discussed a genetic activity comparing eye color: "the eyes

definitely relate it to them so that would be the one main part" (CI3: 44-45) when speaking of her

goal. George's goal was to "hopefully get something from their lives that I can maybe relate

back to whatever we're doing" (GI2: 6-7).

General goals

Specific objectives teacher has for a student not focused around science learning are

termed general goals. Four participants wanted to help their students develop life skills. George

stated, "in both the classes I try and give them life skills (GIl: 279). Alex felt that learning,









thinking, and functioning in society was an important life skill (AI2: 793; AI3:94-97). Problem

solving was a life skill stressed by Meredith and Isobel. Looking at "different ways like to how

you can logically decide if an answer is good or wrong; correct or incorrectc" (MC2: 10-11) was

how Meredith saw it.

Academic success was a goal for three participants. Alex wanted his student's to try to

attain the highest grade they could. He told them to "shoot for that A" and feel good about what

grade they get "as long as you've done your best" (AI2: 453-454). "I try to stress it, you know to

me mediocrity is not ok" Alex affirmed. George wanted students to "put their best effort into it."

Their students passing the high-stakes test was an additional academic success goal for Alex,

Meredith, and Isobel.

Two participants had goals of academic preparation. A primary goal for Cristina was to

have her students write a research paper on a topic of their choice utilizing research databases

(CI1: 274-276). Patrick's academic goal for his students was knowledge of research and

technology. "Just to get them using audiovisual stuff, technology stuff... and be able to pull

stuff from reference books" (PI3: 7-8).

Affective goals

Excitement for science was a goal for four participants. Meredith stated, "I would really

love for them to suddenly develop an interest or a love for science like I have" (MI1: 232).

Cristina, Isobel and George wanted to get students excited about the subject. "I just want to get

them excited about the material" (CI1: 367) Cristina acknowledged. Isobel concurred wanting

her students "Seeing things in the lab, actually getting excited about things" (112: 164-165).

George worked with his students "to try and keep their interest but still give them as much facts

and things as I can to so they will be prepared (GIl: 274-275). Alex wanted students to develop

an interest in science.









Science Curriculum

Science subject matter needed to be taught to students as mandated by federal, state, and

local standards is defined as science curriculum. Observation and interview data were analyzed

for the six participants and categories created to organize their responses. Two categories

emerged across the individual cases: purpose of curriculum, and how the textbook is used. A

definition for each category is presented in the corresponding subsection below and a summary

of the participant's focus on science curriculum are listed on Table 5-9.

Table 5-9. Participant's focus on science curriculum.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
Purpose of Curriculum Curriculum Curriculum Curriculum Curriculum Curriculum
Curriculum important important important; important important; important;
for & aligned aligned and seen aligned aligned
academic with with as textbook with with
preparation standards standards standards previous
and textbook year

Textbook Text broken Textbook Jumps around Text taught Textbook Textbook
into small used as in text when in small used as used as
sections to reference; teaching sections; reference; reference


teach; too new one jumps too hard in
watered better around in for teaching
down text students

Purpose of curriculum

The overarching goal for teaching the curriculum was the purpose of curriculum. This was

important for all participants. Patrick had his curriculum laid out according to what he called

"orientations" and systems of the body (PI2: 309-311; PI3: 218). Meredith had her curriculum

ordered but had thoughts of rearranging it next year (MI2: 269-272). Alex followed the order in

the book (AI4: 115-118) as did Cristina who stated "I want to cover all of the areas in the book

(CI1: 284-285). "I have a textbook to use and I kind of pick and choose amongst that and what

they say they need to know and then what I think that they need to know" (II1: 603-605) Isobel









explained. George used the curriculum from "the previous teachers ... looking at what they've

done" (GIl: 459, 460) and added what he thought was important.

Curriculum alignment was important for four participants. Meredith stated "there are

science or state standards correlated to these things" when speaking of a unit she was teaching

(MI1: 303-304). When writing lesson plans Alex commented "the state wants to know which

standard" (AI2: 562) tied to the concept he was teaching. "We tie [curriculum] into Sunshine

State Standards" (114: 230) Isobel declared. George, teaching in a private school, aligned his

curriculum with past teachers in the same subject: "basically the curriculum that they used last

year ... so I took the parts that were emphasized to me that they wanted me to cover" (GI2: 258,

260).

Textbook

Textbook as a category was defined as what role the textbook played in the curriculum. All

teachers felt that the text was a large part of their curriculum. Two participants taught with their

textbook. Cristina felt that she could not teach without the textbook but found that she had to

break the information up into smaller sections to present it to her students. Alex also taught from

his text but had to jump around to teach all of the information he felt students should know.

Four participants were unhappy with their textbooks and used them as a reference when

teaching. Patrick felt his text was too watered down and wanted one with more "rigor" (PI1: 484-

486). Both Meredith and Isobel were on the textbook committee and were looking forward to

new texts for next year since Isobel felt her text was too difficult and more on a college level

(Ill: 634). Meredith preferred teaching from the new text and supplements she had been given

(MI2: 208-209). George felt that some things in the text were above his student's ability level

especially the math problems (GIl: 462-464)










School Context


School context is defined as constraints placed on teaching due to type of school, teacher

assignment, teacher issues, and other factors. Six participants were interviewed and data were

analyzed. Three categories emerged across the individual cases: school type, the school's rating

on high-stakes tests, and other factors. A summary of the participant's school context are listed

on Table 5-10.


Table 5-10. Participant's school context.
Patrick Meredith Alex
School Rural Rural public Urban public
Type public school school
school


Teacher Lack
Issues proper
facilities
for
instruction;
technology
scheduling;
not enough
budget for
materials


Other Principal
Factors observes
teaching


Biology; 8th
grade
general
science;
honors
biology


Need
technology
equipment;
not enough
budget for
materials;
high-stakes
testing


Principal
observes
teaching


Biology;
integrated
science


Lack proper
equipment
and facilities;
not enough
budget for
materials;
lack of time
to lesson
plan; high-
stakes testing


Submit
lesson plans;
principal
observes
teaching


Cristina
Urban
private
school

Biology;
marine
science


Lack of
proper
equipment
including
technology;
not enough
budget for
materials;
lack of
time to
lesson plan

Not
mentioned


Isobel
Rural public
school


Anatomy and
physiology
environ-
mental
science;
honors
chemistry

Lack proper
equipment
and
facilities
needed
renovating;
lack of time
to lesson
plan; high-
stakes
testing


Submit
lesson plans;
principal
observes
teaching


George
Urban private
school

7th grade
earth/
space
science;
vertebrate
biology


Equipment
unusable
and
materials
not
organized;
technology
broken; lack
of time to
lesson plan


Not
mentioned


School type

School type is defined as what type of school is being taught in that is, whether it is rural,

or urban, and whether public or private. Four participants taught in public schools, two in County


Teacher
assign-
ment


Anatomy
and
physiology









One, the third in County Two, and the fourth in County Three. Of these four, three teachers

taught in rural schools with a population that was largely agricultural, one in each of the three

counties mentioned above and one taught in an urban school in County Two. Two participants

taught in private urban schools in counties Two and Four. Teaching assignment

Teacher assignment is defined as the number and type of courses taught and the grade level

of students instructed. All participants taught general biology or some advanced level course in

biology. Meredith teaches three biology and one honors biology class. Alex teaches one biology

class also. Cristina teaches four biology and one marine science class. George teaches a

vertebrate biology class. Patrick and Isobel teach anatomy and physiology. Isobel also teaches an

environmental science class.

Four participants also teach other science classes. Meredith teaches 8th grade general

science. Alex teaches four integrated science classes. Isobel teaches an honors chemistry class.

George teaches classes in 7th grade earth/space science. Two participants teach science to both

middle and high school students, necessitating a change in both teaching techniques and

classroom management strategies between the different grade levels.

Teacher issues

Teacher issues are the issues teachers feel have an impact on their teaching. Five beginning

teachers had some issues with the equipment they were provided to teach with. Alex was only

provided two microscopes for his class of twelve biology students, both of which worked poorly.

Additionally he had only a classroom set of textbooks and could not assign homework for his

students. Isobel's lab room was missing Bunsen burners and she had to order them. George had a

full supply closet but was unable to find anything on its overstocked shelves. Cristina

commented that she purchased a lab aid out of her own money so that she could better explain

biology concepts.









Patrick, Alex and Isobel had issues with the facilities in their classrooms. Patrick had a rug

on his floor that made it difficult to perform science experiments and desks for his students

instead of tables and benches. Alex was teaching in a modular classroom with no water, no

storage, and no laboratory. Isobel had to have her gas and electric lines repaired so that she could

perform experiments in her classroom.

Four teachers, Patrick, Meredith, Cristina, and George, had issues with their technology.

Patrick had problems with technology availability having problems getting equipment ordered

from the media center at the times he needed it. Meredith had no pointing device to use with her

computer to enable her to walk around the room as she was showing her PowerPoint slides and

web sites. This caused her to be tied to her computer which was also a problem for Cristina.

George had grown dependent on his LCD projector as part of his teaching strategies but it was

broken and had been gone over a month.

Four participants also had problems with materials. Patrick had a small budget which made

it hard for him to order dissection supplies. Isobel, Alex and Meredith also had little money for

materials and shared with me that they financially could not supply the missing materials from

their own pocket. Patrick and Meredith added that they modified activities to use the materials

they had. "[I] found something where they would use macaroni but I did not have macaroni. So I

sort of improvised based upon the resources that we found here and we had paper" (MI3:105-

107) Meredith explained about a meiosis-mitosis activity she had modified.

Three participants felt that lesson planning took too much time. "I spend six, seven hours

doing that. Preparing the transparencies and reading everything that needs to be read" (AI2:221-

223) Alex shared when speaking of lesson planning. George stated that at times he was unable to

plan and just skimmed over the material to familiarize him with the lesson. Cristina discussed the









difficulty of putting in extra hours on planning due to a second job she was working. She

declared "I'm just barely keeping my head above the water trying to get everything done"

(CI1:121-122).

Three of the teacher participants taught core courses in public schools with high-stakes

tests. These tests lasted a week and these teachers were responsible for monitoring tests and

tutoring students prior to them. Two rural schools, in counties One and Three, where Meredith

and Isobel teach as well as the urban school in County Two where Alex teaches are struggling

schools, not having scored high on the high-stakes tests.

Other factors

Other factors are issues which may place constraints on what and how a teacher teaches

science. Administrators in the two schools where Alex and Isobel teach require all teachers to

submit formal lesson plans. This is district policy for public schools in both counties Two and

Three. Four participants who are public school teachers (Patrick, Meredith, Alex, and Isobel)

have classroom visits by the principal on a regular basis. This is also district policy for all public

schools.

Learner Characteristics

Learner characteristics are participant's beliefs about learners including their prior

knowledge, motivation, ability, age and cognitive level. Six participants were interviewed and

data were analyzed. Three categories emerged across the individual cases: students' cognitive

ability and developmental level, motivation, and understanding of content. A summary of the

participant's school context are listed on is shown on Table 5-11.

Cognitive ability and developmental level

A student's capacity for learning and their maturity is defined as their cognitive ability and

developmental level. All of the six beginning secondary science teachers talked of student ability










and defined it as intelligence. Alex was very grade-focused in seeing student ability. He defined

ability as "from the lower standard to the higher standard education-wise" (AI2: 100-102) and

talked about the grade students were earning when speaking of them. Cristina defined ability as

'getting it' said "there are some of them that just do not get it and you have to really, really work

with them and there are some that are higher" (CI2: 103-104).


Table 5-11.

Cognitive
Ability
and
Develop-
mental
Level


Motivation












Under-
standing
of Content


Participant's view of learner characteristics.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina
All ranges All ranges All ranges All ranges
cognitive cognitive cognitive cognitive
ability ability ability ability &
including develop.
special level
needs including
special needs


Student's
have
positive
interest
and
motivation;
some will
not do their
homework


Students
have good
under-
standing


Students
ambiva-
lent
towards
work;
cheating;
need
hands-on



Student
under-
standing
varies


Students
not alert
or
actively
involved;
need labs
to
stimulate
interest


Students
did poorly
on test;
need to
break
down
content


Students not
alert or
actively
involved








Students did
poorly on
test; need to
break down
content


Isobel
All ranges
cognitive
ability
including
special
needs


Students
ambivalent
towards
work; labs
to stimulate
interest






Students able
to "pull
things
together"


George
All ranges
cognitive
ability &
develop.
level
including
special needs

Students
will not do
homework,
cheat or
copy;
talking and
rowdy in
class; jokes
stimulate
interest

Students
have low
math &
grammar
skills;
memorize;
"connect the
dots"


Patrick and Isobel saw the majority of their students as bright. Patrick maintained,

"They're all bright kids" (PI2: 37-38). Isobel claimed, "I think my students are very able. I think

they're very bright" (112: 50). George spoke of the diversity of ability of students in one class "at

the same time I've got some really exceptionally smart kids and I have some kids who are not as

smart" (GIl: 269-270). Alex, saw students in his biology class as "relatively smart" (AI4: 54).









Alex, Cristina, Isobel and George spoke of their special needs students. Alex commented,

"I have a couple of my students that are considered learning disability or ESE whatever they

want to call them"(AI2: 129-130). Isobel spoke about "one of my female students [who] is

ESOL" (114: 94). Cristina also talked special needs students, of "kids below the 25%" (CI1: 176).

George, being in special education as a child, saw many of his students as special needs but felt it

was "an age-related thing" (GI2: 115) and that his 7th graders "just middle schoolers and dealing

with everything" (GI2: 124).

Both Cristina and George were concerned with their student's developmental levels.

Cristina felt that her students, due to their age, could not take notes and pay attention at the same

time (CI2: 47-49). This caused her to provide her students with fill-in-the-blank notes as she felt

there was no way to teach the material without the notes (CI1: 261-263). George felt his students

had a "problem with their math skills [and] in their ability to write" (CI1: 146-147) and was

concerned that he had to spend so much time on this issue.

Motivation

Motivation is defined as a student's interest in and enthusiasm for learning. All participants

were concerned with student interest and motivation, seeing students both positively and

negatively. Patrick maintained of his students that "they get interested and really that's a good

part" (PI1: 340). Meredith, Isobel and George saw their students as ambivalent towards

schoolwork. "Seriously there were five minutes left in the lab and they had not even set up the

slides. I was just kind of baffled" Meredith commented on her students' ambivalence (MI1: 222-

223).

Alex and Cristina were concerned with alertness and active involvement in the lesson.

Alex stated "with the types of students we have some of them are just here marking time sadly









enough" (AI2: 110-111). Cristina bemoaned "the people who are not actively participating"

(CI2: 175).

Four participants spoke of various student motivation problems. Meredith and George

dealt with cheating in their classrooms. Meredith commented "they are notorious for copying one

another" (MI2: 146). George explained about his students "they do not seem to understand that

you know cheating is wrong" (GIl: 305). He also discussed his "rowdier group," the class whose

members talked (GI3:261). Patrick and George commented that their students did not want to do

homework. George was additionally concerned with students copying their work from others.

"Kids who are getting A's on tests usually blow off homework assignments" (PI2: 415) Patrick

averred. George talked about both issues: "they do not typically do their homework as well. If

they do it then chances are half of them were copying" (GI4: 111-113).

Four participants discussed how they stimulate student interest. George used jokes to

trigger student interest: "jokes and things that I think kept them more interested" (GI4: 33-34).

Both Isobel and Alex used labs to stimulate interest in learning and Alex shared, "anytime I do a

lesson that really goes well I try to have some sort of experiment that, that the kids like to do"

(All: 115-116). Meredith felt that hands-on experience would stimulate interest in the subject and

"ingrain it into their heads a little better" (MI3: 12).

Understanding of content

Student comprehension of science is the understanding of content. Two participants were

concerned with their student's performance on tests. At the beginning of the year both Cristina

and Alex had a majority of their class bomb a test and had to learn to break down the material

and teach it a different way. George's big concern was his student's low math and grammar

skills and their focus with memorizing and taking the test rather than comprehending the

material. Meredith grew frustrated with her students who were "goofy" (MI2: 99).









Patrick, George and Isobel felt that their students were getting it, able to "pull things

together" (114: 301) as Isobel commented or to "connect the dots" (GI3: 151) as George

succinctly phrased it. Patrick put it another way. "They understand it. I know they understand it

because of some of the questions I get" (PI3: 164) he observed.

Rationale for Instruction

How the teacher chooses to lesson plan and assess learning of science and the reasoning

behind both tasks are a teacher's rationale for instruction. Hewson and Hewson (1988) state that

science teacher "should be able to use their knowledge of the particular content to be taught, the

particular students they will be teaching, and effective instructional strategies to plan and

perform teaching actions which achieve the intention of helping these students learn the desired

content" (p. 611). Planning and assessment, and the reasoning behind both of these actions, can

be considered the teacher's rationale for instruction. These will also show a teacher's orientation

to teaching science.

Six participants were interviewed and observed, data were analyzed and categories created

to organize their responses. Two categories emerged across the individual cases: lesson planning

and assessment. A summary is shown in Table 5-12.

Lesson planning

Lesson planning is the breaking down of subject matter into specific concepts and terminology to

be taught in a lesson and determining demonstrations, activities, and other instructional strategies

to use to teach them. All participants used the textbook in lesson planning to greater or lesser

degrees. Three participants used it as a starting point. "I was an anatomy and physiology major,"

Patrick stated, "so I just look over my old notes and I kind of water them down then I go back

and I look over our textbook and I pull the information out of the textbook that you know

coincides with stuff we need to do" (PI3: 190-193). Alex first read and highlighted all important










sections and added information from the teacher's edition. "I usually start with the book, make


my notes" (CI1: 244-245) Cristina shared.

Table 5-12. Participant's rationale for instruction.


Patrick
Used
textbook
and college
texts for
planning;
used
internet
and
technology

Testing a
major part
of
curriculum;
was poor
test-taker;
teaches
strategies;
concerned
with student
grades


Meredith
Used
textbook
and
supplements
for planning;
used internet
& technology



Testing a
major part
of
curriculum;
teaches
strategies;
concerned
with high-
stakes tests
& student
grades


Alex
Used
textbook
and
supplements
for planning;
turned in
formal
lesson plans


Testing a
major part
of
curriculum;
was poor
test-taker;
concerned
with high-
stakes tests
& student
grades


Christina
Used
textbook
and college
texts for
planning;
used
internet &
technology


Testing a
major part
of
curriculum;
concerned
with student
grades


Isobel
Used
textbook
for
planning;
used
technology;
turned in
lesson plans


Testing a
major part
of
curriculum;
teaches
strategies;
concerned
with high-
stakes tests
& student
grades


George
Used
textbook
and college
texts for
planning;
used
internet
and
technology

Testing a
major part
of
curriculum;
was poor
test-taker;
concerned
with student
grades


Isobel and George skimmed the textbook to ensure that he had the concepts down but

relied on his knowledge to develop a lesson correctly. Meredith used her new textbook for

unique activities and extra material that the current book lacked, stating "that's been really

helpful having access to the upcoming edition to use now so that's definitely been helpful. So it

is like quadrupling my resources" (MI1: 327-328).

All teachers used supplements in their lesson planning. Alex read through the "seven or

eight books that support the actual textbook" (AI2: 212-213) to find activities, demos and models

which focused on his hands-on orientation. Cristina used college texts (CI2: 246) as did Patrick.

Four participants used the internet and technology. Patrick made PowerPoint slides for

information and handouts of the diagrams so students had the diagram in front of them when he


Lesson
Planning









Assessment









was lecturing (PI3: 74-76). George, at the time I observed him, bemoaned the loss of his LCD

projector as he had to draw diagrams and could not use the resources of the internet for his class

during the time it was being fixed (GI2: 56-60). Meredith used a web site as the meat of one of

her lessons on the similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis (M03). Cristina

explained her lesson planning strategy: "I might use Internet, college textbooks, online lesson

plans. I'm always trying to add extra material." (CI2: 246-247).

Formal lesson plans were a requirement of the school systems Alex and Isobel were

employed by. Alex commented: "Our [school] just requires us to have copies or have them on

the computer" (AI2: 534). Isobel had to turn weekly lesson plans in to the principal.

Assessment

Assessment is the formative and summative techniques developed to determine what a

student has learned and allows a teacher to know what prior knowledge a student possesses as

well as how well they have retained the concepts and terms that have been taught. All of the six

participants felt that testing was a major part of assessment and the three male teachers (Patrick,

Alex, and George) admitted that they had been poor test-takers.

Because of this each of the teachers used different strategies for helping their students do

well. Alex used a number of other things maintaining, "in this class if they just do their

homework and they do the projects and they attend class they could actually have a D and still

make somewhere in the 50s on a test" (AI2: 419-421). Patrick ensured that there were other

avenues for students to earn decent grades even if they were poor test-takers, averring, "I grade

everything. They get a homework grade, they get a class work grade, and they get a lab grade, a

test grade and a quiz grade." (PI4: 253-255). George also explained, "I try and curve things and

stuff' (GIl: 237).









Assessment concerns were mentioned by all participants. High stakes testing was

important to the four public school teachers. Alex hoped that his students be able to do well but

worried that they had reading weaknesses and were poor test-takers. Meredith used warm-ups at

the beginning of class to teach her students test strategies stating "I like doing [high-stakes test]

questions because ... I keep thinking that if I go through and show them enough different ways

that I look at them then they will catch on" (MI2: 55-57). Isobel used a bulletin board in the front

of class to expand her student's science vocabulary for the high-stakes test and would quiz

students on the words and their meanings (101). Patrick taught test strategies and maintained

"You know that's the reason why I try to fire off those key things and I will bring those up again

those things will be on the test and they know that too" (PI3: 55-57).

All six of the teachers were concerned with student grades. Patrick had a specific formula

of percentages for each type of student work. "I grade everything" (PI4: 253) he stated and gave

extra credit projects to help his students bring their grades up. George graded on the curve, a

practice that was unique to him (GIl: 237). Isobel, in alignment with her process orientation, felt

that if students did their homework, their grades would reflect their effort (112: 69-71). Alex

focused on what grades students were carrying and was very proud that two of his students with

special needs were carrying a B and C, respectively (AI2: 128-131).

Other types of assessment were mentioned by all participants. Alex stated that "class

participation gets them a test grade" to help raise student grades that were low from test scores

(AI3: 305). George and Isobel had an essay as part of their assessment and Cristina was having

her students write a research paper, one of her goals for her students (CI1: 265-268). Formative

assessments were used by Patrick, Meredith, Alex and Isobel and they ranged from crossword

puzzles and other seatwork and homework to questioning, discussion, and exit tickets.









Instructional Strategies

Instructional strategies are defined as techniques that are used for successful teaching

including textbook strategies, kinesthetic activities, and presentation methods. They are one of

the visible parts of a teacher's orientation to teaching science. Six participants were interviewed

and observed, data were analyzed and categories created to organize their responses. Three

categories emerged across the individual cases: teacher-led strategies, student-led strategies, and

group strategies. A definition for each category is presented in the corresponding subsection

below and a summary of their instructional strategies is listed on Table 5-13.

Table 5-13. Participant's instructional strategies.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
Teacher-led Lecture, Discussion, Lecture, Lecture, note Discussion, Storytelling,
Strategies note demos, scenarios, taking, and demos lecture,
taking and use demos, seating and note
demos internet and labs plans problem taking; and
solving demos

Student-led Student- Compare/ Activities, Lab aids, and Compare/ Labs,
Strategies made contrast, labs labs contrast, activities,
charts, activities labs and
labs projects

Group Teacher Students Students Teacher Students Students
Strategies assigned picked picked assigned picked picked
members; groups; groups members; groups; groups;
size size preferred lab groups size
varied varied small of two varied
based on based on groups students based on
materials materials task

Teacher-led strategies

Teacher-led strategies are those teaching techniques in which the teacher performs the

strategy. Lecture and note-taking was used as a strategy by four participants. Cristina explained,

"I do not know any other way that you can teach the material" (CI1: 261-263). Patrick also used

lecture and note taking as preferred strategies on a daily basis. George used lecture to get his









students to a point where they could discuss topics. Along with lectures, Alex used scenarios on

a transparency and discussed the science problem presented with his students (AI2: 246-253).

Demonstrations were used by five of the participants. Patrick demonstrated musculature by

dissecting chickens and showing his students the different muscle groups (P04). An interactive

web site on mitosis and meiosis gave Meredith a powerful demo (M03). Alex built his own

demonstration materials for his lesson on trajectories (AI2: 379-381). Isobel used a student

demo, crushing aluminum cans, to demonstrate the power of air pressure (104). "There are

always little things you can do," (GIl: 77) George stated discussing how demos helped his

students to visualize better.

Student-led strategies

Student-led strategies are those teaching techniques in which the student performs the

activity. All participants used student-led strategies. Isobel and Meredith liked using compare

and contrast activities, Meredith with a Venn diagram to cement student's understanding of the

difference between meiosis and mitosis (MI2: 180-183) and Isobel having her students write

about the similarities and differences in particular environmental pollutants such as radon

(11 :263-265). Alex had his students make a slide from cork slices and view it in the microscope

(A02). Patrick had his students make large charts of the body muscles (P01). Cristina used a lab

aid she had purchased to help explain genetics (C03). George liked to use the LCD projector but

as it was broken drew diagrams from the book on types of geologic faults (GI3: 78-79).

Four teachers used labs as a preferred instructional strategy. George and Alex had students

perform one lab per chapter. Isobel assigned her students to perform labs weekly. Patrick had his

students complete labs to cement concepts or as a prolonged activity like the owl pellets prey

skeleton project.









Grouping strategies

Grouping is a student-led teaching technique that groups students together to perform a

task. Grouping is used by all of the beginning teachers however participants used different

strategies to accomplish the strategy. Patrick had class rules for groups and tried to mix genders

and ethnicities. Patrick assigned members to a group and stated "the groups are picked earlier in

the year when we did some lab groups where they've stayed relatively the same" (PI2: 85-86).

Cristina also assigned members to groups. Allowing their students to pick their groups was a

technique shared by Meredith, Isobel and George. "When we have them work in groups they will

switch partners back and forth" (114: 134) Isobel maintained. She also used her groups to teach

students to work together, one of her goals.

Size of groups was an issue my participants spoke of with their ideas ranging from big to

small. Cristina liked small groups with no more than two members as she commented that "the

bigger the group the more out of control it gets" (CI1: 121-122). George used all sizes of groups

from half the class when he wanted competition to pairs for experiments. He felt that three was a

good number for normal groups, with any more members causing his 7th graders to lose control

(GI2: 145). Patrick also used varying group sizes based on how many materials he had as did

Meredith.









CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS

This chapter begins with a discussion of the current study followed by a summary of the

results. The results are presented in relationship to research questions along with a discussion of

limitations and implications for teacher education. Recommendations for further research are

posed in the conclusion to this chapter.

Overview of the Study

In this study, six secondary science teachers beginning their careers as educators in public

and private schools were studied to describe their conceptions of teaching science. Their CTS

consisted of their beliefs and knowledge about their subject, learners, learning, teachers and

teaching. The study was grounded in research that investigated teacher thinking, pedagogical

content knowledge (PCK), orientations to teaching science (OTS), conceptions of teaching

science (CTS), and traditional and alternative routes to certification. Hewson and Hewson's

(1988) study of teacher's conceptions of teaching science provided the framework for examining

the teachers' beliefs about teaching and the conditions necessary for effectiveness. They stated,

"science teaching should of necessity consist of tasks and activities which are intended to help

particular students learn particular content ... indicative of the particular content to be learned,

and expressed so that it is possible for the particular students to learn it" (Hewson & Hewson,

1988, p. 601) and gave characteristics that a teacher should possess in order to be effective.

I further analyzed the six participant's goals for teaching science, planning, preferred

instructional techniques, and assessment strategies (called orientations to teaching science). Data

analysis of the six beginning secondary science teachers revealed that six of Magnusson, Krajcik,

and Borko's (1999) nine orientations to teaching science, that is, process-driven, activity-driven,

academic rigor, didactic, project-based science, and guided inquiry orientations were consistent









with my teacher's orientations to teaching science. Research also confirmed findings first

presented in Friedrichsen's (2002) study of experienced biology teachers that her teachers'

orientations were teaching strategies (such as lecture or discussion) chosen depending on what

they felt were their goals for teaching science.

Specifically, this study addressed the following research questions:

* RESEARCH QUESTION 1: What are the conceptions of teaching science of the six beginning
secondary science teachers in this study?

* RESEARCH QUESTION 2: What is the nature of orientations to teaching science of the six
beginning secondary science teachers in this study?

* RESEARCH QUESTION 3: To what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science
teachers thinking (PCK)?

Review of Methods

A multiple case study of six beginning secondary science teachers in their first year

teaching in public and private schools was conducted and data were analyzed to describe how

participant's conceptions of and orientations to teaching science influenced their teaching

behaviors. Descriptions were based on data collected over a five-month period (October 2005 to

February 2006). Included in the data collection procedures were three sources of data: beginning

science teacher's interviews, the Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science (Hewson

& Hewson, 1989) interview, and classroom observations chosen in order to provide multiple data

sources to attempt to answer the research questions.

Hewson and Hewson's (1989) Task for Identifying Teacher's Conceptions of Teaching

Science presented each beginning secondary science teacher with teaching scenarios from their

science field and asked whether it was an example of teaching or not, providing instances and

non-instances of science teaching in and out of class. The task was analyzed using seven

categories suggested by the data, that is, a teacher's characteristics for successful teaching,









whether they felt teaching was happening, teacher's understanding of the nature of science,

whether they felt learning was happening, what learner characteristics were involved, conditions

for teaching and learning, and their preferred instructional techniques as outlined in Hewson and

Hewson's (1989) study.

To analyze all other observation and interview data I used thematic network analysis

(Attride-Stirling, 2001). This type of analysis attempts to interpret text to find the themes within

it at three different levels, basic, organizing, and global. After the three thematic levels were

extracted from the data they were placed in a concept web or thematic network and described

and summarized in a report (Attride-Stirling, 2001). The interview and observation data collected

generated codes which I used to identify basic, organizing, and global themes (Attride-Sterling,

2001). At this point, I developed a thematic network using symbols, arrows and text to illustrate

each global theme and its corresponding organizing and basic themes. These thematic networks

were concept maps for each participant's conception of teaching science, orientation to teaching

science, and the possible sources for their OTS.

Cross-case analysis was conducted to identify patterns across the six cases. I used the

thematic networks to re-read the data within the context of the three levels of themes, basic,

unifying and global. Summarization of the thematic networks) brought out principle themes and

patterns in the data (Attride-Stirling, 2001).These themes (Appendix H) suggested patterns in the

data which became the basis for the findings reported about the research questions.

Findings and Discussion

All findings relate to the research questions presented on the second page of this chapter

and are based upon the case studies of the six beginning secondary science teachers. The findings

of the individual case studies are presented in Chapter 4 and cross-case analysis of the studies is

presented in Chapter 5. My findings were organized around the basic, unifying, and global










themes emerging from the data and developed into thematic networks which fell naturally into

the constructs identified by Hewson and Hewson (1989) and Magnusson et. al (1999).

Research Question 1

What are the conceptions of teaching science of the six beginning secondary science

teachers in this study?

Hewson and Hewson (1988) introduced the conception of teaching science and gave it five

components, that is conceptions of science, conceptions of teaching, learner characteristics,

rationale for instruction, and preferred instructional techniques (Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

Seven components of a teacher's Conceptions of Teaching Science, that is, teacher

characteristics, teaching, conceptions of science, learning, learner characteristics, conditions for

teaching/learning, and preferred instructional techniques, were suggested by the data. Each

teacher's beliefs about these components came together in a picture of the participant's

conceptions of teaching science. Table 6-1 is a summary table of whether each participant's CTS

is teacher- or student-centered and a statement of their conceptions of teaching science.


Table 6-1. Participant's
Patrick
Teacher or Teacher-
Student centered
Centered
Conception


Conception of Teaching Science.


Meredith
Student-
centered


Alex
Teacher-
centered


Christina
Teacher-
centered


Presenting
science
concepts
to
students
and
providing
students
with a
sequence
of science
learning
experiences


Facilitating
develop-
ment of
students'
under-
standings
about
science and
changing
science-
related
conceptions


Presenting
science
concepts
to
students
and
engaging
students
in hands-
on science
activities


Presenting
science
concepts to
students and
providing
students
with a
sequence of
science
learning
experiences


Facilitating
develop-
ment of
science
under-
standing
and
providing a
sequence of
science
learning
experiences


Facilitating
develop-
ment of
students'
under-
standings
about
science and
changing
science-
related
conceptions


Concep-
tions of
Teaching
Science


Isobel
Teacher-
moving to
student-
centered


George
Student-
centered









Teacher- or student-centered conception

Kember (1997) looked at thirteen research studies to determine academics' conceptions

of teaching. He categorized the academics described in each study as on a continuum ranging

from "teacher-centered/content oriented" to "student-centered/learning oriented" and saw this

continuum as from "knowledge transmission" to learning facilitation" (p. 260). I used Kember's

categories of teacher- or student-centered to initially align my six teachers and realigned them

choosing two of Koballa, Glynn, Upson and Coleman's (2005) conceptions of teaching science

to describe each participant.

A clear picture of each of the beginning science teacher's conceptions of teaching science

developed from the data. Half of the participants espoused a teacher-centered conception of

teaching science and the learning environment in their classrooms reflected this orientation. This

teacher-centered belief shared by the participants was what Roberts and Chastko (1990) termed

absorption. He explained that teachers not having been exposed to methods classes tend to see

science concepts as something to be learned as fact and not as a structure to guide other learning.

Interestingly, this was not the case with two of my participants who where teacher-centered.

Both saw science as human-generated and one believed it was tentative additionally.

Two participants viewed teaching as student-centered and both their CTS interview and

later observation and interviews confirmed this. The final participant appeared to be changing

her focus from teacher-centered toward student-centered science teaching. During her CTS

interview this participant's conception of teaching science leaned toward teacher-centered but by

the middle of the second semester when I observed and interviewed her, the learning

environment in her class appeared student-centered. Dailey (2003) felt that the orientation of the

teacher determined whether the learning environment was teacher-centered or learner-centered.









Conceptions of teaching science

Kember (1997) in his study found that teacher's conceptions of teaching science were

teacher- or student-centered, that is, that it is best taught by transferring knowledge from teacher

to pupils, by posing problems for pupils to solve, or by interacting with pupils (p. 215). Koballa

and a group of researchers (2000) developed statements of teacher's conceptions of chemistry

teaching based on Kember (1997). This is in alignment with Daily (2003) who describes five

different perspectives on teaching: transmission, apprenticeship, development, nurturing, and

social reform proposed by Pratt (1998; in Daily, 2003).

Koballa et al. (2005) in a later study found that participants in an alternative science

teacher preparation program held one or more of five conceptions of teaching science: 1)

Presenting science concepts to students, 2) Providing students with a sequence of science

learning experiences, 3) Engaging students in hands-on science activities, 4) Facilitating the

development of students' understandings about science, and 5) Changing student's science-

related conceptions. Since most of my participants were becoming alternatively certified

teachers, I chose to describe their conceptions of teaching science as Koballa et al. (2005)

deduced.

Each of my participants had a two or more conceptions to teaching science. Three of the

participants, all of which had a teacher-centered conception of teaching science fit into the

category of presenting science concepts to students. Two of the three participants also provided

students with a sequence of science learning experiences. The third participant was engaging

students in hands-on science activities. The final three participants, all of whom were student-

centered believed they were facilitating the development of student understanding about science.

Two of these participants additionally perceived they were changing student's science-related









conceptions while the third believed she was providing students with a sequence of science

learning experiences.

All participants possessed multiple conceptions to teaching science based on their beliefs

about teachers and teaching, learners and learning, and perceptions about science including the

nature of science. These perceptions caused them to present material and choose instructional

strategies which were in alignment with their conceptions of teaching science.

Research Question 2

What is the nature of orientations to teaching science of the six beginning secondary

science teachers in this study?

Magnusson, Krajcik & Borko (1999) suggested there were nine orientations to teaching

science, that is., process, academic rigor, didactic, conceptual change, activity-driven, discovery,

project-based science, inquiry, and guided inquiry (p. 100). Similarities and differences between

the orientations to teaching science of each of the beginning secondary science teachers were

evaluated and appear to be in alignment with six of Magnusson, Krajcik and Borko's (1999) nine

orientations. The six orientations were those of academic rigor, didactic, activity-driven, project-

based and guided inquiry. A summary of participant's Orientations to Teaching Science is listed

on Table 6-2.

Table 6-2. Participant's Orientations to Teaching Science.
Patrick Meredith Alex Christina Isobel George
Didactic/ Process/ Activity- Didactic/ Process/ guided Project-
academic guided oriented academic inquiry based
rigor inquiry rigor

Specific orientations for each teacher were chosen using data collected about each of the

six categories of Orientations to Teaching Science, namely a teacher's goals for teaching, science

curriculum, school context, beliefs about learner characteristics, rationale for instruction, and

instructional strategies (Magnusson, Krajcik & Borko, 1999).









Didactic/academic rigor orientation

Two of the beginning teachers adopted a didactic/academic rigor orientation which

consisted of them having a formal, authoritarian presence in class and presenting the material

mainly through lecture and note-taking. Activities and labs were performed with strict attention

to detail and with rigorous standards and were confirmative in nature, reaffirming a concept or

piece of knowledge. Both relied heavily on students memorizing scientific terminology and

concepts as a means of developing content knowledge. Testing was the major component of their

student's grade. Goals for their students were focused on academic preparation and developing a

good science base. Both of these teachers were in the process of being alternatively certified, had

strong mentor relationships with their college professors and had left the academic environment

six months before beginning secondary science teaching, one having completed her degree six

months before starting her teaching career and one leaving a coaching position in a college

setting the summer before starting teaching. Both teachers had planned continuing studies at

university but had to change plans, one due to loss of funding and one due to a spouse moving to

another state. Could having professors as mentors and recent ties with academia have led them to

develop a didactic/academic rigor orientation?

Process/guided inquiry orientation

Two of the beginning teachers (one-third of the participants) had or were developing a

process /guided inquiry orientation to teaching science. Both preferred an informal presence in

class and felt that their students were responsible for their learning and grades which reflected

their process orientation. Both relied on technology and media to support their teaching and used

many hands-on labs and other activities to stimulate their students' interest in the subject as well

as to help students develop understanding of content which reflected their guided-inquiry

orientation. Both used formative assessment strategies such as observing or talking with the









students to determine the progress being made. Their goals were focused on student skill and

science literacy as well as life skills such as teamwork and social skills.

Project-based orientation

One teacher had a project-based orientation to teaching science. His presence in class was

informal but he was more of a coach to his students, developing projects to help them acquire

understanding of the natural world and how people interact with it. This teacher supported

discussion in his class and encouraged his students to ask questions. It was natural for him to

place his students in groups to work on homework, activities or projects. His goals for his

students reflected his desire to integrate concepts and explore real-world examples for his

students. Although focused on his students developing good science content knowledge, he also

wanted students to be interested in a career in science and to develop excitement for science.

Additionally he wanted academic achievement for his students or "put their best effort" into

school. All of his mentors were high school coaches and he seemed to emulate them.

Activity-driven orientation

The last participant had an activity-driven orientation to teaching science which caused

him to maintain an authoritarian presence in the class which was more teacher-focused. He chose

his hands-on activities based on concerns for classroom management. Everything for his students

was visual and kinesthetic from the scenarios and terminology he displayed on transparencies to

his style of breaking information down and giving everything a focus on what he termed the

"modern world." This paralleled one participant from Koballa and Coleman's (2005) study who

had an activity-driven orientation.

Teaching strategies encompassed demonstrations which the students could touch and

operate, group activities and labs. Everything he taught was standards-based and directed

towards his students passing their high-stakes tests. He used questioning as an assessment and









his tests were self-analyzed to ensure that they were not too hard. This teacher-participant had

been out of school for thirty plus years and followed the dictates of the mentors in his alternative

certification program, his school mentors, and the guidance of the book to help him teach science

concepts.

Research Question 3

To what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science teachers thinking (PCK)?

Both conceptions of teaching science (CTS) and orientations to teaching science (OTS)

contain three elements in common, that is, learner characteristics, rationale for teaching and

preferred teaching strategies. In the model for conceptions of teaching science the rationale for

instruction and preferred strategies are seen as two of its five components whereas in the model

for orientations toward teaching science they are seen as the evidence that exemplifies a

teacher's goals for teaching (Magnusson et al., 1999). The conceptual framework I designed by

combining conceptions of teaching science and orientations to teaching science shows the

intersection between CTS and OTS and their shared components (Figure 6-1). Exploring the

nexus between a beginning teacher's orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching

science helps to fully illustrate the beginning teacher's thinking on secondary science instruction.

Teacher-centered conception to teaching science and subsequent orientations

One half of the teacher participants had a teacher-centered conception to teaching science.

Since all of these teachers had had little to no education or pedagogy classes, they had little

understanding of student characteristics and learning. One of the three beginning teachers saw

students as unmotivated and untrustworthy. Another participant believed that motivation could

only be determined by student response. The third participant felt his students were motivated

but his actions in class belied this. He was constantly checking on his students when engaged in

group activities to determine if they were "on task."









Pedgogica
Cotn
Unwldg
SL,


Figure 6-1. Conceptual framework of intersection between Conceptions of Teaching Science
and Orientations to Teaching Science.

All of the participants who had a teacher-oriented conception believed that age and

cognitive level were important for student learning but were unsure of what abilities students had

at different ages and grades. Every one of these participants felt that students came to class with

almost no knowledge and felt that they needed to give students background knowledge before

any learning could happen. Two of the three beginning science teachers believed that a teacher

must be present for learning to occur and all strived for total control of the class.

Two of these three beginning teachers adopted a didactic/academic rigor orientation and

presenting the material mainly through lecture and note-taking. One teacher stated, "I do not

know any other way that you can teach" (CI1: 261-262). Activities and labs were performed with









strict attention to detail and with rigorous standards and were confirmative in nature. The last

teacher of this group had an activity-driven orientation to teaching science which caused him to

maintain a teacher-centered presence in the class. Everything for his students was visual and

kinesthetic and teaching strategies included labs and group activities along with interactive

demonstrations in which the students could touch and operate the materials and equipment.

All three teachers focused on terminology and definitions as a center to their teaching and

one stated when speaking of a teacher mentor, "I still to this day can tell you some of the

definitions this man taught me in the ninth grade and I teach them to these students here"

(All:108-109). All three of these participants had mentors who were either college professors or

had been traditional high school teachers over thirty years before. I believe this had a huge

influence on the rigid teaching styles of each of these participants and a study supports this

finding that "secondary teachers with no pedagogical preparation had a limited ability to engage

high school students in the subject matter and that those teachers taught as they had been taught"

(Wilson, Floden, Ferrini-Mundy, 2002).

Student-centered conceptions of teaching science and subsequent orientations

The second half of teacher participants in the study had a student-centered conception to

teaching science. One of these teachers had graduated from a teacher training program, another

had four or five education and pedagogy classes as well as prior special education learning

experience, and the third participant had two undergraduate and one graduate degree. It is

possible that education courses gave two of the participants an understanding of student

characteristics and learning. The third participant with a graduate degree is an anomaly. I can

only surmise that she was able to develop the understanding of students and learning either from

observation or from her business work and development of what she termed "soft skills."









These beginning teachers saw students as motivated by the interest generated in class and

worked to be interesting, exciting and entertaining. All believed that age and cognitive level were

important for student learning and understood the different ages at which children understand

and learn concepts. Every one of these participants felt that students came to class with prior

knowledge and understanding and all three participants talked about students' different learning

styles, and misconceptions. All teachers believed that students could learn on their own, with

their peers and through media, one expressing the awareness that learning was deep

understanding and social.

Two of the beginning teachers had or were developing a process/guided inquiry orientation

to teaching science. Both preferred an informal presence in class, felt that their students were

responsible for their learning and grades and relied on technology and media as teaching

strategies. Both used formative assessment and felt they could determine how a student was

doing by observing or talking with them. Their goals focused on student skill, science literacy

and life skills.

The third teacher had a project-based orientation to teaching science. His presence in class

was informal as he was coach to his students, helping them to acquire understanding of the

natural world and how people interact with it. He also encouraged his students to ask questions

and naturally grouped them in the classroom. His goals for his students were focused on concept

knowledge, student career interests and student's developing life skills.

Conclusion

Theoretical Framework Revisited

Three key concepts of teacher's thinking about their science teaching were the theoretical

framework for this study. These concepts, that is, pedagogical content knowledge, orientations to









teaching science, and conceptions of teaching science, are listed on Table 6-3 with findings from

the study which support them.

Table 6-3. Key Concepts of Teacher Thinking about Science Teaching.
Key Concept Original Source Relationship of Study to
Key Concept
Pedagogical Content Shulman, 1986; Grossman, 1990 Study supported concept
Knowledge finding participants


Orientations to Teaching
Science





Conceptions of Teaching
Science


Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko,
1999





Hewson and Hewson, 1988,
1989


influenced mainly by
PCK domain of subject
matter knowledge and
beliefs

Study supported concept
but found that OTS
should be combined with
CTS due to
complementary nature of
components (Figure 6-4)

Study supported concept
but found that CTS
should be combined with
OTS due to
complementary nature of
components (Figure 6-4)


Pedagogical Content Knowledge

PCK, discovered by Shulman (1986) and refined by Grossman (1990) presented the

structure for teacher thinking about science teaching. PCK, one of four categories of teacher

knowledge, combined the components pedagogical knowledge and beliefs with content

knowledge and beliefs using teacher experience to transform these into subject-specific

pedagogical content knowledge (Figure 6-2). In this study I illustrated that by determining my

six beginning secondary science teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science in conjunction with

their Orientations to Teaching Science I could elicit my participant's PCK.









Friedrichsen (2002), who studied the Orientations to Teaching Science of highly regarded

biology teachers and developed a substantive-level theory based on her findings, found the

greatest influence of PCK on her participants' orientations to teaching science was the domain of

knowledge and beliefs about the school context. The data in my study showed that the beginning

secondary science teachers I studied were influenced mainly by the PCK domain of subject

matter knowledge and beliefs.


Substantive Syntactic
Knowledge Knowledge
and Beliefs and Beliefs



Subject Matter
Knowledge
and Beliefs


Influences


Classroom Learners and
Classroom
Learning
Management Learng
Instructional Educational
Principles Aims



Pedagogical
Knowledge
and Beliefs


Influences


Pedagogical
Content
Knowledge

Influences

Knowledge and
Beliefs about
Context


Community Students School District


Figure 6-2. Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK. Modified from Magnusson,
Krajcik and Borko (1999)









Content knowledge as described by Abd-El-Khalick and Boujaoude (1997) is a teacher's

knowledge and understanding of the facts and concepts of the particular science they teach filled

with the relationships among scientific facts, concepts, and procedures (p. 675). A global

understanding of how a particular science is broken down into concepts and how this branch of

knowledge fits in with other fields of science is an important part of developing PCK.

The traditionally certified teacher in this study mediated the content knowledge domain

shown in Figure 6-2 with her pedagogical knowledge and beliefs. To a lesser degree this

appeared to be the case of two other participants, one who had taken four or five education and

pedagogy classes and the other who had two undergraduate and one advanced degree in science.

The other three beginning teachers in the study mediated the subject matter knowledge and

beliefs domain with knowledge and beliefs about context, specifically their beliefs about students

and the school they taught in. Their beliefs about students appeared to come from their own

experiences as students. Those teachers who had no pedagogical training seemed to rely on the

beliefs about teaching and learning garnered from their own learning experiences and mentors.

The six new teachers I interviewed and observed were very focused on presenting students

with their learned science content knowledge. Studies (Koballa, Glynn, Upson & Coleman,

2005; Lemberger, Hewson, & Park, 1999)show that it takes beginning teachers up to three years

to develop ways in which to teach content effectively which is pedagogical content knowledge

(Figure 6-2).

Were the participants in my study influenced by subject matter knowledge and beliefs due

to recent graduation from their university or was it due to their inexperience with teaching? I feel

that it was a combination of factors. One influence could be recent graduation from or

association with a university. Two of my participants had a tendency to try to present too much









knowledge to the student at one time. They mentioned that they had to break down the

knowledge into smaller parts for their students to understand. One was a recent graduate and the

other had been employed by a university in a coaching and teaching capacity a few months prior

to beginning his K-12 teaching career. Other participants, both with traditional and alternative

certification, talked about struggles finding the right strategy to present information to their

students.

A second influence I believe is lack of experience working with children. In a traditional

teacher education program, pre-service teachers are given experiences in both observing and

teaching students. Five of my participants were becoming alternatively certified and only one of

them had prior experience teaching undergraduate classes at university and teaching elementary

children science part-time. Only one of my beginning teachers was traditionally certified and

taught high school science for a semester supervised by a cooperating teacher. This lack of

meaningful/focused interactions with students may have caused participants to rely on their

perceptions of student behavior during their own years as learners instead of having experience

dealing with contemporary students.

A third influence would be the participant's perceptions of their school context. The public

school systems where I observed four of the candidates were standards-based focusing strongly

on high-stakes testing to determine student's academic preparation. Additionally, since the

passing of the No Child Left Behind Act, the national trend for highly qualified teachers stresses

subject matter knowledge as more important than pedagogy (Darling-Hammond, Berry&

Thoreson,2001; U.S. Department of Education, 2001). The final two participants were teaching

in private schools, environments which were college preparatory-focused with subject matter

acquisition as paramount for students.









Combining Conceptions of Teaching Science and Orientations to Teaching Science

Magnusson, Krajcik and Borko (1999) found that one component of PCK controlled all

others and named it Orientation to Teaching Science (Figure 6-3). Examining the six beginning

secondary science teacher's orientations to teaching science in conjunction with their


Areas of
student
Difficulty
I
including

Knowledge of
students'
understanding
of Science whch

including

Requirements
for learning


Science
Goals and
Objectives

Po>irv


includes the
overarching
component


Orientations
to Teaching
Science


Specific
Science
Curricula


Figure 6-3. PCK and its components. Modified from Magnusson, Krajcik and Borko (1999).









conceptions of teaching science helped to give me a clearer understanding of the components

involved in a teacher instructing in a particular subject to specific students. I was able to look at

both the teacher's beliefs about teaching science (CTS) and the way they taught based on their

goals for teaching science (OTS) and to see how components of both, specifically beliefs about

students and learning, rationale for teaching, and instructional strategies aligned each teacher's

conceptions of teaching science with their orientations to teaching science. I found that those

teachers who had taken teacher education courses had more knowledge of students and how they

learn, as well as teachers and how they teach, and used a larger variety of teaching strategies.

The five participants without any teacher education or training expressed concern about

developing lesson plans. They struggled to process the information they had to teach and break it

down into small enough pieces for students to process. Assessment was also a problem for those

participants who were becoming alternatively certified and they relied on their textbook to help

teach and assess their students. Developing learning activities and finding resources was also a

problem for the teachers who had no prior training. They did not know where to find information

or people who could assist them to develop these and again relied on the textbook, source books,

the internet and their mentors for assistance.

My six participants' conceptions of teaching science and the way they taught based on

their goals or orientation for teaching science reinforced each other. Components of both,

specifically beliefs about students and learning, rationale for teaching, and instructional

strategies aligned each teacher's conceptions of teaching science with their orientations to

teaching science and determined where the six participants taught on a continuum from teacher-

centered and content oriented to student-centered and learning oriented. Based on my findings I

believe that conceptions for teaching science and orientations to teaching science should be









combined in one model (Table 6-4) modified from Friedrichsen's model of science teaching

orientations.

Modifying Friedrichsen's Model of Science Teaching Orientations to Combine OTS and
CTS

Friedrichsen (2002) developed a model to explain her theory of science teaching

orientations which she called her Substantive Level Theory of Science Teaching Orientations

(Friedrichsen & Dana, 2005). The findings from this study support Friedrichsen's theory in part.

I believe the differences were due to a different population of science teachers. Friedrichsen's

teachers were all traditionally certified with many years of experience whereas mine were all

beginning teachers, the majority of which were becoming alternatively certified.




Perceptions of School Context: Beliefs about Learners
Time constraints -Administration and Learning:
-Teaching issues -Performance Perceived goals and needs of
-High-stakes testing orientation particular group of students


Rationale for
Instruction:
B- Curriculum, textbooks
Beliefs about Trial and error
Teachers and Beginning Science -Mentors
Teaching: Teacher's Conceptions of Teacher education
Perceived aims, and Orientations to (one teacher in study)
experience, and Teaching Science
strategies of (at a particular grade level)
teachers \ Visible
teaching
strategies

Affective General Science
Science
Domain School
Content Goals
Goals Goals



Figure 6-4. Mayne's emergent theory of beginning teacher's PCK via their Conceptions of and
Orientations to Science Teaching.










The differences I found were in my participant's goals for teaching science, sources of

means, and sources for teaching strategies. I have modified her model to represent what I

discovered from the participants in my study (See Figure 6-4 above) entitled Mayne's Insights

into Beginning Teacher's PCK via their Conceptions of and Orientations to Science Teaching.

Perceptions of school context

As most of the participants in my study were attaining alternative certification their

perceptions of the requirements the school they taught in placed on them was a large part of how

they perceived teaching. These perceived requirements, that is, time constraints, teaching issues,

administrative requirements, high-stakes testing, and the performance orientation of their school

placed constraints on how they taught and the activities they used to explain content.

Beliefs about learners and learning

Participants' beliefs about learners and learning affected how they taught their students.

One teacher in my study completed education and pedagogy classes, observed students in a

classroom setting, acted as a substitute teacher and taught for one semester in a public school

prior to starting her first year of teaching. She had many opportunities to develop or refine her

original beliefs about learners and learning. Another participant had taken education and

pedagogy classes as part of his undergraduate degree whereas a third participant had taught two

undergraduate classes and some science activities in a local school elementary prior to teaching

secondary science. The final three participants had no coursework or teaching experience and

had to rely on their own learning experiences to develop their beliefs about learners and learning.

As such they believed students to behave as students had during their previous learning

experiences rather than as contemporary learners.









Beliefs about teachers and teaching

A teacher's beliefs about teachers and teaching determine how they will teach and the

strategies used during teaching. For most teachers in the study, their beliefs about teachers and

teaching were based on their own experiences with teachers and mentors during their years as

learners both in schools and at university. Those participants who had not experienced different

teaching techniques or taken pedagogy courses taught the way they had been taught mediated but

their beliefs of teachers and teaching. Two participants whose mentors were professors taught

didactically. Another participant whose mentors were high school coaches coached his students.

Participants whose mentors were process-oriented had a process orientation toward teaching.

Goals for teaching

All participants felt their most important science goal to be content knowledge. Each one

gave it a different title such as students gaining a science base, science literacy, or preparation for

the next science. I perceive this goal was driven by their beliefs about teachers and teaching and

their school's strong content-driven focus. My beginning science teachers had science goals of

content knowledge which were a large part of their schools' context. This goal was also

influenced by the pressure of high-stakes testing and standards in the public schools and by

college-preparatory emphasis in the private schools.

Most of the six participants in the study had both general and affective goals but these

were not as important to them as general goals. This was a difference from Friedrichsen's (2005)

study of experienced biology teachers. Three of the participants held a general goal of academic

success. They called it variously "to do well on the test" or "to shoot for an A" or "do the best

you can." Two participants, both with an academic rigor/didactic orientation wanted their

students to have academic success. A general goal for four participants was that of developing

student's life skills.









Affective goals such as interest in science or excitement for science were also mentioned

by five of the six participants. Four participants wanted their students to have excitement for

science while one wanted students to develop an interest in science. There seemed no correlation

between affective goals and whether participants held teacher- or student-centered orientations to

or conceptions of teaching science.

Rationale for instruction

Due to the majority of the teachers in the study attaining alternative certification, they had

little or no teaching experience to draw from as a source for their orientations to teaching

science. This caused them to rely on prior learning experience and mentors. The two participants

with college professor mentors had didactic and academic rigor orientations involving teaching

strategies centered on lecturing and note-taking, whereas two of the beginning teachers with high

school teachers as mentors had orientations and teaching strategies that reflected the teaching

strategies of their teachers or coaches. Even the participants with process-driven orientations

reported that they taught much like their former math and science high school mentors utilizing

similar activities when lesson planning and types of assessment.

Visible teaching strategies

Due to lack of pedagogical training and classroom experience of my participants they

relied more on the curriculum, textbooks, trial and error, and mentors for developing their

teaching strategies whereas the traditionally certified teacher was able to use teaching strategies

she had been taught and had observed during her training program. Could this have caused

several of the teachers to assume an orientation that reflected their mentors? However this can

also occur with pre-service teachers in traditional teacher education programs. Adams and

Krockover (1997) stated that "the degree of translation from the program to the teacher's









understanding of their classrooms appears to be modulated by their most significant learning

experiences and the context of their teaching situations" (p. 649).

Implications of the Study

This research addresses an important issue of beginning secondary science teacher thinking

specifically as relates to pedagogical content knowledge and its components conceptions of

teaching science and orientations to teaching science. In addition, because of the large number of

alternatively certified science teachers, this research has both theoretical and practical

implications and also for further research.

Theoretical Implications

Pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986) is a construct for examining a teacher's

content-specific science teacher thinking. Due to the complexity of PCK, it is necessary to use

tools to describe a teacher's PCK at a particular period in time. Individually, tools such as

Orientations to Teaching Science (Magnusson et al., 1999) and Conceptions to Teaching Science

(Hewson & Hewson, 1988) will give a partial picture of an educator's PCK. CTS and OTS

complement each other and provide different areas of PCK, hence they are useful in tandem to

understand a teacher's PCK.

Practical Implications

During the traditional teacher education process, pre-service secondary science teachers

need to examine their conceptions of and orientation(s) to teaching science. Explicitly examining

pre- and in-service teacher's CTS and OTS will allow them to reflect on the beliefs, goals and

purposes they have for instruction and possibly realign them with more effective teaching

strategies for their future classrooms. Inquiry-based teaching is the state (FL DOE, 2005) and

federal standard (NRC, 1996) for science and needs to be modeled and explicitly taught to pre-

service teachers. Instructors modeling science inquiry with appropriate instructional strategies









and assessment techniques will allow pre-service and in-service teachers to observe teaching

which develops deeper student understanding of science concepts.

Teachers in alternative certification programs should also be required to examine their CTS

and OTS. Due to the large number of candidates who are entering the teaching profession

without any form of teacher certification, there is a huge need to teach them pedagogical

knowledge and techniques, preferably before they enter the classroom. There are many

university-based alternative certification programs which require coursework prior to teaching

(Darling-Hammond, Berry & Thoreson, 2001; Cavallo, Ferreira & Roberts, 2005). A report from

these programs indicate these teachers felt more prepared to develop curriculum, use teaching

strategies and meet student's learning needs. To enhance the quality of these other alternative

certification programs, experiences should be provided for the teacher candidates to examine

both their CTS and OTS In addition more quality alternative certification programs need to be

instituted due to the large number of science teachers entering the profession without benefit of

teacher education.

Principals working with new teachers and specifically those who are becoming

alternatively certified need to institute a strong mentoring program to provide experiences for

them to quickly develop well grounded understanding of the school context/culture to be able to

navigate the requirements while developing strategies for effectiveness. Beginning teachers need

access to experienced teachers to observe their teaching, and share materials and effective

science learning activities. Time for beginning science teachers to reflect on their teaching and

develop source persons and materials is also necessary to enable them to teach more effectively.

Additionally they require a safe place to discuss their teaching experience. Ample opportunity









should be given new science teachers to talk about teaching: to share teaching experiences, and

issues about time, equipment, materials for teaching with other new and experienced teachers.

Further Research

Overall this research study has provided much needed information about beginning

secondary science teachers' conceptions of and orientations to teaching science as an avenue to

eliciting their PCK. However, the findings only provide a snapshot of participant's PCK via their

CTS and OTS. Both pre-service (Eich &Reed, 2002; Friedrichsen, 2001) and experienced

(Friedrichsen, 2002) science teachers have been studied but there are few studies on beginning

secondary science teachers. In addition there are studies on conceptions of teaching science both

pre-service (Lemberger, Hewson, & Park, 1999) and in-service (Lyans, Freitag & Hewson, 1997;

Hewson, Kerby & Cook, 1995) but little research done on novice teachers and especially those

who are becoming alternatively certified (Koballa, Glynn, Upson & Coleman, 2005). There is a

need to have longitudinal research into beginning teacher's orientations to teaching science and

conceptions of teaching science during their first three years of teaching while there are

developing PCK.

More research with larger pools of novice teachers both traditionally and alternatively

certified needs to be reported on. Findings from this research would increase understanding of

how novice teachers develop and refine their conceptions of teaching science and how this

shapes and refines their orientations to teaching science. With further research conducted using

similar methods, educators may develop instructional methods and strategies that will lead to a

deeper and more profound understanding of beginning science teachers' beliefs of and goals for

teaching science.









Final Thoughts

Teaching is complex and multifaceted, not just a simple one strategy, one teaching style

proposition. Teachers need to know not only what to teach but how to teach and also to

understand the nature of students they will be teaching. To understand the complex operation

termed teaching, more researchers need to study the thoughts and actions of educators during

their first months and years of teaching to determine the most appropriate experiences for them

develop OTS and CTS consistent with effectiveness in the science classroom.









APPENDIX A
IRB-2 PROPOSAL AND INFORMED CONSENT FORMS

IRB-2 Proposal Form

1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL: Exploring Beginning Secondary Science Teachers Conceptions
of and Orientations to Teaching Science (tentative)

2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s):
Dina L. Mayne, doctoral candidate
University of Florida College of Education
School of Teaching and Learning
2214 Norman Hall
PO Box 117048
Gainesville, FL 32611-7048
(352) 392-9191 X241

3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT):
Dr. Rose M. Pringle, PhD
School of Teaching and Learning
University of Florida
2412 Norman Hall, P 0 Box 117048
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-9191 x229 (voice)
(352) 392-9193 (fax)

4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROTOCOL: From August 20, 2005 to May 20, 2006

5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL:
N/A

6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION:
The study will explore the orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching
science of first year secondary science teachers. We will investigate the following questions:

1. What are beginning secondary science teacher's conceptions of teaching science?
a. What similarities and differences can be found between each teacher's conceptions of
teaching science?
b. What similarities and differences can be attributed to their route to teacher
preparation?
c. To what extent is there congruence in teacher's conceptions of teaching science with
observed teaching strategies?

2. What is the nature of beginning secondary science teacher's orientations to teaching
science?
a. What similarities and differences can be found between each teacher's orientations to
teaching science?









b. What similarities and differences can be attributed to their route to teacher
preparation?
c. To what extent is there congruence in teacher's orientations to teaching science with
observed teaching strategies?

7. The study will consist of a series of five semi-structured interviews and three to five
classroom observations. In the first interview, biographical information and contextual
information about the school setting will be gathered and Hewson and Hewson's Task for
Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science (1989) will be administered. The second
through fourth interviews will follow classroom observations of the participant teaching
science. In these interviews, the participant will be asked to reflect on the activities that
occurred during the observation period. Another interview will occur at the end of the
observation period and will be used to attempt to clarify information garnered previously.
Participants will be asked to check interview data for correctness. All interviews will be
conducted in the school building of each participating teacher.

8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK.
There are no known risks to the participants. By participating in the study, subjects may gain
a better understanding of their own concepts of and purposes for teaching science. This
increased understanding may lead to a more well-developed conception of teaching science.

9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND
AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any):
The participants will be recruited through a nomination list developed by the principle
investigator. The criteria for selection will be that the participants are starting their first year
of teaching middle or high school science and are either graduates of a traditional university
teacher certification or alternative certification program. All participants will be over
eighteen years of age. There is no proposed compensation.

10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE
INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT
All participants who express an interest in participating in this study will be individually
interviewed. During the interview, I will verbally explain the proposed study in detail. If the
individual is interested in participating in the study, I will give them an informed consent
form. The informed consent form will be read by me to these individuals. Participants will
sign the form to signify their consent to participate in the study and be given a copy of the
form for their own records.

Please use attachments sparingly.


Principal Investigator's Signature


Supervisor's Signature









I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB:


Dept. Chair/Center Director Date









Informed Consent Form


Protocol Title: Exploring Beginning Secondary Science Teachers Conceptions of and
Orientations to Teaching Science (tentative)

Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.

Purpose of the research study:
The study will explore the orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching science
of first year secondary science teachers.

What you will be asked to do in the study:
You will be asked to participate in a series of five semi-structured interviews and three to five
classroom observations at your school. In the first interview, your biographical information and
contextual information about the school setting will be gathered. You will also perform a task for
identifying your conceptions for teaching science. The second through fourth interviews will
follow classroom observations. The final interview will occur at the end of observation period.
All interviews will be conducted in the school building of each participating teacher.

Time required: approximately 20 hours

Risks and Benefits:
There are no anticipated risks. By participating in the study you may gain a better understanding
of your concepts of and purposes for teaching science.

Compensation:
There is no compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this study.

Confidentiality:
Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be
assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked
file in my faculty supervisor's office. When the study is completed and the data have been
analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report.

Voluntary participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.

Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence.



Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
Dina L. Mayne, Doctoral Candidate, School of Teaching and Learning, College of
Education, 2214 Norman Hall, PO Box 117048, Gainesville, FL 32611-7048,, (352) 392-
9191 X241.









Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph (352) 392-
0433.

Agreement:

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and
I have received a copy of this description.

Participant: Date:

Principal Investigator: Date:









APPENDIX B
FIRST SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL

Purpose of the Interview

1. Explain the purpose of the study.
2. Develop a trusting relationship with the participant.
3. Gather background information to construct a biography of the participant.
4. Collect contextual information that may be useful in analyzing the possible sources of the
individual's orientations to and conceptions of teaching science, and
5. Begin to solicit data on the participant's individual's orientations to and conceptions of
teaching science by administering Hewson and Hewson's Task for Identifying Conceptions
of Teaching Science (1989).

Initial Interview Tasks

1. Explanation of the study.
a) Define terms "conceptions of teaching science" and "orientations to science teaching."
b) Describe the extent of the participant's involvement, that is, number of interviews, tasks,
classroom observations, etc.
c) Explain what I hope to learn from this study.
d) Discuss what the participant may gain from the study, that is, increased awareness and
understanding of their orientations to and conceptions of teaching science and the
pedagogical content knowledge they use to guide their practice.
2. Ask participant to share their interest in being part of this study.
3. Ask participant to read and sign the informed consent form.

Interview Questions

1. Please tell me your name, what degree you have and when you received it?
2. What is your current teaching assignment?
3. Did you have an internship? If so, what science courses did you teach?
4. Tell me about your background in science.
a) College science courses?
b) What areas of science did you concentrate on or specialize in? What areas are your
favoritess?
c) Did you have graduate coursework in science?
d) Have you any experience conducting scientific research? Or lab tech work?
5. Describe your teacher education program.
a) Have you taken any graduate courses in education?
b) In what ways did your teacher education program influence the way that you teach?
6. Why did you decide to become a science teacher?
7. Describe any role models that may have influenced your teaching style.
8. In your first weeks of teaching, can you recall a lesson that really went well? What were you
teaching? How were you teaching it, that is, what teaching style, activities, questioning
techniques were you using?









9. In your first weeks of teaching, can you recall a lesson that went really poorly? What were
you teaching? How would you change teaching style, activities, questioning techniques, etc.
to make it a successful lesson?
10. What goals do you have for your students in science? What areas of your science subject do
you want to cover in your classes this year? Why do you think those areas are important?
11. What unit(s) are you currently teaching? What purposes or goals do you have for your
students in this unit?
12. What curriculum are you using in your teaching? Are you satisfied with the focus of the
curricular materials or text? Have you used other curriculum or texts to teach this subject?

Task for Identifying Conceptions of Science Teaching (30 minutes)

Have teacher read scenarios about specific real-world instances of science teaching and learning
(Appendix F) one at a time, and ask protocol questions after instance.

Protocol questions (Peter W. Hewson & Hewson, 1989)
1. In your view, is there science teaching happening here?
2. If you cannot tell, what else would you need to know in order to be able to tell? What would
this information tell you? Please give reasons for your answer.
3. If you answered 'yes' or 'no', what tells you that this is the case? Please give reasons for
your answer.

Closing Comments

Could we schedule the first classroom observation and interview?









APPENDIX C
SECOND THROUGH FOURTH SEMI-STRUCTURED AND INTERVIEW GUIDE
PROTOCOL

Purpose of the Interview

To elicit and elaborate on participant's knowledge and beliefs about the purposes and goals for
teaching science by reflecting on class activities that occurred during the observation.

Interview Questions and Guide

1. What aspects of today's lesson would you say best support your goals and purposes for
teaching science? How?

2. Reflect on other aspects of the lesson and how they supported your purposes and goals for
teaching:
teaching strategies
choices of activities
students' understanding of the topic
student grouping
teacher-student and student-student interactions

3. How do you plan for:
this lesson
an entire unit
How does this lesson fit into curriculum for the semester?

4. Have you ever taught this lesson before?
used different strategies
other strategies you might use when teaching it again

5. How will you assess student learning?
other tools used
tools you might use
Why do you use that particular assessment tool?
We need to schedule the next observation and interview.









APPENDIX D
FIFTH SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL

Purpose of the Interview

To elicit and elaborate on participant's knowledge and beliefs about the purposes and goals for
teaching science by:
a) reflecting on class activities and interactions that occurred during the study; and
b) re-examining science teaching orientations and conceptions of teaching science.

Interview Questions

1. Looking back over the last month, what aspects of your classroom practice would you say
best support your goals and purposes for teaching science? How?

2. Are there any aspects of your classroom practice that you feel detract from your goals and
purposes for teaching science? Which ones and in what way do they detract?

3. What has been the least rewarding teaching experience this month? How has it affected your
teaching?

4. What has been the most rewarding teaching experience this month? How has it affected your
teaching?

5. Revisit your goals for teaching science. Have these goals changed or their priority?

6. Look at your student population. Have your teaching practices changed based on what you
perceive as the needs of your students? How?

Final Thoughts and Closure of Study

Thank you for participating in this study. I will be analyzing data and writing for the next
several months.

Would you be willing to check the transcripts of my interviews with you for accuracy?









APPENDIX E
CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING SCIENCE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL

(Hewson & Hewson, 1989)

Task Protocol

1. In your view, is there science teaching happening here?

2. If you cannot tell, what else would you need to know in order to be able to tell? What would
this information tell you? Please give reasons for your answer.

3. If you answered 'yes' or 'no', what tells you that this is the case? Please give reasons for
your answer.









Instances about Biology

1. Teacher in 9th grade at the start of a topic on arthropods, passes around a box of specimens
containing insects and spiders. Teacher asks, "what can you tell me about these specimens?"

2. A student at home watching a TV program on the different species of buck in the
Ngorongoro Crater in East Africa.

3. Two students in the library, doing calculations on problems concerning calorie values for
different foods.

4. College professor lecturing on Darwin's theory of natural selection to a group of first
graders.

5. Teacher in front of ninth-grade biology class describing the steps in using the Punnett Square
method of figuring genetic offspring ratios.

6. Teacher reads a biology student's statement that tomatoes are vegetables and asks, "is there
any difference between biological definitions of fruits and everyday definitions of fruits and
vegetables?'

7. Teacher, at the end of a demonstration of the skeleton, distributes a drawing and asks
students to label the main bones from memory.

8. Junior high school student in class looking at a chart showing arterial blood as red and
venous blood as blue, asks the teacher "how does the blood change color?"

9. A student at home following a recipe for blueberry muffins.

10. A teacher, writing a self-study resource center program at home on using a balance to
measure the mass of an object









Instances about Physics


1. Teacher in a middle school at the start of a topic on crystals, asking the class, "what can you
tell me about the crystals I've passed around the class?"

2. A student at home watching a TV program on the use of solar power in generating electricity
and heating homes.

3. Two 11th grade students in the library working on a set of kinematics problems from the
physics textbook given for homework.

4. College professor lecturing on Einstein's special theory of relativity to a small group of first
graders.

5. Teacher in front of an 11th grade physics class, describing the steps used in the 'free body'
method of solving dynamics problems.

6. Teacher reads an 11th grade physics student's statement that 'the current leaving the bulb is
less than the current entering it' and asks "what happens to the current inside the bulb?'

7. Teacher, at the end of a demonstration of magnetic induction using a model of a transformer,
distributes a drawing and asks students to label the apparatus used in the experiment from
memory.

8. Junior high school student in class, holding a polystyrene cup containing iced water saying,
'the cup really prevents the cold from getting into my hand.'

9. A student at home following a recipe for blueberry muffins.

10. A teacher, writing a self-study resource center program at home on using a triple beam
balance to measure the mass of an object.









Instances about Chemistry


1. Teacher in a middle school at the start of a topic on crystals, asking the class, "what can you
tell me about the crystals I've passed around the class?"

2. A student at home watching a TV program on chemical plants which produce new plastics
from coal.

3. Two 11th grade students in the library working on a set of vapor pressure problems from the
chemistry textbook given for homework.

4. College professor lecturing on molecular orbital theory of relativity to a small group of first
graders.

5. Teacher in front of an 10th grade chemistry class, describing the steps used in the factor-label
method of solving mass-mass problems.

6. Teacher reads a 10th grade chemistry student's statement that 'ideal gases have no volume'
and asks "were you referring to the gas particles or the gas as a whole?'

7. Teacher, at the end of a demonstration of electrolysis of water, distributes a drawing and asks
students to label the apparatus used in the experiment from memory.

8. Junior high school student in class, watching an experiment on the electrolysis of water that
has been going on for some time, asks the teacher, 'do you think you've got all the oxygen
out of there yet?'

9. A student at home following a recipe for blueberry muffins.

10. A teacher, writing a self-study resource center program at home on using a triple beam
balance to measure the mass of an object.









Instances about Earth/Space Science
(developed by researcher using Hewson & Hewson's 1989 Task Protocol)

1. Teacher in a middle school at the start of a topic on rocks, asking the class, "what can you
tell me about the rocks I've passed around the class?"

2. A student at home watching a TV program on the use of geothermal power in generating
electricity and heating homes.

3. Two 9th grade students in the library working on a set of problems on astronomical units and
light-years from the earth/space science textbook given for homework.

4. College professor lecturing on the Keppler's Laws of Planetary Motion to a small group of
first graders.

5. Teacher in front of a 9th grade earth/space science class, describing the steps used in
calculating the daily, monthly, and annual mean, and annual range of temperatures in a
specific geographical location.

6. Teacher reads a 9th grade earth/space science student's statement that 'ocean trenches are
sites where slabs of oceanic crust are bent and move downward into the upper mantle' and
asks 'why does subduction volcanism occur at these sites?'

7. Teacher, at the end of a demonstration of stellar classification using the Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram of intrinsic stellar properties, distributes a drawing and asks students to label the
different classes of stars on the chart from memory.

8. Junior high school student in class, after viewing a movie on the geologic time scale saying,
'hunters must have had to use large weapons when killing dinosaurs because of their size.'

9. A student at home following a recipe for blueberry muffins.

10. A teacher, writing a self-study resource center program at home on using a triple beam
balance to measure the mass of an object.











APPENDIX F
PERMISSION FORMS USED FOR RESEARCH IN LOCAL COUNTY SCHOOLS

Sample Application for Research Form Used for Gaining Access in County One

APPLICA TION FOR RESEARCH IN COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS



Directions: Complete one application for each requested school. Attach IRB approval, if applicable, protocol and 1
copy of any instrument to be used. If research is to be grant-funded, please attach copy of grant. Turn in application
to the Department of Research and Evaluation. You will be notified when action on this application has been
completed.

Upon completion of your study, send one copy (or Word file) of Abstract to

Applicant Dina L. Mayne Phone (352) 332-3104 Date October 3, 2005

Address of Applicant 11305 NW 34th Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32606

Educational Affiliation University of Florida, College of Education, School of Teaching and Learning

Applicant is: Faculty D Doctoral Student Z Master's F Other (specify)

Purpose of Research Study will explore the orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching science of first year

secondary science teachers from both traditional teacher certification programs and alternate certification routes.

Title of Research Proposal Exploring Beginning Secondary Science Teacher's Conceptions of and Orientations to Teaching

Science

Brief summary of research proposal Study will consist of a series of five audio taped semi-structured interviews and five

classroom observations with each of the teacher participants. The initial interview lasting 60 to 90 minutes will be used to explain

the study, obtain background information on participants, and administer Hewson and Hewson's Task for Identifying

Conceptions of Teaching Science. Teachers will be observed during a one to two week period to obtain data on their teaching

strategies, student-teacher interactions and selected activities. Short interviews scheduled after observations will be used to elicit

teacher beliefs, goals, and their rationale for instruction. A closing interview will be scheduled to clarify information and

participants will be invited to member check data for correctness. Supervisor of study is Dr. Rose Pringle, Assistant Professor,

University of Florida, College of Education, School of Teaching and Learning, phone: 392-9191X229. rpringle a@coe.ufl.edu fax:

392-9193

Population needs: # of subjects 1 teacher Grade Level 6-12 science

Sex, age, race. ability level (s) open

School requested River Middle / High School Total time per teacher required approx. 10 hours

Total time per student required none will be observing teacher and classes

Indicate additional school resources needed none












Dates applicant is to be in the school October 15, 2005 March 15, 2006


Data needed (list tests, surveys, information needed) none
If this application is approved, I agree to observe all legal requirements regarding the use of research and to submit an
abstract or short summary of the research report to the School Board of County, Research and Evaluation
Department.


Applicant Date:
Signature:
Advisor/Dept.
Chair: Date:
(if applicant
is student)
SBAC Research Director:
Date:

School use only.

This application for research is: Approved: 0 Not Approved:D Principal's Signature

Remarks

Contact person in school Title









Signed Dissertation Proposal Used for Gaining Access in County Two


UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA
College of Education 2403 Norman Hall
School of Teaching and Learning P.O. Box 117048
Gainesville, FL 32611-7048
(352) 392-9191
Fax (352) 392-9193


DISSERTATION PROPOSAL


EdD PhD X
Student: Dina L. Mayne UF ID#: 3164-8200
Dissertation Title: Exploring Beginning Secondary Science Teachers Conceptions Of
And Orientation To Teaching Science

Approved by Supervisor Committee Members:
Name Title






Member Signature

Linda Behar-Horenstein, Ph.D. External Member Signature

Date Admitted to Candidacy: June 16, 2005

Anticipated Graduation Date: May 2006


REV:091905


An Equal Opportunity Institution









Project Summary Used for Gaining Access in County Two


Dear Principal,
Presently I am a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida and am certified in
Florida to teach chemistry as a secondary science teacher. Having attained my bachelor's and
master's degrees in education at Wichita State University, I became certified to teach both
middle and high school in the subjects of chemistry, physical science, earth/space science and
general science in Kansas. I taught in the public schools there for six and one-half years before
moving to Florida to enter the doctoral program. Prior to enrolling at UF, I taught in Alachua
County in 2001, as both chemistry and integrated science teacher at Eastside High School. I have
been fingerprinted and had a background check done prior to my teaching in Alachua County.

Because my specialization in Curriculum and Instruction at UF is science education, the
study I have designed will explore the orientations to teaching science and conceptions of
teaching science of first year secondary science teachers from both traditional and alternate
teacher certification programs. To clarify some terms:

Conceptions of teaching science (CTS) refers to a teacher's view of science as well as
their "knowledge of the particular content to be taught, the particular students they will be
teaching, and effective instructional strategies to plan and perform to achieve the intention of
helping these students learn the desired content" (Hewson & Hewson, 1988, p. 611).

Orientation to teaching science (OTS) refers to teacher's knowledge and beliefs about
the purposes and goals of teaching science (Grossman, 1990; Magnusson et al., 1999).

Beginning secondary science teachers refers to individuals who are starting their first
assignment as a science instructor in a middle school or high school environment.

In order to investigate how the beginning science teacher's orientation to and conception
of teaching science determines their rationale for teaching and instructional strategy; I am posing
these questions to guide the data collection within the confines of the study:

1. What are beginning secondary science teacher's conceptions of teaching science?
a. What similarities and differences can be found between each teacher's conceptions of
teaching science?
b. What similarities and differences can be attributed to their route to teacher
preparation?
c. To what extent is there congruence in teacher's conceptions of teaching science with
observed teaching strategies?









2. What is the nature of beginning secondary science teacher's orientations to teaching
science?
a. What similarities and differences can be found between each teacher's orientations to
teaching science?
b. What similarities and differences can be attributed to their route to teacher
preparation?
c. To what extent is there congruence in teacher's orientations to teaching science with
observed teaching strategies?
I envision six teachers in the study and have three teacher participants at this time from
and County. The methodology I will be using is a collective case study.
Study participants for this research will be selected on the basis of their type of certification
(traditional or alternate), subject certification (chemistry, physical science, earth/space science,
physics, or biology), and their status as beginning teachers. Six to eight individuals who are
beginning on their first year of teaching secondary science will be selected. Three to four of the
participants will be from traditional university-based teacher certification programs. An
additional three to four participants will be alternately certified first year secondary science
teachers. Due to the specific requirements for my study, I am searching for applicants in your
county at this time.
The case studies will be about the teachers, so no student data will be used beyond grade
level of students taught, number of students in class, and types of teacher-student interactions.
My unit of analysis is beginning secondary science teachers in their first classroom assignment
so my case study goal is to describe the case, beginning secondary science teachers' orientations
to science and conceptions of science as fully as possible. I am researching to determine
specifically how beginning science teachers make sense of their experiences within the context
of their beliefs and goals. I will act as interviewer and participant observer of the teachers as they
develop experience teaching in their natural setting, the classroom.
The data I collect will consist of observation and interview which will be interpreted
within the context of each participant's background. Data from this study will produce rich
descriptive data about these beginning secondary science teachers, their beliefs, goals, and
purposes of science instruction and their preferred instructional strategies.
There will be a series of five interviews and five observations interweaved between the
fours and last interview. The interviews and observations should take approximately two weeks
for each teacher. If possible, I would observe and interview two teachers at a time at a specified
point in their teaching, either the beginning or middle of an instructional unit. I will be using the
standardized open-ended interview for the initial one or two interviews and the interview guide
for post-observation interviews. For observations, I will be taking notes and will not video or
audiotape any classes.









A complete analysis of the data in my case study should provide me with thick
description of a group of beginning secondary science teachers' conceptions of and orientations
toward teaching science as they progress through the beginning of their first year teaching. As I
will be doing with the County School board I agree to observe all legal requirements
regarding the use of research and to submit an abstract or short summary of the research report to
the School Board of County and any principals and teachers who may want it.

Dina L. Mayne
dmayne@ufl.edu
(352) 332-3104 home office
(352) 392-9191 X 254 UF office










APPENDIX G
DATA COLLECTION SCHEDULE

Table G-1. Schedule of data collection.


Contacts
1st Interview


Patrick
Oct. 31,
2005
Explain
study,
interview
&
CTS task


Meredith
Nov. 14,
2005
Explain
study,
interview
&
CTS task


Alex
Nov. 14,
2005
Explain
study,
interview


Cristina
Jan.24,
2006
Explain
study,
interview


1st
Observation

2nd Interview






2nd
Observation

3rd Interview


3rd
Observation

4th Interview


4th
Observation

5th
Observation

Final
Interview with
member check


Dec. 7, Dec. 1, Nov. 28, Jan. 25,
2005 2005 2005 2006


Dec. 7,
2005 after
school



Dec. 7,
2005


Jan. 3,
2006

Jan. 3,
2006

Jan. 5,
2006

Jan. 5,
2006

Jan. 10,
2006

June 16,
2006


Dec. 1,
2005


Dec. 2,
2005 w/
CTS task
Interview


Jan. 25,
2006
w/ CTS
task
interview


Dec. 1, Nov. 29, Jan. 25,
2005 2005 2006


Dec. 5, Dec. 2,
2005 2005

Dec. 5, Dec. 6,
2005 2005

Dec. 8, Dec. 6,
2005 2005


Jan. 26,
2006

Jan. 26,
2006

Jan. 30,
2006


Dec. 8, Dec. 12, Jan. 30,
2005 2005 2006

Dec. 8, Dec. 12, Jan. 31,
2005 2005 2006


Feb. 2,
2006

Feb. 3,
2006





Feb. 2,
2006

Feb. 3,
2006

Feb. 3,
2006

Feb. 6,
2006

Feb. 6,
2006

Feb. 7,
2006


May 1, May 16, May 12, May 26,
2006 2006 2006 2006


In order for the data collection to be during the beginning of a new unit, some interviews
and observations started after beginning secondary science teachers spent the first
semester with their new students.


250


Isobel
Jan. 19,
2006
Explain
study,
interview
&
CTS task


George
Feb. 14,
2006
Explain
study,
interview


Feb. 22,
2006

Feb. 22,
2006 w/
CTS task
interview


Feb. 23,
2006

Feb. 27,
2006

Feb. 23,
2006

Feb. 27,
2006

Feb. 27,
2006

Feb. 27,
2006

Unavailable









APPENDIX H
CTS AND OTS STUDY CODE BOOK

Codebook Key for Codes and Themes Developed from Interviews of Participants

Participant Key:
A: Alex

C: Cristina

G: George

I: Isobel

M: Meredith

P: Patrick

Key for codes of global, organizing, basic themes and codes:
Global theme:
organizing theme
basic theme
code: participant code






252


Themes and Codes Found in Data

Context:
administration
class visits: A
coming down from state: A
corrective criticism: A
class visits: A
I try to ignore him: A
principal: A
formal lesson plans: A & I

assessment
class participation: A & C
essay: G & I
feelings on medical advances: I
hurricanes: G
formative
catch it before it is ingrained: M
check whether they're doing it correctly: M
crossword puzzle: P
discussion, greater sense of learning: P
exit tickets: I
homework: all
questioning: A, M & P
review: P
worksheets: all
grades: all
do homework, grades show it: I
everything else 50%: P
failing, absent for test: A
grade everything: P
hard to get A, easy to get C: P
have to have: M
homework 10%: P
lab 20%: P
not give C or D to get out of here: A
on the curve: G
labs: A
special needs: carrying B and C: A
test 50%: P
high-stakes testing: A, I, M & P
be able to do well: A
chemistry too late: I
have some standard: A
kids can't stand: A
reading weakness: A









test strategy: M
Context:
assessment
homework: P
feasible to get higher grade: P
lab
activity: A, C
on information: P
reports: I
performance
dissection: P
don't do: C
presentation: G
school doesn't like: G
pop quiz
confirm my assessment: M
keeps them on their toes: G
management tool: G
mini-assessment evaluation: M
open notes: G & M
projects: A, C, M, & P
compost pile: A
extra credit: P
mitosis: M & P
model of cell: C
one every nine weeks: A
questioning: M & P
verbal banter: P
quizzes: I & P
student-made: I
tests: all
assess learning: A
best way: A
better idea what they grasp: A
depends on how much they retain: P
did not pay attention: A
did not read the question: A
dissection questions: C
end of unit check: M
everybody does: A
grades pretty low: A
immediately associate with assessment: M
ingrained in my head: M
I was horrible at standardized testing: P
missing giveaways tough: C
mix up the formats: G






254


more than just a test: A
Context:
assessment
tests
need to know it I
not open book: P
one way: A
on information covered: P
other teachers did not think tough: A
multiple choice/true-false/match.: G
some kids can't take test: P
strategies
note-taking: P
studying: I
test analysis: A
tried and true method of learning: P

background:
segregated schools: desegregation: A

curriculum
added geologic scale: G
anatomy and physiology
inappropriate for HS: I
completely rearrange how I do everything: M
concepts: all
anatomy and physiology: I & P
general overview: I
muscles: P
root words and body orientations: P
review: P
systems: P
biology: A, C & M
aligned for next year: A
animals/evolution/classification: C
big unit on genetics: C & M
cell cycle: M
evolution talk: C
hitting the cells: A
just the basics: A
labs and experiments: A
chemistry: I
stoichiometry: I
what we've covered: I
cover all material: P
earth science: G


254









8th grade science: M
Context:
curriculum
general science practices: G
integrated science
basic knowledge: A
understanding: I
need to know applications: I
hands-on: A
high stakes testing: A, I & M
resource books: A & G
science requirements: A & I
biology next: A
need 2nd science: A
three years of it to graduate: I
sequencing instruction: A & P
Newton's laws: A
skills: A&P
microscope: A
preparing slides: A
PowerPoints and technology: P
standards: A, I & M
change next year to align with state: M
county and state: A
coverage : A
do they learn better: A
don't agree with all of them: I
just paperwork: A
state requirements: A, I & M
reading: A
tie everything together: I
using another county's as pattern: M
technology: I, M & P
and science: M
for dangerous reactions: I
web site: P
text: all
broke up into smaller sections: C
chemistry one not as bad as others: I
college level text
use as reference: I
cover all the areas in the book: C
doesn't go into depth: P
don't really care for how set up: M
don't teach without: C
have to skip around: A






256


Context:
curriculum
text: all
how book broke it apart: P
junior textbook: M
like the one we've got: M
new text: A, I, M & P
adopting new next year: I
looking into books for next year: A
extra resources: M
good and bad: A
change isn't always bad: A
like new books myself: A
more applied: P
prepare over summer: A
not following the book order: I
satisfied with book itself: P
6-7 books that go with it: A
stuck in the middle on using book: M
teacher's edition: terms to cover: A
too much detail: C
use as guide: G
watered down from regular version: P
wish they had more activities: C
using what they used last year: G

education
BA environmental science: G
BS biology: A
BS biology: specialization marine science: C
BS biology/earth science education: M
BS ecology: I
BS marine biology: I
BS sports medicine: P
lab technician training certificate: A
MS Public and Environmental Affairs: I
teacher education program: M
teacher education coursework: intro: P
teacher education coursework: G

experience
college:
first group to use cell microscope: C
internship: cardiac rehab: P
internship: water management: I
research experiment: M


256









Context:
education
college:
studied sperm whales: C
work study with plasmobiologist: I
grant: fertilizers and water quality: C
non-teaching:
Asst. Director for Club Sports: several years: P
business: I
computers: I
Head Dir. for Outdoor Education: several years: P
hospital lab tech five years: A
medical home care market 25-30 years: A
research assistant six months: C & G
strength coach: one year: P
teaching: M & P
exercise science classes: P
internship: anatomy & physiology/biology: M
elementary school science: P
physical education classes: P
substitute teacher: M
undergraduate weight lifting: P

mentors
college professor: C & P
geology: C
advisor: P
meticulous: P
passionate about subject: P
mentored swimmers: P
current school: A & I
alternative certification: A & I
English teacher: A
integrated science teacher: A
physics teacher: A
teachers like a big family: A
football coach: G
high school teacher: A, G, I, M, & P
algebra: story problems: I
anatomy and physiology: M
chemistry: old-school: I
English: A
history and coach: G
9th grade science: A









Context:
mentors
high school teacher: A, G, I, M, & P
science: M & P
lecturer: M
tough but fair: P
middle school teacher: A
8th grade science: A
Mom: C
Context:
teaching route
alternative certification: A, C, G, I & P
catechism courses: C
certified w/in 2 years: C
certified w/in 2 years: G
coursework: A & I
passed subject exams: P
private school
Catholic school: C
non-sectarian: G
proficiency exams: A, C, G& I
state 3-year program: A & I
take three courses: G
always enjoyed science: G
could make a difference: A
entered biology/earth science education program: M
fisheries and marine mammal observer: C
found my people skills: I
frustrated with profession: A
got tired of computers: I
have the degree: A
knew going the teaching route: P
lost funding for graduate school: C
loved science: M
natural subject for me to teach: G
no personal satisfaction: C
planned on getting master's first: P
planning to go to graduate school: C
sister suggested I teach in Catholic school: C
so unbelievably happy with teaching: C
started substitute teaching & loved it: M
teaching never a plan of mine: C
teaching only thing open: P
they need teachers bad: P
told I should be a teacher: A
went back to school: I


258






259


Context:
teacher
assignment
anatomy and physiology: I & P
get six next year: P
biology: A, C & M
8th grade comprehensive science: M
environmental science: I
honors biology: M
honors chemistry: I
integrated science: A
five classes: A
marine science: C
one course: C
option teacher: I
7th grade earth science: G
vertebrate biology: G

issues
assessment: M
never enough time to go over tests: M
budget: P
class management: C & P
boys act better with girls: P
classes pretty much bipolar: C
girl who just knew everything: C
groups that are clique-y: P
separate right off: P
third period is a bit rowdier: C
equipment: A, G, I, M & P
bunsen burners: I
computer acting up: G
LCD projector broken: G
microscopes: A
technology: M & P
pointer: M
availability: P
facilities: A & P
benches instead of desks: P
get rid of carpet: P
need lab room: A
materials: A, M, G, I & P
limited visuals: A
quality: P
supply closet
can't find stuff: G


259






260


Context:
teacher
issues
materials: A, M, G, I & P
to touch: I
teacher education: M
real perspective: M
parents: M
time mgmt: M
discipline: M
really easy: M
same grade with half the work: M
some gave helpful info: M
too much theory: M
textbooks: A
not enough: A
time: A, C & P
lesson planning: A
lesson planning
also a tutor: C
just barely keeping my head above water: C
pay: C
doesn't give enough money: C

Goals:
academic preparation: P
note taking: P
reach my expectations: P
using technology: P

careers in science: A, G, M & P
get to college-level science: A
how were computers invented?: A
knowledge to decide: A
something they want to pursue: A
tips on college: G

excitement for science C & M
engaged in lesson: C
get them excited about material: C
how things around them work: G
my teachers did that for me: M
not going to learn the basics: C
science can be fun: C
think of things scientific: C
ultimate goal: C


260









Goals
excitement for science C & M
what else can I take?: M
what you're made of/how stuff happens: M

functioning in society: G & M
cheating is wrong: G

help the kids: A & G
through science: A
I want them to do well: G
I want them to learn: A
I want them to behave: A
I want them to think: G
not here to destroy their GPA: G

life skills; G, I & P
get them interested in school: G
need to learn to work together: I
public speaking: G
only one or two will play sports in college: G

pass test: A & M
every student make 100: A
high-stakes
do as well as possible: A
prepared for the test: M
test strategies: M
required science: A

quit being afraid: I
to ask questions: I
of grade: I
of not getting it: I
of science: I

relate to real-world: A
interdisciplinary: A
modern terminology: A

science skills: A, I, M &P
dissection: P
familiar with different types of equipment: I
learn to use microscope: A
prepare slides: A
problem solving: M






262


Goals
science skills: A, I, M &P
seeing things in the lab: I

science literacy: M, I & P
become more open-minded: M
read articles actively: I
basic understanding: I

science to take next: A
better adapted for biology/chemistry/physics: A
two sciences for college: A
get it out of the way: A

shoot for an A: A & G
average best of worst: G
celebrate success: A
give 100%: A
mediocrity is not ok: A
put their best effort into it: G
start shooting for C go lower: A

understanding content: all
a good base: A, G & P
application: P
have to stumble: I
knowledge: P
literacy: G & M
figure it out on their own: I
observe it on their own: I
relate it to them: C
science concepts: A
terminology: C & P
visualization: C & P
when experiment worked: I

write research paper: C
find topic they like: C
learn how to use databases: C

Lesson planning
activities: P
crossword puzzle: P
worksheets: P
basic concepts: G & I









Lesson planning
borrowed ideas/ materials: A & M
they don't mind: A
very giving: A

content: P
muscle movement: P
terms: P
diagrams
coincide notes with: P
hone in on: P
experience with earthquakes: G

extra day: G & I

formal lesson plan: A & I
required components: A
school requirement: A
standards included: A
turn in after teaching: A

ideas: I & M
brain decided let's do this: M
modified for available materials: M
saw it on a video: I

labs: I
acid-base reactions: I
bending glass: I
fitting them in: I
making some goo: I
outside: I
precipitations: I
shooting off rocket: I

materials: A, C, G & P
making models: A
making transparencies: A
no time to order: C
purchased labs: C
only enough for pairs: C
not able to plan: G
two different note styles: P

notes: C, G&P
give them all the same things: G






264


Lesson planning
Notes: C, G&P
using college notes and textbook: P

pacing: P

project: A & P
muscles map: P

real-world: A & P
'at the clinic' aspect: P
links: A

rough idea of lesson: I

sequencing information: M

simplify concepts: C

skills development, standards, summary: A

supplements: all
add extra material: C
activities book: A
college text: C
companion texts: A
internet: C, G, M & P
on-line lesson plans: C
outside resources: C
web site: M
new edition materials: M
technology: I & P
PowerPoints: P
using media: I & P

textbook: all
key facts and ideas: P
starting point: C & P
highlight important parts: A
read: A
skim through section: G
students allowed to use: P
things not in it: G

time: A, C, G & P
not able to plan: G


264









Lesson planning
time: A, C, G & P
schedule's just crazy: C
spent multiple hours: A
want to do versus have to do: P

visual aids: A & P
hone in on: P

Science
concepts
atoms: G
biology: C, I & M
difference between stingray and skate: I
differences in meiosis and mitosis: M
DNA & genetics: C & M
cells: A
animal and plant: A
cork: A
Science
concepts
chemistry: I
basic building blocks of life: I
not magic: I
environmental science: I
lack of student knowledge: I
geology: A & G
erogeny: G
learning about tides: A
how muscle works: P
lactic acid: P
no right answer in science: C
physics: A
nothing but momentum and stopping speed: A
trajectory shoot above him: A
use science talk: C

nature of science: G & M
belief-systems: M
evolution: M
misconceptions: G

scientific method: I
observation methods: I
use all the time: I






266


Student
ability: all
best class at beginning of day: C
biology has no special needs students: A
bright kids: P
bright spots all over: I
cluster of kids know everything: C
don't understand evolution and classification: C
fairly bright in the subject: A
get more accomplished second period: C
grades: A
get through to these students: A
hard to get the median: A
low C to high D: A
grouping: P
best student does all the work: P
worst student does none of the work: P
low to high; A & I
changed from 20 years ago: A
low performers do well: I
tough teaching the whole gamut: A
math, guys like or have taken more: I
mixed class: P
second period a nice little mix: C
slow things down a bit: C
smart and not so smart: G
some don't have a clue: C
some get it more than others: G
some need more work: G
some really struggle: P
some super high achievers: C
special needs: A, C, I & G
a lot of kids have pretty bad ADD: C
across the board: G
age-related thing: G
already use it as a crutch: G
better at some areas: G
couldn't remember what it was called: C
ESOL: I
family with medical problems: I
gifted: A
have that connection: C
individual plans: C
kids below the 25%: C
learning disability: A
learning problems: put in front row: C


266









Student
ability: all
special needs
math skills: I
physical disability: A
reading ability: A & I
third period a bit lower: C
which ones know the answers: A

developmental level: C & G
can't take notes & pay attention together: C
focused on their grades: G
girls better students: G
have their roles: G

difficulties: G, I & M
cheating, copy others: M
don't make connections right away: G
fear of subject
chemistry too hard: I
inexperience w/experiments/equipment: I
writing things down: I

discipline: A
difficult to get them to raise their hand: A
holler answers out anyway: A
talking, just let him talk: A

interest/motivation: all
absences: A
active involvement in lesson: A & C
alertness: C & I
attention hard to get: C
first period kids dead: C
is this the right answer?: C
second period best, awake, not weary: C
some good some bad: I
all searching animals: C
ambivalent towards schoolwork: I
annoyed @ one person answering questions: C
as a group they're goofy: M
better at doing their homework: G
bright spots: I
call on those not paying attention: C
can't afford to feed them all the time: M
can't believe using college material: C









Student
interest/motivation: all
chose to be in biology: A
classes different: G
colors, some classes liked different: G
comfort level
come in to chit-chat: I
low in chemistry: I
completing work: A
copying: G & M
definitely been on top: M
dissect the animals: C
don't like carrying books: P
don't like do things on own: I
don't listen: M
don't stay on task: G
don't want to do homework: G & P
excited about animals: C
excited about figuring out for themselves: C
get interested: P
good interest in the subject: A
got excited about this: I
grades: A
intervention story: A
hadn't even set up the lab: M
hard time staying focused: M
have to use your brain: M
individual attitude or aptitude: A
just marking time: A
lack of effort: G & I
lackadaisical attitude: G
let upper-level kids answer questions: C
never do the reading: G
on task: A
overall they try: P
really focused: C
repeated the class: A
rough classes: A
some bored: P
some only here for third-year science: I
start off with positive attitude: C
success story: I
talking about weightlifting and lactic acid: C
their responsibility: M
they're hilarious but. .: M
think I should tell them [answers]: I


268






269


Student
interest/motivation: all
took to see animals: C
want to learn the animals: C
wants to learn: A
watching videos on animals: C
when will I ever use this?: A
willingness to learn something new: C

learning
aids: C
air pressure: I
bunch of particles bouncing around: I
did a demo: I
started asking questions: I
barriers: A & G
groups: A & G
political correctness: A
building confidence: I
class dynamics: I
comprehension: all
all bombed the test: C
basic knowledge: A
bright spot: I
can't expect them to know it: I
confusion with meiosis and mitosis: M
cumulative: A
did not have a clue: I
did not understand material, no active teaching: C
don't think it stuck: M
everybody probably understands it: C
failing students: A
go back and troubleshoot: I
got through material: G
grasping the basics: A
in the back of their head: I
kids thought test hard, teacher easy: C
lack of background knowledge: I
lesson never clicked with kids: C
made them think: A
math skills weren't up to the level: G
marginal student: A
may have recognized more terms: G
most of the time they will know the answer: C
need to experience it: I
need to function on a higher level: G


269






270


Student
learning
comprehension: all
one struggling more than others: G
pretty consistent: G
retention: C & G
not going to remember in ten years: C
slower students
slow down class: A
some always clueless: M
some are guessing: A
they're getting it: P
think they've learned: G
think everybody understood for most part: C
understand material for their ability: C
wasn't sticking: P
able to recognize it: M
actively understanding: C
be able to work backwards: C
did it very slowly: C
do something with it: C
great job with Punnett Squares: C
let them see what they know: C
made predictions: M
makes sense: I
pulling it together: I
started to connect the dots: G
what happens if?: C

engagement: A, C, I, G & M
active involvement: C
full attention: C
good about volunteering: M
good interest in the subject: A
hands-on experience: M
interest: G
internet: G

labs: A & I
reports: I
focus on observations and methods: I
force them to think about and write down: I
real-world: C
lactic acid buildup
excited about it: C
shared with friends: C


270









Student
learning
engagement: A, C, I, G & M
seating plan
separate discipline kids: C
shouting out answers: M
making connections: C, G, I & M
prior knowledge
agricultural science last year: A
broken bone become expert: P
know muscles: P
remember from last year: C
reading book
pick out information: I
remember reading it: I
scientific method: I
skills, never seen microscope before: A
styles
asking questions: A
demos: I
groups: A & I
good old boy network: I
guys want to communicate: I
girls more timid: I
migrating: A
hands-on: M
labs: I
partners willing to take risk first: I
switch back and forth: I
really like: C
notes: A, C, G&M
blindly writing down what's on overhead: C
don't respond to notes: M
have to take so many: A
just shut down: C
learn better by writing down: A
memorize for test: G
nobody likes diagrams on PPt: P
multiple intelligence: M & P
tried a lot of different things: M
pacing: I
questioning: C
could tell they were lost: C
too long wait time embarrasses kids: C
reading: A, I & M
group reading: A






272


Student
learning
reading: A, I, G & M

procedure, poor at reading: M
using book: I
tailored questions: I
prefer testing: G
visual: C, G, I&M
do problems in their heads: C
can see it in my head: C
helpful for them: G
kids that need it: C
I'm a visual person: C & G
technology: M & P
warm-ups: M
synthesize articles: I
visualization: M
teacher-student interaction
paying attention: C
when they stop asking: C
when they actually have to do it on paper: I


maturity level
middle school kids: G
learning will eventually be important: G
preparation: M
persistence: C
don't give up easily: C
like my teaching: C
they want to know: C
retention poor: M
socialization
let them pick their own groups: M
gravitate towards small groups: M


Teacher
characteristics
able to teach at different cognitive/age levels: I & G
aptitude: G
background knowledge: C
enthusiasm: A
experience: P
formal training: P
interest in teaching: G
knowledgeable: I









Teacher
characteristics
personality & attitude: C
skills: I

learning styles
hands-on: A, G & M
horrible at standardized testing: P
lecture; C & M
note-taking: C & M
warm-ups: M

Teaching
block periods: A

can't teach a lot of math: G

catch it before it is ingrained: M

chemistry is not magic: I
basic understanding: I

don't memorize, understand: I

discussing issues: A

feelings: A
can get repetitive when teaching same classes: G
get better as the day goes on: A
love to do more classic earth/space science: A
rough day: A
some days better than others: G

generating excitement
as enthusiastic as I can: C
kids thought I was crazy: C
taking things and throwing it in: C

get some other teacher's children: A

grouping
working on getting better: A

making connections
hands-on: C
I thought it was good: C






274


Teaching
making connections
look at information in different ways: M
tried to link what they know with learning: C
warm-ups for understanding: M
what am I doing?: C
what's happening with the ball?: C

more information than you know: I
pedagogical knowledge: A
proximity: P

questions
need to get away from group questioning: A

reasoning skills: I

retaining students: A

seventh grade
not particularly impressed with them

student questions, never have problem with that: A

Teaching:
strategies
activities: all
brought in hands-on: C
compare and contrast: I
definitions on transparency: A
diagrams: very slowly work through it: C
homework: A
internet: C
just means hands-on: C
lab aids on evolution and classification: C
lab data sheet: I
large charts/small models: P
let them see it & touch it: C
NSTA selective permeability: C
problem calculations: I
Venn diagram: M
warm-up: M
worksheets: A, C, G & P

cognitive levels: C & G
approaching material differently: G


274









Teaching:
strategies
cognitive levels: C & G
background first: G
find out what they know: G
keep them all around the same area: G
classroom management
fine line: G
little bit of leeway: G
seating plan: C
discipline: C
shock them with hard stuff: C
strict with rowdier kids: G
verbal discipline: C
demonstrations: A, C, G, I & P
aluminum cans: I
always little things: G
balloons: I
help them visualize better: G
models: A
perked up: G
science skills: C
transparencies: A
debate
planning on it: G
diagrams/drawing: G &I
discussion: C & I
way to help rope them in: C
encouragement: M
essay, worked out well: G
focal space: P
groups: all
ability: P
assigned: P
groups: all
can't do everything on your own: I
class rules: P
gender: P
group work: M
hands-on: M
learn to work together: I
pick their own partners: I






276


Teaching:
strategies
groups
size: C, G & P
big more out of control: C
pairs with my upper school class: G
small for collaboration/materials: C
sometimes half the class: G
try to keep under three: G
hands-on: A, C, G, M
able to show [projects] to other classes: M
always more things possible: G
get them out of their seats: A
like to do the hands-on: A
high interest topics
field trip to see animals: C
organismal side: C
videos: C
jokes, kept them more interested: G
labs: A, G, I &P
do it twice: I
doing it wrong teaches you: I
one per chapter: G
see what they're seeing: A
try some kind of experiment: A
write what they observe: A
lecture: C, G, P
don't know another way to teach: C
to a point where we can discuss: G
link concepts: G
note taking: C, G & P M found did not work
advanced organizers: P
a little bit of a groan: C
don't know another way to teach: C
don't respond near as well as I did: M
impossible not to take notes: C
get concrete definition down: C
give fill-in-the-blank notes: C & G
become dependent: G
more uniform: G
not every time: G
just give them a bunch: G
kind of facts and facts: C
lots of in-class assignments: C
notes on everything: C
teacher's saving grace: C


276









Teaching:
strategies
outside activities
organism surveys: C
hands-on stuff: C
overview: I
pacing: P
peer teaching: A
pop quiz: G& M
projects: A, G, M & P
cell division: M
every nine weeks: A
planets: G
questioning: C, G, M & P
breaks it up : G
call on people who aren't participating: C
can't say I don't know: C
collectively answering question: M
compare and contrast: M
don't let sit for long period of time: C
don't move on to next person: G
encourage when they get half right: C
excited when figuring out for selves: C
fish for questions with them: C
how much they knew: I
keep on asking them vice sitting there: C
keep them involved: G
lead them to their own conclusion: I
randomly call on them: C
students somewhat interested in things: G
real-world: G
reading: M
review: A, C, G, M
as we go: G
bring them back with a little: G
chapter: A
go over what we did the day before: C
often key terms: C
preview before task: M
students teaching chapter: A
students work with own strategies: M
teaching special needs kids: G
technology: G, I, M & P
PowerPoint and LCD projector: G & I
video: P
web sites: G & M









Teaching:
strategies
technology: G, I, M & P
web sites: G & M
for ideas: M
virtual lab: M
textbooks: C & P
couldn't teach without: C
visual, students come up with: M
write questions: A

style
anything they can see: A
authority: P
break it down into sections: A
build up to the hands-on: A
discussion: P
enthusiastic: I & M
excited: I
silly movements: I
everyone makes mistakes: I
flexible: I
general questions: A
get through the nuts and bolts: G
know what you're talking about: G
hands-on: A
informal: G, I & M
mess around with them: G
not traditional: G
sit down and chit-chat: I
teacher-student interaction: P
very open: I
walk around the room: I
young, step away from their age: G
kind of lecture: I
lecture: C & P
management and teaching together: G
modeling: M
multiple strategies: M
process-oriented: I
proximity: M & P
questioning as focus: G
put it in the modern-day world: A
small to big: P
start off basic: I
student responsibility: I & M


278






279


Teaching:
style
tailor the information: P
teacher-student interaction: I & P
technology: C, G, I, M & P
telling stories: G & I
tracings: A
write it down: A
visual: A & G
better with pictures: G
present different ways: G
use visuals: A
wait time: C
long when posed to whole class: C
they can find that right answer: C

want to see students succeed: A

what do I need this for?: A

write it down: I


279









LIST OF REFERENCES


Abd-El-Khalick, F. and BouJaoude, S. (1997). An exploratory study of the knowledge base for
teaching. Journal ofResearch in Science Teaching. 34(7), 673-699.

Abd-El-Khalick, F. and Lederman, N. (2000). Improving science teachers' conceptions of nature
of science: a critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education.
22(7), 665-701.

Adams, P., and Krockover, G. (1997). Beginning science teacher cognition and its origins in the
pre-service secondary science teacher program. Journal ofResearch in Science Tea -hinig.
34(6), 633-653.

Attride-Stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: An analytic tool for qualitative research.
Qualitative Research, 1(3), 385-405.

Boz, Y. and Uzuntiryaki, E. (2006). Turkish prospective chemistry teachers' beliefs about
chemistry teaching. International Journal of Science Education. 28(14), 1647-1667.

Bryan, L., and Abell, S. (1999). Development of professional knowledge in learning to teach
elementary science. Journal ofResearch in Science Tea,-hliug. 36(2), 121-139.

Cavallo, A., Ferreira, M., and Roberts, S. (2005). Increasing student access to qualified science
and mathematics teachers through an urban school-university partnership. School Science
& 3 LAu/1iitiLi 105(7), 363-372.

Cochran, K., DeRuiter, J., and King, R. (1993). Pedagogical content knowing: an integrative
model for teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(4), 263-272.

Cochran-Smith, M. (2002). Reporting on teacher quality: The politics of politics. Journal of
Teacher Education, 53(5), 379-382.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research
process. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Darling-Hammond, L., Berry, B., and Thoreson, A. (2001). Does teacher certification matter?
Evaluating the evidence. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(1), 57-77.

Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., and Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How
well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education,
53(4), 286-302.

Daily, B. (2003) A case for learner-centered teaching and learning. New Directions for Adult &
Continuing Education. 98, 23-30.









Deemer, S. (2004). Classroom goal orientation in high school classrooms: Revealing links
between teacher beliefs and classroom environments. Educational Research, 46(1), 73-
90.

Deiz, M. (2002). The certification connection. Education Next. 2(1), 8-15.

Dykes, F. (2005). 'Supply' and 'demand': Breastfeeding as labour. Social Science & Medicine,
60(10), 2283-2293.

Eich, C. and Reed, C. (2002). What makes an inquiry-oriented science teacher? The influence of
learning histories on student teacher role identity and practice. Science Education. 86(3),
401-416.

Fenstermacher, G. (1986). Approaches to Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.

Florida Department of Education (2005a) School District Data: Alachua County School district.
Retrieved May 4, 2006 from http://www.fim.edu/doe/eias/flmove/alachua.htm/

Florida Department of Education (2005b) School District Data: Marion County School district.
Retrieved May 4, 2006 from http://www.fim.edu/doe/eias/flmove/marion.htm/

Florida Department of Education (2005c) School District Data: Sumter County School district.
Retrieved May 4, 2006 from http://www.fim.edu/doe/eias/flmove/sumter.htm/

Friedrichsen, P. (2001). Moving from hands-on to inquiry: A biology course for prospective
elementary teachers. American Biology Teacher, 63(8), 562-568.

Friedrichsen, P. (2002). A substantive-level theory of highly-regarded secondary biology
teachers' science teaching orientations. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(07),
2496A (AAT 3060018).

Friedrichsen, P. and Dana, T. (2005). A substantive-level theory of highly-regarded secondary
biology teachers' science teaching orientations. Journal ofResearch in Science Tea tiliig.
42(2), 218-244.

Geertz, C. (1973). Thick description: toward an interpretive theory of culture. The Interpretation
of Cultures. New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc.

Glesne, C. (1999). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (Second ed.). New York:
Longman.

Grossman, P. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education. New
York: Teachers College Press.









Halkes, R., and Deijkers, R. (2003). Teachers' teaching criteria. In M. Kompf& P. M. Denicolo
(Eds.), Teacher thinking twenty years on: Revisiting persisting problems and advances in
education (pp. 3-13). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, Publishers.

Halpin, D. (2006). Why a romantic conception of education matters. OxfordReview of
Education. 32(3), 325-345.

Hamza, K. and Nash, W. (1996). Creating and fostering a learning environment that promotes
creative thinking and problem solving skills. Eric Publication, ED406435.

Hashweh, M. (2005). Teacher pedagogical constructions: a reconfiguration of pedagogical
content knowledge. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice. 11(3), 273-292.

Hatch, A. (2002). Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings. Albany State: University of
New York Press.

Hewson, P., and Hewson, M. (1988). An appropriate conception of teaching science: A view
from studies of science learning. Science Education, 72(5), 597-614.

Hewson, P., and Hewson, M. (1989). Analysis and use of a task for identifying conceptions of
teaching science. Journal ofEducation for Tea -hiing. 15(3), 191-209.

Hewson, P., Kerby, H., and Cook, P. (1995). Determining the conceptions of teaching science
held by experienced high school science teachers. Journal ofResearch in Science
Tea-hiinug. 32(5), 503-520.

Kember, D. (1997). A reconceptualisation of the research into university academics' conceptions
of teaching. Learning and Instruction. 7(3), 255-275.

Kenny, A., and Duckett, S. (2004). A question of place: Medical power in rural Australia. Social
Science & Medicine, 58(6), 1059-1073.

Koballa, T., Glynn, S., Upson, L., and Coleman, D. (2005). Conceptions of teaching science held
by novice teachers in an alternative certification program. Journal of Science Teacher
Education. 16, 287-308.

Koballa, T., Graber, W., Coleman, D., and Kemp, A. (2000). Prospective gymnasium teachers'
conceptions of chemistry learning and teaching. International Journal of Science
Education. 22(2), 209-224.

Lantz, 0., and Kass, H. (1987). Chemistry teachers' functional paradigms. Science Education,
71(1), 117-134.

Lemberger, J., Hewson, P., and Park, H. (1999). Relationships between prospective secondary
teachers' classroom practice and their conceptions of biology and of teaching science.
Science Education. 83(3), 347-371.










Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., and Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources, and development of
pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G.
Lederman (Eds.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge: The construct and its
implicationsfor science education (Vol. 6, pp. 95-132). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
Publishers.

Magnusson, S. and Palincsar, A. (1995). Learning environments as a site of science education
reform. Theory into Practice, 34(1), 43-50.

Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Morine-Desshimer, G., and Kent, T. (1999). The complex nature and sources of teachers'
pedagogical knowledge. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining
pedagogical content knowledge: The construct and its implicationsfor science education
(Vol. 6, pp. 21-50). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

National Center for Education Information (2005). Alternative routes to teacher certification: An
overview. Retrieved August 18, 2005, from http://www.ncei.com/Alt-Teacher-Cert.htm

National Research Center (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press.

Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3 ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage
Publications.

Porlan, R. and del Pozo, R. (2004). The conceptions of in-service and prospective primary school
teachers about the teaching and learning of science. Journal of Science Teacher
Education. 15(1), 39-62.

Roberts, D. and Chastko, A. (1990). Absorption, refraction, reflection: An exploration of
beginning science teacher thinking. Science Teacher Education, 74(2), 197-224.

Scott, D. and Morrison, M. (2006). Key Ideas in Educational Research. New York, NY:
Continuum International Publishing Group.

Shapiro, B. (1996). A case study of change in elementary student teacher thinking during an
independent investigation in science: Learning about the "face of science that does not
yet know". Science Teacher Education, 80(5), 535-560.

Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational
Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

Sindelar, P., Daunic, A., and Rennells, M. (2004) Comparisons of traditionally and alternatively
trained teachers. Exceptionality. 12(4), 209-233.










Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Thomas, K., Friedman-Nimz, R., Mahlios, M., and O'Brien, B. (2005) Where are they coming
from ? Beyond the demographics of individuals seeking an alternative route to
mathematics and science teacher licensure. Action in Teacher Education. 27(1), 15-25.

Trumball, D., Scarano, G., and Bonney, R. (2006) Relations Among Two Teachers' Practices
and Beliefs, Conceptualizations of the Nature of Science, and their Implementation of
Student Independent Inquiry Projects. International Journal of Science Education.
28(14), 1717-1750.

U.S. Department of Education. (2001) The condition of education: 2001. Washington, DC:
Author.

Van Driel, J., Verloop, N., and Vos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers' pedagogical
content knowledge. Journal ofResearch in Science Teaching. 35(6), 673-695.

Wallen, N. and Fraenkel, J. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process (Second ed.).
Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Wilson, S., Floden, R., and Ferrini-Mundy, J. (2002) Teacher preparation research: an insider's
view from the outside. Journal of Teacher Education. 53(3), 190-204.

Windschitl, M. (2003). Inquiry projects in science teacher education: What can investigative
experiences reveal about teacher thinking and eventual classroom practice? Science
Education, 87(1), 112-143.

Zohar, A. (2004). Elements of teachers' pedagogical knowledge regarding instruction of higher
order thinking. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 15(4), 293-312.

Zucker, D. (2001). Using case study methodology in nursing research. The Qualitative Report,
6(2).









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Dina L. Mayne was born in Des Moines, Iowa, to Yvonne and Frank Mueller. She

graduated from Wichita State University with a bachelor's degree in secondary science education

and a master's degree in curriculum and instruction with an emphasis on science education and

educational technology.

Dina taught chemistry, physical science, and integrated science for seven years as well as

two years of computer programming in high schools in Kansas and Florida prior to starting her

Ph.D. For two years she taught science methods to undergraduate pre-service elementary

teachers and has done research in the areas of elementary education, science education,

educational technology and peer mentoring.

Dina, her husband, daughters and granddaughter reside in Georgia. She is currently

teaching chemistry and physical science at the high school level.





PAGE 1

1 CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATION TO TEACHING SCIENCE OF BEGINNING SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS By Dina L. Mayne A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 Dina L. Mayne

PAGE 3

3 In memory of my mother, Yvonne, and to my husband, Jeffrey, my constant supporter and friend

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the members of my committee for their support and guidance throughout my doctoral studies and dissertation process. Rose Pringle has worked tirelessly to help me complete my dissertation providing suggestions and support during every stage of the dissertation process. Thomas Dana has given me the benefit of his expertise and directed my interest toward my topic as well as demystifying the dissertation process and providing support and revision suggestions. My thanks go out to Linda Behar-Horenstein for her unwavering guidance in the proposal process and her professionalism. Dr. Richard Ferdig directed my interest in technology and was the impetus for my first technology publication. My committee members have been examples to me of concern for their students, professionalism, and passion for learning and research. A huge thank you goes out to the six wonderful novice teachers who participated in this study. They allowed me to spend hours with them interviewing and observing them during a very difficult and stressful time, their first year of teaching and it is their thoughts and actions that I have been able to report and reflect upon. I wish them good luck and a rewarding teaching career. Thanks also go to my peer mentoring triad, Marty Mayers and Barbara Rodgers who refused to allow me to entertain any thought that I would not finish. Without their phone calls, Finally, much love and thanks to my husband who has been a constant source of encouragement and to my family who have kept me grounded throughout this journey.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES .........................................................................................................................12 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................13 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................14 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................16 Background .............................................................................................................................16 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................................21 Research Questions .................................................................................................................22 Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................22 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................23 Limitations of the Study .........................................................................................................23 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................25 Teacher Thinking ....................................................................................................................25 Pedagogical Content Knowledge ............................................................................................29 Orientations to Teaching Science ...........................................................................................33 Conceptions of Teaching Science ...........................................................................................36 Routes to Certification ............................................................................................................39 Summary .................................................................................................................................40 3 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................43 Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................43 The Study ................................................................................................................................44 Research Design .....................................................................................................................44 Setting and Participants ..........................................................................................................47 Gaining access ........................................................................................................................48 County One ......................................................................................................................48 County Two .....................................................................................................................49 County Three ...................................................................................................................50 Private Schools in Counties Two and Four .....................................................................50 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................51 Interviews ........................................................................................................................52 Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science ..................................................54

PAGE 6

6 Observations ....................................................................................................................56 Data Analysis ..........................................................................................................................58 Analysis of CTS Task Data .............................................................................................58 Analysis of Interview and Observation Data ...................................................................59 Subjectivity Statement ............................................................................................................62 Validity ...................................................................................................................................64 Credibility ...............................................................................................................................64 Trustworthiness .......................................................................................................................65 4 SETTING THE STAGE: INTRODUCING THE TEACHERS AND EXAMINING THEIR CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE ............66 Background .............................................................................................................................66 Patrick .....................................................................................................................................67 Introduction and School Setting ......................................................................................67 Classroom Setting ............................................................................................................68 Conception for Teaching Science ....................................................................................70 Teachers and teaching ..............................................................................................70 Instructional strategies ..............................................................................................72 Conceptions of science .............................................................................................73 Learning and learners ...............................................................................................73 Conditions for instruction .........................................................................................74 Orientation to Teaching Science .....................................................................................75 Goals for teaching ....................................................................................................75 Science curriculum ...................................................................................................77 School context ..........................................................................................................77 Learner characteristics ..............................................................................................78 Rationale for instruction ...........................................................................................79 Instructional strategies ..............................................................................................80 Meredith ..................................................................................................................................81 Introduction and School Setting ......................................................................................81 Classroom Setting ............................................................................................................82 Conception for Teaching Science ....................................................................................83 Teachers and teaching ..............................................................................................85 Instructional strategies ..............................................................................................85 Conceptions of science .............................................................................................86 Learning and learners ...............................................................................................86 Conditions for instruction .........................................................................................87 Orientation to Teaching Science .....................................................................................88 Goals for teaching ............................................................................................................88 Science curriculum ...................................................................................................90 School context ..........................................................................................................91 Learner characteristics ..............................................................................................91 Rationale for instruction ...........................................................................................92 Instructional strategies ..............................................................................................93 Alex .........................................................................................................................................95 Introduction and School Setting ......................................................................................95

PAGE 7

7 Classroom Setting ............................................................................................................96 Conception of Teaching Science .....................................................................................99 Teachers and teaching ..............................................................................................99 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................100 Conceptions of science ...........................................................................................100 Learning and learners .............................................................................................101 Conditions for instruction .......................................................................................102 Orientation to Teaching Science ...................................................................................102 Goals for teaching ..................................................................................................104 Science curriculum .................................................................................................105 School context ........................................................................................................106 Learner characteristics ............................................................................................107 Rationale for instruction .........................................................................................108 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................109 Cristina ..................................................................................................................................110 Introduction and School Setting ....................................................................................110 Classroom Setting ..........................................................................................................111 Conception of Teaching Science ...................................................................................113 Teachers and teaching ............................................................................................113 Instructional Strategies ...........................................................................................115 Conceptions of science ...........................................................................................115 Learning and learners .............................................................................................116 Conditions for instruction .......................................................................................117 Orientation to Teaching Science ...................................................................................118 Goals for teaching ..................................................................................................118 Science curriculum .................................................................................................120 School context ........................................................................................................120 Learner characteristics ............................................................................................121 Rationale for instruction .........................................................................................122 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................123 Isobel .....................................................................................................................................123 Introduction and School Setting ....................................................................................123 Classroom Setting ..........................................................................................................125 Conception of Teaching Science ...................................................................................126 Teachers and teaching ............................................................................................126 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................129 Conceptions of science ...........................................................................................129 Learning and learners .............................................................................................130 Conditions for instruction .......................................................................................131 Orientation to Teaching Science ...................................................................................133 Goals for teaching ..................................................................................................133 Science Curriculum ................................................................................................135 Learner characteristics ............................................................................................137 Rationale for instruction .........................................................................................138 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................139 George ...................................................................................................................................140

PAGE 8

8 Introduction and School Setting ....................................................................................140 Classroom Setting ..........................................................................................................141 Conception of Teaching Science ...................................................................................143 Teachers and teaching ............................................................................................143 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................146 Conceptions of science ...........................................................................................146 Learning and learners .............................................................................................147 Conditions for instruction .......................................................................................148 Orientation to Teaching Science ...................................................................................148 Goals for teaching ..................................................................................................150 Science curriculum .................................................................................................151 School context ........................................................................................................151 Learner characteristics ............................................................................................152 Rationale for instruction .........................................................................................153 Instructional strategies ............................................................................................154 Summary ...............................................................................................................................155 5 CROSS-ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE....................................................................156 Background ...........................................................................................................................156 Comparisons between Components of Conceptions of Teaching Science ...........................157 Teacher Characteristics .................................................................................................158 General teacher characteristics ...............................................................................159 Ability to teach at different cognitive/age levels ...................................................160 Conceptions of Teaching ...............................................................................................161 General conception of teaching ..............................................................................161 Use of textbook ......................................................................................................163 Use of Inquiry .........................................................................................................164 Teaching from media .............................................................................................165 Self-teaching ...........................................................................................................166 Conceptions of Science .................................................................................................167 General conception of science ................................................................................167 Nature of science ....................................................................................................169 Conceptions of Learning ...............................................................................................170 Teacher needed for learning ...................................................................................170 Learning from media ..............................................................................................171 View of learning .....................................................................................................172 Learner Characteristics ..................................................................................................173 Prior knowledge .....................................................................................................173 Motivation ..............................................................................................................175 Age and cognitive level ..........................................................................................175 Conditions for Instruction ..............................................................................................176 Conditions for teaching and learning .....................................................................177 Quality component .................................................................................................178 Other factors ...........................................................................................................179 Instructional Strategies ..................................................................................................179

PAGE 9

9 Favored strategies ...................................................................................................180 Types of questions ..................................................................................................181 Kinesthetic activities ..............................................................................................181 Textbook strategy ...................................................................................................181 Presentation ............................................................................................................182 Comparisons between Components of Orientations to Teaching Science ...........................182 Background ....................................................................................................................182 Goals for Teaching ........................................................................................................183 Science goals ..........................................................................................................184 General goals ..........................................................................................................185 Affective goals .......................................................................................................186 Science Curriculum .......................................................................................................187 Purpose of curriculum ............................................................................................187 Textbook .................................................................................................................188 School Context ..............................................................................................................189 School type .............................................................................................................189 Teacher issues ........................................................................................................190 Other factors ...........................................................................................................192 Learner Characteristics ..................................................................................................192 Cognitive ability and developmental level .............................................................192 Motivation ..............................................................................................................194 Understanding of content .......................................................................................195 Rationale for Instruction ................................................................................................196 Lesson planning ......................................................................................................196 Assessment .............................................................................................................198 Instructional Strategies ..................................................................................................200 Teacher-led strategies .............................................................................................200 Student-led strategies .............................................................................................201 Grouping strategies ................................................................................................202 6 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS ................................................................................203 Overview of the Study ..........................................................................................................203 Review of Methods ...............................................................................................................204 Findings and Discussion .......................................................................................................205 Research Question 1 ......................................................................................................206 Teacheror student-centered conception ...............................................................207 Conceptions of teaching science ............................................................................208 Research Question 2 ......................................................................................................209 Didactic/academic rigor orientation .......................................................................210 Process/guided inquiry orientation .........................................................................210 Project-based orientation ........................................................................................211 Activity-driven orientation .....................................................................................211 Research Question 3 ......................................................................................................212 Teacher-centered conception to teaching science and subsequent orientations .....212 Student-centered conceptions of teaching science and subsequent orientations ....214 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................215

PAGE 10

10 Theoretical Framework Revisited .................................................................................215 Pedagogical Content Knowledge ..................................................................................216 Combining Conceptions of Teaching Science and Orientations to Teaching Science .220 e OTS and CTS .............................................................................................................222 Perceptions of school context .................................................................................223 Beliefs about learners and learning ........................................................................223 Beliefs about teachers and teaching .......................................................................224 Goals for teaching ..................................................................................................224 Rationale for instruction .........................................................................................225 Visible teaching strategies ......................................................................................225 Implications of the Study ......................................................................................................226 Theoretical Implications ................................................................................................226 Practical Implications ....................................................................................................226 Further Research ............................................................................................................228 Final Thoughts ......................................................................................................................229 APPENDIX A IRB-2 PROPOSAL AND INFORMED CONSENT FORMS .............................................230 IRB-2 Proposal Form ............................................................................................................230 Informed Consent Form ........................................................................................................233 B FIRST SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ................................................235 Purpose of the Interview .......................................................................................................235 Initial Interview Tasks ..........................................................................................................235 Interview Questions ..............................................................................................................235 Task for Identifying Conceptions of Science Teaching (30 minutes) ..................................236 Closing Comments................................................................................................................236 C SECOND THROUGH FOURTH SEMI-STRUCTURED AND INTERVIEW GUIDE PROTOCOL .........................................................................................................................237 Purpose of the Interview .......................................................................................................237 Interview Questions and Guide ............................................................................................237 D FIFTH SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL................................................238 Purpose of the Interview .......................................................................................................238 Interview Questions ..............................................................................................................238 Final Thoughts and Closure of Study ...................................................................................238 E CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING SCIENCE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ........................239 Task Protocol ........................................................................................................................239 Instances about Biology ........................................................................................................240

PAGE 11

11 Instances about Physics ........................................................................................................241 Instances about Chemistry ....................................................................................................242 Instances about Earth/Space Science ....................................................................................243 F PERMISSION FORMS USED FOR RESEARCH IN LOCAL COUNTY SCHOOLS .....244 Sample Application for Research Form Used for Gaining Access in County One ..............244 Signed Dissertation Proposal Used for Gaining Access in County Two ..............................246 Project Summary Used for Gaining Access in County Two ................................................247 Project Summary Used for Gaining Access in County Two ................................................247 G DATA COLLECTION SCHEDULE ...................................................................................250 H CTS AND OTS STUDY CODE BOOK ..............................................................................251 Codebook Key for Codes and Themes Developed from Interviews of Participants ............251 Themes and Codes Found in Data ........................................................................................252 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................280 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................285

PAGE 12

12 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Explanation of interview types. .........................................................................................52 5-1 tics. .......................................................159 5-2 .............................................................................162 5-3 ...............................................................................167 5-4 ..............................................................................171 5-5 ..........................................................173 5-6 ...........................................................................177 5-7 ...............................................................................180 5-8 Part .......................................................................................184 5-9 ......................................................................187 5-10 ............................................................................................189 5-11 ...................................................................193 5-12 ..............................................................................197 5-13 ...............................................................................200 6-1 ...............................................................206 6-2 ..............................................................209 6-3 Key Concepts of Teacher Thinking about Science Teaching. .........................................216 G-1 Schedule of data collection. .............................................................................................250

PAGE 13

13 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Conceptual framework for research derived from reading of the literature. .....................21 2-1 Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK. .............................................................31 2-2 Components of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. .............................34 2-3 Conceptions of teaching science. .......................................................................................37 4-1 .......................................................................71 4-2 ........................................................................76 4-3 ....................................................................84 4-4 ....................................................................89 4-5 ...........................................................................98 4-6 .........................................................................103 4-7 ion of Teaching Science. ....................................................................114 4-8 ....................................................................119 4-9 .......................................................................127 4-10 .......................................................................134 4-11 .....................................................................144 4-12 -based Orientation to Teaching Science. ..............................................149 5-1 ....................................158 5-2 Categories for Orientations to Teaching Science.............................................................183 6-1 Conceptual Framework of intersection between Conceptions of Teaching Science and Orientations to Teaching Science..............................................................................213 6-2 Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK. ...........................................................217 6-3 PCK and its components.. ................................................................................................220 6-4 Orientations to Science Teaching. ...................................................................................222

PAGE 14

14 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACP Alternative Certification Program, a three-year on-the-job program instituted in Florida to prepare uncertified teachers for state certification including classes in education and pedagogy while they are teaching in the public schools. CTS content knowledge, learners and learning, rationale for instruction and effective instructional strategies (Hewson & Hewson, 1988). OTS Orientations to teaching science, refbeliefs about the purposes and goals of teaching science Grossman, 1990, Magnusson et al., 1999). PCK concepts within a discipline to students that requires expertise in subject matter and teaching skills as well as a knowledge of students and classroom context (Shulman, 1986). PCKg pedagogy, subject matter content, student characteristics, and learning context (Cochran, DeRuiter & King, 1993). STTF Science Teacher Thinking Framework developed by Roberts and Chastko (1990) to show how science teachers think about science teaching events. TPC Teacher pedagogical constructions refer to a model that blends PCK with other teacher knowledge and beliefs (Hashweh, 2005).

PAGE 15

15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy BEGINNING SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATION TO TEACHING SCIENCE By Dina L. Mayne August 2007 Chair, Rose Pringle Major: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) This study aimed to determine Conceptions to Teaching Science (CTS) and Orientations to Teaching Science (OTS) of six beginning secondary science teachers. The teacher participants were in their first year of teaching and came from both traditional and alternative certification preparation programs. The study also examined how useful CTS and OTS were to explore beginning teachers thinking about teaching science. Through interviews and classroom observations, participants articulated CTS that were largely teacher centered. Also, some viewed learning. Participants held OTS which mostly complemented their CTS. Overall, they appeared to hold multiple CTS and OTS simultaneously. These results can be used to design new or modify existing pre-service and in-service teacher professional development programs. Also, this study provides a framework for science teachers combining both the CTS and OTS construct.

PAGE 16

16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Science teachers guide their students to construct meaning when making sense of their -making is structured by their cultures and histories and occurs during interactions with students, teachers, parents, and others (Creswell, 2003). During science instruction, to further students understanding, their instructors have to be adept at making must therefore have a deep understanding of content and the ability to represent the content in ways that their students will understand through explanation, activities and experiments. Studies on teacher thinking (Bryan & Abell, 2002; Zohar, 2004) have tried to make visible teacher decisions about what to teach, how to teach it, and activities that will best explicate these decisions. For students to understand and remember scientific concepts, the teacher needs to provide the best content knowledge learning experiences in ways that are understandable for learners. classifies as pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) with students, the selection of assessments, the habits of mind that teachers demonstrate and nurture among their students, and the attitudes conveyed wittingly and unwittingly all effect the (NRC, 1996, p. 28). The content knowledge a teacher has together with their pedagogical knowledge is transformed by teaching experience and reflection into their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986).

PAGE 17

17 PCK embodies a unique form of teacher problem solving that consists of teacher thinking about what difficulties students may have in understanding a particular topic as well as their preconceptions and conceptions about a subject (Shulman, 1986). Teachers need to have both a deep understanding of their subject matter and the pedagogical knowledge to decide what strategies are needed to guide students to realign their conceptions about a topic. They must have curricular knowledge of their science subject matter, how it aligns with the science curriculum, and its position in the total or macrocurriculum of the school (Shulman, 1986). Individual empirical and meta-syntheses studies have shown how teacher preparation provide knowledge of teaching and learning, and are strongly related to student achievement (Cochran-Smith, 2002). Adams and Krockover (1997) studied teacher cognition and found that pre-service teaching and learning experiences that is, science methods classes, pre-internship and internship teaching experiences, help develop pedagogical content knowledge. PCK is also mediated by pre-(Adams & Krockover, 1997). There are many sources of pedagogical content knowledge besides content and pedagogical knowledge. A teacher must have curriculum knowledge, an understanding of learners and their learning styles, assessment procedures and their evaluation, and an understanding of the various contexts in the classroom (Magnusson et al., 1999). Teacher education programs are designed to prepare new teachers for the classroom by developing their curricular and pedagogical knowledge as well as giving them an understanding of how children learn and strategies to teach and assess them. Personal pedagogical knowledge or the understanding of teaching and management strategies to use in a classroom cannot develop

PAGE 18

18 without practical teaching experiences. These are provided to pre-service teachers through their pre-internship, internship classroom practice as well as other field experiences. As prospective teachers reflect on classroom events as they transpire, they start to identify elements, that is, instructional strategies, teacher-student and student-student interactions, and management techniques, that promote student participation and their subsequent learning in a particular classroom setting (Morine-Desshimer & Kent, 1999). When beginning science teachers enter their first classroom, research indicates that they use their pre-service teaching experiences, academic learning experiences, and belief systems to construct their personal pedagogical knowledge (Morine-Desshimer & Kent, 1999). One of the current research challenges for educators is to understand teacher thinking when using PCK in the classroom to elucidate concepts about a particular science topic. Studies have shown how teachers (pre-service, new and experienced in-service) conceptualize the particular science they are teaching and the orientations/conceptions they have for teaching science, discovering these through self-efficacy questionnaires, interviews, concept maps, card sorts, and observation. Pre-service teachers both before, during and after internship have been observed and tested to try to understand how PCK is developed and expanded. New teachers are assumed to have developed a beginning PCK that is fixed but it can be expanded as they become more experienced teachers. New teachers are still developing their PCK and determining their orientation to teaching. Pedagogical content knowledge is not fixed until after that first, second, or third year when the fledgling teacher starts to feel competent to teach the particular subject (Adams & Krockover, 1997).

PAGE 19

19 Because of the many components of pedagogical content knowledge which comprise it, PCK is very difficult to observe. Generally researchers look at a component or components of urposes for teaching or their beliefs about teaching which result in instructional strategies used in teaching (Adams & Krockover, 1997; Bryan & Abell, 1999; Friedrichsen, 2002)orientation to and conceptions of teaching science. A teacherteaching particular science content and is observable in the instructional strategies that individual teachers choose when instructing students during specific lessons (Magnusson et al., 1999). for instruction and instructional techniques used during teaching (Hewson & Hewson, 1988). It should be possible to determine both of these components of PCK, that is, orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching science through observing beginning secondary science teachers instructional strategies and inquiring into their beliefs, goals, and purposes for teaching science. Beginning secondary science teachers come from a variety of different certification programs, from traditional four or five-year programs to alternative certification programs. Alternative routes to teacher certification generally have specific requirements, that is, that mastery, use on-the-job teacher training, and take required coursework while teaching either during the school year or in the summer. They also typically have mentor teachers. Such programs last from one to two years (NCEI, 2005).

PAGE 20

20 Darling-Hammond, Chung, and Frelow (2002) using data from a 1998 survey of 3000 beginning teachers teaching in New York City schools, determined teacher comfort with their preparation for teaching. Survey participants were from both traditional college and university four and five-year teacher certification programs and alternate certification programs varying from summer training programs to 1 or 2 year post-baccalaureate programs. The survey of beginning teachers found that 34% of the certified teachers earned it through transcript review and less than half had attained certification through traditional 4-year undergraduate programs (Darling-Hammond et al., 2002). Teachers from alternate certification programs surveyed felt less prepared than traditionally certified teachers in areas of curriculum, instructional strategies, subject matter content, and understanding and knowing how to meet student needs (Darling-Hammond et al., 2002). All of tspecifically elements of their conceptions of teaching and orientations to teaching. The study also found that teachers from certified programs had a higher sense of responsibility for student learning whereas, teachers from alternative programs felt that students were responsible when they were not learning the material (Darling-Hammond et al., 2002). One of the topics that is yet unknown is, what a teacher is thinking when s/he uses PCK in the classroom to elucidate concepts about a particular science topic. Studies have shown through self-efficacy questionnaires, interviews, concept maps, card sorts, and observation how pre-service, novice and expert teachers conceptualize the particular science they are teaching based on their orientations and conceptions about teaching science (Adams & Krockover, 1997; Friedrichsen, 2002; Zohar, 2004). Orientations toward teaching science and conceptions of teaching science are distinct components of pedagogical content knowledge with some overlap.

PAGE 21

21 Figure 1-1. Conceptual framework for research derived from reading of the literature. Both orientations to teaching science (OTC) and conceptions of teaching science (CTC) eaching and preferred teaching strategies, but conceptions of teaching science view the rationale for instruction and preferred strategies as only two of its five components whereas orientations toward teaching science sees them as the evidence that exempl(Magnusson et al., 1999). Exploring the nexus (Figure 1-science should illustrate Purpose of the Study The present study will explore the orientations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching science of first year secondary science teachers from both traditional and alternate teacher certification programs. The researcher poses these questions to guide the study: Conceptions of teaching Conceptions of science Goals for teaching Sc ience curriculum School context Learner characteristics Rationale for instruction Instructional strategies Orientations to Teaching Science Learner characteristics

PAGE 22

22 Research Questions RESEARCH QUESTION 1:What are the conceptions of teaching science of the six beginning secondary science teachers in this study? RESEARCH QUESTION 2:What is the nature of orientations to teaching science of the six beginning secondary science teachers in this study? RESEARCH QUESTION 3:To what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science teachers thinking (PCK)? Definition of Terms CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING SCIENCE (CTS). and effective instructional strategies to plan and perform to achieve the intention of helping these (Hewson & Hewson, 1988, p. 611). ORIENTATION TO TEACHING SCIENCE (OTS). purposes and goals of teaching science (Grossman, 1990; Magnusson et al., 1999). PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (PCK)to explain concepts within a discipline to students that requires expertise in subject matter and teaching skills as well as a knowledge of students and classroom context (Shulman, 1986). BEGINNING SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS. Individuals who are starting their first assignment as a science instructor in a middle school or high school environment. ROUTE TO TEACHER PREPARATION. The different pathways that an individual can take to be licensed as an educator. Two different pathways are considered: TRADITIONAL CERTIFICATION. A college or university-based four-year program to train individuals to teach a particular subject matter. This program includes coursework in the content individuals will be teaching, education and pedagogy courses, and practice teaching with varying levels of support and supervision. At the culmination of the program, individuals take state tests to certify them as subject matter or grade level teachers. ALTERNATIVE CERTIFICATION. A one to three year program administered by colleges or nd generally includes coursework in education and pedagogy, on-the-job training while teaching, mentoring by seasoned teachers, and passing general knowledge, subject area, and professional educators exams to become certified.

PAGE 23

23 Significance of the Study science and their conceptions of teaching science. The findings will contribute to the body of ations to teaching science and conceptions of teaching science. The findings may be helpful in designing or modifying pre-service teacher education programs. The findings may also guide professional development of in-service teachers and encourage participants to examine prior teaching or mentoring experiences and how they influence teacher practice, carefully selecting cooperating teachers to give pre-service teachers a chance to see and practice teaching strategies they may be unfamiliar with and resistant to, and ensuring education classes are current and relevant to the student population and school climate new and practicing teachers encounter. This study will contribute to theoretical key concepts of teacher thinking by combining CTS and OTS and providing a new model for beginning science teacher thinking. Furthermore, this study should contribute to the literature on science teacher thinking that uses the CTS and OTS constructs. These constructs are used differently in some literature and interchangeably in others. It is hoped that this study will provide new insights into the usefulness of these constructs for describing how beginning science teachers think about their teaching. Limitations of the Study 1. Only individuals who met the criterion of being beginning secondary science teachers were eligible for participation in this study. 2. Participants in this study were not necessarily representative of all beginning science teachers. 3. Perceptions of individuals are limited to their point of view. 4.

PAGE 24

24 5. Data was chosen to be collected after participants had been teaching for at least one month to enable them to settle into their classrooms and resolve any administrative issues that would have distracted from the teaching.

PAGE 25

25 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW How an educator teaches depends on their beliefs, vision of teaching, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, understanding of students and of the context of instruction within their classroom, school and community (Magnusson, Krajcik & Borko, 1999). Teaching is not an automatic act but a purposeful action that requires each educator to take all of the components and construct their conception of and orientation to teaching. This is not done in a vacuum, rather being constructed in and out of interaction between human beings and their world, and developed and transmitted within an essentia(Crotty, 1998, p. 42). A constructivist framework is necessary to guide any observations into teacher thinking, pedagogical content knowledge, and orientations to teaching. In this chapter I will provide an overview of research related to the study. The following topics, teacher thinking, pedagogical content knowledge, science teaching orientations and conceptions of teaching science will precede a summary. Teacher Thinking Teacher thinking comprises a huge body of research on reflection where teachers engage in thoughtful, deliberative self-examination of teaching events. Two studies (Halkes & Deijkers, 2003; Roberts & Chastko, 1990) developed frameworks for teacher thinking, but the remainder of the studies (Zohar, 2004; Windschitl, 2003; Bryan and Abell, 2002; Shapiro, 1996; Adams & Krockover, 1997) discussed teacher thinking in general. Halkes & Deijkers (2003) suggested a cognitive action framework to guide teaching. They asserted that the novice or experienced teacher needs to have built a routine or theory about what to do in the preor inter-active teaching-learning situation. Teacher beliefs determine what

PAGE 26

26 to do, what to avoid and what to work toward in teaching. A teacher's personal values are important and the teacher tries to keep them constant while teaching (Halkes & Deijkers, 2003). From the literature the authors compiled a teacher's criteria for instruction: 1) student activity pedagogical aims or objectives; 5) nature of teacher-student and student-student interactions; 6) knowledge, discipline and objectivity (Halkes & Deijkers, 2003). In this study on teacher thinking they found that science teachers were like language teachers in that they wanted more teacher control, needed less work ethos, and preferred direct instruction as their teaching orientation within their classrooms. Roberts and Chastko (1990) developed the Science Teacher Thinking Framework (STTF) to show how science teachers think about science teaching events. They posited that reflection or thinking about the events of science teaching is compared with absorption (simply taking information in) and refraction (bending away or ignoring the information). A science methods course was taught using the STTF construct which had four parts, i.e., subject matter, teaching strategy, objectives, and student response. First reflective category is subject matter, which shows student's theoretical framework. The next category, teaching strategy, shows the intentional character of teaching where subject matter is blended with teaching strategies. Objectives, the third category, are concerned with outcomes for students and how they are linked to the actions of the teacher. The fourth category comprised as feedback to teachers on how their lesson is being understood by students (Roberts & Chastko, 1990). In the study the researchers affected by the content and instruction in the methods course. Pre-service secondary science

PAGE 27

27 teachers come to the methods course with preconceived notions about the purpose of learning which Roberts and Chastko called absorption. Students see coursework as something to be learned as fact. The methods course was taught from a constructivist stance to help students learn concepts as a lens to look at events and make sense of them. Authors found that some students resisted the reflection of microteaching and talking about the teaching because of their subject-matter-as-fact orientation. Three refractory styles, i.e., ''who needs this", "everything-was-fine", and "haven't you forgotten something" were the ways that students resisted the constructivist style and STTF construct they were being taught (Roberts & Chastko, 1990). The authors found that their students developed reflective abilities at different levels and from resistance of reflection to acceptance of it, and the reflective stance supported their teaching orientation. Zohar (2004) found that secondary science teachers, when trained in a new teaching curriculum, resisted the concept of allowing students to create their own scientific meaning. Teachers were more comfortable with the transmission-of-knowledge form of teaching and believed teacher thinking should have the same focus. In the study two-thirds of the teachers used the transmission-of-knowledge model and less than one-fourth used constructivism. The author found that the kind of inquiry pre-service teachers experienced as students in science classes was confirmatory or cookbook labs i.e., follow the steps and get the prescribed answer. These labs patterned the kind of experiences pre-service teachers had in high school science. Their high school teachers also did not engage students in discussions about science topics (Zohar, 2004). Another finding was (Zohar, 2004) that pre-service teachers had never experienced inquiry so they had no schema for understanding it. Without discussion and activities to help understand science, teachers will not be able to learn new information or discuss why something

PAGE 28

28 is or is not correct knowledge. The experiences that influence conceptions and beliefs about inquiry are their K-12 experiences, lab work at the college level and teacher education courses (Zohar, 2004). eflective journals were used in a preservice science methods class to examine teacher thinking. The reflections ranged from foci on aspects of teaching, learning and subject matter to the moral, social, and political aspects of teaching. He found that the beliefs each pre-service teacher carried strongly influenced their thinking and actions. He believed that teachers make instructional decisions based on their knowledge and beliefs and the interaction between them. From interviews and reflections he discovered that preservice teachers understanding of inquiry was learned when they are undergraduates. Those teachers who understood inquiry had more rich reflections and tended to think more about how they would present the activity to their own students. Those who thought inquiry was a linear process just kept a log-like journal with only the data. Only half of the pre-service teachers used inquiry in their classrooms and those who had done inquiry before were those who transferred it to their classrooms (Windschitl, 2003). Bryan and Abell (2002) reported in a single case study about a pre-service teacher's beliefs, experiences and tensions s on how children learn science, goals of science instruction and the role of the science teacher, As her teaching progressed she was able to think about her student's lack of science concept understanding. These reflections led her to see disconnects between her beliefs and her actions. She began to look at her teaching instead of the students' perceived shortcomings and process her beliefs, visions, and practice into the orientations to teaching that were most realistic for her (Bryan &

PAGE 29

29 Abell, 1999). In a study of changes in elementary student teacher thinking in science methods classes (Shapiro, 1996) looked at inquiry projects done outside the class with a partner. Most students in a method class changed their thinking about science and investigations as a result of their project-based inquiry. A participant, chosen as a model case study, reversed her ideas about how to perform open-ended investigations, what science is, and the usefulness of investigations as a learning approach in the classroom (Shapiro, 1996). Beginning teacher cognition(Adams & Krockover, 1997), the authors give Kagan (1990) definition of teacher orientation as ''preor in-service teachers' self-reflections beliefs and knowledge about teaching, students, and content; and awareness of problem-solving strategies endemic to classroom teaching. They studied four beginning secondary science teachers to examine their thinking and how it relates to the program experiences they say built their knowledge. The four participants included three biology teachers and one earth science teacher. While the participants credited the pre-service program with helping them develop constructs on student-centered learning, general pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, models for instructional strategies or orientations to teaching came from experiences other than the education classes for two of the four teachers. These two used lecture extensively as they had been taught most of their student lives. ''The degree of translation from the program to the teachers understanding of their classrooms appears to be modulated by their most significant learning experiences and the context of their Krockover, 1997, p. 649). Pedagogical Content Knowledge Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a context specific knowledge of how to teach a particular subject to a particular group of students. Representations, demonstrations, questioning

PAGE 30

30 techniques, and other strategies can be used to explain specific concepts within their subject matter to students. Experienced teachers tend to have higher PCK due to their amount of time in the classroom. The term was first coined by Shulman who placed it within the seven categories of knowledge that teachers must have to perform well, i.e., knowledge of content; knowledge of pedagogy; knowledge of curriculum; knowledge of learners and learning; knowledge of contexts of schooling; pedagogical content knowledge; and knowledge of educational philosophies, goals, and objectives (Shulman, 1986). He defined PCK as the combination of content knowledge and pedagogy transforming by teaching experience and reflection, used to explain concepts within a subject matter per se to the dimension of subject matter knowledge (Shulman, 1986, p. 9). Grossman (1990) took the seven categories of knowledge and refined them into four categories: subject matter knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and knowledge of context. General pedagogical knowledge was redefined to include knowledge of educational philosophies, goals, and objectives. Within pedagogical content knowledge there were four components, i.e., conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, knowledge of learners and learning, curricular knowledge and knowledge of instructional strategies. Each component was fed from the other categories of knowledge, namely subject matter, general pedagogical knowledge, and knowledge of content (Figure 2-1). What drove PCK was a teachers understanding of purposes for teaching their particular subject and their beliefs about them. These conceptions showed themselves as goals for a specific subject, explicating different beliefs by the different aims teachers had for instruction. Knowledge about students

PAGE 31

31 and breadth of a particular subject, showing their understanding not only of the concepts within a subject but how it fit within the overall discipline. Knowledge of instructional strategies 9) to guide their instruction (Grossman, 1990)added a fifth component, assessment in scientific literacy. Figure 2-1. Model of domains of teacher knowledge in PCK. Modified from Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) Subject Matter Knowledge and Beliefs Pedagogical Content Knowledge Pedagogical Knowledge and Beliefs Knowledge and Beliefs about Context Sub stantive Knowledge and Beliefs S yntactic Knowledge and Beliefs Instructional Principles Classroom Management Educational Aims Influences Influences Influences Community Students School District

PAGE 32

32 In the literature, PCK appears to be related to the concepts of functional paradigms (Lantz & Kass, 1987), craft knowledge and pedagogical content knowing (Van Driel et al., 1998), and achievement goal theory (Deemer, 2004),. Functional paradigms (Lantz & Kass, 1987) was first presented by Crocker (1983) who used it as a way to investigate why teachers function as they do and how this affects the classrooms they teach in, and vice versa. Lantz and Kass looked at the reflective practices of high school chemistry teachers whereby they translated particular curricular materials (ALCHEM) into classroom practices. From interviews of 20 in-service teachers they formulated a picture of functional paradigms of teaching chemistry. As A team of researchers (Van Driel et al., 1998) searched the literature on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and craft knowledge to determine if they were synonymous and what ties they had to each other. They found that craft knowledge was greatly influenced by a of PCK, namely observation of classes; disciplinary education; specific courses during teacher education; and classroom teaching experience. A slight variant on PCK was PCKg or pedago

PAGE 33

33 and King (1993, p. 264) and was believed to be a synthesis of all four components developed at the same time. Achievement goal theory was used in another study (Deemer, 2004) to study the correlation between efficacy and instructional practice in her study that is how confident a teacher was translated to the structure and goals of their classroom. Other factors fed into these teacher efficacies, such as beliefs about student intelligence, and perception of school climate, which resu(Deemer, 2004). Orientations to Teaching Science Orientations to teaching science (OTS) is placed within PCK as the overarching component (figure 2-2) but different researchers have named or defined each term in slightly different ways and cited as many as nine orientations or as few as two depending on the study. Hewson and Hewson (1988) identified four distinct teaching approaches based on the study by Anderson and Smith (1983) as activity-driven, didactic, discovery, and conceptual change teaching. The authors placed them on a continuum from inexperienced to experienced teachers, placing the activity-driven teaching technique as that chosen by least experienced teachers, and didactic as used by those who see teaching as a process for presenting information to students, and discovery and conceptual change teaching as that chosen by most experienced teachers. not name specific conceptions she believed that a different conceptions of teaching.

PAGE 34

34 Figure 2-2. Components of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. Modified from Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) Magnussen, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) also felt that there was an overarching component -1) and had it shaping the other four components of pedagogical content knowledge. They defined edge and beliefs about the purposes and goals for teaching science at a

PAGE 35

35 within the literature. The orientations were organized on a chart from process or content to a combination of both that would fit into the new inquiry-based standards. Process and activity-driven orientations fit on the process end of the continuum whereas academic rigor and didactic orientations were on the content end. Conceptual change, discovery, project-based science, inquiry and guided inquiry were both process and content oriented and would be located in the middle. A second continuum depicted teacher-to-student centered instruction where academic rigor and didactic orientations existed on the teacher-centered end and activity-driven, guided inquiry, project-based science, conceptual change, and inquiry moved along the continuum toward a purely student-centered orientation that terminated with discovery learning (Magnusson et al., 1999). All orientations were teaching strategies chosen depending on what teachers felt were the goals for teaching science. In a study (2002) of four highly-regarded student-centered biology teachers Friedrichsen found that the orientations Magnussen, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) identified did not fit her e in instruction. Her substantive-level theory proposed that science teaching orientations had multiple components with different components having more important roles where other roles were on the periphery (Friedrichsen, 2002). Sandra Deemer (2004) used a simple achievement goal orientation system for studying iors. Teachers would either use mastery or performance orientations in their -efficacy, how they define intelligence, and their beliefs about school access and resources. High self-efficacy was equated to experience and comfort with teaching. How teachers viewed their

PAGE 36

36 students abilities depended on their view of intelligence. An entity belief of intelligence was viewed as fixed whereas an incremental belief imagined that intelligence is malleable and can be increased. Finally, teachers in school cultures with a mastery or performance goal outlook were usually given materials and training to support innovation and provide equal access. A performance-oriented focus supported competition among teachers and selective access to resources (Deemer, 2004). High self-efficacy and a belief in incremental intelligence usually supported a teacher with a mastery orientation whereas low self-efficacy and an entity intelligence belief usually resulted in a teacher with a performance-oriented teaching disposition. School context played into these orientations in many cases but not all. Conceptions of Teaching Science Science teachers need to be able to facilitate students actively constructing their own knowledge. They need to plan lessons around whatever students know and need to know. The skills, knowledge, and altitudes a teacher possesses depend on their own conceptual structures of classroom events, combined with their pedagogy and how they explain concepts. These also depend on a teacher's rationale for teaching, view of science, orientations to teaching, science content, student understanding and school context. Hewson and Hewson called this construct the teacher's conception of teaching science and gave it five components (figure 2-3), conceptions of science, conceptions of teaching, learner characteristics, rationale for instruction, and preferred instructional techniques (Hewson & Hewson, 1989). onception of teaching was based on the Hirst-Fenstermacher framework (1971; 1986) which requires four components for an activity to be classified as a teaching activity. First, for teaching to occur, there must be learning. Second, the learning must be focused toward an outcome. Third, the teacher must support the student and

PAGE 37

37 Figure 2-3. Conceptions of teaching science. Modified from Hewson and Hewson (1989)

PAGE 38

38 improve their capacity to achieve their learning goals. Fourth, the teacher has an end object, to teach a student. Hewson and Hewson (1988) state that ''science teaching should of necessity consist of tasks and activities which are intended to help particular students learn particular content... indicative of the particular content to be learned, and expressed so that it is possible for the particular students to learn it" (p. 601). Internal characteristics science teachers should possess, called conceptions of teaching science, include: 1) a clear conception of teaching; 2) knowledge of content; 3) an understanding of student conceptions and alternate conceptions about the topics to be taught; 4) knowledge and use of instructional strategies that bring about student conceptual change; and 5) the ability to use all of the knowledge to facilitate student learning (Hewson & Hewson, 1988). Hewson and Hewson (1989) developed a task for identifying conceptions of teaching science and a clear analysis of the task. They defined conceptions for teaching as a "set of ideas, understandings and interpretations of experience concerning the teacher and teaching, the nature and content of science and the learners and learning which the teacher uses in making decisions about teaching, both planning and execution (p 194). The task presented the teacher with instances from their science field and asked whether it was an example of teaching or not. It provided instances and non-instances of science teaching in and out of class. The conceptions of science teaching task was tested on 30 secondary science pre-service teachers and was analyzed using six categories, i.e., a ature of science, whether they felt learning was happening, what learner characteristics were involved, their rationale for instruction, their preferred instructional techniques, and their conception of teaching science (Hewson & Hewson, 1989).

PAGE 39

39 Routes to Certification Teacher certification means that an individual who wishes to teach is qualified and licensed to do so. Licensure is meant to assure the public that professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and teachers are competent, fully qualified, and will do no harm (Diez, 2002). States control licensing of teachers and other professionals and require proof of education and a background free of criminal offenses. These state standards also prescribe specific coursework that teacher candidates must have. States also screen candidates for competency with tests of basic literacy skills and mathematics. In recent years the passage of the No Child Left Behind mandate requires that all teachers must be fully qualified by 2005-2006 (Sindelar, Daunic & Rennells, 2004). Now state and federal agencies must assess professional skills and subject matter understanding to determine whether a teacher is highly qualified (Diez, 2002). There are two routes to teacher certification, the traditional route and alternative certification. Traditional certification refers to the college or university-based four-year program to train individuals to teach a particular subject matter. This program includes coursework in the content individuals will be teaching, education and pedagogy courses, and practice teaching with varying levels of support and supervision. At the culmination of the program, individuals take state tests to certify them as subject matter or grade level teachers. A huge turnover in teachers is expected in the next few years. The U.S. Department of Education (2001) reports that a much as two million new teachers will be needed by 2010 and programs in 46 states and the District of Columbia that provide an alternate route to attaining teacher certification are getting more attention (Thomas, Friedman-2005). Alternate certification is a relatively new path to teaching being used more frequently by

PAGE 40

40 school systems and states due to the shortage of traditionally certified teachers specifically in the fields of science, mathematics, and special education (Sindelar, Daunic & Rennells, 2004). Alternative certification refers to a 1 to 3 year program administered by colleges or universities, states, or other agencies tgenerally includes rigorous screening process, professional education coursework, on-the-job training while teaching, mentoring by seasoned teachers, high performance standards (Thomas, et al., 2005) and passing general knowledge, subject area, and professional educators exams to become certified. Summary Studies on pedagogical content knowledge and orientations to or conceptions of teaching science demonstrate that there is a paucity of research on the PCK of beginning teachers. Pre-service teachers both before, during and after internship have been observed and tested to try to understand how PCK is developed and expanded. New teachers are assumed to have developed a small amount of fixed PCK that can expand until they become experienced and/or exemplary teachers. It has been posited that new teachers are still developing their pedagogical content knowledge and determining their orientation to teaching. Bryan and Abell (1999) reported that these two areas of teacher thinking and practice are not fixed until after that first, or second, or third year when the novice teachers start to feel competent to teach the particular subject. Additionally when the teacher is asked to teach a different science discipline, pedagogical content knowledge for the new subject also has to be developed. (Bryan & Abell, 1999). One of the topics that is yet unknown is what a teacher is thinking when s/he uses PCK in the classroom to elucidate concepts about a particular science topic. Studies have shown how pre-service, novice and expert teachers conceptualize the particular science they are teaching based on their orientations and conceptions about teaching science (Adams & Krockover, 1997;

PAGE 41

41 Friedrichsen, 2002; Zohar, 2004), and findings illustrate this through self-efficacy questionnaires, interviews, concept maps, card sorts, and observation.. Orientations toward teaching science and conceptions of teaching science are distinct components of pedagogical contteaching and preferred teaching strategies, but conceptions of teaching science sees the rationale for instruction and preferred strategies as only two of its five components whereas orientations (Magnusson et al., 1999)o thinking on secondary science instruction.

PAGE 42

42

PAGE 43

43 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Theoretical Framework meaning about their wo(Scott & Morrison, 2006, p. 131). Researchers engage in taking a reported account of an ar thing meaning in alignment with their beliefs and understanding and make sense of it by giving their explanations of what it means (Hatch, 2002). Interpretivism gives a model which aligns the researcher as one of the active members in research. The problem is whether the researcher can Interpretation is expressed best in studies using interviews which focus on how the participants construct meaning of their reported activities and actions (Scott & Morrison, 2006).The researcher therefore chose interpretivism as the methodological theoretical framework analyzing data collected in the study. The steps of interpretive analysis clarified by Hatch (2002) were followed in this study. First, the researcher reads all of the data through, then looks to research for impressions of the data that might have been found and reported on. Second, he/she reads the data again looking for these and other impressions. Data are read a third time and coded writes the summary. A member check is performed with participants for the fifth step, and finally, the researcher writes the revised summary. By ensuring that all of these steps are taken the study allows the data to speak both for the participants and researcher.

PAGE 44

44 The Study This study explores the orientations to and conceptions of teaching science of first year secondary science teachers. The researcher posed these questions to guide the data collection within the confines of the study: RESEARCH QUESTION 1:What are the conceptions of teaching science of the six beginning secondary science teachers in this study? RESEARCH QUESTION 2:What is the nature of orientations to teaching science of the six beginning secondary science teachers in this study? RESEARCH QUESTION 3:To what extent does CTS and OTS help elicit beginning science teachers thinking (PCK)? Research Design The qualitative research design for this study was chosen for a variety of reasons. First, the specifically how these beginning science teachers make sense of their experiences within the context of their beliefs and goals (Merriam, 1998). Second, the researcher was the primary instrument of this study, acting as interviewer and participant observer of the teachers as they experienced teaching in their first year. Third, the research questions required the researcher to collect information in the field about beginning secondary science teachers in their natural setting, the classroom. Fourth, the data consisted of observation and interview which were ns and intuitive understandings gained in beginning secondary science teachers, their beliefs, goals, and purposes of science instruction and their preferred instructional strategies.

PAGE 45

45 Since several teachers were observed and interviewed to learn about their orientations to and their conceptions of teaching science, the multiple case study methodology was chosen. Multiple case studies are used where there are several cases which are fully described from the data, collected and analyzed, then cross-case analysis is done of the similarities and differences between cases (Merriam, 1998). This type of study tends to enhance the generalizability and external validity of the findings. The case in this collective study was a group of teachers. It also needs to be about a specific person or phenomena, otherwise known as a bounded system (Stake, 1995). An attempt was made to select study participants for this research on the basis of maximum variations sampling where the researcher looked for teachers with the widest possible range of characteristics (Merriam, 1998) like type of certification, different teaching environment, prior teaching experience, and so on. These differing characteristics gave the study variety and balance, while also allowing the researcher to learn about the phenomena being studied (Stake, 1995). Due to the paucity of available candidates, selection was made on their status as beginning secondary science teachers and willingness to be part of the study. It was fortuitous that due to the wide range of experiences, content specialty, different teaching environment and type teaching certification of the participants this balance occurredwithout using sampling. Qualitative research has a strong emphasis on interpretation rather than generalizations. Since there are only a few elements within the case study, they are traditionally not used to make generalizations. The researcher doing fieldwork attempts to record what happens objectively but also makes meaning of what is seen. Observation was then focused to look for support or non-support of this meaning-making and finally, assertions or conclusions to the meanings of the data

PAGE 46

46 collected are found. Conclusions like inferences in science are the mixture of what we observe, what we know and what we believe (Stake, 1995). Case study data like data from other methodologies can come from artifacts, interviews, observation and other documentation. The design consists of five parts: research questions, propositions, units of analysis, showing how the data are linked to the propositions and criteria that allows interpretations of the findings (Zucker, 2001). My unit of analysis was beginning secondary science teachers in their first classroom assignment so my case study goal was to describe the of science as fully as possible. To do this I observed patterns in the data, clustered like data together, made metaphors and comparisons, noted relations between teachers, built a logical chain of evidence for what I saw, and made conceptual/theoretical coherence of the data (Zucker, 2001). Beginning science teachers are relatively inexperienced with teaching in real-world classrooms, having in most cases spent only limited time observing and instructing students under the cognizance of a cooperating teacher. They have attained a science content degree in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy or other related science fields from an accredited college or university. To be certified as a secondary science teacher, teacher candidates must have successfully completed educational pedagogy and curriculum course work. Graduates of a certified teacher education program have experienced classroom observation and teaching in a protected environment under the direction of cooperating teachers and college administrators whereas teachers from alternative certification programs have content knowledge but may have little pedagogical knowledge and limited classroom observation and practice teaching depending on the program (Cochran-Smith, 2002). Both groups of teachers have their

PAGE 47

47 first opportunity to prepare and teach meaningful learning activities in their own classroom to explain science content knowledge to groups of adolescents. Developing the techniques needed to teach a subject requires the development of pedagogical content knowledge, some conception of science teaching, and an orientation or orientations to teaching that guide their practice. Setting and Participants All of the beginning teachers earned a Bachelor of Science degree in a range of subjects, that is, sports medicine, biology, ecology, and biology/earth science education. They all started their first year of teaching in a public or private K-12 school in the fall of the year this study was begun. Six individuals beginning their first year of teaching secondary earth and space science, chemistry, anatomy and physiology, or biology were selected. Only one of the participants was from a traditional university-based teacher certification program. The remaining five teachers of becoming alternatively certified through the state or schools. One of the five participants obtaining his alternate certification passed his certification exams prior to starting his first year as a science teacher. The researcher focused on four science disciplines, that is, secondary earth and space science, chemistry, anatomy and physiology, and biology as they corresponded with p Additionally, finding one traditionally certified and five alternately certified beginning secondary science teachers allowed me to examine the similarities and differences related to their route to teacher preparation. To locate beginning secondary science teachers, local principals, school boards, and university professors were contacted to develop a pool of possible candidates. Participants were selected based upon their willingness to participate in the study.

PAGE 48

48 Gaining access Secondary school systems have only a finite number of new science teachers and of these, few chose to be participants in my study. In order to develop a sizeable pool of participants I elected to expand my search to as many counties near my location as I needed to find the requisite number of participants for my study. Each county had specific requirements for access to their teachers. County One County One is the home to seventy-three schools teaching 29,108 students and within the county there are twenty-five elementary schools, eight middle schools, seven high schools, and fifteen special needs schools (FL DOE, 2005a). I contacted the Science Coordinator for County One who provided me with a list of potential teacher candidates. The Director of Research, Evaluation, and Testing for this county informed me that the school district was the location for over 300 studies per year since a large research intensive university resides within the district. He made all determinations concerning researchers allowed access to County One and required a completed permission form for each requested school (see Appendix F), an approved IRB request and IRB protocol (see Appendix A), and one copy of any instrument to be used. Ten days after receiving all documentation, the director approved the request. Next he sent each form to the named school to allow principals to determine whether they would allow a researcher access to their teachers. Of the six schools requested, only three principals responded, one conditionally, and of the four teachers within the schools, only two agreed to the study. Both teachers were in rural schools, one to the north of the county and one to the south.

PAGE 49

49 County Two To the southeast of County One and adjoining it County Two was located, approximately twice as large as large as county one and with one medium size city and many small townships. The school system included twenty-seven elementary schools, seven middle schools, one combined elementary and middle school, seven high schools, three charter schools, and fourteen special needs schools with a total of 39,650 students enrolled (FL DOE, 2005b). I contacted the Director of Guidance and Assessment by phone who requested a project summary of my research study and a copy of my approved Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocol. Subsequent email communications wherein the materials were sent and received resulted in approval being given for the study. The director then requested written documentation from my supervising professor indicating that the study of beginning teachers was approved. Contacting the senior secretary of the department at my university, I attained the signed dissertation proposal form (see Appendix F) and faxed it to the director. Subsequently I sent a summary of my plan for teachers and their principals and a letter of informed consent. The director requested copies of whatever written communications I planned to use with principals and teachers. I contacted the principals via email using the same project summary given to the director but tailored to each school (see Appendix F), and followed-up with phone contact to attain access. The Director of Guidance and Assessment for County Two also offered the services of their personnel department to create a database to identify any first-year secondary science teachers that they had. I received a written authorization from the director that my study was approved in her county and two weeks later purchased a database of the beginning secondary science teachers in their county. The list included the names of seventeen teachers as well as those with temporary three-year certification. Of these, thirteen teachers from nine middle

PAGE 50

50 schools and high schools were in their first year of instruction. I emailed and phoned the principals from all of the schools with new teachers but was refused access by three of them citing worries that their new teachers were busy teaching and attaining certification and had no time for participation in the study. Principals from an additional three schools never returned emails or phone calls. Two teachers from the remaining schools refused to participate and one dropped the study after the initial interview explaining that his large workload prohibited participation. I was able to secure one participant from the public schools in this county. County Three I found one principal in County Three who wanted me to meet his two new teachers and invite them to participate in my study. County three is a rural county in central Florida with five elementary schools, two junior high/middle schools, one combined middle and high school, two high schools, three charter schools, an adult school and three other non-specified schools with a total of 7,022 students enrolled (FL DOE, 2005c). I contacted both teachers via email and one contacted me, becoming the fourth teacher in my study. Private Schools in Counties Two and Four Finally it was suggested to me that I might find likely candidates for the study among teachers at private schools in the area. I developed a list of private schools in four surrounding counties, preparing to widen the search to more outlying counties if necessary. County Two had several schools with religious affiliation. When I contacted a well-established private protestant school, the headmaster suggested I contact a recently built local Catholic high school where he believed there were two new science teachers. I contacted the high school and was given permission to contact their two beginning secondary science teachers. One teacher accepted my invitation to join the study making five participants. Canvassing the private schools in County

PAGE 51

51 Four I located my sixth teacher candidate at a non-sectarian private academy. The entire process of finding study participants took five months. Data Collection In this qualitative research study, the researcher is the primary instrument, acting as interviewer and participant observer of the participants, the secondary science teachers as they developed experience teaching in their first year. The research questions presented earlier in this chapter required the researcher to collect information about beginning secondary science teachers in their natural setting, the classroom. Data from this study provided data about the beginning secondary science teachers, their beliefs, goals, and stated purposes of science instruction and their preferred instructional strategies. The data collected consisted of observations and interviews. Data were interpreted within s allowed the researcher to use the data data sources used were semi-structured interviews, unstructured observation, and researcher field and analytical notes. The researcher strategically selected to collect data from participants after they taught for one month to allow them to settle into teaching and resolve administrative issues. Data was collected for each participant over a one-week period at the start of a teaching unit. This Due to access issues and teacher convenience, beginning secondary science teachers were interviewed and observed between the periods of October 2005 through June 2006 (see Appendix G).

PAGE 52

52 Interviews The interview was was largely dependent on the skill of the interviewer (Patton, 2002) the researcher needed to be experienced in interviewing or have a well-structured interview protocol. Semiand unstructured interviews encouraged participants to respond open-endedly and allowed the researcher to look for in-depth understanding of the experiences of these individuals (Scott & Morrison, 2005). For this study, the researcher combined approaches, and used the standardized open-ended interview for the initial interview and a semi-structured interview guide for post-observation interviews (Table 3-1). Table 3-1. Explanation of interview types. Type and timing of contact Type of interview Purpose First interview at beginning of s tudy (90 minutes) Second interview after first observation (30 to 60 minutes) Third interview after second observation (30 minutes) Fourth interview after third observation (30 minutes) Final interview after last observation (30 to 60 minutes) Standardiz ed open ended i nterview Standardized open ended interview and/ or interview guide Interview guide Interview guide Interview guide Explain study and sign informed consent Ask prepared questions on participant background, goals for tea ching, etc. CTS task interview to conceptions of teaching science Probe teacher practices for rationale for instruction and preferred teaching techniques Probe teacher practices for rationale for instruction and preferred teaching techniques Probe teacher practices for rationale for instruction and preferred teaching techniques Probe teacher practices for rationale for instruction and preferred teaching techniques

PAGE 53

53 The standardized open-ended interview was used for the first interview and exact interview questions were included so that the study could be duplicated. The six participants were asked the same questions and their responses were compared (Patton, 2002). The initial interview (Table 3-the beginning of a new teaching unit. It included prepared questioTask for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science (1989). The second interview (Table 3-1) scheduled after the first observation, was used to gather to teaching science as well as probing for information about teacher practices while seeking clarifications from the earlier interview or from observations. Three shorter interviews (Table 3-1) using interview guides were conducted after each observation to probe teachers about their practices as it related to instruction and preferred teaching techniques. Interview guides were developed for the postobservation interviews to provide a framework of topics or subject areas that allowed the interviewer to freely probe interesting statements, explore diverging avenues of information, and ask questions that clarified instances viewed during observation. To focus the topics being asked and elicit clear responses to each question, the researcher developed a clear set of interview questions (Appendices B through D), using special terms or acronyms employed by participants in a particular setting, the language of the participants, and avoiding the use of labels to describe programs or events (Patton, 2002). The reviewer asked secondary science teacher participants a range of questions from their academic background,

PAGE 54

54 opinions, values, feelings, and observations. Patton (2002) suggested that questions be sequenced starting with those about present behaviors, activities, and experiences designed to encourage the respondent to answer in greater detail. After eliciting an experience, the researcher asked the interviewee what his/her feelings or opinions were about the experience to allow them to fully describe the phenomena. As advised by Patton (2002), knowledge questions were asked as follow-up information to minimize threatening participants. Also there were a minimum of background and interview questions to avoid boring respondents or making them uncomfortable. Task for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science Hewson and Hewson (1989) felt that teacher thinking about teaching students and conceptions of teaching science they developed a series of teaching and learning scenarios tailored for specific science subjects. Subsequently they asked thirty teachers examine each scenario to determine whether they felt teaching was occurring within each of the scenarios (Hewson & Hewson, 1989) initial CTS. The task protocol with variations for physics, chemistry, and earth/space science, (Appendix F) consisted of a set of ten scenarios depicting instances, non-instances, and ambiguous instances of science teaching and learning. The scenarios gave the participant a context for their responses which was practical. In addition, it required them to focus only on instances of science teaching in a classroom (Hewson & Hewson, 1989). Participants determined

PAGE 55

55 what is or is not teaching and learning and gave their reasons for their stance based on three questions: In your view, is there science teaching happening here? If you cannot tell, what else would you need to know in order to be able to tell? What would this information tell you? Please give reasons for your answer. for your answer. The responses participants made to the task protocol assisted the researcher in determining their conceptions for teaching science. All responses were audiotaped. desirable characteristics for my study. First, by providing scenarios which give instances and non-instances of science teaching, it provided a realistic structure for participant responses. Second, since the scenarios were specifically of science teaching, this constrained the participant to focus unambiguously on science teaching instead of management or other prevalent issues in the classroom. Third, the scenarios did not specify what was important or necessary to attend to but left this decision up to the respondent. Finally, using an interview allowed participants to have more thoughtful answers that reflected their ideas and they could revise earlier statements if desired (Hewson & Hewson, 1989). There are some limitations of the Task for Identifying Conceptions of Science (Hewson & value participants place on them. The ambiguity of each task varies and allows each participant to construct meaning of each task in their own way. Asking for participants to explain the reasons for their answers only presents teacher thinking about an instructional event, not how they act within a classroom (Hewson et al., 1995). Due to these limitations, Hewson (1989)

PAGE 56

56 the task. During the first or, in two cases, second interview, I used Hewson and HewsTask for Identifying Conceptions of Teaching Science. Each of the six beginning secondary science teachers read the ten scenarios and responded to each scenario based on the above-mentioned three questions. All responses were audiotaped for later analysis and were used to science. Observations Observation was used to examine the classroom setting of each participant as well as teacher-student and student-student interactions to provide insight into determining each for science instruction. Some advantages of direct observation included allowing the researcher to better understand and catch the context of classroom interactions, see things that might be missed by the participants or they would be unwilling to share during interviews, and to give the researcher personal experience with the classroom setting (Patton, 2002). This was important to orientation to teaching science and conception of teaching science. When observation is used for research purposes, it must meet four conditions, that is, 1) serve a research purpose, 2) be deliberately planned, 3) be systematically recorded and 4) be subjected to checks to determine that it meets standards for validity and reliability (Merriam, 1998). The observer needed training and mental preparation for systematic observation. One of the most important skills was to write descriptively. Observation was used to provide a check on other data collection, to see things participants may not notice, to provide the context of a situation and specific incidents, as well as noting things a subject may not want to report on (Merriam, 1998).

PAGE 57

57 Five dimensions of observational methods determine how the researcher will conduct fieldwork. Each dimension of fieldwork, that is, the role of observer(s), type of perspective, who will observe, how much disclosure about the study will be shared, how many observations, and their focus is arranged on a continuum demonstrating the variations possible in observing participants in a study and the researcher needs to decide on each dimension (Patton, 2002). This study required the observer to be an onlooker in the classroom, to scrutinize the actual events of instruction. The researcher was an observer, giving each participant full disclosure of the aims of the research by fully explaining the study prior to observation and allowing the participant to comment on researcher observations during subsequent interviews. Observations were conducted in classes, during the fall or early in the spring semester of the first year of their teaching depending on when the participant started a new science teaching unit. Time frames for observations were determined by teacher schedule and availability but occurred during the first week of a new teaching unit. Due to the difficulty of finding teachers for the study, issues that interviewed and observed late in the first semester or early in the second semester, allowing them more time to negotiate classroom management issues and focus on their subject matter instruction. The school setting was observed by describing the physical environment of the school and classroom in rich detail. This was accomplished by the researcher spending time before or after a particular interview or observation, or in some cases prior to or after the school day writing down observations of the classroom and school. All participants eagerly showed me their school and classroom, and allowed ample time for both written and audiotaped observations. Patton (2002) proposed the social environment of the classroom was best described by looking at patterns of

PAGE 58

58 student organization into groups and subgroups, frequency and quality of teacher-student and student-student interactions, and decision-making patterns within the learning setting and this was accomplished by the researcher. He further suggested that field workers pay close attention to informal interactions and unplanned activities to help clarify phenomena happening in each classroom. These interactions and activities were not only observed but also incorporated as questions that were asked of participants during their subsequent interviews to gain a clear understanding of the interactions and activities and participants beliefs about them. Data Analysis There were two types of data analysis which occurred. First, the Task for Determining Conceptions of Teaching Science (Hewson & Hewson, 1989) was analyzed using the analysis scheme the authors devised with biology and chemistry scenarios developed by the authors and earth/space science scenarios developed by the researcher (see Appendix E). Second, all other interview and observation data was analyzed using thematic network analysis (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Analysis of CTS Task Data During the first interview for four participants and the second interview for two of the participants, the CTS task was performed. Data from the task was analyzed using the analysis scheme proposed by Hewson and Hewson (1989) modified by Attride-network: 1. The task transcript was read and all statements by each respondent which explicated their view recorded. Specific words of the respondent were used when possible for accuracy. 2. Every respondent statement was placed into one of seven categories that were suggested by the data, modifying the six categories that Hewson and Hewson (1989) suggested: TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS: beliefs participants hold about characteristics that

PAGE 59

59 TEACHING: beliefs participants hold about teaching LEARNING: beliefs participants hold about learning LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS: beliefs participants hold about characteristics that CONDITIONS FOR INSTRUCTION: what a participant believes are necessary conditions in order to teach effectively PREFERRED INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: a teacheand practices for successful science instruction CONCEPTION OF SCIENCEteaching science, that is, nature of science, learning, learner characteristics, rationale for instruction or preferred instructional techniques (Hewson & Hewson, 1989). 3. data. The categoas there were few if any statements which fell in this category. Any statement was placed into as many categories as it applied to. 4. Statements that seemed to concern similar features were grouped together and written in a single sentence summary. 5. These summaries were used to (Hewson & Hewson, 1989). 6. science to guide in writing the summaries for clarity and to tie the CTS analysis with the thematic network analysis technique. Analysis of Interview and Observation Data Analysis of interview and observation data other than that collected by the Task for Determining Conceptions of Teaching Science (Hewson & Hewson, 1989) were accomplished using thematic analysis (Attride-Stirling, 2001). This type of analysis attempts to interpret text to find the themes within it at three different levels, basic, organizing, and global. After the three thematic levels are extracted from the data they are put into a concept web or thematic network which is described and summarized in the report (Attride-Stirling, 2001). The goal of thematic

PAGE 60

60 networks is to produce concept maps which summarize the main themes within text being analyzed. Thematic networks were used as an analytic tool because they graphically illustrate relationships among themes within the research. Although thematic networks were relatively a new analytic tool, it was used for both critical ethnographic research about breastfeeding (Dykes, 2005), and a descriptive qualitative study that focused on identifying critical issues in rural hospitals in Australia (Kenny & Duckett, 2004). To begin the analysis, all interviews and observations were carefully transcribed to text. To aid in the transcription, participants were asked during the first interview to read a fifteen to twenty minute text that was used to train voice recognition software to their particular voice. All participants were willing to perform this task and further wore a headset with attached microphone which recorded their responses to all questions into a digital recorder. A second audio recorder with directional microphone also recorded researcher questions and participant responses. computer where they underwent analysis. The researcher used Dragon Naturally Speaking 7.0 voice recognition software and a Sony SX25 digital recorder to record participant speech for a high level of compatibility as was suggested by the software manufacturer. The text generated by the voice recognition software was then edited by the researcher using an audio transcriber and the backup audiotape. This allowed faster transcription of the interview data, in most cases cutting transcription time in half. Observation was made using a special device called an IO2 pen which allowed the researcher to write observations on a digitized pad in regular ink. The writing was also recorded digitally in the pen and was uploaded into the computer where a software program translated the

PAGE 61

61 handwriting into text using optical character recognition (OCR) software. The text that was generated by the OCR software was then checked against the handwritten data on the digitized pad and edited for correctness. Using the IO2 pen allowed the researcher to unobtrusively observe classroom interactions and avoid transcription errors associated with writing observations and then later transcribing by providing a recording and transcription environment within one device. Next, the text was examined and coded and a codebook developed. Codes were examined and deconstructed into words and phrases under a basic theme. As each piece of data was examined it was compared against the initial themes of the last piece of data (Merriam, 1998). The basic theme was the lowest theme and came directly from the text found in observations, interviews, and other transcribed data. Next, the basic themes were grouped together into a middle order category called the organizing theme. Its role was to both organize the basic themes (Attride-Stirling, 2001, p. 389). Third, global themes, the categories which made a statement about the data were formed from gathering together group sets of organizing themes. Global theme-level themes (Attride-Stirling, 2001)explanation of the process of grouping categories into larger headings thereby identifying a small number of manageable themes. At this point, a thematic network was developed using symbols, arrows and text to illustrate each global theme and its corresponding organizing and basic themes. One thematic network was created for each global theme. Once the thematic network or networks were

PAGE 62

62 constructed, the researcher described the contents of each network using text segments to illustrate the description and underlying patterns began to appear (Attride-Stirling, 2001). The thematic networks were used as the researcher re-read the data within the context of the three levels of theme. Summarization of the thematic network(s) brought out principle themes and patterns in the data. The researcher brought together deductions used in summarizing all networks and interprets patterns that had been illuminated in the data (Attride-Stirling, 2001). The findings from this research were a case study ic description and analysis of a bounded phenomenon such as a program, an institution, a person, a (Merriam, 1998, p. 27). The case study design seemed appropriate due to the nature of research questions asked. This topic was suited to a case study as it was particular, or focused on the phenomenon of beginning secondary scienof teaching science and orientations to teaching science. Case studies were descriptive and findings provided rich, thick description of the situation under study. They illuminated the understanding of those who read the study, possibly triggering discovery of new meaning, extending experience, or confirming that which is already known (Merriam, 1998). A complete analysis of the data in each case study should provide a thick description of a group of beginning secondary science teachers conceptions of and orientations toward teaching science as they progress through the beginning of their first year teaching. Subjectivity Statement Qualitative research demands that the researcher is the instrument in the study being conducted (Creswell, 2003). Thus, because data collection and analysis are potentially influenced by researcher bias, the researcher must explicate any experiences and beliefs that could affect the study and the interpretation of the findings.

PAGE 63

63 I graduated from a university teacher education program as a secondary science teacher and have a strong background in chemistry, geology, astronomy and physical science. I taught general science, physical science, chemistry 1, honors chemistry, chemistry 2, and integrated science for seven years prior to commencing doctoral studies. During my doctoral studies I instructed pre-service elementary teachers in science methods, co-taught a graduate course on the foundations of elementary science and presented research on teaching, using educational technology in science, and elementary science education at regional and national conferences. Based on my background, I felt a strong connection to the study participants having shared both their science content focus and many of the experiences they encountered as first year teachers. This allowed me to quickly develop rapport with all of the participants in the study but may have caused participants to assume that I knew and understood their perspective in interviews without making it explicit. I became interested in orientations to teaching science as well as conceptions of teaching science as a construct of teacher thinking while studying pedagogical content knowledge for my comprehensive exams. As a researcher, one of my interests is the lack of research into beginning science teachers thinking about instructional decisions on teaching science. While there have been studies on pre-service and seasoned in-service elementary and secondary teachers, there is a paucity of research on first year unsupervised teachers, their thoughts about preferred instructional styles and their rationale for teaching science. One of my hardest tasks during the analysis of the data and writing of this document was to rather rely on the data to illustrate their particular CTS or OTS. To separate myself as much as possible from the data, I used the following strategies:

PAGE 64

64 transcribed the interview data with pauses, exact terminology, and vocal inflections to ensure accurate transcription, read and analyzed the data and wrote first draft of manuscript, asked participants to member check their data for accuracy, re-read and re-analyzed the data before making modifications, asked independent reviewers to proofread the manuscript, read data and checked analysis of data a third time prior to final revision of the manuscript. It is my hope that these strategies assisted me in removing as many subjective judgments as humanly possible. Validity It is crucial for the validity of a research project to ensure that a true picture of the phenomena under study is honestly and fully reported. This is achieved through participant observation, in-depth interviewing, detailed description and case studies (Patton, 2002). Validity in qualitative research is checking to see whether the findings of the study are accurate. To accomplish this task the researcher triangulated several different sources of data, namely observation and interviews, used member-checking to ensure accuracy of the findings, clarified the bias she brought to the study, and used rich, thick description to elucidate her findings (Creswell, 2003). Credibility extent on the skill, competence, and rigor of the person doing fieldworkas well as things going

PAGE 65

65 hopefully made her/his biases explicit and has been open to data that supported more than one explanation of phenomena for the research to be considered credible (Glesne, 1999). Additionally the researcher has eight years of education and training as a researcher. She has conducted action research in her science classroom during a three-year period and reported the research. During the four years preceding this study she has been observer, interviewer, and analyst in several studies. One study dealt with elementary education while two others investigated educational technology use in science methods classrooms. Each study resulted in presentation of the data and several articles written from their findings. Additionally rigor requires the researcher to look for data which support alternative strong supporting evidence for alternative ways of representing the data or contrary explanations Trustworthiness Trustworthiness or rigor of the study could be adversely affected by observer bias, that is, certain characteristics of observers that could possibly bias what they observe. To prevent this, the researcher observed and interviewed each participant five times at respective school sites. These interviews and observations in addition to analytical notes generated large amounts of data. Finally the researcher wrote detailed field notes which included reflections on my subjectivity (Wallen & Fraenkel, 2001).

PAGE 66

66 CHAPTER 4 SETTING THE STAGE: INTRODUCING THE TEACHERS AND EXAMINING THEIR CONCEPTIONS OF AND ORIENTATIONS TO TEACHING SCIENCE Background Geertz (1973) believed thick description provided the foundation for explaining the statements and actions of participants being observed and interviewed. Qualitative analysis and comprehend a particular event, ritual, custom, idea, or whatever is insinuated as background informa-case ntations to teaching science. This chapter introduces the six teachers I chose for my study and the setting of conceptions of teaching science followed by their orientation to teaching science within their defined role as new science teacher in each section. My study was exploratory due to the small number of participants and the inequality of participants in each of my two categories, namely one participant traditionally certified, and five in the process of becoming alternatively certified. The exploratory nature of the study allowed me to describe my participants and look at their differences and similarities without generalizing from these descriptions. For each individual I studied I attempted to give the school context, a summary of their conceptions of teaching science CTS, and a summary of their OTS. This permits the reader to examine the different science teaching conceptions and orientations to teaching science held by these teachers and to draw their own inferences.

PAGE 67

67 CTS. The develoreflection to develop and is not in the scope of this study. I was only able to spend a small period of time with each participant, observing a week in the life of each science teacher in only a few different classes. Most of my participants taught more than one subject but to better observe their teaching strategies and how these supported their conceptions of teaching I chose to observe them in one subject over different classes. This provided a snapshot of their CTS and OTS at a point in time during their first year of teaching. These beginning secondary science teachers were my primary unit of analysis so I focused on the case studies of the six individuals in their various settings. Each of the teachers was unique in their background and prior experiences and each took an individual path to teaching. The introduction, school and classroom setting, conception of and orientation to teaching science for each participant are presented below. Patrick Introduction and School Setting Patrick was in his late twenties, working toward alternative certification and a first year secondary science teacher at a local rural high school in the north corner of County One. He had gree in sports medicine from a university in the northeast United States and took two education classes as an undergraduate in addition to his science courses. For a few years after attaining his degree Patrick was a fitness coach for his alma mater and later a director of sports and education for a prestigious university in his area for a few years. As part of his coaching duties Patrick had to teach undergraduate weight lifting and exercise science classes for two semesters. During his term as a director, Patrick started teaching physical education classes part-time and found he enjoyed it. This led to his working two days a week at a private school instructing elementary pupils in science activities.

PAGE 68

68 to cancel classes and relocate to the south when his wife was accepted as a doctoral student at a large university in Florida. I asked Patrick when he decided to become a teacher: ell I [always] knew I was going the teaching route. I just did not know this early. whatever else needed to be done. But upon moving down here it was basically the only -153). Patrick searched for a coaching job at the local university but found these positions filled by local graduates. After being told teachers were desperately needed he decided to apply, and took and passed all of the Florida teacher subject area exams including those certifying him to teach secondary biology and grades five through nine general science courses. chool was located in the town of Country Meadows in the northeast section of County One. Country Meadows has a population of roughly 6800 people, and all the amenities of a small town including a picturesque Main Street. Spring High School educates students in grades nine through twelve and has 1,288 students who are predominantly white (74%). The next largest student ethnicity is African-American (19%) and there is a small Hispanic and multiracial population (5% and 1% respectively). Twenty-five percent of the students are being provided free or reduced lunches. Sixteen percent of the teachers were in their beginning year of teaching and teacher education levels range from bdoctorate degrees. Classroom Setting high school was a s style one story building of cinder block construction. There were two main buildings and five long separate buildings containing classrooms radiating out from them attached by covered breezeways and walkways. The next to the last building was

PAGE 69

69 the science wing with at the end of the wing. The cream colored walls of his classroom were filled with science posters and paraphernalia. Against the wall right by the door he had a periodic table of the elements and several posters, one of which had a title which proclaimed nphysical training and electrolytes and minerals that you lose in your body when exercising. Three student-made posters on mitosis hung on the side walls and a large poster detailing research presented at a conference suspended on the front wall to the left. There were jars of pickled brains and other types of organs of the body on a bookcase to the right upon entering the room. Books on anatomy and physiology and the skull of a bison were placed on the shelves as well as a TV to the left. An overhead projector was placed on a rolling cart on the right. He had a large chart of a skeleton on the wall and a mounted skeleton against the rear wall and both appeared well used. desk was up front, mounted on a dais and also used as a demonstration table. A stool sat by the desk and a chair was placed behind it. Another desk sat to the left of the mounted one and held his computer monitor, mouse, and keyboard as well as a mounted microscope display hooked up to the LCD projector on a cart in the middle of the room. The student desks in his classroom were aligned in rows pointed toward the dry erase board mounted behind his demonstration desk on the dais. The back and side walls of the classroom had sinks with running water mounted into a slate tabletop that runs the length of both of the walls. Stools were placed below the tabletops at intervals. The back wall had several mounted cabinets where science equipment was stored. At the rear of the room in the corner by a window emergency equipment was mounted including goggles, a fire blanket, a shower, an eyewash station, and a paper towel dispenser. There was an area rug mounted on the floor of the room with a 2-foot area between the rug and wall all around

PAGE 70

70 the room. The room looked worn but organized, neat and clean. Additionally there were four aquariums on a long table on the side of the room. this was an elective science course. He shared with me that many students took this course as a third science course because they were interested in the body or planned to continue studies in medicine of some kind. The classes I observed had between twenty and twenty-four students in each. Conception for Teaching Science Hewson and Hewson (1988) discussed an appropriate conception of teaching science wherein science teachers should be convinced that science was a particular type of teaching different from others and had its own set of tasks and activities geared to help specific students learn a specific content. They felt that teachers needed to know their students and understand different ways to teach for concept understanding (Hewson & Hewson, 1988). Patrick had a teacher-centered conception for teaching science which is focused on the teacher as authority figure in the learning process. Figure 4-1 consists of his conceptions of the teacher and teaching, specific instructional strategies, science, learning and the learner, and various conditions for instruction. Teachers and teaching Patrick saw the teacher as the source of knowledge and believed a teacher needed formal training and experience in order to teach effectively. He felt strongly that someone with advanced education could teach at any level as relates to his comment about a teacher lecturing to a group of first-165). Teaching was described by him as asking a question, leading discussion and using specific

PAGE 71

71 Figure 4-1.

PAGE 72

72 o lead students in learning. He -213). and either look it up or recall information that y-215). Patrick felt that something in front of you and asks a questionprior-211). Pata little more lead to get the questions rolling He believed students had little prior knowledge and felt he needed to prepare them for a topic (PCI: 194-195). Additionally Patrick teaching (PCI: 251). Patrick thought learning could occur from students viewing media if it was good quality (PCI: 105-106). Instructional strategies Patrick blearning going on just -186). He felt visual aids were some sort of visual aid just to show where it is happening-extensively but there needed to be some sort of visual aid to help the student process the material. ight not be able to visualize it without some other aid or whether I say you know, open to page hundred and two in your book. Follow along in the diagram. I mean if -190). Because of these beliefs all of his beginning lessons on a topic were done on PowerPoint and presented to students with film clips and diagrams from the book. Patrick also used

PAGE 73

73 do a little something before hand or even just a worksheetsomething (a human outline with the muscles sketched in and labeled, a poster of the articulated skeleton of a rodent or other prey creature from an owl pellet) in order to practice the knowledge that they learned from the original lectures. Conceptions of science Patrick saw the learning of science as a progression of the content, and viewed learning as being built upon prior knowledge given by the teacher (PCI: 194-195). When looking at a question of particular knowledge a student was learning on digestion he viewed it in terms of -183). Science content was extremely important to Patrick. In his anatomy and physiology class it was essential that his students know every bone of the human body and he spent much time during the first semester ensuring they had learned this information. It baffled him that it took theory-laden and human-constructed. In the movie Medicine Man he viewed science as being the ups and downs of you know, global trade encroaching in on som-126). Learning and learners Learning for Patrick was an active experience where students performed tasks in order to learn about the world. He envisioned students learning by themselves, from their peers, and by teachers and others but always in a task-oriented environment. In a particular scenario he saw

PAGE 74

74 transfats on-152). Later he expressed his feelings about task-oriented learning by his statement: ounds together products they started with-260). He separated learning from teaching in that he thought a teacher was needed for teaching. Patrick attempt to understand something-252). Patrick visualized learners as needing to be motivated to learn especially away from the teacher. He viewed them as having little prior knowledge and felt the need for students to have specific tasks assigned to them in order to promote the right conditions for learning. He stated (PCI: 194-could be accomplished (PCI: 49-50). Conditions for instruction A condition for instruction Patrick talked about for teaching to be accomplished was that the materials be reliable, that is, from an accepted educational source or approved by the teacher. probably going to get a lot of information from it. It is [know] what type of info-133). His major concerns about the information students were receiving was its reliability and that it be unbiased or present both sides to allow students to have a balanced understanding (PCI: 106-107).

PAGE 75

75 Orientation to Teaching Science about the purposes and goals for teaching science at a particKrajcik, and Borko (1999). Patrick had a combination academic rigor/didactic orientation to teaching science (Figure 4-2) that was driven by his goals for his students and learner characteristics. His OTS was also reflected in his rationale for t