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Animated Commercials' Effects on Low-Effort Routes to Persuasion: Classical Conditioning Approach

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ANIMATED COMMERCIALS EFFECTS ON LOW-EFFORT ROUTES TO PERSUASION: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING APPROACH By CHANG HYUN JIN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by ChangHyun Jin

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I dedicate this dissertation to my pa rents, Jeong-Ho Jin, Pan-Soon Kang who have made me what I am.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It was a long way to be Dr. Jin. It was a gr eat opportunity to start a new challenge in my life. It was not the end but just the beginning to pursue the endless knowledge. To be continued to open a new door of advertising area… I would like to express extreme gratitude to my committee chair, Dr. Jon D. Morris. His guideline, interest, and selfless donation of time are what made this dissertation possible. Dr. Jorge Villegas has been partic ularly helpful and supportive in his capacity as my cochair, research partner, and inform al mentor. Their teaching, guidance, support, and friendship, during my doctoral studies a nd throughout the writing of this dissertation, were invaluable. I am also gr ateful to Dr. Marilyn Robert s, Dr. Chan-Hoan Cho and Dr. Ronald W. Ward, for help from the idea development through the completion of this dissertation. In the process of writing my dissertati on, I was very nostalgic. Yearning for my home and my family always enabled me co mplete the otherwise impossible dream of attaining this degree. I would lik e to express my heartfelt tha nks to my parents, Jeong-Ho Jin and Pan-Soon Kang, for giving me con tinuous support and motivation throughout the completion of this dissertation. I could not ha ve completed this study without the devoted and unconditional love of my parents, sisters, and brothers-in-law. I would also like to take this opportunity to tha nk Korean Communication Gators at the University of Florida, especially JangYul Kim and ChongMoo Woo, fo r their stimulating academic discussions and friendship throughout this Ph.D. experience.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................4 2.1 Historical Review of Animation .........................................................................4 2.2 Animation and Peripheral Processing Routes .....................................................5 2.3 Classical Conditioning ........................................................................................7 2.4 The Role of Contingency Awareness ……………………………....................11 2.5 The Influence of Involvement on Awareness ....................................................12 2.6 ELM and Involvement Issues.............................................................................13 2.7 Stimuli in FCB Grid Model ...............................................................................19 2.8 The Animated Commercials as a New Creative Platform.................................21 2.9 The Relationship between Animated Ads and Human Behavior ......................23 2.10 The Effect of Motion on Consumer Behavior..................................................26 2.11 Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions ...................................................................27 2.11.1 Cognition ……………………............................................................27 2.11.2 Affection ………………………………….........................................29 2.11.3 AdSAM: A Pictorial N on-Verbal Measure ………………………....31 2.11.4 Conation ………………………..........................................................32 2.12 Summary and Hypotheses................................................................................33 2.12.1 Experiment 1 ………...........................................................................34 2.12.2 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in Ads...............................41 2.12.3 Experiment 2 ……………………………….......................................42 2.12.4 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in C.C...............................46 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................49

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vi 3.1 Overview of Experimental Design ....................................................................49 3.1.1 Experiment 1 …………………….........................................................49 3.1.2 Pilot Study ……………………...........................................................50 3.1.3 Prestest the Animated Commercial Stimuli ……………………..........50 3.1.4 Subjects ……………………….............................................................52 3.1.5 Procedure …..…....................................................................................53 3.1.6 Experimental Manipulation ..................................................................54 3.1.7 Variables and Measures .......................................................................55 3.1.8 Involvement Manipulation Check ........................................................57 3.2 Classical Conditioning Experiment 2.................................................................58 3.2.1 Conditioning Stimuli ............................................................................58 3.2.2 Pretest the Animated Commercial Stimuli ...........................................59 3.2.3 Filler Materials ......................................................................................59 3.2.4 Procedure …..…....................................................................................60 3.2.5 Experimental Manipulation ..................................................................61 3.2.6 Measure ………………………….…....................................................63 3.2.6.1 Contingency Awareness............................................................63 3.2.6.2 Involvement Manipulation Check.............................................65 3.2.6.3 Conditioning Requirement........................................................66 3.2.6.4 Reliability of Manipulation Check............................................66 3.2.6.5 Construct Validity ...................................................................67 3.2.6.6 Convergent Validity .................................................................67 4 RESULTS ..................................................................................................................68 4.1 Experiment 1 .....................................................................................................68 4.1.1 Testing of Hypotheses for An imated Commercial Effects ..................71 4.1.2 Results of Ad-Recall ……………........................................................79 4.1.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis in Experiment 1........................................82 4.1 Experiment 2 .....................................................................................................85 4.2.1 Results for the Classical Conditioning Experiment..............................85 4.2.2 Contingency Awareness ……………...................................................94 4.2.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis...................................................................97 5 DISCUSSION ..........................................................................................................108 5.1 Discussion for Experiment 1 ...........................................................................108 5.2 Discussion for Experiment 2 ...........................................................................115 5.3 General Discussion ..........................................................................................118 6 CONTRIBUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ...........................................................124 6.1 The Effect of Animated Commercials ............................................................124 6.2 The Effect of a C.C Method in Ads Research .................................................126 6.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research............................................128

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vii APPENDIX A MULTI GROUP CFA ANAL YSIS EQS PROGRAM ...........................................132 B QUESTIONNARE...................................................................................................134 C ANIMATION SNAPSHOTS ..................................................................................145 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................147 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................167

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viii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2-1. Types of Animation ...................................................................................................22 4-2. Means and Standard Deviations by Types of Ads......................................................69 4-3. MANOVA Results in Experiment 1...........................................................................69 4-4. Results of Between S ubjects in Experiment 1............................................................69 4-5. The Results of Mean Difference ................................................................................79 4-6. Ad Recall Crosstabulati on and Chi-Square Tests.......................................................81 4-7. Group Difference for Ad Recall in Experiment 1......................................................82 4-8. Logit Analsysis in Experiment 1................................................................................82 4-9. Variables in the Equation in L ogit Analsyis for Experiment 1..................................82 4-10. Correlations Matrix for Multi Group Path Analysis in Experiment 1......................84 4-11. Modification Indexes in Experiment 1.....................................................................85 4-12. Means and Standard Deviations of Experiment 2....................................................86 4-13. MANOVA Results in Experiment 2.........................................................................86 4-14. Results of Between Subjects in Experiment 2..........................................................87 4-15. Results of Mean Difference in C.C .........................................................................94 4-16. Analysis of Contingency Awareness .......................................................................96 4-17. Logit Analysis for Contingency Awareness.............................................................96 4-18. Variables in the Equation in Log it Analysis for Contingency Awareness...............96 4-19. Mean and S.D for Contingency Awareness .............................................................97 4-20. Contingency Effect on Attitude toward the Ads, Brand and PI...............................97

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ix 4-21. Correlations Matrix in C.C.....................................................................................102 4-22. Modification Indexes in C.C .................................................................................103 4-23. Correlations Matrix in Affection Model.................................................................104 4-24. Modification Indexes in Affection Model..............................................................104 4-25. Correlations Matrix in Hi gh and Low Involvement Group....................................106 4-26. Modification Indexes in High and Low Invovlement Group.................................106 4-27. Correlations Matrix in Affecti on Model High and Low Involvement...................107 4-28. Modification Indexes in Affecti on Model High and Low Involvement ................107

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x LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1. Emotional Response: Pleasure ...................................................................................70 4-2. Emotional Response: Arousal ...................................................................................70 4-3. Attitude toward the Commercial ...............................................................................71 4-4. Attitude toward the Advertised Brand .......................................................................71 4-5. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensi ons in types of Commercials .....................................84 4-6. Emotional Response: Pleasure in C.C .......................................................................87 4-7. Emotional Response: Arousal in C.C ........................................................................88 4-8. Attitude toward th e Commercial in C.C ....................................................................88 4-9. Attitude toward the Advertised Brand in C.C ...........................................................89 4-10. Purchase Intent in C.C .............................................................................................89 4-11. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Classical Conditioning ................................102 4-12. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Affection .....................................................104 4-13. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensi ons in High and Low Involvement ........................105 4-14. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Affection Model in Involvement ................107

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xi Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ANIMATED COMMERCIALS’ EFFECTS ON LOW-EFFORT ROUTES TO PERSUASION: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING APPROACH By ChangHyun Jin December 2006 Chair: Jon D. Morris Cochair: Jorge Villegas Major Department: Journalism and Communications The motivation of the study was to examine the effects of animation and its relationship to human cognitive and affectiv e processes by categorizing the different types of animation and live action featured in television commercials. This study also assessed the impact of animation in co mmercials through a series of classical conditioning experiments. A 3 (types of commercials (clay, cartoon and real human based commercials) x 2 (degree of involvement: hi gh versus low) between-subjects factorial design was employed on dependent vari ables in the first experiment. A 2 (experimental vs. control group) x 2 (high versus low involvement with the product) between subjects factorial design was performed on two di fferent conditions on linear combinations of all dependent vari ables in the second experiment. In this experiment, advertised products have been treated as a conditione d stimulus while the different types of animation have been tr eated as potential unconditioned stimuli.

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xii This study significantly contributes to our understanding of the relationship between animated commercials and human c ognitive and affective processing. Animated commercials can more effectively provide visu al demonstrations and recall testimonies for products. Also implication from this st udy is that animated ads should take into account the influence of lower-level periphera l processing routes on viewer persuasion. This study demonstrated that awareness l eads to favorable perception of the ad about the target attribute and favorable brand attitudes. The experiment in this study reexamined the degree to which awareness of the CS/US contingency plays a role in classical conditioning. The result of this study was that awareness is enhanced by involvement. In addition, involvement influe nces attitude forma tion through classical conditioning procedures with affect and belief formation acting as mediators. The study demonstrated benefits of the effective animat ed advertising stimuli. Through evidence for classical conditioning experiment, it can be pr ovided the opportunity to better understand how classical conditioning can be used as a framework for affecting attitude toward the brand. The study confirmed that the classical conditioning method would be more effectively working under the low level personal relevant involvement toward the stimuli. Understanding the relationship between animated commercials and how they stimulates viewers or effect their emoti onal responses and beha vioral expectations, provides valuable information to practitione rs who designs animation ads when they create effective animated commercials. Anim ation has become an important design tool in recent graphic interfaces because they motivate consumer actions and draw viewers’ attention to specific product features.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Animation has become the new creative a dvertising trend in today’s entertainment industry. As a character-based business, animation can expand the design of advertisements by applying digital content to di fferent media, such as the Internet, mobile phone technology, and television. However, li ttle research has been conducted on animated ad and animated characters as spoke spersons that identifie s whether or not they prove more effective at building consumer awareness about a product or service (Bush., Hair, & Bush 1983; Callcott & Lee 1994; Va n Auken & Lonial 1985). Some research suggests that animated commer cials can effectively provide visual demonstrations and verbal testimonies for a wide variety of products (Callcott & Lee 1994), while studies on motion (Detenber & Reeves 1996; Detenber, Simons, & Bennett 1998; Sundar & Sriran Kalyanaranman 2004) have focused on the re lationship between size and speed and emotional response, as well as explor ed animated objects on the Internet. The classical conditioning paradigm (P avlov, 1927) has been widely applied to the field of consumer behavior. Many rese archers have studied its implications on consumer behavior, and it has been adopted as a process rele vant to advertising (Allen & Janiszewski 1989; Allen & Ma dden 1985; Bierley, MacSweeney, & Vannieuwkerk 1985; Gorn 1982; Janiszewski & Warlop 1993; Nord & Peter 1980; Prilu ck & Till 1998, 2004; Rossiter & Percy 1980; Shimp et al. 1991). Classical conditioning suggests that positive attitudes towards an advertis ed product (conditioned stimul us) might develop through a product’s association in a commercial with other positive stimuli (unconditioned stimuli).

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2 Attractive colors, pleasant music, and humo r are examples of potential unconditioned stimuli used in commercials (Gorn 1982, p.94). Bierley at al. (1985) reported that generalization of the conditioned response to ot her, similar stimuli is typically found in classical conditioning experiments (p. 317). Thus, a classical conditioning paradigm could be of use when discussing animated commercials as a new form of stimuli. Purpose and Design of Study Given the little previous research on animation, this remains a relatively new genre in advertising design. This study aims to examine the effects of animation and its relationship to human cognitive and affectiv e processes by categorizing the different types of animation featured in television co mmercials. Furthermore, the motivation of this paper is to gain a better understa nding of how animation and the animated advertisement influence cognition, a ffection, and conation responses. Psychological studies on advertising a nd emotional responses typically identify the form and content of advertisements as cr itical factors in research. The majority of research on the effects of advertising note that it does influence cognitive and affective processes, but limited research exists on the cognitive and affective results of animated ads. In addition, previous research focuse d primarily on content analysis, and some studies attempted to examine the effects of animation on consumers. Combining these focuses would yield a tripartite study on the an imated ad and its relationship to consumer attitudes. This study will begin with a closer look at each of these variables to better explain this paper’s hypothesis regarding th e relationship between animated commercials and how they stimulate viewer s or affect their emotiona l responses and behavioral expectations.

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3 In this experiment, advertised products (products selected el ectronic products and soft drink goods, or different brands of electronic products and domestic goods) have been treated as conditioned stimuli while th e different types of animation have been treated as potential unconditioned stimuli. Th is study will assess the impact of animation in commercials through a series of classical conditioning experiments.

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4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Historical Review of Animation Theatrical cartoons appeared on television as early as 1930 and animated cartoons emerged by the early 1940s because of produc tion costs. In this period, animation was frequently seen on TV as a non-commercial, experiment medium. By that time, producers were trying to exercise a great deal of creative control on the animated genre (Cohen 1992). By the end of 2004, the world animation market was valued at US $24 million (NASSCOM 2002 Report). Roncarelli (2001) estimated the total va lue of global commercial computer animation production at $25.4 billion in 1999, and the industry continues to exhibit relatively strong growth. This growth has occu rred in advertising, movies, broadcasting, design engineering, games, location-based ente rtainment, and the Internet. Simon (2006) stressed that “animation offers advertising clients a powerful too l: The opportunity to showcase a product or service via a detailed virtual tour on the Internet.” (p. 25) For instance, FCB and the production company Perceptual Engineering recently merged live action and animation in a mental health awareness campaign highlighting the issues surrounding depression. This blended approach was seen as an effective way of getting inside people’s heads (Simon 2006, p.28). Animation, which offers entertainment as a form of visual art, has evolved into a character-based business with the potential to expand its base by offering digital content to media such as the Internet and mobile phones. In addition, the animation market has

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5 potential benefits, including the production of animated TV shows a nd movies, video title sales, and merchandise sales featuring anim ated characters. The advent of advanced technology in the 21st century has led to more develope d computer graphi cs that allow animation to extend into computer games, TV commercials, and blockbuster films. Originally, animation terminology referred to its medium as a means of creating a complete re-presentation of reality because an imation can create the true nature of what we are seeing in movies and TV because of its ability to fill the gaps when reality simply doesn’t look real enough. Anima tion is the process of linking a series of slightly different drawings together to simulate movement (Wilson 2005). Animation can be recognized as it means to be produced the world beyond all imagination. Many adver tising practitioners have recognized animation as a new advertising design tool and a form of visual art in the current entertainment industry. Clay anima tion referred as the animation of figures created by plasticine, clay, or other malleable materials (Frierson 1994; Furniss 1998). And now clay animation very often appear s in movies and commercials, as well. Regarding the current entertainment industry, use of clay animation on movie has been rapidly increasing. For instance, boxofficemo jo.com reported that the movie “Shrek (2001) and Shrek 2(2004) had grossed ove r total amount of 1.405.074.876 (i.e., sherk 1 $484,409,218 and Sherk two $920,665,658).” 2.2 Animation and Peripheral Processing Routes After the creation of the El aboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo 1986), many researchers explored the central a nd peripheral processes of persuasive communications. The specific product informa tion provided in advertisements typically follows a central processing route, since the viewer puts more effort into hearing the

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6 features and benefits of a product. Different types of affective s timuli (e.g., background music, pleasant visual scenes, characters, and images) in an a dvertisement follow a peripheral processing route, as these elements require less cognitive effort on the viewer’s part. Because animated stimuli rely heavily on these more aesthetic factors, research on animated ads should note the infl uence of lower-level peripheral processing routes on viewer persuasion. Central processing involves comprehe nding and learning the arguments in a persuasive message, the generation of cognitiv e responses while listening to the message, and the combination or integration of this (and other) information into an attitudinal judgment. In contrast, peripheral processi ng focuses on the rewards or punishments associated with a message and the attractiv eness or credibility of the source. The peripheral route also refers to simple affective mechanisms of attitude change, such as classical or operant conditioning (Fishbein & Middlestadt 1995, p.255). A variety of processes are supposed to in fluence attitudes wit hout the necessity of comprehensive or analytical thought about th e attitude object. These processes also operate when motivation or the ability to think is lacking. It is po ssible that the lowest level of elaborative thinki ng would correspond to proce sses that represent “mere associations” between th e attitude object and some othe r positive or negative cognitive element. Other relatively low-thought pro cesses involve simple inferences about the attitude object, but often on the basis of information peri pheral to the qualities of the attitude object (Wegener & Carlston 2005, p.534). Hoyer and MacInnis (2001) noted that people tend to view commercials passively, since the information provided requir es less motivation to process. Thus, given

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7 their emphasis on attractive or likable characters and motion, humor, and pleasant music, it is critical to analyze how animated co mmercials affect consumer attitudes via peripheral processing routes. It is also important to apply the classical conditioning mechanism to studies on animated ads and examine the role of animated stimuli on consumer-attitude formation. 2.3 Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning has long been employed in the study of consumer behavior (Bierley, MacSweeney,& Vannieuwkerk 1985; McSweeney & Bierley 1984; Nord & Peter 1980) and as a means of interpreting th e effects of advertising, such as attitude changes (Janiszewski & Warlop 1993; Priluck & Till 1998, 2004; Rossiter & Percy 1980). Classical conditioning is considered a prime method of persuasion (Petty & Cacioppo 1996), as considerable research has demonstrated its effectiveness (Allen & Janiszewski 1989; Allen & Madden 1985; Gorn 1982; Kim, Allen, & Kardes 1996; Stuart, Shimp, & Engle 1987; Shimp, Stuart & Engle 1991) as well as its ubiquity in advertising and promotion (Eagly & Chaiken 1993; Shimp 1991). In a classical conditioning paradigm (Pavlov 1927), a conditioned stimulus (CS) and a motivationally significant unconditioned stimulus (US) are paired. As a result of this pairing, the original CS elicits a response, which is the conditioned response (CR), that it did not elicit prior to the associ ation with the US. Conditioned responses are expressions of non-declarative forms of memory. While they can be conscious themselves, such responses are elicited without consciously accessing any memory content (Clark & Squire 1998).

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8 In advertising research, classical conditioning is an effective method for developing favorable attitudes toward a br and that are retained long enough to be accessible at the time of pur chase (Priluck & Till 1998, p.28). The use of favorable images to condition consumer responses to brand names is established in previous marketing literature. Speed and Thompson (2000) argued that classical conditioning research in advertising suggests that the size of the conditioned response will depend on (a) respondents’ attitudes toward the uncondi tioned stimulus, or the advertisement (Mitchell & Olsen 1981; Shimp 1981); (b) respondents’ pr ior attitudes toward the conditioned stimulus, or the br and being advertised (Stu art, Shimp, & Engle 1987); and (c) respondents’ perceptions of congruence between the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus, or the advertisement and the br and being advertised (Mitchell, Kahn, & Knasko 1995; Shimp 1991). Hence, the purpose of this study is to generate attitudes toward brands featured in animated ads through classical conditioning procedures. Classical conditioning is also a means of influencing consumer attitudes without invoking much cognitive proces sing effort. According to Pa vlov’s study, food acted as an unconditioned stimulus (US), and the dog’s salivation response to the food was the unconditioned response (UR). A stimulus is considered “unconditioned” because it automatically elicits an involuntary response. In other words, the dogs could not help but salivate when they saw the meat powder. In contrast, a conditioned stimulus (CS) does not automatically elicit an involuntary res ponse alone. Thus, until Pavlov paired the food with the bell, the bell alone was not capabl e of making the dogs salivate. Repeatedly pairing the conditioned stimulus (the bell) with the unconditioned stimulus (the meat powder) automatically elicite d the involuntary unconditione d response (salivation).

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9 However, over time salivation became a c onditioned response (CR) to the sounding of the bell alone. In another illustration of this phenomenon, many cat owners have noticed that their cats usually come running at the sound of the can opener being used. This behavior occurs because the noise of the can opener has been repeatedly paired with regular feedings (H oyer & MacInnis 2001). Mitchell and Olsen (1981) also found that the same conditioning effect appears to determine attitudes when nonverbal informati on is presented in advertisements. Thus, advertisements that associate a brand with a nonverbal affective cue tr ansfer the affect to the brand itself over time. This involves s pontaneous communication; syncretic cognition is altered by changing the aff ect associated with the produc t through the use of emotional cues in the advertisement. Moreover, elec tronic media may be especially adept at classical conditioning strategies that produce syncretic cognition, since electronic media abound in spontaneous nonverbal emoti onal cues (Chaudhuri & Buck 1995, p. 112). Positive attitudes toward an ad become associated with the brand itself and eventually become part of the brand. This result can take place in the total absence of analytic cognition or beliefs, since product info rmation was kept at a minimal level in the experiment. Chaudhuri and Buck (1995) argued th at classical conditioni ng strategies in advertising commonly use spontaneous nonverbal cues, such as music, which generate syncretic cognition. Some of these spontane ous nonverbal cues, such as music and sound effects, are available only in electronic medi a. We suggest that th is is a second reason why, relative to print media, electronic media emphasize syncretic cognition. Moreover, it has been found that music in television co mmercials has a distr acting effect during analytic cognitive situations (Park & Young 1986). Therefore, the lack of cues like music

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10 in print media may encourage analytic cogni tive responses, at least in comparison to electronic media (Chaudhuri & Buck 1995, p.113) Gorn’s (1982) study examined the impact of music in advertising on consumerchoice behaviors through the application of a classical conditioning model. Classical conditioning suggests that positive attitude s towards an advertised product (conditioned stimulus) might develop through the product’ s association with other stimuli that consumers relate to positively (unconditione d stimuli). Attractive colors, pleasant music, and humor act as the potential unconditioned stimuli in commercials (Gorn 1982, p.94). Previous research on product preferen ces asserts that the background features used in commercials were only related to product preferences when minimal product information was presented. The impact of a dvertised product information on beliefs and attitudes would typically be in terpreted within an informati on-processing framework. It is suggested here that a classical conditioning m odel could account for the potential impact of background features on product attitudes. In fact, classical conditioning could explain the effect of many variables on changes in consumer attitudes. For example, the effect of communication may be related to a viewer’s a ssociation of the att itude object with a positive attitude toward the communicator. Many have emphasized that such hedonic associative mechanisms seem to work through the principle of higher-order clas sical conditioning wherein an unconditioned stimulus (some component of advertising c opy) that elicits an unconditioned response (positive pleasurable emotions) is repeatedly paired with a conditioned stimulus (the brand name) until the conditioned stimulus alone elicits the unconditioned response (favorable emotions toward the brand) (Fishbein & Ajzen 1975; Petty, Cacioppo, &

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11 Schuman 1983; Shimp 1981). In the case of arou sal, an emotional appeal might associate the product with a desired state of vitality and liveliness wh ile avoiding the extremes of sluggishness or over-stimulation (Holbrook & O’Shaughnessy 1984, p.55). In marketing, classical conditioning is often mentioned and generally accepted as a process relevant to advertising (Engel, Blackwell, & Minard 2001). However, little empirical research exists on whether or not consumer pr eferences for products can actually be classically conditioned. In psychol ogy, where classical conditioning has been investigated more extensively, there is insu fficient evidence to suppor t that attitudes can be classically conditioned (Brewer 1974; Fis hbein & Ajzen 1975). In addition, the limited popularity of classical conditioning may be due to several difficulties associated with typical conditioning experiments. Shimp (1991) mentioned that effective conditioning should involve awareness of the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Studies on classical conditioning are important to discovering the role of awareness in classical conditioning, and by no ting that effective conditioning can occur through direct affect tr ansfer or through cognitive belief information. 2.4 The Role of Contingency Awareness Priluck and Till (2004) defined continge ncy awareness as “the state of the individual’s learning that the conditioned stimulus (CS) precedes the unconditioned stimulus (US) as he or she is exposed to classical conditioning tr ials” (p.299). Allen and Janiszewski (1989) referred to contingency awareness as re peated exposure to a CS/US combination that results in subjects learning that the presence of a particular US is contingent upon the presence of a specific CS (p.32).

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12 Until recently, psychologists and consumer researchers have attempted to investigate the role of con tingency awareness. Eagly a nd Chaiken (1993) argued that information-based explanations of the effects of classical conditioning procedures on attitudes were based primarily on the a ssumption that awareness of the CS/US contingency was necessary for conditioni ng effects to occur (p.410). Contingency awareness could be a consequence of conditi oning as well as the product of a deliberate cognitive process (Eagly & Chaiken 1993, p.410). Kim et al. (1996) found that awareness l eads to positive beliefs about the target attribute and favorable brand attitudes, suggesting a dual mediation model in which awareness plays a central role. They suggest th at the acquisition of both affect and beliefs in attitude formation could be fostered by awareness. According to Shimp (1991), awareness exists when subjects realize that a CS and a US have a temporal relationship in an experimental sequencing. Many studies on aw areness argue that it is a requirement for effective attitude formation via the cond itioning process (Allen & Janiszewski 1989; Shimp et al.1991). Researchers who study cla ssical conditioning assert that cognitive factors explain classical condi tioning when human subjects are used. These researchers also investigated whether or not conditioni ng can occur in humans without awareness. The experiment in this study examines the degree to which awareness of the CS/US contingency plays a role in classical conditioning. 2.5 The Influence of Involvement on Awareness Involvement issues have been studied in consumer behavior fields (Greenwald & Leavitt 1984; Homer & Kahle 1990; L aczniak, Muehling, & Grossbart 1989; Zaichkowsky 1985). Macinnis and Park (1991) f ound that certain execu tional cues (e.g.,

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13 pictures, source characteristics, music, a nd message sidedness) may influence centralroute (message based) and pe ripheral (non-message based) processing of both high-and low-involvement consumers. Individuals who ar e highly involved with a stimulus have a greater tendency to pay atte ntion to the stimulus (Cel si & Olson 1988; Greenwald & Leavitt 1984; Lord & Burnkrant 1993), and higher levels of attention to the stimuli in a conditioning experiment may result in contingency awareness. Gorn’s (1982) study suggests that in dividuals who are highly involved with objects are less likely to respond to music as the unconditioned stimulus than to the information provided regarding the product. People who are highly involved with objects are more likely to develop favorable attit udes when exposed to conditioning procedures in the absence of product information. Gorn also found that involvement alone may or may not be strong enough to lead to awareness. Priluck and Till (2004) pointed out that awareness is the central variable through which attitudes are conditioned, and awareness is enhanced by involvement. In addition, involvement influences attitude formation th rough classical conditio ning procedures with affect and belief formation acting as mediat ors (p.330). In information-processing theory, motivation and processing ability interact to heighten processing levels (MacInnis & Jaworski 1989), leading to aw areness and positive consumer attitudes. Certain cues acting as affective stimuli may influence c onsumers’ brand attitudes, thus enhancing message processing (Petty & Cacioppo 1986). 2.6 ELM and Involvement Issues In the (ELM) elaboration likelihood mode l, Petty and Caciop po (1986) identified or classified the type of central cognitive processing involved in consumer product

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14 evaluation, that attitude formation or change results from a consumer’s careful attempts to comprehend and evaluate the brand-relevant content of an ad and to integrate this new information with their prior knowledge into a coherent and reas oned opinion about the brand. On the other hand, peripheral pro cessing is described as happening when consumers use peripheral factors, such as thei r feelings about quality of the ad, the source of the ad, or their current mood state, as cues to help them decide how they feel about the advertised brand (Mackenzie & Spreng 1992, p.519). Some scholars noted that at titudes based on direct beha vioral experience have necessarily evolved from a thoughtful elaboratio n of self-generated information that is likely to be clear, involving, and accessible. By contrast, attitudes based on indirect experience (i.e., information from others) ar e less likely to have been extensively elaborated upon and, thus, are probably le ss clear, involving, or accessible than those based on direct experience (Mackenzie & Spreng 1992, p.678). The ELM predicts change in attitude toward an advertised brand where an attitude refers to a global evaluation of the brand. One is the central route, along which the consumer changes his attitude on the basis of elaboration on argument s. The other is the peripheral route, along which the consumer ma y change their attitude on the basis of a variety of processes-through, for instance, he uristic inferencing of brand quality from message elements, through association of messa ge elements with the brand, or through mere exposure to the brand. According to Garder (1985), the consumer’s processing “set” during exposure to the advertisement possibly mediates the effects of Aad on brand attitudes. An individual’s motivation and ability to process message in formation influence express themselves over

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15 neural processing routes, which are the elab oration likelihood mode l versus peripheral processing (Cacioppo and Petty 1985; Garder 1985). In connection with consumer psychology, in fluencing brand attitudes, peripheral cues such as attitude toward the ad, source credibility or attractiveness and others may also influence the degree of central processing (Mackenzie & Spreng 1992, p.519). According to Mackenzie and Spreng ( 1992), “when applied to an advertising context the ELM suggests that, as a consume r’s motivation to centrally process brandrelevant aspects of advertisement increases the impact of central processing on brand attitudes should increase, the impact of peripheral processing on brand attitudes should decrease, and the impact of brand attitude s on purchase intentions should increase.” (p.519) The term “involvement” has been used to identify the process by which motivation moderates the link between ad exposure, processing, and the attitudeformation process (Krugman 1965). Krugman (1965) proposed that television is a low involvement medium, producing its effect s by repetition, as opposed to a high involvement medium like print, which produces relatively enduring changes in beliefs. Petty and Cacioppo (1986) termed these eff ects as peripheral and central routes to persuasion, respectively. In cont rast to Krugman’s characteri zation of television as a low involvement medium, McLuhan (1964) argued that due to its barrage of visual and auditory images television is a higher invol vement medium than print media. Chaudhuri & Buck (1995) addressed th e question of how these diam etrically opposed views of involvement of television versus print be reconciled.

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16 Batra and Ray (1983) defined involvement as the depth and quality of cognitive processing, while Mitchell (1979) de fined it as an individual leve l, internal state variable whose motivational properties are evoked by a particular stimulus or situation. In addition, Johnson and Eagly (1989) defined involvement as a motivational state induced by an association between an activated attitude and the se lf-concept (p. 290). Johnson and Eagly (1989) went on to classi fy three different types of involvement, which include value-relevant, impression-relevant and outcome-relevant involvement. First, value-relevant involvement refers to the psychological state created by the activation of attitudes that are linked to important values (Johnson & Eagly 1989, p. 290). Impression-relevant involvement characterizes the persuasion settings that make salient to subjects the self-presentational consequences of their post-message positions (Johnson & Eagly 1989, p. 292). Finally, outcome-relevant involvement makes salient to message to recipients the relevance of an issue to their goals or desired outcomes (Johnson & Eagly 1989, p. 292). Levin, Nichols, and Johnson (2000) sugge st that outcome-relevant involvement generally leads to relatively objective, unbiased message processing; value-relevant involvement leads to biased or reduced me ssage processing; and impression-relevant involvement leads to social information pr ocessing. These classi fications should help researchers and practitioners better understand how to motiv ate the type of processing that best suits their needs and why persuasion attempts often fail (p.190). Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) noted th at the higher a person’s involvement in and familiarity with a product and the higher their ability to cogn itively differentiate between the product’s features, the higher the recall would be of the

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17 contents/characteristics in the product’s advertisement (p. 356). One definition of involvement identifies it as a psychological /internal state of co mmitment (Mitchell 1979, 1981) that is activated by a certain stimu lus in a given situation (Cohen 1983). If activation of this internal state is high (possi bly caused by a greater de gree of attention to a particular stimulus), then subsequent memory performance and recall should also be high (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Ther efore, high involvement conditions due to comprehension and elaboration should al so lead to a better recall of message characteristics (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Greenwald and Leavitt (1984) identified f our distinct levels of involvement: preattention, focal attention, comprehension, and elaborati on. The lowest level, preattention, uses little at tentional capacity. This level is ak in to hearing an advertisement on the radio and yielding little to no awareness or interest and absolutely no retention of the message. As attentional capacity increases and a person engages in more complex message analyses, the level of involvement in creases to focal attention where attends to superficial message features such as sensor y information. The next involvement level is comprehension, where the message begins to pr ovide a context within which the recipient can search for relevance. The highest leve l, elaboration, is analogous to the unique processing that occurs in enc oding self-relevant information. According to the ELM, people are likel y to process information differently depending on their level of involvement with the message. Attitudes are affected by the central processing route under high-involveme nt conditions, or when people make a cognitive effort to evaluate statements. Attitu des are affected by the peripheral processing route in low-involvement conditions, as when people have to make a greater effort to

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18 understand the specific elements of a message. It can be postulated that attitudes appear to be affected by the use of peripheral cues--su ch as creative or aesthetic elements in an ad--under low-involvement conditions rather than high-involvement conditions (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann 1983). Celsi and Olson (1988) suggested that the defining characteristic of product involvement is the perceived personal releva nce that a brand offers consumers. This relevance is enhanced when consumers link a pr oduct’s image or attribut es to its potential helpfulness in achieving their own personal goals and serving thei r personal values. Taking this link to its logical conclusion, pr oduct involvement should be stronger when a consumer perceives a strong association betw een the product’s image and attributes and the consumer’s own personal goals and values (Celsi & Olson, 1988). Involvement with a product can also differ within an individual consumer depending upon situational factors. Celsi and Olson (1988) posit that a cons umer’s associations with a product are stored in memory until “activated” by a situa tion. They suggest that this activation is highly dependent upon individual situational f actors which are highl y “experiential and phenomenological” in nature, but which can se rve as a powerful trigger that turns the latent memory associations into active thoughts. The activation of these personally relevant thoughts has been called “felt involvement” (C elsi & Olson 1988). Once this activation occurs, consumers become motivat ed to act upon their associations with a product either through cognitive reactions such as attention or comprehension of product advertising messages, or even overt behavior s, such as searching for, or purchasing, a product (McGrath & Mahood 2004, p.43).

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19 Recent work by Zaichkowsky (1985, 1986, 1994) has provided researchers with a tool, known as the Personal Involvement I nventory (PII), to measure and compare involvement levels for different classe s of products. Zaichkowsky’s typology was employed in this study. Studies of produc t involvement’s influence on dependent measures of advertising effec tiveness (i.e., attitudes, reca ll, etc.) have generally found that high-involvement products score higher th an low-involvement products (Gardner et al. 1985; Thorson & Page 1988; Hitchon & Thorson 1995). Thorson and Page (1988) reported that people who are highly involvement with the product have higher scores of brand recall, a favorable at titude toward the ad, br and and purchase intention. 2.7 Stimuli in FCB Grid Model The purpose of this study is to examin e the role of animation in tripartite attitudinal dimensions (e.g., cognition, affec tion, and conation). For this study, emotional responses will be defined as pleasure, arousal, and dominance, to be defined in section 211-3. This paper assumes that different responses will be elicited under different product categories, like cognitive and affective pr oduct categories, as suggested by the FCB (Foote, Cone, and Belding) Grid. Generally, involvement can be defined as an individual’s degree of concern, recognition, or personal relativity to a partic ular object. Therefore, involvement varies depending on the individual, as well as a given situat ion. Ratchford (1987) and Vaughn (1980, 86) classified products into eith er high-involvement or low-involvement categories for the sake of convenience, though involvement standards are not so clearly divided.

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20 The FCB grid model completed by Vaughn (1980) integrated product involvement with the thinking and feeling dimens ions of consumer theory. In this model, involvement was regarded as the degree of consumer concern, and the relationship between consumer activity analysis and product classification was systematized (Krugman 1965; Ratchford 1987; Weinberger & Spotts 1989). According to the theory of social judgment by Sheriff (1965), when ther e is a high degree of involvement, message receivers broaden the latitude of rejection, which narrows th e range of reception. In the case of low-involvement products the receiver accepts the broad range of the message and only rejects inconsistent messages. Thus, this study will assume that people respond differently to ads that fall under higha nd low-product involvement categories as it examines consumer responses to animated advertising. Vaughn’s (1980, 86) FCB grid captures c ognitive and affective responses to products with its think/feel axis. The grid’s other axis represents product involvement. The FCB grid's four quadrants are inform ative (think/high involvement), affective (feel/high involvement), habitual (think/lo w involvement), and satisfaction (feel/low involvement). Think is associated with a utilitarian motive and, consequently, with cognitive information processing, while feel im plies ego-gratificati on, social-acceptance, sensory-pleasure motives, and attendant a ffective processing (Ratchford 1987). This suggests that one would find more objective information in ads for products occupying the think cells. This expectation was conf irmed by Weinberger and Sports (1989). Ratchford (1987) has provided evidence for th e reliability of product classification based on the FCB grid quadrants (Putrevu & Lord 1994, p.79).

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21 2.8 The Animated Commercial as a New Creative Platform The animation process results in motion pictures that are created by recording a series of still images-drawings, objects, or people in various positions of incremental movement, which when played back no longer appear individually as static but as combined to produce the illusion of unbroken motion (http://encarta.msn.com; contributed by Furniss 2006). Some researchers emphasize that animati on is a highly effective design tool for capturing viewer interest and attention. Animat ion is usually classi fied into different categories (Frierson 1994; Furniss 1998), including CGI (Computer Graphic Image) animation, clay animation (claymation), cartoon animation, film animation, drawn animation, pixilation, puppet animation, and silhouette animation. There are thirteen different types of animated commercials, wh ich fall into several functional categories: explanation, demonstration, big model, sli ce of life, fiction, documentary, comparison, image building, symbol, spectacular production, commercial, and humor. The most common type of animation is drawn on cells and is 2-D. It is a traditional design technique. Advanced technology can create a new style animation. The three-dimensional animation of clay anima tion is created. In current entertainment industry, clay animation and computer gene rated animation have become the most popular type of animation in f ilm and television commercials. Clay animation, computer generated an imation, puppet animation are the most popular animation types in today’s animation industry. As explained in Table 2-1, clay animation employs figures made of plasticine, a material that has an oil base to keep it

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22 flexible. Puppet animation uses three-dimens ional figures that are moved incrementally for each frame of film. Pix ilation is animation made by using humans or other live subjects filmed incrementally in various fi xed poses; when the movements are played back, the subjects move in an unnatural or somewhat surreal way. Due to advanced pixilation technology, the illusion of motion is created through a succession of computergenerated still images (http://encarta.msn.c om; contributed by Furn iss 2006). Cartooning is referred as a series of drawings made on paper in preparation for and in the same size as a painting, tapestry, mosaic, or piece of stained glass (http://encarta.msn.com; contributed by Kunzle 2006). Currently, anim ated cartoons have become tools to influence people’s opinions on politics and society. Table 2-1. Types of Animation Types of Animation Description Clay animation Animation of figures cr eated of plasticine, clay, or other malleable materials Cartoon animation Successful at engaging it s audience; even the most bizarre events are easily comprehended. Silhouette animation Generally animation in which the animated figures are cut-out silhouettes of the “actual” figures. Puppet animation Animation of puppets (or other objects) constructed of wood and other materials. Pixilation Used to describe the proce ss of animating live objects (usually people) by photographing them one frame at a time. Drawn animation Animation consisting of images drawn on paper or some other medium; some specialized forms of drawn animation such as cut-out animation or direct-on-film animation are separately noted. Direct-on-film animation Animation made by painting, etch ing, or otherwise altering raw film-stock. Cut-out animation Animation in which th e animated figures are paper puppets with hinged limbs. CGI animation Animation of computer generated images in which the animation is created by the manipulation of computer software. Despite debates about the inadequacies of animation, studies specifically related to advertising elements like sound, color, and motion note that viewers respond well to

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23 such features. Furthermore, new technologies have expanded and reinvented the concept of advertising design and animation. While pr evious studies concen trated on children’s attitudes toward animated commercials and products (Hoy, Young, & Mowen 1986) or the effectiveness of animated spokespers ons (Neeley & Schumann 2004), animated ads warrant further study because they have b ecome an increasingly popular design genre that appeals to consumers of all ages. 2.9 The Relationship between Animated Ads and Human Behavior Brand familiarity is the primary focus in consumer behavior studies. First, a consumer’s familiarity with a product or brand influences such concepts as consumer adaptation, self-image, compliance, and iden tification. Similar studies should focus on the relationships between brand familiarity, consumer confidence in brand evaluations, consumer attitudes toward brands, and purchase intentions. In terms of brand preference, brand choice, and consumption, consumers creat e meaning to strength en their identities through brand preferences. The term “match -up hypothesis” defines the fit between a celebrity and an endorsed pr oduct and suggests that differe nt types of endorsers and celebrities influence consumer attitudes. A consumer’s familiarity with a product or brand influences such concepts as consumer adaptation, self-image, compliance, and identification. Building on previous research, Laroche, Kim, and Zhou (1996) examined the relationships among brand familiarity, consumer confidence in brand eval uations, consumer attitudes toward brands, and purchase intention. The em pirical results from struct ural equation modeling show that consumer familiarity with a brand influences confidence in that brand, which in turn

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24 affects intentions to buy the brand. These causal relationships are tested in a multiplebrand context. Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) defined familiarity is a variable which describes the nature of the cognitive struct ure a person develops toward a product. As such, familiarity should be viewed as a vari able affecting the hypot hetical construct of involvement levels (p.356). Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) also noted that the term “familiarity” has usually been operationalized in the past as frequency of use (Raju & Reilly 1979), knowledge about the product class (Lastovika 1979), and previous experience (Russo & Johnson, 1980). Marks a nd Olson (1981) argued that familiarity referred to a cognitive represen tation of past experiences st ored in memory. Furthermore, the representation is organized in memory as a product-related cognitive structure or schema (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). If an individual receives a persuasive message about a product/ brand for which the individual has a well-developed memory struct ure, then that individu al will be able to activate more concepts from memory to use in interpreting the attend ed stimuli. This may also mean that the individual might exhib it higher activation potential (Cohen 1981) to process the external information. On the other hand, an individual unfamiliar with a product will have less-developed memory structur es of the external stimuli with a fewer number of existing cues in memory, resulting in a less-elaborate encoding, and thus with poorer recall of the product and message features (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). When an individual is familiar with an object and thus has a higher developed memory structure about it, he/she is more lik ely to have a greater involvement with the stimulus object. If involvement is a psychologi cal and internal state whose activation is

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25 triggered by a particular stimulus, then the more an individual know s, the higher his/her involvement (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Zajonc and Mar kus (1982) suggest this phenomenon demonstrates that some pr eferences are caused by affective factors without the participation of cognitive processes. Affective factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of preference. Preferences are pr imarily based on behavioral phenomena. A preference for X over Y is a tendency of the organism to approach X more often and more vigorously than they approach Y (Zajonc & Markus 1982, p.123). A preference for an object can be radically changed with experience while its pr operties remain constant (Zajonc & Markus 1982, p.124). Zajonc and Markus (1982) asse rted that under some circumstances affective responses, including preference j udgments, may be fairly independent of cognition (p.125). Advertisements are typically viewed as interven ing variables that mediate the effects of message content on brand preferences, buying intentions, or purchases (Holbrook & O’Shaughnessy 1984, p.48). The term “preference” links consumer convictions, values, awareness, and intentions. Questions of personal identity and collective identity are ranked highly on the agenda of today’s postindus trial societies (Giddens 1991) Through brand preference, choice, and consumption, consumers create mean ing and try to define or strengthen their identities (Belk 1988; Bhattacharya, & Se n 2003; Elliott & Wattanasuwan 1998; Fournier 1998; McCracken 1986). Zajonc and Mar kus (1982) suggest this phenomenon demonstrates that some preferences are caused by affective factors without the participation of cognitive processes.

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26 For the terms of fittingness, Till and Busler (2000) id entify the origin of the match-up hypothesis in advertising research wh ich examines the differential impact that different types of endorsers (o ften celebrities) have on an en dorsed brand. Early research found that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements varies by product (Friedman & Friedman, 1979). A study by Kanungo and Pang ( 1973) paired male and female models (non-celebrities) with different types of products and found that the effect of the models varied depending on the product each model endorsed. Kanungo and Pang (1973) explained their findings in terms of the “fitt ingness” of the model for the product. The fit between the celebrity and th e product was defined by the term “match-up hypothesis” (Kahle & Homer, 1985; Kamins, 1990; Lynch & Schuler, 1994; Solomon, Ashmore, & Longo, 1992). Though beauty is functional and ac cessible, it also gives consumers a sense of fittingness, belonging, and familiarity that can be extended to brand names. 2.10 The Effect of Motion on Consumer Behavior Animation has become an important design tool in recent graphic interfaces because it motivates consumer actions and dr aws viewer attention to specific product features. As Lee, Kippel, a nd Tappe (2003) have noted: Motion can be an effective tool to focus us ers’ attention and to support the parsing of complex information in graphical user interfaces. Despite the ubiquitous use of motion in animated displays, its effectiv eness has been marginal at best. The ineffectiveness of many animated displays may be due to a mismatch between the attributes of motion and the nature of the task at hand (p.12). With the development of new digital de vices and more sophisticated computer software, animation is becoming more co mmon in television commercials and banner ads. Although the effectiveness of animat ed commercials has been doubted by many

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27 researchers (Lee, Klippel, & Tappe 2003; Tversky, Morrison, & Betrancourt 2002), animations can motivate consumer action a nd increase brand recogni tion and recall. The animated genre will also appeal more to our increasingly visual culture. Empirical studies on motion in advertisements have explor ed its psychological effects (Detenber, Benjamin, Simons, & Bennett 1998), stress ing that motion could influence human cognitive processing and increase viewer atte ntion to ads (Kipper, 1986; Reeves et al., 1985). 2.11 Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions: Cognition, Affection, and Conation 2.11.1 Cognition: Belief and Knowledge The goal of this paper is to examine the role of animation in tripartite attitudinal dimensions (e.g., cognition, affection, and c onation). Many scholars (Breckler 1984; Katz & Stotland 1959; Krech & Crut chfield 1948; Ray et al. 1973) have summarized previous hierarchical models and th e tripartite attitudinal dime nsions common to each: a) a cognitive component (attention, awareness, comprehension, beliefs and opinions, and learning); b) an affective component (eva luation, attitude, fe eling, conviction, and yielding); and c) a conative component (int ention, behavior, and action). The cognitive component is defined as consum er knowledge and beliefs. Fishbein (1963) noted that the cognitive component refers to beliefs about the nature of the object and its relation to other objects, while the acti on component refers to beliefs about what should be done with resp ect to the object (p.259). Fishbein and Raven demonstrated that valid and reliable measur es of belief could be obtained by having the subject judge the concept on a series of bipolar probabi listic scales (e.g., probableimprobable, likely-unlikely, possible-impossible, et c.). It is this defi nition of belief— the

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28 position of the object or concept on the pr obability dimension—that will be used throughout this paper. Both the cognitive a nd action components of attitude can be viewed as beliefs about the object. Belief refe rs to the component parts of the object and the characteristics, qualities, or attributes of the object and the object’s relation with other objects or concepts (p.258). As Fishbein and Ajzen (1972, 1975) pointed out, the term “attitude” has generally b een used to refer to beliefs, at titudes, intentions, and behavior. Behavior is determined by intentions, inte ntions are determined by attitudes (toward behavior) and subjective norms and attitudes are determ ined by beliefs and their evaluative aspects. Buck (1988) defines cognition simply as knowledge: “a more or less complex and organized internal representation of real ity, acquired by means of the individual's cognitive skills and through experience with reality” (p. 6). Knowledge by acquaintance is always syncretic, or a ho listic synthesis of information. In contrast, analytic cognition consists of knowledge by description, which re sults from the interpretation of sensory data and involves judgments about phenomena (Chaudhuri & Buck 1995, p.110). Consumer beliefs can reflect subjective expe riences as well as specific events or situations (Wyer & Albarracn 2005). Eagly and Chaiken (19 93) defined beliefs as the associations or links that people establis h between the attitude object and various attributes (p.103). Therefore, the terms of consumer beliefs can be predicted by applying the laws of objective probabil ity (Wyer & Albarracn 2005). The affective component is typically labe led as pleasure, arousal, and dominance, while the conative, or behavior al component, is a predispos ition toward action (Traindis, 1971), intentions, and behavioral expectations The behavioral component is thought to

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29 result from the attitudinal and affective com ponents and is an action intending to harm or benefit others, either ve rbally or physically. 2.11.2 Affection The direction of the behavioral flow between cognition and emotion goes both ways. Although emotion is always a res ponse to meaning, it can also influence subsequent thoughts and emotions. Cognition, wh ich is causal, also continues into the response state, an idea that is disturbing to those who follow the Aristotelian dictum that a concept, A (e.g., an appraisal), cannot also be B (part of an emotion) (Lazarus 1991, p.824). Affect is clearly one component of attitude and a force in persuasion. The affective component influences feelings or emotions toward an object. Emotion is a reaction to meaning, and if the meaning is ch anged there will also be a change in the subsequent emotion (Lazarus 1991, p.830). Ho lbrook (1978) contrasts two different types of meaning as “logical, objectively ve rifiable descriptions of tangible product features” versus “emotional, subjective impre ssions of intangible aspects of the product” (p.547). Both types of meaning are contained in virtually any comm unication; only their relative balance varies. This balance may be assessed by content analysis as one basis for predicting or explaining adve rtising effects (Holbrook 1977). Emotional appeals aimed at establishing positive feelings of dominance appear to be closely aligned with the intrinsically motivating nature of effectan ce or competence (White 1959). The attendant feelings of mastery and self-fulfillment are viewed as autotelic, or desirable for their own sake (Holbrook & O’Shaughnessy 1984, p.55). Detenber, Simons, and Bennett (1998) adopt a three-dimensiona l view of emotion (Lang 1995; Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum 1957 ; Russell & Mehrabian 1977) popularly

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30 cited as arousal, hedonic valence, and dominance. Typically, emotion research characterizes the valence dimension as a continuous range of affective response extending from pleasant or positive valence at one pole, to unpleasan t or negative valence at the other. The autonomic arousal dimensi on is characterized by a continuous response ranging from energized, excited, and alert to calm, drowsy, or peaceful. These two dimensions, valence and arousal, account for mo st of the explained variance in emotional responses as researched by Greenwald, C ook, and Lang (1989). Their study was designed to explore the relationship between image mo tion and emotional responses to pictures. Specifically, the study focused on whether or not image motion had a positive effect on emotional arousal as indexed by self-reports. According to Plutchik (1980), eight pr imary emotions can provide a better understanding of many aspects of behavior. For example, primary emotions are relevant to both biological survival behaviors and social adaptati ons, and equally influence animals, humans, children, adults, sane, and disturbed individuals. These emotions are found (in some form) at all evolutionary leve ls and have direct relationships to other facets of an individual’s psychology, incl uding personality, Freudian ego, defense mechanisms, and clinical symptoms. Acco rding to Plutchik (1980), emotion is a functional system that has survival value for the individual and for the species. Emotions are at the center of life, guiding behavior in a way that has functional value. Feelings are not treated as antecedent st ates as they have been in many of the extant models of advertising effects (G ardner 1985). Edell and Burke’s (1989) study asserted that “if feelings ar e activated by nonverbal elements of the ad, they are generated by the ad itself and can occur very quickly. Mo st models of advertising effects have kept

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31 the cognitive system of proces sing advertising separate fr om the affective system,” (p.431). Emotions can play a fundamental role in the purchase or consum ption of an entire product category if the product plays an emo tional role in the consumer’s life. An emotional tone can draw attention to a me ssage, make it memorable, or illustrate the benefit in action. Extensive and appropriate theme-advertising appears to imbue some brands with a subjective vividness, or au thenticity that objectively comparable competitors lack. The brand name is consis tently presented in conjunction with the evocation of an emotion and, in time, come s to evoke the emotion itself (Zeitlin & Westwood 1986, p.34) 2.11.3 AdSAM: A Pictorial Nonverbal Measure AdSAM was used in this study in orde r to measure affective response. The measure consists of a graphic character ar rayed along three different PDA scales: a) pleasure (measures the positive/negative aspect of the feeling), b) arousal (measures the level of intensity or involvement in the f eeling), and c) dominance (measures the degree of empowerment the respondent feels). Many traditional methodologies focused on measuring the rational component of consumer response. In contrast, AdSAM is usually used to measure emotional responses to a variety of stim uli, including product concepts advertising (concept and/or finished ad), product attributes, product bene fits, brands, logos, tag lines, packaging, music, etc. (Morris 1995, p.63). The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) (La ng 1984) and the attitudinal SelfAssessment ADSAM (Morris and Kim 2005) cons ist of a graphic character used to

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32 represent the three dimensions of PAD. AdSAM depicts each PAD dimension with a graphic character arrayed along a continuous nine-point scale. The first row of figures is the pleasure scale, ranging from pleasant to unpleasant. The sec ond row is the arousal scale ranging from controlled to controlli ng. SAM visually represents Mehrabian and Russell’s three PAD dimensions and was desi gned as an alternative to cumbersome verbal self-report measures (Lang 1980). AdSAM is a version of SAM used in marketing consumer studies (Morris 1995). Initially, SAM was compared to PAD by using the catalog of situations employed by Mehrabian and Russell (1974) to standa rdize the PAD dimensions. The results indicated that SAM “generated a similar pattern of scale values for these situations as was obtained for the semantic differential (p leasure +.937, Arousal +.938, and Dominance +,.660)” (Lang 1980, p.123). SAM presents a promising solution to the problems associated with measuring emotional res ponses to advertising (Morris & Waine 1993, p.177). An illustrative typology of emotiona l content is based on combining the positive/negative bipolarity with the three di mensions found in Mehrabian and Russell’s (1974, 1980) research on the PAD (pleasure, arousal, dominance) framework with parallels in Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum’s ( 1975) studies on the semantic differential (evaluation, activity, potency) (Holbrook & O’Shaughnessy 1984, p.53). 2.11.4 Conation: Intentions and Behavioral Expectations Conation response is defined as behavioral intent, such as consumer actions. The semantic differential is used to measure conation response. Cognition refers to the process of coming to know and understand; th e process of encoding, storing, processing,

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33 and retrieving information. It is generally a ssociated with the ques tion of “what” (e.g., “what happened,” “what is going on now,” “what is the meani ng of that information”). Conation refers to the connecti on of knowledge and affect to behavior and is associated with the issue of “why.” It is the personal, intentional, deliberate, goal-oriented, or striving component of motivation; the proa ctive (as opposed to reactive or habitual) aspect of behavior (Baumeister, Bratsl avsky, Muraven, & Tice 1998). It is closely associated with the concept of volition, defined as the use of will, or the freedom to make choices about what to do (Kane, 1985; Mische l 1996). It is absolute ly critical if an individual is successfully engaged in self-direction a nd self-regulation. Bagozzi (1992) proposes that conation is necessary to explain how knowledge and emotion are translated into behavior in human beings. He suggests that one reason why researchers in the areas of cognition and attitudes have not demonstrated a strong ability to predict behavior is because the construct of conation has been omitted. At the beginning of modern psychology, both emotion a nd conation were considered central to its study; however, interest in these topics declined as overt behavior and cognition received more attention (Amsel 1992; Ford 1987). While goals associated with these latter paradigms are deeply enmeshed in our schools today (e.g., basic skills, critical thinking), Barell (1995) proposes that helping students develo p the conative attitudes and skills associated with self-dir ection and personal efficacy is on e of the most critical tasks presently facing parents and educators. 2.12 Summary and Hypotheses Two experiments were conducted in th is study. The first experiment was to assess the impact of animation in commercials through a series of classical conditioning

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34 experiments. A 3 (types of commercials (clay, cartoon and live action formatted commercials) x 2 (degree of involvement: hi gh versus low) between-subjects factorial design was employed on dependent variables in the first experiment. Experiment 1 tests the hypotheses that animated commercials can better yield cognitive and affective results as compared to live-action formatted commercial, and that animated advertisements positively drive viewers to cognition, affec tion, and conation responses in low product involvement. In the second experiment, a 2 (conditi oning experimental vs. control group) x 2 (high versus low involvement with the pr oduct) between subjects factorial design was performed on two different conditions on linea r combinations of all dependent variables in the second experiment. The traditional cl assical conditioning paradigm suggests that positive attitudes toward an advertised product (CS) might develop through its association in a commercial with other st imuli that are reacted to positively (US). Therefore, Experiment 2 anticipates that animation (US) in commercials can led to attitudes toward the animated commercial, advertised brands, and increased purchase behavior. 2.12.1 Experiment 1 Hoy, Young, and Mowen (1986) reported th at subjects exposed to an animated host-selling commercial had a gr eater positive attitude cha nge toward the advertised product than the subject who vi ewed a non-host-selling commerc ial. This result could be attributed to the introduction of animated commercials, which may be closely associated with viewer affection an d product recognition. Rossiter and Percy (1980) and Gorn (1982) emphasize that attractively designe d ads affect consumer attitudes about

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35 consequence through visual demonstrations and verbal testimonies. Neeley and Schumann (2004) found that animated characters affect the subject’s a ttention to an ad’s character and product recogniti on, and can instill positive at titudes toward the product. However, they did find that the relation be tween animated spokesp ersons, intention, and product choice is uncertain. Given the previous literature related to the use of animated stimuli in advertisement, it can be said that animated stimuli can instill positive attitudes toward the product. However, the studies co mparing animated commercials to live-action commercial were limited. Mitchell (1979) defined involvement as an individual experience whose motivational properties are evoked by a particul ar stimulus or situation. The degree of involvement could affect to consumer attitude formation when they are exposited to any kind of ad components in commercials. According to the ELM, people have high motivation to process advertising messages with high personal relevance, and high product category involvement. In high product involvement, people are more likely to make a cognitive effort to evaluate the product. Attitude formation or change results from a consumer’s careful attempts to comprehend and evaluate the brand-relevant content of an ad. And then the consumers are likely to integrate this new information w ith their prior knowledge into a coherent and reasoned opinion about the brand (M ackenzie and Spreng 1992, p.519). That is, consumers’ attitudes are based on a careful and effortful analysis of the true merits or central issues contained within the message (Hoyer MacInnis 2001, p.133). When consumers are highly involved with the pr oduct, they are trying to seek the more information in order to evaluate the commer cial. According to source credibility theory,

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36 people are less likely to anticipate what will be said and hence are less likely to take steps to avoid information inconsistent with th eir own frames of reference. Information received from a real life source may also seem like story-telling, which somehow makes it more real. This factor in turn may ma ke the information more persuasive (Hoyer MacInnis 2001, p.390). Given that people are more likely to make a cognitive effort to evaluate the product in high product involvement situations, it can be logically posited that perception of reality is also salient. Thus, live action commercial would be a more effective and credible source when consumers form their attitude as compared to using animation as the persuasion tool. Clay animation is made by using threedimension technique such as stop motion capture whereas cartoon animation is produced by using the traditional two-dimension technique (Frierson 1994; Furn iss 1998). It can be assumed that clay animated commercials has more evocable character and image than those of cartoon animated commercials. Thus, subjects who are highly involved with the product may be more likely to pay attention to clay animation in advertising because clay animation contains motion and a more powerful visual image th an cartoon animation ba sed advertising. The above findings led to the following hypotheses: H1: All other things being equal, when subjec ts who are highly i nvolved with a product H1-1) are exposed to live action formatted co mmercial they will exhibit: a) higher levels of pleasure; b) higher levels of arousal; c) more favorable attitudes toward the ad; d) more favorable attitudes toward brand; and e) high er purchase intention than those subjects exposed to clay and cartoon commercials. H1-2) are exposed to clay animated commer cial, subjects will exhibit; a) higher levels of pleasure; and b) higher levels of arousal; c) more favorable ad attitudes;

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37 d) more favorable brand attitudes; and e) higher purchase in tention than those exposed to cartoon commercial. As reviewed in the previous literatur e, animated characters and motion in commercials may influence viewer attention to the advertisement as well as change consumer attitudes toward the advertised brand. Phillips and Lee (2005) suggest that animation on the Web increases character-linki ng and perceived entertainment levels. In light of the previous resear ch on animation, Web advertisin g could provide information on the development of effectiv e advertising tools. Animated ads can increase positive affection and consumer attit udes toward both ad and brand. Animated commercials are also closely related to advertising recall and a high arousal le vels. Many researchers assert that animation can motivate consum ers to action and incr ease brand recognition and recall (Lee, Klippel, & Tappe 2003; Tversky, Mo rrison, & Betrancourt 2002). Detenber, Simons, and Bennett’s study (1998) stressed that motion in advertisements could affect human cognitive processing and is closely related to human emotion. Image motion in advertising could be affected to some kinds of emotion such as arousal and pleasure. Also image motion can be evoked c onsumer arousal. Other research reported that motion in ads can increas e the subject’s attention leve l (Reeves et al. 1985; Kipper 1986). Zaichkowsky (1985) argued that involv ement studies on consumer behavior generally used the resulting behavior as indicat ors of involvement level. She also argued that it is important to accurately measure th e differences between personal associations with ads, brand purchase intentions, and c onsumer decision making. MacInnis and Park (1991) examined the impact of two dimensions of music—its fit w ithin the advertised

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38 message and its ties to past emotion-laden experiences (indexical ity)—on lowand highinvolvement in consumer ad processing. They found that personal, relevant involvement could be influenced by the advertisement’s executional cues such as music, source characteristics, and message sidedness. Such executional cues create affect, or stimulate inferences that generate the basis for lowinvolvement consumer brand attitudes, whereas high-involvement consumers are thought to igno re such peripheral cues in forming brand attitudes, focusing instead on the advertised message and their react ion to it (MacInnis & Park 1991; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann 1983) Regarding the literature-related involvement, the degree of invol vement could affect to subj ects’ perception of animated commercials. According to the ELM, people modestly involved with the product have low motivation to process advertis ing component due to low pers onal relevance and low need for cognition (Cho 1999). Also, affective stimuli (e.g., background music, pleasant visual scenes, characters, and images) in an advertisement follow a peripheral processing route, as these elements require less cognitive e ffort on the viewer’s part. The advanced technology and development of human resour ce allow clay animation to have more evocable character and image than those of cartoon animation. Clay animation in advertising is associated with the influence of lower-level periphera l processing routes on viewer persuasion because animated stimuli he avily rely on viewer aesthetic factors. Thus, the following hypotheses are lo gical extension of these findings: H2: All other things being equal, when subj ects who are low involved with a product H2-1) are exposed to clay animated commercial, the subjects will exhibit; a) higher levels of pleasure; b) higher levels of arou sal; c) favorable animated

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39 commercial attitudes; d) favorable bra nd attitudes; and e) higher purchase intentions than those exposed to live action formatted commercial. H2-2) are exposed to clay animated co mmercial, the subjects will exhibit a) higher levels of pleasure, b) higher levels of arousal, c) more favorable animated attitudes, d) more favorable brand attitudes, and e) highe r purchase intentions than those exposed to cartoon commercial. Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) noted that the higher a person’s involvement in and familiarity with a product and the higher their ability to cogn itively differentiate between the product’s features, th e higher the recall of the cont ents/characteristics in the product’s advertisement (p. 356). If activation of this intern al state is high (possibly caused by a greater degree of attention to a part icular stimulus), then subsequent memory performance and recall should also be high (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Therefore, high involvement conditions due to comprehension and elaboration should also lead to a better r ecall of message characteris tics (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Thorson and Page (1988) found that comm ercials for brands with high product involvement generated significantly higher scor es for the dependent measures of brand name recall, brand attitudes, attitudes towa rd the ad, attitudes toward purchasing, and purchase intentions (McGrath & Ma hood 2004, p.43). Individuals who are highly involved with a stimulus have a greater tenden cy to pay attention to the stimulus (Celsi & Olson 1988), so the higher levels of attention to the stimuli in this experiment may result in ad recall. In addition, Gorn ’s (1982) study suggests that individuals who are highly involved with objects are less likely to respond to music as affective stimuli than to the information provided regarding the product.

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40 Therefore, it can be postulated that th e higher the individua l’s attention to animated stimuli, the higher the ad reca ll of the contents and components in the commercials. Clay animation ads are produ ced by incorporating visualization and appropriate motion in commercials. Using im age motion in commerci als could increase viewer attention to commercials due to the fact that clay animations are produced by using a style of image motion and movement based reality. Given the literature related to animation stimuli with aesthetic factors, people who are exposed to clay animated commercial ar e more likely to experi ence a higher ad recall than to live action and cartoon commercials. This theoretical lin kage postulates the following hypothesis: H3: All other things being equal, rega rdless of product involvement, when subjects are exposed to clay animated commercial, the subjects will exhibit increased ad recall than those exposed to cartoon based and live action formatted commercials. In the hypothesis 4 it is assumed that th e role of product involvement could act as moderator of the effects of types of commer cials on consumer responses. As reported in literature related to the role of involve ment on consume behavior, the degree of involvement with the product is highly correla ted with dependent variables such attitude toward the ad, brand and purchase behavior Therefore, the following hypothesis is posited: H4: There is a two-way interaction between three different types of commercials and degree of involvement will exist on; a) pleasure; b) arousal; c) attitude toward the animated commercial; d) attitude toward the brand; and e) purchase intention respectively.

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41 2.12.2 The Hierarchy of Communicati on Effects in Advertising Many consumer behavior models were developed following the introduction of Lavidge and Steiner’s (1961) Hierarchy of Effects model. This model posited a sequential hierarchy of events in which c onsumer purchase behavi ors occurred, including awareness, knowledge, liking, preferen ce, and conviction (Vaughn 1979, p.28). In addition, Lavidge and Steiner (1961) asserted that cognition includes awareness and knowledge, affect includes liking and preferen ces, and conation in cludes conviction and purchase. Holbrook and Batra (1987) pointed out that cognition has generally been viewed as a system of beliefs structured into some kind of semantic network, that behavior has typically been regarded as synonymous with buying responses, and that affect has been treated as a unidi mensional bipolar continuum (p.405). As summarized in his hist orical tripartite classifi cation, Krugman’s model (i.e., cognition-affection-conation) c ould be used in low-involveme nt situations (1965). Zajonc and Markus model (e.g., affect-conation-c ognition sequence, 1982) suggested that preferences do not require a cognitive basis, but instead are mainly based on affect. Ray et al.’s sequence (i.e., conation-affect-cogniti on, 1973) explained that consumer purchase behaviors are followed by attitude formation to reinforce consumer choices, and finally selective learning to further support pur chase decisions (Yoo et al. 2004). Vaughn (1979) explained the tripartite classification (Feeling-Learn-Do) by dividing economic, responsive, psychological, and social elements into the FCB model. Vaughn focused on four consumer types: a) the rational consumer who follows the economic model by consciously considering functional co st-utility information in purchase decisions; b) the ha bitual consumer who follows the responsive model by

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42 thoughtlessly buying through rote, stimulus-resp onse learning; c) the unpredictable consumer who follows the psychological model by compulsive buying under the influence of unconscious and indirect emo tions; and d) the compliant consumer who follows the social model by continually adjus ting purchases to satis fy cultural and group needs for the sake of conformity (p.28). Thus, the tripartite attitudinal dimensions can be applied to three different types of commercials. Furthermore, this model would provide a better understa nding of consumer purchase behaviors when consumers are exposed to three different types of commercial stimuli. Therefore, this study will first seek an answer to the following research question: RQ1) Will different values for the Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions model be found in the three different types of commercials? In the second experiment, a nimation as stimuli could be extended to examining the classical conditioning mechanism because an imation is considered as affective stimuli in that it can generate a positive affective attitude in the consumer. 2.12.3 Experiment 2 The impact of product information in commercials on beliefs and attitudes would typically be interprete d within an information processing framework. It is suggested here that a classical conditioning framework coul d account for the potential impact of background features, such as an imation, on product attitudes. Shapiro and MacInnis (1992) identify that classical conditioning involves exposing subjects to a positive or negative s timulus paired with a US such as music (Gorn 1992), a drama series (Allen & Madde n 1985), or visual imagery (Rossiter & Percy 1980; Stuart et al 1987), along with a neutral paired with a stimulus (e.g., the ad or brand). Classical conditioning asse rts that a stimulus paired with a positive or negative

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43 conditioned stimulus (CS) such as the ad a nd brand could generate positive or negative affective responses toward the CS. Gorn (1982) suggests that the simplest association between CS (e.g., product) and US (e.g., music) will affect pr oduct preferences as measured by product choices. He also suggests that the background feat ures of commercials positiv ely affect consumer product choices. Applying the previous literature and stimulus to present studies on the animation advertising genre is important to our understanding of advert ising’s effect on consumers. Animation as stimuli could be extended to examining the classical conditioning mechanism because animation is like other de sign tools, such as music and visual imagery, in that it can generate a positive aff ective attitude in the consumer. Furthermore, the created positive affection could be asso ciated with the advertised product through classical conditioning. Brewer (1974) posited th at classical conditioning is the repeated pairing of a CS with a US, causing the CS to elicit a CR in an unconscious automatic fashion. Gorn (1982) suggested that the communi cation effect may be due to some extent to the association of the at titude object with positive emotions attached to the communicator. This study focuses on animated commercials as stimuli in classical conditioning mechanisms by establishing its place in the ongoing debate over the affective and cognitive processes. Hoyer and MacInnis (2001) observed that mo tivation is influenced by the extent to which the ad, brand, product category, or othe r characteristic is personally relevant to consumers. Thus, a key factor affecting motiv ation is the extent to which something is personally relevant, or has di rect implications and signi ficance in one’s life (p.60). Involvement with an advertised message has a considerable impact on how brand

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44 attitudes are formed or changed (Laczn iak, Muehling, & Grossbart 1989, p.28). Personal relevance involvement is a mechanism used to explain and predict consumer’s behavior because involvement plays an important ro le in advertising processing. Thus, the literature reported above led to the following hypotheses: H5: When all subjects are exposed to a cl assical conditioning procedure in which a target brand (CS) is systematically pa ired with an animated stimulus (US); subjects with high product involvement will exhibit; a) higher levels of pleasure and b) arousal; c) more favorable attitude s toward the ad and d) target brand, and e) higher purchase intenti on in conditioning experime ntal group than in the control group. In addition, subjects with low product involvement will exhibit; f) higher levels of pleasure and g) arousal; h) more favorable attitudes toward the ad and i) target brand, and j) higher purchase intention in conditioning experimental group compared to the control group. Kim et al. (1998) argued th at the selected US pro voked positive affects while communication resulted in no produc t beliefs. Since a conditioning effect can be directly transferred in the absence of product beliefs, the subsequent selection of the US allows one to infer that the resultant conditioning effect is due ex clusively to direct affect transfer. Gorn, Goldberg, and Basu (1993) found that under high-source awareness there was no difference in speaker evaluations betw een subjects in a good mood and those in a bad mood. A study on subjects in good or bad moods suggested that it was only the former who were able to correct for the bias in their evaluations when made more aware of the source of their mood. Gorn, Jacobs, and Mana (1987) emphasi ze that the role of awareness in conditioning is the critical i ssue in classical conditioning mechanisms. Given psychological and consumer behavior literature, Pavlovian conditioning can affect

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45 the behavior of adult humans without thei r awareness of any experimental hypothesis, without their awarenes s of the relationship between the conditional and the unconditioned stimuli, and without their coope ration (Gorn, Jacobs, & Mana1987, p.415). Contingency awareness exists when experi mental subjects knows that the CS and US have been related temporally in an experiment’s sequencing (Shimp 1991, p.160). Allen and Janiszewski’s (1989) study reported th at subjects were id entified as exhibiting contingency awareness when they knew that certain Norwegian words (US) were more likely than others to be followed by positive feedback (US). Shimp (1991) argued that contingency awareness may be necessary for a conditioned effect to materialize (p.160). Another study argued that high le vels of contingency awarene ss play a role in attitude formation and classical conditioni ng (Stuart et al. 1987). Theref ore, the role of awareness in classical conditioning is examined here by using animation as the stimuli-as explained in the following hypotheses. H6: Subjects with high product involvemen t will exhibit an increased likelihood of recognizing the contingency than subjec ts in a control group. This mean that those who are exposed to a classical c onditioning procedure in which a target brand (CS) is systematically paired with an affective animation stimulus (US) have a greater perception of contingenc y awareness than subjects in a control group. H6-1: Contingency awareness will mediat e the relationship between classical conditioning procedures a nd attitudes toward the a d, target brand (CS), and purchase intention. H7: In the animation stimulus, subjects e xposed to the target brand (CS) paired with the animation stimulus (US), a nd who are aware of the contingency relationship between the target brand (C S) and animation stimulus (US) will develop more favorable attitudes toward the target brand than subjects who are unaware of the contingency relationship.

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46 2.12.4 The Hierarchy of Communicati on Effects in Advertising After introduction of the Lavidge and Stei ner’s (1961) Hierarchy of effects model, many consumer behavior models have been developed until now. The model assumed that consumer purchase behavior of a pr oduct occurred via a seque ntial hierarchy of events from awareness through knowledge, lik ing, preference, and conviction (Vaughn 1979, p.28). In addition, Lavidge and Steiner (1 961) mentioned that cognition includes awareness and knowledge, affect includes liking a nd preferences and conation includes conviction and purchase. This model suggest ed that advertisin g researchers have developed different hierarchical models for various consumer decision making situations, but agree hierarchy of effects model (Y oo et al. 2004). Holbrook and Batra (1987) pointed that cognition has genera lly been viewed as a system of beliefs structured into some kind of semantic network as well as behavior has usually been regarded as synonymous with buying responses. Finally, a ffect has typically been treated as a unidimentional bipolar continuum (p.405). Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) the three –com ponent view of attitude classified as cognitive (e.g., perceptual re sponses and verbal statemen t of belief), affective (e.g., sympathetic nervous responses and verbal st atements of affect), and behavioral or conative (e.g., overt actions and verbal st atements concerning behavior) (p.20). Ray et al (1973) summarize previous hier archical models by suggesting that three components are common to each: a cognitive component (attention, awareness, comprehension, and learning), an affective component (evaluation, attitude, feeling, conviction, and yeilding) and a conative co mponent (intention, behavior, action).

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47 Baker and Churchill (1977) have categor ized attitudes toward advertising into three parts: a) the cognitive component, which consists of the knowledge or belief an individual has toward the object; b) the a ffective component, which consists of the feeling an individual has toward the obj ect; and c) the conative component, which includes the action or the inclination of a possible action the individual has toward the object. Generally, the cognitive component in the hierarchy of co mmunication effects includes knowledge about indivi dual features or attributes and their respective weights (or value) in addition to a brand name as well as the presence of an imagery-based prototype or an exemplar along with brand name knowledge. Affect has typically been assumed to be stable and strong enough to influence the behavioral intention which carries a commitment on the part of the attitude holder (Par k & Mittal 1985, p.220). Affect, which is generated from aspects of the reference object such as an attractive model, a jingle in the commercia l, or a product package, would then be attached to the brand name through a classical conditioni ng approach (Park & Mittal 1985, p.221). Hilgard (1980) mentioned that the persistence with whic h cognition, affection, and conation were recognized as major classi fications of mental events suggests that there may be a natural utility to the classificatory scheme (p.115-116). He also noted that hot cognition refers to thought s and decisions that have high affective or conative importance to the person (p.115). There are thre e absolutely irreducib le faculties of the mind, namely knowledge, feeling, and de sire (cited in Hilgard 1980, p. 109). Vaughn (1979) was trying to explain the tripartite classification (Feeling-LearnDo) in dividing economic, responsive, psycholog ical and social in FCB model. His point

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48 of view was focused on four consumer types, first, a rational cons umer who consciously considers functional cost-utility information in a purchase decision in economic model. A habitual consumer conditioned to though tlessly buy through rote stimulus-response learning could be defined in responsive m odel. An unpredictable consumer who buys compulsively under the influence of unconscious through and indirect emotions could be defined in psychological model. A complia nt consumer who continually adjusts purchases to satisfy cultural a nd group needs for conformity could be defined in social model (p.28). The several alternatives to the original Lavidge and Steiner model (1961) suggest that advertising researchers have developed different hierarchical models for various consumer decision making situations, but ag ree on the importance of the three basic tenets of the hierarchy of effects model. However, many alternative models attempt to explain consumer purchase be havior and many researchers have tried to develop the tripartite attitudinal dimensions (i.e., cognition, affecti on, and conation). Therefore, this study will seek an answer to the following research question: RQ2: The tripartite attitudinal model can be explained in a classical conditioning experiment when using animated co mmercial stimuli. Thus, the tripartite attitudinal dimensions can be applied in classical conditioning research, and the model would provide a better understanding of consumer cognitive, affective and purchase behavior when consumers are e xposed to animated commercial stimuli. Will different values of the tripartite at titudinal model exist between experiments and control groups and two diffe rent product involvement groups?

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49 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Overview of Experimental Design Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of animation in advertising design on linear combination of all de pendent variables, as well as the role of animation on emotional response. The first experiment investigated the relationship between exposure to animated commercial s and responses to subsequent ads (e.g., emotional responses, attitudes toward the ads, brand, purchase inten tion, and ad recall). An experimental design was used to determ ine if there was a significant difference in cognition, affection, and conati on. The experiment measured five sub-categories for two different animated commercials and live ac tion commercial: a) emotional responses, b) attitudes toward the commercial, c) attitudes toward the bra nd, d) purchase intention, and e) advertising recall. The second experiment assessed the impact on consumer attitude formation in advertising using a classical conditioning mechanism. The classical conditioning has long been employed in the st udy of consumer behavior and as a means of interpreting the effects of advertising, such as attitude changes. Classical conditioning is a prime method of persuasion, and the st udy will demonstrate its effectiveness when using animated stimuli. 3.1.1 Experiment 1 To examine the effects of animated a nd non-animated commercials on dependent variables, this experiment used a between-subjects factoria l design: a 3 (cartoon-based animation, clay animation, and live action co mmercial) x 2 (product involvement: high

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50 versus low). A MANOVA was used to exam ine differences between the animated and non-animated commercials on linear combina tions of all dependent variables, and a between subject designed ANOVA was pe rformed on each dependent variable. 3.1.2 Pilot Study A pilot study was conducted for this experi ment to check the validity of animated commercials. Commercials were classified into animated and non-animated types by three advertising professionals and scholars in the advertising field. Specifically, the animated commercials were categorized as either cartoon-based or clay animation. The purpose of a pilot study was to classify cart oon, clay animation and live action formatted commercials. Based the definition of product of clay animation and cartoon, they selected each commercial from among several. All animated characters were made by using clay animation in commercials. Also the same crite ria were applied to th e selection of cartoon based commercials. Live action formatted co mmercial was selected from among them produced without mixing with any cartoon a nd other animated types. In order to maximize animation commercial exposure, the original language was translated to English and then superimposed on each commer cial. The commercials being used in this study were taken from those of several c ountries (e.g., America, England, Germany, Japan, and Korea) for which control of extraneous variable s regarding brand predisposition and of pre-expos ure of the U.S. respondents was possible. Thus, several different animated commercials were selected for pretest. 3.1.3 Pretesting the Animated Stimuli and Materials A pretest was conducted to ensure that th e directions and questions were clear and unambiguous, and to prepare for unexpected s ituations (e.g., video quality and space), as

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51 well as to check the reliability dimensi on of independent and dependent variables selected for this study. This pretest was admi nistered to about 30 undergraduate students. The pretest’s objective was to ensure the su bject’s perception of different animated characters as affective stimuli in commerci als. Affect items were adapted from Gorn (1982) and Allen &Madden ( 1985). The pretest for edited several animations was conducted by using a four-item affect scale a nd seven-point semantic differential scale (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant, like very much vs. dislike very much, left me with a good feeling vs. left me with a bad f eeling, and interesting vs. boring). The results of pretest led to the selec tion of animated stimuli for the actual experiment. Playing scenes of human and an imal mixed characters made by clay had a mean of 5.1. Playing scenes of fruit charac ter by clay had a mean of 5.0. Playing scenes of animal character made by cartoon had a mean of 4.5. Playing scenes of human character made by cartoon also had a mean of 4.8. Playing scenes of personified human character had a mean of 4.8. After the pretest, a list of unfamiliar words used in the questionnaire was compiled in order to make the directions of the experiment clear. The pretest also ensured that video and sound quality were reasonabl e. The TV commercials were fixed at 15 seconds for each sample, since exposure time could be an important issue due to the fact that advertisements contain various components to alert subjects mentally and psychically. Thus, the pretest involved fixi ng the time schedule in the experiment to avoid subject bias. To examine the effects of animated commercials on affective responses, three different versions of a televi sion commercial for an existing electronic product and soft drink were edited by a professional designe r. Several television commercials were

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52 specially selected for use as stimulus materi als in the experiment. In order to maximize the animation commercial exposure, the original language was translated into English if necessary and then superimposed on each commercial. The commercials being used in this study were taken from those of five count ries for which control extraneous variables regarding brand predisposition and of pre-e xposure of the U.S. respondents was possible. Each commercial contains the brand name company logo and animated characters playing scenes. Five15-second commerci als and three additional 15-20 second commercials were selected. To avoid specific subject bias and increase the generalizability of the study, each commercial was edited to 15 seconds using a media editor. Commercials were divided into two majo r categories: animated (subdivided into cartoon-based and clay animation comme rcials) and non-animated (e.g., live action formatted commercials). Snap shots of animated stimuli are in appendix C. 3.1.4 Subjects Subjects were undergraduate students enro lled in introductor y advertising and public relations courses. All subjects signed an informed consent form prior to their participation in the experiment. Six hundred twenty undergraduate students at a large southern university participated in th is study. As an accessibl e and large population, students were considered appr opriate subjects for this study’s goals, which examined the causal relationship between exposure to an imated commercials and ad attitudes. 3.1.5 Procedure

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53 Upon arrival at the scheduled time, s ubjects were given a packet entitled “Advertising research.” After each subject rece ived a packet, an investigator asked them to write down their name and 8-digit student identification numbers on the first page of the questionnaire. Before the real experiment investigators explai ned the procedure and all subjects read the goal of the experiment. Subjects were instructed when to begin, when to stop, and when to turn the page. The subjects were told that the experiment involved working with an advertising agency to conduct a survey on foreign commercials, because the advertising company was cons idering creating English versions of commercials to launch products in the U.S. S ubjects were also told that the advertising agency values student opinions and their re sponses could help to promote or stop the conversion of the foreign commercials into English versions. The subjects were then divided into three groups to measure the different commercial formats. That is, participants assigned to each group were exposed to three different commercials (between factors) separately. The commercials were presented with an overhead projector and each commercial lasted 15 seconds. After explaining the directi ons for the experiment, the investigator showed each subject group three different animated te levision commercials (e.g., clay animated commercial for first group, cartoon for sec ond group and live acti on for third group). After watching each commercial, subjects were asked to fill out the second page of the questionnaire, which included emotional respon se scales. Subjects were given a limited amount of time after viewing each commercial to mark their belief of brand, attribution of commercials and brand, and purchase inte nt on a self-reporting questionnaire. Ad

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54 recall was measured on the last page. After co mpleting this stage, subjects filled out the rest of the questionnaire. 3.1.6 Product Involvement Mani pulation for Experiment 1 After filling consent form on the first page, subjects were asked to read the following statement carefully and assume th at it was their current situation: To successfully launch a new product named Juice the company will conduct a promotion at a grocery store. This compa ny is trying to penetr ate the juice market. When buying this product, you would rece ive a book of coupons good for a year from a grocery store. Subjects were asked how much relevan ce the product has to them before the actual experiment. If they chose the number below zero (-2 -1 and 0), then go to the second page. The second page described the blank page. However, if they chose the number over zero (1 and 2), then go to the third page. Investig ator asked them to read the following statement: For participants highly involved with this product. Please pay careful attention to the video presentation. After watching the co mmercials related to the Juice, please carefully answer each question. Investig ators will choose some one who makes the best response to the questions after colle cting data. Then th e investigators will pick the name from the group pool to win a prize. For participants highly involved with th e Juice brand, investigators encouraged them to pay careful attenti on to the video presentation. Af ter watching the commercials related to Juice, subjects were asked to car efully answer each question. They were also told that after collecting data the investig ators would chose the subject with the best response to win a prize.

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55 3.1.7 Variables and Measures The measurement tools used in this study are based on the literature review related to the tripar tite attitudinal dimensions (e.g., cognition, affection, and conation). The research also used previously-devel oped scales, modified when necessary, to measure the variables in the study. Specific scale items can be found in Appendix B. To measure cognition response (e.g., belie f), a seven-point Li kert type scale developed by marketing researchers was us ed. Measurement tools used in the copytesting firm and consumer research area were employed to gauge be lief (Breckler 1984; Katz & Stotland 1959; Krech & Crut chfield 1948; Ray et al. 1973). Affective responses: Pleasure, arousal, and dominance: To measure emotional response, AdSAM was used in this study. The measure consists of three different scales: a) pleasure (measures the positive/negative aspect of the feeling), b) arousal (measures the level of intensity or involvement in the feeling), and c) dominance (measures the degree of empowerment the re spondent feels). AdSAM (Morris 1995) is a graphic character that represents the th ree dimensions of PAD. Initially, SAM was compared to verbal PAD by using the catal og of situations employed by Mehrabian and Russell (1974) to standardize the three PAD dimensions. The results indicated that SAM “generated a similar pattern of scale values for these situations as was obtained for the semantic differential” (Lang 1980). AdSAM is in appendix B. Attitudes toward advertising (Aa): The research used previously developed scales, modified when necessary, to measur e the variables in the study. These semantic differential scales measured attitude toward the ads and were selected from various prior research studies (Biehal, Stephens, & Curl o 1992). The questions asked subjects to

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56 evaluate ads (using a semantic differential s cale), along with five measures identified by the labels “unfavorable/favorable,” “bad/good,” “dislike/like,” and “n egative/positive.” Attitude toward the brand (Ab): Attitudes toward the brand were assessed utilizing a four-item, seven-point semantic differential scale (bad/good, unfavorable/favorable, negative/positive, and dislike/like). This at titude to the brand measure was used in prior research by MacI nnis and Park (1991). The author reported that 87.5% of brand attitudes can be accounted for using the scale in factor. Excellent reliability of the scale was also obtained (Cronbach alpha=.95). The brand attitude scale was computed by averaging the summated items. Conation responses as purchase intent (PI): Purchase intent was measured using Haley and Case’s (1979) Verbal Purchase Intent Scale. The s cale is a single-item Likert-type scale. Validity for this scale was established by Gormly (1974) as well as Gruber (1970). Also, Haley and Case (1979) repo rt the verbal purchase intent scale had a high factor loading on the produc t evaluation factor with a coefficient alpha of 0.88. The scale’s significant reliability (test-retest) was also reported by Kassarjian and Nakanishi (1967) and Hughes (1967). Ad recall: Ad recall was measured by asking subjects to recall the names and brands that they could remember from the co mmercials with descriptions. For ad recall, subjects were instructed to write down ever ything they could remember about the ads themselves, such as ad description, the disp layed product name, characters, storyline, and theme, as well as any feelings toward the ad. Ad recall scores can be calculated by counting the number of ad components correct ly recalled (Edell & Keller 1989; Jin 2003).

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57 Ad recall measure was very similar to Brand recall measurement. Brand recall was measured by the number of times the bra nd was mentioned in the subject’s responses to the open-ended questions. Ad content pl ayback was measured by counting the number of words used to answer the second openended questions (Stout & Leckenby 1988, p.55). Walker and Dubitsky (1994) found that liking re lates to other copy-testing measures such as related recall, brand preference, and pe rsuasion. One possible explanation for how liking works has to do with the rational, c ognitive processing of a dvertising messages. A well-liked advertisement can affect information processing by creating positive arousal and activation (Kroebel-riel 1979), improving th e recall of the adver tised material, and producing more positive judgments toward the message (Aaker & Myers 1987; Youn et al. 2001, p.7). Favorable feelings influence me mory by maintaining positive feelings at the time of stimulus encoding, influencing how the information was organized in memory, and highlighting specific f eatures that are retrievabl e later (Zajonc 1980; Lingle & Ostrom 1981; Zinkhan, Locander, & Leigh 1986; Youn et al. 2001, p.7). 3.1.8 Involvement Manipulation Check The manipulation check measure cons isted of six items adapted from Zaichkowsky (1985) to determine the extent to which the participants paid attention to a product offered via slide presentation and th e stimuli. Subjects were asked how much relevance the product had to them before the actual experiment. A nd investigator told subjects to checkmark to the number what thoughts and feelings went through their mind about the product after watching the commercial The items used in this study consisted of “useless/useful,” “uninteres ted/interested,” “worthless/va luable,” “unwanted/wanted,” and “irrelevant/relevant.” Excel lent reliability of the scale was obtained (Cronbach alpha

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58 = .90). A t -test indicated that the intended mani pulation was successful. The high product involvement participants repor ted a mean of 5.6 compared to a mean of 3.3 for the low product involvement participants. This di fference was found to be significant ( t = 26.5, p < .001). 3.2 Classical Conditioning Experiment 2 For Experiment 2, classical conditioning was carried out with electronics (e.g., MP3 player) and beverage (e.g., orange juice) products. The primary procedure replicated the classical conditioning pr ocedure suggested by Gorn ( 1982), Allen and Madden (1985) and Rossiter and Percy (1980). In the belief-based approach following an earlier classical conditioning procedure, the favorable emotional consequence of the belief serves as an unconditioned stimulus (US) which is paired with the product, a conditioned stimulus (CS). As conditioning proceeds, the product alone becomes increasi ngly capable of eliciting a favorable emotional reaction and a favorable product atti tude. Stimuli (e.g., visual imagery) with favorable emotional consequences can be paired with a product allowing for an increase in the consumer’s overall evaluation of the product and brand attitude. Given that visual content is closely related to the evaluation of a product, animated commercials as stimuli would be an effective marketing or pe rsuasion tool as th e affect-producing, unconditioned stimulus. 3.2.1 Selection of Conditioned Stimulus Based on classification of product su ggested by Ratchford (1987) and Vaughn (1980, 86), the products required thinking and economical considera tion were included notebooks, digital cameras, MP3 players, te levisions, mobile phones, DVD players, and

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59 refrigerators. The products required feeli ng and affective consideration were included consumption products such as toilet papers, c onfectionaries, soft drinks, and cosmetics. 3.2.2 Pretesting for the Un conditioned Stimulus The pretest adopted previous classi cal conditioning experimental procedure (Allen and Madden 1985; Gorn 1982), therefore, it was necessary to find material that would elicit both pleasant and unpleasant f eelings. Thirty undergraduate students participated in a pretest in which they rated 13 slides from animated commercials (potential USs) on a four item affect scale (pleasant vs. unpleasant, like very much vs. dislike very much, left me with a good f eeling vs. left me with a bad feeling, and interesting vs. boring). In a ddition, four fictitious brands (e.g., foreign products) of packaged goods were pretested as possible CSs. Participants were as ked to indicate their perceptions of how similar the brands were to other brands in the same category and to rate each brand on a three-item scale (good/ bad, like/dislike, and pleasant/unpleasant). Pairs of terms or phrases anchored either e nd of a seven-point scale. Of note were the scores on the item “left me with a good feeling/bad fee ling”. Producing good feelings and/or bad feelings is, of course, a necessary part of an effective conditioning experiment. 3.2.3 Filler Material To detract participants’ attention from the focal CS-US pairing, filler animations were employed as is essential when conduc ting classical conditioning experiments. An alternative explanation for the results obtai ned in a classical conditioning study is demand artifact (Kellaris & Cox 1989). Using fille r animation stimuli decreases hypothesis guessing and reduces the possibili ty of demand artifact interpretation of the results (Kim et al. 1996; Stuart et al. 1987). The filler material used for the study cons isted of three

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60 fictitious and three real br ands (a television, a mobile phone, a notebook, cosmetics, a soft drink, and a sports drink), and various USs that generated no affect and conveyed no systematic meaning. This study also chose tw o target products: an MP3 player as the high-involvement product and orange ju ice as the low-involvement product. 3.2.4 Procedure The second experiment examined the role of animated stimuli on consumerattitude formation by using a classical conditioning mechanism. The experiment procedure and questionnaire were developed based on the respondent feedback regarding treatment stimuli and the clarity of the que stions. The experiment was conducted in groups of approximately 331 subjects that me t after regular class time. Subjects were divided into equal groups by ra ndomly assigning a classroom to either the experimental group or the control group. Upon arrival at th e scheduled time, subj ects were given a packet entitled “TV Commercials Study.” Afte r all the subjects received the packet, the investigator asked them to write down their name and their student identification numbers on the first page of the questionnaire. They en tered a room that had been set up for a slide presentation where they received a booklet wi th instructions and questions. Investigators explained the instructions and the participants were instructed on when to begin, when to stop, and when to turn the page. Once they r ead the instructions, the investigator turned off the lights and showed the slides. After the presentation, the subjects were instructed to read each question carefully and then re spond to the questions in the booklet. Though the number of CS/US contingency pa irings is a variable of interest in conditioning work (Stuart, Shimp, & Engle 1987) our intent was not to vary repetition. This study was chosen to pair (in the trea tment condition) the CS and US three times.

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61 Priluck and Till (1998) used si x pairings in their experime nt because they felt more pairings would generate a more valuable init ial conditioning effect than the use of one or three pairings would, but with more pairings comes the risk of subject boredom. Three pairings were ideal due to the nature of an imation, which is both motion and story. Three pairings also allowed for an even distributi on of the three affectively positive animations within the sequence of motions. The treatment subjects were e xposed to three pairings of pleasant scenes with target products and 3 sets of filler brands with 3 neutral scenes each. Filler brands were included to disguise the nature of the study and prevent hypothesis guessing. In the control condition, pa rticipants were exposed to the same stimuli as the conditioning group. However, the selection of stimuli presentation was randomized, and there was no systematic pairing of CS a nd US. Rescorla (1967) emphasized that a random group was needed to test for the e ffects of conditioning. By comparing different groups, the results can be inferred that the an imation effects were due to conditioning. 3.2.5 Experimental Manipulation for Experiment 2 In the classical conditioning experiment, the product involvement manipulation is similar to the first experiment. After filling consent form on the first page, subjects were asked to read the following statement carefu lly and assume that it was their current situation: To successfully launch a new product named Juice the company will conduct a promotion at a grocery store. This compa ny is trying to penetr ate the juice market. When buying this product, you would rece ive a book of coupons good for a year from a grocery store.

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62 Subjects were asked how much relevan ce the product has to them before the actual experiment. If they chose the number below zero (-2, -1 and 0), then go to the second page. The second page described the blank page. However, if they chose the number over zero (1 and 2), then go to the third page. Investig ator asked them to read the following statement: For participants highly involved with this product. Please pay careful attention to the video presentation. After watching the co mmercials related to the Juice, please carefully answer each question. Investig ators will choose some one who makes the best response to the questions after colle cting data. Then th e investigators will pick the name from the group pool to win a prize. For participants highly involved with th e Juice brand, investigators encouraged them to pay careful attenti on to the video presentation. Af ter watching the commercials related to Juice, subjects were asked to car efully answer each question. They were also told that after collecting data the investig ators would chose the subject with the best response to win a prize. Participants were exposed to a positive conditioning procedure in which the test brand was paired with favorable stimu li on the second repetition. Proper classical conditioning control procedures required that both the conditioning treatment and conditioning control groups be exposed the same number of times to both the US and CS, with only the conditioning treatment expos ed to the CS/US contingency pairing. Participants in both the conditioning trea tment and conditioning control groups were exposed to a video presentation in which th e stimuli appeared inte rspersed among filler video clips.

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63 The control group saw randomized video cl ips and the order of the video clips was used as a randomized selection of stimu li presentation. It was important that there was no systematic pairing of CS and US in this group. 3.2.6 Measure 3.2.6.1 Contingency Awareness The contingency awareness measurement t ools used previously developed scales, modified when necessary, to measure the variables in the study. The contingency awareness measure was used in prior resear ch by Riluck and Till (2004) and Allen and Madden (1985). Its purpose was to determine whether participants became demand aware in the experiment. To determine contingenc y awareness, participants were asked to indicate which product (the TV, digital camer a, computer, MP3 player, orange juice and milk) and which brand (SENS and Gator orange juice) was always shown before or with the animation with motion of the pleasant s cenery and the video clip. Participants were then asked how certain they were of each of their responses and ranked their certainty on a 5-point scale ranging from absolutely certa in to absolutely uncertain. Contingency aware participants were those who chose the correct product and brand and who were absolutely or somewhat certain of their responses. This operational definition matched the construct definition for awareness, whic h is the knowledge that the CS precedes the US. The measures used to assess inferent ial belief formation were included as a means to investigate whether the participan ts formed beliefs about the CS (SENS and Gator orange juice) based on the US (affec tive animation with motion). If there was no difference in the salient beliefs between th e conditioning and cont rol group, this study

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64 could assume that belief was not a factor in attitude formation. As suggested by Kim, Lim and Bhargava (1998) and Homer and Yoon (1992), participants estimated the likelihood that an MP3 player and soft drink possessed various attribut es on four 7-point probability scales. Thus, the following extende d measures were included: (1) sounds and tastes good, (2) is of good qua lity, (3) provides many differe nt additional devices and ingredients, and (4) is reliable. Furthermore, beliefs about one of the filler brands was included to distract participants’ attenti on from the focal brand and decrease their hypothesis guessing. The measures were used to assess the participants’ affective response to the US. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang 1984) and the additional Self-Assessment AdSAM (Morris 1995) consist of a graphic character used to represent the three dimensions of PAD. AdSAM measured aff ective response was used to represent the three dimensions of PAD (e.g., pleasure, ar ousal and dominance). The measure consists of a graphic character arrayed along three different scales th at include pleasure, arousal, and dominance. AdSAM is in appendix B. The study was measured the attitude towa rd the target brands (MP3 player for high involvement and fruit juice for low i nvolvement) to gauge attitudes toward the animated commercials. The scales were adopt ed from Biehal, Stephens & Curlo (1992). The questionnaire asked subjects to evaluate ads using a semantic differential scale along with four measures anchor ed by the labels “unfavorab le/favorable,” “bad/good,” “dislike/like,” and “unpleasant/pleasant.” Attitude toward the brands (e.g., MP3 player and orange juice) were selected from a prior study (Holbrook & Ba tra 1987; Homer &Yoon 1992). Subjects were also asked

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65 to evaluate the brands (using 7-points and a four-item measure), along with seven items anchored by the labels “good/bad,” “ like very much/dislike very much,” “attractive/unattractive,” and “interesting/boring.” To measure purchase intention, subjects were asked the question: “All things considered, if you are planning to purchase the brand on one of your next trips to a store, what are the chances that you would purchase the brand if it is available?” The purchase intention measure scales used were suggest ed by Bake (1999) as well as MacInnis and Stayman (1993). Each of the items was sta ndardized and summed to represent the attribution of the product, at titude toward the ads, and brand and purchase behavior. Excellent reliability of each scale was also obtained (Cronbach alpha = .90). 3.2.6.2 Involvement manipulation check The product involvement manipulation check used in the first experiment also was employed to the second experiment. Th e manipulation check measure consisted of six items adapted from Zaichkowsky (1985) to determine the extent to which the participants paid attention to a product offered via slide presentation and the stimuli. Subjects were asked how much relevance th e product had to them before the actual experiment. And investigator told them to checkmark to the number what thoughts and feelings went through their mind about the product after watching the commercial. The items used in this study consisted of “use less/useful,” “uninterested/interested,” “worthless/valuable,” “unwante d/wanted,” and “irrelevant/rel evant.” Excellent reliability of the scale was also obtai ned (Cronbach alpha = .93). A t -test indicated that the intended manipulation could be successful. High produc t involvement participants with the

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66 product reported a mean of 5.1 compared to a mean of 2.8 for the low product involvement participants. This diffe rence was found to be significant ( t =23.4, p < .001). 3.2.6.3 Conditioning requirement To test the hypotheses in this study, part icipants first had to be successfully conditioned, as was evidenced by how the conditioning treatment fostered a more favorable attitude toward the ads and target brand than the conditioning control (Priluck and Till 2004). Participants in the conditioning treatm ent who were exposed to the animated stimuli reported significantly more favorable attitudes toward the ads than those in the conditioning control group. Mo re specifically, the low-invo lvement product group in the conditioning treatment had a mean of 5.0 comp ared to a mean of 3.4 for the conditioning control group. This difference was statistically significant ( t = 11.59, p <.001) and indicates that this conditioni ng procedure successfully al tered attitudes toward the animated commercials. Participants in the conditioning tr eatment group who were exposed to the animated stimuli reported significantly more favo rable attitudes toward the ads than those in the conditioning control group. Specifica lly, the conditioning treatment group had a mean of 5.2 compared to a mean of 3.6 for the conditioning control. This difference was statistically significant ( t = 10.6, p <.001) and indicated that this conditioning procedure successfully altered attitudes toward the target brand. 3.2.6.4 Reliability of manipulations checks In order to determine the validity a ma nipulation, reliable ma nipulation checks are a prerequisite (Perdue & Summers 1986). Nuna lly (1978) emphasized that the reliability

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67 of a measure refers to the extent to whic h random error is absent. Reliability of the manipulation checks was assessed by calculati ng Cronbach’s alpha, which is to determine internal consistency, the upper bound of reliab ility and coefficient beta, which is to determine unidimensionality and the lower bound of reliability for each index (John & Roedder 1981). Results indicated that the ma nipulation check measures had acceptable levels of internal consistency and unidimens ionality. And all alpha and beta coefficient were over .80. 3.2.6.5 Construct validity Nunnally (1978) suggested that an importa nt first step in assessing the construct validity of a manipulation is to assess the extent to which it appears to look like it manipulates what it should manipulate. Also it is normally referred to as face validity. The three advertising practitione rs and expert judges menti oned above indicated that the manipulation appeared to capture the different levels of animated characters and degree of product involvement. 3.2.6.6 Convergent validity In addition to face validity, Perdue & Summers (1986) argued that a successful manipulation should possess conve rgent validity, which refers to the degree to which convergence exists between a construct and its manipulation. A successful manipulation can be assessed via manipulation checks that re flect the dimensions of the latent construct under study. In this situation, if the pr oposed two-group manipulation had convergent validity, subjects in the experi mental group were expected to exhibit higher levels of attention to the animated commercials and would process the ad for a reason different from subjects assigned to the control group.

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68 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 4.1 Experiment 1 Descriptive statistics of dependent vari ables (e.g., cognitive attitude, pleasure, arousal, dominance as affective attitude, and conative attitude) were tabled by type of commercials such as clay, cartoon, and live action forma tted commercial stimuli. Structural equation modeling was used to comp are three-group path coefficients followed by a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with a chi-square test. The multi group CFA analysis was conducted to examine the statistical different across two different groups. Data were analyzed using a MANOVA on four dependent variables: emotional response, attitude toward the ads, and br and and purchase intention. A 3 (types of commercials: clay, cartoon and live action fo rmatted commercials) x 2 (degree of involvement: high versus low) between-subj ects factorial design was employed on linear combination of all dependent variables. Where necessary, a series of t -tests followed to examine the mean difference on two different groups and logit regression was conducted to test the specific hypotheses because a re call was coded as dichotomous variables (yes=1 and 0=no). A score for each dependent variable wa s calculated by averaging the ratings across the multiple items used to measure that construct since the inter-item correlations for each of the scales, as measured by Cr onbach’s alpha, were large (ad attitude, .97; brand attitude, .95; and purchase intent, .94). Ad recall was not included in this analysis

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69 as it was categorical. Tables 4-2, 4-3, a nd 4-4 illustrate the results of a MANOVA showing the ANOVA results, means, standa rd deviations and Wilks’ Lambda. Table 4-2. Means and Standard Devi ations by Types of Ads Treatment Types Involvement Pleasure Arousal ATTA ATTB PI High 7.6(1.2/87) 5.9(1.5/87) 5.7(0. 9/87) 5.5(0.8/87) 4.7(1.0/87) Low 6.4(1.8/79) 5.4(1.9/79) 4.7(1. 2/79) 4.6(1.1/79) 3.5(1.4/79) Clay animation Total 7.0(1.6/166) 5.7(1.7/166) 5.2(1. 2/166)5.0(1.1/166) 4.1(1.4/166) High 7.2(1.4/20) 5.7(1.9/20) 5.6(0. 9/20) 5.3(1.1/20) 4.0(1.9/20) Low 4.9(1.6/146) 3.8(1.5/146) 3.3(1. 5/146)3.2(1.3/146) 2.2(1.2/146) Cartoon animation Total 5.2(1.8/166) 4.0(1.7/166) 3.6(1. 6/166)3.4(1.4/166) 2.4(1.4/166) High 7.7(1.1/130) 6.3(1.7/130) 6.0( 0.8/130)5.8(0.8/130) 4.9(1.3/130) Low 6.5(1.4/36) 4.7(1.7/36) 4.4( 1.2/36) 4.2(1.4/36) 3.2(1.4/36) Live action Total 6.6(1.8/166) 6.0(1.8/166) 5. 7(1.1/166)5.5(1.1/166) 4.6(1.5/166) High 7.6(1.2/237) 6.1(1.7/237) 5.9(. 86/237)5.7(.86/237) 4.8(1.3/237) Low 5.6(1.8/261) 4.4(1.8/261) 3.9(1. 5/261)3.8(1.4/261) 2.7(1.4/261) Total Total 6.6(1.8/498) 5.2(1.9/498) 4.8(1. 6/498)4.7(1.9/498) 3.6(1.7/498) *M(S.D/N) Table 4-3. MANOVA Results Treatments Wilk’s Lambda F d.f p Types of commercials .900 5.31 .000 Involvement .683 45.3 .000 Types x involvement Dependent Variables .938 3.18 (1,492) .000 Table 4-4. Results of Between-Subjects Independent Variables Dependent Variables MS d.f F p Pleasure 46.4 2 20.1 .000 Arousal 70.1 2 26.6 .000 ATTAD 37.4 2 25.4 .000 ATTAB 38.8 2 34.0 .000 Types of commercials PI 3.85 2 3.62 .000 Pleasure 9.01 1 3.90 .000 Arousal 16.2 1 6.15 .000 ATTAD 11.0 1 7.50 .000 ATTAB 16.2 1 5.32 .000 Degree of involvement PI 4.01 1 3.76 .000 Pleasure 9.01 2 3.90 .014 Arousal 16.2 2 6.15 .003 ATTAD 11.0 2 7.50 .001 ATTAB 16.2 2 5.32 .000 Types x involvement a PI 4.01 2 3.76 .110 a Types of commercials (clay, cartoon and live acti on) x degree of involvement (high versus low) Note: Scales for mean scores are from 1 to 7 with 7 being most positive. And scales of pleasure and arousal for mean scores are from 1 to 9 with 7 being most positive. N=498.

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70 Figure 4-1. Interaction Effect of Emo tional Response: Pleasure, and High vs. Low involvement Figure 4-2. Interaction Effect of Emoti onal Response: Arousal, and High vs. Low involvement with product Clay Pleasure 7.57 6.39 6.52 7.72 Low High Cartoon Live 7.25 4.92 Clay Arousal 5.90 5.40 4.72 6.29 Low Hi g h Cartoon Live 5.65 3.78

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71 Figure 4-3. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Ad, High vs. Low involvement with product Figure 4-4. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Brand, High vs. Low Involvement with product 4.1.1 Testing of Hypotheses for Animated Commercial Effects Hypothesis 1 predicted that when subject s are highly involved with the product, exposure to live action formatted commercia l results in hypotheses 1-1-a (higher Clay ATTAD 5.73 4.72 4.44 5.99 Low High Cartoon Live 5.64 3.35 Clay ATTAB 5.47 4.58 4.22 5.84 Low High Cartoon Live 5.25 3.20

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72 pleasure), 1-1-b (arousal), 1-1c (a favorable attitude toward the ads), 1-1-d (brand), and 1-1-e (purchase intention) compared subjec ts exposed to clay and cartoon animated commercials. Also, exposure to clay animat ed commercial resulted in hypotheses 1-2-a (higher pleasure) and 1-2-b (arousal) as well as 1-2-c (a more favorab le attitude toward the ad), 1-2-d (brand) and 1-2-e (purchase intention) compared to exposure to cartoon commercial. Hypothesis 2 predicted that subjects who are modestly involved with the product, exposure to clay animated commercial will e xhibit 2-1-a (higher plea sure), 2-1-b (higher arousal), 2-1-c (a favorable at titude toward the ad), 2-1d (brand) and 2-1-e (purchase intention) compared to subj ects exposed to live action formatted commercials. When compared to exposure to the cartoon comme rcial, exposure to the clay animated commercial resulted in 2-2-a (h igher pleasure) and 2-2-b (arousal) as well as 2-2-c (a more favorable attitude toward the ad), 2-2d (favorable attitude toward the brand), and 2-2-e (purchase intention). As shown in Tables 4-2, 4-3 and Figure 4-1 through 4-4, to test H1 and H2, a MANOVA was first conducted with type of commercials and degree of involvement as the two independent factors, while the dependent variables were pleasure, arousal, ad attitude, brand attitude, and purchase intent. Also t -test was conducted to examine a simple mean difference for each mean combination on each dependent. As hypothesized, the MANOVA revealed a st atistically signif icant interaction between type of commercials a nd degree of involvement (F = 3.18, df =(1,498), p < .001). The main effect was significant for each variable (types of commercials, F = 5.31, df =(2,498), p < .001; degree of prod uct involvement, F = 45.3, df =(1, 498), p < .001). The

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73 interaction was analyzed further by conduc ting MANOVAs as a function of types of commercials at each degree of involveme nt, providing support for H4. To understand better the nature of the inte raction, separate, univariate analyses of variance were conducted for each of the dependent variables. As detailed hereafte r, a statistically significant interaction of the type hypothesi zed was obtained for each dependent variable. However, the interaction on purchase intention was not statistically significant (F = 3.76, p = .110). Pleasure. The ANOVA for pleasure shows that the interaction of commercial types by degree of involvement is signifi cant (F = 3.90, p= .014; see Figure 4-1). An examination of the cell reveled that by using the simple effect of commercial types at each degree of product involvement, subjects in the highproduct involvement group had a pleasure score when exposed to live ac tion formatted commercial (mean = 7.7) and when exposed to clay animated (mean = 7.6) and cartoon commercials (mean=7.2). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were no significant difference of the perception of pleasure in comparing three different commercials ( t = .92, df =215, p= .36 comparison of live action to clay; t = 1.1, df = 105, p= .29 for comparison of cay to cartoon, and t = 1.7, df = 148, p= .10 for comparison of live-action to cartoon commercials). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypotheses H1-1-a and H1-2-a were not supported. Subjects in the low-product involvemen t group had a pleasure scores when exposed to clay animation based commercial (mean = 6.4) when exposed to cartoon based commercial (mean = 4.9) and live action formatted commercial (mean=6.5). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that ther e was no significant

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74 difference of the perception of pleasure in comparing clay to live action formatted commercial ( t = .40, df =113, p= .69 for clay vs. live act ion). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypotheses H2-1-a was not supported. The resu lt of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were si gnificant differences of the perception of pleasure in comparing clay to cartoon and liv e action to cartoon commercials ( t = 6.2, df =223, p<.05 comparison of clay to cartoon, and t = 5.4, df =180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon commercials). Consequently, the mean differenc e is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypotheses H2-2-a was supported. Arousal. The ANOVA for arousal shows that th e interaction of commercial types by degree of involvement is significant (F = 6.15, p < .003; see Figure 4-2). An examination of the cell means suggests that by using the simple e ffect of commercial types at each degree of involvement, subjec ts in the high-involvement product group had arousal score when exposed to live acti on formatted commercial (mean = 6.3) when exposed to clay animated (mean = 5.9) and cartoon commercials (mean =5.7). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicat ed that there was no differences of the perception of arousal in compari ng three different commercials ( t = 1.7, df =215, p= .08 for comparison of live action to clay, t = .62, df =105, p= .54 for clay vs. cartoon, and t = 1.6, df =148, p= .12 for live action vs. cartoon co mmercials). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypotheses H1-1-b and H1-2-b were not supported. Subjects in the low product involvement ha d arousal score when exposed to clay animated commercial (mean = 5.4) when exposed to live action (mean = 4.7) and cartoon

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75 commercials (mean = 3.8). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were no significant difference of the per ception of arousal in comparing clay to live action formatted commercial ( t = 1.9, df =113, p=.06 for clay vs. live action). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistica lly significant. Thus, hypothesis H2-1-b was not supported. However, the result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were differences of the perception of arousal in comparing clay to cartoon and liv e action to cartoon ( t = 7.1, df =223, p<.05 for clay vs. cartoon, and t = 3.3, df = 180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon commercials). Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H2-2-b was supported. Ad attitude. The ANOVA for attitude toward the ads shows that the interaction of commercial types by degree of involv ement is significant (F = 7.50, p < .001; see Figure 4-3). An examination of the cell indi cated that by using the simple effect of commercial types at each degree of invol vement, subjects in the high product involvement had the perception of commercial s when exposed to live action formatted commercial (mean = 6.0) when exposed to clay animated and cartoon animated commercials (mean = 5.7 and 5.6). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there was a difference of the perception of commercials in comparing live action to clay animation ( t = 2.2, df =215, p<.05 for live action vs. clay animation). Consequently, the mean difference is stat istically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H1-1-c was supported. However, comparison of the perception of clay animated to cartoon animated commercials and live acti on to cartoon based commercials were not significant ( t = .41, df =105, p=.69 for clay vs. cartoon and t = 1.8, df =148, p=.07 for live

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76 action vs. cartoon). That is, the difference be tween means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus hypotheses H1-2-c was not supported. Subjects in the low product involvem ent had a perception of animated commercial score when exposed to clay animated commercial (mean = 4.7) when exposed to live action (mean = 4.4) and car toon commercials (mean = 3.3). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were differences of the perception of commercials in comparing clay to cartoon and live action to cartoon ( t = 7.0, df =223, p<.05 for clay vs. cartoon, and t = 4.2, df =180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon commercials). Consequently, the mean differenc e is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H2-1-c and d were supported. Ho wever, there was a difference of the perception of arousal in comparing clay animation to live action formatted commercial ( t =.98, df =113, p=.33 for clay vs. live action). Th at is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistical ly significant. Thus, hypothesis H2-2-c was not supported. Brand attitude. The ANOVA for brand attitude shows that the interaction of commercial types by degree of involvement is significant (F = 5.32, p < .001; see Figure 4-4). An examination of the cell indicated that by using the simple effect of commercial types at each degree of involvement, subjec ts in the high-involvement group had the perception of advertised brand when expos ed to live action commercial (mean = 5.8) when exposed to the clay animated (mean = 5.5) and cartoon commercials (mean = 5.3). The result of simple mean difference analys is indicated that there were significant differences of the perception of advertised brand in commercials in comparing live action to clay and live action to cartoon based commercial ( t = 3.4, df =215, p<.05 for live action

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77 vs. clay and t = 2.9, df =148, p<.05 for live action vs. cart oon). Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H1-1-d was supported. However, there was no difference of the percep tion of advertised brand in commercial in comparing clay to cartoon animation based commercial ( t = .97, df =105, p=.34 for clay vs.cartoon). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypothesis H1-2-d was not supported. Subjects in the low product involvement ha d the perception of advertised brand in commercials when exposed to the clay anim ated commercial (mean = 4.6) when exposed to live action (mean = 4.2) a nd cartoon commercials (mean=3.2). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that th ere were significant differences of the perception of advertised bra nd in commercials in compar ing clay to live action and cartoon to live action based commercial ( t = 8.1, df =223, p<.05 for clay vs. cartoon and t = 4.5, df =180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon). Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothe sis H2-1-d was supported. However, there was no significant difference of the percepti on of advertised brand in commercial in comparing clay animation to cartoon animation based commercials ( t =1.6, df =113, p=.12 for clay vs.cartoon). Regarding t -test, hypothesis H2-2-d was not supported. Purchase intent. The analysis of variance s hows that the interaction of commercial types by degree of involvement is not statistically si gnificant (F = 3.76 p >.110). However, the main effect of types of commercials and degree of involvement is statistically significant on de pendent variables (F [2, 492] = 3.62, p < .001 for types of commercials and F [1, 492] = 3.76, p < .001 for degree of product involvement).

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78 An examination of the cell revealed that by using the simple effect of commercial types at each degree of involvement, subjects in the high product involvement group had the purchase intention score when exposed to live action commercial (mean = 4.9) when exposed to the clay animated (mean = 4.7) and cartoon commercials (mean = 4.0). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that ther e was no significant differences of the purchase intention in comparing live action to clay ( t = 1.5, df =215, p=.15 for live action vs clay). That is, the di fference between means would not have been found to be statistically signi ficant. Thus, hypothesis H1-1-e was not supported. However, there were significant differences of the purch ase intention in comparing clay to cartoon animation based commercial and cartoon to live action ( t = 2.1, df =105, p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon and t = 2.7, df =148, p<.05 for live action vs. carto on). Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypot hesis H1-2-e was supported. Subjects in the low product involvement had purchase intention scores when exposed to the clay animated commercial (mean = 3.5) when exposed to live action (mean = 3.2) and cartoon commercials (mean= 2.2). The result of simple mean different analysis indicated that there were no a signifi cant difference of the purchase intention in comparing clay to live action ( t = .88, df =113, p=.38 for clay vs. liv e action). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistica lly significant. Thus, hypothesis H2-1-e was not supported. However, there was a significant difference of the purchase intention in comparing clay to cartoon and cart oon to live action ( t = 7.6, df =223, p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon and t = 4.8, df =180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon). Consequently, the mean difference is stat istically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis

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79 H2-2-e was supported. As shown in Table 4-5, the results of the simple mean different test on three different comme rcial types are described. Table 4-5. The Results of the Mean differen ce test in High vs. Low Product Involvement Comparing Mean in the High Product Involvement Pleasure Arousal ATTAD ATTAB PI Live vs. Clay animation 7.7 7.6 t = .92, p=.36 6.3 5.9 t = 1.8, p=.08 6.0 > 5.7 t = 2.2, p<.05 5.8 > 5.5 t = 3.4, p<.05 4.9 4.7 t = 1.5, p=.15 Live action vs. Cartoon 7.7 7.3 t = 1.7, p=.09 6.3 5.7 t = 1.6, p=.12 6.0 > 5.6 t = 1.8, p<.05 5.8 > 5.3 t = 2.9, p<.05 4.9 > 4.0 t = 2.7, p<.05 Clay vs.cartoon animation 7.6 7.3 t = 1.1, p=.29 5.9 5.7 t = .62, p=.54 5.7 5.6 t = .41, p=.69 5.5 5.3 t = .97, p=.34 4.7 > 4.0 t = 2.1,p<.05 Comparing Mean in the Low Product Involvement Pleasure Arousal ATTAD ATTAB PI Clay animation vs. Live action 6.4 6.5 t = 4.0, p=.69 5.4 > 4.7 t = 1.9, p=.06 4.7 4.4 t = .98, p=.33 4.6 4.2 t = 1.6, p=.12 3.5 3.2 t = .88, p=.38 Live action vs. Cartoon 6.5 > 4.9 t = 5.4, p<.05 4.7 > 3.8 t = 3.3, p<.05 4.4>3.3 t = 4.2, p<.05 4.2 > 3.2 t = 4.5, p<.05 3.2 > 2.2 t = 4.8, p<.05 Clay vs.cartoon animation 6.4 > 4.9 t = 6.2, p<.05 5.4 > 3.8 t = 7.1, p<.05 4.7 > 3.3 t = 7.0, p<.05 4.6 > 3.2 t = 8.1, p<.05 3.5 > 2.2 t = 7.6, p<.05 Note: is not significant 4.1.2 Results for Ad-Recall H3 predicted that regardle ss of level of product involve ment subjects are exposed to clay animated commercial, subjects will exhibit increased ad recall compared to those exposed to cartoon based or live action commercials. As seen in the table 4-6 through 4-9, ad recall was measured by asking subjects to describe the names in the ads as they remember ed them from the commercials. In order to accurate measure ad recall, measuring ad recall was conducted without showing participants the commercials again. For una ided ad recall measure, subjects were instructed to write down ever ything they could remember about the ads themselves such as a description of the ad, displayed product na mes, characters, story lines, theme, their cognition, and feelings. Ad recall scores were calculated by counting the number of ad components correctly recalled (Ede ll & Keller 1989; Jin 2003).

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80 To measure recall, two independent c oders analyzed the commercials using subjects’ questionnaires a nd counted the number of co rrectly recalled items. The correlation coefficients for intercoder reliab ility on the ad recall exceeded .8, which was deemed acceptable. Recalled brand names were coded as 1 and brand names not recalled were recorded as 0. In this study, ad reca ll scores can be calc ulated by counting the number of ad components correctly recalled (Edell & Keller 1989; Jin 2003). Then each brand was evaluated using a chi-square te st. Results showed that the largest group difference for ad-recall (2 = 46.8, df =2, p < .05) was observed in three commercials (see Table 4-7). As shown the table 4-6 and 7, 81 out of 166 subjects recalled correctly the ad in clay animation. 57 out of 166 subjects who we re recalled correctly the ad and brand in live action. 23 out of 166 subjects were r ecalled the ad and brand in cartoon. In participants highly involved with the product, there was rarely difference between clay animation and live action (43 out of 87 for cl ay animation vs.45 out of 79 for live action). 3 out of 20 subjects highly involvement in type of cartoon were recalled. In lower involvement the product, subject in type of clay animation were la rge recalled(38 out of 79) than other types of comm ercials (20 out of 146 for type of cartoon and 12 out of 36 for type of live action). The result of t -test indicated that there were significantly different ( t = 4.5, p<.05 for clay vs live action, t = 3.8, p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon) in high product involvement. In addition, the ad recall comparing on clay vs. cartoon and live action formatted commercials were statistically different ( t = 5.9, p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon and t =1 .8,

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81 p=.08 for cartoon vs. live action). In this study, p-value comparing clay to live action commercial is marginally significant (p<.10). Table 4-6 through 4-9 illust rates the objective of this analysis, which was to identify the perceptions peopl e have of different types of animated commercials that differ significantly between high and low i nvolvement with the product. Because the dependent variable, ad recall, was a two-categorical variable, a binary logit analysis was the appropriate technique. These variables we re expected to differe ntiate between high and low involvement with product and among types of commercials. The ad-recall data were analyzed by l ogistic regression. The analysis was conducted with recall as the criterion variables and designe d commercials, degree of product involvement, and the in teraction between the two as predictors. The logistic analysis revealed that the two-way interaction among type s of commercials and degree of involvement was predicted to lead to ad r ecall. Ad recall was supported by a significant two-way interaction (typ es of commercials, = .413, Wald / 2 =11.7, p < .05; degree of involvement, = .674, Wald / 2=11.3, p < .05). Thus, hypothesis H3 was supported. Table 4-6. Ad Recall Crosstabulation and Chi-Square Tests Ad Recall Yes None Total Clay animation 81 85 166 Cartoon animation 23 143 166 Live action 57 109 166 Total 337 161 498 *Pearson 2 = 46.8, df =2, p < .05

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82 Table 4-7. Group difference for Ad Recall in Types of Commercials Treatment Types Involvement MS.D Ad Recall M S.D N Total Yes 4.7 1.1 43 High (n=87) 3.51.3 None 4.6 1.0 44 Yes 3.6 1.3 38 Clay animation (n=166) Low (n=79) 3.21.5 None 3.3 1.5 41 Yes (n=81) None (n=85) Yes 6.0 1.7 3 High (n=20) 2.31.3 None 3.7 1.7 17 Yes 2.1 .86 20 Cartoon animation (n=166) Low (n=146) 2.21.1 None 2.2 1.2 126 Yes (n=23) None (n=143) Yes 4.9 1.1 45 High (n=130) 2.71.3 None 4.9 1.4 85 Yes 3.5 1.3 12 Live action (n=166) Low (n=36) 2.71.3 None 3.1 1.5 24 Yes (n=57) None (n=109) Table 4-8. Binary Logit Analysis in experiment 1 Overall model fit Goodness of fit measures Value -2LL 607.29 Cox & Snell R2 .038 Nagelkerke R2 .054 2 df Sig. Hosmer & Lemeshow 29.267 4 .000 Table 4-9. Variables in the Equation Variable B S.E. Wald / 2 Sig. Types of Commercials .413 .121 11.7 .001 Degree of Involvement .674 .200 11.3 .001 Constant .937 .356 6.93 .008 4.1.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis in Experiment 1 RQ1 addressed how the tripartite attitudi nal dimension can be explained in different types of commercials and if there are differences in the model of tripartite attitudinal dimensions in different types of commercials (e.g., clay, cartoon and live action commercials). The values of selected fit indexes for the multi-sample analysis of the path model with equality-constrained direct effects are re ported in Tables 4-5 and 4-6. The values of the comparative fit index (CFI), Bentler-B onett Normed (NFI), Bentler-Bonett Nonormed

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83 (NNFI) are over .96 and standardized RMR (SRMR), and root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA) were satisfied by this criteria (below .05 and .08) respectively. It can be said that this model fit is acceptable because the result would satisfy the criteria. Table 4-10 and 4-11 and Figure 4-5 show the unstandardized and standardized solutions. Generally, the unstandardized path coefficients are appropriate for between group comparisons while standardized path co efficients are generally used to compare paths within groups. The basic rationale for a multiple group path analysis is the same whether the model is recursiv e or nonrecursive. Statistical significance of a modification index thus indicates a group difference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes for this analysis are reported in tables 48 and 4-9 and they indicate that there is no significant group difference on each path (p>.05). Within three samples, all paths (e.g., cognition on affection and cona tion, affection on conation) are statistically significant (p < .05). However, the unstandardized path coefficients of cognition on affection in cartoon commercial ( = .713) is highly scored comp ared to other commercials ( = .629 for live action and = .548 for clay animated commercial). The unstandardized path coefficients of cognition on conation in cl ay animated commercial ( = .657) is highly scored compared to other commercials ( = .571 for live action formatted and = .408 for cartoon animated commercial). The unstandard ized path coefficients of affection on conation in live action formatted commercial ( = .336) is highly scored compared to other commercials ( = .304 for clay animated and = .303 for cartoon commercial). In clay animation model, the standard ized path coefficient of cognition to affection was = .462, of cognition to conation was = .417, and of affection to conation

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84 was = .274. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .417 and = .274). In cartoon animation model, the standard ized path coefficient of cognition to affection was = .603, of cognition to conation was = .419, and of affection to conation was = .368. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .419 and = .368). In live action commercial model, the standardized path coefficient of cognition to affection was = .540, of cognition to conation was = .408, and of affection to conation was = .280. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .408 and = .280). Figure 4-5. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensi ons in clay, cartoon and non-animated commercials Table 4-10. Correlations Matrix in Experiment 1 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations Types of Commercials 1 2 3 M S.D 1 Cognition .19 .28 5.2 .97 2 Affection .49 5.9 .87 Clay animated commercial 3 Conation 4.1 1.4 1 Cognition .41 .36 3.5 1.4 2 Affection .61 4.8 1.0 Cartoon commercial 3 Conation 2.4 1.4 1 Cognition .34 .37 5.6 1.0 2 Affection .53 6.0 .88 Live action commercial 3 Conation 4.6 1.5 Note: Correlations above .36 are statistically significant at p < .01, .19 is statistically significant at p < .05 Cognition Conation Affection co n af f

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85 Table 4-11. Modification indexes for e quality-constrained direct effects Path coefficients from separate sample analyses a Modification Index 2 Direct Effect Clay 1. Clay vs. Cartoon 1. Cognition Affection .548 (.462)* 0.37 2. Cognition Conation .657 (.417)* 2.60 3. Affection Conation .304 (.274)* 0.84 Cartoon 2. Cartoon vs. Live action 1. Cognition Affection .713 (.603)* 0.23 2. Cognition Conation .408 (.419)* 1.83 3. Affection Conation .303 (.368)* 0.40 Live action3. Live action vs. Clay 1. Cognition Affection .629 (.540)* 0.17 2. Cognition Conation .571 (.408)* 0.05 3. Affection Conation .336 (.280)* 0.00 Note. Goodness of Fit: 1. 2 : 77.7(df:69), 2/df(1.12), CFI;.99,NFI;.96, NNFI;.98, SRMR;.050, RMSEA;.028 2. 2 : 74.2(df:66), 2/df(1.12), CFI;.99,NFI;.97, NNFI;.99, SRMR;.053, RMSEA;.027 3. 2 : 70.7(df:62), 2/df(1.13), CFI;.99,NFI;.96, NNFI;.99, SRMR;.054, RMSEA;.029 a Unstandardized (standardized), p .05 4.2 Experiment 2 4.2.1 Results for the Condi tioning Experiment Box’s test checked the assumption of e quality of covariance matrices. For these data, p was 0.05, thus the homogeneity assumption wa s violated, but only marginally. In the low-product categories, data was analyzed using a MANOVA on the dependent variables, attitude toward the commercial attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. The study conducted a 2 (experiment al vs. control group) x 2 (high and low product involvement) between subjects factor ial design with two levels for each of the two independent variables, experimental vs. control group and level of product involvement (high vs. low). A MANOVA was used to examine differences between the two different conditions on linear combinations of all dependent variables, and a between subject designed ANOVA was performed on each dependent variable. Where necessary, a series of t -tests followed to examine the mean difference on two different groups and

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86 the logit regression was conducted to test the specific hypotheses because contingency awareness was coded as dichotomous variab les (awareness=1 and 0=unawareness). Table 4-12, 4-13 and 4-14 illustrates the results of a MANOVA showing the ANOVA results, means, standard deviations, and Wilks’ Lambda. Table 4-12. Means and Standard Deviations by Condition Treatment Groups Involvement Pleasure Arousal ATTA ATTB PI High 7.4 (1.2/119)5.8 (1.6/119)5.6 (0.9 /119)5.4 (0.7/119) 4.6 (1.1/119) Low 6.0 (2.1/47) 5.3 (1.8/47) 4.4 (1.3/47) 4.2 (1.2/47) 2.9 (1.3/47) Conditioning treatment Total 7.0(1.6/166) 5.7(1.7/166) 5.2( 1.2/166)1.0(1.1/166) 4.1(1.4/166) High 6.9 (1.4/35) 5.3 (1.7/35) 5.2 (0.9/35) 4.9 (1.0/35) 4.1 (1.3/35) Low 4.8 (1.6/130)3.7 (1.5/130)3.2 (1.5 /130)3.0 (1.2/130) 2.9 (0.7/130) Conditioning control Total 5.2(1.8/165) 4.0(1.7/165) 3.6( 1.6/165)3.4(1.4/165) 3.2(1.0/165) High 7.3(1.3/154) 5.7(1.7/154) 5.5( .98/154)5.3/.87/154) 4.5(1.1/154) Low 5.1(1.8/177) 4.1(1.7/177) 3.5( 1.5/177)3.3(1.3/177) 2.9(.94/177) Total Total 6.1(1.9/331) 4.8(1.9/331) 4.4( 1.6/331)4.2(1.5/331) 3.6(1.3/331) *M(S.D/N) Table 4-13. Manova Results Treatments Wilk’s Lambda F d.f p Conditioning .872 9.51 .000 Valence of involvement .620 39.5 .000 Conditioning X Involvement Dependent Variables .943 3.88 (1,327) .002

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87 Table 4-14. Results of Between-subjects Independent Variables Dependent Variables MS d.f F p Pleasure 46.4 1 20.1 .000 Arousal 70.1 1 26.6 .000 ATTAD 37.4 1 25.4 .000 ATTAB 38.8 1 34.0 .000 Conditioning Purchase Intention 3.85 1 3.62 .058 Pleasure 189.5 1 82.2 .000 Arousal 67.6 1 25.6 .000 ATTAD 156.0 1 105.9 .000 ATTAB 144.3 1 126.4 .000 Degree of involvement Purchase Intention 114.3 1 107.5 .000 Pleasure 9.01 1 3.90 .049 Arousal 16.2 1 6.15 .014 ATTAD 11.0 1 7.50 .007 ATTAB 16.2 1 5.32 .022 Conditioning X Involvement Purchase Intention 4.01 1 3.76 .053 a Conditioning (conditioning treatment and conditioning co ntrol) x degree of Involvement (high and low) Note: Scales for mean scores are from 1 to 7 with 7 being most positive. And scales of pleasure and arousal for mean scores are from 1 to 9 with 7 being most positive. n=331. Figure 4-6. Interaction Effect of Emotional Response: Pleasure Degree of Involvement x experiment and control group Experiment Pleasure 7.4 6.0 Low High Control 6.9 4.8

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88 Figure 4-7. Interaction Effect of Emotional Response: Arousal Figure 4-8. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Ad ATTAD 7.4 6.0 Low High Control 6.9 4.8 Arousal 5.8 5.3 Low High Control 5.3 3.7 Experiment Experiment

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89 Figure 4-9. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Brand Figure 4-10. Interaction E ffect of Purchase Intent Hypothesis 5 predicted that when all subjects are exposed to a classical conditioning procedure in which a target bra nd (CS) is systematically paired with an animated stimulus (US); subjects with high pr oduct involvement will exhibit; 5-a) higher ATTAB 5.6 5.2 Low High Control 4.4 3.2 PI 4.6 2.9 Low High Control 4.1 2.9 Experiment Experiment

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90 levels of pleasure and 5-b) arousal; 5-c) more favorable attitudes toward the ad and 5-d) target brand, and 5-e) higher purchase inte ntion in conditioning e xperimental group than in the control group. In addition, subjects with low product involvement will exhibit; 5-f) higher levels of pleasure and 5g) arousal; 5-h) more favorab le attitudes toward the ad and 5-i) target brand, and 5-j) higher purch ase intention in conditioning experimental group than in the control group. As shown in the Tables 4-12 thr ough 4-14 and Figure 4-6 through 4-10, a MANOVA was first conducted with the two di fferent groups and the degree of product involvement as the two indepe ndent factors with pleasure, arousal, ad attitude, brand attitude, and purchase intent as the dependent variables. Also t -test was conducted to examine a simple mean difference for each mean combination on each dependent. As hypothesized, the MANOVA revealed a st atistically signif icant interaction between the two different groups an d degree of involvement (F = 3.88, df =(1,331), p <.05). The main effect was significant for both variables (the tw o different groups, F = 9.51, df =(1,331), p < .001; degree of product involvement, F = 39.5, df =(1,331), p < .001). The interaction was analyzed further by c onducting MANOVAs as a function of the two different groups at each de gree of involvement. To understa nd better the nature of the interaction, separate, univariat e analyses of variance were conducted for each of the dependent variables. As detailed hereafter, a statistically significant interaction of the type hypothesized was obtained fo r each dependent variable. Pleasure. The ANOVA for pleasure shows that the interaction of the two different groups by degree of product involvement is sign ificant (F = 3.90, p <.05; see Table 4-12 and Figure 4-6). An examination of the cell means that by using the simple

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91 effect of the two different groups at each de gree of product involvement, the subjects in the high-product involvement group had a higher pleasure score when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 7.4) than subj ects in the control group (mean = 6.9). The result of simple mean difference analysis in dicated that there was significant different pleasure mean scores in comp aring two different groups ( t =2.0, df =152, p<.05 for comparison of experiment to control group) The mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H5-a was supported. In addition, subjects in the low prod uct involvement group exhibited higher pleasure when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 6.0) than subjects in the control group (mean = 4.8). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there was significant different pleasure mean sc ores in comparing tw o different groups ( t =4.3, df =175, p<.05 for experiment vs.control group) Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. T hus, hypothesis H5-f was supported. Arousal. The ANOVA for arousal shows that th e interaction of the two different groups by degree of product involvement is si gnificant (F = 6.15, p <.05; see Figure 4-7). An examination of the cell means indicated th at by using the simple effect of the two different groups at each degree of produc t involvement, subject s in the high product involvement group had arousal score when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 5.8) and when subjects exposed to control treatment (mean = 5.3). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that ther e was no significant di fferent arousal mean scores in comparing two different groups ( t =1.8, df =152, p=.08 for experiment vs.control group). That is, the difference between m eans would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypot hesis H5-b was not supported.

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92 Subjects in the low product involvemen t group exhibited higher pleasure when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 5.3) than subjects in the control group (mean = 3.7). The result of simple mean difference anal ysis indicated that there was significant different arousal mean scores in comparing two different groups ( t =5.7, df =175, p<.05 for experiment vs.control group). Consequentl y, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H5-g was supported. Ad attitude. The ANOVA for attitude toward the ad shows that the interaction of the two different groups by degree of produc t involvement is significant (F = 7.50, p < .05; see Figure 4-8). An examination of the cel l shows that by using the simple effect of the two different groups at each degree of product involvement, subjects in the high product involvement group had the perception of the animated commercial when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 5.6) when s ubjects exposed to the controlled treatment (mean = 5.2). The result of simple mean differe nce analysis indicated that there was no significant different perception of the animat ed commercial mean scores in comparing two different groups ( t =1.9, df =152, p=.06 for experiment vs.c ontrol group). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be statistica lly significant. Thus, hypothesis H5-c was not supported. Subjects in the low-involvement group te nded to exhibit a favorable attitude toward the ads when exposed to classical c onditioning (mean = 4.4) than subjects in the control group (mean = 3.2). The result of simp le mean difference analysis indicated that there was significant different the perception of the animated commercial mean scores in comparing two different groups ( t =5.1, df =175, p<.05 for experiment vs.control group).

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93 Consequently, the mean difference is statis tically significant from 0. Thus hypothesis H5h was supported. Brand attitude. The ANOVA for brand attitude s hows that the interaction of two different groups by degree of involvement is significant (F = 5.32, p < .05; see Figure 49). An examination of the cell means that by us ing the simple effect of the two different groups at each degree of product involvemen t, the subjects in the high product involvement group had a more favorable atti tude toward the brand when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 5.4) than subj ects in the control group (mean = 4.9). The result of simple mean difference analysis in dicated that there was significant different perception of the advertised brand mean sc ores in comparing two different groups ( t =3.0, df =152, p<.05 for experiment vs.control gr oup). Thus, hypothesis H5-d was supported. For low product involvement, subject s in the low product involvement group tended to exhibit a favorable attitude toward the ads when exposed to classical conditioning (mean = 4.2) compared to subj ects in the control group (mean = 3.0). The result of simple mean difference analysis indi cated that there was si gnificant different the perception of the advertised brand mean sc ores in comparing two different groups ( t =5.3, df =175, p<.05 for experiment vs.control group) Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H5-i was supported. Purchase intent. The analysis of variance s hows that the interaction of commercial types by degree of product involv ement was not statistical significant (F = 3.76 p=.053; see Figure 4-10). An examination of the cell means that by using the simple effect of the two different groups at each degree of involvement, subjects in the high product involvement group had a more favorab le purchase intention when exposed to

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94 classical conditioning (mean = 4.6) than subj ects in the control groups (mean = 4.1). The result of simple mean difference analysis in dicated that there was significant different mean scores of purchase intention in comparing two different groups ( t =2.4, df =152, p<.05 for experiment vs.control group). Conseque ntly, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H5-e was supported. For low product involvement, subjects in the low product involvement group had mean scores of purchase intention when e xposed to classical conditioning (mean = 2.94) and when subjects exposed to the controll ed treatment (mean = 2.93). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there was not significantly different mean scores of purchase intention in comparing two different groups ( t = .03, df =175, p=.10 for experiment vs.control group). That is, the di fference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypothesis H5-j was not supported. Table-15. The Results of the Mean differen ce test in High vs. Low Product Involvement Comparing Mean in the High Product Involvement Pleasure Arousal ATTAD ATTAB PI Conditioning vs.Control 7.4 > 6.9 t = 2.0, p<.05 5.8 5.3 t = 1.8, p=.08 5.6 5.2 t = 1.9, p=.06 5.4 > 4.9 t = 3.0, p<.05 4.6 > 4.1 t = 2.4,p<.05 Comparing Mean in the Low Product Involvement Pleasure Arousal ATTAD ATTAB PI Conditioning vs.Control 6.0 > 4.8 t = 4.3, p<.05 5.3 > 3.7 t = 5.7, p<.05 4.4 > 3.2 t = 5.1, p<.05 4.2 > 3.0 t = 5.3, p<.05 2.94 2.93 t = .03, p=.10 Note: is not significant 4.2.2 Analysis of Contingency Awareness Hypothesis 6 predicted that subjects w ith high product involvement exhibit an increased likelihood of recognizi ng the contingency than subj ects in a control group or those exposed to a classical conditioning procedure in which a target brand (CS) is systematically paired with an affective animation stimulus (US). Also, hypothesis 6-1 expected that contingency awareness mode rates the relationship between classical

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95 conditioning procedures and at titudes toward the ad, targ et brand (CS), and purchase intention. The objective of this analysis was to identi fy perceptions people have of animated commercials that differ significantly betw een high and low product involvement and between two groups. Because the dependent va riable, contingency awareness, was a twocategorical variable, a binary logit anal ysis was the appropriate technique. These variables were expected to differentiate between high and low product involvement and between groups. Contingency awareness was co ded 0 f it was corrected and 1if it was not corrected. As shown Table 4-16, 4-17 and 4-18, th e contingency awareness data were analyzed by logistic regression. The analysis was conducted with de gree of involvement, and the interaction between the two as predicto rs. The logistic analysis revealed that the two-way interaction between two different gr oups and the degree of product involvement was predicted to lead to c ontingency awareness in this study. Contingency awareness was supported by a significant two-way interaction ( = 2.12, Wald / 2= 33.8, p < .05 for two groups; = .729, Wald / 2= 5.08, p < .05 for degree of product involvement). The t -test indicted that three were a significant group difference betw een comparing classical vs. controlled treatment in the hi gh product involvement group ( 2= 2.6, p<.05) and in the low product involvement group ( 2= 6.8, p<.05). Thus, hypotheses 6 and 6-1 were supported.

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96 Table 4-16. Contingency Awareness on th e Classical Conditioning Experiment Treatment/groups Involvement /n Contingency Awareness /n Total Aware 36 High 119 Unaware 83 Aware 24 Aware: 60 Experiment N=166 Low 47 Unaware 23 Unaware: 106 Aware 3 Total High 35 Unaware 32 Aware 12 Aware: 15 Control N=165 Low 130 Unaware 118 Unaware: 121 Note: 2=2.6, p<.05 for comparing classical vs. controlled treatment groups in the high product involvement group. And 2=6.8, p<.05 for comparing classical vs. controlled treatment group in the low product involvement group. Awareness is a categorical variable and logistic regression was used. Table 4-17. Binary Logit Analys is for Contingency Awareness Overall model fit Goodness of fit measures Value -2LL 312.54 Cox & Snell R2 .118 Nagelkerke R2 .180 2 df Sig. Hosmer & Lemeshow 1.126 2 .570 Table 4-18. Variables in the Equation Variable B S.E. Wald / 2 Sig. Two Groups 2.12 .365 33.8 .000 Degree of Involvement .729 .324 5.08 .024 Constant -2.79 .842 11.0 .001 Hypothesis 7 predicted that in the animation stimulus, subjects exposed to the target brand (CS) paired with the animati on stimulus (US), and who were aware of the contingency relationship between the target brand (CS) and animation stimulus (US), would develop more favorable attitudes toward the ad and target bra nd than subjects who were unaware of the contingency relationship. As seen in Table 4-20, subjects categori zed (e.g., awareness or unawareness) as aware of the CS/US contingency developed more favorable attitudes toward the ad and target brand than those who were unaware The differences were significant (ad, t = 3.52,

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97 p < .001; target brand, t = 2.72, p < .05). Thus, hypothesis 7 was supported. However, the additional finding is that purchase inten tion was not statistically significant ( t = 1.55, p = .121). Table 4-19. Mean and Standard Deviations by Contingency Awareness Variables A.C N M S.D Unawareness 256 4.3 1.7 Awareness 75 5.0 1.1 ATTAD Total 331 4.4 1.6 Unawareness 256 4.1 1.6 Awareness 75 4.7 1.2 ATTAB Total 331 4.2 1.5 Unawareness 256 3.6 1.3 Awareness 75 3.8 1.3 PI Total 331 3.6 1.3 Table 4-20. Contingency Effect on ATT AD, Brand, and Purchase Intention Variables df S.S M.S F t Sig. Between Groups 1 31.3 31.3 ATTAD Within Groups 329 829.0 2.52 12.4 3.52.000 Between Groups 1 16.1 16.1 ATTAB Within Groups 329 715.5 2.18 7.42 2.72.007 Between Groups 1 3.95 3.96 PI Within Groups 329 538.7 1.64 2.42 1.55.121 4.2.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis The unstandardized and standardized so lutions are reported in each table. The basic rationale for a multiple group path anal ysis is the same whether the model is recursive or nonrecursive. By imposing crossgroup equality constr aints, the significance of group differences on any model parameter or set of parameters can be tested. A crossgroup equality constraint forces the computer to derive equal estimates of that parameter for all samples. A common tactic in a multip le group path analysis is to impose crossgroup equality constraints on the path coefficients. The 2 of the model with its path coefficients constrained to equa lity is contrasted against th at of the unconstrained model.

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98 If the relative fit of the c onstrained model is much worse than that of the unconstrained model, the direct effects diffe r across the groups (Kline1998, p.183). To check whether these indexes of overa ll model fit were causing more specific effects, modification indexes were included and univariate Lagrange multipleiers were derived to test group differences on each of th e three or nine path coefficients. When a model is analyzed across multiple groups with equality constraints, values of modification indexes estimate the amount by which the overall 2 would decrease if the associated parameter was estimated freely in each sample. Statistical significance of a modification index thus indicates a group di fference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes for this analysis are reported in each table and they indicate a significant group difference on the cognition conation path and anot her that falls just short of significance (p = .005) on the affection conation path. To investigate group differences further, each of the seven path co efficients were derived separately within each group in subsequent runs with a mode l-fitting program; these values are also reported in the table18. Based on modificati on indexes, we can deduce that animated stimuli plays a larger role for the experi ment group than for the control group (Kline1998, p.184). A multiple group analysis can be conducted with either recursive or nonrecursive path models. The simplest way to conduct a multi-sample path analysis is to estimate the model separately for each group and then co mpare the unstandardized solutions. A more formal way is to use a model-fitting progr am that imposes equality constraints on parameter estimates across the groups. A common practice is to impose cross-group equality constraints only on the path coe fficients; values of other parameters (e.g.,

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99 variances of the exogenous variables) are free ly estimated with each sample. Tests of the significance for each constrained parameter indi cate whether the fit of the constrained model is worse than the fit of the model wit hout that constraint. If so, then a significant group difference on that parameter is indicate d. If several such results are found, then whatever variable is represented by gr oup membership may moderate the effects represented in the pa th model (Kline1998, p.184). RQ2 asked if the tripartite attitudinal m odel could be explained in classical conditioning when using animated commercial s timuli, and if there were different values of the tripartite attitudinal model between experiment and control groups. The tripartite attitudinal dimensions could be applied in classical conditioning research and lead to understandings about consumer purchase be havior when consumers are exposed to animated commercial stimuli. Will different valu es of the tripartite attitudinal model be existed in between experiments and c ontrol groups and two different product involvement groups? The study was attempted to test the hypothesis by using multi-group analyses. The multi-group exploratory procedure, EQS 5,7b for Windows (Bentler 1994), was performed for a simultaneous estimation of the measurement and structural model and because it allowed for analyzing several relationships simultaneously. Multi-group analyses follow the steps suggested by Klin e (1998) before comparing the measurement model and structural model in each group. Th en, the two-step approach was employed to test each measurement model. Covariance matrices for each group were submitted to a model fitting program for a multi-group CFA.

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100 Assumption check. Before constructing the measuremen t and structural models, several underlying assumptions for SEM we re checked. The Skewness and Kurosis values 2.58 (Hair et al. ,1998), variance infl ation of factors (VIF ) of four predictor variables less than 10.0, tolera nce scores of the variables larger than .10, Eigenvalues larger than .01, and condition indexes less th an 100 were verified. Thus, the assumptions were within acceptable boundaries. For both groups, the psychometric propert ies (e.g., discriminant validity and reliability) of measures were examined before a comparison of coefficients of each path (Morris et al., 2002). Anderson and Gerbing (1988) suggested that all measurement models should be examined by applying disc riminant validity a nd convergent validity before construct measurement and the stru ctural model. In a ddition, the procedure described by Fornell and Larker (1981) was used to assess the discriminant validity of the measures. The average variance extracted ranged from .73 to .92 and the squared correlation ranged from 0.11 to .50. As an indica tion of discriminant validity, the average variance extracted for each c onstruct was found to be higher than the squared correlation between that construct and a ny other construct. Thus, the discriminant validity was established in this model. An average va riance extracted above .50 was appropriate to suggest convergent validity. Therefore, the convergent validity was established for two groups in this study. Lagrange multiplier (LM) tests were used to improve significance by adding the correlated errors terms (error covariances) and to decrease signifi cance in fit by applying a theoretical structural model (Bentler 1994). The two-step approach was used to test the

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101 measurement model before estimating the st ructural relations between the variables (Anderson and Gerbing 1988). The values of selected fit indexes for the multisample analysis of the path model with equality-constrainted direct effects are reported in Tables 420 and 4-21. The values of the comparative fit inde x (CFI), Bentler-Bonett Normed (NFI), Bentler-Bonett Nonormed (NNFI) were over .96; standardiz ed RMR (SRMR) and root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA) were satis fied with criteria (below .05 and .08) respectively. Thus, it can be said th at this model fit was acceptable. The unstandardized and standa rdized solutions are reporte d in Tables 4-21 and 422 as well as in Figure 4-11. Generally, th e unstandardized path coefficients are appropriate for between group comparisons. Al so standardized path coefficients are generally used to compare paths within gr oups. The basic rationale for a multiple group path analysis is the same whether the model is recursive or nonrecursive. Statistical significance of a modification i ndex thus indicates a group difference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes for this anal ysis are reported in Table 4-22 and they indicate a significant group difference on cognition conation (p < .05) as well as on affection conation (p < .05). Consequently, th e hierarchical e ffect communication model can be explained in a classical condi tioning procedure when explaining consumer attitude formation. Within the two samples, all paths (e. g., cognition on affection and conation, affection on conation) are statistically significant (p < .05). In addition, the unstandardized path coefficients of cogniti on on affection in the classical conditioning procedure ( = .548) were lower than for the control group ( = .721). The unstandardized

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102 path coefficients of cognition on conation in the classical conditioning procedure ( = .657) were higher than in the control group ( = .173). The unstandardized path coefficients of affection on conation in the classical conditioning procedure ( = .364) were higher than in the control group ( = .182). In conditioning model, the standardized pa th coefficient of cognition to affection was = .462, of cognition to conation was = .417, and of affection to conation was = .274. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .417 and = .274). In controlled model, the standardized pa th coefficient of cognition to affection was = .620, of cognition to conation was = .255, and of affection to conation was = .313. The standardized path coefficients of affection to conation is highly scored compared to cognition to conation ( = .313 and = .255). Figure 4-11. Comparing Tripartite Attitudina l Dimensions in Experiment vs. Control Group in Cognition First Model Table 4-21. Multiple Group Path Analysis of a Recursive Path Model of Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions Control (n=165) Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations 1 2 3 M S.D 1 Cognition .38 .37 3.4 1.4 2 Affection .28 .43 4.8 1.0 3 Conation .49 .17 3.2 1.0 Experiment M 5.1 5.9 4.1 (n=166) S.D .97 .87 1.4 Note: Correlations above .28 are statistically significant at p < .001, .17 is statisti cally significant at p < .05 Cognition Conation Affection co n af f

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103 Table 4-22. Modification Indexes for E quality-Constrained Direct Effects Path coefficients from separate sample analyses a Direct Effect Modification Index 2 Experiment Control Cognition Affection 0.79 .548 (.462)* .721 (.620)* Cognition Conation 13.7* .657 (.417)* .173 (.255)* Affection Conation 7.14* .364 (.274)* .182 (.313)* Note. Goodness of Fit: 2 : 86.7(df:67), 2/df(1.30), CFI;.99,NFI;.95, NNFI;.99, SRMR;.084, and RMSEA;.042, a Unstandardized (standardized), and p .05 As shown the Table 4-23, 4-24 and Figure 4-12, paths of affection on cognition and conation, affection on conation are statis tically significant (p < .05). Statistical significance of a modification i ndex thus indicates a group difference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes for this anal ysis are reported in Table 4-23 and they indicate a significant group difference on cognition conation (p < .05) as well as on affection conation (p < .05). Consequently, th e hierarchical e ffect communication model can be explained in a classical condi tioning procedure when explaining consumer attitude formation. In addition, the unstanda rdized path coefficients of cognition on conation in the classical conditioning procedure ( = .547) were higher than for the control group ( = .193). The unstandardized path coeffi cients of affection on conation in the classical conditioning procedure ( = .622) were higher than in the control group ( = .208). In conditioning model, the standardized pa th coefficient of affection to cognition was = .468, of affection to conation was = .260, and of cognition to conation was = .376. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .376 and = .260). In controlled model, the standardized pa th coefficient of affection to cognition was = .617, of affection to conation was = .255, and of cognition to conation was

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104 = .344. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .344 and = .255). Figure 4-12. Comparing Tripartite Attitudi nal Dimensions in Experiment vs. Control Group in Affection First Model Table 4-23. Multiple Group Path Analysis of a Recursive Path Model of Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions Control (n=165) Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations 1 2 3 M S.D 1 Affection .37 .38 4.8 1.0 2 Cognition .28 .43 3.4 1.4 3 Conation .17 .49 3.2 1.0 Experiment M 5.9 5.1 4.1 (n=166) S.D .87 .97 1.4 Note: Correlations above .28 are statistically significant at p < .001, .17 is statisti cally significant at p < .05 Table 4-24. Modification Indexes for E quality-Constrained Direct Effects Path coefficients from separate sample analyses a Direct Effect Modification Index 2 Experiment Control Affection Cognition 2.23 .770 (.468)* .895 (.617)* Affection Conation 8.72* .622 (.260)* .208 (.255)* Cognition Conation 12.1* .547 (.376)* .193 (.344)* Note. Goodness of Fit: 2 : 80.0(df:64), 2/df(1.60), CFI;.99,NFI;.96, NNFI;.99, SRMR;.086, and RMSEA;.039, a Unstandardized (standardized), and p .05 As shown the Table 4-25, 4-26 and Figure 4-13, paths of affection on cognition and conation, affection on conation are statis tically significant (p < .05). Statistical significance of a modification i ndex thus indicates a group difference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes for this anal ysis are reported in Table 4-26 and they indicate a significant group difference on cognition conation (p < .05) as well as on Affection Conation Cognition co g co n

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105 affection conation (p < .05). Consequently, th e hierarchical e ffect communication model can be explained in the high produc t involvement when explaining consumer attitude formation. In addition, the unstanda rdized path coefficients of cognition on conation in the high product involvement ( = .361) was higher than for the low product involvement control group ( = -.021). The unstandardized pa th coefficients of affection on conation in the high product involvement ( = .429) was higher than in the low product involvement ( = .141). In high product involvement model, the st andardized path coefficient of cognition to affection was = .407, of cognition to conation was = .319, and of affection to conation was = .319. The standardized path coeffi cients of cognition to conation is same scored compared to affection to conation ( = .319 and = .319). In low product involvement model, the st andardized path coefficient of cognition to affection was = .602, of cognition to conation was = -.052, and of affection to conation was = .343. The standardized path coeffici ents of affection to conation is highly scored compared to cognition to conation ( = .343 and = -.052). Figure 4-13. Comparing Tripartite Attitudi nal Dimensions in high versus low Product Involvement Group in Cognition First Model Cognition Conation Affection co n aff

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106 Table 4-25. Multiple Group Path Analysis of a Recursive Path Model of Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions High (n=154) Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations 1 2 3 M SD 1 Cognition .46 .33 5.3 .85 2 Affection .18 .27 6.5 1.2 3 Conation .45 .11 4.5 1.1 Low M 3.5 4.6 2.9 (n=177) SD 1.4 1.5 .94 Note: Correlations above .18 are statistically significant at p<.05 Table 4-26. Modification indexes for e quality-constrained direct effects Path coefficients from separate sample analyses a Direct Effect Modification Index 2 High involvement Low involvement Cognition Affection 0.27 .482(.407)* .604(.602)* Cognition Conation 11.1* .361(.319)* -.021(-.052) Affection Conation 11.1* .429(.319)* .141(.343)* Note. Goodness of Fit: 2 : 78.0(df:46), 2/df(1.70), CFI;.98,NFI;.95, NNFI;.97, SRMR;.11, RMSEA;.065 a Unstandardized (standardized), p .05 Note2: CFI: Comparative Fit Index, NFI=Bentle r-Bonett Normmed Fit Index; NNFI=Non-Normed Fit Index. As shown the Table 4-27, 4-28 and Figure 4-14, analysis was based affection first model, also paths of affection on cogn ition and conation, affection on conation are statistically significant (p < .05). Statistical significance of a modification index thus indicates a group difference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes for this analysis are reported in Table 4-28 and th ey indicate a significant group difference on cognition conation (p < .05) as well as on affection conation (p < .05). Consequently, the hierarchical effect comm unication model can be explained in the high product involvement when explaining consum er attitude formation. In addition, the unstandardized path coefficients of cognition on conation in the high product involvement ( = .846) was higher than for the low product involvement control group ( = .148). The unstandardized path coefficients of affection on conati on in the high product involvement ( = .137) was higher than in the low product involvement ( = -.024).

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107 In high product involvement model, the sta ndardized path coefficient of affection to cognition was = .500, of affection to conation was = .090, and of cognition to conation was = .597. The standardized path coeffi cients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .597 and = .090). In low product involvement model, the sta ndardized path coeffi cient of affection to cognition was = .602, of affection to conation was = -.052, and of cognition to conation was = .343. The standardized path coeffi cients of cognition to conation is highly scored compared to affection to conation ( = .343 and = -.052). Figure 4-14. Comparing Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in high and low Product Involvement Group in Affection First Model Table 4-27. Multiple Group Path Analysis of a Recursive Path Model of Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions High (n=154) Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations 1 2 3 M SD 1 Affection .33 .46 6.5 1.2 2 Cognition .45 .27 5.3 .85 3 Conation .18 .11 4.5 1.1 Low M 4.6 3.5 2.9 (n=177) SD 1.5 1.4 .94 Note: Correlations above .18 are statistically significant at p<.05 Table 4-28. Modification indexes for e quality-constrained direct effects Path coefficients from separate sample analyses a Direct Effect Modification Index 2 High involvement Low involvement Affection Cognition 2.45 .541(.500) .650(.602)* Affection Conation 11.3* .137(.090)* -.024(-.052) Cognition Conation 14.0* .846(.597)* .148(.343)* Note. Goodness of Fit: 2 : 99.6(df:47), 2/df(2.11), CFI;.97,NFI;.93, NNFI;.94, SRMR;.12, RMSEA;.082 a Unstandardized (standardized) / p .05 Affection Conation Cognition co n co g

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108 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 5-1 Discussion of Experiment 1 The first experiment examined the relationship between exposure to animated stimuli and responses to subsequent ad (e .g., emotional responses, attitudes toward the ads, brand, purchase intention, and ad reca ll). An experimental design was used to determine if there were significant group differe nces in cognition, affection, and conation. The experiment measured four sub-categories— dependent variables; attitude toward the advertising, brand attitude, purchaser inten tion, and advertising r ecall,—for clay and cartoon animated commercials as well as live action based commercial. Structural equation modeling tested wh ether the hierarchical communication effect model in the three types of divers ely formatted commercials (e.g., clay, cartoon and live action) could be expl ained differently in cognitive and affective responses, and whether the clay animation commercial drove viewers to different cognition, affection, and conation responses. Hypothesis 1 predicted that when subject s are highly involved with the product, exposure to live action formatted commercial results in higher pleasure, arousal, a favorable attitude toward the ad, brand, and purchase intention compared subjects exposed to clay animated and cartoon commercials. Also, exposure to clay animated commercial resulted in hypotheses higher pl easure and arousal as well as a more favorable attitude toward the ad, brand and purchase intention compared to exposure to cartoon commercial.

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109 The results for the pleasure dimensions indicated that there were no difference among consumer pleasure and arousal as em otional responses to three different commercials such as live action based, clay animation and cartoon animated commercials in high product involvement. Product involvement should be stronger when a consumer perceives a strong association between the product’ s image and attributes, and th e consumer’s own personal goals and values (Celsi and Olsn 1988). This means that the consumers who are highly involved with the product are more likely to ob tain the satisfaction or seek personal value from the product. The pleasure was for the purpose of this study considered as people’s emotion status such as joy, pride, a ffection, and gratitude. Also arous al was usually measured by the level of intensity or involvement vis-vis these feeling. As Lazarus (1991) pointed out that pleasure is transfor med into emotional distress or satisfaction only as a result of appraisals of their significance. Pleasure can be caused by a number of concrete, specific physical stimuli whose capacity to product these sensory reactions is innate. The results of this study implied that consumers who ar e highly involved with the product have a tendency to seek pleasure through product in formation in commercials rather than pursuing their pleasure through diffe rent advertising formats. There were no differences among the per ception of arousal to three different commercials in high product involvement. Some scholars argued that the arousal dimension is related to the vigor of the behavioral dispositi on that is currently active and can range from a level of extreme emergency to that of calm expediency (Bradley et al. 1992, p.388). It can be interpreted that the co nsumer arousal system is related with

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110 advertising stimuli which influence on consum er arousal as well as arousal plays as the preposition of behavior. Conse quently consumers arousal syst em might be more affected by other advertising elements (e.g., background music, appeal techniques, etc.) than evoking their arousal through different advertis ing formats when they are highly involved with the product. Regarding attitude toward the commercial, the results revealed that consumers who are highly involved with the product ha d a more positive per ception of commercials when exposed to non-animated commercials (i .e., with human actors) than two different animated commercials. Consumers, who are hi ghly involved with the product, are more likely to respond to live action based comme rcials than animated commercials. Consumers who have a favorable perception of the ad are more likely to rely on the reality based ads including real visual and im age motion as compared to other ad formats. Concerning attitude toward the brand, th e result of this study implied that consumer highly involved with the product are more likely to have a positive perception of the brand when exposed to live action ba sed commercial as compared to exposure to other commercials. The results can be explaine d in that the perception of the brand in high product involvement is closely related to reality what human can made from live action formatted commercial. Animation in commercials allows us to create imagination, consumer evaluation of the brand could be enhanced by considering their cognitive processing of the product. Consumer attitude toward the brand results from their careful attempts to comprehend and evaluate the brand-relevant content of the ads. Purchase behavior was not differentially affected when comparing consumer exposure to human based versus clay-anima ted commercials. Consumers highly involved

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111 with the product have a more favorable pur chase intention when exposed to live action and clay animated commercials than when exposed to cartoon animated commercial. Consumers simply identify with human actors more than they do with imaginary actors, and will tend to mimic the former’s purchase behavior more. Hypothesis 2 predicted that subjects who have lower product involvement exhibit higher arousal, a favorable attit ude toward the ad, brand and purchase intention compared to subjects exposed to cart oon and live action commercials. However, subjects who were exposed to live-action-based commercial e xhibited higher pleasure compared to those who exposed to clay animated and cartoon commercials. When compared to exposure to cartoon commercial, exposure to clay animat ed commercial resulted in higher pleasure and arousal as well as a more favorable attitude toward the ad, brand, and purchase intention. Live action based versus clay animati on based commercial did not differentially affect consumer pleasure in their product i nvolvement. Consumers who are exposed to live action based commercial experience highe r pleasure than when exposed to cartoon animated commercial. In addition, clay an imation is better than cartoon at evoking consumer pleasure. Consumers with low pr oduct involvement experienced higher arousal when exposed to clay animated commercial than when exposed to live action and cartoon commercials. This finding is associated with Gorn’s (1982) study, which found that consumers who have low product involvement are more likely to respond to background, characters, pleasant visual scenery and mo tion in commercials. Moreover, emotional responses can be better explained in low i nvolvement situations because individuals who

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112 are highly involved with the product have tendency to respon d to affective stimuli in advertising (Gorn 1982). The ELM model can be useful in explai ning that people who are exposed to the affective stimuli in commercials follow a peripheral processing route because these elements requires less cognitive efforts on vi ewer’s part. Clay animation’s can produce a unique style of image motion and movement, a nd, therefore, could be an effective design tool to capture viewers’ atte ntion and affected viewers’ arousal and pleasure. In low involvement with the product, the consumer arousal system is more affected by design components in commercials. Comparing clay animation versus live action based commercials in consumer attitude formation, there were no difference in attitude toward the ad, brand and purchase intention. Consumers recognized clay animati on as an effective advertising design tool because clay animation is produced by using real image motion from human resource in real world. Consumers with low product involvement had a positive perception of animated commercials when exposed to clay animat ed and live action commercials than when exposed to cartoon commercial. Clay anima tion and live action based commercial could be an effective advertising format for increas ing consumer perception of commercial with low product involvement. Consumers are more lik ely to form their reality-based attitude in response to clay animation which captur es strong image motion like the live action, which can be made in live action commercials. Consumers with low product involvement had a more favorable attitude toward the brand when exposed to the clay animated and live action commercials than when

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113 exposed to cartoon commercials. Clay animation and live action formatted commercial could be an effective advertising format for increasing the consumer attribution of commercial with low product involvement. Wh en consumers evaluate brand, they were more likely to consider advertising com ponents such as the motion-based reality. Consumers with low product involvem ent had a more favorable purchase intention when exposed to the clay animat ed and live action commercials than when exposed to cartoon commercials. Clay anima tion and live action base d commercial could be an effective advertising format for in creasing the likelihood of purchase with low product involvement. Comparing clay animation versus live action based commercials, consumer responses were rarely different. Furniss (2006) noted that clay animation can be better at reproducing authentic human-like incrementa l movement and the illusion of unbroken motion. Clay animation, as is a means of creat ing a complete re-presentation of reality (Wilson 2005) because it can re-produce the true nature of what we are seeing on screen Therefore, the well-designed clay animation can decrease gaps when reality simply doesn’t look real enough. As discussed earlier, aff ective stimuli (e.g., background music, pleasant visual scenes, characters, and images) in an advert isement follow a peripheral processing route, as these elements require less cognitive effo rt on the viewer’s part. Because animated stimuli rely heavily on these more aesthetic factors, animated stimuli would be more effective working under the lower-level pe ripheral processing routes on viewer persuasion. And, consumer emotional response s, perception of anim ated commercial and purchase likelihood can be maximized when us ing clay animated stimuli because clay

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114 animation is considered as the well-liked advertising design elem ents. It can affect consumer information processing by creating positive emotional responses, increasing the memory of elements used in commercials, and creating a favorable judgment of the advertising message. As Hypothesis 3 predicted, when consumer s exhibited increased ad recall when they are exposed to clay animation than wh en exposed to live action based commercial and cartoon based commercial with both high and low product involvement. Clay animation more effectively works to affect to consumer memory. Traditional involvement theory would suggest higher involvement leads to increased memory for advertising message due to an elaborately processed ad message, and such increased ad recall, in turn, leads to enduring consumer attitudes toward the ad and brand (Gardner et al. 1985; Petty et al. 1983 ). Also some scholars argue that the high product involvement could produce better ad recall than the low product involvement (Briggs and Hollis 1997). However, this study suggests that ad recall is affected by advertising styles and format. Animation in co mmercial had an important role in recalling the ad. Also animated motion in advertising could be a better effective design tool to capture consumer attention or influence consumer memory. Given animation terminology refers to the medium as a means of creating a complete re-presentation of reality (Wilson 200 5), this finding suggest that animation stimuli has a more powerful explanation consumer attitude formation and behavioral action as much as real human when peopl es are exposed to pleasant scenery in commercials. In other words, evidence from this study, animation is used to fill in the

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115 gaps when reality simply doesn’t look real enough. The results of th is study implied that animation has a potential benefits in current movie and advertising industry. The implication of the results is that cl ay animation has more evocable character and image than those of cartoons because cartoons are made by the traditional twodimension technique. Clay animation in adver tising is associated with the influence of lower-level peripheral processing routes on vi ewer persuasion because animated stimuli rely heavily on viewer’s aesthetic factors (Furniss 1998). Therefore, this study suggests that production in film emphasizes the importa nce of incorporating appropriate motion in commercials. Consequently, it can be implie d that better-designed animation influences consumer emotional responses, increas ing their positive attitude formation. The implication from the results of multi -group CFA analysis is that consumer cognitive effort processing is higher than affective effort processing on behavioral expectations. Higher cognitive processing is cl osely correlated to consumer subsequent behavior when exposed to the commercials in this study. On the other hand, affective processing is closely related with perception of ad. In the second experiment, the animation eff ect could be discussed in the results of the classical conditioning mechanism. 5.2 Discussion of Experiment 2 The traditional classical conditioning pa radigm suggests that positive attitudes toward an advertised product (i.e., a conditi oned stimulus or CS) might develop through its association in a commercial with other stim uli that are reacted to positively (i.e., an unconditioned stimulus or US). Therefore, E xperiment 2 anticipates that the animation (US) can drive favorable at titudes toward the brand.

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116 The impact of product information in a co mmercial on beliefs and attitudes would typically be interprete d within an information processing framework. It is suggested here that a classical conditioning framework coul d account for the potential impact of background features, such as an imation, on product attitudes. Hypothesis 5 predicted that, regardless of product involvement, subjects would exhibit positive emotional responses (e.g., plea sure, arousal), and at titude formation (e.g., a more favorable attitude toward the ad, brand, and purchase inte ntion) than when exposed to classical conditioning in which a ta rget brand (CS) is systematically paired with an affective animation stimulus (US) compared to a control group. The findings from the classical conditioni ng study implied that consumer who are exposed to the classical condi tioning procedure are more likely to have higher pleasure and arousal levels, and a positive attitude towa rd the animated commercial, and the brand, and thus a more favorable purchase intention as compared to those of conditioning controls in both high and low product involveme nt when using animation as stimuli. It can be implied that the classical conditioning mechanism would be better explained under the peripheral processing routes and low produc t categories, such as soft drinks when using animation as affective stimuli. Also, th e findings could be confirmed that animation plays an important role in a cl assical conditioning paradigm. This study suggests that a favorable attit ude toward the advertised brand might develop through the product asso ciation with animation stimuli, which consumers relate in a positive manner. Animation used in this study also acts as the potential unconditioned stimuli in commercials.

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117 Hypothesis 6 predicted that in the animation stimulus, subjects exposed to the target brand (CS) paired with the animati on stimulus (US), and who are aware of the contingency relationship between the target brand (CS) and animation stimulus (US), would develop more favorable attitudes toward the ads and target brand than subjects who are unaware of this contingency relations hip. The results revealed that subjects categorized as aware of the CS/US conti ngency developed more favorable attitudes toward the ad and target brand than those who were unaware. Awareness of the CS-US relationship is a necessary condition for classical conditioning and contingency awareness exists when experimental s ubjects know that CS and US have been related temporally in an experiment’s sequencing of these two events (Shimp 1991, p.159). Assuming attitude formati on is a cognitive process, contingency awareness is considered as a prerequisite for successful attitude change (Allen and Janiszewski 1989; Priluck and Till 2004; Shimp et al. 1991). Consistent with the above, the findings of Allen and Janiszewski ( 1989) emphasize that classical conditioning mechanism theory would agree that continge ncy awareness acts as a mediator in the conditioning process. The findings of this study suggest that the role of awareness become more important when subjects deve lop a positive attitude toward the animated commercial and the target brand via their cognitive efforts. Also, a high level of awareness occurs when subjec ts are highly involved with the product. The findings of this study suggest that successful attitude formation via classical conditioning occurs when participants are highly involved with th e product. Such subjects are, thus, more likely to generate attitude toward the an imated commercial and the target brand.

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118 The results of multi group CFA analys is in involvement and classical conditioning suggest that animation in adve rtising would be effective working under a classical conditioning mechanism. Also animation stimuli had an important role in high product involvement. Consequently, the hierar chical effect communi cation model can be explained in the classical conditioning pr ocedure when explaining consumer attitude formation. This finding from the results’ view of the animated commercial hierarchy is implicitly a causal relationship from cognition to affect, and affect to conation in classical and high product involvement groups. The implication from the results of multi -group CFA analysis is that consumer cognitive effort processing is higher than affective effort processing on behavioral expectations in classical conditioning experiments. However, consumer affective processing is higher than cogni tive processing on behavioral expectations in conditioning control group. Higher cognitive processing is closely correlated to consumer’s subsequent behavior when exposed to system atic paring with stimuli and the brand in experiment group. On the other hand, in the conditioning control group, affective effort is an important factor in evalua ting the animated ad and brand. 5.3 General Discussion As discussed earlier, the mo tivation of the study was to examine the effects of animation and its relationship to human cognitive and affective processes by categorizing and using different type of animation feat ured in television commercials. This study assessed the impact of animation in co mmercials through a series of classical conditioning experiments.

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119 People who have low product involvement are more likely to have a higher arousal to animated commercials as well as a more favorable attitude toward the animated commercial, and the advertised br and, and an increased purchase intention. However, people who are highly involved w ith the product develop a less favorable perception of animated commercials than li ve action based commercial. In addition, ad recall was ranked in clay animation commercial compared to other tw o different types of commercials in the first experiment. The results of multi-group CFA analysis revealed that there was no significant group differe nce on each path rega rding values of modification indexes. The implication from this analysis is that th e variation of cognition and affection through conation as purchase be havior is rarely di fferent across three different commercial types when using anima tion as stimuli. This study suggests that animation in commercials plays an important role in consumer attitude formation as much as real human do when people are forming their attitude toward ad, brand and behavior. The advertising format might affect consumer percep tion of an intangible asset such as attitude toward the advertising a nd brand. Their purchase behaviors, however, are affected by other factors such as pr oduct quality, and prior experience. This study described the relationship be tween animated commercials and human cognitive and affective processing through tw o different experiments. Given animated commercials can more effectively provide visu al demonstrations and recall testimonies for products, this study confirmed that an imated ads should take into account the influence of lower-level peripheral pro cessing routes on viewer persuasion. Through evidence from the classical conditi oning experiment, it can be confirmed that the classical conditi oning method would be more effective working under the

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120 paradigm of low level personal relevance i nvolvement toward the stimuli. This study demonstrated that awareness leads to favor able perception of the ad about target attributes and favorable brand attitudes. The experiment in this study re-established that awareness is enhanced by involvement. In addition, involvement influences attitude formation through classical conditioning procedures, with affect and belief formation acting as mediators. This paper suggests that th e animation in commercials can influence consumer perception of the brand and purchase behavior It is argued that the positive emotions they generate become associated with the advertised product through classical conditioning. Animated commercials can aid viewers to stimulate or affect their emotional responses and behavioral expecta tions. The use of animation in movie and commercials is rapidly increasing in recen t graphic interfaces b ecause they motivate consumer actions and draw viewer atte ntion to specific pr oduct features. Consumers tend to view commercials pa ssively, since the information provided induces less motivation to process (Hoyer and MacInnis 2001). The findings of this study increase the possibility of interpreting how animated commercials affect consumer attitudes via peripheral proces sing routes when using attrac tive or likable characters combined with motion, humor, and pleasant music in low product involvement categories (e.g., soft drinks, etc.). The results are associat ed with previous research on the classical conditioning mechanism. The study suggests that animation plays an important role in the classical conditioning mechanism in explaining the effectiveness of animated commercials as well as to interp ret consumer-attitude formation.

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121 The results of multi-group CFA analysis comparing conditioning and control group revealed that there was a significan t group difference on each path regarding values of modification indexes. The implica tion from this analysis is that consumer intensified cognition and aff ection could have an influe nce on conation as purchase behavior when using animation as stimuli. Th e implication from the results is that the formed cognition from the advertised bra nd and intensified affect from specified components of commercials could drive th e inclination of a possible action that consumers make take regarding the brand. The subsequent purchase behavior would be driven from the intensified cognition and affection when consumer develop a st rong and stable affection based on specific feature-based information from a reliable source and cognition generated from the analogical evaluation process when consumer are highly involved with the product (Park and Mittal 1985, p.222). In this study, the an alysis of involvement groups, divided into high and low, implied that the model coul d be effectively working within the high product involvement group. Enhanced cognition and affection then leads to increase likelihood of purchase behavior. This study suggests that the well-establis hed animation used in commercials can increase positive affection and consumer a ttitudes toward both ad and brand. Animation in commercials is also closel y related to advertising recall and a high arousal levels. This study confirmed that animation can motivat e consumers toward action and increase consumer memory related to the ad and brand (e.g., recall). Im age motion produced by clay could affect human cognitive processi ng and evoked some kinds of positive emotion such as arousal. Animation in ads can incr ease the subject’s attention level. Clay

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122 animation is a different animation style compared with the traditional hand drawn cartoons. Clay animation has been very popular in current entertainment industry as well as current television commercials due to its high-end graphics appeal and humor. Therefore, it is not surprising that using an imation in commercials has increased since animation can exceed human imagination. Imagery is used to retrieve inform ation from memory in a variety of circumstances, but primarily when three cond itions are met: 1) the information to be remembered has s subtle visual property; 2) the property has not been explicitly considered previously; and 3) the property ca nnot easily be deduced from other stored information (Kosslyn 1990, p.74). Also people us ed imagery to help produce descriptions, to help understand descriptions, as part of mental practice, and to induce emotional or motivational states (Kosslyn 1990, p.75). This di scussion could be applied within this study in explaining the relationship between animated stimuli and consumer behavior. Thus, imagery stored in memory can drive s ubsequent behavior, and even help to recall specific objects (e.g., co mponents of ad). Imagery sorted in memory influence consumer cognitive processing and the evoked positive emotion. Kossylan (1990) pointed out that mental imagery can act as a bridge to expl ore between perception and mental activity. As such, it is considered as the cognitive faculty “clo set to the neurology” because so much is now known about the neural mechanisms of perception (p. 94). Kossylan (1990) discussion is parallel with Paivio’s (1971) opinion who noted that memory can be improved if one visualizes th e materials and then encodes the images into memory. In sum, well-designed animation in commer cials is associated with the influence of consumer cognitive and affective proces sing on viewer persuasion because animated

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123 stimuli are based on the incorporating vi sualization and appropriate motion in commercials. Consequently, it can be implie d that the better-designed animation could provide a better understating of how animation influences the relationship between consumer cognitive and affective processe s and subsequent consumer behavior.

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124 CHAPTER 6 CONTRIBUTION AND SUGGESTIONS 6.1 The Effect of Animation in Commercials This study significantly contributes to our understanding of the relationship between animated commercials and human c ognitive and affective processing. The other benefit of an animation study is the comp arison between animated ads and live action formatted commercials by categorizing the type s of animation. Thus, the results obtained elucidate the high level of consumer arousal and ad recall associ ated with animated commercials. The high level of arousal c ould be transformed into positive brand evaluation and attitude toward the ad a nd brand. This study exhibits merits by demonstrating what effective animated a dvertising stimuli is and by categorizing animated commercial types as a guideline for more animated advertisements. Animation has become the new creative a dvertising trend in today’s entertainment industry. As a character-based business, animation can expand the design of advertisement by applying digital content to diffe rent media, such as the Internet, mobile phone technology, and television. Animated co mmercials can more effectively provide visual demonstrations and r ecall testimonies for products. Furthermore, implications derived from this study illuminate how animated ads should take into account the influence of lower-level peripheral pr ocessing routes on viewer persuasion. Understanding the relationship between animated commercials and how they stimulate viewers or effect their emotiona l responses and behavioral expectations provides valuable information to practitioners who design animated ads when they create

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125 effective animated commercials. Animation has become an important design tool in recent graphic interfaces because they motiv ate consumer actions and draw viewers’ attention to specific product features. From a practical perspective, the find ings provide advertiser and animation designers a useful information when they are creating a new anim ated characters in commercials. Understanding th e relationship between exposur e of animated commercials and viewers’ perception of animated ads, br and and behavioral acti on crossings cognitive and affect responses is very valuable asse t for advertising practi tioners and scholars. Animation designers believe that image motion should be generated from real world. Developed of quality human resources can be enhanced animation image motion as well as characters. The be tter-designed animation could provide a better understating of how animation influences the relationship between cons umer cognitive and affective processes and subsequent consumer behavior. Image motion produced by clay plays an important role in human cognitive processing and evoked some kinds of positive emotion such as arousal. The use the better-designed animation in ads can increase the subject’s attention level. Clay animation is a different animation style compared with the traditional hand drawn cartoons. Clay animation has the potential benefits in current entertainment and advertising industries due to it s high-end graphics appeal and humor. Therefore, it is not surprising that using animation in commercials has increased since animation can exceed human imagination.

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126 6.2 The Effective Classical Conditioning Mechanism in Advertising Research Classical conditioning suggests that positive attitudes towards an advertised product (CS) might develop through a product’s association in a commercial with other positive stimuli (US). Through this study, the cl assical conditioning paradigm was shown to be a useful method and mechanism when using animated commercials as a new form of stimuli. This study shows how attitudes to ward brands featured in animated ads are generated through classical conditioning procedures. Furthermore, this study on classical conditioning is importa nt in terms of discerning the role of awareness in classi cal conditioning by recognizing that effective conditioning can occur through direct affect transfer or through cognitive belief information. Contingency awareness could be a consequence of conditioning as well as the product of a deliberate cognitive process (Eagly & Chaiken 1993, p.410). This study demonstrated that awareness leads to a favor able perception of the ad about the target attribute and favorable brand attitudes. Th e experiments in this study re-examined the degree to which awareness of the CS/US contingency plays a role in classical conditioning. Individuals who are highly involved with a stimulus exhi bit a greater tendency to pay attention to the stimulus, have higher le vels of attention to the stimulus in a conditioning experiment, and may gain cont ingency awareness. Individuals who are highly involved with the product are less likely to respond to animation as the unconditioned stimulus than to the informati on about the product. People who are highly involved with the product are more likely to develop favorable attitudes when exposed to

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127 conditioning procedures in the absence of product information. Awareness is enhanced by involvement and involvement influences attitude formatio n through classical conditioning procedures with affect a nd belief formation acting as mediators. Generally, classical conditioning is a pr ime method of persuasion. Many studies have demonstrated its effectiveness and its ub iquity in advertising research. This study confirmed that the classical conditioning woul d appropriate method to measure the effectiveness of a new product. Also, through evidence for classical conditioning experiment, this can provide an opport unity to better understand how classical conditioning could account for the potential impact of animated stimuli on product attitudes. The study asserts that a new brand paired with an affective conditioned stimuli (CS: target brand) could generate affective responses toward the CS. Contingency awareness is a consequence of conditioning as well as the product of a deliberate cognitive process (Eagly and Chaiken 1993). The Implication from this study is that awareness of the CS/US contingency could drive more favorable attitudes toward the ad and target brand. Certai n cues acting as affective stim uli could develop consumers’ perception of the ad and attr ibutions of the brand, thus enhancing message processing. Animation as affective stimuli helps subjects to pay attention to th e stimulus and higher levels of attention to the s timuli in a conditioning experime nt may result in awareness of the CS/US contingency. The implication from the hierarchical communication model is that consumer intensified cognition and affec tion could have an influence on purchase behavior when using animation as stimuli in conditioni ng experiment. This study suggests that the formed cognition from the advertised bra nd and intensified affect from specified

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128 components of commercials could drive th e inclination of a possible action that consumers take regarding the brand. Also, this study suggests that better-designed animation in advertising would effective advertising design tool when explaining consumer attitude formation such human cognition, affection and conation responses in a classical conditioning procedure. 6.3 Limitations and Suggestio ns for Future Research This study did not cover familiarity and pref erence or fittingness. First of all, a consumer’s familiarity with a product or brand influences such concepts as consumer adaptation, self-image, compliance, and identi fication. A similar topic must focus on the relationships among brand familiarity, consumer confidence in brand evaluations, consumer attitudes toward brands, and purch ase intention. For brand preference issues, brand choice, and consumption, consumers creat e meaning and strengthen their identities through brand preference. Given the fit between the celebrity and th e product as defined by the term “match-up hypothesis,” different ty pes of endorsers and celebrities affect consumer attitude. Future studies on animated commercials should include all of these issues. There is also concern about the subjects, exclusively college students who might respond to animated commercials and react di fferently than people in other consumer segments. Therefore, it would be valuable to replicate the current study with a larger and more representative sample. Although th is study was trying to optimize classical conditioning experiment by employing the ba sic principles of experimental design, classroom as well as video and audio issu es were limited. Another concern is novelty effect in this study. Generally, people are likely to process stimuli when they are

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129 surprising and they pay more attention to adve rtising and others that are novel or different as well as novel ads and stimuli attract c onsumer’s attention. Thus, this study suggests that the novelty effect should be considered in the similar study when using novel ads and stimuli. The product involvement manipulation used in this study asked participants about their interest in the target product, which ma y have highlighted the importance of the task, therefore creating more relevance in the pa rt minds to normal interest levels. Study related involvement issues in advertis ing research emphasize that involvement contributes to cognitive attitude formation. This study s uggests that advertisers should consider methods and advertisi ng design tools to generate atte ntion to their advertisement. Given that individual involvement is highl y related with percep tion of advertising effectiveness (e.g., recall), adve rtisers also should consider the specific elements of a message and the components of advertisement to capture viewers. In this study, issues i nvolving animated commercial types are limited to two types of animated commercials, clay animation and cartoon commercials. Several animation types appear everywhere in the current entertainment industry. Computer generated animation in the anim ation industry has become a significant increase due to the growing importance of new technologies. Furni ss (2006) argued that computer animated special effects and techni ques to enhance live-action images have become a dominant characteristic of contem porary motion pictures, especially in the action, sciences fiction, and te levision commercials (http:// encarta.msn.com). Also the trend already is employed in a produc tion of animation in commercials.

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130 Although animation types could be classified in this study, the rate of computer generated animation is now increasing due to advancements in technology, which allows for easily designing and developing computer gr aphics. Future studies on animation in commercials should include more types of animation. This study was focused on types of anim ation to compare animated commercials to live commercials in order to examine th e relationship between affective stimuli and consumer attitude formation (e.g., cognitive, affective and conative) when viewing animated commercials. This study suggests that the further explora tion of animation in advertising should research the relation between types of animated characters and consumers attitude formation (e.g., consume r’s emotional response, cognitive processing and purchase behavior). Given animation is regarded as affective stimuli; the degree of individual difference could affect consumer cognitiv e processing and emotional response to animated advertisements. Literature related to individual differences points out that specific individual characteristics, which in cluding the reflections of an individual’s inherent personality, background, consumer’s knowledge, and abilities, influence how each consumer processes advertising messages. The results of the st udy indicate that the further exploration of animation should fo cus on such individual differences. Further study should consider that indi vidually different variables pl ay an influential role in determining how people respond to animated stimuli. Consumer responses to animation in adve rtising were explained using classical conditioning mechanism in this study. Generall y, animation acts as affective stimuli (US). Also animation may have the potential to generate positive belief and affection. This

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131 study was conducted a classical conditioning experiment in low-involvement product category. Thus, this study suggests that th e further exploration of the classical conditioning procedures should conduct under high-involvement product category. The further study of the clas sical conditioning should exam ine whether the classical conditioning will be occurred under high-produc t involvement categories (e.g., electronic products, etc.)

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132 APPENDIX A MULTI GROUP ANALYSIS EQS PROGRAM /TITLE Multi group analysis EQS program by EQS 6 for Windows /SPECIFICATIONS DATA ='c:\eqs61\pda\juice_ex_trip.ess'; VARIABLES =10; CASES =166; GROUPS =2; METHOD = ML ; ANALYSIS = COVARIANCE ; MATRIX = RAW ; / LABELS V1=SAMP; V2=SAMA; V3=SAMD; V4=COG1; V5=COG2; V6=COG3; V7=COG4; V8=PI1; V9=PI2; V10=PI3; F1= Affection; F2=Cognition; F3=Conation; / EQUATIONS V1 = *F1 + E1; V2 = *F1 + E2; V3 = *F1 + E3; V4 = 1F2 + E4; V5 = *F2 + E5; V6 = *F2 + E6; V7 = *F2 + E7; V8 = 1F3 + E8; V9 = *F3 + E9; V10 = *F3 + E10; F2 = *F1 + D2; F3 = *F1 + *F2 + D3; / VARIANCES F1 = *; E1 = *; E2 = *; E3 = *; E4 = *; E5 = *; E6 = *; E7 = 1; E8 = *; E9 = *; E10 = *; D2 = *; D3 = *; / COVARIANCES E1,E4=*; E4,E5=*; E7,E10=*; E7,E8=*; E7,E9=*; E3,E9=*; E8,E9=*; E5,E10=*; / PRINT EIS ; FIT = ALL ; TABLE = EQUATION ; / END / TITLE

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133Model built by EQS 6 for Windows / SPECIFICATIONS DATA ='c:\eqs61\pda\juice_con_trip.ess'; VARIABLES =10; CASES =165; METHOD = ML ; ANALYSIS = COVARIANCE ; MATRIX = RAW ; / LABELS V1=SAMP; V2=SAMA; V3=SAMD; V4=COG1; V5=COG2; V6=COG3; V7=COG4; V8=PI1; V9=PI2; V10=PI3; F1=Affection; F2= Cognition; F3=Conation; / EQUATIONS V1 = *F1 + E1; V2 = *F1 + E2; V3 = *F1 + E3; V4 = 1F2 + E4; V5 = *F2 + E5; V6 = *F2 + E6; V7 = *F2 + E7; V8 = 1F3 + E8; V9 = *F3 + E9; V10 = *F3 + E10; F2 = *F1 + D2; F3 = *F1 + *F2 + D3; / VARIANCES F1 = *; E1 = *; E2 = *; E3 = *; E4 = *; E5 = *; E6 = *; E7 = *; E8 = *; E9 = *; E10 = *; D2 = *; D3 = *; / COVARIANCES E4,E6=*; E8,E10=*; / CONSTRAINTS (1,V1,F1)=(2,V1,F1); (1,V2,F1)=(2,V2,F1); (1,V3,F1)=(2,V3,F1); (1,V5,F2)=(2,V5,F2); (1,V6,F2)=(2,V6,F2); (1,V7,F2)=(2,V7,F2); (1,V9,F3)=(2,V9,F3); (1,V10,F3)=(2,V10,F3); (1,F2,F1)=(2,F2,F1); (1,F3,F1)=(2,F3,F1); (1,F3,F2)=(2,F3,F2); / LMTEST SET =PEE; / PRINT EIS ; FIT = ALL ; TABLE = EQUATION ; / END

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134 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Participant I am a doctoral student at the University of Florida. Under the supervision of Dr. Morris and Villegas, I am exploring the animated commercials for my dissertation. The information from you will not be released to anybody. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provi ded by law. You have the ri ght to withdraw consent for participation at any time without conseque nce. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants of this study. If you have any qu estions about this research protocol, please contact ChangHyun Jin at 846-1107 Description: You are invited to evaluate the animated commercials. Procedures: First, you will be watched animat ed commercials. Next, you will be asked to evaluate the animated ads. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: Chang-Hyun Jin, doctoral student, G038 Weim er Hall, College of Journalism and Mass Communications, Phone number: 352-846-1107, E-mail: chjin@jou.ufl.edu UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, 3920433 I have read and understand the above informati on. I agree to participat e in the research. I have received a copy of this description. ______________________ ____________ ____ Print Name of Participant UF ID Date Gender: __________Female ____________ Male

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135 Instruction: Please read the following statement car efully and assume that it is your current situation. To successfully launch a new product named Juice the company will conduct a promotion at a grocery store. This company is trying to penetrate the Juice market. When buying this produc t, you would receive a book of coupons good for a year from a grocery store. If you are interested in the statement, how mu ch relevance does the product have to you? Not at all :____:____:____: ____:_____: Very much -2 -1 0 +1 +2 If you chose the number zero (-2 and -1), please go to the third page. If your answer is close to “Very much (0, +1 and +2)”, please read the statement on the right. Dear Participant, For participants highly involved with the Juice. Please pay careful attention to the slide presentation. After watc hing the commercials related to the Juice, please carefully answer each ques tion. Investigators will choose someone who makes the best response to the questions after collec ting data. Then the investigators will pick the name from the group pool to win a prize.

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136 Evaluation of the Product: It is your first im pressions, the immediate feelings about the items that we want. On the other hand, pleas e do not be careless, because we want your true impressions. How do you feel about the animated commercial after watching the commercial? Q: Pleasure Q: Arousal Q: Dominance

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137 Q: Product Involvement: Work at fairly hi gh speed through this questionnaire. Do not worry or puzzle over individual items. It is your first impr essions, the immediate feelings about the items that we want. On the other hand, please do not be careless, because we want your true impressions. Please place a checkmark to the number what thoughts and feelings went through your mind about th e product after watc hing the commercial Useless :____: ____:____:____:____:____:____: Useful -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Uninterested:____:____:____:____:____:____:____: Inte rested -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Worthless :____:____:____: ____:____:____:____: Valuable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Unwanted :____:____:____:____:____:____:____: Wanted -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Irrelevant :____:____:____: ____:____:____:____: Relevant -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Q1. Attribution of the brand Please place a checkmark to the number that best represents your answer about how certain you are of each your response s after watching the commercial. 1-1). I believe that the product in the s lide presentation could be of good quality. Strongly ______:______:______: ______:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree 1-2). I believe that the product in the slide presentation is reliable. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree 1-3). I believe that the product in the slid e presentation could pr ovide rich nutrients compared to other similar products. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree 1-4). I believe that the taste of the product in the slide presentation is good. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree

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138 Q2: Consistency awareness: Depending on your experimental condition, there was a pattern to the scenes you saw in the Comm ercial. Please indicate your best guess about this pattern by circling th e appropriate response 2-1). The name logo always came before playing scenes Absolutely Uncertain: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Absolutely Certain 1 2 3 4 5 2-2). Playing scenes was always shown with the picture of brand name logo at the same Absolutely Uncertain: _____:_____:_____: _____:_____: Absolutely Certain 1 2 3 4 5 2-3). Playing scenes always befo re the picture of the brand log Absolutely Uncertain: _____: _____:_____:_____:_____: Absolutely Certain 1 2 3 4 5 Q3: Evaluation of the Animated Commercial How much the advertisement through the slide presentation affects you to remember it in future? Advertisement with animat ed character would be “---” 3-1). Unfavorable :_____:_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Favorable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 3-2). Unlikable :_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Likable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 3-3). Bad :_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Good -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 3-4). Unpleasant :_____:_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Pleasant -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Q4: Evaluation of the advertised Brand How much the advertised brand through the slid e presentation affects you to remember it in future? I felt about the advertised bra nd in the slide presentation is “-------” 4-1). Unattractive :_____:_____:___ __:_____:_____:_____:_____: Attractive -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 4-2). Unlikable :____ _:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Likable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 4-3). Bad :_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Good -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 4-4). Boring :_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Interesting -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3

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139 Q5: Purchase Intention All things considered, if you are planning to purchase this advertised product on one of your next trips to a store, wh at are the chances that you w ould purchase this advertised product if it can be available?” 5-1). Unlikely :____ _:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Likely -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 5-2). Impossible :_____:_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:______: Possible -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 5-3). Improbable :_____:_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:______: Probable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3

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140Instruction for High Involvement Product: Please read the following statement carefully and assume that it is your current situation. To celebrate the introduction of a new MP3 player, the company will sponsor the Rock Music Festival 2006 at the O’C onnell Center at UF. After th e events, a new MP3 Player will be distributed to one hundred winners through a raffle drawing. The information of product: this supports s ubscription music services, vivid color display, up to 45 hours of battery life, FM tuner and FM recorder, built-in sport clip, and available in 512MB and 1GB versions. Consumer Repor t mentioned that this MP3 player has functions and ergonomics of which the great majority of competing products can be jealous. The MP3 player has the best design of the models we tested. Its side grips fit naturally in the hands, and skipping over reco rded TV ads is easy. This is designed for young age like you. If you are interested in the statement, how much relevance do es have to you? Not at all :____:____:____: ____:_____: Very much -2 -1 0 +1 +2 If you chose the number zero (-2 and -1), please go to the third page. If your answer is close to “Very much (+1 and +2)”, please read the statement on the right. Dear Participant, For participants highly i nvolved with the MP3 Player. Please pay careful attention to the slide presentation. After watc hing the commercials related to the MP3 player, please carefully answer each question. Investigators will choose someone who makes the best response to the questions after collecting data. Then the investigators will pick the name from the group pool to win a prize.

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141 Evaluation of MP3 Player It is your first impressions, the immediate f eelings about the items that we want. On the other hand, please do not be careless, because we want your true impressions. How do you feel about the animated commercial af ter watching the MP3 Player commercial? Q: Pleasure Q: Arousal Q: Dominance

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142 Q: Product Involvement Work at fairly high speed through this que stionnaire. Do not wo rry or puzzle over individual items. It is your first impressions, the immediate feelings about the items that we want. On the other hand, please do not be careless, because we want your true impressions. Please place a checkmark to th e number what thoughts and feelings went through your mind about the product af ter watching the commercial Useless :____:____: ____:____:____:____:____: Useful -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Uninterested:____:____:____:____:____:____:____: Inte rested -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Worthless :____:____:____: ____:____:____:____: Valuable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Unwanted :____:____:____:____:____:____:____: Wanted -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Irrelevant :____:____:____: ____:____:____:____: Relevant -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Q6. Evaluation of the (MP3 Pl ayer) Animated Commercial Please place a checkmark to the number that best represents your answer about how certain you are of each your responses afte r watching the MP3 player commercial. 6-1). I believe that the product in the s lide presentation could be of good quality. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree 6-2). I believe that the product in the slide presentation is reliable. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree 6-3). I believe that the product in the slid e presentation could pr ovide many different additional devices compared other similar products. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree 6-4). I believe that the sound of the pr oduct in slide presentation coul d be excellent. Strongly ______:______:______:_ _____:______:______:______ Strongly Disagree -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Agree

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143 Q7: Consistency awareness Depending on your experimental condition, there was a pattern to the scenes you saw in the Commercial. Please indicate your best guess about this pattern by circling the appropriate response 7-1) MP3 player product name was al ways shown before playing scenes Absolutely Uncertain: _____:_____:_____: _____:_____: Absolutely Certain 1 2 3 4 5 7-2) Playing scenes always came before the MP3 Player (Yepp) brand name. Absolutely Uncertain: _____:_____:_____: _____:_____: Absolutely Certain 1 2 3 4 5 7-3) The brand name logo was always s hown with playing scenes at the same Absolutely Uncertain: _____:_____:_____: _____:_____: Absolutely Certain 1 2 3 4 5 Q8: Evaluation of the MP3 Player Animated Commercials How much the advertisement through the slide presentation affects you to remember it in future? Advertisement with animat ed character would be “---” 8-1). Unfavorable :_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Favorable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 8-2). Unlikable : _____:_____:_____:_____:_____: _____:_____: Likable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 8-3). Bad :_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Good -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 8-4). Unpleasant :_____:_____: _____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Pleasant -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Q9: Evaluation of the advertised Brand How much the advertised brand through the slid e presentation affects you to remember it in future? I felt about the advertised bra nd in the slide presentation is “-------” 9-1). Unattractive :_____:_____:___ __:_____:_____:_____:_____: Attractive -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 9-2). Unlikable : _____:_____:_____:_____:_____: _____:_____: Likable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 9-3). Bad :_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Good -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 9-4). Boring : _____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Interesting -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3

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144 Q10: Purchase Intention All things considered, if you are planning to purchase this advertised product on one of your next trips to a store, wh at are the chances that you w ould purchase this advertised product if it can be available?” 10-1). Unlikely :___ __:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____:_____: Likely -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 10-2). Impossible :_____:_____:___ __:_____:_____:_____:______: Possible -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 10-3). Improbable :_____:_____:___ __:_____:_____:_____:______: Probable -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Q11: Recall Mesurement Based on your memory, please write down about the ads you have seen (e.g., displayed product name, character (human and animal), and description of the ads, story line, theme, company logo name or anything you can re member). (e.g., you can describe anything what your feeling, thinking and imaginati on when you are thing about the animated commercials that you watched) Thank you!

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145 APPENDIX C ANIMATION STIMULI Sample_1 Sample_2 Sample_3

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146 Sample_4 Sample_5

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167 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ChangHyun Jin received his Bachelor of Arts degree in creative writing at ChuGye Art for University and his master’s degree in advertising at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (Seoul, S outh Korea). He worked in an advertising agency as an advertising manager and he was a data analys t at the research company, specializing in marketing research and public opinion. After that, he came to the United States and completed a master’s degree specializing in advertis ing at the University of Texas at Austin. In fall of 2003, he entered a Ph.D. program in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. He is trying to open a new door of advertising research and teaching.


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Title: Animated Commercials' Effects on Low-Effort Routes to Persuasion: Classical Conditioning Approach
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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ANIMATED COMMERCIALS' EFFECTS ON LOW-EFFORT ROUTES TO
PERSUASION: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING APPROACH
















By

CHANG HYUN JIN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

ChangHyun Jin


































I dedicate this dissertation to my parents, Jeong-Ho Jin, Pan-Soon Kang who have
made me what I am.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

It was a long way to be Dr. Jin. It was a great opportunity to start a new challenge in

my life. It was not the end but just the beginning to pursue the endless knowledge. To be

continued to open a new door of advertising area...

I would like to express extreme gratitude to my committee chair, Dr. Jon D. Morris.

His guideline, interest, and selfless donation of time are what made this dissertation

possible. Dr. Jorge Villegas has been particularly helpful and supportive in his capacity

as my cochair, research partner, and informal mentor. Their teaching, guidance, support,

and friendship, during my doctoral studies and throughout the writing of this dissertation,

were invaluable. I am also grateful to Dr. Marilyn Roberts, Dr. Chan-Hoan Cho and Dr.

Ronald W. Ward, for help from the idea development through the completion of this

dissertation.

In the process of writing my dissertation, I was very nostalgic. Yearning for my

home and my family always enabled me complete the otherwise impossible dream of

attaining this degree. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my parents, Jeong-Ho

Jin and Pan-Soon Kang, for giving me continuous support and motivation throughout the

completion of this dissertation. I could not have completed this study without the devoted

and unconditional love of my parents, sisters, and brothers-in-law. I would also like to

take this opportunity to thank Korean Communication Gators at the University of Florida,

especially JangYul Kim and ChongMoo Woo, for their stimulating academic discussions

and friendship throughout this Ph.D. experience.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

L IST O F TA B LE S ............................ ....................... ........ .............. viii

LIST OF FIGURES ............................... ... ...... ... ................. .x

ABSTRACT .............. ......................................... xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .......... .... .... 1

2 LITER A TU R E REV IEW ............................................................ ....................... 4

2.1 H historical Review of Anim ation .............................................. ............... 4
2.2 Animation and Peripheral Processing Routes ...........................................5
2.3 C classical C conditioning ............................................................................ 7
2.4 The Role of Contingency Awareness ............... ..................................11
2.5 The Influence of Involvement on Awareness ..................................................12
2.6 ELM and Involvem ent Issues..................................................................... .... 13
2.7 Stim uli in FCB G rid M odel ...................... ....................... ............... ... 19
2.8 The Animated Commercials as a New Creative Platform ..............................21
2.9 The Relationship between Animated Ads and Human Behavior .....................23
2.10 The Effect of Motion on Consumer Behavior ..............................................26
2.11 Tripartite A attitudinal D im tensions ........................................ .....................27
2.11.1 C ognition ......... .. ..... ... ................................... .... .....27
2.11.2 Affection ......... ................................. 29
2.11.3 AdSAM: A Pictorial Non-Verbal Measure ............... ............31
2.11.4 Conation .................................... ......................... .. .... 32
2.12 Sum m ary and H ypotheses.................................................................... ..... 33
2.12.1 Experim ent 1 ................ ................. .. ......... ............ ......34
2.12.2 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in Ads ............................41
2.12.3 Experiment 2 .......... ......................... ........42
2.12.4 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in C.C ............................46

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 49





v









3.1 Overview of Experim mental D design ........................................ .....................49
3.1.1 Experim ent 1 ............... ........ ......... ............................ .... 49
3.1.2 Pilot Study ...... .. ....... ....................................... ..... 50
3.1.3 Prestest the Animated Commercial Stimuli ..............................50
3.1.4 Subjects ..... .... .. .. ................................................. 52
3.1.5 Procedure ................................. ........................ ......... 53
3.1.6 Experim ental M manipulation ...................................... ............... 54
3.1.7 V ariables and M measures ............................................ ............... 55
3.1.8 Involvem ent M manipulation Check .............................. ................57

3.2 Classical Conditioning Experim ent 2...................................... ............... 58
3.2.1 C conditioning Stim uli .............................................................. ... 58
3.2.2 Pretest the Animated Commercial Stimuli ........................................59
3 .2 .3 F iller M materials ........................................ .... .................. ..............59
3.2.4 Procedure ....... ... ...... ............ ...... ....................................... 60
3.2.5 Experim ental M manipulation ...................................... ............... 61
3.2 .6 M measure .............................................. ........................ ..... 63
3.2.6.1 Contingency A w areness.............................................. 63
3.2.6.2 Involvement Manipulation Check........................................65
3.2.6.3 Conditioning Requirement..................................................66
3.2.6.4 Reliability of Manipulation Check................ .............. ....66
3.2 .6.5 C construct V validity ........................................ .....................67
3.2.6.6 Convergent V alidity ...................................... ............... 67

4 RESULTS .................................................. 68

4 .1 E x p erim ent 1 ............ ... .... .................................... .............. ........ .... 6 8
4.1.1 Testing of Hypotheses for Animated Commercial Effects ..................71
4.1.2 Results of A d-Recall .......... ... ....................................... ......... 79
4.1.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis in Experiment 1 .....................................82

4.1 Experim ent 2 .................. ....................... ... .. ........ .............. 85
4.2.1 Results for the Classical Conditioning Experiment ...........................85
4.2.2 Contingency Aw areness ............ ... ......................... ......... ...... 94
4.2.3 M ulti Group CFA Analysis ....................................... ............... 97

5 D ISC U SSIO N ......................................... .. ........... .............. .. 108

5.1 D discussion for Experim ent 1 ............................... ... ............................... 108
5.2 Discussion for Experiment 2 ................. ............................. 15
5.3 G general D discussion .................. .......................... .. .. .... .. ............ 118

6 CONTRIBUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ........................................................124

6.1 The Effect of Animated Commercials ................................. ...............124
6.2 The Effect of a C.C Method in Ads Research ..............................................126
6.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research.................... ........... 128












APPENDIX

A MULTI GROUP CFA ANALYSIS EQS PROGRAM ........................................132

B Q U E ST IO N N A R E ......................................................................... ....................134

C ANIMATION SNAPSHOTS ...........................................................................145

LIST OF REFEREN CES .................................................................. ............... 147

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ........... ... ............. 167
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

2-1. T ypes of A nim ation ......................................................................... ....................22

4-2. Means and Standard Deviations by Types of Ads................... ...............................69

4-3. MANOVA Results in Experiment 1............................................... .................69

4-4. Results of Between Subjects in Experiment 1 .................................... .................69

4-5. The Results of M ean D difference ........................................ .......................... 79

4-6. Ad Recall Crosstabulation and Chi-Square Tests...........................................81

4-7. Group Difference for Ad Recall in Experiment 1 ............................................... 82

4-8. Logit A nalsysis in Experim ent 1 ........................................... ......................... 82

4-9. Variables in the Equation in Logit Analsyis for Experiment 1 ..................................82

4-10. Correlations Matrix for Multi Group Path Analysis in Experiment 1 ......................84

4-11. M odification Indexes in Experiment 1 .................................................................. 85

4-12. Means and Standard Deviations of Experiment 2 .................................................86

4-13. M ANOVA Results in Experiment 2.............................................. ............... 86

4-14. Results of Between Subjects in Experiment 2.................................... ...................87

4-15. Results of M ean Difference in C.C ............................. .................................. 94

4-16. Analysis of Contingency Awareness ............................................ ............... 96

4-17. Logit Analysis for Contingency Awareness.................................. ............... 96

4-18. Variables in the Equation in Logit Analysis for Contingency Awareness ..............96

4-19. Mean and S.D for Contingency Awareness .................................. ...............97

4-20. Contingency Effect on Attitude toward the Ads, Brand and PI............................97









4-21. Correlations M atrix in C.C ...................................................... ................... 102

4-22. M odification Indexes in C .C ........................................................................... 103

4-23. Correlations Matrix in Affection Model............................................................104

4-24. M odification Indexes in Affection M odel.............................................................104

4-25. Correlations Matrix in High and Low Involvement Group..................................106

4-26. Modification Indexes in High and Low Invovlement Group ........... .....................106

4-27. Correlations Matrix in Affection Model High and Low Involvement .................107

4-28. Modification Indexes in Affection Model High and Low Involvement ..............107
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

4-1. Em otional Response: Pleasure ............................................................................70

4-2. Em otional Response: Arousal ............................................................................. 70

4-3. Attitude toward the Commercial ............. ............ ............................. 71

4-4. Attitude toward the Advertised Brand ............................................ ............... 71

4-5. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in types of Commercials ...................................84

4-6. Emotional Response: Pleasure in C.C ............................. ... ........................ 87

4-7. Em otional Response: Arousal in C.C ............................. ................................. 88

4-8. A attitude tow ard the Com m ercial in C .C ........................................ .....................88

4-9. Attitude toward the Advertised Brand in C.C .............. ........... .....................89

4-10. Purchase Intent in C .C ..................................................................... .................. 89

4-11. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Classical Conditioning ............................. 102

4-12. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Affection ............................................. 104

4-13. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in High and Low Involvement ......................105

4-14. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Affection Model in Involvement ..............107















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ANIMATED COMMERCIALS' EFFECTS ON LOW-EFFORT ROUTES TO
PERSUASION: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING APPROACH

By

ChangHyun Jin

December 2006

Chair: Jon D. Morris
Cochair: Jorge Villegas
Major Department: Journalism and Communications

The motivation of the study was to examine the effects of animation and its

relationship to human cognitive and affective processes by categorizing the different

types of animation and live action featured in television commercials. This study also

assessed the impact of animation in commercials through a series of classical

conditioning experiments. A 3 (types of commercials (clay, cartoon and real human based

commercials) x 2 (degree of involvement: high versus low) between-subjects factorial

design was employed on dependent variables in the first experiment.

A 2 (experimental vs. control group) x 2 (high versus low involvement with the

product) between subjects factorial design was performed on two different conditions on

linear combinations of all dependent variables in the second experiment. In this

experiment, advertised products have been treated as a conditioned stimulus while the

different types of animation have been treated as potential unconditioned stimuli.









This study significantly contributes to our understanding of the relationship

between animated commercials and human cognitive and affective processing. Animated

commercials can more effectively provide visual demonstrations and recall testimonies

for products. Also implication from this study is that animated ads should take into

account the influence of lower-level peripheral processing routes on viewer persuasion.

This study demonstrated that awareness leads to favorable perception of the ad

about the target attribute and favorable brand attitudes. The experiment in this study re-

examined the degree to which awareness of the CS/US contingency plays a role in

classical conditioning. The result of this study was that awareness is enhanced by

involvement. In addition, involvement influences attitude formation through classical

conditioning procedures with affect and belief formation acting as mediators. The study

demonstrated benefits of the effective animated advertising stimuli. Through evidence for

classical conditioning experiment, it can be provided the opportunity to better understand

how classical conditioning can be used as a framework for affecting attitude toward the

brand. The study confirmed that the classical conditioning method would be more

effectively working under the low level personal relevant involvement toward the stimuli.

Understanding the relationship between animated commercials and how they

stimulates viewers or effect their emotional responses and behavioral expectations,

provides valuable information to practitioners who designs animation ads when they

create effective animated commercials. Animation has become an important design tool

in recent graphic interfaces because they motivate consumer actions and draw viewers'

attention to specific product features.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Animation has become the new creative advertising trend in today's entertainment

industry. As a character-based business, animation can expand the design of

advertisements by applying digital content to different media, such as the Internet, mobile

phone technology, and television. However, little research has been conducted on

animated ad and animated characters as spokespersons that identifies whether or not they

prove more effective at building consumer awareness about a product or service (Bush.,

Hair, & Bush 1983; Callcott & Lee 1994; Van Auken & Lonial 1985). Some research

suggests that animated commercials can effectively provide visual demonstrations and

verbal testimonies for a wide variety of products (Callcott & Lee 1994), while studies on

motion (Detenber & Reeves 1996; Detenber, Simons, & Bennett 1998; Sundar & Sriran

Kalyanaranman 2004) have focused on the relationship between size and speed and

emotional response, as well as explored animated objects on the Internet.

The classical conditioning paradigm (Pavlov, 1927) has been widely applied to

the field of consumer behavior. Many researchers have studied its implications on

consumer behavior, and it has been adopted as a process relevant to advertising (Allen &

Janiszewski 1989; Allen & Madden 1985; Bierley, MacSweeney, & Vannieuwkerk 1985;

Gorn 1982; Janiszewski & Warlop 1993; Nord & Peter 1980; Priluck & Till 1998, 2004;

Rossiter & Percy 1980; Shimp et al. 1991). Classical conditioning suggests that positive

attitudes towards an advertised product (conditioned stimulus) might develop through a

product's association in a commercial with other positive stimuli (unconditioned stimuli).









Attractive colors, pleasant music, and humor are examples of potential unconditioned

stimuli used in commercials (Gorn 1982, p.94). Bierley at al. (1985) reported that

generalization of the conditioned response to other, similar stimuli is typically found in

classical conditioning experiments (p. 317). Thus, a classical conditioning paradigm

could be of use when discussing animated commercials as a new form of stimuli.

Purpose and Design of Study

Given the little previous research on animation, this remains a relatively new

genre in advertising design. This study aims to examine the effects of animation and its

relationship to human cognitive and affective processes by categorizing the different

types of animation featured in television commercials. Furthermore, the motivation of

this paper is to gain a better understanding of how animation and the animated

advertisement influence cognition, affection, and conation responses.

Psychological studies on advertising and emotional responses typically identify

the form and content of advertisements as critical factors in research. The majority of

research on the effects of advertising note that it does influence cognitive and affective

processes, but limited research exists on the cognitive and affective results of animated

ads. In addition, previous research focused primarily on content analysis, and some

studies attempted to examine the effects of animation on consumers. Combining these

focuses would yield a tripartite study on the animated ad and its relationship to consumer

attitudes. This study will begin with a closer look at each of these variables to better

explain this paper's hypothesis regarding the relationship between animated commercials

and how they stimulate viewers or affect their emotional responses and behavioral

expectations.









In this experiment, advertised products (products selected electronic products and

soft drink goods, or different brands of electronic products and domestic goods) have

been treated as conditioned stimuli while the different types of animation have been

treated as potential unconditioned stimuli. This study will assess the impact of animation

in commercials through a series of classical conditioning experiments.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Historical Review of Animation

Theatrical cartoons appeared on television as early as 1930 and animated cartoons

emerged by the early 1940s because of production costs. In this period, animation was

frequently seen on TV as a non-commercial, experiment medium. By that time, producers

were trying to exercise a great deal of creative control on the animated genre (Cohen

1992). By the end of 2004, the world animation market was valued at US $24 million

(NASSCOM 2002 Report).

Roncarelli (2001) estimated the total value of global commercial computer

animation production at $25.4 billion in 1999, and the industry continues to exhibit

relatively strong growth. This growth has occurred in advertising, movies, broadcasting,

design engineering, games, location-based entertainment, and the Internet. Simon (2006)

stressed that "animation offers advertising clients a powerful tool: The opportunity to

showcase a product or service via a detailed virtual tour on the Internet." (p. 25) For

instance, FCB and the production company Perceptual Engineering recently merged live

action and animation in a mental health awareness campaign highlighting the issues

surrounding depression. This blended approach was seen as an effective way of getting

inside people's heads (Simon 2006, p.28).

Animation, which offers entertainment as a form of visual art, has evolved into a

character-based business with the potential to expand its base by offering digital content

to media such as the Internet and mobile phones. In addition, the animation market has









potential benefits, including the production of animated TV shows and movies, video title

sales, and merchandise sales featuring animated characters. The advent of advanced

technology in the 21st century has led to more developed computer graphics that allow

animation to extend into computer games, TV commercials, and blockbuster films.

Originally, animation terminology referred to its medium as a means of creating a

complete re-presentation of reality because animation can create the true nature of what

we are seeing in movies and TV because of its ability to fill the gaps when reality simply

doesn't look real enough. Animation is the process of linking a series of slightly different

drawings together to simulate movement (Wilson 2005). Animation can be recognized as

it means to be produced the world beyond all imagination. Many advertising practitioners

have recognized animation as a new advertising design tool and a form of visual art in the

current entertainment industry. Clay animation referred as the animation of figures

created by plasticine, clay, or other malleable materials (Frierson 1994; Furniss 1998).

And now clay animation very often appears in movies and commercials, as well.

Regarding the current entertainment industry, use of clay animation on movie has been

rapidly increasing. For instance, boxofficemojo.com reported that the movie "Shrek

(2001) and Shrek 2(2004) had grossed over total amount of 1.405.074.876 (i.e., sherk 1

$484,409,218 and Sherk two $920,665,658)."

2.2 Animation and Peripheral Processing Routes

After the creation of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo 1986),

many researchers explored the central and peripheral processes of persuasive

communications. The specific product information provided in advertisements typically

follows a central processing route, since the viewer puts more effort into hearing the









features and benefits of a product. Different types of affective stimuli (e.g., background

music, pleasant visual scenes, characters, and images) in an advertisement follow a

peripheral processing route, as these elements require less cognitive effort on the

viewer's part. Because animated stimuli rely heavily on these more aesthetic factors,

research on animated ads should note the influence of lower-level peripheral processing

routes on viewer persuasion.

Central processing involves comprehending and learning the arguments in a

persuasive message, the generation of cognitive responses while listening to the message,

and the combination or integration of this (and other) information into an attitudinal

judgment. In contrast, peripheral processing focuses on the rewards or punishments

associated with a message and the attractiveness or credibility of the source. The

peripheral route also refers to simple affective mechanisms of attitude change, such as

classical or operant conditioning (Fishbein & Middlestadt 1995, p.255).

A variety of processes are supposed to influence attitudes without the necessity of

comprehensive or analytical thought about the attitude object. These processes also

operate when motivation or the ability to think is lacking. It is possible that the lowest

level of elaborative thinking would correspond to processes that represent "mere

associations" between the attitude object and some other positive or negative cognitive

element. Other relatively low-thought processes involve simple inferences about the

attitude object, but often on the basis of information peripheral to the qualities of the

attitude object (Wegener & Carlston 2005, p.534).

Hoyer and Maclnnis (2001) noted that people tend to view commercials

passively, since the information provided requires less motivation to process. Thus, given









their emphasis on attractive or likable characters and motion, humor, and pleasant music,

it is critical to analyze how animated commercials affect consumer attitudes via

peripheral processing routes. It is also important to apply the classical conditioning

mechanism to studies on animated ads and examine the role of animated stimuli on

consumer-attitude formation.

2.3 Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning has long been employed in the study of consumer behavior

(Bierley, MacSweeney,& Vannieuwkerk 1985; McSweeney & Bierley 1984; Nord &

Peter 1980) and as a means of interpreting the effects of advertising, such as attitude

changes (Janiszewski & Warlop 1993; Priluck & Till 1998, 2004; Rossiter & Percy

1980). Classical conditioning is considered a prime method of persuasion (Petty &

Cacioppo 1996), as considerable research has demonstrated its effectiveness (Allen &

Janiszewski 1989; Allen & Madden 1985; Gorn 1982; Kim, Allen, & Kardes 1996;

Stuart, Shimp, & Engle 1987; Shimp, Stuart, & Engle 1991) as well as its ubiquity in

advertising and promotion (Eagly & Chaiken 1993; Shimp 1991).

In a classical conditioning paradigm (Pavlov 1927), a conditioned stimulus (CS)

and a motivationally significant unconditioned stimulus (US) are paired. As a result of

this pairing, the original CS elicits a response, which is the conditioned response (CR),

that it did not elicit prior to the association with the US. Conditioned responses are

expressions of non-declarative forms of memory. While they can be conscious

themselves, such responses are elicited without consciously accessing any memory

content (Clark & Squire 1998).









In advertising research, classical conditioning is an effective method for

developing favorable attitudes toward a brand that are retained long enough to be

accessible at the time of purchase (Priluck & Till 1998, p.28). The use of favorable

images to condition consumer responses to brand names is established in previous

marketing literature. Speed and Thompson (2000) argued that classical conditioning

research in advertising suggests that the size of the conditioned response will depend on

(a) respondents' attitudes toward the unconditioned stimulus, or the advertisement

(Mitchell & Olsen 1981; Shimp 1981); (b) respondents' prior attitudes toward the

conditioned stimulus, or the brand being advertised (Stuart, Shimp, & Engle 1987); and

(c) respondents' perceptions of congruence between the unconditioned and conditioned

stimulus, or the advertisement and the brand being advertised (Mitchell, Kahn, &

Knasko 1995; Shimp 1991). Hence, the purpose of this study is to generate attitudes

toward brands featured in animated ads through classical conditioning procedures.

Classical conditioning is also a means of influencing consumer attitudes without

invoking much cognitive processing effort. According to Pavlov's study, food acted as an

unconditioned stimulus (US), and the dog's salivation response to the food was the

unconditioned response (UR). A stimulus is considered "unconditioned" because it

automatically elicits an involuntary response. In other words, the dogs could not help but

salivate when they saw the meat powder. In contrast, a conditioned stimulus (CS) does

not automatically elicit an involuntary response alone. Thus, until Pavlov paired the food

with the bell, the bell alone was not capable of making the dogs salivate. Repeatedly

pairing the conditioned stimulus (the bell) with the unconditioned stimulus (the meat

powder) automatically elicited the involuntary unconditioned response (salivation).









However, over time salivation became a conditioned response (CR) to the sounding of

the bell alone. In another illustration of this phenomenon, many cat owners have noticed

that their cats usually come running at the sound of the can opener being used. This

behavior occurs because the noise of the can opener has been repeatedly paired with

regular feedings (Hoyer & MacInnis 2001).

Mitchell and Olsen (1981) also found that the same conditioning effect appears to

determine attitudes when nonverbal information is presented in advertisements. Thus,

advertisements that associate a brand with a nonverbal affective cue transfer the affect to

the brand itself over time. This involves spontaneous communication; syncretic cognition

is altered by changing the affect associated with the product through the use of emotional

cues in the advertisement. Moreover, electronic media may be especially adept at

classical conditioning strategies that produce syncretic cognition, since electronic media

abound in spontaneous nonverbal emotional cues (Chaudhuri & Buck 1995, p. 112).

Positive attitudes toward an ad become associated with the brand itself and

eventually become part of the brand. This result can take place in the total absence of

analytic cognition or beliefs, since product information was kept at a minimal level in the

experiment. Chaudhuri and Buck (1995) argued that classical conditioning strategies in

advertising commonly use spontaneous nonverbal cues, such as music, which generate

syncretic cognition. Some of these spontaneous nonverbal cues, such as music and sound

effects, are available only in electronic media. We suggest that this is a second reason

why, relative to print media, electronic media emphasize syncretic cognition. Moreover,

it has been found that music in television commercials has a distracting effect during

analytic cognitive situations (Park & Young 1986). Therefore, the lack of cues like music









in print media may encourage analytic cognitive responses, at least in comparison to

electronic media (Chaudhuri & Buck 1995, p. 113)

Gorn's (1982) study examined the impact of music in advertising on consumer-

choice behaviors through the application of a classical conditioning model. Classical

conditioning suggests that positive attitudes towards an advertised product (conditioned

stimulus) might develop through the product's association with other stimuli that

consumers relate to positively (unconditioned stimuli). Attractive colors, pleasant music,

and humor act as the potential unconditioned stimuli in commercials (Gorn 1982, p.94).

Previous research on product preferences asserts that the background features

used in commercials were only related to product preferences when minimal product

information was presented. The impact of advertised product information on beliefs and

attitudes would typically be interpreted within an information-processing framework. It is

suggested here that a classical conditioning model could account for the potential impact

of background features on product attitudes. In fact, classical conditioning could explain

the effect of many variables on changes in consumer attitudes. For example, the effect of

communication may be related to a viewer's association of the attitude object with a

positive attitude toward the communicator.

Many have emphasized that such hedonic associative mechanisms seem to work

through the principle of higher-order classical conditioning wherein an unconditioned

stimulus (some component of advertising copy) that elicits an unconditioned response

(positive pleasurable emotions) is repeatedly paired with a conditioned stimulus (the

brand name) until the conditioned stimulus alone elicits the unconditioned response

(favorable emotions toward the brand) (Fishbein & Ajzen 1975; Petty, Cacioppo, &









Schuman 1983; Shimp 1981). In the case of arousal, an emotional appeal might associate

the product with a desired state of vitality and liveliness while avoiding the extremes of

sluggishness or over-stimulation (Holbrook & O'Shaughnessy 1984, p.55).

In marketing, classical conditioning is often mentioned and generally accepted as

a process relevant to advertising (Engel, Blackwell, & Minard 2001). However, little

empirical research exists on whether or not consumer preferences for products can

actually be classically conditioned. In psychology, where classical conditioning has been

investigated more extensively, there is insufficient evidence to support that attitudes can

be classically conditioned (Brewer 1974; Fishbein & Ajzen 1975). In addition, the limited

popularity of classical conditioning may be due to several difficulties associated with

typical conditioning experiments. Shimp (1991) mentioned that effective conditioning

should involve awareness of the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned

stimuli. Studies on classical conditioning are important to discovering the role of

awareness in classical conditioning, and by noting that effective conditioning can occur

through direct affect transfer or through cognitive belief information.

2.4 The Role of Contingency Awareness

Priluck and Till (2004) defined contingency awareness as "the state of the

individual's learning that the conditioned stimulus (CS) precedes the unconditioned

stimulus (US) as he or she is exposed to classical conditioning trials" (p.299). Allen and

Janiszewski (1989) referred to contingency awareness as repeated exposure to a CS/US

combination that results in subjects learning that the presence of a particular US is

contingent upon the presence of a specific CS (p.32).









Until recently, psychologists and consumer researchers have attempted to

investigate the role of contingency awareness. Eagly and Chaiken (1993) argued that

information-based explanations of the effects of classical conditioning procedures on

attitudes were based primarily on the assumption that awareness of the CS/US

contingency was necessary for conditioning effects to occur (p.410). Contingency

awareness could be a consequence of conditioning as well as the product of a deliberate

cognitive process (Eagly & Chaiken 1993, p.410).

Kim et al. (1996) found that awareness leads to positive beliefs about the target

attribute and favorable brand attitudes, suggesting a dual mediation model in which

awareness plays a central role. They suggest that the acquisition of both affect and beliefs

in attitude formation could be fostered by awareness. According to Shimp (1991),

awareness exists when subjects realize that a CS and a US have a temporal relationship in

an experimental sequencing. Many studies on awareness argue that it is a requirement for

effective attitude formation via the conditioning process (Allen & Janiszewski 1989;

Shimp et al.1991). Researchers who study classical conditioning assert that cognitive

factors explain classical conditioning when human subjects are used. These researchers

also investigated whether or not conditioning can occur in humans without awareness.

The experiment in this study examines the degree to which awareness of the CS/US

contingency plays a role in classical conditioning.

2.5 The Influence of Involvement on Awareness

Involvement issues have been studied in consumer behavior fields (Greenwald &

Leavitt 1984; Homer & Kahle 1990; Laczniak, Muehling, & Grossbart 1989;

Zaichkowsky 1985). Macinnis and Park (1991) found that certain executional cues (e.g.,









pictures, source characteristics, music, and message sidedness) may influence central-

route (message based) and peripheral (non-message based) processing of both high-and

low-involvement consumers. Individuals who are highly involved with a stimulus have a

greater tendency to pay attention to the stimulus (Celsi & Olson 1988; Greenwald &

Leavitt 1984; Lord & Burnkrantl993), and higher levels of attention to the stimuli in a

conditioning experiment may result in contingency awareness.

Gorn's (1982) study suggests that individuals who are highly involved with

objects are less likely to respond to music as the unconditioned stimulus than to the

information provided regarding the product. People who are highly involved with objects

are more likely to develop favorable attitudes when exposed to conditioning procedures

in the absence of product information. Gorn also found that involvement alone may or

may not be strong enough to lead to awareness.

Priluck and Till (2004) pointed out that awareness is the central variable through

which attitudes are conditioned, and awareness is enhanced by involvement. In addition,

involvement influences attitude formation through classical conditioning procedures with

affect and belief formation acting as mediators (p.330). In information-processing theory,

motivation and processing ability interact to heighten processing levels (MacInnis &

Jaworski 1989), leading to awareness and positive consumer attitudes. Certain cues

acting as affective stimuli may influence consumers' brand attitudes, thus enhancing

message processing (Petty & Cacioppo 1986).

2.6 ELM and Involvement Issues

In the (ELM) elaboration likelihood model, Petty and Cacioppo (1986) identified

or classified the type of central cognitive processing involved in consumer product









evaluation, that attitude formation or change results from a consumer's careful attempts

to comprehend and evaluate the brand-relevant content of an ad and to integrate this new

information with their prior knowledge into a coherent and reasoned opinion about the

brand. On the other hand, peripheral processing is described as happening when

consumers use peripheral factors, such as their feelings about quality of the ad, the source

of the ad, or their current mood state, as cues to help them decide how they feel about the

advertised brand (Mackenzie & Spreng 1992, p.519).

Some scholars noted that attitudes based on direct behavioral experience have

necessarily evolved from a thoughtful elaboration of self-generated information that is

likely to be clear, involving, and accessible. By contrast, attitudes based on indirect

experience (i.e., information from others) are less likely to have been extensively

elaborated upon and, thus, are probably less clear, involving, or accessible than those

based on direct experience (Mackenzie & Spreng 1992, p.678).

The ELM predicts change in attitude toward an advertised brand where an attitude

refers to a global evaluation of the brand. One is the central route, along which the

consumer changes his attitude on the basis of elaboration on arguments. The other is the

peripheral route, along which the consumer may change their attitude on the basis of a

variety of processes-through, for instance, heuristic inferencing of brand quality from

message elements, through association of message elements with the brand, or through

mere exposure to the brand.

According to Garder (1985), the consumer's processing "set" during exposure to

the advertisement possibly mediates the effects of Aad on brand attitudes. An individual's

motivation and ability to process message information influence express themselves over









neural processing routes, which are the elaboration likelihood model versus peripheral

processing (Cacioppo and Petty 1985; Garder 1985).

In connection with consumer psychology, influencing brand attitudes, peripheral

cues such as attitude toward the ad, source credibility or attractiveness and others may

also influence the degree of central processing (Mackenzie & Spreng 1992, p.519).

According to Mackenzie and Spreng (1992), "when applied to an advertising

context the ELM suggests that, as a consumer's motivation to centrally process brand-

relevant aspects of advertisement increases, the impact of central processing on brand

attitudes should increase, the impact of peripheral processing on brand attitudes should

decrease, and the impact of brand attitudes on purchase intentions should increase."

(p.519)

The term "involvement" has been used to identify the process by which

motivation moderates the link between ad exposure, processing, and the attitude-

formation process (Krugman 1965). Krugman (1965) proposed that television is a low

involvement medium, producing its effects by repetition, as opposed to a high

involvement medium like print, which produces relatively enduring changes in beliefs.

Petty and Cacioppo (1986) termed these effects as peripheral and central routes to

persuasion, respectively. In contrast to Krugman's characterization of television as a low

involvement medium, McLuhan (1964) argued that due to its barrage of visual and

auditory images television is a higher involvement medium than print media. Chaudhuri

& Buck (1995) addressed the question of how these diametrically opposed views of

involvement of television versus print be reconciled.









Batra and Ray (1983) defined involvement as the depth and quality of cognitive

processing, while Mitchell (1979) defined it as an individual level, internal state variable

whose motivational properties are evoked by a particular stimulus or situation. In

addition, Johnson and Eagly (1989) defined involvement as a motivational state induced

by an association between an activated attitude and the self-concept (p. 290). Johnson and

Eagly (1989) went on to classify three different types of involvement, which include

value-relevant, impression-relevant, and outcome-relevant involvement.

First, value-relevant involvement refers to the psychological state created by the

activation of attitudes that are linked to important values (Johnson & Eagly 1989, p. 290).

Impression-relevant involvement characterizes the persuasion settings that make salient

to subjects the self-presentational consequences of their post-message positions (Johnson

& Eagly 1989, p. 292). Finally, outcome-relevant involvement makes salient to message

to recipients the relevance of an issue to their goals or desired outcomes (Johnson &

Eagly 1989, p. 292).

Levin, Nichols, and Johnson (2000) suggest that outcome-relevant involvement

generally leads to relatively objective, unbiased message processing; value-relevant

involvement leads to biased or reduced message processing; and impression-relevant

involvement leads to social information processing. These classifications should help

researchers and practitioners better understand how to motivate the type of processing

that best suits their needs and why persuasion attempts often fail (p. 190).

Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) noted that the higher a person's involvement in

and familiarity with a product and the higher their ability to cognitively differentiate

between the product's features, the higher the recall would be of the









contents/characteristics in the product's advertisement (p. 356). One definition of

involvement identifies it as a psychological/internal state of commitment (Mitchell 1979,

1981) that is activated by a certain stimulus in a given situation (Cohen 1983). If

activation of this internal state is high (possibly caused by a greater degree of attention to

a particular stimulus), then subsequent memory performance and recall should also be

high (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Therefore, high involvement conditions due

to comprehension and elaboration should also lead to a better recall of message

characteristics (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356).

Greenwald and Leavitt (1984) identified four distinct levels of involvement: pre-

attention, focal attention, comprehension, and elaboration. The lowest level, pre-

attention, uses little attentional capacity. This level is akin to hearing an advertisement on

the radio and yielding little to no awareness or interest and absolutely no retention of the

message. As attentional capacity increases and a person engages in more complex

message analyses, the level of involvement increases to focal attention where attends to

superficial message features such as sensory information. The next involvement level is

comprehension, where the message begins to provide a context within which the recipient

can search for relevance. The highest level, elaboration, is analogous to the unique

processing that occurs in encoding self-relevant information.

According to the ELM, people are likely to process information differently

depending on their level of involvement with the message. Attitudes are affected by the

central processing route under high-involvement conditions, or when people make a

cognitive effort to evaluate statements. Attitudes are affected by the peripheral processing

route in low-involvement conditions, as when people have to make a greater effort to









understand the specific elements of a message. It can be postulated that attitudes appear

to be affected by the use of peripheral cues--such as creative or aesthetic elements in an

ad--under low-involvement conditions rather than high-involvement conditions (Petty,

Cacioppo, & Schumann 1983).

Celsi and Olson (1988) suggested that the defining characteristic of product

involvement is the perceived personal relevance that a brand offers consumers. This

relevance is enhanced when consumers link a product's image or attributes to its potential

helpfulness in achieving their own personal goals and serving their personal values.

Taking this link to its logical conclusion, product involvement should be stronger when a

consumer perceives a strong association between the product's image and attributes and

the consumer's own personal goals and values (Celsi & Olson, 1988). Involvement with a

product can also differ within an individual consumer depending upon situational factors.

Celsi and Olson (1988) posit that a consumer's associations with a product are

stored in memory until "activated" by a situation. They suggest that this activation is

highly dependent upon individual situational factors which are highly "experiential and

phenomenological" in nature, but which can serve as a powerful trigger that turns the

latent memory associations into active thoughts. The activation of these personally

relevant thoughts has been called "felt involvement" (Celsi & Olson 1988). Once this

activation occurs, consumers become motivated to act upon their associations with a

product either through cognitive reactions such as attention or comprehension of product

advertising messages, or even overt behaviors, such as searching for, or purchasing, a

product (McGrath & Mahood 2004, p.43).









Recent work by Zaichkowsky (1985, 1986, 1994) has provided researchers with a

tool, known as the Personal Involvement Inventory (PII), to measure and compare

involvement levels for different classes of products. Zaichkowsky's typology was

employed in this study. Studies of product involvement's influence on dependent

measures of advertising effectiveness (i.e., attitudes, recall, etc.) have generally found

that high-involvement products score higher than low-involvement products (Gardner et

al. 1985; Thorson & Page 1988; Hitchon & Thorson 1995). Thorson and Page (1988)

reported that people who are highly involvement with the product have higher scores of

brand recall, a favorable attitude toward the ad, brand and purchase intention.

2.7 Stimuli in FCB Grid Model

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of animation in tripartite

attitudinal dimensions (e.g., cognition, affection, and conation). For this study, emotional

responses will be defined as pleasure, arousal, and dominance, to be defined in section 2-

11-3. This paper assumes that different responses will be elicited under different product

categories, like cognitive and affective product categories, as suggested by the FCB

(Foote, Cone, and Belding) Grid.

Generally, involvement can be defined as an individual's degree of concern,

recognition, or personal relativity to a particular object. Therefore, involvement varies

depending on the individual, as well as a given situation. Ratchford (1987) and Vaughn

(1980, 86) classified products into either high-involvement or low-involvement

categories for the sake of convenience, though involvement standards are not so clearly

divided.









The FCB grid model completed by Vaughn (1980) integrated product

involvement with the thinking and feeling dimensions of consumer theory. In this model,

involvement was regarded as the degree of consumer concern, and the relationship

between consumer activity analysis and product classification was systematized

(Krugman 1965; Ratchford 1987; Weinberger & Spotts 1989). According to the theory of

social judgment by Sheriff (1965), when there is a high degree of involvement, message

receivers broaden the latitude of rejection, which narrows the range of reception. In the

case of low-involvement products, the receiver accepts the broad range of the message

and only rejects inconsistent messages. Thus, this study will assume that people respond

differently to ads that fall under high- and low-product involvement categories as it

examines consumer responses to animated advertising.

Vaughn's (1980, 86) FCB grid captures cognitive and affective responses to

products with its think/feel axis. The grid's other axis represents product involvement.

The FCB grid's four quadrants are informative (think/high involvement), affective

(feel/high involvement), habitual (think/low involvement), and satisfaction (feel/low

involvement). Think is associated with a utilitarian motive and, consequently, with

cognitive information processing, while feel implies ego-gratification, social-acceptance,

sensory-pleasure motives, and attendant affective processing (Ratchford 1987). This

suggests that one would find more objective information in ads for products occupying

the think cells. This expectation was confirmed by Weinberger and Sports (1989).

Ratchford (1987) has provided evidence for the reliability of product classification based

on the FCB grid quadrants (Putrevu & Lord 1994, p.79).











2.8 The Animated Commercial as a New Creative Platform

The animation process results in motion pictures that are created by recording a

series of still images-drawings, objects, or people in various positions of incremental

movement, which when played back no longer appear individually as static but as

combined to produce the illusion of unbroken motion (http://encarta.msn.com;

contributed by Furniss 2006).

Some researchers emphasize that animation is a highly effective design tool for

capturing viewer interest and attention. Animation is usually classified into different

categories (Frierson 1994; Furniss 1998), including CGI (Computer Graphic Image)

animation, clay animation (claymation), cartoon animation, film animation, drawn

animation, pixilation, puppet animation, and silhouette animation. There are thirteen

different types of animated commercials, which fall into several functional categories:

explanation, demonstration, big model, slice of life, fiction, documentary, comparison,

image building, symbol, spectacular, production, commercial, and humor.

The most common type of animation is drawn on cells and is 2-D. It is a

traditional design technique. Advanced technology can create a new style animation. The

three-dimensional animation of clay animation is created. In current entertainment

industry, clay animation and computer generated animation have become the most

popular type of animation in film and television commercials.

Clay animation, computer generated animation, puppet animation are the most

popular animation types in today's animation industry. As explained in Table 2-1, clay

animation employs figures made of plasticine, a material that has an oil base to keep it









flexible. Puppet animation uses three-dimensional figures that are moved incrementally

for each frame of film. Pixilation is animation made by using humans or other live

subjects filmed incrementally in various fixed poses; when the movements are played

back, the subjects move in an unnatural or somewhat surreal way. Due to advanced

pixilation technology, the illusion of motion is created through a succession of computer-

generated still images (http://encarta.msn.com; contributed by Furniss 2006). Cartooning

is referred as a series of drawings made on paper in preparation for and in the same size

as a painting, tapestry, mosaic, or piece of stained glass (http://encarta.msn.com;

contributed by Kunzle 2006). Currently, animated cartoons have become tools to

influence people's opinions on politics and society.

Table 2-1. Types of Animation
Types of Animation Description
Clay animation Animation of figures created of plasticine, clay, or other
malleable materials
Cartoon animation Successful at engaging its audience; even the most bizarre
events are easily comprehended.
Silhouette animation Generally animation in which the animated figures are cut-out
silhouettes of the "actual" figures.
Puppet animation Animation of puppets (or other objects) constructed of wood
and other materials.
Pixilation Used to describe the process of animating live objects (usually
people) by photographing them one frame at a time.
Drawn animation Animation consisting of images drawn on paper or some other
medium; some specialized forms of drawn animation such as
cut-out animation or direct-on-film animation are separately
noted.
Direct-on-film Animation made by painting, etching, or otherwise altering raw
animation film-stock.
Cut-out animation Animation in which the animated figures are paper puppets
with hinged limbs.
CGI animation Animation of computer generated images in which the
animation is created by the manipulation of computer software.

Despite debates about the inadequacies of animation, studies specifically related

to advertising elements like sound, color, and motion note that viewers respond well to









such features. Furthermore, new technologies have expanded and reinvented the concept

of advertising design and animation. While previous studies concentrated on children's

attitudes toward animated commercials and products (Hoy, Young, & Mowen 1986) or

the effectiveness of animated spokespersons (Neeley & Schumann 2004), animated ads

warrant further study because they have become an increasingly popular design genre

that appeals to consumers of all ages.

2.9 The Relationship between Animated Ads and Human Behavior

Brand familiarity is the primary focus in consumer behavior studies. First, a

consumer's familiarity with a product or brand influences such concepts as consumer

adaptation, self-image, compliance, and identification. Similar studies should focus on

the relationships between brand familiarity, consumer confidence in brand evaluations,

consumer attitudes toward brands, and purchase intentions. In terms of brand preference,

brand choice, and consumption, consumers create meaning to strengthen their identities

through brand preferences. The term "match-up hypothesis" defines the fit between a

celebrity and an endorsed product and suggests that different types of endorsers and

celebrities influence consumer attitudes.

A consumer's familiarity with a product or brand influences such concepts as

consumer adaptation, self-image, compliance, and identification. Building on previous

research, Laroche, Kim, and Zhou (1996) examined the relationships among brand

familiarity, consumer confidence in brand evaluations, consumer attitudes toward brands,

and purchase intention. The empirical results from structural equation modeling show

that consumer familiarity with a brand influences confidence in that brand, which in turn









affects intentions to buy the brand. These causal relationships are tested in a multiple-

brand context.

Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) defined familiarity is a variable which

describes the nature of the cognitive structure a person develops toward a product. As

such, familiarity should be viewed as a variable affecting the hypothetical construct of

involvement levels (p.356). Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) also noted that the term

"familiarity" has usually been operationalized in the past as frequency of use (Raju &

Reilly 1979), knowledge about the product class (Lastovika 1979), and previous

experience (Russo & Johnson, 1980). Marks and Olson (1981) argued that familiarity

referred to a cognitive representation of past experiences stored in memory. Furthermore,

the representation is organized in memory as a product-related cognitive structure or

schema (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356).

If an individual receives a persuasive message about a product/ brand for which

the individual has a well-developed memory structure, then that individual will be able to

activate more concepts from memory to use in interpreting the attended stimuli. This may

also mean that the individual might exhibit higher activation potential (Cohen 1981) to

process the external information. On the other hand, an individual unfamiliar with a

product will have less-developed memory structures of the external stimuli with a fewer

number of existing cues in memory, resulting in a less-elaborate encoding, and thus with

poorer recall of the product and message features (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356).

When an individual is familiar with an object and thus has a higher developed

memory structure about it, he/she is more likely to have a greater involvement with the

stimulus object. If involvement is a psychological and internal state whose activation is









triggered by a particular stimulus, then the more an individual knows, the higher his/her

involvement (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356). Zajonc and Markus (1982) suggest

this phenomenon demonstrates that some preferences are caused by affective factors

without the participation of cognitive processes.

Affective factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of

preference. Preferences are primarily based on behavioral phenomena. A preference for

X over Y is a tendency of the organism to approach X more often and more vigorously

than they approach Y (Zajonc & Markus 1982, p.123). A preference for an object can be

radically changed with experience while its properties remain constant (Zajonc & Markus

1982, p. 124). Zajonc and Markus (1982) asserted that under some circumstances

affective responses, including preference judgments, may be fairly independent of

cognition (p.125). Advertisements are typically viewed as intervening variables that

mediate the effects of message content on brand preferences, buying intentions, or

purchases (Holbrook & O'Shaughnessy 1984, p.48).

The term "preference" links consumer convictions, values, awareness, and

intentions. Questions of personal identity and collective identity are ranked highly on the

agenda of today's postindustrial societies (Giddens 1991). Through brand preference,

choice, and consumption, consumers create meaning and try to define or strengthen their

identities (Belk 1988; Bhattacharya, & Sen 2003; Elliott & Wattanasuwan 1998; Foumier

1998; McCracken 1986). Zajonc and Markus (1982) suggest this phenomenon

demonstrates that some preferences are caused by affective factors without the

participation of cognitive processes.









For the terms of fittingness, Till and Busier (2000) identify the origin of the

match-up hypothesis in advertising research which examines the differential impact that

different types of endorsers (often celebrities) have on an endorsed brand. Early research

found that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements varies by product (Friedman &

Friedman, 1979). A study by Kanungo and Pang (1973) paired male and female models

(non-celebrities) with different types of products and found that the effect of the models

varied depending on the product each model endorsed. Kanungo and Pang (1973)

explained their findings in terms of the fittingnesss" of the model for the product. The fit

between the celebrity and the product was defined by the term "match-up hypothesis"

(Kahle & Homer, 1985; Kamins, 1990; Lynch & Schuler, 1994; Solomon, Ashmore, &

Longo, 1992). Though beauty is functional and accessible, it also gives consumers a

sense of fittingness, belonging, and familiarity that can be extended to brand names.

2.10 The Effect of Motion on Consumer Behavior

Animation has become an important design tool in recent graphic interfaces

because it motivates consumer actions and draws viewer attention to specific product

features. As Lee, Kippel, and Tappe (2003) have noted:

Motion can be an effective tool to focus users' attention and to support the parsing of
complex information in graphical user interfaces. Despite the ubiquitous use of
motion in animated displays, its effectiveness has been marginal at best. The
ineffectiveness of many animated displays may be due to a mismatch between the
attributes of motion and the nature of the task at hand (p.12).


With the development of new digital devices and more sophisticated computer

software, animation is becoming more common in television commercials and banner

ads. Although the effectiveness of animated commercials has been doubted by many









researchers (Lee, Klippel, & Tappe 2003; Tversky, Morrison, & Betrancourt 2002),

animations can motivate consumer action and increase brand recognition and recall. The

animated genre will also appeal more to our increasingly visual culture. Empirical studies

on motion in advertisements have explored its psychological effects (Detenber,

Benjamin, Simons, & Bennett 1998), stressing that motion could influence human

cognitive processing and increase viewer attention to ads (Kipper, 1986; Reeves et al.,

1985).

2.11 Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions: Cognition, Affection, and Conation

2.11.1 Cognition: Belief and Knowledge

The goal of this paper is to examine the role of animation in tripartite attitudinal

dimensions (e.g., cognition, affection, and conation). Many scholars (Breckler 1984; Katz

& Stotland 1959; Krech & Crutchfield 1948; Ray et al. 1973) have summarized previous

hierarchical models and the tripartite attitudinal dimensions common to each: a) a

cognitive component (attention, awareness, comprehension, beliefs and opinions, and

learning); b) an affective component (evaluation, attitude, feeling, conviction, and

yielding); and c) a conative component (intention, behavior, and action). The cognitive

component is defined as consumer knowledge and beliefs.

Fishbein (1963) noted that the cognitive component refers to beliefs about the

nature of the object and its relation to other objects, while the action component refers to

beliefs about what should be done with respect to the object (p.259). Fishbein and Raven

demonstrated that valid and reliable measures of belief could be obtained by having the

subject judge the concept on a series of bipolar probabilistic scales (e.g., probable-

improbable, likely-unlikely, possible-impossible, etc.). It is this definition of belief- the









position of the object or concept on the probability dimension-that will be used

throughout this paper. Both the cognitive and action components of attitude can be

viewed as beliefs about the object. Belief refers to the component parts of the object and

the characteristics, qualities, or attributes of the object and the object's relation with other

objects or concepts (p.258). As Fishbein and Ajzen (1972, 1975) pointed out, the term

"attitude" has generally been used to refer to beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior.

Behavior is determined by intentions, intentions are determined by attitudes (toward

behavior) and subjective norms, and attitudes are determined by beliefs and their

evaluative aspects.

Buck (1988) defines cognition simply as knowledge: "a more or less complex and

organized internal representation of reality, acquired by means of the individual's

cognitive skills and through experience with reality" (p. 6). Knowledge by acquaintance

is always syncretic, or a holistic synthesis of information. In contrast, analytic cognition

consists of knowledge by description, which results from the interpretation of sensory

data and involves judgments about phenomena (Chaudhuri & Buck 1995, p. 110).

Consumer beliefs can reflect subjective experiences as well as specific events or

situations (Wyer & Albarracin 2005). Eagly and Chaiken (1993) defined beliefs as the

associations or links that people establish between the attitude object and various

attributes (p.103). Therefore, the terms of consumer beliefs can be predicted by applying

the laws of objective probability (Wyer & Albarracin 2005).

The affective component is typically labeled as pleasure, arousal, and dominance,

while the conative, or behavioral component, is a predisposition toward action (Traindis,

1971), intentions, and behavioral expectations. The behavioral component is thought to









result from the attitudinal and affective components and is an action intending to harm or

benefit others, either verbally or physically.

2.11.2 Affection

The direction of the behavioral flow between cognition and emotion goes both

ways. Although emotion is always a response to meaning, it can also influence

subsequent thoughts and emotions. Cognition, which is causal, also continues into the

response state, an idea that is disturbing to those who follow the Aristotelian dictum that

a concept, A (e.g., an appraisal), cannot also be B (part of an emotion) (Lazarus 1991,

p.824). Affect is clearly one component of attitude and a force in persuasion. The

affective component influences feelings or emotions toward an object. Emotion is a

reaction to meaning, and if the meaning is changed there will also be a change in the

subsequent emotion (Lazarus 1991, p.830). Holbrook (1978) contrasts two different

types of meaning as "logical, objectively verifiable descriptions of tangible product

features" versus "emotional, subjective impressions of intangible aspects of the product"

(p.547). Both types of meaning are contained in virtually any communication; only their

relative balance varies. This balance may be assessed by content analysis as one basis for

predicting or explaining advertising effects (Holbrook 1977). Emotional appeals aimed at

establishing positive feelings of dominance appear to be closely aligned with the

intrinsically motivating nature of effectance or competence (White 1959). The attendant

feelings of mastery and self-fulfillment are viewed as autotelic, or desirable for their own

sake (Holbrook & O'Shaughnessy 1984, p.55).

Detenber, Simons, and Bennett (1998) adopt a three-dimensional view of emotion

(Lang 1995; Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum 1957; Russell & Mehrabian 1977) popularly









cited as arousal, hedonic valence, and dominance. Typically, emotion research

characterizes the valence dimension as a continuous range of affective response

extending from pleasant or positive valence at one pole, to unpleasant or negative valence

at the other. The autonomic arousal dimension is characterized by a continuous response

ranging from energized, excited, and alert to calm, drowsy, or peaceful. These two

dimensions, valence and arousal, account for most of the explained variance in emotional

responses as researched by Greenwald, Cook, and Lang (1989). Their study was designed

to explore the relationship between image motion and emotional responses to pictures.

Specifically, the study focused on whether or not image motion had a positive effect on

emotional arousal as indexed by self-reports.

According to Plutchik (1980), eight primary emotions can provide a better

understanding of many aspects of behavior. For example, primary emotions are relevant

to both biological survival behaviors and social adaptations, and equally influence

animals, humans, children, adults, sane, and disturbed individuals. These emotions are

found (in some form) at all evolutionary levels and have direct relationships to other

facets of an individual's psychology, including personality, Freudian ego, defense

mechanisms, and clinical symptoms. According to Plutchik (1980), emotion is a

functional system that has survival value for the individual and for the species. Emotions

are at the center of life, guiding behavior in a way that has functional value.

Feelings are not treated as antecedent states as they have been in many of the

extant models of advertising effects (Gardner 1985). Edell and Burke's (1989) study

asserted that "if feelings are activated by nonverbal elements of the ad, they are generated

by the ad itself and can occur very quickly. Most models of advertising effects have kept









the cognitive system of processing advertising separate from the affective system,"

(p.431).

Emotions can play a fundamental role in the purchase or consumption of an entire

product category if the product plays an emotional role in the consumer's life. An

emotional tone can draw attention to a message, make it memorable, or illustrate the

benefit in action. Extensive and appropriate theme-advertising appears to imbue some

brands with a subjective vividness, or authenticity that objectively comparable

competitors lack. The brand name is consistently presented in conjunction with the

evocation of an emotion and, in time, comes to evoke the emotion itself (Zeitlin &

Westwood 1986, p.34)

2.11.3 AdSAM: A Pictorial Nonverbal Measure

AdSAM was used in this study in order to measure affective response. The

measure consists of a graphic character arrayed along three different PDA scales: a)

pleasure (measures the positive/negative aspect of the feeling), b) arousal (measures the

level of intensity or involvement in the feeling), and c) dominance (measures the degree

of empowerment the respondent feels).

Many traditional methodologies focused on measuring the rational component of

consumer response. In contrast, AdSAM is usually used to measure emotional

responses to a variety of stimuli, including product concepts, advertising (concept and/or

finished ad), product attributes, product benefits, brands, logos, tag lines, packaging,

music, etc. (Morris 1995, p.63).

The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang 1984) and the attitudinal Self-

Assessment ADSAM (Morris and Kim 2005) consist of a graphic character used to









represent the three dimensions of PAD. AdSAM depicts each PAD dimension with a

graphic character arrayed along a continuous nine-point scale. The first row of figures is

the pleasure scale, ranging from pleasant to unpleasant. The second row is the arousal

scale ranging from controlled to controlling. SAM visually represents Mehrabian and

Russell's three PAD dimensions and was designed as an alternative to cumbersome

verbal self-report measures (Lang 1980). AdSAM is a version of SAM used in

marketing consumer studies (Morris 1995).

Initially, SAM was compared to PAD by using the catalog of situations employed

by Mehrabian and Russell (1974) to standardize the PAD dimensions. The results

indicated that SAM "generated a similar pattern of scale values for these situations as was

obtained for the semantic differential (pleasure +.937, Arousal +.938, and Dominance

+,.660)" (Lang 1980, p.123). SAM presents a promising solution to the problems

associated with measuring emotional responses to advertising (Morris & Waine 1993,

p. 177).

An illustrative typology of emotional content is based on combining the

positive/negative bipolarity with the three dimensions found in Mehrabian and Russell's

(1974, 1980) research on the PAD (pleasure, arousal, dominance) framework with

parallels in Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum's (1975) studies on the semantic differential

(evaluation, activity, potency) (Holbrook & O'Shaughnessy 1984, p.53).

2.11.4 Conation: Intentions and Behavioral Expectations

Conation response is defined as behavioral intent, such as consumer actions. The

semantic differential is used to measure conation response. Cognition refers to the

process of coming to know and understand; the process of encoding, storing, processing,









and retrieving information. It is generally associated with the question of "what" (e.g.,

"what happened," "what is going on now," "what is the meaning of that information").

Conation refers to the connection of knowledge and affect to behavior and is associated

with the issue of "why." It is the personal, intentional, deliberate, goal-oriented, or

striving component of motivation; the proactive (as opposed to reactive or habitual)

aspect of behavior (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice 1998). It is closely

associated with the concept of volition, defined as the use of will, or the freedom to make

choices about what to do (Kane, 1985; Mischel 1996). It is absolutely critical if an

individual is successfully engaged in self-direction and self-regulation.

Bagozzi (1992) proposes that conation is necessary to explain how knowledge

and emotion are translated into behavior in human beings. He suggests that one reason

why researchers in the areas of cognition and attitudes have not demonstrated a strong

ability to predict behavior is because the construct of conation has been omitted. At the

beginning of modern psychology, both emotion and conation were considered central to

its study; however, interest in these topics declined as overt behavior and cognition

received more attention (Amsel 1992; Ford 1987). While goals associated with these

latter paradigms are deeply enmeshed in our schools today (e.g., basic skills, critical

thinking), Barell (1995) proposes that helping students develop the conative attitudes and

skills associated with self-direction and personal efficacy is one of the most critical tasks

presently facing parents and educators.

2.12 Summary and Hypotheses

Two experiments were conducted in this study. The first experiment was to

assess the impact of animation in commercials through a series of classical conditioning









experiments. A 3 (types of commercials (clay, cartoon and live action formatted

commercials) x 2 (degree of involvement: high versus low) between-subjects factorial

design was employed on dependent variables in the first experiment. Experiment 1 tests

the hypotheses that animated commercials can better yield cognitive and affective results

as compared to live-action formatted commercial, and that animated advertisements

positively drive viewers to cognition, affection, and conation responses in low product

involvement.

In the second experiment, a 2 (conditioning experimental vs. control group) x 2

(high versus low involvement with the product) between subjects factorial design was

performed on two different conditions on linear combinations of all dependent variables

in the second experiment. The traditional classical conditioning paradigm suggests that

positive attitudes toward an advertised product (CS) might develop through its

association in a commercial with other stimuli that are reacted to positively (US).

Therefore, Experiment 2 anticipates that animation (US) in commercials can led to

attitudes toward the animated commercial, advertised brands, and increased purchase

behavior.

2.12.1 Experiment 1

Hoy, Young, and Mowen (1986) reported that subjects exposed to an animated

host-selling commercial had a greater positive attitude change toward the advertised

product than the subject who viewed a non-host-selling commercial. This result could be

attributed to the introduction of animated commercials, which may be closely associated

with viewer affection and product recognition. Rossiter and Percy (1980) and Gorn

(1982) emphasize that attractively designed ads affect consumer attitudes about









consequence through visual demonstrations and verbal testimonies. Neeley and

Schumann (2004) found that animated characters affect the subject's attention to an ad's

character and product recognition, and can instill positive attitudes toward the product.

However, they did find that the relation between animated spokespersons, intention, and

product choice is uncertain. Given the previous literature related to the use of animated

stimuli in advertisement, it can be said that animated stimuli can instill positive attitudes

toward the product. However, the studies comparing animated commercials to live-action

commercial were limited.

Mitchell (1979) defined involvement as an individual experience whose

motivational properties are evoked by a particular stimulus or situation. The degree of

involvement could affect to consumer attitude formation when they are exposited to any

kind of ad components in commercials. According to the ELM, people have high

motivation to process advertising messages with high personal relevance, and high

product category involvement. In high product involvement, people are more likely to

make a cognitive effort to evaluate the product.

Attitude formation or change results from a consumer's careful attempts to

comprehend and evaluate the brand-relevant content of an ad. And then the consumers

are likely to integrate this new information with their prior knowledge into a coherent and

reasoned opinion about the brand (Mackenzie and Spreng 1992, p.519). That is,

consumers' attitudes are based on a careful and effortful analysis of the true merits or

central issues contained within the message (Hoyer Maclnnis 2001, p. 133). When

consumers are highly involved with the product, they are trying to seek the more

information in order to evaluate the commercial. According to source credibility theory,









people are less likely to anticipate what will be said and hence are less likely to take steps

to avoid information inconsistent with their own frames of reference. Information

received from a real life source may also seem like story-telling, which somehow makes

it more real. This factor in turn may make the information more persuasive (Hoyer

MacInnis 2001, p.390). Given that people are more likely to make a cognitive effort to

evaluate the product in high product involvement situations, it can be logically posited

that perception of reality is also salient. Thus, live action commercial would be a more

effective and credible source when consumers form their attitude as compared to using

animation as the persuasion tool.

Clay animation is made by using three-dimension technique such as stop motion

capture whereas cartoon animation is produced by using the traditional two-dimension

technique (Frierson 1994; Furniss 1998). It can be assumed that clay animated

commercials has more evocable character and image than those of cartoon animated

commercials. Thus, subjects who are highly involved with the product may be more

likely to pay attention to clay animation in advertising because clay animation contains

motion and a more powerful visual image than cartoon animation based advertising. The

above findings led to the following hypotheses:

HI: All other things being equal, when subjects who are highly involved with a product

H1-1) are exposed to live action formatted commercial they will exhibit: a) higher
levels of pleasure; b) higher levels of arousal; c) more favorable attitudes toward
the ad; d) more favorable attitudes toward brand; and e) higher purchase intention
than those subjects exposed to clay and cartoon commercials.
H1-2) are exposed to clay animated commercial, subjects will exhibit; a) higher
levels of pleasure; and b) higher levels of arousal; c) more favorable ad attitudes;









d) more favorable brand attitudes; and e) higher purchase intention than those
exposed to cartoon commercial.

As reviewed in the previous literature, animated characters and motion in

commercials may influence viewer attention to the advertisement as well as change

consumer attitudes toward the advertised brand. Phillips and Lee (2005) suggest that

animation on the Web increases character-linking and perceived entertainment levels. In

light of the previous research on animation, Web advertising could provide information

on the development of effective advertising tools. Animated ads can increase positive

affection and consumer attitudes toward both ad and brand. Animated commercials are

also closely related to advertising recall and a high arousal levels. Many researchers

assert that animation can motivate consumers to action and increase brand recognition

and recall (Lee, Klippel, & Tappe 2003; Tversky, Morrison, & Betrancourt 2002).

Detenber, Simons, and Bennett's study (1998) stressed that motion in advertisements

could affect human cognitive processing and is closely related to human emotion. Image

motion in advertising could be affected to some kinds of emotion such as arousal and

pleasure. Also image motion can be evoked consumer arousal. Other research reported

that motion in ads can increase the subject's attention level (Reeves et al. 1985; Kipper

1986).

Zaichkowsky (1985) argued that involvement studies on consumer behavior

generally used the resulting behavior as indicators of involvement level. She also argued

that it is important to accurately measure the differences between personal associations

with ads, brand purchase intentions, and consumer decision making. Maclnnis and Park

(1991) examined the impact of two dimensions of music-its fit within the advertised









message and its ties to past emotion-laden experiences (indexicality)-on low- and high-

involvement in consumer ad processing. They found that personal, relevant involvement

could be influenced by the advertisement's executional cues such as music, source

characteristics, and message sidedness. Such executional cues create, affect, or stimulate

inferences that generate the basis for low-involvement consumer brand attitudes, whereas

high-involvement consumers are thought to ignore such peripheral cues in forming brand

attitudes, focusing instead on the advertised message and their reaction to it (MacInnis &

Park 1991; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann 1983). Regarding the literature-related

involvement, the degree of involvement could affect to subjects' perception of animated

commercials.

According to the ELM, people modestly involved with the product have low

motivation to process advertising component due to low personal relevance and low need

for cognition (Cho 1999). Also, affective stimuli (e.g., background music, pleasant visual

scenes, characters, and images) in an advertisement follow a peripheral processing route,

as these elements require less cognitive effort on the viewer's part. The advanced

technology and development of human resource allow clay animation to have more

evocable character and image than those of cartoon animation. Clay animation in

advertising is associated with the influence of lower-level peripheral processing routes on

viewer persuasion because animated stimuli heavily rely on viewer aesthetic factors.

Thus, the following hypotheses are logical extension of these findings:

H2: All other things being equal, when subjects who are low involved with a product

H2-1) are exposed to clay animated commercial, the subjects will exhibit; a)
higher levels of pleasure; b) higher levels of arousal; c) favorable animated









commercial attitudes; d) favorable brand attitudes; and e) higher purchase
intentions than those exposed to live action formatted commercial.
H2-2) are exposed to clay animated commercial, the subjects will exhibit a)
higher levels of pleasure, b) higher levels of arousal, c) more favorable animated
attitudes, d) more favorable brand attitudes, and e) higher purchase intentions than
those exposed to cartoon commercial.

Zinkhan and Muderrisoglu (1985) noted that the higher a person's involvement in

and familiarity with a product and the higher their ability to cognitively differentiate

between the product's features, the higher the recall of the contents/characteristics in the

product's advertisement (p. 356). If activation of this internal state is high (possibly

caused by a greater degree of attention to a particular stimulus), then subsequent memory

performance and recall should also be high (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985, p.356).

Therefore, high involvement conditions due to comprehension and elaboration should

also lead to a better recall of message characteristics (Zinkhan & Muderrisoglu 1985,

p.356).

Thorson and Page (1988) found that commercials for brands with high product

involvement generated significantly higher scores for the dependent measures of brand

name recall, brand attitudes, attitudes toward the ad, attitudes toward purchasing, and

purchase intentions (McGrath & Mahood 2004, p.43). Individuals who are highly

involved with a stimulus have a greater tendency to pay attention to the stimulus (Celsi &

Olson 1988), so the higher levels of attention to the stimuli in this experiment may result

in ad recall. In addition, Gorn's (1982) study suggests that individuals who are highly

involved with objects are less likely to respond to music as affective stimuli than to the

information provided regarding the product.









Therefore, it can be postulated that the higher the individual's attention to

animated stimuli, the higher the ad recall of the contents and components in the

commercials. Clay animation ads are produced by incorporating visualization and

appropriate motion in commercials. Using image motion in commercials could increase

viewer attention to commercials due to the fact that clay animations are produced by

using a style of image motion and movement based reality.

Given the literature related to animation stimuli with aesthetic factors, people who

are exposed to clay animated commercial are more likely to experience a higher ad recall

than to live action and cartoon commercials. This theoretical linkage postulates the

following hypothesis:

H3: All other things being equal, regardless of product involvement, when
subjects are exposed to clay animated commercial, the subjects will exhibit
increased ad recall than those exposed to cartoon based and live action formatted
commercials.


In the hypothesis 4 it is assumed that the role of product involvement could act as

moderator of the effects of types of commercials on consumer responses. As reported in

literature related to the role of involvement on consume behavior, the degree of

involvement with the product is highly correlated with dependent variables such attitude

toward the ad, brand and purchase behavior. Therefore, the following hypothesis is

posited:

H4: There is a two-way interaction between three different types of commercials
and degree of involvement will exist on; a) pleasure; b) arousal; c) attitude toward
the animated commercial; d) attitude toward the brand; and e) purchase intention
respectively.









2.12.2 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in Advertising

Many consumer behavior models were developed following the introduction of

Lavidge and Steiner's (1961) Hierarchy of Effects model. This model posited a

sequential hierarchy of events in which consumer purchase behaviors occurred, including

awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, and conviction (Vaughn 1979, p.28). In

addition, Lavidge and Steiner (1961) asserted that cognition includes awareness and

knowledge, affect includes liking and preferences, and conation includes conviction and

purchase. Holbrook and Batra (1987) pointed out that cognition has generally been

viewed as a system of beliefs structured into some kind of semantic network, that

behavior has typically been regarded as synonymous with buying responses, and that

affect has been treated as a unidimensional bipolar continuum (p.405).

As summarized in his historical tripartite classification, Krugman's model (i.e.,

cognition-affection-conation) could be used in low-involvement situations (1965). Zajonc

and Markus model (e.g., affect-conation-cognition sequence, 1982) suggested that

preferences do not require a cognitive basis, but instead are mainly based on affect. Ray

et al.'s sequence (i.e., conation-affect-cognition, 1973) explained that consumer purchase

behaviors are followed by attitude formation to reinforce consumer choices, and finally

selective learning to further support purchase decisions (Yoo et al. 2004).

Vaughn (1979) explained the tripartite classification (Feeling-Lear-Do) by

dividing economic, responsive, psychological, and social elements into the FCB model.

Vaughn focused on four consumer types: a) the rational consumer who follows the

economic model by consciously considering functional cost-utility information in

purchase decisions; b) the habitual consumer who follows the responsive model by









thoughtlessly buying through rote, stimulus-response learning; c) the unpredictable

consumer who follows the psychological model by compulsive buying under the

influence of unconscious and indirect emotions; and d) the compliant consumer who

follows the social model by continually adjusting purchases to satisfy cultural and group

needs for the sake of conformity (p.28).

Thus, the tripartite attitudinal dimensions can be applied to three different types of

commercials. Furthermore, this model would provide a better understanding of consumer

purchase behaviors when consumers are exposed to three different types of commercial

stimuli. Therefore, this study will first seek an answer to the following research question:

RQ1) Will different values for the Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions model be
found in the three different types of commercials?
In the second experiment, animation as stimuli could be extended to examining

the classical conditioning mechanism because animation is considered as affective stimuli

in that it can generate a positive affective attitude in the consumer.

2.12.3 Experiment 2

The impact of product information in commercials on beliefs and attitudes would

typically be interpreted within an information processing framework. It is suggested here

that a classical conditioning framework could account for the potential impact of

background features, such as animation, on product attitudes.

Shapiro and Maclnnis (1992) identify that classical conditioning involves

exposing subjects to a positive or negative stimulus paired with a US such as music

(Gorn 1992), a drama series (Allen & Madden 1985), or visual imagery (Rossiter &

Percy 1980; Stuart et al. 1987), along with a neutral paired with a stimulus (e.g., the ad or

brand). Classical conditioning asserts that a stimulus paired with a positive or negative









conditioned stimulus (CS) such as the ad and brand could generate positive or negative

affective responses toward the CS.

Gorn (1982) suggests that the simplest association between CS (e.g., product) and

US (e.g., music) will affect product preferences as measured by product choices. He also

suggests that the background features of commercials positively affect consumer product

choices. Applying the previous literature and stimulus to present studies on the animation

advertising genre is important to our understanding of advertising's effect on consumers.

Animation as stimuli could be extended to examining the classical conditioning

mechanism because animation is like other design tools, such as music and visual

imagery, in that it can generate a positive affective attitude in the consumer. Furthermore,

the created positive affection could be associated with the advertised product through

classical conditioning. Brewer (1974) posited that classical conditioning is the repeated

pairing of a CS with a US, causing the CS to elicit a CR in an unconscious automatic

fashion. Gorn (1982) suggested that the communication effect may be due to some extent

to the association of the attitude object with positive emotions attached to the

communicator. This study focuses on animated commercials as stimuli in classical

conditioning mechanisms by establishing its place in the ongoing debate over the

affective and cognitive processes.

Hoyer and MacInnis (2001) observed that motivation is influenced by the extent

to which the ad, brand, product category, or other characteristic is personally relevant to

consumers. Thus, a key factor affecting motivation is the extent to which something is

personally relevant, or has direct implications and significance in one's life (p.60).

Involvement with an advertised message has a considerable impact on how brand









attitudes are formed or changed (Laczniak, Muehling, & Grossbart 1989, p.28). Personal

relevance involvement is a mechanism used to explain and predict consumer's behavior

because involvement plays an important role in advertising processing. Thus, the

literature reported above led to the following hypotheses:

H5: When all subjects are exposed to a classical conditioning procedure in which
a target brand (CS) is systematically paired with an animated stimulus (US);
subjects with high product involvement will exhibit; a) higher levels of pleasure
and b) arousal; c) more favorable attitudes toward the ad and d) target brand, and
e) higher purchase intention in conditioning experimental group than in the
control group. In addition, subjects with low product involvement will exhibit; f)
higher levels of pleasure and g) arousal; h) more favorable attitudes toward the ad
and i) target brand, and j) higher purchase intention in conditioning experimental
group compared to the control group.

Kim et al. (1998) argued that the selected US provoked positive affects while

communication resulted in no product beliefs. Since a conditioning effect can be directly

transferred in the absence of product beliefs, the subsequent selection of the US allows

one to infer that the resultant conditioning effect is due exclusively to direct affect

transfer.

Gorn, Goldberg, and Basu (1993) found that under high-source awareness there

was no difference in speaker evaluations between subjects in a good mood and those in a

bad mood. A study on subjects in good or bad moods suggested that it was only the

former who were able to correct for the bias in their evaluations when made more aware

of the source of their mood. Gorn, Jacobs, and Mana (1987) emphasize that the role of

awareness in conditioning is the critical issue in classical conditioning mechanisms.

Given psychological and consumer behavior literature, Pavlovian conditioning can affect









the behavior of adult humans without their awareness of any experimental hypothesis,

without their awareness of the relationship between the conditional and the unconditioned

stimuli, and without their cooperation (Gorn, Jacobs, & Manal987, p.415).

Contingency awareness exists when experimental subjects knows that the CS and

US have been related temporally in an experiment's sequencing (Shimp 1991, p. 160).

Allen and Janiszewski's (1989) study reported that subjects were identified as exhibiting

contingency awareness when they knew that certain Norwegian words (US) were more

likely than others to be followed by positive feedback (US). Shimp (1991) argued that

contingency awareness may be necessary for a conditioned effect to materialize (p. 160).

Another study argued that high levels of contingency awareness play a role in attitude

formation and classical conditioning (Stuart et al. 1987). Therefore, the role of awareness

in classical conditioning is examined here by using animation as the stimuli-as explained

in the following hypotheses.

H6: Subjects with high product involvement will exhibit an increased likelihood
of recognizing the contingency than subjects in a control group. This mean that
those who are exposed to a classical conditioning procedure in which a target
brand (CS) is systematically paired with an affective animation stimulus (US)
have a greater perception of contingency awareness than subjects in a control
group.
H6-1: Contingency awareness will mediate the relationship between classical
conditioning procedures and attitudes toward the ad, target brand (CS), and
purchase intention.
H7: In the animation stimulus, subjects exposed to the target brand (CS) paired
with the animation stimulus (US), and who are aware of the contingency
relationship between the target brand (CS) and animation stimulus (US) will
develop more favorable attitudes toward the target brand than subjects who are
unaware of the contingency relationship.









2.12.4 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in Advertising

After introduction of the Lavidge and Steiner's (1961) Hierarchy of effects model,

many consumer behavior models have been developed until now. The model assumed

that consumer purchase behavior of a product occurred via a sequential hierarchy of

events from awareness through knowledge, liking, preference, and conviction (Vaughn

1979, p.28). In addition, Lavidge and Steiner (1961) mentioned that cognition includes

awareness and knowledge, affect includes liking and preferences and conation includes

conviction and purchase. This model suggested that advertising researchers have

developed different hierarchical models for various consumer decision making situations,

but agree hierarchy of effects model (Yoo et al. 2004). Holbrook and Batra (1987)

pointed that cognition has generally been viewed as a system of beliefs structured into

some kind of semantic network as well as behavior has usually been regarded as

synonymous with buying responses. Finally, affect has typically been treated as a

unidimentional bipolar continuum (p.405).

Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) the three -component view of attitude classified as

cognitive (e.g., perceptual responses and verbal statement of belief), affective (e.g.,

sympathetic nervous responses and verbal statements of affect), and behavioral or

conative (e.g., overt actions and verbal statements concerning behavior) (p.20).

Ray et al (1973) summarize previous hierarchical models by suggesting that three

components are common to each: a cognitive component (attention, awareness,

comprehension, and learning), an affective component (evaluation, attitude, feeling,

conviction, and yeilding) and a conative component (intention, behavior, action).









Baker and Churchill (1977) have categorized attitudes toward advertising into

three parts: a) the cognitive component, which consists of the knowledge or belief an

individual has toward the object; b) the affective component, which consists of the

feeling an individual has toward the object; and c) the conative component, which

includes the action or the inclination of a possible action the individual has toward the

object.

Generally, the cognitive component in the hierarchy of communication effects

includes knowledge about individual features or attributes and their respective weights

(or value) in addition to a brand name as well as the presence of an imagery-based

prototype or an exemplar along with brand name knowledge. Affect has typically been

assumed to be stable and strong enough to influence the behavioral intention which

carries a commitment on the part of the attitude holder (Park & Mittal 1985, p.220).

Affect, which is generated from aspects of the reference object such as an attractive

model, a jingle in the commercial, or a product package, would then be attached to the

brand name through a classical conditioning approach (Park & Mittal 1985, p.221).

Hilgard (1980) mentioned that the persistence with which cognition, affection,

and conation were recognized as major classifications of mental events suggests that

there may be a natural utility to the classificatory scheme (p. 115-116). He also noted that

hot cognition refers to thoughts and decisions that have high affective or conative

importance to the person (p. 115). There are three absolutely irreducible faculties of the

mind, namely knowledge, feeling, and desire (cited in Hilgard 1980, p. 109).

Vaughn (1979) was trying to explain the tripartite classification (Feeling-Learn-

Do) in dividing economic, responsive, psychological and social in FCB model. His point









of view was focused on four consumer types, first, a rational consumer who consciously

considers functional cost-utility information in a purchase decision in economic model. A

habitual consumer conditioned to thoughtlessly buy through rote stimulus-response

learning could be defined in responsive model. An unpredictable consumer who buys

compulsively under the influence of unconscious through and indirect emotions could be

defined in psychological model. A compliant consumer who continually adjusts

purchases to satisfy cultural and group needs for conformity could be defined in social

model (p.28).

The several alternatives to the original Lavidge and Steiner model (1961) suggest

that advertising researchers have developed different hierarchical models for various

consumer decision making situations, but agree on the importance of the three basic

tenets of the hierarchy of effects model. However, many alternative models attempt to

explain consumer purchase behavior and many researchers have tried to develop the

tripartite attitudinal dimensions (i.e., cognition, affection, and conation). Therefore, this

study will seek an answer to the following research question:

RQ2: The tripartite attitudinal model can be explained in a classical conditioning
experiment when using animated commercial stimuli. Thus, the tripartite
attitudinal dimensions can be applied in classical conditioning research, and the
model would provide a better understanding of consumer cognitive, affective and
purchase behavior when consumers are exposed to animated commercial stimuli.
Will different values of the tripartite attitudinal model exist between experiments
and control groups and two different product involvement groups?














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Overview of Experimental Design

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of animation in

advertising design on linear combination of all dependent variables, as well as the role of

animation on emotional response. The first experiment investigated the relationship

between exposure to animated commercials and responses to subsequent ads (e.g.,

emotional responses, attitudes toward the ads, brand, purchase intention, and ad recall).

An experimental design was used to determine if there was a significant difference in

cognition, affection, and conation. The experiment measured five sub-categories for two

different animated commercials and live action commercial: a) emotional responses, b)

attitudes toward the commercial, c) attitudes toward the brand, d) purchase intention, and

e) advertising recall. The second experiment assessed the impact on consumer attitude

formation in advertising using a classical conditioning mechanism. The classical

conditioning has long been employed in the study of consumer behavior and as a means

of interpreting the effects of advertising, such as attitude changes. Classical conditioning

is a prime method of persuasion, and the study will demonstrate its effectiveness when

using animated stimuli.

3.1.1 Experiment 1

To examine the effects of animated and non-animated commercials on dependent

variables, this experiment used a between-subjects factorial design: a 3 (cartoon-based

animation, clay animation, and live action commercial) x 2 (product involvement: high









versus low). A MANOVA was used to examine differences between the animated and

non-animated commercials on linear combinations of all dependent variables, and a

between subject designed ANOVA was performed on each dependent variable.

3.1.2 Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted for this experiment to check the validity of animated

commercials. Commercials were classified into animated and non-animated types by

three advertising professionals and scholars in the advertising field. Specifically, the

animated commercials were categorized as either cartoon-based or clay animation. The

purpose of a pilot study was to classify cartoon, clay animation and live action formatted

commercials. Based the definition of product of clay animation and cartoon, they selected

each commercial from among several. All animated characters were made by using clay

animation in commercials. Also the same criteria were applied to the selection of cartoon

based commercials. Live action formatted commercial was selected from among them

produced without mixing with any cartoon and other animated types. In order to

maximize animation commercial exposure, the original language was translated to

English and then superimposed on each commercial. The commercials being used in this

study were taken from those of several countries (e.g., America, England, Germany,

Japan, and Korea) for which control of extraneous variables regarding brand

predisposition and of pre-exposure of the U.S. respondents was possible. Thus, several

different animated commercials were selected for pretest.

3.1.3 Pretesting the Animated Stimuli and Materials

A pretest was conducted to ensure that the directions and questions were clear and

unambiguous, and to prepare for unexpected situations (e.g., video quality and space), as









well as to check the reliability dimension of independent and dependent variables

selected for this study. This pretest was administered to about 30 undergraduate students.

The pretest's objective was to ensure the subject's perception of different animated

characters as affective stimuli in commercials. Affect items were adapted from Gorn

(1982) and Allen &Madden (1985). The pretest for edited several animations was

conducted by using a four-item affect scale and seven-point semantic differential scale

(e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant, like very much vs. dislike very much, left me with a good

feeling vs. left me with a bad feeling, and interesting vs. boring).

The results of pretest led to the selection of animated stimuli for the actual

experiment. Playing scenes of human and animal mixed characters made by clay had a

mean of 5.1. Playing scenes of fruit character by clay had a mean of 5.0. Playing scenes

of animal character made by cartoon had a mean of 4.5. Playing scenes of human

character made by cartoon also had a mean of 4.8. Playing scenes of personified human

character had a mean of 4.8.

After the pretest, a list of unfamiliar words used in the questionnaire was

compiled in order to make the directions of the experiment clear. The pretest also ensured

that video and sound quality were reasonable. The TV commercials were fixed at 15

seconds for each sample, since exposure time could be an important issue due to the fact

that advertisements contain various components to alert subjects mentally and psychically.

Thus, the pretest involved fixing the time schedule in the experiment to avoid subject bias.

To examine the effects of animated commercials on affective responses, three

different versions of a television commercial for an existing electronic product and soft

drink were edited by a professional designer. Several television commercials were









specially selected for use as stimulus materials in the experiment. In order to maximize

the animation commercial exposure, the original language was translated into English if

necessary and then superimposed on each commercial. The commercials being used in

this study were taken from those of five countries for which control extraneous variables

regarding brand predisposition and of pre-exposure of the U.S. respondents was possible.

Each commercial contains the brand name, company logo and animated characters

playing scenes. Fivel5-second commercials and three additional 15-20 second

commercials were selected. To avoid specific subject bias and increase the

generalizability of the study, each commercial was edited to 15 seconds using a media

editor.

Commercials were divided into two major categories: animated (subdivided into

cartoon-based and clay animation commercials) and non-animated (e.g., live action

formatted commercials). Snap shots of animated stimuli are in appendix C.

3.1.4 Subjects

Subjects were undergraduate students enrolled in introductory advertising and

public relations courses. All subjects signed an informed consent form prior to their

participation in the experiment. Six hundred twenty undergraduate students at a large

southern university participated in this study. As an accessible and large population,

students were considered appropriate subjects for this study's goals, which examined the

causal relationship between exposure to animated commercials and ad attitudes.


3.1.5 Procedure









Upon arrival at the scheduled time, subjects were given a packet entitled

"Advertising research." After each subject received a packet, an investigator asked them

to write down their name and 8-digit student identification numbers on the first page of

the questionnaire. Before the real experiment, investigators explained the procedure and

all subjects read the goal of the experiment. Subjects were instructed when to begin,

when to stop, and when to turn the page. The subjects were told that the experiment

involved working with an advertising agency to conduct a survey on foreign commercials,

because the advertising company was considering creating English versions of

commercials to launch products in the U.S. Subjects were also told that the advertising

agency values student opinions and their responses could help to promote or stop the

conversion of the foreign commercials into English versions. The subjects were then

divided into three groups to measure the different commercial formats. That is,

participants assigned to each group were exposed to three different commercials

(between factors) separately. The commercials were presented with an overhead projector

and each commercial lasted 15 seconds.

After explaining the directions for the experiment, the investigator showed each

subject group three different animated television commercials (e.g., clay animated

commercial for first group, cartoon for second group and live action for third group).

After watching each commercial, subjects were asked to fill out the second page of the

questionnaire, which included emotional response scales. Subjects were given a limited

amount of time after viewing each commercial to mark their belief of brand, attribution

of commercials and brand, and purchase intent on a self-reporting questionnaire. Ad









recall was measured on the last page. After completing this stage, subjects filled out the

rest of the questionnaire.

3.1.6 Product Involvement Manipulation for Experiment 1

After filling consent form on the first page, subjects were asked to read the

following statement carefully and assume that it was their current situation:

To successfully launch a new product named Juice the company will conduct a
promotion at a grocery store. This company is trying to penetrate the juice market.
When buying this product, you would receive a book of coupons good for a year
from a grocery store.

Subjects were asked how much relevance the product has to them before the

actual experiment. If they chose the number below zero (-2 -1 and 0), then go to the

second page. The second page described the blank page. However, if they chose the

number over zero (1 and 2), then go to the third page. Investigator asked them to read the

following statement:

For participants highly involved with this product. Please pay careful attention to
the video presentation. After watching the commercials related to the Juice, please
carefully answer each question. Investigators will choose someone who makes the
best response to the questions after collecting data. Then the investigators will
pick the name from the group pool to win a prize.


For participants highly involved with the Juice brand, investigators encouraged

them to pay careful attention to the video presentation. After watching the commercials

related to Juice, subjects were asked to carefully answer each question. They were also

told that after collecting data the investigators would chose the subject with the best

response to win a prize.









3.1.7 Variables and Measures

The measurement tools used in this study are based on the literature review

related to the tripartite attitudinal dimensions (e.g., cognition, affection, and conation).

The research also used previously-developed scales, modified when necessary, to

measure the variables in the study. Specific scale items can be found in Appendix B.

To measure cognition response (e.g., belief), a seven-point Likert type scale

developed by marketing researchers was used. Measurement tools used in the copy-

testing firm and consumer research area were employed to gauge belief (Breckler 1984;

Katz & Stotland 1959; Krech & Crutchfield 1948; Ray et al. 1973).

Affective responses: Pleasure, arousal, and dominance: To measure emotional

response, AdSAM was used in this study. The measure consists of three different

scales: a) pleasure (measures the positive/negative aspect of the feeling), b) arousal

(measures the level of intensity or involvement in the feeling), and c) dominance

(measures the degree of empowerment the respondent feels). AdSAM (Morris 1995) is

a graphic character that represents the three dimensions of PAD. Initially, SAM was

compared to verbal PAD by using the catalog of situations employed by Mehrabian and

Russell (1974) to standardize the three PAD dimensions. The results indicated that SAM

"generated a similar pattern of scale values for these situations as was obtained for the

semantic differential" (Lang 1980). AdSAM is in appendix B.

Attitudes toward advertising (Aa): The research used previously developed

scales, modified when necessary, to measure the variables in the study. These semantic

differential scales measured attitude toward the ads and were selected from various prior

research studies (Biehal, Stephens, & Curlo 1992). The questions asked subjects to









evaluate ads (using a semantic differential scale), along with five measures identified by

the labels "unfavorable/favorable," "bad/good," "dislike/like," and "negative/positive."

Attitude toward the brand (Ab): Attitudes toward the brand were assessed

utilizing a four-item, seven-point semantic differential scale (bad/good,

unfavorable/favorable, negative/positive, and dislike/like). This attitude to the brand

measure was used in prior research by MacInnis and Park (1991). The author reported

that 87.5% of brand attitudes can be accounted for using the scale in factor. Excellent

reliability of the scale was also obtained (Cronbach alpha=.95). The brand attitude scale

was computed by averaging the summated items.

Conation responses as purchase intent (PI): Purchase intent was measured

using Haley and Case's (1979) Verbal Purchase Intent Scale. The scale is a single-item

Likert-type scale. Validity for this scale was established by Gormly (1974) as well as

Gruber (1970). Also, Haley and Case (1979) report the verbal purchase intent scale had a

high factor loading on the product evaluation factor with a coefficient alpha of 0.88. The

scale's significant reliability (test-retest) was also reported by Kassarjian and Nakanishi

(1967) and Hughes (1967).

Ad recall: Ad recall was measured by asking subjects to recall the names and

brands that they could remember from the commercials with descriptions. For ad recall,

subjects were instructed to write down everything they could remember about the ads

themselves, such as ad description, the displayed product name, characters, storyline, and

theme, as well as any feelings toward the ad. Ad recall scores can be calculated by

counting the number of ad components correctly recalled (Edell & Keller 1989; Jin 2003).









Ad recall measure was very similar to Brand recall measurement. Brand recall

was measured by the number of times the brand was mentioned in the subject's responses

to the open-ended questions. Ad content playback was measured by counting the number

of words used to answer the second open-ended questions (Stout & Leckenby 1988, p.55).

Walker and Dubitsky (1994) found that liking relates to other copy-testing measures such

as related recall, brand preference, and persuasion. One possible explanation for how

liking works has to do with the rational, cognitive processing of advertising messages. A

well-liked advertisement can affect information processing by creating positive arousal

and activation (Kroebel-riel 1979), improving the recall of the advertised material, and

producing more positive judgments toward the message (Aaker & Myers 1987; Youn et

al. 2001, p.7). Favorable feelings influence memory by maintaining positive feelings at

the time of stimulus encoding, influencing how the information was organized in memory,

and highlighting specific features that are retrievable later (Zajonc 1980; Lingle &

Ostrom 1981; Zinkhan, Locander, & Leigh 1986; Youn et al. 2001, p.7).

3.1.8 Involvement Manipulation Check

The manipulation check measure consisted of six items adapted from

Zaichkowsky (1985) to determine the extent to which the participants paid attention to a

product offered via slide presentation and the stimuli. Subjects were asked how much

relevance the product had to them before the actual experiment. And investigator told

subjects to checkmark to the number what thoughts and feelings went through their mind

about the product after watching the commercial. The items used in this study consisted

of "useless/useful," "uninterested/interested," "worthless/valuable," "unwanted/wanted,"

and "irrelevant/relevant." Excellent reliability of the scale was obtained (Cronbach alpha









= .90). A t-test indicated that the intended manipulation was successful. The high product

involvement participants reported a mean of 5.6 compared to a mean of 3.3 for the low

product involvement participants. This difference was found to be significant (t = 26.5, p

< .001).

3.2 Classical Conditioning Experiment 2

For Experiment 2, classical conditioning was carried out with electronics (e.g.,

MP3 player) and beverage (e.g., orange juice) products. The primary procedure replicated

the classical conditioning procedure suggested by Gorn (1982), Allen and Madden (1985)

and Rossiter and Percy (1980).

In the belief-based approach following an earlier classical conditioning procedure,

the favorable emotional consequence of the belief serves as an unconditioned stimulus

(US) which is paired with the product, a conditioned stimulus (CS). As conditioning

proceeds, the product alone becomes increasingly capable of eliciting a favorable

emotional reaction and a favorable product attitude. Stimuli (e.g., visual imagery) with

favorable emotional consequences can be paired with a product allowing for an increase

in the consumer's overall evaluation of the product and brand attitude. Given that visual

content is closely related to the evaluation of a product, animated commercials as stimuli

would be an effective marketing or persuasion tool as the affect-producing,

unconditioned stimulus.

3.2.1 Selection of Conditioned Stimulus

Based on classification of product suggested by Ratchford (1987) and Vaughn

(1980, 86), the products required thinking and economical consideration were included

notebooks, digital cameras, MP3 players, televisions, mobile phones, DVD players, and









refrigerators. The products required feeling and affective consideration were included

consumption products such as toilet papers, confectionaries, soft drinks, and cosmetics.

3.2.2 Pretesting for the Unconditioned Stimulus

The pretest adopted previous classical conditioning experimental procedure

(Allen and Madden 1985; Gorn 1982), therefore, it was necessary to find material that

would elicit both pleasant and unpleasant feelings. Thirty undergraduate students

participated in a pretest in which they rated 13 slides from animated commercials

(potential USs) on a four item affect scale (pleasant vs. unpleasant, like very much vs.

dislike very much, left me with a good feeling vs. left me with a bad feeling, and

interesting vs. boring). In addition, four fictitious brands (e.g., foreign products) of

packaged goods were pretested as possible CSs. Participants were asked to indicate their

perceptions of how similar the brands were to other brands in the same category and to

rate each brand on a three-item scale (good/ bad, like/dislike, and pleasant/unpleasant).

Pairs of terms or phrases anchored either end of a seven-point scale. Of note were the

scores on the item "left me with a good feeling/bad feeling". Producing good feelings

and/or bad feelings is, of course, a necessary part of an effective conditioning experiment.

3.2.3 Filler Material

To detract participants' attention from the focal CS-US pairing, filler animations

were employed as is essential when conducting classical conditioning experiments. An

alternative explanation for the results obtained in a classical conditioning study is demand

artifact (Kellaris & Cox 1989). Using filler animation stimuli decreases hypothesis

guessing and reduces the possibility of demand artifact interpretation of the results (Kim

et al. 1996; Stuart et al. 1987). The filler material used for the study consisted of three









fictitious and three real brands (a television, a mobile phone, a notebook, cosmetics, a

soft drink, and a sports drink), and various USs that generated no affect and conveyed no

systematic meaning. This study also chose two target products: an MP3 player as the

high-involvement product and orange juice as the low-involvement product.

3.2.4 Procedure

The second experiment examined the role of animated stimuli on consumer-

attitude formation by using a classical conditioning mechanism. The experiment

procedure and questionnaire were developed based on the respondent feedback regarding

treatment stimuli and the clarity of the questions. The experiment was conducted in

groups of approximately 331 subjects that met after regular class time. Subjects were

divided into equal groups by randomly assigning a classroom to either the experimental

group or the control group. Upon arrival at the scheduled time, subjects were given a

packet entitled "TV Commercials Study." After all the subjects received the packet, the

investigator asked them to write down their name and their student identification numbers

on the first page of the questionnaire. They entered a room that had been set up for a slide

presentation where they received a booklet with instructions and questions. Investigators

explained the instructions and the participants were instructed on when to begin, when to

stop, and when to turn the page. Once they read the instructions, the investigator turned

off the lights and showed the slides. After the presentation, the subjects were instructed to

read each question carefully and then respond to the questions in the booklet.

Though the number of CS/US contingency pairings is a variable of interest in

conditioning work (Stuart, Shimp, & Engle 1987), our intent was not to vary repetition.

This study was chosen to pair (in the treatment condition) the CS and US three times.









Priluck and Till (1998) used six pairings in their experiment because they felt more

pairings would generate a more valuable initial conditioning effect than the use of one or

three pairings would, but with more pairings comes the risk of subject boredom. Three

pairings were ideal due to the nature of animation, which is both motion and story. Three

pairings also allowed for an even distribution of the three effectively positive animations

within the sequence of motions. The treatment subjects were exposed to three pairings of

pleasant scenes with target products and 3 sets of filler brands with 3 neutral scenes each.

Filler brands were included to disguise the nature of the study and prevent hypothesis

guessing.

In the control condition, participants were exposed to the same stimuli as the

conditioning group. However, the selection of stimuli presentation was randomized, and

there was no systematic pairing of CS and US. Rescorla (1967) emphasized that a

random group was needed to test for the effects of conditioning. By comparing different

groups, the results can be inferred that the animation effects were due to conditioning.

3.2.5 Experimental Manipulation for Experiment 2

In the classical conditioning experiment, the product involvement manipulation is

similar to the first experiment. After filling consent form on the first page, subjects were

asked to read the following statement carefully and assume that it was their current

situation:

To successfully launch a new product named Juice the company will conduct a
promotion at a grocery store. This company is trying to penetrate the juice market.
When buying this product, you would receive a book of coupons good for a year
from a grocery store.









Subjects were asked how much relevance the product has to them before the

actual experiment. If they chose the number below zero (-2, -1 and 0), then go to the

second page. The second page described the blank page. However, if they chose the

number over zero (1 and 2), then go to the third page. Investigator asked them to read the

following statement:

For participants highly involved with this product. Please pay careful attention to
the video presentation. After watching the commercials related to the Juice, please
carefully answer each question. Investigators will choose someone who makes the
best response to the questions after collecting data. Then the investigators will
pick the name from the group pool to win a prize.


For participants highly involved with the Juice brand, investigators encouraged

them to pay careful attention to the video presentation. After watching the commercials

related to Juice, subjects were asked to carefully answer each question. They were also

told that after collecting data the investigators would chose the subject with the best

response to win a prize.

Participants were exposed to a positive conditioning procedure in which the test

brand was paired with favorable stimuli on the second repetition. Proper classical

conditioning control procedures required that both the conditioning treatment and

conditioning control groups be exposed the same number of times to both the US and CS,

with only the conditioning treatment exposed to the CS/US contingency pairing.

Participants in both the conditioning treatment and conditioning control groups were

exposed to a video presentation in which the stimuli appeared interspersed among filler

video clips.









The control group saw randomized video clips and the order of the video clips

was used as a randomized selection of stimuli presentation. It was important that there

was no systematic pairing of CS and US in this group.

3.2.6 Measure

3.2.6.1 Contingency Awareness

The contingency awareness measurement tools used previously developed scales,

modified when necessary, to measure the variables in the study. The contingency

awareness measure was used in prior research by Riluck and Till (2004) and Allen and

Madden (1985). Its purpose was to determine whether participants became demand aware

in the experiment. To determine contingency awareness, participants were asked to

indicate which product (the TV, digital camera, computer, MP3 player, orange juice and

milk) and which brand (SENS and Gator orange juice) was always shown before or with

the animation with motion of the pleasant scenery and the video clip. Participants were

then asked how certain they were of each of their responses and ranked their certainty on

a 5-point scale ranging from absolutely certain to absolutely uncertain. Contingency

aware participants were those who chose the correct product and brand and who were

absolutely or somewhat certain of their responses. This operational definition matched

the construct definition for awareness, which is the knowledge that the CS precedes the

US.

The measures used to assess inferential belief formation were included as a

means to investigate whether the participants formed beliefs about the CS (SENS and

Gator orange juice) based on the US (affective animation with motion). If there was no

difference in the salient beliefs between the conditioning and control group, this study









could assume that belief was not a factor in attitude formation. As suggested by Kim,

Lim and Bhargava (1998) and Homer and Yoon (1992), participants estimated the

likelihood that an MP3 player and soft drink possessed various attributes on four 7-point

probability scales. Thus, the following extended measures were included: (1) sounds and

tastes good, (2) is of good quality, (3) provides many different additional devices and

ingredients, and (4) is reliable. Furthermore, beliefs about one of the filler brands was

included to distract participants' attention from the focal brand and decrease their

hypothesis guessing.

The measures were used to assess the participants' affective response to the US.

The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang 1984) and the additional Self-Assessment

AdSAM (Morris 1995) consist of a graphic character used to represent the three

dimensions of PAD. AdSAM measured affective response was used to represent the

three dimensions of PAD (e.g., pleasure, arousal and dominance). The measure consists

of a graphic character arrayed along three different scales that include pleasure, arousal,

and dominance. AdSAM is in appendix B.

The study was measured the attitude toward the target brands (MP3 player for

high involvement and fruit juice for low involvement) to gauge attitudes toward the

animated commercials. The scales were adopted from Biehal, Stephens & Curlo (1992).

The questionnaire asked subjects to evaluate ads using a semantic differential scale along

with four measures anchored by the labels "unfavorable/favorable," "bad/good,"

"dislike/like," and "unpleasant/pleasant."

Attitude toward the brands (e.g., MP3 player and orange juice) were selected from

a prior study (Holbrook & Batra 1987; Homer &Yoon 1992). Subjects were also asked









to evaluate the brands (using 7-points and a four-item measure), along with seven items

anchored by the labels "good/bad," "like very much/dislike very much,"

"attractive/unattractive," and "interesting/boring."

To measure purchase intention, subjects were asked the question: "All things

considered, if you are planning to purchase the brand on one of your next trips to a store,

what are the chances that you would purchase the brand if it is available?" The purchase

intention measure scales used were suggested by Bake (1999) as well as Maclnnis and

Stayman (1993). Each of the items was standardized and summed to represent the

attribution of the product, attitude toward the ads, and brand and purchase behavior.

Excellent reliability of each scale was also obtained (Cronbach alpha = .90).

3.2.6.2 Involvement manipulation check

The product involvement manipulation check used in the first experiment also

was employed to the second experiment. The manipulation check measure consisted of

six items adapted from Zaichkowsky (1985) to determine the extent to which the

participants paid attention to a product offered via slide presentation and the stimuli.

Subjects were asked how much relevance the product had to them before the actual

experiment. And investigator told them to checkmark to the number what thoughts and

feelings went through their mind about the product after watching the commercial. The

items used in this study consisted of "useless/useful," "uninterested/interested,"

"worthless/valuable," "unwanted/wanted," and "irrelevant/relevant." Excellent reliability

of the scale was also obtained (Cronbach alpha = .93). A t-test indicated that the intended

manipulation could be successful. High product involvement participants with the









product reported a mean of 5.1 compared to a mean of 2.8 for the low product

involvement participants. This difference was found to be significant (t =23.4, p < .001).

3.2.6.3 Conditioning requirement

To test the hypotheses in this study, participants first had to be successfully

conditioned, as was evidenced by how the conditioning treatment fostered a more

favorable attitude toward the ads and target brand than the conditioning control (Priluck

and Till 2004).

Participants in the conditioning treatment who were exposed to the animated

stimuli reported significantly more favorable attitudes toward the ads than those in the

conditioning control group. More specifically, the low-involvement product group in the

conditioning treatment had a mean of 5.0 compared to a mean of 3.4 for the conditioning

control group. This difference was statistically significant (t = 11.59, p <.001) and

indicates that this conditioning procedure successfully altered attitudes toward the

animated commercials.

Participants in the conditioning treatment group who were exposed to the

animated stimuli reported significantly more favorable attitudes toward the ads than those

in the conditioning control group. Specifically, the conditioning treatment group had a

mean of 5.2 compared to a mean of 3.6 for the conditioning control. This difference was

statistically significant (t = 10.6, p <.001) and indicated that this conditioning procedure

successfully altered attitudes toward the target brand.

3.2.6.4 Reliability of manipulations checks

In order to determine the validity a manipulation, reliable manipulation checks are

a prerequisite (Perdue & Summers 1986). Nunally (1978) emphasized that the reliability









of a measure refers to the extent to which random error is absent. Reliability of the

manipulation checks was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha, which is to determine

internal consistency, the upper bound of reliability and coefficient beta, which is to

determine unidimensionality and the lower bound of reliability for each index (John &

Roedder 1981). Results indicated that the manipulation check measures had acceptable

levels of internal consistency and unidimensionality. And all alpha and beta coefficient

were over .80.

3.2.6.5 Construct validity

Nunnally (1978) suggested that an important first step in assessing the construct

validity of a manipulation is to assess the extent to which it appears to look like it

manipulates what it should manipulate. Also it is normally referred to as face validity.

The three advertising practitioners and expert judges mentioned above indicated that the

manipulation appeared to capture the different levels of animated characters and degree

of product involvement.

3.2.6.6 Convergent validity

In addition to face validity, Perdue & Summers (1986) argued that a successful

manipulation should possess convergent validity, which refers to the degree to which

convergence exists between a construct and its manipulation. A successful manipulation

can be assessed via manipulation checks that reflect the dimensions of the latent construct

under study. In this situation, if the proposed two-group manipulation had convergent

validity, subjects in the experimental group were expected to exhibit higher levels of

attention to the animated commercials and would process the ad for a reason different

from subjects assigned to the control group.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

4.1 Experiment 1

Descriptive statistics of dependent variables (e.g., cognitive attitude, pleasure,

arousal, dominance as affective attitude, and conative attitude) were tabled by type of

commercials such as clay, cartoon, and live action formatted commercial stimuli.

Structural equation modeling was used to compare three-group path coefficients followed

by a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with a chi-square test. The multi group

CFA analysis was conducted to examine the statistical different across two different

groups.

Data were analyzed using a MANOVA on four dependent variables: emotional

response, attitude toward the ads, and brand and purchase intention. A 3 (types of

commercials: clay, cartoon and live action formatted commercials) x 2 (degree of

involvement: high versus low) between-subjects factorial design was employed on linear

combination of all dependent variables. Where necessary, a series of t-tests followed to

examine the mean difference on two different groups and logit regression was conducted

to test the specific hypotheses because a recall was coded as dichotomous variables

(yes=l and 0=no).

A score for each dependent variable was calculated by averaging the ratings

across the multiple items used to measure that construct since the inter-item correlations

for each of the scales, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, were large (ad attitude, .97;

brand attitude, .95; and purchase intent, .94). Ad recall was not included in this analysis










as it was categorical. Tables 4-2, 4-3, and 4-4 illustrate the results of a MANOVA

showing the ANOVA results, means, standard deviations and Wilks' Lambda.

Table 4-2. Means and Standard Deviations by Types of Ads
Treatment
Pleasure Arousal ATTA ATTB PI
Types Involvement
Clay High 7.6(1.2/87) 5.9(1.5/87) 5.7(0.9/87) 5.5(0.8/87) 4.7(1.0/87)
animation Low 6.4(1.8/79) 5.4(1.9/79) 4.7(1.2/79) 4.6(1.1/79) 3.5(1.4/79)
Total 7.0(1.6/166) 5.7(1.7/166) 5.2(1.2/166) 5.0(1.1/166) 4.1(1.4/166)
Cartoon High 7.2(1.4/20) 5.7(1.9/20) 5.6(0.9/20) 5.3(1.1/20) 4.0(1.9/20)
animation Low 4.9(1.6/146) 3.8(1.5/146) 3.3(1.5/146) 3.2(1.3/146) 2.2(1.2/146)
Total 5.2(1.8/166) 4.0(1.7/166) 3.6(1.6/166) 3.4(1.4/166) 2.4(1.4/166)
Live High 7.7(1.1/130) 6.3(1.7/130) 6.0(0.8/130) 5.8(0.8/130) 4.9(1.3/130)
action Low 6.5(1.4/36) 4.7(1.7/36) 4.4(1.2/36) 4.2(1.4/36) 3.2(1.4/36)
Total 6.6(1.8/166) 6.0(1.8/166) 5.7(1.1/166) 5.5(1.1/166) 4.6(1.5/166)
High 7.6(1.2/237) 6.1(1.7/237) 5.9(.86/237) 5.7(.86/237) 4.8(1.3/237)
Total Low 5.6(1.8/261) 4.4(1.8/261) 3.9(1.5/261) 3.8(1.4/261) 2.7(1.4/261)
Total 6.6(1.8/498) 5.2(1.9/498) 4.8(1.6/498) 4.7(1.9/498) 3.6(1.7/498)
*M(S.D/N)
Table 4-3. MANOVA Results
Treatments Wilk's Lambda
F d.f
Types of
commercials Dependent .900 5.31 .000
Involvement Variables .683 45.3 (1,492) .000
Types x involvement .938 3.18 .000
Table 4-4. Results of Between-Subjects
Independent Dependent
Variables Variables MS d.f F
Pleasure 46.4 2 20.1 .000
Arousal 70.1 2 26.6 .000
ATTAD 37.4 2 25.4 .000
Types of ATTAB 38.8 2 34.0 .000
commercials PI 3.85 2 3.62 .000
Pleasure 9.01 1 3.90 .000
Degree of Arousal 16.2 1 6.15 .000
involvement ATTAD 11.0 1 7.50 .000
ATTAB 16.2 1 5.32 .000
PI 4.01 1 3.76 .000
Pleasure 9.01 2 3.90 .014
Types x Arousal 16.2 2 6.15 .003
involvement ATTAD 11.0 2 7.50 .001
ATTAB 16.2 2 5.32 .000
PI 4.01 2 3.76 .110
a Types of commercials (clay, cartoon and live action) x degree of involvement (high versus low)
Note: Scales for mean scores are from 1 to 7 with 7 being most positive. And scales of pleasure and arousal for mean
scores are from 1 to 9 with 7 being most positive. N=498.











7.72
High
7.57
7.25




H 6.52
6.39
Low


4.92

I I I
Clay Cartoon Live


Figure 4-1. Interaction Effect of Emotional Response: Pleasure, and High vs. Low
involvement



6.29
High
5.90
5.65




H 5.40
4.72
Low
L ow.............



3.78
I I I
ClayCartoon Live


Figure 4-2. Interaction Effect of Emotional Response: Arousal, and High vs. Low
involvement with product










5.99
High
5.73

5.64




4.72
4.44
Low


3.35

I I I
lay Cartoon Live


Figure 4-3. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Ad,
High vs. Low involvement with product



5.84
High
5.47
5.25




H 4.58
4.22
Low



3.20


SClay Cartoon Live


Figure 4-4. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Brand,
High vs. Low Involvement with product

4.1.1 Testing of Hypotheses for Animated Commercial Effects

Hypothesis 1 predicted that when subjects are highly involved with the product,

exposure to live action formatted commercial results in hypotheses 1-1-a (higher









pleasure), 1-1-b (arousal), 1-1-c (a favorable attitude toward the ads), 1-1-d (brand), and

1-1-e (purchase intention) compared subjects exposed to clay and cartoon animated

commercials. Also, exposure to clay animated commercial resulted in hypotheses 1-2-a

(higher pleasure) and 1-2-b (arousal) as well as 1-2-c (a more favorable attitude toward

the ad), 1-2-d (brand) and 1-2-e (purchase intention) compared to exposure to cartoon

commercial.

Hypothesis 2 predicted that subjects who are modestly involved with the product,

exposure to clay animated commercial will exhibit 2-1-a (higher pleasure), 2-1-b (higher

arousal), 2-1-c (a favorable attitude toward the ad), 2-1-d (brand) and 2-1-e (purchase

intention) compared to subjects exposed to live action formatted commercials. When

compared to exposure to the cartoon commercial, exposure to the clay animated

commercial resulted in 2-2-a (higher pleasure) and 2-2-b (arousal) as well as 2-2-c (a

more favorable attitude toward the ad), 2-2-d (favorable attitude toward the brand), and

2-2-e (purchase intention).

As shown in Tables 4-2, 4-3 and Figure 4-1 through 4-4, to test H1 and H2, a

MANOVA was first conducted with type of commercials and degree of involvement as

the two independent factors, while the dependent variables were pleasure, arousal, ad

attitude, brand attitude, and purchase intent. Also t-test was conducted to examine a

simple mean difference for each mean combination on each dependent.

As hypothesized, the MANOVA revealed a statistically significant interaction

between type of commercials and degree of involvement (F = 3.18, df=(1,498), p < .001).

The main effect was significant for each variable (types of commercials, F = 5.31,

df/(2,498), p < .001; degree of product involvement, F = 45.3, df(1, 498), p < .001). The









interaction was analyzed further by conducting MANOVAs as a function of types of

commercials at each degree of involvement, providing support for H4. To understand

better the nature of the interaction, separate, univariate analyses of variance were

conducted for each of the dependent variables. As detailed hereafter, a statistically

significant interaction of the type hypothesized was obtained for each dependent variable.

However, the interaction on purchase intention was not statistically significant (F = 3.76,

p=.110).

Pleasure. The ANOVA for pleasure shows that the interaction of commercial

types by degree of involvement is significant (F = 3.90, p= .014; see Figure 4-1). An

examination of the cell reveled that by using the simple effect of commercial types at

each degree of product involvement, subjects in the high- product involvement group had

a pleasure score when exposed to live action formatted commercial (mean = 7.7) and

when exposed to clay animated (mean = 7.6) and cartoon commercials (mean=7.2). The

result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were no significant

difference of the perception of pleasure in comparing three different commercials (t= .92,

df/215, p= .36 comparison of live action to clay; t= 1.1, df= 105, p= .29 for comparison

of cay to cartoon, and t= 1.7, df= 148, p= .10 for comparison of live-action to cartoon

commercials). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be

statistically significant. Thus, hypotheses H1-l-a and H1-2-a were not supported.

Subjects in the low-product involvement group had a pleasure scores when

exposed to clay animation based commercial (mean = 6.4) when exposed to cartoon

based commercial (mean = 4.9) and live action formatted commercial (mean=6.5). The

result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there was no significant









difference of the perception of pleasure in comparing clay to live action formatted

commercial (t- .40, df=-113, p= .69 for clay vs. live action). That is, the difference

between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus,

hypotheses H2-1-a was not supported. The result of simple mean difference analysis

indicated that there were significant differences of the perception of pleasure in

comparing clay to cartoon and live action to cartoon commercials (t= 6.2, df=223, p<.05

comparison of clay to cartoon, and t= 5.4, df=180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon

commercials). Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus,

hypotheses H2-2-a was supported.

Arousal. The ANOVA for arousal shows that the interaction of commercial types

by degree of involvement is significant (F = 6.15, p < .003; see Figure 4-2). An

examination of the cell means suggests that by using the simple effect of commercial

types at each degree of involvement, subjects in the high-involvement product group had

arousal score when exposed to live action formatted commercial (mean = 6.3) when

exposed to clay animated (mean = 5.9) and cartoon commercials (mean =5.7). The result

of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there was no differences of the

perception of arousal in comparing three different commercials (t= 1.7, df=215, p= .08

for comparison of live action to clay, t= .62, df/105, p= .54 for clay vs. cartoon, and t=

1.6, df=148, p= .12 for live action vs. cartoon commercials). That is, the difference

between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus,

hypotheses H1-l-b and H1-2-b were not supported.

Subjects in the low product involvement had arousal score when exposed to clay

animated commercial (mean = 5.4) when exposed to live action (mean = 4.7) and cartoon









commercials (mean = 3.8). The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that

there were no significant difference of the perception of arousal in comparing clay to live

action formatted commercial (t= 1.9, df=113, p=.06 for clay vs. live action). That is, the

difference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus,

hypothesis H2-1-b was not supported. However, the result of simple mean difference

analysis indicated that there were differences of the perception of arousal in comparing

clay to cartoon and live action to cartoon (t- 7.1, df=223, p<.05 for clay vs. cartoon, and

t= 3.3, df= 180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon commercials). Consequently, the mean

difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H2-2-b was supported.

Ad attitude. The ANOVA for attitude toward the ads shows that the interaction

of commercial types by degree of involvement is significant (F = 7.50, p < .001; see

Figure 4-3). An examination of the cell indicated that by using the simple effect of

commercial types at each degree of involvement, subjects in the high product

involvement had the perception of commercials when exposed to live action formatted

commercial (mean = 6.0) when exposed to clay animated and cartoon animated

commercials (mean = 5.7 and 5.6). The result of simple mean difference analysis

indicated that there was a difference of the perception of commercials in comparing live

action to clay animation (t= 2.2, df/215, p<.05 for live action vs. clay animation).

Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis

Hl-l-c was supported. However, comparison of the perception of clay animated to

cartoon animated commercials and live action to cartoon based commercials were not

significant (t= .41, df/105, p=.69 for clay vs. cartoon and t= 1.8, df/148, p=.07 for live









action vs. cartoon). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to

be statistically significant. Thus, hypotheses H1-2-c was not supported.

Subjects in the low product involvement had a perception of animated

commercial score when exposed to clay animated commercial (mean = 4.7) when

exposed to live action (mean = 4.4) and cartoon commercials (mean = 3.3). The result of

simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were differences of the perception of

commercials in comparing clay to cartoon and live action to cartoon (t= 7.0, df=223,

p<.05 for clay vs. cartoon, and t= 4.2, df=180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon

commercials). Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus,

hypothesis H2-1-c and d were supported. However, there was a difference of the

perception of arousal in comparing clay animation to live action formatted commercial

(t=.98, df1 13, p=.33 for clay vs. live action). That is, the difference between means

would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypothesis H2-2-c was

not supported.

Brand attitude. The ANOVA for brand attitude shows that the interaction of

commercial types by degree of involvement is significant (F = 5.32, p < .001; see Figure

4-4). An examination of the cell indicated that by using the simple effect of commercial

types at each degree of involvement, subjects in the high-involvement group had the

perception of advertised brand when exposed to live action commercial (mean = 5.8)

when exposed to the clay animated (mean = 5.5) and cartoon commercials (mean = 5.3).

The result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there were significant

differences of the perception of advertised brand in commercials in comparing live action

to clay and live action to cartoon based commercial (t= 3.4, df=215, p<.05 for live action









vs. clay and t= 2.9, df=148, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon). Consequently, the mean

difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H1-1-d was supported.

However, there was no difference of the perception of advertised brand in commercial in

comparing clay to cartoon animation based commercial (t- .97, df 105, p=.34 for clay

vs.cartoon). That is, the difference between means would not have been found to be

statistically significant. Thus, hypothesis H1-2-d was not supported.

Subjects in the low product involvement had the perception of advertised brand in

commercials when exposed to the clay animated commercial (mean = 4.6) when exposed

to live action (mean = 4.2) and cartoon commercials (mean=3.2). The result of simple

mean difference analysis indicated that there were significant differences of the

perception of advertised brand in commercials in comparing clay to live action and

cartoon to live action based commercial (t= 8.1, df/223, p<.05 for clay vs. cartoon and t=

4.5, df=180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon). Consequently, the mean difference is

statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H2-1-d was supported. However, there

was no significant difference of the perception of advertised brand in commercial in

comparing clay animation to cartoon animation based commercials (t=1.6, df=113, p=.12

for clay vs.cartoon). Regarding t-test, hypothesis H2-2-d was not supported.

Purchase intent. The analysis of variance shows that the interaction of

commercial types by degree of involvement is not statistically significant (F = 3.76 p

>. 110). However, the main effect of types of commercials and degree of involvement is

statistically significant on dependent variables (F [2, 492] = 3.62, p < .001 for types of

commercials and F [1, 492] = 3.76, p < .001 for degree of product involvement).









An examination of the cell revealed that by using the simple effect of commercial

types at each degree of involvement, subjects in the high product involvement group had

the purchase intention score when exposed to live action commercial (mean = 4.9) when

exposed to the clay animated (mean = 4.7) and cartoon commercials (mean = 4.0). The

result of simple mean difference analysis indicated that there was no significant

differences of the purchase intention in comparing live action to clay (t= 1.5, df=215,

p=. 15 for live action vs clay). That is, the difference between means would not have been

found to be statistically significant. Thus, hypothesis H1-1-e was not supported. However,

there were significant differences of the purchase intention in comparing clay to cartoon

animation based commercial and cartoon to live action (t= 2.1, df 105, p<.05 for clay

vs.cartoon and t= 2.7, df=148, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon). Consequently, the mean

difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis H1-2-e was supported.

Subjects in the low product involvement had purchase intention scores when

exposed to the clay animated commercial (mean = 3.5) when exposed to live action

(mean = 3.2) and cartoon commercials (mean=2.2). The result of simple mean different

analysis indicated that there were no a significant difference of the purchase intention in

comparing clay to live action (t= .88, df=113, p=.38 for clay vs. live action). That is, the

difference between means would not have been found to be statistically significant. Thus,

hypothesis H2-1-e was not supported. However, there was a significant difference of the

purchase intention in comparing clay to cartoon and cartoon to live action (t= 7.6, df=223,

p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon and t= 4.8, df=180, p<.05 for live action vs. cartoon).

Consequently, the mean difference is statistically significant from 0. Thus, hypothesis









H2-2-e was supported. As shown in Table 4-5, the results of the simple mean different

test on three different commercial types are described.

Table 4-5. The Results of the Mean difference test in High vs. Low Product Involvement
Comparing Mean in the High Product Involvement
Pleasure Arousal ATTAD ATTAB PI
Live vs. Clay 7.7 7.6 6.3 5.9 6.0 > 5.7 5.8 > 5.5 4.9 4.7
animation t=- .92, p=.36 t- 1.8, p=.08 t- 2.2, p<.05 t- 3.4, p<.05 t- 1.5, p=.15
Live action vs. 7.7 7.3 6.3 5.7 6.0 > 5.6 5.8 > 5.3 4.9 > 4.0
Cartoon t- 1.7, p=.09 t- 1.6, p=.12 t- 1.8,p<05 t 2.9, p<.05 t-2.7, p<.05
Clay vs.cartoon 7.6 7.3 5.9 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.3 4.7 > 4.0
animation t- 1.1, p=.29 t=- .62, p=.54 t- .41,p=.69 t=- .97, p=.34 t- 2.1,p<.05
Comparing Mean in the Low Product Involvement
Pleasure Arousal ATTAD ATTAB PI
Clay animation 6.4 6.5 5.4 > 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.6 4.2 3.5 3.2
vs. Live action t= 4.0, p=.69 t 1.9, p=.06 t= .98, p=.33 1.6, p=.12 t- .88, p=.38
Live action vs. 6.5 > 4.9 4.7 > 3.8 4.4>3.3 4.2 > 3.2 3.2 > 2.2
Cartoon t= 5.4, p<.05 t 3.3, p<.05 t 4.2,p<.05 t 4.5, p<.05 t 4.8, p<.05
Clay vs.cartoon 6.4 > 4.9 5.4 > 3.8 4.7 > 3.3 4.6 > 3.2 3.5 > 2.2
animation t= 6.2, p<.05 t- 7.1, p<.05 t= 7.0, p<.05 t- 8.1, p<.05 t= 7.6, p<.05
Note: is not significant

4.1.2 Results for Ad-Recall

H3 predicted that regardless of level of product involvement subjects are exposed

to clay animated commercial, subjects will exhibit increased ad recall compared to those

exposed to cartoon based or live action commercials.

As seen in the table 4-6 through 4-9, ad recall was measured by asking subjects to

describe the names in the ads as they remembered them from the commercials. In order to

accurate measure ad recall, measuring ad recall was conducted without showing

participants the commercials again. For unaided ad recall measure, subjects were

instructed to write down everything they could remember about the ads themselves such

as a description of the ad, displayed product names, characters, story lines, theme, their

cognition, and feelings. Ad recall scores were calculated by counting the number of ad

components correctly recalled (Edell & Keller 1989; Jin 2003).









To measure recall, two independent coders analyzed the commercials using

subjects' questionnaires and counted the number of correctly recalled items. The

correlation coefficients for intercoder reliability on the ad recall exceeded .8, which was

deemed acceptable. Recalled brand names were coded as 1 and brand names not recalled

were recorded as 0. In this study, ad recall scores can be calculated by counting the

number of ad components correctly recalled (Edell & Keller 1989; Jin 2003). Then each

brand was evaluated using a chi-square test. Results showed that the largest group

difference for ad-recall (2 = 46.8, df/2, p < .05) was observed in three commercials (see

Table 4-7).

As shown the table 4-6 and 7, 81 out of 166 subjects recalled correctly the ad in

clay animation. 57 out of 166 subjects who were recalled correctly the ad and brand in

live action. 23 out of 166 subjects were recalled the ad and brand in cartoon. In

participants highly involved with the product, there was rarely difference between clay

animation and live action (43 out of 87 for clay animation vs.45 out of 79 for live action).

3 out of 20 subjects highly involvement in type of cartoon were recalled. In lower

involvement the product, subject in type of clay animation were large recalled(38 out of

79) than other types of commercials (20 out of 146 for type of cartoon and 12 out of 36

for type of live action).

The result of t-test indicated that there were significantly different (t= 4.5, p<.05

for clay vs live action, t= 3.8, p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon) in high product involvement. In

addition, the ad recall comparing on clay vs. cartoon and live action formatted

commercials were statistically different (t= 5.9, p<.05 for clay vs.cartoon and t=- .8,









p=.08 for cartoon vs. live action). In this study, p-value comparing clay to live action

commercial is marginally significant (p<.10).

Table 4-6 through 4-9 illustrates the objective of this analysis, which was to

identify the perceptions people have of different types of animated commercials that

differ significantly between high and low involvement with the product. Because the

dependent variable, ad recall, was a two-categorical variable, a binary logit analysis was

the appropriate technique. These variables were expected to differentiate between high

and low involvement with product and among types of commercials.

The ad-recall data were analyzed by logistic regression. The analysis was

conducted with recall as the criterion variables and designed commercials, degree of

product involvement, and the interaction between the two as predictors. The logistic

analysis revealed that the two-way interaction among types of commercials and degree of

involvement was predicted to lead to ad recall. Ad recall was supported by a significant

two-way interaction (types of commercials, 0 = .413, Wald / X =11.7, p < .05; degree of

involvement, P = .674, Wald/ /=11.3, p < .05). Thus, hypothesis H3 was supported.

Table 4-6. Ad Recall Crosstabulation and Chi-Square Tests
Ad Recall
Yes None Total
Clay animation 81 85 166
Cartoon animation 23 143 166
Live action 57 109 166
Total 337 161 498
*Pearson 2 = 46.8, df=2, p < .05










Table 4-7. Group difference for Ad Recall in Types of Commercials
Treatment
Types Involvement M S.D Ad Recall M S.D N Total
Clay High 3.5 1.3 Yes 4.7 1.1 43
animation (n=87) None 4.6 1.0 44 Yes (n=81)
(n=166) Low 3.2 1.5 Yes 3.6 1.3 38 None(n=85)
(n=79) None 3.3 1.5 41
Cartoon High 2.3 1.3 Yes 6.0 1.7 3
animation (n=20) None 3.7 1.7 17 Yes (n=23)
(n=166) Low 2.2 1.1 Yes 2.1 .86 20 None(n=143)
(n= 146) None 2.2 1.2 126
Live action High 2.7 1.3 Yes 4.9 1.1 45
(n=166) (n=130) None 4.9 1.4 85 Yes (n=57)
Low 2.7 1.3 Yes 3.5 1.3 12 None(n=109)
(n=36) None 3.1 1.5 24

Table 4-8. Binary Logit Analysis in experiment 1
Overall model fit
Goodness of fit measures Value
-2LL 607.29
Cox & Snell R2 .038
Nagelkerke R2 .054
Sdf Sig.
Hosmer & Lemeshow 29.267 4 .000

Table 4-9. Variables in the Equation
Variable B S.E. Wald / Sig.
Types of Commercials .413 .121 11.7 .001
Degree of Involvement .674 .200 11.3 .001
Constant .937 .356 6.93 .008


4.1.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis in Experiment 1

RQi addressed how the tripartite attitudinal dimension can be explained in

different types of commercials and if there are differences in the model of tripartite

attitudinal dimensions in different types of commercials (e.g., clay, cartoon and live

action commercials).

The values of selected fit indexes for the multi-sample analysis of the path model

with equality-constrained direct effects are reported in Tables 4-5 and 4-6. The values of

the comparative fit index (CFI), Bentler-Bonett Normed (NFI), Bentler-Bonett Nonormed









(NNFI) are over .96 and standardized RMR (SRMR), and root-mean-square error of

approximation (RMSEA) were satisfied by this criteria (below .05 and .08) respectively.

It can be said that this model fit is acceptable because the result would satisfy the criteria.

Table 4-10 and 4-11 and Figure 4-5 show the unstandardized and standardized

solutions. Generally, the unstandardized path coefficients are appropriate for between

group comparisons while standardized path coefficients are generally used to compare

paths within groups. The basic rationale for a multiple group path analysis is the same

whether the model is recursive or nonrecursive. Statistical significance of a modification

index thus indicates a group difference on that parameter. Values of modification indexes

for this analysis are reported in tables 4-8 and 4-9 and they indicate that there is no

significant group difference on each path (p>.05). Within three samples, all paths (e.g.,

cognition on affection and conation, affection on conation) are statistically significant (p

< .05). However, the unstandardized path coefficients of cognition on affection in cartoon

commercial (y = .713) is highly scored compared to other commercials (y = .629 for live

action and y = .548 for clay animated commercial). The unstandardized path coefficients

of cognition on conation in clay animated commercial (y = .657) is highly scored

compared to other commercials (y = .571 for live action formatted and y = .408 for

cartoon animated commercial). The unstandardized path coefficients of affection on

conation in live action formatted commercial (P = .336) is highly scored compared to

other commercials (P = .304 for clay animated and 0 = .303 for cartoon commercial).

In clay animation model, the standardized path coefficient of cognition to

affection was y = .462, of cognition to conation was y = .417, and of affection to conation










was P = .274. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored

compared to affection to conation (y = .417 and 0 = .274).

In cartoon animation model, the standardized path coefficient of cognition to

affection was y = .603, of cognition to conation was y = .419, and of affection to conation

was P = .368. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored

compared to affection to conation (y = .419 and 0 = .368).

In live action commercial model, the standardized path coefficient of cognition to

affection was y = .540, of cognition to conation was y = .408, and of affection to conation

was p = .280. The standardized path coefficients of cognition to conation is highly scored

compared to affection to conation (y = .408 and 0 = .280).

Figure 4-5. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in clay, cartoon and non-animated
commercials

SCognition cn


Conation


Affection



Table 4-10. Correlations Matrix in Experiment 1
Types of Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations
Commercials 1 2 3 M S.D
Clay animated 1 Cognition .19 .28 5.2 .97
commercial 2 Affection .49 5.9 .87
3 Conation 4.1 1.4
Cartoon commercial 1 Cognition .41 .36 3.5 1.4
2 Affection .61 4.8 1.0
3 Conation 2.4 1.4
Live action 1 Cognition .34 .37 5.6 1.0
commercial 2 Affection .53 6.0 .88
3 Conation 4.6 1.5
Note: Correlations above .36 are statistically significant at p < .01, .19 is statistically significant at p < .05










Table 4-11. Modification indexes for equality-constrained direct effects
Path coefficients from Modification
Direct Effect separate sample analyses a Index X2
Clay 1. Clay vs. Cartoon
1. Cognition Affection .548 (.462) 0.37
2. Cognition Conation .657 (.417) 2.60
3. Affection Conation .304 (.274)* 0.84
Cartoon 2. Cartoon vs. Live action
1. Cognition Affection .713 (.603) 0.23
2. Cognition Conation .408 (.419) 1.83
3. Affection Conation .303 (.368) _0.40
Live action 3. Live action vs. Clay
1. Cognition Affection .629 (.540)* 0.17
2. Cognition Conation .571 (.408)* 0.05
3. Affection Conation .336 (.280) 0.00
Note. Goodness of Fit:
1. x2 : 77.7(df:69), X2/df(1.12), CFI;.99,NFI;.96, NNFI;.98, SRMR;.050, RMSEA;.028
2. : 74.2(df:66), X/df(1.12), CFI;.99,NFI;.97, NNFI;.99, SRMR;.053, RMSEA;.027
3. : 70.7(df:62), X2/df(1.13), CFI;.99,NFI;.96, NNFI;.99, SRMR;.054, RMSEA;.029
a Unstandardized (standardized), p < .05


4.2 Experiment 2

4.2.1 Results for the Conditioning Experiment

Box's test checked the assumption of equality of covariance matrices. For these

data, p was 0.05, thus the homogeneity assumption was violated, but only marginally. In

the low-product categories, data was analyzed using a MANOVA on the dependent

variables, attitude toward the commercial, attitude toward the brand, and purchase

intention. The study conducted a 2 (experimental vs. control group) x 2 (high and low

product involvement) between subjects factorial design with two levels for each of the

two independent variables, experimental vs. control group and level of product

involvement (high vs. low). A MANOVA was used to examine differences between the

two different conditions on linear combinations of all dependent variables, and a between

subject designed ANOVA was performed on each dependent variable. Where necessary,

a series of t-tests followed to examine the mean difference on two different groups and










the logit regression was conducted to test the specific hypotheses because contingency

awareness was coded as dichotomous variables (awareness=l and 0=unawareness). Table

4-12, 4-13 and 4-14 illustrates the results of a MANOVA showing the ANOVA results,

means, standard deviations, and Wilks' Lambda.

Table 4-12. Means and Standard Deviations by Condition
Treatment
Pleasure Arousal ATTA ATTB PI
Groups Involvement
Conditioning High 7.4 (1.2/119) 5.8 (1.6/119) 5.6 (0.9/119) 5.4 (0.7/119) 4.6 (1.1/119)
treatment Low 6.0 (2.1/47) 5.3 (1.8/47) 4.4 (1.3/47) 4.2(1.2/47) 2.9 (1.3/47)
Total 7.0(1.6/166) 5.7(1.7/166) 5.2(1.2/166) 1.0(1.1/166) 4.1(1.4/166)
Conditioning High 6.9 (1.4/35) 5.3 (1.7/35) 5.2 (0.9/35) 4.9 (1.0/35) 4.1 (1.3/35)
control Low 4.8 (1.6/130) 3.7 (1.5/130) 3.2 (1.5/130) 3.0 (1.2/130) 2.9 (0.7/130)
Total 5.2(1.8/165) 4.0(1.7/165) 3.6(1.6/165) 3.4(1.4/165) 3.2(1.0/165)
High 7.3(1.3/154) 5.7(1.7/154) 5.5(.98/154) 5.3/.87/154) 4.5(1.1/154)
Total Low 5.1(1.8/177) 4.1(1.7/177) 3.5(1.5/177) 3.3(1.3/177) 2.9(.94/177)
Total 6.1(1.9/331) 4.8(1.9/331) 4.4(1.6/331) 4.2(1.5/331) 3.6(1.3/331)
*M(S.D/N)

Table 4-13. Manova Results
Treatments Wilk's
Lambda F d.f
Conditioning
Conditi g .872 9.51 .000
Valence of
involvement Dependent .620 39.5 (1,327) .000
involvement Variables
Conditioning X Variables
Involvement .943 3.88 .002










Table 4-14 Results of Be s


Conditioning (conditioning treatment and conditioning control) x degree of Involvement (high and low)
Note: Scales for mean scores are from 1 to 7 with 7 being most positive. And scales of pleasure and arousal for mean
scores are from 1 to 9 with 7 being most positive. n=331.


CD
W,
3
Lii


High 6.9


Low


Ien
Experiment


Figure 4-6. Interaction Effect of Emotional Response: Pleasure
Degree of Involvement x experiment and control group


I
Control


Independent Dependent MS
Variables Variables d.f F p
Pleasure 46.4 1 20.1 .000
Arousal 70.1 1 26.6 .000
ATTAD 37.4 1 25.4 .000
Conditioning ATTAB 38.8 1 34.0 .000
Purchase Intention 3.85 1 3.62 .058
Pleasure 189.5 1 82.2 .000
Arousal 67.6 1 25.6 .000
Degree of ATTAD 156.0 1 105.9 .000
involvement ATTAB 144.3 1 126.4 .000
Purchase Intention 114.3 1 107.5 .000
Pleasure 9.01 1 3.90 .049
Arousal 16.2 1 6.15 .014
Conditioning X ATTAD 11.0 1 7.50 .007
Involvement ATTAB 16.2 1 5.32 .022
Purchase Intention 4.01 1 3.76 .053













5.igh
5.3


Low


Ient
Experiment


Figure 4-7. Interaction Effect of Emotional Response: Arousal


High 6.9


Low


I
Experiment


Co1to


Figure 4-8. Interaction Effect of Attitude toward the Ad


>
[1s


>
[7


I
Control