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Facies Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity of Lagoonal Sediments in a Holocene Transgressive Barrier Island Sequence...

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FACIES DISTRIBUTION AND HYDRAUL IC CONDUCTIVITY OF LAGOONAL SEDIMENTS IN A HOLOCENE TRANSGRESSIVE BARRIER ISLAND SEQUENCE, INDIAN RIVE R LAGOON, FLORIDA By KEVIN M. HARTL A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Kevin M. Hartl

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the St. Johns Wate r Management District for funding my research. I would like to thank my adviso r, Dr. John M. Jaeger, for his advice and guidance throughout my research. I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Jonathan B. Martin and Dr. Elizabeth J. Scr eaton, for their assistan ce in my research and thesis development. I would like to thank my supervisor, Ray G. Thomas, for his scientific advice and mentori ng and for his constant support while balancing my research and work responsibilities. I would like to thank Dr. Jason H. Curtis for assistance with my radiocarbon analysis as well as his pe rsonal guidance and friendship throughout my time at the University of Florida. I would like to thank John Slapcinsky, Dr. Gustav Paulay, and Dr. Fred G. Thompson with the Florida Museum of Natural History, Malacology collections, as th ey gave a great deal of assistance with my shell identifications. I would like to thank all of the faculty and staff in the Department of Geological Sciences for their unwavering suppo rt and guidance. I would like to thank my parents for their love and support th roughout my lengthy academic career. And finally, I would especially like to thank my wife, Jill DeNicola Hartl, for her endless love, patience, and companionship over the last four teen years and for taking care of our three beautiful children, Sophia, Zachary, and Is abella, while I was finishing my thesis. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES ..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 BACKGROUND..........................................................................................................7 Geologic Setting ...........................................................................................................7 Previous Work in the Indian River Lagoon ..................................................................8 Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models .................................................................9 Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity .............................................................11 3 METHODS.................................................................................................................16 Data Collection ...........................................................................................................16 Lithostratigraphy .........................................................................................................18 Biostratigraphy ...........................................................................................................19 Chronostratigraphy .....................................................................................................20 Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity .............................................................21 Measured Hydraulic Conductivity ..............................................................................22 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................24 Lithostratigraphy .........................................................................................................24 CIRL39 ................................................................................................................24 BRL2 ...................................................................................................................25 NIRL6 ..................................................................................................................27 NIRL24 ................................................................................................................28 Physical Properties Summary .....................................................................................30 Biostratigraphy ...........................................................................................................30 Chronostratigraphy .....................................................................................................31 iv

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Grain-size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity ..............................................................32 Measured Hydraulic Conductivity ..............................................................................32 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................46 Sedimentary Facies and Depositional Environments .................................................46 Marine Facies ......................................................................................................46 Brackish and Lacustrine Facies ...........................................................................47 Lagoonal Facies ...................................................................................................52 Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models ...............................................................53 Measured and Grain-Size M odeled Hydraulic Conductivity .....................................54 Spatial Variability in Sedi ment Properties over 0.04 km2..........................................56 6 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................61 Summary .....................................................................................................................61 Future Work ................................................................................................................63 LIST OF REFERENCES ...................................................................................................65 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................................................................72 v

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Location and lengths of sediment cores ...................................................................17 4-1 Reported radiocarbon ages a nd converted calendar year ages. ................................32 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Modified site map of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system. ...................................5 1-2 Generalized model of a transgressive barrier complex.. ............................................6 2-1 Physiographic map of ea st-central Florida include ..................................................14 2-2 Classification of estuaries. ........................................................................................15 3-1 Site occupation for water chemistry and sediment analysis. ....................................23 4-1 CIRL39. (A) Physical properties of th e center core, (B) Co lor images of all cores collected, (C) Lithostratigra phy and depositi onal environments ....................34 4-2 BRL2. (A) Physical properties of the center core, (B) Color images of all cores collected, (C) Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments .............................37 4-3 NIRL6. (A) Physical properties of the center core, (B) Color images of all cores collected, (C) Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments .............................40 4-4 NIRL24. (A) Physical properties of th e center core, (B) Color images of all cores collected, (C) Lithostratigra phy and depositi onal environments ....................43 5-1 Predictions of hydraulic conductivity using the Carmen-Kozeny equation .............58 5-2 Log/Log comparisons of the CK and modified CK equation. .................................59 5-3 Chloride profiles compared to lithology and hydraulic conductivity.......................60 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science FACIES DISTRIBUTION AND HYDRAUL IC CONDUCTIVITY OF LAGOONAL SEDIMENTS IN A HOLOCENE TRANSGRESSIVE BARRIER ISLAND SEQUENCE, INDIAN RIVE R LAGOON, FLORIDA By Kevin M. Hartl May 2006 Chair: John M. Jaeger Major Department: Geological Sciences The determination of nutrient fluxes in coas tal and estuarine settings is important for ecological management. However, calcul ations of nutrient budgets have generally ignored the potential contri bution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) due to difficulties quantifying the volume of water disc harging. Measured discharge is areally heterogeneous and often greater than the discharge calculated from water budgets and ground water flow models. Observations of mixing between the water column and pore waters to a depth of ~70 cm below sea fl oor suggest local vari ability in sediment hydraulic conductivity as a possible cause for th e discrepancy. The Indian River lagoon (IRL) is a transgressive barrier island system and therefore an ideal location to test the influence of hydraulic conductivity on SGD. Existing facies models for transgressive barrier environments predict a complex spatia l distribution of sediment textures that range from highly permeable, mature sands to nearly impermeable muds. Study of the facies distribution within IRL provides a comparison to existing generalized facies viii

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models and aids in development of a depositional model for lagoonal evolution. The variability in sediment textures also allo w for comparison of methods for measurement and modeling of hydraulic conductivity over a broad range of values. Four sites in the northern ~45 km of IRL, previously identified as representing a wide range of groundwater discharge rates and bottom sediment textures, were each selected for a 200 m wide spatial vibracori ng program of the upper three meters of lagoonal sediments. Four major depositional en vironments were identified in the upper 3 m of Indian River Lagoon sediments: mari ne, brackish, lacustrine, and lagoonal. However, the limited tidal prism of the nor thern Indian River Lagoon has prevented any significant redistribution of the brackish and lagoonal deposits as is more common in mesotidal barrier island systems. The result is a stratigraphic sequence that is not predicted by facies models for tr ansgressive barrier island systems. The theoretical model of hydraulic conductivity based on sediment textural data over predicted the measured values by up to four orders of magnitude. A modification to the wellknown Carmen-Kozeny (CK) equation was constructed by adding a mud term, to reflect the down-core variability in relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi The result was a better fit between measured and modeled values for all of the sites tested. Over all hydraulic conductivity values for the upper 3 m of sediments in IRL range from 10 -2 10 -8 cm/sec. However, within the upper ~70 cmbsf, values only varied by tw o orders of magnitude (10 -2 10 -4 cm/sec). Therefore, at the sites tested, the observed spatial variability in fluid exchange depth within the surface mixing zone is not due to variation in hydraulic of the sediments. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a transg ressive, wave-dominated, siliciclastic barrier island system. It extends nearly 250 km along Floridas central Atlantic coast (Fig. 1-1). Extensive agriculture surr ounding the lagoon has led to concerns of eutrophication from surface water runoff a nd corresponding ecological changes in the lagoon (Sigua et al., 2000). Because of poten tial ecological changes, the St. Johns River Water Management District, a state agency responsible for the lagoon, has initiated a modeling effort to identify the potential sour ces of excess nutrients and develop a plan to reduce nutrient loading to the lagoon from su rface water runoff. Howe ver, little attention has been given to quantification of nut rient fluxes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) (Zimmerman et al., 1985; Montgomery et al., 1979). The problem has been the ability to quantify the magnitude of SGD. Measured discharge is areally heterogeneous and ofte n greater than the discharge calculated from water budgets and ground water flow models (e.g., Galla gher et al., 1996; Robi nson and Gallagher, 1999; Moore, 1996; Li et al., 1999; Belanger and Walker, 1990; Pandit and El-Khazen, 1990; Martin et al., 2002; Martin et al., 2004). One hypothesis is that discrepancies coul d arise from the exchange of water between the water column and pore waters of shallowly-buried sediments (Bokuniewicz, 1992; Burnett et al., 2002; Rasmussen, 1998; Ma rtin et al., 2004). Using multi-level piezometers called multisamplers develope d by Martin et al. (2003), Martin et al. (2004) found rapid and significant variations in pore water Cl concentrations suggesting 1

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2 the presence of two flow regimes within the upper 230 cm of lagoonal sediments. At depths greater than ~70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf), groundwater flow appears to be driven upward by the higher hydraulic head of the underlying aquifer at flow rates consistent with previous estimates using fi nite element flow models (Pandit and ElKhazen, 1990; Moore, 1996; Robinson and Gallaghe r, 1999; Li et al., 199 9; Martin et al., 2004). At depths less than ~70 cmbsf, active mixing between pore water and the overlying water column appears to be dominant. Therefore, it appears that SGD in the Indian River Lagoon is derived from two prim ary sources: fresh water, discharging from terrestrial aquifers, and marine water, circulating through surface sediments. Driving forces for pore water mixing in th e shallow (< ~70 cmbsf) sediments may include a combination of bi oirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and density-driven convection (e.g. Emerson et al., 1984; Shum, 1992). Wave pumping and convection are likely to be minor due to a small tidal range limited fetch within the lagoon, and lack of strong density contrasts betw een lagoon and pore waters (M artin et al., 2006). The mixing depth of 70 cmbsf is greater than ha s previously been attributed to either bioirrigation or wave pumping alone, so Martin et al. (2004) suggested that a combination of bioirrigation and wave pumping coupled with highly permeable sediments may allow such deep mixing. Permeab ility (k) is an intrinsic physical property of sediments. When water is the permeant, the term hydraulic c onductivity (K) is used, which is a measure of the rate at which wa ter can move through a porous medium under a given driving force (Fetter, 2001). To da te, no studies have been conducted on the hydraulic conductivity of IRL sediments with the resolution required to explain the observed local and regional spatial variability in SGD. It has therefore become necessary

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3 to describe and quantify the physical propert ies of lagoonal sediments as well as their spatial variability to gain a better understanding of the physical controls on SGD and the potential nutrient flux into the water column. Sediments in barrier island environments are deposited in relatively shallow and occasionally energetic waters. Common subenvironments include channel fills, mussel/oyster beds, washover fans, tidal flats and marshes. Se diment facies produced in each of these subenvironments can have te xtures that range from highly permeable mature sands to nearly impermeable muds (D avies et al., 1971). Previous works on local and regional scales have char acterized the evolution of the southern Indian River Lagoon system in general terms as a transgressive barrier island sequence (Almasi, 1983; Bader and Parkinson, 1990; Davis et al., 1992). Figure 1-2 illustrates a generalized facies model for a transgressive barrier island system in which each of the various subenvironments migrate laterally in respons e to sea level rise. If this model is applicable to the Indian River Lagoon system lateral migration of the subenvironments should be reflected in the vertical facies sequence, assuming preservation of the stratigraphic record. Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity will depend on the relative occurrence and thic kness of sediment facies produced in each of these subenvironments (Fig. 1-2). This study examines the sediment facies distribution, textur al properties, and hydraulic conductivity of 28 cores collected on both local (200 m) and regional (~45 km) scales within the northern ~45 km of the In dian River Lagoon system. There are three primary goals for this study. First, identificatio n of the local (200 m) spatial variability of sediment facies will aid in development of a conceptual model for Holocene lagoonal

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4 evolution on the regional (~45 km) scale. Second, comparison of field and laboratory measurements of hydraulic conductivity with mathematical models, based on sediment textural data will improve our abilities of predicting hydraulic conductivity using grain size analysis. And th ird, comparison of the down-core variability in measured and modeled hydraulic conductivity of the lagoonal sediments with pore water mixing depths reported by Martin et al. (2004) will allow assessment of the degree to which spatial variability in subsurface sediment facies co ntrols the location and magnitude of SGD. The following hypotheses were tested: Sediments of the Indian River Lagoon Syst em represent the facies succession of typical transgressive barrier island sy stems as presented in figure 1-2; Mathematical models based on sediment te xtural data can successfully predict the hydraulic conductivity of IRL sediments; The observed spatial heterogeneity in SGD is controlled by variability in sediment facies and their respective hydraulic conductivities. Results of this study impact three areas of scientific re search. First, the facies distribution observed within the Indian River Lagoon system can be compared to generalized facies models for barrier isla nd systems (e.g. fig. 1-2) to delineate common features from local irregularities. Further development of such models will aid in predictions of facies distributions in sim ilar geologic settings, both past and present. Second, laboratory and field measurement of hydraulic conductivity is both expensive and time consuming. A more rapid and ine xpensive method was discovered using grain size analysis to identify the critical se diment properties cont rolling the hydraulic conductivity of unconsolidated coastal sedime nts. And third, comparison of sediment physical properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity ) with SGD observations define the contribution of hydraulic conductivity to spatial heterogeneity in SGD.

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5 Figure 1-1. Modified site map of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system with physiographic divisions from White ( 1970) and Cape formation ages from Brooks (1972). Original map produced by Dr. John M. Jaeger.

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6 Figure 1-2. Generalized model illustrati ng the various sub-environments of a transgressive barr ier complex. (From Reinson, G.E., 1992), modified to include the range of typical hydraulic conductivity value for each of the subenvironments as presented in Fetter (2001).

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CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND Geologic Setting The northern Indian River Lagoon system includes the Banana River Lagoon, Mosquito Lagoon, and the cuspate-forelands, Fa lse Cape and Cape Canaveral (Fig. 1-1), and is the southern most re gressional component of the Ge orgia Bight Barrier System (Hayes, 1994). Based on the morphology of th is region, it is classified as a shallowwater, wave dominated, silici clastic, barrier island system under the influence of mild tectonic uplift (Hayes, 1994). The tectoni c uplift may be an isostatic response (epeirogenic uplift) to karst development and dissolution of bedrock in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene similar to uplift observed in the Trail Ridge area (Opdyke et al., 1984) (Fig. 2-1). This tectonic regime is thought to have been in existence since late Paleocene as relict beach ridges provide physiographic evidence of sim ilar structural trends (e.g. Ocala High uplift) that have influenced development of similar cuspate-foreland morphologies across east-central Florida (C olquhoun, 1983; Scott, 1997). For example, the modern Cape Canaveral is developing on th e remnants of a similar Pleistocene cape (Fig. 1-1) (Osmond et al., 1970; Brooks, 1972). White (1970) identified a relict Cape Orlando, a near identical ridge/cuspate-for eland system formed by the mount Dora Ridge, Orlando Ridge, and Lake Wales Ridge, n early 40 miles due west and 125 ft above current sea level (Fig. 2-1). Holocene sediments on the east coast of Florida include a thin band of beach, dune, marsh, and lagoon deposits that have developed in response to th e latest rise in sea level 7

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8 (Davis, 1997; Scott, 1997). Distribution of Holocene sedime nts in the northern Indian River Lagoon is largely controlled by th e antecedent topography of the underlying Pleistocene deposits (Davis, 1997) The most notable Pleisto cene sedimentary unit in this study area is the Anastasia Formation. This formation consists of interbedded quartz sands and more importantly coquina, an accumulation of shells lithified during periods of meteoric diagenesis (Scott, 1991; Mc Neill, 1983, 1985). These coquina deposits currently form the backbone of the modern barrier islands as well as the mainland coast of the lagoon (Atlantic Barrier Chain and Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig. 2-1) (Tanner, 1960; Bader and Stauble, 1987; Almasi, 1983; Davis, 1997). Although sedimentary units of the Pleist ocene are predominantly siliciclastic, erosion of the Miocene and Plio cene strata provided much of the material (Scott, 1997). Continued reworking again has provided much of the material for the Holocene units. The predominant external suppl y of modern sediment to th e Indian River Lagoon System is through long-shore transport, which decreases by half sout h of Cape Canaveral (Davis, 1997). Previous Work in the Indian River Lagoon Bader and Parkinson (1990) and Almasi (1983) provided the most comprehensive work to date on the stratigraphy and evolution of the Indian River Lagoon. In a series of vibracores collected across 6 shore-normal tran sects from St. Lucie north to Melbourne, Almasi 1983 described a complex distribution of facies with in the upper three to nine meters of bottom sediments. Based on sediment texture, fauna, 11 radiocarbon dates, and comparisons to published Holocene sea level cu rves of Scholl et al. (1969) and Neumann (1969), the observed facies were attributed to three deposi tional environments; marine, brackish, and lagoonal. Sediments of the mari ne environment were interpreted as shore

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9 face and offshore bar deposits of a late Pleistocene sea level high stand. The brackish and lagoonal environments are thought to ha ve initiated upon marine inundation about 5000-6000 Cal. BP. However, other than possible barrier dune wa shover processes, Almasi (1983) could not define a depos ition mechanism for Holocene Lagoonal infilling. Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models Transgressive shorelines along the Atlantic coast of North America are dominantly influenced by relative sea level rise and a lo w contribution of sediments from rivers and streams draining into the area (Kraft, 1978). The balance between wave energies, tidal ranges and prisms, erosion rates, and antecedent topography are the driving forces in barrier island morphology and migration (Dalrymple et al., 1992; Harris et al., 2002). Under these conditions, if sea level rise a nd erosion rates are balanced, barriers may migrate more or less continuously landward as sea level rises. Any back barrier lagoonal facies would likely be eroded in this process (Reinson, 1992). Alternatively, if the rate of sea level rise exceeds erosion rates, barriers may remain in pl ace as sea level rises to the level of the top of the dunes; then the surf zone may jump landward to establish a new shoreline, thus drowning the barrier in place (Sanders and Kumar, 1975). In this case, an entire sequence of transg ressional lagoon facies may be preserved (Reinson, 1992). Predictive models of estuarine systems ha ve been developed to demonstrate the sedimentologic and morphologic responses to the balance of these driving forces (Reinson, 1992) (Figs. 1-2 & 2-2). Sedime nts supplying the lagoon/estuary are generally considered to be either of marine origin (e.g. washover or tidal inlet) or of mainland fluvial origin. In all of the models, a zona tion of facies is expected in which coarser fractions of marine and fluvi al sediments fall out along th eir respective lagoon/estuarine margins while the finer grained sediments of fl uvial and marine origin concentrate in the

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10 center of the depositional system in a zone under the influence of a mi xture of fluvial and marine depositional processes. As transgression and regression occur, facies produced within each of these zones (e.g. fluvial, mixed fluvial-marine, marine) will migrate and overlap. The northern region of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) barrier system, however, is rather unique when compare to the transgressiv e barrier systems used in the generation of facies models such the ones presented in figures 1-2 and 2-2. The most important difference is the lack of a near by tidal inle t to allow connection to marine depositional sources and processes. Without a diurnal influx and exit of significant amounts marine water, there can be no development of tidal channels, tidal flats, marshes, and delta deposits on the flood and ebb side of inlets. While tidal currents dominate morphology in the vicinity of lagoon inlets (Sebastian, Ft. Pi erce, and St. Lucie), current velocity drops off rapidly away from these regions to < 10 cm/s (Smith, 1990). Within the study area, Smith (1987) reported a semi-diu rnal tidal constituent of 0-5 cm. Sediments in northern IRL will likely not therefore develop a ch aracter typically associated for lagoonal deposits such as interfingering fine sands, si lts, muds, and peat deposits that may be characterized by disseminated plant remains, brackish-water invertebrates fossils, and horizontal to sub-horizon tal layering (Boggs, 1995). The IRL barrier system is also unique because much of the antecedent topography for Holocene lagoonal development is made up of Anastasia Fm coquina and thus resistant to lateral migration. Inherent to th e identification of transg ressive or regressive facies successions (Figs. 1-2 and 2-2) is the assumption that depositional environments will migrate and overlap in a landward or seaward (shore-norma l) direction. If lateral

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11 migration is prevented, the resulting facies succession will show a vertical change in depositional environment but the lateral cha nge will reflect the topography of the lagoon floor rather than a progressive migr ation in a shore-normal orientation. Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity The ability to predict permeability (k) and hydraulic conductivity (K) and variations in permeability (heterogeneity) of porous media such as unconsolidated sediments is of vital importance to many area s of geologic and geotec hnical investigation and management. In the field of petrol eum geology, reservoir characterization and development plans rely first and foremost on permeability estimates (Panda and Lake 1994). Hydraulic conductivity estimates ar e important for geotechnical problems (e.g. seepage losses, settlement computations, a nd stability analysis) as well as for the development, management, and protection of groundwater resources (Masch and Denny, 1966; Alyamani and Sen, 1993; Boadu, 2000). In the field of environmental protection, prediction of likely flow paths for petrol eum leakage from underground storage tanks depends primarily estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding soils (Cronican and Gribb, 2004). And in coastal sediments, investigation into the geochemical processes controlled by pore wa ter circulation (e.g. remineralization of organic matter and nutrient cycling) has requi red the quantification of sediment hydraulic conductivity to delineate potential flow path s and make comparisons with observed flow rates (Boudreau et al., 2001; Foster et al., 2003; Martin et al., 2006). A relationship between grain-size distri bution and hydraulic c onductivity has been recognized for nearly 100 years. Methods of predicting hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution through quantitative relations have been developed by analogy to pipe flow and flow in capillaries (Koze ny, 1927; Carmen, 1937). Besides predictive

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12 methods, empirical relations have also b een used (Hazen, 1911; Krumbein and Monk, 1942; Morrow et al., 1969; Berg, 1970; Alyamani and Sen, 1993; Koltermann and Gorelick, 1995). Equations re lating grain-size distributi on to hydraulic conductivity are of the form (generalized from Freeze and Cherry, 1979, p.351): K = ( g/ )c s d m Where K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T), = fluid density (M/L 3 ), g = gravitational acceleration (L/T 2 ), = dynamic viscosity (M/LT), c s = factor representing the shape and packing of grains (dimensionless), d = representative grain diameter (L), m = an exponent, often equal to 2 (dimensionless). Furnas (1929) found that porosity and hydraulic conductivity in sediment mixtures depends on the fractional concentrations of each particle size, the diameter ratio, and particle packing. The effects of particle size, compaction, and sedi ment sorting can be accounted for in the CarmenKozeny (CK) equation presented in Bear (1972, p. 166), which takes the form: K = ( g/ ) d 2 3 / 180(1) 2 Where K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T), = fluid density (M/L 3), g = gravitational acceleration (L/T 2 ), = dynamic viscosity (M/LT), d = representative grain diameter (median) (L), = total porosity, accounting for compaction (dimensionless). The CK equation was chosen for this inve stigation because (1) it has gained wide spread acceptance in the literature (Panda and Lake, 1994; Boadu, 2000), (2) all of the input parameters have been measured in this study with a down-cor e resolution of 5 cm, and (3) results of this study can be compared to Foster et al. (2003), who found that the

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13 CK equation overestimated measured vertical hydraulic condu ctivity of surface sediments (0 10 cm) in the southern Baltic Sea by more than a factor of 3.

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14 Figure 2-1. Physiographic map of east-central Florida modified to include an outline of the relict Cape Orlando as in terpreted by White 1970. Cape Orlando demonstrates the persistence of a st ructural high controlling the morphology of this region at least through the Pleistocene.

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15 Figure 2-2 Classification of estuaries (based on volume of the tidal prism) illustrating morphologic, oceanographic, and sedi mentological characteristics of each estuary type (Reinson 1992). Indian River Lagoon is wave dominated and microtidal so the lateral extent of sediment facies should be limited as depicted in this model (red Rectangle).

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CHAPTER 3 METHODS Data Collection Sediments for this study were collected using a vibracoring technique described by Sanders and Imbrie (1963), Buchanan (1970), Harris (1977), and Lane sky et al. (1979). The vibracorer consisted of an 8 HP, Briggs & Stratton, air cooled, gasoline powered engine connected to a vibrati ng head via a 20 foot long flexib le shaft. The vibrating head was clamped to the core tube that consiste d of 3 inch, thin-walle d aluminum irrigation pipe. Kirby (1974) confirmed that use of this technique produces little or no deformation of sediment layering. Compaction for the co res was about 14%. This was calculated by measuring the distance between the sediment water interface and the top of the sediment in the core, prior to extraction. Vibracores for this study were collected from three sites located in the northern end of the Indian River Lagoon (NIRL6, NIRL24, and CIRL39) and one site in the southern end of the Banana Rive Lagoon (BRL2) (Fig. 11) (Table 3-1). These sites have been selected primarily for their ease of access, wide range of groundwat er discharge rates and bottom sediment textures, and regional distribution (~45 km). At the center of each site, a multisampler and a seepage meter were in stalled to measure water chemistry and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates, and two vibracores were collected for evaluation of the physical properties of lagoona l strata (Fig. 3-1). A multisampler is a multi-level piezometer capable of sampling pore water from discrete intervals (5-10 cm), up to 280 cmbsf. Seepage meters isolate an area of the lagoon floor and measure the flux 16

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17 of water across the sediment-water interface vi a a collection bag att ached to a port on the top of the meter. Martin et al. (2005) pr ovides a report of multisampler and a seepage meter data. Water chemistry data used by Martin et al. (2005) to estimate pore water mixing depths was compared to measured and modeled values for hydraulic conductivity determined in this study to assess the degr ee to which sediment physical properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) influence the depth of mixing. Table 3-1. Location and lengths of sedime nt cores. UTM locations are Zone 17N, WGS84 datum. Site Water Depth Core Name Latitude Longitude UTM X UTM Y Length NIRL6 0.5 m NIRL6C1 28.75385 80.8392 515,700 3,180,726 283 cm NIRL6C2 515,700 3,180,726 305 cm NIRL6N 515,700 3,180,826 280 cm NIRL6S 515,700 3,180,626 285 cm NIRL6E 515,800 3,180,726 292 cm NIRL6W 515,600 3,180,726 272 cm NIRL24 0.7 m NIRL24C1 28.73529 80.77575 521,897 3,178,679 223 cm NIRL24C2 521,897 3,178,679 302 cm NIRL24N 521,897 3,178,779 615 cm NIRL24E 521,997 3,178,679 324 cm NIRL24W 521,797 3,178,679 320 cm BRL2 1.5 m BRL2C1 28.27500 80.65111 534,223 3,127,726 268 cm BRL2C2 534,223 3,127,726 263 cm BRL2N 534,223 3,127,826 238 cm BRL2S 534,223 3,127,626 299 cm BRL2E 534,323 3,127,726 89 cm BRL2W 534,123 3,127,726 248 cm CIRL39 1.5 m CIRL39C1 28.11667 80.61806 537,503 3,110,176 284 cm CIRL39C2 537,503 3,110,176 246 cm CIRL39N 537,503 3,110,276 200 cm CIRL39S 537,503 3,110,076 400 cm CIRL39E 537,603 3,110,176 249 cm CIRL39W 537,403 3,110,176 300 cm In order to characterize spa tial variability in sediment ary facies surrounding each site, four additional vibracores were collect ed at distances of ~100 m north, south, east and west of the center locati on. Most vibracores were >1 m in length with some >3 m (Table 3-1). At BRL2, a semi-lithified coquina ridge at or near the lagoon floor, east of

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18 the center cores, forced the eastern core to be only ~50 m from the central cores with only 89 cm of sediment collected. A south core was not collected at NIRL24 due to poor weather conditions and logistical difficulties returning to the site. All sediment cores were stored vertically while in the field and laid horizontally for transport to laboratory facilities at the University of Florida. Upon return to the laboratory, all cores remained horizontal and care was taken to prevent sloshing or rotation. All cores were kept in cold (4 C) storage prior to an alyses described below. Lithostratigraphy Each core underwent a multi-sensor core scan for determination of total porosity ( using a Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) prior to being split for photography, descriptions and subsampling. This devi ce allows for automated high-resolution (0.51cm) down-core measurement of bulk density. Readers are referred to Geotek web site ( http://www.geotek.co.uk/mscl.html ) for detailed information on the specifics of the techniques. Calibration of the unit and conversion to gamma bulk density were performed using the technique of Gunn a nd Best (1998). Gamma bulk density is equivalent to wet, or saturated, bulk dens ity of the sample, but the term gamma bulk density or gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) porosit y is used as the device measures the attenuation of gamma rays from a 137 Cs source to determine wet bulk density. The conversion to porosity assumes a me an grain density (MGD) of 2.65 g/cm 3 and a water density (WD) of 1.01 g/cm 3 The MSCL generally has an error of 1% when compared with porosity measurements performed on di screte sediment samples (Gunn and Best 1998).

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19 With the exception of the replicate center cores, all cores were split in half using a circular saw. Cores were cleaned, desc ribed and then passed through the GEOSCAN II calibrated color core imaging system on the Geotek core logger. In this process, fluorescent light reflected off the surface of the core is split into three paths to fall on red, green, and blue detectors which, when combined, reproduce a conventional color image. Grain size measurements were made on the center core of each site at 5 cm intervals with depth. Each sample was wet sieved at < 63 micron (4 phi) for the silt and clay fraction, between 63 micron and 2 mm for the sand fraction, and > 2 mm (-1phi) for the gravel/shell fraction. The three fractions (silt and clay, sand, gravel/shell) were then dried and weighed to generate % fraction plots for each site. Grain size distributions of the sand fraction were determined using a se ttling column (Syvitski et al., 1991) and a Sedigraph (Coakley and Syvitski, 1991) was us ed on one sample from each of the four sites to determine a representative size distri bution of the mud fracti on. Size distribution of the gravel fraction was determined by vi sual separation to 1 phi intervals using a graphic sizing template. To determine the overall mean, median, sorting, and skewness of each sample, the size distri bution of the sand fraction was re-normalized to include respective percentages of the representati ve mud fraction distribution and gravel distribution. All grain si ze results are expressed in phi units (phi = log 2 (Diameter, mm)). Biostratigraphy All shell material > 2 mm (-1phi) was reta ined in the gravel fraction and whole shells were identified to species level when possible. Identifications were determined using reference material by Abbott (1954) and Internet material produced by the Smithsonian Marine Station loca ted in Fort Pierce, Florida ( http://www.sms.si.edu/ ).

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20 Attention was given to the in terpretation of the living envi ronments for each species and the presence of any zonation for the shells identified. Chronostratigraphy In order to determine rates of depositi on and the timing of ma rine inundation, four samples were collected for radiocarbon age dating; two from site NIRL6 and two from site CIRL39. Wood fragments were collect ed when possible, as wood is generally considered more reliable than soft plant ma terial (Meltzer and Mead, 1985). At site NIRL6, plant fragments were collected from between 96 and 100 cm below sea floor (cmbsf) and a 5 cm long intact wood fragment was collected from between 195 to 200 cmbsf. At site CIRL39, plant fragments were collected from between 94 and 94.5 cmbsf and wood fragments were collected from between 243 and 244 cmbsf. Upon collection, samples were pretreated in a four step process as follows; Two 20 minute soaks in 1N HCL at 90C, multiple 20 minute soaks in 1N NaOH at 90C, two 20 minute soaks in 1N HCL at 90C, multiple 1020 soaks in distilled water. Samples were then sent to the Department of Botany at the University of Florida and combusted to obtain several mg of CO2-C. These samples were loaded along with 20mg of CuO wires in 15cm Vycor tubes. Both the CuO wires a nd the Vycor tubes were pre-baked in air at 900C. The samples in the Vycor tubes were sealed under vacuum along with the CuO wires and combusted at 900C for two hours. The primary standard for 14 C analysis was NIST Oxalic acid II (SRM 4990C), while IAEA-C6 (ANU sucrose) was analyzed as secondary standard. Anthracite coal cleaned wi th a standard acid-base-acid treatment was used as a blank. All standards and blanks used for 14 C measurements were combusted and purified similarly to the samples.

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21 A portion of the sample CO2 was converted to graphite by reacting with H2 in presence of Fe catalyst (Vogel et al., 1987) The graphite samples were pressed into targets and sent for 14 C analysis at the W.M. Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at University of Ca lifornia, Irvine (Southon et al., 2004). All 14C results were expressed as 14 C after correcting for any mass-dependent fractionation of 13 C (Stuvier and Polach, 1977). Dates were originally reported in radi ocarbon years + one standard deviation. Using the radiocarbon calibration program, CALIB REV5.0.2 (Stuiver and Reimer, 1993), all age dates were converted to cal endar years before present (Cal. BP). Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity The initial equation used for modeling hydraulic conductivity using sediment textural data was the CarmenKozeny (CK) equation as presented in bear (1972, p. 166). All physical parameters were determined with a down-core resolution of 5 cm. Representative grain diameter ( d) was taken from the grain si ze distribution analysis and total porosity ( was calculated from the bulk density data, both described above in the Lithostratigraphy sect ion. Fluid density ( ) was calculated base d on temperature and salinity data collected by martin et al. (2005). Three standards were also prepared fo r modeling in the method described above and measurement in the method described below. To prepare the samples, quartz sand was first sieved in to three narrow grain si ze intervals using US standard sieve no.s 18 25, 35-40, and 60-70 respectively. The sieved sands were then packed into 10 cm sections of vibracore collec tion pipe by hand tamping on th e laboratory counter 30 times with light to medium force. For mo deling, representative grain diameter ( d) was assumed

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22 to be the mid point of the siev ed interval. Total porosity ( was not measured for the prepared standards. Instead, three different por osity values were chosen that fell within the likely range for well-s orted sands (Fetter, 2001). Measured Hydraulic Conductivity The replicate center cores rema ined un-split and were sectioned at 10 cm intervals. All but two of the sect ioned intervals were tested in a Mariotte style constant head permeameter for coarse-grained sedime nts, supplied by Trautwein Soil Testing Equipment. Samples remained undisturbed in the sectioned vibraco re collection tube, which served as a rigid wall support for the sa mple. All samples and standards were then tested using up to three hydraulic gradients when possible for better st atistical averaging. ASTM (2000) designation D 2434-68 was used as a guideline for general procedures. Two samples from the base of the BRL2 center core consisted of a bedded clay layer, so the hydraulic conductivity values were judged too low for testing in the apparatus described above. Th ese samples were tested with the DigiFlow K flexible wall permeameter, also supplied byTrautwein So il Testing Equipment, using a constant head method. The equipment consists of a cell (to contain the sample and provide isostatic effective stress) and three pumps (sample top pump, sample bottom pump, and cell pump). Bladder accumulators allow for the use of deionized water in the pumps while an idealized solution of s eawater (25 g NaCl and 8 g MgSO 4 per liter of water) permeated the sample. ASTM (1990) designation D 5084-90 was used as a guideline for general procedures.

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23 Figure 3-1. Site occupation for water chem istry analysis (multisampler), groundwater seepage rate measurement (seepage meter), and sediment analysis (vibracore).

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Lithostratigraphy The reader is referred to fi gures 4-1 A, B, & C thru 4-4 A, B, & C in the following discussion. In parts A, an image of the cente r core for each site is presented with the respective physical properties. In parts B, Im ages of all cores collected at each site are presented. In Parts C, identified lithofacies units and interpreted depositional environments are presented. Faunal identifications with depth for each site are presented in table format in Appendix A. The following sections are descriptions of the lithofacies units identified at each site. CIRL39 Five cores were logged and imaged from CIRL39; a center core and four perimeter cores 100 m to the north, south, east and west of center (Fig. 4-1, A, B, & C). Unit 39A consists of lt. green well sorted fine silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is pervasive but shell fragments and whole shells are scarce. Unit 39A is thickest (~1 m) in the west and center core but thins (~40 50 cm) to the north and so uth and is not present in the east core. The contact with underlying unit 39B is grada tional and median grain size shifts from fine to medium sand. Unit 39B consists of green and brown medium clayey quartz sand. Sorting values for unit 39B ranges from modera tely well to poorly sorted reflecting an increased abundance of shell material and m ud. Bioturbation remains pervasive. Wood and plant fragments are abundant, and a shell lag is present in all cores at depths ranging from 30 to 150 cm below sea floor (cmbsf). Unit 39B ranges in thickness from ~80 to 24

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25 100 cm but thins in the west core to ~ 50 cm. The contact with underlying unit 39C is sharp in the south, east, and we st cores but gradational in th e north and center cores. Unit 39C consists of green and brown mottled medium silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is generally limited to the upper 10 20 cm in unit 39C; however, large (~1cm diameter) burrows penetrate as much as 1 m. Abraded whole shells and shell fragments are scarce but wood and plant fragments remain abundant Unit 39C is moderately well sorted although sections with higher mud concentrati on become poorly sorted. The contact with underlying unit 39D is sharp in the south and eas t cores but gradational in the north, west, and center cores. Units 39C and 39D are inte rbedded in the south and east cores but the lower contacts are all gradational. The nor th, west, and center core s terminate within 20 cm of the initial contact with unit 39D so in terbedding with unit 39C may also be present beneath the cores from these locations. Unit 39 D consists of lt. to dk. brown organic rich fine clayey quartz sand. Biot urbation, wood and plant fragments, and shell fragments are all absent, and thickness of this unit ranges from 20 -30 cm in the south an d east cores. The center core did not extend far enough into unit 39D for sorting to be assessed. Only the south and east cores reached unit 39E. and the contact was sharp in the south core but gradational in the east core. Unit 39E consists of gray fine to medium clean quartz sand with abundant whole shells and shell fragments. Sieve and grain size analyses were not performed on unit 39E. BRL2 Five cores were logged and imaged from BRL2; a center core, three perimeter cores 100 m to the north, south, and west of center, and one core 50 m east of center (Fig. 4-2, A, B, & C). Unit 2A consists of tan to greenish tan well-sorted medium silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is pervasive and shell frag ments are scarce with the exception of a

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26 shell lag of fragments and whole shells in the base of the unit in the east, center, and west cores. Shell fragments and whole shells are present in the base of unit 2A in the north and south cores, however, not in significant abundance. The thickness of unit 2A is ~ 30 cm in all but the north core. In the north core, possible slumping activity has mixed unit 2A with the underlying unit 2B, making the cont act highly irregular. The contact with unit 2B is sharp in the west and east cores but gradational in the center core. The south core first has a sharp contact with unit 2E be fore a gradation contac t with unit 2B. Unit 2E consists of dk. brown medium quarts sandy clay with sparse shell fragments. Sieve and grain size analysis were not performed on unit 2E. Unit 2B consists of lt. to dk. brown mottled well sorted medium quartz sand with abundant wood and plant fragments. Bioturbation is limited to the upper 10 -20 cm and small shell fragments are almost non-existent. Unit 2B is the domi nant lithology in all but the east core with thickne sses of 1.5 2 m. In the east core, unit 2B has a thickness of only 20 cm and there is a sharp contact with the underlying unit 2D at ~55 cmbsf. The east core terminated on coquina at ~85 cmbsf. The south core also has a sharp contact between unit 2B and 2D but at a depth of 255 cmbsf. Although unit 2D is present in both the east and south cores, corre lation between the cores is un likely due to the wide depth range. Unit 2D consists of a bedded shell la g in a medium brown sandy clay matrix with a thickness of ~30 cm in both the South and east cores. Sieve and grain size analysis were not performed on unit 2D. Unit 2C was reached in the west, center, and south cores. In the west and center cores, the c ontact with overlying unit 2B is gradational at 230 and 240 cmbsf respectively. In the north co re, the gradational change from unit 2B to 2C is observed suggesting the presence of unit 2C deeper in this location. In the south

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27 core, the gradational change from unit 2B to 2C is also present but interrupted by unit 2D. Contacts with overlying unit 2B and underlying 2C are both sharp. Unit 2C consists of a massive green to lt. tan bedded clay. NIRL6 Five cores were logged and imaged from NIRL6; a center core and four perimeter cores 100 m to the north, south, east and west of center (Fig. 4-3, A, B & C). Unit 6A consists of medium to dark green well so rted fine silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is pervasive. Shell fragments are mixed throughout but genera lly occur in more concentrated lenses 1 2 cm thick. Unit 6A is 60 to 70 cm thick in the north, west, and center cores but thickens to 80 cm in the south core and thins to ~40 cm in the east core. Unit 6A terminates with a rapid gradational transition to unit 6B. Unit 6B consists of organic rich black moderately we ll sorted fine grained sandy silt. Unit 6B has the same general lithology as unit 6A with the add ition of the organic silt fraction. Unit 6B is less than 5 cm thick in the north, west, and center cores and grades rapidly to unit 6C. However, it thicke ns to ~30 cm in the south core and does not appear in the east core. In the south co re unit 6B is bound above and below by sharp contacts and is nearly void of shell material. Unit 6C consists of abundant whole shells (1 to 3 cm) and shell fragments in a matrix of medium to dk. green fine grained cl ayey sand. This unit is very poorly sorted reflecting the increased abundance of large shell material and mud. Unit 6C is only ~10 cm thick in the south, east, and center cores; however, it thickens to 20 and 30 cm in the west and north cores respectiv ely. The contact with underlyi ng unit 6D is sharp in all cores.

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28 Unit 6D consists of medium to dark green mottled fine silty quartz sand. In the south core, unit 6D is darker and more organi c rich. Bioturbation in only present in the upper 10 cm but shell fragments and abraded whole shells (1-3) cm are abundant. Wood and plant fragments are abundant, some wood fr agments measuring up to 5 cm in length. Unit 6F in interbedded with unit 6D at 130 and 140 cmbsf in the west and center cores respectively. Unit 6F consists of a brown massive clay lens, 2 cm thick with sharp contacts above and below. Sieve and grain size analysis were not performed on unit 6F. Sorting values for unit 6D ra nges from moderately well to very poorly sorted reflecting an increased abundance of shell material and mud. Unit 6D thickens from west to east (90 to 160 cm respectively) but is consistently 130 to 140 cm thick from north to south. The contact with the under lying unit 6E is sharp in all but the west core. Unit 6G occurs between units 6D and 6E in the west core and is bound by sharp contacts above and below. Unit 6G is ~35 cm thick and consists of a loose bedded shell lag in a fine sandy matrix. Sieve and grain si ze analysis were not performed on unit 6G. Unit 6E consists of abraded whole shells and shell fragment lenses interbedded with gray well sorted fine to medium grained clean qua rtz sand with parallel bedding of light and dark minerals is present in all cores. None of the cores reached the termination of unit 6E so its thickness is unknown. NIRL24 Four cores were logged and imaged fr om NIRL24; a center core and three perimeter cores 100 m to the north, east and west of center (Fig. 4-4, A, B, & C). Unit 24A consists of lt. to dk. brown well to mode rately well sorted fine grained quartz sand. Bioturbation is pervasive and shell fragments become more abundant at the base of the

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29 unit. The thickness of unit 24 A is consistent in all cores at ~20 to 25 cm. The contact with the underlying unit 24B is gradational in all cores. Unit 24B consists of abundant whole shells (1 to 1.5 cm) and shell fragments in a matrix of organic rich dk. brown to black fine grained quartz sand. This unit is very poorly sorted reflecting the increased abundan ce of large shell mate rial and mud. Unit 24B is 30 cm thick in the center core, but thickens to 40 cm in the north and east cores and thins to 20 cm in the west core. The contact with underlying un it 24C is sharp in all cores. Unit 24C consists of lt. tan to dk. brow n mottled fine grained quartz sand with abundant wood and plant fragments. Bioturbation is limited to the upper 10 -20 cm and small shell fragments are almost non-existent. Sorting values range from very well sorted to poorly sorted reflecting the changes in re lative mud concentration. Unit 24C is the dominant lithology in this site as even the north core with a collected depth of 600 cmbsf did not reach a contact with a lower unit. In terbedded within unit 24C are units 24D at ~ 280 cmbsf in all cores and 24E at ~ 450 cmbsf in the south core. Unit 24D consists of dk. brown poorly sort ed fine grained clayey quartz sand. Small (< 3 mm) shell fragments are abundant, pa rticularly in the west and north cores. Wood and plant fragments are not apparent. Unit 24 D has a gradation upper contact in all cores but a sharp lower contact in all but the center core. Unit 24D is 15 cm thick in the center core, but thickens to 30 cm in the east core, 20 cm in the west core, and 60 cm in the north core. Unit 24E consists of dk. brown fine grained clayey quartz sand with abundant small (1 mm) and large (~1 cm) shell fragments. Sieve and grain size analysis were not

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30 performed on unit 24E. Unit 24E is nearly 50 cm thick with grad ational upper and lower contacts. Unit 24E was only collected in the so uth core so the areal extent of this unit is unknown. Physical Properties Summary The mean down core porosity at all locations is relatively cons tant at ~ 0.45. Mud contents as high as 10% appear not to ha ve any influence on ove rall porosity, whereas shell contents as high as 30 to 40% have only a modest (~0.05) effect on reducing porosity. Only when mud contents exceed 80 to 90% is porosity significantly (~0.15) altered, such as at site BRL2. There is also relative little deviati on in down core porosity values amongst all sites (~0.05). The sediments at all sites are dominantly sandy, with mean values in excess of 80% sand by weight. The amount of shelly material is less than 10% at most sites, although some intervals exceed 30 to 40% shell material by weight and a few dense shell beds were observed but not analyzed for grain si ze distribution. The dominant median grain sizes range from approximately 1.7 to 2.5 phi (m edium to fine sand) and in general shows modest variation (~1 phi unit) down core at th e sandy locations. In general, sediments at all sites are well to ve ry poorly sorted, reflecting the br oad range and grain sizes from shell to mud. Site NIRL24 has the overall be st sorting. Site BRL2 is quite sandy overall, but there is a thick clay bed found near the base. Biostratigraphy The dominant bivalve of the s hore face environment is the Donax variabilis This species is nicknamed the surf clam as its common habitat is along the ocean front beach face in the intertidal to subtidal zone. The Donax shells were found at various depths in all cores but not within any particular lithofacies unit. At NIRL6, Donax was

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31 pervasive between 40 an d 200 cm. At CIRL39, Donax was limited to between 100 and 180 cm. At BRL2, only one Donax she ll was found at 30 cm. At NIRL24, Donax was abundant but only between 30 and 55 cm. Bivalves and gastropods of the shallow water sea grass/lagoonal environment include: Anadara brasilina, Anomalocardia auberi ana, Chione cancellata, Laevicardium laevigatum, Mulina lateralis, Gemma gemma, Macoma spp., Cerithidea scalariformis, Cerithium muscarium, Melongena carona, Nassarius vibex, Turbonilla dalli, Acteocina canaliculata The only notable zonation of these shells is their pervasive abundance within the dense shell lags of lithofacies units 39B, 2A, 6C, and 24B. Within these shell lags, the dominant species and shell size ranges are as follows: C. cancellata (1-4 cm), M. lateralis (1-2 cm), D. variabilis (1.5 cm), C. muscarium (0.5-1.5 cm), and A. canaliculata (2-4 mm). Freshwater hydrobiid snails, Tryona aequicostata and Littoridinops monroensis were found in all sites correspond ing to the dense shell lag of sea grass/lagoonal bivalves described above in lithofacies units 39B, 2A, 6C, and 24B. Chronostratigraphy Three of the four samples prepared for ra diocarbon age-dating were within the age limits for use in the 14 C system. However, the wood sample from 200 cmbsf in the NIRL6 east core was too old for calibrati on using the calibrati on program, CALIB REV5.0.2. Radiocarbon ages and converted cale ndar year before present (cal. BP) values are presented in Table 4-1. When these da tes are used to calculate sedimentation rates, the top 100 cm of sediments (lithofacies units 6A B, & C) at IRL6 have accumulated at a rate of 0.3 mm/y. At IRL39, sediments be tween 94 and 243 cmbsf (lithofacies units 39B & C) have accumulated at the same rate of 0.3 mm/y. Also at CIRL39, the top 100 cm of

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32 sediments (top 15 cm of lithofac ies unit 39B and all of unit 39A) have accumulated at a rate of 1.9 mm/y. However, the transition from unit 39 B to unit 39A represents a shift in median grain size from medium to fine grained sand, which suggests a new sediment source and/or depositional process over the past ~500 ca. BP (see discussion). Table 4-1. Reported radiocarbon ages and converted calendar year ages. Core Interval (cmbsf) Sample Description Radiocarbon Age ( 14 C yr BP) + Calendar Age (cal. B.P.) IRL6 Center 96 100 Plant Material 3385 20 3621 IRL6 East 195 200 Wood 48740 2350 Invalid age IRL39 Center 94 94.5 Plant Material 440 20 499 IRL39 Center 243 244 Wood 5495 40 6289 Grain-size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity Application of the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) equation, using the measured values of porosity and median grain size for each centr al core, estimates in hydraulic conductivity values that range from ~0.5 to 4.0e -2 cm s -1 (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A). The down-core variability in modeled hydrauli c conductivity is only about an order of magnitude. There are three exceptions. In s ites NIRL6 and NIRL24, large shel ls skewed the median grainsize statistic used in the CK model and produ ced a excessive positive shift in the modeled value that is ignored. In site BRL2, where th e thick clay bed at th e bottom of the core (lithofacies unit 2C) produced values that are four orders of magnitude less than the mean of the upper sections. Measured Hydraulic Conductivity Measured vertical hydraulic conductivity values using the permeameter for coarsegrained soils ranged from ~5.0e-2 to 2.0e-5 cm s-1 (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A).

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33 Measured values using the DigiFlow K perm eameter for the BRL2 clay bed (lithofacies unit 2C) were ~5.0e-8 (Fig. 4-2 A). Overall, measured values are lower than modeled values using the CK equation by up to 4 or ders of magnitude. Measured in situ horizontal hydraulic con ductivity values were also obtai ned by Martin et al. (2005) from recovering water level data using the Bouwer-Rice (B ouwer and Rice, 1976) and Hvorslev (Hvorslev, 1951) methods within AQTESOLV 3.0. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity values are also plotted in figures 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A. These values are generally about one order of magnitude greater than the measured vertical hydraulic conductivity values but follow the same trends.

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34 Figure 4-1, A. Physical properties of the cente r core at site CIRL39. Measurements of in situ horizontal hydraulic c onductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and m odified CK modeled values for HC are compared to the sediment textural parameters. Both models use median grain-size and porosity. The modified model uses an additional term, 200M, representing the relative percent mud measured do wn-core. Green circles signify an abundance of shelly which ma y have caused errors in Permeameter testing.

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35 Figure 4-1, B. Color images of 5 cores coll ected at site CIRL39. Cores were spaced ~ 100 m in two transects, shorenormal and shore-parallel.

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36 Figure 4-1, C. Lithostratigraphy and deposit ional environments for site CILR39. Ca rbon dates indicate that inundation of mari ne waters and initiation the lagoonal environmen t occurred this in this region some time after 6200 cal. BP. Also note the lobate shape of unit 39A. This unit appears to have been deposited in the last 500 years.

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37 Figure 4-2, A. Physical properties of the center core at site BRL2. Measurements of in situ horizontal hydraulic conductiv ity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and modified CK mode led values for HC are compared to the sediment textural parameters. Both models use median grain-size and porosity. The modified model uses an additional term, 200M representing the re lative percent mud measured down-core. Red circles signify a loss of sample m ud and green circles signify an abundance of shelly material both of which may have caused errors in Permeameter testing.

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38 Figure 4-2, B. Color images of 5 cores collecte d at site BRL2. Cores were spaced ~ 100 m in two transects, shore-normal and shore-parallel with the exception of the east core that could only be space at ~50 m because of a coquina deposit, adjacent to the center core.

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39 Figure 4-2, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositi onal environments for site BRL2. A wide range of depositional processes have occ urred from lacustrine (unit 2C) to stream ch annel (unit 2D). The lagoona l facies are the most poorly developed of all sites.

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40 Figure 4-3, A. Physical properties of the cente r core at site NIRL6. Measurements of in situ horizontal hydraulic c onductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and m odified CK modeled values for HC are compared to the sediment textural parameters. Both models use median grain-size and porosity. The modified model uses an additional term, 200M, representing the relative percent mud measured down-core. Red circles signify a loss of sample mud and green circles signify an abundance of shelly material both of which may have caused errors in Permeameter testing. This site had the worst agreement between measured and modeled HC values.

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41 Figure 4-3, B. Color images of 5 cores coll ected at site NIRL6. Cores were spaced ~ 100 m in two transects, shorenormal and shore-parallel.

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42 Figure 4-3, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositi onal environments for site NIRL6. As w ith site BRL2, wide range of depositional processes have occurred from lacustrine (u nit 6F) to stream channel (u nit 6G). The east core al so contains intraclasts of coquina .with no apparent method of deposition.

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43 Figure 4-4, A. Physical properties of the cen ter core at site NIRL 24. Measurements of in situ horizontal hydrau lic conductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) a nd modified CK modeled values for HC are compared to the sediment text ural parameters. Both models use median grain-size and porosity. The m odified model uses an additional term, 200M, representing the relative perc ent mud measured down-core. Red circles signify a loss of sample mud a nd green circles sign ify an abundance of shelly material both of which may have caused errors in Permeameter testing. As with site NIRL6, this site showed poor agreement between measured and modeled HC values.

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44 Figure 4-4, B. Color images of 4 cores coll ected at site NIRL24. Cores were spaced ~ 100 m in an east-west transect, bu t a south core was not collected.

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45 Figure 4-4, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments for site NIRL24. This site did not reach marine facies reflect ing the variable antecedent topography. This si te is the most consistently well-sor ted of all sites cored for this study

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Sedimentary Facies and Depositional Environments Interpretation of ancient depositional e nvironments depends upon identifying the combined physical, chemical and biological ch aracteristics of the sediments that can be related to environmental parameters (Boggs, 1995). Environmental parameters operate to produce bodies of sediment (f acies) that can be characte rized by specific textural, structural, and compositional properties. Based on textural pr operties, fauna, and radiocarbon dates, four major depositional envi ronments were identified within the upper three meters of Indian River Lagoon sedime nts; marine, brackish, lacustrine, and lagoonal. Graphic interpretations for the following discussion are presented in figures 41 thru 4-4, parts A, B, & C. Marine Facies Pleistocene marine facies occur above a nd below current sea level, surrounding and underlying the Indian River Lagoon system, a nd thus form the antecedent topography within which Holocene lagoonal infilling has occurred. Coquina deposits of the Pleistocene Anastasia Fm. form the backbon e of the mainland shore (Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig. 2-1) and barrier island (Atlantic Barrier Chai n, Fig. 2-1) and crop out at numerous locations along eastern Florida (Puri and Vernon, 1964; White, 1970; Brooks, 1972; Davis, 1997). Unlithified portions of th e Anastasia Fm. also form progradational beach ridge complexes on Merritt Island (Fig. 1-1) (Brooks, 1972) and underlie Holocene strata of the interior lagoon (Almasi, 1983; Bader and Parkinson, 1990). 46

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47 In this study, a lithified portion of the Anastasia Fm. (coquina) was encountered at the base of the east core at site BRL2 (Fig. 4-2 part C) and unconsolidated sandy portions of the Anastasia Fm. are present at the base of two cores from site CIRL39 (unit 39E, Fig 4-1 part C) and all cores from site NIRL6 (un it 6E, Fig 4-3 part C). Both of these sites are located just east of the present mainland lagoonal shoreline along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge (Fig. 2-1). Identificati on criteria for these marine f acies included the presence of echinoderm fragments, arthropod fragments, and heavily abra ded mollusk fragments in a matrix of fine to medium clean sand with planar bedding observed at NIRL6. These units are likely shoreface sediment s deposited seaward of a barrier island when sea level was higher in the Pleistocene. Unit 6E is topogra phically higher than 39E (~1 m) and appears to be from an upper shor eface environment as the sediments are fine grained, well sorted, and contain parallel bedding; all common features of an upper shoreface environment (Boggs 1995). During this time, Merritt Island would likely be taking form as conceptualized by Kofoed (1963) In this model, a convergent longshore transport system similar to today produced offshore massif deposits that emerged as migrating spit-barriers and finally developed into the progradationa l beach ridge complex observed today (Kofoed, 1963; Brooks, 1972). Gr ain size analysis was not conducted on 39E but it appears coarser grained and more poorly sorted, suggesting a lower shore face environment with the current barrier island chain as an o ff shore sand bar (Almasi, 1983). Brackish and Lacustrine Facies Sea level curves of Scholl et al. (1969) and Neumann ( 1969) and the previous work of Almasi (1983) suggest that these sediments were deposited in a restricted brackish water environment. However, fluvial depositiona l processes appear to have played a role in development of sedimentary facies in the brackish environment. Also identified and

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48 included in this discussion of the brackish e nvironment are lacustrine deposits as they are found juxtaposed and possibly syndepositional to the brackish facies. Brackish and lacustrine facies of the Indi an River lagoon can vary signific antly within each site (e.g. channel, fan, and lacustrine). More importan tly, they appear to be genetically unrelated between sites reflecting a unique relative sediment source for each site. Discussion of the brackish depositional environment is therefore treated separately for each site. For all sites, facies of the brackish environment have a wide range of sorting values reflecting provenance and depositional process. There is generally an abundance of terrestrial wood and plant fragments and, when shell materi al is present, the amount of abrasion is highly variable ranging from we ll preserved to heavily abraded. CIRL39 brackish facies include lithofacies units 39C & D (Fig. 4-1 A, B, & C). Unit 39C contains only limited amounts of shell fragments and whole shells (both heavily and lightly abraded) yet wood and plant fragments were very abundant. Unit 39D appears to have high organic (peat?) content although it was not measured in this study. Brackish facies for CIRL39 are moderately well to poorly sorted reflecting the variability in mud (peat?) content. The first contact between units 39C & D as well as between unit 39C and the overlying lagoonal facies show consis tent lateral variabil ity between cores. Contacts are sharp in the sout h and east cores but gradati onal in the north, west and center cores. Vertical variability in lithofacies contacts is also seen in the south and east cores between units 39C & D. Multiple inte rbedded contacts between units 39C & D in the south and east cores are both sharp and highly grad ational indicating possible variability in both sediment character and possibly rate of deposition with time (Boggs, 1995). Immediately adjacent to th is site (~ 100 m due east) ar e the dissected remnants of

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49 the Pleistocene barrier island described above (Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig 2-1). Sands from unlithified portions of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and muds from the back barrier lagoon (Eastern Valley, Fig. 2-1) are the likely supplies of sediment in these facies. BRL2 brackish facies include l ithofacies units 2B, C, D, & E (Fig. 4-2 A, B, & C). BRL2 is adjacent to the submerged westward dipping tail end of the Merritt Island beach ridge complex described by Brooks (1972) (Fig. 1-1). The root of the ridge is a lithified portion (coquina) of the Pleistocene Anastasia Fm. The east and west cores reached the coquina at 89 cmbsf. The we st core collected coarse pebb les of lithified shell material, which are likely fragments underlying coquina, at 250 cmbsf,. However, the coquina is not reached in the north, center, or so uth cores at depths of 2.3, 2.6, and 2.95 m respectively, demonstrating th e high degree of vari ability in the Pleistocene antecedent topography. The center and south cores terminate in a bedded cl ay layer (unit 2C) that is overlain by a bedded shell lag (un it 2D) in the southe rn core. This suggests an erosional antecedent topography in which a low energy condition then existed, allowing for the clay deposits (e.g. lacustrine, unit 2C) to form, which were later cut by a stream channel (unit 2D) carrying abundant er oded shell material. The st ream channel deposit (unit 2E) is bound by sharp contacts indicating rapi d changes in depositional processes. These basal units are overlain by up to tw o meters of lt. tan to dk. brown mottled well-sorted medium grained sands that are void of any sedimentary structures, shell material or mud, but contain abundant wood fragments (unit 2B). This sediment character suggests a slig htly vegetated well sorted clean sand body as a sediment source. The contacts with the lower lacustrine de posit (unit 2C) are all steeply gradational indicating a moderately rapid tr ansition of depositional processe s. In the south core, Unit

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50 2B shifts gradationally to another possible lacustrine de posit (unit 2E, ~60 cmbsf) immediately prior to marine inundation. Th e contacts with the overlying lagoonal facies (unit 2A) are sharp in the south, east, and west cores but slightly gr adational in the north and center cores with limited burrowing (~ 40 cm ) into the brackish facies in all cores. NIRL6 brackish facies include lithofacies units 6D, F & G (Fig. 4-3 A, B, & C). The dominant brackish facies unit (6D) contains abundant whole shells and shell fragments (both heavily and lightly abraded) mixed with abundant wood fragments (up to 5 cm long) and cobble-sized limestone clasts, which are likely remnants of lithified Anastasia Fm. (coquina). All of the cores at NIRL6 reach unlithified portions of the Anastasia (unit 6E) at about 2.5 meters de pth and a large river type transportation mechanism for these clasts is not evident. The clasts are only found in the east core over a nearly two-meter depth range in which she ll material is absent. Since there are no coquina outcrops immediately adjacent to NI RL6, these clasts are likely intraclasts from an immediately adjacent lithifie d portion of the Anastasia Fm. that has been completely eroded. Sorting values for unit 6D range fr om very well to extremely poorly sorted reflecting a heterogeneous sediment source (e.g. sand, mud, shell, coqu ina clasts). Unit 6F is a massive clay lens interbedded within unit 6D in the west and center cores at 130 and 140 cmsbf respectively. This unit is only 2 cm thick, does not appear to be laterally extensive, and is bounded by sharp contacts suggesting a quiescent lacustrine or pond environment that was short lived and changed rapi dly. At the base of the fluvial facies in the west core is a bedded Donax (surf clam) shell lag (unit 6G) suggesting the existence of a stream channel likely eroding a beach face shell hash. A variably abraded faunal assemblage, abundance of wood fragments, and a lack of variation in median grain

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51 size across the sharp marinebrackish facies c ontact (Fig. 4-3 A) suggests that sediments of this brackish environment was likely supplied by eroding dune s (Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig. 2-1) and lagoon/marsh (Eastern Va lley, Fig. 2-1) deposits of the previous barrier island lagoon system. The extremel y poor sorting values and sharp lithofacies contacts observed within these fluvial facies suggest a rapid but periodic sediment delivery system with a short distance of tr ansportation (e.g. alluvial). Finally, contacts with the overlying lagoona l facies in all cores from this site are sharp suggesting a more rapid marine inundation than the southern sites BRL2 and CIRL39. NIRL24 brackish facies include lithofacies units 24C, D, & E (Fig. 4-4 A, B, & C). The dominant brackish facies un it (24C) contains nearly six meters of well-sorted fine grained sands that are void of any sedimentar y structures or shell material but contain abundant wood fragments. Mud content rema ins well below 10 percen t and color varies from light to dark tan suggesting variation in the presence and concentration of oxidized minerals. As with site BRL2, this sediment character suggests a slightly vegetated well sorted clean sand body as a sediment source. Unit 24D is a dk. brown poorly sorted fi ne grained clayey quartz sand layer interbedded with 24C in all cores at a depth of ~280 cmbsf. Small (< 3 mm) shell fragments are abundant, particul arly in the west and north cores and wood fragments are not apparent. Unit 24E is a dk. brown fine grained clayey quartz sand layer interbedded with 24C at a depth of ~450 cmbsf in the s outh core. Small (<3 mm) and large (~1 cm) shell fragments are abundant and wood fragme nts are not apparent. The other cores from NIRL24 did not reach this depth so the latera l extent of unit 24E is unknown. Both units 24D & E are bound by either sharp or steeply gradational contacts. However, both of

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52 these units also appear to represent more of a change in sediment supply than a change in depositional process as they both maintain relatively high sand concentrations (~90%) and show no stream channel type bedding, par ticularly in unit 24E w ith its larger shell fragments. Following the model concep tualized model by Kofoed (1963) for development of the Pleistocene cape, the orig in of these sediments would be reworked longshore drift deposits. However, lack of any sedimentary structure makes the method of reworking unclear. As with NIRL6, the contact with the overlying lagoonal facies is sharp and bioturbation is limited to the upper 10 cm of unit 24C, indicating a rapid transition to the lagoonal environment. Lagoonal Facies Lagoonal facies are present at all sites; units 39A & B at site CIRL39 (Fig. 4-1 C), unit 2A at site BRL2 (Fig. 4-2 C), units 6A, B, & C at site NIRL6 (Fig. 4-3 C), and units 24A & B at site NIRL24 (Fig. 4-4 C). Topographic differences between the sites cause variations in thickness from 0.2 m at BRL2 to 1.8 m at CIRL39. Transition to a lagoonal environment represents marine inundation and is identified by the presence of a coarse pebbly shell lag in an organic rich sandy ma trix (units 39B, 2A, 6C, & 24B); likely a marsh environment. Topographic differen ces, radiocarbon ages, and sharp facies contacts in the north suggest an initially gradual inundation of marine waters in the south (later than ~ 6,200 cal. BP. at CIRL39) follo wed by a more rapid inundation in the north (~ 3,500 cal. BP. at NIRL6 and NIRL24). Median grain sizes do not change through the brackish -lagoonal transitions for any of the sites suggesting persiste nt local sediment sources as well as similar depositional process. With the exception of the units with coarse shell lags, overall sorting values also remain consistent with the brackish facies. One exception to this is site NIRL6, unit 6A.

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53 Above the initial lagoonal faci es (unit 6C) and organic rich facies (unit 6B), sands become well sorted. This may however represen t a change in sediment source rather than a change in depositional process. A prime ex ample of this is more clearly demonstrated in lithofacies unit 39A at site CIRL39 (Fi g. 4-1 C). Based on a single radiocarbon age from plant material, deposition of this unit o ccurred in the last 500 ca l. BP. The contact between units 39B and 39A is steeply gradati on and geometry of unit 39A is that of a lobate fan. Unit 39A is theref ore likely the product an erosio nal breach of coquina within the immediately adjacent (~100 m) Atlantic Coastal Ridge (Fig. 2-1) in which a new source of well-sorted shoref ace sand was released. Current ly there is no immediately adjacent bluff of beach sand at NIRL6, how ever, unit 6A may well be the depositional product of one that recently existed. Unit 6A thins to the east as does 39A; however, no other lateral trend in geometry is evident in cores from NIRL6. Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models With the exception of a muddy shell lag at their base, lagoonal facies do not appear to have developed a sedimentologic character that is unique to th e lagoonal environment as conceptualized in the fi gures 1-2 & 2-2. Localized fl uvial depositional processes appear to have remained dominant throughout the transition into lagoonal facies. The likely reason for this is the fact that the I ndian River lagoon system is microtidal and has an extremely small tidal prism, particularly in the northern region as the nearest tidal inlet is ~20 km south. As a result, the physical mixing and redistribution processes of tidal current shear stresses are small. Instead, the primary means of sediment redistribution is through wave orbital shear stresses (Sun, 2001) which are minimal. Lagoonal facies development is more characteristic in mesotid al systems with larger tidal prisms. Tidal currents in these systems become a signifi cant driving force in sediment transport

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54 producing more expansive lagoonal sedimentary environments as well as characteristic sedimentary structures a nd textures (Reinson, 1992; Hayes, 1994; Boggs 1995). This barrier system is also not lik ely to migrate in a steady manner as conceptualized in figure 1-2. The mode rn barrier island system is anchored by underlying coquina of the Anastasia Fm. As s ea level continues to rise, it will probably submerge the current barrier islands and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge will once again become a barrier island. Measured and Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity Modeled hydraulic conductivity values estimated using the CK equation predicted values greater than the measured vertical a nd horizontal hydraulic conductivity values by up to four orders of magnitude (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A). Down-core variability in modeled hydraulic conductivity also was not sensitive to any of the perturbations observed in the measured values. The lack of down-core variability in the modeled values is merely a reflection of the lack of variation in the median grain size and therefore demonstrates the CK models bias toward th is parameter. However, the CK model was effective at estimating hydraulic conductivity of the prepared st andards (fig. 5-1), reflecting a sound methodology in the estimation of pore throat diameters within samples of a certain grain size. Through laboratory measurement of ve rtical hydraulic conductivity, it was discovered that the presence of less th an five percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi reduced measured hydraulic conductivity by up to an order of magnitude. As the mud content reached 10 percent, values dropped by up to three orders of magnitude. What the CK equation fails to recognize is how quickly pore throats will clog when even a small

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55 amount of mud is added, partic ularly for fine-grained sands This conclusion was also reached by Foster et al. (2003) in which the measured vertical hydraulic conductivity of surface sediments (0 10 cm) in the southern Baltic Sea were co mpare to CK modeled values in the same method as this study. In attempts to produce better agreement between measured hydraulic conductivity values (see below) and modeled values, th e CK model was empirically modified to reflect the measured down-core variability in relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi The percent value for M was multiplied by a scaling factor of 200, which was also empirically determined in this study. Sensitiv ity of the modified equation to low values of percent mud (< 0.05) was only attained by placing the empirical modifier within the theoretical term for the solid phase. Further attempts will be made to find a variation of the 200M modifier that can be placed outside of the solid phase term. The modified equation takes the form: K = ( g/ ) d 2 3 / 180(1+200M) 2 Where M = relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi Modification of the CK equation to reflect the relative percent mud concentration in the sample resulted in a closer match between measure and modeled values (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A and Fig. 5-2). There were notable deviations in the agreement between the measured and modeled values using the modified CK equation, however, in almost all cases, there was a problem noted during the measuring procedure. The most common problem was the loss of mud from the sa mple during both the de-airing and test procedures (denoted by red circle s in figures 4-1 thru 4-4, part s A and Fig. 5-2). It is not clear why the mud was able to flow from th ese samples so easily, but not others. The

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56 other most common deviation occurred in samples in which there was a high shell content (denoted by a green ci rcle in figures 4-1 thru 44, parts A and Fig. 5-2). Deviations in measured vs. modeled hydraulic conductivity values for these sections were likely the result of either bypa ss flow occurring between the shells and the rigid wall of the vibracore collection tube, or possible bedd ing of the shells to cause a significant decrease in the crossectional ar ea available for fluid transmission. A third cause for some deviations may be the result of a thin muddy zone or strata that was not included in the grain size analys is. Statistical values for percent mud or a shift in median grain size would therefore not be included in the hydraulic conductivity models. Additionally, samples used for permeameter analysis were 10 cm long sections from adjacent cores collected up to 1 m away from the cores used to establish grain size parameters for the models. Permeameter results for any of the 10 cm sections tested will likely only represent the portion of sediment within the section having the lowest hydraulic conductivity value. The modeled valu es, however, represent a 1 cm section of sediment spaced every 5 cm. Due to the obser vation that slight changes in the relative percent mud concentration can produce large variations in hydrau lic conductivity, some deviation is to be expected. In this case the measured hydraulic conductivity would be lower than the modeled value. Spatial Variability in Sediment Properties over 0.04 km 2 The results of the spatial coring program re vealed that overall there is significant variability in sediment lithology and hydrauli c conductivity. Lithology can change across a sharp contact from bedded clays to clean well sorted sands and overall values of hydraulic conductivity ranged from 10 -2 10 -8 cm/sec. The upper ~70 cmbsf is the zone of apparent rapid fluid exchange between th e water column and pore waters in the

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57 sediments. Within this zone, hydrau lic conductivity values ranged from 10 -2 10 -4 cm/sec. Figure 5-3 presents a comparison of hydraulic conductivity data with the chloride profiles used by Martin et al. (2005) to identify the pore water mixing zone. Site CIRL39 has the highest degree of variability in hydraulic conductiv ity yet there is no apparent effect on the mixing de pth. Spatial variations in fl uid exchange depths between sampled locations in the Indian River Lagoon sy stem are therefore not due to variation in sediment physical properties.

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58 Predicting Hydraulic Conductivity Using The CK Method1.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.00E+00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50Median Grain Size (phi)Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/s) Measured 40% Porosity 35% Porosity 30% Porosity Figure 5-1. Predictions of hydraulic conductivity using the Carmen-Kozeny equation with well-sorted clean sand at three different phi intervals. Porosity was not measured so estimated porosity ranges are plotted. This figure demonstrates that the theoretical basis on which the CK equation estimates pore throat diameters from grain size is sound.

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59 Figure 5-2. Log/Log comparisons of the CK and modified CK equation. None of the sites tested showed any trend in agre ement with the CK equation. A) CIRL39 had the least number of problems reported during testing and has the best overall agreement with the modified CK equation. B) BRL2 had the widest range in hydraulic conductivity dem onstrating the limited range for both equations. C) & D) NIRL6 and NI RL24 both had numerous problems during testing which may explain some of thei r disagreement with either model.

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60 Figure 5-3. Chloride profiles compared to lithology and hydraulic conductivity. None of the sites tested showed a correlation between hydraulic conductivity, lithofacies, and pore water mixing. A) CIRL39 and D) NIRL24 both have hydraulic conductivity values that drop below 1e -1-4 yet their mixing depths are about 20cm deeper than C) NIRL6 and 40 cm deeper than B) BRL2 where hydraulic conductivity values are an order of magnitude higher.

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS Summary Based on textural properties, fauna, and radiocarbon dates, four major depositional environments were identified in the upper 3 m of Indian River Lagoon sediments: marine, brackish, lacustrine, and lagoonal. Pleisto cene Marine facies occur above and below current sea level, surrounding and underlyi ng the Indian River Lagoon system, and thus form the highly variable antecedent topogra phy within which Holocene lagoonal infilling has occurred. Brackish and lacustrine facies of the Indian River lagoon can vary significantly within ea ch site (e.g. stream channel, fan, and lacustrine). More importantly, they appear to be genetically unrelated between s ites reflecting a unique relative sediment s ource for each site. The transition to a lagoonal environmen t represents marine inundation and is identified by the presence of a coarse pebbl y shell lag in an organic rich sandy matrix, likely a marsh environment. Topographic differences, radiocarbon ages, and sharp northern facies contacts suggest an initially gradual inundation of ma rine waters in the southern region (later than ~ 6,200 ybp. at CIRL39), followed by a more rapid inundation in the northern region (~ 3,500 ybp. at NI RL6 and NIRL24). However, with the exception of a coarse pebbly shell lag and pe rvasive bioturbation, the lagoonal facies do not appear to have developed a sedimentologi c character that is unique to the lagoonal environment. Instead, continued localized fl uvial depositional proce sses appear to have remained dominant. 61

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62 This facies succession represents one cycl e, or sequence, of marine regression followed by subsequent transgression to th e current sea level high stand. Sediments supplying these depositional environments are li kely the detritus of adjacent Pleistocene barrier island (Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fi g. 2-1) and lagoonal (Eastern valley, Fig. 2-1) facies that exist in close geographic and topographic proxim ity. The limited tidal prism of the northern Indian River Lagoon has preven ted any significant redistribution of the brackish deposits as is more common in mesotidal barrier island systems. The result is a stratigraphic sequence that is not consistent with the common facies models (Fig. 1-2 & 2-2) for transgressive barrier island systems. In order to assess the degree to which spatial variability of subsurface sediments, and their associated hydraulic conductivities, influences the pore water mixing zone (~70 cmbsf) component of SGD in the Indian River Lagoon, hydraulic conductivity first needed to be determined. Techniques developed for determination of hydraulic conductivity abound. Those utilized in this study included field measurements of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, laboratory measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity, and the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) model for estimating hydraulic conductivity based on sediment textural data. Modeled hydraulic conductiv ity values generated using the CK equation over predicted the measure values of both vertical and horizon tal hydraulic conductivity by up to four orders of magnitude. The problem appears to be the models dependence on median grain size as the dominant parameter. A modification to the CK equation was made by adding a mud term to reflect the down-core variability in relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi). The result was a better fit between measured and modeled values for all of the sites tested. Deviations between measured and modeled values were present but most commonly associated with problems in the measurement procedures. While it appears the CK

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63 equation does successfully predict the hydraulic conductivity of a well-sorted clean sand it fails to recognize is how quickly pore throats will clog when even a small percent (< 0.05) of mud is present, particularly in fine-grained sands. Results of this hydraulic conductivity analysis determined that there can be significant variation in hydraulic conductivity over the upper ~70 cmbsf. At site (CIRL39) hydraulic conductivity decreases by nearly two orders of magnitude at a depth of 70 cmbsf. However, when hydraulic conductivity values are compared to the water chemistry estimates of mixing depth (Martin et al., 2005), they appear to have no controlling influence. Future Work This research has provided a detailed stratigraphic interpretation of four sites across the northern ~45 km of the Indian River Lagoon barrier island complex. Results indicate that each site has had a unique relative sediment source and that depositional processes have been highly variable, ranging form apparent rapid periods of deposition to relatively quiescent periods. However, given the complex spatial distribution of the observed sedimentary facies, better correlation between sites is needed to develop a depositional model for lagoonal infilling. First, additional sediment cores should be collected in shore normal transects across both the northern Indian River Lagoon as well as the Banana River Lagoon to gain a better understanding of depositional processes occurring on the mainland and ocean sides of the lagoons. Second, a seismic survey is needed to determine the geometries of the facies interpreted in this study and aid in selection of future coring sites. This research has also provided a modification to the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) equation that produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size analysis at the sites tested. However, the estimates generated in this study were made by placing an empirical modifier within the solid phase portion of the CK equation. First, further work should be done to place the modifier outside of the solid phase term. Second, this modified

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64 CK model needs further testing on additional natural samples using different collection techniques as well as laboratory prepared samples where individual variables can be tested through sensitivity analysis.

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LIST OF REFERENCES Abbott, T.R., 1954. American Shells. New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Almasi, M.N., 1983. Holocene sediments and evolution of the Indian River (Atlantic coast of Florida). Ph.D. dissert. Univ. Miami, Coral Gables. Alyamani, M. S., Sen, Z., 1993. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution curves. Ground Water 31, 551-555. ASTM, 1990. Standard test method for meas urement of hydraulic conductivity of saturated porous materials using a flexib le wall permeameter. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Philadelphia (Am. Soc. Testing and Mater.), D5084-90, 63. ASTM, 2000. Standard test method for Permeab ility of Granular Soils (Constant Head). In Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Philadelphia (Am. Soc. Testing and Mater.), D2434-68, 231-235. Bader, S.F., Stauble, D.K., 1987. The stratig raphy of a microtidal lagoon/barrier island complex. Ab., Florida Scientist 51, supp. 1. Bader, S.F., Parkinson, R.W., 1990. Holocene ev olution of Indian River lagoon in central Brevard County, Florida. The Second I ndian River Research Symposium, Florida Scientist 53 (3), 204-215. Bear, J., 1972. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. New York, Elsevier. Belanger, T. V., Walker, R. B., 1990. Ground water seepage in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Tropical Hydrology and Caribbean Water Resources: 367-375. Berg, R. R., 1970. Method for determining pe rmeability from reservoir rock properties. Transactions, Gulf Coast Associ ation Geological Society 20, 303-317. Boadu, F.K., 2000. Hydraulic conductivity of soils from grain-size distribution: New models. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 126 (8), 739-746. Boggs, S., 1995. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 65

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66 Bokuniewicz, H. J., 1992. Analytical Descriptions of Subaqueous Groundwater Seepage. Estuaries 15, 458-464. Boudreau, B.P., Huettel, M., Forster, S., Jahnke, R.A., McLachlan, A., Middelburg, J.J., Nielsen, P., Sansone, F., Taghon, G., van R aaphorst, W., Webster, I., Weslawski, J.M., Wilberg, P., Sundby, B., 2001. Permeable marine sediments: Overturning an old paradigm. Eos 82, 134-136. Bouwer, H., Rice, R.C., 1976. A slug test for determining hydraulic conductivity of unconfined aquifers with completely or partially penetrating wells. Water Resources Research 12, 423-428. Brooks, H.K., 1972. Geology of Cape Canavera l. In: Space-Age geology; Terrestrial applications, techniques a nd training. Southeastern Geological Society: Field conference guide book (16), 35-44. Buchanan, H., 1970. Environmental stratigrap hy of Holocene carbonate sediments near Frazers Hog Cay, British West Indies. Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, pp. 229. [unpublished]. Burnett, B., Chanton, J., Christoff, J., Kont ar, E., Krupa, S., Lambert, M., Moore, W., O'Rourke, D., Paulsen, R., Smith, C., Smith, L., Taniguchi, M., 2002. Assessing Methodologies for Measuring Groundwater Discharge to the Ocean. Eos 83, 117123. Carmen, P. C., 1937. Fluid flow through gra nular beds. Transactions, Institute of Chemical Engineering 15, 150. Coakley, J.P., Syvitski, J.P.M, 1991. Sedigr aph technique. In: Syvitski J.P.M., (Ed.), Principles, Methods, and Application of Particle Size Analysis, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 368. Colquhoun, D.J., Woollen, L. D., Van Nienwenhui se, D. S., Padgett, G. G., Oldham, R. W., Boylan, D. C., Bishop, J. W., and Howell, P. D., 1983. Surface and subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and a quifers of the South Carolina coastal plain. Rep SC Dep of Health and E nvironmental Control, Department of Geology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 78 pp. Cronican, A.E., Gribb, M.M., 2004. Hydraulic conductivity prediction for sandy soils. Ground Water 42 (3), 459-464. Dalrymple, R.W., Zaitlin, B.A., Boyd, R., 1992. Estuarine facies models: conceptual basis and stratigraphic impli cations. Journal of Sedi mentary Petrology 62 (6), 1130-1146.

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70 Osmond, J.K., May, J.P., Tanner, W.F., 1970. Age of the Cape Kennedy barrier and lagoon complex. Journal of Geophysical Research 75 (2), 468-479. Panda, M.N., Lake, L.W., 1994. Estimation of Single-phase permeability from parameters of particle-size distri bution. AAPG Bulletin 78 (7), 1028-1039. Pandit, A. and El-Khazen, C.C., 1990. Groundw ater seepage into the Indian River Lagoon at Port St. Lucie. Florida Scientist 53, 169-179. Puri, H.S., Vernon, R.O., 1964. Summary of the geology of Florida: A guidebook to the classic exposures. Special Publicat ion No. 5, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida, 312 pp. Rasmussen, L.L., 1998. Groundwater flow, tidal mixing, and haline convection in coastal sediments. Oceanography. Tallahassee, Florida State University: 119. Reinson, G.E., 1992. Transgressive Barrier-isl and and estuarine systems. In: Walker, R.G., James, N.P. (eds.), Facies models Geoscience Canada reprint Ser. 1, 2 nd ed., pp. 119-140. Robinson, M.A., Gallagher, D.L., 1999. A mode l of ground water discharge from an unconfined coastal aquifer. Ground Water 37, 80-87. Sanders, J.E., Imbrie, J., 1963. Continuous cores of Bahamian calcareous sand made by vibrodrilling. Geological Societ y of America Bulletin 74, 1287-1292. Sanders, J.E., Kumar, N., 1975. Evidence of Shoreface retreat and in-place drowning during Holocene submergence of barriers, sh elf off Fire Island, New York. Soc. Am. Bull 86, 65-76. Scholl, F.P., Craighead, F.C., Stuiver, M., 1969. Florida submergence curve revised, its relation to coastal sedimentat ion rates. Science 163, 562-564. Scott, T.M., 1991. A geological overview of Florida. In: Scott, T.M., Lloyd, J.M., Maddox, G. (Eds.), Floridas Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program Hydrogeological Framework. Florida Geol ogical Survey, Special Publication 32, pp. 5-14. Scott, T.M., 1997. Miocene to Holocene History of Florida. In: Randazzo, A.F., Jones, D.S. (Eds.), The Geology of Florida. Univ ersity Press of Flor ida, Gainesville, Florida, pp. 57-67. Shum, K. T., 1992. Wave-Induced Advec tive Transport Below a Rippled WaterSediment Interface. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 789-808.

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71 Sigua, G.C., Steward, J.S., Tweedale, W. A., 2000. Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessme nt in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988-1994). Envir onmental Management 25, 199-209. Smith, N.P., 1986. The rise and fall of the estu arine intertidal zone. Estuaries 9, 95-101. Smith, N.P., 1987. An introduction to the tid es of Floridas I ndian River Lagoon II. Currents. Florida Scientist 53, 216-225. Southon, J., Santos, G., Druffel-Rodriguez, K., 2004. The Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Laboratory, University of California, Irvine: Initial operation and a background surprise. Radiocarbon 46 (1), 41. Sun, D., 2001. Modeling suspended sediment transport under combined wave current actions in Indian River Lagoon. Civil and Coastal Engineering. Gainesville, FL, University of Florida, 234 pp. Stuiver, M., Polach, H.A., 1977. Discussion: Reporting of 14 C data. Radiocarbon 19 (3), 355. Stuiver, M., Reimer, R.J., 1993. Extended 14 C Data Base and Revised CALIB 3.0 14 C Age Calibration Program. Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Syvitski, J. P. M., Asprey, K. W., Cla ttenburg, D. A., 1991. Principles, design, and calibration of settling tubes. In: Syvitski, J. P. M. (Eds.), Principles, methods, and application of particle size analysis. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 45-63. Tanner, W.F., 1960. Florida coastal classificat ion. Transactions, Gu lf Coast Association Geological Society 10, 259-266. Vogel, J.S., Nelson, D.E., Southon, J.R., 1987. 14 C background levels in an accelerator mass spectrometry system. Radiocarbon 29 (3), 323. White, W.A., 1958. Some geomorphic features of central peninsular Florida. Geological Bulletin No. 41, Florida Geological Su rvey, Tallahassee, Florida, 92 pp. White, W.A., 1970. The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula. Geological Bulletin No. 51, Florida Geological Surve y, Tallahassee, Florida, 61 pp. Zimmermann, C.F., Montgomery, J.R., Carls on, P.R., 1985. Variability of Dissolved Reactive Phosphate Flux Rates in Nears hore Estuarine Sediments: Effects of Groundwater Flow. Estuaries 8, 228-236.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kevin Hartl grew up in Newburyport, Ma ssachusetts. He started his academic career at Northeastern Univer sity in Boston, Massachusetts, but took time off to pursue a career as a saxophonist and develop a business as a cabinet maker. Unfulfilled in these two pursuits, Kevin returned to academics and received his B.S. (Honors) in geology from the University of Florid a in 2001. While finishing hi s undergraduate degree, Kevin accepted the position of Senior Engineer Tech nician for the Department of Geological Sciences. Kevin worked in this position wh ile doing his masters re search and received his M.S. in geology from the University of Florida in 2006. 72


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Title: Facies Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity of Lagoonal Sediments in a Holocene Transgressive Barrier Island Sequence, Indian River Lagoon, Florida
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Copyright Date: 2008

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FACIES DISTRIBUTION AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF LAGOONAL
SEDIMENTS IN A HOLOCENE TRANSGRESSIVE BARRIER ISLAND
SEQUENCE, INDIAN RIVER LAGOON, FLORIDA















By

KEVIN M. HARTL


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006


































Copyright 2006

by

Kevin M. Hartl















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the St. Johns Water Management District for funding my

research. I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. John M. Jaeger, for his advice and

guidance throughout my research. I would like to thank my committee members, Dr.

Jonathan B. Martin and Dr. Elizabeth J. Screaton, for their assistance in my research and

thesis development. I would like to thank my supervisor, Ray G. Thomas, for his

scientific advice and mentoring and for his constant support while balancing my research

and work responsibilities. I would like to thank Dr. Jason H. Curtis for assistance with

my radiocarbon analysis as well as his personal guidance and friendship throughout my

time at the University of Florida. I would like to thank John Slapcinsky, Dr. Gustav

Paulay, and Dr. Fred G. Thompson with the Florida Museum of Natural History,

Malacology collections, as they gave a great deal of assistance with my shell

identifications. I would like to thank all of the faculty and staff in the Department of

Geological Sciences for their unwavering support and guidance. I would like to thank

my parents for their love and support throughout my lengthy academic career. And

finally, I would especially like to thank my wife, Jill DeNicola Hartl, for her endless love,

patience, and companionship over the last fourteen years and for taking care of our three

beautiful children, Sophia, Zachary, and Isabella, while I was finishing my thesis.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... .................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ......... ....................................................... ............ vi

LIST OF FIGURE S ......... ..................................... ........... vii

A B STR A C T ..................... ................................... ........... ... .............. viii

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 B A C K G R O U N D ...................... .... .............................. .......... ........ .......... .. ....

Geologic Setting ............................................................... 7
Previous Work in the Indian River Lagoon......................................................8
Transgressive B arrier Island Facies M odels...................................... .....................9
Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity..........................................................11

3 M ETHOD S ..................................... .................. .............. ........... 16

Data Collection ....................................................................... ........ 16
Lithostratigraphy ................................. .............. .......................18
B io stratig ra p h y ..................................................................................................... 1 9
C hronostratigraphy ..................................................................................... 20
Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity..........................................................21
M measured H ydraulic Conductivity......................................... ......................... 22

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................2 4

Lithostratigraphy ........................................... ..................... ........ 24
CIRL39 ............. .................. ............ ............ .. ............24
B R L 2 .............................................................................2 5
N IR L 6 ...................... .. ............. .. ..................................................... 2 7
NIRL24 ...... ...... .............................................28
Physical Properties Summary ................. ................................30
B io stratig ra p h y ..................................................................................................... 3 0
C h ro n o stratig rap h y ............................................................................................... 3 1









Grain-size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity............................................................32
M measured H ydraulic Conductivity......................................... ......................... 32

5 DISCU SSION ........... .......... ...... .. ......... ............ ... ..... 46

Sedimentary Facies and Depositional Environments ...........................................46
M arin e F acies ...............................................................4 6
Brackish and Lacustrine Facies ............. .................................. ............... 47
L agoonal Facies..............................................52
Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models................... .........................53
Measured and Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity .....................................54
Spatial Variability in Sediment Properties over 0.04 km2.............. .... ....... ....56

6 CON CLU SION S .................................. .. .......... .. .............61

S u m m a ry ......................................................................................................6 1
F future W ork ...................................................................................................... 63

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ..................................................................... ..... ...................65

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................72

































v
















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

3-1 Location and lengths of sediment cores ....................................... ............... 17

4-1 Reported radiocarbon ages and converted calendar year ages. ..............................32















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p

1-1 Modified site map of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system................. .......... 5

1-2 Generalized model of a transgressive barrier complex.. ........................................6

2-1 Physiographic map of east-central Florida include.............. ........ ............... 14

2-2 Classification of estuaries.......................................................... .............. 15

3-1 Site occupation for water chemistry and sediment analysis ..................................23

4-1 CIRL39. (A) Physical properties of the center core, (B) Color images of all
cores collected, (C) Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments....................34

4-2 BRL2. (A) Physical properties of the center core, (B) Color images of all cores
collected, (C) Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments ...........................37

4-3 NIRL6. (A) Physical properties of the center core, (B) Color images of all cores
collected, (C) Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments ...........................40

4-4 NIRL24. (A) Physical properties of the center core, (B) Color images of all
cores collected, (C) Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments....................43

5-1 Predictions of hydraulic conductivity using the Carmen-Kozeny equation.............58

5-2 Log/Log comparisons of the CK and modified CK equation. ...............................59

5-3 Chloride profiles compared to lithology and hydraulic conductivity.......................60















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

FACIES DISTRIBUTION AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF LAGOONAL
SEDIMENTS IN A HOLOCENE TRANSGRESSIVE BARRIER ISLAND
SEQUENCE, INDIAN RIVER LAGOON, FLORIDA
By

Kevin M. Hartl

May 2006

Chair: John M. Jaeger
Major Department: Geological Sciences

The determination of nutrient fluxes in coastal and estuarine settings is important

for ecological management. However, calculations of nutrient budgets have generally

ignored the potential contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) due to

difficulties quantifying the volume of water discharging. Measured discharge is really

heterogeneous and often greater than the discharge calculated from water budgets and

ground water flow models. Observations of mixing between the water column and pore

waters to a depth of -70 cm below sea floor suggest local variability in sediment

hydraulic conductivity as a possible cause for the discrepancy. The Indian River lagoon

(IRL) is a transgressive barrier island system and therefore an ideal location to test the

influence of hydraulic conductivity on SGD. Existing facies models for transgressive

barrier environments predict a complex spatial distribution of sediment textures that

range from highly permeable, mature sands to nearly impermeable muds. Study of the

facies distribution within IRL provides a comparison to existing generalized facies









models and aids in development of a depositional model for lagoonal evolution. The

variability in sediment textures also allow for comparison of methods for measurement

and modeling of hydraulic conductivity over a broad range of values.

Four sites in the northern -45 km of IRL, previously identified as representing a

wide range of groundwater discharge rates and bottom sediment textures, were each

selected for a 200 m wide spatial vibracoring program of the upper three meters of

lagoonal sediments. Four major depositional environments were identified in the upper 3

m of Indian River Lagoon sediments: marine, brackish, lacustrine, and lagoonal.

However, the limited tidal prism of the northern Indian River Lagoon has prevented any

significant redistribution of the brackish and lagoonal deposits as is more common in

mesotidal barrier island systems. The result is a stratigraphic sequence that is not

predicted by facies models for transgressive barrier island systems.

The theoretical model of hydraulic conductivity based on sediment textural data over

predicted the measured values by up to four orders of magnitude. A modification to the well-

known Carmen-Kozeny (CK) equation was constructed by adding a "mud term", to reflect

the down-core variability in relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi). The result was a

better fit between measured and modeled values for all of the sites tested. Over all hydraulic

conductivity values for the upper 3 m of sediments in IRL range from 10-2 10-8 cm/sec.

However, within the upper -70 cmbsf, values only varied by two orders of magnitude (10-2

- 10-4 cm/sec). Therefore, at the sites tested, the observed spatial variability in fluid

exchange depth within the surface mixing zone is not due to variation in hydraulic of the

sediments.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a transgressive, wave-dominated, siliciclastic

barrier island system. It extends nearly 250 km along Florida's central Atlantic coast

(Fig. 1-1). Extensive agriculture surrounding the lagoon has led to concerns of

eutrophication from surface water runoff and corresponding ecological changes in the

lagoon (Sigua et al., 2000). Because of potential ecological changes, the St. Johns River

Water Management District, a state agency responsible for the lagoon, has initiated a

modeling effort to identify the potential sources of excess nutrients and develop a plan to

reduce nutrient loading to the lagoon from surface water runoff. However, little attention

has been given to quantification of nutrient fluxes associated with submarine

groundwater discharge (SGD) (Zimmerman et al., 1985; Montgomery et al., 1979). The

problem has been the ability to quantify the magnitude of SGD. Measured discharge is

really heterogeneous and often greater than the discharge calculated from water budgets

and ground water flow models (e.g., Gallagher et al., 1996; Robinson and Gallagher,

1999; Moore, 1996; Li et al., 1999; Belanger and Walker, 1990; Pandit and El-Khazen,

1990; Martin et al., 2002; Martin et al., 2004).

One hypothesis is that discrepancies could arise from the exchange of water

between the water column and pore waters of shallowly-buried sediments (Bokuniewicz,

1992; Burnett et al., 2002; Rasmussen, 1998; Martin et al., 2004). Using multi-level

piezometers called "multisamplers" developed by Martin et al. (2003), Martin et al.

(2004) found rapid and significant variations in pore water C1- concentrations suggesting









the presence of two flow regimes within the upper 230 cm of lagoonal sediments. At

depths greater than -70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf), groundwater flow appears to be

driven upward by the higher hydraulic head of the underlying aquifer at flow rates

consistent with previous estimates using finite element flow models (Pandit and El-

Khazen, 1990; Moore, 1996; Robinson and Gallagher, 1999; Li et al., 1999; Martin et al.,

2004). At depths less than -70 cmbsf, active mixing between pore water and the

overlying water column appears to be dominant. Therefore, it appears that SGD in the

Indian River Lagoon is derived from two primary sources: fresh water, discharging from

terrestrial aquifers, and marine water, circulating through surface sediments.

Driving forces for pore water mixing in the shallow (< -70 cmbsf) sediments may

include a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and density-driven

convection (e.g. Emerson et al., 1984; Shum, 1992). Wave pumping and convection are

likely to be minor due to a small tidal range, limited fetch within the lagoon, and lack of

strong density contrasts between lagoon and pore waters (Martin et al., 2006). The

mixing depth of 70 cmbsf is greater than has previously been attributed to either

bioirrigation or wave pumping alone, so Martin et al. (2004) suggested that a

combination of bioirrigation and wave pumping coupled with highly permeable

sediments may allow such deep mixing. Permeability (k) is an intrinsic physical property

of sediments. When water is the permeant, the term hydraulic conductivity (K) is used,

which is a measure of the rate at which water can move through a porous medium under a

given driving force (Fetter, 2001). To date, no studies have been conducted on the

hydraulic conductivity of IRL sediments with the resolution required to explain the

observed local and regional spatial variability in SGD. It has therefore become necessary









to describe and quantify the physical properties of lagoonal sediments as well as their

spatial variability to gain a better understanding of the physical controls on SGD and the

potential nutrient flux into the water column.

Sediments in barrier island environments are deposited in relatively shallow and

occasionally energetic waters. Common subenvironments include channel fills,

mussel/oyster beds, washover fans, tidal flats and marshes. Sediment facies produced in

each of these subenvironments can have textures that range from highly permeable

mature sands to nearly impermeable muds (Davies et al., 1971). Previous works on local

and regional scales have characterized the evolution of the southern Indian River Lagoon

system in general terms as a transgressive barrier island sequence (Almasi, 1983; Bader

and Parkinson, 1990; Davis et al., 1992). Figure 1-2 illustrates a generalized facies

model for a transgressive barrier island system in which each of the various

subenvironments migrate laterally in response to sea level rise. If this model is

applicable to the Indian River Lagoon system, lateral migration of the subenvironments

should be reflected in the vertical facies sequence, assuming preservation of the

stratigraphic record. Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity will depend on the

relative occurrence and thickness of sediment facies produced in each of these

subenvironments (Fig. 1-2).

This study examines the sediment facies distribution, textural properties, and

hydraulic conductivity of 28 cores collected on both local (200 m) and regional (-45 km)

scales within the northern -45 km of the Indian River Lagoon system. There are three

primary goals for this study. First, identification of the local (200 m) spatial variability of

sediment facies will aid in development of a conceptual model for Holocene lagoonal









evolution on the regional (-45 km) scale. Second, comparison of field and laboratory

measurements of hydraulic conductivity with mathematical models, based on sediment

textural data will improve our abilities of predicting hydraulic conductivity using grain

size analysis. And third, comparison of the down-core variability in measured and

modeled hydraulic conductivity of the lagoonal sediments with pore water mixing depths

reported by Martin et al. (2004) will allow assessment of the degree to which spatial

variability in subsurface sediment facies controls the location and magnitude of SGD.

The following hypotheses were tested:

* Sediments of the Indian River Lagoon System represent the facies succession of
typical transgressive barrier island systems as presented in figure 1-2;

* Mathematical models based on sediment textural data can successfully predict the
hydraulic conductivity of IRL sediments;

* The observed spatial heterogeneity in SGD is controlled by variability in sediment
facies and their respective hydraulic conductivities.

Results of this study impact three areas of scientific research. First, the facies

distribution observed within the Indian River Lagoon system can be compared to

generalized facies models for barrier island systems (e.g. fig. 1-2) to delineate common

features from local irregularities. Further development of such models will aid in

predictions of facies distributions in similar geologic settings, both past and present.

Second, laboratory and field measurement of hydraulic conductivity is both expensive

and time consuming. A more rapid and inexpensive method was discovered using grain

size analysis to identify the critical sediment properties controlling the hydraulic

conductivity of unconsolidated coastal sediments. And third, comparison of sediment

physical properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) with SGD observations define the

contribution of hydraulic conductivity to spatial heterogeneity in SGD.











20-
IRL





15






b 10 1

E- False Cape
0
Lii




















5 I RL





0 Skm 10km





Figure 1-1. Modified site map of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system with
physiographic divisions from White (1970) and Cape formation ages from
Brooks (1972). Original map produced by Dr. John M. Jaeger.











DUNES |K = 10- -10-O


IK = 10o 1
TIDAL FLAT

IK = 10o 10-6 x
MARSH 1_Z


Figure 1-2. Generalized model illustrating the various sub-environments of a
transgressive barrier complex. (From Reinson, G.E., 1992), modified to
include the range of typical hydraulic conductivity value for each of the sub-
environments as presented in Fetter (2001).














CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND

Geologic Setting

The northern Indian River Lagoon system includes the Banana River Lagoon,

Mosquito Lagoon, and the cuspate-forelands, False Cape and Cape Canaveral (Fig. 1-1),

and is the southern most regressional component of the Georgia Bight Barrier System

(Hayes, 1994). Based on the morphology of this region, it is classified as a shallow-

water, wave dominated, siliciclastic, barrier island system under the influence of mild

tectonic uplift (Hayes, 1994). The tectonic uplift may be an isostatic response

(epeirogenic uplift) to karst development and dissolution of bedrock in the late Pliocene

and Pleistocene similar to uplift observed in the Trail Ridge area (Opdyke et al., 1984)

(Fig. 2-1). This tectonic regime is thought to have been in existence since late Paleocene

as relict beach ridges provide physiographic evidence of similar structural trends (e.g.

Ocala High "uplift") that have influenced development of similar cuspate-foreland

morphologies across east-central Florida (Colquhoun, 1983; Scott, 1997). For example,

the modern Cape Canaveral is developing on the remnants of a similar Pleistocene cape

(Fig. 1-1) (Osmond et al., 1970; Brooks, 1972). White (1970) identified a relict "Cape

Orlando", a near identical ridge/cuspate-foreland system formed by the mount Dora

Ridge, Orlando Ridge, and Lake Wales Ridge, nearly 40 miles due west and 125 ft above

current sea level (Fig. 2-1).

Holocene sediments on the east coast of Florida include a thin band of beach, dune,

marsh, and lagoon deposits that have developed in response to the latest rise in sea level









(Davis, 1997; Scott, 1997). Distribution of Holocene sediments in the northern Indian

River Lagoon is largely controlled by the antecedent topography of the underlying

Pleistocene deposits (Davis, 1997). The most notable Pleistocene sedimentary unit in this

study area is the Anastasia Formation. This formation consists of interbedded quartz

sands and more importantly coquina, an accumulation of shells lithified during periods of

meteoric diagenesis (Scott, 1991; McNeill, 1983, 1985). These coquina deposits

currently form the backbone of the modern barrier islands as well as the mainland coast

of the lagoon (Atlantic Barrier Chain and Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig. 2-1) (Tanner,

1960; Bader and Stauble, 1987; Almasi, 1983; Davis, 1997).

Although sedimentary units of the Pleistocene are predominantly siliciclastic,

erosion of the Miocene and Pliocene strata provided much of the material (Scott, 1997).

Continued reworking again has provided much of the material for the Holocene units.

The predominant external supply of modern sediment to the Indian River Lagoon System

is through long-shore transport, which decreases by half south of Cape Canaveral (Davis,

1997).

Previous Work in the Indian River Lagoon

Bader and Parkinson (1990) and Almasi (1983) provided the most comprehensive

work to date on the stratigraphy and evolution of the Indian River Lagoon. In a series of

vibracores collected across 6 shore-normal transects from St. Lucie north to Melbourne,

Almasi 1983 described a complex distribution of facies within the upper three to nine

meters of bottom sediments. Based on sediment texture, fauna, 11 radiocarbon dates, and

comparisons to published Holocene sea level curves of Scholl et al. (1969) and Neumann

(1969), the observed facies were attributed to three depositional environments; marine,

brackish, and lagoonal. Sediments of the marine environment were interpreted as shore









face and offshore bar deposits of a late Pleistocene sea level high stand. The brackish

and lagoonal environments are thought to have initiated upon marine inundation about

5000-6000 Cal. BP. However, other than possible barrier dune washover processes,

Almasi (1983) could not define a deposition mechanism for Holocene Lagoonal infilling.

Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models

Transgressive shorelines along the Atlantic coast of North America are dominantly

influenced by relative sea level rise and a low contribution of sediments from rivers and

streams draining into the area (Kraft, 1978). The balance between wave energies, tidal

ranges and prisms, erosion rates, and antecedent topography are the driving forces in

barrier island morphology and migration (Dalrymple et al., 1992; Harris et al., 2002).

Under these conditions, if sea level rise and erosion rates are balanced, barriers may

migrate more or less continuously landward as sea level rises. Any back barrier lagoonal

facies would likely be eroded in this process (Reinson, 1992). Alternatively, if the rate of

sea level rise exceeds erosion rates, barriers may remain in place as sea level rises to the

level of the top of the dunes; then the surf zone may "jump" landward to establish a new

shoreline, thus drowning the barrier in place (Sanders and Kumar, 1975). In this case, an

entire sequence of transgressional lagoon facies may be preserved (Reinson, 1992).

Predictive models of estuarine systems have been developed to demonstrate the

sedimentologic and morphologic responses to the balance of these driving forces

(Reinson, 1992) (Figs. 1-2 & 2-2). Sediments supplying the lagoon/estuary are generally

considered to be either of marine origin (e.g. washover or tidal inlet) or of mainland

fluvial origin. In all of the models, a zonation of facies is expected in which coarser

fractions of marine and fluvial sediments fall out along their respective lagoon/estuarine

margins while the finer grained sediments of fluvial and marine origin concentrate in the









center of the depositional system in a zone under the influence of a mixture of fluvial and

marine depositional processes. As transgression and regression occur, facies produced

within each of these zones (e.g. fluvial, mixed fluvial-marine, marine) will migrate and

overlap.

The northern region of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) barrier system, however, is

rather unique when compare to the transgressive barrier systems used in the generation of

facies models such the ones presented in figures 1-2 and 2-2. The most important

difference is the lack of a near by tidal inlet to allow connection to marine depositional

sources and processes. Without a diurnal influx and exit of significant amounts marine

water, there can be no development of tidal channels, tidal flats, marshes, and delta

deposits on the flood and ebb side of inlets. While tidal currents dominate morphology in

the vicinity of lagoon inlets (Sebastian, Ft. Pierce, and St. Lucie), current velocity drops

off rapidly away from these regions to < 10 cm/s (Smith, 1990). Within the study area,

Smith (1987) reported a semi-diurnal tidal constituent of 0-5 cm. Sediments in northern

IRL will likely not therefore develop a character typically associated for lagoonal

deposits such as interfingering fine sands, silts, muds, and peat deposits that may be

characterized by disseminated plant remains, brackish-water invertebrates fossils, and

horizontal to sub-horizontal layering (Boggs, 1995).

The IRL barrier system is also unique because much of the antecedent topography

for Holocene lagoonal development is made up of Anastasia Fm coquina and thus

resistant to lateral migration. Inherent to the identification of transgressive or regressive

facies successions (Figs. 1-2 and 2-2) is the assumption that depositional environments

will migrate and overlap in a landward or seaward (shore-normal) direction. If lateral









migration is prevented, the resulting facies succession will show a vertical change in

depositional environment but the lateral change will reflect the topography of the lagoon

floor rather than a progressive migration in a shore-normal orientation.

Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity

The ability to predict permeability (k) and hydraulic conductivity (K) and

variations in permeability (heterogeneity) of porous media such as unconsolidated

sediments is of vital importance to many areas of geologic and geotechnical investigation

and management. In the field of petroleum geology, reservoir characterization and

development plans rely first and foremost on permeability estimates (Panda and Lake

1994). Hydraulic conductivity estimates are important for geotechnical problems (e.g.

seepage losses, settlement computations, and stability analysis) as well as for the

development, management, and protection of groundwater resources (Masch and Denny,

1966; Alyamani and Sen, 1993; Boadu, 2000). In the field of environmental protection,

prediction of likely flow paths for petroleum leakage from underground storage tanks

depends primarily estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding soils

(Cronican and Gribb, 2004). And in coastal sediments, investigation into the

geochemical processes controlled by pore water circulation (e.g. remineralization of

organic matter and nutrient cycling) has required the quantification of sediment hydraulic

conductivity to delineate potential flow paths and make comparisons with observed flow

rates (Boudreau et al., 2001; Foster et al., 2003; Martin et al., 2006).

A relationship between grain-size distribution and hydraulic conductivity has been

recognized for nearly 100 years. Methods of predicting hydraulic conductivity from

grain-size distribution through quantitative relations have been developed by analogy to

pipe flow and flow in capillaries (Kozeny, 1927; Carmen, 1937). Besides predictive









methods, empirical relations have also been used (Hazen, 1911; Krumbein and Monk,

1942; Morrow et al., 1969; Berg, 1970; Alyamani and Sen, 1993; Koltermann and

Gorelick, 1995). Equations relating grain-size distribution to hydraulic conductivity are

of the form (generalized from Freeze and Cherry, 1979, p.351):

K =(pg/t)csdn

Where K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T), p = fluid density (M/L3), g = gravitational

acceleration (L/T2), [t = dynamic viscosity (M/LT), Cs = factor representing the shape and

packing of grains dimensionlesss), d= representative grain diameter (L), m = an

exponent, often equal to 2 dimensionlesss).

Furnas (1929) found that porosity and hydraulic conductivity in sediment mixtures

depends on the fractional concentrations of each particle size, the diameter ratio, and

particle packing. The effects of particle size, compaction, and sediment sorting can be

accounted for in the Carmen- Kozeny (CK) equation presented in Bear (1972, p. 166),

which takes the form:

K =(pg/[t) cd3 / 180(1-_)2

Where K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T), p = fluid density (M/L3), g = gravitational

acceleration (L/T2), [t = dynamic viscosity (M/LT), d= representative grain diameter

(median) (L), 4 = total porosity, accounting for compaction dimensionlesss).

The CK equation was chosen for this investigation because (1) it has gained wide

spread acceptance in the literature (Panda and Lake, 1994; Boadu, 2000), (2) all of the

input parameters have been measured in this study with a down-core resolution of 5 cm,

and (3) results of this study can be compared to Foster et al. (2003), who found that the






13


CK equation overestimated measured vertical hydraulic conductivity of surface

sediments (0 10 cm) in the southern Baltic Sea by more than a factor of 3.






14




I ,,, /" CEHTERI I
R IDGE, IRL






rrI

S' i '
:4 ^^ / ......


N,- ..) ..L. A $ t.



_.P WINT



k L LAII r .i
K ISPAnOA





e l' I'" I










a> I- D ,E RID&E .
HILLS V e Orlando







IIS .- .- = ,
I 1 _*





., .. .,. ,



Figure 2-1. Physiographic map ofeast-central Florida modified to include an outline of
S, _









the "relict" Cape Orlando as interpreted by White 1970. Cape Orlando
Pr LAE .iI \ HAIORVR laN











demonstrates the persistence of a structural high controlling the morphology
of this region at least through the Pleistocene.
SYR HILLS
GAP -WINT J


Figure 2-1. Physiographic map of east-central Florida modified to include an outline of
the "relict" Cape Orlando as interpreted by White 1970. Cape Orlando
demonstrates the persistence of a structural high controlling the morphology
of this region at least through the Pleistocene.





















OPEN-ENDED


COASTAL PLAIN ESTUARIES

WAVE DOMINATED j---TIOE DOMINATED-


TIDAL


CLOSED.PARTIALLY OPEN. SHORE-PARALLEL
SHORE-PARALLEL TO SHORE-NORMAL SHORE-NORMAL SHORE-NORMAL

MORPHOLOGICAL
CONFIGURATION




MESOTIDAL TO LOW HIGH MACROTIDAL
TIDAL RANGE MICROTIDAL MICROrlDAL TO MESOTIDAL MAROTIDAL (EXTREME T1DAL RAiNES)

CIRCULATION RTI ME PARTiALLY MIXEO TO WELL STRA11FIED HOMOGENEOUS
PATTERN IPA LL M DEPENDENT ON RIVER DISCHARGE) (VERTICALLY AND LATERALLY)

MUDDY SEDIMENTS
SEDIMENT -- FLUVAL ---
DISTRIBUTION SA
PATTERNS -- -

LITTORAL SAND

SEA LEVEL

AXIAL SECTION


EXAMPLE : GREAT SOUND.NEW JERSEY MIRAMICHINEW BRUMNWICK


GIRONDE (FIGURE I2) BROAD SOUND,AUSTRALIA


Figure 2-2 Classification of estuaries (based on volume of the tidal prism) illustrating

morphologic, oceanographic, and sedimentological characteristics of each

estuary type (Reinson 1992). Indian River Lagoon is wave dominated and

microtidal so the lateral extent of sediment facies should be limited as

depicted in this model (red Rectangle).


LAGOONAL


PARTIALLY-CLOSED














CHAPTER 3
METHODS

Data Collection

Sediments for this study were collected using a vibracoring technique described by

Sanders and Imbrie (1963), Buchanan (1970), Harris (1977), and Lanesky et al. (1979).

The vibracorer consisted of an 8 HP, Briggs & Stratton, air cooled, gasoline powered

engine connected to a vibrating head via a 20 foot long flexible shaft. The vibrating head

was clamped to the core tube that consisted of 3 inch, thin-walled aluminum irrigation

pipe. Kirby (1974) confirmed that use of this technique produces little or no deformation

of sediment layering. Compaction for the cores was about 14%. This was calculated by

measuring the distance between the sediment water interface and the top of the sediment

in the core, prior to extraction.

Vibracores for this study were collected from three sites located in the northern end

of the Indian River Lagoon (NIRL6, NIRL24, and CIRL39) and one site in the southern

end of the Banana Rive Lagoon (BRL2) (Fig. 1-1) (Table 3-1). These sites have been

selected primarily for their ease of access, wide range of groundwater discharge rates and

bottom sediment textures, and regional distribution (-45 km). At the center of each site,

a multisampler and a seepage meter were installed to measure water chemistry and

submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates, and two vibracores were collected for

evaluation of the physical properties of lagoonal strata (Fig. 3-1). A multisampler is a

multi-level piezometer capable of sampling pore water from discrete intervals (5-10 cm),

up to 280 cmbsf. Seepage meters isolate an area of the lagoon floor and measure the flux









of water across the sediment-water interface via a collection bag attached to a port on the

top of the meter. Martin et al. (2005) provides a report of multisampler and a seepage

meter data. Water chemistry data used by Martin et al. (2005) to estimate pore water

mixing depths was compared to measured and modeled values for hydraulic conductivity

determined in this study to assess the degree to which sediment physical properties (e.g.

hydraulic conductivity) influence the depth of mixing.

Table 3-1. Location and lengths of sediment cores. UTM locations are Zone 17N,
WGS84 datum.
Site Water Depth Core Name Latitude Longitude UTM X UTM Y Length
NIRL6 0.5 m NIRL6C1 28.75385 80.8392 515,700 3,180,726 283 cm
NIRL6C2 515,700 3,180,726 305 cm
NIRL6N 515,700 3,180,826 280 cm
NIRL6S 515,700 3,180,626 285 cm
NIRL6E 515,800 3,180,726 292 cm
NIRL6W 515,600 3,180,726 272 cm
NIRL24 0.7m NIRL24C1 28.73529 80.77575 521,897 3,178,679 223 cm
NIRL24C2 521,897 3,178,679 302 cm
NIRL24N 521,897 3,178,779 615 cm
NIRL24E 521,997 3,178,679 324 cm
NIRL24W 521,797 3,178,679 320 cm
BRL2 1.5 m BRL2C1 28.27500 80.65111 534,223 3,127,726 268 cm
BRL2C2 534,223 3,127,726 263 cm
BRL2N 534,223 3,127,826 238 cm
BRL2S 534,223 3,127,626 299 cm
BRL2E 534,323 3,127,726 89 cm
BRL2W 534,123 3,127,726 248 cm
CIRL39 1.5 m CIRL39C1 28.11667 80.61806 537,503 3,110,176 284 cm
CIRL39C2 537,503 3,110,176 246 cm
CIRL39N 537,503 3,110,276 200 cm
CIRL39S 537,503 3,110,076 400 cm
CIRL39E 537,603 3,110,176 249 cm
CIRL39W 537,403 3,110,176 300 cm

In order to characterize spatial variability in sedimentary facies surrounding each

site, four additional vibracores were collected at distances of-100 m north, south, east

and west of the center location. Most vibracores were >1 m in length with some >3 m

(Table 3-1). At BRL2, a semi-lithified coquina ridge at or near the lagoon floor, east of









the center cores, forced the eastern core to be only -50 m from the central cores with only

89 cm of sediment collected. A south core was not collected at NIRL24 due to poor

weather conditions and logistical difficulties returning to the site. All sediment cores

were stored vertically while in the field and laid horizontally for transport to laboratory

facilities at the University of Florida. Upon return to the laboratory, all cores remained

horizontal and care was taken to prevent sloshing or rotation. All cores were kept in cold

(4 C) storage prior to analyses described below.

Lithostratigraphy

Each core underwent a multi-sensor core scan for determination of total porosity

(4) using a Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) prior to being split for photography,

descriptions and subsampling. This device allows for automated high-resolution (0.5-

1cm) down-core measurement of bulk density. Readers are referred to Geotek web site

(http://www.geotek.co.uk/mscl.html) for detailed information on the specifics of the

techniques. Calibration of the unit and conversion to gamma bulk density were

performed using the technique of Gunn and Best (1998). Gamma bulk density is

equivalent to wet, or saturated, bulk density of the sample, but the term gamma bulk

density or gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) porosity is used as the device measures the

attenuation of gamma rays from a 137Cs source to determine wet bulk density. The

conversion to porosity assumes a mean grain density (MGD) of 2.65 g/cm3 and a water

density (WD) of 1.01 g/cm3. The MSCL generally has an error of <1% when compared

with porosity measurements performed on discrete sediment samples (Gunn and Best

1998).









With the exception of the replicate center cores, all cores were split in half using a

circular saw. Cores were cleaned, described and then passed through the GEOSCAN II

calibrated color core imaging system on the Geotek core logger. In this process,

fluorescent light reflected off the surface of the core is split into three paths to fall on red,

green, and blue detectors which, when combined, reproduce a conventional color image.

Grain size measurements were made on the center core of each site at 5 cm

intervals with depth. Each sample was wet sieved at < 63 micron (4 phi) for the silt and

clay fraction, between 63 micron and 2 mm for the sand fraction, and > 2 mm (-Iphi) for

the gravel/shell fraction. The three fractions (silt and clay, sand, gravel/shell) were then

dried and weighed to generate % fraction plots for each site. Grain size distributions of

the sand fraction were determined using a settling column (Syvitski et al., 1991) and a

Sedigraph (Coakley and Syvitski, 1991) was used on one sample from each of the four

sites to determine a representative size distribution of the mud fraction. Size distribution

of the gravel fraction was determined by visual separation to 1 phi intervals using a

graphic sizing template. To determine the overall mean, median, sorting, and skewness

of each sample, the size distribution of the sand fraction was re-normalized to include

respective percentages of the representative mud fraction distribution and gravel

distribution. All grain size results are expressed in phi units (phi = log2(Diameter, mm)).

Biostratigraphy

All shell material > 2 mm (-Iphi) was retained in the gravel fraction and whole

shells were identified to species level when possible. Identifications were determined

using reference material by Abbott (1954) and Internet material produced by the

Smithsonian Marine Station located in Fort Pierce, Florida (http://www.sms.si.edu/).









Attention was given to the interpretation of the living environments for each species and

the presence of any zonation for the shells identified.

Chronostratigraphy

In order to determine rates of deposition and the timing of marine inundation, four

samples were collected for radiocarbon age dating; two from site NIRL6 and two from

site CIRL39. Wood fragments were collected when possible, as wood is generally

considered more reliable than soft plant material (Meltzer and Mead, 1985). At site

NIRL6, plant fragments were collected from between 96 and 100 cm below sea floor

(cmbsf) and a 5 cm long intact wood fragment was collected from between 195 to 200

cmbsf. At site CIRL39, plant fragments were collected from between 94 and 94.5 cmbsf

and wood fragments were collected from between 243 and 244 cmbsf.

Upon collection, samples were pretreated in a four step process as follows; Two 20

minute soaks in IN HCL at 900C, multiple 20 minute soaks in IN NaOH at 900C, two 20

minute soaks in IN HCL at 900C, multiple 10-20 soaks in distilled water. Samples were

then sent to the Department of Botany at the University of Florida and combusted to

obtain several mg of C02-C. These samples were loaded along with 20mg of CuO wires

in 15cm VycorTM tubes. Both the CuO wires and the VycorTM tubes were pre-baked in air

at 9000C. The samples in the VycorTM tubes were sealed under vacuum along with the

CuO wires and combusted at 9000C for two hours. The primary standard for 14C analysis

was NIST Oxalic acid II (SRM 4990C), while IAEA-C6 (ANU sucrose) was analyzed as

secondary standard. Anthracite coal cleaned with a standard acid-base-acid treatment was

used as a blank. All standards and blanks used for 14C measurements were combusted and

purified similarly to the samples.









A portion of the sample C02 was converted to graphite by reacting with H2 in

presence of Fe catalyst (Vogel et al., 1987). The graphite samples were pressed into

targets and sent for 14C analysis at the W.M. Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass

Spectrometry facility at University of California, Irvine (Southon et al., 2004). All 14C

results were expressed as A 14C after correcting for any mass-dependent fractionation of

13C (Stuvier and Polach, 1977).

Dates were originally reported in radiocarbon years + one standard deviation.

Using the radiocarbon calibration program, CALIB REV5.0.2 (Stuiver and Reimer,

1993), all age dates were converted to calendar years before present (Cal. BP).

Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity

The initial equation used for modeling hydraulic conductivity using sediment

textural data was the Carmen- Kozeny (CK) equation as presented in bear (1972, p. 166).

All physical parameters were determined with a down-core resolution of 5 cm.

Representative grain diameter (d) was taken from the grain size distribution analysis and

total porosity (4) was calculated from the bulk density data, both described above in the

"Lithostratigraphy" section. Fluid density (p) was calculated based on temperature and

salinity data collected by martin et al. (2005).

Three standards were also prepared for modeling in the method described above

and measurement in the method described below. To prepare the samples, quartz sand

was first sieved in to three narrow grain size intervals using US standard sieve no.'s 18 -

25, 35-40, and 60-70 respectively. The sieved sands were then packed into 10 cm

sections of vibracore collection pipe by hand tamping on the laboratory counter 30 times

with light to medium force. For modeling, representative grain diameter (d) was assumed









to be the mid point of the sieved interval. Total porosity (4) was not measured for the

prepared standards. Instead, three different porosity values were chosen that fell within

the likely range for well-sorted sands (Fetter, 2001).

Measured Hydraulic Conductivity

The replicate center cores remained un-split and were sectioned at 10 cm intervals.

All but two of the sectioned intervals were tested in a Mariotte style constant head

permeameter for coarse-grained sediments, supplied by Trautwein Soil Testing

Equipment. Samples remained undisturbed in the sectioned vibracore collection tube,

which served as a rigid wall support for the sample. All samples and standards were then

tested using up to three hydraulic gradients when possible for better statistical averaging.

ASTM (2000) designation D 2434-68 was used as a guideline for general procedures.

Two samples from the base of the BRL2 center core consisted of a bedded clay

layer, so the hydraulic conductivity values were judged too low for testing in the

apparatus described above. These samples were tested with the "DigiFlow K" flexible

wall permeameter, also supplied byTrautwein Soil Testing Equipment, using a constant

head method. The equipment consists of a cell (to contain the sample and provide

isostatic effective stress) and three pumps (sample top pump, sample bottom pump, and

cell pump). Bladder accumulators allow for the use of deionized water in the pumps

while an idealized solution of seawater (25 g NaCl and 8 g MgSO4 per liter of water)

permeated the sample. ASTM (1990) designation D 5084-90 was used as a guideline for

general procedures.













To water


Sediment-Water


E 80

Seepage Meter 110
CL

150

Mtultisampler 190 Vibracore

230





Figure 3-1. Site occupation for water chemistry analysis (multisampler), groundwater
seepage rate measurement (seepage meter), and sediment analysis (vibracore).














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Lithostratigraphy

The reader is referred to figures 4-1 A, B, & C thru 4-4 A, B, & C in the following

discussion. In parts A, an image of the center core for each site is presented with the

respective physical properties. In parts B, Images of all cores collected at each site are

presented. In Parts C, identified lithofacies units and interpreted depositional

environments are presented. Faunal identifications with depth for each site are presented

in table format in Appendix A. The following sections are descriptions of the lithofacies

units identified at each site.

CIRL39

Five cores were logged and imaged from CIRL39; a center core and four perimeter

cores 100 m to the north, south, east and west of center (Fig. 4-1, A, B, & C). Unit 39A

consists of It. green well sorted fine silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is pervasive but shell

fragments and whole shells are scarce. Unit 39A is thickest (-1 m) in the west and center

core but thins (-40 50 cm) to the north and south and is not present in the east core.

The contact with underlying unit 39B is gradational and median grain size shifts from

fine to medium sand. Unit 39B consists of green and brown medium clayey quartz sand.

Sorting values for unit 39B ranges from moderately well to poorly sorted reflecting an

increased abundance of shell material and mud. Bioturbation remains pervasive. Wood

and plant fragments are abundant, and a shell lag is present in all cores at depths ranging

from 30 to 150 cm below sea floor (cmbsf). Unit 39B ranges in thickness from -80 to









100 cm but thins in the west core to 50 cm. The contact with underlying unit 39C is

sharp in the south, east, and west cores but gradational in the north and center cores. Unit

39C consists of green and brown mottled medium silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is

generally limited to the upper 10 20 cm in unit 39C; however, large (-lcm diameter)

burrows penetrate as much as 1 m. Abraded whole shells and shell fragments are scarce

but wood and plant fragments remain abundant. Unit 39C is moderately well sorted

although sections with higher mud concentration become poorly sorted. The contact with

underlying unit 39D is sharp in the south and east cores but gradational in the north, west,

and center cores. Units 39C and 39D are interbedded in the south and east cores but the

lower contacts are all gradational. The north, west, and center cores terminate within 20

cm of the initial contact with unit 39D so interbedding with unit 39C may also be present

beneath the cores from these locations. Unit 39D consists of It. to dk. brown organic rich

fine clayey quartz sand. Bioturbation, wood and plant fragments, and shell fragments are

all absent, and thickness of this unit ranges from 20 -30 cm in the south and east cores.

The center core did not extend far enough into unit 39D for sorting to be assessed. Only

the south and east cores reached unit 39E. and the contact was sharp in the south core but

gradational in the east core. Unit 39E consists of gray fine to medium clean quartz sand

with abundant whole shells and shell fragments. Sieve and grain size analyses were not

performed on unit 39E.

BRL2

Five cores were logged and imaged from BRL2; a center core, three perimeter

cores 100 m to the north, south, and west of center, and one core 50 m east of center (Fig.

4-2, A, B, & C). Unit 2A consists of tan to greenish tan well-sorted medium silty quartz

sand. Bioturbation is pervasive and shell fragments are scarce with the exception of a









shell lag of fragments and whole shells in the base of the unit in the east, center, and west

cores. Shell fragments and whole shells are present in the base of unit 2A in the north

and south cores, however, not in significant abundance. The thickness of unit 2A is 30

cm in all but the north core. In the north core, possible slumping activity has mixed unit

2A with the underlying unit 2B, making the contact highly irregular. The contact with

unit 2B is sharp in the west and east cores but gradational in the center core. The south

core first has a sharp contact with unit 2E before a gradation contact with unit 2B. Unit

2E consists of dk. brown medium quarts sandy clay with sparse shell fragments. Sieve

and grain size analysis were not performed on unit 2E.

Unit 2B consists of It. to dk. brown mottled well sorted medium quartz sand with

abundant wood and plant fragments. Bioturbation is limited to the upper 10 -20 cm and

small shell fragments are almost non-existent. Unit 2B is the dominant lithology in all

but the east core with thicknesses of 1.5 2 m. In the east core, unit 2B has a thickness

of only 20 cm and there is a sharp contact with the underlying unit 2D at -55 cmbsf The

east core terminated on coquina at -85 cmbsf The south core also has a sharp contact

between unit 2B and 2D but at a depth of 255 cmbsf. Although unit 2D is present in both

the east and south cores, correlation between the cores is unlikely due to the wide depth

range. Unit 2D consists of a bedded shell lag in a medium brown sandy clay matrix with

a thickness of -30 cm in both the South and east cores. Sieve and grain size analysis

were not performed on unit 2D. Unit 2C was reached in the west, center, and south

cores. In the west and center cores, the contact with overlying unit 2B is gradational at

230 and 240 cmbsf respectively. In the north core, the gradational change from unit 2B

to 2C is observed suggesting the presence of unit 2C deeper in this location. In the south









core, the gradational change from unit 2B to 2C is also present but interrupted by unit 2D.

Contacts with overlying unit 2B and underlying 2C are both sharp. Unit 2C consists of a

massive green to It. tan bedded clay.

NIRL6

Five cores were logged and imaged from NIRL6; a center core and four perimeter

cores 100 m to the north, south, east and west of center (Fig. 4-3, A, B & C). Unit 6A

consists of medium to dark green well sorted fine silty quartz sand. Bioturbation is

pervasive. Shell fragments are mixed throughout but generally occur in more

concentrated lenses 1 2 cm thick. Unit 6A is 60 to 70 cm thick in the north, west, and

center cores but thickens to 80 cm in the south core and thins to -40 cm in the east core.

Unit 6A terminates with a rapid gradational transition to unit 6B. Unit 6B consists of

organic rich black moderately well sorted fine grained sandy silt.

Unit 6B has the same general lithology as unit 6A with the addition of the organic

silt fraction. Unit 6B is less than 5 cm thick in the north, west, and center cores and

grades rapidly to unit 6C. However, it thickens to -30 cm in the south core and does not

appear in the east core. In the south core unit 6B is bound above and below by sharp

contacts and is nearly void of shell material.

Unit 6C consists of abundant whole shells (1 to 3 cm) and shell fragments in a

matrix of medium to dk. green fine grained clayey sand. This unit is very poorly sorted

reflecting the increased abundance of large shell material and mud. Unit 6C is only -10

cm thick in the south, east, and center cores; however, it thickens to 20 and 30 cm in the

west and north cores respectively. The contact with underlying unit 6D is sharp in all

cores.









Unit 6D consists of medium to dark green mottled fine silty quartz sand. In the

south core, unit 6D is darker and more organic rich. Bioturbation in only present in the

upper 10 cm but shell fragments and abraded whole shells (1-3) cm are abundant. Wood

and plant fragments are abundant, some wood fragments measuring up to 5 cm in length.

Unit 6F in interbedded with unit 6D at 130 and 140 cmbsfin the west and center cores

respectively. Unit 6F consists of a brown massive clay lens, 2 cm thick with sharp

contacts above and below. Sieve and grain size analysis were not performed on unit 6F.

Sorting values for unit 6D ranges from moderately well to very poorly sorted reflecting

an increased abundance of shell material and mud. Unit 6D thickens from west to east

(90 to 160 cm respectively) but is consistently 130 to 140 cm thick from north to south.

The contact with the underlying unit 6E is sharp in all but the west core.

Unit 6G occurs between units 6D and 6E in the west core and is bound by sharp

contacts above and below. Unit 6G is -35 cm thick and consists of a loose bedded shell

lag in a fine sandy matrix. Sieve and grain size analysis were not performed on unit 6G.

Unit 6E consists of abraded whole shells and shell fragment lenses interbedded with gray

well sorted fine to medium grained clean quartz sand with parallel bedding of light and

dark minerals is present in all cores. None of the cores reached the termination of unit 6E

so its thickness is unknown.

NIRL24

Four cores were logged and imaged from NIRL24; a center core and three

perimeter cores 100 m to the north, east and west of center (Fig. 4-4, A, B, & C). Unit

24A consists of It. to dk. brown well to moderately well sorted fine grained quartz sand.

Bioturbation is pervasive and shell fragments become more abundant at the base of the









unit. The thickness of unit 24 A is consistent in all cores at -20 to 25 cm. The contact

with the underlying unit 24B is gradational in all cores.

Unit 24B consists of abundant whole shells (1 to 1.5 cm) and shell fragments in a

matrix of organic rich dk. brown to black fine grained quartz sand. This unit is very

poorly sorted reflecting the increased abundance of large shell material and mud. Unit

24B is 30 cm thick in the center core, but thickens to 40 cm in the north and east cores

and thins to 20 cm in the west core. The contact with underlying unit 24C is sharp in all

cores.

Unit 24C consists of It. tan to dk. brown mottled fine grained quartz sand with

abundant wood and plant fragments. Bioturbation is limited to the upper 10 -20 cm and

small shell fragments are almost non-existent. Sorting values range from very well sorted

to poorly sorted reflecting the changes in relative mud concentration. Unit 24C is the

dominant lithology in this site as even the north core with a collected depth of 600 cmbsf

did not reach a contact with a lower unit. Interbedded within unit 24C are units 24D at -

280 cmbsf in all cores and 24E at 450 cmbsf in the south core.

Unit 24D consists of dk. brown poorly sorted fine grained clayey quartz sand.

Small (< 3 mm) shell fragments are abundant, particularly in the west and north cores.

Wood and plant fragments are not apparent. Unit 24 D has a gradation upper contact in

all cores but a sharp lower contact in all but the center core. Unit 24D is 15 cm thick in

the center core, but thickens to 30 cm in the east core, 20 cm in the west core, and 60 cm

in the north core.

Unit 24E consists of dk. brown fine grained clayey quartz sand with abundant small

(1 mm) and large (-1 cm) shell fragments. Sieve and grain size analysis were not









performed on unit 24E. Unit 24E is nearly 50 cm thick with gradational upper and lower

contacts. Unit 24E was only collected in the south core so the areal extent of this unit is

unknown.

Physical Properties Summary

The mean down core porosity at all locations is relatively constant at 0.45. Mud

contents as high as 10% appear not to have any influence on overall porosity, whereas

shell contents as high as 30 to 40% have only a modest (-0.05) effect on reducing

porosity. Only when mud contents exceed 80 to 90% is porosity significantly (-0.15)

altered, such as at site BRL2. There is also relative little deviation in down core porosity

values amongst all sites (-0.05).

The sediments at all sites are dominantly sandy, with mean values in excess of 80%

sand by weight. The amount of shelly material is less than 10% at most sites, although

some intervals exceed 30 to 40% shell material by weight and a few dense shell beds

were observed but not analyzed for grain size distribution. The dominant median grain

sizes range from approximately 1.7 to 2.5 phi (medium to fine sand) and in general shows

modest variation (-1 phi unit) down core at the sandy locations. In general, sediments at

all sites are well to very poorly sorted, reflecting the broad range and grain sizes from

shell to mud. Site NIRL24 has the overall best sorting. Site BRL2 is quite sandy overall,

but there is a thick clay bed found near the base.

Biostratigraphy

The dominant bivalve of the shore face environment is the Donax variabilis. This

species is nicknamed the "surf clam" as its common habitat is along the ocean front

beach face in the intertidal to subtidal zone. The Donax shells were found at various

depths in all cores but not within any particular lithofacies unit. At NIRL6, Donax was









pervasive between 40 and 200 cm. At CIRL39, Donax was limited to between 100 and

180 cm. At BRL2, only one Donax shell was found at 30 cm. At NIRL24, Donax was

abundant but only between 30 and 55 cm.

Bivalves and gastropods of the shallow water sea grass/lagoonal environment

include: Anadara brasilina, Anomalocardia auberiana, Chione cancellata, Laevicardium

laevigatum, Mulina lateralis, Gemma gemma, Macoma spp., Cerithidea scalariformis,

Cerithium muscarium, Melongena corona, Nassarius vibex, Turbonilla dalli, Acteocina

canaliculata. The only notable zonation of these shells is their pervasive abundance

within the dense shell lags of lithofacies units 39B, 2A, 6C, and 24B. Within these shell

lags, the dominant species and shell size ranges are as follows: C. cancellata (1-4 cm), M.

lateralis (1-2 cm), D. variabilis (1.5 cm), C. muscarium, (0.5-1.5 cm), and A.

canaliculata (2-4 mm).

Freshwater hydrobiid snails, Tryona aequicostata and Littoridinops monroensis,

were found in all sites corresponding to the dense shell lag of sea grass/lagoonal bivalves

described above in lithofacies units 39B, 2A, 6C, and 24B.

Chronostratigraphy

Three of the four samples prepared for radiocarbon age-dating were within the age

limits for use in the 14C system. However, the wood sample from 200 cmbsfin the

NIRL6 east core was too old for calibration using the calibration program, CALIB

REV5.0.2. Radiocarbon ages and converted calendar year before present (cal. BP) values

are presented in Table 4-1. When these dates are used to calculate sedimentation rates,

the top 100 cm of sediments (lithofacies units 6A, B, & C) at IRL6 have accumulated at a

rate of 0.3 mm/y. At IRL39, sediments between 94 and 243 cmbsf (lithofacies units 39B

& C) have accumulated at the same rate of 0.3 mm/y. Also at CIRL39, the top 100 cm of









sediments (top 15 cm of lithofacies unit 39B and all of unit 39A) have accumulated at a

rate of 1.9 mm/y. However, the transition from unit 39 B to unit 39A represents a shift in

median grain size from medium to fine grained sand, which suggests a new sediment

source and/or depositional process over the past -500 ca. BP (see discussion).

Table 4-1. Reported radiocarbon ages and converted calendar year ages.
e Interval Sample Radiocarbon Age Calendar Age
(cmbsf) Description (4C yr BP) (cal. B.P.)

Plant
IRL6 Center 96 100 plant 3385 20 3621
Material

IRL6 East 195 200 Wood 48740 2350 Invalid age

Plant
IRL39 Center 94- 94.5 P t 440 20 499
Material

IRL39 Center 243 244 Wood 5495 40 6289


Grain-size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity

Application of the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) equation, using the measured values of

porosity and median grain size for each central core, estimates in hydraulic conductivity

values that range from -0.5 to 4.0e-2 cm s-1 (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A). The down-core

variability in modeled hydraulic conductivity is only about an order of magnitude. There

are three exceptions. In sites NIRL6 and NIRL24, large shells skewed the median grain-

size statistic used in the CK model and produced a excessive positive shift in the modeled

value that is ignored. In site BRL2, where the thick clay bed at the bottom of the core

(lithofacies unit 2C) produced values that are four orders of magnitude less than the mean

of the upper sections.

Measured Hydraulic Conductivity

Measured vertical hydraulic conductivity values using the permeameter for coarse-

grained soils ranged from -5.0e-2 to 2.0e-5 cm s-1 (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A).









Measured values using the DigiFlow K permeameter for the BRL2 clay bed (lithofacies

unit 2C) were -5.0e-8 (Fig. 4-2 A). Overall, measured values are lower than modeled

values using the CK equation by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Measured in situ

horizontal hydraulic conductivity values were also obtained by Martin et al. (2005) from

recovering water level data using the Bouwer-Rice (Bouwer and Rice, 1976) and

Hvorslev (Hvorslev, 1951) methods within AQTESOLV 3.0. The horizontal hydraulic

conductivity values are also plotted in figures 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A. These values are

generally about one order of magnitude greater than the measured vertical hydraulic

conductivity values but follow the same trends.















Hydraulic Conductivity

--- Carmen-Kozeny

--- Modified Carmen-Kozeny

* Measured Vertical

* Measured Horizontal


50






100






-. 150






200





250


Porosity Median (phi)


so
0





50






100






150 *5





200






250


' gP 'P ~


K (cm/sec)


0 50 100
% Composition

S Gravel (Shell)
] Sand
- Slt g& Clay


0 5 10
% Silt & Clay

-*- Poltsily
-*- Silt & Clay


Figure 4-1, A. Physical properties of the center core at site CIRL39. Measurements of in
situ horizontal hydraulic conductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC
and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and modified CK modeled values for HC
are compared to the sediment textural parameters. Both models use median
grain-size and porosity. The modified model uses an additional term, 200M,
representing the relative percent mud measured down-core. Green circles
signify an abundance of shelly which may have caused errors in Permeameter
testing.


Sorting(a)

SSorting (u)
- Median (phi)









IRL 39


Dph East
Cmr
4-1EIs


North


Center

| -- i- "
=*_ ^- ""


L-I


South


West


Figure 4-1, B. Color images of 5 cores collected at site CIRL39. Cores were spaced
100 m in two transects, shore-normal and shore-parallel.


-.i-~--i-x*at~sr












Atlantic Coastal Ridge


100 m


Sea Level


South


100 m


Center


North


. .I.l. '


m.n m a .mm ma.......a.Marine.
Marine


Legend

S unit 39A
SFine slity qtz. sand


unit 39B
Med. clayey qtz. sand


unit 39C
Mott.med.silty qtz.sand

unit 39D
Org. fine clayey qtz. sand


.. ....- unit 39E
:' Fine to med.qtz.sand


-',,,,


Sharp contact
Gradational contact


Bioturbation


-- Mollusks


Gastropods

Fresh water gastropods


Burrows


Wood / plant fragments


Figure 4-1, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments for site CILR39. Carbon dates indicate that inundation of marine
waters and initiation the lagoonal environment occurred this in this region some time after 6200 cal. BP. Also note the
lobate shape of unit 39A. This unit appears to have been deposited in the last 500 years.


L- -











Hydraulic Conductivity

-e- Carmen-Kozeny
-*- Modified Carmen-Kozeny
* Measured Vertical
0 Measured Horizoriulr.


o 50 100
% Composition
i Gravel (Shell)
K icmisec) sand
SSlt & Clay


Porosity Median (phi)
03 04 05 2 1


0 10 20 30 0 2 3
% Silt & Clay Sorting (u)

-*- Porosily Sorting ()
-- SIR&Clay -*- Medlan BI


Figure 4-2, A. Physical properties of the center core at site BRL2. Measurements of in situ
horizontal hydraulic conductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC and both the
Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and modified CK modeled values for HC are compared to the
sediment textural parameters. Both models use median grain-size and porosity. The
modified model uses an additional term, 200M, representing the relative percent mud
measured down-core. Red circles signify a loss of sample mud and green circles
signify an abundance of shelly material both of which may have caused errors in
Permeameter testing.











BRL 2

Depth East North Center South West
Cm






40.








100

110
120

130
140
150
160
170


190-
210
210
220- wit .-





280.








Figure 4-2, B. Color images of 5 cores collected at site BRL2. Cores were spaced 100 m in
two transects, shore-normal and shore-parallel with the exception of the east core that
could only be space at -50 m because of a coquina deposit, adjacent to the center
core.











100 m


West


50m


Center


S-1
In l J1 l I I{I IM
Lagoonal ** Coquina
-. IF,- 1
I U B m I
SZ Uoun


Brackish


I.....


100


Sea Level


mlp--


South


100 m


Center


North


C sW W Mr C

- -- -- IFB


Lagoonal


Brackish


j... .. E.......n..E. ****m****"" m Marine
3 --- -Marine


Legend

[ :. : unit 2A
SMed.slity qtz-sand


unit2B
Mott. med.silty qtz. sand


unit2C
Massive clay


unit 20
Bedded shell lag

unit 2E
Med.qtz. sandy clay


- Sharp contact
nwnwn Gradational contact


I11 Bioturbation
-- Mollusks


a Gastropods
F Fresh water gastropods

Il Burrows

&s Wood / plant fragments
Ass Intraclasts


Figure 4-2, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments for site BRL2. A wide range of depositional processes have occurred
from lacustrine (unit 2C) to stream channel (unit 2D). The lagoonal facies are the most poorly developed of all sites.


Sea Level









Hydraulic Conductivity
* Cannen-Kozeny
SModified Carmen-Kozeny
* Measured Vertical
O Measured Horizontal


Porosity
50 100 0.4 05 06


0 50 100
% Composition
SGravel (Shell)
I Sand
SSlt & Clay


K (cm/sec)


Median (phi)
3


.............I r... r.l.i'"'I ....
0 10 20 0 1 2 3 4
% Silt & Clay Sorting(r)
-4- Porstay -*- Sorting (n)
-* Silt & Clay --- Median (phi)


Figure 4-3, A. Physical properties of the center core at site NIRL6. Measurements of in
situ horizontal hydraulic conductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical HC
and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and modified CK modeled values for HC
are compared to the sediment textural parameters. Both models use median
grain-size and porosity. The modified model uses an additional term, 200M,
representing the relative percent mud measured down-core. Red circles
signify a loss of sample mud and green circles signify an abundance of shelly
material both of which may have caused errors in Permeameter testing. This
site had the worst agreement between measured and modeled HC values.


0



50



100



F- 150



200



250


50



100

-oo

150 S



200



250



300


P











IRL 6

Depth East North Center South West
Cm






40,


60-







110
120
MA




160



1901,


210

20
230
240


250


270

280


300


Figure 4-3, B. Color images of 5 cores collected at site NIRL6. Cores were spaced
100 m in two transects, shore-normal and shore-parallel.












m I I


vv sL Center d, :: unit 6A
Sea Level Fine slity qtz.sand

0 unit6B
..L Org.fine srlty qz. sand

J :. Lagoonal unit6C

3 590 (. E Fineclayey qtz.sand
S41:aS:O unit 6D
*i i Brackish : : Mott.finesiltyqtz.sand
a^ .48.740caI. RP ... :. ni6E
I**"..". -, o :: unit6E
20=* = ... .. ,:=Fine to med. qtz. sand

S .NIRL6 2Marine unit6F
NIRL6 Massive clay

15 unit 6G
15 Sea Level South Center North Bedded shell lag

.. ....10.. v -- Sharp contact
''.' -/// Gradational contact
.Lagoonal III Bioturbation

.. I. -- Mollusks
-2 1 3 590 cal P
S* kih 4 Gastropods
U Brackish
F Fresh water gastropods
-5 / I Burrows

SMarine a Wood / plant fragments

S___. %S ; Intraclasts
S k '" a Parallel bedding



Figure 4-3, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments for site NIRL6. As with site BRL2, wide range of depositional
processes have occurred from lacustrine (unit 6F) to stream channel (unit 6G). The east core also contains intraclasts of
coquina .with no apparent method of deposition.


Legend


100 mr


100 mr


LAt^^S


T"^a.1--











Hydraulic Conductivity

-*-- Carmen-Kozeny
-4- Modified Carmen-Kozeny
* Measured Vertical
* Measured Horizontal


K (cm sec)
K (cm/sec)


Porosity
0 50 toO 04 05 06


I




0 so50 100
% Composition

- Sand
S Silt Clayn


0 5 10 15 1
% Silt & Clay Sorting (r)

- i- Si CUay -*- Medin (phi)


Figure 4-4, A. Physical properties of the center core at site NIRL24. Measurements of
in situ horizontal hydraulic conductivity (HC), laboratory measured vertical
HC and both the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) and modified CK modeled values for
HC are compared to the sediment textural parameters. Both models use
median grain-size and porosity. The modified model uses an additional term,
200M, representing the relative percent mud measured down-core. Red
circles signify a loss of sample mud and green circles signify an abundance of
shelly material both of which may have caused errors in Permeameter testing.
As with site NIRL6, this site showed poor agreement between measured and
modeled HC values.


Median tphll
3 2


150o .





* 200







44



IRL 24


East


Center


West


Depth
Cm

10
20
30
40
50
60.
70,



100

110
120
130

150
159-
160


IUO
170


190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
190
300-


Figure 4-4, B. Color images of 4 cores collected at site NIRL24. Cores were spaced
100 m in an east-west transect, but a south core was not collected.


North 2/2 North 1/2


- 1rr~





































100m


Legend

[TTT ii unit 24A
Fine slity qtz.sand

O unit 24B
Org. fine sIty qtz. sand

unit 24C
Mott.fine silty qtz. sand


- unit 24D & E
Fine clayey qtz. sand


Sharp contact
ma//i Gradational contact

11i Bioturbation
SMollusks
Gastropods
F Fresh water gastropods
%11 Burrows

a- Wood / plant fragments


Figure 4-4, C. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments for site NIRL24. This site did not reach marine facies reflecting
the variable antecedent topography. This site is the most consistently well-sorted of all sites cored for this study













CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Sedimentary Facies and Depositional Environments

Interpretation of ancient depositional environments depends upon identifying the

combined physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the sediments that can be

related to environmental parameters (Boggs, 1995). Environmental parameters operate to

produce bodies of sediment (facies) that can be characterized by specific textural,

structural, and compositional properties. Based on textural properties, fauna, and

radiocarbon dates, four major depositional environments were identified within the upper

three meters of Indian River Lagoon sediments; marine, brackish, lacustrine, and

lagoonal. Graphic interpretations for the following discussion are presented in figures 4-

1 thru 4-4, parts A, B, & C.

Marine Facies

Pleistocene marine facies occur above and below current sea level, surrounding and

underlying the Indian River Lagoon system, and thus form the antecedent topography

within which Holocene lagoonal infilling has occurred. Coquina deposits of the

Pleistocene Anastasia Fm. form the "backbone" of the mainland shore (Atlantic Coastal

Ridge, Fig. 2-1) and barrier island (Atlantic Barrier Chain, Fig. 2-1) and crop out at

numerous locations along eastern Florida (Puri and Vernon, 1964; White, 1970; Brooks,

1972; Davis, 1997). Unlithified portions of the Anastasia Fm. also form progradational

beach ridge complexes on Merritt Island (Fig. 1-1) (Brooks, 1972) and underlie Holocene

strata of the interior lagoon (Almasi, 1983; Bader and Parkinson, 1990).









In this study, a lithified portion of the Anastasia Fm. (coquina) was encountered at

the base of the east core at site BRL2 (Fig. 4-2 part C) and unconsolidated sandy portions

of the Anastasia Fm. are present at the base of two cores from site CIRL39 (unit 39E, Fig

4-1 part C) and all cores from site NIRL6 (unit 6E, Fig 4-3 part C). Both of these sites

are located just east of the present mainland lagoonal shoreline along the Atlantic Coastal

Ridge (Fig. 2-1). Identification criteria for these marine facies included the presence of

echinoderm fragments, arthropod fragments, and heavily abraded mollusk fragments in a

matrix of fine to medium clean sand with planar bedding observed at NIRL6.

These units are likely shoreface sediments deposited seaward of a barrier island

when sea level was higher in the Pleistocene. Unit 6E is topographically higher than 39E

(-1 m) and appears to be from an upper shoreface environment as the sediments are fine

grained, well sorted, and contain parallel bedding; all common features of an upper

shoreface environment (Boggs 1995). During this time, Merritt Island would likely be

taking form as conceptualized by Kofoed (1963). In this model, a convergent longshore

transport system similar to today produced offshore massif deposits that emerged as

migrating spit-barriers and finally developed into the progradational beach ridge complex

observed today (Kofoed, 1963; Brooks, 1972). Grain size analysis was not conducted on

39E but it appears coarser grained and more poorly sorted, suggesting a lower shore face

environment with the current barrier island chain as an off shore sand bar (Almasi, 1983).

Brackish and Lacustrine Facies

Sea level curves of Scholl et al. (1969) and Neumann (1969) and the previous work

of Almasi (1983) suggest that these sediments were deposited in a restricted brackish

water environment. However, fluvial depositional processes appear to have played a role

in development of sedimentary facies in the brackish environment. Also identified and









included in this discussion of the brackish environment are lacustrine deposits as they are

found juxtaposed and possibly syndepositional to the brackish facies. Brackish and

lacustrine facies of the Indian River lagoon can vary significantly within each site (e.g.

channel, fan, and lacustrine). More importantly, they appear to be genetically unrelated

between sites reflecting a unique relative sediment source for each site. Discussion of the

brackish depositional environment is therefore treated separately for each site. For all

sites, facies of the brackish environment have a wide range of sorting values reflecting

provenance and depositional process. There is generally an abundance of terrestrial

wood and plant fragments and, when shell material is present, the amount of abrasion is

highly variable ranging from well preserved to heavily abraded.

CIRL39 brackish facies include lithofacies units 39C & D (Fig. 4-1 A, B, & C).

Unit 39C contains only limited amounts of shell fragments and whole shells (both heavily

and lightly abraded) yet wood and plant fragments were very abundant. Unit 39D

appears to have high organic (peat?) content although it was not measured in this study.

Brackish facies for CIRL39 are moderately well to poorly sorted reflecting the variability

in mud (peat?) content. The first contact between units 39C & D as well as between unit

39C and the overlying lagoonal facies show consistent lateral variability between cores.

Contacts are sharp in the south and east cores but gradational in the north, west and

center cores. Vertical variability in lithofacies contacts is also seen in the south and east

cores between units 39C & D. Multiple interbedded contacts between units 39C & D in

the south and east cores are both sharp and highly gradational indicating possible

variability in both sediment character and possibly rate of deposition with time (Boggs,

1995). Immediately adjacent to this site (- 100 m due east) are the dissected remnants of









the Pleistocene barrier island described above (Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig 2-1). Sands

from unlithified portions of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and muds from the back barrier

lagoon (Eastern Valley, Fig. 2-1) are the likely supplies of sediment in these facies.

BRL2 brackish facies include lithofacies units 2B, C, D, & E (Fig. 4-2 A, B, & C).

BRL2 is adjacent to the submerged westward dipping tail end of the Merritt Island beach

ridge complex described by Brooks (1972) (Fig. 1-1). The root of the ridge is a lithified

portion (coquina) of the Pleistocene Anastasia Fm. The east and west cores reached the

coquina at 89 cmbsf. The west core collected coarse pebbles of lithified shell material,

which are likely fragments underlying coquina, at 250 cmbsf,. However, the coquina is

not reached in the north, center, or south cores at depths of 2.3, 2.6, and 2.95 m

respectively, demonstrating the high degree of variability in the Pleistocene antecedent

topography. The center and south cores terminate in a bedded clay layer (unit 2C) that is

overlain by a bedded shell lag (unit 2D) in the southern core. This suggests an erosional

antecedent topography in which a low energy condition then existed, allowing for the

clay deposits (e.g. lacustrine, unit 2C) to form, which were later cut by a stream channel

(unit 2D) carrying abundant eroded shell material. The stream channel deposit (unit 2E)

is bound by sharp contacts indicating rapid changes in depositional processes.

These basal units are overlain by up to two meters of It. tan to dk. brown mottled

well-sorted medium grained sands that are void of any sedimentary structures, shell

material or mud, but contain abundant wood fragments (unit 2B). This sediment

character suggests a slightly vegetated well sorted clean sand body as a sediment source.

The contacts with the lower lacustrine deposit (unit 2C) are all steeply gradational

indicating a moderately rapid transition of depositional processes. In the south core, Unit









2B shifts gradationally to another possible lacustrine deposit (unit 2E, -60 cmbsf)

immediately prior to marine inundation. The contacts with the overlying lagoonal facies

(unit 2A) are sharp in the south, east, and west cores but slightly gradational in the north

and center cores with limited burrowing (- 40 cm) into the brackish facies in all cores.

NIRL6 brackish facies include lithofacies units 6D, F & G (Fig. 4-3 A, B, & C).

The dominant brackish facies unit (6D) contains abundant whole shells and shell

fragments (both heavily and lightly abraded) mixed with abundant wood fragments (up to

5 cm long) and cobble-sized limestone clasts, which are likely remnants of lithified

Anastasia Fm. (coquina). All of the cores at NIRL6 reach unlithified portions of the

Anastasia (unit 6E) at about 2.5 meters depth and a large river type transportation

mechanism for these clasts is not evident. The clasts are only found in the east core over

a nearly two-meter depth range in which shell material is absent. Since there are no

coquina outcrops immediately adjacent to NIRL6, these clasts are likely intraclasts from

an immediately adjacent lithified portion of the Anastasia Fm. that has been completely

eroded. Sorting values for unit 6D range from very well to extremely poorly sorted

reflecting a heterogeneous sediment source (e.g. sand, mud, shell, coquina clasts). Unit

6F is a massive clay lens interbedded within unit 6D in the west and center cores at 130

and 140 cmsbf respectively. This unit is only 2 cm thick, does not appear to be laterally

extensive, and is bounded by sharp contacts suggesting a quiescent lacustrine or pond

environment that was short lived and changed rapidly. At the base of the fluvial facies in

the west core is a bedded Donax ("surf clam") shell lag (unit 6G) suggesting the

existence of a stream channel likely eroding a beach face shell hash. A variably abraded

faunal assemblage, abundance of wood fragments, and a lack of variation in median grain









size across the sharp marine- brackish facies contact (Fig. 4-3 A) suggests that sediments

of this brackish environment was likely supplied by eroding dunes (Atlantic Coastal

Ridge, Fig. 2-1) and lagoon/marsh (Eastern Valley, Fig. 2-1) deposits of the previous

barrier island lagoon system. The extremely poor sorting values and sharp lithofacies

contacts observed within these fluvial facies suggest a rapid but periodic sediment

delivery system with a short distance of transportation (e.g. alluvial). Finally, contacts

with the overlying lagoonal facies in all cores from this site are sharp suggesting a more

rapid marine inundation than the southern sites BRL2 and CIRL39.

NIRL24 brackish facies include lithofacies units 24C, D, & E (Fig. 4-4 A, B, & C).

The dominant brackish facies unit (24C) contains nearly six meters of well-sorted fine

grained sands that are void of any sedimentary structures or shell material but contain

abundant wood fragments. Mud content remains well below 10 percent and color varies

from light to dark tan suggesting variation in the presence and concentration of oxidized

minerals. As with site BRL2, this sediment character suggests a slightly vegetated well

sorted clean sand body as a sediment source.

Unit 24D is a dk. brown poorly sorted fine grained clayey quartz sand layer

interbedded with 24C in all cores at a depth of -280 cmbsf. Small (< 3 mm) shell

fragments are abundant, particularly in the west and north cores and wood fragments are

not apparent. Unit 24E is a dk. brown fine grained clayey quartz sand layer interbedded

with 24C at a depth of -450 cmbsf in the south core. Small (<3 mm) and large (-1 cm)

shell fragments are abundant and wood fragments are not apparent. The other cores from

NIRL24 did not reach this depth so the lateral extent of unit 24E is unknown. Both units

24D & E are bound by either sharp or steeply gradational contacts. However, both of









these units also appear to represent more of a change in sediment supply than a change in

depositional process as they both maintain relatively high sand concentrations (-90%)

and show no stream channel type bedding, particularly in unit 24E with its larger shell

fragments. Following the model conceptualized model by Kofoed (1963) for

development of the Pleistocene cape, the origin of these sediments would be reworked

longshore drift deposits. However, lack of any sedimentary structure makes the method

of reworking unclear. As with NIRL6, the contact with the overlying lagoonal facies is

sharp and bioturbation is limited to the upper 10 cm of unit 24C, indicating a rapid

transition to the lagoonal environment.

Lagoonal Facies

Lagoonal facies are present at all sites; units 39A & B at site CIRL39 (Fig. 4-1 C),

unit 2A at site BRL2 (Fig. 4-2 C), units 6A, B, & C at site NIRL6 (Fig. 4-3 C), and units

24A & B at site NIRL24 (Fig. 4-4 C). Topographic differences between the sites cause

variations in thickness from 0.2 m at BRL2 to 1.8 m at CIRL39. Transition to a lagoonal

environment represents marine inundation and is identified by the presence of a coarse

pebbly shell lag in an organic rich sandy matrix (units 39B, 2A, 6C, & 24B); likely a

marsh environment. Topographic differences, radiocarbon ages, and sharp facies

contacts in the north suggest an initially gradual inundation of marine waters in the south

(later than 6,200 cal. BP. at CIRL39) followed by a more rapid inundation in the north

(~ 3,500 cal. BP. at NIRL6 and NIRL24).

Median grain sizes do not change through the brackish -lagoonal transitions for any

of the sites suggesting persistent local sediment sources as well as similar depositional

process. With the exception of the units with coarse shell lags, overall sorting values also

remain consistent with the brackish facies. One exception to this is site NIRL6, unit 6A.









Above the initial lagoonal facies (unit 6C) and organic rich facies (unit 6B), sands

become well sorted. This may however represent a change in sediment source rather than

a change in depositional process. A prime example of this is more clearly demonstrated

in lithofacies unit 39A at site CIRL39 (Fig. 4-1 C). Based on a single radiocarbon age

from plant material, deposition of this unit occurred in the last 500 cal. BP. The contact

between units 39B and 39A is steeply gradation and geometry of unit 39A is that of a

lobate fan. Unit 39A is therefore likely the product an erosional breach of coquina within

the immediately adjacent (-100 m) Atlantic Coastal Ridge (Fig. 2-1) in which a new

source of well-sorted shoreface sand was released. Currently there is no immediately

adjacent "bluff" of beach sand at NIRL6, however, unit 6A may well be the depositional

product of one that recently existed. Unit 6A thins to the east as does 39A; however, no

other lateral trend in geometry is evident in cores from NIRL6.

Transgressive Barrier Island Facies Models

With the exception of a muddy shell lag at their base, lagoonal facies do not appear

to have developed a sedimentologic character that is unique to the lagoonal environment

as conceptualized in the figures 1-2 & 2-2. Localized fluvial depositional processes

appear to have remained dominant throughout the transition into lagoonal facies. The

likely reason for this is the fact that the Indian River lagoon system is microtidal and has

an extremely small tidal prism, particularly in the northern region as the nearest tidal inlet

is -20 km south. As a result, the physical mixing and redistribution processes of tidal

current shear stresses are small. Instead, the primary means of sediment redistribution is

through wave orbital shear stresses (Sun, 2001) which are minimal. Lagoonal facies

development is more characteristic in mesotidal systems with larger tidal prisms. Tidal

currents in these systems become a significant driving force in sediment transport









producing more expansive lagoonal sedimentary environments as well as characteristic

sedimentary structures and textures (Reinson, 1992; Hayes, 1994; Boggs 1995).

This barrier system is also not likely to migrate in a steady manner as

conceptualized in figure 1-2. The modem barrier island system is anchored by

underlying coquina of the Anastasia Fm. As sea level continues to rise, it will probably

submerge the current barrier islands and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge will once again

become a barrier island.

Measured and Grain-Size Modeled Hydraulic Conductivity

Modeled hydraulic conductivity values estimated using the CK equation predicted

values greater than the measured vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity values by

up to four orders of magnitude (Figs. 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A). Down-core variability in

modeled hydraulic conductivity also was not sensitive to any of the perturbations

observed in the measured values. The lack of down-core variability in the modeled

values is merely a reflection of the lack of variation in the median grain size and therefore

demonstrates the CK model's bias toward this parameter. However, the CK model was

effective at estimating hydraulic conductivity of the prepared standards (fig. 5-1),

reflecting a sound methodology in the estimation of pore throat diameters within samples

of a certain grain size.

Through laboratory measurement of vertical hydraulic conductivity, it was

discovered that the presence of less than five percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi) reduced

measured hydraulic conductivity by up to an order of magnitude. As the mud content

reached 10 percent, values dropped by up to three orders of magnitude. What the CK

equation fails to recognize is how quickly pore throats will clog when even a small









amount of mud is added, particularly for fine-grained sands. This conclusion was also

reached by Foster et al. (2003) in which the measured vertical hydraulic conductivity of

surface sediments (0 10 cm) in the southern Baltic Sea were compare to CK modeled

values in the same method as this study.

In attempts to produce better agreement between measured hydraulic conductivity

values (see below) and modeled values, the CK model was empirically modified to

reflect the measured down-core variability in relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi).

The percent value for M was multiplied by a scaling factor of 200, which was also

empirically determined in this study. Sensitivity of the modified equation to low values

of percent mud (< 0.05) was only attained by placing the empirical modifier within the

theoretical term for the solid phase. Further attempts will be made to find a variation of

the 200M modifier that can be placed outside of the solid phase term. The modified

equation takes the form:

K = (pg/t) d23 / 180(1+200M-_)2

Where M = relative percent mud (< 63 micron, 4 phi).

Modification of the CK equation to reflect the relative percent mud concentration in

the sample resulted in a closer match between measure and modeled values (Figs. 4-1

thru 4-4, parts A and Fig. 5-2). There were notable deviations in the agreement between

the measured and modeled values using the modified CK equation, however, in almost all

cases, there was a problem noted during the measuring procedure. The most common

problem was the loss of mud from the sample during both the de-airing and test

procedures (denoted by red circles in figures 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A and Fig. 5-2). It is not

clear why the mud was able to flow from these samples so easily, but not others. The









other most common deviation occurred in samples in which there was a high shell

content (denoted by a green circle in figures 4-1 thru 4-4, parts A and Fig. 5-2).

Deviations in measured vs. modeled hydraulic conductivity values for these sections were

likely the result of either bypass flow occurring between the shells and the rigid wall of

the vibracore collection tube, or possible bedding of the shells to cause a significant

decrease in the crossectional area available for fluid transmission.

A third cause for some deviations may be the result of a thin muddy zone or strata

that was not included in the grain size analysis. Statistical values for percent mud or a

shift in median grain size would therefore not be included in the hydraulic conductivity

models. Additionally, samples used for permeameter analysis were 10 cm long sections

from adjacent cores collected up to 1 m away from the cores used to establish grain size

parameters for the models. Permeameter results for any of the 10 cm sections tested will

likely only represent the portion of sediment within the section having the lowest

hydraulic conductivity value. The modeled values, however, represent a 1 cm section of

sediment spaced every 5 cm. Due to the observation that slight changes in the relative

percent mud concentration can produce large variations in hydraulic conductivity, some

deviation is to be expected. In this case, the measured hydraulic conductivity would be

lower than the modeled value.

Spatial Variability in Sediment Properties over 0.04 km2

The results of the spatial coring program revealed that overall there is significant

variability in sediment lithology and hydraulic conductivity. Lithology can change across

a sharp contact from bedded clays to clean well sorted sands and overall values of

hydraulic conductivity ranged from 10-2 10'8 cm/sec. The upper -70 cmbsfis the zone of

apparent rapid fluid exchange between the water column and pore waters in the






57


sediments. Within this zone, hydraulic conductivity values ranged from 10-2 10-4

cm/sec. Figure 5-3 presents a comparison of hydraulic conductivity data with the

chloride profiles used by Martin et al. (2005) to identify the pore water mixing zone. Site

CIRL39 has the highest degree of variability in hydraulic conductivity yet there is no

apparent effect on the mixing depth. Spatial variations in fluid exchange depths between

sampled locations in the Indian River Lagoon system are therefore not due to variation in

sediment physical properties.







58



Predicting Hydraulic Conductivity Using The CK Method


0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00


Median Grain Size (phi)


--40% Fbrosity


-A-35% Porosity


---30% Porosity


Figure 5-1. Predictions of hydraulic conductivity using the Carmen-Kozeny equation
with well-sorted clean sand at three different phi intervals. Porosity was not
measured so estimated porosity ranges are plotted. This figure demonstrates
that the theoretical basis on which the CK equation estimates pore throat
diameters from grain size is sound.


1.00E+00





E 1.00E-01
u


1.00E-02 -
0.00


Measured













1.E+00

Si.E-01


1.E-02


1 1.E-03
0
1.E-04


S1.E-05
0


n ,m m
O 0 0

Measured Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity

Part A. CIRL39


1.,E+00

S1.E-01

S1.t,02

S 1.E-03
7 1.E-04


u 1.E-05

1.E-06


Measured Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity


Part C. NIRL6


1.E+00
" 1,E-01
S1.E-02
S1.E-03
S1.E-04
S1.E-05
S1.E-06
7 1.E-07
S1.E-08
* 1.E-09
1.E-10
6


-. 0 0 0 R0 0 0 0 +
-- 0 co c

Measured Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity

Part B. BRL2


IO
1.E-02


u 1. E-02


1.E-03

r.4
S1.E-04 *


S1.E-05
,0 T T ,r
17 r7 rC
o 0 0


Measured Vertical H drjul,, Conductivity


Part D. NIRL24


Legend
* Carmen-Kozeny Modified Carmen-Kozeny
O Mud lost in testing y High shell content


Figure 5-2. Log/Log comparisons of the CK and modified CK equation. None of the
sites tested showed any trend in agreement with the CK equation. A) CIRL39
had the least number of problems reported during testing and has the best
overall agreement with the modified CK equation. B) BRL2 had the widest
range in hydraulic conductivity demonstrating the limited range for both
equations. C) & D) NIRL6 and NIRL24 both had numerous problems during
testing which may explain some of their disagreement with either model.


Ip 0




U.












Chloride Profiles Hydraulic
Annual Variation Conductivity
(May 2003 may 04)
Cl-(mM) K (cm/sec)

200 401) 6(0 0 w


LLL~rlruJJ







lr2


200 400 6AW C-)
Part. CR -L39

Part A. CIRL39


Chloride Profiles
Annual Variation
(May 2003 may 04)
Cl-(mM)

S100 300 51X
0(( o, S~


Hydraulic
Conductivity
K (cm/sec)

^ 7f y y


1~
)I
t,.

I.
I


Part C. NIRL6


Chloride Profiles
Annual Variation
(May 2003 may 04)
CI-(mM)
300 341 380


3U0I 340 380


Chloride Profiles
Annual Variation
(May 2003 may 04)
Cl-(mM)


Hydraulic
Conductivity
K (cm/sec)


Part B. BRL2


Hydraulic
Conductivity
K (cm/sec)
'P Z 'P 'P


Part D. NIRL24


Hydraulic Conductivity Legend


--- Carmen-Kozeny
Modified Cannen-Kozeny


* Measured Vertical
. Measured Horizontal


Figure 5-3. Chloride profiles compared to lithology and hydraulic conductivity. None of
the sites tested showed a correlation between hydraulic conductivity,
lithofacies, and pore water mixing. A) CIRL39 and D) NIRL24 both have
hydraulic conductivity values that drop below le-1'4, yet their mixing depths
are about 20cm deeper than C) NIRL6 and 40 cm deeper than B) BRL2 where
hydraulic conductivity values are an order of magnitude higher.


t2J.LJILAJJ
fti
*^


"^,1
4)







t-" ; IP
"tl .,ii





Send














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS

Summary

Based on textural properties, fauna, and radiocarbon dates, four major depositional

environments were identified in the upper 3 m of Indian River Lagoon sediments: marine,

brackish, lacustrine, and lagoonal. Pleistocene Marine facies occur above and below

current sea level, surrounding and underlying the Indian River Lagoon system, and thus

form the highly variable antecedent topography within which Holocene lagoonal infilling

has occurred. Brackish and lacustrine facies of the Indian River lagoon can vary

significantly within each site (e.g. stream channel, fan, and lacustrine). More

importantly, they appear to be genetically unrelated between sites reflecting a unique

relative sediment source for each site.

The transition to a lagoonal environment represents marine inundation and is

identified by the presence of a coarse pebbly shell lag in an organic rich sandy matrix,

likely a marsh environment. Topographic differences, radiocarbon ages, and sharp

northern facies contacts suggest an initially gradual inundation of marine waters in the

southern region (later than 6,200 ybp. at CIRL39), followed by a more rapid inundation

in the northern region (- 3,500 ybp. at NIRL6 and NIRL24). However, with the

exception of a coarse pebbly shell lag and pervasive bioturbation, the lagoonal facies do

not appear to have developed a sedimentologic character that is unique to the lagoonal

environment. Instead, continued localized fluvial depositional processes appear to have

remained dominant.









This facies succession represents one cycle, or sequence, of marine regression

followed by subsequent transgression to the current sea level high stand. Sediments

supplying these depositional environments are likely the detritus of adjacent Pleistocene

barrier island (Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Fig. 2-1) and lagoonal (Eastern valley, Fig. 2-1)

facies that exist in close geographic and topographic proximity. The limited tidal prism

of the northern Indian River Lagoon has prevented any significant redistribution of the

brackish deposits as is more common in mesotidal barrier island systems. The result is a

stratigraphic sequence that is not consistent with the common facies models (Fig. 1-2 &

2-2) for transgressive barrier island systems.

In order to assess the degree to which spatial variability of subsurface sediments, and

their associated hydraulic conductivities, influences the pore water mixing zone (-70 cmbsf)

component of SGD in the Indian River Lagoon, hydraulic conductivity first needed to be

determined. Techniques developed for determination of hydraulic conductivity abound.

Those utilized in this study included field measurements of horizontal hydraulic conductivity,

laboratory measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity, and the Carmen-Kozeny (CK)

model for estimating hydraulic conductivity based on sediment textural data.

Modeled hydraulic conductivity values generated using the CK equation over

predicted the measure values of both vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity by up

to four orders of magnitude. The problem appears to be the model's dependence on

median grain size as the dominant parameter. A modification to the CK equation was

made by adding a "mud term" to reflect the down-core variability in relative percent mud (<

63 micron, 4 phi). The result was a better fit between measured and modeled values for all of

the sites tested. Deviations between measured and modeled values were present but most

commonly associated with problems in the measurement procedures. While it appears the CK









equation does successfully predict the hydraulic conductivity of a well-sorted clean sand, it

fails to recognize is how quickly pore throats will clog when even a small percent (< 0.05) of

mud is present, particularly in fine-grained sands.

Results of this hydraulic conductivity analysis determined that there can be significant

variation in hydraulic conductivity over the upper -70 cmbsf At site (CIRL39) hydraulic

conductivity decreases by nearly two orders of magnitude at a depth of 70 cmbsf However,

when hydraulic conductivity values are compared to the water chemistry estimates of mixing

depth (Martin et al., 2005), they appear to have no controlling influence.

Future Work

This research has provided a detailed stratigraphic interpretation of four sites across the

northern -45 km of the Indian River Lagoon barrier island complex. Results indicate that

each site has had a unique relative sediment source and that depositional processes have been

highly variable, ranging form apparent rapid periods of deposition to relatively quiescent

periods. However, given the complex spatial distribution of the observed sedimentary facies,

better correlation between sites is needed to develop a depositional model for lagoonal

infilling. First, additional sediment cores should be collected in shore normal transects across

both the northern Indian River Lagoon as well as the Banana River Lagoon to gain a better

understanding of depositional processes occurring on the mainland and ocean sides of the

lagoons. Second, a seismic survey is needed to determine the geometries of the facies

interpreted in this study and aid in selection of future coring sites.

This research has also provided a modification to the Carmen-Kozeny (CK) equation

that produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size analysis at

the sites tested. However, the estimates generated in this study were made by placing an

empirical modifier within the solid phase portion of the CK equation. First, further work

should be done to place the modifier outside of the solid phase term. Second, this modified






64


CK model needs further testing on additional natural samples using different collection

techniques as well as laboratory prepared samples where individual variables can be tested

through sensitivity analysis.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Kevin Hartl grew up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. He started his academic

career at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, but took time off to pursue a

career as a saxophonist and develop a business as a cabinet maker. Unfulfilled in these

two pursuits, Kevin returned to academics and received his B.S. (Honors) in geology

from the University of Florida in 2001. While finishing his undergraduate degree, Kevin

accepted the position of Senior Engineer Technician for the Department of Geological

Sciences. Kevin worked in this position while doing his masters research and received

his M.S. in geology from the University of Florida in 2006.