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Imaginary Identity: Aeneas' Search for a Home in Aeneid 3

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PAGE 1

IMAGINARY IDENTITY: AENEAS SEARCH FOR A HOME IN AENEID 3 By GENEROSA A. SANGCO-JACKSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Generosa A. Sangco-Jackson

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to the professors of my committee, Dr. Jennifer Rea, Dr. Timothy Johnson, and Dr. Vict oria Pagn. I am appreciative of their time and insight. I would like especially to thank Dr. Rea for putting her faith in me and for giving me opportunities to fu rther my career. I am grateful to all those who had the patience to read my thesis in its prelimin ary stages. Also, I am indebted to those generous friends who spent late, overly-caffein ated nights with me. Finally, I would like to thank my family for supporting me in the past and for their c ontinued support in the future.

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 THE THEORETICAL APPROACH TO AENEID BOOK 3.......................................3 3 REPETITION COMPULSION AND AENEAS OTHERNESS..............................14 4 DARDANUS: AENEAS FUTURE PAST...............................................................29 5 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................42 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................45 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................48

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v Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts IMAGINARY IDENTITY: AENEAS SEARCH FOR A HOME IN AENEID 3 By Generosa A. Sangco-Jackson May 2006 Chair: Jennifer A. Rea Major Department: Classics This thesis examines Aeneas changing se nse of cultural identity in Book 3 of the Aeneid Although he begins his journey as a Tr ojan intending to re-found Troy, Aeneas must give up his identity and his desire to recreate Troy so that he can eventually found Rome. This thesis will take a literary psyc hoanalytic approach to the topic of Aeneas shifting sense of cultural ident ity, by applying the theories of Freud and Lacan to scenes in Book 3 where Aeneas is forced to confront the loss of Troy. In the first chapter, I will explain my critical methodology and lay the theoretical foundation for my analysis of Book 3. This chapter will introduce Freuds theory of repetition compulsion as it app lies to Aeneas repeated atte mpts to re-found Troy in Book 3. Aeneas Trojan identity is constructed by his desire to rebuild Troy, thereby rescuing the city and mastering the past. Since all his Trojan cities fail, Aeneas ceases from trying to re-establish Troy. By no longer trying to rescue Troy, Aeneas forfeits his Trojan identity, thus excluding him from other Trojans who still intend to recreate Troy. Aeneas exclusion makes him an Other as de fined by Lacanian and post-colonial theory,

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vi which considers the Other to be defined by a point of referen ce that is opposite or outside of the Self. This work is a depa rture from prior psychoana lytic readings of the Aeneid because it treats Aeneas as an exclude d person who is the Other, rather than treating him as the Self. The second chapter of this thesis wi ll examine both how in Book 3 Aeneas compulsively repeats the past as well as how he is made aware of his Otherness. Aeneas initial attempts to re-found Troy or Troy-like settlements are his way of rescuing his fallen city. After the Penates order Aeneas to sail to Italy, Aeneas becomes disassociated from the recent Trojan past, thus breaki ng his cycle of repetit ion compulsion. His disassociation from the fall of Troy separates Aeneas from other Trojans, particularly Helenus and Andromache. Aeneas encounter with these two Trojans in Buthrotum, which is an exact replica of Troy, forces hi m to recognize his own Otherness as well as the futility of rebuilding Troy. The third chapter will examine how Aeneas reconstructs his identity in terms of Dardanus story as it is presented within the Aeneid Vergil highlights corresponding details in the stories of Aeneas and Darda nus. By identifying himself with Dardanus, Aeneas creates a new identity and legitimacy for his arrival in Italy. This new identity is one that is based upon his kinship with a legendary ancestor, rather than immediate culture. Through his descent, Aeneas will link Gr eeks, Trojans, and Italians into a single, interrelated community that is perceived in the collective imag ination of the entire group.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This thesis will evaluate the way in wh ich Aeneas copes with the loss of his homeland. At first, Aeneas only wishes to re-found Troy, but his intention is stymied by a greater plan, to begin the foundation of Rome. Aeneas h ears many prophecies that he does not understand, but he follows them desp ite his desire to return to the Troad. Aeneas tries repeatedly to construct simulated Trojan cities, but to imitate Troy is to imitate its fall. What allows him to persever e is the necessity of his journey; he cannot return to Troy, nor can he rebuild it, since to do so would condemn him to compulsively repeat the past. Thus, all Aeneas attempts to re-found in Book 3 fail. Eventually, each of Aeneas failures forces him to turn away from his compulsive intention to rebuild Troy. Aeneas long physical journey from Asia Mi nor to Italy is paralleled by an equally arduous psychological one. Aeneas must exis t outside of his own culture, becoming an Other, who is displaced and excluded fr om the Trojan community. Through his Otherness that Aeneas, be able to integrat e himself into the Italian community, thus completing his journey. If he were not ex cluded from the Trojan diaspora, his only aspiration would be to remain with Troj ans and to re-found Troy.Aeneas is given the directive to journey to Italy. Upon his arrival in Italy, Aeneas collects his allies by tracing his genealogy through Dardanus to both Greeks and Italians alike. Ultimately, Aeneas will mix his own group of Trojans with the different peoples presen t in Italy, creating a mixed race, one whose

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2 viability Jupiter ensures. By affiliating hims elf with his ancestor Dardanus, Aeneas then embarks upon a new method of reconstructi ng a community, one based on imagined genealogies which will connect formerly incompatible groups, such as Greeks, Trojans, and Italians. These imagined genealogies, wh ich are created from tr aditions and stories about the mythic past, are propagated and revi talized by foundation stories. By sharing in the same foundation stories, disparate comm unities can consolidate themselves and reevaluate their own self-identities. Aeneas own story will serve as a touchst one for the Romans to consolidate their own identity. In the first century BCE, a time of civil wars an d imperial expansion, Rome was forced to manage the integration of many different cultures under a single identity. The Aeneid a new version developed fro m many different traditional foundation stories, will aid in the incorporat ion of these new peoples by reinventing more inclusive genealogies. Aeneas reinvention of his identity in acco rdance with Dardanus story will provide an exemplar for the way in which the Romans should reconsider their own collective identity. This thesis analyizes the above issues in the follwing way. The first chapter will be devoted to an explanaiton of Freuds theory of repetitive compulisi on and Lacans theory of the Other, both as applied to the Aenei d. The second chapter of this thesis will evaluate two things: Aeneas changing ident ity in terms of the Other, which will be defined subsequently, and his co mpulsive resistance to his de stiny. The third chapter of this thesis will then show how Aeneas recons tructs his identity by turning toward his own cultures foundation story, the story of Dardanus.

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3 CHAPTER 2 THE THEORETICAL APPROACH TO AENEID BOOK 3 Book 3 of the Aeneid has interested scholars for it s portrayal of city-founding, for its references to locations of historical significance for Vergils contemporaries, for Aeneas subordinate relationship to Anchises, and for the further de velopment of Aeneas pietas .1 This book constitutes one-half of Aen eas narrative to Dido, which itself is an extended allusion to the wanderings of Odysseus.2 Furthermore, this book has intrigued many scholars because of its unfinished state and its structural relationship to the Aeneid as a whole.3 This thesis, however, will be a depart ure from these traditional methods of approaching Book 3. Here, the approach ta ken will be a psychological assessment of Aeneas identity as his relationships to both hi s culture and his past change. This chapter will set the theoretical ground work upon which th e evaluation of Aeneas identity will be based, which I will explore thoroughly in the second and third chapters. While the theories explained in this ch apter seem unrelated, they share a common thread by being important to identity formation. In order to evaluate Aeneas identity as 1 For the theme of city foundation, see Morwood (1991 ), Aeneas, Augustus, and the Theme of the City. For allusions to places of historical significances, see Stahl (199 8), Political Stop-Ove rs on a Mythological Travel Route: From Battling Harpies to the Battle of Actium: Aeneid 3.268-93 and Cairns (1989), Virgils Augustan Epic For Anchises as the leading figure of Book 3 see Lloyd (1957b), Aeneid III: A New Approach. For an interpretation of how Aeneas pietas is manifested see Mackie (1988), The Characterization of Aeneas Nethercut (1968), Invasion in the Aeneid, and Otis (1964), A Study in Civilized Poetry 2 For the relationship of Book 3 to Odysseus narrative to the Phaeci ans, see Knauer (1990) V ergils Aeneid and Homer and Anderson (2005) The Art of the Aeneid 3 For a structural analysis of Book 3 as related to the overarching structure of the Aeneid see Lloyd (1957b) Aeneid III: A New Approach and Hershkowitz (1991) The Aeneid in Aeneid 3. For the unfinished state of Book 3 see Heinze (1993) Virgils Epic Technique and Otis (1964) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry

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4 it shifts from the beginning of Book 3 to his visit to Buthrotum, I will employ two concepts from literary psychoanalysis: th e Other, and repetition compulsion. Aeneas will lose his Trojan identity a nd become the Other in order to avoid compulsively repeating the past. After his loss of identity, Aeneas will overcome his compulsion by reforming his identity in rela tion to the foundation story of Dardanus. This foundation storys effect is twofold; fr om it, Aeneas will rece ive a sense of purpose and eventually it will help him reintegrate himself into a community. These ideas of reintegration and re-evaluation of traditio nal foundation stories become important to Vergils contemporary Romans, who after long periods of upheaval must restore a sense of national unity. First of all, the term Other, in its va rious permutations, requires some definition, since it is used by many schools of thought to mean different things.4 One use of the term, that of J. Lacan, applies specifically to identity formation. The Lacanian usage of Other, as explained by D. Macey, indicates th e thing that is desi red by the Self, also known as the subject or ones sense of personal identity.5 The Self articulates its own identity through the desire for and the recognition of the Other. This then presumes both that the Self and the Other are separate en tities, and that the space between them is irreconcilable. A later development of Lacan s idea helps to define the Other as the opposite, or the thing which the subject is not as it is used in the scope of this thesis.6 The post-colonial theorist H. Bhabha uses Lacans ideas to discuss the use of visual 4 The term itself can be rendered in the following ways: other, other, Other, and Other based on stylistic preference. I give preference to Other beca use it denotes a concept and because I use the common, adjectival other. 5 Macey (2000b) 368. 6 Macey (2000a) 286: The Other refers to things which are quite alien to and inassimilable by the subjct.

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5 stereotypes: The visibility of th e racial/colonial Other is at once a point of identity . and at the same time a problem for the attempted closure within discourse.7 If the Other is an opposed point of identity, then it must both exist outside of and be different from the Self.8 The Other then is indicative both of difference and of separation from the Self.9 It is within this modified Lacanian de finition of the Other as the opposite that critics in classical studies have applied the term. The idea that one peoples self-identity is constructed only by comparison to what it is not, has already been applied to the ancient history, material culture, and archaeol ogy of Greece, due to the influence of E. Halls Inventing the Barbarian Identity studies in Greek colonization in terms of the Self and the Other followed. Then these Self /Other constructions were similarly applied to Roman history, material culture, and archeology.10 Two scholarsone of Roman history, the other of Roman literatureemploy concise definitions of the Other that will be of particular use here. E. Marshall, in her work on the cultural conflict between Cyrenaica and Libya, uses th e following definition: The other is, therefore, defined through th e self because it is the reverse self. Conversely, the other serves to unite a group, or a number of groups, because it defines the groups self, and in othe r words, defines who the group is.11 7 Bhabha (2002) 81. Original emphasis. 8 Macey (2000a) 286. This is in o pposition to Lacans idea that the Other is a projection of the Self into a mirror. 9 Bhabha (2002) 86. 10 For these historical approaches to cultura l identity formation see both Gruen (1992) Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome and Lawrence (1998) Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire 11 Marshall (1998) 89.

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6 A similar idea of the Other has been applied to the Aeneid by J. Evans, whose definition helps to dispel the idea that the Other is a fixed concept: Self and other are interdependent concep ts. The other is what we are not, and in turn, what we are not serves to define ourselves. It may be hostile, or friendly, or something in between: different, but willing to interact with us.12 My analysis of the Aeneid will approach the Other and Otherness as mutable constructions, while the Self remains static. Thus I will focus on the Otherness exhibited by Aeneas, rather than approach Aeneas as th e Self which is the focus of Evans work. For my purposes, Otherness will be defined as the difference and separation which are caused by Aeneas exclusion from his own cu ltural group, the Trojans. It is commonly agreed by scholars that Aeneas must lose or leave behind his Trojan identitythis is indicative of Aeneas Otherness because he no longer is a member of that group.13 To evaluate why Aeneas identity changes, I will apply another theory propagated in psychoanalysis, that of Fr euds repetition compulsion as it is used by D. Quint.14 Freud determines that suffering (a loss or a trau matic event) leaves a permanent injury to self-regard in the form of a narcissistic scar.15 Those who suffer this sort of traumatic event may become neurotics who compulsively repeat their own traumas either to elicit some pleasure from the experiences or to master them.16 The motivation for repetition is 12 Evans (2003) 45. 13 For the development of Aeneas character see Otis (1964) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry Di Cesare (1974) The Altar and the City and Furher (1989) Aeneas: A St udy in Character Development. 14 Quint (1999) 116. 15 Freud (1961) 21-22. 16 Freud (1961) 22-3 and 16: Patients repeat all of these unwanted situations and painful emotions in the transference and revive them with th e greatest ingenuity and We are theref ore left in doubt as to whether the impulse to work over in the mind some overpowering experience so as to make oneself master of it can find expression as a primary event.

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7 strange particularly because [n]one of thes e things can have produced pleasure in the past.17 In Aeneas case, the traumatic event is the fall of Troy, which leaves him without a homeland. This approach is not a new one; D. Quint applies this theory to the Aeneid and then expands it to the Romans themselves. Qu int argues that the first half of the Aeneid the Odyssean wanderings, exhibits the compulsive repetition of the past, while the second half, the Iliadic wars, portrays the fina l re-enactment through which Aeneas will restructure and master the traumatic past. Qu int states that focusing on the repetition of the founding and destruction of Troy engages the idea of narrative itself, which then constitutes the Aeneid as a teleologically structured na rrative, a repetition that links the two events [the wanderings and the wars], but demonstrates their difference and the overcoming of the first by the second.18 I, however, differ in my application of Freuds repetition compulsion, since I apply this theory only to Aeneas wanderings in Book 3. In this book, Aeneas tries to master his past ; if he can re-found Troy, he can save it from being destroyed by the Greeks. In the failure of each reconstruction, Aeneas, in effect, relives Troys destruction. Eventually with in the same book, Aeneas not only breaks his neurotic cycle of repetition, but by doing so, he separates himself culturally from the other Trojans. Then, Aeneas neither continue s compulsively to repe at the fall of Troy nor does he master Troys fall by successfully re -founding it. Instead, Aeneas breaks from the traumatic destruction of the city by asso ciating himself with the idea of the very distant past, namely Dardanus exile fr om Italy and his foundation of Troy. 17 Freud (1961) 22-3. 18 Quint (1999) 118.

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8 In addition to Quints Freudian reading and the Lacanian Other, I will make use of Y. Syeds psychoanalytic reading of the Aeneid which she uses to extrapolate the Roman readers sense of self as Romans.19 She sets up Vergil s characterization of Aeneas as occupying the subject position, namely the vantage point from or through which the Roman reader engages the poe m and reacts emotionally to the other characters.20 When Aeneas reacts emotionally to the oppositions imposed by both gender and ethnicity, he causes the reader to react as well.21 For example, Aeneas is defined as Trojan so long as he maintains a Trojan oppos ition to Greeks. Then Syed argues that through the vantage point of Ae neas, the reader uses the Ot her as a point of reference against which he can formulate his own Roma n identity by comparison to what he is not the Roman is not the Other, be it female, Carthaginian, or Greek. Aeneas identity is developed through the ar ticulation of contrasting dualities, that is, Others, like male/female, Roman/Carthagi nian, Greek/Trojan, and Trojan/Italian. This mutability of his identity is possible because after his exclusion from the Trojan culture, Aeneas ethnic status is that of a cipher, which Syed explicates as [a] blank space onto which Roman national identity is projected through his interactions with various ethnic others. This is possible because Aeneas leaves behind him his Trojan identity when he d ecides to follow the commands of fate that direct him to found a new city elsewhere.22 19 Syed (2005) 2-3. 20 Syed (2005) 3. 21 Syed (2005) 35. 22 Syed (2005) 175.

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9 These dualities are helpful in understanding how the Other is constr ucted; it is, however, my argument that Aeneas is the Other, sin ce his identity is in a state of flux in comparison to the diasporic Trojans, whos e identities remain in a fixed condition. Syeds concept of the cipher is very useful because it pinpoints a state that Aeneas reaches only though the necessary remo val of his Trojan id entity. It allows Aeneas to break the repetitive compulsive cycle of trying to re-found Troy. Syeds concept of the cipher will form the basis for the evaluation of Aeneas identity in chapter 3 of this thesis. After Aeneas ha s abandoned his Trojan identity, which was constructed in relation to the recent past, the fall of Troy, he reconstructs his identity in terms of the very distant Trojan past, name ly the exile of Dardanus, which ultimately leads to the foundation of Troy. This idea of a shared point of reference which connects a community is based on B. Andersons development of the imagine d community or a community that was reinvented only in the imaginations of many cultures which shared in the same idea of nation.23 For Aeneas, Dardanus represents the immemorial past, a point of reference that he, the Trojans, and th e Italians can all share in.24 If disparate groups can define themselves in relationship to Dardanus, they then have a precedent for developing their relationships with one another. It is this idea of the imagined community that empowers Quint and Syeds applications of psychoanaly sis to Roman identity. On one hand, Quint expands his theory to the Romans themselves who must overcome the trauma of the civil wars in their quest for mastery over their past since [t]he Aeneid plots out just such a 23 Anderson (2003) 6. 24 Quint (1999) 130 and Anderson (2003) 11.

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10 struggle for empowerment and for a narrative which is both the result and means of empowerment: but it is the str uggle not of the in dividual psyche, but of a collective political nation.25 On the other hand, Syed involves the Roman reader in all of Aeneas wanderings and efforts to become proto-Roman, which then allows the reader himself to develop his own Roman identity. In forming and reassessing a community s own collective identity, foundation stories become important as the point of re ference in which the all the members of the community can share. The fundame ntal theme of city-founding in the Aeneid as well as the Aeneid itself participate in the discourse of identity formation. In Aeneas case, after he must give up his Trojan identity, he tu rns to the distant stor y about the founder of Troy, which gives him a model to emulate, t hus helping him reform his identity and possibly reintegrate himself into a cultu re. Though excluded from one community, Aeneas must restructure his identity so th at he can become included in another: A community defined by culture is potentia lly open: one may become a member of that community by acquiring its culture. A community defined by race or ethnicity, on the other hand, is accessible only to t hose who are born to existing members of the requisite group. In practice, of course the two often overlap : race and ethnicity may be associated with certain qualities a nd vice versa. In either case, foundation stories help to define who is in, who is out, and whether membership is open or closed.26 In order to redefine who will be an intern al member of Aeneas future community, the Romans, the Aeneid gives a new version of an ol d foundation story. By relying on foundation stories to help synthesize a new idea of identity within a community, Aeneas 25 Quint (1999) 119. 26 Miles (1999) 232.

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11 and his foundation story then become exemplar s for the Romans, who must reassess their collective identity after a long period of upheaval. Incorporating so many non-Romans in a period during which Rome was divided against itself caused a schism in the consti tution of Roman identi ty, which manifested itself in terms of social anxiet y. The awareness of this anxiet y is not only manifested in the Aeneid but it is present in Vergil s other works as well: The finale of the first book of Vergils Georgics reflecting the atmosphere of the mid-30s rather than of th e poems date of publication circa 29, ends with an apocalyptic vision of the civil wars, and sees the young Caesar (the future Augustus) as a potential soluti on, but ends with a vivid pict ure of an anarchic world at war, with no guarantee that control will be re-restablished. . The civil war has moved to total conflict at global level, with accompanying further fear and anxiety about the future of Rome.27 Vergil offers a newly constructed foundation stor y as a solution to the social anxiety of Rome. The Aeneid serves as an example of how an outsider can become an internal member of a community, as well as how one can stop repeating the traumatic past of civil wars. By incorporating Italian and Greek pe oples through both enfranchisement and expansion, Rome was forced to absorb thei r cultures as well. One example of the appropriation of Greek culture was Helle nism, Romes acceptance of Greek art and literature.28 While many Romans embraced Gree k oratory and philosophy, Cato the Censor lambasted these things in favor of cultivating Roman values, yet Hellenism was so prevalent in Rome that trying to divor ce the two would have caused further anxiety 27 Harrison (2004) 291. 28 Gruen (1992) 52-83.

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12 about Romes identity.29 Many Greek sources portray Rome as a Greek city in character and lineage.30 There were multiple versions of the foundation of Rome, some of which feature Aeneas, some of which feature Odysseus and others.31 The version in which Aeneas founded Rome took precedence around the 3rd century, after many Greek authors explained away a line in Homer which indicated that Aeneas remained in the Troad.32 Vergil dealt directly with th is Hellenism as he created his version of the Aeneid Needless to say, the accounts are conflicted, but Vergils eventually becomes canonized.33 Vergils version may have been preferred because of its more inclusive genealogy.34 By making Dardanus an Italian with a Greek mother, Vergil incorporated the various traditions while at the same time reinventing them. The Aeneid, as a foundation story that included and valued many different cultures, may have appealed to the recently annexed Italian people: Those readers (the original a udience) were not, of course, a unified, homogenous entity . .[N]ot a few of these readers had some share in a pos t-colonial mentality, that is, that they or their families had recently become naturalized Romans; that they had some memory of the Italian (that is, non-Roman) heritage; that ma ny of these people felt, to some degree, conflict between their new and their old communal identities.35 29 Gruen (1992) 81. 30 Gruen (1992) 11. 31 McKay (1970) 79-80. 32 Gruen (1992) 9-18. 33 Gruen (1992) 6. 34 For the development of Romans tracing their gen ealogies, see Wiseman (1974) Legendary Genealogies in Late-Republican Rome. 35 Johnson (2001) 8.

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13 Yet the foundation stories are set in the very distant, immemo rial past. Also, a genealogy formed from the very distant, mythical past can be manipulated and used to please many different peoples. This makes the genealogy of Aeneas appealing to both the Greeks and the Italians alike through a bu ffer of distant "Trojanness": Troy supplied an especially attractive ingred ient in that endeavor. The celebrated Trojan past lay in remote antiquity, its people no longer extant, the city but a shell of its former self. Troy, unlike Greece, persisted as a symbol, not a current reality . .The Romans could mold the anci ent Trojans to suit their own ends.36 The more inclusive a genealogy, the more appeal it has. But this genealogy, if from the traditions of bygone times, can be changed to su it the needs of the present day. Thus, the story of Aeneas can be changed to make Da rdanus an Italian, though this is an innovation on the part of Vergil.37 These theories, the Other, Freuds repetition compulsion, and identity reconstruction, though grounded in psychoanalysis, have found widespread application to the consciousness of nations through yet anot her theory, post-colonialism. While this mode of thought is anachronistic for the purpos es of evaluating the co llective identity of Rome, some methods can be analogously applied.38 It is in this post-colonial vein that the subsequent chapters of this thesis will pr ogress in an attempt to view the role that Vergils version of the Roma n foundation story plays in reforming Roman identity. 36 Gruen (1993) 7-8. 37 McKay (1970) 8. 38 It is not within the scope of this thesis to treat the constructions of the colonizer and colonized, nor will it treat Vergil as the sub-altern voice. The aim of this th esis is to analyze the identity formation of a culture represented in literature using ideas grounded in post-colonial theory.

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14 CHAPTER 3 REPETITION COMPULSION AND AENEAS OTHERNESS This chapter will analyze how Aeneas attempts to re-found Troy in Book 3 of the Aeneid are indicative of a psychological crisis in Aeneas identity which forces him to either compulsively repeat the past or to abandon his Trojan identity entirely. Aeneas attempted cities in Book 3 exhibit Aeneas co mpulsion to re-found Troy in order to save it, which is indicative of Freuds th eory of the repetition compulsion.1 Each foundation fails; therefore Aeneas is not ab le to create a new version in which he can prevent the fall of Troy thereby mastering his trauma.2 Instead, Aeneas must found something new, separate from his own nostalgia. It is the ai m of this chapter to explain how erasure of the recent past occurs in Book 3 thr ough Aeneas foundations and through his interactions with other Trojans. Quints observance that the Trojan past must be forgotten conforms to the reconciliation between Jupiter and Juno in Book 12, which mandates that the city of Troy and its very name be obliterated: occidit occideritque sinas cum nomine Troia ( A. 12.828). Jupiter allows the former Trojans to k eep only their sacred customs and rites: do quod uis et me uictusque uolensque remitto. sermonem Ausonii patrium moresque tenebunt utque est nomen erit; co mmixti corpore tantum subsident Teucri. Morem ritusque sacrorum adiciam faciamque omnis uno ore Latinos. ( A. 12.833-7) 1 Quint (1999) 118. 2 Freud (1961) 16.

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15 Though the terms for the reconciliation come at the end of the epic, Book 3 focuses on the process of creating a mixed race ( genus . mixtum A. 12.838), one in which the past Trojan identity is suppressed (save their religious customs) The suppression of Trojan identity exhibited by Aeneas character is achieved through hi s construction as the Other, as one who is excluded by his difference from self-contained cultures. This chapter will examine how Aeneas Otherness is establis hed by analyzing how Aeneas manifests his nostalgia when he creates unsuccessful im itations of Troy in Thrace and on Crete (thereby also asserting his own Trojanness). Aeneas tries to master his past by refounding Troy in spite of its fall. If he shoul d successfully rebuild the city, he would, in effect, save it from destruction. Although his destiny calls for a mixed race, Aeneas cities are purely Trojan recreations; thus, th ey are doomed to fail. After he accepts his greater destiny, Aeneas must be excluded from other Trojans in the diaspora, particularly Helenus and Andromache, who intend to mast er the fall of Troy. This exclusion is indicative of Aeneas Otherness, his differen ce from his fellow Trojans. It marks both his deliverance from compulsively repeating the traumatic fall of Troy, and the beginning of his nullification of his Tr ojan cultural identity. Aeneas nostalgia, triggered by his exile after the traumatic destruction of his homeland, compels him to found imitations of Troy, rather than a new city. By rebuilding Troy, Aeneas would affirm his Tro janness. From the very beginning of his story, Aeneas consider s himself Trojan ( tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros A. 2.10; litora cum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo / et campos A. 3.10-1).3 After the citys fall and his flight, Aeneas considers his pur pose not simply to found a new home, but to 3 The earliest moment in linear time is the beginning of Book 2. My emphasis.

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16 re-found Troy, ( da propriam, Thymbraee, domum, da moenia fessis /et genus et mansuram urbem; serua altera Troiae / Pergama A. 3.85-7). Yet, each of Aeneas attempts to re-establish a Trojan city will fail. At the beginning of Book 3 Aeneas establishes two cities, the first in Thrace, and the second in Crete, both of which are cl ear manifestations of Aeneas homesickness since they retain Trojan names and are built in locations not far from the Troad. 4 Aeneas efforts to found a city that is similar to Troia antiqua are destined to fail because they repeat the recent past, the fall of Tr oy. Each city does fail: Thrace must be abandoned because of a terrifying omen while a plague blights Crete. The fall of each city forces Aeneas to examine his future, th at which is revealed to him in prophecies, rather than compulsively repe at a defunct Trojan past. Addionally, by erecting a city in Thrace whose people are named after himselfa man who on account of his nostalgia longs only to rebuild fallen TroyAeneas inescapably dooms the endeavor as a repetition of the traumatic past.5 Vergil describes Aeneas Thracian settlement only in scant de tail, but the descriptions chosen reinforce Aeneas nostalgic state of mind. Aeneas calls his people the Aeneadae a name which confirms his role as leader of the expedi tion while endorsing the expedition itself as a Trojan one ( Aeneadeasque meo nomen de nomine fingo A. 3.19). Aeneas also describes the land as sharing with Troy not only hospitium but also socii Penates ( hospitium antiquum Troiae sociique Penates 3.15). The hospitium a mutual agreement of 4 Connington (1875) 193: Thrace was se parated from the Troad only by the Hellespont, so th at procul is used, as it sometimes is without any notion of great distance, expressing local separation, and no more. 5 In Book 3, the first indication of Aeneas longing for Troy appears at 3.10-1, litora cum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo / et campus, ubi Troia fuit

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17 hospitality, serves to link the two groups in both a common experi ence and a method of cultural exchange. The hospitium the shared gods, and the cl ose proximity to the Troad portray Thrace as a substitute fo r Troyfar too similar for Aen eas to settle there properly since his destiny demands a mixed race. Also, Aeneas encounter with the shade of Polydorus provides a starting point for how the reader should evaluate Aeneas Trojan status since this is the first instance in which Aeneas interacts with a Trojan outside of his own band of refugees. In Thrace, Aeneas barely erects his walls before the sh ade of Polydorus implores that Aeneas flee. Aeneas unwittingly desecrates Polydorus to mb, causing the branches of a bush to bleed and causing the shade of Polydorus to lament: quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? iam parce sepulto, parce pias scelerare manus. non me tibi Troia externum tulit aut cruor hic de stipite manat. heu fuge crudelis terras, fuge litus auarum: nam Polydorus ego. hic confixum ferrea texit telorum seges et iaculis increuit acutis. ( A. 3.41-7) From Polydorus perspective, though he has been changed into a mound overgrown with cornel bushes and myrtle trees ( forte fuit iuxta tumulus, quo co rnea summo / uirgulta et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus A. 3.22-3), Aeneas injury to the plants is still an injury to his kinsman. For this reason, Polydorus or ders Aeneas to spare his pious hands from this form of pollution ( A. 3.42). The phrase Polydorus us es to establish that his relationship to Aeneas is non . externum ( A. 3.342-3). Polydorus conceives of Trojanness as a contained concept one can be excluded and outside ( externus ), or one can be a member ( internus ).6 Polydorus speech indicates that being a member of Trojan culture ( internus ) has to do with birt h place and heredity ( Troia . / tulit aut cruor hic 6 I have extrapolated internus as the natural opposite of externus though Vergil does not use the term.

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18 destipite manat A. 3.42-3). He also implies th at his status as a Troj an, despite being raised in Thrace, is a permanent situation ( Hunc Polydorum . / infelix Priamus furtim mandarat alendum / Threicio regi A. 3.49-51). Polydorus recognizes Aeneas as an internal member of the Trojan gens but from beyond the grave, he cannot conceive that Aeneas destiny will force him to disassociate himself from the Trojan past in favor of a viable future. When compared to Polydorus, Aeneas is non externum yet he remains estranged from his kinsman. Polydorus own version of Trojanness is fixed upon the finality of the fall of Troy while Aeneas intends to re-f ound the city. Priam sends his son to Thrace only after he perceives the inevit ability of Troys destruction ( infelix Priamus furtim mandarat alendum / Threicio regi, cum iam diffideret armis / Dardaniae cingique urbem obsidione uideret A. 3.50-2). In Polydorus, Priam se t his hopes for perpetuating the Trojan line; instead, Polydorus death actua lly ensures the oblite ration of Troy since Priam has no other living direct heirs.7 In this scene, Vergil reiterates the fall of Troy, but it is replayed in Thrace. The comparis on between Aeneas and dead Troy, represented by Polydorus, marks his separation from Trojan culture which thereby evidences Aeneas Otherness. Undaunted by the horrific omen of Polydorus and motivated still by his nostalgia, Aeneas acquiesces to Anchises misinterpretatio n of Apollos oracle. After being driven from Thrace by Polydorus warnings, Aeneas vi sits the oracle of Apollo at Delos for guidance. While at the oracle of Apollo, Ae neas asks for a second citadel of Troy: da propriam, Thymbraee, domum; da moenia fessi s / et genus et mansuram urbem; serua 7 Quint (1982) 32: the verb condimus in the fina l verse of the episode (68) transforms the activity of city-founding into one of burial.

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19 altera Troiae / Pergama, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli ( A. 3.85-87). It is still with this nostalgic mindset th at Aeneas prays for his second city. At Delos, Aeneas receives another directive, that he must seek his ancient mother ( antiquam exquirite matrem A. 3.96). Tracing the Trojan an cestry back to Crete, An chises interprets this island as the ancient mother. Although Apollos oracle intends that the Trojans head for Italy, Anchises interpretation, which favors Crete, convinces Aeneas because it appeals to his desire to re-found Troy. Anchises recollection of th e Trojans past li nks Troy to Crete.8 Both areas worship Cybele and have a mountain called Mt. Ida.9 At the beginning of Book 3, Aeneas mentions that his fleet was built under the Phrygian Mt. Ida, and later in Book 9, when the Rutulians try to burn the fleet; the same ships are changed to nymphs by Cybele.10 Pergamea, Aeneas city in Crete, is set under the Cretan Mt. Ida ( Creta Iouis magni medio iacet insula ponto / mons Idaeus ubi et ge ntis cunabula nostrae A. 3.104-5). Anchises mention of Cybele may also have reminded Aeneas of Creusas farewell in which she claimed that Cybele held her to the Trojan shores ( sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris A. 2.788). These attributes establ ish a series of correspondences between Crete and Troy, which w ould appeal to Aeneas compul sion to create a city just like Troy. Since Anchises must remind the i gnorant Trojans of Cr etes significance, the 8 For the prominence of Anchises role in Book 3 see Sanderlin (1975) Aeneas as ApprenticePoint of View in the Third Aeneid , Quint (1982) Painful Memories: Aeneid 3 and the Problem of the Past, and Otis (1964) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry 9 For the Jupiters role in connecting Troy and Cret e as well as the image of Daedalus throughout the Aeneid see Armstrong (2002) Crete in the Aeneid : Recurring Trauma and Alternative Fate. 10 auguriis agimur diuum, classemque sub ipsa / Antandro et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae A .3.5-6, hinc mater cultrix Cybeli Corybantiaque aera / Idaeumque nemus, hinc fida silentia sacris, / et iuncti currum dominae subiere leones A .3.111-3, and tempore quo primum Phrygia formabat in Ida / Aeneas classem et pelagi petere alta parabat, / ip sa deum fertur genetrix Berecyntia magnum A .9.80-2.

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20 need for a lengthy description of Cretes similarity to Troy reveals the Trojans disassociation from their own past. This disa ssociation from Troys origin stories, tales which help define ones own community, ex emplifies Aeneas Otherness. Aeneas willingly invests in a Trojan past which he knows nothing about, simply because Anchises convinces him that Cret e is similar to ancient Troy. Vergils development of the Trojans emoti onal state as they approach Crete seems exaggerated in order to compensate for the inadequacy of their new settlement. The Trojans eagerness to settle th e land abandoned by their enemy ( hoste A. 3.123) is very exuberant: the sailors shout ( nauticus exoritur uario certamine clamor A. 3.128), Aeneas becomes greedy when he approaches the city for which he has been longing ( ergo auidus muros optatae molior urbis A. 3.132), and the other Trojans are happy ( laetam cognomine gentem A. 3.133). Aeneas names his new city Pergamea, with a reference to the citadel of fallen Troy ( Pergameamque uoco A. 3.133) as well as his prayer at Delos ( serua altera Troiae / Pergama A .3.86-7). But these emotions seem forced: the sailors shouting becomes a contest ( certamine ), the word used for Aeneas desire for the new city is auidus and Aeneas must encourage his people to love their new home, implying that their love does not come naturally ( hortor amare focos ar cemque attollere tectis A. 3.134). Aeneas exhaustion from his diaspo ric wanderings causes him to be overly eager for the wrong place; his eagerness empha sizes the unease with which Pergamea is founded.11 Crete is also a Greek place; Aeneas, as a Trojan who has spent ten years warring with the Greeks, should not be comfortabl e slipping into abandoned Greek homes. Crete 11 Huc feror; haec fessos tuto placidissima portu / accepit A .3.78-9, and da moenia fessis A .3.85.

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21 has been described as ha ving one-hundred cities ( centum urbes habitant magnas A. 3.106), all of which were under the rule of Idomeneus, a Greek king who has abandoned Crete on account of his own religious exile.12 Vergil is ambiguous as to whether or not all the Cretan people leav e with Idomeneus, or otherwise abandon the land.13 Vergil states that the shores have been deserted and that the homes and habitations have been abandoned ( desertaque litora Cretae / hoste uacare domum sedesque astare relictas A. 3.122-3). Because Crete recently has been occupied with Greek cities, Aeneas creates a problematic s ituation by resettling his Trojan people within a Greek environment.14 In Crete he takes over Greek h earths and homes, which he must encourage his people to love ( hortor amare focos arcemque attollere tectis A. 3.134). While Apollos prophecy may give Aeneas some comfort and the (mistaken) authority to settle there, Vergil gives no indication that the Trojans object to Cretes Greek past, illustrating that they are moving beyond their fo rmer perceptions of Greeks as being the Other; in other words, the Trojans themselv es are evolving beyond their recent traumatic past. In Crete, Aeneas identity remains in an exilic limbo, since the island can only offer him Teucers abandonment or Idomeneus empty homes, neither of which are satisfactory. Since there are no other people living on the is land, Aeneas can not possibly fulfill Jupiters prophecy of creating a mixed race. Crete simply is not the place for 12 Serv. A .3.121: Idomeneus abandons his land after he incites a plague by sacrificing his own son in accordance with a prayer to Neptune. If Idomeneus a rrived at Crete safely, he was to sacrifice the first living creature he saw, which turned out to be his son. Idomeneus, according to Ve rgil, emigrated to Italy. 13 Connington (1875) 204. 14 Because Teucer, a Trojan forefa ther, was born in Crete, Aeneas foundation on the island may be construed as a return, but it will not fulfill the requirement for a mixed race. The island is also blighted, so it is not a viable place to settle.

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22 Aeneas to settle; the divine intervention of the plague confirms this certainty.15 To remain despite the cultural discomfort of living in a Greek land would condemn these Trojans to death, just as remaining in ancient Troy or Thrace would. After Aeneas mission to found a city in Italy is confirme d by the Penates, Aeneas can begin reconstructing his identi ty in terms of his future city, rather than his nostalgia for the recent Trojan past. Aeneas abandonment of his Trojanness comes to a head when he is portrayed as an outsider in Hele nus and Andromaches city, Buthrotum. Of all the imitations of Troy, the Buthrotum epis ode marks the stronge st contrast between the two sets of Trojans.16 The Trojans hear a rumor that Helenus and Andromache, both taken by Pyrrhus as slaves at the end of the wa r, have been set as rulers of Pyrrhus lands and have established a new city, a replica of Troy: hic incredibilis rerum fama occupat auris Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes coniugio Aeacidae Pyrrhi sceptrisque potitum et patrio Andromachen iter um cessisse marito. (A. 3.294-7) Throughout Book 3, Aeneas has been driven by hi s compulsive desire to re-build Troy; although he prayed for an altera Pergama Troiae at Delos, Aeneas has never been successful at building a replacement Troy which he can inhabit. Here, at Buthrotum, Aeneas sees his greatest desire re alized: Troy has been rebuilt. This parua Troia should be a great temptation for him, causing him to feel greed and hope, emotions already caused by Pergama in Crete.17 While Aeneas does express wonderment and aims to find 15 . subito cum tabida membris / corrupto caeli tr actu miserandaque uenit / arboribusque satisque lues et letifer annus. / linquebant dulcis animas aut aegra trahebant / corpora; tum sterilis exurere Sirius agros, / arebant herbae et uictum seges aegra negebat A .3.137-142. 16 Otis (1964) 260. 17 procedo et paruam Troiam simulataque magnis / Pergama A .3.349-50.

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23 out how his kinsmen fared, he does not exhi bit any desire to live in Buthrotum ( obstipui miroque incensum pectus amore / compe llare uirum et casus cognoscere tantos A. 3.29899). Aeneas rejection of Helenus and Andromaches unadulterated and imitative Trojanness asserts his Otherne ss, his existence now outside of the Trojan experience. Instead, he embarks on founding a new city, one that will become culturally Roman rather than Trojan. In the Aeneid, Helenus city is the replica described as most similar to Troy. Helenus himself reconstructed and renamed the ar ea to fit the descripti on of ancient Troy: morte Neoptolemi regnorum reddita cessit pars Heleno, qui Chaonios cognomine campos Chaoniamque omnem Troiano a Chaone dixit Pergamaque Iliacamque i ugis hanc addidit arcem. ( A. 3.333-6) The rivers and gates surrounding th e city have both been named after those of the original Troy ( Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine riuum / agnosco Scaeaeque amplector limina portae A. 3.350-1). Even a Trojan family rules this parua Troia Helenus has succeeded in completing what Aeneas has greatly desired to do: me si fata meis paterentur ducere uitam auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas urbem Troianam primum dulcisque meorum reliquias colorem Priami tecta alta manerent et recidiua manu posuissem Pergama uictis. ( A. 4.340-4)18 The Trojans of Buthrotum have rebuilt Troy in or der to repeat the past and master it, just as Aeneas has tried to do himself. He re, Helenus is king over Greek lands while Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, is dead. Though in a diminished form, the gates of Troy stand. In Epirus, Helenus has recreated a conf lict between Greeks and Trojans, but in its 18 Aeneas reveals this to Dido as he leaves Carthage. Although this episode happens after Book 3, Aeneas admission confirms what his foundatio n practices have already indicated.

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24 resolution, the Trojans victoriously conquer the Greeks and colonize their lands. But Aeneas has broken free from constructing his identity in terms of the trauma of the Trojan war; thus, he is excl uded from Helenus new version, the Trojan mastery of the Greeks in Epirus. Aeneas Otherness is fully expressed when he is compared to Andromache. She associates herself only with the past, in te rms of fallen Troy, while Aeneas has broken his compulsion to rebuild the city. From Andr omaches perspective, Trojanness means being opposed to the Greeks and being at war. For her, Trojanness means being the wife of dead Hector and the mother of dead Astyanax, as indicated by her farewell to Aeneas and Ascanius: accipe et haec, manuum tib i quae monumenta mearum sint, puer, et longum Andr omachae testentur amorem coniugis Hectoreae. ca pe dona extrema tuorum o mihi sola mei super Astyanactis imago. ( A. 3.486-9)19 When Aeneas first lands and approaches th e city, he meets with Andromache who is sacrificing at a cenotaph of Hector ( sollemnis cum forte dapes et tristia dona / ante urbem in luco falsi Simoentis ad undam / libabat cineri Andromache manisque vocabat A .3.3013).20 Andromaches customary ( sollemnes ) rites to Hector imply that her mourning is still fresh, even well after Troys destructi on. Despite her relocation and her new city, Andromache compulsively continues the behaviors which were prompted by the traumatic event of her husbands death. 19 Bettini (1997) 9-11. Bettini argues that Andr omache, a foreign bride, upon marrying Hector, reconstructed her identity entirely in relationship to her husband and his city. 20 Bettini (1997) 12. Bettini argues that Aeneas arri val on the anniversary of Hectors death is a coincidence. Frankly, it may be that Andr omache simply does this every day, since sollemnes can mean customary ( Oxford Latin Dictionary sollemnis 2). This repetitive behavior would fit with her obsession with the past. This, however, is in opposition to Serv. A. 3.301: sollemnes non festas, sed legitimas, anni uersarias .

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25 Andromache seems to have no knowledge of other Trojans outside of her city, as if her imitative Troy were segregated so that she may continue her repetition of the past in uninterrupted peace. She is clearly startled at the sight of other approaching Trojans, particularly because they are dre ssed in distinctive Trojan armor.21 This rare description of Aeneas dress registers as odd because he wears the garb of war when approaching the city of his kinsman. Vergil may have chosen to depict Aeneas in this way not only because in Andromaches eyes it c onfirms the static nature of the past in that all Trojans are war-time Trojans, but also because Aeneas has changed so drastically that he would be unrecognizable to other Trojans without his armor. Andromaches own obsessive nostalgia make s her the self-appointed guardian of her version of Trojan culture She and Aeneas are juxta posed in this capacity, since Aeneas carries the Penates to their rightfu l home, while Andromache recreates Troy in order to keep its memory alive. At their initial meeting, she asks Aeneas six questions, four of which are about the past. She asks if Ascanius lives: quid puer Ascanius? superatne et uescitur aura? / quem tibi iam Troia(A. 3.339-40).22 Then she asks if Ascanius has any knowledge of Creusa and Hect or, prominent Trojans who were lost in the fall of Troy. But Andromaches question rea lly concerns whether or not Ascanius is familiar with Trojan people and ideals, in other words her concern is Ascanius involvement in Trojan culture. To insu re Ascanius memory of Troy, Andromache makes gifts for him that are meant to remind him of Trojan culture: accipe et haec, 21 Bettini (1997) 13-4. Bettini argues that Andromache was performing a ritual to summon the spirits of the dead. Aeneas sudden appearance seemed to fulfill he r prayers. I believe her startled questions and her faint imply that she has tried this ritual before, with unsuccessful results. 22 Line 340 is incomplete but there are so me senses that can be extrapolatedthe quem still refers to Ascanius, the Troia is either the subject or an ablative.

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26 manuum tibi quae monumenta mearum / sint, puer, et longum Andromachae testentur amorem ( A .3.486-7). Andromache has found Trojan objects, even imitations, comforting and familiar. For instance, Andromache sacrifices at an empty tomb since she could not bring the corpse of Hector with her ( Hectoreum ad tumulum, uiridi quem caespite inanem / et geminas A .3.304-5). But she feels connected to H ector so long as sh e creates a tomb for him. The Trojans feel connected to Troy if they create a substitute Troy, a manifestation of their nostalgi a. In turn, the imitation of Troy re-affirms for the people that they are Trojan. It is this cycle of re gressively and compulsive ly recreating the past that Aeneas finally manages to break by accep ting his destiny in Italy. By abstention from repeating the traumatic past, Aeneas Troj an identity is eradicated in deference to Jupiters intention of creating a mixed Roman people. Andromaches barren parua Troia starkly contrasts to Jupiters prophecy of a mixed race. Andromaches preoccupation with Ascanius brings her current bereft state into focus. Andromache continually compares Ascanius to Astyanax, who was killed at Troy. Though there is a passing reference to her son by Neoptolemus, there is no mention of Andromache beari ng any children to Helenus ( nos patria incensa diuersa per aequora uectae / stirpis Achilleae fastus iuue nemque superbum / seruitio enixae tulimus A .3.325-7). The fertility of the c ity is even questioned when the riverbed is described as dry ( arentem Xanthi cognomine riuum / agnosco A. 3.350-1). Clearly there are Greeks nearby, the former subjects of Neoptolemus, with which the people of Buthrotum could intermarry and invigorate their own people. St ill, the Trojans in Epirus remain hostile to Greeks, just as they were in the past.23 If a city imitates Troy in every aspect, it must also 23 Otis (1964) 261: Helenus city in Epirus is clear ly no new creation like Rome. There is no intentional mixture of the old and the new (Trojan and Latin) but mere reproduction of the old.

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27 imitate the fall of Troy, which is its most fa med distinctionthus Buthrotum, through its obsession with the past, condemns itself to inviability. Aeneas remains separate from this reductiv e Trojan imitation. Despite dressing in his old Trojan armor, Aeneas has a future which gives him a viability not available to Helenus and Andromache. Aeneas perceive s a reflection of hims elf in Andromaches excessive, compulsive repetition of the past, however, he can no longer participate in this reductive compulsion to rebuild Troy. After seeing Buthrotu m, he recognizes that the city cannot be saved, only imitated. Aeneas Otherness, his exclusion from Trojanness, manifests itself when he addresses Helenus and Andromache as having completed their fates ( uiuite felices, quibus est fortuna peracta / iam sua: nos alia ex aliis in fata uocamur A. 3.493-4). Their city has already been es tablished, while he himself has yet to fulfill his journey. D. Bright argues that thei r completed fates and obsession with the past constitute a pseudonekyia in Buthrotum.24 This would be the ultimate expression of Aeneas Otherness; he lives, while Andromach e and Helenus are dead. In this most extreme form of Otherness, there is only excl usion or inclusion; the difference cannot be bridged by hospitium or kinship. Yet this differen ce may explain why Aeneas does not leave any Trojans in Buthrotum. Previously he left a few peopl e in Crete, but if Buthrotum is, as Bright calls it, a necropolis, Aeneas would not be able to leave living Trojans among the dead.25 24 For the analysis of Aeneas experience in Buthrotum as a nekyia see Bright (1981) Aeneas Other Nekyia and Hershkowitz (1991) The Aeneid in Aeneid 3. For comparisons of Aeneas nekyia with Odysseus see Quint (1982) Painful Memories: Aeneid 3 and the Problem of the Past. 25 Bright (1981) 44 and Williams ( 1990) 94. Hanc quoque deserimus sedem paucisque relictis / uela damus A .3.190-1. Williams argues that the mention of Aeneas leaving people behind accounts for the epichoric cities which are somehow associated Aeneas journey.

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28 Although he began his journey with th e intention of re-founding Troy, he has accepted his destiny to settle an unknown pl ace with a new city. Through comparisons with other Trojans and failed attempts at foundi ng Trojan cities, Aeneas is made aware of the reductive nature of his ow n nostalgia for the past as we ll as his own compulsion to repeat it. This realization comes at the cost of Aeneas Trojan identity, which formerly was constructed in terms of the war and the c ity herself. In the future, Aeneas will instead reconstruct his identity from his destiny which demands that he establish a new, mixed culture rather than try futilely to restore a fallen city.

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29 CHAPTER 4 DARDANUS: AENEAS FUTURE PAST In order to reconstruct his id entity after the destruction of Troy, Aeneas turns to his prophesized future which lead s him to Italy. Many of these prophecies are based on Aeneas genealogy which can be traced backwa rd to his ancestor, Dardanus. Yet, not much is revealed about Dardanus to Aeneas : He [Aeneas] goes to a home, but a strange, cold, unknown home; and Vergil makes it myst eriously a return, claiming, with some justification, too, that Dardanus, Tr oys founder, first came from Italy.1 To Aeneas, Dardanus is unfamiliar, but Aeneas clings to hi s story in spite of his unfamiliarity. It is the purpose of this chapter to evaluate how Dardanus acts as a cipher, a cultural blank onto whom Aeneas may project his perception of an ideal homeland and from whom he gains identity.2 Aeneas affiliates himself with Dardanus because the both exiles have similar stories, though Dardanus story has b een truncated. This chapter will examine both why the long traditions about Dardanus became condensed into very minor episodes in the Aeneid and what role Aeneas descent from Dardanus plays in his efforts to reintegrate himself into a community. Dardanus story and lineage have older tr aditions from which Vergil draws his own version. The sources such as Homer, Apo llodorus, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus agree 1 Knight (1944) 132. 2 Syed (2005) 175: Syed reserves her term cipher for Aeneas.

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30 that Dardanus is the son of Jup iter and Electra, a daughter of Atlas.3 Eventually, Dardanus leaves his home and travels to the Troad region, where he becomes king. While all sources again concur that he ends up in the area of Troy, they disagree very much as to Dardanus place of origin. The Greek tradition is the most complex: either Dardanus was born in the region of Troy or he traveled there by way of either Samothrace or Crete.4 The Roman tradition rejects these Greek versions, preferring instead that Dardanus was born in Italy, in the region of Etru ria, and went to the Troad via Samothrace.5 Once in the region of Troy, Dardanus met with Teucer, who offered his daughter, Bateia, and his kingdom to the immigrant.6 Then, Dardanus and Bateia had two sons, Ilus, the eponym of Ilium, and Erichthonius.7 Both sons became rulers in the region, renamed Dardania, though the area still lacked a ruling city. After Ilus died childless, Erichthonius succeeded to the Dardanian throne.8 He eventually married Astyoche, daughter of the river god Simoeis, and fathered Tros, the eponym of Troy.9 Like his father, Tros married a daughte r of a river god, Callirrhoe, daughter of 3 Davrdanon au| prw`ton tevketo nefelhgerevta Zeuv~ ( Il. 20.215) and jHlevktra~ dev t`~ jAtlanto~ kaiv Dio;~ jIasivwn kai; Davrdano~ ejgenonto (Apollod. 3.12.1). 4 Davrdano~ de; ejpi; tw/` qanavtw/ tou` ajdelfou` lupouvmeno~, Samoqra/vkhn ajpolipw;n eij~ th;n ajntivpera h[peiron h[peiron h|lqe (Apollod. 3.12.1) 5 Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes / Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur A. 7.208-9. For Vergils innovation of Da rdanus birth place, see McKay (1970) Vergils Italy 6 uJpodecqei;~ de; uJpo; tou` Basilevw~, kai; labw;n mevr o~ th`~ gh`~ kai; th;n ejkeivnou qugatevra Bavteian (Apollod. 3.12.1). 7 [Ilou sh`ma palaiou` Dardanivdao ( Il. 11.166), [Ilou Dardanivdao, palaiou` dhmogevronto~ ( Il .11.372), and Davrdano~ au| tevkeq j uiJo;n jErcqovnion basilh`a ( Il. 20.219). Ilium seems to be the first name of the city of Troy before it was renamed after Tros. 8 Genomevnwn de; auJtw`/ paivdwn [Ilou kai; jEricqonivou, |I lo~ me;n a[pais ajpevqanen, jEricqovnio~ de; diadexavmeno~ th;n basileivan (Apollod. 3.12.2). 9 Trw`a d j jEricqovnio~ tevketo Trwvessin a[nakta ( Il. 20.230) and ghvma~ jAstuovchn th ;n Zimoventos, teknoi` Trw`a (Apollod. 3.12.2).

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31 Scamander. Tros and Callirrhoe had thr ee sons, Ilus, Assaracus, Ganymede, and a daughter, Cleopatra.10 While Ganymede is famous for being kidnapped by Jupiter, almost nothing is known about his sister, Cle opatra. The eldest brothers, Ilus and Assaracus, ruled in Dardania, but eventually Ilus emigrated to another part of Phrygia, leaving Assaracus to rule Dardania.11 Ilus left after receiving an omen to follow a cow, then to found a city where it lay down; on that spot Ilus founded the city of Troy.12 During the fourth generation of Dardanus famil y, the city of Troy itsel f is constructed. From the foundation of Troy, the kingdoms of Il us and Assaracus are considered separate ruling houses. In Phrygia, Ilus married Eurydice, who bore a son, Laomedon, and a daughter, Themiste.13 Laomedon became the king of Troy and the father of many children, the most famous of which was Priam.14 Themiste then married her cousin Capys, the son of Assaracus.15 This couple bore Anchises, who then fathered Aeneas by Venus.16 This is the tradition of Dardanus fa mily from which Vergil develops his own ideas about Aeneas. 10 Th`~ gavr toi geneh`~ h|~ Trwi>v per eujruvopa Zeu;~ / dw`c j ui|o~ poinh;n Ganumhvdeo~ ( Il. 5.265-6), Trwo;~ d j au| trei`~ pai`de~ ajmuvmone~ ejxegevnonto / \Ilov~ t j jAssavrakov~ te kaiv ajntivqeo~ Ganumhvdh~ ( Il. 20.231-2), and ou|to~ paralabw;n th;n basileivan th;n me;n cwvran ajf j eJaoutou` Troivan ej kavlese, kai; ghvma~ Kallirrovhn th;n Skamavndrou genna/` qugatervra me;n Kleopavtran, pa i`da~ de; |Ilon kai; jAssavrakon kai; Ganumhvdhn (Apollod. 3.12.2). 11 \Ilo~ de; eij~ Frugivan ajfikovmeno~ (Apollod. 3.12.3). 12 dovnto~ aujtw/` tou` basilevw~ kata; crhsmo;n kai; bou`n poki vlhn, kai; fravsanto~ ejn w|/per a]n aujth; kliqh`/ tovpw/ povlin ktivzein, ei{peto th`/ boi>v. hv de; ajfikomevnh ejpi; to;n legovmenon th`~ Frugiva~ jAth~ lovfon klivnetai: e[nqa povlin ktivsa~ jIlo~ tauvthn me;n jIlion ejkavlese (Apollod. 3.12.3). 13 \Ilov~ d j au| tevkeq j uiJo;n ajmuvmona Laomevdonta ( Il. 20.236) 14 Laomevdwn d j a[ra Tiqwno;n tevketo Privamovn te / Lavmpovn te Klutivon q j JIketavonav t j, o[zon jArho~ ( Il. 20.237-8). 15 jAssavrako~ de; Kavpun, oJ d j a[r j jAgcivshn tevke pai`da ( Il. 20.239). 16 Il. 20.239.

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32 Vergil does not describe Aeneas genealogy in a full family tree. When Vergil does mention characters from the Dardanian hou se, he only gives very generalized details when he gives them at all. When interpreti ng Apollos oracle, Anchises only recalls the story of Teucers emigration to the Troa d from Crete, but he cannot immediately remember the story of Dardanus.17 Even Ganymedes story is relegated to a fleeting reference in the list of the causes of Junos anger ( rapti Ganymedis honores A. 1.28). When Vergil mentions Ilus and Assaracus, they are described onl y as great Trojan heroes, and their relationship to Dardanus is omitted: hic genus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, / magnanimi heroes, nati me loribus annis, / Ilusque Assaracusque et Troiae Dardanus auctor ( A. 6.648-50). When compared with the scant details given about other members of Aeneas distant relatives, Vergils desc ription of Dardanus is cons iderably better developed. Vergil confirms that Dardanus is the son of Electra, who is the daughter of Atlas ( Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor / Electra, ut Grai perhibent, Atlantide cretus A. 8.134-5). The most important detail Verg il gives about Dardanus is that he emigrated from Italy: . nunc fama minores Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem. Hae nobis propriae sedes hinc Dardanus ortus Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum. ( A. 3.165-8) Later in the same epiphany, the Penates spec ify that Aeneas should seek Corythus and Ausonia ( haud dubitanda refer, Corythum terrasque requirat / Ausonias A. 3.170-1). Later, Latinus repeats Dardanus birt h place specifically as Corythus: hinc illum Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede profectum ( A. 7.209). Vergil stresses Darda nus origins by repeating 17 Anchises describes the Teucrian emigration at A. 3.103-17, and he rea lizes his mistake at A. 3.182-7.

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33 his birth place. Though Latinus does not explai n why Dardanus left Italy, he does state that Dardanus traveled to Samoth race before arriving in the Troad.18 These references to specific cities may be epichoric allusions to the outside traditions that Vergil chooses not to employ. The final detail about Da rdanus describes his apotheosis: aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli / accipit et numerum divorum altaribus auget ( A. 7.210-1). This reference to Dardanus deification may be another Vergilian innovation.19 All of these descriptions edify Aeneas about his legac y, but they do not expand Dardanus character much beyond his relocation from Italy. The paucity of descriptions of Dardanus in the text reflects Aeneas unfamiliarity with his own ancestor as well as with Italy. Of the four descripti ons of Dardanus, three are explained to Aeneas, in order to educate him about his journey. Aeneas ignorance of the references to Italy in some of the proph ecies reinforces Aeneas disassociation from the early Trojan origins. At the outse t of Book 3, the Trojans are described as incerti in respect to their destination ( A. 3.7).20 Although Creusa, at the fall of Troy, told Aeneas to travel to Hesperia, when Aeneas begins hi s journey, he does not know where he should travel. In Creusas prophecy, she specifically mentions Hesperia and the Lydius Thybris both of which may have been very vague to Aeneas at the time.21 The Trojans exhibit a pattern of ignorance about their own past, since Anchises inte rprets Apollos oracle to mean Crete ( Creta Iovis mani medio iacet insula ponto, / mons Idaeus ubi et gentis 18 Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes / Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur A. 7.207-8 19 Horsfall (2000) 169. 20 Khan (2001) 910. 21 Saunders (1925) 85.

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34 cunabula nostrae A .3.104-5). Anchises solution to the oracle seems firm and acceptable; it does not cross his mind that th ere could be another Trojan ancestor. Anchises and the other Trojans have forgotten about Dardanus. Though Aeneas may be unfamiliar with Dardan us the man, Aeneas is very familiar with the epithet Dardanian, which is often used to categor ize the Trojans as an ethnic group. Aeneas and his people are referred to as Dardanian at l east once per book; in fact it happens quite often. Aeneas twice is called Dardanus, once by Dido and once by Diomedes.22 The epithet Dardanidae or the ad jectives Dardanidi s and Dardanius are used to describe either the Trojans or their possessions 51 times.23 Troy is referred to as Dardania 12 times.24 Yet this epithet only identifies Aeneas ethnically; it does not characterize him because Dardanus hims elf is not characterized with depth.25 Also, the epithet is ambiguous since Dardanus is both Italian and Trojan. Because he knows so little about his ancestor, this ambiguity s eems to have no meaning for Aeneas. So for Aeneas, only the name Dardanus is familiar, while the implications of an ambiguous Italian/Trojan ethnicity remain imperceptible. Despite his unfamiliarity with Dardanus, Ae neas chooses to identify himself with his ancestor after he breaks his compulsion to re-found Troy. He accepts his new future 22 hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto / Dardanus, et nostrae secum ferat omina mortis A. 4.661-2, and si duo praeterea talis Idaea tulisset / terra viros, ultro Inachias venisset ad urbes / Dardanus, et versis lugeret Graecia fatis A. 11.285-7. 23 A .1.494, 595, 602; 2.59, 72, 445, 612, 787; 3.94, 596; 4.163, 224, 626, 640, 647, 658; 5.30, 45, 386, 576, 711; 6.85, 169, 482, 756; 7.195, 289, 422, 756; 8.14, 120; 9.88, 100, 293, 247, 660; 10.4, 92, 133, 263, 545, 603, 638, 814; 11.353, 400, 472; 12.14, 549, 585, 775. 24 A .2.242, 281; 3.52, 156; 5.119, 622; 6.57, 65;7.219; 8.120; 9.695; 10.326. 25 For the flexible use of the epithet Dardanus as eith er praiseworthy or as an ethnic slur, see Anderson Trojan, Dardanian, Roman: The Power of Epithets in the Aeneid .

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35 rather suddenly, and with gusto once he spies Italy herself: cum procul obscuros colles humilemque videmus / Italiam. Italiam prumus conclamat Achates, / Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant ( A .3.522-4). Also, after Aeneas makes landfall in Carthage, he professes that Italy is his homeland: Italiam quaero patriam (A.1.380).26 Then, later in Book 4, Aeneas goes so far as to call Italy not only his patria but also his love: hic amor, haec patria est (A.4.347). Dardanus story appeals to Aeneas because in the few details given, it strongly parallels his own. The Penates reveal to Aen eas a vision which is his first introduction to his ancestor, Dardanus ( A. 3.154-71). In this vision, the Pena tes not only admit that their own home is in Italy, but also they indicate that they are linked to Dardanus through the land ( hae nobis propriae sedes, hinc Dardanus ortus / Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum A. 3.167-8). The Penates imply that when Dardanus left Italy, he carried the Penates with him, just as Aeneas did upon fleeing Troy. 27 Vergil emphasizes Aeneas transportation of the Penates both wh en Aeneas describes his strange vision and when the Penates confirm their own identity. Aeneas identifies the Penates not only as sacred, but as the very gods which he carried: effigies sacrae divum Phrygiique Penates, / quos mecum a Troia mediisque ex ignibus urbis / extuleram ( A. 3.148-50). Only six lines later, the Penates reiterate their journey with Aeneas: nos te Dardania incensa tuaque arma secuti, / nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus aequor ( A. 3.156-7). By emphasizing that Aeneas must return the Penates to the land of Dardanus, and by 26 Wilhelm (1992) 132: In these lines, Aeneas is stating his genealogical credentials; the reference to his patria, which is based on his descent from Dardanus, is an indication that Aeneas has recognized and accepted his genealogical heritage following Anchises revised interpretation of the Delian Apollos prophecy. 27 sacra suosque tibi commendat Troia Penates A.2.293.

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36 implying that Dardanus originally removed th e Penates, Vergil links the two Trojans in a cycle. Another detail of Dardanus trip related by Latinus, namely Dardanus stop-over in Samothrace, supports the view that Aeneas jour ney is an inverse of Dardanus. At least one Greek tradition states that Dardanus was born on the island of Samothrace; Vergil claims he simply stopped there on his way to Troy.28 Though Aeneas does not stop at the island itself, he does make a landfall in Th race, the mainland from which Samothrace takes its name.29 Vergils wording, his hyster on-proteron shifting of the name Samothrace emphasizes the Thracian half: Threiciamque Samum, qua nunc Samothracia fertur ( A. 7.208). This echo of the name Thrace serves as a corresponding point for both Aeneas and Dardanus journeys.30 It restructures Aeneas course as the reversal of Dardanus journey. This corres pondence, a shared experience, helps Aeneas familiarize himself with Dardanus story, which then allows him to identify himself with Dardanus. The third correspondence between Dardanus journey and Aeneas lies only in allusions to Aeneas eventual deification. According to Jupiters prophesies in Book 1, Aeneas will be deified ( sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli / magnanimum Aenean A. 1.259-60). After his apotheosis, Aeneas wi ll be called Indiges, the native god.31 Aeneas status as a native in Italy is conti ngent upon his association with Dardanus. In 28 Apollod. 3.12.1. 29 Horsfall (2000) 167-8. 30 Horsfall (2000) 168: The rest of line 210, qua nunc Samothracia fertur is what Horsfall calls an [u]nmistakable marker of Virgilian name-play. 31 Serv. A. 1.259.

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37 Latinus description of Dardanus, he sugge sts that Dardanus lik ewise was deified ( aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli / acci pit et numerum divo rum altaribus auget A. 7.210-1). While this detail may link Dardanus and Aen eas, since both would be bound for the stars, the only testament for Dardanus apot heosis is Vergils description at A. 7.210-11.32 This innovation shows how even in such few details about Dardanus, Vergil carefully crafts this minor character. Vergil manufactures similarities between Aeneas and Dardanus so that a connection stronger than just ge nealogy exists between them. Both Dardanus and Aeneas are displaced persons, consequent ly both are Others. Just as Aeneas is no longer Trojan because he has no homeland, Dardanus is not prec isely Italian because he is an expatriate. Aeneas Otherness, his exclusion from othe r cultures, makes him a cipher, a cultural blank who must reform his identity. Darda nus, although born in Italy, seems to have no culture of his own. In fact, he barely has an identity of his own. In this way, Dardanus is also a cipher, a blank. The details given abut Dardanus are like echoes from Aeneas journey rather than original details about his own history. Yet, Dardanus depiction as a cipher is useful to Aeneas. If Dardanus is as much of a cultural blank as he is an underdeveloped character, then Aeneas can mold Dardanus story for his own use to fulfill his destiny in Italy.33 Dardanus story will serve as a common denominator for Aeneas interactions with other peoples, including the Tr ojans. The story also allows Aeneas to link himself to many different ethnic groups without committing his inclusion in one at the expense of 32 Horsfall (2000) 169. 33 Quint (1999) proposes an idea similar to this one, namely that the foundation story can be changed and manipulated to serve a purpose, but he applies it only to Aeneas view of Italy and Romes recent past.

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38 his exclusion from another. After Aeneas excl usion from the rest of the Trojan diaspora, he invents a connection to them by restating their mutual genealogical link to Dardanus: si quando Thybrim uicinaque Thybridis arua intraro gentique meae data moenia cernam, cognatas urbes olim populosque propinquos, Epiro Hesperiam (quibus idem Dardanus auctor atque idem casus), unam faciemus utramque Troiam animis: maneat nostros ea cura nepotes. ( A. 3.5005) Aeneas relationship to Helenus is no longer th at of brother-in-law or even compatriot. Aeneas and Helenus must turn to the very distant past, represented by Dardanus, to establish their connection, name ly their common Dardanian descent. The genealogical link will also join their peoples, those in Epirus and Italy. The communities of Helenus and Aeneas will be interconnected by th eir identification with Dardanus. In the same way that Aeneas maintain s his connection to Helenus, it is through Dardanus that Aeneas will connect himself to Italy, thus reconstructing Italy as his legitimate future homeland. When Aeneas arrive s in Italy, he has already lost his original homeland and he has been excluded from his own people. His dest iny in Italy and his associations with Dardanus have caused him to consider Italy his patria even before his arrival ( hic amor, haec patria est A. 4.347). Here then is a para dox: is Aeneas Trojan or Italian?34 It is my assessment that Aeneas is both and neither at the same time. Aeneas is an externus when he arrives in Italy, but through his relationship to Dardanus auctor he is an Italian descendant. On one hand, Aeneas must be an externus to fulfill the prophecy that he will marry Lavinia ( hunc illum fatis externa ab sede profectum / portendi 34 Toll (1991) 8.

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39 generum paribusque in regna vocari / auspiciis A. 7.255-7).35 Yet on the other hand, the Penates have demanded Aeneas make his home in Italy as an internus ( A. 3.154-71). Aeneas Otherness causes him to be an am biguous ethnic character once he arrives in Italy. He has also restructured his iden tity against another ethnically ambiguous character, Dardanus. Paradoxically both charact ers are ciphers, but Dardanus identity is so underdeveloped and malleable that Aeneas ma nipulates it in order to gain associations with disparate cultures. In this case, as a descendant of Dardanus, Aeneas links the separated Trojans and Ita lians into one community. Aeneas uses Dardanus role as auctor to forge imagined kinships between separate cultures. These kinships are imagined b ecause they arise out of nearly forgotten traditions in order to link groups that are isol ated from one another. Thus far, through Dardanus, Aeneas has linked himself with Ital ians, and with diasporic Trojans. These kinships and the foundation stories help diffe rent peoples to consider themselves the same people in a shared (nascent) nationalism.36 Aeneas will use his genealogy to link himself with one more group: Greeks living in Italy. Through this imaginary link to Dardanus, Aeneas gains a Greek ally in Evander: Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor, Electra, ut Grai perhib ent, Atlantide cretus, aduehitur Teucros; Electram maximus Atlas edidit, aetherios umero qui sustinet orbis. uobis Mercurius pater est, quem candida Maia Cyllenae gelido conceptum uertice fudit; at Maiam, auditis si quicquam credimus, Atlas, idem Atlas generat cae li qui sidera tollit. sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab uno. ( A. 8.13442) 35 My emphasis. 36 Anderson (2003) 7.

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40 Here, Aeneas again traces his ancestry to Dardanus, whose mother was Electra, the daughter of Atlas. He then traces Evanders genealogy, poi nting out that his father Mercury is also a grandson of Atlas, thus making Dardanus and Mercury second cousins.37 Through these imaginary links of ki nship to Dardanus, Aeneas has linked Italians, Trojans, and now Greeks. This is the only description of Dardanus that Aeneas makes himself; the other three are explained to Aeneas. The small detail about Electra does not appear in any of the other descriptions of Dardanus. While it doe s conform to the traditions about Dardanus, how did Aeneas, who knew so little about Dardanus at the outset, come to know this fact? How he came by the information may not be as important as how he uses it. Here, Dardanus is the cipher onto which Aeneas can project an identity for his own ends. Aeneas independently fashions this portion of his lineage in order to have a connection to Evander, a blood tie which joins the culturall y separate men into a single community ( sic genus amborum scindit se sanquine ab uno A. 8.42). By reconstructing his genealogy back to Atlas, Aeneas participates in a re formation and re-imagining of new traditions into his own past. Aeneas reformation of his past and his id entity are results of his Otherness; in order to achieve his destiny in Italy, Aeneas must become an internus rather than an external Other. He cannot become a Latin si mply by marrying Lavinia, so he turns to his distant ancestry in order to find connections to different people pres ent in Italy. These kinships are imagined; they exist in the near ly forgotten, very anci ent world of myth. They are imagined because they can be change d, either accepted or rejected, and because 37 Horsfall (1989) 19.

PAGE 47

41 they can be projected onto characters like Dard anus. Just as Aeneas chooses a strategic moment to reveal a key piece of information about Dardanus past in order to form an imagined kinship with Dardanus, so Vergil choo ses to make Dardanus Italian rather than Greek. Just as Dardanus ambiguous ethnic stat us links Trojans, Italians, and Greeks, so Aeneas ambiguous ethnic status will link Italians, Greeks, and Romans.

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42 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Since it retold a foundation story, the Aeneid allowed the Romans to break the compulsive repetition of their recent, traumatic past in favor of the more distant past, but more importantly, the Aeneid provided one coherent foundatio n story for all to share in. While the Roman foundation myths were multifarious and contradictory and Vergils own version may not have been unified into a homogeneous narrativ e, the contradictory stories of Dardanus within the Aeneid were still contained within the same work, which allowed them to be propagated as a unit.1 Thus the Aeneid did for the Roman people what the story of Dardanus did for Aeneas : it provided a point of reference upon which the relationships between disparate groups were formed. The result of Aeneas spatial and ps ychological journey was ultimately Rome herself. At the start of his journey, Aeneas could only conceive of th e past and the fall of Troy. His unsuccessful foundation attempts in Thrace and Crete were reflections of his obsession with the past and reluctance for th e future. Aeneas was neither prepared nor willing to embark upon his great future; rather he preferred to follow his compulsion to repeat the past and to rebuild Troy. In order to follow his destiny, Aeneas had to break away from his nostalgic desire to restore Troy. His divorce from Trojan cu lture was not a willing one. Only the most horrific portents could force Aeneas to give up his intention of recreating Troy; these 1 For the development of the Aeneid as a foundation story in a tradition of other stories, see both Gruen (1992) Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome and McKay (1970) Vergils Italy

PAGE 49

43 portents, the bleeding stems on Polydorus grave and the deadly plague at Crete, taught Aeneas that to repeat the pa st was to condemn himself to it. Yet by breaking free from his compulsion, Aeneas separated himself from the other Trojans, particularly Helenus and Andromache, who, in their obsession with the past, lived in a scaled-down replica of ancient Troy. Through his separation, Aeneas became an Other, one who existed outside of Trojan culture. His Otherness emphasized his exile; Aeneas no longer belonged to any group, he was only an externus without a community in which he could belong. Aeneas destiny called for something greater than Troy, something more encompassing. His relationship to Dardanus auctor became paramount because Aeneas was then linked to Italians, Greeks, and Trojans. Jupiter mandated that the group descended from Aeneas be a mixed race; Ae neas own descent from Dardanus and his altered identity fulfill this requirement. Dardanus, an Italian born to a Greek woman, founded Troy. Then, Aeneas, an exile who must give up his Trojan identity for an Italian woman, is destined to marry Lavinia, a Latin woman. It is through Dardanus that Aeneas rebuilt both his identity and his commun ity. In this way, Aeneas became an internus to the multifarious communities livi ng in Italy at his arrival. This mixed race, linked by the convoluted genealogies and traditions of Dardanus and Aeneas, typified the multicultural environment of Rome in the first century BCE. Also by emphasizing Aeneas ancestry as de scended from both Greeks and Italians, Vergil appealed to a Roman trend of tracing genealogies in an effort to elevate ones family and stress ones origin. But Vergils version, rather than simply privileging a particular family line, connected Romans, Greeks, and Italians in a newly invented, imagined link of kinship. This link created an interconnected Ro man national identity

PAGE 50

44 based on an affiliation through the very distan t, legendary past, so as to forget and overcome the recent traumas of civil wars and colonization. This control over the past was achieved through the same double process of forgetting and reinventing that Aeneas participated in when reconstr ucting his own identity. Once it is restructured in terms of his legendary ancestry, Aeneas identity serves as an approach for Romes newly incorporated peoples to refashion a c ohesive Roman imagined community.

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45 LIST OF REFERENCES Anderson, B. 2003. Imagined Communities London. Anderson, W. S. 2002. Trojan, Dardanian, Roman: The Power of Epithets in the Aeneid . In Approaches to Teaching Vergils Aeneid. W. S. Anderson and L. N. Quartarone, eds. New York: 53-59. _____. 2005. The Art of the Aeneid. Wauconda, IL. Armstrong, R. 2002. Crete in the Aeneid : Recurring Trauma and Alternative Fate, CQ 52.1: 321-40. Bettini, M. 1997. Ghosts of Exile: Doubles and Nostalgia in Vergils parva Troia ( Aeneid 3.294ff.), ClAnt 16.1: 8-33. Bhabha, H. 2002. The Location of Culture London. Bright, D. 1981. Aeneas Other Nekyia, Vergilius 27: 40-7. Cairns, F. 1989. Virgils Augustan Epic Cambridge. Cary, M. 1962. A History of Rome: Down to the Reign of Constantine New York. Connington, J., ed. 1875. P. Vergili Maronis Opera: The Works of Virgil, with a Commentary vol. 2. London. Di Cesare, M. A. 1974. The Altar and the City : A Reading of Vergils Aeneid. New York. Evans, J. A. 2003. Self and Other: The Ideology of Assi milation in Vergils Aeneid , Scholia 12: 45-59. Frazer, J. G., ed. 1921. Apollodorus, the Library Cambridge, MA. Freud, S. 1961. Beyond the Pleasure Principle Trans. J. Strachey. New York. Furher, T. 1989. Aeneas: A Study in Character Development. G&R 36.1: 63-72. Glare, P. G. W., ed. Oxford Latin Dictionary Oxford. Grimm, R. E. 1967. Aeneas and Andromache in Aeneid III, AJP 88.2: 151-62. Gruen, E. S. 1992. Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome Ithaca.

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46 Harrison, S. 2005. Decline and Nostalgia. In A Companion to Latin Literature S. Harrison, ed. Malden, MA.: 287-99. Heinze, R. 1993. Virgils Epic Technique Trans. D. Harvey, H. Harvey, and F. Robertson. Berkeley. Hershkowitz, D. 1991. The Aeneid in Aeneid 3, Vergilius 37: 69-76. Horsfall, N. 1989. Aeneas the Colonist, Vergilius 35: 8-26. ______. 2000. Virgil, Aeneid 7: A Commentary Leiden. Johnson, W. R. 2001. Imaginary Romans: Vergil and the Illusion of National Identity. In Poets and Critics Read Vergil S. Spence, ed. New Haven, CT: 3-18. Khan, A. 2001. "Exile and the Kingdom: Cr eusas Revelations and Aeneas Departure from Troy," Latomus 60: 906-15. Knauer, G. N. 1990. Vergils Aeneid and Homer. In Oxford Readings in Vergils Aeneid. S. Harrison, ed. Oxford: 390-412. Knight, W. F. J. 1944. Roman Vergil London. Lloyd, R. 1957a. Aeneid III and the Aeneas Legend, AJP 78.4: 382-400. ______. 1957b. Aeneid III: A New Approach, AJP 78.2: 133-151. Macey, D. 2000a. Other. In The Penguin Dictionary of Critical Theory D. Macey, ed. London: 285-6. ______. 2000b. Subject. In The Penguin Dictionary of Critical Theory D. Macey, ed. London: 368-9. Mackie, C. J. 1988. The Characterization of Aeneas Edinburgh. Marshall, E. 1998. Constructing the self and the other in Cyrenaica. In Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire R. Lawrence and J. Berry, eds. London: 49-63. McKay, A. G. 1970. Vergils Italy Greenwich, CT. Miles, G. B. 1999. The Aeneid as Foundation Story. In Reading Vergils Aeneid: An Interpretive Guide C. Perkell, ed. Norman, OK: 231-250. Monro, D. B. and T. W Allen. 1988. Homeri Opera in five volumes Oxford. Morwood, J. 1991. Aeneas, Augustus, and the Theme of the City, G&R 38.2: 212-23. Mynors, R. A. B. 1969. P. Vergili Maronis Opera Oxford.

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47 Nethercut, W. R. 1968. Invasion in the Aeneid , G&R 15.1: 82-95. Otis, B. 1964. Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry Oxford. Quint, D. 1982. Painful Memories: Aeneid 3 and the Problem of the Past, CJ 78.1: 308. ______. 1992. Epic and Empire Princeton. ______. 1999. Repetition and Ideology in the Aeneid . In Virgil: Critical Assessments of Classical Authors P. Hardie, ed. London. Sanderlin, G. 1975. Aeneas as ApprenticePoint of View in the Third Aeneid , CJ 71.1: 53-6. Saunders, C. 1925. The Relation of Aeneid III to the Rest of the Poem, CQ 19.2: 85-91. Stahl, H.-P. 1998. Political Stop-Overs on a Mythological Travel Route: From Battling Harpies to the Battle of Actium: Aeneid 3.268-93. In Vergils Aeneid : Augustan Epic and Political Context H.-P. Stahl, ed. London: 37-84. Stocker, A. F. and A. H. Travis. 1965. Servianorum in Vergilii Carmina Commentariorum, Editionis Harvardianae vol. 2-3. Oxford. Syed, Y. 2005. Vergils Aeneid and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse Ann Arbor. Syme, R. 1939. The Roman Revolution 3rd ed. Oxford. Toll, K. 1991. The Aeneid as an Epic of National Identity: Italiam Laeto Socii Clamore Salutant, Helios 18.1: 3-14. Wilhelm, R. M. 1992. Dardanus, Aeneas Augustus and the Etruscans. In The Two Worlds of the Poet R. M. Wilhelm and H. Jones, eds. Detroit, MI: 129-45. Williams, R. D., ed. 1990. Virgil: Aeneid III Bristol. Wiseman, T. P. 1974. Legendary Genealogies in Late-Republican Rome, G&R 21.2: 153-64.

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48 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Generosa Sangco was born in Portsmout h, Virginia, on January 22, 1981. After moving multiple times along the east coast, sh e moved with her mother to Jacksonville, Florida, in 1995. There she graduated fr om Sandalwood High School in 1999. She then graduated from the University of Florida in 2003 with a Bachelor of Arts in both English and classics. She will receive a Master of Arts in classics from the University of Florida in 2006.


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Title: Imaginary Identity: Aeneas' Search for a Home in Aeneid 3
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Copyright Date: 2008

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IMAGINARY IDENTITY: AENEAS' SEARCH FOR A HOME IN AENEID 3


By

GENEROSA A. SANGCO-JACKSON

















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Generosa A. Sangco-Jackson















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to the professors of my committee, Dr.

Jennifer Rea, Dr. Timothy Johnson, and Dr. Victoria Pagan. I am appreciative of their

time and insight. I would like especially to thank Dr. Rea for putting her faith in me and

for giving me opportunities to further my career. I am grateful to all those who had the

patience to read my thesis in its preliminary stages. Also, I am indebted to those

generous friends who spent late, overly-caffeinated nights with me. Finally, I would like

to thank my family for supporting me in the past and for their continued support in the

future.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ................................................................................... iii

A B STRA C T ............... ......................................... ........... ... .... ......... .v

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ............................................................................... .............. ..

2 THE THEORETICAL APPROACH TO AENEID BOOK 3.............. ..................3

3 REPETITION COMPULSION AND AENEAS' OTHERNESS ............................14

4 DARDANUS: AENEAS' FUTURE PAST.................................... ....................29

5 C O N C L U S IO N ................................................................................................. 4 2

LIST OF REFEREN CE S ............................................. ........................ ............... 45

BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ...................................................... 48















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Master of Arts

IMAGINARY IDENTITY: AENEAS' SEARCH FOR A HOME IN AENEID 3

By

Generosa A. Sangco-Jackson

May 2006

Chair: Jennifer A. Rea
Major Department: Classics

This thesis examines Aeneas' changing sense of cultural identity in Book 3 of the

Aeneid. Although he begins his journey as a Trojan intending to re-found Troy, Aeneas

must give up his identity and his desire to recreate Troy so that he can eventually found

Rome. This thesis will take a literary psychoanalytic approach to the topic of Aeneas'

shifting sense of cultural identity, by applying the theories of Freud and Lacan to scenes

in Book 3 where Aeneas is forced to confront the loss of Troy.

In the first chapter, I will explain my critical methodology and lay the theoretical

foundation for my analysis of Book 3. This chapter will introduce Freud's theory of

repetition compulsion as it applies to Aeneas' repeated attempts to re-found Troy in Book

3. Aeneas' Trojan identity is constructed by his desire to rebuild Troy, thereby rescuing

the city and mastering the past. Since all his Trojan cities fail, Aeneas ceases from trying

to re-establish Troy. By no longer trying to rescue Troy, Aeneas forfeits his Trojan

identity, thus excluding him from other Trojans who still intend to recreate Troy.

Aeneas' exclusion makes him an Other as defined by Lacanian and post-colonial theory,









which considers the "Other" to be defined by a point of reference that is opposite or

outside of the "Self." This work is a departure from prior psychoanalytic readings of the

Aeneid because it treats Aeneas as an excluded person who is the Other, rather than

treating him as the Self.

The second chapter of this thesis will examine both how in Book 3 Aeneas

compulsively repeats the past as well as how he is made aware of his Otherness. Aeneas'

initial attempts to re-found Troy or Troy-like settlements are his way of rescuing his

fallen city. After the Penates order Aeneas to sail to Italy, Aeneas becomes disassociated

from the recent Trojan past, thus breaking his cycle of repetition compulsion. His

disassociation from the fall of Troy separates Aeneas from other Trojans, particularly

Helenus and Andromache. Aeneas' encounter with these two Trojans in Buthrotum,

which is an exact replica of Troy, forces him to recognize his own Otherness as well as

the futility of rebuilding Troy.

The third chapter will examine how Aeneas reconstructs his identity in terms of

Dardanus' story as it is presented within the Aeneid. Vergil highlights corresponding

details in the stories of Aeneas and Dardanus. By identifying himself with Dardanus,

Aeneas creates a new identity and legitimacy for his arrival in Italy. This new identity is

one that is based upon his kinship with a legendary ancestor, rather than immediate

culture. Through his descent, Aeneas will link Greeks, Trojans, and Italians into a single,

interrelated community that is perceived in the collective imagination of the entire group.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This thesis will evaluate the way in which Aeneas copes with the loss of his

homeland. At first, Aeneas only wishes to re-found Troy, but his intention is stymied by

a greater plan, to begin the foundation of Rome. Aeneas hears many prophecies that he

does not understand, but he follows them despite his desire to return to the Troad.

Aeneas tries repeatedly to construct simulated Trojan cities, but to imitate Troy is to

imitate its fall. What allows him to persevere is the necessity of his journey; he cannot

return to Troy, nor can he rebuild it, since to do so would condemn him to compulsively

repeat the past. Thus, all Aeneas' attempts to re-found in Book 3 fail. Eventually, each

of Aeneas' failures forces him to turn away from his compulsive intention to rebuild

Troy.

Aeneas' long physical journey from Asia Minor to Italy is paralleled by an equally

arduous psychological one. Aeneas must exist outside of his own culture, becoming an

Other, who is displaced and excluded from the Trojan community. Through his

Otherness that Aeneas, be able to integrate himself into the Italian community, thus

completing his journey. If he were not excluded from the Trojan diaspora, his only

aspiration would be to remain with Trojans and to re-found Troy.Aeneas is given the

directive to journey to Italy.

Upon his arrival in Italy, Aeneas collects his allies by tracing his genealogy through

Dardanus to both Greeks and Italians alike. Ultimately, Aeneas will mix his own group

of Trojans with the different peoples present in Italy, creating a mixed race, one whose









viability Jupiter ensures. By affiliating himself with his ancestor Dardanus, Aeneas then

embarks upon a new method of reconstructing a community, one based on imagined

genealogies which will connect formerly incompatible groups, such as Greeks, Trojans,

and Italians. These imagined genealogies, which are created from traditions and stories

about the mythic past, are propagated and revitalized by foundation stories. By sharing in

the same foundation stories, disparate communities can consolidate themselves and re-

evaluate their own self-identities.

Aeneas' own story will serve as a touchstone for the Romans to consolidate their

own identity. In the first century BCE, a time of civil wars and imperial expansion,

Rome was forced to manage the integration of many different cultures under a single

identity. The Aeneid, a new version developed from many different traditional

foundation stories, will aid in the incorporation of these new peoples by reinventing more

inclusive genealogies. Aeneas' reinvention of his identity in accordance with Dardanus'

story will provide an exemplar for the way in which the Romans should reconsider their

own collective identity.

This thesis analyizes the above issues in the following way. The first chapter will be

devoted to an explanaiton of Freud's theory of repetitive compulision and Lacan's theory

of the Other, both as applied to the Aeneid. The second chapter of this thesis will

evaluate two things: Aeneas' changing identity in terms of the Other, which will be

defined subsequently, and his compulsive resistance to his destiny. The third chapter of

this thesis will then show how Aeneas reconstructs his identity by turning toward his own

culture's foundation story, the story of Dardanus.















CHAPTER 2
THE THEORETICAL APPROACH TO AENEID BOOK 3

Book 3 of the Aeneid has interested scholars for its portrayal of city-founding, for

its references to locations of historical significance for Vergil's contemporaries, for

Aeneas' subordinate relationship to Anchises, and for the further development of Aeneas'

pietas. 1 This book constitutes one-half of Aeneas' narrative to Dido, which itself is an

extended allusion to the wanderings of Odysseus.2 Furthermore, this book has intrigued

many scholars because of its unfinished state and its structural relationship to the Aeneid

as a whole.3 This thesis, however, will be a departure from these traditional methods of

approaching Book 3. Here, the approach taken will be a psychological assessment of

Aeneas' identity as his relationships to both his culture and his past change. This chapter

will set the theoretical ground work upon which the evaluation of Aeneas' identity will be

based, which I will explore thoroughly in the second and third chapters.

While the theories explained in this chapter seem unrelated, they share a common

thread by being important to identity formation. In order to evaluate Aeneas' identity as


1 For the theme of city foundation, see Morwood (1991), "Aeneas, Augustus, and the Theme of the City."
For allusions to places of historical significance, see Stahl (1998), "Political Stop-Overs on a Mythological
Travel Route: From Battling Harpies to the Battle of Actium: Aeneid 3.268-93" and Cairns (1989), Virgil's
Augustan Epic. For Anchises as the leading figure of Book 3 see Lloyd (1957b), "Aeneid III: A New
Approach." For an interpretation of how Aeneas' pietas is manifested see Mackie (1988), The
Characterization ofAeneas, Nethercut (1968), "Invasion in the 'Aeneid'," and Otis (1964), A Study in
Civilized Poetry.

2 For the relationship of Book 3 to Odysseus' narrative to the Phaecians, see Knauer (1990) "Vergil's
Aeneid and Homer" and Anderson (2005) The Art of the Aeneid.

3 For a structural analysis of Book 3 as related to the overarching structure of the Aeneid see Lloyd (1957b)
"Aeneid III: A New Approach" and Hershkowitz (1991) "The Aeneid inAeneid 3." For the unfinished state
of Book 3 see Heinze (1993) Virgil's Epic Technique and Otis (1964) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry.









it shifts from the beginning of Book 3 to his visit to Buthrotum, I will employ two

concepts from literary psychoanalysis: the "Other," and "repetition compulsion."

Aeneas will lose his Trojan identity and become the "Other" in order to avoid

compulsively repeating the past. After his loss of identity, Aeneas will overcome his

compulsion by reforming his identity in relation to the foundation story of Dardanus.

This foundation story's effect is twofold; from it, Aeneas will receive a sense of purpose

and eventually it will help him reintegrate himself into a community. These ideas of

reintegration and re-evaluation of traditional foundation stories become important to

Vergil's contemporary Romans, who after long periods of upheaval must restore a sense

of national unity.

First of all, the term "Other," in its various permutations, requires some definition,

since it is used by many schools of thought to mean different things.4 One use of the

term, that of J. Lacan, applies specifically to identity formation. The Lacanian usage of

Other, as explained by D. Macey, indicates the thing that is desired by the Self, also

known as the "subject" or one's sense of personal identity.5 The Self articulates its own

identity through the desire for and the recognition of the Other. This then presumes both

that the Self and the Other are separate entities, and that the space between them is

irreconcilable. A later development of Lacan's idea helps to define the Other as the

opposite, or the thing which the subject is not, as it is used in the scope of this thesis.6

The post-colonial theorist H. Bhabha uses Lacan's ideas to discuss the use of visual

4 The term itself can be rendered in the following ways: other, "other," Other, and "Other" based on
stylistic preference. I give preference to Other because it denotes a concept and because I use the common,
adjectival other.

5 Macey (2000b) 368.

6 Macey (2000a) 286: The Other refers to things which "are quite alien to and inassimilable by the subject "









stereotypes: "The visibility of the racial/colonial Other is at once point of identity ...

and at the same time problem for the attempted closure within discourse."' If the Other

is an opposed "point of identity," then it must both exist outside of and be different from

the Self 8 The Other then is indicative both of difference and of separation from the

Self.9

It is within this modified Lacanian definition of the Other as the opposite that

critics in classical studies have applied the term. The idea that one people's self-identity

is constructed only by comparison to what it is not, has already been applied to the

ancient history, material culture, and archaeology of Greece, due to the influence of E.

Hall's Inventing the Barbarian. Identity studies in Greek colonization in terms of the

Self and the Other followed. Then these Self/Other constructions were similarly applied

to Roman history, material culture, and archeology.10 Two scholars-one of Roman

history, the other of Roman literature-employ concise definitions of the Other that will

be of particular use here. E. Marshall, in her work on the cultural conflict between

Cyrenaica and Libya, uses the following definition:

The other is, therefore, defined through the self because it is the reverse self.
Conversely, the other serves to unite a group, or a number of groups, because it
defines the group's self, and in other words, defines who the group is. 11




SBhabha (2002) 81. Original emphasis.

SMacey (2000a) 286. This is in opposition to Lacan's idea that the Other is a projection of the Self into a
mirror.

9 Bhabha (2002) 86.

10 For these historical approaches to cultural identity formation see both Gruen (1992) Culture and National
Identity in Republican Rome and Lawrence (1998) Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire.

" Marshall (1998) 89.









A similar idea of the Other has been applied to the Aeneid by J. Evans, whose definition

helps to dispel the idea that the Other is a fixed concept:

'Self and 'other' are interdependent concepts. The 'other' is what we are not, and
in turn, what we are not serves to define ourselves. It may be hostile, or friendly, or
something in between: different, but willing to interact with us.12

My analysis of the Aeneid will approach the Other and Otherness as mutable

constructions, while the Self remains static. Thus I will focus on the Otherness exhibited

by Aeneas, rather than approach Aeneas as the Self which is the focus of Evans' work.

For my purposes, Otherness will be defined as the difference and separation which are

caused by Aeneas' exclusion from his own cultural group, the Trojans. It is commonly

agreed by scholars that Aeneas must lose or leave behind his Trojan identity-this is

indicative of Aeneas' Otherness because he no longer is a member of that group.13

To evaluate why Aeneas' identity changes, I will apply another theory propagated

in psychoanalysis, that of Freud's "repetition compulsion" as it is used by D. Quint.14

Freud determines that suffering (a loss or a traumatic event) leaves "a permanent injury to

self-regard in the form of a narcissistic scar."15 Those who suffer this sort of traumatic

event may become "neurotics" who compulsively repeat their own traumas either to elicit

some pleasure from the experiences or to master them.16 The motivation for repetition is


12 Evans (2003) 45.

13 For the development of Aeneas' character see Otis (1964) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry, Di Cesare
(1974) The Altar and the City, and Furher (1989) "Aeneas: A Study in Character Development."

14 Quint (1999) 116.

15 Freud (1961) 21-22.

16 Freud (1961) 22-3 and 16: "Patients repeat all of these unwanted situations and painful emotions in the
transference and revive them with the greatest ingenuity" and "We are therefore left in doubt as to whether
the impulse to work over in the mind some overpowering experience so as to make oneself master of it can
find expression as a primary event."









strange particularly because "[n]one of these things can have produced pleasure in the

past."17 In Aeneas' case, the traumatic event is the fall of Troy, which leaves him

without a homeland.

This approach is not a new one; D. Quint applies this theory to the Aeneid and then

expands it to the Romans themselves. Quint argues that the first half of the Aeneid, the

Odyssean wanderings, exhibits the compulsive repetition of the past, while the second

half, the Iliadic wars, portrays the final re-enactment through which Aeneas will

restructure and master the traumatic past. Quint states that focusing on the repetition of

the founding and destruction of Troy engages the idea of narrative itself, which then

constitutes the Aeneid as a "teleologically structured narrative, a repetition that links the

two events [the wanderings and the wars], but demonstrates their difference and the

overcoming of the first by the second."18 I, however, differ in my application of Freud's

"repetition compulsion," since I apply this theory only to Aeneas' wanderings in Book 3.

In this book, Aeneas tries to master his past; if he can re-found Troy, he can save it from

being destroyed by the Greeks. In the failure of each reconstruction, Aeneas, in effect,

relives Troy's destruction. Eventually within the same book, Aeneas not only breaks his

neurotic cycle of repetition, but by doing so, he separates himself culturally from the

other Trojans. Then, Aeneas neither continues compulsively to repeat the fall of Troy nor

does he master Troy's fall by successfully re-founding it. Instead, Aeneas breaks from

the traumatic destruction of the city by associating himself with the idea of the very

distant past, namely Dardanus' exile from Italy and his foundation of Troy.



17 Freud (1961) 22-3.

18 Quint (1999) 118.









In addition to Quint's Freudian reading and the Lacanian Other, I will make use of

Y. Syed's psychoanalytic reading of the Aeneid which she uses to extrapolate the

"Roman readers' sense of self as Romans."19 She sets up Vergil's characterization of

Aeneas as occupying the "subject position," namely the vantage point from or through

which the Roman reader engages the poem and reacts emotionally to the other

characters.20 When Aeneas reacts emotionally to the opposition imposed by both gender

and ethnicity, he causes the reader to react as well.21 For example, Aeneas is defined as

Trojan so long as he maintains a Trojan opposition to Greeks. Then Syed argues that

through the vantage point of Aeneas, the reader uses the Other as a point of reference

against which he can formulate his own Roman identity by comparison to what he is

not-the Roman is not the Other, be it female, Carthaginian, or Greek.

Aeneas' identity is developed through the articulation of contrasting dualities, that

is, Others, like male/female, Roman/Carthaginian, Greek/Trojan, and Trojan/Italian. This

mutability of his identity is possible because after his exclusion from the Trojan culture,

Aeneas' ethnic status is that of a "cipher," which Syed explicates as

[a] blank space onto which Roman national identity is projected through his
interactions with various ethnic others. This is possible because Aeneas leaves
behind him his Trojan identity when he decides to follow the commands of fate that
direct him to found a new city elsewhere.22







19 Syed (2005) 2-3.
20 Syed (2005) 3.

21 Syed (2005) 35.

22 Syed (2005) 175.









These dualities are helpful in understanding how the Other is constructed; it is, however,

my argument that Aeneas is the Other, since his identity is in a state of flux in

comparison to the diasporic Trojans, whose identities remain in a fixed condition.

Syed's concept of the "cipher" is very useful because it pinpoints a state that

Aeneas reaches only though the necessary removal of his Trojan identity. It allows

Aeneas to break the repetitive compulsive cycle of trying to re-found Troy. Syed's

concept of the "cipher" will form the basis for the evaluation of Aeneas' identity in

chapter 3 of this thesis. After Aeneas has abandoned his Trojan identity, which was

constructed in relation to the recent past, the fall of Troy, he reconstructs his identity in

terms of the very distant Trojan past, namely the exile of Dardanus, which ultimately

leads to the foundation of Troy.

This idea of a shared point of reference which connects a community is based on B.

Anderson's development of the "imagined community" or a community that was

reinvented only in the imaginations of many cultures which shared in the same idea of

nation.23 For Aeneas, Dardanus represents the "immemorial past," a point of reference

that he, the Trojans, and the Italians can all share in.24 If disparate groups can define

themselves in relationship to Dardanus, they then have a precedent for developing their

relationships with one another. It is this idea of the imagined community that empowers

Quint and Syed's applications of psychoanalysis to Roman identity. On one hand, Quint

expands his theory to the Romans themselves, who must overcome the trauma of the civil

wars in their quest for mastery over their past since "[t]he Aeneid plots out just such a


23 Anderson (2003) 6.

24 Quint (1999) 130 and Anderson (2003) 11.









struggle for empowerment and for a narrative which is both the result and means of

empowerment: but it is the struggle not of the individual psyche, but of a collective

political nation."25 On the other hand, Syed involves the Roman reader in all of Aeneas'

wanderings and efforts to become proto-Roman, which then allows the reader himself to

develop his own Roman identity.

In forming and reassessing a community's own collective identity, foundation

stories become important as the point of reference in which the all the members of the

community can share. The fundamental theme of city-founding in the Aeneid as well as

the Aeneid itself participate in the discourse of identity formation. In Aeneas' case, after

he must give up his Trojan identity, he turns to the distant story about the founder of

Troy, which gives him a model to emulate, thus helping him reform his identity and

possibly reintegrate himself into a culture. Though excluded from one community,

Aeneas must restructure his identity so that he can become included in another:

A community defined by culture is potentially open: one may become a member of
that community by acquiring its culture. A community defined by race or ethnicity,
on the other hand, is accessible only to those who are born to existing members of
the requisite group. In practice, of course, the two often overlap: race and ethnicity
may be associated with certain qualities and vice versa. In either case, foundation
stories help to define who is in, who is out, and whether membership is open or
closed.26

In order to redefine who will be an internal member of Aeneas' future community, the

Romans, the Aeneid gives a new version of an old foundation story. By relying on

foundation stories to help synthesize a new idea of identity within a community, Aeneas





25 Quint (1999) 119.

26 Miles (1999) 232.









and his foundation story then become exemplars for the Romans, who must reassess their

collective identity after a long period of upheaval.

Incorporating so many non-Romans in a period during which Rome was divided

against itself caused a schism in the constitution of Roman identity, which manifested

itself in terms of social anxiety. The awareness of this anxiety is not only manifested in

the Aeneid, but it is present in Vergil's other works as well:

The finale of the first book of Vergil's' Georgics, reflecting the atmosphere of the
mid-30s rather than of the poem's date of publication circa 29, ends with an
apocalyptic vision of the civil wars, and sees the young Caesar (the future
Augustus) as a potential solution, but ends with a vivid picture of an anarchic world
at war, with no guarantee that control will be re-restablished. The civil war has
moved to total conflict at global level, with accompanying further fear and anxiety
about the future of Rome.27

Vergil offers a newly constructed foundation story as a solution to the social anxiety of

Rome. The Aeneid serves as an example of how an outsider can become an internal

member of a community, as well as how one can stop repeating the traumatic past of civil

wars.

By incorporating Italian and Greek peoples through both enfranchisement and

expansion, Rome was forced to absorb their cultures as well. One example of the

appropriation of Greek culture was Hellenism, Rome's acceptance of Greek art and

literature.28 While many Romans embraced Greek oratory and philosophy, Cato the

Censor lambasted these things in favor of cultivating Roman values, yet Hellenism was

so prevalent in Rome that trying to divorce the two would have caused further anxiety





27 Harrison (2 1!) 291.

28 Gruen (1992) 52-83.









about Rome's identity.29 Many Greek sources portray Rome as a Greek city in

"character and lineage."30 There were multiple versions of the foundation of Rome,

some of which feature Aeneas, some of which feature Odysseus and others.31 The

version in which Aeneas founded Rome took precedence around the 3rd century, after

many Greek authors explained away a line in Homer which indicated that Aeneas

remained in the Troad.32 Vergil dealt directly with this Hellenism as he created his

version of the Aeneid. Needless to say, the accounts are conflicted, but Vergil's

eventually becomes canonized.33

Vergil's version may have been preferred because of its more inclusive

genealogy.34 By making Dardanus an Italian with a Greek mother, Vergil incorporated

the various traditions while at the same time reinventing them. The Aeneid, as a

foundation story that included and valued many different cultures, may have appealed to

the recently annexed Italian people:

Those readers ('the original audience') were not, of course,
a unified, homogenous entity .[N]ot a few of these
readers had some share in a post-colonial mentality, that is,
that they or their families had recently become naturalized
Romans; that they had some memory of the Italian (that is,
non-Roman) heritage; that many of these people felt, to
some degree, conflict between their new and their old
'communal' identities.35

29 Gruen (1992) 81.

30 Gruen(1992) 11.

31 McKay (1970) 79-80.

32 Gruen (1992) 9-18.

33 Gruen (1992) 6.

34 For the development of Romans tracing their genealogies, see Wiseman (1974) "Legendary Genealogies
in Late-Republican Rome."

35 Johnson (2001) 8.












Yet the foundation stories are set in the very distant, immemorial past. Also, a genealogy

formed from the very distant, mythical past can be manipulated and used to please many

different peoples. This makes the genealogy of Aeneas appealing to both the Greeks and

the Italians alike through a buffer of distant "Trojanness":

Troy supplied an especially attractive ingredient in that endeavor. The celebrated
Trojan past lay in remote antiquity, its people no longer extant, the city but a shell
of its former self. Troy, unlike Greece, persisted as a symbol, not a current reality .
.The Romans could mold the ancient Trojans to suit their own ends.36

The more inclusive a genealogy, the more appeal it has. But this genealogy, if from the

traditions of bygone times, can be changed to suit the needs of the present day. Thus, the

story of Aeneas can be changed to make Dardanus an Italian, though this is an innovation

on the part of Vergil.37

These theories, the Other, Freud's repetition compulsion, and identity

reconstruction, though grounded in psychoanalysis, have found widespread application to

the consciousness of nations through yet another theory, post-colonialism. While this

mode of thought is anachronistic for the purposes of evaluating the collective identity of

Rome, some methods can be analogously applied.38 It is in this post-colonial vein that

the subsequent chapters of this thesis will progress in an attempt to view the role that

Vergil's version of the Roman foundation story plays in reforming Roman identity.




36 Gruen (1993) 7-8.

7 McKay (1970) 8.

38 It is not within the scope of this thesis to treat the constructions of the colonizer and colonized, nor will it
treat Vergil as the sub-altern voice. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the identity formation of a culture
represented in literature using ideas grounded in post-colonial theory.















CHAPTER 3
REPETITION COMPULSION AND AENEAS' OTHERNESS

This chapter will analyze how Aeneas' attempts to re-found Troy in Book 3 of the

Aeneid are indicative of a psychological crisis in Aeneas' identity which forces him to

either compulsively repeat the past or to abandon his Trojan identity entirely. Aeneas'

attempted cities in Book 3 exhibit Aeneas' compulsion to re-found Troy in order to save

it, which is indicative of Freud's theory of the "repetition compulsion."1 Each foundation

fails; therefore Aeneas is not able to create a "new version" in which he can prevent the

fall of Troy thereby mastering his trauma.2 Instead, Aeneas must found something new,

separate from his own nostalgia. It is the aim of this chapter to explain how erasure of

the recent past occurs in Book 3 through Aeneas' foundations and through his

interactions with other Trojans.

Quint's observance that the Trojan past must be forgotten conforms to the

reconciliation between Jupiter and Juno in Book 12, which mandates that the city of Troy

and its very name be obliterated: occidit occideritque sinas cum nominee Troia (A. 12.828).

Jupiter allows the former Trojans to keep only their sacred customs and rites:

do quod uis et me uictusque uolensque remitto.
sermonem Ausoniipatrium moresque tenebunt
utque est nomen erit; commixti corpore tantum
subsident Teucri. Morem ritusque sacrorum
adiciamfaciamque omnis uno ore Latinos. (A. 12.833-7)



1 Quint (1999) 118.

2 Freud (1961) 16.









Though the terms for the reconciliation come at the end of the epic, Book 3 focuses on

the process of creating a mixed race (genus ... mixtum A. 12.838), one in which the past

Trojan identity is suppressed (save their religious customs). The suppression of Trojan

identity exhibited by Aeneas' character is achieved through his construction as the Other,

as one who is excluded by his difference from self-contained cultures. This chapter will

examine how Aeneas' Otherness is established by analyzing how Aeneas manifests his

nostalgia when he creates unsuccessful imitations of Troy in Thrace and on Crete

(thereby also asserting his own "Trojanness"). Aeneas tries to master his past by re-

founding Troy in spite of its fall. If he should successfully rebuild the city, he would, in

effect, save it from destruction. Although his destiny calls for a mixed race, Aeneas'

cities are purely Trojan recreations; thus, they are doomed to fail. After he accepts his

greater destiny, Aeneas must be excluded from other Trojans in the diaspora, particularly

Helenus and Andromache, who intend to master the fall of Troy. This exclusion is

indicative of Aeneas' Otherness, his difference from his fellow Trojans. It marks both his

deliverance from compulsively repeating the traumatic fall of Troy, and the beginning of

his nullification of his Trojan cultural identity.

Aeneas' nostalgia, triggered by his exile after the traumatic destruction of his

homeland, compels him to found imitations of Troy, rather than a new city. By

rebuilding Troy, Aeneas would affirm his "Trojanness." From the very beginning of his

story, Aeneas considers himself Trojan (tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros A.2.10;

litora cum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo /et campos A. 3.10-1).3 After the city's

fall and his flight, Aeneas considers his purpose not simply to found a new home, but to


3 The earliest moment in linear time is the beginning of Book 2. My emphasis.









re-found Troy, (da propriam, Thymbraee, domum, da moeniafessis et genus et

mansuram urbem; serua altera Troiae PergamaA.3.85-7). Yet, each of Aeneas'

attempts to re-establish a Trojan city will fail.

At the beginning of Book 3 Aeneas establishes two cities, the first in Thrace, and

the second in Crete, both of which are clear manifestations of Aeneas' homesickness

since they retain Trojan names and are built in locations not far from the Troad. 4

Aeneas' efforts to found a city that is similar to Troia antiqua are destined to fail because

they repeat the recent past, the fall of Troy. Each city does fail: Thrace must be

abandoned because of a terrifying omen while a plague blights Crete. The fall of each

city forces Aeneas to examine his future, that which is revealed to him in prophecies,

rather than compulsively repeat a defunct Trojan past.

Addionally, by erecting a city in Thrace whose people are named after himself-a

man who on account of his nostalgia longs only to rebuild fallen Troy-Aeneas

inescapably dooms the endeavor as a repetition of the traumatic past.5 Vergil describes

Aeneas' Thracian settlement only in scant detail, but the descriptions chosen reinforce

Aeneas' nostalgic state of mind. Aeneas calls his people the Aeneadae, a name which

confirms his role as leader of the expedition while endorsing the expedition itself as a

Troj an one (Aeneadeasque meo nomen de nominefingo A. 3.19). Aeneas also describes

the land as sharing with Troy not only hospitium, but also socii Penates (hospitium

antiquum Troiae sociique Penates 3.15). The hospitium, a mutual agreement of



4 Connington (1875) 193: "Thrace was separated from the Troad only by the Hellespont, so that 'procul' is
used, as it sometimes is without any notion of great distance, expressing local separation, and no more."

5 In Book 3, the first indication of Aeneas longing for Troy appears at 3.10-1, litora cum patriae lacrimans
portusque relinquo /et campus, ubi Troiafuit.









hospitality, serves to link the two groups in both a common experience and a method of

cultural exchange. The hospitium, the shared gods, and the close proximity to the Troad

portray Thrace as a substitute for Troy-far too similar for Aeneas to settle there properly

since his destiny demands a mixed race.

Also, Aeneas' encounter with the shade of Polydorus provides a starting point for

how the reader should evaluate Aeneas' Trojan status since this is the first instance in

which Aeneas interacts with a Trojan outside of his own band of refugees. In Thrace,

Aeneas barely erects his walls before the shade of Polydorus implores that Aeneas flee.

Aeneas unwittingly desecrates Polydorus' tomb, causing the branches of a bush to bleed

and causing the shade of Polydorus to lament:

quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? iam parce sepulto,
parce pias scelerare manus. non me tibi Troia
externum tulit aut cruor hic de stipite manat.
heufuge crudelis terras, fuge litus auarum.
nam Polydorus ego. hic confixumferrea texit
telorum seges et iaculis increuit acutis. (A.3.41-7)

From Polydorus' perspective, though he has been changed into a mound overgrown with

cornel bushes and myrtle trees (forte fuit iuxta tumulus, quo cornea summo / uirgulta et

densis hastilibus horrida myrtus A. 3.22-3), Aeneas' injury to the plants is still an injury

to his kinsman. For this reason, Polydorus orders Aeneas to spare his pious hands from

this form of pollution (A.3.42). The phrase Polydorus uses to establish that his

relationship to Aeneas is non ... externum (A.3.342-3). Polydorus conceives of

"Trojanness" as a contained concept-one can be excluded and outside (externus), or one

can be a member (internus).6 Polydorus' speech indicates that being a member of Trojan

culture (internus) has to do with birth place and heredity (Troia .. / tulit aut cruor hic

6 1 have extrapolated internus as the natural opposite of externus, though Vergil does not use the term.









destipite manatA.3.42-3). He also implies that his status as a Trojan, despite being raised

in Thrace, is a permanent situation (Hunc Polydorum... / infelix Priamusfurtim

mandarat alendum / Threicio regi A.3.49-51). Polydorus recognizes Aeneas as an

internal member of the Trojan gens, but from beyond the grave, he cannot conceive that

Aeneas' destiny will force him to disassociate himself from the Trojan past in favor of a

viable future.

When compared to Polydorus, Aeneas is non externum, yet he remains estranged

from his kinsman. Polydorus' own version of"Trojanness" is fixed upon the finality of

the fall of Troy while Aeneas intends to re-found the city. Priam sends his son to Thrace

only after he perceives the inevitability of Troy's destruction (infelix Priamusfurtim

mandarat alendum / Threicio regi, cum iam diffideret armis /Dardaniae cingique urbem

obsidione uideretA.3.50-2). In Polydorus, Priam set his hopes for perpetuating the

Trojan line; instead, Polydorus' death actually ensures the obliteration of Troy since

Priam has no other living direct heirs.7 In this scene, Vergil reiterates the fall of Troy,

but it is replayed in Thrace. The comparison between Aeneas and dead Troy, represented

by Polydorus, marks his separation from Trojan culture which thereby evidences Aeneas'

Otherness.

Undaunted by the horrific omen of Polydorus and motivated still by his nostalgia,

Aeneas acquiesces to Anchises' misinterpretation of Apollo's oracle. After being driven

from Thrace by Polydorus' warnings, Aeneas visits the oracle of Apollo at Delos for

guidance. While at the oracle of Apollo, Aeneas asks for a second citadel of Troy: da

propriam, Thymbraee, domum; da moeniafessis /et genus et mansuram urbem; serua

7 Quint (1982) 32: "the verb 'condimus' in the final verse of the episode (68) transforms the activity of
city-founding into one of burial."









altera Troiae /Pergama, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli (A. 3.85-87). It is still

with this nostalgic mindset that Aeneas prays for his second city. At Delos, Aeneas

receives another directive, that he must seek his ancient mother (antiquam exquirite

matrem A.3.96). Tracing the Trojan ancestry back to Crete, Anchises interprets this

island as the ancient mother.

Although Apollo's oracle intends that the Trojans head for Italy, Anchises'

interpretation, which favors Crete, convinces Aeneas because it appeals to his desire to

re-found Troy. Anchises' recollection of the Trojans' past links Troy to Crete.8 Both

areas worship Cybele and have a mountain called Mt. Ida.9 At the beginning of Book 3,

Aeneas mentions that his fleet was built under the Phrygian Mt. Ida, and later in Book 9,

when the Rutulians try to burn the fleet; the same ships are changed to nymphs by

Cybele.10 Pergamea, Aeneas' city in Crete, is set under the Cretan Mt. Ida (Creta louis

magni medio iacet insula ponto / mons Idaeus ubi et gentis cunabula nostrae A. 3.104-5).

Anchises' mention of Cybele may also have reminded Aeneas of Creusa's farewell in

which she claimed that Cybele held her to the Trojan shores (sedme magna deum

genetrix his detinet oris A.2.788). These attributes establish a series of correspondences

between Crete and Troy, which would appeal to Aeneas' compulsion to create a city just

like Troy. Since Anchises must remind the ignorant Trojans of Crete's significance, the


8 For the prominence of Anchises' role in Book 3 see Sanderlin (1975) "Aeneas as Apprentice-Point of
View in the Third Aeneid," Quint (1982) "Painful Memories: Aeneid 3 and the Problem of the Past," and
Otis (1964) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry.

9 For the Jupiter's role in connecting Troy and Crete as well as the image of Daedalus throughout the
Aeneid, see Armstrong (2002) "Crete in the Aeneid: Recurring Trauma and Alternative Fate."

10 auguriis agimur diuum, classemque sub ipsa /Antandro et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae A.3.5-6,
hinc mater cultrix Cybeli Corybantiaque aera /Idaeumque nemus, hincfida silentia sacris, /et iuncti
currum dominae subiere leonesA.3.111-3, and tempore quo primum Phrygiaformabat in Ida /Aeneas
classem etpelagi petere alta parabat, / ipsa deum fertur genetrix Berecyntia magnum A.9.80-2.









need for a lengthy description of Crete's similarity to Troy reveals the Trojans'

disassociation from their own past. This disassociation from Troy's origin stories, tales

which help define one's own community, exemplifies Aeneas' Otherness. Aeneas

willingly invests in a Trojan past which he knows nothing about, simply because

Anchises convinces him that Crete is similar to ancient Troy.

Vergil's development of the Trojans' emotional state as they approach Crete seems

exaggerated in order to compensate for the inadequacy of their new settlement. The

Trojans' eagerness to settle the land abandoned by their enemy (hoste A.3.123) is very

exuberant: the sailors shout (nauticus exoritur uario certamine clamor A. 3.128), Aeneas

becomes greedy when he approaches the city for which he has been longing (ergo auidus

muros optatae molior urbis A.3.132), and the other Trojans are happy (laetam cognomine

gentem A.3.133). Aeneas names his new city Pergamea, with a reference to the citadel of

fallen Troy (Pergameamque uoco A.3.133) as well as his prayer at Delos (serua altera

Troiae /Pergama A.3.86-7). But these emotions seem forced: the sailors' shouting

becomes a contest (certamine), the word used for Aeneas' desire for the new city is

auidus, and Aeneas must encourage his people to love their new home, implying that

their love does not come naturally (hortor amarefocos arcemque attollere tectis

A.3.134). Aeneas' exhaustion from his diasporic wanderings causes him to be overly

eager for the wrong place; his eagerness emphasizes the unease with which Pergamea is

founded. 11

Crete is also a Greek place; Aeneas, as a Trojan who has spent ten years warring

with the Greeks, should not be comfortable slipping into abandoned Greek homes. Crete


1 Hucferor; haecfessos tuto placidissima portu /accepitA.3.78-9, and da moeniafessisA.3.85.









has been described as having one-hundred cities (centum urbes habitant magnas

A. 3.106), all of which were under the rule of Idomeneus, a Greek king who has

abandoned Crete on account of his own religious exile.12 Vergil is ambiguous as to

whether or not all the Cretan people leave with Idomeneus, or otherwise abandon the

land.13 Vergil states that the shores have been deserted and that the homes and

habitations have been abandoned (desertaque litora Cretae, /hoste uacare domum

sedesque astare relictas A. 3.122-3). Because Crete recently has been occupied with

Greek cities, Aeneas creates a problematic situation by resettling his Trojan people within

a Greek environment. 14 In Crete he takes over Greek hearths and homes, which he must

encourage his people to love (hortor amarefocos arcemque attollere tectis A. 3.134).

While Apollo's prophecy may give Aeneas some comfort and the (mistaken) authority to

settle there, Vergil gives no indication that the Trojans object to Crete's Greek past,

illustrating that they are moving beyond their former perceptions of Greeks as being the

Other; in other words, the Trojans themselves are evolving beyond their recent traumatic

past.

In Crete, Aeneas' identity remains in an exilic limbo, since the island can only offer

him Teucer's abandonment or Idomeneus' empty homes, neither of which are

satisfactory. Since there are no other people living on the island, Aeneas can not possibly

fulfill Jupiter's prophecy of creating a mixed race. Crete simply is not the place for

12 Serv. A.3.121: Idomeneus abandons his land after he incites a plague by sacrificing his own son in
accordance with a prayer to Neptune. If Idomeneus arrived at Crete safely, he was to sacrifice the first
living creature he saw, which turned out to be his son. Idomeneus, according to Vergil, emigrated to Italy.

13 Connington (1875) 204.

14 Because Teucer, a Trojan forefather, was born in Crete, Aeneas' foundation on the island may be
construed as a return, but it will not fulfill the requirement for a mixed race. The island is also blighted, so
it is not a viable place to settle.









Aeneas to settle; the divine intervention of the plague confirms this certainty."1 To

remain despite the cultural discomfort of living in a Greek land would condemn these

Trojans to death, just as remaining in ancient Troy or Thrace would.

After Aeneas' mission to found a city in Italy is confirmed by the Penates, Aeneas

can begin reconstructing his identity in terms of his future city, rather than his nostalgia

for the recent Trojan past. Aeneas' abandonment of his "Trojanness" comes to a head

when he is portrayed as an outsider in Helenus' and Andromache's city, Buthrotum. Of

all the imitations of Troy, the Buthrotum episode marks "the strongest contrast between

the two sets of Trojans."16 The Trojans hear a rumor that Helenus and Andromache, both

taken by Pyrrhus as slaves at the end of the war, have been set as rulers of Pyrrhus' lands

and have established a new city, a replica of Troy:

hic incredibilis rerumfama occupat auris
Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes
coniugio Aeacidae Pyrrhi sceptrisque potitum
etpatrio Andromachen iterum cessisse marito. (A. 3.294-7)

Throughout Book 3, Aeneas has been driven by his compulsive desire to re-build Troy;

although he prayed for an altera Pergama Troiae at Delos, Aeneas has never been

successful at building a replacement Troy which he can inhabit. Here, at Buthrotum,

Aeneas sees his greatest desire realized: Troy has been rebuilt. Thisparua Troia should

be a great temptation for him, causing him to feel greed and hope, emotions already

caused by Pergama in Crete.17 While Aeneas does express wonderment and aims to find


15 ... subito cum tabida membris corrupto caeli tractu miserandaque uenit / arboribusque satisque lues
et letifer annus. /linquebant dulcis animals aut aegra trahebant corporaa; tur sterilis exurere Sirius agros,
/ arebant herbae et uictum seges aegra negebatA.3.137-142.
16 Otis (1964) 260.

17 procedo etparuam Troiam simulataque magnis /Pergama A.3.349-50.









out how his kinsmen fared, he does not exhibit any desire to live in Buthrotum (obstipui

miroque incensum pectus more compellare uirum et casus cognoscere tantos A.3.298-

99). Aeneas' rejection of Helenus and Andromache's unadulterated and imitative

"Trojanness" asserts his Otherness, his existence now outside of the Trojan experience.

Instead, he embarks on founding a new city, one that will become culturally Roman

rather than Trojan.

In the Aeneid, Helenus' city is the replica described as most similar to Troy.

Helenus himself reconstructed and renamed the area to fit the description of ancient Troy:

morte Neoptolemi regnorum reddita cessit
pars Heleno, qui Chaonios cognomine campos
Chaoniamque omnem Troiano a Chaone dixit
Pergamaque Iliacamque iugis hanc addidit arcem.
(A.3.333-6)

The rivers and gates surrounding the city have both been named after those of the original

Troy (Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine riuum / agnosco Scaeaeque amplector

liminaportae A.3.350-1). Even a Trojan family rules thisparua Troia. Helenus has

succeeded in completing what Aeneas has greatly desired to do:

me sifata meis paterentur ducere uitam
auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas
urbem Troianam primum dulcisque meorum
reliquias colorem Priami tecta alta manerent
et recidiua manu posuissem Pergama uictis. (A.4.340-4)1

The Trojans of Buthrotum have rebuilt Troy in order to repeat the past and master it, just

as Aeneas has tried to do himself. Here, Helenus is king over Greek lands while

Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, is dead. Though in a diminished form, the gates of Troy

stand. In Epirus, Helenus has recreated a conflict between Greeks and Trojans, but in its

18 Aeneas reveals this to Dido as he leaves Carthage. Although this episode happens after Book 3, Aeneas'
admission confirms what his foundation practices have already indicated.









resolution, the Trojans victoriously conquer the Greeks and colonize their lands. But

Aeneas has broken free from constructing his identity in terms of the trauma of the

Trojan war; thus, he is excluded from Helenus' new version, the Trojan mastery of the

Greeks in Epirus.

Aeneas' Otherness is fully expressed when he is compared to Andromache. She

associates herself only with the past, in terms of fallen Troy, while Aeneas has broken his

compulsion to rebuild the city. From Andromache's perspective, "Trojanness" means

being opposed to the Greeks and being at war. For her, "Trojanness" means being the

wife of dead Hector and the mother of dead Astyanax, as indicated by her farewell to

Aeneas and Ascanius:

accipe et haec, manuum tibi quae monument mearum
sint, puer, et longum Andromachae testentur amorem
coniugis Hectoreae. cape dona extrema tuorum
o mihi sola mei super Astyanactis imago. (A.3.486-9)19

When Aeneas first lands and approaches the city, he meets with Andromache who is

sacrificing at a cenotaph of Hector (sollemnis cum forte dapes et tristia dona ante urbem

in lucofalsi Simoentis adundam /libabat cineri Andromache manisque vocabatA.3.301-

3).20 Andromache's customary (sollemnes) rites to Hector imply that her mourning is

still fresh, even well after Troy's destruction. Despite her relocation and her new city,

Andromache compulsively continues the behaviors which were prompted by the

traumatic event of her husband's death.


19 Bettini (1997) 9-11. Bettini argues that Andromache, a foreign bride, upon marrying Hector,
reconstructed her identity entirely in relationship to her husband and his city.

20 Bettini (1997) 12. Bettini argues that Aeneas' arrival on the anniversary of Hector's death is a
"coincidence." Frankly, it may be that Andromache simply does this every day, since "sollemnes" can
mean customary (Oxford Latin Dictionary, sollemnis, 2). This repetitive behavior would fit with her
obsession with the past. This, however, is in opposition to Serv. A. 3.301: "sollemnes non festas, sed
'!,.1,A i,1, ', 'anni uersarias'."









Andromache seems to have no knowledge of other Trojans outside of her city, as if

her imitative Troy were segregated so that she may continue her repetition of the past in

uninterrupted peace. She is clearly startled at the sight of other approaching Trojans,

particularly because they are dressed in distinctive Trojan armor.21 This rare description

of Aeneas' dress registers as odd because he wears the garb of war when approaching the

city of his kinsman. Vergil may have chosen to depict Aeneas in this way not only

because in Andromache's eyes it confirms the static nature of the past in that all Trojans

are war-time Trojans, but also because Aeneas has changed so drastically that he would

be unrecognizable to other Trojans without his armor.

Andromache's own obsessive nostalgia makes her the self-appointed guardian of

her version of Trojan culture. She and Aeneas are juxtaposed in this capacity, since

Aeneas carries the Penates to their rightful home, while Andromache recreates Troy in

order to keep its memory alive. At their initial meeting, she asks Aeneas six questions,

four of which are about the past. She asks if Ascanius lives: quidpuer Ascanius?

superatne et uescitur aura? /quem tibi iam Troia-(A.3.339-40).22 Then she asks if

Ascanius has any knowledge of Creusa and Hector, prominent Trojans who were lost in

the fall of Troy. But Andromache's question really concerns whether or not Ascanius is

familiar with Trojan people and ideals, in other words her concern is Ascanius'

involvement in Trojan culture. To insure Ascanius' memory of Troy, Andromache

makes gifts for him that are meant to remind him of Trojan culture: accipe et haec,


21 Bettini (1997) 13-4. Bettini argues that Andromache was performing a ritual to summon the spirits of the
dead. Aeneas' sudden appearance seemed to fulfill her prayers. I believe her startled questions and her
faint imply that she has tried this ritual before, with unsuccessful results.
22 Line 340 is incomplete but there are some senses that can be extrapolated-the quem still refers to
Ascanius, the Troia is either the subject or an ablative.









manuum tibi quae monument mearum /sint, puer, et longum Andromachae testentur

amorem (A.3.486-7). Andromache has found Trojan objects, even imitations, comforting

and familiar. For instance, Andromache sacrifices at an empty tomb since she could not

bring the corpse of Hector with her (Hectoreum ad tumulum, uiridi quem caespite inanem

/etgeminasA.3.304-5). But she feels connected to Hector so long as she creates a tomb

for him. The Trojans feel connected to Troy if they create a substitute Troy, a

manifestation of their nostalgia. In turn, the imitation of Troy re-affirms for the people

that they are Trojan. It is this cycle of regressively and compulsively recreating the past

that Aeneas finally manages to break by accepting his destiny in Italy. By abstention

from repeating the traumatic past, Aeneas' Trojan identity is eradicated in deference to

Jupiter's intention of creating a mixed Roman people.

Andromache's barrenparua Troia starkly contrasts to Jupiter's prophecy of a

mixed race. Andromache's preoccupation with Ascanius brings her current bereft state

into focus. Andromache continually compares Ascanius to Astyanax, who was killed at

Troy. Though there is a passing reference to her son by Neoptolemus, there is no

mention of Andromache bearing any children to Helenus (nospatria incensa diuersaper

aequora uectae /stirpis Achilleaefastus iuuenemque superbum /seruitio enixae tulimus

A.3.325-7). The fertility of the city is even questioned when the riverbed is described as

dry (arentem Xanthi cognomine riuum /agnoscoA.3.350-1). Clearly there are Greeks

nearby, the former subjects of Neoptolemus, with which the people of Buthrotum could

intermarry and invigorate their own people. Still, the Trojans in Epirus remain hostile to

Greeks, just as they were in the past.23 If a city imitates Troy in every aspect, it must also


23 Otis (1964) 261: "Helenus' city in Epirus is clearly no new creation like Rome. There is no intentional
mixture of the old and the new (Trojan and Latin) but mere reproduction of the old."









imitate the fall of Troy, which is its most famed distinction-thus Buthrotum, through its

obsession with the past, condemns itself to inviability.

Aeneas remains separate from this reductive Trojan imitation. Despite dressing in

his old Trojan armor, Aeneas has a future which gives him a viability not available to

Helenus and Andromache. Aeneas perceives a reflection of himself in Andromache's

excessive, compulsive repetition of the past, however, he can no longer participate in this

reductive compulsion to rebuild Troy. After seeing Buthrotum, he recognizes that the

city cannot be saved, only imitated. Aeneas Otherness, his exclusion from "Trojanness,"

manifests itself when he addresses Helenus and Andromache as having completed their

fates (uiuite felices, quibus estfortuna peracta / iam sua: nos alia ex aliis infata

uocamur A.3.493-4). Their city has already been established, while he himself has yet to

fulfill his journey. D. Bright argues that their completed fates and obsession with the past

constitute a pseudo-nekyia in Buthrotum.24 This would be the ultimate expression of

Aeneas' Otherness; he lives, while Andromache and Helenus are dead. In this most

extreme form of Otherness, there is only exclusion or inclusion; the difference cannot be

bridged by hospitium or kinship. Yet this difference may explain why Aeneas does not

leave any Trojans in Buthrotum. Previously he left a few people in Crete, but if

Buthrotum is, as Bright calls it, a "necropolis," Aeneas would not be able to leave living

Trojans among the dead.25



24 For the analysis of Aeneas' experience in Buthrotum as a nekyia see Bright (1981) "Aeneas' Other
Nekyia" and Hershkowitz (1991) "The Aeneid inAeneid 3." For comparisons of Aeneas' nekyia with
Odysseus' see Quint (1982) "Painful Memories: Aeneid 3 and the Problem of the Past."
25 Bright (1981) 44 and Williams ( 1990) 94. Hanc quoque deserimus sedem paucisque relictis /uela
damus A.3.190-1. Williams argues that the mention of Aeneas leaving people behind accounts for the
epichoric cities which are somehow associated Aeneas' journey.









Although he began his journey with the intention of re-founding Troy, he has

accepted his destiny to settle an unknown place with a new city. Through comparisons

with other Trojans and failed attempts at founding Trojan cities, Aeneas is made aware of

the reductive nature of his own nostalgia for the past as well as his own compulsion to

repeat it. This realization comes at the cost of Aeneas' Trojan identity, which formerly

was constructed in terms of the war and the city herself. In the future, Aeneas will

instead reconstruct his identity from his destiny which demands that he establish a new,

mixed culture rather than try futilely to restore a fallen city.














CHAPTER 4
DARDANUS: AENEAS' FUTURE PAST

In order to reconstruct his identity after the destruction of Troy, Aeneas turns to his

prophesized future which leads him to Italy. Many of these prophecies are based on

Aeneas' genealogy which can be traced backward to his ancestor, Dardanus. Yet, not

much is revealed about Dardanus to Aeneas: "He [Aeneas] goes to a home, but a strange,

cold, unknown home; and Vergil makes it mysteriously a return, claiming, with some

justification, too, that Dardanus, Troy's founder, first came from Italy."1 To Aeneas,

Dardanus is unfamiliar, but Aeneas clings to his story in spite of his unfamiliarity. It is

the purpose of this chapter to evaluate how Dardanus acts as a "cipher," a cultural blank

onto whom Aeneas may project his perception of an ideal homeland and from whom he

gains identity.2 Aeneas affiliates himself with Dardanus because the both exiles have

similar stories, though Dardanus' story has been truncated. This chapter will examine

both why the long traditions about Dardanus became condensed into very minor episodes

in the Aeneid, and what role Aeneas' descent from Dardanus plays in his efforts to

reintegrate himself into a community.

Dardanus' story and lineage have older traditions from which Vergil draws his own

version. The sources such as Homer, Apollodorus, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus agree





1 Knight (1944) 132.
2 Syed (2005) 175: Syed reserves her term "cipher" for Aeneas.









that Dardanus is the son of Jupiter and Electra, a daughter of Atlas.3 Eventually,

Dardanus leaves his home and travels to the Troad region, where he becomes king.

While all sources again concur that he ends up in the area of Troy, they disagree very

much as to Dardanus' place of origin. The Greek tradition is the most complex: either

Dardanus was born in the region of Troy or he traveled there by way of either

Samothrace or Crete.4 The Roman tradition rejects these Greek versions, preferring

instead that Dardanus was born in Italy, in the region of Etruria, and went to the Troad

via Samothrace.5 Once in the region of Troy, Dardanus met with Teucer, who offered his

daughter, Bateia, and his kingdom to the immigrant.6 Then, Dardanus and Bateia had

two sons, Ilus, the eponym of Ilium, and Erichthonius.7 Both sons became rulers in the

region, renamed Dardania, though the area still lacked a ruling city. After Ilus died

childless, Erichthonius succeeded to the Dardanian throne.8 He eventually married

Astyoche, daughter of the river god Simoeis, and fathered Tros, the eponym of Troy.9

Like his father, Tros married a daughter of a river god, Callirrhoe, daughter of

3 Dardanon a4 prwton teketo nefelhgereta Zeu- (II. 20.215) and /Hlektra- de t- Atlanto- kail Di-
llasiwn kai Dardano- genonto (Apollod. 3.12.1).

4 Dardano- de epi tw qanaltw tou adel fou lupoumeno-, Samoqrakhn apolipwn eij thf aptipera tIpeiron
tfpeiron iflqe (Apollod. 3.12.1)

5 Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes / Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothraciafertur
A.7.208-9. For Vergil's innovation of Dardanus' birth place, see McKay (1970) Vergil's Italy.

6 upodecqel- de utpa tou Basilew-, kai labwf mero- th- gh- kai tyhn keinou qugatera Bateian (Apollod.
3.12.1).

7 llou shma palaiou Dardanidao (11.11.166), llou Dardanidao, palaiou dhmogeronto- (11.11.372), and
Dardano- a4u tekeq / uin jErcqonion basilha (11.20.219). Ilium seems to be the first name of the city of
Troy before it was renamed after Tros.

8 Genomenwn de autW paidwn /llou kai /Ericqoniou, /lo- ,men a/pais apeqanen, /Ericqonio- de diadexameno-
thn basileian (Apollod. 3.12.2).

9 Trwa d /Ericqonio- teketo Trwessin anakta (II. 20.230) and ghma- Astuochn thn Zimoentos, teknoi
Trwa (Apollod. 3.12.2).









Scamander. Tros and Callirrhoe had three sons, Ilus, Assaracus, Ganymede, and a

daughter, Cleopatra.10 While Ganymede is famous for being kidnapped by Jupiter,

almost nothing is known about his sister, Cleopatra. The eldest brothers, Ilus and

Assaracus, ruled in Dardania, but eventually Ilus emigrated to another part of Phrygia,

leaving Assaracus to rule Dardania.11 Ilus left after receiving an omen to follow a cow,

then to found a city where it lay down; on that spot Ilus founded the city of Troy.12

During the fourth generation of Dardanus' family, the city of Troy itself is constructed.

From the foundation of Troy, the kingdoms of Ilus and Assaracus are considered separate

ruling houses. In Phrygia, Ilus married Eurydice, who bore a son, Laomedon, and a

daughter, Themiste.13 Laomedon became the king of Troy and the father of many

children, the most famous of which was Priam.14 Themiste then married her cousin

Capys, the son of Assaracus.15 This couple bore Anchises, who then fathered Aeneas by

Venus.16 This is the tradition of Dardanus' family from which Vergil develops his own

ideas about Aeneas.


10 Th- gar toi geneh- I- Trwil per euruopa Zef- / dwc / uio- poinhn Ganumhdeo- (11.5.265-6), Trwo- d
ai4 trei- paide- amumone- epegenonto / /lHa- t /Assa/raka- te kail aptiqeo- Ganumhdh- (11.20.231-2), and
oito- paralabfn thn basileian thn men cwran qf/ eaoutou Troian qkalese, kai ghma- Kallirrohn thn
Skamandrou genna/ qugaterra men Kleopatran, paida- de /lion kai /Assa/rakon kai Ganumhdhn (Apollod.
3.12.2).

" llo- de ei- Frugian qfikomeno- (Apollod. 3.12.3).

12 donto- aitW tou basilew- kata crhsmoin kai bound pokilhn, kai frasanto- en *wper an aqth kliql tapw
polin ktizein, eipeto th boil. h de afikomenh epi ton legomenon th- Frugia- AAth- Iofon klinetai:
eiqa palin ktisa- /llo- tauthn men /lion ekalese (Apollod. 3.12.3).

13 ///a- d / a4 tekeq / uibn aumona Laomedonta (11.20.236)

14 Laomedwn d / ra Tiqwnon teketo Priamon te / Lampon te Klution q /l/ketaona t / oon Arho-
(11.20.237-8).

15 Assa/rako- de Kapun, d d / r Agcishn teke paida (11.20.239).

1611.20.239.









Vergil does not describe Aeneas' genealogy in a full family tree. When Vergil

does mention characters from the Dardanian house, he only gives very generalized details

when he gives them at all. When interpreting Apollo's oracle, Anchises only recalls the

story of Teucer's emigration to the Troad from Crete, but he cannot immediately

remember the story of Dardanus.17 Even Ganymede's story is relegated to a fleeting

reference in the list of the causes of Juno's anger (rapti Ganymedis honors A. 1.28).

When Vergil mentions Ilus and Assaracus, they are described only as great Trojan

heroes, and their relationship to Dardanus is omitted: hic genus antiquum Teucri,

pulcherrima proles, /magnanimi heroes, nati meloribus annis, /Ilusque Assaracusque et

Troiae Dardanus auctor (A.6.648-50).

When compared with the scant details given about other members of Aeneas'

distant relatives, Vergil's description of Dardanus is considerably better developed.

Vergil confirms that Dardanus is the son of Electra, who is the daughter of Atlas

(Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor, /Electra, ut Grai perhibent, Atlantide

cretus A.8.134-5). The most important detail Vergil gives about Dardanus is that he

emigrated from Italy:

.. nuncfama minores
Italiam dixisse ducis de nominee gentem.
Hae nobis propriae sedes hinc Dardanus ortus
lasiusque pater, genus a quo principle nostrum. (A.3.165-8)

Later in the same epiphany, the Penates specify that Aeneas should seek Corythus and

Ausonia (haud dubitanda refer, Corythum terrasque requirat /Ausonias A.3.170-1).

Later, Latinus repeats Dardanus' birth place specifically as Corythus: hinc illum Corythi

Tyrrhena ab sedeprofectum (A.7.209). Vergil stresses Dardanus' origins by repeating

1 Anchises describes the Teucrian emigration atA.3.103-17, and he realizes his mistake atA.3.182-7.









his birth place. Though Latinus does not explain why Dardanus left Italy, he does state

that Dardanus traveled to Samothrace before arriving in the Troad.18 These references to

specific cities may be epichoric allusions to the outside traditions that Vergil chooses not

to employ. The final detail about Dardanus describes his apotheosis: aurea nunc solo

stellantis regia caeli /accipit et numerum divorum altaribus auget (A.7.210-1). This

reference to Dardanus' deification may be another Vergilian innovation.19 All of these

descriptions edify Aeneas about his legacy, but they do not expand Dardanus' character

much beyond his relocation from Italy.

The paucity of descriptions of Dardanus in the text reflects Aeneas' unfamiliarity

with his own ancestor as well as with Italy. Of the four descriptions of Dardanus, three

are explained to Aeneas, in order to educate him about his journey. Aeneas' ignorance of

the references to Italy in some of the prophecies reinforces Aeneas' disassociation from

the early Trojan origins. At the outset of Book 3, the Trojans are described as incerti in

respect to their destination (A.3.7).20 Although Creusa, at the fall of Troy, told Aeneas to

travel to Hesperia, when Aeneas begins his journey, he does not know where he should

travel. In Creusa's prophecy, she specifically mentions Hesperia and the Lydius Thybris,

both of which may have been very vague to Aeneas at the time.21 The Trojans exhibit a

pattern of ignorance about their own past, since Anchises interprets Apollo's oracle to

mean Crete (Creta lovis mani medio iacet insulaponto, / mons Idaeus ubi et gentis


18 Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes / Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothraciafertur
A.7.207-8

19 Horsfall (2000) 169.

20 Khan (2001) 910.

21 Saunders (1925) 85.










cunabula nostrae A.3.104-5). Anchises' solution to the oracle seems firm and

acceptable; it does not cross his mind that there could be another Trojan ancestor.

Anchises and the other Trojans have forgotten about Dardanus.

Though Aeneas may be unfamiliar with Dardanus the man, Aeneas is very familiar

with the epithet "Dardanian," which is often used to categorize the Trojans as an ethnic

group. Aeneas and his people are referred to as "Dardanian" at least once per book; in

fact it happens quite often. Aeneas twice is called "Dardanus," once by Dido and once by

Diomedes.22 The epithet "Dardanidae" or the adjectives "Dardanidis" and "Dardanius"

are used to describe either the Trojans or their possessions 51 times.23 Troy is referred to

as "Dardania" 12 times.24 Yet this epithet only identifies Aeneas ethnically; it does not

characterize him because Dardanus himself is not characterized with depth.25 Also, the

epithet is ambiguous since Dardanus is both Italian and Trojan. Because he knows so

little about his ancestor, this ambiguity seems to have no meaning for Aeneas. So for

Aeneas, only the name "Dardanus" is familiar, while the implications of an ambiguous

Italian/Troj an ethnicity remain imperceptible.

Despite his unfamiliarity with Dardanus, Aeneas chooses to identify himself with

his ancestor after he breaks his compulsion to re-found Troy. He accepts his new future



22 hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto /Dardanus, et nostrae secumferat omina mortis A.4.661-2,
and si duo praeterea talis Idaea tulisset / terra viros, ultro Inachias venisset ad urbes /Dardanus, et versis
lugeret Graecia fatis A. 11.285-7.

23A.1.494, 595, 602; 2.59, 72, 445, 612, 787; 3.94, 596; 4.163, 224, 626, 640, 647, 658; 5.30, 45, 386, 576,
711; 6.85, 169, 482, 756; 7.195, 289, 422, 756; 8.14, 120; 9.88, 100, 293, 247, 660; 10.4, 92, 133, 263, 545,
603, 638, 814; 11.353, 400, 472; 12.14, 549, 585, 775.

24A.2.242, 281; 3.52, 156; 5.119, 622; 6.57, 65;7.219; 8.120; 9.695; 10.326.

25 For the flexible use of the epithet Dardanus as either praiseworthy or as an ethnic slur, see Anderson
"Trojan, Dardanian, Roman: The Power of Epithets in the Aeneid."









rather suddenly, and with gusto once he spies Italy herself: cum procul obscuros colles

humilemque videmus Italiam. Italiam prumus conclamat Achates, /Italiam laeto socii

clamore salutant (A.3.522-4). Also, after Aeneas makes landfall in Carthage, he

professes that Italy is his homeland: Italiam quaero patriam (A. 1.380).26 Then, later in

Book 4, Aeneas goes so far as to call Italy not only hispatria, but also his love: hic

amor, haec patria est (A.4.347).

Dardanus' story appeals to Aeneas because in the few details given, it strongly

parallels his own. The Penates reveal to Aeneas a vision which is his first introduction to

his ancestor, Dardanus (A.3.154-71). In this vision, the Penates not only admit that their

own home is in Italy, but also they indicate that they are linked to Dardanus through the

land (hae nobis propriae sedes, hinc Dardanus ortus / asiusque pater, genus a quo

principle nostrum A. 3.167-8). The Penates imply that when Dardanus left Italy, he carried

the Penates with him, just as Aeneas did upon fleeing Troy. 27 Vergil emphasizes

Aeneas' transportation of the Penates both when Aeneas describes his strange vision and

when the Penates confirm their own identity. Aeneas identifies the Penates not only as

sacred, but as the very gods which he carried: effigies sacrae divum Phrygiique Penates,

quos mecum a Troia mediisque ex ignibus urbis / extuleram (A. 3.148-50). Only six lines

later, the Penates reiterate their journey with Aeneas: nos te Dardania incensa tuaque

arma secuti, /nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus aequor (A. 3.156-7). By

emphasizing that Aeneas must return the Penates to the land of Dardanus, and by


26 Wilhelm (1992) 132: "In these lines, Aeneas is stating his genealogical credentials; the reference to his
patria, which is based on his descent from Dardanus, is an indication that Aeneas has recognized and
accepted his genealogical heritage following Anchises' revised interpretation of the Delian Apollo's
prophecy."

27sacra suosque tibi commendat Troia Penates A.2.293.









implying that Dardanus originally removed the Penates, Vergil links the two Trojans in a

cycle.

Another detail of Dardanus' trip related by Latinus, namely Dardanus' stop-over in

Samothrace, supports the view that Aeneas' journey is an inverse of Dardanus'. At least

one Greek tradition states that Dardanus was born on the island of Samothrace; Vergil

claims he simply stopped there on his way to Troy.28 Though Aeneas does not stop at the

island itself, he does make a landfall in Thrace, the mainland from which Samothrace

takes its name.29 Vergil's wording, his hysteron-proteron shifting of the name

"Samothrace" emphasizes the Thracian half: Threiciamque Samum, qua nunc

S.ithi,/ i, itfertur (A.7.208). This echo of the name "Thrace" serves as a corresponding

point for both Aeneas' and Dardanus' journeys.30 It restructures Aeneas' course as the

reversal of Dardanus' journey. This correspondence, a shared experience, helps Aeneas

familiarize himself with Dardanus' story, which then allows him to identify himself with

Dardanus.

The third correspondence between Dardanus' journey and Aeneas' lies only in

allusions to Aeneas' eventual deification. According to Jupiter's prophesies in Book 1,

Aeneas will be deified (sublimemqueferes ad sidera caeli magnanimum Aenean

A. 1.259-60). After his apotheosis, Aeneas will be called "Indiges," the native god.31

Aeneas' status as a native in Italy is contingent upon his association with Dardanus. In


28 Apollod. 3.12.1.

29 Horsfall (2000) 167-8.

30 Horsfall (2000) 168: The rest of line 210, qua nunc Samothraciafertur, is what Horsfall calls an
unmistakablebe marker of Virgilian name-play".

31 Serv. A.1.259.









Latinus' description of Dardanus, he suggests that Dardanus likewise was deified (aurea

nunc solio stellantis regia caeli / accipit et numerum divorum altaribus auget A. 7.210-1).

While this detail may link Dardanus and Aeneas, since both would be bound for the stars,

the only testament for Dardanus' apotheosis is Vergil's description at A. 7.210-11.32 This

innovation shows how even in such few details about Dardanus, Vergil carefully crafts

this minor character.

Vergil manufactures similarities between Aeneas and Dardanus so that a

connection stronger than just genealogy exists between them. Both Dardanus and Aeneas

are displaced persons, consequently both are Others. Just as Aeneas is no longer Trojan

because he has no homeland, Dardanus is not precisely Italian because he is an expatriate.

Aeneas' Otherness, his exclusion from other cultures, makes him a cipher, a cultural

blank who must reform his identity. Dardanus, although born in Italy, seems to have no

culture of his own. In fact, he barely has an identity of his own. In this way, Dardanus is

also a cipher, a blank. The details given abut Dardanus are like echoes from Aeneas'

journey rather than original details about his own history. Yet, Dardanus' depiction as a

cipher is useful to Aeneas. If Dardanus is as much of a cultural blank as he is an

underdeveloped character, then Aeneas can mold Dardanus' story for his own use to

fulfill his destiny in Italy.33

Dardanus' story will serve as a common denominator for Aeneas' interactions with

other peoples, including the Trojans. The story also allows Aeneas to link himself to

many different ethnic groups without committing his inclusion in one at the expense of

32 Horsfall (2000) 169.

33 Quint (1999) proposes an idea similar to this one, namely that the foundation story can be changed and
manipulated to serve a purpose, but he applies it only to Aeneas' view of Italy and Rome's recent past.









his exclusion from another. After Aeneas' exclusion from the rest of the Trojan diaspora,

he invents a connection to them by restating their mutual genealogical link to Dardanus:

si quando Thybrim uicinaque Thybridis arua
intraro gentique meae data moenia cernam,
cognatas urbes olim populosque propinquos,
Epiro Hesperiam (quibus idem Dardanus auctor
atque idem casus), unamfaciemus utramque
Troiam animis: maneat nostros ea cura nepotes. (A.3.500-
5)

Aeneas' relationship to Helenus is no longer that of brother-in-law or even compatriot.

Aeneas and Helenus must turn to the very distant past, represented by Dardanus, to

establish their connection, namely their common Dardanian descent. The genealogical

link will also join their peoples, those in Epirus and Italy. The communities of Helenus

and Aeneas will be interconnected by their identification with Dardanus.

In the same way that Aeneas maintains his connection to Helenus, it is through

Dardanus that Aeneas will connect himself to Italy, thus reconstructing Italy as his

legitimate future homeland. When Aeneas arrives in Italy, he has already lost his original

homeland and he has been excluded from his own people. His destiny in Italy and his

associations with Dardanus have caused him to consider Italy his patria even before his

arrival (hic amor, haecpatria est A.4.347). Here then is a paradox: is Aeneas Trojan or

Italian?34 It is my assessment that Aeneas is both and neither at the same time. Aeneas is

an externus when he arrives in Italy, but through his relationship to Dardanus auctor, he

is an Italian descendant. On one hand, Aeneas must be an externus to fulfill the prophecy

that he will marry Lavinia (hunc illum fatis externa ab sede profectum /portendi


34 Toll (1991) 8.









generum paribusque in regna vocari /auspiciis A. 7.255-7).35 Yet on the other hand, the

Penates have demanded Aeneas make his home in Italy as an internus (A.3.154-71).

Aeneas' Otherness causes him to be an ambiguous ethnic character once he arrives in

Italy. He has also restructured his identity against another ethnically ambiguous

character, Dardanus. Paradoxically both characters are ciphers, but Dardanus' identity is

so underdeveloped and malleable that Aeneas manipulates it in order to gain associations

with disparate cultures. In this case, as a descendant of Dardanus, Aeneas links the

separated Trojans and Italians into one community.

Aeneas uses Dardanus' role as auctor to forge imagined kinships between separate

cultures. These kinships are imagined because they arise out of nearly forgotten

traditions in order to link groups that are isolated from one another. Thus far, through

Dardanus, Aeneas has linked himself with Italians, and with diasporic Trojans. These

kinships and the foundation stories help different peoples to consider themselves the

same people in a shared (nascent) nationalism.36 Aeneas will use his genealogy to link

himself with one more group: Greeks living in Italy. Through this imaginary link to

Dardanus, Aeneas gains a Greek ally in Evander:

Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor,
Electra, ut Grai perhibent, Atlantide cretus,
aduehitur Teucros; Electram maximus Atlas
edidit, aetherios umero qui sustinet orbis.
uobis Mercurius pater est, quem candida Maia
Cyllenae gelido conceptum uerticefudit;
at Maiam, auditis si quicquam credimus, Atlas,
idem Atlas generate caeli qui sidera tollit.
sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab uno. (A.8.134-
42)

35 My emphasis.

36 Anderson (2003) 7.









Here, Aeneas again traces his ancestry to Dardanus, whose mother was Electra, the

daughter of Atlas. He then traces Evander's genealogy, pointing out that his father

Mercury is also a grandson of Atlas, thus making Dardanus and Mercury second

cousins.37 Through these imaginary links of kinship to Dardanus, Aeneas has linked

Italians, Trojans, and now Greeks.

This is the only description of Dardanus that Aeneas makes himself; the other three

are explained to Aeneas. The small detail about Electra does not appear in any of the

other descriptions of Dardanus. While it does conform to the traditions about Dardanus,

how did Aeneas, who knew so little about Dardanus at the outset, come to know this fact?

How he came by the information may not be as important as how he uses it. Here,

Dardanus is the cipher onto which Aeneas can project an identity for his own ends.

Aeneas independently fashions this portion of his lineage in order to have a connection to

Evander, a blood tie which joins the culturally separate men into a single community (sic

genus amborum scindit se sanquine ab uno A. 8.42). By reconstructing his genealogy

back to Atlas, Aeneas participates in a reformation and re-imagining of new traditions

into his own past.

Aeneas' reformation of his past and his identity are results of his Otherness; in

order to achieve his destiny in Italy, Aeneas must become an internus rather than an

external Other. He cannot become a Latin simply by marrying Lavinia, so he turns to his

distant ancestry in order to find connections to different people present in Italy. These

kinships are imagined; they exist in the nearly forgotten, very ancient world of myth.

They are imagined because they can be changed, either accepted or rejected, and because


37 Horsfall (1989) 19.






41


they can be projected onto characters like Dardanus. Just as Aeneas chooses a strategic

moment to reveal a key piece of information about Dardanus' past in order to form an

imagined kinship with Dardanus, so Vergil chooses to make Dardanus Italian rather than

Greek. Just as Dardanus' ambiguous ethnic status links Trojans, Italians, and Greeks, so

Aeneas' ambiguous ethnic status will link Italians, Greeks, and Romans.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Since it retold a foundation story, the Aeneid allowed the Romans to break the

compulsive repetition of their recent, traumatic past in favor of the more distant past, but

more importantly, the Aeneid provided one coherent foundation story for all to share in.

While the Roman foundation myths were multifarious and contradictory and Vergil's

own version may not have been unified into a homogeneous narrative, the contradictory

stories of Dardanus within the Aeneid were still contained within the same work, which

allowed them to be propagated as a unit.1 Thus the Aeneid did for the Roman people

what the story of Dardanus did for Aeneas: it provided a point of reference upon which

the relationships between disparate groups were formed.

The result of Aeneas' spatial and psychological journey was ultimately Rome

herself. At the start of his journey, Aeneas could only conceive of the past and the fall of

Troy. His unsuccessful foundation attempts in Thrace and Crete were reflections of his

obsession with the past and reluctance for the future. Aeneas was neither prepared nor

willing to embark upon his great future; rather he preferred to follow his compulsion to

repeat the past and to rebuild Troy.

In order to follow his destiny, Aeneas had to break away from his nostalgic desire

to restore Troy. His divorce from Trojan culture was not a willing one. Only the most

horrific portents could force Aeneas to give up his intention of recreating Troy; these


1 For the development of the Aeneid as a foundation story in a tradition of other stories, see both Gruen
(1992) Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome, and McKay (1970) Vergil's Italy.









portents, the bleeding stems on Polydorus' grave and the deadly plague at Crete, taught

Aeneas that to repeat the past was to condemn himself to it. Yet by breaking free from

his compulsion, Aeneas separated himself from the other Trojans, particularly Helenus

and Andromache, who, in their obsession with the past, lived in a scaled-down replica of

ancient Troy. Through his separation, Aeneas became an Other, one who existed outside

of Trojan culture. His Otherness emphasized his exile; Aeneas no longer belonged to any

group, he was only an externus without a community in which he could belong.

Aeneas' destiny called for something greater than Troy, something more

encompassing. His relationship to Dardanus auctor became paramount because Aeneas

was then linked to Italians, Greeks, and Trojans. Jupiter mandated that the group

descended from Aeneas be a mixed race; Aeneas' own descent from Dardanus and his

altered identity fulfill this requirement. Dardanus, an Italian born to a Greek woman,

founded Troy. Then, Aeneas, an exile who must give up his Trojan identity for an Italian

woman, is destined to marry Lavinia, a Latin woman. It is through Dardanus that Aeneas

rebuilt both his identity and his community. In this way, Aeneas became an internus to

the multifarious communities living in Italy at his arrival.

This mixed race, linked by the convoluted genealogies and traditions of Dardanus

and Aeneas, typified the multicultural environment of Rome in the first century BCE.

Also by emphasizing Aeneas' ancestry as descended from both Greeks and Italians,

Vergil appealed to a Roman trend of tracing genealogies in an effort to elevate one's

family and stress one's origin. But Vergil's version, rather than simply privileging a

particular family line, connected Romans, Greeks, and Italians in a newly invented,

imagined link of kinship. This link created an interconnected Roman national identity






44


based on an affiliation through the very distant, legendary past, so as to forget and

overcome the recent traumas of civil wars and colonization. This control over the past

was achieved through the same double process of forgetting and reinventing that Aeneas

participated in when reconstructing his own identity. Once it is restructured in terms of

his legendary ancestry, Aeneas' identity serves as an approach for Rome's newly

incorporated peoples to refashion a cohesive Roman imagined community.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Generosa Sangco was born in Portsmouth, Virginia, on January 22, 1981. After

moving multiple times along the east coast, she moved with her mother to Jacksonville,

Florida, in 1995. There she graduated from Sandalwood High School in 1999. She then

graduated from the University of Florida in 2003 with a Bachelor of Arts in both English

and classics. She will receive a Master of Arts in classics from the University of Florida

in 2006.