<%BANNER%>

Identity and Community in the Weblogs of Muslim Women of Middle Eastern and North African Descent Living in the United States

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101118_AAAAEM INGEST_TIME 2010-11-19T02:52:25Z PACKAGE UFE0014380_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 25271604 DFID F20101118_AACQGP ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH sink_a_Page_104.tif GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
5820fec4a820e72402d26572c51ea348
SHA-1
82ec56fa0dc8821f8828514d051274c3b0d78f64
46668 F20101118_AACQHE sink_a_Page_020.pro
5305d696cf7a6172e0d29274257aed36
3eda30a0a816f3292bb26fe4da566f3e7762c540
F20101118_AACQGQ sink_a_Page_105.tif
4698dcbeb870f1aa2fe5b87bd6a6fa18
f0bf64efba625993d76192cc9542731e8da2586b
49859 F20101118_AACQHF sink_a_Page_021.pro
3a46b4f89d869fb53a22b611ef385066
96a52fd4eeb94d429bda156ce55b84e4df29531d
1053954 F20101118_AACQGR sink_a_Page_107.tif
8d327d86a36fe3224b23fd97819593f1
4a7ed34bdb9d3c0e6c2860aabb8e763d29fcd950
50254 F20101118_AACQHG sink_a_Page_023.pro
4aa3a5ae074188096c4865fbc8123f65
1001c5a9f3e8531d507e370a1dc49967931b66e7
1224 F20101118_AACQGS sink_a_Page_002.pro
a8db5ce61911f416250bd2a63af3000c
4432eccd2e1cbcb0228db7159c72ca371edb0b68
53705 F20101118_AACQHH sink_a_Page_025.pro
35eaca8509c50557723a87595027026c
b0df5eab78aae96aa4376514d10cc30350edde9b
15536 F20101118_AACQGT sink_a_Page_004.pro
b8fd38fcec64c5266d25154e648833d1
67feb5d057dc77b8ddec2bd11f94570c8684cb38
60149 F20101118_AACQHI sink_a_Page_026.pro
f0a12ece8081502fa2cf577332b72b1f
1115c51d0e0d981bc9c96a2a32f481ccac8aab27
84321 F20101118_AACQGU sink_a_Page_005.pro
53921eabd84c0c3610b37d5ec2b01c4e
0f099408e16464274c9a606f6c7a745cf5ba7eca
51501 F20101118_AACQHJ sink_a_Page_029.pro
117e78845744f0934e4ebba04b916aaf
b09b43b3e8a31c4af3de0e14822d516c7ca9f324
41261 F20101118_AACQGV sink_a_Page_006.pro
dcf871b23034249d707846b128877ec1
9f673b3de089be9812c45342a56b651d063e8b07
59171 F20101118_AACQHK sink_a_Page_030.pro
dc0bf965443ea6c4638059dd1512c906
6721388db51a102e6dab5242965fe52b414b9e60
38107 F20101118_AACQGW sink_a_Page_008.pro
db4bdf56a5e2f39c0c57a39c6c3d4477
5652a4db961991801473593cc613035401ae410c
58650 F20101118_AACQIA sink_a_Page_053.pro
ec3325417a2acc2290084e99a6973124
4692539c65d32c47d5fd960dfd21900d7ad90856
50966 F20101118_AACQHL sink_a_Page_031.pro
f4e7c30f67d58d914c14aef44df5b1c0
396135aca71cc141af4f74d6e70c77941bd8c46c
43550 F20101118_AACQGX sink_a_Page_010.pro
5014aee3bde7f351c44caa37ad0cb163
fb137c9e03eef2e28a331f92b961e5a16f124d74
44344 F20101118_AACQIB sink_a_Page_054.pro
d2c8445067177bad00d9c70325837be3
ab16531f16ebb0109fc29f239b82a006073a5e70
55606 F20101118_AACQHM sink_a_Page_032.pro
5dab98f3c01bcddfa9a6e5dea72d1884
1a2ec2301e195dc35e8c4901bc4a9ffaefd8b1b3
64537 F20101118_AACQGY sink_a_Page_012.pro
227ecc23da93c9ac6ce8e004669be8a1
9ff23cef340167f7738651480d25357fae29f545
36182 F20101118_AACQIC sink_a_Page_055.pro
561f26d19830a8540cc3974fbcf2465c
de4c0d6103cba1df2684b8894c6a3c2386c75d67
51927 F20101118_AACQHN sink_a_Page_033.pro
21250d980401d62d47156ef75fc58edc
30b0944b5004d94e4aae274b956db757a6aca53a
3923 F20101118_AACQGZ sink_a_Page_013.pro
8144727f951c61ca3f1d1f1ee9330fe8
04668be9373c570d16cd074f8e8b6769ec3808e6
42484 F20101118_AACQID sink_a_Page_056.pro
79e551ed636eaa425a8fdf1dc1b59ef3
05fe1c4cdfff2f74017554860c7891ca12357a66
49524 F20101118_AACQHO sink_a_Page_036.pro
9599eb24b88db498385eec185f254047
5763e3fbca076bee6682622b9843035892532ba4
36469 F20101118_AACQIE sink_a_Page_057.pro
87a6ab9c183a6d8837a937e2d5d1af1c
731da91438347b73642f3c7386e5acb1156f258e
51920 F20101118_AACQHP sink_a_Page_037.pro
b587976c4272884ef97bf93dda3f6ba3
214209072342c7c25399dad7089b2724d1ec7769
62240 F20101118_AACQHQ sink_a_Page_038.pro
7bbd1165d226262a33288f9ce09ae717
87b3242e09654c94822cd85cdd427ef18a7ccdef
50580 F20101118_AACQIF sink_a_Page_059.pro
ebbbcb7705218eba7034da0fa7b2e9d3
eba94efbd5c4d1699bd75ee22a5e242e68ff3be8
44412 F20101118_AACQHR sink_a_Page_039.pro
467f9fca6f13cd787dd898cb25973acd
4520ab9318b0da57656718ae26623373b7e69ff3
62216 F20101118_AACQIG sink_a_Page_060.pro
91ff1144db98ea8855583dfb21029ebb
eec46ed58ae732be836e5417c21c5f37a7f2f3d5
18320 F20101118_AACQHS sink_a_Page_041.pro
9eda743880f6d5f5a352d5f46de9f75d
7ac5cc7374061867f1eac389c1dae67f86031f4c
51227 F20101118_AACQIH sink_a_Page_061.pro
d980fc8f38b788ca8fcb253b18a37842
cbc40866105cc923279d15cb61e756dd26f76dce
51736 F20101118_AACQHT sink_a_Page_044.pro
ad1636b7c1e626a3088ae316d768e853
f93dcd0b2360b292644c7708703bb5b13899bf9d
52270 F20101118_AACQII sink_a_Page_063.pro
3f5e9fe14d3bc19590b5e57b57260706
22bef5aa94b2e607830efb186eb0d7d37121f8b3
49966 F20101118_AACQHU sink_a_Page_046.pro
c3c3429f3df79b684cf42aefa339c0d9
8d1defc545f3d1c7197524d01c1149c49700a832
45570 F20101118_AACQIJ sink_a_Page_064.pro
5e61000b52c6a7fa4806f3f97dd1a4b8
a8a08407bd8ce653d591c56b17ad471b8a729cd7
51228 F20101118_AACQHV sink_a_Page_047.pro
dda44c2866bf809c98be22a6443c4ea9
ec14b33d76c07a5ed5a6214e0c71bd2f3776829c
55891 F20101118_AACQIK sink_a_Page_066.pro
491c4de5ed008778c8a5db3023254788
61bb6f7f56f648d2ad4ba23b034a838046bffff7
43278 F20101118_AACQHW sink_a_Page_048.pro
8753d1de57e462f0cfd445acaed72aca
77912512b4faa2230b02de781c39726ee914ab8b
49574 F20101118_AACQIL sink_a_Page_067.pro
fa3f186967fc2047f02dc73ff79470a5
bb11cf026b9c5c9366ce6b15f1e724c3746f123f
49551 F20101118_AACQHX sink_a_Page_050.pro
1d585e900e26c1f76565ed9b8c607a7d
2b053de8912bb0a3e7e7a7d17f1a718a4d90b39c
56479 F20101118_AACQJA sink_a_Page_086.pro
04f5c86dcddbb37ea7934bbdb1f9d255
dac9d542f6631561dd0008770d95bc85072d8941
51055 F20101118_AACQIM sink_a_Page_068.pro
b4bb628c479bc5e377dfd3946336a763
41d98eb72e33f732296e6501a897a3cd16e48239
48552 F20101118_AACQHY sink_a_Page_051.pro
d0990973bda5300a3919dcfe10488088
afe909fe11d7b0ab0cf87ef578dfbd4022539e57
59265 F20101118_AACQJB sink_a_Page_087.pro
b9177c6dc81404774817d4986c980a46
7c07bddf31211cc301f210effc9dd374a783a63e
46484 F20101118_AACQIN sink_a_Page_069.pro
0eb7c78bd66c36be35f05591f5ed39d0
f12d5b76ebca1a485d764ea73fe3a4c485f6b3cf
50199 F20101118_AACQHZ sink_a_Page_052.pro
473c349593d1a74fd4e35c4169e9c61d
27b91ccef2eff0f71e121aedee3ea143027dfbb6
330 F20101118_AACQJC sink_a_Page_089.pro
143fe1f48223cf48912d00e2dbd1b6a2
ae3eb6617da54f237c9fa121f5948082ec8ca799
51841 F20101118_AACQJD sink_a_Page_092.pro
1b3195219f55c8617c0593c2934620b6
c246c4b3890771298976ec04d6f32ce87f505997
61078 F20101118_AACQIO sink_a_Page_070.pro
0aeec00fa4c61ba065e50e10d6839bb0
e7772b65a8d5d3335a308904071acff9c7c54daf
48868 F20101118_AACQJE sink_a_Page_093.pro
093181602db40acd5c52e8aafbeb5957
9a189cab9239498fa0309320320c521f098627a0
49907 F20101118_AACQIP sink_a_Page_071.pro
5b13b616f901fb98ab3971d917fb5fde
204421f61857c031daaa82bc72eaa277ed67629f
51126 F20101118_AACQJF sink_a_Page_096.pro
43cf4fc244594f419294ef9df5453271
e436effc410aaa5d26fc9a3eaad0cf343fe2e340
52755 F20101118_AACQIQ sink_a_Page_072.pro
0b9b957fe7324f7d9eed75670cecc680
bfac4c2c25ebaea9d3176e7f79b379b7527c8009
60815 F20101118_AACQIR sink_a_Page_073.pro
28adc481c1a49e62bac1ce4e760b597f
0fcaf78e7ec6072e78d4f6a41a01cf4e5e180dcb
46743 F20101118_AACQJG sink_a_Page_097.pro
b053dd3fd8209dfcd9ce84b1941ced93
d0f146e3e8fe43ced3ead056bcf9ffc5aeb9105f
57126 F20101118_AACQIS sink_a_Page_074.pro
fcab081aaa961171cd8c21305066ba2c
ad77ad03391b13e8428b502c0677c7d8fb8cf730
45111 F20101118_AACQJH sink_a_Page_098.pro
15ba728d3c97630e98da40067cf99dc1
36078bf3f470e386201fb89e944299b416c71a7b
45802 F20101118_AACQIT sink_a_Page_075.pro
2a5a8b3e36a724afc0b99e4d025548b2
0cdfd9fa63242caffd7f65d110d49276ad552a49
53457 F20101118_AACQJI sink_a_Page_099.pro
3186e672501741734cb59d0f2eda4fd6
112fd8c0520256c46633dfd68415d37f36ffccf7
58563 F20101118_AACQIU sink_a_Page_076.pro
533dbb2ec37440011ed811081b62e1b7
6fe42ecbef88a60338b3d463e1e624b171d6c34c
56614 F20101118_AACQJJ sink_a_Page_100.pro
1a488cc891f4ed8130ad0f85f133ac28
a8cfec36887344150b14cee2ad1776851690b36a
50895 F20101118_AACQIV sink_a_Page_080.pro
0b836e7a96f5b52a81a671050b1eff2d
ff8a69b08fe27ca6e07be54d406e149b9d014d49
62809 F20101118_AACQJK sink_a_Page_102.pro
bc4f2dce13fe97637fe530afae760a10
6f8e16795e73a417c39a67bc443ce5b8d4b9363c
58895 F20101118_AACQIW sink_a_Page_082.pro
1c9010e97933fe697edada5530396688
fc7fd5b5572289fd321f1ab4d752178f60e031a7
1890 F20101118_AACQKA sink_a_Page_020.txt
68d790a2d5ce2f085d7610d6ddae42c4
9cf2f2798b3859454e9dda4c06d6da8aebb396c5
61810 F20101118_AACQJL sink_a_Page_103.pro
0c58845b011f90953e1d0c7836af2ba5
8999c8fb40d0e847a76d0ad125fd72b1cc844383
58849 F20101118_AACQIX sink_a_Page_083.pro
6293af231e4eb1732bf817516af18d7d
1f370fe7a002b874015183dd75d7f6cf4c7e1b97
1997 F20101118_AACQKB sink_a_Page_023.txt
112a155e02dd334eff7fc301f2fd5ed2
aeece1a54a9099a54f6a95b937787560871e40bd
58771 F20101118_AACQJM sink_a_Page_104.pro
5d6fb66d891f614bd0ff78d2a613511d
094f5c4dd0903618771924e0f580bb89b6a92cc3
54926 F20101118_AACQIY sink_a_Page_084.pro
04bab8a6002c3af29cf15f0d26f3c76c
c7e68834730410a977050ca96ceb2a5e8682580f
1861 F20101118_AACQKC sink_a_Page_024.txt
7a8abb63a4bb90458a49a4b23284098c
a992825cecf37f1551c943b5128238b4ad91ab4b
58335 F20101118_AACQJN sink_a_Page_105.pro
174aa8418b86af36c6d7b4c2004331d4
e6a60d449eb32e3fb982bbfc67a4f1de028725fd
60972 F20101118_AACQIZ sink_a_Page_085.pro
bcece968af0d7b176afcc4dca7ff74d0
ee33cadeac262773170006c66c8a9b479476e36d
2123 F20101118_AACQKD sink_a_Page_025.txt
a9ed4823fa11d3ddcb363bd8c1920b4c
65de1ae443143d3b2c3876dfd0c2f3e01448e2f9
15261 F20101118_AACQJO sink_a_Page_107.pro
5583842010f4fc72ee887ef4431cfb4e
514a904ebe0a422a65c99f1a3285e63eca52dbb0
2395 F20101118_AACQKE sink_a_Page_026.txt
c0ceba75f9952c1572858659d140d361
488441b00eb655490fe9395fd5599f289d1a481e
463 F20101118_AACQJP sink_a_Page_003.txt
dfb2c5b0a72edbddc055995e3f576721
488431962a4bdc931c6737f355c253b6b6942b68
2478 F20101118_AACQKF sink_a_Page_027.txt
9f6da9c5868223c8c9ce193714926abe
560f7abe889ab6be3893757b0220a1a1ddd13f31
673 F20101118_AACQJQ sink_a_Page_004.txt
8c08d7f2e6be49f27be983bd9cdbfd0b
bdd20c8f56cb1df95bee0656aae5c8a5ab502ce6
2243 F20101118_AACQKG sink_a_Page_028.txt
f0d8da439d296741b420e5759fbcbba2
1f71079fea50dbf4aae6d10782cbbeaa5de92a6e
1663 F20101118_AACQJR sink_a_Page_006.txt
d9e67064586d4a57a968467dccf3d506
49fa8ed825cdde2b938cfca797d49ede2e1e1d68
591 F20101118_AACQJS sink_a_Page_007.txt
cbe4b191f8b3081fbec4e00cf93fc887
dbad0a2bc9e547cce5421f592e981ccec230ed62
2349 F20101118_AACQKH sink_a_Page_030.txt
09d7bcba3e4c05f37a891d5b1c9447d6
08b287fde0596f78246142f9b64cc4007a3df218
1805 F20101118_AACQJT sink_a_Page_010.txt
ef7dfb71388c5cbc3e1e086f400a575f
b7aa19dc6625a3b08121dcc5398feeb125d25fe3
2034 F20101118_AACQKI sink_a_Page_031.txt
a5123032e42a0e2e8131f49c58ce5725
b0fa34a5c068e34d93836e0c3a965cf14ed8ed55
2054 F20101118_AACQJU sink_a_Page_011.txt
dc58314e349567f7747d4bf5e8fb629a
f29ee55968fc47c18ce892ccd21f9d7094e27854
2065 F20101118_AACQKJ sink_a_Page_033.txt
bb1a8cff2cf27c564e760d2958cc9a46
58b636e7343a9c088d87ecaa24acebd7601141d1
2561 F20101118_AACQJV sink_a_Page_012.txt
a39b9533a8e56fdb798af6b11ae39adf
70f55222d1909270fc4f116894dba02a572dfde6
2125 F20101118_AACQKK sink_a_Page_034.txt
56d44e2ea8a57a39640b006d3f982a2b
2c0ef9fc376bfad1222785f1e3b78ff991917788
1573 F20101118_AACQJW sink_a_Page_014.txt
d839c583854ee4d780768b6418959ace
6d3107b7190e4beebb4d84e2f6e532697e471fa2
1967 F20101118_AACQKL sink_a_Page_035.txt
63460583d754567b9392956757f4b21e
51188aff1a49ec6b0a6d6722270731893658ed0d
2050 F20101118_AACQJX sink_a_Page_015.txt
4929ec38e9e8bcb65229b3ec03772dff
27afe2315ed2660baccd73a1660c3c9391b5e72c
1760 F20101118_AACQLA sink_a_Page_054.txt
fbdbab82f0768458fe97263cf380389e
3cfca5a9a5b308294c0aa43e70623a1a841e80fe
2062 F20101118_AACQKM sink_a_Page_037.txt
bce7906c7473acbd5211593d91862bc2
8ba0cf6a7665570a66c811818f571ebaa720e099
2066 F20101118_AACQJY sink_a_Page_017.txt
58df4de53432f52029b9613c1e893322
be752d2712236044c74a7b17dfbb925dff8ad048
1447 F20101118_AACQLB sink_a_Page_055.txt
fff2333155b1fa419f671f74b2921f95
9c443266dc921fd8377ae916f17260dbf57cde1c
1784 F20101118_AACQKN sink_a_Page_039.txt
f1db1eb10d79605d72ad51a2ad2180d1
183300277b244e74cd0a221f9060f16d92d91def
2268 F20101118_AACQJZ sink_a_Page_018.txt
b7f40612d49aef3b27ea1441419c59c2
ccb3d811dbc3ae2db2505bf407aaf9274c9bccac
1465 F20101118_AACQLC sink_a_Page_057.txt
a0d61bd665ec01be15482dcba797cc84
dce2d60a1ce57ea738f03a741c8cd0e14a9c6845
805 F20101118_AACQKO sink_a_Page_041.txt
5a029dee555d522a3678adb8a9cd5a17
4873d8b47509129bdefa4811c6cd856b84e160e4
2189 F20101118_AACQLD sink_a_Page_058.txt
1d51c40cbde83eb148daf2df7ef94661
ba34fa74d3151c0e8a196aaf59f8cb9ce7913eba
2165 F20101118_AACQKP sink_a_Page_042.txt
7bca035df05965b877c27620673bedb7
c1f5f7bb877ae3e1ea5e31df957a09e3c055f03a
2488 F20101118_AACQLE sink_a_Page_060.txt
08179f0edd6ebf47622d7eaae9ea6453
1c35757220012502b51348977a1ddc0d3bba7704
2571 F20101118_AACQKQ sink_a_Page_043.txt
83c1e779c82c1dd69279c500f0b8a699
346faf8eb88e45f4c3d97fece2a576d839ec577b
2064 F20101118_AACQLF sink_a_Page_061.txt
c1274565cfd4ca760fa4c84aa09828f8
7a533207ee331942f463ba6de1d04f9330b64132
2013 F20101118_AACQKR sink_a_Page_045.txt
4e6fd65c514d536e81444ef0b8178c04
1c29f8be369c7aceb771c56931cb7a450a5c9c73
2098 F20101118_AACQLG sink_a_Page_063.txt
8b3a74ca0a949bee3e83c859dcda91a3
04f129a7b0f000a762ed4841cb46e28756c59b10
1992 F20101118_AACQKS sink_a_Page_046.txt
f9b3415fe7b55a1605bec3975b374056
fcf138af8116ec3b26504a84cec09200440b6fd8
1810 F20101118_AACQLH sink_a_Page_064.txt
9cbaf2bc3389efc39e10c822c6bd602f
5bd58c1c1174279cd03bc44045ff94f10b4cde5d
2022 F20101118_AACQKT sink_a_Page_047.txt
41d6d5d435abc3f6c348b18e23ad4708
fa778330404afdcd389a9d31d1fa1db8d6e1f5ca
1738 F20101118_AACQKU sink_a_Page_048.txt
3333280d81923caa024c6601a1026cc8
bcd87d910b113fac99e7f6b2f5e2964751b84078
2187 F20101118_AACQLI sink_a_Page_065.txt
126683a8bdc854190da717c446b77397
3919996dedcf7d316dc9f499b81be3afbf08461f
2020 F20101118_AACQKV sink_a_Page_049.txt
6110b3789e69ee849044e722aa18305c
53e591b41501284965413e4d8f47de9b5387afb7
2258 F20101118_AACQLJ sink_a_Page_066.txt
8e6cb25d6cde370b2d3e729ec9e08204
da0d66f320a5909c72d97f975b53055e541bc09c
1957 F20101118_AACQKW sink_a_Page_050.txt
f714bb90f441e6f81bdc4f22417bbfb4
c6680f216e63d93a06b20e256ba0c3e7d904d55d
1838 F20101118_AACQLK sink_a_Page_069.txt
858991dc5399f1725beeb8ecff468170
2209ad073cb7719170b5037f2c37fed451f0c3c3
1926 F20101118_AACQKX sink_a_Page_051.txt
0f824adc306fb4da3fda4ddc2b60cdd6
60b06bd7e994747b14f54b99b2a46e8c193d83d0
13 F20101118_AACQMA sink_a_Page_089.txt
b3a278b01ff9dc573d97e84089e84054
bea89fb13a3d8bafd3f38283d6cd8250f8aca2e7
2491 F20101118_AACQLL sink_a_Page_070.txt
cd27edb266b62996af66909143fb8f67
c35f764b1330ceed096a62cea92a6725fe51732c
1976 F20101118_AACQKY sink_a_Page_052.txt
6c7dbdfc9a11e45e2a52e69cbefad794
c6a43106da5afbb19285d0294baa8e0b67de0a3a
1768 F20101118_AACQMB sink_a_Page_090.txt
45572f5b33349bfdc68474a82a2717a5
3b8f502d7fb9431284767d71da4ec8be51a878dc
1960 F20101118_AACQLM sink_a_Page_071.txt
60c133b98852fb339262b128ed206e12
826f654a8a3e47f38d44e17323ca675cd2de9fbf
2343 F20101118_AACQKZ sink_a_Page_053.txt
350dccb315e598d38f9eb1ba79241843
9bad8b281f360c3d81f25bc9b2d022949eaec289
2394 F20101118_AACQMC sink_a_Page_091.txt
cbd0e51c3242474d99d00174c083d1d2
0b2fed6c05a510e29021f2b656a2fd028011fde3
2084 F20101118_AACQLN sink_a_Page_072.txt
525f1e275b421ce630808bfe75e6cf79
78a1ee00649025696b08136ffd3bc360449254d9
2080 F20101118_AACQMD sink_a_Page_092.txt
1dc3e00c09f02eec58500514cc4148af
53811de3092cc146911f7ab1a6e5352894bf43ec
2288 F20101118_AACQLO sink_a_Page_074.txt
1699c2b28e06ad0d415264757fd3c9d7
44bc3ec3bd68005edb89a8681cf4b6a91974b329
F20101118_AACQME sink_a_Page_095.txt
16e207d9d5c568d49c100f7873261891
3dbbc4e39bc2f1f28fc87b0457ea778c9714cd8b
1821 F20101118_AACQLP sink_a_Page_075.txt
e757cd3f234698ebffdccbdcaeba3e27
2d0904ef7aac320754ef1dd1888c0313997e9b47
2052 F20101118_AACQMF sink_a_Page_096.txt
7676d67ff80921bc41cb849627c4e351
f497cc9b970fc007c9d9b69ea12a97ebfcad33ab
2364 F20101118_AACQLQ sink_a_Page_076.txt
b14370a53a97c61c0d82a6fbf69ccc77
86db05b77d78d7d1f9a9abbe10a652e13e9ffa33
1883 F20101118_AACQMG sink_a_Page_097.txt
b15075d8cc743405f36aecd48b4f1fb4
af3c5bd3c7396d10e6cba1e38a5b709032667646
1640 F20101118_AACQLR sink_a_Page_077.txt
c3d0bbf1b1016ddfe8d0315363626cc7
cfdd7c4c0463345f0c287294552491b2663b9941
F20101118_AACQMH sink_a_Page_098.txt
61734e7b5368a87b76efc88497b0a52e
96c01d214fb58fac2ca3d890a8a7d3a873dc0eab
1418 F20101118_AACQLS sink_a_Page_079.txt
e5e45cafcbdaf1242b36024452641c3d
ec2109143f8fd11b284f71e504765851c889a167
2173 F20101118_AACQMI sink_a_Page_099.txt
dcf28351aa407f27dec7fcbd6dc8a5ed
951cb0ddeaee685d848489755984b70878aafcb8
1959 F20101118_AACQLT sink_a_Page_081.txt
5089a531d8e32e21634ed0d9a5d2ccee
09391ef5c91b8d6eb31ec41cca0c472bc4faacf6
F20101118_AACQLU sink_a_Page_082.txt
8393cef7fa4e2a662afcdf3a69bb62c2
ef8090069cf7b982b1644aa020666b325424b1a9
2317 F20101118_AACQMJ sink_a_Page_100.txt
5fed73688e6b3246e66e8c3436d735dd
41744a29acf5950df623feb631d297843c3a6ac3
2183 F20101118_AACQLV sink_a_Page_084.txt
7404457de9a25a0dc8ac38642b4f27f7
407c8222dca02de0e82cf46170c439ca4376bfd9
2560 F20101118_AACQMK sink_a_Page_102.txt
060af80951aee622e7640ad0a3d63614
f595254526318c851738160f2cac13a58a211838
2448 F20101118_AACQLW sink_a_Page_085.txt
00dc719a1e5741148b82382912e84e3a
4b1809b9d12a43de8c48adb54389e011bf9899b8
24651 F20101118_AACQNA sink_a_Page_025.QC.jpg
2ed83257130f8177f4ae32cce95cb396
1ee5bc71820250da80d057d83406ac9cdeea8b25
2496 F20101118_AACQML sink_a_Page_103.txt
705e75091d4eef67eb1313bda4efcc98
f295c92260eec676acb61a2a5b8382efac96ca68
2240 F20101118_AACQLX sink_a_Page_086.txt
6e90d726f4f7862ae3714001d209e648
784272c0061a1d02ec3a4a0295ab29d80b968e99
6469 F20101118_AACQNB sink_a_Page_099thm.jpg
ec094b0248325f8c70447fae998488a5
a168f800f160503d37bef91e2f4fca19b2054183
2396 F20101118_AACQMM sink_a_Page_104.txt
d39b1e048c3d22fcb526ee639ed5a0b7
4ec6855f5fa591110166e6286f365a3380f83113
2464 F20101118_AACQLY sink_a_Page_087.txt
a34a8d89c24f2129c0514696dc98ded1
4cc8237b218a742afb97370998717207ef46232c
6443 F20101118_AACQNC sink_a_Page_052thm.jpg
415487b5b86a184f106882e4cf9fe144
e291c09d1092290ded6ea58bd9ffd74c2d496cf4
936 F20101118_AACQMN sink_a_Page_106.txt
a005fd98ef2191710d9765e9e289a200
e489717433b62b25387ce7550a2dfadbc9407269
1906 F20101118_AACQLZ sink_a_Page_088.txt
7f70c04b9093f804d5d9cac652f95f23
4699ba67a6449fbf4d68753293c7cb49e1ebff0c
21950 F20101118_AACQND sink_a_Page_069.QC.jpg
23f0a13495bf671b126e41cd92908306
834fc6a3a379414934ce0a81b07f38f5a93bbd85
654 F20101118_AACQMO sink_a_Page_107.txt
99132685c009f999f30467b4ed5c4bc2
83dae6e660d1a105e11c77d786fde6c83d5be468
7600 F20101118_AACQNE sink_a_Page_101thm.jpg
fe7d5ed14fceb2b564bcd0590560b0c0
bf41935faf9030e2bb5416b749c70df3f31359a2
846808 F20101118_AACQMP sink_a.pdf
f2b103e0f275cf41614c288f510549fc
6e3bc80f74b705fec40b1739343a8c58fc47ba83
21207 F20101118_AACQNF sink_a_Page_055.QC.jpg
f4d609c2c211f6103fe6bd90273b38e8
f0573f02d18c6b9fee1052ac5badb116a5e65430
23408 F20101118_AACQMQ sink_a_Page_080.QC.jpg
6ec19ba9b4451f7aedbb0e53549aa121
a01f166953d4692a53eb3b8a6da107bd1c0571d3
21926 F20101118_AACQNG sink_a_Page_061.QC.jpg
636a3329cf240f200195a694756465fd
2adbcccf03d261704f293c930b075178b96eace4
6304 F20101118_AACQMR sink_a_Page_067thm.jpg
343b794940fcfc97cc09750c17321cbe
a68506835946b2c25f1d0ce666c54664c68f4e27
24902 F20101118_AACQNH sink_a_Page_076.QC.jpg
8eb7430b6faa940ff352652ec1ca4a48
5ee1cdd7c5eaa9136a54c822d1a9f31aa06fc024
22753 F20101118_AACQMS sink_a_Page_067.QC.jpg
3fab90b70d5a879dcc4d87d23f6097b1
7ee5488546bb76b21a0d5ea0aee448c826b944d1
26348 F20101118_AACQNI sink_a_Page_105.QC.jpg
dc8cb688ea2e253b8ede93d70d095452
01ee747047556b389a87bc169cd1e2bb8c15ebee
24082 F20101118_AACQMT sink_a_Page_035.QC.jpg
4ea16c060392881d4ec254ab8c3cb581
365e36d4ad4c66d676a67345ffbd3035023a21c2
8105 F20101118_AACQNJ sink_a_Page_001.QC.jpg
3f9485cc6ed28a621866aa6139418fc5
47c5b97cccd98e7d38ea9d24289b6878c0afa866
6965 F20101118_AACQMU sink_a_Page_012thm.jpg
5c1c77ad76b646b37867eb135ff95237
4de4a357a000f521751c9a873b09276644efb7f0
22807 F20101118_AACQMV sink_a_Page_088.QC.jpg
d7bc8645b22bbd9118bc0a8c3abb86a1
90827f8abc7706a2752e88b4fc296e0f09ed17fd
25175 F20101118_AACQNK sink_a_Page_018.QC.jpg
910ec1d926fa5207a7fc74df168b4c3b
2be0decc7a2e38889d36d56b508ebd102fe6808c
6948 F20101118_AACQMW sink_a_Page_094thm.jpg
8990c9ffddc89c3294262d1348feb9f4
d49eb0b35edff4a319a18c240ebd426779ed40ec
6562 F20101118_AACQMX sink_a_Page_076thm.jpg
93c80c674a305d8ca42bac2d36552f84
1c1eaae806966613a2aa8d100f32484d3e3d136c
1394 F20101118_AACQOA sink_a_Page_002thm.jpg
89fc74f9001aad634f72077deb96cb69
480f659e1c03b8e9a585d5cd229d1eeaf0ba1b2a
23078 F20101118_AACQNL sink_a_Page_081.QC.jpg
defff8b79738ec229a628918d707fe6f
2155d5d8f11d5bbb287582bce3bb5ed6b06649b7
6400 F20101118_AACQMY sink_a_Page_081thm.jpg
9dbbb346dc0a8f4df26cef23960c9b22
fd53d08683f2fca1a1fc0129cf78b1712d8bc750
F20101118_AACQOB sink_a_Page_003thm.jpg
291c08956de6e7de20f509770b12ae16
64c957b9b07ba247a9781d136f729b3a9e076b16
29320 F20101118_AACQNM sink_a_Page_101.QC.jpg
09ebdb3dc7f38751c8ede8c815238d09
b8bed7e789bc17eee7bc4fa35670420e52c17317
26787 F20101118_AACQMZ sink_a_Page_091.QC.jpg
1b3ca8c4c5613c6bbb015eab83e3358a
e81d3aa47f9ab2c4e14c9ebf3c8ff5d9cac4bdba
2964 F20101118_AACQOC sink_a_Page_004thm.jpg
db311715064a582048e565fe16da2dd4
5b2ac7c53225fa380bf145097d38f3f7883c0ec6
6494 F20101118_AACQNN sink_a_Page_068thm.jpg
6c556397dfbb880177224f558c24b46f
741c92fcf4c70c54a242e44bbef11a80b39f5b72
4859 F20101118_AACQOD sink_a_Page_005thm.jpg
8dfa1c751aa49e395781d1732788b6e6
c4ffbcda7da9cccd94bda63c3202000aae61658f
6224 F20101118_AACQNO sink_a_Page_003.QC.jpg
26a00e93255a67b820601d5ab355e788
33e03275fb9749b8a0d6f560837d5d1f141448b0
2717 F20101118_AACQOE sink_a_Page_006thm.jpg
7083fbf3be5b58b05653134189b8dc9e
b9ae93c79303f02e55f1ecaee0437557b5017e8d
18809 F20101118_AACQNP sink_a_Page_008.QC.jpg
74418111cf97c0e1b96a28e3e6df2258
2ce826f7b0967928c32be6afb08c7f4fa054b593
6345 F20101118_AACQOF sink_a_Page_007.QC.jpg
6545549d3268ad33219070c8fa4e76b4
f7072a82f691f57b112540a2c251f99a3177d312
6642 F20101118_AACQNQ sink_a_Page_044thm.jpg
701c2196c6f9033165f3610b37e831ef
76cca2ee4d7cff9315200f8021361c9af66b0086
2135 F20101118_AACQOG sink_a_Page_007thm.jpg
d272b206d700aa0128491b18480082e5
4023d41772dc1d0a4089a08cff3a922c6c4bea34
2979 F20101118_AACQNR sink_a_Page_107thm.jpg
68bb601a0f8e20577bf00ed2b9ebd284
df9e54592bf15c4f9a31e7792f6378e04b64f59e
5192 F20101118_AACQOH sink_a_Page_008thm.jpg
8859057adf9852462b82784a6000df00
2acee6ab49bdb7a9a8f7443d1de3f65a69628839
7258 F20101118_AACQNS sink_a_Page_105thm.jpg
3f8060de813d7ffb57f1f45d5c2a0d70
93246e92aca89ea9b9be49e92cd3d012538f4dc3
21122 F20101118_AACQOI sink_a_Page_009.QC.jpg
114da7b5c1710b27dcf7d54f5c615e41
c559d21b2dbc868bfefbcdd7a4f98f2aa5d6c0cf
26272 F20101118_AACQNT sink_a_Page_104.QC.jpg
b7abc025606ec3f597980d4021a52610
8ddd5a4893364d9e0052fbb747c937a051ed6b34
5978 F20101118_AACQOJ sink_a_Page_009thm.jpg
146603707ee5249ce3a60afec4f648f3
a354d4ae0501689c3988ba914f0060a8a101a3fe
4927 F20101118_AACQNU sink_a_Page_078thm.jpg
52189dbbc5e6453d1fbe041d54f49da7
cadb6d9b9d600df26e26d5bc459f3375a2c0a401
20350 F20101118_AACQOK sink_a_Page_010.QC.jpg
1dffdeca4ba8707af016c8d7a18987e1
0a0200e0c3aa1799b2a184d33a491a19a309662b
5902 F20101118_AACQNV sink_a_Page_048thm.jpg
ceb46dd00ab4ab267eb66ebb6164786f
928a8e9d59742a31f668092bac166b0b90bd7411
6287 F20101118_AACQNW sink_a_Page_075thm.jpg
7b1d389dede4d282ab726faebb013e86
7fd0525ff24e51dfcf3b59e432deb510947d91b8
6444 F20101118_AACQPA sink_a_Page_021thm.jpg
62f9239173c921126561557e27aa67d6
f7a72c169043561fa5f34862c5bb3fc4a47420bd
23477 F20101118_AACQOL sink_a_Page_011.QC.jpg
fb15df5a98e510a968306a2097131979
df0df662b1283650c4b6b5c2260385957af9cf2a
159668 F20101118_AACQNX UFE0014380_00001.xml FULL
09f66f6c227180b86404664513e8c807
84b00f9dc3f4605c659c2a08188155f271433bd9
6593 F20101118_AACQPB sink_a_Page_022thm.jpg
8203845b8595814ab41b596c29505e36
df1711209de6380dae0c28e012682c95f19162bd
6627 F20101118_AACQOM sink_a_Page_011thm.jpg
f84c7d4da145b84bd3061db6f8577f83
b02737e94f0c23e2f3571b85a657b85809bbf4c2
2523 F20101118_AACQNY sink_a_Page_001thm.jpg
542f1bb88d119939b96f302e80a93e85
84d663a994bab1d3ddde666544a3f5fd76bae5c9
24413 F20101118_AACQPC sink_a_Page_023.QC.jpg
334b0f0ebaa1ff0ba54bcb1fc8de327c
5c18dc55440e64809e8f48fe25230afeecd00fad
4520 F20101118_AACQON sink_a_Page_013.QC.jpg
84b83bab75ed610bd62ae05686af542b
04bacfea20c9384b7fa8a077e466917b64526e53
3319 F20101118_AACQNZ sink_a_Page_002.QC.jpg
e27e556e2029cb2c7e5ee83bee789e26
53b332d2597def957612b9c1662a486de990e2ea
6661 F20101118_AACQPD sink_a_Page_025thm.jpg
2e3ef7851b1c69b3885070f49bbd7bc8
2d1ded40849d21b57890044b88bdb50cc7a99a0e
1685 F20101118_AACQOO sink_a_Page_013thm.jpg
42d572c23f355bb780ce96ba8c829011
eada36a24c641ab0664a0c7c07b1c6dd607be639
25283 F20101118_AACQPE sink_a_Page_026.QC.jpg
cd0e09a52dad51970b70b21e507624e6
6eb22e43b3e0e4861c4c0b5695b71b72c23ac57f
18302 F20101118_AACQOP sink_a_Page_014.QC.jpg
3abf368fb8b85e705aa529853e0c19de
607912faa5befe5f8020358c70f9f9b7b427847e
25301 F20101118_AACQPF sink_a_Page_027.QC.jpg
4c977c7e8594b681e2f285624c59bf35
ac0bbc9982a5457d732369b2d611d6f4ce0a69ad
22629 F20101118_AACQOQ sink_a_Page_015.QC.jpg
9c4ba0b2c9b2006c905c1efeff6d6140
85971e085a6cf9e8bb51d2993503ff93fb252718
7056 F20101118_AACQPG sink_a_Page_027thm.jpg
b07db70284ec21f3b7cf54d9629043d2
3f4805dd1784f8db5eeb8637da579d359ab8536c
6531 F20101118_AACQOR sink_a_Page_015thm.jpg
35e35b658adab578f3ab590b3c94db0a
4ed6c5187779aeb53b28d68a40f8842ec11a4077
24654 F20101118_AACQPH sink_a_Page_028.QC.jpg
6007c6296e9474cae5f9ca841432f499
c0c490d7a2dc8106a677f1e0bf84161e26f9bb6f
22164 F20101118_AACQOS sink_a_Page_016.QC.jpg
d9987c7778daaf1f9ebd2f4104c129b2
88ffbb90197d3fa999db8fdc6946afa18c2e835f
6795 F20101118_AACQPI sink_a_Page_028thm.jpg
b10c8ef2bff6a441a7949d9e4a6675c4
a9453674015d748201fc22b4130903af1e7f0269
22507 F20101118_AACQOT sink_a_Page_017.QC.jpg
8f1475a6fcb3294d93fcfdc0268c34ec
d30c435b1230e2af01ecef4affd059cb16e415b7
6512 F20101118_AACQPJ sink_a_Page_029thm.jpg
b3a3ec63814359473371564779237cd0
1c0bd9491d1a1b3a1709e0753a79647a2296ad02
6294 F20101118_AACQOU sink_a_Page_017thm.jpg
7afe48f7e5476116f86d25af8642038b
53636a797ffdd852034cbb71e1fc2a6cea262a9d
6917 F20101118_AACQPK sink_a_Page_030thm.jpg
8b3f52502acf35dd020caa6ed9b2c7f3
b9faf5b0b1d8c46e9325927fa506126e725a8c92
7020 F20101118_AACQOV sink_a_Page_018thm.jpg
bb9f88dbe8a4ac50352d9e08a9fd80c6
e70d65bdffc5695571cd6328446341066ac71640
22638 F20101118_AACQPL sink_a_Page_031.QC.jpg
169a40e881adfc9e101839941f292f5e
e134d01da535855778af69ed6d8956565e10ced6
20871 F20101118_AACQOW sink_a_Page_019.QC.jpg
df373e08b6ec2a2b5e9eec2ba079a31d
8181e2350e616ff6bd49661a7e25eec00b81ee0f
6042 F20101118_AACQOX sink_a_Page_019thm.jpg
ff7691a735cfb988e2d256d7d3082b73
9f893beab35ec0cb4949ace140b71def00b21a5d
10339 F20101118_AACQQA sink_a_Page_041.QC.jpg
3900af5f7d3a714c9c392575a50e4617
3d206f853ed20f03ceff3cd7beaa07941ff67f2b
6078 F20101118_AACQPM sink_a_Page_031thm.jpg
898694b2940c83209188436195c1360a
4c4affa4c945debef09459d1b2626b3a027fe941
6480 F20101118_AACQOY sink_a_Page_020thm.jpg
2db5167e479b5adfa212a2b0bdab96e8
4700751c9604e52a8c64af75b2c85c3ecfa6d79b
3136 F20101118_AACQQB sink_a_Page_041thm.jpg
dbb37b27412c9106f4573811a7df0f3a
b8a03f577f664e8b7172cfc7a14ed8b88422b002
24685 F20101118_AACQPN sink_a_Page_032.QC.jpg
f7d0ff60b1570dc2e5f682f84ee98414
13f83b92e424d6e1d8febfb6a953c32091244c58
22372 F20101118_AACQOZ sink_a_Page_021.QC.jpg
c64ff93a179b1fd8a2c00e0c29d4fe61
7bd54a644aab61ca7491c02c412247daa8503cdd
21682 F20101118_AACQQC sink_a_Page_042.QC.jpg
1226f6e99ca163bbc8c9570d6bec0996
55f0471305f73751e053b8c8135d0bb76ab40077
F20101118_AACQPO sink_a_Page_032thm.jpg
c44b2220af5ef403be7eab38e0bad908
03839463bda83d0ff4d05ca288871e7602779c22
6296 F20101118_AACQQD sink_a_Page_042thm.jpg
6f6d53819a305790042ef15766fd8dad
b830162d7bb91a298954cd31906c95df4361aedc
6630 F20101118_AACQPP sink_a_Page_033thm.jpg
52f5c78507fd8e9aab89925d1105f9f6
a8d5d8063a7ce5c44eab28fb9cfca4a06d3788ff
26534 F20101118_AACQQE sink_a_Page_043.QC.jpg
3e4a6be982652335610297a0e0bcb231
6cbb30ddd964f6ac7e62a093f1f3ef7e08db54d0
25028 F20101118_AACQPQ sink_a_Page_034.QC.jpg
fbde2ac3df683436daa8a0eef7e3a325
321357cfcbc912d0b0aaeb63b4d53eaf16d38e50
7245 F20101118_AACQQF sink_a_Page_043thm.jpg
6f63cbd7812243d81f59243f23659983
0a849826320de05906359d04431e10dbdfe84dd9
6934 F20101118_AACQPR sink_a_Page_034thm.jpg
c3773ece9426b5a04a0b7168be29c2df
a6d39cba741266f852eda9655177e59c41fe51e9
24309 F20101118_AACQQG sink_a_Page_044.QC.jpg
1082fcb5c674e6043143e17ef0978815
8f80dc4e996713389863bda5ac6b4dae8ee8f6d6
6797 F20101118_AACQPS sink_a_Page_035thm.jpg
8d49fca0c579116f754a06c46eb016a8
197a3be5372a9a7dc1783b06a3d2b8fd7d3eb458
23555 F20101118_AACQQH sink_a_Page_045.QC.jpg
d5bffc0f15b98324b42df721583251c9
58bebb12ffaede9b1890b33e0180f6b54ae07287
23154 F20101118_AACQPT sink_a_Page_037.QC.jpg
07a6461838eca5b1b088512cd4060671
1cee5bb05974cfa7b41dbddac50949c00f6f171b
6555 F20101118_AACQQI sink_a_Page_045thm.jpg
093639911f01b46191b9f0248b2ec997
c291361c6334c82083e80127c5741a3a7acf326b
6606 F20101118_AACQPU sink_a_Page_037thm.jpg
e1253b86b1419ca4833f128e73186c1f
a9c4f71797f917f2b2d27bb70a8164572d90911f
24338 F20101118_AACQQJ sink_a_Page_046.QC.jpg
0e8d90f3bfa267f07532fca269b83ba7
1003c702d5d08880638e28c11cae7f4ffb2e8d43
25855 F20101118_AACQPV sink_a_Page_038.QC.jpg
61b3ac6a40b129af5653f1ed21c80b12
8e784043348277ced02c49303e726194679d40e7
23787 F20101118_AACQQK sink_a_Page_047.QC.jpg
33c54ec811d8c17d51ebee1adbf354da
870879a26156b874d5d7472d828ce6ad0146d804
6848 F20101118_AACQPW sink_a_Page_038thm.jpg
16b70bf5ebebcc42029577e5ae03780a
6ddac5d0f319e526198f4b002a66c9718bd7d1b2
6511 F20101118_AACQQL sink_a_Page_047thm.jpg
424bd5d0e8ba1f1228fbe2f2ab835cc8
f516ec2b9ae0784b2411a37d3e9fc6e4e1c951a1
5928 F20101118_AACQPX sink_a_Page_039thm.jpg
66d49a9af07b5d9aaf1105ba113fcdb2
8f5deebf3adb98c68245b4c1b0149ef4e3fad708
6075 F20101118_AACQRA sink_a_Page_061thm.jpg
735675f94d24f872c82c6e0bf6a323b7
d834697d9dbf09b3f75e3a9a00151d94e59ccb77
20793 F20101118_AACQQM sink_a_Page_048.QC.jpg
39e2c4c3ca9971cd9f4be0ac8f3116c6
b3fcf6984deb86fb5a2ad04a0581b5543dfe6a05
24837 F20101118_AACQPY sink_a_Page_040.QC.jpg
b8023df0b5bd843325dd5843f00c5cb6
f0cc0802ed195f210ca075ad5f2bbcfa47dfff92
23130 F20101118_AACQRB sink_a_Page_063.QC.jpg
249f83a87dea8ef307b714b1c6899023
d0b334185b02856bb344de2188096ed9f76b44fc
7033 F20101118_AACQPZ sink_a_Page_040thm.jpg
21e02599d973484b26931137eeb8e9a5
56d32ce79ca99789cf8ca0f8fa1f536146a8086f
6488 F20101118_AACQRC sink_a_Page_063thm.jpg
5a7adef2459d8edfdaa5aa0985d46a15
2a062c9f829224d41a85a622741368592bed015c
20289 F20101118_AACQQN sink_a_Page_049.QC.jpg
2650f089aae046fd3336059ca01f2417
4e1cf0f8056e453dfd4ab7305b25e9e103791615
20929 F20101118_AACQRD sink_a_Page_064.QC.jpg
ac16f1759ef11595ecc91efe91e91f92
150023a9b79ffafaa274ea44cdb6c907a62652fc
23157 F20101118_AACQQO sink_a_Page_050.QC.jpg
9d0e94df0c1dc29bad39325917007721
6e2818ea3f7499775dfe3035fb984d03686154dc
6140 F20101118_AACQRE sink_a_Page_064thm.jpg
2c785c4d00bc2627e6b779756c68cb5c
e81c5fbe3afb1e600cb2599bd81837a631bc3eb7
22691 F20101118_AACQQP sink_a_Page_051.QC.jpg
d87dd574ef58b8f8af0300fa42fc60f1
bc7a59d648dfa045b3aa78c078c3fe4a4bebd4b9
24308 F20101118_AACQRF sink_a_Page_065.QC.jpg
1f1fa4bbf407b965c0e7a492acb6dd55
c287dac97b8ae9c2eafa798cf4bbdbcef3f9423d
6437 F20101118_AACQQQ sink_a_Page_051thm.jpg
b14d2ea568ff3f63ad965bcc93628652
179c07cddfdc66f7895a327ca9127e2c17566359
6669 F20101118_AACQRG sink_a_Page_065thm.jpg
a3807e2e40700521667c065ca1f0e0ae
3aa9400d0757c8e772a8923f162a0418398d82da
23327 F20101118_AACQQR sink_a_Page_052.QC.jpg
f56a499dacbdd49b0e485d95a3e0273e
ed7b3ef1f1a7fbcb66ba9bcdda2d7bd4ff14a0e2
23720 F20101118_AACQRH sink_a_Page_066.QC.jpg
afbbfd5626d0f54333a1cee7af966e83
2b7b4b18cd52f9dbcc0538f861606fd59e9f2d53
6893 F20101118_AACQQS sink_a_Page_053thm.jpg
7120473f1a8695de527c87a3b51185a6
ac730c92cde041d9a32d8f09abb4be7ea2240827
6451 F20101118_AACQRI sink_a_Page_066thm.jpg
bc696212e61f16af855407d5297d4c81
723a348bcdb0415d02cf13aa5ded12de77f685b2
21519 F20101118_AACQQT sink_a_Page_054.QC.jpg
094b8fa9f379e5032ad7ffc39f13795b
e35ce8fa2ac0d3c91e3a0b89f6565e22d6e8b52d
23221 F20101118_AACQRJ sink_a_Page_068.QC.jpg
398f5abab67c41fb1e4879e9bad144c4
1e27e2f325381b888f278fe489317b96fc0f67e1
5977 F20101118_AACQQU sink_a_Page_055thm.jpg
432ad9432a7ba43de2a7dbe16965f579
1bcab847db9acbd88a3a2c5d8d6602ab57d73637
6315 F20101118_AACQRK sink_a_Page_069thm.jpg
72e79afb61489972c195c046f77d38af
95dd819efe72158769cd484f2145ee277f73016f
21574 F20101118_AACQQV sink_a_Page_057.QC.jpg
8138257634ffb8567f82c80a4b0befff
ddd6a9a9805c62a5b8404d39570278bc2ba4cd03
24578 F20101118_AACQRL sink_a_Page_070.QC.jpg
4329eac57039e477a687c1cd2fe6d696
c9322965df81449747d50330d502ad21bbfd7ce2
6281 F20101118_AACQQW sink_a_Page_057thm.jpg
f26d09dff600a863ecf2ce6516262c53
a9a68ca50555c6808e416f350f0a9c0a95bd4c74
6976 F20101118_AACQSA sink_a_Page_083thm.jpg
a2dbee5fa2352381f460f6968b2c9dbc
bfb36118607dbc5f8001b937113f4fe5950b16a7
24145 F20101118_AACQRM sink_a_Page_071.QC.jpg
c98feb97e2bf2afdc06831d2d1a79655
009a1dfd3bf94fb317e59748a8c11ce450e56044
24048 F20101118_AACQQX sink_a_Page_058.QC.jpg
4b5aa29aa60a5fc277045bf21b54cf0d
02131e03ff323d0f99f848e07eabb04c95fdf5f4
24749 F20101118_AACQSB sink_a_Page_084.QC.jpg
b4abf879d50f3dfb365ecf75d8eaa77e
82a48cb63bf43faafa8676f8a798d371ecf06a22
6729 F20101118_AACQRN sink_a_Page_071thm.jpg
fcedd49ba0f1f4a474db1ab873db764b
5a5c159811ef18bcb15f34415e6141e1df1bbbfe
6713 F20101118_AACQQY sink_a_Page_058thm.jpg
6256b1a34a43f5ceee89139bd3a35752
430980841eb6281adab1b51e6e189b7d7e9e297c
6895 F20101118_AACQSC sink_a_Page_086thm.jpg
1fd24f34749d151a30f5b1ea521fa33e
cb70596f6b392ae7b9848441b8ca10533cde4056
22921 F20101118_AACQQZ sink_a_Page_059.QC.jpg
8fd912d71bbfa0f684d6afce5a3a3406
ef335f779a4d2afa27788095a459284bd2ca7a81
25509 F20101118_AACQSD sink_a_Page_087.QC.jpg
5a2124f12b5fe0bd88864def2ee25fb2
5861e7c9999ce1042a51dbdcbc1f90fd6593d711
6875 F20101118_AACQRO sink_a_Page_072thm.jpg
8a43f03cdcef2db892121e0191552d07
d0a9cd4ab6f531f67780c3ed30bacffbcb923951
F20101118_AACQSE sink_a_Page_087thm.jpg
fc2c84214ef40b7f247a9cc72108d26b
0385e8b528f3e4b74d2ed30f895b6d23389730e3
25535 F20101118_AACQRP sink_a_Page_073.QC.jpg
f2a2c32277ce66a8e47b9562fc4c481b
be2cce16fed2c76bdd03833f94a1655ab39381d8
6355 F20101118_AACQSF sink_a_Page_088thm.jpg
9574ed71305508a632607e46b3866d5e
6bc9d712246921f13d97b702a437037a499da8b9
6871 F20101118_AACQRQ sink_a_Page_073thm.jpg
03a2b44897fb5a45715087cecc5d522c
e2b10bfef0078a72b0102e5208ba3ac260c3ea99
1256 F20101118_AACQSG sink_a_Page_089thm.jpg
f125ecf2f27bc1a21495e5ef315690f7
9e3622e107a8696bbb63f002cbe88c0900eb423a
24911 F20101118_AACQRR sink_a_Page_074.QC.jpg
3ca8b16859bea98516b9d8d75c75e1c9
cb46af8067e83a6a5b66be1d8d16054caeeb1e95
7293 F20101118_AACQSH sink_a_Page_091thm.jpg
f9d156018135e81bfa8ce4b5cb12ef09
eb409573705265d3aea5465abeeb5dfab6b995a1
6575 F20101118_AACQRS sink_a_Page_074thm.jpg
83ade47ae0c6a61468f81772ae14766b
d13913184388b58b2130c3d645d1736b8d92f7c1
25030 F20101118_AACQSI sink_a_Page_092.QC.jpg
b019c41f317cd95e5b7d05573e756314
86e758ca02901481e51db76863df70d3cae36279
22100 F20101118_AACQRT sink_a_Page_075.QC.jpg
c3553f00fba089d30d313e12dd061fb9
cfd66fee62c2a0d5437ce96496170f0bd6530b3f
19514 F20101118_AACQRU sink_a_Page_077.QC.jpg
4e5c1a6aaacde314120f93e3dfc26eb3
780090330c8505c2e39918244428fefa9e478514
6809 F20101118_AACQSJ sink_a_Page_092thm.jpg
c901f9a7d94e5016988422cc666d654d
1dc46bd1014b66951cf8ae268b0100eebfb6cb0c
5763 F20101118_AACQRV sink_a_Page_077thm.jpg
f5786af662b5d9768f7bf331b3c019e9
3f0564290299b361d4d97e77fb0ded44e7f39f3d
22599 F20101118_AACQSK sink_a_Page_093.QC.jpg
c8ede4f63405bb0cbeec0dbb7153b7f2
4f86ea9c093235c6f56e4dc6894be46092f2db40
15210 F20101118_AACQRW sink_a_Page_078.QC.jpg
a6de055c065be14be0095e66e5edfede
78c80fff6e658f08298c94a1adee67496717549e
6298 F20101118_AACQSL sink_a_Page_093thm.jpg
b2cd9094172bb4c02f2ddf621e50adb6
0a9db095ff1d79d7c75cc5b0584a2e1c23ce7ee2
6513 F20101118_AACQRX sink_a_Page_080thm.jpg
38a8dc2f3f6a7f38a711458c1f6ebf9a
e418322ff1fd9a3ec55525a312402d7c3a008658
24547 F20101118_AACQSM sink_a_Page_094.QC.jpg
584d629d50eb0e5e3ee785b11e7ea865
97806b9887d1ff12d5ac210f90e2c0b4ef395114
24371 F20101118_AACQRY sink_a_Page_082.QC.jpg
c6773148a669461ad2638d77f4bed783
60302a54a6b4de551c8467b71aa96eb1117812ad
26626 F20101118_AACQSN sink_a_Page_095.QC.jpg
496c4edfe06896a1a0eef15ab8c1c72e
753f55ddb9e71127ac2eb00227a7034d913a1a21
6615 F20101118_AACQRZ sink_a_Page_082thm.jpg
67efe1dd9cf0fc6e5ae6530561ac442c
bbca908459710536295c3f15f32d3ef727b7c6b5
6344 F20101118_AACPQA sink_a_Page_070thm.jpg
a42706fe160a1c6338350583ea781430
6353f89f95730295ac33ef99f04309e6a582649f
7228 F20101118_AACQSO sink_a_Page_095thm.jpg
f4b9eb2bf2d0435d112b3fd4536389d0
abe652a1ae3e3df3e5d1dd7041f21017619ec930
55229 F20101118_AACPQB sink_a_Page_058.pro
4c529820b1a5768550eb5f353a6e7303
b5b773dfb69e4cfab47dd7babbf29f27e81c14ce
116118 F20101118_AACPQC sink_a_Page_066.jp2
7d9e9e7d2b96133c7b87b17dd879b662
54a5389c4bc8f249a3201ad33c04567c604a6989
6663 F20101118_AACQSP sink_a_Page_096thm.jpg
1ffee0faa9e7c72d6b889e530fb5c7f6
7d2d2233defe4af40fe74040350f20a9d156b952
F20101118_AACPQD sink_a_Page_027.tif
21c2d050e2f7d690dfba5cbeae7093cc
8c996403b9a9b46a3ab43fab83782af4987c54b4
21802 F20101118_AACQSQ sink_a_Page_097.QC.jpg
6d50bc4303abd89b9caed6681538d666
004dfbd40c86d460134c799eda9f9c9774980910
57447 F20101118_AACPQE sink_a_Page_018.pro
55414258ea73f564693e6d216ca7cc2f
43470e403841dd9a451e7e8a5933254293a7d5b8
6401 F20101118_AACQSR sink_a_Page_097thm.jpg
7a51add9eedac9ab0b335f0034608611
f7df5466d060cd608ca6bd553696a143ac7a83ce
F20101118_AACPQF sink_a_Page_102.tif
807106569137cc97a6153f521bbc5739
f477ccc12f80a284ce626ea0bcd1476e159fd15b
21461 F20101118_AACQSS sink_a_Page_098.QC.jpg
b96ab4b5daa0a52ca42dd7faf398018b
b0a433bbac4be13c3d83d7c771096172965d842e
109328 F20101118_AACPQG sink_a_Page_047.jp2
66b2f7f93b018d6e5410c9f4d1b149b8
2d665a578c7277bba9e8ccc0edd96dbee43bdd89
6054 F20101118_AACQST sink_a_Page_098thm.jpg
6306ca19fac72f4218cced40579d1dcb
546e58bd7f291e09cc36c0ebb8ecb634eb31a2c8
2805 F20101118_AACPQH sink_a_Page_101.txt
e7730cf40089653c8d3b469fcdaa99dc
561dcea80bc6d7149c1e963ef3613ee31eaa6a03
23669 F20101118_AACQSU sink_a_Page_099.QC.jpg
44bf62f2db9caff21eb8d5e7fff0828e
345344e4d99f41da82f96b02e02ae83dedf590b3
13191 F20101118_AACPQI sink_a_Page_013.jpg
ac2fd45324eb972fa95f282b8c30b785
8491df9af2c24285f982986893ae3b25b22c97eb
25605 F20101118_AACQSV sink_a_Page_100.QC.jpg
41be0ea0c55dd22b4801a91969efe967
ed80b49263f0f11f51bc8e17465582871b638f74
2055 F20101118_AACPQJ sink_a_Page_029.txt
7d0c46052eb89d6fba5247eb125a5529
2a8758ccf89314ff1fcf7a48938ff7693cef72cf
6869 F20101118_AACQSW sink_a_Page_100thm.jpg
49da9849dd8c24a171f2dae58986b535
c4737e9c5a079ee9e938eccdd717e358b783672d
53592 F20101118_AACPQK sink_a_Page_040.pro
4d82f1d8b6a826dfa8da230d0a226fd6
da3de90fe6c6ab34bed61a860b91311afffcc501
7291 F20101118_AACQSX sink_a_Page_102thm.jpg
80fe8d82d9489f658bbc9f656d546c1c
8d0d5b69334c459d0dff750bf1970de7fc2d8f0c
3492 F20101118_AACPQL sink_a_Page_089.jp2
e8f089efd058e3aa96c0100ae21769a0
75ebbfd825f0474074913f2a1a54397a13d2bc9e
7502 F20101118_AACQSY sink_a_Page_103thm.jpg
f72d8a022e9b1c5890f386f667cb8b5d
1e7057aa6b6c7884d692d0a93ad1e0deaca737a8
2068 F20101118_AACPRA sink_a_Page_044.txt
cff810451ed0f2b49658aa1336c07b1d
4cca7bb44c0ee4ac06b5228323938b97e1caafdf
6554 F20101118_AACPQM sink_a_Page_036thm.jpg
5027a857b01d52f4d4a5af530e1c2fa6
7bef1e160147a09369cb7084a58a84a20b373156
7133 F20101118_AACQSZ sink_a_Page_104thm.jpg
2ec03b390025be165ca819b1406cda04
aea6230ed844fccc4f833c5c8138546c4093b09a
109396 F20101118_AACPRB sink_a_Page_011.jp2
55ea661df183e4cb10e200f70af2bf63
c819754a7410dff5361f605611156af850e0a15e
25151 F20101118_AACPQN sink_a_Page_062.QC.jpg
ddefc137976938ff0d4e994780a4660e
8e28538a89a46c422fb2a5af9fee433a04f46722
11434 F20101118_AACPRC sink_a_Page_013.jp2
6ca29e793e5d7ef62c4c38042465414a
41ff675072d66f1609c8b0d3004db18bb8ad850b
F20101118_AACPRD sink_a_Page_026.tif
badc6963170957864f33098aa8947458
dd10bc28fd18d1ad61fe73ce50d89443a27fffe5
122637 F20101118_AACPQO sink_a_Page_083.jp2
fa2dda77614717f2d4e6ad85f07484e0
301c3ce01a8e3d3690892b055320db0fd7e88482
F20101118_AACPRE sink_a_Page_065.tif
db365955ec208fb620b6fe0300a74cc3
616aa51f5e455d84f8a5f1d0049a2bd9cb89debc
5981 F20101118_AACPQP sink_a_Page_054thm.jpg
4631824f16da403b18d3fcfd09a9eaf7
32ecab600e2d81c2d0d9de3c8a1a24432af36141
49647 F20101118_AACPRF sink_a_Page_081.pro
1492a8fa345e9728abcb14927b853e77
cac2815dc192a7784e938f8dc938cd3964a3e149
24764 F20101118_AACPQQ sink_a_Page_033.QC.jpg
003c637adf7610e9b7a6cc782b5058a1
7728b99d9749cfca6d191704a19bcce39063930d
F20101118_AACPRG sink_a_Page_079.tif
a7047c2a2b91574e9ecd831799e36c04
6297539d1d19905798758c86c9e15bf5b1efae4f
113 F20101118_AACPQR sink_a_Page_002.txt
36ece203762e2aafb09272de8bc0dcd0
fda101710811d957dc58bc9cbac562ddddaae791
59379 F20101118_AACPRH sink_a_Page_062.pro
f05efad5c0da44eb50227cf846b2ff88
a37b61945e311d54cfc14917b79205c45a85d7d4
F20101118_AACPQS sink_a_Page_008.tif
f50f5734008b96e3bef1a8f4aa1b921d
6b68c86e20a398f7b8c8b5149634cadbaec9274d
1051947 F20101118_AACPRI sink_a_Page_030.jp2
6057d18d001ddac4b6d0c3a067cb0035
54e98cd32b2929ae680508399ba7ba99c89df412
F20101118_AACPQT sink_a_Page_075.tif
7f32c9e6e84284071dbf80c31cf6483c
6ed4994aff705af26ef7a3fcf8e052801fc5523b
372859 F20101118_AACPRJ sink_a_Page_007.jp2
1329f53a86e42cfeba56ec40223a0ce6
ad8c46002a136ae276fd1d731372fcf335b5af76
6156 F20101118_AACPQU sink_a_Page_024thm.jpg
f180b9e50d6f8d2ffe301033a97b3f0c
1f63c496de5b30af49e31acbc6ab6169112a6411
2030 F20101118_AACPRK sink_a_Page_068.txt
3071a6cd82061ea041037f8fdaf24a79
2348243fd4af74f0cd9bfc553ee520d5d2260969
76469 F20101118_AACPQV sink_a_Page_046.jpg
aca768ee5aace39792395be0b540809d
df50f6b59cd15e7930b00d3d01f62237d738b73e
65253 F20101118_AACPRL sink_a_Page_054.jpg
1534383eac764f64fc35a6281b8d726c
22cc40d596ced6138940aca715b420e7bed9a228
77104 F20101118_AACPQW sink_a_Page_084.jpg
1eae602dc73b6f21a36b1e6f21988c8b
901fcb138367daf136bec53900d591e303d2b2f0
F20101118_AACPRM sink_a_Page_084.tif
bf54371ffae851b2c2474173f6ab0163
b3816f609c645a3877d8ca25902b15ba923de04d
25747 F20101118_AACPQX sink_a_Page_012.QC.jpg
191255bdd4a0e08aec73e03ab03b4a67
0ebca9e3768b6449d0fba8c261b02597644aa63e
27368 F20101118_AACPSA sink_a_Page_103.QC.jpg
94ac04e046da2649ee4bad14e908acf3
68f04db804f180b6a820f57a8bdcc5495c248851
5669 F20101118_AACPRN sink_a_Page_090thm.jpg
374f9cb549aaac703c8679124ea9695c
5abdc1ba927b6526ee3d0a379ece1ef010e6432c
86966 F20101118_AACPQY sink_a_Page_027.jpg
b39fb41f288c6782fe4b1476ac28b338
fbac35fcaba2eeb2652ffc39ca9038cb0f78e452
2248 F20101118_AACPSB sink_a_Page_094.txt
76de8089d916197f360e8fa2401fae32
0dfd0bcf90bef9cb71740083a717accfb660fb05
1694 F20101118_AACPRO sink_a_Page_056.txt
186c8c90c75d049fff94e5b4e923e548
38cc29ff75c7595471ff947eeb933056ab159f09
2325 F20101118_AACPQZ sink_a_Page_083.txt
7c3c02c4ceeaeac3131d3c2a64eec7f1
1868f7fdb1b0bd7c785eea68aeb4ed4b16f971ee
1691 F20101118_AACPSC sink_a_Page_008.txt
385a09461f4ae2f9c8cc61e825ad7cf4
bb234a331141edd96bc712b0c0b1e82402f8cfcd
25445 F20101118_AACPSD sink_a_Page_060.QC.jpg
20791b2800b9e1873f1bf5a1afa2bd7f
ee493e449c96bd1c63fcb25a18303d6463d501ad
52797 F20101118_AACPRP sink_a_Page_042.pro
2acc5680c8893b453328206e390ea200
7860ad80bc23ee5455c302f26d1dd3ee55e60fca
22958 F20101118_AACPSE sink_a_Page_036.QC.jpg
14a68d96db110c48ae16142129809ddb
c7488b4dc656d7061a05b8b359ec1db6589b618a
1947 F20101118_AACPRQ sink_a_Page_093.txt
2b8b4623fe58ac39cea1bc90268ed1a2
d2914acbb2a2b5698ce2149867ff3dbe3b6ed381
27815 F20101118_AACPSF sink_a_Page_001.jp2
8cddcc2b966466280a2396ecb64ba2e6
0b928638bfc10b47d9f58548073b3a8d25a20baa
66670 F20101118_AACPRR sink_a_Page_075.jpg
9add3537b38dea08e2d61b21d83b0b99
e8ddc94ec500f95291aedb332038c14c118d44c0
21653 F20101118_AACPSG sink_a_Page_039.QC.jpg
06af8c976a47915b52ea1d3b18298ecb
ff00f5a0a0eaf7e692e41b7876007ce5e983088f
9712 F20101118_AACPRS sink_a_Page_001.pro
9de17f2c7306ad28425cde8add4423bb
375e4d605f43c3d9cfcf4b94ad467157d70624d6
110158 F20101118_AACPSH sink_a_Page_096.jp2
eba1810395ba46b3adac43c74ed5b00f
00e752ea4d70d17a2b2efa0c9bc2afa70cdf08c2
10224 F20101118_AACPRT sink_a_Page_003.pro
ec0e973043025a527d9be12dbe33d222
3835e684bdc43b8623b61f5dd0f3341236b36e6c
25978 F20101118_AACPSI sink_a_Page_053.QC.jpg
fd355f6a47e24e725cc31ad818e14c20
1b78ca58d55fdee5f219fd9bdca4780fc6e95221
51619 F20101118_AACPRU sink_a_Page_011.pro
a17d0e68d659e6b2958ac6bbe9ec4c95
2c5b0ab0f8d414f478e0a6db79017a0850016bd6
2134 F20101118_AACPSJ sink_a_Page_040.txt
5673d7749c9cd3d272f03beab75a7692
ebe49069db4d13739b9cb60eba4f771726109a7d
F20101118_AACPRV sink_a_Page_074.tif
fd6a0992f1c5521fc7fbb0260c07c5f8
cc6d794e316c08340c6e2993c245c65bb90d2c25
706 F20101118_AACPSK sink_a_Page_078.txt
9c37a2290e78b2b859b9ca25c6f8897d
d9480ed53a7415687cdbad494d9dfbf6a4d6c2c1
93258 F20101118_AACPSL sink_a_Page_105.jpg
a1b5ca3bb6304f48b9b27cd6f363b4a3
bae5369ba481cf6688a50054485085dc0498f1d7
F20101118_AACPRW sink_a_Page_076.tif
6a6d99f457d3b28c1bdb3f8297faaabe
3cada8e9bce4da79696e7b2ec16fe6614df2edb5
F20101118_AACPTA sink_a_Page_040.tif
60c63a7c981a396ab124b02a2b352cec
aadaf9c943dd867115103cc2b8c1f408e897ef42
82040 F20101118_AACPSM sink_a_Page_032.jpg
8b66012720cfdb3d2c09e5bd6abd37fe
1c5257dcfc7bea93aa02ef07fc47e0888a349b02
21884 F20101118_AACPRX sink_a_Page_024.QC.jpg
af60bb7dc4c5d9cecd971ecde9fa7ada
1e36bb8dd4cc16702c2c6cf5ed7fc0258ee208dd
9950 F20101118_AACPTB sink_a_Page_006.QC.jpg
6616d5f4857b4c41cf06402a9b6d5b7a
eaa5c2c1bb8dc69a5acde7f9a8f7f4260f1d8f67
54734 F20101118_AACPSN sink_a_Page_065.pro
17e9fca2cf44e54c5c35ee4897cb0d1b
4791f0873e0e65493c0dc6c39e6723162116cc58
F20101118_AACPRY sink_a_Page_061.tif
1dc13adfd3b858e6b1f34b4d6b39eb77
2cd02f4a0ee3fdc5b6ccfd47132144237da28c9c
1972 F20101118_AACPTC sink_a_Page_036.txt
e31107190143481ac736700cf2d43c8b
05c6c6f8d8ecdc0f6b194c333b001fe72ee92a83
9381 F20101118_AACPSO sink_a_Page_004.QC.jpg
0b60ac39297af1f02276e1053aee0a9a
cf3e3ce9e9b0f4671bc60f8439ddf37603cb5985
25070 F20101118_AACPRZ sink_a_Page_086.QC.jpg
4a9346d84c5110b7dcf508f17ce08851
240f76c0a41d6512f86b05c0d2f06945c6d1d0ff
F20101118_AACPTD sink_a_Page_103.tif
2b07b636a69e6294a01af0111f6e8e7c
f815ff55ddff8c37f056c5f94396f619ea5d9d59
9509 F20101118_AACPSP sink_a_Page_107.QC.jpg
5f6279e9ecd0f7a5cb4c23394b887d33
2eef06d4a6362eb4fa87eadca874fc2d04286cca
82146 F20101118_AACPTE sink_a_Page_070.jpg
c7902c8f2e6a602f3089189d6c4a2c2c
bc5148ca028b713d00eef8c50b8341e97a2f8f95
103589 F20101118_AACPTF sink_a_Page_016.jp2
9eb299ea9d6cb7a76c7ca94c74c084c4
a1196950c58e15673273c63d8d98c5880834eb8f
86503 F20101118_AACPSQ sink_a_Page_026.jpg
006468ab086aa4a72abfb058f468e324
f540c7d333fdb85ddf9ff2655aa4b3b40081a439
63021 F20101118_AACPTG sink_a_Page_056.jpg
8efcdd4f3d1ddc3638cecee25593938f
0ec78c00b49932bba95909839fc444dadf487902
6764 F20101118_AACPSR sink_a_Page_062thm.jpg
3ed4cab29d3072757a236941dca6edb1
bc50fd2be8e7033bc86cfb87831403fb126afe03
1973 F20101118_AACPTH sink_a_Page_021.txt
09b3ba0937a9385ff68ef44dc8764b57
6c32223d714c96afaec6c673191b83648b643248
67992 F20101118_AACPSS sink_a_Page_057.jpg
7c5baaf9c4c3c244e3d1614c5c88486c
b7b7117d47e2b45b384222a7ac9099ff563ffbcc
2370 F20101118_AACPTI sink_a_Page_062.txt
20ceadab49f4dba920d166d93746a572
4e20f8565b8d8b81f78adc87c828f36f3b4e5038
6262 F20101118_AACPST sink_a_Page_016thm.jpg
e9faa6bb443f9e61ee83a8189703d20c
9ce8550fcdb14f6c50bb5c8c0e9d6f3ab7a6870b
F20101118_AACPTJ sink_a_Page_025.tif
9eec5e3591d550c6530d02dea90e74be
22ab5f97f604e06b96c7668d057bd4aa86f2ab28
46021 F20101118_AACPSU sink_a_Page_106.jpg
5997beac52b866310a8e795bcc8b9da9
d22ff3c0bdd58256b3a70018b00c386003046467
41512 F20101118_AACPTK sink_a_Page_090.pro
eeb71608c8e2d39173cd8734e718963e
da523971cc0deaba77a2b0574a39e951fa8e2043
67292 F20101118_AACPSV sink_a_Page_048.jpg
11f48c389c6c4e35cd5cef2e58e1b088
f65f3ac50750bd938acde26c84bb85541ee9a7f6
7028 F20101118_AACPTL sink_a_Page_026thm.jpg
44c8a6cc77e50db92928398e4604f46e
a4069e69eb7d7f696be0a70c38e18b0bb4a9a169
103487 F20101118_AACPSW sink_a_Page_097.jp2
514cd8e447c0b17c3d136d4f534acd4c
1e94cbc37da9a0ccbe3ffa6a61738546b20103a3
46323 F20101118_AACPTM sink_a_Page_024.pro
2d7ccc29b012ebd167f8e1a7ae38ac8a
19b5707910f549c3a9e34201c2205f808ab56d84
F20101118_AACPSX sink_a_Page_069.tif
c2ec300645880cdc7c1d4b0dcd79e866
99010c5a631c5ade11b593769e1a6f2598d9fba9
69460 F20101118_AACPUA sink_a_Page_039.jpg
4407a2feb46f6927048844b4632e53f3
e9c2ae0af3ed169451eed50c75fce4da536ce1e4
6649 F20101118_AACPTN sink_a_Page_046thm.jpg
43eed7b1140903582e988d62f2ca3c6c
93778ce227b313df7115fb4cc14ee067c391a118
6823 F20101118_AACPSY sink_a_Page_023thm.jpg
4703d8855c0d511f1ea3e5e238535003
759a9af54fcc467924e5908a937206e37e46b8db
F20101118_AACPUB sink_a_Page_046.tif
52a3a598a4f5f8a3753d74c7e2964d92
c5f4589720a5cb88f7a554637600241545e7b2ea
1025673 F20101118_AACPTO sink_a_Page_057.jp2
0b387ec45a48ff06577090be314ca95d
98669d9e86c4c033df3009f3eb911fe8c0f95f34
6646 F20101118_AACPSZ sink_a_Page_084thm.jpg
e6e27bfa9415ce8ff1de0fabef1798c7
5cfa44860803d00f8d5e87e80e3ff10c35dd18e1
F20101118_AACPUC sink_a_Page_087.tif
60abe0e2e1138fe15b1eb3ef47bf5415
d3de91a826958d6ceea55afacdeb7fe3407e6181
116018 F20101118_AACPTP sink_a_Page_065.jp2
f36b53473655243a17003ba770703b2b
094e818da5f1757ee680771546d111c5e07765b0
77068 F20101118_AACPUD sink_a_Page_065.jpg
09356e75d33b7c4f34b2abb351e4c02e
54271d7e3a5cf453675b70286ea2b7846c6e6c11
47347 F20101118_AACPTQ sink_a_Page_088.pro
d135712ba3a1d7c07f9a5713aa821d31
52d5f1d0a5e523c78fb4565f6fa7aaf20d902b84
F20101118_AACPUE sink_a_Page_098.tif
532a8eb58626a74ec0545c930b7b15c7
b432c5f330a54e336865c4b778d991fce7909756
1009654 F20101118_AACPUF sink_a_Page_019.jp2
821ad151e6cb6af38fc01cb2433f0f08
b16354b5ea9cb4e3be3187ee5402a4a6b3e1ce8f
1051983 F20101118_AACPTR sink_a_Page_102.jp2
e16f5a509d8a4fb881402b75d3b3ce43
915765728b0cb4cb7f301c52e7a5d1f613a84c21
79878 F20101118_AACQAA sink_a_Page_082.jpg
b546aa891f3dfea6b09df4695bee27c3
3dbc96dd5c046506960a76b436537297625ccde0
69695 F20101118_AACPUG sink_a_Page_101.pro
e4a1648798459b585710ae4f5058fb46
59153e4d2039a36b5fddfd9530008782ac0f4c9c
49426 F20101118_AACPTS sink_a_Page_035.pro
463525e96fc8fad565ed5352c33c4e76
e688b8ed2714035aeafe12390f55d50c2f0d73cb
81239 F20101118_AACQAB sink_a_Page_083.jpg
b0681f5f0c9194063960f482f904db26
4f21f3db14985633939e8fc9f87bf39c18330fa1
F20101118_AACPUH sink_a_Page_096.tif
514d6d98620b640d22a0e16e9db2104f
de8cd4b4a004954a98ef09b72557f3ca74d0c4fb
F20101118_AACPTT sink_a_Page_094.tif
c519e8a45f0bfadf7d53e8f42b6112f6
08a58be0231e3606793d95c2282edf14dad2f718
82811 F20101118_AACQAC sink_a_Page_085.jpg
7d4782b9dd226b895e3cc768395c3114
93cf1830cec9040cdee5244f489429844138fac0
F20101118_AACPUI sink_a_Page_062.tif
339b0bd6298fb564c1b4d3e6c5baa6d9
0661397c90da275566ed202df26cc69e76d8de27
1051961 F20101118_AACPTU sink_a_Page_028.jp2
8d1077ff222585fc22f7adf260d613dd
c2a42b215f71f700a914ef2a532654c0ded29106
78517 F20101118_AACQAD sink_a_Page_086.jpg
07c9ce22e5dae614541be686a278686f
c7c4614901ce8b10d35df10121971aa629c19223
12336 F20101118_AACPUJ sink_a_Page_106.QC.jpg
12bb5ecba15e9d94e438a8cfde2bd348
11b15df3722745117cc108cc9874a7919585e5d2
52810 F20101118_AACPTV sink_a_Page_022.pro
c6e74c852564521e18794235a6c4b184
6b11415815be346be9cd34cef5e97b2e3dbdc86b
66899 F20101118_AACQAE sink_a_Page_088.jpg
dbf20976b5cb173064ed2cd12eca681e
0dab6009e730a07d6cb1b3461bd128d6b5fd55e5
1969 F20101118_AACPUK sink_a_Page_016.txt
52e41c2c0d5445f71f6e4dc66f7b0a98
577669c25c4ae0f706137f4048112dbad4b3e724
71381 F20101118_AACPTW sink_a_Page_019.jpg
597fd0dd0527debf1abb324fa56d020c
961d592cc2dad4c2427b7bea6c4cc2fab72966d4
8966 F20101118_AACQAF sink_a_Page_089.jpg
4cbc38faf3ce22d6dc91e7ddfa4ea293
a1addc3ddf7c330c201ca5a39507aa79822ddda9
46938 F20101118_AACPUL sink_a_Page_049.pro
065e5bcde84439b64b29bdcfa2c770f6
a166cb62e32403d88eaac4889c5f395e442f0f64
121838 F20101118_AACPTX sink_a_Page_053.jp2
9470d5f152bd6b8e7c18c62e027b3006
9bb039ec9e0f97532b7b1dde4cfe7d1bd65759bf
61473 F20101118_AACQAG sink_a_Page_090.jpg
b20920673049d4e3cce743c5ae15d0c3
d33fba4fb539fe48e117e7d40f4596c2e49f072c
1010216 F20101118_AACPVA sink_a_Page_024.jp2
bed64cb2aeb6e9f31c88ab55a0909d7c
14c5d304e2aad7fdf45c09a5ba7b4cfa2b90f1d4
F20101118_AACPUM sink_a_Page_045.tif
c012ff66d797c4f56d04225d27704efb
f64c529a37cf2340fa46f0534361ae76af31ec82
63171 F20101118_AACPTY sink_a_Page_095.pro
d5df497692aa22253c6e3d46ff278ec4
a9dfb1930e3e6cae9ab726e99c9b5594f8f0b64b
88068 F20101118_AACQAH sink_a_Page_091.jpg
97e27c0eb6461c2bfd55472d3f24921c
34720f12d0eba390bc709889baf05a79b0e1ae6e
24566 F20101118_AACPVB sink_a_Page_030.QC.jpg
5b5654f82ea5a9636c4d6d31605c2390
b49dbec51d1f7b36e4df247cafa5fe4ac909bc16
1787 F20101118_AACPUN sink_a_Page_009.txt
7170f21f4885df42ed01b2190fd11617
5dc6b0a7d7991ee5e9038405d9534244f06ced45
5466 F20101118_AACPTZ sink_a_Page_049thm.jpg
b4229bda3661342f0267e5c8203f5d41
db1864b7564210e5450ed162479b4cadafd9ba35
69910 F20101118_AACQAI sink_a_Page_093.jpg
b81ed1e410725f52f784b01cb58531e5
231089f3be458be1fc57d6f60cf3ab42c0427c6f
56471 F20101118_AACPVC sink_a_Page_094.pro
6c2ad20ca8e719440a14eb6ffc0828a6
2b22cd01fb8b49138958d2d582889c1e950be314
1051985 F20101118_AACPUO sink_a_Page_005.jp2
b89f7ef29a3ed6342c8bfbf2d62a7e8a
29f4c29a149c8237c77dc92fb2e58306181e1132
91228 F20101118_AACQAJ sink_a_Page_095.jpg
78b85902237dacee213d0c056a77d014
d3aa09fa151a4ce944d2571c8ad9659eebe52651
2857 F20101118_AACPVD sink_a_Page_089.QC.jpg
6b8e6ea19b158122de6d814f3bc30fc7
939908819c46ee356dfde906e25cb47accdf3436
62872 F20101118_AACPUP sink_a_Page_027.pro
bce6df2cf98ca092f344b795540f59f3
f71919d8dfba07b5045acc2c33f0a6bb123d763b
72447 F20101118_AACQAK sink_a_Page_096.jpg
248746bb4457c9d33b6e40696a97a0f0
c990141f1fe8d3b30080f3e43ad19d01cbec87a5
1823 F20101118_AACPVE sink_a_Page_019.txt
d7892e0c83dc0675ee4b77fd9da04ed2
fae93d57c4e40f1fc432ca11fc2b40c60e553e35
70062 F20101118_AACPUQ sink_a_Page_021.jpg
033e5ca8bc551846decec879077c3baf
1d6029b6fff3614cd0683f04115e114024ca0fbc
67269 F20101118_AACQAL sink_a_Page_097.jpg
47346c83acb621f3a9fcbdea59d54258
5d029cb0b86b30870886040af20d6e3f61e975bd
22081 F20101118_AACPVF sink_a_Page_020.QC.jpg
0c12bd20c2248e9b2d00f15f021c8100
b2aefec43daa0335a38f9c20afe1848d0c8f8148
16750 F20101118_AACPUR sink_a_Page_078.pro
b19d0edf3f6e448fca8b0c5af6268d52
c90747135bb5bb26158d544aec3d3bb2f55c4307
65843 F20101118_AACQAM sink_a_Page_098.jpg
b6dd4280097dc6e93c34f8d4a2726abc
0e8b5ddb29bd5af77b24674f212159c0470ad7ce
84282 F20101118_AACPVG sink_a_Page_030.jpg
0402c0c19f9d7ec62840d752c1fa9e20
3eab4f8e626455e7a5cd95d30413144dd084b263
92700 F20101118_AACQBA sink_a_Page_010.jp2
761afb82215ece1cf09b6d0792a2e273
8b27fd15ec5b6d17cfc7b72c3e786fe8dd4c8f8f
85232 F20101118_AACQAN sink_a_Page_099.jpg
2ec02a8ba27ce7e3e09025dbd4a1d2d7
1aa574d5d729ae79d3e1a1a6f2f50a6d331d274f
1051965 F20101118_AACPVH sink_a_Page_012.jp2
e01c11a710acb185339134f008c62525
d9654b866855c29f028659f0c84b5e48596b9d11
90969 F20101118_AACPUS sink_a_Page_090.jp2
d80337029f63b78882ed2b256a3c043d
2502d734a7ebeb362b32fb92988d812b2e0de380
81613 F20101118_AACQBB sink_a_Page_014.jp2
94cf05ee00e253a23d85f5d0bff1b7fc
c9dacbe785340ea6238186dd30dcf129cd76763f
92468 F20101118_AACQAO sink_a_Page_100.jpg
465d24d261cb4226509fc4b60907129c
fe03826c5a73be183d20e7fc06c39800f012bb1c
12779 F20101118_AACPVI sink_a_Page_007.pro
e338510383faddfd03f84a17fad32244
d302f2238461ebfa92b6c076eb8e489ce6d396e5
F20101118_AACPUT sink_a_Page_023.tif
3b21047939298097e50e10fb8470acaf
ce2ce7c761574e6268d5d9181bf30682197317a7
108184 F20101118_AACQBC sink_a_Page_015.jp2
520cb89f5ba6d9899b718ec1628a3d20
4dff97fe4b1c4603cc290375b27ef73754f04537
107768 F20101118_AACQAP sink_a_Page_101.jpg
97e85e8a0d8456d5dfc9b9e4e97d1308
3c568377b9f0b5ee7d5e1fe22c5e91f2ffd8650a
16457 F20101118_AACPVJ sink_a_Page_079.QC.jpg
1107438fca1d24bd3ad10ef83d3fe515
b4c92c53407d0a3e4d4f090bcc3bd5cb7d8453e7
4987 F20101118_AACPUU sink_a_Page_079thm.jpg
c01c4fe056d56b94785fc06a724a8220
8609d65c98cf0ad36d0fa11587aca06ba596a7a2
1051915 F20101118_AACQBD sink_a_Page_018.jp2
2c7fdb661b90bc48e9586ad4dca1ace2
66823bcfbeefea010227f85e5ce8abad0a79f733
99740 F20101118_AACQAQ sink_a_Page_102.jpg
fe669134ed257b87dc45f06e7fce4ac9
bf45d791c61f0168ee6c4c66dd73544cd926b573
1979 F20101118_AACPVK sink_a_Page_067.txt
2be252471313cf800119aa82c2669723
9aa65b9fc9a479be1e2d77886b485a292ddf67e9
81034 F20101118_AACPUV sink_a_Page_040.jpg
b0cf4f40f7a6b0dd1f6619ccd480acef
e7576702b72b9ce0d080c9e749858623c33ea07e
1021899 F20101118_AACQBE sink_a_Page_020.jp2
daaf3aa14dd87f18ee674c3978794ce0
7b03a811dd7edaeac384d743991a14450cf1f73c
101096 F20101118_AACQAR sink_a_Page_103.jpg
a760e1cd8b18978782fb3f4471a8fd61
3a4e9eb84dc3a1f65f8f06553bc336985e384b62
F20101118_AACPVL sink_a_Page_009.tif
b213b164b0d16d2932aebad9c1def5f9
3cb910028dc4824e4059e9cee9c60b50409061a6
26337 F20101118_AACPUW sink_a_Page_079.pro
3847ef710f1620e01bd3700c8e1f274a
1fe576446fe2074021dd00deb48adbe9a4d5b9a2
105549 F20101118_AACQBF sink_a_Page_021.jp2
37ce7bd11931465efa9a10a9b2abe1b3
9926025aea3967e3bfe59d069f957a6bd5323e3c
40946 F20101118_AACPWA sink_a_Page_077.pro
c42622179eb610ebcf54dbe916362d27
ef51d85bbb5bcb778c87af32a86cc907076a180f
97312 F20101118_AACQAS sink_a_Page_104.jpg
387e0083e474ccfddb7615014f47514f
22bb106258b66c8e7eefada9507ea6a12be12df2
201 F20101118_AACPVM sink_a_Page_013.txt
6f627def8c0de0345a99e6e2cf756fc7
d43fbfef509f5948bee53367d4aa8024f0ee1c84
2095 F20101118_AACPUX sink_a_Page_022.txt
49d8726f6babef8527952e556de8cb01
18f209dade3c25c542e4deda6f6b2b229bc32695
1051978 F20101118_AACQBG sink_a_Page_022.jp2
1d3b78d85e15003703107ce713c2837c
da2125e3b166243228ca38ad35d00e7852393d5a
F20101118_AACPWB sink_a_Page_014.tif
267202ff3ee73a30cb68b3b2e8492e8b
2b075043e10804f86a528b8eed2cf9726f1cf77b
29227 F20101118_AACQAT sink_a_Page_107.jpg
eb6a77f069492865a9644d5d1f27a227
1cf67dcdea92e32a56e7da02a0d74ac1e12b2d34
1988 F20101118_AACPVN sink_a_Page_059.txt
a0e09bc5df23c30ac0525629b434af08
88fdd270397570f7738d33048e5bf025a090b4c3
73971 F20101118_AACPUY sink_a_Page_042.jpg
e3d197c328fdb3836cff6aff7bebfbaa
49565e0e5d9e72821e10e836faeeb1bc27d1544e
1051973 F20101118_AACQBH sink_a_Page_023.jp2
f2bad6adcb1d3ab3093b223c794eee79
b745c138de592b107090cb0b5a45123fa50b11bc
5256 F20101118_AACPWC sink_a_Page_014thm.jpg
bd7718bae1bceac412dd77b6dca7722d
eb16dfe13682a8e393737d77440cb36fee3a268d
5846 F20101118_AACQAU sink_a_Page_002.jp2
5f7119dfa9df25f4f2227a174fff2051
a4da70d30ac6e7d681c175a0d6227f4e1ab8cdb2
23968 F20101118_AACPVO sink_a_Page_096.QC.jpg
ebbb52b489683287aabf9c4030a76fae
2545314a2305d0866f97cf2ddef9949aa1215bf7
F20101118_AACPUZ sink_a_Page_001.tif
362238b6b16234082913dccb1a224bf5
8c18c38c0445355517752615fbebed2333a8a9f2
1051954 F20101118_AACQBI sink_a_Page_025.jp2
8a69517c32b9efd21bdad63e1ac56a57
f5b03ea72694d3ad72760ce16d2ccb8d2cc5c5b4
109348 F20101118_AACPWD sink_a_Page_017.jp2
7f524928fa135060076910cc0445e8e2
9eb4c11745b05332a73179726004c00ca95727ba
24124 F20101118_AACQAV sink_a_Page_003.jp2
b896d27021af53f0362b9225af30c799
a329778478511321a7c776d0cd0be8a3e60a4098
76568 F20101118_AACPVP sink_a_Page_023.jpg
2f602e56d0036c7e84ba9e0d778fb4dd
674393c5200cbc343189891a990f2cf4f3e79266
1051974 F20101118_AACQBJ sink_a_Page_027.jp2
c0585276c8c41b046623bd420a92442e
39a7c925bb6b4c85c10b704979b85e1494e9812c
70699 F20101118_AACPWE sink_a_Page_020.jpg
9d63636e2050fffa64f12c24961a5f78
37cf945bf12f8f43f1e51842dc7c56f0bd34a075
37119 F20101118_AACQAW sink_a_Page_004.jp2
2c0c209663c932f9eee7896d7e32d19a
d5647e5b7d9ba34d5b35a07fc821d10da3b8d959
20203 F20101118_AACPVQ sink_a_Page_090.QC.jpg
b4a111115764d53f1f0c3ec3ba0125ca
68da6fa78478065e613b171b47b9d0683feb36ef
106998 F20101118_AACQBK sink_a_Page_031.jp2
8caf0672c7b2575ce015f2121b37f1c4
5c68cdba49a2110b539caf2200882691c4d7c4b1
78857 F20101118_AACPWF sink_a_Page_033.jpg
75df64563ed9ab29e7b1907cbc756ae2
8debda780e4fdf78b7514e06287b954a22bf9243
909955 F20101118_AACQAX sink_a_Page_006.jp2
433fab4b6422b09df5f3fa6619aa870b
70839e47e0187f11877a2732e35fe4092627a7a6
2035 F20101118_AACPVR sink_a_Page_080.txt
94666cff243293050936a513c579959f
8ff55ecec1e8123e4a3f0248dfe49fb012c3cc67
1051968 F20101118_AACQBL sink_a_Page_032.jp2
85fa90760c87d7bfff766b9cd61adfc9
e516628386d106fbb317ac3cb23584b5b58dc145
6685 F20101118_AACPWG sink_a_Page_085thm.jpg
a46b921074cb4e286418d0b10e2801a7
acfcb56f2484800abb2f998f66576577b67f4586
84366 F20101118_AACQAY sink_a_Page_008.jp2
d1ba9d702bebfe5e220bbbe9dc128011
9ef28013703cb65954822df1bcf76f78685d3af2
5716 F20101118_AACPVS sink_a_Page_010thm.jpg
b09a1cd78560178ea9c7c5786b3796af
60e1502f78c2512b00fb9c6c68555905fc677bbe
97858 F20101118_AACQCA sink_a_Page_049.jp2
9cd250e0dbb85ef518db3a8cb4a06245
3f9f69e01243e7e205b9da50727e44847a07db32
1051964 F20101118_AACQBM sink_a_Page_033.jp2
16e7ad2bd19feef10dae0aabf4af5dda
eb24d0a24eab84bbd655297ed412ff9e8b7f3a4f
64865 F20101118_AACPWH sink_a_Page_043.pro
4e328f3ee0237860962e6380b47a540a
515127babda50cb45d1187fcd307fc8d7719f990
98222 F20101118_AACQAZ sink_a_Page_009.jp2
65f5ff6564539ac3781a51e405cfa1d4
186254a48c0ba1c82831408a222770717eb21c92
106783 F20101118_AACQCB sink_a_Page_050.jp2
7933b22efd197f89c2cedc4a97dacbdb
63578006801cef725cdb4d86112a3bd572f7f574
1051970 F20101118_AACQBN sink_a_Page_034.jp2
9115ef6b91eb3abb5e0ec6a26fde21d8
cc7cdbb40d26f5499e7c689c85434a58fdd8f5eb
90686 F20101118_AACPWI sink_a_Page_087.jpg
33862e824e212aa2b59567109a1ef891
1555592c8305d32b168c9b4709917e6db168156f
56775 F20101118_AACPVT sink_a_Page_028.pro
b2a6d960bff17b8d4afed179ea5f8721
1d4acab4eec475b3ad2f3a116e845eafcddd0e78
108176 F20101118_AACQCC sink_a_Page_052.jp2
e11e2198755f2dd49d912df7c91b6dd0
069bf8bf90b6c6308f534ab1a9a6d67fa9232eff
F20101118_AACQBO sink_a_Page_035.jp2
b330afec1d2fd43d1ae116acef2fa2a6
ea4a60f0a7181c7a27718c48a99a8e35411041bf
120553 F20101118_AACPWJ sink_a_Page_082.jp2
47a52125605502237894f08e72ac1561
674b32857a5f1c3410804dca980adfb54536723d
3570 F20101118_AACPVU sink_a_Page_005.txt
27060c94cfae303504054c7bb91332d5
83436c388ae335d3880d9d80d9dbff51ed91e5a1
96378 F20101118_AACQCD sink_a_Page_054.jp2
c5f8ea927edbbd5f0d736fbb0cdb418e
18b2a26e2988503e41f2c87f107e03bc1efc4434
1051931 F20101118_AACQBP sink_a_Page_036.jp2
4181828754d5a0e8914e4a8de979c00a
8b787af53d00e757c0157794608bd4a93546333e
6328 F20101118_AACPWK sink_a_Page_050thm.jpg
652d3dc0415864be545ba05a8664635a
4984274f2d091238e5cf18f369c2f573eb10d7e3
F20101118_AACPVV sink_a_Page_047.tif
639c79d9baff929c1459c915cf8c0cbd
c4a3f3ecf2cfb9faa1b1c95a8a92fe48156ac01b
953442 F20101118_AACQCE sink_a_Page_055.jp2
4e19139f080625053efcdd5592cd33a5
7769f32c0fbff92149536ac53a6d01e27862da26
F20101118_AACQBQ sink_a_Page_037.jp2
6e26a0174566bb3f4ec548d5a952ec01
7d2af452b4ecf463a1d795fe45d715649dc9e153
23559 F20101118_AACPWL sink_a_Page_022.QC.jpg
c1be45a9b1a8982e21e5698c2ff884c6
6f23096efbde9d40013e70c9be43f62ff8038697
22940 F20101118_AACPVW sink_a_Page_106.pro
73137066d6d011260b381df8fbc40955
e3c95f08bd0921bba87096af1604997ffac39bda
93701 F20101118_AACQCF sink_a_Page_056.jp2
29664aacbfd71364e6507db30492351b
515587558b697f35d747a696ddcbd726edd8021e
1051959 F20101118_AACQBR sink_a_Page_038.jp2
7f503495b5f6e6ac991e1b57098499bf
3f85e4c5f034aa56834d8d80624786f510876530
2378 F20101118_AACPWM sink_a_Page_105.txt
e459ecb0f893fcb6ac870e2a4fe0ff18
5b602ce21c63514b88330fe5fd2e98495540922c
2508 F20101118_AACPVX sink_a_Page_038.txt
236a014ffa9ba4225916f23f54f32e1f
588baf3e9f77c8907e77cbaae5ae273838762364
108232 F20101118_AACQCG sink_a_Page_059.jp2
ef8080abb8f1a200d90702b1c5da5222
642567979b3cc19a07755189c66e01d7d71ae79c
1051982 F20101118_AACPXA sink_a_Page_029.jp2
dedd6b4f7b397151974ebb01de579781
28bfe9e0f16b2593de352e0ac09cd9af4179720d
981475 F20101118_AACQBS sink_a_Page_039.jp2
decc0d422307c813912be897a3a3e434
3570e6e4aaf1f9d7a39b76aabe513851772c03d9
F20101118_AACPWN sink_a_Page_048.tif
3015203a95db54f2945279c0d2b44b40
711aae9c1d87c977c090417c4fd715364c069e88
25711 F20101118_AACPVY sink_a_Page_083.QC.jpg
5f1c6dbbb1e493a7e72eec4616ff1739
a21048464e68a262e5dc7108e589524868a81a76
125389 F20101118_AACQCH sink_a_Page_060.jp2
9f05c07f2d2772602400d7c3766a5bee
cb0edbcc4d1472bbbff2c29c536f6cdb90f17a9d
1051966 F20101118_AACPXB sink_a_Page_026.jp2
839b538da65680fc2433e86cc955a490
af89c792d20ed9eaa7b072e2e8cdd529aba37dc5
41533 F20101118_AACQBT sink_a_Page_041.jp2
2967810ed8f660f5b8fe4ac27952d9a6
2f78483a36322ee09bd230377ce8fa40feec6acf
F20101118_AACPWO sink_a_Page_059thm.jpg
7cf1db4e5f6fdc8b1ad3df9a2666b3b5
241be63e0bfb212cd7c7e3ed04b7909f5f653844
F20101118_AACPVZ sink_a_Page_032.txt
10fd8f0023e3f890814bb2e7574b849f
f4ece35b9e3ec388d20f705b4e8978fd8a8cf0f9
106899 F20101118_AACQCI sink_a_Page_061.jp2
e8c67e40dc08d1b86bb2c19e1809ef6f
6ca5f476c4351b7b3dafb773226335652c0db018
1051963 F20101118_AACPXC sink_a_Page_104.jp2
23a75624c7eca33ca3ca969d27be7033
41b1f4d646fdb20f3940cdb56eb10a16d6c8dca0
F20101118_AACQBU sink_a_Page_042.jp2
3bece47c8c4ecc877e290fc221752198
a2535b610436c1f38b1d72badd049713e6168c50
71132 F20101118_AACPWP sink_a_Page_059.jpg
5e169af5ace2aad54eedffc7f45ee1ce
732258ac31985ae2b373b2a4f8ee441b9c813eb8
122707 F20101118_AACQCJ sink_a_Page_062.jp2
19e3fa250c97e645ca328df76e5b7bb3
dbe2fdc2532a88ef31a0878011b56495f80e8029
81751 F20101118_AACPXD sink_a_Page_094.jpg
65ea39070458017ebebcbbdd053357ac
60e481b1ef67528e09a2c04ff07e28082be5ec5c
1051976 F20101118_AACQBV sink_a_Page_043.jp2
06140a77cfa1063d939fe20dea8db2fc
93b4545ac2329237a2b3540766de66dab53dc445
45003 F20101118_AACPWQ sink_a_Page_009.pro
f8d2412a549ca75c8c333f2c6cc064a7
f585075eb24ad1465dbd5372577ee07ab345adb6
111245 F20101118_AACQCK sink_a_Page_063.jp2
23e03338921da528fccc4c321195d6f2
a04755004fde76439a8b9e889217afb680d24d29
22898 F20101118_AACPXE sink_a_Page_029.QC.jpg
f78eaad284d6f30f88d91958bfaf7aa6
30022db5d7f1d961ac4e57064d2f39dbf1cf639b
1051986 F20101118_AACQBW sink_a_Page_044.jp2
442ada8a771fbdccd640bdb7a172f43f
e7d713b6d881ba6643922fa037d878f877d4978c
27249 F20101118_AACPWR sink_a_Page_102.QC.jpg
ee2588cc1271f4338338142046c03970
1ed060987445dfcda4e0357482ba2116999d1898
99146 F20101118_AACQCL sink_a_Page_064.jp2
6c11c21968ce1ea1cad31a97f6ab457f
8e6ec66bc4736f59b0efafd7a824500ca30b41aa
F20101118_AACPXF sink_a_Page_040.jp2
61c801c90786201c85e70b2a53fffac3
d6e455a6a0b5ac0f8ed4b1e0c7ccaa7e452d59ab
111028 F20101118_AACQBX sink_a_Page_045.jp2
b8f625d7ab9f4af67d986be1ec9ad486
297b29c6a491a1b5ab1d322f2b170373d4c962c2
17356 F20101118_AACPWS sink_a_Page_005.QC.jpg
038c0f4d6a96d546da1aadd54b7015d4
9d3097f3fc82255ed7ff5485ada44e1c8f4d4a19
107017 F20101118_AACQDA sink_a_Page_081.jp2
957c92ce24402628bb8744f36a923677
ef44916644a6612144645f632f50f6a57306fb53
103200 F20101118_AACQCM sink_a_Page_067.jp2
ec608ddb1c679be759dfdef54036b768
43258fbfe1eb6cff8dc1e001854f969efa4b7b1f
23831 F20101118_AACPXG sink_a_Page_085.QC.jpg
ae2a936645dd2ed73ccb6759a2e6c9ed
93b101658c3322f32684a2d85cd00c1520cf7151
1051967 F20101118_AACQBY sink_a_Page_046.jp2
46bcc34f78514091104c11601862a789
257aa4a639ac35a7b4085ac75af0100f553ed6eb
51034 F20101118_AACPWT sink_a_Page_045.pro
ad6dc69877767b940fcf15836a76a7e5
fd3adde85a03c8fa332ad22f2b157289cdbaf660
115695 F20101118_AACQDB sink_a_Page_084.jp2
880aa557cb0c40dbf4fca1e7ebc3f1a8
130bbc1214156aac1403fc0210c082b61512b676
108737 F20101118_AACQCN sink_a_Page_068.jp2
049113f1a2a4a6d8864ab7f77d3fd55e
b398e53eadce56b916fc2d19904285b5d07110b9
6559 F20101118_AACPXH sink_a_Page_060thm.jpg
4905e6dcbfed7f750a7dd6dac71880b9
2bd291a3a11013a80a3c7e19449463b68f4cf245
967066 F20101118_AACQBZ sink_a_Page_048.jp2
7f68420d31176775f770ae2307862c44
48a0bcfc728b77828097d345d56493d7946c0283
123332 F20101118_AACQDC sink_a_Page_085.jp2
aa869ad3a30c11cb836bf487cc24aa4f
8ecd658deb8079c9b6c6f5ded0100934075830e3
100545 F20101118_AACQCO sink_a_Page_069.jp2
b1e3bb04bd2a4429e574dccb9d990e4f
9b4013dfa67add701e97a4a7a64396b2704cfd02
114660 F20101118_AACPXI sink_a_Page_058.jp2
9554ab2b49dfe0dfd51bbf3e62118796
92c5a404cf006ade7b8c9f058a6975fa655ee471
118070 F20101118_AACQDD sink_a_Page_086.jp2
3e97157b8cd2dbb9fa46cbe8843d4f11
0c6b9a194cb8babf98ed6341bd48eec069195285
124138 F20101118_AACQCP sink_a_Page_070.jp2
d699a5488d2ee44d0769a25e9442e11b
1e65f8a54334936387935d9b39e649831f1c08d1
20973 F20101118_AACPXJ sink_a_Page_056.QC.jpg
6d607c3cc5502e9788597985f21bbfe7
f54d388a885f71ba9a4e1f728b8f0ee7172aaf4d
F20101118_AACPWU sink_a_Page_106.tif
392bcf40884467b072383256fdd2a7a7
4a2a2633b674a259e51a2845024e23c7c72821d1
1051956 F20101118_AACQDE sink_a_Page_087.jp2
a542ab7de7fd03eee593e7ab7fad48bd
f20ec9b98adc5f282baa7bc80cbd603ad27e4228
108062 F20101118_AACQCQ sink_a_Page_071.jp2
f45af9144b7ac44273c5042922e58494
1db40954146d6426be304d16cb3cca3fa725f4e7
2446 F20101118_AACPXK sink_a_Page_073.txt
ea740b44591e10ab4c6382bbd3bac8ea
38c151a025dcf73daab092106c55952f60014795
5931 F20101118_AACPWV sink_a_Page_056thm.jpg
1bc31ffba10238b0b7cbf392248ee8f4
4e1c0c461bc38573719e6088444d88b5439ceeaf
102291 F20101118_AACQDF sink_a_Page_088.jp2
a29e9f87a2aad8676011c27e4a0f4407
39928220a3f1e66f2d43ffdfd5ae6ee136ec25d7
112669 F20101118_AACQCR sink_a_Page_072.jp2
cd1d9826624bb817b28a714b1866e1df
30dd0a7c23c02547bae1bcbbcc59a2a5e730bb45
24522 F20101118_AACPXL sink_a_Page_072.QC.jpg
9526ab0e8a13d8d860ca4673b36a3e62
65d1ff4fa8164de54f555f04080ae4da73e2f9fc
F20101118_AACPWW sink_a_Page_031.tif
7c8819c1d1c1135d0f724bf3ebce416f
a2cd3d4820cd2b12d2a24a847e94b5a7f41d3a40
F20101118_AACQDG sink_a_Page_091.jp2
4163e387148d3fa0e274c852e39cec54
e8a0b86960dfdf3433d53a93f47d0bfe33e3083d
60190 F20101118_AACPYA sink_a_Page_008.jpg
0c614f516155cfc05be36b51d8f8219f
86e2f22078e2888e1626057dcfb44d6ca41c5d51
126282 F20101118_AACQCS sink_a_Page_073.jp2
db2b808490b415c7c66ed994459f119d
aff23d5278017546ef0140cef0c9233333a022b6
45830 F20101118_AACPXM sink_a_Page_019.pro
202804b9b105d45048d08cd24a40cdf8
0a5b9c235dd31a06d11492544e6281ed65de2074
3455 F20101118_AACPWX sink_a_Page_106thm.jpg
b95a4c8f6736600c03947e38d04e79ca
a52c53014d141566e2294e0b2ca4db4acd73b1a7
1051885 F20101118_AACQDH sink_a_Page_092.jp2
ca68a5d863c19f108a414fea29532401
d571d0293729ab749d43431087df6a28e20d8f94
65142 F20101118_AACPYB sink_a_Page_009.jpg
90ced89a07aea030aa5d1223d3b1e48b
c9543aeb008decbadaa754ed8c63a5c502b4ab2a
121488 F20101118_AACQCT sink_a_Page_074.jp2
fea44e8ef3898c1dd822a3d216ea1dc3
f8e2c98e5c814166acb97f2cb5d835ddeb5fdd90
503 F20101118_AACPXN sink_a_Page_001.txt
587e41ac03e9b4bd23f03803ac1deaaf
a1ad259d74eaf2f98dcc7c437671c3ac74422cc8
78015 F20101118_AACPWY sink_a_Page_092.jpg
c5293478430a47524336f0bedcfe8bc5
eceb1e9be9c113548845cabddf3a7b6277fc2275
103969 F20101118_AACQDI sink_a_Page_093.jp2
7170ededda75e57ee446b82a0c13fc99
48fb6a73ac68bd0c5a791785ad6c27952c017db9
62407 F20101118_AACPYC sink_a_Page_010.jpg
21dcfe6a2386b2d64ea8ec63f553522e
adc78e96f4ee6c9d5f7cca8bf0d09a925e2692af
101085 F20101118_AACQCU sink_a_Page_075.jp2
dc52e6fbffde21fab52cb57d58d66f7b
c24623fbc51dd31d75cea5c2b2171ce4eec27089
104768 F20101118_AACPXO sink_a_Page_051.jp2
79c3b9ca3f13e3d41a9e82df9d42db31
f497350db0d7385de5c20ca9539ef78e39337a2b
53424 F20101118_AACPWZ sink_a_Page_034.pro
daf46ca2cfe3d61c16b04f2ff7b28f7a
2d95db5100e3701ded3fd853c2f9ea9373a5f352
F20101118_AACQDJ sink_a_Page_094.jp2
7f29c7faf73e40f975d1b422c707c530
546cf2748588edd6f1da7f77e4978140fa14dbbb
72282 F20101118_AACPYD sink_a_Page_011.jpg
ca2d4efccb7da3d59697be6431dd15c2
31f4fc98a29a826f3b1e8644b66af15385d0a058
122594 F20101118_AACQCV sink_a_Page_076.jp2
a858d18c4da6fac23ee04d9ec7d27c4c
380020af85cbbd71485f28d2c0375a615fc7c282
60977 F20101118_AACPXP sink_a_Page_091.pro
1d34c0c220f90874408d27a662c584a5
6cfbccfad15c593c953980af1cda676b31a7f5d5
1051977 F20101118_AACQDK sink_a_Page_095.jp2
585d4390046769ddde0938222d3875d0
b368af563f2b6a0d2f16e79f866fc6443763c16e
89016 F20101118_AACPYE sink_a_Page_012.jpg
bd53786286e488c1996e86cc1882b303
7d66c1e82687161946d0ba5601153d4a459d2ada
89822 F20101118_AACQCW sink_a_Page_077.jp2
27b0f4e45d323d266772e6c425b9dc96
5f8ed1d9e300f19aa11fab3d07ff8bbd067ffe94
123345 F20101118_AACPXQ UFE0014380_00001.mets
17c58436c055bb3103c8ec4c6ff13433
0469c60b20adac5ec7bb3ca2596b7e8edb539dc8
99271 F20101118_AACQDL sink_a_Page_098.jp2
28a06b1a0fcd6b42a36c7ee5030728f6
e1c3ae5f409f8602c6bdbb4d2bb25288374378a4
56671 F20101118_AACPYF sink_a_Page_014.jpg
45b76ec1c75e790d8e2502c36f7ac7db
2ed0fdd213b903f32cb8d6b323aa157067743f8f
639922 F20101118_AACQCX sink_a_Page_078.jp2
c8b4b51e9b5a642e1a91828a266ad71c
1723b9df50f9e5c8e0e65bf21922f2abe7665ad4
F20101118_AACQEA sink_a_Page_011.tif
0d1b72d8453bcdfba7e4e793a1635272
39a26a6d0018aa7ccd268b41442ef8ba88c8af35
1051981 F20101118_AACQDM sink_a_Page_099.jp2
cd4edc39ecb64c9df0039e5401d1efc1
444c1ab00e11194f77ef7502a531592438dc8ccc
71537 F20101118_AACPYG sink_a_Page_015.jpg
f2099d34120ff50ea4688ab0e00f7d1e
b0e7d7020ad0fc2b17a68532f1d0f180b254c3cc
777438 F20101118_AACQCY sink_a_Page_079.jp2
4b827b231f1c2be73e9ccb625541f0c5
65fb0c80c56a1f06dcbfa694b5fc2a0d5ea8f462
F20101118_AACQDN sink_a_Page_100.jp2
a55eddbf25d4f74b1246fd0af37858ce
004716bb82f1d7a6727651b63a32608c62802740
69414 F20101118_AACPYH sink_a_Page_016.jpg
96f71b407c9c2b080d3ae49ac58c6924
ee21db7f4c74e1f9392e539bea4e79823907dc03
109155 F20101118_AACQCZ sink_a_Page_080.jp2
44fece261544042766f60d3741336e21
f4e41b996aacb0f5170a2f31413ef95054402894
27300 F20101118_AACPXT sink_a_Page_001.jpg
937f63c74f92f2e1e7a135facc12dd69
01596b2a4ed7ae692a00c2794c791b88289c9e39
F20101118_AACQEB sink_a_Page_012.tif
7aa9fd4801a8d75203394c6c1aa697b5
266b4e0c6bee5e37fb49d8bd042e77381ea8a357
F20101118_AACQDO sink_a_Page_101.jp2
9912839e692322cd55996fd3106cfce7
261d3954e5f67ab666d58e5d1ea45e349d6ba61a
70688 F20101118_AACPYI sink_a_Page_017.jpg
ad1977366ee3ff2a5ef844390372fe4f
10c9568fa491ca84ff5d7339d055952b6b227da4
10406 F20101118_AACPXU sink_a_Page_002.jpg
59ca3a33f3ff9d2c34226129cfc48442
b5053aabbb6b465a312fa532e0309e3babd70e4e
F20101118_AACQEC sink_a_Page_013.tif
7a0c12f4ae4539e5101e318bda4f906b
a0b9d7291c4523d4327f8fc31160d271acd2ab35
F20101118_AACQDP sink_a_Page_103.jp2
2258c2b98cdf8ec43804dcd4760b4366
ef03472ed804d3eb9d9037e0f4a6ef4b782dac27
83168 F20101118_AACPYJ sink_a_Page_018.jpg
d8f0dbf2f6ae605804dce916987437d8
9fbc6cd4ef591e83a7dfc4642e29b42f923d56ea
F20101118_AACQED sink_a_Page_015.tif
ecc9c7474f6d199f84dcfc3dc12bcb94
fa869e9d1391ef5b202ba4b82ea084b68c2a1dd1
F20101118_AACQDQ sink_a_Page_105.jp2
11ad6f8c603ea638cc2deecf921588c3
18e862172a31b4182a64eaed2cac0cf21e36daa9
78121 F20101118_AACPYK sink_a_Page_022.jpg
e80184fc652ffa3c179feb7ff5e12642
e16d9799d4684efa217877d8ddaec6b4d8c008f5
21251 F20101118_AACPXV sink_a_Page_003.jpg
0c67944e6057f5094ceb89bf21fca2a4
c202fa0253124aacce383e569a9f8f0c7bbb96e9
F20101118_AACQEE sink_a_Page_016.tif
bff2924606f677c076bee77de7ad505a
418c7e306879d1f0349e4bf6630197f00eab4a05
70877 F20101118_AACPYL sink_a_Page_024.jpg
8206f4b47edd1ce6953a6d4adb285ba6
76f1f048b3f7a5dd35207674aa687432af6938a1
29068 F20101118_AACPXW sink_a_Page_004.jpg
bb3c0ce2c139ef96e65608ddf921d4ac
b0330e8fb3de14044e1c70627ba3749729b5d970
F20101118_AACQEF sink_a_Page_017.tif
abe354d886d09a184a401dd3ccdd0de7
986b31216c2c5bb48f2cb2c940258a7cfa969582
578399 F20101118_AACQDR sink_a_Page_106.jp2
ed45049160e625757e64b648a89646e0
3bdbee3ce6b72b36a258e8bd718f3985868d135c
80008 F20101118_AACPYM sink_a_Page_025.jpg
515d09b6ac5ab0dc215eb323da23867f
ee5658c865fd793aa60de5bbcf20b25800fbbc6a
69082 F20101118_AACPXX sink_a_Page_005.jpg
0ab9a65202ae3a58342cf1fbbab023c0
3c6af3d7486d9c40b422a732cbea1e5d6ad666ab
F20101118_AACQEG sink_a_Page_018.tif
fb8f1dd7afe3f8bd05cf6d661819bbcd
4a3ebd5067c4162a16810174af5a13e9ca44c6cc
66725 F20101118_AACPZA sink_a_Page_049.jpg
af28f4f690e8e83aa1653047850ed871
b755e90e84a1fb47bbaf2e3cdb2880f2ff4c5622
37011 F20101118_AACQDS sink_a_Page_107.jp2
64d3d3d477067081c56f041cea33b83c
218d5118f3cfb63c71645bf528b719f151b9bc3e
81821 F20101118_AACPYN sink_a_Page_028.jpg
6e5495371efaf65a2fd7527edfd84a19
8734ae86214cc95cdb9c50645ff9243b012c8004
38645 F20101118_AACPXY sink_a_Page_006.jpg
68396bccaafb8dc5ed2411ebe2e55a65
c44a61b4fcde00a5cf5a575d4f24f531772ae5ec
F20101118_AACQEH sink_a_Page_019.tif
3f50b5c463d39d5b4325ceb50e7e8118
2e0136ec28922398749af03e7129af97bbfe7e6a
71242 F20101118_AACPZB sink_a_Page_050.jpg
0f7974253f12df149e66c5dc1b914269
8f2d4043f07139eebcbab77dfc2168d064ea8352
F20101118_AACQDT sink_a_Page_002.tif
7d366061b2ee33a248ee098ccd771fd9
f01dc50731e7fe09771dd3e4a7274341b35299e3
75551 F20101118_AACPYO sink_a_Page_029.jpg
ccdcca474d193e4292bd8122e6df8320
f600b584d8eb01d68e48a8d7a5bc7185f6e51d4f
21024 F20101118_AACPXZ sink_a_Page_007.jpg
61652620fb289ab54d772f8c9b1ce323
c6aa8c4b65ac04341b62b2c06f8f1a1fc0cecd04
F20101118_AACQEI sink_a_Page_020.tif
a37344f536e989a82967534bd57cf0d9
bab810ce55d97d426a5eff59c846f0777ca152b9
69979 F20101118_AACPZC sink_a_Page_051.jpg
81c4cae18faa91535ea8ff0ced267bd7
ceea3631050563e64d6101d051adf9765c81e867
F20101118_AACQDU sink_a_Page_003.tif
689461e66b145fe2ad5e3ccd8da8e05d
fb5b969544aa610c78f7b912553cab9bbbebb79f
70027 F20101118_AACPYP sink_a_Page_031.jpg
c7d0d55ca1e405935b7de15448aa3f56
830cdd2c8b6f1d9cb4ba805561ec93f971b3ae6d
F20101118_AACQEJ sink_a_Page_021.tif
4e32d2ba9c9800febf0dba1f95f2d8c9
63e68334fc9c7010b8ec879a178257b70cda817e
71417 F20101118_AACPZD sink_a_Page_052.jpg
d512b8db25c2f7c5f22a30b29aca183b
52c5703ac92113f9bff229311eeebabd0774a810
F20101118_AACQDV sink_a_Page_004.tif
a93d5897284cfb0f314ea9a0dfadd426
49eba8ddf9fd2c7df3f540dfd334a9d73c6066f6
81671 F20101118_AACPYQ sink_a_Page_034.jpg
44e649fa77fc31a57e31ac0583a98561
e6afb804d715021dbe0185179f4b2a3a2d8b1811
F20101118_AACQEK sink_a_Page_022.tif
126489a29c4b700cfc41dedd9ac19957
28693280e809e3ee6241cd30686cf28249f1966c
81217 F20101118_AACPZE sink_a_Page_053.jpg
9b61c6bf8d568cb5d9c74a856d460e76
125a1cf621b06313bb685a755649da7081957577
F20101118_AACQDW sink_a_Page_005.tif
04202755c7fc1e3eba3e2fa990c0d333
318ef24d5c19ebe75a7be9b25bd492535262da16
76310 F20101118_AACPYR sink_a_Page_035.jpg
39987bc092c3a84ce152cae1a7b89d13
ddeacb6af9b423d3c743b4335fcd354dbdfe8920
F20101118_AACQFA sink_a_Page_044.tif
89f8f34d830c65b88a4cc359155f4f32
9852da16f0ea00081d5e832a69b8b4f8cdeaef2e
F20101118_AACQEL sink_a_Page_024.tif
f30445502e5c70b7c77d379982120467
23f33389bceb9293eda8fee381c67fc67d8c7116
65706 F20101118_AACPZF sink_a_Page_055.jpg
883515e30378a89b1ad74430350d1f9e
8a1079746121808306049b29f4ab2247ea0b3755
F20101118_AACQDX sink_a_Page_006.tif
f713d3358abc230320e61410adda7bbb
59c3485bf4f43bea63ab51ad0465bffd833865b0
74691 F20101118_AACPYS sink_a_Page_036.jpg
7af8b23a305c5eac372b15811929e0d9
a6c9f7166f9146211ee60b950912f4b227fb8c0b
F20101118_AACQFB sink_a_Page_049.tif
2126ccef8c0d127c02f2c36b66903ed1
056773dc006f373ba4f6836f68fa1d616495ee73
F20101118_AACQEM sink_a_Page_028.tif
2c605e0703c9e4737a7016cbf266cb0f
9bdcc8db0153f17783fa9931d5c55265297ee7e7
76918 F20101118_AACPZG sink_a_Page_058.jpg
e7bb22165dd6ccbed54e167f3d119801
efd083e0aae95346ad878891f89a994597d7e766
F20101118_AACQDY sink_a_Page_007.tif
9f97d43d702a280227551dd7d1626e0a
d307f9a242572ae960eb078232229ea82844ce37
77211 F20101118_AACPYT sink_a_Page_037.jpg
93900864df26c6847bbc7c0efee7e200
c5353a584cfc97f8192650c1f9fb39a3a3362d32
F20101118_AACQEN sink_a_Page_029.tif
a3b40e213ef1b0b0e6dfbf0ad265870f
23bdd45ef261838bd7c00ed2ff3a36f9fca4380b
83894 F20101118_AACPZH sink_a_Page_060.jpg
b44b9d1dce58aa02f0286954c1089a74
261657b946e2dab1f0f575a8a1872ff72b210940
F20101118_AACQDZ sink_a_Page_010.tif
38ac5ede4e6e1dcf5fc214f9d5de644c
5588b0513c484cb2e98cef5e65a40aba97bfa502
88368 F20101118_AACPYU sink_a_Page_038.jpg
12c1db43feb1cea7674d94cb223e9584
bbf0b566caf0de9c89501b117894875b78b175f8
F20101118_AACQFC sink_a_Page_050.tif
80de069fed72c4b00b7573d5c7a1e828
b624352bc231067f5bf90b8ea323026cabc80573
F20101118_AACQEO sink_a_Page_030.tif
867399dcc70c70c5e0bb1e112a471b18
5bcffa1adbffefa65c1688d750db6e6edc0a52d5
70581 F20101118_AACPZI sink_a_Page_061.jpg
babf298cf9309c811378fc58ad5e714f
080f8433fc6e424305ce36558c2feb8020dd472e
30473 F20101118_AACPYV sink_a_Page_041.jpg
517cb5c1b58ab43c79d2e83c5b953e15
4d27142520c0070b8038f247602b0ed75e5690d8
F20101118_AACQFD sink_a_Page_051.tif
3971425764a90f9776d5cb2369f053dc
eb8c5ae2c7e55e32b72cfa5d77d2413ddd5d49ed
F20101118_AACQEP sink_a_Page_032.tif
0b626ec0e5508a0ecc00448f0ef2c4b2
fc00dc72b502a9c0ae9616f70814fdf8bea48de6
81711 F20101118_AACPZJ sink_a_Page_062.jpg
5c927003b6d18a61f7a6071650722cad
066ad8dfd1a8037f3804bbac8ce1eb23b0fbb82a
F20101118_AACQFE sink_a_Page_052.tif
678d25c394604aeaba6542fa1364df05
ab7c4185433f3372c1bbf9ffdf65f9ec222fbce3
F20101118_AACQEQ sink_a_Page_033.tif
3f6dc08cb1b93c4c6091d2fac5dfd252
40bcb63a8bc77efe1eff202abbb7ff966c3732f7
72537 F20101118_AACPZK sink_a_Page_063.jpg
54c8fa0da84c362913a99caa1dbe5dd2
3bd7a87ffd739d179eb81029ab94b112f48449e9
89620 F20101118_AACPYW sink_a_Page_043.jpg
e8e62c52322322482591dbe65fd46867
95e29cc6f937c52f9b5767b44ead2ded15b9bf15
F20101118_AACQFF sink_a_Page_053.tif
ab264a505e9b0077409c6c42e61874c4
ed0cb97149afbdcede9d7e5159ea23d5c99dbe59
F20101118_AACQER sink_a_Page_034.tif
0bf258888ce97cdd0a75a1b4d17ea1c5
ec4981fe0f29261e0fb6b9643d9b180e68561282
66883 F20101118_AACPZL sink_a_Page_064.jpg
f2f2e5bd770982f2e45707575da2ce09
8cca6ec492739330809ddc8951cc1c7f61a1a054
79440 F20101118_AACPYX sink_a_Page_044.jpg
db3d50f834ea7cf7acd05d836dbe6e2a
1d7ae4b01be95255d322fcffd632de3367fed068
F20101118_AACQFG sink_a_Page_054.tif
13f1234fbcd93eed5dd4c6191806c7db
a51c95784b39760a3ff8dc3872a630a18b938db7
F20101118_AACQES sink_a_Page_035.tif
a489dfee77c918bd0dfc281c64dbcccb
ac3e77ca0fe07fbf8329331c65501f65afba9b57
77951 F20101118_AACPZM sink_a_Page_066.jpg
3aec7ad07c41294d496ce3baee72da97
ab1cf410044cec31a880d609a95023cc527838a9
73050 F20101118_AACPYY sink_a_Page_045.jpg
395bd82a4aa8c4183dca7e4411f2035b
904f73ebee4986177ddec6fa7429b903be764199
F20101118_AACQFH sink_a_Page_055.tif
60d5a9edccdadf66980e6f77f7335404
f98a616a139c744d90e6e3f5e111e2cd5f2eb437
F20101118_AACQET sink_a_Page_036.tif
3447528cd413c2c9cc97552ca2898a09
3942e3d46fe138d6c9a631300bf6a85ead28f4e7
68495 F20101118_AACPZN sink_a_Page_067.jpg
fce00b5183882bec1550c252820af909
5625c4499ed3e856fa06aac22c213263d63030cb
72535 F20101118_AACPYZ sink_a_Page_047.jpg
4a3e9b27c56686820507279dcfa91657
028e384384543f2db60b34f61d90fce18caf755c
F20101118_AACQFI sink_a_Page_056.tif
8a6a52fae71fff188727223dad383159
f974a9e14307a0843056fb114b1ae9f1fc397761
F20101118_AACQEU sink_a_Page_037.tif
795b947edb4715accb8627ba75bd8785
87c22c7d9f501f75fe640b0fff80442f9eb62642
72084 F20101118_AACPZO sink_a_Page_068.jpg
15b358cd2f080e3bbd6fa8774e3b8624
bab14c1416b2bc385bb86c75b60a7019b7516556
F20101118_AACQFJ sink_a_Page_057.tif
64648f506da90de3e84c2df2e8280cfe
86c542185fbddcfd67ff340461cb500c6703a4a2
F20101118_AACQEV sink_a_Page_038.tif
9c4e87f2215d97a838a6badf1d3ff865
a6497b9262a0aab2fb543bc5b8fe2495e3665759
66433 F20101118_AACPZP sink_a_Page_069.jpg
31a4585c27acc558e15b5049ceb6943b
dbd7596f9ff26dc91317d913da06286019a38a68
F20101118_AACQFK sink_a_Page_058.tif
bada2f8e4273e927099a4a6ecff2724f
da1aadd80210b3a777dde7a362d35d22517215ed
F20101118_AACQEW sink_a_Page_039.tif
a38f61d34aa17e5b3c0081d44d3a8c5f
24c8d406ce83dbda55af12f38b3af7a685d0dbff
71903 F20101118_AACPZQ sink_a_Page_071.jpg
08a73734ed3d644b018115b1637963c6
8611e10358009c6697c78118856fb0e1f70afdb1
F20101118_AACQFL sink_a_Page_059.tif
c7192c36fb16bec9f4a266dcff466c22
692bc94609df7048fead8c69f5578b8d6c6c58fb
F20101118_AACQEX sink_a_Page_041.tif
1192a7fb7855c06d3a2eae0503b7b1e1
03363b46f7b4eeffda0f518eceb9845dcd73df28
74726 F20101118_AACPZR sink_a_Page_072.jpg
4da8fc61d122126c8ca519c1e04d255e
c4a5b72d28cd32014738ae7c455d6cac2fc15e69
F20101118_AACQGA sink_a_Page_082.tif
9c587e079a9d684334c9586a76683807
cb99786f32e3e467a83fced0ef5e0f1546cefc59
F20101118_AACQFM sink_a_Page_060.tif
0ee5f3efd4a732f3398334560a27842c
64a7f2a505e1ab9ea656c137d528ea75c7aae8a9
F20101118_AACQEY sink_a_Page_042.tif
73bedf9b4270f4f4a1ebf031ada522aa
bd2fe44a2c20cc56ff859c6e22840d8e5ec56ff7
84944 F20101118_AACPZS sink_a_Page_073.jpg
34564235106e30a125abb017d03e1600
5883a4d6147c793358dc0a4b976990eecfea9747
F20101118_AACQGB sink_a_Page_083.tif
6488b51d4ca390a5ec77ce96b70018f9
d859d7d31ef95abd76ea0b661ea9a08fb3a207a1
F20101118_AACQFN sink_a_Page_063.tif
ad435103dd1bc67d36967a9b26e70ee9
c02d7dbed5f9be361a848a7757bce6e04843c643
F20101118_AACQEZ sink_a_Page_043.tif
5502941eb9795b74bbce82f533e183d8
c019199583f19633b02f9b7dde488d33fc88c613
80318 F20101118_AACPZT sink_a_Page_074.jpg
51b072e46167fb07012a5e40f4a633fe
61cba77a9afa05a74597857cd15dfec3ce032595
F20101118_AACQGC sink_a_Page_085.tif
d65ce8de6bf8601750a095c078e06f71
fb2852640efcaca4f0fb8062f0c8d4738189278a
F20101118_AACQFO sink_a_Page_064.tif
b48f85e6a3846c04b112696a495c1ade
1c62ace79654bc567abe2680d1d646edc5aece48
81320 F20101118_AACPZU sink_a_Page_076.jpg
aa22a84dbb832cc4d36ae884c075f0be
f1f0f18c2c9abe6dbe2591a1fd6d0dae9fd8d5fe
F20101118_AACQFP sink_a_Page_066.tif
2d04226a11cf7241db5bac36aca8f370
2788cd6748a5fee9386c1140b690d986155c7986
59217 F20101118_AACPZV sink_a_Page_077.jpg
f2d857085832aa7dfa71ec97e03f2df6
7db5aad111a5ab2aa6a9a08499614cc411152cb0
F20101118_AACQGD sink_a_Page_086.tif
7c16c7f6daa3c038f22057cd15b297eb
f78483aebecc96a5ca71a026732a41efab7338bc
F20101118_AACQFQ sink_a_Page_067.tif
8bbab715f9f455ded881bf46097ef7bb
e1c8b0e2a92575e0d12c1485ae9ce429ddc68aad
44340 F20101118_AACPZW sink_a_Page_078.jpg
ee2c83e06337d83ce5177e38f0337ab7
0105205055fce53c434834d1dbac0b80e6cb3056
F20101118_AACQGE sink_a_Page_088.tif
26508d2f3c5a1e1ab53152ae673699de
1dd420a58b7b9f89f1f9888b3b14c504e6d6ad74
F20101118_AACQFR sink_a_Page_068.tif
51b812b51877996de212a15523cb27c4
5c0b12d6dfc4662f1b15d6b3cfb6c09b12d7d40d
F20101118_AACQGF sink_a_Page_089.tif
7e2aa4f19f524c0ca6db11328dd90a38
1fe05641b7f6a0ca17eb6a06e5f5e62954cf7804
F20101118_AACQFS sink_a_Page_070.tif
809724f56083e19cbbcdbf5a00ac7784
4d901f6210b9a240ba8588cdd7375db8150fc5cf
47872 F20101118_AACPZX sink_a_Page_079.jpg
eaeb5ebef40268335ab0c1a84ae0b545
5f197e29574c6de9c676c3ea020e6ad430f0ad53
F20101118_AACQGG sink_a_Page_090.tif
e7ea316aaec0ce873dfd696427fae4ea
80e48cd3203945be53c5bd4ba1aa1abd96f0804f
F20101118_AACQFT sink_a_Page_071.tif
d99ec7e125956e97e9ac9632b74b27e8
7cd2bd0bb1aae572a69ceb4630cd33c944c24b97
71420 F20101118_AACPZY sink_a_Page_080.jpg
f5d6364569911e11de60141c38135a7f
852bdf643b5c033a55844f34f7998968d910d82a
F20101118_AACQGH sink_a_Page_091.tif
dab9c18ad26ded0378f794e21e4821ce
dabcc86b9bbc617001d0856e66b09e4d17ddc26c
F20101118_AACQFU sink_a_Page_072.tif
4862975c978826855d78541c1b834175
3a2df0d7ce84689d92a57d23044955c592917c30
70629 F20101118_AACPZZ sink_a_Page_081.jpg
59d45089e9a68a5be6d603e338f36176
28e162aa994d35ad93efdfaa29580d4500350960
F20101118_AACQGI sink_a_Page_092.tif
4cc0d541002d40341774a4b867e973ce
da8572ec6ebf4b76ab38a6da47b69730c61b9979
F20101118_AACQFV sink_a_Page_073.tif
898a8b614c5ee3b1ffb68f44249ceec5
42aeebd3120d2f091c95d6d80a9e08f02687b949
F20101118_AACQGJ sink_a_Page_093.tif
e8ed82ff1689f9561df5bc22af99eff1
0e10a2787678cf1034638747e678b6c26c055251
F20101118_AACQFW sink_a_Page_077.tif
0a6904567e3d006eb37940aadd59ea20
266a700c238a9c0894390026598b1f501d849b23
F20101118_AACQGK sink_a_Page_095.tif
b54c83cbc44b2ae475fb523179604a4b
9c86a5d1502f7665aa1385f7ea2a09cb547737b1
F20101118_AACQFX sink_a_Page_078.tif
ea3d1d074cdfbd49ea7ffa826e6e8181
1a7f2e524cb22a7b992a3317574817ed69b4636c
37095 F20101118_AACQHA sink_a_Page_014.pro
94af236599dc068d09ae12cd55ff4a8a
3df0339bcc6fff4973deb92c030b3a42b6a572d1
F20101118_AACQGL sink_a_Page_097.tif
44bcd3169e2e31bb6484737818c2f151
c768bce2600507d650d87d605df6bf7bd20ca42c
F20101118_AACQFY sink_a_Page_080.tif
c0d0dfa3530e0489e9dd643e8759efdf
74e2442580b529cf7fdc45082db6ba5471b7205d
51674 F20101118_AACQHB sink_a_Page_015.pro
bf63b086b4dc671dd17dd9ae58dbdd77
d2daad3d9413e6e8e4b2fd85cd65912b8c759d7a
F20101118_AACQGM sink_a_Page_099.tif
0496543775f4c8740a5addf2e8a967b4
6e8f4b787a0c6ab10dc0dae323f31d4d2c960078
F20101118_AACQFZ sink_a_Page_081.tif
3ebb27639cf086d5d0c476bb46cc3d40
459ef5607a96af43fd76217364d8efb97bf24b31
49134 F20101118_AACQHC sink_a_Page_016.pro
ed7320e07ffb71a1c68c59426c7d3170
3e2db79c320dbce07fd11154769bcdfc45ea7b7c
F20101118_AACQGN sink_a_Page_100.tif
cb6a48aa5f2e48a6b6b2b3d009a53858
fac14b0ce352981235af53e4283f5faeb5cc80e0
51653 F20101118_AACQHD sink_a_Page_017.pro
3915e888a15330f5431c0596fc5eb136
a1ba84a7b0f82d265b7572fce05a60c5c88da021
F20101118_AACQGO sink_a_Page_101.tif
ca3cdd6356fb86c4f94c4e16cc647c6d
f7814d4c1151219a9ac44e3c516eb7ccd782bb3d



PAGE 1

IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY IN THE WEBLOGS OF MUSLIM WOMEN OF MIDDLE EASTERN AND NORTH AFRICAN DESCENT LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES By ASHLEY DYESS SINK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 by Ashley Dyess Sink

PAGE 3

This thesis is dedicated to the women who enabled me to see beyond my assumptions and gave me a passion for intercultural comm unication. They were Lebanese, MexicanAmerican, Latvian, Armenian, Syrian, Palestin ian, Israeli, Iranian, Korean, Taiwanese, Sri Lankan, African-American, European Ameri can; Christian, Muslim, Jewish, atheist, agnostic; young, middle-aged, and elderly.

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to my thesis committee for their input and support: Dr. Michael Leslie, Dr. Lisa Duke Cornell, and Dr. Atiqa Hachimi. My friend Keeley Klopfer did a wonderful job of creating graphics to display my ideas. Throughout my life, my wonderful family has supported me. Their encouragement greatly helped me persevere with this thesis and with my academic career in general. During this entire process my husband, Justin, was an incomparable partner and friend. Without his care for me and his interest in my work, this thesis would never have been completed. iv

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE..............................................................................5 Identity in Intercultural Communication......................................................................5 Computer-Mediated Communication...........................................................................8 CMC Research Directions...................................................................................10 Theories of CMC.................................................................................................11 Virtual Communities Resulting from CMC........................................................12 Identity in CMC...................................................................................................15 A New Form of CMC: The Weblog...........................................................................17 Identity in Blogging.............................................................................................21 Community in Blogging......................................................................................23 MMENA Women: Identity and Community..............................................................25 The Need for This Study.............................................................................................31 3 RESEARCH METHOD.............................................................................................33 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................40 Identity........................................................................................................................40 Personal Identity..................................................................................................41 Gender Identity....................................................................................................47 Womens roles in religion............................................................................48 Womens roles in family..............................................................................50 Womens roles in marriage and romantic relationships...............................52 Cultural and Ethnic Identity................................................................................55 Political affinities.........................................................................................55 Religious beliefs...........................................................................................58 Family roles..................................................................................................60 Social life......................................................................................................62 Popular culture.............................................................................................65 v

PAGE 6

Interactions with outsiders...........................................................................66 Intersections of Identity.......................................................................................68 Community.................................................................................................................71 Blog-based Community.......................................................................................73 Face-to-face Community Reinforcement............................................................76 Member Checks..........................................................................................................78 Reflexivity..................................................................................................................78 Summary.....................................................................................................................79 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................81 Identity Theories.........................................................................................................81 Community Theories..................................................................................................85 Limitations..................................................................................................................87 Suggestions for Further Research...............................................................................88 BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................................................90 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................98 vi

PAGE 7

LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1. Zeinas profile image.....................................................................................................46 2. Princess of Arabias profile image.................................................................................48 3. Identity dimension intersections in Queen Leilas blog................................................69 4. Identity dimension intersections in Ladyras blog.........................................................70 vii

PAGE 8

Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY IN THE WEBLOGS OF MUSLIM WOMEN OF MIDDLE EASTERN AND NORTH AFRICAN DESCENT LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES By Ashley Dyess Sink May 2006 Chair: Michael Leslie Major Department: Mass Communication In recent years, media attention in the United States increasingly has turned to Arabs and Muslims. But few of the voices speaking are those of the people in question. Muslim women, especially, are seldom heard in the mainstream. However, many of them are speaking, telling their stories to audiences large and small through new technology on the Internet. Weblogs, online personal journals, allow anyone with access to the Internet to become a published author. These sites of dialogue and intimate revelation offer unique insights into their authors lives. In this thesis, in-depth qualitative textual analysis was used to examine the weblogs of six Muslim women of Middle Eastern or North African descent (MMENA) living in the United States and writing in English to understand how they use their blogs to negotiate identity and create community. Intercultural communication theories (specifically Ting-Toomeys identity negotiation theory, Hofstedes cultural dimensions, and Tajfels social identity theory), computerviii

PAGE 9

mediated communication theories, and existing literature on Muslim women were all incorporated. The women addressed identity within several different areas, in each one displaying a paradox of identity: what Edward Said also called plurality of vision or a constant contest between cultures. They were aware of more than one culture (that of mainstream United States and the culture of their heritage), were fully part of neither of them, and fully felt the dissonances between them. This conflict was strengthened by their membership in a culture currently faced with prejudice from United States culture as a whole. Their blogs seemed to be a kind of identity workshop, a fluid space between the different aspects of who they are. Within them, they negotiated personal identity, gender identity, and cultural/ethnic identity. They built two kinds of community through their blogs: that which was based on face-to-face relationships and was an extension of everyday interactions, and that which was based primarily on computer-mediated interactions. The blogs all displayed, to some extent, a "sense of community" involving feelings of membership, the fulfillment of needs, and a shared emotional connection. This is the first study to address MMENA women in relation to their use of blogs. The paradox of identity the women experienced is important to understand in the context of todays society in the US. It appears that outsiders perceptions of MMENA Americans have a great impact on these women, perhaps greater than they would have on women of different backgrounds, because of their high level of communalism and their status as female members of a non-dominant group within the US. ix

PAGE 10

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In recent years, media attention in the United States increasingly has turned to Arabs and Muslims. Questions about religion, violence, and womens roles are asked and answered. But few of the voices speaking are those of the people in question. Muslim women, especially, are seldom heard in the mainstream. However, many of them are speaking, telling their stories to audiences large and small through new technology on the Internet. Weblogs, online personal journals, allow anyone with access to the Internet to become a published author. These sites of dialogue and intimate revelation offer unique insights into their authors lives. 1 Muslim women of Middle Eastern and North African descent living in America and writing in English have a distinctive presence in the blogosphere. Through the words and images presented on their blogs, they construct and communicate the identities and communities in which they live. Many are part of blogrings (groups of bloggers who link to the sites of others with specific interests) related to issues they deal with on a daily basis. In this thesis, I will seek to offer an answer to the question: How do Muslim women of Middle Eastern and North African descent living in America use personal blogs to create identity and community? After living in the Middle East for several years, I became fascinated with the pervasiveness of stories in everyday conversation. Upon learning more about Muslim 1 Adam Reed, My Blog Is Me: Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and anthropology), Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 70, no. 2 (June 2005): 226. 1

PAGE 11

2 Middle Eastern and North African (MMENA) descendant communities in the United States and the complexities of a marginalized groups communication, I developed an interest in learning about the stories they tell, both to each other and to the rest of the world. The rich oral heritage of MMENA tradition coupled with the generally high education levels of this group in the United States 2 make the weblog an ideal medium for their storytelling: though it demands written communication, it also has strong elements of orality. 3 Studying MMENA womens weblogs offers insight into how they present themselves to themselves, each other, and the general public, as well as how they form and maintain communities. My personal experiences in Lebanon and my interest in womens communication led me to conduct this study. I spent three years in Lebanon where I taught English and worked with a womens organization. I learned to speak Arabic and made many close friends. My experiences with Lebanese people and culture were so positive that I was often shocked by Western responses to the region. Upon my return to the United States, the medias portrayal of MMENA women surprised and angered me. I also dealt with reverse culture shock, which gave me an interest in bicultural individuals. Because blogging is a relatively new phenomenon in an unorganized yet complex environment, research is still in the exploratory stages. Recent studies examined uses and gratifications of writing and reading blogs using both quantitative 4 and qualitative 5 2 Jenan Ghazal Read, Culture, Class, and Work among Arab-American Women (New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, 2004): 8. 3 Kristin Langellier and Eric Peterson, Storytelling in Daily Life: Performing Narrative (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004): 15988. 4 Barbara Kaye, It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs, Atlantic Journal of Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 735.

PAGE 12

3 approaches; the development of blogging communities among those of similar interests 6 including knitting 7 or cooking; 8 and the presentation of self by various groups of people through blogs 9 such as teenagers, 10 teenage girls, 11 and young Londoners. 12 This study is unique in that it focuses on blogging both as a form of intercultural communication and identity construction for a specific religious, ethnic and age cohort, i.e., young MMENA women. Chapter two of this thesis provides an overview of the scholarship relevant to the various dimensions of the research question including intercultural communication theories; computer-mediated communication; blogging; and MMENA identity, community, and media use. Chapter three outlines the research methods. Areas covered are participant selection, data collection, methods of analysis, researcher reflexivity, and 5 Bonnie A. Nardi, Diane J. Schiano, Michelle Gumbrecht, and Luke Swartz, Why We Blog, Communications of the ACM 47 no. 12 (December 2004): 41-46. 6 Barry Wellman, and Milena Gulia, Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Dont Ride Alone, In Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace [electronic resource] (London, New York: Routledge, 2003). 7 Carolyn Wei, Formation of Norms in a Blog Community, In L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere accessed April 2006. 8 Anita Blanchard, Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project, In L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere accessed April 2006. 9 Vincent W. Hevem, Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical Self, Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 32135. 10 David Huffaker, Gender Similarities and Differences in Online Identity and Language Use among Teenage Bloggers, MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2004. 11 Denise Sevick Bortree, Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage Girls Weblogs, Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 25. 12 Reed, My Blog Is Me, 220242.

PAGE 13

4 ethical considerations. Chapter four discusses the findings of the study, and chapter five places them in the larger theoretical context.

PAGE 14

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE In the following review of the literature, I examine scholarship relevant to the various dimensions of my research question. First, I begin with an overview of intercultural communication. Following are discussions regarding specific intercultural communication theories related to personal and group identity. I then move to an examination of current research on computer-mediated communication (CMC), especially in relation to identity and community (particularly diasporic) formation. Literature on blogging, a subset of CMC, is reviewed next, again with attention to the construction of identity and community. As my research focuses on the blogging behaviors of Muslim women of Middle Eastern and North African descent, I then survey work on this specific group of women and their identities and communities. Finally, I discuss gaps and documented needs for further study in the literature. Identity in Intercultural Communication Intercultural communication occurs between unalike individuals of different cultures. Research in this area began at the United States Foreign Service Institute in response to the increasing diplomatic involvement of the United States around the world. Areas of study traditionally include nonverbal communication, assimilation, sojourning, culture shock, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and individualism-collectivism. Conception of 5

PAGE 15

6 the self is a salient dimension of these areas, and identity issues are often incorporated into studies focusing on these topics. 1 In her identity negotiation theory of intercultural communication, Ting-Toomey synthesized insights from many intercultural communication researchers with findings from her own work. In this theory, identity is defined as the self-reflections or self-images derived from socializing processes such as culture, ethnicity, and gender that are practiced, constructed, and expressed through specific interactions. It consists of eight domains in two categories: primary identity dimensions including cultural, ethnic, gender, and personal identities; and situationally dependent identity dimensions including role, relational, facework, and symbolic interaction identities. Negotiation is a two-way communication process in which individuals reinforce, change, support, or challenge each others self-images. Thus, the theory states that the dimensions of an individuals identity are constantly negotiated during intercultural communication. 2 Ten core assumptions further define the theory: group and personal identities are products of symbolic interaction, needs for identity stability and connection are constant across cultures, identity security or vulnerability depends on the familiarity of the environment, identity trust is created with similar others, in-group membership endorsements enhance feelings of inclusion, close relationships are desired but not a function of identity autonomy, culture familiarity leads to a perception of identity stability, identity dimensions influence the interpretation of identity themes, feelings of 1 William B. Gudykunst and Bella Mody, eds., Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication, 2 nd edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 27. 2 Stella Ting-Toomey, Communicating Across Cultures (New York: The Guildford Press, 1999), 2654.

PAGE 16

7 respect and support are outcomes of satisfactory identity negotiation, and finally, mindful intercultural communication integrates these assumptions with knowledge, motivation, and skills to communicate effectively. 3 Intercultural communication scholars often examine value systems across cultures. Hofstede devised the primary system of cultural variability, which includes individualism-collectivism as the most often researched and practical of the dimensions. 4 Ting-Toomey argues that identity, or self-conception, is highly linked to the individualism-collectivism dimension. Those from individualistic cultures are likely to perceive identity based on independent self-construals, personal self-esteem, and generalized-based interaction. On the other hand, the identities of individuals from collectivistic cultures depend more on interdependent self-construals, group self-esteem, and in-group based interaction. 5 Tajfels social identity theory further explains the intersection of group and individual identities: self-image is improved (or worsened) dependent upon both in-group and personal identity. Thus, an individual may enhance her personal identity by building up her group identity, which in turn enhances her personal identity. This relationship leads to loyalty to and preference for the self and the in-group to the exclusion of out-groups (dissimilar, disconnected, and/or distrusted groups). 6 Phinney proposed that ethnic groups or minorities living within a dominant culture have further identity dimensions to 3 Ibid., 401. 4 Geert Hofstede, Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1980). 5 Ting-Toomey, Communicating Across Cultures, 76. 6 H. Tajfel, Human Groups and Social Categories (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

PAGE 17

8 negotiate in communication with out-group members. At any given point, an individual from a minority or ethnic group holds a specific part or parts of her identity as most salient; whether ethnic belonging, ethnic identity achievement, ethnic practices, or other-group orientation. 7 Therefore, for members of one of these groups, the community, or in-group, likely plays a larger role in personal identity formation than it does for members of the dominant culture. Orbe created co-cultural theory to describe the interactions between dominant and non-dominant, or co-cultural, groups. Using phenomenological inquiry, he discovered that co-cultural individuals may use assertive, nonassertive, or aggressive communication strategies to interact with the dominant group. They also have specific orientations regarding how they should respond to the dominant groups culture: assimilation, accommodation, or separation. He described nine possible combinations of orientations and communication strategies in an attempt to understand the relationships between power and communication in society. 8 Computer-Mediated Communication As computers have become more pervasive in our society, their uses have necessarily expanded from scientific calculation machines to tools for ordinary people to use on a daily basis. This use often takes the form of computer-mediated communication (CMC), an over-arching term referring to communication between humans that uses computers as the medium. It may be defined as a process by which a group of social actors in a given situation negotiates the meaning of the various situations, which rise 7 Jean S. Phinney, The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use with Diverse Groups, Journal of Adolescent Research 7, 1566. 8 Mark P. Orbe, Constructing Co-cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and Communication (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998), 500.

PAGE 18

9 between them. 9 Lindlof and Taylor define CMC as the process through which humans create, maintain, and transform meaning by interacting as users of computerized systems of communication. 10 They note that while computers increasingly are integrated with existing communications systems (such as telephone and television), they are simultaneously improving in speed, ease of use, and sophistication as well as affordability. Not surprisingly, the use of the Internet is growing as well: by the end of 2004, 63 percent of adults and 81 percent of teenagers in the United States were online. Of these, 84 percent are members of an online group or community, 27 percent read blogs, and 7 percent have created their own blogs. 11 The possibilities inherent in CMC are infinitedemocratization of the public sphere, new possibilities for relationship and community formation, unfettered personal development. 12 Particularly as Internet use increases, more people become published authors and artists online. Papacharissi calls this widespread tool a new channel of mass communication that allows everyone to become a producer of media content, providing people with access to a mass audience that they would otherwise be unable to reach. 13 9 Giuseppe Riva, The Sociocognitive Psychology of Computer-Mediated Communication: The Present and Future of Technology-Based Interactions, CyberPsychology and Behavior 5, no. 6 (December 2002): 596, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 10 Thomas R. Lindlof and Brian C. Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 2 nd edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 249. 11 Pew Internet and American Life Project, Internet: The Mainstreaming of Online Life (January 25, 2005): 58, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Internet_Status_2005.pdf accessed April 2006. 12 Heidi Campbell, Considering Spiritual Dimensions Within Computer-mediated Communication Studies, New Media and Society 7, no. 1 (2005): 117, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 13 Zizi Papacharissi, The Presentation of Self in Virtual Life, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 79, no 3 (2002): 658.

PAGE 19

10 CMC Research Directions Lindlof and Taylor, in their handbook of qualitative research, examine the research trends to date. As of 2002, CMC research centered on five main areas, all specific technologies which function as sites of communication: email, bulletin board systems (BBS), Internet relay chat (IRC), multiple user domains (MUD, MOO, or MUSH), and web pages. Within these five areas, qualitative researchers deal primarily with issues of identity, relationship, and community. CMC identity research typically covers topics such as self-presentation, new possibilities for self-expression, web subcultures, and the effect of CMC on traditional ways of being. Relationship-focused research divides into three distinct schools of thought: the cues filtered out approach characterizing CMC as cold and impersonal, the social information processing perspective proposing that meaningful interactions can form through CMC in time, and the hyper-personal approach involving idealization of individuals which produces quicker intimacy than face-to-face interactions. Research on CMC-based communities is often controversial. The very idea of community in a virtual environment is debatable. 14 In fact, some studies have examined if purported virtual or online communities were even communities at all. 15 14 Lindlof and Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 252256. 15 Anita Blanchard, Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project, in L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (2004), http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere accessed April 2006.

PAGE 20

11 Theories of CMC As we become more and more reliant upon technology in general and CMC in particular to accomplish everyday tasks, a culture of cyberspace 16 forms. Fernback argued that this culture differs anthropologically, socially, and literally from physical culture, differences which shape the making of meaning. 17 She notes the development of cyber-literacy into a necessary skill as a major influence over existing communication patterns. CMC, she argues, could be a revolution in human cognition: a new melding of oral and textual cultures. It is both cultural environment and channel of communication. She concludes, The realm of CMC is a site of oral culture, albeit an oral culture with distinctly print characteristics. 18 Campbell proposed four perspectives on the Internet and the communication that flows through it: the Internet as information space (utilitarian), a common mental geography (conceptual), an identity workshop (experimental), or a social space (social). These may combine to form a sacramental space, one accessed for the purpose of seeking spiritual meaning. She notes that the social space perspective allows researchers to study the human interactions that take place through the Internet, such as CMC. 19 Riva noted several prevalent theories related to CMC. First, he referred to CMC as an efficient form of miscommunication: 20 because a message sender is bodily distanced 16 Jan Fernback, Legends on the Net: An Examination of Computer-Mediated Communication as a Locus of Oral Culture, New Media and Society 5, no. 1 (March 2003): 39, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid., 44. 19 Campbell, Considering Spiritual Dimensions, 114119. 20 Riva, Sociocognitive Psychology, 582.

PAGE 21

12 from the message receiver, the usual conventions of communication are not present. Interaction is therefore more uncertain and more prone to misunderstanding. The social vacuum is another interpretation of CMC: because individuals are physically isolated, they are not bound by usual social rules. This is related to the cues filtered out perspective. In time, adherents assert, individuals lose their personal identities in the impersonal and unbounded world of CMC. In contrast to this, Riva proposes the social identity model of deindividuation effect (SIDE): a CMC users actions are influenced by invisible social norms as well as individual cognition. Because CMC lacks verbal and nonverbal physical cues, social norms are in fact more important, as the individual bases her actions on real-world expectations. 21 Virtual Communities Resulting from CMC Sociologists, according to Wellman and Gulia, have worried about the destruction of community by technology for many years. On the contrary, it has been found that technology (including cars and phones) enhances long-distance relationships, in turn building social networks that exist on a global scale rather than within a single neighborhood. These social networks depend less on socioeconomics and gender than they do on shared interests. Thus, while geographically based communities tend to be homogeneous in social characteristics, technology based communities (such as those on the Internet) are often heterogeneous in social characteristics but homogeneous in interests and attitudes. 22 At the same time, while technology based interaction may create 21 Ibid., 584. 22 Barry Wellman and Milena Gulia, Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Dont Ride Alone, in Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace [electronic resource] (London, New York: Routledge, 2003), 169.

PAGE 22

13 communities across borders of time and space; it also serves to strengthen and maintain relationships based on face-to-face interaction. 23 As noted above, some scholars question if CMC can ever result in a true community. Online groups that are not considered communities are called simply virtual groups. 24 Jones suggests that it is important for researchers to draw a distinction between the technology that connects a virtual group and the relationships that make the group a community. He uses archaeological terms to suggest first identifying virtual settlements then examining the cultural artifacts extant in the settlement. The artifacts (postings, structure, and content) lead to an interpretation and identification of the community. 25 In order to be considered a settlement (and subsequently a community), the virtual site must have a minimal number of public interactions with a variety of communicators in which there is a minimal level of sustained membership over time. 26 Relationships and emotional ties develop in the community over time as an outgrowth of interactions between communicators. Blanchard expanded on Jones settlement idea by arguing that these emotional ties may be defined as sense of community. She proposes that sense of community is what separates a virtual community from a virtual group. It includes feelings of membership 23 Harry H. Hiller and Tara M. Franz, New Ties, Old Ties, and Lost Ties: The Use of the Internet in Diaspora, New Media and Society 6, no. 6 (2004): 732, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 24 Blanchard, Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project, paragraph 3. 25 Quentin Jones, Virtual-communities, Virtual Settlements and Cyber-archaeology: A Theoretical Outline, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3 no. 3 (1997): 24, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 26 Blanchard, Identifying a Sense of Community, paragraph 13.

PAGE 23

14 and influence, the fulfillment of needs, and a shared emotional connection. 27 Virtual groups desire to be communities for several reasons, she notes. Community is sought-after as meeting a human need for relationships that are increasingly difficult in the isolationist American culture. As more of the worlds population comes online, global communities are possible, fostering dialogue as well as other social benefits. Membership in a virtual community may increase ones involvement in face-to-face communities and activism. Additionally, a virtual community, unlike a group, is sustainable; an important characteristic for the social and emotional wellbeing of participants as well as more material (often financial) concerns of sponsors. 28 Diasporic communities offer unique insights into the community building possibilities of CMC, as they consist of a group of people with relatively homogeneous social characteristics and possibly heterogeneous interests bound by a common stake in a homeland. Diasporas usually exhibit at least some of the following characteristics: dispersal from the homeland under duress, emigration because of economic problems or colonization, shared stories and memory of the homeland, an idealized view of the homeland, widespread desire to return, strong identification as an ethnic group, discontent or discrimination within the host society, and solidarity with others from the homeland across national borders. 29 Diasporic identity is usually only one element of a persons identity construction, which also includes gender, class, age, and other factors. 27 Ibid. 28 Ibid. 29 Joshua Kaldor-Robinson, The Virtual and the Imaginary: The Role of Diasphoric New Media in the Construction of a National Identity during the Break-up of Yugoslavia, Oxford Development Studies 30, no. 2 (June 2002): 178, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 24

15 Notably, diasporic identity is highly flexible, tending to change dramatically over short periods of time depending on geopolitical factors. 30 Hiller and Franz note that diasporic virtual communities substitute for expensive visits home and daily interaction with those from the same geographic area. It may function as both an interest-based and geographically based community. For recent migrants, a virtual community functions as an alleviator of homesickness, partner in culture shock, and helper with assimilation into the new culture. For those who are more settled in a new culture, the virtual community serves to reestablish lost or neglected ties or fuel a sense of nostalgia about the homeland. Thus, the community in these cases forms from a generalized sense of belongingbased on group identity and a territorial homeland. 31 Recent studies of diasporic communities online found they are used for connection, support, and political activism among migrants from areas as diverse as Haiti, 32 Newfoundland, 33 and Yugoslavia. 34 Identity in CMC Social psychologist Sherry Turkle pioneered research of identity in CMC with studies of MUD players interactions. In face-to-face interviews with over a thousand players as well as participation in multiple MUDs, she found identity in cyberspace to be a concept disconnected from the body, constantly moving between genders, roles, and 30 Ibid., 180. 31 Hiller and Franz, New Ties, 73548. 32 Angel Adams Parham, Diaspora, Community, and Communication: Internet Use in Transnational Haiti, Global Networks 4, no. 2 (April 2004): 1997, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 33 Hiller and Franz, New Ties. 34 Kaldor-Robinson, The Virtual and the Imaginary.

PAGE 25

16 relationships. The computer provides a stage for soliloquies or large-scale dramas where players act out fantasies, constructing their identities and exploring formative concepts. 35 Talamo and Ligorio studied identity construction in Euroland, a virtual community for students and teachers in which participants created a fictional identity consisting of a name, visual representation, and specific actions such as text-based chat. They found that in this context, individuals created their identities in relation to others (positioning) and in direct relation to the opportunities and interactions offered within the virtual world. Three factors play a role in virtual identity construction overall: the ability to remain anonymous, communication that is either synchronous (which does not allow an individual to spend time carefully constructing interaction) or asynchronous (which allows for more careful self-presentation), and the availability of both visual and textual representations. 36 Papacharissi examined personal web pages to understand how self may be presented in a virtual environment. The perception of self by others in this case cannot rely on traditional markers of social status like appearance. Instead, web page creators tended to depend on links to indicate their likes and dislikes to viewers. Features such as email, guest books, and traffic counters reflected a desire for social interaction. Additionally, Papacharissi interpreted membership in web page communities as a need for affiliation and validation by others that the self presented is accepted. 37 35 Sherry Turkle, Identity in the Age of the Internet, In Mackay, Hugh, and OSullivan, Tim, eds., The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation (London: Sage Publications, 1999), 287304. 36 Alessandra Talamo and Beatrice Ligorio, Strategic Identities in Cyberspace, CyberPsychology & Behavior 4, no. 1 (2001): 10911, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 37 Papacharissi, The Presentation of Self, 655.

PAGE 26

17 A New Form of CMC: The Weblog In its simplest form, a weblog (or blog) is simply an online journal ofopinions, thoughts, and interests. 38 Blogs typically have one author who posts entries that display in chronological order with the most recent post at the top of the webpage. They may also include links to other blogs or sites of interest, an image and/or biography of the author, audio, video, a comments section for other bloggers to post responses, and a guestbook. Unlike earlier forms of CMC, such as personal webpages, blogs are stricter in their format (time/date stamps on entries, chronological listing of posts) and easier to use for those with lower levels of technology skills, as they require only a basic knowledge of computer use in order to be published. 39 Wilson notes that blogs have given greater voice to those who are not often heard in the public sphere, such as women, and increased a sense of empowerment through cross-validation of the opinions and thoughts of authors by other bloggers. 40 Most blogs are narrative in format and structured around the personality of the author. Some consider their blogs an extension of self, a facet of their personalities revealed in public; one blogger described blogs as the great I am. 41 Some call blogs a conversation based on the social currency of links, referring to and reading others blogs. 42 While over 70 percent of blogs are considered personal journals, other 38 Trish Wilson, Women in the Blogosphere, Off Our Backs 35, no. 5/6 (May/June 2005): paragraph 4, www.proquest.com accessed April 2006. 39 David Huffaker, Gender Similarities and Differences in Online Identity and Language Use among Teenage Bloggers (MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2004), 30. 40 Wilson, Women in the Blogosphere, paragraph 4. 41 Adam Reed, My Blog Is Me: Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and Anthropology), Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 70, no. 2 (June 2005): 226. 42 Cameron Marlow, Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community, paper presented at the meeting of the 54th Annual Conference, International Communication Association, New Orleans (May, 2004), http://web.media.mit.edu/~cameron/cv/pubs/04-01.pdf accessed April 2006.

PAGE 27

18 types include knowledge logs (k-logs), filters, mixed (combination of types), or functions such as retail or advertisement hosting. 43 Others classify blogs as a genre of speech 44 and a social structure dependent on the writers intentions. 45 Weblogs first developed between 1994 and 1998, beginning with early adopters of the Internet (generally computer programmers) who created pages of links and commentary. In 1997, Jorn Barger, author of the blog Robot Wisdom, first used the term weblog to refer to his site. In 1999, easy-to-use free software (including Blogger, Pitas, and Groksoup) became available to the general public, democratizing the blogosphere. 46 Though critics such as McChesney caution that the Internet is no more democratizing than passing out a newsletter to ones neighbors, it is precisely the decentralized, personal and particular nature of weblogs that make them so attractive to those who wish to have a hand in creating media. 47 Rak proposes that weblogs in general have a specific ideology due to their origins as American computer experts personal sites. They tend to focus on the primacy of 43 Susan C. Herring, Lois Ann Scheidt, Sabrina Bonus, and Elijah Wright, Bridging the Gap: A Genre Analysis of Weblogs, In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc accessed April 2006. 44 Alireza Doostdar, The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging: On Language, Culture, and Power in Persian Weblogestan, American Anthropologist 106 no. 4 (December 2004): 654, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 45 Lilia Efimova and Stephanie Hendrick, In Search for a Virtual Settlement: An Exploration of Weblog Community Boundaries, DocuShare Telematica Instituut, (2004): 2, https://doc.telin.nl/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-46041 accessed April 2006. 46 Laura J. Gurak and others, Introduction: Weblogs, Rhetoric, Community, and Culture, in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraph 1, http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/introduction.html accessed April 2006. 47 Kristin M. Langellier and Eric E. Peterson, Storytelling in Daily Life (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 173.

PAGE 28

19 individual experience 48 and exhibit a sense of opposition to the established media, extreme individualism, capitalism, and liberalism especially regarding freedom of expression (based on Rousseaus model of the social contract). 49 Though all blogs follow a similar format, content is highly varied. Readers and creators of weblogs have a wide range of uses for blogs, a topic currently under investigation in academia. In one of the earlier blog studies, Kaye found that blog readers (at the time mostly young, educated, high-income males) read blogs for the purposes of information seeking and media check, convenience, personal fulfillment, surveillance, expression, and affiliation. 50 A contemporary study of uses and gratifications of personal blog creators found their motivations were documenting life, expressing opinions, having an outlet for emotions and thoughts, testing ideas for an audience, and opening a community forum. 51 While mainstream media hype often portrays the blogosphere as a fast-paced, highly interconnected scene of debate and idea exchange, the majority of blogs are simple diaries or ways to keep in touch with friends and family from the face-to-face world. 52 In this sense, a blog may become a site for the synthesis of real life 48 Julie Rak, The Digital Queer: Weblogs and Internet Identity, Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 28, no. 1 (Winter 2005): 166, http://search.epnet.net accessed April 2006. 49 Ibid., 166173. 50 Barbara Kaye, It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs, Atlantic Journal of Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 84. 51 Bonnie A. Nardi, Diane J. Schiano, Michelle Gumbrecht, and Luke Swartz, Why We Blog, Communications of the ACM 47 no. 12 (December 2004): 42. 52 Graham Lampa, Imagining the Blogosphere: An Introduction to the Imagined Community of Instant Publishing, in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraphs 1, 9, 10, http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/imagining_the_blogosphere.html accessed April 2006.

PAGE 29

20 with an alter ego that exists only in the authors imagination 53 or a way of substituting texts for persons. 54 Lampa found self-publishing on blogs to be a new form of mass ceremony, as reading the morning newspaper was in the past. 55 Some blogs become a conversation medium for a modern version of storytelling. 56 Particularly for adolescent girls, journal-type sites may become an online narrative for expressing oneself to the world. 57 Other uses include educational purposes, online journalism, or knowledge sharing within or between businesses and other organizations. 58 Herring and her research team, through a process of social network analysis, found that most blogs (particularly journal-type blogs) are not densely linked to others. Rather, small clusters are heavily interlinked, while only the most famous A-list blogs are truly linked across the blogosphere. 59 An interesting feature of blogs is their position between interpersonal and mass communication. Though most blogs are intended primarily for an audience of face-to-face acquaintances, by publishing on the web bloggers acknowledge their status as creators of content for public consumption. This may lead to a conflict in the bloggers 53 Rak, The Digital Queer, 167168. 54 Reed, My Blog Is Me, 224, 227. 55 Lampa, Imagining the Blogosphere, 13, 20. 56 Langellier and Peterson, Storytelling, 165175. 57 Susannah R. Stern, Virtually Speaking: Girls Self-disclosure on the WWW, Womens Studies in Communication 25 no. 2 (September 2002), http://rdsweb1.rdsinc.com accessed April 2006. 58 Huffaker, Gender Similarities and Differences, 12. 59 Susan C. Herring and others, Conversations in the Blogosphere: An Analysis From the Bottom Up, in Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press. 2005), http://www.blogninja.com/hicss05.blogconv.pdf accessed April 2006.

PAGE 30

21 message: to whom do they write? 60 Many attempt to maintain a balance between writing to please themselves (the identity aspect) and writing to please others (the community aspect). 61 Scheidt examined five audience functions for bloggers: therapist supporting emotions; cultural theorist assessing meanings, values, and identities in the text; narrative analyst examining genre, truth or strategy; and critic appraising the display of performance knowledge and skill. 62 Some bloggers self-censor: relatives and other readers may disapprove of the raw, unedited content bloggers often produce, so many attempt to make it less offensive to preserve face-to-face relationships. 63 Though weblogs are public, they usually have an intimate feelimages of the author at the top of every page, highly revelatory contentthat creates a sense of private, one-on-one interaction. 64 Identity in Blogging Dimensions of identity are negotiated in blogs as they are in real life. In fact, Langellier and Peterson consider the dominant expression of weblogs to be the struggle over identitiesinterpersonal, social, moral, aestheticin uncertain and unstable conditions by making that struggle concrete and accessible. 65 Thus, a blog becomes a 60 Denise Sevick Bortree, Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage Girls Weblogs, Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 28. 61 Efimova and Hendrick, In Search for a Virtual Settlement, 5. 62 Lois Ann Scheidt, Adolescent Diary Weblogs and the Unseen Audience, in Buckingham, David and Willett, Rebekah, eds., Digital Generations: Children, Young People and New Media (London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006), http://www.slis.indiana.edu/research/working_papers/files/SLISWP-05-01.pdf accessed April 2006. 63 Nardi and others, Why We Blog, 43. 64 Meredith Badger, Visual Blogs, in Laura J. Gurak, Smiljana Antonijevic, Laurie Johnson, Clancy Ratliff, and Jessica Reyman, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraphs 5, http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/visual_blogs.html accessed April 2006. 65 Langellier and Peterson, Storytelling, 187.

PAGE 31

22 kind of workshop where the various pieces of identity are crafted, fit together, and constantly rearranged to fit the prevailing circumstances. Huffaker questions whether identity in blogs is as changeable as a suit of clothes, as stable as a real-world persona, or a combination of these two extremes. In his study of gender differences in weblog identities among teenagers, he found that few differences exist in the way teenagers present themselves to the world through blogs. 66 In particular, teens tend to use their screen names/blog names as important indicators of identity. 67 Reed conducted an online and face-to-face ethnography of UK journal bloggers. He proposes, based on his findings, that bloggers explicitly consider the texts of their blogs to be an extension of self; thus the title of his article, My Blog Is Me. 68 In his online ethnography of the Iranian blog community (Weblogestan), Doostdar discusses the self-presentations of Iranian bloggers revealed in their texts as linguistic and cultural rebels, perhaps in direct defiance of the political and cultural environment of contemporary Iran. 69 Hevems study of twenty personal weblogs revealed that time is an important factor in identity construction: as blog formats are based on reverse chronological order, it is possible to trace the development and fluctuations of the authors identity through the posts. He proposes the metaphor of thread/threading for examining identity in blogs. First, identity construction may be a journey (like the journey of thread through cloth) 66 Huffaker, Gender Similarities and Differences. 67 Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Patricia M. Greenfield, and Brendesha Tynes, Constructing Sexuality and Identity in an Online Teen Chat Room, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 25 no.6 (November-December 2004): 651666. 68 Reed, My Blog Is Me, 224. 69 Doostdar, The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging, 653.

PAGE 32

23 through time and narrative encompassing personal experiences and thoughts. Next, it may be spun (as the individual fibers of a thread overlap to create a whole) by changing, overlapping experiences and beliefs as expressed in the blog. Finally, online identity is a woven tapestry carefully (if unconsciously) constructed by the blogger to present a comprehensive image composed of individual elements. 70 Community in Blogging Based on Jones concept of the virtual settlement (see above), Blanchard conducted a case study of The Julie/Julia Project, a popular blog focused on cooking, to determine if it was a virtual community or merely a group. She found that having large numbers of readers alone does not create a sense of community; rather, it depends on the level of interaction with other features such as blogrolls, comments, and guestbooks. Readers who participated in these parts of the blog expressed a sense of community; those who did not participate did not express this sense. 71 Marlow considers the blogosphere to consist of a number of smaller communities, each with similar social structures based on authority as in face-to-face communities. 72 In her study of a blogging community based on knitting, Wei found that blogrings (one type of online community) tend to form around common interests or characteristics. Members typically have shared value systems as well as interests, leading to a culture with specific norms that must be followed for successful integration into the 70 Vincent W. Hevem, Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical Self, Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 32135. 71 Anita Lynn Blanchard, Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project, in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraphs 176, http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/blogs_as_virtual.html accessed April 2006. 72 Marlow, Audience, Structure, and Authority, paragraphs 13.

PAGE 33

24 community. 73 Using the metaphor of neighborhoods, Efimova and Hendrick found great variation in the use of shared spaces in the blogosphere. For example, the knitting community (above) had lively and active public discourse, while others appeared to be mere collections of buildings without interaction. However, closer examination revealed more subtle patterns of community interaction in the quieter communities; much one-to-one communication took place (through email, for example) based on the overall group communication. 74 As a blogging community grows (based around blogrings, links, or blogrolls) interactions between members tend to increase substantially over time. Reed found that after several months of knowing each other online, one UK blogging community initiated face-to-face meetings. Because these bloggers equate their blogs with their selves, the meetings were considered simply extensions of the blogging community: a meeting of old friends rather than complete strangers. 75 Blogging may offer specific benefits to communities on the fringes of the dominant culture by giving members forums in which to chronicle and synthesize life experiences, resist conforming to mainstream culture, and conquer social isolation. 76 However, Zdenek argues that this liberatory perspective is merely an unrealistic ideal; rather, the language of blogs and other forms of CMC serve to reinforce roles and stereotypes present in other forms of communication. This is particularly a problem for women, who 73 Carolyn Wei, Formation of Norms in a Blog Community, in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/formation_of_norms.html accessed April 2006. 74 Efimova and Hendrick, In Search For a Virtual Settlement. 75 Reed, My Blog Is Me, 234235. 76 Langellier and Peterson, Storytelling, 183.

PAGE 34

25 face magnified problems of silencing or attack in cyberspace. 77 The Internet in general has been called the ultimate act of intellectual colonialism due to its primary use of English and other American-based standards. However, while the Internet may exacerbate societal inequalities, it may also serve to change the existing structures that create these inequalities. 78 MMENA Women: Identity and Community Immigration from North Africa and the Middle East to the United States first began in the late 1800s. This first wave of immigration consisted mainly of Christians from then-Syria: present day Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan. This group assimilated quickly into the larger society while maintaining their religious theology, child-rearing practices, food, and family ties, though they did not pass on the knowledge of Arabic to their children. After World War II the second wave began. These newcomers were from across the region and had a politicized Arab consciousness, particularly after the Six-Day War of 1967. Unlike the initial arrivals, these immigrants were primarily Muslim. 79 Due to the increased atmosphere of ethnic freedom created by the civil rights movement, they were less afraid of openly expressing their ethnic and cultural heritage. This group influenced the earlier wave of immigrants by increasing their awareness of issues in the Middle East and North Africa, particularly in Palestine. However, since the events of September 11, 2001, many MMENA Americans fear 77 Sean Zdenek, Rising up from the MUD: Inscribing Gender in Software Design, Discourse and Society 10 no. 3 (1999): 37909. 78 Mark Warschauer, Language, Identity, and the Internet, Mots Pluriels 19 (October 2001), 5, http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels/MP1901mw.html accessed April 2006. 79 Linda P. Morton, Segmenting Publics: Segment to Target Arab Americans, Public Relations Quarterly 46 no. 4 (Winter 2001): 478, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 35

26 speaking out against American policies because of stereotypes currently implicit in their ethnicity. They often report experiencing a paradox of identity: 80 being ethnically and culturally identified with the enemy while being American citizens or residents as well. 81 Ashcroft and Ahluwalia expanded on the paradox of identity concept in their description of Palestinian cultural theorist Edward Saids work. Exiles, as many MMENA Americans could be considered, are aware of at least two cultures while most people only are familiar with one. The plurality of vision this knowledge provides leads to an awareness of different, often conflicting dimensions of culture. Identity is deeply affected by the conflicts, or as Said describes it, is a constant contest between cultures. Ones identity must be spoken to be claimed, Said asserted, and in the case of MMENA Americans, their identifying narratives often cannot be heard. They are overtaken by political issues, cultural stereotypes, and misunderstandings. 82 Read found that compared to the US adult population as a whole, MENA Americans are younger, better educated, and have higher incomes. Over half were born in the United States; one-third are Muslim. They are not a homogenous group with a monolithic culture, though some similarities do exist. The degree of patriarchal societal structure and gender role differentiation usually depend on social class, length of time in the United States, and country of origin. MMENA Americans tend to be more lenient 80 Steven Salaita, Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab Americans Before and After 9/11, College Literature 32 no. 2 (Spring 2005): 153, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 81 Ibid., 146168. 82 Bill Ashcroft and Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity (London, New York: Routledge, 1999 ), 9

PAGE 36

27 with traditional values than their counterparts in their homelands, including allowing women to pray in the mosques. 83 Shain calls MMENA Americans a mobilized diaspora with two major concerns in the U.S.: the status of MMENA Americans in politics and society and relations between the U.S. and the Arab world. 84 Nagel and Staheli note that although many are involved in organizations like the American-Arab Anti-discrimination Committee and the Arab American Institute that promote ethnically related causes, many are also transnational: claiming U.S. citizen identity but maintaining ties with the homeland. These individuals exhibit expressions of difference as well as social membership in American society. They explain, We suggest . that it is possible to claim identity as a citizen of a country and to negotiate membership within the bounds of belonging, even without claiming to be of that country. 85 This is evidenced in labels individuals choose to identify themselves: Arab, Arab-American, American, Lebanese, Palestinian, Copt, Egyptian, Muslim, or others. 86 Haddad notes that with changing political and cultural landscapes, the different generations of MMENA background Americans may identify themselves differently. Children born in America to parents who immigrated may 83 Jenan Ghazal Read, Culture, Class, and Work among Arab-American Women (New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, 2004), 15. 84 Yossi Shain, Arab-Americans at a Crossroads, Journal of Palestine Studies 25, no. 3 (Spring 1996): 47, http://jstor.org accessed April 2006. 85 Caroline R. Nagel and Lynn A. Staheli, Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab Immigrants to the United States, Space and Polity 8 no. 1 (April 2004): 3, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 86 Salaita, Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism, 163.

PAGE 37

28 struggle with reconciling their parents culture and religion to that of the society in which they grew up. 87 Palestinian women living in Canada report their that Muslim identity rather than their ethnicity became more salient after September 11, 2001. Cultural and religious practices such as wearing the hijab or delineating gender boundaries that were not observed in Palestine became important parts of life in Canada. Religious education for women, considered superfluous in Palestine, became a way to protect family and culture against a dangerous society. Endogamy was expected, whether within the Palestinian community or simply within the larger Muslim community. 88 Cainkar found similar practices in the U.S. Palestinian community, with the addition that social class played a major role in the degree to which women promoted traditional culture, with more affluent women exhibiting less traditional behaviors. 89 Similarly, Husain and OBrien found that most Muslims in the UK identify as British Muslim rather than using national origin as a primary characteristic of identity. Women in this community use the hijab and segregation of the genders to express resistance against Western dominance. 90 87 Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Not Quite American? The Shaping of Arab and Muslim Identity in the United States (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004), 51. 88 Camilla Gibb and Celia Rothenberg, Believing Women: Harari and Palestinian Women at Home and in the Canadian Diaspora, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 20 no. 2 (2000): 2439. 89 Louise Cainkar, Palestinian Women in American Society, in McCarus, Ernest, ed. The Development of Arab-American Identity (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994), 86105. 90 Fatima Husain and Margaret OBrien, Muslim Communities in Europe: Reconstruction and Transformation, Current Sociology 48, no. 4 (October 2000): 1, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 38

29 Michael notes that people often see themselves according to whichever facet of their identity is under attack. 91 Aoude adds that identity is always a composite of multiple identities, particularly for groups in diaspora. 92 MMENA women, located at the intersection of ethnic, religious, and gender politics, 93 often place more significance in their Muslim identities while in the West than they did in their home countries. Some feel that religious identity is the only available option because cultural identity can only exist in the physical context of the homeland. 94 Khan explores the idea of MMENA women living in a third space between identities, a politicized, creative, in-between, fluid space 95 where identities are continually negotiated. Ajrouch proposes that MMENA women bear a particular burden in comparison to men: There are indicationsthat because the males are urged to realize the American dream of financial success, the cultural meaning of an Arab ethnic identity is increasingly located in the behavior of the females. Overall, males are experiencing a loosening of cultural constraints from their family and community, whereas females experience perhaps even more restrictions on their behavior. This gendered division of expectations leads the community to rely on females for the maintenance of tradition and the perpetuation of an Arab identity. 96 91 John Michael, Beyond Us and Them: Identity and Terror from an Arab Americans Perspective, The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 no. 4 (2003): 70028, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 92 Ibrahim G. Aoude, Maintaining Culture, Reclaiming Identity: Palestinian Lives in the Diaspora, Asian Studies Review 25 no. 2 (June 2001): 153167, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 93 Susan E. Marshall and Jennan Ghazal Read, Identity Politics Among Arab-American Women, Social Science Quarterly 84 no. 4 (December 2003): 875, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 94 Shahnaz Khan, Muslim Women: Crafting a North American Identity (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2000), 119. 95 Ibid., 126. 96 Kristine J. Ajrouch, Place, Age, and Culture: Community Living and Ethnic Identity Among Lebanese American Adolescents, Small Group Research 31 no. 4 (August 2000): 453, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 39

30 Ahmed explored the contrast between womens orality and male-created and perpetuated text in the Arabic-speaking world. In the strictly segregated societies of Egypt and the Gulf countries, separate interpretations of culture, Islam, and morality developed in the womens world of spoken, colloquial Arabic and the mens sphere of written Arabic and medieval, male-produced texts. With the increase of Arabic literacy in these countries, Ahmed suggests, the gentler womens outlook on life could be lost. She called for opportunities for oral culture, in the past the province of women, to be maintained. 97 Mandaville identifies the Internet as an area where MMENA identities are continually constructed, debated and reimagined. 98 He notes that the younger generation of Muslims in the diaspora has a consciousness of the ummah (worldwide community of Muslims) that often transcends national borders. The Internet provides a space where they can negotiate between the various facets of their identities and communities in concert with others in similar positions around the world. 99 In a rare study of Muslim women and Internet use, Bastani describes the functions of the Muslim Women Network, an email discussion group for Muslim women around the world. She found that the women involved used the discussion group as a way to make face-to-face 97 Leila Ahmed, A Border Passage: From Cairo to AmericaA Womans Journey (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999), 2761. 98 Peter Mandaville, Reimagining Islam in Diaspora: the Politics of Mediated Community, Gazette 63, no. 23 (2001): 169, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 99 Ibid., 183184.

PAGE 40

31 connections with other Muslims outside their home countries, as a support network, and as a discussion forum for issues related to living in a non-Muslim society. 100 The Need for This Study St. Amant called for international digital studies, the intersection of CMC and intercultural communication research, citing the increasingly computer-dependent, globalized business world as an area where daily miscommunication occurs. He noted that in CMC identity is generally fluid and without face-to-face cues: an individual online can become whomever she wishes or may inadvertently be perceived by those she communicates with as totally different from how she perceives herself. However, as Ting-Toomey stated, much successful intercultural communication depends on a stable identity and familiar environment. Solid identity normally determines membership in an in-group: the community or in-group is in many cultures based on context, reciprocity, trust in anothers identity, and non-verbal cues. The contention between practical aspects of identity in these systems of communication may lead to misunderstandings with consequences for both businesses and individuals. Therefore, St. Amant suggested, research should be conducted that considers the differing functions of identity in CMC and intercultural communication. 101 Studies have not yet been conducted to examine the blogging behavior of specific ethnic groups, as most blog community studies focus on interest or culture groups. Additionally, little research has addressed MMENA womens use or creation of media. 100 Susan Bastani, Muslim Women On-line. The Arab World Geographer/Le Gographe du monde arabe 3 no. 1 (2000): 527. 101 Kirk St. Amant, When Cultures and Computers Collide: Rethinking Computer-Mediated Communication According to International and Intercultural Communication Expectations, Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 16, no. 2 (April 2002): 1964, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 41

32 No previous studies have focused on the blogs of MMENA women. In fact, little research has attended to the communication behaviors of MMENA women in any context. Scholars have called for a continued examination of blogs as they grow in popularity, 102 study of identity negotiation through blogs, 103 and examination of new forms of virtual community. 104 This study will be helpful by exploring these areas of documented need as well as expanding understanding of MMENA women and their intercultural communication in general. 102 Nardi et al, Why We Blog, 46. 103 Hevem, Threaded Identity in Cyberspace, 323. 104 Papacharissi, The Presentation of Self in Virtual Life, 657.

PAGE 42

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD One of the major areas of computer-mediated communication research is social interaction and the presentation of self online. 1 Online communication within communities generally enables users to freely express emotions and reach a high level of self-disclosure. 2 Thus, online communities may offer a unique forum for concentrated exploration of issues of identity and community. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to such research because it provides fine-grained data about an often-mystified social phenomenon. 3 Current studies of computer-mediated communication, particularly blogging, generally employ one of a limited number of methods. Quantitative studies tend to rely on content analysis 4 of blog entries 5 or survey data from blog authors 6 or readers. Qualitative studies popularly use 1 Chris Mann and Fiona Stewart, Internet Communication and Qualitative Research: A Handbook for Researching Online (London: Sage Publications, 2000), 4. 2 Liav Sade-Beck, Internet Ethnography: Online and Offline, International Journal of Qualitative Methods 3 no. 2 (2004): 4, http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/3_2/ pdf/sadebeck.pdf accessed April 2006. 3 Thomas R. Lindlof and Brian C. Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 2 nd edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 253. 4 Susan C. Herring, Lois Ann Scheidt, Sabrina Bonus, and Elijah Wright, Bridging the Gap: A Genre Analysis of Weblogs, In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc accessed April 2006.. 5 Judit Bar-Ilan, An Outsiders View on Topic-oriented blogging, In 13th World Wide Web Conference. New York: The International World Wide Web Conference Committee (IW3C2) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), (2004). http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1013367.1013373 accessed April 2006. 33

PAGE 43

34 either discourse analysis 7 or ethnographic methods such as observation 8 and/or in-depth interviews either face-to-face 9 or online. 10 In this project, I employed qualitative methods in a study of a group of Muslim women of Middle Eastern and North African (MMENA) descent to describe how they used blogging in identity and community construction. I gathered a wide range of data including text from blog entries, page formats, images, and audio as well as comments from other bloggers. Then, I conducted in-depth analysis on the creations of a select number of bloggers. To ensure naturalistic inquiry, all data collection remained a function of computer-mediated communication. 11 Researcher reflexivity was incorporated into the study 12 through the use of my personal blog to enable me to understand the experience of being a blogger. 13 I also maintained extensive research notes throughout the data collection and analysis phases, which are discussed in chapter four. Member checks were 6 Barbara Kaye, It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs, Atlantic Journal of Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 735, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 7 Alessandra Talamo and Beatrice Ligorio, Strategic Identities in Cyberspace. CyberPsychology & Behavior 4, no. 1 (2001): 109122, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 8 Vincent W. Hevem, Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical Self, Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 32135, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 9 Adam Reed, My Blog Is Me: Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and anthropology), Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 70, no. 2 (June 2005): 226, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 10 Denise Sevick Bortree, Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage Girls Weblogs, Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 25. 11 Lindlof and Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 267268. 12 Ruth DeSouza, Motherhood, Migration and Methodology: Giving Voice to the Other, The Qualitative Report 9 no. 3 (2004): 4632, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-3/desouza.pdf accessed April 2006. 13 Alireza Doostdar, The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging: On Language, Culture, and Power in Persian Weblogestan, American Anthropologist 106 no. 4 (December 2004): 65253, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 44

35 conducted electronically after the analysis and draft of the report. This design attempted to conform to accepted standards of quality in qualitative research based on guidelines suggested by Jones 14 and Creswell. 15 Prior to conducting the study or finalizing the research design, I conducted an in-depth interview with a female blogger of similar background to determine if issues of identity and community were likely relevant to MMENA bloggers. The interview confirmed some topics as possibly important, raised some new to me, and prompted reconsideration of other issues. Though data from the interview was not be used in this study, offline explorations of the topic under study serve to enrich understanding and later analysis as suggested by Sade-Beck. 16 To select participants in the study, I first examined two blogrings for Muslim women from the Xanga blogging service: The Hijab: The Holiest Hat of Them All 17 blogring with 416 members and the Niqaabi Sisters 18 blogring with 31 members. Blogrings are optional and generally are based around some form of self-identification such as gender, religion, hobbies, or political orientation. Choosing participants from blogrings for Muslim women ensured that the participants self-identified as Muslim. I used criterion sampling to select participants based on factors such as ethnicity, posting 14 Kip Jones, Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review, The Qualitative Report 9, no. 1 (March 2004): 9512, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-1/jones.pdf accessed April 2006. 15 John W. Creswell, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design (London: Sage Publications, 1998), 193218. 16 Sade-Beck, Internet Ethnography, 12. 17 http://www.xanga.com/groups/group.aspx?id=50775 accessed April 2006. 18 http://www.xanga.com/groups/group.aspx?id=374740 accessed April 2006.

PAGE 45

36 frequency, age, content of posts, and level of interaction with other blogs. The ideal participant was one who posted at least weekly on her blog, maintained a blog for three months or more, was over 18 years of age, posted text with content of some depth, and interacted with other bloggers through comments or chat. Selection was an emergent process, as specific markers of these criteria were not known at the outset. 19 While posting frequency and length of time blogging were easily determined by the dates on the blogs, the other criteria took time to discern. Some bloggers included their entire birthdates; others ages were determined by their enrollment in college or in posts about birthday celebrations. Depth of content and interactions with other bloggers was discovered by reading several months of posts as well as the comment sections of the blogs. In some cases, I also read blogs on which the blogger in question posted. After reading all the active blogs from the two blogrings mentioned above, I found only two blogs that met the criteria. I subsequently broadened my search to other blogrings working from links on the blogs already selected. These led me to choose bloggers who were members of a Muslim Student Organization blogring, an Egyptian blogring, and a MMENA blogring titled Arab-American Palace. Throughout the search, I read approximately three hundred blogs. I selected seven blogs for in-depth analysis, based on the criteria above, and working to reach saturation. I also looked for disconfirming cases, and as described in the next chapter, two of the bloggers differed greatly from the others in several aspects of identity and community formation. Because blogs are public documents that their authors have not opted to make private (through available options such as password protection, for example), the first 19 Creswell, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 1180.

PAGE 46

37 stage of this research was conducted as a lurker. After selecting the seven blogs for analysis, I saved the entire contents of the blog to editable PDF files in the Webstractor Internet capture program. This yielded over 400 PDF pages of data. I used open coding to complete initial analysis of the information. 20 The codes were entered, using the computer program, directly onto the data in a highlighted text. From this, I created interview questions for each blogger based on specific information within their blogs. Next I attempted to recruit participants for interviews by posting an invitation on their blogs using my own blogging identity. I referred them to my own blog to establish my credibility as a member of the larger blogging community 21 and to further explain the study. 22 My blog 23 contained a short overview of the study, the informed consent document approved by the IRB, and a brief biography of me that explained why I was interested in this topic. None of the bloggers invited to participate accepted the invitation. For two weeks, all of my posts were ignored. Then one of the bloggers, who was linked to three of the others, posted a comment. She wrote that my post on her blog, as it did not relate to what she had written about the death of a friend, deeply offended her. I immediately offered an apology through a private email, which she accepted. She wished me luck in the study but refused to be interviewed. On her blog, my post was deleted. It seems that my insensitivity to her post was exacerbated by my being a stranger to her. I noticed that 20 Ibid., 567. 21 Denise Sevick Bortree, personal communication, October 6, 2005. (This information was removed from her original article due to space limitations.) 22 Lindlof and Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 272. 23 http://www.xanga.com/ashleysinkUF accessed April 2006.

PAGE 47

38 several other of the comments on the same post were unrelated to hers. In those cases, however, she simply posted comments on their sites that explained her friends death and asked them to re-read her post. This episode shook me greatly, and I reconsidered the entire study, as my intentions were in no way to harm the women. While I intended for the two methods of data collection (textual analysis and interviews) to serve as triangulation to ensure research quality and meaningful interpretation, the text of the blogs themselves yielded a wealth of information that answered my research question. Upon the advice of my supervisory committee, I continued the study as a textual analysis. At this time, I collapsed the original categories into more succinct ones. I worked with the categories extensively to determine which were important and how they all fit together. I used concept mapping to help visually outline the connections between the different categories. During the analysis stage, one of the seven bloggers removed her old posts from the Internet. She maintained her profile page and guest book but had no posts. I contacted her through the guest book but received no reply. Since she, for some reason, desired to have her old posts private, I did not include her blog in the study. I do not feel that this compromised the study, as her blog further confirmed the findings related below. While completing the research report, approximately two months after my initial invitations to participate in the study, I received a response from one of the bloggers. She said she wanted to participate and asked me to post on her blog. However, she did not respond after this. After the analysis and report of findings were complete, I posted a three-page summary of the major themes of the findings on my blog. The entry was protected so that only the bloggers I designated (those whose blogs were included in the

PAGE 48

39 study) were able to access it. I contacted four of the bloggers using the email links on their blogs and posted a comment on one blog. I discovered that one of the blogs had been closed down by its author at this point and was thus unable to contact this author. Upon the writing of this report, I received responses from one of the bloggers. Her comments are incorporated, with her permission, into the end of chapter four. 24 None of the other bloggers had responded to the request for member checks by the conclusion of the writing of this report. Using the webpage capture program, copies of each blog under study were saved in PDF format upon each update by the blog author. These files remained on my computer, which was password protected, for the duration of the study. Backup copies of these files were saved on an external hard drive and CDs. As the Internet is a relatively new arena of research, ethical guidelines for researchers are under debate. 25 I viewed the bloggers as private individuals creating public documents and requiring care and consideration. Therefore, no distinguishing information such as real names, photos, email addresses, exact place of residence, or screen name was included in the study. The names used to refer to them in the following chapters are pseudonyms only. 26 24 Ibid., 270. 25 Ibid., 271. 26 Amy Bruckman, Studying the Amateur Artist: A Perspective on Disguising Data Collected in Human Subjects Research on the Internet, Ethics and Information Technology 4 no. 3 (2002): paragraph 909, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/ethics_bruckman.html accessed April 2006.

PAGE 49

CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Identity I always thought it was confusing to decide whether I was American or Egyptian, but I see the same replicating in every aspect of my life--culture, identity, religion, marriage, race, class, ethnicity, heritege--, in everything basically. I always wondered if there were others out there who felt that way about being Middle Eastern or Egyptian or from Egypt or spoke Arabic or considered themselves Arab and were brought up in the United States...Am I becoming a bi-product of two different world's I have lived in thus far and has my habitus influenced me so greatly that I have given up on traditions and institutions within both spectrum? Or am I just realizing that the epitemy of my loneliness comes from my confusion, or ill-fate of realization? Does anyone understand? Thus wrote Emster, a MMENA blogger, while wrestling with defining her identity in the interstitial space between MMENA and American life. Like the other bloggers in this study, Emster found herself torn between two worlds, neither of which was completely comfortable on its own. In her theory of identity negotiation, Ting-Toomey outlined primary dimensions of identity that are not situationally dependent: cultural, ethnic, gender, and personal identities. Within these dimensions of identity, the MMENA bloggers in this study displayed a paradox of identity, conflict between the various aspects of who they are. Their blog entries reflected the tension between having MMENA heritage in the context of being citizens or residents in the United States. The following chapter describes the bloggers identity formation in terms of personal, gender, and cultural/ethnic identity as well as the intersections of the various dimensions of these identities. 40

PAGE 50

41 Personal Identity Each of the bloggers displayed her personal identity in part through the layout and graphics of her blog, the images she chose to represent herself, the groups she identified with, and the stated description in the About Me profile section. The careful, if unconscious, choices made in each of these areas, as well as in the texts of the posts themselves, reflect constantly negotiated aspects of identity. In the following section each of the bloggers in the study are described in context of their blog appearance, their profile pictures, their membership in blogrings, and their introductory text. Queen Leila. Twenty-four-year-old Queen Leila of California authored the longest-running blog in the study, with almost three years of regular posts. She described herself primarily as Muslim, Egyptian, and Californian. She graduated from college in 2005 and at the time of this study, worked full time. After several months of blogging in standard English, Queen Leila inexplicably changed her writing style to an alternative phonetic spelling of English. Her posts, comments, and captions were consistently written in this style, even if she posted on others blogs. Perhaps because of her long-standing presence in the blogging community, she was something of a leader among other bloggers, bringing newcomers to the forefront and starting conversations in which many others were involved. Perhaps the most salient aspect of Queen Leilas personal identity was her religion. She wore hijab and used her picture as her profile avatar. It was a face shot, in low light with a neutral background; she was looking sideways without smiling, her hand clutching her hijab near her face. Each of her posts began with in the name of Allah, the gracious, the merciful, in Arabic transcription (using English letters) followed by the English

PAGE 51

42 translation. On Muslim holidays or during Ramadan, she included more elaborate Arabic translations, usually from the Quran. Generally, the look of her blog reflected whatever event or concern was dominant in her writing at the time. She adjusted the layout and background frequently. For example, on her birthday, she posted a happy birthday graphic behind the text on each page. For the new year, she included a scrolling bar of favorite photos from the past year: her college graduation, a graphic incorporating her face and her name, Iraqi and Palestinian flags, her favorite celebrity who died, the Kaaba [holiest site of Islam], and Arabic calligraphy. Between the two rows of images a title read, Happy New Year, New Beginnings, New Memories. Her blogrings, listed on the side of every page, were primarily concerned with Muslim or Arab identity. She was also a member of the group DAYMIm really goodlookingdont hate!! as well as Aspiring Young Entrepreneurs. In her public profile, which is on the left side of every page of the blog, Queen Leila listed several of her interests: Islam (my life), religions, Arab issuez (Free Palestine), current eventz (get outta Iraq), politicz, history, languagez, helpn othaz, food, travel, readn/writen, poetry, music, dance, workn out, moviez, laughn, computaz, fun! The blog template offered an area to include the bloggers expertise; and Queen Leila listed hers: Now lets update this thing 4 Ramadan Insha'Allah... I'm an expert at be'n da loud n proud Muslimah who happenz 2 be Egyptian Californian enjoy'n da royaltiez of be'n da Queen... but don't bow down 2 me, bow down 2 Allah (swt)! VirtueOne. An architecture student in a California university, VirtueOne was recently engaged. She had been blogging for approximately one year at the time of this

PAGE 52

43 study. Like Queen Leila, VirtueOne put her religious identity at the forefront. She also wore hijab and used Arabic calligraphy from the Quran as the heading of the blog. In her black-and-white profile picture, she was smiling and looking directly into the camera. During the year she maintained the blog, she changed her background only once. This change was from a standard template to a custom dark blue night sky with clouds and stars. Her blogrings were mostly related to being Muslim or Arab and supporting Palestine. One was related to architecture, another to Arab/Hispanic Mix. She states her interests briefly: Architecture, Art, Islam, Randomness, You, Me, Drawing, Coffee!! Shey!! [tea] Anything appealing, and her expertise simply as Architect Design. Ladyras. Ladyras was a college sophomore in New Jersey. At the time of this study, she had been posting on her blog for approximately eleven months. Her blog title reads in at the top right: Je suis prt and at the left, the translation: I am ready. She did not include a picture of herself on the blog. When she first began posting, she included a great deal of personal information such as her ethnic heritage, interests, education, and a photo. A few weeks later, she made several posts about technical problems with posting images. After several months, she decided that the blog would be anonymous and would never include her picture. At this time, she began her own blogring (DAYMIm really goodlookingdont hate!!) and posted frequently about how attractive she is. Her background was solid pink and stable throughout the life of the blog. She included the results of several online quizzes, such as Which celebrity wants to sleep with you. Her blogrings focused on ethnic or geographical pride: Puerto Rican, Arab, New York, and Jersey. She was also, of course, a member of the one she began.

PAGE 53

44 In one of her earliest posts, she wrote a detailed description of herself: i graduated highschool in '02, took a year off did my thing and now im ALMOST a sophomre in college (i kinda fcked up my grades last semester). Ima smart motivated female who dont like to take no shit from anyone...I've been in love once and had my heart broke more than i can count lol ima booty driver, i hit the curb on turns, press on the breaks too fast, my ghetto ass hoopride is banged up ont he passenger side cuz some dumb bitch ran a stop sign and hit me from the side!!!! anyways...ill get funky wit THAT some other time....I love sleeping :) i work 2 jobs, go to school full time, go out (i like gin 2 bars and messin wit the weird messed up people)... On her profile page, in the about me section, she wrote, Tell me who i have to be....to get some RECIPROCITY. Her stated interest was in a brand of perfume: THAT JUNK SMELLS SO GOOD-TOUCH OF PINK MMMMMMM while her expertise revealed a little of her personality: im not really an expert at anything...that's probably why i got so much to say about everything...people who don't know anything have mad shit to say about everythign..but at least i admit it ;) Emster. Emster, from Minnesota, was a graduate student at the University of Cairo in Egypt. Part of her blog was written while she lived in the United States and part during her time in Cairo. She was studying sociology, teaching classes, and attempting to start a business in her free time. Rather than choosing a picture of herself individually, she posted a photograph of herself with three family members as her profile image. Unlike the other bloggers in the study, she did not use custom templates or animated text on her blog; it was simply one of the standard templates available from the blogging service. Her blogrings related to being Egyptian, Arab, African, and expatriate as well as one from her undergraduate university. In her profile about me section, she included information on her background and future plans, as well as more abstract musings: Random thoughts, unexpected situations, and moments of total and happy foolishness are what this experience has taught me My

PAGE 54

45 random ramblings consist of random events and moments that fall upon me, literally, abroadRead on; the entries you find in here should have been put together ages ago. If you get tangled in the wording, I'll just try my hardest to explain. Her interests were: Hmm...good question. I could write your typical five verbs in here and run off, but I've decided on seven instead: camping, hiking, event planning, languages, traveling to random places, collecting blades of grass from different places, and, of course, people. Zeina. Zeina graduated from a Texas university in 2005. She had been blogging for a year and maintains a video blog as well as her text blog. She began to write upon returning from a semester of study abroad in Egypt, which she considers her home country. Upon graduation, her parents gave her a trip to Cairo for a few months. Thus, while the bulk of her blog was written from Texas, part was also written from Cairo. She frequently posted pictures of herself and her adventures for her family and friends scattered around the world. The top banner of the site was a montage of pictures of herself (as a child in an Egyptian costume, with friends, at Egyptian ruins, in Alexandria) overlaid with her name in Arabic and the title my random thoughts Her profile picture was of a womans hand intricately decorated with henna (Figure 1). The blog background was a black-and-white photo of downtown Cairo around the Nile. The title was Egyptian Wanderer and included a quote on freedom by Virginia Woolf. Her blogrings were related to her Texas and Egyptian universities, being Egyptian or Arab, speaking French, and the Muslim Student Organization.

PAGE 55

46 Figure 1. Zeinas profile image. Zeina stated her interests as, Well I like soccer, warm fresh bread, Egypt, France, Azza Fahmy, my friends, raquetball, tennis, going out to cafes, meeting cool people, watching movies, smoking shishah, El-Fishawy, AUC [American University of Cairo], languages, the WHO [World Health Organization], music, and my family (and probably a lot of other stuff too). Her expertise was being random, missing Egypt, and having fun... As she stated in her profile and in blog texts, she hoped to enter medical school and one day become a doctor. Princess of Arabia. Princess of Arabia, a recent high school graduate, has maintained her blog for one year and nine months. In her profile picture she wore Western clothes and posed for the camera with her arms in the air, looking sideways and smiling. The title bar of the blog read: Yeah I'm yo shorty boy...but u already know. All of her blogrings were related to being Arab, Arab-American, or Muslim, with one specifically for Iraqis. Her stated interests were paintballing, shopping, dancing, tennis,just having fun :-). In her profile, she included a statement About Me: what is there to say about me..i'll just start with the basics..im 18,im arab, i go to pierce college..ick..im a pretty kick back person always here for people always makin ppl smile

PAGE 56

47 :-) anythin else u wanna know about me just ask. Like several of the other bloggers in this study, Princess of Arabia included personal information such as her email address, chat screen name, birthday, and full name on her profile page. Gender Identity As popular culture discusses the role of women in Muslim societies, MMENA bloggers deal with their places as women at the intersection of MMENA heritage and the realities of life in the United States. Princess of Arabia used an image from Disneys Aladdin for the background of her blog (Figure 2). In including this picture and using the name Princess of Arabia she was identifying herself with the traditional understandings of womanhood in her cultural heritage, albeit through Western eyes. Princess Jasmine, the Arabian Princess her name emulates, was the beautiful and headstrong daughter of an Arabian sultan who fell in love with Aladdin, a poor yet worthy street boy of the kingdom. Jasmine defied the law and her father to be with Aladdin, who offered freedomher greatest desire. Princess of Arabia expressed her desire to be beautiful, exotic, and independent like Jasmine and, like Jasmine, expected to find her escape through a relationship with a man. Her gender identity resided at the intersection of Western values of freedom and independence and her understanding of her heritage. Interestingly, Aladdin was strongly criticized for perpetuating stereotypes of the Middle East. Princess of Arabia, however, did not seem to recognize the stereotypes and fully affirmed her affinity to the films depiction of an Arabian woman.

PAGE 57

48 Figure 2. Princess of Arabias profile image. Zeina defined herself as a good girl, her ideal for all MMENA women. A good girl, she wrote, is fun, smart, likes sports, can cook, is religious, NOT a drama queen, and pretty. What more could a guy possibly ask for? Her description combined traditional expectations for women (homemaking skills, religion, education, appearance) as well as modern American expectations for the ideal woman (fun and likes sports). In their blogs, these MMENA women negotiated the meaning of a womans place. In most cases, their families and their interpretations of Islam suggested one set of ideals for a woman, while the dominant culture they live in suggested another. The women wrote about being caught in between, even of conflicts directly related to the contrast between family expectations and their own desires. Gender identity was expressed in three broad areas: gender as related to religion, to family, and to marriage and romantic relationships. Womens roles in religion Queen Leila, one of the more religious bloggers, referred to gender expectations primarily through the lens of religion. She triumphantly posted news articles about Karen Hughes, the U.S. envoy to women in the Middle East, being verbally bested by Muslim women in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. The women Hughes spoke with affirmed that they

PAGE 58

49 did not want more rights in the American sense; they preferred the traditional gender roles prescribed by their religion and culture to those of the United States. Queen Leila also countered the common accusation that Islam denies women equal rights in an essay written to commemorate the Prophet Muhammads birthday: Before his death, Prophet Mohamed (s Allah sws) 1 advised us to learn half of our faith from his last wife, Sister Aysha, a womanAs he lay in his deathbed, Prophet Mohamed (s Allah sws) asked of the Muslim men to take care of the women of their family three times. How can we not go by the advice of the man that assured equality and womens rights even as he died? Here she equated Muhammads exhortation to men to take care of women and his respect for Aysha with equality and womens rights. She also accepted the womans role as one who is under the care of the men in her family. Further posts mentioned gender roles in passing, referring to a modest woman as a good Muslimah and talking about a womans respect for her father as a religious duty. VirtueOne wrote of her struggle between being polite to Muslim men who approach her and being modest and religious at the same time: I feel confused myself. Im such a bad muslimah too.::tear:: I respond to guys when they ask me questions but when theyre muslimI seriously dont know what to say but in the inside I feel like telling them to get the hell away from me lol. In her interpretation of religion, women should be modest, quiet, and not talk to men outside of family. However, even Muslim men in the United States did not always observe these standards, as she found at a meeting of the Muslim Students Organization. Though she did not talk to men in other settings, at a religious event she was more conflicted over how to respond to men and maintain her identity as a religious woman. It should be noted that VirtueOne and Queen 1 Abbreviation for Salla Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam which often follows a Muslims mention of the Prophet Muhammad. It means, Peace be upon him.

PAGE 59

50 Leila were the only bloggers in this study who wore the hijab. While other of the bloggers referred to gender in terms of religion, usually it was obliquely stated and related to culture or family expectations more than explicitly to Islam. These two bloggers appeared to largely define their gender identities based on religion, at least as they present themselves in their blogs. Womens roles in family All of the bloggers in this study were unmarried. According to traditional cultural understandings, they remained under the protection and authority of fathers or brothers. Four of them lived at home with one or both parents, the other three were away at university. Despite living away from home, they were still under the protection of male relatives at some level: two of the bloggers lived with older brothers and the other lived near uncles and male cousins. Emster, who may be considered by Western standards to be the most liberated of the women, posted a quote regarding family and gender: The vast majority [of contemporary feminists] continue to see the family as the site of womens oppression, and to view womens position in society as the product of complex interconnections between the productive and the reproductive spheres of life. She wrote in her own words of conflicts between her familys reproductive expectations of her womanhood (marriage and children) and her productive plans and goals (pursuing a PhD, owning her own business). Two of the women who live with their fathers, Princess of Arabia and Ladyras, repeatedly expressed their frustration over their fathers control of their sexuality. Princess of Arabia wanted to attend her high school prom, but her parents disagreed: Being a girl with arab parents can reallyyy suck sometimes..they think prom=instant sex HAHAHA. She wrote several times of her father commandeering her cell phone and

PAGE 60

51 dialing the numbers of the men listed in her phone book. Similarly, Ladyras complained of her fathers worries about her relationships with men: If you have a big booty or big tetas and ur father is arab he worries more about u than ur skinny little sister. Both of these women dealt with family expectations of chastity as well as varying interpretations of what that is: sexual abstinence, little or no interaction with men, or modes of dress and behavior that downplay sexuality. Incidentally, while Ladyras wrote as openly of her relationships with men (going out on dates, dancing with men in clubs, her views on sex) as she did of her relationship with her father, Princess of Arabia used only veiled references to interactions with men other than her family members. In fact, Ladyras wrote much more openly of sexuality than did any of the other bloggers. In one of her earliest posts, she got funky with her readers on the topic of anal sex: WTF! foreal, u make it hard on us girls who DONT want something big n hard shoved up their dookie hole. look guys, its simple: a girl and a guys anus are the same-that means however it feels for you to shove some hard salami up ur booty, it would feel the same for us--now do YOU think that would be fun??? keep it real girls, keep it real guys, getting it up the ass must feel like takin a backwards shit (and NO i havent ever done it and i NEVER will) now how many people would like it if after they took a shit, the shit was shoved back up their ass?? not too many huh? so for all u girls out there who say that shit cuz they know guys like it, not really cuz they like it..just KEEP IT REAL! dont say u like todo shit cuz u think guys like it...i mean i can be as freaky as the next girl but im not gona front and say somethign feels great when anyone with common sense (man OR woman) who honestly thought about it could tell u that it really wouldnt be enjoyable...aite...well ANYWAYS now that i got funky i feel alot better..... While Ladyras was from a multicultural family with several reference groups, Princess of Arabias family was wholly Iraqi and spent most of their time with other Iraqi families. Her friends at school were primarily from MMENA backgrounds or from countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan. Perhaps her restraint on writing about relationships with men

PAGE 61

52 was related to the expectations of friends with similar backgrounds and gender expectations who read her blog. As discussed below, family played a principal role in several dimensions of identity. For these bloggers in general, and Ladyras and Princess of Arabia in particular, family ideas of a womans role had a defining effect on how they were allowed to negotiate gender identities. Womens roles in marriage and romantic relationships Many of the bloggers posts related to gender were in context of marriage and/or romantic relationships. Traditional expectations are that a girl will marry and raise children, and the bloggers all at some level fell in with this expectation. Several of them referred to arranged marriages or the more contemporary practice of presenting a daughter with approved suitors from which to choose a husband. Queen Leila expressed her frustration with being already out of college and not yet married: Im still haven da hardest time of my life saynIm 24 who graduated witout haven some1 mention some available suitor 2 me! Ladyras railed against arranged marriage in several posts: ...I'm tired ofthis stupid mentality...i meanpeople need 2 start gettin over doin wut their parents say all the time i mean most stuf yea its cool but SHIT ur parents aint gona marry the guy YOU r so if u dont like him say NO and if they dont like it TOO bad they should accept it and if they dont leave them alone! i mean things like curfew and shit cool wutever but im choosin my husband not them! i meanif they have suggestions some cute guys im open lol but i make that decision and no one else n there's nuttin wrong wit that we not in the 1300s anymore its 2005 it wasnt rite then and it aint right now.. She also opposed men marrying women much younger than themselves, another traditional practice in her fathers culture. She expressed her distaste of this practice at length:

PAGE 62

53 shes like 15! wuts up wit these old ass guys tryna get these young ass girls-i mean i kno if i was a mother i wudnt want to be messin around wit anyone whos the same age (or younger) than my son! thats NASTY and wuts even worse is that these young girls GET with these old wrinkly guys! why do they want old wrinkly balls!? i dont care how much money the dude has NO WRINKLY OLD BALLS FOR ME!!! An acquaintance she met in the blog community was the subject of one of her posts: Shes like 17 and she has an arranged marriage n shes miserableshes cryin all the time so OBVIOUSLY shes not happy besides the guys old enuf to b her pops thats ridiculous VirtueOne announced her engagement on her blog, presumably to one of the suitors introduced to her as a possible marriage candidate. Marriage was unquestionably the norm for most of the bloggers. Princess of Arabia often referred to her future husband as a solution to her current romantic problems: im so sick of girly guys..and im so sick of desperate guys..where is my husband to scare the stalkers away lolol aww. She also jokingly posted a personal ad on her site for the kind of partner she is looking for: WANTED: a sane, normal, arab guy. NO I WANT A MAN!..that will not hurt a girl. Zeina feared that her desires for marriage and a career as a medical doctor cannot both be fulfilled: When looking for a suitable husband/wife, guys tend to go for girls with either equal or lesser success levels. Girls tend to go for guys with either equal or higher levels. So it would be rare to find a girl doctor married to a salesman or something, but it wouldnt be that uncommon for a man. The reason for this is mans pride. No guy wants to feel like the lesser one in a relationship, thats how it has always been. She wrote in several other posts about her theories of male-female relationships, all with the end goal of marriage. One of her theories was that most men are interested in bad girls (those who like to drink and party and be bad) when they are younger. When they are ready to marry, the men realize they want to marry a good girl (the minority of girls who are not easy) but the good girls are all married by then. Of these men, she

PAGE 63

54 wrote, They wait too long and then become those guys that at 28 are looking for anyone to marry! Sucks for them, they should have taken the time to know the good girl, instead of going for the easy girl. Zeina feared that since she is a good girl and pursuing an advanced degree, she will not have the opportunity to marry. Only Emster, the blogger who lives apart from her family, questioned traditional values of marriage. Upon attending an elaborate wedding, she wrote: I asked myself if it was normal to push all the pressure off as many Arab women, as soon as they hit 17, start to get suitors. I am one of those few that pushes them offAre we bred to believe what the society believes is correct because we want to fit into the majority sociologically, or am I feeling depressed on a personal level because I dont adhere to these societal rules, laws, etc, and keep pushing them off, or the institution of marriage, or because I genuinely have no desire to get married? Or do I? Her feelings of dissonance about marriage reflected her experiences living in both Egypt and the United States, her academic studies of gender, and her familys expectations for her future. While Emster was alone in her questioning, she was also the eldest and most educated of the bloggers, the most well traveled, and the only one who did not submit directly to her parents authority. Gender, as one of the primary dimensions of identity, played an important part in defining how these bloggers see themselves and the world. Religious concepts of womanhood helped to define their rights as women and their public behavior. Family roles for women may have affected day-to-day interactions with men as well as internal perceptions of how a woman should behave. Finally, feelings and thoughts about marriage influenced gender identity by prescribing romantic roles and perceptions of men. Their blogs represented a place to explore feelings and thoughts about gender roles.

PAGE 64

55 Cultural and Ethnic Identity For the women in this study, culture and ethnicity were complex elements of identity expressed in their blogs. The words used to identify themselves with particular groups varied from woman to woman and from time to time in each womans representations of herself. They aligned themselves with certain cultural/ethnic groups by joining blogrings devoted to being Muslim, Egyptian, Arab, and Arab American, among others. In posts they discussed their specific heritage and how it affected plans, relationships, politics, and interactions with those outside their group. Conflict between the American parts and MMENA parts of their culture were frequently present, even directly compared. All of the women identified themselves with multiple labels, though each one of them used Arab to describe herself. Only three (Queen Leila, Zeina, and Princess of Arabia) called themselves Arab-American. Six identified themselves based on their familys country and/or geographical region of origin (i.e., African, Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Iraqi). Only one of the women (Ladyras) did not explicitly use Muslim to describe herself, though she indirectly affirmed her Muslim identity. This may have been influenced by her membership in a family that was both Muslim and Christian. Political affinities With the exception of Ladyras, all of the bloggers in this study displayed passion about politics in the MENA region. They expressed solidarity with the Palestinian people, anti-Iraqi war sentiments, and criticism of Israel. Several wrote of their frustrations with the equation of Arabs or Muslims with terrorists, and even wondered if U.S. security personnel are reading their blogs.

PAGE 65

56 Queen Leila, a leader in the blogging community, often encouraged her readers to represent on behalf of Palestine, Muslims, and Arab-Americans. In using the term represent she implied showing the positive side of these identities to outsiders. For example, in listing her favorite celebrities of the year, she included dat Muslim Iraqi dude from BB6 [a television reality show] cuz he represented! VirtueOne offered free animated graphics to anyone who would post them representing Palestine on another blog. Queen Leila often wrote of her involvement in the Arab-American community. She participated in Arab-American charitable events, wrote for local activist magazines, and helped in the founding of the Arab American National Museum in Michigan. On Egyptian national holidays Queen Leila wrote about the historical event related to the holiday: Afta celebraten da kick azz of Israel outta Sina we get 2 celebrate anotha history in da makenEgyptian Ahmed ElBaradei wins the Nobel Prize! Her most frequent references to political issues were thoughts about problems in the MENA region, usually ending with a lesson or exhortation for her readers. After expressing her outrage over suicide bombing at a wedding in Jordan she wrote, The thing bout being an Arab though, is that we are too strong to let something like this just make us breakdown and cry. We cried long enough, and its our strength that got Israel out of Egypt and Lebanon, its our strength that keeps Palestine undefeatable for almost 60 years, and Iraq being unbreakable through decades of struggles. It might be a sad time to be an Arab, but its the Arab strength that makes me prouder and prouder every single day that I am Arab. Other of the bloggers commented frequently on world events related to the MENA region. Zeina, although she was depressed by news and tried to avoid it, found herself confronted with a recent bombing in a resort area of Egypt: These things depress me really greatlyBut how can I not watch [the news], its like its following meThe place

PAGE 66

57 you go to enjoy your country is ruined. Your countrys economy and its people will suffer more. Several of the bloggers expressed their political affinities in opposition to the practices of the United States in the MENA region. Zeina, during a university class on Arab politics and history, expressed her views of colonialism in Egypt and linked them to current actions of the United States in Iraq: People kept talking about Iraq and saying, we should have tried to democratize an easier country first the whole time Im sitting there my blood was boiling. WHY are you discussing WHICH country the US should democratize instead of asking if the US even has the RIGHT to democratize a country or IMPOSE their thoughts or what about the fact that its BS for them to try to do it in the first place?! Her frustration was evident, particularly in her use of capital letters to indicate shouting in this post. Emster shared her anger toward United States policy. After a fellow Egyptian wished her a happy fourth of July, she complained at length about cultural imperialism: What the hell is up with those who are obsessed with others holidays? Suppose you could call that the blanket of power of the sole superpowerapparently America. She too disagreed with the United States intervention in Iraq: Yeah, once again the United States is rebuilding a nation. Rebuild yourself before your jeopardize another nation whom you dont understand culturally and obviously not politicallyyour obviously building for yourself, and nothing else. Disgusting, absolutely disgustingthis is the reason why I am so absolutely frustrated with this country. That no one sees the other and is simply stuck to their self. Despite Emsters strong and often bitter criticism of United States policy, she still primarily identified herself as American and used possessive pronouns when describing U.S. institutions; our military for example. Emster was the only one of the bloggers who expressed concerns about possible government perception of her as a terrorist. After discussing terrorism at length, she

PAGE 67

58 wrote, Mind you, I write this from a remote location in the Middle EastWell folks, Im on kilo 26 on the North Coast at my parents place just past Alex[andria] in Silver Beach. Come and get me you information fools. Arghcan you sense the frustration? Princess of Arabia appeared to be the only blogger directly involved in MMENA politics. Though she infrequently mentions politics, she did write about her experience voting in the Iraqi elections in 2005: yesturday was the iraqi voting thingymy mom and dad kept harassing me to gooo so i wenti honestly think it was worth it though...like ive never been really into the whole iraqi thing but it was just a really good feeling once i placed my ballot in the box Unlike the bloggers mentioned above, Princess of Arabia did not appear to own her heritage politically; rather it was heavily influenced by her parents. Similarly, Ladyras did not appear interested in politics. In the posts used for this study, she did not discuss political issues at all. Religious beliefs Each of the bloggers in this study identified herself as Muslim. For some, Islam was a major topic of posts and an integral part of the blog. For others, it was constant but more peripheral part of life. VirtueOne and Queen Leila, the most overtly religious of the bloggers, incorporated religious exhortation and verses from the Quran and hadith into their blogs. Both of them wore Islamic dress and strictly adhered to the requirements of Islam, such as abstaining from alcohol and limiting interactions with men. VirtueOne discussed her struggles with maintaining a Muslim identity in the United States: Its so hard to shop when ur a muslimah. I hate how all these shirts are so tiny that they dont even qualify as shirts lol. I have to be searching to find long enough shirts so that I can wear with jeans

PAGE 68

59 so they can cover and finding those is HARD!! She also reported feeling strange about the female icons on restrooms because their dress was so different from hers. As an integral part of her life, Islam related back to most anything she posted about, for example, earthquakes: The earthquakes keep increasing here in california. So I gotta work on being a better muslim. Cuz I might die soon or later but I wanna be prepared. She often included devotional poems or thoughts in her posts: They say Islam is in the heart. Ummmwhat about the rest? with that comes other obligations. It is said when you believe you react therefore you act upon it. But truly these days there is a huge amount of hipocrisy amongts us muslims. May Allah forgive us and guide us to the right path and make it easy on us. Queen Leila and VirtueOne posted their answers to quizzes passed on by other bloggers. In each quiz, questions such as favorite food? and what inspires you? allow bloggers to get to know each others personalities better. Both of these women firmly identified themselves as observant Muslims through their quiz answers. Questions related to alcohol and sex were answered with Noharam, meaning forbidden. Each listed their favorite month as Ramadan, the month of fasting in Muslim observance, and refused to reveal the hair color beneath their veils. Queen Leila wrote about Islam primarily to encourage her fellow Muslims in the faith. After the earthquake in Pakistan, she encouraged her Muslim sisters to Remember that Allah is the most Merciful and Beneficient. Other bloggers wrote about Islam as the context or setting for ideas and events. Zeina posted a story about meeting a French-speaking Muslim immigrant at her local mosque, Ladyras wrote about attending a Muslim funeral service for a family member, Princess of Arabia described stuffing my face before attending an all-night prayer

PAGE 69

60 service at the mosque. For these bloggers, the practice of religion was a part of everyday life, but not one they felt compelled to discuss often. Family roles As mentioned above, family expectations to some extent influenced gender roles for each of these women. Families may also have determined the womans degree of independence, her role in the community, and at times her professional and academic goals. Because these womens parents and other family members did not (to their knowledge) read their blogs, they offered a safe place to vent frustrations and negotiate the lines between self and family. MMENA women are often expected to live at home with their parents until marriage, and as noted above, all but one of the women in this study lived with a male relative. After graduating from university, Queen Leila planned to move into an apartment alone. She wrote of her parents struggle for acceptance and her conflict between obedience and the desire for greater independence. Eventually she asked her readers, Who here feels it iz wrong or arite 4 a sista (or a brotha) 2 move out of their family home 2 live on their own? why or why not? At the conclusion of this study, she still had not reached a decision. Princess of Arabia, who often wrote of clashes with her parents related to dating, also complained of being forced to be with the iraqi crew, a group of her parents friends who gathered at different houses for meals. Her family expected her to be part of the Iraqi community in her area, even sending her to Arabic school on Saturdays, but she did not find it enjoyable: anywaysss iraqi gathering at my house..it was really akward with the moms n me at first..but its so-so right now i guess..its my life..

PAGE 70

61 Parental expectations regarding professions and life pursuits heavily influence some of the bloggers. Zeina, for example, planned to attend medical school on the urging of her parents. She sometimes questioned her decision to follow their wishes, joined by her blog readers who posted comments about their parents directives on professions. After graduation, she experienced severe anxiety about her future, as she reported in her blog: What is my purpose? Arab families do not like confusion and instability. So their solution is choosing on ones behalf. So now I feel like Im following orders or something. Like I dont have any choice what I can and cannot do with my life. And THAT is the worst feeling ever. To feel that your life and your future doesnt belong to you anymore, to feel like you are trapped into whatever the family wants you to do and where they want you to go. Maybe what they pick is the best choice, but they should at least make an effort to prove that to me, to convince me that it is the best choice. Instead I just feel like they stomped on all my goals and aspirations and gave me new ones (namely money and prestige). During her time in Cairo, Emster also felt her family heritage shape how she viewed herself. She made peace, in a way, with who she was in her family during a visit to the house of her mothers birth: I sat on the bed my mother was born on. I dont know why, call me silly and sensitive, but have you ever felt a moment of pure bliss, where you feel you know everything, it all makes sense, the pieces fit together intricately, a sweet awakening of sorts, an appreciative effort on the side of an inanimate object to send sense and emotion into your life? I cant explain it, but I felt this last nightI was content. I cant remember the last time I was that content actually, with anyone, anything. Almost like God was looking at me and smiling, happy with me, instead of laughing. In writing about her experience, she solidified the identification with her mother and her Egyptian heritage. Despite frequent conflicts, the women in this study wrote about how highly they valued their families. Zeina planned to get a job and send money back to Egypt for a sick uncle; Queen Leila said she will always be there 2 help wit their load. After

PAGE 71

62 visiting multiple family members in Cairo during Ramadan, Emster reflected, And Ive realized, learned this: while to forgive is the greatest gift, family and heritege is the greatest possession. Social life The women in this study took part in the social life of both the local MMENA community and dominant American culture. VirtueOne and Queen Leila wrote primarily about their social experiences with others from similar backgrounds, while Ladyras wrote more about interactions with those outside the MMENA community. The other bloggers were somewhere in between, writing about times with friends from both spheres. All, however, continually affirmed the importance of friends and of having some kind of community. They discussed specific aspects of MMENA culture including food, womens interactions with each other, and MMENA-typical behaviors they found humorous. Finally, several of the bloggers wrote posts directly comparing MMENA culture with American culture. Each of these women used her blog as a space to explore differences between MMENA and American social life, choosing which parts of each culture she would adopt in her own life. Princess of Arabia rarely wrote a post in which extensive references to her friends and family did not appear. In her time away from school and family responsibilities she spent time with friends face-to-face or chatted with them online. Similarly, Zeina usually posted about her outings with friends, or used a shared experience (such as exams) to begin a post on a more abstract topic like politics or religion. While her parents were not in the same city, friends helped her avoid loneliness: Im really glad I have people that I can eat dinner with so Im not just sitting at home watching TV waiting for maghreb [the sunset prayer], eating alone, then studying in the isolation that is my apartment. I guess

PAGE 72

63 we have all gotten much closer because we are alone and our families are not here to fill that void. Close friends were usually from similar family backgrounds and were often Muslim. Emster, however, wrote about Christian friends she visited. Traditional food served as a form of comfort for these women, particularly when they longed for social interactions with people who understood their heritage. Zeina used cooking Egyptian foods as a way to connect with her family and as an escape: Cooking is fun sometimes, especially when you need a study break. It reminds me of home. Princess of Arabia also wrote often of food, describing her meals with an Iraqi friend. When her parents made her attend Iraqi gatherings, the only bright spot she mentioned was the food. VirtueOne described her meals in almost every post about spending time with friends: I went over my friend Rashas place and it was great she made Fasoolya [bean stew]. It was good and some Rizz [rice]. Queen Leila shared her new years resolution of losing weight: Goal: lose 20lbs gained since workn wit Arabz! It appeared that for these women, the sharing of food was an integral part of social life. With the exception of Ladyras, all of the bloggers referred to women in MMENA culture as being jealous or gossiping. Zeina describes being denied a table at an Egyptian restaurant by a hostess jealous of her and her friends attractiveness. After a negative experience with a classmate, Princess of Arabia wrote, im sick of arab girls im so sick of them..i cant handle it anymoresometimes its such a disgrace to say im arab cuz im labeled as a gossiping bitch. Emster described her university job as like any other job, just add Egyptian gossip to it. VirtueOne turned her experience with gossip into a religious exhortation: Never go out on the streets without expecting for someone to see you, recognize you, and Gossip! Its crazy. It is just amazing how people can just do that. So then

PAGE 73

64 why dont they go and give dawa [share the message of Islam] and spread the message of Islam that quickly?? Good one huh?! Gheebah [gossiping] is haram [forbidden] yall. (just a reminder). VirtueOne, in addition to worrying about womens gossip in her community, joked about womens social customs. In discussing her upcoming wedding, she wrote, The only thing I am worried about is the makeupusually arab ladies tend to make the bride look white as paper and always bright red lipstick making em look like stop signs lmao. Because these bloggers were at the intersection of both MMENA culture and dominant American culture, they had the ability to see both groups typical behaviors that they found funny. Emster humorously vented her frustrations with Egyptian cultures beaurocracy and disruptive irresponsible rude attitudesmajor problem with privacy[and] spoiled thinking. With a lighter approach, Ladyras described some funny things that my families domy arab side and my puerto rican sidewhy do arabs use such gay sounding nicknames like susu and medomy dad calls me idiot in English, and khara in arabic (the arabic word for shit) arabs and nicknames manHow come whenever an arab cracks a joke he has to high five someone about it? And then everyone laughs all loud and slaps their knees and claps their hands and stomps their feet. Despite their criticisms of MMENA culture, these bloggers still appeared to prefer it to dominant American culture. VirtueOne, meeting a Jordanian friend after an absence, wrote, Seeing her again made me realize how the U.S. sucks! Back home people seem to relax and take their time and here its like everyones on the go all of the time that they dont stop to enjoy the moment. Zeina elaborated on these differences in multiple posts. She blamed individuality for the negative aspects of American culture: In Egypt, the whole society circles around family and friends. They are number one priority in a persons life. In the US, people put themselves as number one. So everything is based upon what I am gonna do, who is going to take ME there, who is going to entertain MEME.. MEMEEEEOne [culture] stresses these close relationships and friendships, one stresses self-success and motivation.

PAGE 74

65 After spending the month of Ramadan with her family in Cairo, Emster gained a new sense of belonging and identity, never known in the United States, thanks to MMENA cultural practices: I've come to a realization of things I've been missing because of my last month spent at my grandfathers house. In Minnesota, families are spread apart arbitrarily, no one joins together in order to enjoy the holidaysRamadan holidays that isand it is never the same feel as it is in Cairo. People forget I suppose...histories are complicated...lives are not, well, intermingled...Ramadan in Egypt is people staying awake for hours on end, colorful lights lining the streets, decorative lanterns hanging on every street corner...people are happy, and because Egypt is predominantly Muslim, everyone celebrates and can identify with one another. Almost a feeling of belonging As a sometime member of the dominant culture of Egypt, Emster experienced the benefit of cultural events that are part of mainstream life. However, in other posts she distanced herself socially from Egyptians. Like the other bloggers, she vacillated between identifying herself with MMENA culture and with American culture. Popular culture Both MMENA and American popular culture featured prominently in most of these blogs. The blogging service offered a now playing/reading/watching feature at the top of each post in which bloggers could identify the music, books, or movies they were using at the time. The feature displayed an image of the product (i.e., album cover), the name of the artist/author, title, and included a link to the product on Amazon.com. Most of these bloggers made use of this feature regularly, with both Arabic-language and American products. While they wrote entire posts about Arabic-language entertainment media, more frequent passing references were made to American entertainment media. Presumably, they felt it necessary to explain the Arabic-language media to a readership that was most likely not familiar with it. For example, while Princess of Arabia explained who Samira Said and Nancy Ajram are (singers who perform in Arabic), she made

PAGE 75

66 reference to Willy Wonka and Michael Jackson with the assumption they are familiar to her audience. Zeina, in particular, positioned herself as a kind of advocate for Arabic-language media. She recommended that her readers watch Egyptian films, read books by Egyptian authors, and listen to Arabic music. Both she and VirtueOne mentioned watching the 2005 Hollywood film Kingdom of Heaven, which was about the Crusades. While both appreciated the sympathetic portrayal of Muslims and Salah Al Din (Saladin), Zeina found fault with the Hollywood version in comparison to the original Arabic version: It kind of pissed me off. It was just way too hollywood for me. Ohh wow, another romance placed in a war moviejust what we need. Annoying. These women used their blogs to establish the elements of MMENA and American culture they enjoyed. Like other aspects of their identities, their use of popular media resided between both cultures. In this way, VirtueOne uniquely combined her Muslim and mainstream American identities: Have u guys heard the news?? Spongebob is Muslim and his real name is Mohamed??!! How great is thatohhhhnopeJKlol. Interactions with outsiders As members of a cultural and ethnic group that could be considered under attack in the United States today, these bloggers were fully conscious of their position at the edges of dominant culture. They were therefore concerned with positively representing MMENA culture to those outside of it. Several found themselves objects of curiosity in public spaces, and one even encountered hate speech in the blogosphere. Zeina indignantly described at length her experiences with her universitys Arab Students Associations annual party:

PAGE 76

67 The wonderful arabic party had become a debaucherous drunken frat party. It had become a bunch of stupid girls and guys getting drunk and hooking up. Needless to say, I was extremely dissappointed in them all. We are Arabs, not Americans how could they act so trashy! It was a disgraceI expected all arab muslims (and all muslims) except for a minority to be good and pure as welland to think that all the impressionable freshmans went to this party and got the impression that all Arab-Americans act like that is just sad. What kind of example are these people?! From this post, it seemed that Zeinas main concern with the behavior of her fellow students was how it appeared to outsiders, the disgrace it brought upon Muslims and Arabs. Interestingly, this was the only post in her blog that discussed expectations of purity and goodness for Muslims. VirtueOne, visibly Muslim because of her hijab, wrote about being approached by curious strangers: Why would someone walk up to a girl with hijab and ask em are you muslim?, when theyre muslim and the later the person who asks says oh yeathat was a stupid question hehe. okaaaaaay issueeees I tell ya.issues.Anywho yeah most of my friends and I have these akward incouters with people like this lol who think they can get us to talk and start a conversation. One of her values, mentioned in earlier posts, was modesty and silence with strangers. These types of interactions, while uncomfortable, also conflicted with her personal values. In posting this story on her blog, she was both sharing her experience with fellow hijab-wearers and cautioning non-Muslim readers against this type of behavior. Zeina reported a conversation with strangers on another blogging service about the Iraq war. She was one of the few who disagreed with the prevailing atmosphere of war support. I wrote that I wasnt going to get involved because Im an Arab and in this day and age its not safe for arabs to discuss that kinda thing. About 5 people replied saying that I was stupid and trying to play the victim. Zeina responded with telling them exactly her opinion, which led to a HUGE fight with everyone attacking her. Identifying

PAGE 77

68 herself as an Arab, in this situation, immediately put her on the defensive with the others in the conversation. In the most overt challenge to identity in the blogs in this study, a stranger posted a hate-speech comment on Princess of Arabias blog. It was apparently based on her screen name and her membership in MMENA blogrings, as the comment was unrelated to her post. It accused her personally of being dirty, smelly, and having Osama kids. It also attacked Islam, saying your religion is fake among other more offensive things. She reposted the comment on her main page with her own commentary: I honestly could care less what you think because your nothing but a stupid close minded person whos possibly in the KKKwords dont kill me so you can take those words and shove it up your slimy butt hole. As seen through these examples, these bloggers faced challenges to their cultural and ethnic identities in everyday life as well as in the blogosphere. They used their blogs to express frustration with outsiders perceptions, to educate outsiders on acceptable interactions, and to defend themselves against attacks on their identities. Intersections of Identity Personal identity, gender identity, and cultural/ethnic identity were constantly negotiated and developed in these blogs, as noted above. These multiple dimensions of identity interacted in uniquely overlapping, dynamic ways within each womans blog. This is illustrated in two diagrams, below, for two of the bloggers with very different identity intersections.

PAGE 78

69 Figure 3. Identity dimension intersections in Queen Leilas blog. Queen Leilas identity dimensions, as presented in her blog, were for the most part clustered together in one group. Her personal identity, the largest circle, encompassed all other aspects. Politics, religion, family, gender, and social life were closely related and overlapped in many instances. Her relationship to outsiders, however, was removed from

PAGE 79

70 the other dimensions to some extent, and completely separated from her social life. In her blog, her interactions with those outside MMENA culture were usually in relation to a political topic, in service to her family, or involved explication of Islam. The dotted line around her personal identity, of which all other aspects are components, reflects the dynamic nature of identity: it was constantly negotiated and renegotiated in the context of her blog. Figure 4. Identity dimension intersections in Ladyras blog. In contrast, Ladyrass identity intersections were less consonant as shown in the above diagram (Figure 4). Her religion, as expressed in her blog, was more peripheral

PAGE 80

71 and intersected only with family and gender identity. Her social life was completely separate from her religion. Unlike Queen Leila, Ladyrass family was also on the periphery of her identity, not interacting at all with her interests in popular culture or her relationships with outsiders. These two diagrams represent the two extremes of identity intersections among the bloggers in this study. Queen Leilas identity was relatively consonant between dimensions, although within each one she wrote of the paradoxes of living between MMENA culture and American culture. VirtueOnes intersections were similar to those of Queen Leila. Zeinas and Emsters were slightly less consonant, with similar internal paradoxes. Princess of Arabia and Ladyras had the most dissonance in identity dimensions, with several not overlapping at all. Interestingly, these two bloggers displayed the least amount of conflict within the dimensions, dealing primarily with issues such as parental conflict rather than internal struggles with identity. Community Community in the blogosphere, while often debated, is not a static concept. Often, the development of community, particularly if it is not based on existing face-to-face relationships, is dependent on technological features available through the blogging service. Xanga, the service used by the bloggers in this study, provided capabilities for joining blogrings, giving eprops, and subscribing to others blogs. A blogring is an affinity group, set up by any member of Xanga, for a specific group of people. For example, the Hijab: The Holiest Hat of Them All blogring stated: It's all good in the hood. Jump on the scarfie bandwagon, share lame experiences, including all the times people have thought you were a nun...an Arab ninja...Sheets for the head, and the bed too! Happy to be Hijabi! All the members of this blogring (Queen Leila and VirtueOne

PAGE 81

72 are members) wore the hijab and displayed a link to this blogring on their sites. Eprops, along with comments, are the social currency of the blogosphere. At the end of each post are links to add comments and add eprops. Readers may click on these links, type in their comments, and choose to give 2, 1, or 0 eprops. Comments and eprops are then visible to all subsequent readers of the blog, unless the owner elects to delete them or have them disabled. Readers may subscribe to other blogs, in which case they receive email notification when the blog is updated. A list of a bloggers subscriptions appears on every page of the blog, just above the list of blogrings. Each of the blogs included in this study could be described in terms of Jones settlement concept: they all have sustained public interaction over time with a variety of communicators. As Jones noted, relationships and emotional ties easily develop in these virtual settlements, leading to virtual communities. Blanchard identified sense of community as the defining factor of a virtual community: the participants must have feelings of membership, the fulfillment of needs, and a shared emotional connection. While all these blogs were settlements, not all showed a sense of community, and this sense was stronger in some than in others. The communities involved were primarily either focused on reinforcing face-to-face interactions or on building and maintaining ties with friends based wholly on virtual relationships. The bloggers in this study built blog-based community through the use of blogrings, comments and eprops, and tagging with quizzes. They reinforced their online communities through discussion about the community itself. Other bloggers strengthened face-to-face friendships by posting pictures together, soliciting advice, and giving updates on day-to-day activities.

PAGE 82

73 Blog-based Community Ladyras, VirtueOne, and Queen Leila primarily displayed sense of community in the context of blog-based relationships. Some of their friendships with other bloggers began online, specifically through religious and regional blogrings, and transitioned into a combination of online and face-to-face interactions. VirtueOne and Queen Leila, for example, met through a blogring for devout Muslims in their city. They developed their friendship online then met face-to-face. Their blogs became a way to keep in touch and maintain a relationship when both were busy. The day before Queen Leilas university graduation, VirtueOne posted in her honor: I wanna wish [Queen Leila] a great day tomorrow inshallah [if God wills] cuz she's graduating yayay!! Mabrook Alayky!! [Congratulations] I'm so proud of ya [Queen Leila]!! She also used the blog as a kind of pager: ohhh and [Queen Leila] girl.I havent heard from u in a while!! call me!! Ladyras developed most of her online relationships through joining blogrings. In early posts, she complained that no one read her blog or left comments. After joining a blogring she had more hits on her site and eventually online friendships, subscribers, and regular readers. She expressed her gratitude regularly to her readers: I just wanted to say how souped i was cuz people started actualy reading my page lol. i know it aint the greatest but u know wut-who cares man i got like FOUR people who read my page and all the tiems i tried to start up a xanga page that never happend b4. THANK YOU! YAY! lol Unlike the other bloggers in this study, Ladyras explicitly addressed her reasons for starting a blog. it's kind of funny, but when i started my page, i didnt tell anyone i knew about it...it's more like a release where i can be the part of me they all dont know, i mean, thats bad aint it, when u feel like u cant tell ur friends n the people in ur life what ur thinkin about-but then again i want to write wutever i want0if someone pisses me off ima write about it, so i dont want them readin it and gettin their feelings hurt-that's y i dont hav a pic on my page, It feels good to kind of let go, jus say wutever i

PAGE 83

74 want and not care if anyone passes judgement cuz no one really knows who i am. I dont know if anyone gets taht-most people write these things, and everyone that reads it knows them-but i mean, if i wana tell someone about wuts going on in my life and i KNEW them i could jus tell them wenever i saw them. u kno that alter ego that comes out after 12 at night lol, that's what i wana let out sometimes. She wrote for herself, for self-expression, and for creating a community outside her regular sphere of life. Here she emphasized her anonymity in the blogosphere while affirming her need to express herself to those not directly concerned with her problems. Ladyras and Queen Leila saw themselves as positively contributing to their readers lives through their posts. Ladyras wrote, i've been a philosopher for the past couple of entries, right? Hey just to let everyone know those entries are for my benefit too, but i really hope that sometimes someone reads them and actually thinks and MAYBE just MAYBE someone will be positively influenced by them....lol but then maybe im just being too hopeful... Queen Leila, after exhorting her readers to be grateful for Gods gifts, wrote, I praise Allah (swt) everyday 4 such wonderful ppl such as yaselvez be'n in my life... even if we spoke 1ce, dont speak 2 each otha anymore, havent spoken in yearz, or we just spoke a sec ago n bug each other everyday... They fulfilled the needs of others for support and relationship while having their own needs met as well. Most bloggers seemed to define the success of their blog and of individual posts in context of how many comments and eprops they received. Those who did not update for a while profusely apologized upon returning for their lack of commenting: Sorry if I havent commented on ur guys pages lately but Ill try to catch up on that this week or next inshallah; (VirtueOne) and anyways yall ima bout to comment sorry i been slackin!!! but i still love you!! muahz!~ (Ladyras). Similarly, if a blogger did not receive the same number of comments she had before, she asked her readers what was wrong: Where has everyone been on xanga lately? I mean i know i disappeared but it seems like

PAGE 84

75 so did everyone else and now that Im back here theyre still gone. Hmmmm. Ladyras reposted her best friends comment on her main page, after she created her own blogring and had a record number of comments. Her friend wrote, way too gooou got 40+ comments thats an accomplishment haha and you got lots of ppl to join [the blogring]. Ladyras apparently felt that comments indicated popularity and appreciation. She wrote, i hate it when i read peoples xangas and comment and try to reach out and they ignore me and never comment back! i take it personally lol ask her! it makes me feel like suttin is bad about me cuz they wont comment back but i kno they go on cuz they have new entires-im just real weird about things like that i duno...anyways o well thnx to those of u who DO comment love u guys lol hahah Queen Leila limited her posting because few of her readers commented on her entries: I know I haven't updated in a while... I guess dat even though I'm get'n hella hits, not much commentz, so i just let it hang. Several bloggers ended posts with phrases like leave me some love to indicate that readers should leave comments. Other forms of community building used by several of the bloggers were online quizzes and tagging. In tagging, a blogger posts a list of questions and their answers on her blog. She then tags several friends, who read her blog, to indicate that they should answer the questions on their blogs. The questions tend to reveal information about personality, likes and dislikes, and interests. In posting questions and tagging others, the bloggers in this study helped develop relationships with others from the virtual community, dependent upon similar backgrounds, values, and interests. As noted above, several of the bloggers extensively discussed the online community itself in their blogs. This too was a form of community building: expressing appreciation for virtual friends more firmly cemented the bond. For example, after posting about a personal problem and receiving many comments, Ladyras wrote,

PAGE 85

76 todays entry is dedicated yo YALL...thats right...u xanga-ers. my buddies. the special ones-u kno who u r-and even the ones who take time out of their day just to say wutsup. I'm just really glad i started xanga i mean after last nites entry and yall were like all concerned i felt so LOVED...well just to let u kno i have mad love for u guys too!! i mean i wish i actually knew u guys i mean we give eachother advice, laugh joke around, some of us havae inside jokes, we comfort eachother, not LITERALLY a shoulder to cry on but u know...yall take the time out of ur day to read wuts up with me wuts botherin me tell me things wil be ok...i mean that's more than some of my real life friends do lol damn i just feel real close to some of u u kno! i just watned to let yall kno that yall r the best lol thnx for makin my xanga experience so great :) She followed these words with gifts for her online friendsimages of flowers, candy, perfume, and electronics. This entry, too, received many affirming comments from readers. Face-to-face Community Reinforcement While the bloggers discussed above created virtual communities with their blogs, others primarily reinforced face-to-face relationships. Zeina wrote to an audience of friends in her university as well as friends from Egypt. Princess of Arabia addressed her friends from high school and the Iraqi community in her area. Emster wrote to keep friends around the world updated on her life. Although these bloggers intended audiences were face-to-face friends and family, some blog-based relationships were formed as well. Zeina and Princess of Arabia affirmed friendships by posting pictures of themselves with friends. Princess of Arabia, in particular, posted pictures of herself with friends on a weekly basis. For her best friends birthday, she posted several pages of pictures of them together as well as a tribute in words: i love u sooo much u are my bestest friend and we made it through yet ANOTHER year of absolutly no fights or disagreements your there for me no matter what..all the guy trouble..oh lordy..all the drama all the tears all the laughter..all shared with you!! cuz your my best friend! and im NOTHING without you!! your what makes me complete!! your my twin..your..apart of me!i love you!

PAGE 86

77 Similarly, Zeina posted pictures of herself with friends in Cairo and in Texas. In each post with friend pictures, she addressed the friend in the photos as well as the others who were reading. Some bloggers solicited advice from their friends for situations that were not fully explained in the blog, assuming that their friends already understood the background. Princess of Arabia, for example, began a post with apologizing for being distant, gave an explanation related to a recent personal problem, then asked for feedback on what she should do. She also frequently posted personal messages to friends whom she did not identify in the post. While most were pleasant, one was not: im just really disappointed and disturbed at all the people that lie and are two faced...im really,really dissapointed in you..and the sad thing is..i've been protecting you for so long..and now im giving up on you..i always thought u were a much better person than me..you being a hijabi and all..but now..i realize your not. You let me down. BIG TIME. i dont think i can protect you anymore. She does not indicate, in this post or later ones, if the person addressed here was known to other readers. It may be assumed that based on the close-knit nature of the face-to-face community that she probably was, and that this was Princess of Arabias way of speaking her mind with less confrontation than a live encounter would have had. These bloggers most often maintained face-to-face relationships by sharing their daily activities and plans. They include many accounts of shopping and going out with friends, family situations, school and work plans, and emotional issues. Emster made perhaps the most practical use of her blog. Before a trip to her hometown, she posted her planned schedule for the visit. She then asked her friends to check it against their schedules and call her with times when they could get together. Zeina, whose family rode out Hurricane Rita in 2005, used her blog to update all the rest of the family on their status. Princess of Arabia announced her high school graduation and college plans on her

PAGE 87

78 blog, then posted pictures of the graduation afterward. Friends frequently commented with words of encouragement, questions about the entries, or even requests for phone calls. Especially for those bloggers whose face-to-face relationships have become long-distance relationships, blogs are used to maintain and reinforce face-to-face relationships. Member Checks Zeina confirmed the overall findings of this study during member checks. She wished to expand upon the idea of identifying with one culture over the other: I think you caught on to some great conclusions. I also want to mention that there are differing levels of connection to both cultures as well. For example, I tend not to link myself too closely with the Arabs in the US, as I feel most of them are TOO Americanized. And while I have taken many things from my upbringing in the US, I still find that my parents raised me in a way that links me closer to my friends in the Middle East. There seems to be a dominant culture of Americanized Arabs and a minority of Arabs that are less inclined to fit in. For example, whenever I am in Egypt... I never miss the US. However, when I am in the States, I always miss Egypt. This fact leads me to be different from the Arabs in the US and the Arabs in Egypt. Oh well, I guess this is more difficult to explain. Easier just to say that you are correct in what you said, just keep in mind that there is a spectrum and varying degrees of US acculturation. None of the other bloggers had responded to the request for member checks at the conclusion of the writing of this report. Reflexivity DeSouza described researcher reflexivity as, More than a dear diary outline of events, reflexivity requires one to stand outside ones own experiences and interrogate ones role, values, beliefs, and assumptions underpinning ones participation in the research. 2 Throughout the process of conducting this study, as well as before beginning it, I questioned my own assumptions of MMENA women and of research in general. 2 Ruth DeSouza, Motherhood, Migration and Methodology: Giving Voice to the Other, The Qualitative Report 9 no. 3 (2004): 472, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-3/desouza.pdf accessed April 2006.

PAGE 88

79 During the study this was accomplished through use of extensive research notes in which I recorded my impressions and questioned my findings. I was concerned at times that my reading of the blogs would reinforce common stereotypes of MMENA women, for example, the position of women in relation to their families. After reflecting on this, rereading the blogs many times, and questioning myself, I came to the conclusion that these women, due to their position as immigrants or children of immigrants, were likely holding on more tightly to their traditional culture than those who had been in the United States longer. I found that I personally identified with these women in their position between cultures and their apparent desire to explore where they fit in context of their blogs. I also grew to feel close to the women, although I did not communicate directly with any of them until after analysis of their blogs. My own values of honoring family, seeking spirituality, and valuing marriage likely sympathetically colored my interpretations of their posts. Because I am more oriented toward communalism than individualism myself, I tended to consistently view them in context of their family relationships and membership in the larger culture rather than only as stand-alone individuals. Summary In sum, the MMENA bloggers in this study developed identity and built community through their blogs. They communicated and explored expressions of personal identity, gender identity, and cultural/ethnic identity. The dimensions of these identities intersected and overlapped in different ways for each blogger, some with consonance and others with dissonance. Finally, the bloggers created virtual communities or maintained face-to-face relationships through their blogs.

PAGE 89

80

PAGE 90

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The findings of this study concur with many of the theories discussed in chapter two, particularly those related to MMENA identities. As these women used their blogs to negotiate identity and build community, they displayed the conflicts and paradoxes other researchers have documented in MMENA Americans. Their communication behavior also agreed with intercultural communication theories regarding those from non-dominant cultural groups and diasporic communities. Identity Theories Ting-Toomeys identity negotiation theory 1 posited that self-presentation and conception are reinforced, supported, or challenged through intercultural communication. She identified eight dimensions of identity that are negotiated in intercultural communication. For the purposes of this study, only the primary identity dimensions were addressed (gender, cultural/ethnic, and personal) due to the limitations of a text-only analysis. In these dimensions, as discussed in chapter four, the bloggers negotiated their self-presentations and self-concepts. Two of the assumptions of Ting-Toomeys theory were particularly salient to the findings of this study. She noted that trust is created with similar others who reinforce ones own identity. This was evidenced in how the bloggers discussed relationships with those who were like them more than those who were different. Ting-Toomey also proposed that membership endorsements enhance feelings of 1 Stella Ting-Toomey, Communicating Across Cultures (New York: The Guildford Press, 1999), 264. 81

PAGE 91

82 inclusion. This was displayed in the use of blogrings for affinity groups, concern for outsiders perceptions of MMENA individuals and the group as a whole, and the frequent use of others comments quoted in blog text to reinforce the bloggers position. As noted above, these bloggers displayed a paradox of identity as described by Salaita 2 and Said. 3 All were born to parents who immigrated to the United States, therefore all of the bloggers considered themselves in some way American. They were educated in American schools and universities, watched American television, and grew up speaking English. They were not fully American, however, and all described themselves in some way as Arab and with other identifiers that were not simply American. Each of them also nurtured the non-American part of their identity in some way: attending Arabic school on the weekends, visiting the homeland, cooking traditional foods, or wearing Islamic dress. These findings agree with Aoudes claim 4 that individuals in diasporic communities always deal with multiple identities as well as with Nagel and Stahelis perception of MMENA individuals as transnational. 5 The MMENA aspects of their identities were most often discussed and explored, reflecting Michaels statement that the attacked aspects of ones identities will come to the forefront. 6 Both 2 Steven Salaita, Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab Americans Before and After 9/11, College Literature 32 no. 2 (Spring 2005): 153, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 3 Bill Ashcroft and Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity (London, New York: Routledge, 1999), 9 4 Ibrahim G. Aoude, Maintaining Culture, Reclaiming Identity: Palestinian Lives in the Diaspora, Asian Studies Review 25 no. 2 (June 2001): 153167, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 5 Caroline R. Nagel and Lynn A. Staheli, Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab Immigrants to the United States, Space and Polity 8 no. 1 (April 2004): 3, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 6 John Michael, Beyond Us and Them: Identity and Terror from an Arab Americans Perspective, The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 no. 4 (2003): 70028, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 92

83 Aoude and Michael studied MMENA Americans, giving further credence to the idea that in todays United States, MMENA Americans face unique challenges regarding identity negotiation. As Said proposed, identity must be spoken to be owned. 7 These blogs provided a place for the women, caught in the contest between cultures, to negotiate the differing aspects of their identities. As Langellier and Peterson described, 8 these womens blogs became a way to struggle over identities in an unstable world: they provided a stable, accessible workshop for identity construction. Reading the blogs in chronological order showed the development of identity for each woman. Rather than being a static, one-time construction, their identities evolved over time. Current events, life changes, or family issues affected how they presented themselves to the world. The apparent inconsistencies in their blogs, over time, were in fact the negotiations of their identities in a changing environment. Perhaps a major part of the cultural contest for these women was the difference between the individualistic culture of the United States and the collectivism of the cultures of their heritage. Several of them described their dissatisfaction with the loneliness of American life. According to Hofstede, the individualism score for the United States is 91 (the highest in the world), 9 while the Arab World score is 38. 10 Muslim societies, in general, tend to have lower individualism scores. The world average 7 Ashcroft and Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity, 12 8 Kristin M. Langellier and Eric E. Peterson, Storytelling in Daily Life (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 173. 9 Geert Hofstede, Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions [electronic resource], c. 2003, http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml accessed April 2006. 10 Ibid., www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml accessed April 2006.

PAGE 93

84 is 64, 11 indicating that the regions of these womens heritage are much more collectivistic than the world as a whole. They displayed few of the attributes of individualism, only at times appearing self-reliant and desiring to be wholly independent from family. Most of the entries reflected collectivistic sensibilities, such as care for the extended family, putting the needs of the group above personal needs, and close ties with friends and family. As Ting-Toomey noted, orientations toward individualism or collectivism play a major role in identity formation: those from individualistic cultures are more likely to define themselves in terms of independence and self-esteem, while those from collectivistic cultures depend on other groups members for group self-esteem and identity constructions. 12 The blogs in this study concur with this idea. The women who were more oriented towards individualism defined themselves in terms of self, individual plans, and personal achievements. Those who were more collectivism-oriented defined themselves in terms of their heritage, their position in family, and their interactions with in-group members. In Tajfels social identity theory, 13 both personal identity and the groups identity influence self-image. This was evident in the bloggers concern for outsiders view of Muslims and Arabs. Because these women were more collectivistic than individualistic, Tajfels theory may be even more applicable. Since group identity played such a major role in self-perception, it can be inferred that attacks (politically, in the media, or physical violence) on MMENA groups more deeply impact the bloggers than the same attacks 11 Ibid. 12 Ting-Toomey, Communicating Across Cultures, 76. 13 H. Tajfel, Human Groups and Social Categories (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

PAGE 94

85 might impact more individualistic people. Similarly, Phinney asserted that the community plays a larger role in self-definition for a person from a non-dominant group than it does for dominant group members. 14 This confirms the relative sensitivity of these bloggers to disparagement of MMENA groups. Community Theories Following Jones definitions of a virtual settlement, 15 each of the blogs in this study could be considered a settlement containing cultural artifacts (posts, comments, images, audio, etc.). A settlement is a prerequisite to a virtual community, which develops when emotional ties and relationships form in context of the settlement. It is difficult to determine if each of the blogs in this study were virtual communities or simply extensions of face-to-face communities. Emotional ties and relationships did exist around these blogs, but with the available data it was not possible to discern if they were wholly virtual. Perhaps following Blanchards ideas on sense of community 16 would be more helpful. She argued that this is an important factor to discover and consists of feelings of membership and influence, shared emotional connection, and need fulfillment. Based on this definition, it is reasonable to conclude that the blogs examined here all displayed sense of community between the authors and their readers. The readers influenced the content created by the bloggers; the bloggers in turn influenced the 14 Jean S. Phinney, The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use with Diverse Groups, Journal of Adolescent Research 7, 1566. 15 Quentin Jones, Virtual-communities, Virtual Settlements and Cyber-archaeology: A Theoretical Outline, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3 no. 3 (1997): 24, http://search.epnet.com. 16 Anita Blanchard, Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project, in L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (2004), http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere accessed April 2006.

PAGE 95

86 thinking of the readers. Subscriptions and participation in blogrings showed feelings of membership either in the blog itself or in the larger blogring community. Emotional connections were evident in posts and comments. As several bloggers explicitly discussed, their needs were met by having people listen to (read) their problems and dilemmas and offer advice. The blogs also created a sense of belonging in what could be considered a hostile national environment. As Herring and her research team found, most blogs are not heavily interlinked across the entire blogosphere. 17 Rather, interest and identity groups form and are densely linked to each other. The blogs in this study supported this finding. None of them were linked outside their own areas of interest and most not outside their own cultural group. These findings also concurred with Marlows conception of the blogosphere as a large number of smaller interlinked communities. 18 While the blogs studied here displayed some characteristics of the diasporic communities described by Hiller and Franz, 19 the bloggers situations as children of immigrants made them less connected to the homeland than recent immigrants would be. These bloggers more closely mirrored Haddads description 20 of the children of MMENA immigrants who struggle with reconciling the experiences of their parents to their own. They therefore tended to form communities of 17 Susan C. Herring, Lois Ann Scheidt, Sabrina Bonus, and Elijah Wright, Bridging the Gap: A Genre Analysis of Weblogs, In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc accessed April 2006. 18 Cameron Marlow, Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community, paper presented at the meeting of the 54th Annual Conference, International Communication Association, New Orleans (May, 2004), http://web.media.mit.edu/~cameron/cv/pubs/04-01.pdf accessed April 2006. 19 Harry H. Hiller and Tara M. Franz, New Ties, Old Ties, and Lost Ties: The Use of the Internet in Diaspora, New Media and Society 6, no. 6 (2004): 732, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. 20 Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Not Quite American? The Shaping of Arab and Muslim Identity in the United States (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004), 51.

PAGE 96

87 members of their own generation (and status as children of immigrants) rather than with those who were older or who had recently immigrated. Limitations Because this study was a small-scale, in-depth qualitative inquiry of the blogging behaviors of a specific group of women, these findings are likely not generalizable to a larger population. However, it does offer insights into how these women negotiate identity and build community, further supporting the above-discussed theories. The study dealt only with these womens visible interactions on their blogs; other items may have been deleted by the bloggers or made visible only to private groups. Therefore, it is not possible to be sure that the entire range of blogging behaviors by these women was analyzed. For example, one of the bloggers also maintained a video blog which was not included in this analysis. Others held extensive conversations in chatrooms or on other blogging services. While studying these other behaviors was not feasible for this study, their inclusion could have perhaps offered further insights. Similarly, the blogs themselves provided a very small slice of life for each of these women. If the original research design (including in-depth interviews) could have been followed, richer data about the womens self-conceptions and community formation may have been obtained. Participant observation, such as watching face-to-face how these women blog, may have also offered richer detail on how blogging integrates into the other aspects of their identity and community formation. Multiple coders or a research team would have provided helpful triangulation of the data. In the initial research design, all the women included in the study would have been linked in the blogosphere. Due to the selection criteria for participants, this was not possible. Instead, only a few of the women were linked. If they had all been, perhaps

PAGE 97

88 more information could have been gleaned on the formation of community for these bloggers. Additionally, it would have been helpful if the bloggers responses from member checks could have been more fully integrated into the findings. Due to the time frame of the study, this was not possible. Suggestions for Further Research As discussed above, perception of the in-group by outsiders may more strongly affect MMENA Americans than other groups. Further research on this possibility would be helpful, particularly in arguing for sensitivity to MMENA Americans. A larger-scale examination of communication behaviors of MMENA women from different age ranges, social classes, and education levels similarly would offer a wider range of experiences. Similarly, more exploration of MMENA womens media creation and its effect on identity construction would provide insight into possible strategies to help American MMENA women with living in a dominant culture that is often hostile. Ahmeds work on womens cultures as transmitters of ethics and morality would provide an interesting framework for future studies of MMENA womens communications. She suggested that todays literate, text-based Islam is less tolerant, ethical, and fair to women than orally transmitted Islam, traditionally the domain of women. 21 As moderate Muslims and those in the West are becoming increasingly concerned with the consequences of widespread Islamic fundamentalism, the perpetuation of womens oral traditions may offer a counter to the male-dominated texts. These oral traditions have the additional advantage of not being imposed by the West. 21 Leila Ahmed, A Border Passage: From Cairo to AmericaA Womans Journey (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999), 2761.

PAGE 98

89 Future explorations may discover if blogs are becoming a transmitter of culture for those in diaspora without a face-to-face supportive community. Orbes description of co-cultural groups communication strategies would be an interesting lens through which to examine MMENA womens communication behaviors. While his framework primarily addresses issues of social class, gender, sexual orientation, and race/ethnicity, religion could also be considered an element of co-cultural identity. In that case, MMENA women are co-cultural on the basis of ethnicity, religion, and gender. Many would also be of different social class than the dominant group. Orbes original study did not include any MMENA Americans. As they are a group often maligned by the dominant culture, it would be important to understand their strategies for communicating with outsiders. While the nature of this study did not allow in-depth examination of cultural integration (assimilation, accommodation, or separation) and communication styles (assertive, non-assertive, or aggressive) as Orbe described, a phenomenological approach as he discussed would offer helpful insight into how MMENA American communicate with others. 22 It may also help bring attention to the dominant cultures perceptions of MMENA Americans. As noted in chapter two, MMENA American women are an understudied population. With current political and social feelings about MMENA Americans, it is important to understand as much as possible about intercultural communication in relation to this group. 22 Mark P. Orbe, Constructing Co-cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and Communication (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998), 500.

PAGE 99

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, Leila. A Border Passage: From Cairo to AmericaA Womans Journey. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999. Ajrouch, Kristine J. Place, Age, and Culture: Community Living and Ethnic Identity Among Lebanese American Adolescents. Small Group Research 31 no. 4 (August 2000): 453, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Aoude, Ibrahim G. Maintaining Culture, Reclaiming Identity: Palestinian Lives in the Diaspora. Asian Studies Review 25 no. 2 (June 2001): 153, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Asante, Molefi Kete, and Gudykunst, William B., eds. Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication. London: Sage Publications, 1989. Ashcroft, Bill, and Ahluwalia, Pal. Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity. London, New York: Routledge, 1999. Badger, Meredith. Visual Blogs. In Laura J. Gurak, Smiljana Antonijevic, Laurie Johnson, Clancy Ratliff, and Jessica Reyman, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/visual_blogs.html accessed April 2006. Barazangi, Nimat Hafez. Womans Identity and the Quran: A New Reading. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2004. Bar-Ilan, Judit. An Outsiders View on Topic-oriented blogging. In 13th World Wide Web Conference. New York: The International World Wide Web Conference Committee (IW3C2) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), (2004). http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1013367.1013373 accessed April 2006. Bastani, Susan. Muslim Women On-line. The Arab World Geographer/Le Gographe du monde arabe 3 no. 1 (2000): 40. Blanchard, Anita. Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project. In L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/blogs_as_virtual.html accessed April 2006. 90

PAGE 100

91 Bortree, Denise Sevick. Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage Girls Weblogs. Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 25. Bruckman, Amy. Studying the Amateur Artist: A Perspective on Disguising Data Collected in Human Subjects Research on the Internet. Ethics and Information Technology 4 no. 3 (2002): 217, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/ethics_bruckman.html accessed April 2006. __________. Ethical Guidelines for Research Online [electronic resource]. 2002, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~asb/ethics/ accessed April 2006. Buchanan, Elizabeth A., ed. Readings in Virtual Research Ethics: Issues and Controversies [electronic resource]. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publications, 2004. Cainkar, Louise. Palestinian Women in American Society. In McCarus, Ernest, ed. The Development of Arab-American Identity. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994: 86. Campbell, Heidi. Considering spiritual dimensions within computer-mediated communication studies. New Media and Society vol. 7, no. 1 (2005): 110, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Cohen, Anthony P. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Chichester, UK: Ellis Horwood Limited, 1985. Cornell, Stephen, and Hartmann, Douglas. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1998. Creswell, John W. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. London: Sage Publications, 1998. DeSouza, Ruth. Motherhood, Migration and Methodology: Giving Voice to the Other. The Qualitative Report 9 no. 3 (2004): 463, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-3/desouza.pdf accessed April 2006. Doostdar, Alireza. The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging: On Language, Culture, and Power in Persian Weblogestan. American Anthropologist 106 no. 4 (December 2004): 651, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Efimova, Lilia, and Hendrick, Stephanie. In Search for a Virtual Settlement: An Exploration of Weblog Community Boundaries. DocuShare Telematica Instituut, (2004): https://doc.telin.nl/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-46041 accessed April 2006.

PAGE 101

92 Ess, Charles and the AoIR Ethics Working Committee. Ethical Decision-making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee. Association of Internet Researchers, November 27, 2002. http://www.aoir.org/reports/ethics.pdf accessed April 2006. Fernback, Jan. Legends on the Net: An Examination of Computer-Mediated Communication as a Locus of Oral Culture. New Media and Society 5, no. 1 (March 2003): 29, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Gibb, Camilla, and Rothenberg, Celia. Believing Women: Harari and Palestinian Women at Home and in the Canadian Diaspora. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 20 no. 2 (2000): 243. Gudykunst, William B., and Mody, Bella, eds. Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication, 2 nd edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2002. Gumpert, Gary, and Drucker, Susan J., eds. The Huddled Masses: Communication and Immigration. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc., 1998. Gurak Laura J. and others. Introduction: Weblogs, Rhetoric, Community, and Culture. In Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/introduction.html accessed April 2006. Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, and Esposito, John L, eds. Islam, Gender, and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck. Not Quite American? The Shaping of Arab and Muslim Identity in the United States. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004. Hevem, Vincent W. Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical Self. Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 321. Herring, Susan C., Scheidt, Lois Ann, Bonus, Sabrina, and Wright, Elijah. Bridging the Gap: A Genre Analysis of Weblogs. In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc accessed April 2006. Herring, Susan C., Kouper, Inna, Paolillo, John C., Scheidt, Lois Ann, Tyworth, Michael, Welsch, Peter, Wright, Elijah, and Yu, Ning. Conversations in the Blogosphere: An Analysis From the Bottom Up. In Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press. 2005), http://www.blogninja.com/hicss05.blogconv.pdf accessed April 2006. Hiller, Harry H., and Franz, Tara M. New Ties, Old Ties, and Lost Ties: The Use of the Internet in Diaspora. New Media and Society vol. 6, no. 6 (2004): 731, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006.

PAGE 102

93 Hofstede, Geert. Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1980. ____________. Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions [electronic resource]. c. 2003. http://www.geert-hofstede.com accessed April 2006. Huffaker, David. Gender Similarities and Differences in Online Identity and Language Use among Teenage Bloggers. MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2004. Husain, Fatima, and OBrien, Margaret. Muslim Communities in Europe: Reconstruction and Transformation. Current Sociology 48, no. 4 (October 2000): 1, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Jones, Kip. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review. The Qualitative Report 9, no. 1 (March 2004): 95, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-1/jones.pdf accessed April 2006. Jones, Quentin. Virtual-communities, Virtual Settlements and Cyber-archaeology: A Theoretical Outline. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3 no. 3 (1997): 24. Kaldor-Robinson, Joshua. The Virtual and the Imaginary: The Role of Diasphoric New Media in the Construction of a National Identity during the Break-up of Yugoslavia. Oxford Development Studies 30, no. 2 (June 2002): 177, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Kaye, Barbara. It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs. Atlantic Journal of Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 73. Khan, Shahnaz. Muslim Women: Crafting a North American Identity. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2000. Kiesling, Scott F., and Paulston, Christina Bratt, eds. Intercultural Discourse and Communication. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Lampa, Graham. Imagining the Blogosphere: An Introduction to the Imagined Community of Instant Publishing, in Gurak Laura J. and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/imagining_the_blogosphere.html accessed April 2006. Langellier, Kristin, and Peterson, Eric. Storytelling in Daily Life: Performing Narrative. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004. Lindlof, Thomas R., and Taylor, Brian C. Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 2 nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002.

PAGE 103

94 Maalouf, Amin. In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong. Barbara Bray, trans. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2001. Mandaville, Peter. Reimagining Islam in Diaspora: the Politics of Mediated Community. Gazette 63, no. 2-3: 169 (2001), http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Mann, Chris, and Stewart, Fiona. Internet Communication and Qualitative Research: A Handbook for Researching Online. London: Sage Publications, 2000. Marlow, Cameron. Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community. Paper presented at the meeting of the 54th Annual Conference, International Communication Association, New Orleans (May, 2004): http://web.media.mit.edu/~cameron/cv/pubs/04-01.pdf accessed April 2006. Marshall, Susan E. and Read, Jennan Ghazal. Identity Politics Among Arab-American Women. Social Science Quarterly 84 no. 4 (December 2003): 875, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Martin, Judith, and Nakayama, Thomas K. Intercultural Communication in Contexts. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004. McCarus, Ernest, ed. The Development of Arab-American Identity. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994. Meloy, Judith M. Writing the Qualitative Dissertation: Understanding by Doing [electronic resource]. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2001. Michael, John. Beyond Us and Them: Identity and Terror from an Arab Americans Perspective. The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 no. 4 (2003): 700, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Morton, Linda P. Segmenting Publics: Segment to Target Arab Americans. Public Relations Quarterly 46 no. 4 (Winter 2001): 47, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Nagel, Caroline R. and Staheli, Lynn A. Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab Immigrants to the United States. Space and Polity 8 no. 1 (April 2004): 3, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Nardi, Bonnie A., Schiano, Diane J., Gumbrecht, Michelle, and Swartz, Luke. Why We Blog. Communications of the ACM 47 no. 12 (December 2004): 41. Orbe, Mark P. Constructing Co-cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998. Papacharissi, Z. The Presentation of Self in Virtual Life. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 79, no 3 (2002): 643.

PAGE 104

95 Parham, Angel Adams. Diaspora, Community, and Communication: Internet Use in Transnational Haiti. Global Networks 4, no. 2 (April 2004): 199, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Internet: The Mainstreaming of Online Life. (January 25, 2005): http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Internet_Status_2005.pdf accessed April 2006. Rak, Julie. The Digital Queer: Weblogs and Internet Identity. Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 28, no. 1 (Winter 2005): 166, http://search.epnet.net accessed April 2006. Read, Jenan Ghazal. Culture, Class, and Work among Arab-American Women. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, 2004. Reed, Adam. My blog Is Me: Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and anthropology). Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 70, no. 2 (June 2005): 220. Riva, Giuseppe. The Sociocognitive Psychology of Computer-Mediated Communication: The Present and Future of Technology-Based Interactions. CyberPsychology and Behavior 5, no. 6 (December 2002): 581, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Rodzvilla, John, ed. Weve Got Blog: How Weblogs Are Changing Our Culture. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2002. Sade-Beck, Liav. Internet Ethnography: Online and Offline. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 3 no. 2 (2004): 1, http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/3_2/ pdf/sadebeck.pdf accessed April 2006. Salaita, Steven. Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab Americans Before and After 9/11. College Literature 32 no. 2 (Spring 2005): 146, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Scheidt, Lois Ann. Adolescent Diary Weblogs and the Unseen Audience. In Buckingham, David and Willett, Rebekah, eds. Digital Generations: Children, Young People and New Media. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006, http://www.slis.indiana.edu/research/working_papers/files/SLISWP-05-01.pdf accessed April 2006. Shain, Yossi. Arab-Americans at a Crossroads. Journal of Palestine Studies 25, no. 3 (Spring 1996): 46, http://jstor.org accessed April 2006. Smith, Marc A., and Kollock, Peter, eds. Communities in Cyberspace [electronic resource]. London, New York: Routledge, 2003.

PAGE 105

96 Smolkin, Rachel. The Expanding Blogosphere. American Journalism Review 26 no. 3, 38, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. St. Amant, Kirk. When Cultures and Computers Collide: Rethinking Computer-Mediated Communication According to International and Intercultural Communication Expectations. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 16, no. 2 (April 2002): 196, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Stern, Susannah R. Virtually Speaking: Girls Self-disclosure on the WWW. Womens Studies in Communication 25 no. 2 (September 2002), http://rdsweb1.rdsinc.com accessed April 2006. Subrahmanyam, Kaveri, Greenfield, Patricia M., and Tynes, Brendesha. Constructing Sexuality and Identity in an Online Teen Chat Room. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 25 no.6 (November/December 2004): 65166. Suler, John. Ethics in Cyberspace Research. In Psychology of Cyberspace [electronic resource] (2000), http://www.rider.edu/users/suler/psycyber/ethics.html accessed April 2006. Tajfel, H. Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Talamo, Alessandra, and Ligorio, Beatrice. Strategic Identities in Cyberspace. CyberPsychology & Behavior 4, no. 1 (2001): 109, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Ting-Toomey, Stella. Communicating Across Cultures. New York: The Guildford Press, 1999. Turkle, Sherry. Identity in the Age of the Internet. In Mackay, Hugh, and OSullivan, Tim, eds., The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation. London: Sage Publications, 1999, 287. Warschauer, Mark. Language, Identity, and the Internet. Mots Pluriels 19 (October 2001), 5, http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels/MP1901mw.html accessed April 2006. Waugh, E. H.; Abu-Laban, S. McIrvin; and Qureshi, R. Burckhardt. Muslim Families in North America. Ontario, Canada: The University of Alberta Press, 1991. Wei, Carolyn. Formation of Norms in a Blog Community. In Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/formation_of_norms.html accessed April 2006.

PAGE 106

97 Wellman, Barry, and Gulia, Milena. Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Dont Ride Alone. In Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace [electronic resource] (London, New York: Routledge, 2003). Wilson, Trish. Women in the Blogosphere. Off Our Backs 35, no. 5/6 (May/June 2005): 51, http://www.proquest.com accessed April 2006. Witteborn, Saskia. Of Being an Arab Woman Before and After September 11: The Enactment of Communal Identities in Talk. Howard Journal of Communications 15, no. 2 (April-June 2004): 83, http://search.epnet.com accessed April 2006. Yu, Xuejun. Computer Network-based News Media and the Development of Globalized Communities. PhD diss., University of Florida, 1996. Zdenek, Sean. Rising up from the MUD: Inscribing Gender in Software Design. Discourse and Society 10 no. 3 (1999): 379.

PAGE 107

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ashley Dyess Sink grew up in Sylacauga, Alabama. In 2000 she graduated from Judson College where she earned a Bachelor of Arts in English and music. In 2002 she moved to Beirut, Lebanon, where she taught English and worked with women. Upon her return to the United States in 2004, she married Justin Sink and subsequently relocated to Gainesville, Florida. She completed her Master of Arts in Mass Communication from the University of Florida in 2006, where she studied international and intercultural communication with an emphasis on the Middle East. 98


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014380/00001

Material Information

Title: Identity and Community in the Weblogs of Muslim Women of Middle Eastern and North African Descent Living in the United States
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014380:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014380/00001

Material Information

Title: Identity and Community in the Weblogs of Muslim Women of Middle Eastern and North African Descent Living in the United States
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014380:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY IN THE WEBLOGS OF
MUSLIM WOMEN OF MIDDLE EASTERN AND NORTH AFRICAN
DESCENT LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES















By

ASHLEY DYESS SINK


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Ashley Dyess Sink



























This thesis is dedicated to the women who enabled me to see beyond my assumptions and
gave me a passion for intercultural communication. They were Lebanese, Mexican-
American, Latvian, Armenian, Syrian, Palestinian, Israeli, Iranian, Korean, Taiwanese,
Sri Lankan, African-American, European American; Christian, Muslim, Jewish, atheist,
agnostic; young, middle-aged, and elderly.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to my thesis committee for their input and support: Dr. Michael

Leslie, Dr. Lisa Duke Cornell, and Dr. Atiqa Hachimi. My friend Keeley Klopfer did a

wonderful job of creating graphics to display my ideas.

Throughout my life, my wonderful family has supported me. Their encouragement

greatly helped me persevere with this thesis and with my academic career in general.

During this entire process my husband, Justin, was an incomparable partner and friend.

Without his care for me and his interest in my work, this thesis would never have been

completed.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

A B STR A C T ............................................................................... ..................... viii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ............................ ........................ 1

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .............................................................................5

Identity in Intercultural Com m unication ........................................... .....................5
Com puter-M ediated Com m unication ................................................. .................. 8
C M C R research D directions .............................................................. ............... 10
T heories of C M C ................. ................................................ .. .................... 11
Virtual Communities Resulting from CMC ................................................12
Id en tity in C M C ................................................................................. 15
A N ew Form of CM C: The W eblog ................................................ ............... 17
Identity in B logging ............ .......................................................... .... .... ... 2 1
C om m unity in B logging .......................................................... ............... 23
MMENA Women: Identity and Community ............................................................25
T he N eed for T his Study ............................................................................. ... ........3 1

3 R E SE A R C H M E TH O D ..................................................................... ..................33

4 F IN D IN G S ................................................................................ 4 0

Id e n tity ........................................................................................................4 0
Personal Identity ..................................... .............. .....................41
G ender Identity ............................................................................... 47
W om men's roles in religion .................................................................... 48
W om men's roles in fam ily .......................................... ............................. 50
Women's roles in marriage and romantic relationships........................ 52
C cultural and E ethnic Identity .......................................................................... 55
Political affinities .................................. ........................................ 55
R religious beliefs ........................................... ............... ................ 58
F am ily ro les ...................................................................................... 6 0
S social life .............................................. .. .. .. ..... ..... .. .. 62
Popular culture ................................ ...........................65


v









Interactions w ith outsiders ........................................ ....................... 66
Intersections of Identity ............................................. ..... ...................... 68
C om m u n ity .......................................................................................................... 7 1
Blog-based Community ........... ...... ........ ............... ............... 73
Face-to-face Community Reinforcement .....................................................76
M em b er C h eck s ................................................................. .................................7 8
R eflex iv ity ................................................................7 8
S u m m a ry ................................................................................................7 9

5 D ISC U S SIO N ............................................................................... 8 1

Identity Theories................................................ 81
C om m unity T theories .............................................................85
Limitations .................................................................. ........ 87
Suggestions for Further Research .............................................................. .....88

B IB L IO G R A P H Y .....................................................................................90

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ....................................................................................... 98
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1. Zeina's profile im age. .............. ....... ...................... .... ................... .. 46

2. Princess of Arabia's profile image ......... ................ .................... ... 48

3. Identity dimension intersections in Queen Leila's blog. ............................... ..........69

4. Identity dimension intersections in Ladyras' blog............... ..................... .................70















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY IN THE WEBLOGS OF
MUSLIM WOMEN OF MIDDLE EASTERN AND NORTH AFRICAN
DESCENT LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES

By

Ashley Dyess Sink

May 2006

Chair: Michael Leslie
Major Department: Mass Communication

In recent years, media attention in the United States increasingly has turned to

Arabs and Muslims. But few of the voices speaking are those of the people in question.

Muslim women, especially, are seldom heard in the mainstream. However, many of them

are speaking, telling their stories to audiences large and small through new technology on

the Internet. Weblogs, online personal journals, allow anyone with access to the Internet

to become a published author. These sites of dialogue and intimate revelation offer

unique insights into their authors' lives. In this thesis, in-depth qualitative textual analysis

was used to examine the weblogs of six Muslim women of Middle Eastern or North

African descent (MMENA) living in the United States and writing in English to

understand how they use their blogs to negotiate identity and create community.

Intercultural communication theories (specifically Ting-Toomey's identity negotiation

theory, Hofstede's cultural dimensions, and Tajfel's social identity theory), computer-









mediated communication theories, and existing literature on Muslim women were all

incorporated.

The women addressed identity within several different areas, in each one displaying

a "paradox of identity": what Edward Said also called "plurality of vision" or "a constant

contest between cultures." They were aware of more than one culture (that of mainstream

United States and the culture of their heritage), were fully part of neither of them, and

fully felt the dissonances between them. This conflict was strengthened by their

membership in a culture currently faced with prejudice from United States culture as a

whole. Their blogs seemed to be a kind of identity workshop, a fluid space between the

different aspects of who they are. Within them, they negotiated personal identity, gender

identity, and cultural/ethnic identity. They built two kinds of community through their

blogs: that which was based on face-to-face relationships and was an extension of

everyday interactions, and that which was based primarily on computer-mediated

interactions. The blogs all displayed, to some extent, a "sense of community" involving

feelings of membership, the fulfillment of needs, and a shared emotional connection.

This is the first study to address MMENA women in relation to their use of blogs.

The paradox of identity the women experienced is important to understand in the context

of today's society in the US. It appears that outsiders' perceptions of MMENA

Americans have a great impact on these women, perhaps greater than they would have on

women of different backgrounds, because of their high level of communalism and their

status as female members of a non-dominant group within the US.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In recent years, media attention in the United States increasingly has turned to

Arabs and Muslims. Questions about religion, violence, and women's roles are asked and

answered. But few of the voices speaking are those of the people in question. Muslim

women, especially, are seldom heard in the mainstream. However, many of them are

speaking, telling their stories to audiences large and small through new technology on the

Internet. Weblogs, online personal journals, allow anyone with access to the Internet to

become a published author. These sites of dialogue and intimate revelation offer unique

insights into their authors' lives.1

Muslim women of Middle Eastern and North African descent living in America

and writing in English have a distinctive presence in the blogosphere. Through the words

and images presented on their blogs, they construct and communicate the identities and

communities in which they live. Many are part of blogrings (groups of bloggers who link

to the sites of others with specific interests) related to issues they deal with on a daily

basis. In this thesis, I will seek to offer an answer to the question: How do Muslim

women of Middle Eastern and North African descent living in America use personal

blogs to create identity and community?

After living in the Middle East for several years, I became fascinated with the

pervasiveness of stories in everyday conversation. Upon learning more about Muslim


1 Adam Reed, "'My Blog Is Me': Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and
anthropology)," Ethnos: Journal of i,, i,. i'... -.- 70, no. 2 (June 2005): 226.









Middle Eastern and North African (MMENA) descendant communities in the United

States and the complexities of a marginalized group's communication, I developed an

interest in learning about the stories they tell, both to each other and to the rest of the

world. The rich oral heritage of MMENA tradition coupled with the generally high

education levels of this group in the United States2 make the weblog an ideal medium for

their storytelling: though it demands written communication, it also has strong elements

of orality.3 Studying MMENA women's weblogs offers insight into how they present

themselves to themselves, each other, and the general public, as well as how they form

and maintain communities.

My personal experiences in Lebanon and my interest in women's communication

led me to conduct this study. I spent three years in Lebanon where I taught English and

worked with a women's organization. I learned to speak Arabic and made many close

friends. My experiences with Lebanese people and culture were so positive that I was

often shocked by Western responses to the region. Upon my return to the United States,

the media's portrayal of MMENA women surprised and angered me. I also dealt with

reverse culture shock, which gave me an interest in bicultural individuals.

Because blogging is a relatively new phenomenon in an unorganized yet complex

environment, research is still in the exploratory stages. Recent studies examined uses and

gratifications of writing and reading blogs using both quantitative4 and qualitative5


2 Je'nan Ghazal Read, Culture, Class, and Work amongArab-American Women (New York: LFB
Scholarly Publishing LLC, 2004): 8.

3 Kristin Langellier and Eric Peterson, Storytelling in Daily Life: Performing Narrative
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004): 159-188.

4 Barbara Kaye, "It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs," Atlantic Journal of
Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 73-95.










approaches; the development of blogging communities among those of similar interests6

including knitting7 or cooking;8 and the presentation of self by various groups of people

through blogs9 such as teenagers,10 teenage girls,1 and young Londoners.12 This study is

unique in that it focuses on blogging both as a form of intercultural communication and

identity construction for a specific religious, ethnic and age cohort, i.e., young MMENA

women.

Chapter two of this thesis provides an overview of the scholarship relevant to the

various dimensions of the research question including intercultural communication

theories; computer-mediated communication; blogging; and MMENA identity,

community, and media use. Chapter three outlines the research methods. Areas covered

are participant selection, data collection, methods of analysis, researcher reflexivity, and



5 Bonnie A. Nardi, Diane J. Schiano, Michelle Gumbrecht, and Luke Swartz, "Why We Blog,"
Communications oftheACM47 no. 12 (December 2004): 41-46.

6 Barry Wellman, and Milena Gulia, "Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Don't Ride
Alone," In Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace [electronic resource]
(London, New York: Routledge, 2003).

7 Carolyn Wei, "Formation of Norms in a Blog Community," In L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L.
Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of
Weblogs (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere, accessed
April 2006.

8 Anita Blanchard, "Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the
Julie/Julia Project, In L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the
Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota,
2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere, accessed April 2006.

9 Vincent W. Hevem, "Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical
Self," Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 321-335.

10 David Huffaker, "Gender Similarities and Differences in Online Identity and Language Use
among Teenage Bloggers," MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2004.

1 Denise Sevick Bortree, "Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage
Girls' Weblogs," Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 25-39.

12 Reed, "My Blog Is Me," 220-242.






4


ethical considerations. Chapter four discusses the findings of the study, and chapter five

places them in the larger theoretical context.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

In the following review of the literature, I examine scholarship relevant to the

various dimensions of my research question. First, I begin with an overview of

intercultural communication. Following are discussions regarding specific intercultural

communication theories related to personal and group identity. I then move to an

examination of current research on computer-mediated communication (CMC),

especially in relation to identity and community (particularly diasporic) formation.

Literature on blogging, a subset of CMC, is reviewed next, again with attention to the

construction of identity and community. As my research focuses on the blogging

behaviors of Muslim women of Middle Eastern and North African descent, I then survey

work on this specific group of women and their identities and communities. Finally, I

discuss gaps and documented needs for further study in the literature.

Identity in Intercultural Communication

Intercultural communication occurs between unalike individuals of different

cultures. Research in this area began at the United States Foreign Service Institute in

response to the increasing diplomatic involvement of the United States around the world.

Areas of study traditionally include nonverbal communication, assimilation, sojourning,

culture shock, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and individualism-collectivism. Conception of









the self is a salient dimension of these areas, and identity issues are often incorporated

into studies focusing on these topics.1

In her identity negotiation theory of intercultural communication, Ting-Toomey

synthesized insights from many intercultural communication researchers with findings

from her own work. In this theory, identity is defined as the self-reflections or self-

images derived from socializing processes such as culture, ethnicity, and gender that are

practiced, constructed, and expressed through specific interactions. It consists of eight

"domains" in two categories: primary identity dimensions including cultural, ethnic,

gender, and personal identities; and situationally dependent identity dimensions including

role, relational, facework, and symbolic interaction identities. Negotiation is a two-way

communication process in which individuals reinforce, change, support, or challenge

each others' self-images. Thus, the theory states that the dimensions of an individual's

identity are constantly negotiated during intercultural communication.2

Ten core assumptions further define the theory: group and personal identities are

products of symbolic interaction, needs for identity stability and connection are constant

across cultures, identity security or vulnerability depends on the familiarity of the

environment, identity trust is created with similar others, in-group membership

endorsements enhance feelings of inclusion, close relationships are desired but not a

function of identity autonomy, culture familiarity leads to a perception of identity

stability, identity dimensions influence the interpretation of identity themes, feelings of



1 William B. Gudykunst and Bella Mody, eds., Handbook of International and Intercultural
Communication, 2nd edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 2-7.

2Stella Ting-Toomey, C. ',,,,ii...a.. m Across Cultures (New York: The Guildford Press, 1999), 26-









respect and support are outcomes of satisfactory identity negotiation, and finally, mindful

intercultural communication integrates these assumptions with knowledge, motivation,

and skills to communicate effectively.3

Intercultural communication scholars often examine value systems across cultures.

Hofstede devised the primary system of cultural variability, which includes

individualism-collectivism as the most often researched and practical of the dimensions.4

Ting-Toomey argues that identity, or self-conception, is highly linked to the

individualism-collectivism dimension. Those from individualistic cultures are likely to

perceive identity based on independent self-construals, personal self-esteem, and

generalized-based interaction. On the other hand, the identities of individuals from

collectivistic cultures depend more on interdependent self-construals, group self-esteem,

and in-group based interaction.5

Tajfel's social identity theory further explains the intersection of group and

individual identities: self-image is improved (or worsened) dependent upon both in-group

and personal identity. Thus, an individual may enhance her personal identity by building

up her group identity, which in turn enhances her personal identity. This relationship

leads to loyalty to and preference for the self and the in-group to the exclusion of out-

groups (dissimilar, disconnected, and/or distrusted groups).6 Phinney proposed that ethnic

groups or minorities living within a dominant culture have further identity dimensions to

3 Ibid., 40-41.

4 Geert Hofstede, Culture 's Consequences: International i.. .. i ,.... in Work-Related Values
(Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1980).

5 Ting-Toomey, C. -,mitoli .,,ri, Across Cultures, 76.

6 H. Tajfel, Human Groups and Social Categories (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
1981).









negotiate in communication with out-group members. At any given point, an individual

from a minority or ethnic group holds a specific part or parts of her identity as most

salient; whether ethnic belonging, ethnic identity achievement, ethnic practices, or other-

group orientation.' Therefore, for members of one of these groups, the community, or in-

group, likely plays a larger role in personal identity formation than it does for members of

the dominant culture.

Orbe created co-cultural theory to describe the interactions between dominant and

non-dominant, or co-cultural, groups. Using phenomenological inquiry, he discovered

that co-cultural individuals may use assertive, nonassertive, or aggressive communication

strategies to interact with the dominant group. They also have specific orientations

regarding how they should respond to the dominant group's culture: assimilation,

accommodation, or separation. He described nine possible combinations of orientations

and communication strategies in an attempt to understand the relationships between

power and communication in society.8

Computer-Mediated Communication

As computers have become more pervasive in our society, their uses have

necessarily expanded from scientific calculation machines to tools for ordinary people to

use on a daily basis. This use often takes the form of computer-mediated communication

(CMC), an over-arching term referring to communication between humans that uses

computers as the medium. It may be defined as "a process by which a group of social

actors in a given situation negotiates the meaning of the various situations, which rise

7 Jean S. Phinney, "The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use with Diverse
Groups," Journal ofAdolescent Research 7, 156-176.

8 Mark P. Orbe, C. 'ii ,ii. r,,i Co-cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and
Communication (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998), 50-120.










between them."9 Lindlof and Taylor define CMC as "the process through which humans

create, maintain, and transform meaning by interacting as users of computerized systems

of communication."10 They note that while computers increasingly are integrated with

existing communications systems (such as telephone and television), they are

simultaneously improving in speed, ease of use, and sophistication as well as

affordability. Not surprisingly, the use of the Internet is growing as well: by the end of

2004, 63 percent of adults and 81 percent of teenagers in the United States were online.

Of these, 84 percent are members of an online group or community, 27 percent read

blogs, and 7 percent have created their own blogs.11

The possibilities inherent in CMC are infinite-democratization of the public

sphere, new possibilities for relationship and community formation, unfettered personal

development.12 Particularly as Internet use increases, more people become published

authors and artists online. Papacharissi calls this widespread tool "a new channel of mass

communication that allows everyone to become a producer of media content, providing

people with access to a mass audience that they would otherwise be unable to reach."13





9Giuseppe Riva, "The Sociocognitive Psychology of Computer-Mediated Communication: The
Present and Future of Technology-Based Interactions," CyberPsychology and Behavior 5, no. 6 (December
2002): 596, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

10 Thomas R. Lindlof and Brian C. Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 2nd
edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 249.

1 Pew Internet and American Life Project, "Internet: The Mainstreaming of Online Life" (January
25, 2005): 58, Ip \ \ \ .pewintemet.org/pdfs/IntemetStatus_2005.pdf, accessed April 2006.

12 Heidi Campbell, "Considering Spiritual Dimensions Within Computer-mediated Communication
Studies," New Media and Society 7, no. 1 (2005): 117, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

13 Zizi Papacharissi, "The Presentation of Self in Virtual Life," Journalism and Mass
Communication Quarterly 79, no 3 (2002): 658.









CMC Research Directions

Lindlof and Taylor, in their handbook of qualitative research, examine the research

trends to date. As of 2002, CMC research centered on five main areas, all specific

technologies which function as sites of communication: email, bulletin board systems

(BBS), Internet relay chat (IRC), multiple user domains (MUD, MOO, or MUSH), and

web pages. Within these five areas, qualitative researchers deal primarily with issues of

identity, relationship, and community.

CMC identity research typically covers topics such as self-presentation, new

possibilities for self-expression, web subcultures, and the effect of CMC on traditional

ways of being. Relationship-focused research divides into three distinct schools of

thought: the "cues filtered out" approach characterizing CMC as cold and impersonal, the

"social information processing" perspective proposing that meaningful interactions can

form through CMC in time, and the "hyper-personal" approach involving idealization of

individuals which produces quicker intimacy than face-to-face interactions. Research on

CMC-based communities is often controversial. The very idea of community in a virtual

environment is debatable.14 In fact, some studies have examined if purported virtual or

online communities were even communities at all.15









14 Lindlof and Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 252-256.

15 Anita Blanchard, "Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the
Julie/Julia Project," in L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the
Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (2I r14), http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere,
accessed April 2006.









Theories of CMC

As we become more and more reliant upon technology in general and CMC in

particular to accomplish everyday tasks, a "culture of cyberspace"16 forms. Fernback

argued that this culture differs anthropologicallyy, socially, and literally from 'physical'

culture," differences which "shape the making of meaning."17 She notes the development

of cyber-literacy into a necessary skill as a major influence over existing communication

patterns. CMC, she argues, could be a revolution in human cognition: a new melding of

oral and textual cultures. It is both cultural environment and channel of communication.

She concludes, "The realm of CMC is a site of oral culture, albeit an oral culture with

distinctly print characteristics."18

Campbell proposed four perspectives on the Internet and the communication that

flows through it: the Internet as information space (utilitarian), a common mental

geography (conceptual), an identity workshop (experimental), or a social space (social).

These may combine to form a sacramental space, one accessed for the purpose of seeking

spiritual meaning. She notes that the social space perspective allows researchers to study

the human interactions that take place through the Internet, such as CMC.19

Riva noted several prevalent theories related to CMC. First, he referred to CMC as

"an efficient form of miscommunication:"20 because a message sender is bodily distanced


16 Jan Fernback, "Legends on the Net: An Examination of Computer-Mediated Communication as a
Locus of Oral Culture," New Media and Society 5, no. 1 (March 2003): 39, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid., 44.

19 Campbell, "Considering Spiritual Dimensions," 114-119.

20 Riva, "Sociocognitive Psychology," 582.









from the message receiver, the usual conventions of communication are not present.

Interaction is therefore more uncertain and more prone to misunderstanding. The "social

vacuum" is another interpretation of CMC: because individuals are physically isolated,

they are not bound by usual social rules. This is related to the "cues filtered out"

perspective. In time, adherents assert, individuals lose their personal identities in the

impersonal and unbounded world of CMC. In contrast to this, Riva proposes the social

identity model of deindividuation effect (SIDE): a CMC user's actions are influenced by

invisible social norms as well as individual cognition. Because CMC lacks verbal and

nonverbal physical cues, social norms are in fact more important, as the individual bases

her actions on real-world expectations.21

Virtual Communities Resulting from CMC

Sociologists, according to Wellman and Gulia, have worried about the destruction

of community by technology for many years. On the contrary, it has been found that

technology (including cars and phones) enhances long-distance relationships, in turn

building social networks that exist on a global scale rather than within a single

neighborhood. These social networks depend less on socioeconomics and gender than

they do on shared interests. Thus, while geographically based communities tend to be

homogeneous in social characteristics, technology based communities (such as those on

the Internet) are often heterogeneous in social characteristics but homogeneous in

interests and attitudes.22 At the same time, while technology based interaction may create



21 Ibid., 584.

22 Barry Wellman and Milena Gulia, "Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Don't Ride
Alone," in Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace [electronic resource]
(London, New York: Routledge, 2003), 169.









communities across borders of time and space; it also serves to strengthen and maintain

relationships based on face-to-face interaction.23

As noted above, some scholars question if CMC can ever result in a true

community. Online groups that are not considered communities are called simply virtual

groups.24 Jones suggests that it is important for researchers to draw a distinction between

the technology that connects a virtual group and the relationships that make the group a

community. He uses archaeological terms to suggest first identifying "virtual

settlements" then examining the cultural artifacts extant in the settlement. The artifacts

(postings, structure, and content) lead to an interpretation and identification of the

community.25 In order to be considered a settlement (and subsequently a community), the

virtual site must have "a minimal number of public interactions with a variety of

communicators in which there is a minimal level of sustained membership over time."26

Relationships and emotional ties develop in the community over time as an outgrowth of

interactions between communicators.

Blanchard expanded on Jones' settlement idea by arguing that these emotional ties

may be defined as "sense of community." She proposes that sense of community is what

separates a virtual community from a virtual group. It includes feelings of membership




23 Harry H. Hiller and Tara M. Franz, Nci \ Ties, Old Ties, and Lost Ties: The Use of the Internet in
Diaspora," New Media and Society 6, no. 6 (k "'14): 732, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

24 Blanchard, "Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia
Project, paragraph 3.

25 Quentin Jones, "Virtual-communities, Virtual Settlements and Cyber-archaeology: A Theoretical
Outline," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3 no. 3 (1997): 24, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.

26 Blanchard, "Identifying a Sense of Community, paragraph 13.









and influence, the fulfillment of needs, and a shared emotional connection.27 Virtual

groups desire to be "communities" for several reasons, she notes. Community is sought-

after as meeting a human need for relationships that are increasingly difficult in the

isolationist American culture. As more of the world's population comes online, global

communities are possible, fostering dialogue as well as other social benefits. Membership

in a virtual community may increase one's involvement in face-to-face communities and

activism. Additionally, a virtual community, unlike a group, is sustainable; an important

characteristic for the social and emotional wellbeing of participants as well as more

material (often financial) concerns of sponsors.28

Diasporic communities offer unique insights into the community building

possibilities of CMC, as they consist of a group of people with relatively homogeneous

social characteristics and possibly heterogeneous interests bound by a common stake in a

homeland. Diasporas usually exhibit at least some of the following characteristics:

dispersal from the homeland under duress, emigration because of economic problems or

colonization, shared stories and memory of the homeland, an idealized view of the

homeland, widespread desire to return, strong identification as an ethnic group,

discontent or discrimination within the host society, and solidarity with others from the

homeland across national borders.29 Diasporic identity is usually only one element of a

person's identity construction, which also includes gender, class, age, and other factors.



27 Ibid.

28 Ibid.

29 Joshua Kaldor-Robinson, "The Virtual and the Imaginary: The Role of Diasphoric New Media in
the Construction of a National Identity during the Break-up of Yugoslavia," Oxford Development Studies
30, no. 2 (June 2002): 178, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.









Notably, diasporic identity is highly flexible, tending to change dramatically over short

periods of time depending on geopolitical factors.30

Hiller and Franz note that diasporic virtual communities substitute for expensive

visits home and daily interaction with those from the same geographic area. It may

function as both an interest-based and geographically based community. For recent

migrants, a virtual community functions as an alleviator of homesickness, partner in

culture shock, and helper with assimilation into the new culture. For those who are more

settled in a new culture, the virtual community serves to reestablish lost or neglected ties

or fuel a sense of nostalgia about the homeland. Thus, the community in these cases

forms from a "generalized sense of belonging...based on group identity and a territorial

homeland."31 Recent studies of diasporic communities online found they are used for

connection, support, and political activism among migrants from areas as diverse as

Haiti,32 Newfoundland,33 and Yugoslavia.34

Identity in CMC

Social psychologist Sherry Turkle pioneered research of identity in CMC with

studies of MUD players' interactions. In face-to-face interviews with over a thousand

players as well as participation in multiple MUDs, she found identity in cyberspace to be

a concept disconnected from the body, constantly moving between genders, roles, and


30 Ibid., 180.

31 Hiller and Franz, Nci% Ties," 735-748.

32 Angel Adams Parham, "Diaspora, Community, and Communication: Internet Use in
Transnational Haiti," Global Networks 4, no. 2 (April 2004): 199-217, http://search.epnet.com, accessed
April 2006.

33Hiller and Franz, Nci\\ Ties."

34 Kaldor-Robinson, "The Virtual and the Imaginary."









relationships. The computer provides a stage for soliloquies or large-scale dramas where

players act out fantasies, constructing their identities and exploring formative concepts.35

Talamo and Ligorio studied identity construction in "Euroland," a virtual

community for students and teachers in which participants created a fictional identity

consisting of a name, visual representation, and specific actions such as text-based chat.

They found that in this context, individuals created their identities in relation to others

("positioning") and in direct relation to the opportunities and interactions offered within

the virtual world. Three factors play a role in virtual identity construction overall: the

ability to remain anonymous, communication that is either synchronous (which does not

allow an individual to spend time carefully constructing interaction) or asynchronous

(which allows for more careful self-presentation), and the availability of both visual and

textual representations.36

Papacharissi examined personal web pages to understand how self may be

presented in a virtual environment. The perception of self by others in this case cannot

rely on traditional markers of social status like appearance. Instead, web page creators

tended to depend on links to indicate their likes and dislikes to viewers. Features such as

email, guest books, and traffic counters reflected a desire for social interaction.

Additionally, Papacharissi interpreted membership in web page communities as a need

for affiliation and validation by others that the self presented is accepted.37



35 Sherry Turkle, "Identity in the Age of the Internet," In Mackay, Hugh, and O'Sullivan, Tim, eds.,
The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation (London: Sage Publications, 1999), 287-304.
36 Alessandra Talamo and Beatrice Ligorio, "Strategic Identities in Cyberspace," CyberPsychology
& Behavior 4, no. 1 (2001): 109-111, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

3 Papacharissi, "The Presentation of Self," 655.









A New Form of CMC: The Weblog

In its simplest form, a weblog (or blog) is simply "an online journal of... opinions,

thoughts, and interests."38 Blogs typically have one author who posts entries that display

in chronological order with the most recent post at the top of the webpage. They may also

include links to other blogs or sites of interest, an image and/or biography of the author,

audio, video, a comments section for other bloggers to post responses, and a guestbook.

Unlike earlier forms of CMC, such as personal webpages, blogs are stricter in their

format (time/date stamps on entries, chronological listing of posts) and easier to use for

those with lower levels of technology skills, as they require only a basic knowledge of

computer use in order to be published.9 Wilson notes that blogs have given greater voice

to those who are not often heard in the public sphere, such as women, and increased a

sense of empowerment through cross-validation of the opinions and thoughts of authors

by other bloggers.40 Most blogs are narrative in format and structured around the

personality of the author. Some consider their blogs an extension of self, a facet of their

personalities revealed in public; one blogger described blogs as "the great I am."41 Some

call blogs a "conversation" based on the social currency of links, referring to and reading

others' blogs.42 While over 70 percent of blogs are considered personal journals, other


38 Trish Wilson, "Women in the Blogosphere," Off Our Backs 35, no. 5/6 (May/June 2005):
paragraph 4, www.proquest.com, accessed April 2006.

39 David Huffaker, "Gender Similarities and Differences in Online Identity and Language Use
among Teenage Bloggers" (MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2004), 30.

40 Wilson, "Women in the Blogosphere," paragraph 4.

41 Adam Reed, 'My Blog Is Me': Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and
Anthropology)," Ethnos: Journal of, ,,i, ,. '.. i '.-'70, no. 2 (June 2005): 226.

42 Cameron Marlow, "Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community," paper
presented at the meeting of the 54th Annual Conference, International Communication Association, New
Orleans (May, 2004), http://web.media.mit.edu/-cameron/cv/pubs/04-01.pdf, accessed April 2006.










types include knowledge logs (k-logs), filters, mixed (combination of types), or functions

such as retail or advertisement hosting.43 Others classify blogs as a genre of speech44 and

a social structure dependent on the writers' intentions.45

Weblogs first developed between 1994 and 1998, beginning with early adopters of

the Internet (generally computer programmers) who created pages of links and

commentary. In 1997, Jorn Barger, author of the blog "Robot Wisdom," first used the

term "weblog" to refer to his site. In 1999, easy-to-use free software (including Blogger,

Pitas, and Groksoup) became available to the general public, democratizing the

blogosphere.46 Though critics such as McChesney caution that the Internet is no more

democratizing than passing out a newsletter to one's neighbors, it is precisely the

decentralized, personal and particular nature of weblogs that make them so attractive to

those who wish to have a hand in creating media.47

Rak proposes that weblogs in general have a specific ideology due to their origins

as American computer experts' personal sites. They tend to focus on the "primacy of



43 Susan C. Herring, Lois Ann Scheidt, Sabrina Bonus, and Elijah Wright, "Bridging the Gap: A
Genre Analysis of Weblogs," In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on
System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc,
accessed April 2006.

44 Alireza Doostdar, "'The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging': On Language, Culture, and Power in Persian
Weblogestan," American i i, i. i 'i. ', 106 no. 4 (December 2004): 654, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.

45 Lilia Efimova and Stephanie Hendrick, "In Search for a Virtual Settlement: An Exploration of
Weblog Community Boundaries," DocuShare Telematica Instituut, (i2 '4): 2,
https://doc.telin.nl/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-46041, accessed April 2006.

46 Laura J. Gurak and others, "Introduction: Weblogs, Rhetoric, Community, and Culture," in Laura
J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs
(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraph 1,
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/introduction.html, accessed April 2006.

47 Kristin M. Langellier and Eric E. Peterson, Storytelling in Daily Life (Philadelphia: Temple
University Press, 2004), 173.










individual experience"48 and exhibit a sense of opposition to the established media,

extreme individualism, capitalism, and liberalism especially regarding freedom of

expression (based on Rousseau's model of the social contract).49

Though all blogs follow a similar format, content is highly varied. Readers and

creators of weblogs have a wide range of uses for blogs, a topic currently under

investigation in academia. In one of the earlier blog studies, Kaye found that blog readers

(at the time mostly young, educated, high-income males) read blogs for the purposes of

information seeking and media check, convenience, personal fulfillment, surveillance,

expression, and affiliation.50 A contemporary study of uses and gratifications of personal

blog creators found their motivations were documenting life, expressing opinions, having

an outlet for emotions and thoughts, testing ideas for an audience, and opening a

community forum.51 While mainstream media hype often portrays the blogosphere as a

fast-paced, highly interconnected scene of debate and idea exchange, the majority of

blogs are simple diaries or ways to keep in touch with friends and family from the face-

to-face world.52 In this sense, a blog may become a site for the synthesis of "real life"





48 Julie Rak, "The Digital Queer: Weblogs and Internet Identity," Biography: An Interdisciplinary
Quarterly 28, no. 1 (Winter 2005): 166, http://search.epnet.net, accessed April 2006.

49 Ibid., 166-173.

50 Barbara Kaye, "It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs," Atlantic Journal of
Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 84.

51 Bonnie A. Nardi, Diane J. Schiano, Michelle Gumbrecht, and Luke Swartz, "Why We Blog,"
Communications oftheACM47 no. 12 (December 2004): 42-45.

52 Graham Lampa, "Imagining the Blogosphere: An Introduction to the Imagined Community of
Instant Publishing," in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and
Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraphs 1, 9, 10,
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/imaginingtheblogosphere.html, accessed April 2006.









with an alter ego that exists only in the author's imagination53 or a way of substituting

texts for persons.54 Lampa found self-publishing on blogs to be a new form of mass

ceremony, as reading the morning newspaper was in the past.5 Some blogs become a

conversation medium for a modem version of storytelling.5 Particularly for adolescent

girls, journal-type sites may become an online narrative for expressing oneself to the

world.57 Other uses include educational purposes, online journalism, or knowledge

sharing within or between businesses and other organizations.58 Herring and her research

team, through a process of social network analysis, found that most blogs (particularly

journal-type blogs) are not densely linked to others. Rather, small clusters are heavily

interlinked, while only the most famous "A-list" blogs are truly linked across the

blogosphere.59

An interesting feature of blogs is their position between interpersonal and mass

communication. Though most blogs are intended primarily for an audience of face-to-

face acquaintances, by publishing on the web bloggers acknowledge their status as

creators of content for public consumption. This may lead to a conflict in the blogger's




53 Rak, "The Digital Queer," 167-168.

54 Reed, "My Blog Is Me, 224, 227.

55 Lampa, "Imagining the Blogosphere," 13, 20.

56 Langellier and Peterson, Storytelling, 165-175.

57 Susannah R. Ster, "Virtually Speaking: Girls' Self-disclosure on the WWW," Women's Studies
in Communication 25 no. 2 (September 2002), http://rdswebl.rdsinc.com, accessed April 2006.

58 Huffaker, "Gender Similarities and Differences," 12-13.

59 Susan C. Herring and others, "Conversations in the Blogosphere: An Analysis 'From the Bottom
Up,'" in Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences (Los
Alamitos: IEEE Press. 2005), hup \ \\ \ .blogninja.com/hicss05.blogconv.pdf, accessed April 2006.










message: to whom do they write?60 Many attempt to maintain a balance between writing

to please themselves (the identity aspect) and writing to please others (the community

aspect).61 Scheidt examined five audience functions for bloggers: therapist supporting

emotions; cultural theorist assessing meanings, values, and identities in the text; narrative

analyst examining genre, truth or strategy; and critic appraising the display of

performance knowledge and skill.62 Some bloggers self-censor: relatives and other

readers may disapprove of the raw, unedited content bloggers often produce, so many

attempt to make it less offensive to preserve face-to-face relationships.63 Though weblogs

are public, they usually have an intimate feel-images of the author at the top of every

page, highly revelatory content-that creates a sense of private, one-on-one interaction.64

Identity in Blogging

Dimensions of identity are negotiated in blogs as they are in real life. In fact,

Langellier and Peterson consider the dominant expression of weblogs to be "the struggle

over identities-interpersonal, social, moral, aesthetic-in uncertain and unstable

conditions by making that struggle concrete and accessible."65 Thus, a blog becomes a


60 Denise Sevick Bortree, "Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage
Girls' Weblogs," Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 28.

61 Efimova and Hendrick, "In Search for a Virtual Settlement," 5.

62 Lois Ann Scheidt, "Adolescent Diary Weblogs and the Unseen Audience," in Buckingham, David
and Willett, Rebekah, eds., Digital Generations: Children, Young People and New Media (London:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006), http://www.slis.indiana.edu/research/workingpapers/files/SLISWP-
05-01.pdf, accessed April 2006.

63 Nardi and others, "Why We Blog," 43.

64 Meredith Badger, "Visual Blogs," in Laura J. Gurak, Smiljana Antonijevic, Laurie Johnson,
Clancy Ratliff, and Jessica Reyman, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of
Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraphs 5-8,
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/visual blogs.html, accessed April 2006.

65 Langellier and Peterson, Storytelling, 187.









kind of workshop where the various pieces of identity are crafted, fit together, and

constantly rearranged to fit the prevailing circumstances. Huffaker questions whether

identity in blogs is as changeable as a suit of clothes, as stable as a real-world persona, or

a combination of these two extremes. In his study of gender differences in weblog

identities among teenagers, he found that few differences exist in the way teenagers

present themselves to the world through blogs.66 In particular, teens tend to use their

screen names/blog names as important indicators of identity.67

Reed conducted an online and face-to-face ethnography of UK journal bloggers. He

proposes, based on his findings, that bloggers explicitly consider the texts of their blogs

to be an extension of self; thus the title of his article, "My Blog Is Me."68 In his online

ethnography of the Iranian blog community ("Weblogestan"), Doostdar discusses the

self-presentations of Iranian bloggers revealed in their texts as "linguistic and cultural

rebels," perhaps in direct defiance of the political and cultural environment of

contemporary Iran.69

Hevem's study of twenty personal weblogs revealed that time is an important factor

in identity construction: as blog formats are based on reverse chronological order, it is

possible to trace the development and fluctuations of the author's identity through the

posts. He proposes the metaphor of thread/threading for examining identity in blogs.

First, identity construction may be a journey (like the journey of thread through cloth)

66 Huffaker, "Gender Similarities and Differences."

67 Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Patricia M. Greenfield, and Brendesha Tynes, "Constructing Sexuality
and Identity in an Online Teen Chat Room," Journal ofApplied Developmental Psychology 25 no.6
(November-December 2004): 651-666.

68 Reed, "My Blog Is Me," 224.

69 Doostdar, "The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging, 653.









through time and narrative encompassing personal experiences and thoughts. Next, it

may be spun (as the individual fibers of a thread overlap to create a whole) by changing,

overlapping experiences and beliefs as expressed in the blog. Finally, online identity is a

woven tapestry carefully (if unconsciously) constructed by the blogger to present a

comprehensive image composed of individual elements.70

Community in Blogging

Based on Jones' concept of the virtual settlement (see above), Blanchard conducted

a case study of "The Julie/Julia Project," a popular blog focused on cooking, to determine

if it was a virtual community or merely a group. She found that having large numbers of

readers alone does not create a sense of community; rather, it depends on the level of

interaction with other features such as blogrolls, comments, and guestbooks. Readers who

participated in these parts of the blog expressed a sense of community; those who did not

participate did not express this sense.7 Marlow considers the blogosphere to consist of a

number of smaller communities, each with similar social structures based on authority as

in face-to-face communities.72

In her study of a blogging community based on knitting, Wei found that blogrings

(one type of online community) tend to form around common interests or characteristics.

Members typically have shared value systems as well as interests, leading to a "culture"

with specific norms that must be followed for successful integration into the


70 Vincent W. Hevem, "Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical
Self," Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 321-335.

1 Anita Lynn Blanchard, "Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the
Julie/Julia Project," in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and
Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004): paragraphs 17-26,
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/blogs_asvirtual.html, accessed April 2006.
72 Marlow, "Audience, Structure, and Authority," paragraphs 1-3.









community.73 Using the metaphor of neighborhoods, Efimova and Hendrick found great

variation in the use of shared spaces in the blogosphere. For example, the knitting

community (above) had lively and active public discourse, while others appeared to be

mere collections of buildings without interaction. However, closer examination revealed

more subtle patterns of community interaction in the quieter communities; much one-to-

one communication took place (through email, for example) based on the overall group

communication.74

As a blogging community grows (based around blogrings, links, or blogrolls)

interactions between members tend to increase substantially over time. Reed found that

after several months of knowing each other online, one UK blogging community initiated

face-to-face meetings. Because these bloggers equate their blogs with their selves, the

meetings were considered simply extensions of the blogging community: a meeting of

old friends rather than complete strangers.7

Blogging may offer specific benefits to communities on the fringes of the dominant

culture by giving members forums in which to chronicle and synthesize life experiences,

resist conforming to mainstream culture, and conquer social isolation.76 However,

Zdenek argues that this "liberatory perspective" is merely an unrealistic ideal; rather, the

language of blogs and other forms of CMC serve to reinforce roles and stereotypes

present in other forms of communication. This is particularly a problem for women, who

73 Carolyn Wei, "Formation of Norms in a Blog Community," in Laura J. Gurak and others, eds.,
Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota, 2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/formation of norms.html, accessed April 2006.

74 Efimova and Hendrick, "In Search For a Virtual Settlement."

75 Reed, "My Blog Is Me," 234-235.

76 Langellier and Peterson, Storytelling, 183.









face magnified problems of silencing or attack in cyberspace.77 The Internet in general

has been called "the ultimate act of intellectual colonialism" due to its primary use of

English and other American-based standards. However, while the Internet may

exacerbate societal inequalities, it may also serve to change the existing structures that

create these inequalities.78

MMENA Women: Identity and Community

Immigration from North Africa and the Middle East to the United States first began

in the late 1800s. This "first wave" of immigration consisted mainly of Christians from

then-Syria: present day Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan. This group

assimilated quickly into the larger society while maintaining their religious theology,

child-rearing practices, food, and family ties, though they did not pass on the knowledge

of Arabic to their children. After World War II the "second wave" began. These

newcomers were from across the region and had a politicized Arab consciousness,

particularly after the Six-Day War of 1967. Unlike the initial arrivals, these immigrants

were primarily Muslim.79 Due to the increased atmosphere of ethnic freedom created by

the civil rights movement, they were less afraid of openly expressing their ethnic and

cultural heritage. This group influenced the earlier wave of immigrants by increasing

their awareness of issues in the Middle East and North Africa, particularly in Palestine.

However, since the events of September 11, 2001, many MMENA Americans fear



7 Sean Zdenek, "Rising up from the MUD: Inscribing Gender in Software Design," Discourse and
Society 10 no. 3 (1999): 379-409.

8 Mark Warschauer, "Language, Identity, and the Internet," Mots Pluriels 19 (October 2001), 5,
lhp \\ \\ \\ .arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels/MP1901mw.html, accessed April 2006.

79 Linda P. Morton, "Segmenting Publics: Segment to Target Arab Americans," Public Relations
Quarterly 46 no. 4 (Winter 2001): 47-48, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.









speaking out against American policies because of stereotypes currently implicit in their

ethnicity. They often report experiencing a "paradox of identity":8o being ethnically and

culturally identified with "the enemy" while being American citizens or residents as

well.81

Ashcroft and Ahluwalia expanded on the paradox of identity concept in their

description of Palestinian cultural theorist Edward Said's work. Exiles, as many

MMENA Americans could be considered, are aware of at least two cultures while most

people only are familiar with one. The "plurality of vision" this knowledge provides leads

to an awareness of different, often conflicting dimensions of culture. Identity is deeply

affected by the conflicts, or as Said describes it, is a "constant contest between cultures."

One's identity must be spoken to be claimed, Said asserted, and in the case of MMENA

Americans, their identifying narratives often cannot be heard. They are overtaken by

political issues, cultural stereotypes, and misunderstandings.82

Read found that compared to the US adult population as a whole, MENA

Americans are younger, better educated, and have higher incomes. Over half were born in

the United States; one-third are Muslim. They are not a homogenous group with a

monolithic culture, though some similarities do exist. The degree of patriarchal societal

structure and gender role differentiation usually depend on social class, length of time in

the United States, and country of origin. MMENA Americans tend to be more lenient



80 Steven Salaita, "Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab Americans Before and After
9/11," College Literature 32 no. 2 (Spring 2005): 153, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

81 Ibid., 146-168.
82 Bill Ashcroft and Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity (London, New York:
Routledge, 1999), 9-29









with traditional values than their counterparts in their homelands, including allowing

women to pray in the mosques.83

Shain calls MMENA Americans a "mobilized diaspora" with two major concerns

in the U.S.: the status of MMENA Americans in politics and society and relations

between the U.S. and the Arab world.84 Nagel and Staheli note that although many are

involved in organizations like the American-Arab Anti-discrimination Committee and the

Arab American Institute that promote ethnically related causes, many are also

transnational: claiming U.S. citizen identity but maintaining ties with the homeland.

These individuals exhibit expressions of difference as well as social membership in

American society. They explain, "We suggest .. that it is possible to claim identity as a

citizen of a country and to negotiate membership within the bounds of 'belonging', even

without claiming to 'be of that country."85 This is evidenced in labels individuals choose

to identify themselves: Arab, Arab-American, American, Lebanese, Palestinian, Copt,

Egyptian, Muslim, or others.86 Haddad notes that with changing political and cultural

landscapes, the different generations of MMENA background Americans may identify

themselves differently. Children born in America to parents who immigrated may






83 Je'nan Ghazal Read, Culture, Class, and Work among Arab-American Women (New York: LFB
Scholarly Publishing LLC, 2004), 15.

84 Yossi Shain, "Arab-Americans at a Crossroads," Journal of Palestine Studies 25, no. 3 (Spring
1996): 47-49, http://jstor.org, accessed April 2006.

85 Caroline R. Nagel and Lynn A. Staheli, "Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab
Immigrants to the United States," Space and Polity 8 no. 1 (April 2004): 3, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.

86 Salaita, "Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism," 163.










struggle with reconciling their parents' culture and religion to that of the society in which

they grew up.8

Palestinian women living in Canada report their that Muslim identity rather than

their ethnicity became more salient after September 11, 2001. Cultural and religious

practices such as wearing the hijab or delineating gender boundaries that were not

observed in Palestine became important parts of life in Canada. Religious education for

women, considered superfluous in Palestine, became a way to protect family and culture

against a dangerous society. Endogamy was expected, whether within the Palestinian

community or simply within the larger Muslim community.88 Cainkar found similar

practices in the U.S. Palestinian community, with the addition that social class played a

major role in the degree to which women promoted traditional culture, with more affluent

women exhibiting less traditional behaviors.89 Similarly, Husain and O'Brien found that

most Muslims in the UK identify as "British Muslim" rather than using national origin as

a primary characteristic of identity. Women in this community use the hijab and

segregation of the genders to express resistance against Western dominance.90







8 Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Not Quite American? The \1li'n,, ofArab and Muslim Identity in the
United States (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004), 51.

88 Camilla Gibb and Celia Rothenberg, "Believing Women: Harari and Palestinian Women at Home
and in the Canadian Diaspora," Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 20 no. 2 (2000): 243-259.

89 Louise Cainkar, "Palestinian Women in American Society," in McCarus, Ernest, ed. The
Development ofArab-American Identity (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994), 86-
105.

90 Fatima Husain and Margaret O'Brien, "Muslim Communities in Europe: Reconstruction and
Transformation," Current Sociology 48, no. 4 (October 2000): 1-13, http://search.epnet.com, accessed
April 2006.










Michael notes that people often see themselves according to whichever facet of

their identity is under attack.91 Aoude adds that identity is always a composite of multiple

identities, particularly for groups in diaspora.92 MMENA women, "located at the

intersection of ethnic, religious, and gender politics,"93 often place more significance in

their Muslim identities while in the West than they did in their home countries. Some feel

that religious identity is the only available option because cultural identity can only exist

in the physical context of the homeland.94 Khan explores the idea of MMENA women

living in a "third space" between identities, a "politicized, creative, in-between, fluid

space"95 where identities are continually negotiated. Ajrouch proposes that MMENA

women bear a particular burden in comparison to men:

There are indications...that because the males are urged to realize the American
dream of financial success, the cultural meaning of an Arab ethnic identity is
increasingly located in the behavior of the females. Overall, males are experiencing
a loosening of cultural constraints from their family and community, whereas
females experience perhaps even more restrictions on their behavior. This gendered
division of expectations leads the community to rely on females for the
maintenance of tradition and the perpetuation of an Arab identity.96




91 John Michael, "Beyond Us and Them: Identity and Terror from an Arab American's Perspective,"
The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 no. 4 (2003): 700-728, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

92 Ibrahim G. Aoude, "Maintaining Culture, Reclaiming Identity: Palestinian Lives in the Diaspora,"
Asian Studies Review 25 no. 2 (June 2001): 153-167, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

93 Susan E. Marshall and Jen'nan Ghazal Read, "Identity Politics Among Arab-American Women,"
Social Science Quarterly 84 no. 4 (December 2003): 875-891, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April
2006.

94 Shahnaz Khan, Muslim Women: C ,li,,i.: a North American Identity (Gainesville, FL: University
Press of Florida, 2000), 119.

95 Ibid., 126.

96 Kristine J. Ajrouch, "Place, Age, and Culture: Community Living and Ethnic Identity Among
Lebanese American Adolescents," Small Group Research 31 no. 4 (August 2000): 453,
http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.









Ahmed explored the contrast between women's orality and male-created and

perpetuated text in the Arabic-speaking world. In the strictly segregated societies of

Egypt and the Gulf countries, separate interpretations of culture, Islam, and morality

developed in the women's world of spoken, colloquial Arabic and the men's sphere of

written Arabic and medieval, male-produced texts. With the increase of Arabic literacy in

these countries, Ahmed suggests, the gentler women's outlook on life could be lost. She

called for opportunities for oral culture, in the past the province of women, to be

maintained.97

Mandaville identifies the Internet as an area where MMENA identities are

"continually constructed, debated and reimagined."98 He notes that the younger

generation of Muslims in the diaspora has a consciousness of the ummah (worldwide

community of Muslims) that often transcends national borders. The Internet provides a

space where they can negotiate between the various facets of their identities and

communities in concert with others in similar positions around the world.99 In a rare

study of Muslim women and Internet use, Bastani describes the functions of the "Muslim

Women Network," an email discussion group for Muslim women around the world. She

found that the women involved used the discussion group as a way to make face-to-face








9 Leila Ahmed, A Border Passage: From Cairo to America A Woman's Journey (New York:
Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999), 276-291.

98 Peter Mandaville, "Reimagining Islam in Diaspora: the Politics of Mediated Community,"
Gazette 63, no. 2-3 (2001): 169, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

99 Ibid., 183-184.









connections with other Muslims outside their home countries, as a support network, and

as a discussion forum for issues related to living in a non-Muslim society.100

The Need for This Study

St. Amant called for "international digital studies," the intersection of CMC and

intercultural communication research, citing the increasingly computer-dependent,

globalized business world as an area where daily miscommunication occurs. He noted

that in CMC identity is generally fluid and without face-to-face cues: an individual online

can become whomever she wishes or may inadvertently be perceived by those she

communicates with as totally different from how she perceives herself. However, as

Ting-Toomey stated, much successful intercultural communication depends on a stable

identity and familiar environment. Solid identity normally determines membership in an

in-group: the community or in-group is in many cultures based on context, reciprocity,

trust in another's identity, and non-verbal cues. The contention between practical aspects

of identity in these systems of communication may lead to misunderstandings with

consequences for both businesses and individuals. Therefore, St. Amant suggested,

research should be conducted that considers the differing functions of identity in CMC

and intercultural communication.101

Studies have not yet been conducted to examine the blogging behavior of specific

ethnic groups, as most blog community studies focus on interest or culture groups.

Additionally, little research has addressed MMENA women's use or creation of media.

100 Susan Bastani, "Muslim Women On-line." The Arab World 0C,.. 0,,/,., Le Geographe du
monde arabe 3 no. 1 (2000): 52-57.
101 Kirk St. Amant, "When Cultures and Computers Collide: Rethinking Computer-Mediated
Communication According to International and Intercultural Communication Expectations," Journal of
Business and Technical Communication, 16, no. 2 (April 2002): 196-214, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.









No previous studies have focused on the blogs of MMENA women. In fact, little research

has attended to the communication behaviors of MMENA women in any context.

Scholars have called for a continued examination of blogs as they grow in

popularity,102 study of identity negotiation through blogs,103 and examination of new

forms of virtual community.104 This study will be helpful by exploring these areas of

documented need as well as expanding understanding of MMENA women and their

intercultural communication in general.
































102 Nardi et al, "Why We Blog," 46.

103 Hevem, "Threaded Identity in Cyberspace," 323.
104 Papacharissi, "The Presentation of Self in Virtual Life," 657.















CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHOD

One of the major areas of computer-mediated communication research is "social

interaction and the presentation of self online."1 Online communication within

communities generally "enables users to freely express emotions and reach a high level

of self-disclosure."2 Thus, online communities may offer a unique forum for concentrated

exploration of issues of identity and community.

Qualitative research is particularly well suited to such research because it provides

"fine-grained data about an often-mystified social phenomenon."3 Current studies of

computer-mediated communication, particularly blogging, generally employ one of a

limited number of methods. Quantitative studies tend to rely on content analysis4 of blog

entries or survey data from blog authors6 or readers. Qualitative studies popularly use




1 Chris Mann and Fiona Stewart, Internet Communication and Qualitative Research: A Handbook
for Researching Online (London: Sage Publications, 2000), 4.

2 Liav Sade-Beck, "Internet Ethnography: Online and Offline," International Journal of Qualitative
Methods 3 no. 2 (2i"14): 4, http://www.ualberta.ca/-iiqm/backissues/3_2/ pdf/sadebeck.pdf, accessed April
2006.

3 Thomas R. Lindlof and Brian C. Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 2nd
edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 253.

4 Susan C. Herring, Lois Ann Scheidt, Sabrina Bonus, and Elijah Wright, "Bridging the Gap: A
Genre Analysis of Weblogs," In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on
System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc,
accessed April 2006..

5 Judit Bar-Ilan, "An Outsider's View on 'Topic-oriented blogging,'" In 13th World Wide Web
Conference. New York: The International World Wide Web Conference Committee (IW3C2) and the
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), (21114). http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1013367.1013373,
accessed April 2006.










either discourse analysis7 or ethnographic methods such as observation8 and/or in-depth

interviews either face-to-face9 or online.10

In this project, I employed qualitative methods in a study of a group of Muslim

women of Middle Eastern and North African (MMENA) descent to describe how they

used blogging in identity and community construction. I gathered a wide range of data

including text from blog entries, page formats, images, and audio as well as comments

from other bloggers. Then, I conducted in-depth analysis on the creations of a select

number of bloggers. To ensure naturalistic inquiry, all data collection remained a function

of computer-mediated communication.11 Researcher reflexivity was incorporated into the

study12 through the use of my personal blog to enable me to understand the experience of

being a blogger.13 I also maintained extensive research notes throughout the data

collection and analysis phases, which are discussed in chapter four. Member checks were


6 Barbara Kaye, "It's a Blog, Blog, Blog World: Users and Uses of Weblogs," Atlantic Journal of
Communication 13, no. 2 (2005): 73-95, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

7 Alessandra Talamo and Beatrice Ligorio, "Strategic Identities in Cyberspace." CyberPsychology &
Behavior 4, no. 1 (2001): 109-122, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

8 Vincent W. Hevem, "Threaded Identity in Cyberspace: Weblogs and Positioning in the Dialogical
Self," Identity 4, no. 4 (October 2004): 321-335, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

9 Adam Reed, "'My Blog Is Me': Texts and Persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and
anthropology)," Ethnos: Journal ofAii i,n '. 'i. .. 70, no. 2 (June 2005): 226, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.

10 Denise Sevick Bortree, "Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage
Girls' Weblogs," Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1 (March 2005): 25-39.

1 Lindlof and Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 267-268.

12 Ruth DeSouza, "Motherhood, Migration and Methodology: Giving Voice to the 'Other,'" The
Qualitative Report 9 no. 3 ("'1 14: 463-482, lhup \\ \ \ .nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-3/desouza.pdf, accessed
April 2006.

13 Alireza Doostdar, 'The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging': On Language, Culture, and Power in Persian
Weblogestan," American iii.l 'i. '1.. 106 no. 4 (December 2004): 652-653, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.









conducted electronically after the analysis and draft of the report. This design attempted

to conform to accepted standards of quality in qualitative research based on guidelines

suggested by Jones14 and Creswell.15

Prior to conducting the study or finalizing the research design, I conducted an in-

depth interview with a female blogger of similar background to determine if issues of

identity and community were likely relevant to MMENA bloggers. The interview

confirmed some topics as possibly important, raised some new to me, and prompted

reconsideration of other issues. Though data from the interview was not be used in this

study, offline explorations of the topic under study serve to enrich understanding and

later analysis as suggested by Sade-Beck.16

To select participants in the study, I first examined two blogrings for Muslim

women from the Xanga blogging service: The "Hijab: The Holiest Hat of Them All"17

blogring with 416 members and the "Niqaabi Sisters"18 blogring with 31 members.

Blogrings are optional and generally are based around some form of self-identification

such as gender, religion, hobbies, or political orientation. Choosing participants from

blogrings for Muslim women ensured that the participants self-identified as Muslim. I

used criterion sampling to select participants based on factors such as ethnicity, posting



14 Kip Jones, "Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of
Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review," The Qualitative Report 9, no. 1
(March 2004): 95-112, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-1/jones.pdf, accessed April 2006.

15 John W. Creswell, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design (London: Sage Publications, 1998),
193-218.

16 Sade-Beck, "Internet Ethnography," 12-13.

17 http://www.xanga.com/groups/group.aspx?id=50775, accessed April 2006.

18 http://www.xanga.com/groups/group.aspx?id=374740, accessed April 2006.









frequency, age, content of posts, and level of interaction with other blogs. The ideal

participant was one who posted at least weekly on her blog, maintained a blog for three

months or more, was over 18 years of age, posted text with content of some depth, and

interacted with other bloggers through comments or chat. Selection was an emergent

process, as specific markers of these criteria were not known at the outset.19 While

posting frequency and length of time blogging were easily determined by the dates on the

blogs, the other criteria took time to discern. Some bloggers included their entire

birthdates; others' ages were determined by their enrollment in college or in posts about

birthday celebrations. Depth of content and interactions with other bloggers was

discovered by reading several months of posts as well as the comment sections of the

blogs. In some cases, I also read blogs on which the blogger in question posted.

After reading all the active blogs from the two blogrings mentioned above, I found

only two blogs that met the criteria. I subsequently broadened my search to other

blogrings working from links on the blogs already selected. These led me to choose

bloggers who were members of a Muslim Student Organization blogring, an Egyptian

blogring, and a MMENA blogring titled "Arab-American Palace." Throughout the

search, I read approximately three hundred blogs. I selected seven blogs for in-depth

analysis, based on the criteria above, and working to reach saturation. I also looked for

disconfirming cases, and as described in the next chapter, two of the bloggers differed

greatly from the others in several aspects of identity and community formation.

Because blogs are public documents that their authors have not opted to make

private (through available options such as password protection, for example), the first


19 Creswell, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 118-120.









stage of this research was conducted as a "lurker." After selecting the seven blogs for

analysis, I saved the entire contents of the blog to editable PDF files in the Webstractor

Internet capture program. This yielded over 400 PDF pages of data. I used open coding to

complete initial analysis of the information.20 The codes were entered, using the

computer program, directly onto the data in a highlighted text. From this, I created

interview questions for each blogger based on specific information within their blogs.

Next I attempted to recruit participants for interviews by posting an invitation on their

blogs using my own blogging identity. I referred them to my own blog to establish my

credibility as a member of the larger blogging community21 and to further explain the

study.22 My blog23 contained a short overview of the study, the informed consent

document approved by the IRB, and a brief biography of me that explained why I was

interested in this topic.

None of the bloggers invited to participate accepted the invitation. For two weeks,

all of my posts were ignored. Then one of the bloggers, who was linked to three of the

others, posted a comment. She wrote that my post on her blog, as it did not relate to what

she had written about the death of a friend, deeply offended her. I immediately offered an

apology through a private email, which she accepted. She wished me luck in the study

but refused to be interviewed. On her blog, my post was deleted. It seems that my

insensitivity to her post was exacerbated by my being a stranger to her. I noticed that


20 Ibid., 56-57.

21 Denise Sevick Bortree, personal communication, October 6, 2005. (This information was
removed from her original article due to space limitations.)
22 Lindlof and Taylor, Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 272.

23 http://www.xanga.com/ashleysinkUF, accessed April 2006.









several other of the comments on the same post were unrelated to hers. In those cases,

however, she simply posted comments on their sites that explained her friend's death and

asked them to re-read her post. This episode shook me greatly, and I reconsidered the

entire study, as my intentions were in no way to harm the women.

While I intended for the two methods of data collection (textual analysis and

interviews) to serve as triangulation to ensure research quality and meaningful

interpretation, the text of the blogs themselves yielded a wealth of information that

answered my research question. Upon the advice of my supervisory committee, I

continued the study as a textual analysis. At this time, I collapsed the original categories

into more succinct ones. I worked with the categories extensively to determine which

were important and how they all fit together. I used concept mapping to help visually

outline the connections between the different categories.

During the analysis stage, one of the seven bloggers removed her old posts from the

Internet. She maintained her profile page and guest book but had no posts. I contacted her

through the guest book but received no reply. Since she, for some reason, desired to have

her old posts private, I did not include her blog in the study. I do not feel that this

compromised the study, as her blog further confirmed the findings related below.

While completing the research report, approximately two months after my initial

invitations to participate in the study, I received a response from one of the bloggers. She

said she wanted to participate and asked me to post on her blog. However, she did not

respond after this. After the analysis and report of findings were complete, I posted a

three-page summary of the major themes of the findings on my blog. The entry was

protected so that only the bloggers I designated (those whose blogs were included in the









study) were able to access it. I contacted four of the bloggers using the email links on

their blogs and posted a comment on one blog. I discovered that one of the blogs had

been closed down by its author at this point and was thus unable to contact this author.

Upon the writing of this report, I received responses from one of the bloggers. Her

comments are incorporated, with her permission, into the end of chapter four.24 None of

the other bloggers had responded to the request for member checks by the conclusion of

the writing of this report.

Using the webpage capture program, copies of each blog under study were saved in

PDF format upon each update by the blog author. These files remained on my computer,

which was password protected, for the duration of the study. Backup copies of these files

were saved on an external hard drive and CDs.

As the Internet is a relatively new arena of research, ethical guidelines for

researchers are under debate.25 I viewed the bloggers as private individuals creating

public documents and requiring care and consideration. Therefore, no distinguishing

information such as real names, photos, email addresses, exact place of residence, or

screen name was included in the study. The names used to refer to them in the following

chapters are pseudonyms only.26








24 Ibid., 270.

25 Ibid., 271.

26 Amy Bruckman, "Studying the Amateur Artist: A Perspective on Disguising Data Collected in
Human Subjects Research on the Internet," Ethics and Information Technology 4 no. 3 (2002): paragraph
90-99, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/ethicsbruckman.html, accessed April 2006.














CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS

Identity

I always thought it was confusing to decide whether I was American or Egyptian,
but I see the same replicating in every aspect of my life--culture, identity, religion,
marriage, race, class, ethnicity, heritege--, in everything basically. I always
wondered if there were others out there who felt that way about being Middle
Eastern or Egyptian or from Egypt or spoke Arabic or considered themselves Arab
and were brought up in the United States...Am I becoming a bi-product of two
different world's I have lived in thus far and has my habitus influenced me so
greatly that I have given up on traditions and institutions within both spectrum? Or
am I just realizing that the epitemy of my loneliness comes from my confusion, or
ill-fate of realization? Does anyone understand?

Thus wrote Emster, a MMENA blogger, while wrestling with defining her identity

in the interstitial space between MMENA and American life. Like the other bloggers in

this study, Emster found herself torn between two worlds, neither of which was

completely comfortable on its own.

In her theory of identity negotiation, Ting-Toomey outlined primary dimensions of

identity that are not situationally dependent: cultural, ethnic, gender, and personal

identities. Within these dimensions of identity, the MMENA bloggers in this study

displayed a "paradox of identity," conflict between the various aspects of who they are.

Their blog entries reflected the tension between having MMENA heritage in the context

of being citizens or residents in the United States. The following chapter describes the

bloggers' identity formation in terms of personal, gender, and cultural/ethnic identity as

well as the intersections of the various dimensions of these identities.









Personal Identity

Each of the bloggers displayed her personal identity in part through the layout and

graphics of her blog, the images she chose to represent herself, the groups she identified

with, and the stated description in the "About Me" profile section. The careful, if

unconscious, choices made in each of these areas, as well as in the texts of the posts

themselves, reflect constantly negotiated aspects of identity. In the following section each

of the bloggers in the study are described in context of their blog appearance, their profile

pictures, their membership in blogrings, and their introductory text.

Queen Leila. Twenty-four-year-old Queen Leila of California authored the

longest-running blog in the study, with almost three years of regular posts. She described

herself primarily as Muslim, Egyptian, and Californian. She graduated from college in

2005 and at the time of this study, worked full time. After several months of blogging in

standard English, Queen Leila inexplicably changed her writing style to an alternative

phonetic spelling of English. Her posts, comments, and captions were consistently written

in this style, even if she posted on others' blogs. Perhaps because of her long-standing

presence in the blogging community, she was something of a leader among other

bloggers, bringing newcomers to the forefront and starting conversations in which many

others were involved.

Perhaps the most salient aspect of Queen Leila's personal identity was her religion.

She wore hijab and used her picture as her profile avatar. It was a face shot, in low light

with a neutral background; she was looking sideways without smiling, her hand clutching

her hijab near her face. Each of her posts began with "in the name of Allah, the gracious,

the merciful," in Arabic transcription (using English letters) followed by the English









translation. On Muslim holidays or during Ramadan, she included more elaborate Arabic

translations, usually from the Qur'an.

Generally, the look of her blog reflected whatever event or concern was dominant

in her writing at the time. She adjusted the layout and background frequently. For

example, on her birthday, she posted a "happy birthday" graphic behind the text on each

page. For the new year, she included a scrolling bar of favorite photos from the past year:

her college graduation, a graphic incorporating her face and her name, Iraqi and

Palestinian flags, her favorite celebrity who died, the Kaaba [holiest site of Islam], and

Arabic calligraphy. Between the two rows of images a title read, "Happy New Year, New

Beginnings, New Memories."

Her blogrings, listed on the side of every page, were primarily concerned with

Muslim or Arab identity. She was also a member of the group "DAYM-Im really

goodlooking-don't hate!!" as well as "Aspiring Young Entrepreneurs."

In her public profile, which is on the left side of every page of the blog, Queen

Leila listed several of her interests: "Islam (my life), religions, Arab issue (Free

Palestine), current eventz (get outta Iraq), politics, history, language, help'n othaz, food,

travel, read'n/write'n, poetry, music, dance, work'n out, moviez, laugh'n, computaz,

fun!" The blog template offered an area to include the blogger's expertise; and Queen

Leila listed hers: "Now lets update this thing 4 Ramadan Insha'Allah... I'm an expert at

be'n da loud n proud Muslimah who happen 2 be Egyptian Californian enjoy'n da

royaltiez of be'n da Queen... but don't bow down 2 me, bow down 2 Allah (swt)!"

VirtueOne. An architecture student in a California university, VirtueOne was

recently engaged. She had been blogging for approximately one year at the time of this









study. Like Queen Leila, VirtueOne put her religious identity at the forefront. She also

wore hijab and used Arabic calligraphy from the Qur'an as the heading of the blog. In her

black-and-white profile picture, she was smiling and looking directly into the camera.

During the year she maintained the blog, she changed her background only once. This

change was from a standard template to a custom dark blue night sky with clouds and

stars.

Her blogrings were mostly related to being Muslim or Arab and supporting

Palestine. One was related to architecture, another to "Arab/Hispanic Mix." She states her

interests briefly: "Architecture, Art, Islam, Randomness, You, Me, Drawing, Coffee!!

Shey!! [tea] Anything appealing," and her expertise simply as "Architect Design."

Ladyras. Ladyras was a college sophomore in New Jersey. At the time of this

study, she had been posting on her blog for approximately eleven months. Her blog title

reads in at the top right: "Je suis pret" and at the left, the translation: "I am ready." She

did not include a picture of herself on the blog. When she first began posting, she

included a great deal of personal information such as her ethnic heritage, interests,

education, and a photo. A few weeks later, she made several posts about technical

problems with posting images. After several months, she decided that the blog would be

anonymous and would never include her picture. At this time, she began her own

blogring ("DAYM-Im really goodlooking-don't hate!!") and posted frequently about

how attractive she is. Her background was solid pink and stable throughout the life of the

blog. She included the results of several online quizzes, such as "Which celebrity wants

to sleep with you." Her blogrings focused on ethnic or geographical pride: Puerto Rican,

Arab, New York, and Jersey. She was also, of course, a member of the one she began.









In one of her earliest posts, she wrote a detailed description of herself:

i graduated highschool in '02, took a year off did my thing and now im ALMOST a
sophomore in college (i kinda fcked up my grades last semester). Ima smart
motivated female who don't like to take no shit from anyone...I've been in love once
and had my heart broke more than i can count lol ima booty driver, i hit the curb on
turns, press on the breaks too fast, my ghetto ass hoopride is banged up ont he
passenger side cuz some dumb bitch ran a stop sign and hit me from the side!!!!
anyways...ill get funky wit THAT some other time....I love sleeping :) i work 2
jobs, go to school full time, go out (i like gin 2 bars and messin wit the weird
messed up people)...

On her profile page, in the "about me" section, she wrote, "Tell me who i have to be....to

get some RECIPROCITY." Her stated interest was in a brand of perfume: "THAT JUNK

SMELLS SO GOOD-TOUCH OF PINK MMMMMMM" while her expertise revealed a

little of her personality: "im not really an expert at anything...that's probably why i got so

much to say about everything...people who don't know anything have mad shit to say

about everythign..but at least i admit it ;)"

Emster. Emster, from Minnesota, was a graduate student at the University of Cairo

in Egypt. Part of her blog was written while she lived in the United States and part during

her time in Cairo. She was studying sociology, teaching classes, and attempting to start a

business in her free time. Rather than choosing a picture of herself individually, she

posted a photograph of herself with three family members as her profile image. Unlike

the other bloggers in the study, she did not use custom templates or animated text on her

blog; it was simply one of the standard templates available from the blogging service.

Her blogrings related to being Egyptian, Arab, African, and expatriate as well as one

from her undergraduate university.

In her profile "about me" section, she included information on her background and

future plans, as well as more abstract musings: "Random thoughts, unexpected situations,

and moments of total and happy foolishness are what this experience has taught me... My









random ramblings consist of random events and moments that fall upon me, literally,

abroad...Read on; the entries you find in here should have been put together ages ago. If

you get tangled in the wording, I'll just try my hardest to explain." Her interests were:

"Hmm...good question. I could write your typical five verbs in here and run off, but I've

decided on seven instead: camping, hiking, event planning, languages, traveling to

random places, collecting blades of grass from different places, and, of course, people."

Zeina. Zeina graduated from a Texas university in 2005. She had been blogging for

a year and maintains a video blog as well as her text blog. She began to write upon

returning from a semester of study abroad in Egypt, which she considers her home

country. Upon graduation, her parents gave her a trip to Cairo for a few months. Thus,

while the bulk of her blog was written from Texas, part was also written from Cairo. She

frequently posted pictures of herself and her adventures for her family and friends

scattered around the world. The top banner of the site was a montage of pictures of

herself (as a child in an Egyptian costume, with friends, at Egyptian ruins, in Alexandria)

overlaid with her name in Arabic and the title "my random thoughts..." Her profile

picture was of a woman's hand intricately decorated with henna (Figure 1). The blog

background was a black-and-white photo of downtown Cairo around the Nile. The title

was "Egyptian Wanderer" and included a quote on freedom by Virginia Woolf. Her

blogrings were related to her Texas and Egyptian universities, being Egyptian or Arab,

speaking French, and the Muslim Student Organization.
























Figure 1. Zeina's profile image.

Zeina stated her interests as, "Well I like soccer, warm fresh bread, Egypt, France,

Azza Fahmy, my friends, raquetball, tennis, going out to cafes, meeting cool people,

watching movies, smoking shishah, El-Fishawy, AUC [American University of Cairo],

languages, the WHO [World Health Organization], music, and my family (and probably a

lot of other stuff too)." Her expertise was "being random, missing Egypt, and having

fun..." As she stated in her profile and in blog texts, she hoped to enter medical school

and one day become a doctor.

Princess of Arabia. Princess of Arabia, a recent high school graduate, has

maintained her blog for one year and nine months. In her profile picture she wore

Western clothes and posed for the camera with her arms in the air, looking sideways and

smiling. The title bar of the blog read: "Yeah I'm yo shorty boy...but u already know." All

of her blogrings were related to being Arab, Arab-American, or Muslim, with one

specifically for Iraqis. Her stated interests were "paintballing, shopping, dancing,

tennisjust having fun :-)." In her profile, she included a statement "About Me:" "what is

there to say about me..i'll just start with the basics..im 18,im arab, i go to pierce

college..ick..im a pretty kick back person always here for people always making ppl smile









:-) anything else u wanna know about me just ask." Like several of the other bloggers in

this study, Princess of Arabia included personal information such as her email address,

chat screen name, birthday, and full name on her profile page.

Gender Identity

As popular culture discusses the role of women in Muslim societies, MMENA

bloggers deal with their places as women at the intersection of MMENA heritage and the

realities of life in the United States.

Princess of Arabia used an image from Disney's Aladdin for the background of her

blog (Figure 2). In including this picture and using the name "Princess of Arabia" she

was identifying herself with the traditional understandings of womanhood in her cultural

heritage, albeit through Western eyes. Princess Jasmine, the "Arabian Princess" her name

emulates, was the beautiful and headstrong daughter of an Arabian sultan who fell in love

with Aladdin, a poor yet worthy street boy of the kingdom. Jasmine defied the law and

her father to be with Aladdin, who offered freedom-her greatest desire. Princess of

Arabia expressed her desire to be beautiful, exotic, and independent like Jasmine and,

like Jasmine, expected to find her escape through a relationship with a man. Her gender

identity resided at the intersection of Western values of freedom and independence and

her understanding of her heritage. Interestingly, Aladdin was strongly criticized for

perpetuating stereotypes of the Middle East. Princess of Arabia, however, did not seem to

recognize the stereotypes and fully affirmed her affinity to the film's depiction of an

"Arabian" woman.





















Figure 2. Princess of Arabia's profile image.

Zeina defined herself as a "good girl," her ideal for all MMENA women. "A good

girl," she wrote, "is fun, smart, likes sports, can cook, is religious, NOT a drama queen,

and pretty. What more could a guy possibly ask for?" Her description combined

traditional expectations for women (homemaking skills, religion, education, appearance)

as well as modern American expectations for the ideal woman (fun and likes sports).

In their blogs, these MMENA women negotiated the meaning of a woman's place.

In most cases, their families and their interpretations of Islam suggested one set of ideals

for a woman, while the dominant culture they live in suggested another. The women

wrote about being caught in between, even of conflicts directly related to the contrast

between family expectations and their own desires. Gender identity was expressed in

three broad areas: gender as related to religion, to family, and to marriage and romantic

relationships.

Women's roles in religion

Queen Leila, one of the more religious bloggers, referred to gender expectations

primarily through the lens of religion. She triumphantly posted news articles about Karen

Hughes, the U.S. envoy to women in the Middle East, being verbally bested by Muslim

women in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. The women Hughes spoke with affirmed that they









did not want more rights in the American sense; they preferred the traditional gender

roles prescribed by their religion and culture to those of the United States. Queen Leila

also countered the common accusation that Islam denies women equal rights in an essay

written to commemorate the Prophet Muhammad's birthday:

Before his death, Prophet Mohamed (s Allah sws)1 advised us to learn half of our
faith from his last wife, Sister Aysha, a woman... As he lay in his deathbed, Prophet
Mohamed (s Allah sws) asked of the Muslim men to take care of the women of
their family three times. How can we not go by the advice of the man that assured
equality and women's rights even as he died?

Here she equated Muhammad's exhortation to men to take care of women and his respect

for Aysha with equality and women's rights. She also accepted the woman's role as one

who is under the care of the men in her family. Further posts mentioned gender roles in

passing, referring to a modest woman as a "good Muslimah" and talking about a

woman's respect for her father as a religious duty.

VirtueOne wrote of her struggle between being polite to Muslim men who

approach her and being modest and religious at the same time: "I feel confused myself.

I'm such a bad muslimah too.::tear:: I respond to guys when they ask me questions but

when they're muslim... I seriously don't know what to say but in the inside I feel like

telling them to get the hell away from me lol." In her interpretation of religion, women

should be modest, quiet, and not talk to men outside of family. However, even Muslim

men in the United States did not always observe these standards, as she found at a

meeting of the Muslim Students Organization. Though she did not talk to men in other

settings, at a religious event she was more conflicted over how to respond to men and

maintain her identity as a religious woman. It should be noted that VirtueOne and Queen

1 Abbreviation for "Salla Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam" which often follows a Muslim's mention of
the Prophet Muhammad. It means, "Peace be upon him."









Leila were the only bloggers in this study who wore the hijab. While other of the

bloggers referred to gender in terms of religion, usually it was obliquely stated and

related to culture or family expectations more than explicitly to Islam. These two

bloggers appeared to largely define their gender identities based on religion, at least as

they present themselves in their blogs.

Women's roles in family

All of the bloggers in this study were unmarried. According to traditional cultural

understandings, they remained under the protection and authority of fathers or brothers.

Four of them lived at home with one or both parents, the other three were away at

university. Despite living away from home, they were still under the protection of male

relatives at some level: two of the bloggers lived with older brothers and the other lived

near uncles and male cousins. Emster, who may be considered by Western standards to

be the most "liberated" of the women, posted a quote regarding family and gender: "The

vast majority [of contemporary feminists] continue to see the 'family' as the site of

women's oppression, and to view women's position in society as the product of complex

interconnections between the productive and the reproductive spheres of life." She wrote

in her own words of conflicts between her family's "reproductive" expectations of her

womanhood (marriage and children) and her "productive" plans and goals (pursuing a

PhD, owning her own business).

Two of the women who live with their fathers, Princess of Arabia and Ladyras,

repeatedly expressed their frustration over their fathers' control of their sexuality.

Princess of Arabia wanted to attend her high school prom, but her parents disagreed:

"Being a girl with arab parents can reallyyy suck sometimes..they think prom=instant sex

HAHAHA." She wrote several times of her father commandeering her cell phone and









dialing the numbers of the men listed in her phone book. Similarly, Ladyras complained

of her father's worries about her relationships with men: "If you have a big booty or big

tetas and ur father is arab he worries more about u than ur skinny little sister." Both of

these women dealt with family expectations of chastity as well as varying interpretations

of what that is: sexual abstinence, little or no interaction with men, or modes of dress and

behavior that downplay sexuality.

Incidentally, while Ladyras wrote as openly of her relationships with men (going

out on dates, dancing with men in clubs, her views on sex) as she did of her relationship

with her father, Princess of Arabia used only veiled references to interactions with men

other than her family members. In fact, Ladyras wrote much more openly of sexuality

than did any of the other bloggers. In one of her earliest posts, she "got funky with" her

readers on the topic of anal sex:

WTF! foreal, u make it hard on us girls who DONT want something big n hard
shoved up their dookie hole. look guys, its simple: a girl and a guys anus are the
same-that means however it feels for you to shove some hard salami up ur booty, it
would feel the same for us--now do YOU think that would be fun??? keep it real
girls, keep it real guys, getting it up the ass must feel like takin a backwards shit
(and NO i haven't ever done it and i NEVER will) now how many people would
like it if after they took a shit, the shit was shoved back up their ass?? not too many
huh? so for all u girls out there who say that shit cuz they know guys like it, not
really cuz they like it..just KEEP IT REAL! don't say u like todo shit cuz u think
guys like it...i mean i can be as freaky as the next girl but im not gona front and say
somethign feels great when anyone with common sense (man OR woman) who
honestly thought about it could tell u that it really wouldn't be enjoyable...aite...well
ANYWAYS now that i got funky i feel alot better.....

While Ladyras was from a multicultural family with several reference groups, Princess of

Arabia's family was wholly Iraqi and spent most of their time with other Iraqi families.

Her friends at school were primarily from MMENA backgrounds or from countries like

Afghanistan and Pakistan. Perhaps her restraint on writing about relationships with men









was related to the expectations of friends with similar backgrounds and gender

expectations who read her blog.

As discussed below, family played a principal role in several dimensions of

identity. For these bloggers in general, and Ladyras and Princess of Arabia in particular,

family ideas of a woman's role had a defining effect on how they were allowed to

negotiate gender identities.

Women's roles in marriage and romantic relationships

Many of the bloggers' posts related to gender were in context of marriage and/or

romantic relationships. Traditional expectations are that a girl will marry and raise

children, and the bloggers all at some level fell in with this expectation. Several of them

referred to arranged marriages or the more contemporary practice of presenting a

daughter with approved "suitors" from which to choose a husband. Queen Leila

expressed her frustration with being already out of college and not yet married: "Im still

have'n da hardest time of my life say'n... I'm 24 who graduated without have'n some

mention some available suitor 2 me!" Ladyras railed against arranged marriage in several

posts:

..I'm tired ofthis stupid mentality...i mean...people need 2 start getting over doin
wut their parents say all the time i mean most stuf yea its cool but SHIT ur parents
aint gona marry the guy YOU r so if u don't like him say NO and if they don't like it
TOO bad they should accept it and if they don't leave them alone! i mean things like
curfew and shit cool wutever but im choosing my husband not them! i meanif they
have suggestions some cute guys im open lol but i make that decision and no one
else n there's nuttin wrong wit that we not in the 1300s anymore its 2005 it wasn't
rite then and it aint right now.."

She also opposed men marrying women much younger than themselves, another

traditional practice in her father's culture. She expressed her distaste of this practice at

length:









shes like 15! wuts up wit these old ass guys tryna get these young ass girls-i mean i
kno if i was a mother i wudnt want to be messin around wit anyone whos the same
age (or younger) than my son! that's NASTY and wuts even worse is that these
young girls GET with these old wrinkly guys! why do they want old wrinkly
balls!? i don't care how much money the dude has NO WRINKLY OLD BALLS
FOR ME!!!

An acquaintance she met in the blog community was the subject of one of her posts:

"She's like 17 and she has an arranged marriage n she's miserable... she's cryin all the

time so OBVIOUSLY she's not happy besides the guys old enuf to b her pops that's

ridiculous..." VirtueOne announced her engagement on her blog, presumably to one of

the suitors introduced to her as a possible marriage candidate.

Marriage was unquestionably the norm for most of the bloggers. Princess of Arabia

often referred to her future husband as a solution to her current romantic problems: "im

so sick of girly guys..and im so sick of desperate guys..where is my husband to scare the

stalkers away lolol aww." She also jokingly posted a personal ad on her site for the kind

of partner she is looking for: "WANTED: a sane, normal, arab guy. NO I WANT A

MAN!..that will not hurt a girl." Zeina feared that her desires for marriage and a career as

a medical doctor cannot both be fulfilled:

When looking for a suitable husband/wife, guys tend to go for girls with either
equal or lesser success levels. Girls tend to go for guys with either equal or higher
levels. So it would be rare to find a girl doctor married to a salesman or something,
but it wouldn't be that uncommon for a man. The reason for this is man's pride. No
guy wants to feel like the lesser one in a relationship, that's how it has always been.

She wrote in several other posts about her theories of male-female relationships, all with

the end goal of marriage. One of her theories was that most men are interested in "bad"

girls (those who "like to drink and party and be 'bad'") when they are younger. When

they are ready to marry, the men realize they want to marry a "good" girl (the minority of

girls who are not "easy") but the "good" girls are all married by then. Of these men, she









wrote, "They wait too long and then become those guys that at 28 are looking for anyone

to marry! Sucks for them, they should have taken the time to know the good girl, instead

of going for the easy girl." Zeina feared that since she is a "good" girl and pursuing an

advanced degree, she will not have the opportunity to marry.

Only Emster, the blogger who lives apart from her family, questioned traditional

values of marriage. Upon attending an elaborate wedding, she wrote:

I asked myself if it was normal to push all the pressure off as many Arab women,
as soon as they hit 17, start to get suitors. I am one of those few that pushes them
off... Are we bred to believe what the society believes is correct because we want to
fit into the majority sociologically, or am I feeling depressed on a personal level
because I don't adhere to these societal rules, laws, etc, and keep pushing them off,
or the institution of marriage, or because I genuinely have no desire to get married?
Or do I?

Her feelings of dissonance about marriage reflected her experiences living in both Egypt

and the United States, her academic studies of gender, and her family's expectations for

her future. While Emster was alone in her questioning, she was also the eldest and most

educated of the bloggers, the most well traveled, and the only one who did not submit

directly to her parents' authority.

Gender, as one of the primary dimensions of identity, played an important part in

defining how these bloggers see themselves and the world. Religious concepts of

womanhood helped to define their rights as women and their public behavior. Family

roles for women may have affected day-to-day interactions with men as well as internal

perceptions of how a woman should behave. Finally, feelings and thoughts about

marriage influenced gender identity by prescribing romantic roles and perceptions of

men. Their blogs represented a place to explore feelings and thoughts about gender roles.









Cultural and Ethnic Identity

For the women in this study, culture and ethnicity were complex elements of

identity expressed in their blogs. The words used to identify themselves with particular

groups varied from woman to woman and from time to time in each woman's

representations of herself. They aligned themselves with certain cultural/ethnic groups by

joining blogrings devoted to being Muslim, Egyptian, Arab, and Arab American, among

others. In posts they discussed their specific heritage and how it affected plans,

relationships, politics, and interactions with those outside their group. Conflict between

the American parts and MMENA parts of their culture were frequently present, even

directly compared.

All of the women identified themselves with multiple labels, though each one of

them used "Arab" to describe herself. Only three (Queen Leila, Zeina, and Princess of

Arabia) called themselves "Arab-American." Six identified themselves based on their

family's country and/or geographical region of origin (i.e., African, Egyptian, Middle

Eastern, Iraqi). Only one of the women (Ladyras) did not explicitly use "Muslim" to

describe herself, though she indirectly affirmed her Muslim identity. This may have been

influenced by her membership in a family that was both Muslim and Christian.

Political affinities

With the exception of Ladyras, all of the bloggers in this study displayed passion

about politics in the MENA region. They expressed solidarity with the Palestinian people,

anti-Iraqi war sentiments, and criticism of Israel. Several wrote of their frustrations with

the equation of Arabs or Muslims with terrorists, and even wondered if U.S. security

personnel are reading their blogs.









Queen Leila, a leader in the blogging community, often encouraged her readers to

"represent" on behalf of Palestine, Muslims, and Arab-Americans. In using the term

"represent" she implied showing the positive side of these identities to outsiders. For

example, in listing her favorite celebrities of the year, she included "dat Muslim Iraqi

dude from BB6 [a television reality show] cuz he represented!" VirtueOne offered free

animated graphics to anyone who would post them "representing Palestine" on another

blog. Queen Leila often wrote of her involvement in the Arab-American community. She

participated in Arab-American charitable events, wrote for local activist magazines, and

helped in the founding of the Arab American National Museum in Michigan.

On Egyptian national holidays Queen Leila wrote about the historical event related

to the holiday: "Afta celebrate'n da kick azz of Israel outta Sina' we get 2 celebrate

anotha history in da make'n... Egyptian Ahmed ElBaradei wins the Nobel Prize!" Her

most frequent references to political issues were thoughts about problems in the MENA

region, usually ending with a lesson or exhortation for her readers. After expressing her

outrage over suicide bombing at a wedding in Jordan she wrote,

The thing bout being an Arab though, is that we are too strong to let something like
this just make us breakdown and cry. We cried long enough, and its our strength
that got Israel out of Egypt and Lebanon, its our strength that keeps Palestine
undefeatable for almost 60 years, and Iraq being unbreakable through decades of
struggles. It might be a sad time to be an Arab, but it's the Arab strength that makes
me prouder and prouder every single day that I am Arab.

Other of the bloggers commented frequently on world events related to the MENA

region. Zeina, although she was depressed by news and tried to avoid it, found herself

confronted with a recent bombing in a resort area of Egypt: "These things depress me

really greatly...But how can I not watch [the news], its like its following me... The place









you go to enjoy your country is mined. Your country's economy and its people will

suffer more."

Several of the bloggers expressed their political affinities in opposition to the

practices of the United States in the MENA region. Zeina, during a university class on

Arab politics and history, expressed her views of colonialism in Egypt and linked them to

current actions of the United States in Iraq:

People kept talking about Iraq and saying, "we should have tried to democratize an
easier country first..." the whole time Im sitting there my blood was boiling. WHY
are you discussing WHICH country the US should democratize instead of asking if
the US even has the RIGHT to democratize a country or IMPOSE their thoughts or
what about the fact that its BS for them to try to do it in the first place?!

Her frustration was evident, particularly in her use of capital letters to indicate shouting

in this post. Emster shared her anger toward United States policy. After a fellow Egyptian

wished her a happy fourth of July, she complained at length about cultural imperialism:

"What the hell is up with those who are obsessed with others holidays? Suppose you

could call that the blanket of power of the sole superpower-apparently America." She

too disagreed with the United States' intervention in Iraq:

Yeah, once again the United States is "rebuilding a nation." Rebuild yourself
before your jeopardize another nation whom you don't understand culturally and
obviously not politically.. your obviously building for yourself, and nothing else.
Disgusting, absolutely disgusting...this is the reason why I am so absolutely
frustrated with this country. That no one sees the other and is simply stuck to their
self.

Despite Emster's strong and often bitter criticism of United States policy, she still

primarily identified herself as "American" and used possessive pronouns when describing

U.S. institutions; "our military" for example.

Emster was the only one of the bloggers who expressed concerns about possible

government perception of her as a terrorist. After discussing terrorism at length, she









wrote, "Mind you, I write this from a remote location in the Middle East...Well folks,

I'm on kilo 26 on the North Coast at my parents place just past Alex[andria] in Silver

Beach. Come and get me you information fools. Argh-can you sense the frustration?"

Princess of Arabia appeared to be the only blogger directly involved in MMENA

politics. Though she infrequently mentions politics, she did write about her experience

voting in the Iraqi elections in 2005:

yesterday was the iraqi voting thingy... my mom and dad kept harassing me to gooo
so i went... i honestly think it was worth it though...like ive never been really into
the whole "iraqi thing" but it was just a really good feeling once i placed my ballot
in the box...

Unlike the bloggers mentioned above, Princess of Arabia did not appear to own her

heritage politically; rather it was heavily influenced by her parents. Similarly, Ladyras

did not appear interested in politics. In the posts used for this study, she did not discuss

political issues at all.

Religious beliefs

Each of the bloggers in this study identified herself as Muslim. For some, Islam

was a major topic of posts and an integral part of the blog. For others, it was constant but

more peripheral part of life.

VirtueOne and Queen Leila, the most overtly religious of the bloggers,

incorporated religious exhortation and verses from the Qur'an and hadith into their blogs.

Both of them wore Islamic dress and strictly adhered to the requirements of Islam, such

as abstaining from alcohol and limiting interactions with men. VirtueOne discussed her

struggles with maintaining a Muslim identity in the United States: "It's so hard to shop

when ur a muslimah. I hate how all these "shirts" are so tiny that they don't even qualify

as shirts lol. I have to be searching to find long enough shirts so that I can wear with jeans









so they can cover and finding those is HARD!!" She also reported feeling strange about

the female icons on restrooms because their dress was so different from hers. As an

integral part of her life, Islam related back to most anything she posted about, for

example, earthquakes: "The earthquakes keep increasing here in california. So I gotta

work on being a better muslim. Cuz I might die soon or later but I wanna be prepared."

She often included devotional poems or thoughts in her posts:

They say Islam is in the heart. Ummm... what about the rest? with that comes other
obligations. It is said when you believe you react therefore you act upon it. But
truly these days there is a huge amount of hipocrisy amongts us 'muslims.' May
Allah forgive us and guide us to the right path and make it easy on us.

Queen Leila and VirtueOne posted their answers to quizzes passed on by other bloggers.

In each quiz, questions such as "favorite food?" and "what inspires you?" allow bloggers

to get to know each other's personalities better. Both of these women firmly identified

themselves as observant Muslims through their quiz answers. Questions related to alcohol

and sex were answered with "No... haram," meaning "forbidden." Each listed their

favorite month as Ramadan, the month of fasting in Muslim observance, and refused to

reveal the hair color beneath their veils. Queen Leila wrote about Islam primarily to

encourage her fellow Muslims in the faith. After the earthquake in Pakistan, she

encouraged her Muslim "sisters" to "Remember that Allah is the most Merciful and

Beneficient."

Other bloggers wrote about Islam as the context or setting for ideas and events.

Zeina posted a story about meeting a French-speaking Muslim immigrant at her local

mosque, Ladyras wrote about attending a Muslim funeral service for a family member,

Princess of Arabia described "stuffing my face" before attending an all-night prayer









service at the mosque. For these bloggers, the practice of religion was a part of everyday

life, but not one they felt compelled to discuss often.

Family roles

As mentioned above, family expectations to some extent influenced gender roles

for each of these women. Families may also have determined the woman's degree of

independence, her role in the community, and at times her professional and academic

goals. Because these women's parents and other family members did not (to their

knowledge) read their blogs, they offered a safe place to vent frustrations and negotiate

the lines between self and family.

MMENA women are often expected to live at home with their parents until

marriage, and as noted above, all but one of the women in this study lived with a male

relative. After graduating from university, Queen Leila planned to move into an

apartment alone. She wrote of her parents' struggle for acceptance and her conflict

between obedience and the desire for greater independence. Eventually she asked her

readers, "Who here feels it iz wrong or a'rite 4 a sista (or a brotha) 2 move out of their

family home 2 live on their own? why or why not?" At the conclusion of this study, she

still had not reached a decision.

Princess of Arabia, who often wrote of clashes with her parents related to dating,

also complained of being forced to be with the "iraqi crew," a group of her parents'

friends who gathered at different houses for meals. Her family expected her to be part of

the Iraqi community in her area, even sending her to Arabic school on Saturdays, but she

did not find it enjoyable: "anywaysss iraqi gathering at my house..it was really akward

with the moms n me at first..but its so-so right now i guess..its my life.."









Parental expectations regarding professions and life pursuits heavily influence

some of the bloggers. Zeina, for example, planned to attend medical school on the urging

of her parents. She sometimes questioned her decision to follow their wishes, joined by

her blog readers who posted comments about their parents' directives on professions.

After graduation, she experienced severe anxiety about her future, as she reported in her

blog:

What is my purpose? Arab families do not like confusion and instability. So their
solution is choosing on ones behalf. So now I feel like Im following orders or
something. Like I don't have any choice what I can and cannot do with my life. And
THAT is the worst feeling ever. To feel that your life and your future doesn't belong
to you anymore, to feel like you are trapped into whatever the "family" wants you
to do and where they want you to go. Maybe what they pick is the best choice, but
they should at least make an effort to prove that to me, to convince me that it is the
best choice. Instead I just feel like they stomped on all my goals and aspirations
and gave me new ones (namely money and prestige).

During her time in Cairo, Emster also felt her family heritage shape how she viewed

herself. She made peace, in a way, with who she was in her family during a visit to the

house of her mother's birth:

I sat on the bed my mother was born on. I don't know why, call me silly and
sensitive, but have you ever felt a moment of pure bliss, where you feel you know
everything, it all makes sense, the pieces fit together intricately, a sweet awakening
of sorts, an appreciative effort on the side of an inanimate object to send sense and
emotion into your life? I can't explain it, but I felt this last night... I was content. I
can't remember the last time I was that content actually, with anyone, anything.
Almost like God was looking at me and smiling, happy with me, instead of
laughing.

In writing about her experience, she solidified the identification with her mother and her

Egyptian heritage.

Despite frequent conflicts, the women in this study wrote about how highly they

valued their families. Zeina planned to "get a job and send money back to Egypt" for a

sick uncle; Queen Leila said she will "always be there 2 help wit their load." After









visiting multiple family members in Cairo during Ramadan, Emster reflected, "And I've

realized, learned this: while to forgive is the greatest gift, family and heritage is the

greatest possession."

Social life

The women in this study took part in the social life of both the local MMENA

community and dominant American culture. VirtueOne and Queen Leila wrote primarily

about their social experiences with others from similar backgrounds, while Ladyras wrote

more about interactions with those outside the MMENA community. The other bloggers

were somewhere in between, writing about times with friends from both spheres. All,

however, continually affirmed the importance of friends and of having some kind of

community. They discussed specific aspects of MMENA culture including food,

women's interactions with each other, and MMENA-typical behaviors they found

humorous. Finally, several of the bloggers wrote posts directly comparing MMENA

culture with American culture. Each of these women used her blog as a space to explore

differences between MMENA and American social life, choosing which parts of each

culture she would adopt in her own life.

Princess of Arabia rarely wrote a post in which extensive references to her friends

and family did not appear. In her time away from school and family responsibilities she

spent time with friends face-to-face or chatted with them online. Similarly, Zeina usually

posted about her outings with friends, or used a shared experience (such as exams) to

begin a post on a more abstract topic like politics or religion. While her parents were not

in the same city, friends helped her avoid loneliness: "Im really glad I have people that I

can eat dinner with so Im not just sitting at home watching TV waiting for maghreb [the

sunset prayer], eating alone, then studying in the isolation that is my apartment. I guess









we have all gotten much closer because we are alone and our families are not here to fill

that void." Close friends were usually from similar family backgrounds and were often

Muslim. Emster, however, wrote about Christian friends she visited.

Traditional food served as a form of comfort for these women, particularly when

they longed for social interactions with people who understood their heritage. Zeina used

cooking Egyptian foods as a way to connect with her family and as an escape: "Cooking

is fun sometimes, especially when you need a study break. It reminds me of home."

Princess of Arabia also wrote often of food, describing her meals with an Iraqi friend.

When her parents made her attend Iraqi gatherings, the only bright spot she mentioned

was the food. VirtueOne described her meals in almost every post about spending time

with friends: "I went over my friend Rasha's place and it was great she made Fasoolya

[bean stew]. It was good and some Rizz [rice]." Queen Leila shared her new year's

resolution of losing weight: "Goal: lose 201bs gained since work'n wit Arabz!" It

appeared that for these women, the sharing of food was an integral part of social life.

With the exception of Ladyras, all of the bloggers referred to women in MMENA

culture as being jealous or gossiping. Zeina describes being denied a table at an Egyptian

restaurant by a hostess jealous of her and her friends' attractiveness. After a negative

experience with a classmate, Princess of Arabia wrote, "im sick of arab girls im so sick of

them..i can't handle it anymore... sometimes its such a disgrace to say im arab cuz im

labeled as a gossiping bitch." Emster described her university job as like any other job,

"just add Egyptian gossip to it." VirtueOne turned her experience with gossip into a

religious exhortation:

Never go out on the streets without expecting for someone to see you, recognize
you, and Gossip! It's crazy. It is just amazing how people can just do that. So then









why don't they go and give dawa [share the message of Islam] and spread the
message of Islam that quickly?? Good one huh?! Gheebah [gossiping] is haram
[forbidden] yall. (just a reminder).

VirtueOne, in addition to worrying about women's gossip in her community, joked

about women's social customs. In discussing her upcoming wedding, she wrote, "The

only thing I am worried about is the makeup...usually arab ladies tend to make the bride

look white as paper and always bright red lipstick making em' look like stop signs Imao."

Because these bloggers were at the intersection of both MMENA culture and dominant

American culture, they had the ability to see both groups' "typical" behaviors that they

found funny. Emster humorously vented her frustrations with Egyptian culture's

"beaurocracy and disruptive irresponsible rude attitudes... major problem with

privacy... [and] spoiled thinking." With a lighter approach, Ladyras described

some funny things that my families do-my arab side and my puerto rican
side...why do arabs use such gay sounding nicknames like susu and medo.. .my
dad calls me idiot in English, and khara in arabic (the arabic word for shit) arabs
and nicknames man...How come whenever an arab cracks a joke he has to high
five someone about it? And then everyone laughs all loud and slaps their knees and
claps their hands and stomps their feet.

Despite their criticisms of MMENA culture, these bloggers still appeared to prefer

it to dominant American culture. VirtueOne, meeting a Jordanian friend after an absence,

wrote, "Seeing her again made me realize how the U.S. sucks! Back home people seem to

relax and take their time and here it's like everyone's on the go all of the time that they

don't stop to enjoy the moment." Zeina elaborated on these differences in multiple posts.

She blamed individuality for the negative aspects of American culture:

In Egypt, the whole society circles around family and friends. They are number one
priority in a persons life. In the US, people put themselves as number one. So
everything is based upon what I am gonna do, who is going to take ME there, who
is going to entertain ME...ME.. ME...MEEEE... One [culture] stresses these close
relationships and friendships, one stresses self-success and motivation.









After spending the month of Ramadan with her family in Cairo, Emster gained a

new sense of belonging and identity, never known in the United States, thanks to

MMENA cultural practices:

I've come to a realization of things I've been missing because of my last month
spent at my grandfathers house. In Minnesota, families are spread apart arbitrarily,
no one joins together in order to enjoy the holidays-Ramadan holidays that is-
and it is never the same feel as it is in Cairo. People forget I suppose...histories are
complicated...lives are not, well, intermingled...Ramadan in Egypt is people staying
awake for hours on end, colorful lights lining the streets, decorative lanterns
hanging on every street corer...people are happy, and because Egypt is
predominantly Muslim, everyone celebrates and can identify with one another.
Almost a feeling of belonging...

As a sometime member of the dominant culture of Egypt, Emster experienced the benefit

of cultural events that are part of mainstream life. However, in other posts she distanced

herself socially from Egyptians. Like the other bloggers, she vacillated between

identifying herself with MMENA culture and with American culture.

Popular culture

Both MMENA and American popular culture featured prominently in most of these

blogs. The blogging service offered a "now playing/reading/watching" feature at the top

of each post in which bloggers could identify the music, books, or movies they were

using at the time. The feature displayed an image of the product (i.e., album cover), the

name of the artist/author, title, and included a link to the product on Amazon.com. Most

of these bloggers made use of this feature regularly, with both Arabic-language and

American products. While they wrote entire posts about Arabic-language entertainment

media, more frequent passing references were made to American entertainment media.

Presumably, they felt it necessary to explain the Arabic-language media to a readership

that was most likely not familiar with it. For example, while Princess of Arabia explained

who Samira Said and Nancy Ajram are (singers who perform in Arabic), she made









reference to Willy Wonka and Michael Jackson with the assumption they are familiar to

her audience.

Zeina, in particular, positioned herself as a kind of advocate for Arabic-language

media. She recommended that her readers watch Egyptian films, read books by Egyptian

authors, and listen to Arabic music. Both she and VirtueOne mentioned watching the

2005 Hollywood film Kingdom ofHeaven, which was about the Crusades. While both

appreciated the sympathetic portrayal of Muslims and Salah Al Din (Saladin), Zeina

found fault with the Hollywood version in comparison to the original Arabic version: "It

kind of pissed me off. It was just way too hollywood for me. Ohh wow, another romance

placed in a war movie...just what we need. Annoying."

These women used their blogs to establish the elements of MMENA and American

culture they enjoyed. Like other aspects of their identities, their use of popular media

resided between both cultures. In this way, VirtueOne uniquely combined her Muslim

and mainstream American identities: "Have u guys heard the news?? Spongebob is

Muslim and his real name is Mohamed??!! How great is that... ohhhh... nope...JK... lol."

Interactions with outsiders

As members of a cultural and ethnic group that could be considered under attack in

the United States today, these bloggers were fully conscious of their position at the edges

of dominant culture. They were therefore concerned with positively representing

MMENA culture to those outside of it. Several found themselves objects of curiosity in

public spaces, and one even encountered hate speech in the blogosphere.

Zeina indignantly described at length her experiences with her university's Arab

Students Association's annual party:









The wonderful arabic party had become a debaucherous drunken frat party. It had
become a bunch of stupid girls and guys getting drunk and "hooking up." Needless
to say, I was extremely disappointed in them all. We are Arabs, not Americans...
how could they act so trashy! It was a disgrace...I expected all arab muslims (and
all muslims) except for a minority to be good and pure as well.., and to think that
all the impressionable freshman went to this party and got the impression that all
Arab-Americans act like that is just sad. What kind of example are these people?!

From this post, it seemed that Zeina's main concern with the behavior of her fellow

students was how it appeared to outsiders, the disgrace it brought upon Muslims and

Arabs. Interestingly, this was the only post in her blog that discussed expectations of

purity and goodness for Muslims.

VirtueOne, visibly Muslim because of her hijab, wrote about being approached by

curious strangers:

Why would someone walk up to a girl with hijab and ask em' "are you muslim?",
when they're muslim and the later the person who asks says "oh yea...that was a
stupid question hehe." ...okaaaaaay issueeees I tell ya....issues... .Anywho yeah
most of my friends and I have these akward incouters with people like this lol who
think they can get us to talk and start a conversation.

One of her values, mentioned in earlier posts, was modesty and silence with strangers.

These types of interactions, while uncomfortable, also conflicted with her personal

values. In posting this story on her blog, she was both sharing her experience with fellow

hijab-wearers and cautioning non-Muslim readers against this type of behavior.

Zeina reported a conversation with strangers on another blogging service about the

Iraq war. She was one of the few who disagreed with the prevailing atmosphere of war

support. "I wrote that I wasn't going to get involved because Im an Arab and in this day

and age its not safe for arabs to discuss that kinda thing. About 5 people replied saying

that I was stupid and trying to play the victim." Zeina responded with telling them exactly

her opinion, which led to "a HUGE fight with everyone attacking" her. Identifying









herself as an "Arab," in this situation, immediately put her on the defensive with the

others in the conversation.

In the most overt challenge to identity in the blogs in this study, a stranger posted a

hate-speech comment on Princess of Arabia's blog. It was apparently based on her screen

name and her membership in MMENA blogrings, as the comment was unrelated to her

post. It accused her personally of being dirty, smelly, and having "Osama kids." It also

attacked Islam, saying "your religion is fake" among other more offensive things. She

reported the comment on her main page with her own commentary: "I honestly could

care less what you think because your nothing but a stupid close minded person whos

possibly in the KKK...words don't kill me so you can take those words and shove it up

your slimy butt hole."

As seen through these examples, these bloggers faced challenges to their cultural

and ethnic identities in everyday life as well as in the blogosphere. They used their blogs

to express frustration with outsiders' perceptions, to educate outsiders on acceptable

interactions, and to defend themselves against attacks on their identities.

Intersections of Identity

Personal identity, gender identity, and cultural/ethnic identity were constantly

negotiated and developed in these blogs, as noted above. These multiple dimensions of

identity interacted in uniquely overlapping, dynamic ways within each woman's blog.

This is illustrated in two diagrams, below, for two of the bloggers with very different

identity intersections.






69

INTERSECTIONS OF IDENTITY DIMENSIONS


S Personal Identity


Gender


Social
Life


Politics


Family


Religion


Relationship to
Outsiders


QUEEN LEILA

Figure 3. Identity dimension intersections in Queen Leila's blog.

Queen Leila's identity dimensions, as presented in her blog, were for the most part

clustered together in one group. Her personal identity, the largest circle, encompassed all

other aspects. Politics, religion, family, gender, and social life were closely related and

overlapped in many instances. Her relationship to outsiders, however, was removed from







70


the other dimensions to some extent, and completely separated from her social life. In her

blog, her interactions with those outside MMENA culture were usually in relation to a

political topic, in service to her family, or involved explication of Islam. The dotted line

around her personal identity, of which all other aspects are components, reflects the

dynamic nature of identity: it was constantly negotiated and renegotiated in the context of

her blog.

INTERSECTIONS OF IDENTITY DIMENSIONS




Personal Identity




/ Family Relationship to
/ Outsiders
I


Religion Social
I Life





\ Gender Popular Culture /
\ /







LADYRAS

Figure 4. Identity dimension intersections in Ladyras' blog.

In contrast, Ladyras's identity intersections were less consonant as shown in the

above diagram (Figure 4). Her religion, as expressed in her blog, was more peripheral









and intersected only with family and gender identity. Her social life was completely

separate from her religion. Unlike Queen Leila, Ladyras's family was also on the

periphery of her identity, not interacting at all with her interests in popular culture or her

relationships with outsiders.

These two diagrams represent the two extremes of identity intersections among the

bloggers in this study. Queen Leila's identity was relatively consonant between

dimensions, although within each one she wrote of the paradoxes of living between

MMENA culture and American culture. VirtueOne's intersections were similar to those

of Queen Leila. Zeina's and Emster's were slightly less consonant, with similar internal

paradoxes. Princess of Arabia and Ladyras had the most dissonance in identity

dimensions, with several not overlapping at all. Interestingly, these two bloggers

displayed the least amount of conflict within the dimensions, dealing primarily with

issues such as parental conflict rather than internal struggles with identity.

Community

Community in the blogosphere, while often debated, is not a static concept. Often,

the development of community, particularly if it is not based on existing face-to-face

relationships, is dependent on technological features available through the blogging

service. Xanga, the service used by the bloggers in this study, provided capabilities for

joining blogrings, giving eprops, and subscribing to others' blogs. A blogring is an

affinity group, set up by any member of Xanga, for a specific group of people. For

example, the "Hijab: The Holiest Hat of Them All" blogring stated: "It's all good in the

hood. Jump on the scarfie bandwagon, share lame experiences, including all the times

people have thought you were a nun...an Arab ninja...Sheets for the head, and the bed

too! Happy to be Hijabi!" All the members of this blogring (Queen Leila and VirtueOne









are members) wore the hijab and displayed a link to this blogring on their sites. Eprops,

along with comments, are the social currency of the blogosphere. At the end of each post

are links to "add comments" and "add eprops." Readers may click on these links, type in

their comments, and choose to give 2, 1, or 0 eprops. Comments and eprops are then

visible to all subsequent readers of the blog, unless the owner elects to delete them or

have them disabled. Readers may subscribe to other blogs, in which case they receive

email notification when the blog is updated. A list of a bloggers' subscriptions appears on

every page of the blog, just above the list of blogrings.

Each of the blogs included in this study could be described in terms of Jones'

settlement concept: they all have sustained public interaction over time with a variety of

communicators. As Jones noted, relationships and emotional ties easily develop in these

virtual settlements, leading to virtual communities. Blanchard identified sense of

community as the defining factor of a virtual community: the participants must have

feelings of membership, the fulfillment of needs, and a shared emotional connection.

While all these blogs were settlements, not all showed a sense of community, and this

sense was stronger in some than in others. The communities involved were primarily

either focused on reinforcing face-to-face interactions or on building and maintaining ties

with friends based wholly on virtual relationships.

The bloggers in this study built blog-based community through the use of

blogrings, comments and eprops, and "tagging" with quizzes. They reinforced their

online communities through discussion about the community itself. Other bloggers

strengthened face-to-face friendships by posting pictures together, soliciting advice, and

giving updates on day-to-day activities.









Blog-based Community

Ladyras, VirtueOne, and Queen Leila primarily displayed sense of community in

the context of blog-based relationships. Some of their friendships with other bloggers

began online, specifically through religious and regional blogrings, and transitioned into

a combination of online and face-to-face interactions. VirtueOne and Queen Leila, for

example, met through a blogring for devout Muslims in their city. They developed their

friendship online then met face-to-face. Their blogs became a way to keep in touch and

maintain a relationship when both were busy. The day before Queen Leila's university

graduation, VirtueOne posted in her honor: "I wanna wish [Queen Leila] a great

day tomorrow inshallah [if God wills] cuz she's graduating yayay!! Mabrook Alayky!!

[Congratulations] I'm so proud of ya [Queen Leila]!!" She also used the blog as a kind of

pager: "ohhh and [Queen Leila] girl....I haven't heard from u in a while!! call me!!"

Ladyras developed most of her online relationships through joining blogrings. In

early posts, she complained that no one read her blog or left comments. After joining a

blogring she had more hits on her site and eventually online friendships, subscribers, and

regular readers. She expressed her gratitude regularly to her readers:

I just wanted to say how souped i was cuz people started actually reading my page
lol. i know it aint the greatest but u know wut-who cares man i got like FOUR
people who read my page and all the tiems i tried to start up a xanga page that
never happened b4. THANK YOU! YAY! lol

Unlike the other bloggers in this study, Ladyras explicitly addressed her reasons for

starting a blog.

it's kind of funny, but when i started my page, i didn't tell anyone i knew about
it...it's more like a release where i can be the part of me they all don't know, i mean,
that's bad aint it, when u feel like u cant tell ur friends n the people in ur life what ur
thinking about-but then again i want to write wutever i wantOif someone pisses me
off ima write about it, so i don't want them reading it and getting their feelings hurt-
that's y i don't hav a pic on my page, It feels good to kind of let go, jus say wutever i









want and not care if anyone passes judgement cuz no one really knows who i am. I
don't know if anyone gets taht-most people write these things, and everyone that
reads it knows them-but i mean, if i wana tell someone about wuts going on in my
life and i KNEW them i could jus tell them whenever i saw them. u kno that alter
ego that comes out after 12 at night lol, that's what i wana let out sometimes.

She wrote for herself, for self-expression, and for creating a community outside her

regular sphere of life. Here she emphasized her anonymity in the blogosphere while

affirming her need to express herself to those not directly concerned with her problems.

Ladyras and Queen Leila saw themselves as positively contributing to their readers'

lives through their posts. Ladyras wrote, "i've been a philosopher for the past couple of

entries, right? Hey just to let everyone know those entries are for my benefit too, but i

really hope that sometimes someone reads them and actually thinks and MAYBE just

MAYBE someone will be positively influenced by them....lol but then maybe im just

being too hopeful..." Queen Leila, after exhorting her readers to be grateful for God's

gifts, wrote, "I praise Allah (swt) everyday 4 such wonderful ppl such as yaselvez be'n in

my life... even if we spoke Ice, don't speak 2 each otha anymore, haven't spoken in

yearz, or we just spoke a sec ago n bug each other everyday..." They fulfilled the needs of

others for support and relationship while having their own needs met as well.

Most bloggers seemed to define the success of their blog and of individual posts in

context of how many comments and eprops they received. Those who did not update for

a while profusely apologized upon returning for their lack of commenting: "Sorry if I

haven't commented on ur guys pages lately but I'll try to catch up on that this week or

next inshallah;" (VirtueOne) and "anyways yall ima bout to comment sorry i been

slackin!!! but i still love you!! muahz!-" (Ladyras). Similarly, if a blogger did not receive

the same number of comments she had before, she asked her readers what was wrong:

"Where has everyone been on xanga lately? I mean i know i disappeared but it seems like









so did everyone else and now that I'm back here there still gone. Hmmmm." Ladyras

reported her best friend's comment on her main page, after she created her own blogring

and had a record number of comments. Her friend wrote, "way too gooo...u got 40+

comments... that's an accomplishment haha... and you got lots of ppl to join [the

blogring]." Ladyras apparently felt that comments indicated popularity and appreciation.

She wrote,

i hate it when i read peoples xangas and comment and try to reach out and they
ignore me and never comment back! i take it personally lol ask her! it makes me
feel like suttin is bad about me cuz they wont comment back but i kno they go on
cuz they have new entires-im just real weird about things like that i duno...anyways
o well thnx to those of u who DO comment love u guys lol hahah

Queen Leila limited her posting because few of her readers commented on her entries: "I

know I haven't updated in a while... I guess dat even though I'm get'n hella hits, not

much comment, so i just let it hang." Several bloggers ended posts with phrases like

"leave me some love" to indicate that readers should leave comments.

Other forms of community building used by several of the bloggers were online

quizzes and "tagging." In tagging, a blogger posts a list of questions and their answers on

her blog. She then "tags" several friends, who read her blog, to indicate that they should

answer the questions on their blogs. The questions tend to reveal information about

personality, likes and dislikes, and interests. In posting questions and tagging others, the

bloggers in this study helped develop relationships with others from the virtual

community, dependent upon similar backgrounds, values, and interests.

As noted above, several of the bloggers extensively discussed the online

community itself in their blogs. This too was a form of community building: expressing

appreciation for virtual friends more firmly cemented the bond. For example, after

posting about a personal problem and receiving many comments, Ladyras wrote,









today entry is dedicated yo YALL...thats right...u xanga-ers. my buddies. the
special ones-u kno who u r-and even the ones who take time out of their day just to
say wutsup. I'm just really glad i started xanga i mean after last nites entry and yall
were like all concerned i felt so LOVED...well just to let u kno i have mad love for
u guys too!! i mean i wish i actually knew u guys i mean we give eachother advice,
laugh joke around, some of us havae inside jokes, we comfort eachother, not
LITERALLY a shoulder to cry on but u know...yall take the time out of ur day to
read wuts up with me wuts botherin me tell me things wil be ok...i mean that's more
than some of my real life friends do lol damn i just feel real close to some of u u
kno! i just watned to let yall kno that yall r the best lol thnx for making my xanga
experience so great :)

She followed these words with "gifts" for her online friends-images of flowers, candy,

perfume, and electronics. This entry, too, received many affirming comments from

readers.

Face-to-face Community Reinforcement

While the bloggers discussed above created virtual communities with their blogs,

others primarily reinforced face-to-face relationships. Zeina wrote to an audience of

friends in her university as well as friends from Egypt. Princess of Arabia addressed her

friends from high school and the Iraqi community in her area. Emster wrote to keep

friends around the world updated on her life. Although these bloggers' intended

audiences were face-to-face friends and family, some blog-based relationships were

formed as well.

Zeina and Princess of Arabia affirmed friendships by posting pictures of

themselves with friends. Princess of Arabia, in particular, posted pictures of herself with

friends on a weekly basis. For her best friend's birthday, she posted several pages of

pictures of them together as well as a tribute in words:

i love u sooo much u are my bestest friend and we made it through yet ANOTHER
year of absolutely no fights or disagreements... your there for me no matter what..all
the guy trouble..oh lordy..all the drama all the tears all the laughter..all shared with
you!! cuz your my best friend! and im NOTHING without you!! your what makes
me complete!! your my twin..your..apart of me!i love you!









Similarly, Zeina posted pictures of herself with friends in Cairo and in Texas. In each

post with friend pictures, she addressed the friend in the photos as well as the others who

were reading.

Some bloggers solicited advice from their friends for situations that were not fully

explained in the blog, assuming that their friends already understood the background.

Princess of Arabia, for example, began a post with apologizing for being distant, gave an

explanation related to a recent personal problem, then asked for feedback on what she

should do. She also frequently posted personal messages to friends whom she did not

identify in the post. While most were pleasant, one was not:

im just really disappointed and disturbed at all the people that lie and are two
faced...im really,really dissapointed in you..and the sad thing is..i've been
protecting you for so long..and now im giving up on you..i always thought u were a
much better person than me..you being a hijabi and all..but now..i realize your not.
You let me down. BIG TIME. i don't think i can protect you anymore.

She does not indicate, in this post or later ones, if the person addressed here was known

to other readers. It may be assumed that based on the close-knit nature of the face-to-face

community that she probably was, and that this was Princess of Arabia's way of speaking

her mind with less confrontation than a live encounter would have had.

These bloggers most often maintained face-to-face relationships by sharing their

daily activities and plans. They include many accounts of shopping and going out with

friends, family situations, school and work plans, and emotional issues. Emster made

perhaps the most practical use of her blog. Before a trip to her hometown, she posted her

planned schedule for the visit. She then asked her friends to check it against their

schedules and call her with times when they could get together. Zeina, whose family rode

out Hurricane Rita in 2005, used her blog to update all the rest of the family on their

status. Princess of Arabia announced her high school graduation and college plans on her









blog, then posted pictures of the graduation afterward. Friends frequently commented

with words of encouragement, questions about the entries, or even requests for phone

calls. Especially for those bloggers whose face-to-face relationships have become long-

distance relationships, blogs are used to maintain and reinforce face-to-face relationships.

Member Checks

Zeina confirmed the overall findings of this study during member checks. She

wished to expand upon the idea of identifying with one culture over the other:

I think you caught on to some great conclusions. I also want to mention that there
are differing levels of connection to both cultures as well. For example, I tend not
to link myself too closely with the Arabs in the US, as I feel most of them are TOO
Americanized. And while I have taken many things from my upbringing in the US,
I still find that my parents raised me in a way that links me closer to my friends in
the Middle East. There seems to be a dominant culture of "Americanized" Arabs
and a minority of Arabs that are less inclined to "fit in". For example, whenever I
am in Egypt... I never miss the US. However, when I am in the States, I always
miss Egypt. This fact leads me to be different from the Arabs in the US and the
Arabs in Egypt. Oh well, I guess this is more difficult to explain. Easier just to say
that you are correct in what you said, just keep in mind that there is a spectrum and
varying degrees of US acculturation.

None of the other bloggers had responded to the request for member checks at the

conclusion of the writing of this report.

Reflexivity

DeSouza described researcher reflexivity as, "More than a dear diary outline of

events, reflexivity requires one to stand outside one's own experiences and interrogate

one's role, values, beliefs, and assumptions underpinning one's participation in the

research."2 Throughout the process of conducting this study, as well as before beginning

it, I questioned my own assumptions of MMENA women and of research in general.


2 Ruth DeSouza, "Motherhood, Migration and Methodology: Giving Voice to the 'Other,'" The
Qualitative Report 9 no. 3 (k i 14): 472, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-3/desouza.pdf, accessed April
2006.









During the study this was accomplished through use of extensive research notes in which

I recorded my impressions and questioned my findings. I was concerned at times that my

reading of the blogs would reinforce common stereotypes of MMENA women, for

example, the position of women in relation to their families. After reflecting on this,

rereading the blogs many times, and questioning myself, I came to the conclusion that

these women, due to their position as immigrants or children of immigrants, were likely

holding on more tightly to their traditional culture than those who had been in the United

States longer.

I found that I personally identified with these women in their position between

cultures and their apparent desire to explore where they fit in context of their blogs. I also

grew to feel close to the women, although I did not communicate directly with any of

them until after analysis of their blogs. My own values of honoring family, seeking

spirituality, and valuing marriage likely sympathetically colored my interpretations of

their posts. Because I am more oriented toward communalism than individualism myself,

I tended to consistently view them in context of their family relationships and

membership in the larger culture rather than only as stand-alone individuals.

Summary

In sum, the MMENA bloggers in this study developed identity and built

community through their blogs. They communicated and explored expressions of

personal identity, gender identity, and cultural/ethnic identity. The dimensions of these

identities intersected and overlapped in different ways for each blogger, some with

consonance and others with dissonance. Finally, the bloggers created virtual communities

or maintained face-to-face relationships through their blogs.






80














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The findings of this study concur with many of the theories discussed in chapter

two, particularly those related to MMENA identities. As these women used their blogs to

negotiate identity and build community, they displayed the conflicts and paradoxes other

researchers have documented in MMENA Americans. Their communication behavior

also agreed with intercultural communication theories regarding those from non-

dominant cultural groups and diasporic communities.

Identity Theories

Ting-Toomey's identity negotiation theory1 posited that self-presentation and

conception are reinforced, supported, or challenged through intercultural communication.

She identified eight dimensions of identity that are negotiated in intercultural

communication. For the purposes of this study, only the primary identity dimensions

were addressed (gender, cultural/ethnic, and personal) due to the limitations of a text-only

analysis. In these dimensions, as discussed in chapter four, the bloggers negotiated their

self-presentations and self-concepts. Two of the assumptions of Ting-Toomey's theory

were particularly salient to the findings of this study. She noted that trust is created with

similar others who reinforce one's own identity. This was evidenced in how the bloggers

discussed relationships with those who were like them more than those who were

different. Ting-Toomey also proposed that membership endorsements enhance feelings of


1 Stella Ting-Toomey, C. ',,am,,ii Ari Across Cultures (New York: The Guildford Press, 1999),
26-54.









inclusion. This was displayed in the use of blogrings for affinity groups, concern for

outsiders' perceptions of MMENA individuals and the group as a whole, and the frequent

use of others' comments quoted in blog text to reinforce the blogger's position.

As noted above, these bloggers displayed a paradox of identity as described by

Salaita2 and Said.3 All were born to parents who immigrated to the United States,

therefore all of the bloggers considered themselves in some way American. They were

educated in American schools and universities, watched American television, and grew

up speaking English. They were not fully American, however, and all described

themselves in some way as "Arab" and with other identifiers that were not simply

"American." Each of them also nurtured the non-"American" part of their identity in

some way: attending Arabic school on the weekends, visiting the homeland, cooking

traditional foods, or wearing Islamic dress. These findings agree with Aoude's claim4 that

individuals in diasporic communities always deal with multiple identities as well as with

Nagel and Staheli's perception of MMENA individuals as transnational.5 The MMENA

aspects of their identities were most often discussed and explored, reflecting Michael's

statement that the attacked aspects of one's identities will come to the forefront.6 Both


2 Steven Salaita, "Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab Americans Before and After
9/11," College Literature 32 no. 2 (Spring 2005): 153, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

3 Bill Ashcroft and Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity (London, New York:
Routledge, 1999), 9-29

4 Ibrahim G. Aoude, "Maintaining Culture, Reclaiming Identity: Palestinian Lives in the Diaspora,"
Asian Studies Review 25 no. 2 (June 2001): 153-167, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

5 Caroline R. Nagel and Lynn A. Staheli, "Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab
Immigrants to the United States," Space and Polity 8 no. 1 (April 2004): 3, http://search.epnet.com,
accessed April 2006.

6 John Michael, "Beyond Us and Them: Identity and Terror from an Arab American's Perspective,"
The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 no. 4 (2003): 700-728, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.









Aoude and Michael studied MMENA Americans, giving further credence to the idea that

in today's United States, MMENA Americans face unique challenges regarding identity

negotiation.

As Said proposed, identity must be spoken to be owned. These blogs provided a

place for the women, caught in the "contest between cultures," to negotiate the differing

aspects of their identities. As Langellier and Peterson described,8 these women's blogs

became a way to struggle over identities in an unstable world: they provided a stable,

accessible "workshop" for identity construction. Reading the blogs in chronological order

showed the development of identity for each woman. Rather than being a static, one-time

construction, their identities evolved over time. Current events, life changes, or family

issues affected how they presented themselves to the world. The apparent inconsistencies

in their blogs, over time, were in fact the negotiations of their identities in a changing

environment.

Perhaps a major part of the cultural contest for these women was the difference

between the individualistic culture of the United States and the collectivism of the

cultures of their heritage. Several of them described their dissatisfaction with the

loneliness of American life. According to Hofstede, the individualism score for the

United States is 91 (the highest in the world),9 while the "Arab World" score is 38.10

Muslim societies, in general, tend to have lower individualism scores. The world average

SAshcroft and Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of identity, 12

8 Kristin M. Langellier and Eric E. Peterson, Storytelling in Daily Life (Philadelphia: Temple
University Press, 2004), 173.

9 Geert Hofstede, "Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions" [electronic resource], c. 2003,
lhp \ u\ \ .geert-hofstede.com/hofstedeunitedstates.shtml, accessed April 2006.

10 Ibid., www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arabworld.shtml, accessed April 2006.









is 64,11 indicating that the regions of these women's heritage are much more collectivistic

than the world as a whole. They displayed few of the attributes of individualism, only at

times appearing self-reliant and desiring to be wholly independent from family. Most of

the entries reflected collectivistic sensibilities, such as care for the extended family,

putting the needs of the group above personal needs, and close ties with friends and

family. As Ting-Toomey noted, orientations toward individualism or collectivism play a

major role in identity formation: those from individualistic cultures are more likely to

define themselves in terms of independence and self-esteem, while those from

collectivistic cultures depend on other groups members for group self-esteem and identity

constructions.12 The blogs in this study concur with this idea. The women who were more

oriented towards individualism defined themselves in terms of self, individual plans, and

personal achievements. Those who were more collectivism-oriented defined themselves

in terms of their heritage, their position in family, and their interactions with in-group

members.

In Tajfel's social identity theory,13 both personal identity and the group's identity

influence self-image. This was evident in the blogger's concern for outsiders' view of

Muslims and Arabs. Because these women were more collectivistic than individualistic,

Tajfel's theory may be even more applicable. Since group identity played such a major

role in self-perception, it can be inferred that attacks (politically, in the media, or physical

violence) on MMENA groups more deeply impact the bloggers than the same attacks


1 Ibid.
12 Ting-Toomey, C. 'i,,, .lit.i ,",n ; Across Cultures, 76.

13 H. Tajfel, Human Groups and Social Categories (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
1981).









might impact more individualistic people. Similarly, Phinney asserted that the community

plays a larger role in self-definition for a person from a non-dominant group than it does

for dominant group members.14 This confirms the relative sensitivity of these bloggers to

disparagement of MMENA groups.

Community Theories

Following Jones' definitions of a "virtual settlement,"15 each of the blogs in this

study could be considered a settlement containing cultural artifacts (posts, comments,

images, audio, etc.). A settlement is a prerequisite to a virtual community, which

develops when emotional ties and relationships form in context of the settlement. It is

difficult to determine if each of the blogs in this study were virtual communities or

simply extensions of face-to-face communities. Emotional ties and relationships did exist

around these blogs, but with the available data it was not possible to discern if they were

wholly virtual. Perhaps following Blanchard's ideas on "sense of community"16 would be

more helpful. She argued that this is an important factor to discover and consists of

feelings of membership and influence, shared emotional connection, and need fulfillment.

Based on this definition, it is reasonable to conclude that the blogs examined here all

displayed sense of community between the authors and their readers. The readers

influenced the content created by the bloggers; the bloggers in turn influenced the



14 Jean S. Phinney, "The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use with Diverse
Groups," Journal ofAdolescent Research 7, 156-176.

15 Quentin Jones, "Virtual-communities, Virtual Settlements and Cyber-archaeology: A Theoretical
Outline," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3 no. 3 (1997): 24, http://search.epnet.com.

16 Anita Blanchard, "Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the
Julie/Julia Project," in L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and J. Reyman, eds, Into the
Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs (2k1' ), http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere,
accessed April 2006.









thinking of the readers. Subscriptions and participation in blogrings showed feelings of

membership either in the blog itself or in the larger blogring community. Emotional

connections were evident in posts and comments. As several bloggers explicitly

discussed, their needs were met by having people listen to (read) their problems and

dilemmas and offer advice. The blogs also created a sense of belonging in what could be

considered a hostile national environment.

As Herring and her research team found, most blogs are not heavily interlinked

across the entire blogosphere.17 Rather, interest and identity groups form and are densely

linked to each other. The blogs in this study supported this finding. None of them were

linked outside their own areas of interest and most not outside their own cultural group.

These findings also concurred with Marlow's conception of the blogosphere as a large

number of smaller interlinked communities.18 While the blogs studied here displayed

some characteristics of the diasporic communities described by Hiller and Franz,19 the

bloggers' situations as children of immigrants made them less connected to the homeland

than recent immigrants would be. These bloggers more closely mirrored Haddad's

description20 of the children of MMENA immigrants who struggle with reconciling the

experiences of their parents to their own. They therefore tended to form communities of

17 Susan C. Herring, Lois Ann Scheidt, Sabrina Bonus, and Elijah Wright, "Bridging the Gap: A
Genre Analysis of Weblogs," In Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on
System Sciences (Los Alamitos: IEEE Press, January 2004), http://www.blogninja.com/DDGDD04.doc,
accessed April 2006.

18 Cameron Marlow, "Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community," paper
presented at the meeting of the 54th Annual Conference, International Communication Association, New
Orleans (May, 2004), http://web.media.mit.edu/-cameron/cv/pubs/04-01.pdf, accessed April 2006.

19 Harry H. Hiller and Tara M. Franz, Nci \ Ties, Old Ties, and Lost Ties: The Use of the Internet in
Diaspora," New Media and Society 6, no. 6 2'" '14): 732, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

20 Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Not Quite American? The \N/1 i,, i ofArab and Muslim Identity in the
United States (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004), 51.









members of their own generation (and status as children of immigrants) rather than with

those who were older or who had recently immigrated.

Limitations

Because this study was a small-scale, in-depth qualitative inquiry of the blogging

behaviors of a specific group of women, these findings are likely not generalizable to a

larger population. However, it does offer insights into how these women negotiate

identity and build community, further supporting the above-discussed theories.

The study dealt only with these women's visible interactions on their blogs; other

items may have been deleted by the bloggers or made visible only to private groups.

Therefore, it is not possible to be sure that the entire range of blogging behaviors by these

women was analyzed. For example, one of the bloggers also maintained a video blog

which was not included in this analysis. Others held extensive conversations in

chatrooms or on other blogging services. While studying these other behaviors was not

feasible for this study, their inclusion could have perhaps offered further insights.

Similarly, the blogs themselves provided a very small slice of life for each of these

women. If the original research design (including in-depth interviews) could have been

followed, richer data about the women's self-conceptions and community formation may

have been obtained. Participant observation, such as watching face-to-face how these

women blog, may have also offered richer detail on how blogging integrates into the

other aspects of their identity and community formation. Multiple coders or a research

team would have provided helpful triangulation of the data.

In the initial research design, all the women included in the study would have been

linked in the blogosphere. Due to the selection criteria for participants, this was not

possible. Instead, only a few of the women were linked. If they had all been, perhaps









more information could have been gleaned on the formation of community for these

bloggers. Additionally, it would have been helpful if the bloggers' responses from

member checks could have been more fully integrated into the findings. Due to the time

frame of the study, this was not possible.

Suggestions for Further Research

As discussed above, perception of the in-group by outsiders may more strongly

affect MMENA Americans than other groups. Further research on this possibility would

be helpful, particularly in arguing for sensitivity to MMENA Americans. A larger-scale

examination of communication behaviors of MMENA women from different age ranges,

social classes, and education levels similarly would offer a wider range of experiences.

Similarly, more exploration of MMENA women's media creation and its effect on

identity construction would provide insight into possible strategies to help American

MMENA women with living in a dominant culture that is often hostile.

Ahmed's work on women's cultures as transmitters of ethics and morality would

provide an interesting framework for future studies of MMENA women's

communications. She suggested that today's literate, text-based Islam is less tolerant,

ethical, and fair to women than orally transmitted Islam, traditionally the domain of

women.21 As moderate Muslims and those in the West are becoming increasingly

concerned with the consequences of widespread Islamic fundamentalism, the

perpetuation of women's oral traditions may offer a counter to the male-dominated texts.

These oral traditions have the additional advantage of not being imposed by the West.



21 Leila Ahmed, A Border Passage: From Cairo to America A Woman's Journey (New York:
Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999), 276-291.









Future explorations may discover if blogs are becoming a transmitter of culture for those

in diaspora without a face-to-face supportive community.

Orbe's description of co-cultural groups' communication strategies would be an

interesting lens through which to examine MMENA women's communication behaviors.

While his framework primarily addresses issues of social class, gender, sexual

orientation, and race/ethnicity, religion could also be considered an element of co-cultural

identity. In that case, MMENA women are co-cultural on the basis of ethnicity, religion,

and gender. Many would also be of different social class than the dominant group. Orbe's

original study did not include any MMENA Americans. As they are a group often

maligned by the dominant culture, it would be important to understand their strategies for

communicating with outsiders. While the nature of this study did not allow in-depth

examination of cultural integration (assimilation, accommodation, or separation) and

communication styles (assertive, non-assertive, or aggressive) as Orbe described, a

phenomenological approach as he discussed would offer helpful insight into how

MMENA American communicate with others.22 It may also help bring attention to the

dominant culture's perceptions of MMENA Americans.

As noted in chapter two, MMENA American women are an understudied

population. With current political and social feelings about MMENA Americans, it is

important to understand as much as possible about intercultural communication in

relation to this group.






22 Mark P. Orbe, C. ,, r,. i ,,G Co-cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and
Communication (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998), 50-120.















BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ahmed, Leila. A Border Passage: From Cairo to America-A Woman's Journey. New
York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999.

Ajrouch, Kristine J. "Place, Age, and Culture: Community Living and Ethnic Identity
Among Lebanese American Adolescents." Small Group Research 31 no. 4 (August
2000): 453, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

Aoude, Ibrahim G. "Maintaining Culture, Reclaiming Identity: Palestinian Lives in the
Diaspora." Asian Studies Review 25 no. 2 (June 2001): 153-167,
http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

Asante, Molefi Kete, and Gudykunst, William B., eds. Handbook ofInternational and
Intercultural Communication. London: Sage Publications, 1989.

Ashcroft, Bill, and Ahluwalia, Pal. Edward Said: The Paradox ofIdentity. London, New
York: Routledge, 1999.

Badger, Meredith. "Visual Blogs." In Laura J. Gurak, Smiljana Antonijevic, Laurie
Johnson, Clancy Ratliff, and Jessica Reyman, eds., Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric,
Community, and Culture of Weblogs. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota,
2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/visual blogs.html, accessed April 2006.

Barazangi, Nimat Hafez. Woman's Identity and the Qur 'an: A New Reading. Gainesville,
FL: University Press of Florida, 2004.

Bar-Ilan, Judit. "An Outsider's View on 'Topic-oriented loggingg." In 13th World Wide
Web Conference. New York: The International World Wide Web Conference
Committee (IW3C2) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM),
(2004). http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1013367.1013373, accessed April 2006.

Bastani, Susan. "Muslim Women On-line." The Arab World Geographer/Le Geographe
du monde arabe 3 no. 1 (2000): 40-59.

Blanchard, Anita. "Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in
the Julie/Julia Project. In L. J. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff, and
J. Reyman, eds, Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of
Weblogs (2004): http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/blogs_as virtual.html,
accessed April 2006.









Bortree, Denise Sevick. "Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of
Teenage Girls' Weblogs." Education, Communication & Information 5, no. 1
(March 2005): 25-39.

Bruckman, Amy. "Studying the Amateur Artist: A Perspective on Disguising Data
Collected in Human Subjects Research on the Internet." Ethics and Information
Technology 4 no. 3 (2002): 217-231,
http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/ethicsbruckman.html, accessed April
2006.

"Ethical Guidelines for Research Online" [electronic resource]. 2002,
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/-asb/ethics/, accessed April 2006.

Buchanan, Elizabeth A., ed. Readings in Virtual Research Ethics: Issues and
Controversies [electronic resource]. Hershey, PA: Information Science
Publications, 2004.

Cainkar, Louise. "Palestinian Women in American Society." In McCarus, Ernest, ed. The
Development ofArab-American Identity. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of
Michigan Press, 1994: 86-105.

Campbell, Heidi. "Considering spiritual dimensions within computer-mediated
communication studies." New Media and Society vol. 7, no. 1 (2005): 110-134,
http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

Cohen, Anthony P. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Chichester, UK: Ellis
Horwood Limited, 1985.

Cornell, Stephen, and Hartmann, Douglas. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a
Changing World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1998.

Creswell, John W. Qualitative Inquiry andResearch Design. London: Sage Publications,
1998.

DeSouza, Ruth. "Motherhood, Migration and Methodology: Giving Voice to the
'Other.'" The Qualitative Report 9 no. 3 (2004): 463-482,
http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR9-3/desouza.pdf, accessed April 2006.

Doostdar, Alireza. 'The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging': On Language, Culture, and Power
in Persian Weblogestan." American Anthropologist 106 no. 4 (December 2004):
651-662, http://search.epnet.com, accessed April 2006.

Efimova, Lilia, and Hendrick, Stephanie. "In Search for a Virtual Settlement: An
Exploration of Weblog Community Boundaries." DocuShare Telematica Instituut,
(2004): https://doc.telin.nl/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-46041, accessed April 2006.