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Triggered Lightning Testing of the Performance of Grounding Systems in Florida Sandy Soil


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TRIGGERED LIGHTNING TESTING OF THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA SANDY SOIL By BRIAN A. DECARLO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Brian A. DeCarlo

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This document is dedicated to my two sons, Scott and Kevin.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis was realized with the help of many people. I wo uld like to give my deepest gratitude to my advisor and lightni ng mentor Dr. Vladimir Rakov, who gave me the opportunity to step into the wonderful world of lightni ng research. His relentless shaping, honing, and molding led me to be the best researcher I c ould be. I thank Dr. Martin Uman for his expertise, encour agement, wisdom, positive attitude, and philosophy. These people paid me to strike obj ects with lightning; it just does not get any better than that. I would like to recognize Dr. Douglas Jord an for continually questioning my work in an effort to get me to realize that good re search practices are esse ntial before trying to argue that any experiment al results are valid. I would like to thank my fellow lightning lab students/colleagues affectionately nicknamed Team Hyena for their ruthless quest for success, Jason Jerauld for his willingness to answer numerous lightning-related questions from the time I became a member of the lightning laboratory; Robert Olsen III for his insights into being a good researcher and the many mini-lectures pert aining to computer programming tips; and Joseph Howard for his tireless work ethic. Al l came together to pull off one of the most memorable triggering days on August 4, 2005. A dditionally, I thank Jens Schoene for his help with interpreting light ning current measurements. Thanks also go to Michael St apleton and Keith Rambo for their technical expertise, and to Casey Rodriguez, Andrew Sciullo, Br itt Hanley, Julia Jordan, Thomas Rambo, and

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v others who unselfishly answered the call to ‘battle stations’ when a storm came upon the site. These people ran to engage equipment, turn on cameras, arm the tower launcher, and perform tasks, all usua lly in the pouring rain. I especially valued the help of George Sc hnetzer, who, with his technical expertise, and overall knowledge of triggered-lightni ng, aided in setting up my experiment. All of the above-mentioned people were inst rumental in assisting me in making the summer of 2005 a successful triggered-lightning season. I wish to extend my personal gratitude to Dr. Soraya Benitez who never quit believing in me, and allowed me to realize that I indeed had what it took to continue both in research and in the purs uit of a higher degree. Finally, I would like to thank my mother Jane and brother Neil for their support.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................5 2.1 General Overview of Lightning Phenomena..........................................................5 2.1.1 Types of Lightning Discharge......................................................................5 2.1.2 Ground Flash Density and Lightning Incidence to Structures.....................9 2.2 Rocket-and-Wire Lightning Triggering Technique..............................................11 2.3 International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT).....................12 2.4 1997 Test House Experiment................................................................................16 2.4.1 Overview....................................................................................................16 2.4.2 Test Configurations....................................................................................18 2.4.3 Results and Discussion...............................................................................22 2.5 Lightning Protection Standards............................................................................27 3 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP.............................................................................................30 3.1 Test House and Its Lightning Protective System (LPS).......................................30 3.1.1 2004............................................................................................................30 3.1.2 2005............................................................................................................33 3.2 Tower Launcher....................................................................................................38 3.3 Injection of Lightning Current in to the LPS of the Test House...........................39 3.3.1 2004............................................................................................................39 3.3.2 2005............................................................................................................40 4 INSTRUMENTATION..................................................................................................44 4.1 Overview...............................................................................................................44 4.1.1 2004............................................................................................................44 4.1.2 2005............................................................................................................45

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vii 4.2 Measurement Points..............................................................................................47 4.2.1 2004............................................................................................................47 4.2.2 2005............................................................................................................51 4.3 Current Measuring Shunts....................................................................................55 4.4 Fiber-Optic Links..................................................................................................61 4.4.1 Nicolet Isobe 3000 Transmitters and Receivers.........................................61 4.4.2 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................63 4.4.3 PIC Controllers...........................................................................................65 4.5 5 MHz Filters........................................................................................................70 4.6 Digital Storage Oscilloscopes...............................................................................70 4.6.1 Yokogawa DL 716.....................................................................................74 4.6.2 LeCroy WaveRunner LT 344L..................................................................74 4.6.3 Nicolet Pro 90.............................................................................................75 4.7 Video and Still Cameras.......................................................................................77 4.8 GPS Timing..........................................................................................................78 4.9 Electric Field Mills...............................................................................................78 5 PRESENTATION OF DATA.........................................................................................84 5.1 2004......................................................................................................................8 4 5.2 2005......................................................................................................................8 8 5.2.1 Injected Current..........................................................................................88 5.2.2 Downlead Currents.....................................................................................89 5.2.3 Injected Current vs. the Sum of Downlead Currents..................................89 5.2.4 Injected Current vs. Current Into the House...............................................90 5.2.5 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current.............................90 5.2.6 Initial Stage Current...................................................................................91 5.3 Methodology.......................................................................................................103 5.3.1 Definitions................................................................................................103 5.3.2 Offset Removal.........................................................................................104 5.3.3 Accounting for Time Delay......................................................................105 5.4 Statistical Characterization.................................................................................107 6 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................115 6.1 2004 Characterization.........................................................................................116 6.1.1 Injected Current........................................................................................116 6.1.2 Ground Rod Currents...............................................................................118 6.1.3 Injected Current vs. the Current Into the House.......................................120 6.1.4 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current...........................120 6.2 2004 Statistics.....................................................................................................122 6.3 2005 Characterization.........................................................................................123 6.3.1 Injected Current........................................................................................123 6.3.2 Downlead Currents...................................................................................123 6.3.3 Injected Current vs. Sum of Four Downlead Currents.............................131 6.3.4 Injected Current vs. Current Into the House.............................................131 6.3.5 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current...........................132

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viii 6.4 Statistics 2005.....................................................................................................137 6.4.1 Sum of Four Downleads vs. Current Going to Grounding System..........139 6.4.2 Charge Transfer........................................................................................140 6.5 Lightning Damage to the Test System................................................................141 6.5.1 1997..........................................................................................................141 6.5.2 2004..........................................................................................................142 6.5.3 2005..........................................................................................................142 6.6 Discussion and Comparison of 1997, 2004, and 2005 Experiments..................152 7 SUMMARY..................................................................................................................155 APPENDIX A METHOD USED TO MEASURE GROUND ROD RESISTANCE..........................158 B LIGHTNING PROTECTIVE SYSTEM DRAWINGS...............................................161 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................167 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................171

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1. Current measurement locations for 2004....................................................................48 4-2. Current measurement locations for 2005....................................................................55 4-3. PIC attenuation settings..............................................................................................61 4-4. 2005 fiber OTDR and delay results............................................................................65 4-5. Oscilloscope channel assignments for 2005, 2004, and 1997....................................76 4-6. Video and still camera locations for 2005..................................................................77 5-1. Summary of triggering operations for the test house experiment in summer 2004...85 5-2. Return-stroke parameters for flash 0401 and 0403 triggered in summer 2004..........86 5-3. Summary of triggering operations for the test house experiment in summer 2005...93 5-4. Time delay measurements for the fiber optic links between sensors and digitizing oscilloscopes...........................................................................................................108 5-5. Return-stroke parameters for flashes 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0520, and 0521 triggered in summer of 2005..................................................................................113 6-1. Summary of the experimental setups used in 1997, 2004, and 2005.......................117 6-2. Return-stroke parameters for flas hes 0401 and 0403 triggered in summer 2004.....124 6-3. Peak value of current D vs. injected p eak current for return strokes in flashes triggered in summer 2004......................................................................................125 6-4. Statistical characterization of 2005 data...................................................................138 6-5. Peak current measured at point D in pe rcent of the injected peak current in 2005..139 6-6. Return stroke charge tran sferred to point D in percent of the charge injected into the system in 2005..................................................................................................141

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x B-1. Ground rod resistances of the LPS, m easured by the LSA team for both 2004 and 2005........................................................................................................................161

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xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1. Four types of lightning effectiv ely lowering cloud charge to ground..........................6 2-2. Schematic of the basic charge structur e in the convective re gion of a thunderstorm..7 2-3. Sequence of events leading to a ro cket-triggered lightning discharge.......................12 2-4. Rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Ca mp Blanding, Florida...........................................................13 2-5. A 360 pictorial view of the ICLRT from the launch tower in 2005 with the direction of orientation indicated.............................................................................14 2-6. Aerial view of the ICLRT in 1997.............................................................................14 2-7. Overview of the International Center fo r Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida in 2005.........................................................................................15 2-8. The launch tower and simulated house used in 1997.................................................18 2-9. Overview of the International Cent er for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL, in 1997.................................................................20 2-10. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-A..........................................................21 2-11. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-B..........................................................21 2-12. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-C..........................................................22 2-13. Air terminals on a pitched roof.................................................................................29 2-14. Typical loop conductor electrode installation..........................................................29 3-1. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2004.......................32 3-2. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2004...........................................32 3-3. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2005.......................34

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xii 3-4. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2005...........................................34 3-5. The lightning current inject ion point to the LPS in 2005...........................................35 3-6. Blunt-tipped air terminal on the roof of the test house...............................................36 3-7. The air terminal connection deta il on the roof of the test house................................37 3-8. The 600-V cable and power supply grounding connections in 2005.........................37 3-9. The tower launcher setup for 2005.............................................................................38 3-10. A close up view of the tower launcher s howing rocket tubes, fiberglass legs, and tower measurement box...........................................................................................39 3-11. Close up view of the tower launcher platform at the ICLRT in 2004......................40 3-12. The lead conductor attach ed to the center l ug of the shunt mounted on the tower measurement box in 2005........................................................................................41 3-13. The lead conductor ran from the tower launcher shunt to a long insulator under the cantilever to a shorter insulator (foreground), and br idged a 3-cm gap in the NOx chamber, then directed towards the test house (2005).....................................42 3-14. The lead conductor clamps to the outlet electrode of the NOx chamber, then is directed to an insulator (not visible in this picture), and then travels towards the test house roof measurement box (2005).................................................................42 3-15. The inside of the NOx chamber showing the 3 cm electrode air gap (2005)............43 4-1. 2004 tower launcher with in terceptor, lead conductor, and current measuring box shown.......................................................................................................................45 4-2. The tower launcher at the ICLRT in 2005..................................................................46 4-3. The lead conductor connecting the towe r launcher to the test house in 2005............46 4-4. IS1 (center) is located some 50 meters northeast of the test house............................47 4-5. Measurement point A at southwest corner.................................................................49 4-6. Measurement point B at northeast corner...................................................................49 4-7. Measurement point C at electrical service (power supply system) ground................49 4-8. Measurement point D at test house.............................................................................50 4-9. Measurement point K at service en trance panel inside the test house........................50

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xiii 4-10. Measurement point G at instrumentation station 1...................................................50 4-11. Tower incident current measuremen t box shown in the open position (2005)........52 4-12. Test house roof incide nt current measurement box shown in the open position (2005).......................................................................................................................52 4-13. Roof shunt mounted to the inst rumentation box on the test house (2005)...............53 4-14. Incident current connection point to the lightning protective system (2005)...........53 4-15. 2005 test house with an overlayed re presentation of the lightning protective system, as seen from the tower launcher..................................................................54 4-16. 2005 test house with an overlayed re presentation of the lightning protective system, as viewed from the north side of the building.............................................54 4-17. Current shunt vertically mounted a nd placed inside of a PVC pipe (2005).............56 4-18. Diagram of the shunt calibration setup.....................................................................57 4-19. The electrical representation for a measurement calibration....................................58 4-20. Detail of OFS fi ber-optic cable used for the 2005 experiment.................................64 4-21. RF (wireless) PIC box (2005)...................................................................................66 4-22. A PIC inside of a measurement box (2005).............................................................67 4-23. A) Front close up view, and B) side close up view of a PIC controller (2005)........68 4-24. Diagram showing a typical measuremen t setup with PIC c ontroller connections (2005).......................................................................................................................72 4-25. The 5 MHz filters in launch control (2005)..............................................................73 4-26. Frequency response for a 5 MHz filters (2005)........................................................73 4-27. Digital storage oscilloscopes inside the launch contro l trailer (2005)......................74 4-28. The trigger panel in launch control (2005)...............................................................79 4-29. NASA electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer........................80 4-30. Mission electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer......................81 4-31. Launch control center (2005)...................................................................................81 4-32. Line drawing of the e xperimental setup for 2005.....................................................82

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xiv 4-33. Line drawing of the e xperimental setup for 2005.....................................................83 5-1. Still photographs of flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521.....................................................................................92 5-2. Injected current measured at the roof of the test house for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521.........................94 5-3. Return stroke currents in four downlead s, A, A1, B, and B1, for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1.......................................................................................................................95 5-4. The sum of the four downlead currents (A, A1, B, and B1)......................................96 5-5. Injected return stroke current vers us current D for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1...............97 5-6. Current D versus current G for ev ents A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 05141, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1................................................98 5-7. Injected ICV current for flashe s A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521.....................................................................................99 5-8. ICV currents in four downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521.................................100 5-9. Injected ICV current versus current D for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521.....................................................101 5-10. Current D versus current G for IC V for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521.....................................................102 5-11. Event 0517-2 is used here to illustrate definitions of the parameters of current waveforms..............................................................................................................103 5-12. Bar charts of return-stroke peak current (IP) at different measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 05122, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1...........................................................................................109 5-13. Bar charts of the 30-90% rise time of return strokes at different measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 05121, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1.........................................................................110 5-14. Bar charts for the HP W of return-stroke current waveforms at different measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1.......................................................111

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xv 5-15. Bar charts of return-stroke charge tr ansfer at different measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 05122, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1...........................................................................................112 6-1. Return-stroke currents for stroke 0401-3, displayed on a 10 s time scale, (a) injected current and currents at points A and B; (b) currents at points C, D, and K.............................................................................................................................1 18 6-2. Return-stroke peak current at different measurement points for strokes 1 through 9 of flash 0401........................................................................................................119 6-3. Current half-peak width (HPW) at di fferent measurement points for strokes 1 through 9 of flash 0401..........................................................................................119 6-4. Arcing at the Hoffman box located at IS1................................................................121 6-5. Injected return stroke current and currents at points D and G for stroke 0401-3.....122 6-6. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0510-1......126 6-7. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0512-1......126 6-8. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0512-2......127 6-9. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0514-1......128 6-10. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0517-1....128 6-11. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0517-2....129 6-12. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0520-1....130 6-13. Return stroke currents in four down leads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 0521-1....130 6-14. Current D versus current G, for event 0510-1........................................................132 6-15. Current D versus current G, for event 0512-1........................................................133 6-16. Current D versus current G, for event 0512-2........................................................134 6-17. Current D versus current G, for event 0514-1........................................................134 6-18. Current D versus current G, for event 0517-1........................................................135 6-19. Current D versus current G, for event 0517-2........................................................135 6-20. Current D versus current G, for event 0520-1........................................................136 6-21. Current D versus current G, for event 0521-1........................................................136

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xvi 6-22. Triggered lightning in 1997, showing the lightning channel branch to the left of the main channel, that terminated on the overhead catenary protecting the launch trailer facility and personnel located inside at the time of the strike......................137 6-23. Injected return stroke current versus the difference between the sum of four downlead currents and current D, labeled (Sum – D), for stroke 0521-1..............140 6-24. Lightning damage to the inside of the watt-hour meter..........................................143 6-25. The watt-hour meter connections before and after the expe rimental season of 2005........................................................................................................................143 6-26. Orientation photo for ground rod G with the dotted line representing the path of the neutral conductor comi ng from the test house.................................................144 6-27. Excavation of the 600-V cable near IS 1 resulting in the discovery of a 3-mm hole in the insulation..............................................................................................145 6-28. A golf ball sized void left in the vicinity of the 3-mm hole...................................145 6-29. A closer look at the hole shown in Figure 6-27......................................................146 6-30. Example of the 3-mm hole found in the insulation of the 600-V cable near IS1...147 6-31. Examples of Type I damage to the 600-V cable in 2005.......................................147 6-32. Examples of Type II damage to the 600-V cable in 2005......................................148 6-33. Examples of Type III damage to the 600-V cable in 2005.....................................149 6-34. Examples of Type IV damage to the 600-V cable in 2005....................................149 6-35. Examples of mixed damage to the 600-V cable in 2005........................................150 6-36. Examples of adjacent dama ge to the 600-V cable in 2005.....................................151 6-37. Examples of adjacent dama ge to the 600-V cable in 2005.....................................151 6-38. The two phase conductors and the neut ral conductor show evidence of aligned damage...................................................................................................................152 6-39. Spatial distribution of th e different types of damage (I-IV) to the 600-V cable for 2005........................................................................................................................154 A-1. Ground resistance test setup fo r the fall-of-potential method.................................160 A-2. Position of the auxiliary electrodes in measurements..............................................160

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xvii B-1. Reduced in size, the original overview dr awing of LPSs installed to the test house in both 2004 and 2005, with details for the air terminal, ground rod, and down conductor connections............................................................................................162 B-2. Same as Figure B-1 but showing the L PS installed to the test house for the 2004 experiment only......................................................................................................163 B-3. Same as Figure B-1 but showing the L PS installed to the test house for the 2005 experiment only......................................................................................................164 B-4. Expanded drawing of Figure B-1 with the detail for the air terminal connections, used in both 2004 and 2005....................................................................................165 B-5. Expanded drawing of Figure B-1 with the details for the ground rods and down conductor connections, used in both 2004 and 2005.............................................166

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xviii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science TRIGGERED LIGHTNING TESTING OF THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA SANDY SOIL By Brian A. DeCarlo May 2006 Chair: Vladimir A. Rakov Major Department: Electrical and Computer Engineering This thesis presents results of the struct ural lightning protective system (LPS) tests conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Internati onal Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. Lightning was triggere d using the rocketand-wire technique, and its cu rrent was directly injected into the LPS. The test configurations in 2004 and 2005 differed in the lightning current in jection point, number of down conductors, grounding system at the test house, and the use of surge protective devices (SPDs). The primary objective was to examine the division of the injected lightning current between the grounding syst em of the test house and remote ground accessible via the neutral of the power supply cable. In 2004, the mean value of the peak current entering the electrical circuit neutra l in search of its way to remote ground was about 22% of the injected lightning current peak, while in 2005 it was about 59%. For comparison, more than 80% of the injected peak current was observed to enter the

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xix electrical circuit neutral in similar 1997 tests at the ICLRT in which a different test house was used.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Benjamin Franklin showed that there was electricity in thunderc louds with the help of his kite which had drawn electricity from a cloud. Here is Joseph Priestley's account [Priestly 1776] of Franklin’s famous kite experiment, published fifteen years afterwards but read in manuscript by Franklin, who must have given Priestley the precise, familiar details. The Doctor, having published his method of verifying his hypothesis concerning the sameness of electricity with the matte r of lightning, was waiting for the erection of a spire (on Christ Church) in Philadelphi a, to carry his views into execution; not imagining that a pointed rod of a moderate height could answer the purpose. It occurred to him that by means of a common kite he could have better access to the regions of thunder than by any spire whatever. To make the kite, a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms so long as to reach to the four corners of a large thin silk handkerchief when extended; tie the corners of the handkerchief to the extrem ities of the cross, so you have the body of a kite; which being properly accommodated wi th a tail, loop, and string, will rise in the air. To the top of the upright stick of the cross is to be fixed a very sharp pointed wire, rising a foot or more above the wood. To th e end of the twine, next the key may be fastened. This kite is to be raised when a thunder-gust appears to be coming on, and the person who holds the string must stand within a door or window, or under some cover, so that the silk ribbon may not be wet; and care must be taken that the twine does not touch the frame of the door or window. As soon as any of the thunderclouds come over the kite the pointed wire will dr aw the electric fire from them, and the kite, with all the twine, will be electrified, and the loose filaments of the twine, will stand out every way, and be attracted by an approaching finger. When the rain has wetted the kite and twine, so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it stream out plentifully from the key on the approach of your knuckle. At this key, the phial may be charged: and from electric fire thus obtained, spirits may be kindled, and a ll the other electric experiments be performed, which are usually done by the he lp of a rubbed glass globe or tube, and thereby the sameness of the electric matter with that of lightning completely demonstrated. [Priestly 1776]

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2 Franklin flew the kite and small spar ks (not lightning currents) came off the bottom. In fact, if you put a conductor up slow ly into the atmosphere, it generally does not trigger lightning. You have to get a conduc tor up there (100 meters or so) in a hurry in order to do so. Real lightning research started in the 1880s when photography became possible. In addition, in the 1920s and 30s, there were elec tromagnetic field measurements and higher speed photography. All of the significant findi ngs occurred after WWII when computers oscilloscopes, radars, etc. became available. The research based on artificially tr iggering lightning a bove ground by firing rockets with trailing conducting wires into the air can trace its roots to France where they have been credited with inventing the modern system in the 1980’s. The big impetus in the United States fo r research into triggering lightning came from trying to understand why Apollo 12 in 1969 was struck by (actually initiated) lightning at 5,000 feet and at 13,000 f eet into its flight path. The problem right after the Apollo even t was for NASA to explain why they did not know that the rocket was going to get struck by lightning under the existing condition, in fact that the rocket would init iate the lightning. No w we know that when large objects like airplanes and space vehicles get into the electric field produced by a cloud, they can distort the electric field to the level that lightni ng is produced even if that cloud were not going to produce lightning by itself. Thus if one triggered lightning on purpose, one could study its properties. The era of triggered lightning began. Lightning-related fatality, in jury, and damage reports in the US were summarized for 36 years since 1959, based on the NOAA pub lication Storm Data. There were 3239

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3 deaths, 9818 injuries, and 19,814 property-dama ge reports from lightning during this period. On average, 90 people are killed ever y year in the U.S. by lightning, with Florida ranked first, with the most fr equent cost of lightning-cause d damages in the US to be between $5,000 and $50,000 according to Storm Data This range accounts for half of all reports between 1959 and 1994. The categories of $500-5,000 and $50,000-500,000 are also frequent. These three categories account for 92.7% of the reports. [Curran and Holle, 1997] A typical residential home in the United St ates gets its electricity from a local power system via cables. Neutral of this el ectrical system is connected to ground, often by a single, vertically driv en metallic, ground rod. Lightning current can enter the electrical system several ways. The system can suffer a direct strike, a flashover from a nearby strike can bridge an air gap, lightning current can be injected into the ground rod from current flowing on the ground surface or in the ground, an overvoltage could occur if the power line is struck by lightning sending transient cu rrent pulse into the system, and, several additional ways not discussed here For this reason, it is important to study the lightning current injected into the electrical system of a residential building. Knowing the behavior of this current can provide better understanding of typical lightning currents that are present when lightni ng current is directed to our homes, and may lead to the design of better lightning protective systems. In Chapter 2, a review of relevant ligh tning literature is presented. A general overview of lightning phenomena is presente d followed by the rocket-and-wire triggering technique, an introduction of the Internationa l Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT), and an overview of similar previ ous experiment conducted at the ICLRT in

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4 1997, concluding with current lightning protection standards. The experimental setup is presented in Chapter 3, which contains the details of the lightning protective systems used in 2004 and 2005. The tower launcher is discussed next followed by a description of the injection of the lightni ng current into the Lightning Pr otective System (LPS) of the Test House. The instrumentation used to conduct experime nts is described in Chapter 4. Details of the measurement points, current measuring sh unts, fiber-optic links, antialiasing filters, digital storage oscilloscopes, video and st ill cameras, GPS timing method, and the electric field mills are given. Chapter 5 contains the presentation of data, the methodology behind the parameters of the lightning current studied, and the st atistical characterization of parameters presented. Analysis and discussion of the data are presented in chapter 6, along with lightning damage to the test system and concluding w ith comparisons between the three individual years of research cove red in this thesis. Chapter 7 contains a summary of the results of this thesis followed by recommendations for future research which are outlined in Chapter 8.

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5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will present a general overview of lightning phenomena with emphasis on the main mechanisms for a lightning di scharge to ground. In addition, sections covering the technique used for triggering lightning, an overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testi ng (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida and, finally, similar experiments te sting the performan ce of lightning protection from previous years are presented. 2.1 General Overview of Lightning Phenomena 2.1.1 Types of Lightning Discharge There are four categories of cloud to ground lighting: • Downward negative lightning. • Upward negative lightning. • Downward positive lightning. • Upward positive lightning. Downward and upward negative lightning tr ansport negative charge from cloud to ground, whereas downward and upward positive lightning transport pos itive charge from cloud to ground. One charge distribution m odel of a cumulonimbus cloud developed in the early 1930’s from ground-based measurem ents is that the primary thundercloud charges form a positive electric dipole (pos itive charge region above negative charge region) illustrated in Figure 2-1 [Simpson and Scrase (1937), a nd Simpson and Robinson (1941)].

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6 Figure 2-1. Four types of light ning effectively lowering cloud charge to ground. Only the leader is shown for each type. In each lightning-type name given below the sketch, the direction of propagation of th e initial leader and the polarity of the cloud charge effectively lowering to ground are indicated. Adapted from Rakov and Uman (2003). It is thought that negative lightning accounts for more than 90 percent of all cloud to ground lightning discharges. Roughly, 75 percent of all lightning discharg es do not contact the ground, that can be classified into three ty pes, intracloud, intercloud, and cloud-to air discharges. Intracloud (understood to be the most common, except no supporting evidence exists for this claim) lightning discharges o ccurs within the cloud. Intercloud discharges transfer charge between clouds. Cloud to air discharges te rminate in the clear air. The type of lightning we are concerned with in this study is cloud to ground discharge. All others do not affect groundbased objects such as buildings less than 20 meters tall. In general, cloud to ground lightni ng is attracted to the ta llest structure in its near vicinity which provi des a path to ground.

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7 Stolzenburg et al (1998a, b, c) examined and summarized results from nearly 50 balloon electric field soundings through c onvective regions of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), isolated supercells, and is olated New Mexico m ountain thunderclouds. They noticed that these three types of t hundercloud may be characterized by two basic electrical structures, as illustrated in Figure 2.2. Figure 2-2. Schematic of the basic charge structure in the convective region of a thunderstorm. Four charge layers ar e seen in the updraft region, and six charge layers are seen outside the updr aft region (to the left of the updraft in the diagram). The charge structure s hown applies to the convective elements of mesoscale convective systems (MCS), isolated supercell storms, and New Mexican air-mass storms. Note there is a variability in this basic structure, especially outside the updraft. Adapted from Stolzenburg et al (1998b). Ground flashes are initiated by stepped lead ers originating in the thundercloud. A stepped leader is the initial leader of a lig htning discharge, which is an intermittently advancing column of high ionization and charge that establishes the channel for the first return stroke. Speaking in general when the electric fi eld in the negative portion of the cloud becomes higher than the threshold value for electrical breakdown, a free electron is accelerated to a point that it has enough kine tic energy to knock other electrons out of molecules, when it strikes them. These ot her electrons begin accelerating, and start a

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8 chain reaction, called an electron avalanche. This process may be the start of the socalled stepped leader. The stepped leader advances in incremental steps of some tens of meters at a time, in the general direction of the ground below. While the stepped leader travels dow nwards (at a rate of roughly 105 m/s), charge is being deposited along the channel. As this stepped leader moves toward the ground, the electric field intensity at th e tip of objects experiences enhancement (increasing). When the critical breakdown electric field of (30 kV cm-1 for dry air) is exceeded, an upward propagating leader is initiated. Positively charged filaments of charge, termed streamers, shoot upward from any object, which is residing there (generally a tall structure like a building, tree, tower, etc.). When an upward connecting leader comes in contact with the descending stepped leader, a re turn stroke is initiated. The return stroke can be viewed as an ionizing wavefront. The current rises to several thousands and up to 100 kA. The larg e current flowing will result in the heating of the channel, which results in a sh ock wave and a bright flash of light. When the channel is discharged, subse quent leaders may travel down along the heated, preconditioned path. Another return stroke can occur, and this process may continue as long as new charge is made availa ble at the top portion of the channel, inside the cloud. Up to 26 return strokes have been documented to occur in a single lightning discharge, all within duration of one to two seconds. The human eye sees this as a flickering of the lightning flash. After a lightning flash has occurred, the stor m cloud will recharge itself in a certain amount of time, which depends on the activity of the storm. Some storms produce almost

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9 continuous lightning (over 100 fl ashes per minute); some others produce just a single flash during their entire lifetime which is on the order of 1 hour. Objects taller than 100 m or so experien ce greater tip enhancement as the ambient electric field rises, so that an upw ard lightning discharge may occur. 2.1.2 Ground Flash Density and Lightning Incidence to Structures The occurrence of lightning per unit time was estimated by Brooks (1925) as the global lightning flash rate to be approximately 100 s-1 (this includes all types of lightning). Accurate lightning location indicating the number of lightning strikes to the earth or to earth-based structures is accomplished using multiple-station lightning detection systems, such as the U.S. Na tional Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) [e.g ., Jerauld et al ., 2005]. The number of ground flashes per year pe r unit area, known as the ground flash density, leads to the number of strikes to an object or structure, which we call the incidence rate. Several mode ls based upon observations have been developed for various classes of structures such as airborne ve hicles, land-based overhead transmission lines, tall towers or masts, and buildings. The number of times struck can be calculated using an assumed model. Different geographical features as well as seasonal changes are two examples that affect the number of lightning strikes. Ja pan Sea coast, for example, experiences the most lightning activity during their winter months (November, December, January, and February) whereas the United States expe riences more lightning during the summer months (May, June, July, and August). For example, based on 1989-98 NLDN data, Tampa, Florida has a flash density of about 14 as opposed to parts of the California and Oregon coasts, which have flash density of less than 0.1.

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10 About 50 percent of ground flashes in Ne w Mexico and Florida strike ground at more than one point [Kitagawa et al ., 1962; Rakov and Uman, 1990b]. The height of an object plays a significant role in determining the number of times an object is struck. The taller the object, the more often it is struck. Height is not the only factor to determine if a structure will be prone to lightning strikes, the location of the object is also a major factor in determining the probability of receiving a direct strike. Eriksson (1987) derived an equation for annual lightning incidence N to ground-based objects, which have a height of 20 to over 500 m in various countries for both downward and upward flashes g sN H N05 2 610 24 Equation 2.1 where Hs is the height of the object in meters and Ng is the ground flash density in km-2 yr-1. Another approximation for lightning inciden ce to a structure, which applies only to cloud-to-ground lightning, relies on the concept of attractive area. Th e attractive area of an object is an estimate of the exposure ar ea of the grounded object. The attractive area can be viewed as an area on flat ground that would receive the same number of lightning strikes in the absence of the object, as does th e object placed in the center of that area. The attractive area is used to find the ground flash density as g dN A N Equation 2.2 where the area A usually expressed in km2, is the attractive area, and Ng as before is the ground flash density. The equiva lent radius (or distance) Ra is assumed to be a function of structure height Hs and usually expressed as s aH R Equation 2.3

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11 where and are empirical constants. In the ca se of a mast, tower or chimney, the attractive area is a circle. Diffe rent structures have different attractive areas. In the case of a vertical power line, the at tractive area is thought of as an attractive swath, or shadow zone. 2.2 Rocket-and-Wire Lightnin g Triggering Technique When sufficient charge resides overhead, as sensed by ground-based field mills, a small (1 m long), wire trailing rocket is launched upward. A spool of thin (0.55 mm) trailing wire attached to the base of the rock et, one end of this wire being connected to ground, unwinds as the rocket travels toward s the negative charge center overhead (see Figure 2-3). When the rocket climbs to a height of about 200 to 300 meters, the enhanced electric field at the tip of the rocket results in an upward positive leader which extends towards the charge center aloft. The rocket-extended ve rtical grounded wire, while initiating an upward positive leader, looks like a suddenly erected tall object to the charge center in the cloud. When the upward positive leader arrives at the negative charge center, (the thin trai ling wire is vaporized by that time) it initiates an initial continuous current (ICC). The I CC is not to be confused w ith continuing current (CC) occurring often after re turn stroke(s) [Rakov and Uman ( 1990a)]. Then there is often a no current interval followed by a downward nega tive dart leader, which is the beginning of the leader-return stroke pr ocess (Figure 2-3). The per centage of flashes containing return strokes is a bout 70 percent [Rakov et al., 2005]. Figure 2-4 show s a still picture of a rocket-triggered lightning strike.

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12 Figure 2-3. Sequence of events leading to a rocket-triggered li ghtning discharge. [Adapted from Rakov et al., 1998]. It is the return stroke which is the most studied process in the lightning discharge. It is believed that the return stroke is responsible for the greatest damage to objects struck. The return stroke in triggered lightning most closely resembles subsequent strokes in natural lightning, and it is therefore valued as a st udy tool in understanding the behavior of natural lightning. 2.3 International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) The International Center for Lightning Res earch and Testing (ICLRT) is located at Camp Blanding, Florida, at c oordinates 2956’ N, 82 02’ W, about 8 km east of Starke, Florida, is a 1 km2 site on flat, sandy-soil, property on the Florida Army National Guard base. The site is about 45 km north-east of the University of Florida (UF) which is located in Gainesville, Florida. The ICLRT tr iggers lightning on a re gular basis as a joint University of Florida/Florida Tech research program.

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13 Figure 2-4. Rocket-triggered light ning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. Note the multiple return stroke channels that were blown to the right side of the photograph by the wind. The ICLRT was established in 1993 and from 1994 through 2004 was operated by UF. Since 2005 it is jointly operated by the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Florida and the Physics Department of the Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech). The ICLRT has several rocket launchers, including an 11 meter tower launcher, an underground launc her, a runway launcher, and a mobile launcher. Figure 2-5 is a 360-degree pi ctorial view of the ICLRT facilities as they were in 2005, followed by an aerial view of the site in Figure 2-6. Objects tested in previous studies include test house lightning protection (funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPR I) and the Duquesne Light Co.), test overhead power lines (funded by EPRI and Florida Po wer and Light), a test runway (funded by Florida DOT), and a number of other test obj ects and systems. Other objects on site include specialty vehicles fo r setting power poles and ri gging, as well as office and storage trailers.

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14 A 700 m2 wooden framed test house representing a typical residential structure in Florida was constructed at the ICLRT in 2000 by Jim Walters Homes. The building is elevated on cinder block piers, and its exterior is covered with hardy board lapped siding, cedar wood trim, and asphalt roof shingles. Th e test house is a twobedroom home fitted with plumbing, wiring, and electrical fixtures. The interior walls, are not installed to allow access for connecting instrumentation necessary for experimentation. A drawing representing an overview of the ICLRT in 2005 is depicted in Figure 2-7. Figure 2-5. A 360 pictorial view of the ICLR T from the launch tower in 2005 with the direction of orientation indicated. Figure 2-6. Aerial view of the ICLRT in 1997. Photo courtesy of Dave Crawford.

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15 Test House Lead conductor Test Runway Test 3-Phase Distribution Line IS1 600 V Underground Cable Launch Control Tower Launcher Office Figure 2-7. Overview of the International Center for Lightning Resear ch and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida in 2005. IS1 = Instrument Station 1.

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16 2.4 1997 Test House Experiment Previous experiments to study of light ning interacting with various systems performed at the ICLRT are reviewed. In 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003 and 2004 experiments with overhead distribution lines were conducted. A test house experiment was conducted in 1997 using a different struct ure than the present one. The former structure was a small (about 20 m2) shed-like building referred to as the Simulation House or just the Sim House (see Figure 2-8) For the remainder of this manuscript the designation, test house, will be used in conj unction with all the 1997 work as well as the 2004 and 2005 work, implying a general name fo r the test structure to which we will refer. In 1997, lightning current was injected into the grounding system of the test house, as opposed to the 2004 and 2005 tests when cu rrent was injected into the LPS airterminal system on the house roof. 2.4.1 Overview In 1997, the University of Florida (U F), using triggered lightning (e.g., Rakov, 1999) and a small test residential structure (t est house) at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, examined two hypothetical scenarios suggested by the Internatio nal Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for the lightning current distribution in the el ectrical circuit of a residential building equipped with a lightning protective system wh en this system receives a direct strike. In these two IEC scenarios, either 25 or 50% of the total lightning current is assumed to enter the building’s electrical circ uit neutral and to flow to the distribution transformer’s ground and to other remote grounds in the system. It is important to note that the IEC current distributions assume that the current waveshapes in all parts of the circuit are the same, while in the experiment the current waveshapes in the two ground

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17 rods (one ground rod for the lightning prot ective system and one for the power supply system) of the test house differed markedly from the current waveshapes in other parts of the test system. The grounding system of the test house was subjected to triggeredlightning discharges for three different configurations, with the house’s electrical circuit (a utility meter followed by simulated resi stive loads) being connected, via a 600-V cable, to the secondary of a pad-mount tran sformer at the Instru ment Station 1 (IS1), about 50 m distant. The primary of the tr ansformer was connected to a 650-m long 15kV underground cable, which was open-circuited at the other end. The cable neutral was grounded at the transformer and at the open-circ uited end. The test system (see Figure 29) was unenergized. The grounding system of the test house was subjected to triggered-lightning discharges for three different configurations (discussed furthe r below), and the division of lightning current injected in to the grounding system of th e test house among the various paths in the overall system was analyzed. E ach configuration had a pair of ground rods at the test house and one ground rod at IS1. Th e measurement stations consisted of the following (not necessarily used for all measurements), Pearson current transformers (CT), 1 m current shunts, 15 kV and 400 kV resi stive voltage dividers manufactured by Lightning Technologies, Inc. (the 15 kV dividers were used to measure voltages in the test house, on the transformer low-voltage side, the 200 kV dividers were used to measure voltages on the underground cable and or on the transformer high-voltage side). Voltage attenuators, fiber-optic links, and digi tal storage oscilloscopes (DSOs) were used on all measurements. Video and still cameras were also employed. A more detailed description of the measuremen t setup can be found in Rakov et al. (2002).

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18 Figure 2-8. The launch tower and simulated house used in 1997. 2.4.2 Test Configurations Three different configurations tested in 1997, are illustrated in Figures 2-10, 2-11, and 2-12. These configurations were designed to examine the effects of the variation of the resistance of the ground rods at the Simu lated House and at IS1 and the presence or absence of MOV surge protective devices (SPDs) at the Simulated House watt-hour meter. The General Electric watt-hour meter had two internal 6-kV spark gaps connected between the phase conductor a nd the neutral. When SPDs (EFI Electronics Corporation Home Guard, mounted at the base of meter) were present, they were connected in parallel with the spark gaps, as seen in Figures 2-10 and 2-11. Configuration 97-A In this test configurati on, shown in Figure 2-10, the ground rod at the Simulated House that simula ted the lightning prot ective system grounding

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19 (node A in Figure 2-10) and the ground rod that simulated the power supply system grounding (node B in Figure 2-10) each had a length of about 3 m. Ground rods at IS1 and IS4 each had a length of about 6 m. Th e dc resistances, which were relatively high, of the two ground rods at the test house, as well as the resistances of the ground rods at IS1 and IS4, are given in Figure 2-10. Th e dc grounding resistance of the ground rod at node A (1550 ) was almost a factor of three higher than that at node B (590 ), possibly due to inhomogeneity of soil in the vi cinity of the Simulated House. Note that IEC 61 024-1 contains no requirement for the value of grounding resistance of an ordinary building for which prot ection level III/IV is selected Such buildings are only required to have at least two grounding electr odes, either vertical of 2.5 m length or horizontal of 5 m length, rega rdless of soil conductivity. Configuration 97-B The major difference between test configuration 97-B and configuration 97-A is the lowered ground rod re sistances at the Simulated House, at node A from 1550 in 97-A to 41 at node B from 590 in 97-A to 76 and at the transformer in IS1 from 250 in 97-A to 69 The dc resistance of the ground rod at IS4 remained the same, 124 The lowering of the resistances of the ground rods was accomplished by increasing the length of each of these rods. The lengths of the two rods at the Simulated House were increased from 3 to about 15 m and the length of the rod at IS1 from 6 to about 12 m. The test-system configuration 97-B is shown in Figure 2-11. Note that there are a few changes in instrume ntation with respect to configuration 97-A shown in Figure 2-10. In particular, the to tal current entering th e test house was not measured in configuration 97-B, but it wa s estimated by subtracting current A3 from

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20 current A2. Also, instead of measuring cu rrents through the load resistors, currents flowing along X1 and X3 toward the transformer (A6 and A7) were measured. Configuration 97-C Configuration 97-C is identical to configuration 97-B except for the absence of SPDs at the watt-hour meter. The test-system configuration 97-C is shown in Figure 2-12. Although the SPDs were absent, the built-in pr otective spark gaps were present and apparently operated providing a path for the current to flow through the phase conductors to the transformer secondary. Figure 2-9. Overview of the International Ce nter for Lightning Re search and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL, in 1997. Taken from Fernandez et al. (1998).

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21 Figure 2-10. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-A. Taken from Rakov et al. (2002). Figure 2-11. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-B. Taken from Rakov et al. (2002).

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22 Figure 2-12. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-C. Taken from Rakov et al. (2002). 2.4.3 Results and Discussion The total lightning current p eak measured at the tower launcher, was somewhat larger than the injected current peak, presum ably due to flashovers to ground from the metallic cable connecting the rocket launcher to node A. The focus in 1997 was to test the validity of the Interna tional Electrotechnical Commissi on (IEC) suggested divisions of lightning current. No data are available fo r the current in the gr ound rod at IS4, but it is probably not much different from the curren t entering the cable neutral at IS1, since the cable had a polyethylene jacket and was inside PVC conduit. Results of the 1997 experiment are presented by Rakov et al. (2002). The two ground rods at the test house appeared to filter out the higher frequency components of the lightning current, allowing the lower frequency components to enter the house’s electrical circuit neutral. In other words, the ground rods exhibited a capacitive rather

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23 than the often expected and us ually modeled resistive behavior This effect was observed for dc resistances of the ground rods (in typi cal Florida sandy soil) ranging from more than a thousand ohms to some tens of ohms. The peak value of th e current entering the test house’s electrical circu it neutral was found to be over 80% of the injected lightning current peak, in contrast with the 25 or 50% assumed in two IEC-suggested scenarios. More detailed results for each configuration are given below. Configuration 97-A The total lightning current m easured at the tower launcher had a negative peak of about 17 kA, a 10–90% risetime of about 1 s, and a half-peak width of 60 s. The injected lightning current, had a negative peak of about 14 kA. The current to ground at the first ground rod (node A) has a negative peak of about 2.8 kA, with a 10–90% risetime and a half-peak width of 0.4 and 0.9 s, respectively. The current to ground at the second ground rod (node B) has a negative peak of about 1.8 kA and a waveshape, which is similar to that of the current in the first ground rod. The current that flowed into the el ectrical circuit of the test hous e, has a negative peak value of about 14 kA. This current waveform a pparently represents an injected lightning current which has been “filtered” by the two ground rods. The ground rods apparently removed primarily the higher frequency com ponents of the lightning current, allowing the lower frequency components to flow into th e house’s electrical circ uit. Interestingly, the peak value of current in the higher-resistance rod at node A is appreciably higher than that in the lower-resistance rod at node B. The amplitude of the “filtered” current waveform was essentially the same as the amplitude of the injected lightning current waveform. Thus the ground rods appear to act as shunt capacitors that appreciably degrade the front of the current waveform entering the service entrance but do not much

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24 influence the peak current value, the current peak remained essentially the same (within the measurement error of 15 to 20%) in this part icular case. Note that in studies of the transient behavior of grounding systems th e capacitance of grounding electrodes in highconductivity soils, which is not the case at Camp Blanding, is usually neglected [Rakotomalala et al., 1994]. The current injected into the service entrance splits between the SPDs, the load resistors, and the servic e entrance neutral. The current to ground at IS1 had a peak of about 7.9 kA. It appear s that the SPDs at th e test house watt-hour meter operated. The major result from this test is the observation that the current waveshapes in the ground rods at the te st house differ markedly from the current waveshapes in other parts of the system. Th e rods had a length of about 3 m and were driven in typical sandy Florida soil whose measured conductivity was about 410 5 2 S/m. The bulk of the lightning current appears to have been forced into the distribution system remote earthing (ground rods at IS1 and IS4), with the ground rods at the test house taking the primarily higher frequency co mponents associated w ith the initial rising portion of the injected lightning current. Configuration 97-B. The total lightning current m easured at the tower launcher had a peak of about 19 kA, a 10–90% risetime of 0.6 s, and a half-peak width of 57 s. The injected lightning current had a peak of about 14 kA. Similar to configuration 97-A, currents to ground A1 and A3 (the test house grounds) exhibit appreciably narrower waveshapes than does the injected lightni ng current. Note that, as opposed to configuration 97-A, the peak current in the higher-resistance rod at node B is lower than in the lower-resistance rod at node A. Th e peak current entering the house’s electrical circuit is about 93% (versus essentially 100% for configuration 97-A) of the injected

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25 lightning current peak. Similar to configuration 97-A, at 50 s the ratio of the currents to ground at IS1 and into the cable ne utral is approximately 2:1. Configuration 97-C. There was video evidence that there were sparks in and around the service panel during this test, and the meter incurred considerable physical damage. The total lightning current measured at the tower launcher had a peak of about 12 kA, a 10–90% risetime of about 0.46 s, and a half-peak width of about 32 s. The injected lightning current had a negative peak of about 9.8 kA. Similar to the previous two configurations, the ground rods appear ed to filter out the higher frequency components of the lightning current, allowing the lower frequency components to enter the house’s electrical circuit. The amplitude of the “filtere d” current waveform is about 81% of the amplitude of the injected lightning current waveform. At 50 s, the ratio of currents flowing to ground at IS1 and into th e cable neutral is approximately 3:1 versus 2:1 for configurations 97-A and 97-B. A summary of selected peak currents, measured at the test house for the three different configurations will be discussed now. Note that the SPDs were absent in configuration 97-C, and that th e built-in spark gaps apparently operated. The peak value of the current into the test house is from 81 to 100% of the injected current peak. The narrow current pulses observed in the ground rods at the test house could be explained, if one assumed these rods to be purely resistive and to be separated from the remote ground rods by a large inductance. I ndeed, when a lightning current is injected into a resistive ground rod connected to a nother ground rod via a la rge inductance, the higher frequency components characteristic of the initial rising portion of the current waveform are blocked by the large inductance from flowing toward the “remote” rod and,

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26 as a result, are forced to flow into the “loc al” rod. For the later portion of the lightning current waveform that is characterized by relatively low frequency components, the inductance presents a smaller impedance, and, therefore, the lower-frequency components are allowed to flow toward the “rem ote” rod. In this view, at later times the division of current between the ground rod at the current injection point and the remainder of the system is determined by grounding resistances in the system (e.g., Birkl et al., 1996). After some tens of microseconds or less (after some microseconds for configuration 97-A), currents in the ground rods at the test house are esse ntially zero, while appreciable current, of the order of kiloamperes, flows into the system at 200 s and beyond. For configurations 97-B and 97-C, if the ground rods were purely resistive, they would be conducting a larger current than the current flowing toward IS1 and IS4 at later times, because the tota l resistance of the two ground rods at the test house (41 in parallel with 76 ) is smaller than the total resistan ce of ground rods at IS1 and IS4 (69 in parallel with 124 ). Grcev (1998) theoretically showed that a capacitive behavior should be expected, above a so-called characteristic frequency, for relatively short ground rods in relativelylow-conductivity soils. For frequencies be low the characteristic frequency, grounding impedance is independent of frequency, that is, is resistive, while for frequencies above the characteristic frequency the grounding impedance either increases (inductive behavior) or decreases (c apacitive behavior) with increasing frequency. The characteristic frequency decreases with in creasing soil condu ctivity and with increasing grounding electrode length. For soil with an electrical conductivity of 10-3 S/m (a factor of 4 higher than the measured soil conduc tivity at Camp Blanding) and a relative

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27 permittivity of 10, the characteristic freque ncy decreases from about 500 kHz to about 5 kHz as the length of the grounding electrode increases from 2 to 128 m, with the electrode’s behavior ch anging from capacitive to inductive at a length of 16 m. However, the capacitive behavior described above is e xpected only for the in itial rising portion of the injected current waveforms, while the observed essentially zer o current in ground rods at the test house at late r times suggests a capacitive behavior of these rods also during the tail portion of the injected current. It appear s that the impedance to ground at the test house at later times is much higher than the impedance seen looking toward the rest of the system, regardless of the fact that the dc grounding resist ances of the two rods at the house varied from more than a thousand ohms to tens of ohms. 2.5 Lightning Protection Standards In general, there are two aspects of li ghtning protection design: (i) diversion and shielding, intended for struct ural protection but also se rving to reduce the lightning electric and magnetic fields within the stru cture, and (ii) the li miting of currents and voltages on electronic power, and communicati on systems via surge protection. We will look at aspect (i) now. The diversion of lightning current is accomplished by using a combination of air terminals (also known as Franklin rods, named after their inventor, Benjamin Franklin), down conductors, and ground rods. There are multiple configurations for different applications, both with simple and complicated geometries, yet the concept is universal. The air terminal(s) acts as a lightning inte rceptor. Once the light ning attaches to the Franklin rod (air terminal) the current di vides among multiple down conductors (at least two down conductors are required) and is dir ected to ground rods in the earth at the corners of the structure (see Figures 2-13 a nd 2-14, which illustrate this). Optional

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28 ground terminals and a loop conductor (ring electrode) can be installed. Ground terminals shall be copper-clad st eel, solid copper, hot-dipped ga lvanized steel, or stainless steel. Ground electrodes shall be installed below the frost line where possible (excluding shallow topsoil conditions). Concrete encased electrodes shall be used only in new construction. The electrode sh all be located near the botto m of a concrete foundation or footing that is in direct contact with the ear th and shall be encased by not less than 2 in, (50.8 mm) of concrete as per National Fire Protection Association standard, NFPA 780. This lightning protection scheme was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin and is specified, for example, in the US lightning pr otection standard NFPA-780. According to the most recent lightning protection standard s, NFPA-780 (2004 as of this writing, with the next revision due in 2007) provides guidelines for light ning protection installation requirements for the following: Ordinary structures. Miscellaneous structures and special occupancies. Heavy-duty stacks. Watercraft. Structures containing flamma ble vapor, flammable gases, or liquids that give off flammable vapors. The purpose of NFPA 780 is to provid e for the safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from exposure to lightning. More information on properly protecting a structure agains t lightning as per NFPA 780 can be found on the World Wide Web at: http://www.nfpa.org Lightning protective system tested in this study was in accord ance with the NFPA 780.

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29 Figure 2-13. Air terminals on a pitched roof. A = 0.6 m (2 ft) or 7.6 m (25 ft) maximum spacing. B = Air terminals are located w ithin 0.6 m (2 ft) of ends of ridges [NFPA 780]. Loop conductor Optional ground terminals Loop conductor Optional ground terminals Figure 2-14. Typical loop conduc tor electrode installation.

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30 CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP This chapter will describe in detail the e xperimental setup utilized in the Summers of 2004 and 2005 for studying the interaction of rocket-triggered lightning with the Lightning Protective System (LPS) of a reside ntial building (test house). The installation of the LPS followed the NFPA 780 (2004 edit ion) standard for the installation of structural lightning pr otection systems. 3.1 Test House and Its Lightnin g Protective System (LPS) This section contains a descripti on of the 2004 and 2005 experiments with emphasis being placed on the 2005 experime nt. The objectives for both years were similar: the evaluation of th e overall performance of a li ghtning protective system (LPS) of a test residential building and examinati on of the distribution of the lightning current that is injected into the LPS among multiple ground terminals. 3.1.1 2004 In 2004, the LPS, schematically shown in Figure 3-1, was installed on the test house by a Lightning Safety Alliance (LSA) team The lightning current was injected to one (south) of the three interconnected air terminals that were connected via two down conductors (downleads) to ground rods at oppos ite corners of the test house (see Figure 3-1). There were two 2.74 m vertical LPS ground rods at each SW and NE corners, separated by about 6.1 m and connected by a buried horizontal conductor. There was an additional power supply system ground rod in th e middle of the north side of the house. This ground rod was connected by a buried hor izontal conductor approximately 3.4 m

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31 long to one of the NE corner LPS ground rods (see Figure 3-1). El ectrical diagram is shown in Figure 3-2. The interior electri cal wiring of the house was disconnected and replaced by a simulated load composed of tw o resistors (4 and 6 ohms) at the inside distribution box. Metal Oxid e Varistor (MOV) surge protective devices (SPDs), which clamp the voltage when it exceeds a certain le vel, safely diverting most of the surge energy to the grounding system, were installe d between the two phase conductors and the grounded neutral. When the transient is ove r, a MOV returns to its original state (becomes essentially an open circuit) and is ready for the next overvoltage surge. A watt-hour meter was installed between the house electrical circuit and the underground power feeder (600-V cable). There was no power to the house, and the other end of the 600-V cable was terminated at Instrumentation Station 1 (IS1) (see Figure 2-9), 50 m away, in high energy rating 50-ohm resistors. The cable’s neutral was grounded at IS1 using a single vertical ground rod with a le ngth of 12 m. The grounding resistance of the ground rod at IS1 was 69 Dc grounding resistances for each grounding location at the test hous e are given in Figure 3-2. The dc grounding resistance of the entire system unburied was 130 and for the entire system buried 113 Grounding resistances were measured using the fall-of-potential method (see Appendix A). Currents were measured at six points, labele d A, B, C, D, G, and K (see Figures 3-1 and 3-2). Points A and B were on downleads at two opposite corners of the house. Point C was the power supply system ground, and point G was the ground at IS1. Point D is on the ground conductor from the power entry box (service entrance panel) down to the power supply system ground rod, so that it re presents the current entering the electrical

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32 circuit neutral. A Pearson 110A current tran sformer was used to measure the current at point K, and 1-m shunts were used at points A, B, C, D, and G. The lightning current was directed, via a 32-m long metallic conductor, from the tower launcher to one (south) of the three test house air te rminals (see Figure 3-1). The horizontal distance between the launch er and test house is about 27 m. In addition to the six current measurement points associated with the test house and remote ground (IS1), the incident lightning curre nt was measured at the launch tower. Figure 3-1. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2004. All conductors below the plane labeled “G round Level” are buried (in direct contact with earth). Figure 3-2. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2004. Currents A, B, C, D, and K were measured at the test hous e, and current G was measured at IS1, 50 m away.

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33 3.1.2 2005 The LPS for the 2005 experiment, installe d on the test house on May 23, 2005, was a modification to the LPS installed in 2004 (s ee Section 3.1.1). The 2005 setup consisted of two interconnected air terminals, four down conductors, and five ground rods (four for the LPS and one for the power supply syst em) interconnected by a buried loop conductor referred to as a ring grounding electrode or counterpoise (see Figur e3-3). Electrical diagram is shown in Figure 3-4. LPS vertical ground rods each had a length of 2.7 m, with dc grounding resistances being given in Figure 3-4. The power suppl y system ground rod had a length of 3 m and measured grounding resistance of 524 The dc grounding resistan ce of the entire test house grounding system buried was 121 The dc grounding resistance of the ground rod at IS1 was 69 The fall-of-potentia l technique was used to measure the ground resistance (see Appendix A). As in 2004, the test system was unenergized. Currents were measured at six points, labe led A, A1, B, B1, D, and G (see Figures 3-3 and 3-4). One-m shunts were used to measure current at all the points. The lightning current was directed from th e tower launcher, via the lead conductor to an instrumentation box located at the pos ition of the middle air terminal in 2004 (removed in 2005) on the roof of the test house, to the horizontal conductor connecting the two LPS air terminals (s ee Figures 3-3 and 3-5), a nd then flows through four downleads to five vertically driven ground rods, interconnected by the counterpoise. Current that is not dissipate d in the ground locally can flow along the neutral of the 600V cable to remote grounding at IS1, some 50 me ters northnortheast of the test house. Some current can also flow through built-in meter air gaps, and/or insulation breakdown paths.

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34 Ground Level Lightning current injection point To house’s circuit neutral Air terminal N B B1 A1 A D Figure 3-3. Diagram of the lig htning protective system of the test house in 2005. All conductors below the plane labeled “G round Level” are buried (in direct contact with earth). See also Figure 3-4. Figure 3-4. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2005. Currents A, A1, B, B1, and D were measured at the test house, and current G was measured at IS1, 50 m away. The air terminals (see Figure 3-6) are blunt tipped solid copper rods which have diameter and length of 9.5 mm and 305 mm (3/8" and 12"), resp ectively, with a tip height to tip radius-of-curvature ratio of about 32. They are fasten ed to the ridge of the roof using a copper ridge saddle base mounted with stainless steel fasten ers (see Figure 3-7).

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35 The two air terminals, and the five gr ound rods were interconnected by class 1 (diameter of 9.5 mm) copper wire (29 strands of 17 AWG (diameter of 1.2 mm), rated for 192 Lbs. per 1000'), using bronze ground clam ps. The copper-clad steel ground rods used at the test house had diameter of 13 mm, and length of 2.74 mm (" and 108" respectively) and were vertically driven into the soil, one at each corner, and one at the electrical service panel. The five, roughl y, 3-meter, ground rods were interconnected with class 1 (diameter of 9.5 mm) copper wire buried at a depth of 0.61 m (24”), which encircled the test house. This buried circum ferential grounded electrode is called a ring electrode or counterpoise. Th e ground rod at the entrance of the electrical service panel of the test house had a 4-gauge (diameter of 5.2 mm) copper wi re running from the tip of the ground rod to the ground rail of the el ectrical service panel (see Figure 3-8). Figure 3-5. The lightning current in jection point to the LPS in 2005.

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36 There were two outdoor electr ical service boxes mounted to the north side of the test house. One box contained the electri cal connections for the electrical wiring belonging to the electrical system of the test house, and the other, the connections for a watt-hour meter and simulated incoming powe r cables. A surge protective device, Intermatic PanelGuard, light commercial/r esidential surge protector Model #IG1240RC was connected at the electrical service panel, however a swit ch disconnected it during the 2005 experiment so that the watt-hour meter was protected only by built-in spark gaps. Figure 3-6. Blunt-tipped air terminal on the roof of the test house.

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37 Figure 3-7. The air terminal connection detail on the roof of the test house. Figure 3-8. The 600-V cable and power suppl y grounding connections in 2005, left) watthour meter disconnected, right) the watt-hour meter installed.

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38 3.2 Tower Launcher An 11-meter, cantilevered, wooden, tower sits about 500 meters southeast of the office trailer at geospatial coordinates 29. 94267N, 82.03184W. Mounted to the top of the cantilevered section of the towe r, is an aluminum structure with fiberglass legs called the tower launcher, rocket launcher, or just the launcher. The launcher has a maximum capacity of 12 rockets and due to its fiberglass legs, the structure elect rically ‘floats’ (see Figure 3-9 and 3-10). Secured to the tower launcher is a metal box, which houses the main launch mechanism or launch control box (see Figure 3-10). The same tower launcher was used in both 2004 and 2005 (also 1997), but differences did exist with respect to how the lightning current was direct ed to the test house (see Section 3-3). Figure 3-9. The tower launcher setup for 2005.

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39 Figure 3-10. A close up view of the tower launc her showing rocket tubes, fiberglass legs, and tower measurement box. 3.3 Injection of Lightning Current into the LPS of the Test House This section describes how th e triggered-lightning current was directed to the test house in 2004 and 2005. 3.3.1 2004 In 2004, lightning was triggered using th e tower launcher and its current was directed, via a metallic cable, from a horizontally oriented “U” shaped metallic structure (also referred to as “ring” or intercepting conductor) inst alled above the tower launcher platform (see Figure 3-11) to the test house (o r to the test power line for a separate experiment in the same year). The function of the intercepting c onductor was to isolate the test house (or the power line) from the initial stage (IS) current of rock et-triggeredlightning, which followed a path down the tower to ground. As a result, the strike object

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40 would be exposed only to those return stroke s (and their following c ontinuing current, if any) that successfully attached to the intercepting conductor. Current from the interceptor flowed through an instrumentation box just to th e south of the launch tower, to one (south) of the three test house air term inals. There were tw o measurements of the current in the instrumentation box. Lead to the test house or to the power line Lead to the test house or to the power line Figure 3-11. Close up view of the tower launcher platform at the ICLRT in 2004. 3.3.2 2005 There was no interceptor in 2005, so that both the initial stag e currents and returnstroke currents were injected into the test house. Additionally, the lightning current had to pass through the so-called NOx chamber (used for another experiment). In the following we will describe in more detail how the house current was directed from the launcher to the test house. This was accomplis hed via a braided metallic cable, which we call a lead conductor. When lightning termin ates on the launcher, the current flows on the surface of the structure, putting the m easurement box at the same potential as the launcher. The lead conductor at the tower was connected to the bottom of the shunt (see

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41 Figure 3-12), which was bolted to the botto m of the tower measurement box with the lightning current. Then the le ad conductor ran vertically downward under the cantilever section of the launch platform, north under th e cantilever, connecting to a long insulator for stability midway below the cantilever. The lead conductor continued north to a shorter insulator on the north side of the can tilever (see Figure 3-13), then, was directed vertically upward, and connected to the launcher-side electr ode, which protruded from a polyurethane chamber used in a companion experiment to measure the amount of NOx produced by lightning discharges. The continua tion of the lead conduc tor is attached to the test house-side electrode of the NOx chamber, and then ran towards the test house, terminating to the center terminal of the s hunt that was mounted to the roof measurement box (see Figure 3-14). The outer terminal of the shunt was connected to the outside of the roof measurement box. Figure 3-12. The lead conductor attached to the center lug of the shunt mounted on the tower measurement box in 2005.

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42 Figure 3-13. The lead conductor ran from th e tower launcher shunt to a long insulator under the cantilever to a shorter insulator (foregro und), and bridged a 3-cm gap in the NOx chamber, then directed towards the test house (2005). Figure 3-14. The lead conductor clamps to the outlet electrode of the NOx chamber, then is directed to an insulator (not visible in this picture), and then travels towards the test house roof measurement box (2005).

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43 Thus the NOx chamber was inserted in the curre nt path of the lightning current injected into the LPS of the test house. In the following we will briefly describe the NOx chamber. A chamber to measure the amount of NOx produced by triggered-lightning was placed on the tower’s northwest corner of th e cantilever. The chamber consisted of a sealed, 0.757 cubic meters (200 gallon) polyurethane drum. The chamber had two identical tungsten-tipped coppe r electrodes that were insert ed roughly into the middle of the chamber and formed a 3 cm air gap, as shown in Figure 3-15. This gap was bridged by the lightning current before it was injected into the LPS of the test house. The small gap is not expected to alter the cu rrent characteristic of the lightning. Tungsten-tipped electrodes To test house From launcher 3-cm Current flow Tungsten-tipped electrodes To test house From launcher 3-cm Current flow Figure 3-15. The inside of the NOx chamber showing the 3 cm electrode air gap (2005). We have discussed the experimental set up for the test house in 2004 and 2005, with emphasis on 2005. Chapter 4 will contain additi onal details of the instrumentation used for the 2004 and 2005 experiments.

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44 CHAPTER 4 INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Overview The current produced by lightni ng is difficult to measure, due in part to its variable amplitude and fast rise-times. Triggered-lig htning currents as high as 60 kA have been recorded at the International Center for Lightning Research an d Testing (ICLRT). Typical first-stroke currents in natural light ning vary from 30 to 50 kA, with subsequent typical strokes having currents from 10 to 15 kA. Berger et al. (1975) observed risetimes of 5.5 microseconds for typical first strokes, with stroke current duration to half-peak width of about 75 s. For natural subsequent stroke s, typical risetime and half-peak width are 1.1 and 32 s, respectively. Flash durations range from hundreds of milliseconds to 1 to 2 seconds. This chapter will give an overview of how the lightning protection system installed on the test house and the associated electrical circuit were instrumented, and, the types of instrumentation used for the 2004 and 2005 experiments, with emphasis on the 2005 experiment. 4.1.1 2004 The triggered-lightning current (injecte d current) in 2004 was measured at the launcher using two 1-m shunts. The launch tube assemb ly atop the tower platform was grounded with a fine fuse wire that vaporizes when the initial-stage current flows. When the initial-stage current stops, the launch tube assembly was no longer grounded, so following strokes would attach to the intercepto r (see Figure 3-11) and be directed to the

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45 test house via a lead conducto r (see Figure 4-1). The inject ed current divided between two downconductors and directed to five ground rods and, via a 600-V cables neutral, to a remote vertically driven ground rod at Inst rumentation station 1 (IS 1) (see Figure 4-4). Two load resistors placed insi de the test house were instru mented as well. Figure 3-2 shows an electrical drawing of the 2004 test house experiment with all the measurement points indicated. 4.1.2 2005 Lightning was triggered using the tower launcher shown in Figure 4-2. The triggered–lightning current was directed via a braided, metallic strap called a lead conductor to the test house show n in Figure 4-3. The directed current then followed four downconductors and directed to five interconn ected copper-clad stee l ground rods at the test house and, via a 600-V cable ’s neutral, to one remote ve rtical ground rod located at IS1 some 50 meters away (see Figure 4-4). The current was measured using shunts (see Section 4.3), whose output signals were relaye d via fiber-optic links (see Section 4.4) to digital storage oscilloscopes (DSOs) in the la unch control trailer (see Section 4.6). Figure 4-1. 2004 tower launcher with intercepto r, lead conductor, and current measuring box shown.

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46 Figure 4-2. The tower launcher at the ICLRT in 2005. Figure 4-3. The lead conductor connecting the tower launcher to the test house in 2005.

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47 Figure 4-4. IS1 (center) is lo cated some 50 meters northeast of the test house. The underground 600-V cable ran between the test house and IS1 (2005). 4.2 Measurement Points A total of 6 and 8 measurement points were used for the 2004 and 2005 experiments, respectively. The following s ubsections will describe the measurement points for each year. 4.2.1 2004 For the 2004 experiment, there were six measurement stations. Ground currents were measured, using 1-m shunts, at points A, B, C, a nd G represented by an electrical schematic in Figure 3-2. The shunts were conf igured in such a way that positive current flowing into the ground rod would produce a pos itive voltage. Points A and B were at the southwest and northeast corn ers of the test house, respectively, C was the electrical power entry ground, point D was on the ground conductor from the power entry box (service entrance panel) down to the power entry ground rod, and point G was the ground rod at IS1 (see Figures 4-5 to 4-10). The polarity was such that positive current flowing from the entry box to the ground rod produces a positive voltage. Point K was located

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48 inside the test house on the distribution pane l (see Figure 4-9). A Pearson 110 A current transformer (CT) was used to measure the cu rrent that flowed thr ough the neutral to the two load resistors. The orientation was such that positive current flowing into the neutral produced a positive voltage. In addition to th e six current measurement points associated with the test house and IS1, the injected li ghtning current was m easured as described next. The injected current was directed, via a metallic cable, from the interceptor on the launch tower, through an instrumentation box just to the south of the la unch tower, to one (south) of the three test h ouse air terminals. There we re two measurements of the current, high and low, in the instrumentat ion box. The low-level current measurement was for recording primarily initial-stage currents and continuing currents that often follow a return stroke. Ground current measurement stations consis ted of a current s hunt (Section 4.3), fiber-optic link with some length of fiber-opt ic cable (Section 4.4.2) PIC controller, and a channel on a digital storage oscilloscope (Section 4.6). Table 4.1 summarizes the locations of the measurements. A diagram of the physical locations of the measurem ents can be found in Figure 3-1. Table 4-1. Current measurement locations for 2004. Measurement point Location Tower-High Tower launcher Tower-Low Tower launcher Interceptor-High Tower launcher Interceptor-Low Tower launcher Point A SW corner Point B NE corner Point C North side of test house Point D Electrical ground Point G Instrumentation station 1 Point K Inside test house

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49 Figure 4-5. Measurement point A at southwest corner. Figure 4-6. Measurement point B at northeast corner. Figure 4-7. Measurement point C at electr ical service (power supply system) ground.

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50 Figure 4-8. Measurement point D at test house. Figure 4-9. Measurement point K at servic e entrance panel inside the test house. Figure 4-10. Measurement point G at instrumentation station 1.

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51 4.2.2 2005 There were eight measurement stations fo r the 2005 experiment to examine current division through the LPS. Each measurement, or measurement station, consisted of a current shunt (see Section 4.3) fiber-optic link, some lengt h of fiber-optic cable, PIC controller and a channel on a digi tal storage oscilloscope (DSO). Video and still cameras viewed two instrumented points (the tower la uncher, and the roof box on the test house). Two measurements, Tower-High and Tower-Low located at the base of the tower launcher utilized a 1-m current measuring shunt bolted di rectly to an instrument box at the base of the launcher (Figure 4-11). The Roof-High and Roof-Low measurements were located on the roof of the test h ouse in a roof-mounted measurement box (see Figure 4-12), midway between the north and south air terminals. A shunt was bolted directly to the roof mounte d instrumentation box (see Figure 4.12). The outside of the measurement box on the roof (carrying the li ghtning current) was connected to the LPS by a short (0.15 m) length of copper cable (Figure 4-14). Point A was located at the southwest corner point A1 at the southeast corner, point B at the northeast corner, point B1 at the northwest corner, point D midway between points B and B1, on the north side at the base of the electrical service panel of the test house, and point G was located at IS1, about 50 meters north-northeast of the test house. The measurement points A, A1, B, B1, D were located around the test house, to further illustrate the LPS and the location of the measur ements with respect to the test house, an overlayed drawing on a photo of the test house is presented in (Figures 4-15 and 16) with measurement point G located some 50 meters from the test house at IS1 (not shown).

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52 Figure 4-11. Tower incident current measur ement box shown in the open position (2005). Figure 4-12. Test house roof incident cu rrent measurement box shown in the open position (2005).

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53 Figure 4-13. Roof shunt mounted to the in strumentation box on the test house (2005). Figure 4-14. Incident current connection point to the lightning pr otective system (2005).

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54 Figure 4-15. 2005 test house with an overlayed representation of the lightning protective system (drawn in white), as seen from the tower launcher. Figure 4-16. 2005 test house with an overlayed representation of the lightning protective system (drawn in white), as viewed from the north side of the building. Note, that the white plastic gutter ru nning from the test house towards the foreground of the photograph is not a part of the LPS.

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55 Table 4.2 summarizes the locations of the measurements. A diagram of the physical locations can be found in Figure 3-3. Table 4-2. Current measurement locations for 2005. Measurement point Location Tower-High Tower launcher Tower-Low Tower launcher Roof-High Roof box Roof-Low Roof box Point A SW Corner Point A1 SE Corner Point B NE Corner Point D North side between pts. B & B1 Point B1 NW corner Point G Instrument station 1 The different measurement setups for 2004 and 2005 have been briefly discussed. We now discuss the details of the instrument ation used for the 2005 experiment some of which is relevant for both 2004 and 2005 (and for 1997). 4.3 Current Measuring Shunts We used T&M Research Products, In c. shunts, model R-5600-8, having a bandwidth of 12 MHz, yielding a 45 ns ri setime, resistance specified at 1.25-m, able to dissipate 7000 Joule, and ra ted to withstand 225 watts. The methodology to measure the current in 2005 will now be discussed. Current shunts (eight in all for 2005) placed at every measurement point were used for 10 measurements of the current. The curre nt first passes through the shunt, to a fiberoptic transmitter (Section 4.4), and then sent via a 200 micron glass fiber-optic cable to the launch control trailer whereby the signal is fed into the receiver, and passed to a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) (Section 4.6) where it is saved for later analysis. One shunt was placed on the tower, bolted to the m easurement box, another bolted to the roof measurement box on the test house, and five shunts were placed around the test house,

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56 with one shunt placed at IS 1. All ground based shunts were vertically mounted, using PVC pipe to provide the shunt with support a nd to keep it insulated (see Figure 4-17). The shunts were calibrated before being pla ced into service. The method used for calibration will be discussed next. For testing and calibrating a current shunt, a known, fast-rising current with amplitude less than 100 amperes, is applie d through a calibrated Pearson Coil Model 101 (calibrated by Mr. George Schnetzer in 2004) which had a calibration factor of 0.00505 V/A. The fast rising pulse emitted from a device developed at the ICLRT for this purpose, is injected into the shunt with th e resulting voltage across it, recorded (the calibration circuit is shown Figure 4-18). Figure 4-17. Current shunt vertically mounted and placed inside of a PVC pipe (2005).

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57 Figure 4-18. Diagram of th e shunt calibration setup. The calibration of the shunt can be descri bed using Kirchhoff’s voltage law. We know that I k V 1 1 Equation 4-1 and I k V 2 2 Equation 4-2 where k1 = 0.00505 V/A, and k2 is the calibration factor of th e shunt to be determined. Since we know the constant k1 we can rewrite the equation ab ove in terms of the current 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2/ V k V k V V I V k Equation 4-3. By measuring V1 and V2 using an oscilloscope we can compute k2, the calibration factor of the shunt, which is equivalent to the resistance of the shunt (remembering the specified resistance for these s hunts were approximately 1.25-m ). With the resistance known, we turn our attention to the calculation of the calibration factor associated w ith a particular measurement. A calibration, or scaling

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58 factor is needed to properly convert the os cilloscopes digitized voltage into the correct units representing the current measured at each station. If we assume a perfect fibe r-optic link, i.e. one having no gain or attenuation, the voltage recorded on the oscilloscope (V) will be K I R V 5 0 Equation 4-4 where the value 0.5 comes from the voltage di vider of the electrical circuit, representing the physical circuit (Figure 4-19), R the s hunt resistance (shunt calibration factor k2), I the current, and K the PIC attenuation. Theref ore the nominal calibration factor (I/V) is 1) 5 0 ( K R V I Equation 4-5. If the fiber-optic link has so me gain or attenuation (GCAL), then CALG K I R V 5 0 Equation 4-6 in this case, we have 1) 5 0 ( CALG K R V I Equation 4-7. Figure 4-19. The electrical representa tion for a measurement calibration (2005). Another calibration factor we need to pay attention to is the variable gain/attenuation factor GCAL, is estimated by passing a 100 Hz square wave, 1 V peak-topeak signal before and after a thunderstorm. The two peak-to-peak values are averaged

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59 in order to get an estimate for GCAL and the resulting value of GCAL will become the ‘shot CAL factor’, as follows ) ( 2 1AFTER BEFORE CALG G G Equation 4-8. If the fiber-optic link is properly cal ibrated before the storm, then GCAL 1, meaning the actual calibration f actor should be close to the nominal calibration factor of one. We now have enough information to calcula te the attenuation settings for each measurement. Using basic circuit theory, Ohm’s Law states: R I V Equation 4-9 where I is the curren t expected at the measurement, and R the shunt resistance. Since we can only realize waveforms appearing in the oscilloscope window, and remembering we need to be able to resolv e (see completely) a signal on the oscilloscope having amplitude no larger than one-half the window (display) size, we divide the voltage input by two. A voltage input higher than the fiber-optic link (see Section 4.4) can pass, will need to be attenuated to an acceptable level. Since the PIC attenuations are configured to accept only certain levels of attenuation, as de scribed in Section 4.43, we need to convert the voltage ratio into decibels by taking the loga rithm of the attenuation setting, such that dB G Log ) ( 2010 Equation 4-10. By following this method, we have found the exact attenuation needed. Since preselected attenuation factors ar e only available to the PIC, the closest value to the calculated value is selected. With the atte nuation found, we proceed in our search of finding the calibration factor for a particular measurement.

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60 We calculate the calibration factor for the measurement by taking into account the viewable range of the oscillos cope display, the shunt resist ance, and finally the voltage ratio, which is the decibel attenuation converted into voltage such that 15 0 ratio voltage R. For example, let us say that our attenu ation turns out to be -20 dB; we would convert this into a voltage ratio as follows dB X Log20 ) ( 2010 1 0 1020 / 20 Equation 4-11. For example, given a shunt resistance (calibration fact or, k) of 1.0154 m and expecting a lightning current (I) of 10 kA at the measurement point, we calculate the expected voltage V as V m kA V15 10 0154 1 10 Equation 4-12. We do not want our measurement to saturate the vertical scale of the oscilloscope, therefore we divide the expected voltage by two V V08 5 2 Equation 4-13. We now turn our attention to the fiberoptic link (4.4). The maximum output voltage the fiber-optic receiver can transmit is 1 V. We invert the above equation and find this will give us a voltage that is less th an 1 V, corresponding to a PIC attenuation of dB Log G Log98 13 ) 20 0 ( 20 ) ( 2010 10 Equation 4-14. Only pre-programmed attenuations can be used, therefore we will select the attenuation closest to the value we have calcu lated, which for this example will be -14 dB. This becomes the attenuation setting our PIC will latch to for our theoretical example. The above described process wa s repeated for all measurements, and the

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61 calculated calibration factors wi th their attenuati on settings used in 2005 are given in Table 4-3. Table 4-3. PIC attenuation settings (note To wer AC is physically the same measurement as Tower Low but AC coupled). Measurement Nominal Calibration Factor, ( -1) PIC Attenuation Settings (dB) Tower high 72.57 -33 Tower low 7.26 -13 Tower low AC 7.26 -13 Roof high 43.83 -29 Roof low 4.38 -9 Point A 9.92 -14 Point A1 9.87 -14 Point B 11.19 -23 Point B1 10.21 -14 Point D 9.82 -14 Point G 9.60 -14 4.4 Fiber-Optic Links Fiber-optic links for this discussion are the combination of a transmitter/receiver pair with some length of fiberoptic cable, and a PIC controller. 4.4.1 Nicolet Isobe 3000 Transmitters and Receivers The Nicolet Isobe 3000 fiber-optic links are used to transmit data from the sensor (shunt) to the digital storage os cilloscope (DSO) in the Launch control trailer. Briefly, some physical characteristics for the Is obe 3000 are, input resistance of 1 M utilizes a combination of amplitude modulation (AM) and pulse-width modul ation (PWM), three

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62 selectable input voltage ranges for the transmitter (0.1 V, 1 V, and 10 V). These ranges or settings, are used to step up or step down the output (atten uate), for example, if a 1 V signal is fed to the transmitter, set to the 10 V input range, the corresponding voltage at the output of the receiver will be 0.1 V, a step-down factor of 1/10, thereby effectively attenuating the signal by -20 dB (0.1 V/V). Similarly, when the transmitter is set to the 0.1 V range, the link introduces a gain of 20 dB (10 V/V). When the Isobe fiber-optic link is set to the 1 V range there is a gain of 0 dB (1 V/V), which is actually no gain at all. The output range of the receiver is fixed at 1 V regardless of the sel ected input range. It is for this reason we apply attenuation to an incoming signal which is expected to be larger than 1 V. In addition, to selectable i nput settings, the signal gain offset, and compensation of the linked pair (transmitter and receiver) are adju stable at the receiver to assist in proper calibration of the fiber-optic link. Calibration of the Isobe fibe r-optic link is done by adjusting one or more of the three small screws located on the front panel of the receiver labeled ‘O’ for ‘offset’ (a clockwise turn reduces the offset), ‘G’ for ‘g ain’ (a clockwise turn reduces the gain) and ‘C’ for ‘compensation’ (a cl ockwise turn will make the signal less sharp on the rising edge for the case of a square wave). Adjus ting these screws in a particular manner and order will result in a re asonably good calibra tion of the fiber-optic link. The manual adjustment process has been di scussed. To calibrate the fiber-optic link, a 100 Hz square wave with 1 V peak-to-peak voltage is applied to the input, with the corresponding output voltage checked agai nst the input. More importantly the waveshape needs to be faithfully reproduced at the receiver. Any deviation from the

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63 nominal square wave 1 V peak -to-peak waveform needs to be adjusted using the three screws on the front panel of the receiver. This critical step is re peated for every fiberoptic pair (10 for this experiment) at least every experimental day, preferably every day due to the fluctuating temperatures in Flor ida during the months of May through August, causing the electronics to drift. This calibration routine is performed before and after a successful rocket launch, with the results of the calibrations saved automatically by the oscilloscopes. These calibrations are examined in order to determin e if a ‘shot CAL factor’ needs to be applied prior to processing any waveforms. 4.4.2 Fiber-Optic Cable The fiber-optic cable used in 2005 manufactur ed by OFS-Fitel, is a multimode fiber having index of refraction of 1.429 (as per th e manufacturer). The fiber comes in a bundle of six HCP-M0200T, 200-micron fibers packaged in an 11.5 mm (0.45") OD polyurethane outer jacket with an Aramid ripcord located directly underneath allowing a way to strip back the outer jacket. Next, a non-conductive dielectric armor made of 12 strands of swellable binder tape wrap having lay length of 0. 15 m OD (6") is wound around the six sub-units, which in turn ar e wound around a swellable Aramid central strength member. The glass fiber optics, surrounded by a sub-jacket, are followed by more swellable Aramid yarn, and a 2.5 mm OD (0.1") jacket (see Figu re 4-20). The fiber terminates with ‘male’ SMA connectors require d for compatibility with the Nicolet Isobe 3000 fiber-optic links. The lengths of the fibers were measured us ing an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). The Isobe 3000, requires two fiber inputs per measurement, one labeled LF, the other HF. The fiber delay was measured usi ng a device designed a nd built by Mr. Robert

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64 C. Olsen III. This device operates by in jecting a known pulse into the measurement system, through a 1 km length of fiber-optic cable and measuring both input and output of the system on an oscilloscope. Figure 4-20. Detail of OFS fiber-optic cable used for the 2005 experiment. Since the 1 km length has been previously characterized (its delay is known), we observe the injected pulse on the oscilloscope against the pulse received from the measurement, and subtract out the previously characterized delay from the 1 km fiber, to give us the remainder, which is indeed, the fiber-optic transmission delay for the measurement tested. These results, both the OTDR, and the fiber delay test, are summarized in Table 4-4.

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65 Table 4-4. 2005 fiber OTDR and delay results. Measurement Fiber length (m)Fiber length (m)Total delay (ns) Tower high LF = 113 HF = 113 673 Tower low LF = 113 HF = 113 681 Roof high LF = 137 HF = 138 771 Roof low LF = 138 HF =138 771 Point A LF = 137 HF =138 775 Point A1 LF = 139 HF = 139 771 Point B LF = 138 HF = 138 771 Point B1 LF = 138 HF = 138 775 Point D LF = 138 HF = 138 771 Point-G LF = 100 HF = 100 359 4.4.3 PIC Controllers During thunderstorm conditions, there is a need to communicate remotely with the instrumentation; this was accomplished by using Programmable Interrupt Controllers (PICs). There were two types of PICs us ed for the 2004 and 2005 experiments. First, there is a Radio Frequency (R F) or wireless PIC (see Figu re 4-21) which is sent RF commands that perform a variety of functions one of which turn on and off the current measuring stations. Additionally there is a PIC which is wired to the RF PIC via plastic 1-mm fiber-optic cable used to control the fibe r optic links at every measurement point as seen in Figure 4-22. The RF PIC was cont rolled via computer located in the launch control trailer. The computer sends a series of commands to the wireless PIC, which in turn relays the request(s) to the second PIC controller loca ted in the electronics box at each measurement point. The functions of th e PIC inside the instrumentation box are to

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66 remotely activate the measurements, provide a ttenuation of the sensor s, check the status of the batteries, give the temp erature of the electronics box’s, and to calibrate the fiberoptic link associated with each measurement da ily, and before, and after a thunderstorm. Generally speaking, the PIC controller is a combination of rela ys and attenuators controlled by a microprocessor. The PIC contro ller can therefore be described as a series of programmable switches and attenuators. Further, by sending the proper command in hexadecimal code via the launch control computer, a ‘pol l’ of the PICs status can be taken. The results of a poll will indicate battery voltage, temp erature in the measurement box, attenuation of the PIC and whether the PIC is turned on or off. Although there are only a finite number of attenuation settings, specifically, -3 dB -6 dB, -10 dB, -12 dB and -20 dB, any combination of these settings can be used to set the required attenuation for each Figure 4-21. RF (wireless) PIC box (ins ide the white meta l container) (2005).

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67 Figure 4-22. A PIC inside of a measurement box (2005). measurement. A 12 V, 7 amp-hour battery, powers the PIC controller, in the Hoffman box. A relay inside the PIC is used to s upply power to the othe r electronics in the measurement box. The physical layout of th e PIC controller will be discussed next. Each PIC controller has two female BNC c onnectors (one for the input, another for the output), a four-pin male microphone c onnector, an Agilent HFBR-1523 fiber-optic transmitter, an Agilent HFBR-2523 fiber-optic receiver, a DB-9 female serial connector, and a two-wire power connector (Figure 4-23). Every fiel d measurement station has a PIC inside of the Hoffman (electronics) box.

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68 A B Figure 4-23. A) Front close up view, and B) side close up view of a PIC controller (2005). The connections of the PIC controller will be further discusses now. The output of the shunt is connected to the IN BNC connector of the PIC (signal comes in), while the OUT BNC (signal goes out) conne ctor of the PIC is connected to the input (signal comes in) of the fiber-optic transmitter, which is terminated in a 50 resistor (to match the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable used to connect the sensor to the PIC and the PIC to the fiber-optic transmitter). The RF PIC in the field is powered by a 12 V battery, while the power input of the fiber-optic transmitte r is provided from the PIC inside the measurement box through its 4-pi n microphone connector, where pins 1 and 2 (ground) and 3 and 4 (+12 V) have been so ldered together, transforming the 4-pin connector into a 2-pin connector. The female DB-9 connector is used to interconnect a two-line LCD display that can be used to monitor the status of the PIC controller in the field. Another way of communicating with the RF PIC is via a handheld wireless box that can do the same job remotely without having to employ the plug-in LCD display.

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69 The implementation of the PIC controller is discussed next. The PIC controller is placed in series with the meas urement between the sensor and the fiber-optic transmitter, using the IN and OUT BNC connectors with short (less than 0.5 m) lengths of 50 coaxial cable. Figure 4-24 shows a drawing of how a PIC controller is installed within a measurement box. The function of the PIC contro ller depends on what command is sent to it. First, the PIC controller can act as a 50 in-line attenuator, which re duces the output voltage of the sensor, effectively increasing the full-scale range of the measurement. The attenuators are resistive PI attenuators having values of -3 dB, -6 dB, -10 dB, 14 dB, and -20 dB, which can be added in any combination by sending the appropriate commands to the PIC controller. PI attenuator s get their name from the configuration of the resistors used for each bank of attenuators Each bank looks like the symbol for the Greek letter PI (PIE). The upper case PI ( ) is used as the “product” symbol. An electrical circuit rese mbling an upper case PI ( ) is referred to as a PI circuit. The PIC controller sets the attenuation by switching the appropriate relays inside of the device. The attenuators are designed to be terminated in 50 and will not provide the stated voltage division if the output of the PIC controller is not terminated in 50 If no attenuation is set, the PIC controller has a gain of 1 (0 dB) and does not affect the measurement. If an attenuation of -20 dB is set the PIC controller has a gain of 0.1 and will scale the measurement accordingly. For all other attenuations the same result will apply, i.e. for -14 dB the gain is set to 0.19953, for -12 dB th e gain will be 0.2512, for -10 dB the gain is 0.3162, for -6 dB the gain is 0.5012 and for -3 dB the gain of 0.7079 will

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70 be set. It is worth noting that the PIC controller has an i nput resistance of 50 when the output of the PIC controll er is terminated in 50 regardless of the attenuation setting. Terminating the PIC controller in a diffe rent resistance will result in the input resistance of the PIC controller to be that particular resistance only if no attenuation is used. The PIC controller can also be adapted to control several experiments because it is connected to a breakout board. 4.5 5 MHz Filters A 5 MHz passive antialiasing filter is placed at the output of the ISOBE 3000 receiver (See Figure 4-25) to limit high fr equency components. Each 5 MHz filter was tested by sweeping the frequency from 100 to 10 MHz with a Hewlett Packard function generator Model 3325B controlled via a GPIB interface to apply a 1 V peak-to-peak square wave. The results, recorded by a LeCroy WaveRunner LT 344L digital storage oscilloscope, were saved on a control computer The frequency response for one of the 5 MHz filters is shown in Figure 4-26. 4.6 Digital Storage Oscilloscopes To record the data from the lightning curre nt, digital storage os cilloscopes (DSOs) are used. The incoming signal (the lightning current) from the field sensor (shunt) via short length of RG232 coaxial cab le leads to the PIC, then the Isobe transmitter, and out for some length of fiber-optic cable to the Isobe receiver inside the la unch control trailer. From the output BNC connector of the Isobe receiver the signal via 3.8 meters of RG223 coaxial cable leads to a BNC breakout panel. A 1.2-meter coaxial jumper then runs from the back end of that BNC breakout pane l and into one of the DSOs (Yokogawa oscilloscope), and a 1.7-meter coaxial jumper runs from a tee connector from the back

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71 end of the BNC breakout panel into the re maining two DSO’s (LeCroy oscilloscope), illustrated in Figure 4-27. The DSOs also known as scopes, were mounted to 19-inch racks inside of the launch control trailer, and located along the northeastern wall. E ach scope is given a unique ID to identify it on the local Ethern et as well as to distinguish it when sending commands over GPIB interface. All scopes are controlled using a LabVIEW interface which serves multiple functions. The scopes are set to calibration mode every morning, as well as before, and after a successf ul rocket-triggered thunderstorm. There were two different type s of digital storage oscill oscopes (DSO) used for the 2005 test house experiment, a Yokogawa DL 716 DSO, and the LeCroy WaveRunner series LT 344L 500 MHz DSO’s. The two DSO’s differ in that the Yokogawa oscilloscope has longer record length than th e LeCroy oscilloscope but poorer vertical resolution, whereas the LeCroy oscilloscopes have better vertical resolution with a shorter record length. The LeCroy oscilloscope can record multiple triggers per flash opposed to the Yokogawa’s sing le trigger per flash. The Yokogawa DL716 has 16 channels, a maximum sampling rate of 10 MHz, can be triggered on AUTO, AUTO-LEVEL, NORMAL TIME; having a pretrigger of 0% to 100% in 1% steps. It can be triggered on the rise, fall, or both of an input signal. The combination of the two types of oscilloscope s ensures a complete data set is recorded with good preservation of features.

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72 ISOBE 3000 PIC Controller 50 50 LF HF + + BNC IN BNC OUTRX TXCoaxial Cable LPS Downlead To RF PIC To ISOBE RX Hoffman Box Enclosure External Connections 12 V Battery + SHUNT LPS Figure 4-24. Diagram showing a typi cal measurement setup with PIC controller connections (2005).

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73 Figure 4-25. The 5 MHz filters in launch control (2005). 5 MHz Filter #21 Frequency Response0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.0E+001.0E+011.0E+021.0E+031.0E+041.0E+051.0E+061.0E+07 Frequency [Hz}Output [V] Figure 4-26. Frequency response for a 5 MHz filters (2005).

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74 4.6.1 Yokogawa DL 716 There are five data transfer methods 1) via SCSI interface 2) via floppy disk 3) via GPIB interface 4) via RS-232 interface and 5) 10 Base-T Ethernet port. As configured for the 2005 experiments, once the DL 716 is trigge red it takes about ei ght minutes to save the data to the internal hard drive. This is a major disadvantage because during a typical thunderstorm the chance for successive tri ggers are usually present and therefore opportunities can be lost while the recorder saves data. Figure 4-27. Digital storage oscilloscopes in side the launch c ontrol trailer (2005). 4.6.2 LeCroy WaveRunner LT 344L The LeCroy LT 344L has four channels, a maximum sampling rate of 500 MHz, with a maximum memory of 1 Mpts per cha nnel. Similar to the Yokogawa, the LeCroy can be triggered from numerous criteria such as Edge or a SMART trigger which can be set to pre-specified pulse criterion. The LT344L comes with a full software suite of

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75 extended math tools, and filters, none of whic h were used for 2005. There are five data transfer methods 1) 3.5” floppy drive, PC card slot, 2) external 15-pi n D-type, 3) parallel printer interface, 4) internal graphics pr inter, and 5) 10Base-T Ethernet port. As configured for the 2005 experiments, once the LT344L is triggered it takes a few minutes to save the data to the internal ha rd drive. One of the best features of the LT344L is that it is capable of running in segmented mode, which means it has the ability to record multiple triggers within the maximu m record length of 2 ms (based on sample rate). All the 2005 test h ouse measurements were recorded on both a Yokogawa and LeCroy oscilloscopes. 4.6.3 Nicolet Pro 90 The Nicolet Pro 90 digitizing oscilloscope is a four-channel recorder used for the 1997 experiments. They have data capacity of 258,816 samples per channel. Channels 1 and 2 have 8-bit vertical resolution (256 quan tization levels) with up to 200 MHz sampling rate. Channels 3 and 4 have 12-bit vertical resolution ( 4096 quantization levels with up to 10 MHz sampling rate. The maxi mum sample rate for channels 1 and 2 was 20 MHz, providing record length s of 12.9 ms per channel, and for channels 3 and 4 was 10 MHz, for record lengths of 25.9 ms pe r channel. The programmable pre-trigger memory was normally set to 1 ms. Channels 1 and 2 were used in tandem, as were channels 3 and 4. Table 4-5 shows the breakdown of the os cilloscope assignments for 2005, 2004 and 1997.

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76Table 4-5. Oscilloscope channel assignments for 2005, 2004, and 1997. Measurement Tower Roof Point 2005 High Low Low AC High Low A A1 B B1 D G Oscilloscope ID 18 18 18 18 /14 18 /14 18 /14 18 /14 18 /15 18 /15 18 /15 18 /15 Channel 1 2 3 4/1 5/2 6/3 7/1 8/1 9/2 10/3 11/4 Sample Rate (MHz) 2 2 2 2/20 2/20 2/20 2/20 2/20 2/20 2/20 2/20 Measurement Tower Interceptor Point 2004 High Low High Low A B C D G K Oscilloscope ID 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 Channel 2 10 1 9 3 4 1 2 3 4 Sample Rate (MHz) 20 2 20 2 20 20 20 20 20 20 1997 Channels Amplitude Resolution Sample Rate, (MHz) Record Length per Channel, ms Combined Record Length, ms 1 and 2 8-bit 20 12.9 25.9 3 and 4 12-bit 10 25.9 51.8

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77 4.7 Video and Still Cameras Video and still image records obtained for all rocket launches in 2005 by using four video cameras and two still cameras, thei r locations summarized in Table 4-6. Table 4-6. Video and still camera locations for 2005. Camera Type Location View LC-Tower Digital video La unch control Tower launcher LC-Roof Digital video Launch control Test house roof measurement box Tower-Roof Digital video Tower, under the cantileverTest house roof measurement box TH-Breaker Hi-8 format Inside the test house Service panel LC-Tower 35 mm Launch control Tower launcher LC-Roof 35 mm Launch control Test house roof measurement box A Sony Handycam Vision Hi8 XR video camera recorder model number CCDTRV87, used to view the test house’s breaker panel, was located inside the test house. The media for this camera was set to record in the Long Play (LP) format allowing 240 minutes of continuous play time using the NT SC standard, albeit a little less resolved than the Standard Play (SP) setting, whic h would give 120 minutes of play time, it does allow a longer period of recording time which is needed for a typical rocket launching session which may last several hour s before it is concluded. The Sony Mini-DV digital video camer as, and Nikon MF-19 35-mm still cameras were used in the launch trailer, and on the to wer. Each still camera had its zoom lens set to infinity, and set to bulb mode whereby th e shutter stays open as long as the contact remains closed. The contact closure is controlled by a camera PIC, like the PIC controller discussed pr eviously, the camera PIC is sent a command upon a rocket launch opening the camera shutter for six seconds. Th is ensures an exposure suitable to capture the initial stage of triggered lightning and any return stroke(s) that may exist. The still cameras had the following settings: f-stop 11 for camera LC-Tower, and f-stop 22 for camera LC-Roof. The film used was Fuji ISO 100.

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78 4.8 GPS Timing All rocket launches are GPS time-sta mped by using a Datum BC627AT timing card for cataloging shots, and more importan tly correlating with the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Correlation is important for matching the location of the lightning strike as well as ve rifying the current contained in a flash from an independent source. The NLDN is capable of providing about 60% stroke dete ction efficiency and locating with a median error of about 600 m [Jerauld et al., 2005]. Real-time data are usually available within 15–20 seconds of a detected lightning strike. When a triggered lightning event occurs, a GPS timestamp gets latched to that particular flash by a TTL pulse th at is sent from the main trigger out panel (see Figure 428). This trigger pulse is customizable and can be set to activate either for the first pulse exceeding the threshold during the flash, or for successive stroke pulses, which exceed the trigger level. This TTL pulse is sent to one of the inputs of th e timing card located in a control pc and latched to a GPS signal fr om a GPS receiver mounted above the launch control trailer. The timing has been shown to be accurate to within 1 microsecond, which is sufficient compared to the minimum, re-arm time of the scope which is a few milliseconds. 4.9 Electric Field Mills Four electric field change sensors (field mills) are located on the Camp Blanding site and placed in the field. Two types of field mills are used. The first type is a NASA field mill, the other a Mission field mill (seen in Figures 4-29 and 4-30, respectively). One pair of field mills (NASA and Mission) were positioned near the launch control trailer, the other pair near the office traile r; with the two pairs being some 500 meters apart. Four electric field me ters are used to have a good co mparison of the electric field

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79 change between launch control and the office trailer, in that a rough estimate of the distribution of charge overhead can be sensed. The electric field is just one of the parameters needed in order to make the deci sion of launching a rock et to possibly initiate a lightning discharge. The electric field cha nge is continually monitored from a control center located in launch control (s ee Figure 4-31) and a similar se tup in the office trailer. Figure 4-28. The trigger pane l in launch control (2005). Assuming the two field mills agree in their readings, a rocket is launched. Typically based from past experimental year s at the ICLRT, the electric field change needs to be about -4 kV/m for a good proba bility of successfully initiating triggered lightning; however, for the Summer of 2005, fields of approximately -2.5 kV/m were found to be sufficient for triggering lightning. The 2005 experimental setup has been disc ussed in this chap ter along with key features of the 2004 instrumentation. Over time differences between the layout, instrumentation, and digitiza tion exist due to the way the testing has evolved and

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80 matured. A summary in the form of a lin e drawing for 2005 and 2004 years can be seen in Figures 4-32 and 4-33. A B Figure 4-29. NASA electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer. The upper photo A) is an overhead shot while the lower photo B) is a frontal view.

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81 Figure 4-30. Mission electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer. Figure 4-31. Launch control center (2005).

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82 LC-Tower LC-Roof Test HouseBreaker Panel Hi-8mm LC-Tower LC-Roof 35 mm Cameras Digital Video Cameras Camera PIC XX Wireless PIC XX f:22, 1 4x ND filter roof f:11, 2 4x ND filter tower LegendBr = Brown Bl = Blue O = Orange Y = Yellow R = Red PIC 40 -33dB ISOBE Tx 22 PIC 12 -13dB ISOBE Tx 3 Tower Measurement Low High Tower Fiber ISOBE Rx 22 ISOBE Rx 3 75 MHz Filters 11 BNC Breakout Panel Grey-Br Bl-Y PIC 13 -29dB ISOBE Tx 5A PIC 10 -9dB ISOBE Tx 2B Roof Measurement Low High Test House Bundle 2 ISOBE Rx 5A ISOBE Rx 2B 375 MHz Filters 23 Bl-Grey Bl-Y PIC 17 -14dB ISOBE Tx 8A Point G ISOBE Rx 8A 455 MHz Filter Br-Grey PIC D0 -14dB ISOBE Tx 7A PIC 3E -23dB ISOBE Tx 3B Point A Test House Bundle 3 ISOBE Rx 7A ISOBE Rx 3B 425 MHz Filters 13 Br-Grey Bl-R Point B PIC 24 -14dB ISOBE Tx 6B PIC 3C -14dB ISOBE Tx 5B Point A1 Test House Bundle 1 ISOBE Rx 6B ISOBE Rx 5B 215 MHz Filters 12 Y-R Bl-O Point B1 PIC 32 -14dB ISOBE Tx 4B ISOBE Rx 4B 44 Br Grey Point D Test House Bundle 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111 2 3 4 Yokogawa DL716 Scope 18 LeCroy Waverunner LT344L Scope 14 LeCroy Waverunner LT344L Scope 15 1 2 3 4 Yokogawa in LeCroy BNC Breakout Panel Detail Figure 4-32. Line drawing of th e experimental setup for 2005.

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83 Figure 4-33. Line drawing of th e experimental setup for 2005.

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84 CHAPTER 5 PRESENTATION OF DATA This chapter will present the data acq uired in the 2005 and 2004 experiments, whose primary objective was to evaluate the performance of grounding systems in Florida sandy soil. The 2005 data will be presented by displaying the measured current waveforms, followed by the tabulated parameters of these waveforms and their statistical characterization. The 2004 da ta will be presented only in tabular form, containing the return stroke current waveform parame ters. Similar1997 data, presented by Rakov et al. (2002), are found in Chapter 2. 5.1 2004 In 2004, a total of 5 lightning flashes were initiated from June 23 to July 24, 2004 in a hurricane-shortened season at the Intern ational Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florid a. Of these 5 flashes, 3 contained leader/return stroke sequences (a total of 13 return strokes) and 2 were composed of the initial stage only. All five flashes were tr iggered using the tower launcher and effectively transported negative charge to ground. Return-stroke peak currents ranged from approximately 3 kA to approximately 17 kA. A summary of the tri ggering operations for the test house experiment at the ICLRT in 2004 is presented in Table 5-1. Only two flashes with return strokes (0401 and 0402) were triggered fo r the test house experiment. These two are presented and discussed here. Table 5-2 contains retu rn-stroke parameters for Flashes 0401 and 0403, triggered in 2004.

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85Table 5-1. Summary of triggering operations for the test house experiment in summer 2004. The electric field polarity (atmosph eric electricity sign convention) was measured at ground at the time of the rocket launch. Experiment ID Event ID Date (UTC) Result Stroke Order LeCroy Measured Peak Current, kA Yokogawa Measured Peak Current, kA Electric Field Polarity Approx. Time (UTC) LSA 0401 6/23/2004 CT 1 13.2 12.7 16:14 2 13.0 11.8 3 10.7 10.3 4 8.2 7.8 5 17.8 16.8 6 6.5 6.2 7 3.6 3.0 8 5.2 4.8 9 9.1 7.6 LSA 0402 6/23/2004 NT LSA 0403 6/23/2004 CT 1 9.6 9.3 16:33 2 6.1 6.1 LSA 0404 6/23/2004 IS 16:38 FPL 0401 7/24/2004 NT FPL 0402 7/24/2004 IS 9.0 8.9 19:00 FPL 0403 7/24/2004 CT 1 15.9 14.7 19:25 2 5.9 5.7 FPL 0404 NT NT = No Trigger IS = Initial St age only CT = Classical Trigger

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86Table 5-2. Return-stroke parameters for flash 0401 and 0403 triggered in summer 2004. Event Unit Points ID Parameter Injected Current A B C D K G 0401-1 Peak Current kA 13 12 12 6.3 3.3 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.15 0.15 0.05 4.8 R ND HPW s 47 2.5 0.25 0.2 62 R ND 0401-2 Peak Current kA 13 13 11 5.3 2.6 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.10 0.10 0.10 4.2 R ND HPW s 33 0.65 0.23 0.18 57 R ND 0401-3 Peak Current kA 11 13 7.7 3.8 2.4 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.20 0.15 0.10 4.8 R ND HPW s 35 1.2 0.30 0.20 57 R ND 0401-4 Peak Current kA 8.2 11 5.4 3.1 1.9 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.50 0.30 0.23 0.13 2.8 R ND HPW s 26 1.1 0.25 0.26 37 R ND 0401-5 Peak Current kA 18 13 9.7 ND 3.4 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.50 0.43 0.15 ND 2.1 ND ND HPW s 26 1.7 0.28 ND 77 ND ND 0401-6 Peak Current kA 6.5 9 5.4 4.2 1.3 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.35 0.13 0.17 0.10 0.35 ND ND HPW s 13 0.50 0.32 0.18 32 ND ND ND = No Data

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87Table 5-2 (cont’d). Event Unit Points ID Parameter Injected Current A B C D K G 0401-7 Peak Current kA 3.6 5.4 1.9 2.6 0.79 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.15 0.100.10 0.40 ND ND HPW s 6.3 0.35 0.180.17 5.8 ND ND 0401-8 Peak Current kA 5.2 7.1 DP 3.5 1.3 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.37 0.11 DP 0.10 1.5 ND ND HPW s 16 0.47 DP 0.20 30 ND ND 0401-9 Peak Current kA 9.1 13 6.6 3.5 1.5 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.52 0.27 0.180.15 0.80 ND ND HPW s 8 0.72 0.200.20 35 ND ND 0403-1 Peak Current kA 9.6 8 2.4 1.7 2.7 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.55 DP DP ND ND HPW s 46 DP DP 0.25 6.2 ND ND 0403-2 Peak Current kA 13 6.5 2.1 1.9 1.6 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 DP DP DP 1.2 ND ND HPW s 29 DP DP DP 29 ND ND ND = No Data DP = Double Peak

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88 5.2 2005 In 2005, from July 15, 2005 to August 7, 2005, 19 rockets were launched from the tower launcher. Of these 19 rockets, 8 result ed in triggering lightning, with 6 of these flashes containing 8 return strokes and 2 flas hes containing the initial stage current (IS) only. Hence, data for eight return strokes were acquired. Return-stroke peak currents ranged from approximately 7 kA to approxima tely 34 kA. All eight flashes transported negative charge to ground and were triggere d for the test house experiment. A summary of the triggering operations for the test hous e experiment conducted at the ICLRT in 2005 is presented in Table 5-3. There were 3 mo re flashes triggered in 2005 from the mobile launcher for a different experiment. Still photographs taken with a 35 mm camera (see Chapter 4) from launch control will be presented first for the following 2005 flashes: 0508, 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0518, 0520, and 0521 which can be seen in Figure 5-1. The overall records of incident current measured in 2005 for flashes 0508, 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0518, 0520, and 0521 will be presented next, followed by data for individual return strokes (flashes 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0520, and 0521). Additionally, da ta for the initial stage current (IS) will be presented for flashes 0508, 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0518, 0520, and 0521. 5.2.1 Injected Current The current waveforms of the injected curren t appear in Figure 5-2. The complete waveforms for the injected current (measur ed on the roof of the test house) were processed from the data recorded by the Y okogawa digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), displayed on a 1000 ms time scale (except fo r flash 0521, which is displayed on a 250 ms time scale) with an amplitude scale (ordinate) sufficient to show prominent features such as the initial stage (IS) and return stroke(s ). The IS, the return stroke(s), and any

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89 continuing current (CC), if present, for the eight flashes are labeled to provide identification of these features, which will be discussed further throughout this chapter. 5.2.2 Downlead Currents Figure 5-3 shows the down conductor currents for each return stroke of the flash on a time scale of 200 s. There were four down conducto r (downlead) currents, labeled A, A1, B, B1 measured in the 2005 test house experiment (see Chapter 4). By closely examining the downlead curre nt waveforms, both separately and together, one can gain insights into the behavior of the curre nt flowing through the LPS. The downlead currents are labeled using arro ws to discern one current waveform from another within the same plot. In some cas es the waveforms are indistinguishable from one another and arrows will point to the same waveform. 5.2.3 Injected Current vs. the Sum of Downlead Currents The injected current is compared to th e sum of the four down conductor currents, labeled A, A1, B, and B1 (see Chapter 4) fo r all return strokes from the 2005 test house experiment. The sum of four down conductor currents is symbolic ally expressed as 1 1 B B A A Sum The use of the term sum of the 4 down conduc tor currents “sum of 4 downleads” in Figures 5-4 and 5-14) represents the summation of the waveforms over time, resulting in also a current waveform. The injected current waveform plotted against the sum of 4 down conductor currents is a useful measur e of validity of al l of the current measurements. In some cases the waveforms co mpletely overlap, which is indicative of a perfect or nearly perfect matc h, as dictated by Kirchhoff’s cu rrent law (valid as long as the wavelength of the signal is much larger than the system). Any mismatch can be attributed to uncertainties in individual current measurements and in aligning the

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90 waveforms (a more thorough explanation of th e alignment of waveforms will appear later in this chapter). A severe mismatch, between the injected current and the sum of the four down conductor currents should be an indi cator of equipment failure or other irregularities. The injected current waveform and the sum of down conductor current waveforms are presented in Figure 5-4 on a time scale of 210 s, a sufficiently large time ‘window’ to see the details of the return stroke’s waveshape. 5.2.4 Injected Current vs. Current Into the House The current D measured at the neutral point of the test house’s electrical service panel is of significant interest because it repr esents the current flow ing into the electrical circuit neutral and eventually to remote gr ound at Instrumentation Station 1 (IS1). In other words, this is the current that is not dissipated locally by the grounding system of the test house and has to find its way to a re mote ground. Current D is compared to the total lightning current injected into the LPS in Figure 5-5. 5.2.5 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current Waveforms of current D and current G app ear in Figure 5-6. Current G measured at IS1, some 50 meters away from the test house, is the curren t entering the remote grounding system. Stated different ly, current G is the amount of current that arrives from the test house, primarily along the neutra l conductor of the 600-V underground cable. Since the neutral of the 600-V cable is insulated (not in direct contact with earth), it is expected that current G should be similar in amplitude and waveshape to current D. The differences between currents D and G might be due to brea kdown of (leakage of current through) the insulation of the 600-V cable or /and injection of a portion of lightning current directly into the grounding system at IS1, for example via a channel branch

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91 terminating in the vicinity of IS1. Additionally, buried cables from other experiments could have contributed to conduction of light ning current toward the IS1 ground rod. 5.2.6 Initial Stage Current The initial stage (IS ) current can be viewed as being comprised of an upward positive leader (UPL) and initial continuous curr ent (ICC) (see Chapter 2). The UPL part of an IS current record may contain a large pu lse feature referred to as the initial current variation or the ICV. The ICV is related to the destruction of th e trailing wire and its replacement by a plasma channel [Wang et al., 1999b; Rakov et al., 2005; Olsen et al., 2006]. The very first large pulse in the IS current record, the ICV is the primary focus of this section. In all but one case a 1 ms porti on of the IS current waveform was selected for displaying ICV, with the exception of flash 0521 which required a time scale of 30 ms to show the ICV due to its relatively slow ICV. The ICV waveforms (Figures 5-7 to 5-10) are presented as follows. Injected current, followed by the incident current vs. curr ent D, and lastly current G vs. current D.

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92 A B C D E F G H Figure 5-1. Still photographs of flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521 (viewed from launch control).

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93Table 5-3. Summary of triggering operations for the test house experiment in summer 2005. The electric field polarity (atmosph eric electricity sign convention) was measured at ground at the time of the rocket launch. Event ID Date (UTC) Result Stroke Order LeCroy Measured Peak Current, kA Yokogawa Measured Peak Current, kA Electric Field Polarity GPS Time (Absolute UTC) Approx. Time (UTC) 0506 7/15/2005 NT 19:59 0507 7/15/2005 NT 20:00 0508 7/15/2005 IS 1.1 20:12 0509 7/29/2005 NT 17:16 0510 7/31/2005 CT 1 8.2 6.7 20:02:41.108662 0511 7/31/2005 NT 20:08 0512 7/31/2005 CT 1 34.3 34.3 20:13:54.272410 2 13.2 12.1 0513 8/1/2005 NT 23:41 0514 8/4/2005 CT 1 15.3 14.4 18:44:24.486010 0515 8/4/2005 NT 18:50 0516 8/4/2005 NT 19:05 0517 8/4/2005 CT 1 7.5 7.4 19:32:33.170124 2 15.3 13.4 0518 8/4/2005 IS 2.0 19:38 0519 8/5/2005 NT + 20:53 0520 8/5/2005 CT 1 15.0 13.1 21:24:30.949257 0521 8/5/2005 CT 1 6.8 6.5 21:30:38.028912 0522 8/5/2005 NT 21:36 0523 8/5/2005 NT + 21:56 0524 8/7/2005 NT + 19:44 NT = No Trigger IS = Initial St age only CT = Classical Trigger

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94 0 500 1000 -2 -1 0 1 0508 Time, msCurrent, kAIS 0 500 1000 -2 -1 0 1 0508 Time, msCurrent, kAIS A 0 500 1000 -10 -5 0 5 0510 Time, msCurrent, kAIS Stroke 1 CC 0 500 1000 -10 -5 0 5 0510 Time, msCurrent, kAIS Stroke 1 CC B 0 500 1000 -40 -20 0 20 Time, msCurrent, kA0512 Stroke 2 IS Stroke 1 0 500 1000 -40 -20 0 20 Time, msCurrent, kA0512 Stroke 2 IS Stroke 1C 0 500 1000 -20 -10 0 10 Time, msCurrent, kA0514IS Stroke 1 0 500 1000 -20 -10 0 10 Time, msCurrent, kA0514IS Stroke 1D 0 500 1000 -20 -10 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA Stroke 2 IS Stroke 1 CC 0 500 1000 -20 -10 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA Stroke 2 IS Stroke 1 CC E 0 500 1000 -3 -2 -1 0 1 0518 Time, msCurrent, kAIS 0 500 1000 -3 -2 -1 0 1 0518 Time, msCurrent, kAIS F 0 500 1000 -20 -10 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA Stroke 1 IS 0 500 1000 -20 -10 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA Stroke 1 Stroke 1 IS G 0 50 100 150 200 250 -10 -5 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kA Stroke 1 IS 0 50 100 150 200 250 -10 -5 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kA Stroke 1 Stroke 1 IS H Figure 5-2. Injected current meas ured at the roof of the test house for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521. The channel-base currents are displayed on a 1000 ms time scale, except for plot H) where the time scale is 250 ms. IS = Initial Stage, CC = Continuing Current.

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95 0 50 100 150 200 -3 -2 -1 0 0510-1 Time, sCurrent, kA A A1 B1 BA 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA A A1 B1 BB 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, C A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, C A A1 B1 BC 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kA A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kA A A1 B1 BD 0 50 100 150 200 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 A A1 B1 B E 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 A A1 B1 BF 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 A A1 B1 BG 0 50 100 150 200 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 A A1 B1 B 0 50 100 150 200 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 A A1 B1 BH Figure 5-3. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1, displayed on a 210 s time scale.

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96 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0510-1 Time, sCurrent, kAA 0 50 100 150 200 -40 -20 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA Inj. Sum 0 50 100 150 200 -40 -20 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA Inj. SumB 0 50 100 150 200 -15 -10 -5 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, CC 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kAD 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1E 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2F 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1G 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1H Figure 5-4. The sum of the four downlead cu rrents (A, A1, B, and B1), displayed on a 210 s time scale. Also shown is the injected current waveform which is mostly indistinguishable from the sum of four downleads waveform for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 05201, and H) 0521-1.

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97 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0510-1 Time, sCurrent, kA D Inj. 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0510-1 Time, sCurrent, kA D Inj.A 0 50 100 150 200 -40 -20 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA D Inj 0 50 100 150 200 -40 -20 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA D InjB 0 50 100 150 200 -15 -10 -5 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, C D Inj. 0 50 100 150 200 -15 -10 -5 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, C D Inj.C 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kA D Inj 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kA D InjD 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 D Inj. 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 D Inj.E 0 50 100 150 200 -15 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 D Inj. 0 50 100 150 200 -15 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 D Inj.F 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 D Inj. 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 D Inj.G 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 D Inj. 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 D Inj.H Figure 5-5. Injected return st roke current versus current D for events A) 0510-1, B) 05121, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1, displayed on a 210 s time scale.

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98 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0510-1 Time, sCurrent, kA G D 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0510-1 Time, sCurrent, kA G D A 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA G D Saturated 0 50 100 150 200 -20 -10 0 0512-1 Time, sCurrent, kA G D SaturatedB 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, C G D 0 50 100 150 200 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0512-2 Time, sCharge, C G DC 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kA G D 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 0514-1 Time, sCurrent, kA G DD 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 G D 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 G DE 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 D G 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 D GF 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 D G 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 D G G 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 D G 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 D G H Figure 5-6. Current D versus current G for events A) 05101, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 05201, and H) 0521-1, displayed on a 210 s time scale.

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99 70 70.5 71 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508A 82.5 83 83.5 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0510B 44 44.5 45 -4 -2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512C 187.5 188 188.5 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0514D 64 64.5 65 -1 -0.5 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kAE 100.5 101 101.5 -2 -1 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kAF 10.5 11 11.5 -3 -2 -1 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kAG 20 30 40 -0.4 -0.2 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kAH Figure 5-7. Injected ICV current for flas hes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521, displayed on a 1 ms time scale, with the exception of plot H) which is displayed on a 30 ms time scale due to its relatively slow ICV.

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100 70 70.5 71 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508 B 70 70.5 71 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508 BA 82.5 83 83.5 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0510B 44 44.5 45 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512A A1 B1 B 44 44.5 45 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512A A1 B1 B C 187.5 188 188.5 -0.1 -0.05 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0514D 64 64.5 65 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA B 64 64.5 65 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA BE 100.5 101 101.5 -0.4 -0.2 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kA A A1 B1 B 100.5 101 101.5 -0.4 -0.2 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kA A A1 B1 BF 10.5 11 11.5 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA B1 B 10.5 11 11.5 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA B1 BG 20 30 40 -0.4 -0.2 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kAH Figure 5-8. ICV currents in f our downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521, displayed on a 1 ms time scale, with the exception of plot H) which is displayed on a 30 ms time scale due to its relatively slow ICV. Note in plots A), B), E), and G), the different currents are indistinguishable from one another, therefore labels have intentionally been omitted for these measurements. Plots D and H only show currents A and B, respectively.

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101 70 70.5 71 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508 Inj. D 70 70.5 71 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508 Inj. DA 82.5 83 83.5 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0510 Inj. D 82.5 83 83.5 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0510 Inj. DB 44 44.5 45 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512 Inj. D 44 44.5 45 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512 Inj. DC 187.5 188 188.5 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0514 Inj. D 187.5 188 188.5 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0514 Inj. DD 64 64.5 65 -1 -0.5 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA Inj. D 64 64.5 65 -1 -0.5 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA Inj. DE 100.5 101 101.5 -2 -1 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kA Inj. D 100.5 101 101.5 -2 -1 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kA Inj. DF 10.5 11 11.5 -3 -2 -1 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA Inj. D 10.5 11 11.5 -3 -2 -1 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA Inj. DG 20 30 40 -0.4 -0.2 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kA D 20 30 40 -0.4 -0.2 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kA DH Figure 5-9. Injected ICV current versus cu rrent D for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, a nd H) 0521, displayed on a 1 ms time scale, with the exception of plot H) which is displayed on a time scale of 30 ms due to its relatively slow ICV. No te plot H shows current D only due to the injected current having a much higher background level.

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102 70 70.5 71 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508 D G 70 70.5 71 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0508 D GA 82.5 83 83.5 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0510 D G 82.5 83 83.5 -1 -0.5 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0510 D GB 44 44.5 45 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512 D G 44 44.5 45 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0512 D GC 187.5 188 188.5 -0.2 -0.1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0514 D G 187.5 188 188.5 -0.2 -0.1 0 Time, msCurrent, kA0514 D GD 64 64.5 65 -0.4 -0.2 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA D G 64 64.5 65 -0.4 -0.2 0 0517 Time, msCurrent, kA D GE 100.5 101 101.5 -1 -0.5 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kA D G 100.5 101 101.5 -1 -0.5 0 0518 Time, msCurrent, kA D GF 10.5 11 11.5 -2 -1 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA D G 10.5 11 11.5 -2 -1 0 0520 Time, msCurrent, kA D GG 20 30 40 -0.4 -0.2 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kA D 20 30 40 -0.4 -0.2 0 0521 Time, msCurrent, kA DH Figure 5-10. Current D versus current G fo r ICV for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, a nd H) 0521, displayed on a 1 ms time scale, with the exception of plot H) that is displayed on a 30 ms time scale due to its relatively slow ICV. Note plot H shows current D only due to the much higher background level of current G.

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103 5.3 Methodology 5.3.1 Definitions The following are four parameters of m easured lightning return stroke current waveforms that are considered in this section: 1) Peak current in kiloamperes, 2) 30-90% risetime in microseconds, 3) Half-peak widt h (HPW), in microseconds, and 4) Charge transferred in Coulombs. Definitions of thes e parameters are illust rated in Figure 5-18. The peak current, Ip, is the amplitude of the initial peak of the return stroke current waveform relative to the preceding zero leve l, as shown in Figure 5-11 (A). The 30-90% risetime is the time interval on the wave front between occurrences of 30 and 90% of the peak current, as shown in Figure 5-11 (B). The half-peak width (HPW) is the time interval between occurrences of 50% of peak current on the wave front and 50% of the peak current on the falling portion of the curren t waveform after the p eak, as illustrated in Figure 5-11 (C). 0 500 1000 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 IP 0 500 1000 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 IP A -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 t30-90% 0.3 IP0.9 IP -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 t30-90% 0.3 IP0.9 IP B 0 5 10 15 20 25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 tHPW 0.5 IP 0 5 10 15 20 25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 tHPW 0 5 10 15 20 25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 tHPW 0.5 IP C Figure 5-11. Event 0517-2 is used here to illu strate definitions of the parameters of current waveforms. A) peak current IP, B) 30-90% risetime, t30-90%. C) HPW, tHPW.

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104 The total charge transferred from the cloud to the ground during the return stroke is calculated by integrating the current wavefo rm over time. This seemingly simple calculation turns out to be one of the more di fficult parameters to co rrectly evaluate. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the area under the current waveform is extremely sensitive to any offset of the current wa veform; even a small residual can lead to incorrect estimations on the charge transfe rred to ground. In some cases for the 2005 data set, a difference in charge of more th an 0.5 C was observed before and after offset removal. The method used to remove the offset is discussed next. 5.3.2 Offset Removal Recall from Section 4.6, th at two different oscilloscope s recorded the 2005 data, having different record lengths and sampling rates, specifically a Yokogawa oscilloscope was used to obtain 2-s (entire fl ash) records sampled at 2 MHz, with a pretrigger of 1-s, while a LeCroy oscilloscope was used to record 5 ms segments sampled at 20 MHz, with a pre-trigger of 0.5 ms. For Yokogawa data, it was determined af ter looking at the unprocessed data (waveform) with a program called DLWave (Yokogawa specific software) that a 1000 ms record was sufficient to show all current deflections from the zero level, hence the decision to present 1000 ms of a 2000 ms record in the opening section of this chapter. For LeCroy data, complete 5 ms records are used here. The Yokogawa sampled data every 500 ns the LeCroy every 50 ns. With this general background information, an assumption was made for the LeCroy data that for 20 s before the return stroke there may exist data points buried in the noise level. Therefore the offset was calculated from 20 s before the beginning of the return stroke back to the beginning of the current record. Thus, for the LeCroy data, the offset found

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105 for the first 480 s of the current record was removed. The number of data points needed to index the data vector out to 480 s, corresponding to a specific data point, calculated by dividing the section of the record the offset was removed over the sample rate of the recorder is 9600 50 480 ns s data points Equation 5-2. For the Yokogawa records, the first 5000 data points were used to remove the offset, corresponding to the firs t 2.5 ms of the record. Once the offset was calculated, it was subtra cted from the current record before its integration. All the current waveforms pr esented here have th e offset removed. 5.3.3 Accounting for Time Delay In order to directly compare data from di fferent sensors at a specific time, it must also be made clear that there is no inst rumental time shift between the different measurements, or that the time shift between measurements has been accounted for. This instrumental time shift is caused by differen ces in propagation time along the fiber-optic links and electronics time de lay. On 16 August 2005, fiber-o ptic link propagation times (including any electronics delay) for ever y measurement station of the test house experiment were estimated, with the results of this test summarized in Table 5-4. For the measurements at the test hous e (Roof high, Roof low, A, A1, B, B1, and D), maximum, minimum, and mean propagation times (delays) to the Yokogawa oscilloscope were 775, 771, and 772 ns, respectively. The maximu m, minimum, and mean propagation times (delays) to the LeCroy osci lloscope were 792, 784, and 787 ns, respectively. For the Yokogawa scope measurements at the test house a worst-case propagation time difference was 4 ns. This is more than two orders of magnit ude smaller than the

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106 sampling interval of the Yokogawa (500 ns be tween data points), and therefore for all data from the test house recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope the time delay is immaterial. As for the LeCroy data, digi tized at 50 ns sampling inte rval, measurements Roof high, Roof low, A, A1, B, B1, and D had a wo rst case difference in time delay of 8 ns. This is about a factor of six smaller than the sampling interval; hence, this time shift between measured waveforms may also be disregarded. There exist two different types of delay for the remote-ground current measurement (current G), located at IS1 a bout 50 m from the test house an d about 10-15 m west of the Launch Control. First, there is the fiber/ instrumentation delay tr aveling roughly 100 m to the Launch Trailer, and then there is the de lay due to propagation from the test house to IS1, along the triplexed 600-V cable. The fiber-optic signal propagation time for measurement G (remote-ground current) was 359 ns to the Yokogawa scope a nd 374 ns to the LeCroy scope. Therefore current G arrives at the digitizer in almost one-half the time it takes the currents measured at the test house to arri ve, with the time shift be tween the test house and IS1 measurements being about 400 ns. For the Yokogawa scope, this delay is agai n smaller than the sampling interval of the oscilloscope of 500 ns, but not by much. For the LeCroy scope, the delay is about a factor of eight greater than the sampling inte rval of 50 ns, implying that current G would need to be time shifted 8 data points to be directly compared with the currents measured at the test house. Current G measured at IS1 has indeed been shifted by 8 data points here.

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107 As stated above, there exists a signal pr opagation delay associ ated with point G with respect to point D at the test house, becau se it is located about 53 meters away from point D. A lab test was preformed from which it was determined that 53 meters of twisted 600-V triplexed cable corresponds to roughly 64 m for each of the conductors. Given this actual cable lengt h, and assuming the speed of propagation of the lightning current traveling through the cable to be on the order of 1/ 2 the speed of light (Sutil 2001) we can calculate the signal’s propaga tion time from point D to point G as ns s m m c m tspeed ce dis424 10 6 63 6 638 3 2 2 1 tan Equation 5-3. This signal delay of 424 ns, should not be removed from the measured signal, because it is not instrumental, but represents a physical property of the experimental setup. 5.4 Statistical Characterization Bar charts of all the parameters of the 2005 experiment, peak current, 30-90% risetime, HPW, and the charge transferre d, appear in Figures 5-12 to 5-15. The results of the measured and calculated parameters of all eight return strokes (peak current, 30-90% risetime, HPW, and charge transfer) for the 2005 test house experiment have been summ arized in Table 5-5.

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108Table 5-4. Time delay measurements for the fiber optic links between sensors and digitizing oscilloscopes. Measurement Injection Point Scope Measured Delay, ns Nominal Delay, ns Adjustments, ns Total Delay, ns Roof High Shunt Yoko 18 5680 4912 3 771 Roof High Shunt LeCroy 14 5700 4912 0 788 Roof Low Shunt Yoko 18 5680 4912 3 771 Roof Low Shunt LeCroy 14 5696 4912 0 784 A Shunt Yoko 18 5684 4912 3 775 A Shunt LeCroy 14 5696 4912 0 784 A1 Shunt Yoko 18 5680 4912 3 771 A1 Shunt LeCroy 14 5700 4912 0 788 B Shunt Yoko 18 5680 4912 3 771 B Shunt LeCroy 15 5700 4912 0 788 B1 Shunt Yoko 18 5684 4912 3 775 B1 Shunt LeCroy 15 5704 4912 0 792 D Shunt Yoko 18 5680 4912 3 771 D Shunt LeCroy 15 5700 4912 0 788 G Shunt Yoko 18 5268 4912 3 359 G Shunt LeCroy 15 5286 4912 0 374 Injection Point The circ uit is broken here, and the pulse in jected. For example, shunt means the pulse was injected directly after the shunt. Measured Delay Delay measured on th e scope with the electronics included. Nominal Delay Delay measured on the scope with the 1 km fi ber and all coaxial cables. Sometimes this delay includes a jumper or fiber optic needed to mate the measurement to the delay system. Adjustments For a Yokogawa scope there is an additional 0.61 m of coaxial cable betw een the panel and scope. Total Delay is the difference between the Nominal Delay from th e 1 km of fiber from the Meas ured Delay which included the measurement path, and adding the Adjustments.

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109 0510-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 2 4 6 8 10 A 0512-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 10 20 30 40 0512-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 10 20 30 40 B 0512-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 4 8 12 16 C 0514-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 5 10 15 20 D 0517-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 2 4 6 8 E 0517-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 5 10 15 20 F 0520-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 5 10 15 20 G 0521-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Peak Current, kA 0 2 4 6 8 H Figure 5-12. Bar charts of return-stroke peak current (IP) at different measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 05172, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1. Note: The abbreviated labels on the abscissa have the following meaning: Inj. = Injected current, Sum = Sum of the 4 downlead currents, A = current A, A1 = current A1, B = current B, B1 = current B1, D = current D, G = current G. The upward arrows indicate the measurement saturated so that actual current is higher than indicated.

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110 0510-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 A 0512-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 B 0512-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 C 0514-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 D 0517-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 E 0517-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 F 0520-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 G 0521-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG 30 90% Risetime, s 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 H Figure 5-13. Bar charts of the 30-90% rise time of return strokes at different measurement points for events A) 05 10-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1. Missing bars (columns) are due to the current waveform being either saturated or multi-peaked, so that the risetime could not be measured.

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111 0510-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 5 10 15 20 40 A 0512-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 20 40 60 80 B 0512-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 C 0514-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 10 20 30 40 50 D 0517-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 10 20 30 40 E 0517-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 5 10 15 20 25 45 50 55 60 F 0520-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 10 20 35 40 45 50 G 0521-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG HPW, s 0 10 20 30 40 H Figure 5-14. Bar charts for the HPW of retu rn-stroke current waveforms at different measurement points for events A) 05 10-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1. Missing bars (columns) are due to the current waveform being either saturated or multi-peaked, so that the HPW could not be measured.

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112 0510-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 A 0512-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0 1 2 3 4 B 0512-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0 2 4 6 8 C 0514-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 D 0517-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 E 0517-2 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 F 0520-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 G 0521-1 Inj.SumAA1BB1DG Charge, C 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 H Figure 5-15. Bar charts of return-stroke char ge transfer at different measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 05122, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1. Missing bars (columns) are due to the current waveform being saturated, so that charge could not be measured.

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113Table 5-5. Return-stroke parameters for flashes 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0520, and 0521 triggered in summer of 2005. The charge transferred calculations include continuing current (if any) and a ny other processes (M component). Event Points ID Parameter Injected Current A A1 B B1 D G Sum of 4 Downleads 0510-1 Peak Current (kA) 8.2 1.9 2.2 2.8 1.8 4.4 1.4 8.2 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.29 0.14 0.14 0.23 0.17 DP DP 0.24 HPW ( s) 5 1.5 1.5 6.5 14 DP DP 5.2 Charge (C) 0.52 0.10 0.14 0.12 0.19 0.49 1.1 0.52 0512-1 Peak Current (kA) 34 4.9 9.6 10 4.4 SAT SAT 30 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.89 0.19 1.2 0.13 0.14 SAT SAT 1.1 HPW ( s) 69 DP 60 DP DP SAT SAT 79 Charge (C) 3.8 0.71 1.3 1.2 1.1 SAT SAT 2.8 0512-2 Peak Current (kA) 13 3.1 3.3 5.4 2.9 6.7 1.8 14 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.30 0.22 0.15 0.21 0.29 0.44 0.85 0.20 HPW ( s) 27 6.1 DP 5.3 15 11. DP 22 Charge (C) 2.8 0.61 0.86 0.27 1.05 2.4 5.8 2.8 0514-1 Peak Current (kA) 15 3.5 3.9 6.8 3.3 8.5 2.5 17 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.28 0.21 0.17 0.16 0.28 0.74 1.1 0.19 HPW ( s) 27 2.5 6.5 14 39 DP DP 20 Charge (C) 1.1 0.24 0.28 0.28 0.37 1.1 2.3 1.2 SAT = Saturated DP = Double Peaked waveform

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114Table 5-5 (cont’d). Points Event ID Parameter Injected Current A A1 B B1 D G Sum of 4 Downleads 0517-1 Peak Current (kA) 7.5 1.4 1.6 2.5 1.9 5.4 1.7 7.1 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.73 0.47 0.64 1.1 0.92 1.1 2 0.67 HPW ( s) 25 23 17 23 25 38 DP 27 Charge (C) 0.58 0.15 0.18 0.12 0.21 0.52 0.97 0.64 0517-2 Peak Current (kA) 15 3.6 3.9 6.7 3.3 8.1 2.2 17 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.29 0.22 0.17 0.16 0.20 0.62 0.85 0.19 HPW ( s) 9.8 1.1 2.9 4.5 23 53 DP 5.6 Charge (C) 1.4 0.29 0.33 0.21 0.47 1.4 0.29 1.1 0520-1 Peak Current (kA) 15 3.3 3.9 6.6 3.2 8.5 1.7 17 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.28 0.18 0.23 0.16 0.20 0.69 0.58 0.20 HPW ( s) 8.4 2.6 2.8 4.3 19 41 4.5 4.9 Charge (C) 2.1 0.46 0.50 0.31 0.79 1.9 0.16 2.1 0521-1 Peak Current (kA) 6.8 1.2 1.4 2.2 1.7 4.7 1.4 6.4 30-90% Risetime ( s) 0.65 0.52 0.50 0.62 0.67 0.90 1.3 0.60 HPW ( s) 20 11 14 20 21 33 11 20 Charge (C) 0.41 0.08 0.13 0.11 0.14 0.37 0.07 0.44 DP = Double Peaked waveform

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115 CHAPTER 6 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION This section presents an analysis of the results of the 2004 and 2005 test house experiment and their comparison with the resu lts of a similar experiment done in 1997 at the International Center for Lightning Research a nd Testing (ICLRT). The test house used in th e 2004-2005 experiment was different from that used in 1997 (see Chapters 3 and 2, respectively). The three years also differed in configurations tested. Differences in the test setups, which were discussed in Chapters 2, and 3 for years 1997, and 2004-2005, respectively, are summarized in Table 6-1. Additionally, in 1997 and 2005, both initial-stage and return-strokes currents were injected into the lightning protective system (LPS) of th e test house, while in 2004 onl y return-stroke currents (and following continuing currents, if any) were injected. SPDs were installed in 2004 and in two out of three configurations in 19 97. No SPDs were connected in 2005. A general discussion of the data acquired in 2004 will be followed by a more detailed discussion of the injected current waveforms, the ground rod current waveforms, the injected current vs. current into the hous e, followed by the curr ent into the house vs. remote grounding current. A general discussion of the data acquired in 2005 (presented in Chapter 5) will be followed by a more detailed discussion of th e injected current waveforms, the four downlead currents, the injected current vs. the sum of downlead currents, injected current vs. current into the house, followed by the cu rrent into the house vs. remote grounding current.

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116 6.1 2004 Characterization This section discusses the data recorded in the 2004 test house experiment. Currents in all ground rods at the test house exhibited consid erably smaller width than either injected current or th e current at point D. This is consistent with the 1997 experiment [Rakov et al., 2002]. Thus, higher-frequenc y current components tend to flow to ground locally, while lower-frequenc y components travel to remote ground at IS1, 50 m away. Note that some lower-f requency components apparently entered the ground via the buried (as normally done in practice) horizontal conductor connecting ground rods B and C (see Figure 3-1). This conductor was an uninstrumented path for current to flow to the ground at the test hous e, so that a signifi cant amount of current could flow from this conductor into th e ground without bei ng detected by our instrumentation. To avoid this, the co nductor was pulled out of the ground and placed inside a length of PVC pipe above the ground so that it did not contact the soil. However, no lightning was initiated for the test house experiment after th is configuration change. Additional reasons for the observed differen ces in current waveshapes in different parts of the circuit ar e discussed below. 6.1.1 Injected Current The range of variation of injected peak cu rrent in 2004 was from 3.6 to 17.8 kA. It is important to take note that in 2004 no initial-stage current was injected into the LPS of the test house, only return-str oke currents and following c ontinuing currents, if any.

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117 Table 6-1. Summary of the experiment al setups used in 1997, 2004, and 2005. Description of the System Configuration Grounding resistance, (location ID, ground rod length, m) Reference Figure 1997 (Old test house) Configuration 97-A: Relatively high grounding resistances at the test house. Surge protective device installed. Relatively high grounding resistance at IS1. 1550 (ground A, 3 m) 590 (ground B, 3 m) 250 (ground IS1, 6 m) Figure 2-12 Configuration 97-B: Relatively low grounding resistances at the test house. Surge protective device installed. Relatively low grounding resistance at IS1. 41 (ground A, 15 m) 76 (ground B, 15 m) 69 (ground IS1, 12 m) Figure 2-13 Configuration 97-C: Relatively low grounding resistances at the test house. Surge protective device not installed. Relatively low grounding resistance at IS1. 41 (ground A, 15 m) 76 (ground B, 15 m) 69 (ground IS1, 12 m) Figure 2-14 2004 (New test house) Two pairs of interconnected ground rods at the NE and SW corners of the test house plus in terconnected ground rod of the power supply system. Relatively high grounding resistances at the test house. Surge protective device installed. Relatively low grounding resistance at IS1. 336 (ground A, two 2.7 m) rods interconnected by a 7 m buried horizontal conductor 468 (ground B, two 2.7 m rods interconnected by a 7-m buried horizontal conductor) 69 (ground IS1, 12 m) Figure 3-2 2005 (New test house) Five ground rods interconnected by a buried counterpoi se (ring grounding electrode). Relatively high grounding resistances at the test house. Surge protective device disconnected. Relatively low grounding resistance at IS1. 442 (ground A, 2.7 m) 488 (ground A1, 2.7 m) 518 (ground B, 2.7 m) 424 (ground C, 2.7 m) 636 (ground B1, 2.7 m) 69 (ground IS1, 12 m) Figure 3-4

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118 6.1.2 Ground Rod Currents Current at point A (SW grounding location at the test house, which is nearest to the current injection point) was typically the largest, even larger than th e injected current (see Figure 6-1). This could be due to electromagnetic coupling to the measuring circuit and, additionally, could be due to electromagnetic coupling to th e large vertical loop (some tens of square meters) formed by the conducto rs of the lightning pr otective system (LPS) of the test house (see Figure 3-1). It was found that current waveforms at point A were considerably more narrow than injected curr ent waveforms and often appear as the time derivative of the injected current. Injected Point A Point B (a) Injected Point A Point B (a) Injected Point A Point B (a) Point C Point D Point K (b) Point C Point D Point K (b) Point C Point D Point K Point C Point D Point K (b) Figure 6-1. Return-stroke currents for stroke 0401-3, displayed on a 10 s time scale, (a) injected current and currents at points A and B; (b) currents at points C, D, and K (see Figure 3-4). Return-stroke peak currents 30-90% risetimes, and current half-peak widths (HPW) at different measurement point s for nine strokes of flash 0401 are shown in Figures 6-2 and 6-3, respectively.

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119 0401 InjectedABCD Current, kA 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 6-2. Return-stroke peak current at different measurement points for strokes 1 through 9 (in ascending order from left to right) of flash 0401. A, B, C, and D are measurement points indi cated in Figure 3-2. 3 InjectedABCD HPW, s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0401 Figure 6-3. Current half-peak width (HPW) at different measurement points for strokes 1 through 9 (in ascending order from left to right) of flash 0401. Note that the vertical axis is broken at 3 to 10 s. Currents in ground rods at th e test house exhibited cons iderably smaller half-peak width than either injected current or the cu rrent at point D (see Figure 6-3). This is consistent with the 1997 experiment [Rakov et al., 2002]. Thus, higher-frequency current components tend to flow to ground locally, whil e lower-frequency components travel to remote ground at IS1, 50 m away. As not ed earlier some lower-frequency components apparently entered the ground via the buried horizontal conductor connecting ground rods B and C. Bejleri et al. (2004) reported, from a different experiment, that vertical ground

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120 rods connected to a counterpoise (buried horizontal loop conducto r) tended to dissipate primarily higher-frequency components, wh ile lower-frequency components were primarily dissipated by the counterpoise. 6.1.3 Injected Current vs. the Current Into the House Peak values of the injected current and the current ente ring the electrical circuit neutral (current D) in its s earch for remote ground for 2004 are characterized in Table 62. Peak value of current D in percent of th e injected peak current varied from 16.5 to 28%, with a mean value of 22%, which is significantly lower than the over 80% in the 1997 experiment. The difference is apparently due to much better grounding at the test house in 2004 (two interconnected 3-m rods ve rtically-driven 3 m apart versus two and three interconnected 2.74-m vertical rods (4 to 6 m apart) at the SW and NE corners of the test house, respectively). 6.1.4 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current Currents measured at point G (ground rod at IS1) were corrupted, due to arcing from the instrumentation box to a grounded ( buried, bare-neutral) power cable that was part of another experiment. A visual inspection of this test point revealed evidence of arcing from the instrumentation box to a grounded (buried, bare -neutral) power cable that was part of another experiment. The arc apparently ha d a length of about 15 cm and effectively connected IS1 ground rod to this very long (about 650-m) grounded conductor and resulted in high currents flowing in the shield of the coaxial cable from the shunt to the instrumentation box (see Figure 6-4). This current flowing on the shield seriously corrupted the data at point G. The problem was corrected by moving bare-neutral cable some 10 meters away from the instrume ntation box. The measured dc grounding

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121 resistance of the 12-m ground rod at IS1 is 69 and the current injected in this rod was on the order of 1 kA. Thus, the voltage betw een the metallic enclosure connected to the IS1 ground rod and remote ground was about 1 kA 69 = 69 kV. This voltage, when applied across the 15 cm gap, corresponds to an average elec trical breakdown field of 69 kV/15 cm = 460 kV/m, which is in the range of values of the ioniza tion gradient of the soil, (300-1000) kV/m, found in the literature (e.g., Mousa, 1994). Figure 6-4. Arcing at the Hoffman box located at IS1. Figure courtesy of Mr. Jason Jerauld. However, current at point D (assumed to be equal to the current entering the neutral of the 600-V cable) can be viewed as a proxy fo r current at point G, provided that there was no insulation breakdown along the cable. For one stroke (0401-7), arci ng at IS1 did not occur duri ng the initial 6 s or so, and, as a result, current at point G was not corrupted during this time interval and could be compared to the corresponding current at po int D. Currents at points D and G were

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122 very similar during the initial 6 s or so (see Figure 6-5), s uggesting that no insulation breakdown occurred along the 600-V cable. begins Arcing Injected Point D Point G begins Arcing Injected Point D Point G begins Arcing Injected Point D Point G Figure 6-5. Injected return stroke current a nd currents at points D and G (see Figure 3-2) for stroke 0401-3, displayed on a 10 s tim e scale. Note that the current D and G are similar during the first 6 s, prior to arcing at IS1. Figure courtesy of Mr. Jens Schoene. The Hoffman box for the measurement of the current at poin t A (SW ground rod) had a defective gasket which might have influenced this measurement, allowing (as indicated previously some electromagneti c coupling to the measuring circuit. 6.2 2004 Statistics In the following, statistical analysis of the parameters of measured current waveforms is presented. Table 6-2 gives th e current peak, 30 to 90% risetime, and halfpeak width (HPW) for each of the stroke s of flashes 0401 and 0403. The current waveforms for ground rod A for strokes 04011, 0401-2, and 0401-5 were saturated. Therefore, corresponding HPW and risetime are approximate values. Peak values of the injected current and the current enteri ng the electrical neutral in its search for remote ground (current D) for 2004 are characterized in Table 6-3. The peak of the injected current and the cu rrent measured at D (current entering the electrical circuit neutral were as follows. The injected peak current (sample size = 8) had

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123 minimum and maximum values of 6.8 and 34 kA respectively, an arithmetic mean of 14 kA, a standard deviation of 8.8 kA, and a geometric mean of 13 kA. The current measured at point D had mini mum and maximum values of 4. 4 and 8.5 kA, respectively, an arithmetic mean of 6.6 kA, standard devi ation of 1.8 kA, and a geometric mean of 6.4 kA. From Table 6-3, the ratio of current m easured at point D to the injected current varied from 51 to 72%, with an arithmetic m ean ratio being 59%, and a geometric mean of 58%. 6.3 2005 Characterization Results of the 2005 experiment are illus trated in Figures 5-1 through 5-5 and Figures 5-11 through 5-14, which show current waveforms and their parameters for all strokes triggered in 2005. 6.3.1 Injected Current Injected peak currents in 2005 ranged from 6.7 to 34.4 kA. As opposed to 2004, both initial-stage and return-stroke currents were injected into the LPS of the test house. 6.3.2 Downlead Currents Current waveforms measured in all f our downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, are presented in Figure 5-2. Note that the distributio n of the injected current among the four downleads is more uniform than in 2004 (betwe en two downleads, A and B), in part due to the difference in current injection point (s ee Figures 3-1 and 3-3) and the symmetry of the LPS (see Figure 3-4). The downlead curr ents (A, A1, B, and B1) of the LPS (see Figure 5-2) will be discussed next.

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124 Table 6-2. Return-stroke parameters for flashes 0401 and 0403 triggered in summer 2004. Event Unit Points ID Parameter Injected Current A B C D K G 0401-1 Peak Current kA 13 12 12 6.3 3.3 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.15 0.15 0.05 4.8 R ND HPW s 47 2.5 0.25 0.2 62 R ND 0401-2 Peak Current kA 13 13 11 5.3 2.6 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.10 0.10 0.10 4.2 R ND HPW s 33 0.65 0.23 0.18 57 R ND 0401-3 Peak Current kA 11 13 7.7 3.8 2.4 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.20 0.15 0.10 4.8 R ND HPW s 35 1.2 0.30 0.20 57 R ND 0401-4 Peak Current kA 8.2 11 5.4 3.1 1.9 R ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.50 0.30 0.23 0.13 2.8 R ND HPW s 26 1.1 0.25 0.26 36 R ND 0401-5 Peak Current kA 18 13 9.7 ND 3.4 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.50 0.43 0.15 ND 2.11 ND ND HPW s 26 1.7 0.28 ND 77 ND ND 0401-6 Peak Current kA 6.5 9. 5.4 4.2 1.3 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.35 0.13 0.17 0.10 0.35 ND ND HPW s 13 0.50 0.32 0.18 32 ND ND 0401-7 Peak Current kA 3.6 5.4 1.9 2.6 .079 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.40 ND ND HPW s 6.3 0.35 0.18 0.17 5.8 ND ND 0401-8 Peak Current kA 5.2 7.1 DP 3.5 1.3 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.37 0.11 DP 0.07 1.5 ND ND HPW s 16 0.47 DP 0.20 30 ND ND 0401-9 Peak Current kA 9.1 13 6.6 3.5 1.5 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.52 0.27 0.18 0.15 0.80 ND ND HPW s 8 0.72 0.20 0.20 35 ND ND 0403-1 Peak Current kA 9.6 8 2.4 1.7 2.7 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.55 DP DP ND ND HPW s 46 DP DP 0.25 6.2 ND ND 0403-2 Peak Current kA 13 6.4 2.1 1.9 1.6 ND ND 30-90% Risetime s 0.40 DP DP DP 1.2 ND ND HPW s 29 DP DP DP 29 ND ND ND = No Data R = Ringing DP = Double Peak waveform

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125 Table 6-3. Peak value of current D vs. injected peak current for return strokes in flashes triggered in summer 2004. Event ID Injected Current, kA Current D, kA Current D relative to Injected Current, % 0401-1 13 3.3 25 0401-2 13 2.6 20 0401-3 11 2.4 23 0401-4 8.2 1.9 23 0401-5 18 3.4 19 0401-6 6.5 1.3 19 0401-7 3.6 0.8 22 0401-8 5.2 1.3 25 0401-9 9.1 1.5 16 0403-1 9.6 2.7 28 0403-2 6.1 1.6 27 Minimum 3.6 0.8 16 Maximum 18 3.4 28 Arithmetic Mean 9.4 2.1 22 Standard Deviation 4.1 0.9 3.6 Geometric Mean 4.7 1.9 22 Sample size 11 11 11 For event 0510-1 (see Figure 5-2), the four downlead cu rrent waveshapes (A, A1, B and B1) have similarities. Currents A and A1 have very similar shapes, with current A having a slightly more narrow width than does current A1. Current waveshapes for B and B1 look similar in that a slight (about 0.5 s in duration) shoulder or flattening (plateau) occurs at about 0.5 s (see Figure 6-6). Currents A and A1 do not exhibit this feature. The four-downlead currents decay at roughly the same rate as their currents approach the zero current level. Current B (the largest current in all events) appears to have a slight overshoot of the zero-level at about 275 s.

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126 0 1 2 3 4 5 -3 -2 -1 0 1 Time, sCurrent, kA0510-1Current A1 Current A Current B1 Current B Figure 6-6. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1 B, and B1, for event 0510-1, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. For event 0512-1 (see Figure 5-2), although th e downlead currents are saturated, we can look at the first 5.5 s to get a general idea of th e behavior of the downlead currents. In doing so we find that currents A and A1 look very similar in shape, and current waveforms B (the largest current of th e downleads) and B1 share similar features, in which they exhibit a more rounded peak cu rrent shape with current B having a slight hitch at its peak (see Figure 6-7). 0 1 2 3 4 5 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0512-1Current A1 Current A Current B1 Current B Figure 6-7. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1 B, and B1, for event 0512-1, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. For event 0512-2 (see Figure 5-2), currents A, A1, B, and B1 all appear to have multiple peaks as indicated in (see Figure 6-8). At about 2 s, current A1 stays constant for approximately 10 s (not shown in Figure 6-8) when it begins to decrease with the opposite concavity as the other downlead cu rrents (A, B, and B1) until about 30 s where

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127 the waveshape of current A1 looks similar to the other downlead currents. Current B exhibits the more dramatic waveshape of th e four downlead currents. Current B has two distinct peaks; from the first peak (max va lue), its current rapidly (over less than 0.5 s) decreases roughly 2 kA before increasing anot her 0.75 kA before the waveform takes on a similar shape as currents A and B1. Current A1 exhibits the same f eature at its peak as does current B (double peaked), although not as pronounced, then the waveshape remains opposite in concavity to current B (more parabol ic, than exponential looking), until about 40 s where the waveshape takes on an exponential profile. 0 1 2 3 4 5 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Time, sCurrent, kA0512-2Current B Current A Current B1 Current A1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Time, sCurrent, kA0512-2Current B Current A Current B1 Current A1 Figure 6-8. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1 B, and B1, for event 0512-2, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. For event 0514-1 (see Figure 5-2), currents A and A1 have similar overall waveshapes, however current B (the largest downlead current), has a hitch, or a sharp decrease at 0.5 s losing some 2.5 kA abruptly (over 0.5 s) and then appears to be delivered more current as an additional 0.5 kA is made available to it before the current waveform starts to decrease to zero at a sim ilar rate as current A1 peak (see Figure 6-9). At approximately 120 s, current waveforms B and B1 intersect, however, current B1 slows (levels off), while current B decreases at a faster rate. Current B then appears to overshoot slightly the zero current level at about 350 s. Current waveforms A and A1 follow each other rather well, in that the waveshapes look very similar.

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128 0 1 2 3 4 5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA05141-1Current B Current A Current B1 Current A1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA05141-1Current B Current A Current B1 Current A1 Figure 6-9. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1 B, and B1, for event 0514-1, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. Event 0517-1 (see Figure 5-2) downlead curr ent waveforms A1 and B have a very small hitch occurring before th ey peak (see Figure 6-10). The current waveforms of A1 and B look most alike, while the current waveforms of A and B1 look most alike. At about 100 s, current B (the largest downlead current ) decays faster than the three other current waveforms (A, A1, and B1). 0 1 2 3 4 5 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 Figure 6-10. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 05171, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. Event 0517-2 (see Figure 5-2) downlead curr ents A and A1 have similar overall waveshapes, however current B (the largest downlead current), has a hitch or a sharp decrease at 0.5 s losing almost 2.5 kA abruptly (over 0.5 s) and then appears to be delivered more current as the current waveform shows an additional 0.5 kA being made available to it (see Figu re 6-11). At about 120 s, currents B and B1 are equal however,

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129 current B1 slows (begins to level) while cu rrent B continues to decrease at a faster (approaches the zero current faster) rate. Current B appears to overshoots the zero current level at about 300 s. Current waveshapes for A and A1 follow each other rather well over the 5 ms duration of the LeCroy record (see Section 4.6.2). 0 1 2 3 4 5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 Figure 6-11. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 05172, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. Event 0520-1 (see Figure 5-2) current wave forms A and A1 have similar overall features with their waveshapes following each other rather well over the 5 ms duration of the LeCroy record (see Section 4.6.2). Curre nt B (the largest downlead current), is double peaked (not seen in the othe r three current waveforms) at 0.5 s losing almost 2.5 kA of current rather abruptly (over 0.5 s), and then appears to be delivered more current as the current waveform shows an additional 0.3 kA being made available to it (see Figure 6-12). At about 100 s the current waveforms B and B1 intersect, however current B1 slows (begins to level) more rapi dly than does current B, which continues to decrease at a faster ra te than current B1. Current B a ppears to overshoots the zero current level at about 475 s.

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130 0 1 2 3 4 5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 Figure 6-12. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 05201, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. Event 0521-1 (see Figure 5-2) current wa veforms all assume more rounded shape (see Figure 6-13), exhibiting parabolic behavior at thei r peaks before taking on the exponential profile indicative of return stroke waveforms rath er than having the classical V-shape signature (Rakov 1999). In general, the downlead current waveforms (A, A1, B, and B1) appear similar insomuch as the waveshapes of the downlead currents exhibit a similar shape throughout the entire 5 ms reco rd. Current waveforms A and A1 intersect at about 30 s, while currents B and B1 intersect at about 75 s. Current B overshoots the zero current level at about 225 s. 0 1 2 3 4 5 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -3 -2 -1 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1Current B Current A Current A1 Current B1 Figure 6-13. Return stroke curr ents in four downleads, A, A1, B, and B1, for event 05211, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. Current at point B (NE grounding location at the test house), was typically the largest, (see Figure 5-2). This could be due to electromagne tic coupling to the measuring

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131 circuit and, additionally, could be due to electromagne tic coupling due to a small semicircle in the buried counter poise, which was routed around a lump of concrete in the ground at the NE corner of the test house. 6.3.3 Injected Current vs. Sum of Four Downlead Currents As expected, the sum of four downlead current waveforms matches well the injected current waveform as seen from Figur e 5-3. This could be contributed to having instrumented all the current paths to ground of the injected lightni ng current on the LPS, and is further evidenced by having not f ound evidence of arcing at the test house. 6.3.4 Injected Current vs. Current Into the House Peak values of the injected current and the current ente ring the electrical circuit neutral in its search for remote ground (current D) for 2005 (see Figure 5-4) are characterized in Table 6-5. Peak values of current D in percent of the injected peak current varied from 51 to 72% with a mean value of 59%. Thus, in 2005, more than a factor of two larger current was forced to fi nd its way to the remote ground than in 2004. This is a somewhat unexpected result, sin ce the grounding system of the test house in 2005 was presumably better than in 2004: five vertical ground rods interconnected by a buried loop conductor (counterpois e) of a total length of a bout 37 m vs. two groups (two or three) of vertical ground rods, eac h group interconnected by a buried horizontal conductor (or conductors ) of a total length of about 15.6 m. The current at the electrical entry point to the test house (current D) had the same waveshape as the injected current beginning at after the initial some tens of microseconds and beyond (except event 0512-2 wh ere current D assumed the waveshape of the injected current after about 150 s).

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132 6.3.5 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current The currents measured at the electric circuit neutral at the house (current D) vs. the remote grounding current G (ground rod at IS 1), points G (ground r od at IS1) and D (electric circuit neutral at the house) (see Figure 5-5) wi ll be discussed next. For event 0510-1 (see Figure 5-5), current D peaks before current G. Current G at about 2.5 s stays steady for about 5 s before being abruptly being delivered an additional 1.75 kA of current (see Figure 6-14). Current G continues to increase at a rate faster than current D is decreasing. The two current waveforms intersect at about 11 s, while current G continues to increase until about 40 s where it then begins to decrease slowly. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Time, sCurrent, kA0510-1 Current G Current D Figure 6-14. Current D versus current G, for event 0510-1, displayed on a 600 s time scale. For event 0512-1, currents D and G (see Figure 5-5) are saturated; however, we can look at the first 5.5 s to get a general idea of the behavi or of the downlead currents. In doing so we find we can see that the currents do follow each other rather well with current D a little larger than current G (see Figure 6-15).

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133 0 1 2 3 4 5 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0512-1 Current D Current G SAT Figure 6-15. Current D versus current G, for event 0512-1, displayed on a 5.5 s time scale. Note the waveforms are saturated. For event 0512-2 (see Figure 5-5), current G is much slower rising than current D for the first 2 s where it exhibits a multi-peaked behavior. Current G reaches a slow front lasting about 1 s, before sharply increasing an addi tional 2 kA is made available at about 3 s. At this point current G continues to increase faster than current D decreases (see Figure 6-16). The curre nt at G is equal to the current at D at about 23 s. At this point, the current waveform G c ontinues to increase faster th an current D decreases. The second peak of current G occurs at about 50 s where the currents D and G show a similar rate of decrease although current G is some 3.5 kA la rger than current D. At about 400 s currents D and G plateau, change co ncavity and begin rising slowly for about 300 s, where they both decrease for another 300 s. At about 1.5 ms, they begin to decrease again. This behavior rep eats until around 3 ms where both currents are essentially zero.

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134 0 500 1000 1500 2000 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0512-2 Current D Current G Figure 6-16. Current D versus current G, for event 0512-2, displayed on a 2000 s (2 ms) time scale. Event 0514-1 (see Figure 5-5), shows curre nt D initially p eaking at about 2 s and leveling off for about 11 s before it begins to decrease. Current G exhibits multiple peaks from zero to roughly 3 s where it continues to increa se slowly. The two currents (D and G) are equal each other at about 17 s, where current D is continues to decreasing as current G steadily in creases until about 40 s where the current then decreases at roughly at the same rate as current D is decr easing. The two current s are essentially zero at about 850 s (see Figure 6-17). 0 200 400 600 800 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0514-1 Current G Current D Figure 6-17. Current D versus current G, for event 0514-1, displayed on a 860 s time scale. For event 0517-1 (see Figure 5-5), current G is much slower rising than is current D during the first 2 s. Current G (at 2 s) exhibits a shoulder lasting for about 4 s, and then continues to increase while current D decreases. The current waveforms are equal to

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135 one another after about 23 s where current G continues to increase until about 56 s where it then starts to decrease at about the sa me rate as current D. Currents D and G are essentially zero at about 600 s (see Figure 6-18). 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 Current G Current D 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-1 Current G Current D Figure 6-18. Current D versus current G, for event 0517-1, displayed on a 610 s time scale. For event 0517-2 (see Figure 5-5), current G is multi-peaked at 1.5, 2.5, and 4.2 s, where it then continues to slowly increase as current D is decreases. Current G continues to increase slowly until about 25 s, where it then begins to d ecrease at a similar rate as does current D. Current G reaches zero at about 200 s (see Figure 6-18), while current D reaches zero much later at 3 ms (not s een Figure 6-19), possibly due to continuing current (see Figure 5-1). 0 100 200 300 400 500 -10 -5 0 Time, sCurrent, kA0517-2 Current D Current G Figure 6-19. Current D versus current G, for event 0517-2, displayed on a 510 s time scale.

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136 For event 0520-1 (see Figure 5-5), current G is again double peaked, however it exhibits more of a horizontal ledge at roughly 1 s, then levels for 2.5 s where it has a second peak at 3.5 s. Current G reaches the zero level at about 100 s (see Figure 6-20), where current D (approximately 7 times larges than current G) is much slower in doing so, and does not reach the zero level, but does smooth out (r emain horizontal) at about 1 ms, where it shows about a 275 V offset lasting from 1 to 5 ms), this is most likely from continuing current seen on the injected current waveform (Figure 5-1). 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0520-1 Current D Current G Figure 6-20. Current D versus current G, for event 0520-1, displayed on a 210 s time scale. Event 0521-1 (see Figure 5-5), appears to be rather smooth in its behavior (see Figure 6-20). The current G reaches zero sooner than current D, at 260 s, with current D reaching zero at about 430 s (not seen in Figure 6-21). 0 50 100 150 200 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 Current D Current G Figure 6-21. Current D versus current G, for event 0521-1, displayed on a 210 s time scale.

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137 Since the neutral of the 600-V cab le is insulated (not in dir ect contact with earth), it is expected that current G should be simila r in amplitude and waveshape to current D, assuming that the latter is essentially the curr ent into the neutral of the 600-V cable. The differences between currents D and G might be due to brea kdown of (leakage of current through) the insulation of the 600-V cable or /and injection of a portion of lightning current directly into the grounding system at IS1, for example via a channel branch terminating in the vicinity of IS1 (Figure 6-22). Figure 6-22. Triggered lightning in 1997, showi ng the lightning channel branch to the left of the main channel, that terminated on the overhead catenary protecting the launch trailer facility and personnel located inside at the time of the strike. Note that the branch current could not be measured by instrumentation installed at the runway launche r (behind the launch tower). 6.4 Statistics 2005 A summary of the statistics (peak curr ent, 30-90% risetime, HPW, and charge) appear for the 2005 data set have been compile d and summarized in Table 6-4, with the

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138 statistical parameters of the ratio of peak current entering the house’s electrical circuit neutral 2005, in Table 6-5. Table 6-4. Statistical ch aracterization of 2005 data. Parameter Sample Size, n MinimumMaximumArithmetic Mean Std. Dev. Geometric Mean Current peak (kA) Injected 8 6.8 34 14 8.8 13 A 8 1.2 4.9 2.9 1.3 2.6 A1 8 1.4 9.5 3.7 2.6 3.1 B 8 2.2 10 5.4 2.7 4.7 B1 8 1.7 4.4 2.8 0.95 2.8 D 7 4.4 8.6 6.6 1.8 6.4 G 7 1.4 2.5 1.8 0.41 3.9 Risetime ( s) Injected 8 0.28 0.89 0.46 0.25 0.41 A 8 0.14 0.52 0.27 0.14 0.24 A1 8 0.14 1.2 0.40 0.37 0.29 B 8 0.13 1.1 0.35 0.34 0.33 B1 8 0.14 0.92 0.36 0.28 0.37 D 7 0.44 1.1 0.72 0.22 0.72 G 7 0.58 2 1.1 0.47 1 HPW ( s) Injected 8 5 69 24 20 18 A 7 1.1 23 6.8 8 4 A1 7 1.5 60 15 21 7.3 B 7 4.3 23 11 7.9 8.9 B1 7 14 39 22 8.5 21 D 6 11 53 37 14 18 G 2 4.5 11 7.9 4.8 7.1 Charge (C) Injected 8 0.41 3.8 1.6 1.2 1.2 A 8 0.08 0.71 0.33 0.24 0.25 A1 8 0.13 1.3 0.46 0.42 0.34 B 8 0.10 1.2 0.33 0.36 0.23 B1 8 0.14 1.1 0.54 0.39 0.41 D 6 0.37 2.4 1.2 0.79 0.94 G 6 0.07 5.8 1.5 2 0.19

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139 Table 6-5. Peak current measured at point D in percent of the injected peak current in 2005. Event ID Injected Current, kA Current D, kA Current D relative to Injected Current, % 0510-1 8.2 4.4 54 0512-1 34 Saturated N/A 0512-2 13 6.6 51 0514-1 15 8.8 56 0517-1 7.5 5.4 72 0517-2 15 8.1 53 0520-1 15 8.5 57 0521-1 6.8 1.6 70 Minimum 6.8 4.4 51 Maximum 34 8.5 72 Arithmetic Mean 14 6.6 59 Standard Deviation 8.8 1.8 8.5 Geometric Mean 13 6.1 58 Sample size 8 7 7 6.4.1 Sum of Four Downleads vs. Current Going to Grounding System The sum of four downlead currents minus the current at point D represents the current going to the grounding system of the test house, the latter being compared to the injected current in Figure 6-23. Note that the current to the grounding system of the test house, (Sum – D) in Figure 6-23, is normali zed to the injected current in order to compare only the waveshapes. It is clea r from Figure 6-23 that the lower-frequency components associated with the tail of th e injected current do not go to the grounding system of the test house and have to fi nd their way to the remote ground (at IS1), accessible via the neutral of the power supply cable. Currents at points D (to the house’s electrical circuit neutral) a nd G (to the remote ground) are compared in Figure 5-5. The difference between these two currents is likely to be due to the breakdown of and leakage through the insulation of the buried 600-V pow er supply cable (see Section 6.5.3).

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140 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 (Sum –D) Injected 0 50 100 150 200 -10 -5 0 5 Time, sCurrent, kA0521-1 (Sum –D) Injected Figure 6-23. Injected return stroke current ve rsus the difference between the sum of four downlead currents and current D, labeled (Sum – D), for stroke 0521-1, displayed on a 210 s time scale. Note that the difference waveform (Sum – D) was normalized to the injected current so that a direct comparison of the waveshapes could be made. The (Sum – D) waveform represents the current going to the grounding system of the test house. 6.4.2 Charge Transfer The lightning charge transferred to the syst em and the charge transferred to the test house’s electrical circuit neut ral (point D) for 2005 (see Figu re 5-14) are given in Table 6-6. Values of charge transferred to D in pe rcent of the total charge made available to the system neutral varied from 73 to 100% w ith a mean value of 93%. The charge transferred calculations for 1997 are not avai lable, and not calculated yet for 2004. There are three main criteria that were used to determine the current integration limits in computing charge transfer. 1) The falling portion of the waveform becomes indistinguishable from the background level (for strokes without continuing current). 2) Return stroke is followed by conti nuing current which shows signs of additional features such as M-components [Thottappillil et al., 1995]. The beginning point of first M component is taken as the end of the return stroke. 3) Same as 2) but there no pronounced M components. In this case, the maximum duration of the return str oke, 3 ms [Rakov and Uman ( 2003, p. 178)] is used.

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141 We now give the results indi cating the criterion (1, 2, or 3) used, along with the current integration interval in Table 6-6. Table 6-6. Return stroke charge transferred to point D in percent of the charge injected into the system in 2005. Event ID Injected Charge, C Charge Delivered to D, C Charge D relative to Injected Charge, % Interval of integration s Returnstroke ending point criterion 0510-1 0.5 0.4 95 600 1 0512-1 3.8 SAT SAT 0512-2 3.6 2.6 74 450 2 0514-1 1.1 1.1 100 1.1 x 103 1 0517-1 0.5 0.5 90 775 1 0517-2 1.3 1.3 100 3 x 103 3 0520-1 1.1 1.1 97 1.5 x 103 1 0521-1 0.4 0.3 90 600 1 Minimum 0.4 0.3 74 Maximum 3.8 2.6 100 Arithmetic Mean 1.5 1.1 92 Standard Deviation 1.4 0.8 9.3 Geometric Mean 1.1 0.8 92 Sample size 8 7 7 SAT = Saturated The charge delivered to the electrical circui t neutral of the test house relative to the charge injected into the LPS varied from 74 to 100%, with an average percentage of about 92%. 6.5 Lightning Damage to the Test System 6.5.1 1997 The 600-V cable was excavated in 2001, and about 40 holes were found in the insulation of its neutral conducto r, indicating that some current bled off the cable between the test house and IS1 during di rect lightning strikes to th e test house (this cable was

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142 replaced with a new one in 2004). Optic al observations show no evidence of ground surface arcing from the rods at nodes A and B. In Configuration C, the watt-hour meter was damaged in the absence of SPDs, while no damage occurred when the SPDs were installed (in Configur ations A and B). 6.5.2 2004 No damage to the watt-hour meter was observed. The 600-V cable (new one) was not excavated, so that it is unknown if it was da maged in 2004. An analysis of the data showed that there was a problem with the data at point G (ground rod at IS1). It was saturated on the higher le vel return strokes and was much higher in some cases than the injected current. 6.5.3 2005 In 2005, SPDs and simulated loads were disc onnected from the electrical circuit. As a result, the watt-hour meter (protected on ly by built-in spark ga ps) showed signs of electrical arcing and burning, with evidence of metal being melted both inside and outside (see Figure 6-24) the meter. The abse nce of load apparently did not influence significantly the overall current di stribution, since most of the current tends to flow along the neutral toward the remote ground. There were also signs of arcing between a phase conductor to the neutral conductor of the 600-V triplexed cable inside the meter’s box on the connections at the rear of the meter, and to a metal pronged plug the watt-hour meter seats into inside of the electrical box, a distance of roughly 25 mm. Figure 6-25 shows, for comparison, the connections inside the electrical box for the watt-hour meter at the beginning and end of the 2005 experimental season showing no signs of arcing or damage. The exact date the watt-hour meter was damaged is unknown, but a time frame of 7/11/2005 to 8/5/2005

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143 corresponding to all the flashe s triggered to the test house in 2005, has been established from photographic evidence. Figure 6-24. Lightning damage to the inside of the watt-hour meter. Evidence of arcing and burning can be seen. Figure 6-25. The watt-hour meter connections before (left) and after (right) the experimental season of 2005.

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144 A 7-meter length of the 600-V cable was ex cavated from the entrance of the test houses’ electrical service, back toward s remote ground (IS1) for inspection; no abnormalities were found. At point G, the shunt, Hoffman box, and connectors were visually inspected and yielded no signs of ar cing. For reference, Figure 6-26 shows the remote ground rod G at IS1, and the path of the 600-V triplexed cable coming from the test house. A 6-meter section of the 600-V cab le connected to the ground rod at point G was also excavated for inspection (see Figure 6-27). Figure 6-26. Orientati on photo for ground rod G with the do tted line representing the path of the neutral conductor comi ng from the test house. At approximately 5 meters into the excav ation, a golf ball si zed void was found in the soil (see Figures 6-28 and 6-29). The cable was examined and it was determined that a 1/8 inch (3 mm) hole appeared to be burne d through the outer insula tion of one of the phase conductors revealing the stranded, al uminum conductor which showed signs of fusing. There were visible signs of pitti ng, and burning with a slight charring on the surface of the insulation around the hole. It is believed that the hole’s location on the cable corresponded to th e location of the golf ball size vo id in the soil, due to the

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145 proximity of the cable in the soil and the outline left in the ground from where the cable laid prior to excavation. Figure 6-27. Excavation of the 600-V cable near IS1 resulting in the discovery of a 3-mm hole in the insulation (see Figure 6-28). Figure 6-28. A golf ball sized void (marked with a dotted circle) left in the vicinity of the 3-mm hole. Note that the dotted line i ndicates the approximate position of the 600-V cable before excavation.

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146 Figure 6-29. A closer look at the hole show n in Figure 6-28. Th e dotted line indicates where the cable was buried in the earth. The 600-V cable was disconnected at both ends (test house and point G), dug up, and removed from the ground. The indivi dual conductors were unwound (they were originally twisted around one anothe r), and the dirt was removed. A visual inspection revealed four categorie s or types of damage, all indicative of electrical arcing, to the 600-V cable. The categories will be classified next. The first type (Type 1) of lightning dama ge to the cable was a puncture through the insulation layer which revealed the stranded, aluminum conductor, with the individual strands being in many cases melted together The diameter of the punctures (holes) ranged from roughly 3 to 4 mm (see Figure 6-30); with late ral discharge markings (see Figure 6-31).

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147 Figure 6-30. Example of the 3-mm hole found in the insulation of the 600-V cable near IS1. Figure 6-31. Examples of Type I damage to the 600-V cable in 2005. Evidence of pitting and tunneling most likely from the sa ndy soil fusing to the surface along with some breakdown on the surface of the in sulating around the hole can be seen.

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148 Type II damage to the cable were furr ows along the surface of the insulation (see Figure 6-32). There were sometimes single furrows on the surface, while other locations had multiple furrows within a region of about 7 cm (3 inches) as seen in Figure 6-32. Figure 6-32. Examples of Type II damage to the 600-V cable in 2005. Furrowed markings on the surface of the insulator of the conductors.

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149 Type III damage showed pronounced thermal damage to the surface of the insulation (see Figure 633), likely caused from the fused sandy soil in direct contact to the insulation. Figure 6-33. Examples of Type III damage to the 600-V cable in 2005. The final type (Type IV) appears to be mi nor thermal damage to the surface of the insulation (see Figure 6-34). It is believed this may be th e beginning of a puncture (Type I) in the insulation. Figure 6-34. Examples of Type IV damage to the 600-V cable in 2005.

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150 Further, it was observed that some damage to the cable had no clear distinction between different types (I-IV). In some cases the damage could be classified into more than one type as seen in Figure 6-34. There was evidence that some of the damage to the cable lined up spatially with other conductors, which could mean the same event may have caused breakdown between two adjacent conductors (puncturing two layers of insulation) seen in Figures 6-36, 37, and 6-38. Figure 6-35. Examples of mixed da mage to the 600-V cable in 2005.

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151 Figure 6-36. Examples of adjacent damage to the 600-V cable in 2005. Figure 6-37. Examples of adjacent damage to the 600-V cable in 2005. The two phase conductors of the cable had 10 and 8 holes melted through their insulation, and the neutral conductor insula tion had 3 holes. The types (I-IV) were mapped onto a chart for comparison spatially (see Figure 6-39).

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152 Figure 6-38. The two phase conductors and the neutral conducto r show evidence of aligned damage (the cables were la in out spatially for comparison). Some of the damage to the 600-V cable might have been caused by the 2004 strikes (the cable was not excavated after 2004 te sting). For comparison, in 1997, the 600-V cable had about 40 holes in th e insulation of its neutral conductor. This cable was replaced with a new one before 2004 testing. 6.6 Discussion and Comparison of 1997, 2004, and 2005 Experiments This section includes a comparison of the measured parameters and statistics for the 1997, 2004, and 2005 experiments. Two waveforms for 2004 (Figures 6-1 and 6-2) have been presented in Section 6.1. Wave forms for 1997 have not been included in this

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153 thesis, however they can be found in Rakov et al. (2002). The results (parameters for 1997, 2004, and 2005) will be presented in tabular form and then compared. The maximum peak injected current from 1997, 2004, and 2005 was, 14, 17.8, and 34.3 kA, respectively, with a minimum of 9.8, 3.6, and 6.8 kA for 1997, 2004, and 2005, respectively. The average current, 1997, 2004, and 2005 were 12.6, 9.4, and 14.4 kA; with geometric mean of 12.4, 4.7, 12.7 kA for 1997, 2004, and 2005, respectively. The maximum peak current measured at point D from 2005, 2004, and 1997 was 8.5, 3.4, 7.0 kA, respectively, with a minimum of 4.4, 0.8, 2.7 kA for 2005, 2004, 1997. The average current D in 2005, 2004 and 1997 were 6.6, 2.1, 4.8 kA; with geometric mean of 6.1, 1.9, 4.4 kA for 2005, 2004 and 1997 respectively. The ratio of current D to the injected current was computed, for years 1997, 2004 and 2005. The average ratio of injected cu rrent (current D) which entered to the electrical circuit of the test house was 91 (for three diffe rent configurations; one event per configuration), 22.5, and 59% for years 1997, 2004 and 2005. Bejleri et al. (2004) reported, from a different ex periment, that vertical ground rods connected to a counterpoise (buried horizo ntal loop conductor) tended to dissipate primarily higher-frequency components, wh ile lower-frequency components were primarily dissipated by the counterpoise.

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154 600-V Cable Lightning Damage Location010203040506070 Distance, m Type I Type II Type III Type IVPhase conductor 1 Neutral Phase conductor 2 Damage Type (I) (II) (III) (IV) 600-V Cable Lightning Damage Location010203040506070 Distance, m Type I Type II Type III Type IVPhase conductor 1 Neutral Phase conductor 2 Damage Type (I) (II) (III) (IV) Figure 6-39. Spatial distribution of the di fferent types of damage (I-IV) to the 600V cable for 2005. For reference the diffe rent types of damage are indicated on the left of the chart, a legend near the top contains symbols differentiating between types of damage, and the three individual conductors are labeled. Note that the most significant damage to the insulation of the conductors were holes (10, 3, a nd 8 holes in the two phase conduc tors and neutral respectively).

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155 CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY We have presented results of the structur al lightning protective system (LPS) tests conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Internati onal Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. Lightning was trigge red using the rocketand-wire technique and its current was dire ctly injected into the LPS. The test configurations in 2004 and 2005 differed in the lightning current in jection point, number of down conductors (downleads), grounding system at the test house, and the use of surge protective devices (SPDs). The primary objective was to examine the divi sion of the injected lightning current between the grounding system of the test house and remote ground accessible via the neutral of the power supply cable. Resu lts from the 2004 and 2005 experiments were compared to those from similar expe riment conducted at the ICLRT in 1997. In 1997, a different test house was used than in 2004 and 2005 and three different configurations were tested, with two inte rconnected ground rods, one for the lightning protective system and the other for the pow er supply system grounding, with lightning injected into the LPS ground rod. In 2004, the LPS consisted of two pairs of interconnected LPS ground rods plus a bonded power supply system rod, with lightning injected into one (south) of three roof-top air terminals. In 2005, the LPS consisted of four LPS ground rods plus power supply system rod, all interconnected by counterpoise, with lightning injected into the middle of the LPS on the roof of the test house.

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156 In 1997, over 80% of the injected peak li ghtning current was observed to enter the electrical circuit neutral and then travel to remote grounds (IS1 and IS4). In 2004, the mean value of the peak current entering the electrical circuit neut ral was about 22% of the injected lightning current peak, while in 2005 it was about 59%. Differences in the current waveshapes in different parts of th e circuit were observed in the 1997, 2004, and 2005 experiments. The differences betw een the 1997 results on the one hand and 2004 and 2005 results on the other hand are apparen tly due to much be tter grounding in 2004 and 2005. In 2005, more than a factor of two larger current was forced to find its way to the remote ground than in 2004. This is a so mewhat unexpected resu lt, since the grounding system of the test house in 2005 was presumably better than in 2004, five vertical ground rods interconnected by a buried loop conductor (counterpoise) of a to tal length of about 37 m vs. two groups (two or three) of ver tical ground rods, each group interconnected by a buried horizontal c onductor of a total le ngth of about 15.6 m. In 2005, the distribution of the injected current among the four downleads is more uniform than in 2004, in part due to the difference in current injection point. As expected, the sum of four dow nlead current waveforms matches well the injected current waveform. The current to the grounding system of the test house, (Sum – D), showed that the lower-frequency components associated with the tail of the injected current do not go to the grounding system of the test house but find their way to the remote ground (at IS1). The difference between currents at points D (to the house’ s electrical circuit neutral) and G (to the remote ground) is likely to be due to the breakdown of and leakage through the insulation of the bur ied 600-V power supply cable.

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157 In 2005, SPDs and simulated loads were disc onnected from the electrical circuit. As a result, the watt-hour meter (protected on ly by built-in spark ga ps) showed signs of electrical arcing and burning, with evidence of metal being melted both inside and outside the meter similar to the no-SPD confi guration tested in 1997. There were also signs of arcing between a phase conducto r and the neutral conductor of the 600-V triplexed cable inside the wa tt-hour meter box, specifically to the metal conductor plugs (on the rear of the meter). Th e absence of load apparently did not influence significantly the overall current distribution, since most of the current tend s to flow along the neutral toward the remote ground. After the 2005 experiments, damage wa s found in the insulation of the 600-V cable: all three conducto rs (two phase conductors and ne utral) had holes melted through their insulation and other indi cations of electrical breakdow n. It is unknown whether some of the damage to the 600-V cable might have been caused by the 2004 strikes (the cable was not excavated after the 2004 testing) Similarly, in 1997, the 600-V cable was found to have holes in the insulation of its neutral conductor. This cable was replaced with a new one before the 2004 testing. It is worth mentioning, that in 2004 there was no visible damage to the meter, which was prot ected by both built-in spar k gaps and external SPDs. Besides the differences in LPS a nd current injection point in 2004 and 2005, no initial-stage current was allowed to enter the test system in 2004.

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158 APPENDIX A METHOD USED TO MEASURE GROUND ROD RESISTANCE The method used to measure the ground electrode (rod) resistances for the 2004 and 2005 test house experiments was called th e fall-of-potential method. In 2004 and 2005, the ground rod resistances were measured on May 27, 2004 and May 23, 2005 by a Lightning Safety Alliance (LSA) team for the 2004 and 2005 LPS configurations, respectively, and on both August 30, 2005 and September 6, 2005 by UF. Measurements of the ground electrode (rod) resistances were taken for just the ground rods themselves when driven into th e soil and for the ground rods connected to the LPS. In 2004 the LPS consisted of three air terminals, two down conductors and five ground rods, one pair at opposite corners of the test hous e and one at the base of the electrical service entry panel. In 2005 the L PS consisted of two air terminals, four down conductors and five ground rods, one at each corn er of the test house and one at the base of the electrical service en try panel, all interconnected by a buried ring electrode. Measurements were taken for both the unburied and buried system. The fall-of-potential method utilizes inst rumentation from the AEMC Corporation (Boston, MA), specifically th e digital ground resistance test er, model 4600. This ground resistance tester performs accurate ground resistance measurements (using 3-poles) on single ground rods with a 2% accuracy. Grounding electrodes are usually made of a conductive material such as copper or copper-clad steel with cross s ection large enough so the overa ll resistance is negligible. The National Institute of Sta ndards and Technology has demons trated that the resistance

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159 between the electrode and the surrounding earth is negligible if the electrode is free of paint, grease or other coating, and if the ear th is firmly packed. The resistance of the grounding electrode relative to remote ground will be discussed next. The electrode (ground rod) is modeled as being surrounded by concentric shells of soil all having the same thickness. The closer the shell is to the ground rod the smaller its surface, and the greater its re sistivity. The farther away the shells are from the ground rod, the greater the surf ace of the shell, and the lower th e resistance. Effectively adding shells at a distance from the ground rod will no longer affect the overall earth resistance surrounding the electrode. The distance this occurs is called the effective resistance area, and is directly dependent on the depth of the grounding electrode. H. R. Dwight of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology de veloped an equation for ground resistance assuming the resistivity of the earth or so il is uniform throughout the volume (this is seldom the case in nature) as r L L R1 ) 4 (ln 2 Where R is the resistance in ohms of the ground rod to the soil, L is the lengt h of the ground rod, r the ground rod radius, and is the average resistivity in ohms-cm. Ground resistivity is affected most by th e depth of the electrode. In general doubling the diameter of the rod reduces the resistance by less than 10%. As the ground rod is driven deeper into the earth, its resistance is reduced substantially. In general, doubling the rod length reduces the resistance by an additional 40%. For the test house measurements, the thre e-point measurement principle was used to determine the resistance to remote ground of the earthing rods (see Figure A-1 for the test circuit used). The potential difference between rods X and Y is measured by a voltmeter, and the current flow between r ods X and Z is measured by an ammeter.

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160 The meter used for the testing has three leads, one of the leads is clamped to the ground rod to be measured, then in a straight line from the testing rod, two additional electrodes are placed in the earth some distance far enough from the ground rod under test so that the auxiliary rod Z is far enough away from the ground electrode under test so that the auxiliary potential rod Y is outside the effective resistance areas of both the ground rod and the auxiliary current electrode. To know if you are outside the effective resistance area, the Y probe is moved between the X and Z probes, taking measurements at each location. When the reading of the va riation is minimal and has reached a plateau region, the desired accuracy, and the resistan ce of the ground rod is known (see Figure A2). Figure A-1. Ground resistan ce test setup for the fa ll-of-potential method. Figure A-2. Position of the auxili ary electrodes in measurements.

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161 APPENDIX B LIGHTNING PROTECTIVE SYSTEM DRAWINGS This appendix contains the drawings for the lightning protective system (LPS) provided by the Lightning Safety Alliance (LSA ) team who installed the LPS to the test house for years 2004 and 2005. The ground rod resistances found on the drawing shown in Figure B-1, measured using the fall-ofpotential method (see Appendix A), have been placed into Table B-1. The original LPS drawing (reduced in size) shown in Figure B-1, contains details of the LPS configuration for years 2004 and 2005. Drawings of the LPS installed to the test house in 2004 and 2005, wit hout air terminal, ground rod, or down conductor details, extracted from Figure B-1, app ears in Figures B2 and B-3, respectively. The air terminal connections appear in Figure B-4, followed by details of the ground rod connections and down conductors (lumped together) are shown in Figure B-5. Table B-1. Ground rod resistan ces of the LPS, measured by the LSA team for both 2004 and 2005. Date 05/17/2004 05/23/2005 05/23/2005 G1 563 ohm 518 ohm 518 ohm G2 767 ohm 384 ohm 636 ohm G1 & G2 336 ohm 215 ohm 488 ohm G3 941 ohm 442 ohm 442 ohm G4 892 ohm 586 ohm G3 & G4 468 ohm 270 ohm Existing electrical service ground 688 ohm 524 ohm Entire system unburied 130 ohm Remotes still in 52.7 ohm Entire system buried 113.4 oh m 121.4 ohm 56.6 ohm @ A1 55.9 ohm @ B

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162 Figure B-1. Reduced in size, the original overview drawing of LPSs installed to the test house in both 2004 and 2005, with deta ils for the air terminal, ground rod, a nd down conductor connections.

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163 Figure B-2. Same as Figure B-1 but showing the LPS installed to th e test house for the 2004 experiment only.

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164 Figure B-3. Same as Figure B-1 but showing the LPS installed to th e test house for the 2005 experiment only.

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165 Figure B-4. Expanded drawing of Figure B-1 with the detail fo r the air terminal connections used in both 2004 and 2005.

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166 Figure B-5. Expanded drawing of Figure B-1 with the details for the ground rods and down conductor connections, used in both 20 04 and 2005.

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167 LIST OF REFERENCES Bejleri, M., Rakov, V.A., Uman, M.A., Rambo, K.J., Mata, C.T., and Fernandez, M.I. 2004. Triggered lightning testing of an airport runway lighting system. IEEE Transactions on Electrom agnetic Compatibility, 46: No. 1, pp. 96-101. Berger, K., Anderson, R.B., and Kroninger, H. 1995. Parameters of lightning flashes. Electra, 80, pp. 23-37. Birkl, J., Hasse, P., and Zahlmann, P. 1996. I nvestigation of the in teraction of lighting currents with low-voltage installations and their related lightning threat parameters. Proceedings 23rd International Conference on Lightning Protection, Florence, Italy. pp. 622-27. Curran, E.B., and Holle, R.L., 1997. Lightning fa talities, injuries, a nd damage reports in the United States from 1959-1994. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NWS SR-193. Fernandez, M.I., Mata, C.T., Rakov, V.A., Um an, M.A., Rambo, K.J., Stapleton, M.V., and Bejleri, M. 1998. Improved lightning arre stor protection results, final results. IEPRI, Palo Alto, CA, and Duquesne Li ght Co., Pittsburgh, PA. TR-109670-R1. Fernandez, M.I., Rambo, K.J., Rakov, V.A., and Uman, M.A. 1999. Performance of MOV arrestors during very close, direct lightning strikes to a power distribution system. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 14: No. 2, April, pp. 411-18. Fisher, R.J., Schnetzer G.H., Thottappillil, R., Rakov, V.A., Uman, M.A., and Goldberg, J.D. 1993. Parameters of triggered light ning flashes in Florida and Alabama. Journal of Geophysical Research, 987: No. D12, December, pp. 22,887-902. Grcev, L. 1998. Improved earthing system de sign practices for re duction of transient voltages. Proceedings CIGRE, Sess. paper 36-302. Jerauld, J. 2004. A multiple-station experiment to examine the close electromagnetic environment of natural and triggered light ning. University of Florida Master’s Thesis. Jerauld, J, Rakov, V.A., Uman, M.A., Rambo, K.J., Jordan, D.M., Cummins, K.L., and Cramer, J.A. 2005. An evaluation of the performance characteristics of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network in Florida using rocket-triggered lightning. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110: No. D19106, October. Kitagawa, N., Brook, M., and Workman, E. J. 1962. Continuing currents in cloud-toground lightning discharges. Journal of Geophysical Research, 67: pp. 637-47.

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168 Mata, C.T. 2000. Interaction of lightning w ith power distribution lines. University of Florida Doctoral Thesis. Mata, C.T., Rakov, V.A., Rambo, K.J., Diaz, P., Rey, R., and Uman, M.A. 2003. Measurement of the division of lightning return stroke current among the multiple arrestors and grounds of a power distribution line. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 18: No. 4, October, pp. 1203-08. Mousa, A.M. 1994. The ionization gradient a ssociated with discharge of high currents into concentrated electrodes. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 9: No. 3, pp. 1669-77. NFPA 780 (National Fire Protection Associat ion). Standard for the installation of lightning protection system., Available fr om, NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Park, PO Box 9101, Quincy, Massachusetts 02269-9101, 2004. Olsen III, R.C., Rakov, V.A. Jordan, D.M. Jerauld, J. Uman, M.A. and Rambo, K.J. 2006. Leader/return-stroke-like processes in the initial stage of rocket-triggered lightning. Journal of Geophysical Research, In Press. Petrache, E., Rachidi, F., Paolone, M., Nucci, C.A., Rakov, V.A., and Uman, M.A. 2005. Lightning induced disturbances in buried cables-Part I: Theory. IEEE Transactions Electromagnetic Compatibility, 47: No. 3, August, pp. 498-508. Priestly, J., 1776. The history and present state of electricity, with or iginal experiments. London. Rakotomalala, A, Auroil, P, and Rouss eau, A. 1994. Lightning distribution through earthing system. Proceedings IEEE International Symposium EMC, pp. 419-23. Rakov, V.A. 1999. Lightning discharges tri ggered using rocket-a nd-wire techniques. Recent Res. Devel. Geophysics, 2: pp. 141-71, Research Signpost, India. Rakov, V.A., 2001. Transient response of a tall object to lightning. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 43: No. 4, pp. 654-61. Rakov, V.A., and Uman, M.A. 1990a. Long continuing current in negative lightning ground flashes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95: pp. 5455-70. Rakov, V.A., and Uman, M.A. 1990b. Some properties of negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes vers us stroke order. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95: pp. 5447-53. Rakov, V.A., and Uman, M.A. 2003. Lightni ng: Physics and Effects. Cambridge University Press, New York.

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169 Rakov, V.A., Uman M.A., Fernandez, M.I. Ma ta C.T., Rambo K.J., Stapleton M.V., and Sutil R.R. 2002. Direct lightning strikes to the lightning protective system of a residential building: trigge red-lightning experiments. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 17: No. 2, April, pp. 575-586. Rakov, V.A., Uman, M.A., and Rambo, K.J. 2005. A review of ten years of triggeredlightning experiments at Ca mp Blanding, Florida. Atmospheric Research, 76: pp 503-517. Rakov, V.A., Uman M.A., Rambo K.J., Ferna ndez, M.I., Fisher, R.J., Schnetzer, G.H., Thottappillil, R., Eybert-Berard, A., Berla ndis, J.P., Bonamy, A., Laroche, P. and Bondio-Clergerie, A. 1998. New insights into lightning processes gained from triggered-Lightning experiment s in Florida and Alabama. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103: No. D12, June, pp. 14,117-14,130. Schoene, J. 2002. Analysis of parameters of rocket-triggered li ghtning measured during the 1999 and 2000 Camp Blanding experime nt and modeling of electric and magnetic field derivatives using the transm ission line model. University of Florida Master’s Thesis. Simpson, G.C., and Robinson, G.D. 1941. The distributi on of electricity in the thunderclouds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 177: 281-329. Simpson, G.C., and Scrase, F.J. 1937. The di stribution of electric ity in thunderclouds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 161: 309-52. Stolzenburg, M., Rust, W.D., and Marsha ll, T.C. 1998a. Electri cal structure in thunderstorm convective regions. 2. Isolated storms. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103: 14079-96. Stolzenburg, M., Rust, W.D., and Marsha ll, T.C. 1998b. Electri cal structure in thunderstorm convective re gions. 3. Synthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103: 14097-108. Stolzenburg, M., Rust, W.D., Smull, B.F., a nd Marshall, T.C. 1998c. Electrical structure in thunderstorm convective regions. 1. Mesoscale convective system. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103: 140598-78. Sutil, R.R. 2001. EMTP modeling of direct lightning strikes to the lightning protective system of a residential building. Univ ersity of Florida Master’s Thesis. Thottappillil, R., Goldberg, J.D., Rakov, V.A ., Uman, M.A., Fisher, R.J., and Schnetzer, G.H. 1995. Properties of M components m easured at triggered lightning channel base. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97: pp. 7503-9. Uman, M.A., and Rakov, V.A. 2002. A critical review of nonconventio nal approaches to lightning protection. American Meteorological Society, BAMS, December, pp. 1809-20.

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170 Wang, D., Rakov, V.A., Uman, M.A., Fernandez, M.I., Rambo, K.J., Schnetzer, G.H, and Fisher, R.J. 1999. Characterization of the initial stage of nega tive rock -triggered lightning. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104: No. D4, February, pp. 4213-22.

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171 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian A. DeCarlo was awarded the Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Florida’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2002 and the Masters degree in 2006. He is a lifetime member and former officer of Eta Kappa Nu (HKN), a nationally recognized el ectrical engineering honor society. Mr. DeCarlo joined the lightning research laborator y at the University of Florida (UF) in 2001. Hence, he began his journey into the field of lightni ng research as an undergraduate. Beginning with data analysis from previous expe riments, he soon found his passion. In 2003, Mr. DeCarlo designed an automate d experiment to measure (on the UF campus) the electric field of both natural a nd triggered lightning. He recorded what appear to be the submicrosecond-scale preliminary breakdown pulses in lightning discharges. This finding was reported at the 2005 Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting in San Francisco, California. Mr. DeCarlo was heavily invol ved in the triggered-lightn ing experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida, in 2004 and 2005. His areas of interest ar e lightning protective systems for residential buildings and prelim inary breakdown pulses in natural lightning discharges. He is sole author or co-author of more than 10 papers and technical reports. Mr. DeCarlo was an invited speaker at the 2006 Lightning Protection Institute (LPI)/United Lightning Pr otection Association (UPL A) conference on lightning protection in Dallas, Texas.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014361/00001

Material Information

Title: Triggered Lightning Testing of the Performance of Grounding Systems in Florida Sandy Soil
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014361:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014361/00001

Material Information

Title: Triggered Lightning Testing of the Performance of Grounding Systems in Florida Sandy Soil
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014361:00001


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TRIGGERED LIGHTNING TESTING OF THE PERFORMANCE
OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
SANDY SOIL
















By

BRIAN A. DECARLO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Brian A. DeCarlo

































This document is dedicated to my two sons, Scott and Kevin.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This thesis was realized with the help of many people. I would like to give my

deepest gratitude to my advisor and lightning mentor Dr. Vladimir Rakov, who gave me

the opportunity to step into the wonderful world of lightning research. His relentless

shaping, honing, and molding led me to be the best researcher I could be. I thank Dr.

Martin Uman for his expertise, encouragement, wisdom, positive attitude, and

philosophy. These people paid me to strike objects with lightning; it just does not get any

better than that.

I would like to recognize Dr. Douglas Jordan for continually questioning my work

in an effort to get me to realize that good research practices are essential before trying to

argue that any experimental results are valid.

I would like to thank my fellow lightning lab students/colleagues affectionately

nicknamed Team Hyena for their ruthless quest for success, Jason Jerauld for his

willingness to answer numerous lightning-related questions from the time I became a

member of the lightning laboratory; Robert Olsen III for his insights into being a good

researcher and the many mini-lectures pertaining to computer programming tips; and

Joseph Howard for his tireless work ethic. All came together to pull off one of the most

memorable triggering days on August 4, 2005. Additionally, I thank Jens Schoene for his

help with interpreting lightning current measurements.

Thanks also go to Michael Stapleton and Keith Rambo for their technical expertise,

and to Casey Rodriguez, Andrew Sciullo, Britt Hanley, Julia Jordan, Thomas Rambo, and









others who unselfishly answered the call to 'battle stations' when a storm came upon the

site. These people ran to engage equipment, turn on cameras, arm the tower launcher,

and perform tasks, all usually in the pouring rain.

I especially valued the help of George Schnetzer, who, with his technical expertise,

and overall knowledge of triggered-lightning, aided in setting up my experiment.

All of the above-mentioned people were instrumental in assisting me in making the

summer of 2005 a successful triggered-lightning season.

I wish to extend my personal gratitude to Dr. Soraya Benitez who never quit

believing in me, and allowed me to realize that I indeed had what it took to continue both

in research and in the pursuit of a higher degree.

Finally, I would like to thank my mother Jane and brother Neil for their support.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ....................................................... ............ ....... ....... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ......................... ...... ........ ............ xi

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... ............ .. ......... 1

2 LITER A TU R E R EV IEW ................................................................. ........................ 5

2.1 General Overview of Lightning Phenomena .....................................................5
2.1.1 Types of L lightning D ischarge.................................................. .................. 5
2.1.2 Ground Flash Density and Lightning Incidence to Structures ..................9
2.2 Rocket-and-Wire Lightning Triggering Technique....................... ........... 11
2.3 International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) ....................12
2.4 1997 Test House Experiment............................................. ............... 16
2 .4 .1 O v erv iew ..............................................................16
2.4.2 Test Configurations .................... ................... ............................... 18
2.4.3 R results and D discussion ......... ......................................... ............... 22
2.5 Lightning Protection Standards ........................................ .......... ............27

3 E X PE R IM E N TA L SE TU P ......... .................. ............................................................30

3.1 Test House and Its Lightning Protective System (LPS) ......................................30
3 .1 .1 2 0 0 4 .................................................................3 0
3.1.2 2005 .............. ................. ........................................ .............. .... 33 33
3.2 Tow er Launcher ............................................................................ 38
3.3 Injection of Lightning Current into the LPS of the Test House ...........................39
3 .3 .1 2 0 0 4 ...................................................................... 3 9
3 .3 .2 2 0 0 5 .........................................................................4 0

4 IN STR U M E N T A TIO N ......................................................................... ...................44

4.1 Overview ..................................... .................. ....... ..... ........... 44
4 .1 .1 2 0 0 4 ..........................................................................4 4
4 .1 .2 2 0 0 5 .........................................................................4 5









4 .2 M easurem ent P oints........... ................ ....................................... ...............47
4 .2 .1 2 0 0 4 ................................................................4 7
4 .2 .2 2 0 0 5 ..............................................................5 1
4.3 Current M easuring Shunts ............................................................................ 55
4.4 Fiber-Optic Links................ ..... ..... .......... ...............61
4.4.1 Nicolet Isobe 3000 Transmitters and Receivers..................................61
4.4.2 Fiber-Optic Cable ............. .... ........ ....... ..... .. ...... .. ... 63
4.4.3 PIC Controllers ........................... ........... ......... .......65
4.5 5 MHz Filters ................ ......... ... ...............70
4.6 Digital Storage Oscilloscopes....................... ..... ........................... 70
4.6.1 Y okogaw a D L 716 ................................................ ......................... 74
4.6.2 LeCroy W aveRunner LT 344L ....................................... ............... 74
4.6.3 Nicolet Pro 90..................... ..................................75
4.7 V ideo and Still C am eras ................... ......... ........................................... 77
4 .8 G P S T im in g ................................................................7 8
4 .9 E electric F field M ills ..................... .. ........................ .. .. ...... ...............78

5 PRESEN TATION OF DATA ............ ................................................. ...............84

5 .1 2 0 0 4 .............................................................................8 4
5.2 2005 ....................................................................88
5.2.1 Injected C current .................. .................. ... ................ ...... 88
5.2 .2 D ow nlead C urrents ............................................................... ............... ... 89
5.2.3 Injected Current vs. the Sum of Downlead Currents...............................89
5.2.4 Injected Current vs. Current Into the House.................... ....... .........90
5.2.5 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current..........................90
5.2.6 Initial Stage Current ............................................................................91
5.3 M methodology .................................... ............................... ....... 103
5.3.1 D definitions .................................................................... ........... 103
5.3.2 Offset Rem oval .................. .............................. ...... ................. 104
5.3.3 A accounting for Tim e D elay................................... ....................... 105
5.4 Statistical Characterization ....................................................... .... ........... 107

6 AN ALY SIS A N D D ISCU SSION ..................................................................... ...... 115

6.1 2004 Characterization ........................................................................ 116
6.1.1 Injected Current ...... ........ ............................ .... .............. 116
6.1.2 Ground Rod Currents ...................... ............... ............. ............... 118
6.1.3 Injected Current vs. the Current Into the House................ ........... 120
6.1.4 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current........................120
6 .2 2 004 Statistics ............................... ................ .......... .................... 122
6.3 2005 C characterization ......... ................. ................................... ............... 123
6.3.1 Injected Current .......... ........................ .. ..... ... .... ......... 123
6.3.2 D ow nlead C urrents ............................................................. ..................123
6.3.3 Injected Current vs. Sum of Four Downlead Currents.............................131
6.3.4 Injected Current vs. Current Into the House............................................ 131
6.3.5 Current Into the House vs. Remote Grounding Current...........................132









6.4 Statistics 2005 .............. .. ..... .. .. ... ..... .... .. ..... ........... ................ 137
6.4.1 Sum of Four Downleads vs. Current Going to Grounding System..........139
6 .4 .2 C harge T ran sfer .............................................. .......... .. ................ .. 140
6.5 Lightning Damage to the Test System...... ................... ...................... 141
6.5.1 1997 ................................ .................. ....... .... ... ....... 14 1
6.5.2 2004 ..................................................... .......... .......... 142
6 .5 .3 2 0 0 5 ...................................... ...... ... ......... ... ......... ............... 14 2
6.6 Discussion and Comparison of 1997, 2004, and 2005 Experiments.................52

7 SU M M A R Y .............. ..................................... ............................ 155

APPENDIX

A METHOD USED TO MEASURE GROUND ROD RESISTANCE.................... 158

B LIGHTNING PROTECTIVE SYSTEM DRAWINGS ..............................................161

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................... ..................... 167

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................. ............... 171
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1. Current measurement locations for 2004......................................... ............... 48

4-2. Current measurement locations for 2005......................................... ............... 55

4-3. PIC attenuation settings ......... ................. ................. ................... ............... 61

4-4. 2005 fiber OTDR and delay results........................ ......... ................ 65

4-5. Oscilloscope channel assignments for 2005, 2004, and 1997 ..................................76

4-6. Video and still camera locations for 2005 ...................................... ............... 77

5-1. Summary of triggering operations for the test house experiment in summer 2004 ...85

5-2. Return-stroke parameters for flash 0401 and 0403 triggered in summer 2004..........86

5-3. Summary of triggering operations for the test house experiment in summer 2005 ...93

5-4. Time delay measurements for the fiber optic links between sensors and digitizing
o scillo sco p e s.................................................. ................ 10 8

5-5. Return-stroke parameters for flashes 0510, 0512, 0514, 0517, 0520, and 0521
triggered in summer of 2005 ........... ..... ................................ 113

6-1. Summary of the experimental setups used in 1997, 2004, and 2005 ....................17

6-2. Return-stroke parameters for flashes 0401 and 0403 triggered in summer 2004.....124

6-3. Peak value of current D vs. injected peak current for return strokes in flashes
triggered in sum m er 2004 ............................................. ............................. 125

6-4. Statistical characterization of 2005 data........ ............. ........... .............. 138

6-5. Peak current measured at point D in percent of the injected peak current in 2005..139

6-6. Return stroke charge transferred to point D in percent of the charge injected into
the system in 2005 ....................... ................................. ... ............... 141









B-1. Ground rod resistances of the LPS, measured by the LSA team for both 2004 and
2 0 0 5 ...................................... ................................................... 1 6 1
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page



2-1. Four types of lightning effectively lowering cloud charge to ground..........................6

2-2. Schematic of the basic charge structure in the convective region of a thunderstorm ..7

2-3. Sequence of events leading to a rocket-triggered lightning discharge .....................12

2-4. Rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and
Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida .......................................................13

2-5. A 3600 pictorial view of the ICLRT from the launch tower in 2005 with the
direction of orientation indicated .............. .... ............................ ............. 14

2-6. A erial view of the ICLR T in 1997..................................... ..................... ............. 14

2-7. Overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp
Blanding, Florida in 2005......................................................... ............... 15

2-8. The launch tower and simulated house used in 1997 ...............................................18

2-9. Overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing
(ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL, in 1997............... ............................................ 20

2-10. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-A .....................................................21

2-11. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-B ......................................................21

2-12. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-C .................................. ............... 22

2-13. Air terminals on a pitched roof ................................................... .............. 29

2-14. Typical loop conductor electrode installation .................................. ............... 29

3-1. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2004 ..................32

3-2. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2004...................................32

3-3. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2005 ..................34









3-4. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2005.....................................34

3-5. The lightning current injection point to the LPS in 2005 ................ ............... 35

3-6. Blunt-tipped air terminal on the roof of the test house..................... ..................36

3-7. The air terminal connection detail on the roof of the test house ..............................37

3-8. The 600-V cable and power supply grounding connections in 2005 .......................37

3-9. The tow er launcher setup for 2005 ........................................ ......................... 38

3-10. A close up view of the tower launcher showing rocket tubes, fiberglass legs, and
tow er m easurem ent b ox ........................................ .............................................39

3-11. Close up view of the tower launcher platform at the ICLRT in 2004...................40

3-12. The lead conductor attached to the center lug of the shunt mounted on the tower
m easurem ent box in 2005 .............................................. .............................. 41

3-13. The lead conductor ran from the tower launcher shunt to a long insulator under
the cantilever to a shorter insulator (foreground), and bridged a 3-cm gap in the
NOx chamber, then directed towards the test house (2005)...................................42

3-14. The lead conductor clamps to the outlet electrode of the NOx chamber, then is
directed to an insulator (not visible in this picture), and then travels towards the
test house roof measurement box (2005) .................. ................... ............... 42

3-15. The inside of the NOx chamber showing the 3 cm electrode air gap (2005)............43

4-1. 2004 tower launcher with interceptor, lead conductor, and current measuring box
sh o w n ............................................................................ 4 5

4-2. The tower launcher at the ICLRT in 2005................. .................. .............. 46

4-3. The lead conductor connecting the tower launcher to the test house in 2005 ............46

4-4. IS1 (center) is located some 50 meters northeast of the test house..........................47

4-5. Measurement point A at southwest corner ....................... .............................. 49

4-6. Measurement point B at northeast corer................................................. 49

4-7. Measurement point C at electrical service (power supply system) ground................49

4-8. M easurem ent point D at test house....................................... .......................... 50

4-9. Measurement point K at service entrance panel inside the test house......................50









4-10. Measurement point G at instrumentation station 1.........................................50

4-11. Tower incident current measurement box shown in the open position (2005) ........52

4-12. Test house roof incident current measurement box shown in the open position
(2 0 0 5 ) ............................................................................ 5 2

4-13. Roof shunt mounted to the instrumentation box on the test house (2005)...............53

4-14. Incident current connection point to the lightning protective system (2005)...........53

4-15. 2005 test house with an overlayed representation of the lightning protective
system, as seen from the tower launcher............... ............... ......... ......... 54

4-16. 2005 test house with an overlayed representation of the lightning protective
system, as viewed from the north side of the building.................. ................54

4-17. Current shunt vertically mounted and placed inside of a PVC pipe (2005)............56

4-18. Diagram of the shunt calibration setup................................... ....... ............... 57

4-19. The electrical representation for a measurement calibration............................. 58

4-20. Detail of OFS fiber-optic cable used for the 2005 experiment .............................64

4-21. RF (w wireless) PIC box (2005)........................................................ ............... 66

4-22. A PIC inside of a measurement box (2005) .................................. ............... 67

4-23. A) Front close up view, and B) side close up view of a PIC controller (2005)........68

4-24. Diagram showing a typical measurement setup with PIC controller connections
(2 0 0 5 ) ............................................................................ 7 2

4-25. The 5 M Hz filters in launch control (2005).................................. ............... 73

4-26. Frequency response for a 5 M Hz filters (2005)............... .............. ..................73

4-27. Digital storage oscilloscopes inside the launch control trailer (2005)....................74

4-28. The trigger panel in launch control (2005).... ....................................79

4-29. NASA electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer ......................80

4-30. Mission electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer ......................81

4-31. Launch control center (2005) ............................................................................81

4-32. Line drawing of the experimental setup for 2005 ................................................82









4-33. Line drawing of the experimental setup for 2005....... ........................................83

5-1. Still photographs of flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F)
05 18, G ) 0520, and H ) 052 1 ................................................................................. 92

5-2. Injected current measured at the roof of the test house for flashes A) 0508, B)
0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521 .........................94

5-3. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for events A) 0510-1,
B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H)
0 5 2 1 1 ............................................................................. 9 5

5-4. The sum of the four downlead currents (A, Al, B, and B ) ....................................96

5-5. Injected return stroke current versus current D for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1,
C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1 ...............97

5-6. Current D versus current G for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-
1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1 ............................................. 98

5-7. Injected ICV current for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F)
05 18, G ) 0520, and H ) 052 1 ................................................................................. 99

5-8. ICV currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510,
C) 0512, D) 0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521 ........... ....................100

5-9. Injected ICV current versus current D for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D)
0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521 .................................................. 101

5-10. Current D versus current G for ICV for flashes A) 0508, B) 0510, C) 0512, D)
0514, E) 0517, F) 0518, G) 0520, and H) 0521 .................................................. 102

5-11. Event 0517-2 is used here to illustrate definitions of the parameters of current
w aveform s .................................... .............................. .......... 103

5-12. Bar charts of return-stroke peak current (Ip) at different measurement points for
events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G)
0520-1, and H ) 052 1-1 ......................... .................... .. ........ .. ...... ............109

5-13. Bar charts of the 30-90% rise time of return strokes at different measurement
points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F)
0517-2, G ) 0520-1, and H ) 0521-1 .................................. .................. ... ............ 110

5-14. Bar charts for the HPW of return-stroke current waveforms at different
measurement points for events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E)
0517-1, F) 0517-2, G) 0520-1, and H) 0521-1 ............... ................ ................111









5-15. Bar charts of return-stroke charge transfer at different measurement points for
events A) 0510-1, B) 0512-1, C) 0512-2, D) 0514-1, E) 0517-1, F) 0517-2, G)
0520-1, and H ) 0521-1 ........................................... .... ...... .. ........ .. 112

6-1. Return-stroke currents for stroke 0401-3, displayed on a 10 |s time scale, (a)
injected current and currents at points A and B; (b) currents at points C, D, and
K .............................................................................. 1 1 8

6-2. Return-stroke peak current at different measurement points for strokes 1 through
9 of flash 0401 .............. ......... ......... ................................... 119

6-3. Current half-peak width (HPW) at different measurement points for strokes 1
through 9 of fl ash 040 1 ............................................................................ ..... 119

6-4. Arcing at the Hoffman box located at IS1 .................................... ............... 121

6-5. Injected return stroke current and currents at points D and G for stroke 0401-3 .....122

6-6. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0510-1 ......126

6-7. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0512-1 ......126

6-8. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0512-2......127

6-9. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0514-1 ......128

6-10. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0517-1 ....128

6-11. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0517-2....129

6-12. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0520-1 ....130

6-13. Return stroke currents in four downleads, A, Al, B, and B1, for event 0521-1 ....130

6-14. Current D versus current G, for event 0510-1 .......................................................132

6-15. Current D versus current G, for event 0512-1 ..................................................133

6-16. Current D versus current G, for event 0512-2.......................................................134

6-17. Current D versus current G, for event 0514-1 ..................................................134

6-18. Current D versus current G, for event 0517-1 ...............................................135

6-19. Current D versus current G, for event 0517-2...............................................135

6-20. Current D versus current G, for event 0520-1 ................ .............................. 136

6-21. Current D versus current G, for event 0521-1 ...............................................136









6-22. Triggered lightning in 1997, showing the lightning channel branch to the left of
the main channel, that terminated on the overhead catenary protecting the launch
trailer facility and personnel located inside at the time of the strike......................137

6-23. Injected return stroke current versus the difference between the sum of four
downlead currents and current D, labeled (Sum -D), for stroke 0521-1 .............140

6-24. Lightning damage to the inside of the watt-hour meter............... .... ..............143

6-25. The watt-hour meter connections before and after the experimental season of
2 0 0 5 ...................................... ................................................... 14 3

6-26. Orientation photo for ground rod G with the dotted line representing the path of
the neutral conductor coming from the test house .............................................144

6-27. Excavation of the 600-V cable near IS1 resulting in the discovery of a 3-mm
hole in the insulation .......................................... ........................ 145

6-28. A golf ball sized void left in the vicinity of the 3-mm hole .............. ...............145

6-29. A closer look at the hole shown in Figure 6-27.........................................146

6-30. Example of the 3-mm hole found in the insulation of the 600-V cable near IS1 ...147

6-31. Examples of Type I damage to the 600-V cable in 2005 ...................................... 147

6-32. Examples of Type II damage to the 600-V cable in 2005 ................................148

6-33. Examples of Type III damage to the 600-V cable in 2005...............................149

6-34. Examples of Type IV damage to the 600-V cable in 2005 ..................................149

6-35. Examples of mixed damage to the 600-V cable in 2005...............................150

6-36. Examples of adjacent damage to the 600-V cable in 2005...............................151

6-37. Examples of adjacent damage to the 600-V cable in 2005...............................151

6-38. The two phase conductors and the neutral conductor show evidence of aligned
d am ag e ............................................................................ 152

6-39. Spatial distribution of the different types of damage (I-IV) to the 600-V cable for
2 0 0 5 ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. .................................................. 1 5 4

A-1. Ground resistance test setup for the fall-of-potential method ..............................160

A-2. Position of the auxiliary electrodes in measurements .........................................160









B-1. Reduced in size, the original overview drawing of LPSs installed to the test house
in both 2004 and 2005, with details for the air terminal, ground rod, and down
conductor connections.............................................. ................... ............... 162

B-2. Same as Figure B-l but showing the LPS installed to the test house for the 2004
experim ent only ......................................................................... .... 163

B-3. Same as Figure B-l but showing the LPS installed to the test house for the 2005
ex p erim ent on ly ............ ...................................................... ...................... 164

B-4. Expanded drawing of Figure B-l with the detail for the air terminal connections,
u sed in both 2004 and 2005........................................................................ ..... 165

B-5. Expanded drawing of Figure B-l with the details for the ground rods and down
conductor connections, used in both 2004 and 2005 ..........................................166















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

TRIGGERED LIGHTNING TESTING OF THE PERFORMANCE
OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
SANDY SOIL

By

Brian A. DeCarlo

May 2006

Chair: Vladimir A. Rakov
Major Department: Electrical and Computer Engineering

This thesis presents results of the structural lightning protective system (LPS) tests

conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the International Center for Lightning Research and

Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. Lightning was triggered using the rocket-

and-wire technique, and its current was directly injected into the LPS. The test

configurations in 2004 and 2005 differed in the lightning current injection point, number

of down conductors, grounding system at the test house, and the use of surge protective

devices (SPDs). The primary objective was to examine the division of the injected

lightning current between the grounding system of the test house and remote ground

accessible via the neutral of the power supply cable. In 2004, the mean value of the peak

current entering the electrical circuit neutral in search of its way to remote ground was

about 22% of the injected lightning current peak, while in 2005 it was about 59%. For

comparison, more than 80% of the injected peak current was observed to enter the


xviii










electrical circuit neutral in similar 1997 tests at the ICLRT in which a different test house

was used.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Benjamin Franklin showed that there was electricity in thunderclouds with the help

of his kite which had drawn electricity from a cloud. Here is Joseph Priestley's account

[Priestly 1776] of Franklin's famous kite experiment, published fifteen years afterwards

but read in manuscript by Franklin, who must have given Priestley the precise, familiar

details.

The Doctor, having published his method of verifying his hypothesis concerning
the sameness of electricity with the matter of lightning, was waiting for the erection
of a spire (on Christ Church) in Philadelphia, to carry his views into execution; not
imagining that a pointed rod of a moderate height could answer the purpose. It
occurred to him that by means of a common kite he could have better access to the
regions of thunder than by any spire whatever.

To make the kite, a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms so long as to
reach to the four covers of a large thin silk handkerchief when extended; tie the
corners of the handkerchief to the extremities of the cross, so you have the body of
a kite; which being properly accommodated with a tail, loop, and string, will rise in
the air.

To the top of the upright stick of the cross is to be fixed a very sharp pointed wire,
rising a foot or more above the wood. To the end of the twine, next the key may be
fastened. This kite is to be raised when a thunder-gust appears to be coming on,
and the person who holds the string must stand within a door or window, or under
some cover, so that the silk ribbon may not be wet; and care must be taken that the
twine does not touch the frame of the door or window. As soon as any of the
thunderclouds come over the kite, the pointed wire will draw the electric fire from
them, and the kite, with all the twine, will be electrified, and the loose filaments of
the twine, will stand out every way, and be attracted by an approaching finger.
When the rain has wetted the kite and twine, so that it can conduct the electric fire
freely, you will find it stream out plentifully from the key on the approach of your
knuckle. At this key, the phial may be charged: and from electric fire thus
obtained, spirits may be kindled, and all the other electric experiments be
performed, which are usually done by the help of a rubbed glass globe or tube, and
thereby the sameness of the electric matter with that of lightning completely
demonstrated. [Priestly 1776]









Franklin flew the kite and small sparks (not lightning currents) came off the

bottom. In fact, if you put a conductor up slowly into the atmosphere, it generally does

not trigger lightning. You have to get a conductor up there (100 meters or so) in a hurry

in order to do so.

Real lightning research started in the 1880s when photography became possible. In

addition, in the 1920s and 30s, there were electromagnetic field measurements and higher

speed photography. All of the significant findings occurred after WWII when computers

oscilloscopes, radars, etc. became available.

The research based on artificially triggering lightning above ground by firing

rockets with trailing conducting wires into the air can trace its roots to France where they

have been credited with inventing the modem system in the 1980's.

The big impetus in the United States for research into triggering lightning came

from trying to understand why Apollo 12 in 1969 was struck by (actually initiated)

lightning at 5,000 feet and at 13,000 feet into its flight path.

The problem right after the Apollo event was for NASA to explain why they did

not know that the rocket was going to get struck by lightning under the existing

condition, in fact that the rocket would initiate the lightning. Now we know that when

large objects like airplanes and space vehicles get into the electric field produced by a

cloud, they can distort the electric field to the level that lightning is produced even if that

cloud were not going to produce lightning by itself. Thus if one triggered lightning on

purpose, one could study its properties. The era of triggered lightning began.

Lightning-related fatality, injury, and damage reports in the US were summarized

for 36 years since 1959, based on the NOAA publication Storm Data. There were 3239









deaths, 9818 injuries, and 19,814 property-damage reports from lightning during this

period. On average, 90 people are killed every year in the U.S. by lightning, with Florida

ranked first, with the most frequent cost of lightning-caused damages in the US to be

between $5,000 and $50,000 according to Storm Data. This range accounts for half of all

reports between 1959 and 1994. The categories of $500-5,000 and $50,000-500,000 are

also frequent. These three categories account for 92.7% of the reports. [Curran and

Holle, 1997]

A typical residential home in the United States gets its electricity from a local

power system via cables. Neutral of this electrical system is connected to ground, often

by a single, vertically driven metallic, ground rod. Lightning current can enter the

electrical system several ways. The system can suffer a direct strike, a flashover from a

nearby strike can bridge an air gap, lightning current can be injected into the ground rod

from current flowing on the ground surface or in the ground, an overvoltage could occur

if the power line is struck by lightning sending transient current pulse into the system,

and, several additional ways not discussed here. For this reason, it is important to study

the lightning current injected into the electrical system of a residential building.

Knowing the behavior of this current can provide better understanding of typical

lightning currents that are present when lightning current is directed to our homes, and

may lead to the design of better lightning protective systems.

In Chapter 2, a review of relevant lightning literature is presented. A general

overview of lightning phenomena is presented followed by the rocket-and-wire triggering

technique, an introduction of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing

(ICLRT), and an overview of similar previous experiment conducted at the ICLRT in









1997, concluding with current lightning protection standards. The experimental setup is

presented in Chapter 3, which contains the details of the lightning protective systems

used in 2004 and 2005. The tower launcher is discussed next followed by a description

of the injection of the lightning current into the Lightning Protective System (LPS) of the

Test House.

The instrumentation used to conduct experiments is described in Chapter 4. Details

of the measurement points, current measuring shunts, fiber-optic links, antialiasing filters,

digital storage oscilloscopes, video and still cameras, GPS timing method, and the

electric field mills are given.

Chapter 5 contains the presentation of data, the methodology behind the parameters

of the lightning current studied, and the statistical characterization of parameters

presented.

Analysis and discussion of the data are presented in chapter 6, along with lightning

damage to the test system and concluding with comparisons between the three individual

years of research covered in this thesis.

Chapter 7 contains a summary of the results of this thesis followed by

recommendations for future research which are outlined in Chapter 8.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter will present a general overview of lightning phenomena with emphasis

on the main mechanisms for a lightning discharge to ground. In addition, sections

covering the technique used for triggering lightning, an overview of the International

Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida and,

finally, similar experiments testing the performance of lightning protection from previous

years are presented.

2.1 General Overview of Lightning Phenomena

2.1.1 Types of Lightning Discharge

There are four categories of cloud to ground lighting:

* Downward negative lightning.
* Upward negative lightning.
* Downward positive lightning.
* Upward positive lightning.

Downward and upward negative lightning transport negative charge from cloud to

ground, whereas downward and upward positive lightning transport positive charge from

cloud to ground. One charge distribution model of a cumulonimbus cloud developed in

the early 1930's from ground-based measurements is that the primary thundercloud

charges form a positive electric dipole (positive charge region above negative charge

region) illustrated in Figure 2-1 [Simpson and Scrase (1937), and Simpson and Robinson

(1941)].


















4) 0n rd Nagyr w LW4*PrV pa) Nat hB L1flW1x










4cM Dorwd ftq" L~h" (dl LUM.fd POuW Lgh"i

Figure 2-1. Four types of lightning effectively lowering cloud charge to ground. Only the
leader is shown for each type. In each lightning-type name given below the
sketch, the direction of propagation of the initial leader and the polarity of the
cloud charge effectively lowering to ground are indicated. Adapted from
Rakov and Uman (2003).

It is thought that negative lightning accounts for more than 90 percent of all cloud

to ground lightning discharges.

Roughly, 75 percent of all lightning discharges do not contact the ground, that can

be classified into three types, intracloud, intercloud, and cloud-to air discharges.

Intracloud (understood to be the most common, except no supporting evidence

exists for this claim) lightning discharges occurs within the cloud. Intercloud discharges

transfer charge between clouds. Cloud to air discharges terminate in the clear air.

The type of lightning we are concerned with in this study is cloud to ground

discharge. All others do not affect ground-based objects such as buildings less than 20

meters tall. In general, cloud to ground lightning is attracted to the tallest structure in its

near vicinity which provides a path to ground.










Stolzenburg et al. (1998a, b, c) examined and summarized results from nearly 50

balloon electric field soundings through convective regions of mesoscale convective

systems (MCSs), isolated supercells, and isolated New Mexico mountain thunderclouds.

They noticed that these three types of thundercloud may be characterized by two basic

electrical structures, as illustrated in Figure 2.2.







y aega~~m --------_-^' ...+.*
*4 + + + +.i + + + ++-+
u --- + + + ++ +++
+ +"+' + +

++++ ++++.++







the diagram). The charge structure shown applies to the connective elements




Figure 2-2. Schematic of mesoscale convective systems (MCS), isolated supercell storms,egion of aNew
thunderstorm. Four cha y are seen in the updraft region, and six
charge layers are seen outside the updraft region (to the left of the updraft in
the diagram). The charge structure shown applies to the convective elements
of mesoscale convective systems (MCS), isolated supercell storms, and New
Mexican air-mass storms. Note there is a variability in this basic structure,
especially outside the updraft. Adapted from Stolzenburg et al. (1998b).

Ground flashes are initiated by stepped leaders originating in the thundercloud. A

stepped leader is the initial leader of a lightning discharge, which is an intermittently

advancing column of high ionization and charge that establishes the channel for the first

return stroke.

Speaking in general when the electric field in the negative portion of the cloud

becomes higher than the threshold value for electrical breakdown, a free electron is

accelerated to a point that it has enough kinetic energy to knock other electrons out of

molecules, when it strikes them. These other electrons begin accelerating, and start a









chain reaction, called an electron avalanche. This process may be the start of the so-

called stepped leader.

The stepped leader advances in incremental steps of some tens of meters at a time,

in the general direction of the ground below.

While the stepped leader travels downwards (at a rate of roughly 105 m/s), charge is

being deposited along the channel. As this stepped leader moves toward the ground, the

electric field intensity at the tip of objects experiences enhancement (increasing). When

the critical breakdown electric field of (30 kV cm-1 for dry air) is exceeded, an upward

propagating leader is initiated. Positively charged filaments of charge, termed streamers,

shoot upward from any object, which is residing there (generally a tall structure like a

building, tree, tower, etc.). When an upward connecting leader comes in contact with the

descending stepped leader, a return stroke is initiated.

The return stroke can be viewed as an ionizing wavefront. The current rises to

several thousands and up to 100 kA. The large current flowing will result in the heating

of the channel, which results in a shock wave and a bright flash of light.

When the channel is discharged, subsequent leaders may travel down along the

heated, preconditioned path. Another return stroke can occur, and this process may

continue as long as new charge is made available at the top portion of the channel, inside

the cloud. Up to 26 return strokes have been documented to occur in a single lightning

discharge, all within duration of one to two seconds. The human eye sees this as a

flickering of the lightning flash.

After a lightning flash has occurred, the storm cloud will recharge itself in a certain

amount of time, which depends on the activity of the storm. Some storms produce almost









continuous lightning (over 100 flashes per minute); some others produce just a single

flash during their entire lifetime which is on the order of 1 hour.

Objects taller than 100 m or so experience greater tip enhancement as the ambient

electric field rises, so that an upward lightning discharge may occur.

2.1.2 Ground Flash Density and Lightning Incidence to Structures

The occurrence of lightning per unit time was estimated by Brooks (1925) as the

global lightning flash rate to be approximately 100 s-1 (this includes all types of

lightning). Accurate lightning location indicating the number of lightning strikes to the

earth or to earth-based structures is accomplished using multiple-station lightning

detection systems, such as the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) [e.g.,

Jerauld et al., 2005].

The number of ground flashes per year per unit area, known as the ground flash

density, leads to the number of strikes to an object or structure, which we call the

incidence rate. Several models based upon observations have been developed for various

classes of structures such as airborne vehicles, land-based overhead transmission lines,

tall towers or masts, and buildings. The number of times struck can be calculated using

an assumed model.

Different geographical features as well as seasonal changes are two examples that

affect the number of lightning strikes. Japan Sea coast, for example, experiences the

most lightning activity during their winter months (November, December, January, and

February) whereas the United States experiences more lightning during the summer

months (May, June, July, and August). For example, based on 1989-98 NLDN data,

Tampa, Florida has a flash density of about 14 as opposed to parts of the California and

Oregon coasts, which have flash density of less than 0.1.









About 50 percent of ground flashes in New Mexico and Florida strike ground at

more than one point [Kitagawa et al., 1962; Rakov and Uman, 1990b].

The height of an object plays a significant role in determining the number of times

an object is struck. The taller the object, the more often it is struck. Height is not the

only factor to determine if a structure will be prone to lightning strikes, the location of the

object is also a major factor in determining the probability of receiving a direct strike.

Eriksson (1987) derived an equation for annual lightning incidence N to ground-based

objects, which have a height of 20 to over 500 m in various countries for both downward

and upward flashes

N=24 x 10-6Hz Ng Equation 2.1

where Hs is the height of the object in meters and Ng is the ground flash density in km-2

yr-. Another approximation for lightning incidence to a structure, which applies only to

cloud-to-ground lightning, relies on the concept of attractive area. The attractive area of

an object is an estimate of the exposure area of the grounded object. The attractive area

can be viewed as an area on flat ground that would receive the same number of lightning

strikes in the absence of the object, as does the object placed in the center of that area.

The attractive area is used to find the ground flash density as

Nd = A x Ng Equation 2.2

where the area A usually expressed in km2, is the attractive area, and Ng as before is the

ground flash density. The equivalent radius (or distance) Ra is assumed to be a function

of structure height Hs and usually expressed as

R aH=- Equation 2.3









where a and p are empirical constants. In the case of a mast, tower or chimney, the

attractive area is a circle. Different structures have different attractive areas. In the case

of a vertical power line, the attractive area is thought of as an attractive swath, or shadow

zone.

2.2 Rocket-and-Wire Lightning Triggering Technique

When sufficient charge resides overhead, as sensed by ground-based field mills, a

small (1 m long), wire trailing rocket is launched upward. A spool of thin (0.55 mm)

trailing wire attached to the base of the rocket, one end of this wire being connected to

ground, unwinds as the rocket travels towards the negative charge center overhead (see

Figure 2-3). When the rocket climbs to a height of about 200 to 300 meters, the

enhanced electric field at the tip of the rocket results in an upward positive leader which

extends towards the charge center aloft. The rocket-extended vertical grounded wire,

while initiating an upward positive leader, looks like a suddenly erected tall object to the

charge center in the cloud. When the upward positive leader arrives at the negative

charge center, (the thin trailing wire is vaporized by that time) it initiates an initial

continuous current (ICC). The ICC is not to be confused with continuing current (CC)

occurring often after return strokes) [Rakov and Uman (1990a)]. Then there is often a

no current interval followed by a downward negative dart leader, which is the beginning

of the leader-return stroke process (Figure 2-3). The percentage of flashes containing

return strokes is about 70 percent [Rakov et al., 2005]. Figure 2-4 shows a still picture of

a rocket-triggered lightning strike.













Natural -
Channel
T 107 m/s
105ms mis


I I
+
+ I
+

Copper
Wire Wire-Trace
2x102 i 300m / Channel t 10 m/s



1-2 s (Hundreds (Tens of ms)
of ms)
Ascending Upward Initial No-Current Downward Upward
Rocket Positive Continuous Interval Negative Retum
Leader Current Leader Stroke

Figure 2-3. Sequence of events leading to a rocket-triggered lightning discharge.
[Adapted from Rakov et al., 1998].

It is the return stroke which is the most studied process in the lightning discharge.

It is believed that the return stroke is responsible for the greatest damage to objects

struck. The return stroke in triggered lightning most closely resembles subsequent

strokes in natural lightning, and it is therefore valued as a study tool in understanding the

behavior of natural lightning.

2.3 International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT)

The International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) is located at

Camp Blanding, Florida, at coordinates 29056' N, 820 02' W, about 8 km east of Starke,

Florida, is a 1 km2 site on flat, sandy-soil, property on the Florida Army National Guard

base. The site is about 45 km north-east of the University of Florida (UF) which is

located in Gainesville, Florida. The ICLRT triggers lightning on a regular basis as a joint

University of Florida/Florida Tech research program.

























Figure 2-4. Rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research
and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. Note the multiple return
stroke channels that were blown to the right side of the photograph by the
wind.

The ICLRT was established in 1993 and from 1994 through 2004 was operated by

UF. Since 2005 it is jointly operated by the Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering of the University of Florida and the Physics Department of the Florida

Institute of Technology (Florida Tech). The ICLRT has several rocket launchers,

including an 11 meter tower launcher, an underground launcher, a runway launcher, and a

mobile launcher. Figure 2-5 is a 360-degree pictorial view of the ICLRT facilities as they

were in 2005, followed by an aerial view of the site in Figure 2-6.

Objects tested in previous studies include test house lightning protection (funded by

the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Duquesne Light Co.), test overhead

power lines (funded by EPRI and Florida Power and Light), a test runway (funded by

Florida DOT), and a number of other test objects and systems. Other objects on site

include specialty vehicles for setting power poles and rigging, as well as office and

storage trailers.









A 700 m2 wooden framed test house representing a typical residential structure in

Florida was constructed at the ICLRT in 2000 by Jim Walters Homes. The building is

elevated on cinder block piers, and its exterior is covered with hardy board lapped siding,

cedar wood trim, and asphalt roof shingles. The test house is a two-bedroom home fitted

with plumbing, wiring, and electrical fixtures. The interior walls, are not installed to

allow access for connecting instrumentation necessary for experimentation. A drawing

representing an overview of the ICLRT in 2005 is depicted in Figure 2-7.










360 view









Figure 2-5. A 3600 pictorial view of the ICLRT from the launch tower in 2005 with the
direction of orientation indicated.


Figure 2-6. Aerial view of the ICLRT in 1997. Photo courtesy of Dave Crawford.
































Test House


Test Test Runway
3-Phase
Distribution
Line


Figure 2-7. Overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida in 2005. IS1
Instrument Station 1.









2.4 1997 Test House Experiment

Previous experiments to study of lightning interacting with various systems

performed at the ICLRT are reviewed. In 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003 and 2004

experiments with overhead distribution lines were conducted. A test house experiment

was conducted in 1997 using a different structure than the present one. The former

structure was a small (about 20 m2) shed-like building referred to as the Simulation

House or just the Sim House (see Figure 2-8). For the remainder of this manuscript the

designation, test house, will be used in conjunction with all the 1997 work as well as the

2004 and 2005 work, implying a general name for the test structure to which we will

refer. In 1997, lightning current was injected into the grounding system of the test house,

as opposed to the 2004 and 2005 tests when current was injected into the LPS air-

terminal system on the house roof.

2.4.1 Overview

In 1997, the University of Florida (UF), using triggered lightning (e.g., Rakov,

1999) and a small test residential structure (test house) at the International Center for

Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, examined two

hypothetical scenarios suggested by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

for the lightning current distribution in the electrical circuit of a residential building

equipped with a lightning protective system when this system receives a direct strike.

In these two IEC scenarios, either 25 or 50% of the total lightning current is

assumed to enter the building's electrical circuit neutral and to flow to the distribution

transformer's ground and to other remote grounds in the system. It is important to note

that the IEC current distributions assume that the current waveshapes in all parts of the

circuit are the same, while in the experiment the current waveshapes in the two ground









rods (one ground rod for the lightning protective system and one for the power supply

system) of the test house differed markedly from the current waveshapes in other parts of

the test system. The grounding system of the test house was subjected to triggered-

lightning discharges for three different configurations, with the house's electrical circuit

(a utility meter followed by simulated resistive loads) being connected, via a 600-V

cable, to the secondary of a pad-mount transformer at the Instrument Station 1 (IS1),

about 50 m distant. The primary of the transformer was connected to a 650-m long 15-

kV underground cable, which was open-circuited at the other end. The cable neutral was

grounded at the transformer and at the open-circuited end. The test system (see Figure 2-

9) was unenergized.

The grounding system of the test house was subjected to triggered-lightning

discharges for three different configurations (discussed further below), and the division of

lightning current injected into the grounding system of the test house among the various

paths in the overall system was analyzed. Each configuration had a pair of ground rods at

the test house and one ground rod at IS1. The measurement stations consisted of the

following (not necessarily used for all measurements), Pearson current transformers (CT),

1 mQ current shunts, 15 kV and 400 kV resistive voltage dividers manufactured by

Lightning Technologies, Inc. (the 15 kV dividers were used to measure voltages in the

test house, on the transformer low-voltage side, the 200 kV dividers were used to

measure voltages on the underground cable and or, on the transformer high-voltage side).

Voltage attenuators, fiber-optic links, and digital storage oscilloscopes (DSOs) were used

on all measurements. Video and still cameras were also employed. A more detailed

description of the measurement setup can be found in Rakov et al. (2002).

































Figure 2-8. The launch tower and simulated house used in 1997.

2.4.2 Test Configurations

Three different configurations tested in 1997, are illustrated in Figures 2-10, 2-11,

and 2-12. These configurations were designed to examine the effects of the variation of

the resistance of the ground rods at the Simulated House and at IS1 and the presence or

absence of MOV surge protective devices (SPDs) at the Simulated House watt-hour

meter. The General Electric watt-hour meter had two internal 6-kV spark gaps connected

between the phase conductor and the neutral. When SPDs (EFI Electronics Corporation

Home Guard, mounted at the base of meter) were present, they were connected in parallel

with the spark gaps, as seen in Figures 2-10 and 2-11.

Configuration 97-A. In this test configuration, shown in Figure 2-10, the ground

rod at the Simulated House that simulated the lightning protective system grounding









(node A in Figure 2-10) and the ground rod that simulated the power supply system

grounding (node B in Figure 2-10) each had a length of about 3 m. Ground rods at IS1

and IS4 each had a length of about 6 m. The dc resistances, which were relatively high,

of the two ground rods at the test house, as well as the resistances of the ground rods at

IS1 and IS4, are given in Figure 2-10. The dc grounding resistance of the ground rod at

node A (1550 Q) was almost a factor of three higher than that at node B (590 Q),

possibly due to inhomogeneity of soil in the vicinity of the Simulated House. Note that

IEC 61 024-1 contains no requirement for the value of grounding resistance of an

ordinary building for which protection level III/IV is selected. Such buildings are only

required to have at least two grounding electrodes, either vertical of 2.5 m length or

horizontal of 5 m length, regardless of soil conductivity.

Configuration 97-B. The major difference between test configuration 97-B and

configuration 97-A is the lowered ground rod resistances at the Simulated House, at node

A from 1550 Q in 97-A to 41 Q, at node B from 590 Q in 97-A to 76 Q, and at the

transformer in IS1 from 250 Q in 97-A to 69 Q. The dc resistance of the ground rod at

IS4 remained the same, 124 Q. The lowering of the resistances of the ground rods was

accomplished by increasing the length of each of these rods. The lengths of the two rods

at the Simulated House were increased from 3 to about 15 m and the length of the rod at

IS1 from 6 to about 12 m. The test-system configuration 97-B is shown in Figure 2-11.

Note that there are a few changes in instrumentation with respect to configuration 97-A

shown in Figure 2-10. In particular, the total current entering the test house was not

measured in configuration 97-B, but it was estimated by subtracting current A3 from









current A2. Also, instead of measuring currents through the load resistors, currents

flowing along Xl and X3 toward the transformer (A6 and A7) were measured.

Configuration 97-C. Configuration 97-C is identical to configuration 97-B except

for the absence of SPDs at the watt-hour meter. The test-system configuration 97-C is

shown in Figure 2-12. Although the SPDs were absent, the built-in protective spark gaps

were present and apparently operated providing a path for the current to flow through the

phase conductors to the transformer secondary.


/ Pole 1 Pole 9 Pole 1
Test Runway


Figure 2-9. Overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing
(ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL, in 1997. Taken from Fernandez et al.
(1998).












WMtanmz Metr


Figure 2-10. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-A.
(2002).


Taken from Rakov et al.


WO-V


W~stbher M~,r


Figure 2-11. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-B. Taken from Rakov et al.
(2002).


6o-v
OLble
Okhi


***










WattkLuT Mtrh


NIo-v
Cabh


Figure 2-12. Electrical diagram of test configuration 97-C. Taken from Rakov et al.
(2002).

2.4.3 Results and Discussion

The total lightning current peak measured at the tower launcher, was somewhat

larger than the injected current peak, presumably due to flashovers to ground from the

metallic cable connecting the rocket launcher to node A. The focus in 1997 was to test

the validity of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) suggested divisions

of lightning current. No data are available for the current in the ground rod at IS4, but it

is probably not much different from the current entering the cable neutral at IS1, since the

cable had a polyethylene jacket and was inside PVC conduit.

Results of the 1997 experiment are presented by Rakov et al. (2002). The two

ground rods at the test house appeared to filter out the higher frequency components of

the lightning current, allowing the lower frequency components to enter the house's

electrical circuit neutral. In other words, the ground rods exhibited a capacitive rather









than the often expected and usually modeled resistive behavior. This effect was observed

for dc resistances of the ground rods (in typical Florida sandy soil) ranging from more

than a thousand ohms to some tens of ohms. The peak value of the current entering the

test house's electrical circuit neutral was found to be over 80% of the injected lightning

current peak, in contrast with the 25 or 50% assumed in two IEC-suggested scenarios.

More detailed results for each configuration are given below.

Configuration 97-A. The total lightning current measured at the tower launcher

had a negative peak of about 17 kA, a 10-90% risetime of about 1 [as, and a half-peak

width of 60 j[s. The injected lightning current, had a negative peak of about 14 kA. The

current to ground at the first ground rod (node A) has a negative peak of about 2.8 kA,

with a 10-90% risetime and a half-peak width of 0.4 and 0.9 as, respectively. The

current to ground at the second ground rod (node B) has a negative peak of about 1.8 kA

and a waveshape, which is similar to that of the current in the first ground rod. The

current that flowed into the electrical circuit of the test house, has a negative peak value

of about 14 kA. This current waveform apparently represents an injected lightning

current which has been "filtered" by the two ground rods. The ground rods apparently

removed primarily the higher frequency components of the lightning current, allowing

the lower frequency components to flow into the house's electrical circuit. Interestingly,

the peak value of current in the higher-resistance rod at node A is appreciably higher than

that in the lower-resistance rod at node B. The amplitude of the "filtered" current

waveform was essentially the same as the amplitude of the injected lightning current

waveform. Thus the ground rods appear to act as shunt capacitors that appreciably

degrade the front of the current waveform entering the service entrance but do not much









influence the peak current value, the current peak remained essentially the same (within

the measurement error of 15 to 20%) in this particular case. Note that in studies of the

transient behavior of grounding systems the capacitance of grounding electrodes in high-

conductivity soils, which is not the case at Camp Blanding, is usually neglected

[Rakotomalala et al., 1994]. The current injected into the service entrance splits between

the SPDs, the load resistors, and the service entrance neutral. The current to ground at

IS1 had a peak of about 7.9 kA. It appears that the SPDs at the test house watt-hour

meter operated. The major result from this test is the observation that the current

waveshapes in the ground rods at the test house differ markedly from the current

waveshapes in other parts of the system. The rods had a length of about 3 m and were

driven in typical sandy Florida soil whose measured conductivity was about 2.5 x 10 4

S/m. The bulk of the lightning current appears to have been forced into the distribution

system remote earthing (ground rods at IS 1 and IS4), with the ground rods at the test

house taking the primarily higher frequency components associated with the initial rising

portion of the injected lightning current.

Configuration 97-B. The total lightning current measured at the tower launcher

had a peak of about 19 kA, a 10-90% risetime of 0.6 [as, and a half-peak width of 57 [as.

The injected lightning current had a peak of about 14 kA. Similar to configuration 97-A,

currents to ground Al and A3 (the test house grounds) exhibit appreciably narrower

waveshapes than does the injected lightning current. Note that, as opposed to

configuration 97-A, the peak current in the higher-resistance rod at node B is lower than

in the lower-resistance rod at node A. The peak current entering the house's electrical

circuit is about 93% (versus essentially 100% for configuration 97-A) of the injected









lightning current peak. Similar to configuration 97-A, at 50 [ts the ratio of the currents to

ground at IS1 and into the cable neutral is approximately 2:1.

Configuration 97-C. There was video evidence that there were sparks in and

around the service panel during this test, and the meter incurred considerable physical

damage. The total lightning current measured at the tower launcher had a peak of about

12 kA, a 10-90% risetime of about 0.46 [as, and a half-peak width of about 32 Its. The

injected lightning current had a negative peak of about 9.8 kA. Similar to the previous

two configurations, the ground rods appeared to filter out the higher frequency

components of the lightning current, allowing the lower frequency components to enter

the house's electrical circuit. The amplitude of the "filtered" current waveform is about

81% of the amplitude of the injected lightning current waveform. At 50 as, the ratio of

currents flowing to ground at IS1 and into the cable neutral is approximately 3:1 versus

2:1 for configurations 97-A and 97-B.

A summary of selected peak currents, measured at the test house for the three

different configurations will be discussed now. Note that the SPDs were absent in

configuration 97-C, and that the built-in spark gaps apparently operated. The peak value

of the current into the test house is from 81 to 100% of the injected current peak.

The narrow current pulses observed in the ground rods at the test house could be

explained, if one assumed these rods to be purely resistive and to be separated from the

remote ground rods by a large inductance. Indeed, when a lightning current is injected

into a resistive ground rod connected to another ground rod via a large inductance, the

higher frequency components characteristic of the initial rising portion of the current

waveform are blocked by the large inductance from flowing toward the "remote" rod and,









as a result, are forced to flow into the "local" rod. For the later portion of the lightning

current waveform that is characterized by relatively low frequency components, the

inductance presents a smaller impedance, and, therefore, the lower-frequency

components are allowed to flow toward the "remote" rod. In this view, at later times the

division of current between the ground rod at the current injection point and the

remainder of the system is determined by grounding resistances in the system (e.g., Birkl

et al., 1996). After some tens of microseconds or less (after some microseconds for

configuration 97-A), currents in the ground rods at the test house are essentially zero,

while appreciable current, of the order of kiloamperes, flows into the system at 200 ts

and beyond. For configurations 97-B and 97-C, if the ground rods were purely resistive,

they would be conducting a larger current than the current flowing toward IS1 and IS4 at

later times, because the total resistance of the two ground rods at the test house (41 Q in

parallel with 76 Q) is smaller than the total resistance of ground rods at IS1 and IS4 (69

Q in parallel with 124 Q).

Grcev (1998) theoretically showed that a capacitive behavior should be expected,

above a so-called characteristic frequency, for relatively short ground rods in relatively-

low-conductivity soils. For frequencies below the characteristic frequency, grounding

impedance is independent of frequency, that is, is resistive, while for frequencies above

the characteristic frequency the grounding impedance either increases (inductive

behavior) or decreases capacitivee behavior) with increasing frequency. The

characteristic frequency decreases with increasing soil conductivity and with increasing

grounding electrode length. For soil with an electrical conductivity of 10-3 S/m (a factor

of 4 higher than the measured soil conductivity at Camp Blanding) and a relative









permittivity of 10, the characteristic frequency decreases from about 500 kHz to about 5

kHz as the length of the grounding electrode increases from 2 to 128 m, with the

electrode's behavior changing from capacitive to inductive at a length of 16 m. However,

the capacitive behavior described above is expected only for the initial rising portion of

the injected current waveforms, while the observed essentially zero current in ground

rods at the test house at later times suggests a capacitive behavior of these rods also

during the tail portion of the injected current. It appears that the impedance to ground at

the test house at later times is much higher than the impedance seen looking toward the

rest of the system, regardless of the fact that the dc grounding resistances of the two rods

at the house varied from more than a thousand ohms to tens of ohms.

2.5 Lightning Protection Standards

In general, there are two aspects of lightning protection design: (i) diversion and

shielding, intended for structural protection but also serving to reduce the lightning

electric and magnetic fields within the structure, and (ii) the limiting of currents and

voltages on electronic power, and communication systems via surge protection. We will

look at aspect (i) now.

The diversion of lightning current is accomplished by using a combination of air

terminals (also known as Franklin rods, named after their inventor, Benjamin Franklin),

down conductors, and ground rods. There are multiple configurations for different

applications, both with simple and complicated geometries, yet the concept is universal.

The air terminal(s) acts as a lightning interceptor. Once the lightning attaches to the

Franklin rod (air terminal) the current divides among multiple down conductors (at least

two down conductors are required) and is directed to ground rods in the earth at the

corners of the structure (see Figures 2-13 and 2-14, which illustrate this). Optional









ground terminals and a loop conductor (ring electrode) can be installed. Ground

terminals shall be copper-clad steel, solid copper, hot-dipped galvanized steel, or stainless

steel. Ground electrodes shall be installed below the frost line where possible (excluding

shallow topsoil conditions). Concrete encased electrodes shall be used only in new

construction. The electrode shall be located near the bottom of a concrete foundation or

footing that is in direct contact with the earth and shall be encased by not less than 2 in,

(50.8 mm) of concrete as per National Fire Protection Association standard, NFPA 780.

This lightning protection scheme was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin and is

specified, for example, in the US lightning protection standard NFPA-780. According to

the most recent lightning protection standards, NFPA-780 (2004 as of this writing, with

the next revision due in 2007), provides guidelines for lightning protection installation

requirements for the following:

* Ordinary structures.
* Miscellaneous structures and special occupancies.
* Heavy-duty stacks.
* Watercraft.
* Structures containing flammable vapor, flammable gases, or liquids that give off
flammable vapors.


The purpose of NFPA 780 is to provide for the safeguarding of persons and

property from hazards arising from exposure to lightning. More information on properly

protecting a structure against lightning as per NFPA 780 can be found on the World Wide

Web at: http://www.nfpa.org.

Lightning protective system tested in this study was in accordance with the NFPA


780.
































Figure 2-13. Air terminals on a pitched roof A = 0.6 m (2 ft) or 7.6 m (25 ft) maximum
spacing. B = Air terminals are located within 0.6 m (2 ft) of ends of ridges
[NFPA 780].

Optional ground
terminals











Loop conductor


Figure 2-14. Typical loop conductor electrode installation.














CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

This chapter will describe in detail the experimental setup utilized in the Summers

of 2004 and 2005 for studying the interaction of rocket-triggered lightning with the

Lightning Protective System (LPS) of a residential building (test house). The installation

of the LPS followed the NFPA 780 (2004 edition) standard for the installation of

structural lightning protection systems.

3.1 Test House and Its Lightning Protective System (LPS)

This section contains a description of the 2004 and 2005 experiments with

emphasis being placed on the 2005 experiment. The objectives for both years were

similar: the evaluation of the overall performance of a lightning protective system (LPS)

of a test residential building and examination of the distribution of the lightning current

that is injected into the LPS among multiple ground terminals.

3.1.1 2004

In 2004, the LPS, schematically shown in Figure 3-1, was installed on the test

house by a Lightning Safety Alliance (LSA) team. The lightning current was injected to

one (south) of the three interconnected air terminals that were connected via two down

conductors (downleads) to ground rods at opposite covers of the test house (see Figure

3-1). There were two 2.74 m vertical LPS ground rods at each SW and NE covers,

separated by about 6.1 m and connected by a buried horizontal conductor. There was an

additional power supply system ground rod in the middle of the north side of the house.

This ground rod was connected by a buried horizontal conductor approximately 3.4 m









long to one of the NE corer LPS ground rods (see Figure 3-1). Electrical diagram is

shown in Figure 3-2. The interior electrical wiring of the house was disconnected and

replaced by a simulated load composed of two resistors (4 and 6 ohms) at the inside

distribution box. Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) surge protective devices (SPDs), which

clamp the voltage when it exceeds a certain level, safely diverting most of the surge

energy to the grounding system, were installed between the two phase conductors and the

grounded neutral. When the transient is over, a MOV returns to its original state

(becomes essentially an open circuit) and is ready for the next overvoltage surge.

A watt-hour meter was installed between the house electrical circuit and the

underground power feeder (600-V cable). There was no power to the house, and the

other end of the 600-V cable was terminated at Instrumentation Station 1 (IS1) (see

Figure 2-9), 50 m away, in high energy rating 50-ohm resistors. The cable's neutral was

grounded at IS1 using a single vertical ground rod with a length of 12 m. The grounding

resistance of the ground rod at IS1 was 69 Q. Dc grounding resistances for each

grounding location at the test house are given in Figure 3-2. The dc grounding resistance

of the entire system unburied was 130 Q and for the entire system buried 113 Q.

Grounding resistances were measured using the fall-of-potential method (see Appendix

A).

Currents were measured at six points, labeled A, B, C, D, G, and K (see Figures 3-1

and 3-2). Points A and B were on downleads at two opposite corners of the house. Point

C was the power supply system ground, and point G was the ground at IS1. Point D is on

the ground conductor from the power entry box (service entrance panel) down to the

power supply system ground rod, so that it represents the current entering the electrical










circuit neutral. A Pearson 110A current transformer was used to measure the current at

point K, and 1-mQ shunts were used at points A, B, C, D, and G.

The lightning current was directed, via a 32-m long metallic conductor, from the

tower launcher to one (south) of the three test house air terminals (see Figure 3-1). The

horizontal distance between the launcher and test house is about 27 m.

In addition to the six current measurement points associated with the test house and

remote ground (IS1), the incident lightning current was measured at the launch tower.

Lightning current
injection point

Air 4



To electrical








Figure 3-1. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2004. All
conductors below the plane labeled "Ground Level" are buried (in direct
contact with earth).
A


Smeter 600-V Cable




Buried
conductor

(B) C G

336 0 4680 6680 690

Figure 3-2. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2004. Currents A, B, C,
D, and K were measured at the test house, and current G was measured at IS1,
50 m away.
50 m away.









3.1.2 2005

The LPS for the 2005 experiment, installed on the test house on May 23, 2005, was

a modification to the LPS installed in 2004 (see Section 3.1.1). The 2005 setup consisted

of two interconnected air terminals, four down conductors, and five ground rods (four for

the LPS and one for the power supply system) interconnected by a buried loop conductor

referred to as a ring grounding electrode or counterpoise (see Figure3-3). Electrical

diagram is shown in Figure 3-4.

LPS vertical ground rods each had a length of 2.7 m, with dc grounding resistances

being given in Figure 3-4. The power supply system ground rod had a length of 3 m and

measured grounding resistance of 524 Q. The dc grounding resistance of the entire test

house grounding system buried was 121 Q. The dc grounding resistance of the ground

rod at IS1 was 69 Q. The fall-of-potential technique was used to measure the ground

resistance (see Appendix A). As in 2004, the test system was unenergized.

Currents were measured at six points, labeled A, Al, B, B1, D, and G (see Figures

3-3 and 3-4). One-mQ shunts were used to measure current at all the points.

The lightning current was directed from the tower launcher, via the lead conductor

to an instrumentation box located at the position of the middle air terminal in 2004

(removed in 2005) on the roof of the test house, to the horizontal conductor connecting

the two LPS air terminals (see Figures 3-3 and 3-5), and then flows through four

downleads to five vertically driven ground rods, interconnected by the counterpoise.

Current that is not dissipated in the ground locally can flow along the neutral of the 600-

V cable to remote grounding at IS some 50 meters north- northeast of the test house.

Some current can also flow through built-in meter air gaps, and/or insulation breakdown

paths.


























Figure 3-3. Diagram of the lightning protective system of the test house in 2005. All
conductors below the plane labeled "Ground Level" are buried (in direct
contact with earth). See also Figure 3-4.


SWatt-hour
meter
mtr 600-V Cable


50 0 50

| A l B ) D B1 G

442 488 518 524Q 636 0 690
Buried loop conductor

Figure 3-4. Electrical diagram of test system configuration for 2005. Currents A, Al, B,
B 1, and D were measured at the test house, and current G was measured at
IS1, 50 m away.

The air terminals (see Figure 3-6) are blunt tipped solid copper rods which have

diameter and length of 9.5 mm and 305 mm (3/8" and 12"), respectively, with a tip height

to tip radius-of-curvature ratio of about 32. They are fastened to the ridge of the roof

using a copper ridge saddle base mounted with stainless steel fasteners (see Figure 3-7).









The two air terminals, and the five ground rods were interconnected by class 1

(diameter of 9.5 mm) copper wire (29 strands of 17 AWG (diameter of 1.2 mm), rated for

192 Lbs. per 1000'), using bronze ground clamps. The copper-clad steel ground rods

used at the test house had diameter of 13 mm, and length of 2.74 mm (1/2" and 108"

respectively) and were vertically driven into the soil, one at each corner, and one at the

electrical service panel. The five, roughly, 3-meter, ground rods were interconnected

with class 1 (diameter of 9.5 mm) copper wire, buried at a depth of 0.61 m (24"), which

encircled the test house. This buried circumferential grounded electrode is called a ring

electrode or counterpoise. The ground rod at the entrance of the electrical service panel

of the test house had a 4-gauge (diameter of 5.2 mm) copper wire running from the tip of

the ground rod to the ground rail of the electrical service panel (see Figure 3-8).


Figure 3-5. The lightning current injection point to the LPS in 2005.









There were two outdoor electrical service boxes mounted to the north side of the

test house. One box contained the electrical connections for the electrical wiring

belonging to the electrical system of the test house, and the other, the connections for a

watt-hour meter and simulated incoming power cables. A surge protective device,

Intermatic PanelGuard, light commercial/residential surge protector Model #IG1240RC

was connected at the electrical service panel, however a switch disconnected it during the

2005 experiment so that the watt-hour meter was protected only by built-in spark gaps.


Figure 3-6. Blunt-tipped air terminal on the roof of the test house.



























Figure 3-7. The air terminal connection detail on the roof of the test house.


Figure 3-8. The 600-V cable and power supply grounding connections in 2005, left) watt-
hour meter disconnected, right) the watt-hour meter installed.









3.2 Tower Launcher

An 11-meter, cantilevered, wooden, tower sits about 500 meters southeast of the

office trailer at geospatial coordinates 29.94267N, 82.03184W. Mounted to the top of the

cantilevered section of the tower, is an aluminum structure with fiberglass legs called the

tower launcher, rocket launcher, or just the launcher. The launcher has a maximum

capacity of 12 rockets and due to its fiberglass legs, the structure electrically 'floats' (see

Figure 3-9 and 3-10). Secured to the tower launcher is a metal box, which houses the

main launch mechanism or launch control box (see Figure 3-10). The same tower

launcher was used in both 2004 and 2005 (also 1997), but differences did exist with

respect to how the lightning current was directed to the test house (see Section 3-3).


-_I -


Figure 3-9. The tower launcher setup for 2005.




























I ,ihergla4s legs

Figure 3-10. A close up view of the tower launcher showing rocket tubes, fiberglass legs,
and tower measurement box.

3.3 Injection of Lightning Current into the LPS of the Test House

This section describes how the triggered-lightning current was directed to the test

house in 2004 and 2005.

3.3.1 2004

In 2004, lightning was triggered using the tower launcher and its current was

directed, via a metallic cable, from a horizontally oriented "U" shaped metallic structure

(also referred to as "ring" or intercepting conductor) installed above the tower launcher

platform (see Figure 3-11) to the test house (or to the test power line for a separate

experiment in the same year). The function of the intercepting conductor was to isolate

the test house (or the power line) from the initial stage (IS) current of rocket-triggered-

lightning, which followed a path down the tower to ground. As a result, the strike object









would be exposed only to those return strokes (and their following continuing current, if

any) that successfully attached to the intercepting conductor. Current from the

interceptor flowed through an instrumentation box just to the south of the launch tower,

to one (south) of the three test house air terminals. There were two measurements of the

current in the instrumentation box.





















Figure 3-11. Close up view of the tower launcher platform at the ICLRT in 2004.

3.3.2 2005

There was no interceptor in 2005, so that both the initial stage currents and return-

stroke currents were injected into the test house. Additionally, the lightning current had

to pass through the so-called NOx chamber (used for another experiment). In the

following we will describe in more detail how the house current was directed from the

launcher to the test house. This was accomplished via a braided metallic cable, which we

call a lead conductor. When lightning terminates on the launcher, the current flows on

the surface of the structure, putting the measurement box at the same potential as the

launcher. The lead conductor at the tower was connected to the bottom of the shunt (see









Figure 3-12), which was bolted to the bottom of the tower measurement box with the

lightning current. Then the lead conductor ran vertically downward under the cantilever

section of the launch platform, north under the cantilever, connecting to a long insulator

for stability midway below the cantilever. The lead conductor continued north to a

shorter insulator on the north side of the cantilever (see Figure 3-13), then, was directed

vertically upward, and connected to the launcher-side electrode, which protruded from a

polyurethane chamber used in a companion experiment to measure the amount of NOx

produced by lightning discharges. The continuation of the lead conductor is attached to

the test house-side electrode of the NOx chamber, and then ran towards the test house,

terminating to the center terminal of the shunt that was mounted to the roof measurement

box (see Figure 3-14). The outer terminal of the shunt was connected to the outside of

the roof measurement box.


Current me.asurmig Sluit




Additional
curreIit Lcad
Iileauind iLg conductor
devices








Figure 3-12. The lead conductor attached to the center lug of the shunt mounted on the
tower measurement box in 2005.






























Figure 3-13. The lead conductor ran from the tower launcher shunt to a long insulator
under the cantilever to a shorter insulator (foreground), and bridged a 3-cm
gap in the NOx chamber, then directed towards the test house (2005).


Figure 3-14. The lead conductor clamps to the outlet electrode of the NOx chamber, then
is directed to an insulator (not visible in this picture), and then travels towards
the test house roof measurement box (2005).









Thus the NOx chamber was inserted in the current path of the lightning current

injected into the LPS of the test house. In the following we will briefly describe the NOx

chamber.

A chamber to measure the amount of NOx produced by triggered-lightning was

placed on the tower's northwest corer of the cantilever. The chamber consisted of a

sealed, 0.757 cubic meters (200 gallon) polyurethane drum. The chamber had two

identical tungsten-tipped copper electrodes that were inserted roughly into the middle of

the chamber and formed a 3 cm air gap, as shown in Figure 3-15. This gap was bridged

by the lightning current before it was injected into the LPS of the test house. The small

gap is not expected to alter the current characteristic of the lightning.


To test house From launcher
current flow















Tungsten-tipped electrodes

Figure 3-15. The inside of the NOx chamber showing the 3 cm electrode air gap (2005).

We have discussed the experimental setup for the test house in 2004 and 2005, with

emphasis on 2005. Chapter 4 will contain additional details of the instrumentation used

for the 2004 and 2005 experiments.














CHAPTER 4
INSTRUMENTATION

4.1 Overview

The current produced by lightning is difficult to measure, due in part to its variable

amplitude and fast rise-times. Triggered-lightning currents as high as 60 kA have been

recorded at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT).

Typical first-stroke currents in natural lightning vary from 30 to 50 kA, with subsequent

typical strokes having currents from 10 to 15 kA. Berger et al. (1975) observed risetimes

of 5.5 microseconds for typical first strokes, with stroke current duration to half-peak

width of about 75 [as. For natural subsequent strokes, typical risetime and half-peak

width are 1.1 and 32 [as, respectively. Flash durations range from hundreds of

milliseconds to 1 to 2 seconds.

This chapter will give an overview of how the lightning protection system installed

on the test house and the associated electrical circuit were instrumented, and, the types of

instrumentation used for the 2004 and 2005 experiments, with emphasis on the 2005

experiment.

4.1.1 2004

The triggered-lightning current (injected current) in 2004 was measured at the

launcher using two 1-mQ shunts. The launch tube assembly atop the tower platform was

grounded with a fine fuse wire that vaporizes when the initial-stage current flows. When

the initial-stage current stops, the launch tube assembly was no longer grounded, so

following strokes would attach to the interceptor (see Figure 3-11) and be directed to the









test house via a lead conductor (see Figure 4-1). The injected current divided between

two downconductors and directed to five ground rods and, via a 600-V cables neutral, to

a remote vertically driven ground rod at Instrumentation station 1 (IS1) (see Figure 4-4).

Two load resistors placed inside the test house were instrumented as well. Figure 3-2

shows an electrical drawing of the 2004 test house experiment with all the measurement

points indicated.

4.1.2 2005

Lightning was triggered using the tower launcher shown in Figure 4-2. The

triggered-lightning current was directed via a braided, metallic strap called a lead

conductor to the test house shown in Figure 4-3. The directed current then followed four

downconductors and directed to five interconnected copper-clad steel ground rods at the

test house and, via a 600-V cable's neutral, to one remote vertical ground rod located at

IS1 some 50 meters away (see Figure 4-4). The current was measured using shunts (see

Section 4.3), whose output signals were relayed via fiber-optic links (see Section 4.4) to

digital storage oscilloscopes (DSOs) in the launch control trailer (see Section 4.6).


TowLr -- nterceptor
launcher


Lead conducto







Current measuring box


Figure 4-1. 2004 tower launcher with interceptor, lead conductor, and current measuring
box shown.


































Figure 4-2. The tower launcher at the ICLRT in 2005.


Roof measurement box


Figure 4-3. The lead conductor connecting the tower launcher to the test house in 2005.



























Figure 4-4. IS1 (center) is located some 50 meters northeast of the test house. The
underground 600-V cable ran between the test house and IS1 (2005).

4.2 Measurement Points

A total of 6 and 8 measurement points were used for the 2004 and 2005

experiments, respectively. The following subsections will describe the measurement

points for each year.

4.2.1 2004

For the 2004 experiment, there were six measurement stations. Ground currents

were measured, using 1-mQ shunts, at points A, B, C, and G represented by an electrical

schematic in Figure 3-2. The shunts were configured in such a way that positive current

flowing into the ground rod would produce a positive voltage. Points A and B were at

the southwest and northeast corners of the test house, respectively, C was the electrical

power entry ground, point D was on the ground conductor from the power entry box

(service entrance panel) down to the power entry ground rod, and point G was the ground

rod at IS1 (see Figures 4-5 to 4-10). The polarity was such that positive current flowing

from the entry box to the ground rod produces a positive voltage. Point K was located









inside the test house on the distribution panel (see Figure 4-9). A Pearson 110 A current

transformer (CT) was used to measure the current that flowed through the neutral to the

two load resistors. The orientation was such that positive current flowing into the neutral

produced a positive voltage. In addition to the six current measurement points associated

with the test house and IS1, the injected lightning current was measured as described

next.

The injected current was directed, via a metallic cable, from the interceptor on the

launch tower, through an instrumentation box just to the south of the launch tower, to one

(south) of the three test house air terminals. There were two measurements of the

current, high and low, in the instrumentation box. The low-level current measurement

was for recording primarily initial-stage currents and continuing currents that often

follow a return stroke.

Ground current measurement stations consisted of a current shunt (Section 4.3),

fiber-optic link with some length of fiber-optic cable (Section 4.4.2), PIC controller, and

a channel on a digital storage oscilloscope (Section 4.6).

Table 4.1 summarizes the locations of the measurements. A diagram of the

physical locations of the measurements can be found in Figure 3-1.

Table 4-1. Current measurement locations for 2004.
Measurement point Location
Tower-High Tower launcher
Tower-Low Tower launcher
Interceptor-High Tower launcher
Interceptor-Low Tower launcher
Point A SW comer
Point B NE comer
Point C North side of test house
Point D Electrical ground
Point G Instrumentation station 1
Point K Inside test house

























Figure 4-5. Measurement point A at southwest corner.


Figure 4-6. Measurement point B at northeast corner.


Figure 4-7. Measurement point C at electrical service (power supply system) ground.
























Figure 4-8. Measurement point D at test house.


Figure 4-9. Measurement point K at service entrance panel inside the test house.


Figure 4-10. Measurement point G at instrumentation station 1.









4.2.2 2005

There were eight measurement stations for the 2005 experiment to examine current

division through the LPS. Each measurement, or measurement station, consisted of a

current shunt (see Section 4.3), fiber-optic link, some length of fiber-optic cable, PIC

controller and a channel on a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). Video and still cameras

viewed two instrumented points (the tower launcher, and the roof box on the test house).

Two measurements, Tower-High and Tower-Low, located at the base of the tower

launcher utilized a 1-mo current measuring shunt bolted directly to an instrument box at

the base of the launcher (Figure 4-11). The Roof-High and Roof-Low measurements

were located on the roof of the test house in a roof-mounted measurement box (see

Figure 4-12), midway between the north and south air terminals. A shunt was bolted

directly to the roof mounted instrumentation box (see Figure 4.12). The outside of the

measurement box on the roof (carrying the lightning current) was connected to the LPS

by a short (0.15 m) length of copper cable (Figure 4-14).

Point A was located at the southwest corer, point Al at the southeast corner, point

B at the northeast corner, point B at the northwest corner, point D midway between

points B and B on the north side at the base of the electrical service panel of the test

house, and point G was located at IS1, about 50 meters north-northeast of the test house.

The measurement points A, Al, B, B1, D were located around the test house, to further

illustrate the LPS and the location of the measurements with respect to the test house, an

overlayed drawing on a photo of the test house is presented in (Figures 4-15 and 16) with

measurement point G located some 50 meters from the test house at IS1 (not shown).























50 0 to Current c 7W
Smeasuring hun hort oaialcabl
. ,


Figure 4-11. Tower incident current measurement box shown in the open position (2005).


Figure 4-12. Test house roof incident current measurement box shown in the open
position (2005).







53






Curentmneuring Rooftnliumentatio bx
shlmt


Lead conductor connection
Ceramic lnsulator ,

--
--' .- -"2


Figure 4-13. Roof shunt mounted to the instrumentation box on the test house (2005).


C~U:


Figure 4-14. Incident current connection point to the lightning protective system (2005).

































Figure 4-15. 2005 test house with an overlayed representation of the lightning protective
system (drawn in white), as seen from the tower launcher.


. Air TCrmlTIn


Figure 4-16. 2005 test house with an overlayed representation of the lightning protective
system (drawn in white), as viewed from the north side of the building.
Note, that the white plastic gutter running from the test house towards the
foreground of the photograph is not a part of the LPS.









Table 4.2 summarizes the locations of the measurements. A diagram of the

physical locations can be found in Figure 3-3.

Table 4-2. Current measurement locations for 2005.
Measurement point Location
Tower-High Tower launcher
Tower-Low Tower launcher
Roof-High Roof box
Roof-Low Roof box
Point A SW Comer
Point Al SE Comer
Point B NE Comer
Point D North side between pts. B & B1
Point B1 NW comer
Point G Instrument station 1


The different measurement setups for 2004 and 2005 have been briefly discussed.

We now discuss the details of the instrumentation used for the 2005 experiment some of

which is relevant for both 2004 and 2005 (and for 1997).

4.3 Current Measuring Shunts

We used T&M Research Products, Inc. shunts, model R-5600-8, having a

bandwidth of 12 MHz, yielding a 45 ns risetime, resistance specified at 1.25-mQ, able to

dissipate 7000 Joule, and rated to withstand 225 watts. The methodology to measure the

current in 2005 will now be discussed.

Current shunts (eight in all for 2005) placed at every measurement point were used

for 10 measurements of the current. The current first passes through the shunt, to a fiber-

optic transmitter (Section 4.4), and then sent via a 200 micron glass fiber-optic cable to

the launch control trailer whereby the signal is fed into the receiver, and passed to a

digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) (Section 4.6), where it is saved for later analysis. One

shunt was placed on the tower, bolted to the measurement box, another bolted to the roof

measurement box on the test house, and five shunts were placed around the test house,








with one shunt placed at IS 1. All ground based shunts were vertically mounted, using

PVC pipe to provide the shunt with support and to keep it insulated (see Figure 4-17).

The shunts were calibrated before being placed into service. The method used for

calibration will be discussed next.

For testing and calibrating a current shunt, a known, fast-rising current with

amplitude less than 100 amperes, is applied through a calibrated Pearson Coil Model 101

(calibrated by Mr. George Schnetzer in 2004), which had a calibration factor of 0.00505

V/A. The fast rising pulse emitted from a device developed at the ICLRT for this

purpose, is injected into the shunt with the resulting voltage across it, recorded (the

calibration circuit is shown Figure 4-18).

-C


Figure 4-17. Current shunt vertically mounted and placed inside of a PVC pipe (2005).

























Figure 4-18. Diagram of the shunt calibration setup.

The calibration of the shunt can be described using Kirchhoff s voltage law. We

know that

V = k, -I Equation 4-1


V2 = k2 I Equation 4-2

where kl = 0.00505 V/A, and k2 is the calibration factor of the shunt to be determined.

Since we know the constant ki we can rewrite the equation above in terms of the current

V V V -k
k2 V V2 Equation 4-3.
I V,l /k, V,

By measuring Vi and V2 using an oscilloscope we can compute k2, the calibration

factor of the shunt, which is equivalent to the resistance of the shunt (remembering the

specified resistance for these shunts were approximately 1.25-mQ).

With the resistance known, we turn our attention to the calculation of the

calibration factor associated with a particular measurement. A calibration, or scaling









factor is needed to properly convert the oscilloscopes digitized voltage into the correct

units representing the current measured at each station.

If we assume a perfect fiber-optic link, i.e. one having no gain or attenuation, the

voltage recorded on the oscilloscope (V) will be

V = 0.5 R-I-K Equation 4-4

where the value 0.5 comes from the voltage divider of the electrical circuit, representing

the physical circuit (Figure 4-19), R the shunt resistance (shunt calibration factor k2), I

the current, and K the PIC attenuation. Therefore the nominal calibration factor (IV) is


I
-= (0.5 R K)
V


Equation 4-5.


If the fiber-optic link has some gain or attenuation (GCAL), then

V = 0.5 R I K GCAL

in this case, we have

I
= (0.5 R K GCAL)1
V


Pulser


=45 V


Equation 4-6




Equation 4-7.




ISOBE


45 V 4
2 2


Figure 4-19. The electrical representation for a measurement calibration (2005).

Another calibration factor we need to pay attention to is the variable

gain/attenuation factor GCAL, is estimated by passing a 100 Hz square wave, 1 V peak-to-

peak signal before and after a thunderstorm. The two peak-to-peak values are averaged









in order to get an estimate for GCAL and the resulting value of GCAL will become the 'shot

CAL factor', as follows


GCAL = BEFOREE + AFTER ) Equation 4-8.
2

If the fiber-optic link is properly calibrated before the storm, then GCAL a 1,

meaning the actual calibration factor should be close to the nominal calibration factor of

one.

We now have enough information to calculate the attenuation settings for each

measurement. Using basic circuit theory, Ohm's Law states:

V = I* R Equation 4-9

where I is the current expected at the measurement, and R the shunt resistance.

Since we can only realize waveforms appearing in the oscilloscope window, and

remembering we need to be able to resolve (see completely) a signal on the oscilloscope

having amplitude no larger than one-half the window (display) size, we divide the voltage

input by two.

A voltage input higher than the fiber-optic link (see Section 4.4) can pass, will need

to be attenuated to an acceptable level. Since the PIC attenuations are configured to

accept only certain levels of attenuation, as described in Section 4.43, we need to convert

the voltage ratio into decibels by taking the logarithm of the attenuation setting, such that

20. Loglo(G) = dB Equation 4-10.

By following this method, we have found the exact attenuation needed. Since pre-

selected attenuation factors are only available to the PIC, the closest value to the

calculated value is selected. With the attenuation found, we proceed in our search of

finding the calibration factor for a particular measurement.









We calculate the calibration factor for the measurement by taking into account the

viewable range of the oscilloscope display, the shunt resistance, and finally the voltage

ratio, which is the decibel attenuation converted into voltage such that

0.5 R voltage ratio'.

For example, let us say that our attenuation turns out to be -20 dB; we would

convert this into a voltage ratio as follows

20. Loglo (X) = -20dB 10 20/20 = 0.1 Equation 4-11.

For example, given a shunt resistance (calibration factor, k) of 1.0154 mQ, and

expecting a lightning current (I) of 10 kA at the measurement point, we calculate the

expected voltage V as

V = 10kA 1.0154mQ = 10.15V Equation 4-12.

We do not want our measurement to saturate the vertical scale of the oscilloscope,

therefore we divide the expected voltage by two

V
= 5.08V Equation 4-13.
2

We now turn our attention to the fiber-optic link (4.4). The maximum output

voltage the fiber-optic receiver can transmit is 1 V. We invert the above equation and

find this will give us a voltage that is less than 1 V, corresponding to a PIC attenuation of

20 Loglo (G) = 20 Loglo (0.20) = -13.98dB Equation 4-14.

Only pre-programmed attenuations can be used, therefore we will select the

attenuation closest to the value we have calculated, which for this example will be -14

dB. This becomes the attenuation setting our PIC will latch to for our theoretical

example. The above described process was repeated for all measurements, and the









calculated calibration factors with their attenuation settings used in 2005 are given in

Table 4-3.

Table 4-3. PIC attenuation settings (note Tower AC is physically the same measurement
as Tower Low but AC coupled).
Measurement Nominal Calibration Factor, (Q-1) PIC Attenuation Settings (dB)

Tower high 72.57 -33

Tower low 7.26 -13

Tower low AC 7.26 -13

Roof high 43.83 -29

Roof low 4.38 -9

Point A 9.92 -14

Point Al 9.87 -14

Point B 11.19 -23

Point Bl 10.21 -14

Point D 9.82 -14

Point G 9.60 -14



4.4 Fiber-Optic Links

Fiber-optic links for this discussion are the combination of a transmitter/receiver

pair with some length of fiber-optic cable, and a PIC controller.

4.4.1 Nicolet Isobe 3000 Transmitters and Receivers

The Nicolet Isobe 3000 fiber-optic links are used to transmit data from the sensor

(shunt) to the digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) in the Launch control trailer. Briefly,

some physical characteristics for the Isobe 3000 are, input resistance of 1 MQ, utilizes a

combination of amplitude modulation (AM) and pulse-width modulation (PWM), three









selectable input voltage ranges for the transmitter (0.1 V, 1 V, and 10 V). These ranges

or settings, are used to step up or step down the output (attenuate), for example, if a 1 V

signal is fed to the transmitter, set to the 10 V input range, the corresponding voltage at

the output of the receiver will be 0.1 V, a step-down factor of 1/10, thereby effectively

attenuating the signal by -20 dB (0.1 V/V). Similarly, when the transmitter is set to the

0.1 V range, the link introduces a gain of 20 dB (10 V/V). When the Isobe fiber-optic

link is set to the 1 V range there is a gain of 0 dB (1 V/V), which is actually no gain at all.

The output range of the receiver is fixed at 1 V regardless of the selected input range. It

is for this reason we apply attenuation to an incoming signal which is expected to be

larger than 1 V.

In addition, to selectable input settings, the signal gain, offset, and compensation of

the linked pair (transmitter and receiver) are adjustable at the receiver to assist in proper

calibration of the fiber-optic link.

Calibration of the Isobe fiber-optic link is done by adjusting one or more of the

three small screws located on the front panel of the receiver labeled '0' for 'offset' (a

clockwise turn reduces the offset), 'G' for 'gain' (a clockwise turn reduces the gain) and

'C' for 'compensation' (a clockwise turn will make the signal less sharp on the rising

edge for the case of a square wave). Adjusting these screws in a particular manner and

order will result in a reasonably good calibration of the fiber-optic link.

The manual adjustment process has been discussed. To calibrate the fiber-optic

link, a 100 Hz square wave with 1 V peak-to-peak voltage is applied to the input, with the

corresponding output voltage checked against the input. More importantly the

waveshape needs to be faithfully reproduced at the receiver. Any deviation from the









nominal square wave 1 V peak-to-peak waveform needs to be adjusted using the three

screws on the front panel of the receiver. This critical step is repeated for every fiber-

optic pair (10 for this experiment) at least every experimental day, preferably every day

due to the fluctuating temperatures in Florida during the months of May through August,

causing the electronics to drift.

This calibration routine is performed before and after a successful rocket launch,

with the results of the calibrations saved automatically by the oscilloscopes. These

calibrations are examined in order to determine if a 'shot CAL factor' needs to be applied

prior to processing any waveforms.

4.4.2 Fiber-Optic Cable

The fiber-optic cable used in 2005 manufactured by OFS-Fitel, is a multimode fiber

having index of refraction of 1.429 (as per the manufacturer). The fiber comes in a

bundle of six HCP-M0200T, 200-micron fibers, packaged in an 11.5 mm (0.45") OD

polyurethane outer jacket with an Aramid ripcord located directly underneath allowing a

way to strip back the outer jacket. Next, a non-conductive dielectric armor made of 12

strands of swellable binder tape wrap having lay length of 0.15 m OD (6") is wound

around the six sub-units, which in turn are wound around a swellable Aramid central

strength member. The glass fiber optics, surrounded by a sub-jacket, are followed by

more swellable Aramid yam, and a 2.5 mm OD (0.1") jacket (see Figure 4-20). The fiber

terminates with 'male' SMA connectors required for compatibility with the Nicolet Isobe

3000 fiber-optic links.

The lengths of the fibers were measured using an optical time domain reflectometer

(OTDR). The Isobe 3000, requires two fiber inputs per measurement, one labeled LF, the

other HF. The fiber delay was measured using a device designed and built by Mr. Robert










C. Olsen III. This device operates by injecting a known pulse into the measurement

system, through a 1 km length of fiber-optic cable and measuring both input and output

of the system on an oscilloscope.


RIPCORD
TAPE WRAP
OUTER JACKET




(6) SUB UNITS

FIBER


SWELLABLE ARAMID YARN

CENTRAL STRENGTH MEMBER.


DIELECTRIC ARMOR

Figure 4-20. Detail of OFS fiber-optic cable used for the 2005 experiment.

Since the 1 km length has been previously characterized (its delay is known), we

observe the injected pulse on the oscilloscope against the pulse received from the

measurement, and subtract out the previously characterized delay from the 1 km fiber, to

give us the remainder, which is indeed, the fiber-optic transmission delay for the

measurement tested. These results, both the OTDR, and the fiber delay test, are

summarized in Table 4-4.









Table 4-4. 2005 fiber OTDR and delay results.
Measurement Fiber length (m) Fiber length (m) Total delay (ns)

Tower high LF = 113 HF = 113 673

Tower low LF = 113 HF = 113 681

Roof high LF = 137 HF = 138 771

Roof low LF = 138 HF =138 771

Point A LF = 137 HF =138 775

Point Al LF = 139 HF = 139 771

Point B LF = 138 HF = 138 771

Point Bl LF = 138 HF = 138 775

Point D LF = 138 HF = 138 771

Point-G LF = 100 HF = 100 359


4.4.3 PIC Controllers

During thunderstorm conditions, there is a need to communicate remotely with the

instrumentation; this was accomplished by using Programmable Interrupt Controllers

(PICs). There were two types of PICs used for the 2004 and 2005 experiments. First,

there is a Radio Frequency (RF) or wireless PIC (see Figure 4-21) which is sent RF

commands that perform a variety of functions, one of which turn on and off the current

measuring stations. Additionally there is a PIC which is wired to the RF PIC via plastic

1-mm fiber-optic cable used to control the fiber optic links at every measurement point as

seen in Figure 4-22. The RF PIC was controlled via computer located in the launch

control trailer. The computer sends a series of commands to the wireless PIC, which in

turn relays the requests) to the second PIC controller located in the electronics box at

each measurement point. The functions of the PIC inside the instrumentation box are to









remotely activate the measurements, provide attenuation of the sensors, check the status

of the batteries, give the temperature of the electronics box's, and to calibrate the fiber-

optic link associated with each measurement daily, and before, and after a thunderstorm.

Generally speaking, the PIC controller is a combination of relays and attenuators

controlled by a microprocessor. The PIC controller can therefore be described as a series

of programmable switches and attenuators.

Further, by sending the proper command in hexadecimal code via the launch

control computer, a 'poll' of the PICs status can be taken. The results of a poll will

indicate battery voltage, temperature in the measurement box, attenuation of the PIC and

whether the PIC is turned on or off. Although there are only a finite number of

attenuation settings, specifically, -3 dB, -6 dB, -10 dB, -12 dB and -20 dB, any

combination of these settings can be used to set the required attenuation for each


Figure 4-21. RF (wireless) PIC box (inside the white metal container) (2005).

































Figure 4-22. A PIC inside of a measurement box (2005).

measurement. A 12 V, 7 amp-hour battery, powers the PIC controller, in the Hoffman

box. A relay inside the PIC is used to supply power to the other electronics in the

measurement box. The physical layout of the PIC controller will be discussed next.

Each PIC controller has two female BNC connectors (one for the input, another for

the output), a four-pin male microphone connector, an Agilent HFBR-1523 fiber-optic

transmitter, an Agilent HFBR-2523 fiber-optic receiver, a DB-9 female serial connector,

and a two-wire power connector (Figure 4-23). Every field measurement station has a

PIC inside of the Hoffman (electronics) box.





























Figure 4-23. A) Front close up view, and B) side close up view of a PIC controller
(2005).

The connections of the PIC controller will be further discusses now. The output of

the shunt is connected to the IN BNC connector of the PIC (signal comes in), while the

OUT BNC (signal goes out) connector of the PIC is connected to the input (signal comes

in) of the fiber-optic transmitter, which is terminated in a 50 Q resistor (to match the

characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable used to connect the sensor to the PIC and

the PIC to the fiber-optic transmitter). The RF PIC in the field is powered by a 12 V

battery, while the power input of the fiber-optic transmitter is provided from the PIC

inside the measurement box through its 4-pin microphone connector, where pins 1 and 2

(ground) and 3 and 4 (+12 V) have been soldered together, transforming the 4-pin

connector into a 2-pin connector. The female DB-9 connector is used to interconnect a

two-line LCD display that can be used to monitor the status of the PIC controller in the

field. Another way of communicating with the RF PIC is via a handheld wireless box

that can do the same job remotely without having to employ the plug-in LCD display.









The implementation of the PIC controller is discussed next. The PIC controller is

placed in series with the measurement between the sensor and the fiber-optic transmitter,

using the IN and OUT BNC connectors with short (less than 0.5 m) lengths of 50

0 coaxial cable. Figure 4-24 shows a drawing of how a PIC controller is installed within

a measurement box.

The function of the PIC controller depends on what command is sent to it. First,

the PIC controller can act as a 50 Q in-line attenuator, which reduces the output voltage

of the sensor, effectively increasing the full-scale range of the measurement.

The attenuators are resistive PI attenuators having values of -3 dB, -6 dB, -10 dB, -

14 dB, and -20 dB, which can be added in any combination by sending the appropriate

commands to the PIC controller. PI attenuators get their name from the configuration of

the resistors used for each bank of attenuators. Each bank looks like the symbol for the

Greek letter PI (PIE). The upper case PI (1) is used as the "product" symbol. An

electrical circuit resembling an upper case PI (H) is referred to as a PI circuit.

The PIC controller sets the attenuation by switching the appropriate relays inside of

the device. The attenuators are designed to be terminated in 50 Q and will not provide

the stated voltage division if the output of the PIC controller is not terminated in 50 Q. If

no attenuation is set, the PIC controller has a gain of 1 (0 dB) and does not affect the

measurement. If an attenuation of -20 dB is set the PIC controller has a gain of 0.1 and

will scale the measurement accordingly. For all other attenuations the same result will

apply, i.e. for -14 dB the gain is set to 0.19953, for -12 dB the gain will be 0.2512, for -10

dB the gain is 0.3162, for -6 dB the gain is 0.5012 and for -3 dB the gain of 0.7079 will









be set. It is worth noting that the PIC controller has an input resistance of 50 Q when the

output of the PIC controller is terminated in 50 Q, regardless of the attenuation setting.

Terminating the PIC controller in a different resistance will result in the input

resistance of the PIC controller to be that particular resistance only if no attenuation is

used. The PIC controller can also be adapted to control several experiments because it is

connected to a breakout board.

4.5 5 MHz Filters

A 5 MHz passive antialiasing filter is placed at the output of the ISOBE 3000

receiver (See Figure 4-25) to limit high frequency components. Each 5 MHz filter was

tested by sweeping the frequency from 100 to 10 MHz with a Hewlett Packard function

generator Model 3325B controlled via a GPIB interface to apply a 1 V peak-to-peak

square wave. The results, recorded by a LeCroy WaveRunner LT 344L digital storage

oscilloscope, were saved on a control computer. The frequency response for one of the 5

MHz filters is shown in Figure 4-26.

4.6 Digital Storage Oscilloscopes

To record the data from the lightning current, digital storage oscilloscopes (DSOs)

are used. The incoming signal (the lightning current) from the field sensor (shunt) via

short length of RG232 coaxial cable leads to the PIC, then the Isobe transmitter, and out

for some length of fiber-optic cable to the Isobe receiver inside the launch control trailer.

From the output BNC connector of the Isobe receiver the signal via 3.8 meters of RG223

coaxial cable leads to a BNC breakout panel. A 1.2-meter coaxial jumper then runs from

the back end of that BNC breakout panel and into one of the DSOs (Yokogawa

oscilloscope), and a 1.7-meter coaxial jumper runs from a tee connector from the back









end of the BNC breakout panel into the remaining two DSO's (LeCroy oscilloscope),

illustrated in Figure 4-27.

The DSOs also known as scopes, were mounted to 19-inch racks inside of the

launch control trailer, and located along the northeastern wall. Each scope is given a

unique ID to identify it on the local Ethernet as well as to distinguish it when sending

commands over GPIB interface. All scopes are controlled using a LabVIEW interface

which serves multiple functions. The scopes are set to calibration mode every morning,

as well as before, and after a successful rocket-triggered thunderstorm.

There were two different types of digital storage oscilloscopes (DSO) used for the

2005 test house experiment, a Yokogawa DL 716 DSO, and the LeCroy WaveRunner

series LT 344L 500 MHz DSO's. The two DSO's differ in that the Yokogawa

oscilloscope has longer record length than the LeCroy oscilloscope but poorer vertical

resolution, whereas the LeCroy oscilloscopes have better vertical resolution with a

shorter record length. The LeCroy oscilloscope can record multiple triggers per flash

opposed to the Yokogawa's single trigger per flash.

The Yokogawa DL716 has 16 channels, a maximum sampling rate of 10 MHz, can

be triggered on AUTO, AUTO-LEVEL, NORMAL, TIME; having a pretrigger of 0% to

100% in 1% steps. It can be triggered on the rise, fall, or both of an input signal. The

combination of the two types of oscilloscopes ensures a complete data set is recorded

with good preservation of features.













Hoffman Box
Enclosure


External Connections

To ISOBE RX
LPS
Downlead II


BNC


PIC Controller


RX TX


12 V Battery


Figure 4-24. Diagram showing a typical measurement setup with PIC controller connections (2005).


50 Q


ISOBE 3000







73
































Figure 4-25. The 5 MHz filters in launch control (2005).


5 MHz Filter #21 Frequency Response


1.2


1 -


0.8


S0.6

0
0.4


0.2


0
1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03 1.0E+04
Frequency [Hz}


1.0E+05 1.0E+06 1.0E+07


Figure 4-26. Frequency response for a 5 MHz filters (2005).









4.6.1 Yokogawa DL 716

There are five data transfer methods 1) via SCSI interface 2) via floppy disk 3) via

GPIB interface 4) via RS-232 interface and 5) 10Base-T Ethernet port. As configured for

the 2005 experiments, once the DL 716 is triggered it takes about eight minutes to save

the data to the internal hard drive. This is a major disadvantage because during a typical

thunderstorm the chance for successive triggers are usually present and therefore

opportunities can be lost while the recorder saves data.

























Figure 4-27. Digital storage oscilloscopes inside the launch control trailer (2005).

4.6.2 LeCroy WaveRunner LT 344L

The LeCroy LT 344L has four channels, a maximum sampling rate of 500 MHz,

with a maximum memory of 1 Mpts per channel. Similar to the Yokogawa, the LeCroy

can be triggered from numerous criteria such as Edge or a SMART trigger which can be

set to pre-specified pulse criterion. The LT344L comes with a full software suite of









extended math tools, and filters, none of which were used for 2005. There are five data

transfer methods 1) 3.5" floppy drive, PC card slot, 2) external 15-pin D-type, 3) parallel

printer interface, 4) internal graphics printer, and 5) 10Base-T Ethernet port.

As configured for the 2005 experiments, once the LT344L is triggered it takes a

few minutes to save the data to the internal hard drive. One of the best features of the

LT344L is that it is capable of running in segmented mode, which means it has the ability

to record multiple triggers within the maximum record length of 2 ms (based on sample

rate). All the 2005 test house measurements were recorded on both a Yokogawa and

LeCroy oscilloscopes.

4.6.3 Nicolet Pro 90

The Nicolet Pro 90 digitizing oscilloscope is a four-channel recorder used for the

1997 experiments. They have data capacity of 258,816 samples per channel. Channels 1

and 2 have 8-bit vertical resolution (256 quantization levels) with up to 200 MIHz

sampling rate. Channels 3 and 4 have 12-bit vertical resolution (4096 quantization levels

with up to 10 MHz sampling rate. The maximum sample rate for channels 1 and 2 was

20 MHz, providing record lengths of 12.9 ms per channel, and for channels 3 and 4 was

10 MHz, for record lengths of 25.9 ms per channel. The programmable pre-trigger

memory was normally set to 1 ms. Channels 1 and 2 were used in tandem, as were

channels 3 and 4.

Table 4-5 shows the breakdown of the oscilloscope assignments for 2005, 2004 and


1997.













Table 4-5. Oscilloscope channel assignments for 2005, 2004, and 1997.
Measurement Tower Roof


2005


High


Oscilloscope
ID
Channel
Sample Rate
(MHz)



Measurement
2004
Oscilloscope
ID
Channel
Sample Rate
(MHz)


1997
Channels



1 and 2
3 and 4


Low Low AC High
18 18 18


4/1
2/20


Tower
High
14


Amplitude
Resolution


8-bit
12-bit


Interceptor
Low High
14


Sample
Rate,
(MHz)

20
10


Record
Length per
Channel,
ms
12.9
25.9


Low


Low A Al B BI D G


18 18
/14 /15


5/2
2/20


6/3
2/20


7/1
2/20


8/1
2/20


9/2
2/20


10/3
2/20


11/4
2/20


Point
A B C D G
14 14 15 15 15


Combined
Record
Length,
ms
25.9
51.8


Point









4.7 Video and Still Cameras

Video and still image records obtained for all rocket launches in 2005 by using four

video cameras and two still cameras, their locations summarized in Table 4-6.

Table 4-6. Video and still camera locations for 2005.
Camera Type Location View
LC-Tower Digital video Launch control Tower launcher
LC-Roof Digital video Launch control Test house roof measurement box
Tower-Roof Digital video Tower, under the cantilever Test house roof measurement box
TH-Breaker Hi-8 format Inside the test house Service panel
LC-Tower 35 mm Launch control Tower launcher
LC-Roof 35 mm Launch control Test house roof measurement box


A Sony Handycam Vision Hi8 XR video camera recorder model number CCD-

TRV87, used to view the test house's breaker panel, was located inside the test house.

The media for this camera was set to record in the Long Play (LP) format allowing 240

minutes of continuous play time using the NTSC standard, albeit a little less resolved

than the Standard Play (SP) setting, which would give 120 minutes of play time, it does

allow a longer period of recording time which is needed for a typical rocket launching

session which may last several hours before it is concluded.

The Sony Mini-DV digital video cameras, and Nikon MF-19 35-mm still cameras

were used in the launch trailer, and on the tower. Each still camera had its zoom lens set

to infinity, and set to bulb mode whereby the shutter stays open as long as the contact

remains closed. The contact closure is controlled by a camera PIC, like the PIC

controller discussed previously, the camera PIC is sent a command upon a rocket launch

opening the camera shutter for six seconds. This ensures an exposure suitable to capture

the initial stage of triggered lightning and any return strokes) that may exist. The still

cameras had the following settings: f-stop 11 for camera LC-Tower, and f-stop 22 for

camera LC-Roof The film used was Fuji ISO 100.









4.8 GPS Timing

All rocket launches are GPS time-stamped by using a Datum BC627AT timing

card for cataloging shots, and more importantly correlating with the National Lightning

Detection Network (NLDN). Correlation is important for matching the location of the

lightning strike as well as verifying the current contained in a flash from an independent

source. The NLDN is capable of providing about 60% stroke detection efficiency and

locating with a median error of about 600 m [Jerauld et al., 2005]. Real-time data are

usually available within 15-20 seconds of a detected lightning strike.

When a triggered lightning event occurs, a GPS timestamp gets latched to that

particular flash by a TTL pulse that is sent from the main trigger out panel (see Figure 4-

28). This trigger pulse is customizable and can be set to activate either for the first pulse

exceeding the threshold during the flash, or for successive stroke pulses, which exceed

the trigger level. This TTL pulse is sent to one of the inputs of the timing card located in

a control pc and latched to a GPS signal from a GPS receiver mounted above the launch

control trailer. The timing has been shown to be accurate to within 1 microsecond, which

is sufficient compared to the minimum, re-arm time of the scope which is a few

milliseconds.

4.9 Electric Field Mills

Four electric field change sensors (field mills) are located on the Camp Blanding

site and placed in the field. Two types of field mills are used. The first type is a NASA

field mill, the other a Mission field mill (seen in Figures 4-29 and 4-30, respectively).

One pair of field mills (NASA and Mission) were positioned near the launch control

trailer, the other pair near the office trailer; with the two pairs being some 500 meters

apart. Four electric field meters are used to have a good comparison of the electric field









change between launch control and the office trailer, in that a rough estimate of the

distribution of charge overhead can be sensed. The electric field is just one of the

parameters needed in order to make the decision of launching a rocket to possibly initiate

a lightning discharge. The electric field change is continually monitored from a control

center located in launch control (see Figure 4-31) and a similar setup in the office trailer.





Master Lrigger breakout panel








UPS bank







Figure 4-28. The trigger panel in launch control (2005).

Assuming the two field mills agree in their readings, a rocket is launched.

Typically based from past experimental years at the ICLRT, the electric field change

needs to be about -4 kV/m for a good probability of successfully initiating triggered

lightning; however, for the Summer of 2005, fields of approximately -2.5 kV/m were

found to be sufficient for triggering lightning.

The 2005 experimental setup has been discussed in this chapter along with key

features of the 2004 instrumentation. Over time differences between the layout,

instrumentation, and digitization exist due to the way the testing has evolved and






80


matured. A summary in the form of a line drawing for 2005 and 2004 years can be seen

in Figures 4-32 and 4-33.









Spinning
metal vaned
whccl (top)









A

















ti ,




Figure 4-29. NASA electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer. The
upper photo A) is an overhead shot while the lower photo B) is a frontal view.








Lrri


Figure 4-30. Mission electric field change mill, outside the launch control trailer.
Video &stillcaleT&as


Figure 4-31. Launch control center (2005).