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Money! Money in Oz!: Consumerism, Communism, and the Censorship of Baum's Oz Books

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MONEY! MONEY IN OZ!: CONSUMERISM, COMMUNISM, AND THE CENSORSHIP OF BAUMS OZ BOOKS By ANDREW LAWRENCE GRUNZKE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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ii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................iii CHAPTER 1 SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS......................................................................1 2 OZ, AN EDEN FOR CONSUMERISM: CENSORSHIP OF OZ IN A TRANSITIONAL AGE................................................................................................4 3 OZ, THE COMMUNISTIC FAIRYLAND: COLD WAR CENSORSHIP OF BAUM........................................................................................................................16 4 SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS.........................................................................29 WORKS CITED................................................................................................................34 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................38

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iii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts MONEY! MONEY IN OZ!: CONSUMERISM, COMMUNISM, AND THE CENSORSHIP OF BAUMS OZ BOOKS By Andrew Lawrence Grunzke May 2006 Chair: John Cech Major Department: English This thesis presents a history of efforts by critics and librarians to prevent children from being able to read Baums Oz books. One such librarian, A nne Carroll Moore, head of the New York Public Library Children s Reading Room and first chair of the American Library Associations Children Se rvices Section, decided to remove the Oz books from the childrens readin g room of the New York Public Library in the 1930s. This set a strong precedent for librarians across the nationand ma ny decided to follow her lead. Moore always left her indict ments of Baums works vaguealthough she clearly held the books in low regard, like ma ny librarians of her tim e, because of their status as series books and their role in th e commercialization of childrens literature. By the 1950s, a political debate over Baums Oz books had developed, and the books utopian vision made some critics and librarians suspect the books of supporting a Marxist ideology. The Oz books were removed from lib rary shelves around the nation throughout the postwar period, including across Florida, in Detroit, Washington, D.C.,

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iv New York City, and (ironically) Kansas City.1 The Red Scare revived feelings that the books were promoting communism, negativis m, and a cowardly approach to life among the nations children.2 In 1959, Florida State Libr arian Dorothy Dodd released a list of childrens books which she urged libra rians around the state to remove from their collections; the Oz series topped her list. This thesis analyzes personal correspondences, library newsletters, and other primary docum ents to examine the role anticommunist crusading played in the shaping of child rens library collections in Florida. Overall, this paper seeks to examin e the status of L. Frank Baums Oz books as contested texts throughout the first six decades of the twentieth century In particular, it will focus on librarian and scholarly objections to the work of Baumas works of low art too overly commercial to be worthy of a childs at tention, and as subversively political works with a coded Marxist message. In essence, the thesis seeks to explore the means by which Baums works were able to overcome (with the help of millions of children who were avid Oz readers) extremely negative critical attention to achieve their status as classic American childrens literatur e and as central texts in Americas cultural mythology. 1 Suzanne Rahn, The Wizard of Oz: The Shaping of an Imaginary World (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998), 15-16. 2 Stuart Culver, What Manakins Want, Representations 21 (Winter 1988), 98.

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1 CHAPTER 1 SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and the ensuing series of books had a tumultuous history in the decades between 1900 and 1970. Throughout the period, the Oz books remained contested texts. Even so, the character of librarian and scholarly objections to the works of Baum underwent co nsiderable revision during this time. For their entire history, librarians and critics have tended to see Baums work as low art, too overly commercial to be worthy of a child s attention. During the Red Scare following World War II, however, many librarians chas tised Baums books for being, at worst, subversively political works with a coded Marx ist message or, at best, diversions that directed the childs mind away from more serious pursuits. In the last few decades of the nineteenth century, longstanding attitudes about the purpose and proper function of lite rature for children were shifting dramatically in both England and the United States. The idea that instruction was the primary object in books for the young was weakening.1 For centuries, books that explicitly taught morals formed the core texts of a childs upbringing; Bunyans Pilgrims Progress, Aesops Fables, Perraults fairy tales, and other such popular works prominently featured lessons to be gleaned. In England, the shift bega n with the publication of Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland (1866)a story designed for children without a trace of a 1 Anne Eaton, Widening Horizons 1840-1890, in Cornelia Meigs A Critical History of Childrens Literature (New York: Macmillan, 1953), 232.

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2 2 lesson or moral.2 In the late nineteenth century in the United States, many authors for children began writing works for children that did not morali ze. Writers like Mark Twain and Louisa May Alcott wrote prolific works for children without obvious instructional purposes. The shift away from literature concerned with the admonishment and improvement of children was, nevertheless, slower in fantasy literature in the United States. L. Frank Baums asse rtion in the introduction to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) that modern education includes moralit y; therefore the modern child seeks only entertainment in its wondertales3 remained a controversial one with the librarians endowed with the responsibility of sel ecting books for children. For fantasy for childrenwith its roots in perennially educatio nal fables and fairy talesto abandon its moral character was more difficult for many adults to accept. Baums retreat from moralizing in literatu re for children was not the only source of dismay over his work experienced by many cr itics and librarians over the years. Thomas Dreier was a member of the State Library Board in Florida in the 1950s and 1960s, head librarian in St. Petersburg, FL, and pr ominent advocate for the removal of the Oz books from library shelves. Among his personal pa pers, he kept a copy of a John Steinbeck editorial entitled One Mans Opinion that noted: it is w onderful today with all [sic] competition of records, of radio, of te levision, of motion pictures, the book has kept its precious character. A book is somehow sacred.4 Although more than fifty years had passed since Baum had begun his career as a writer, the attitude that books ought to be 2 Ibid., 211, 232. 3 Michael Patrick Hearn (ed.), The Annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 4. 4 John Steinbeck, Reprint of One Mans Opinion, Series 900000, Box M73-16 #2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, FL. Circa 1954.

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3 3 free of the commercial influences to whic h other media succumbed was still deeply entrenched among many librarians. Baum had embraced the rising consumer culture at the turn of the twentieth century and used his written works as source material for a variety of media. Operating a successful trav eling stage show, creating a series of silent Oz films, and marketing Scarecrow and Ti n Woodman dolls and toys, Baum created a market for the land of Oz that extended fa r beyond the pages of his books. While this commercialization of Oz may have increas ed the audience for Baums books, many librarians who saw the book, like Steinbeck, as a sacred entity felt it vulgarized childrens literaturea literature with a long legacy of serving as moral e ducator. Thus, many librarians actively sought to keep th e books out of the nations libraries. The advent of the Cold War changed the perceptions of the pol itical content of Baums Oz series. Ironically, where critics an d librarians once saw an advocacy of consumerism, they began to see the sp ectre of communism. Utopian thinking, particularly in the form of a land like Oz in which money did not exist, became associated with a leftist political agenda. Anticommunist crusaders, such as Thomas Dreier and Florida State Li brarian Dorothy Dodd, began to remove Baums books from library shelves in various locations across th e country. Political motivations gave new fuel to an old debate over th e appropriateness of Baums Oz books for young readers.

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4 CHAPTER 2 OZ, AN EDEN FOR CONSUMERIS M: CENSORSHIP OF OZ IN A TRANSITIONAL AGE From the 1920s through the 1950s, the au thoritative voice in the world of childrens books1 belonged to Anne Carroll Moore. Because of her work as the Superintendent of Work with Children for th e New York Public Library, her position as chair of the Childrens Services Section of the American Library Association, her annual lists of recommended childrens books (from 1918 to 1941), and her regular columns in Bookman and the New York Herald Tribune, she wielded considerable power for most of the first half of the twentieth century in determining the financial success of newly published childrens books. Publishers, editors other librarians, book store proprietors, and parents all sought her advice regarding the types of children s books to publish, stock, and purchase. Moores st andards were very exacting, possessing, according to one of her defenders, a profound respect for chil dren as individuals and for childrens intelligence and taste and interests.2 She panned the works of Margaret Wise Brown and Clement Hurd (the author and illustrator of the seminal childrens bedtime story Goodnight Moon ). She advised E.B. White not to publish his first childrens book, Stuart Little, lest it should become an embarrassment to him.3 Both of these books went on to 1 Beverly Lyon Clark, Kiddie Lit: The Cultural Construction of Childrens Literature in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 70. 2 Ruth Hill Viguers, The Golden Age 1920-1950, in Cornelia Meigs, A Critical History of Childrens Literature (New York: Macmillan, 1953), 429. 3 Clark, 70-2.

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5 5 become great successes despite Moores ha rsh critiques. Ma ny other books either became classics because of her praise or were quickly forgotten for lack of her recommendation. Anne Carroll Moore always di sliked the works of L. Fr ank Baum. As early as 1902 (two years after the publication of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ), she had harsh words to say about Baums books. While working for the Pratt Institute Free Library, she wrote in her A List of Books Recommended for a Childrens Library for the Iowa Library Commission: Most of the popul ar picture books of the time are unworthy of a place in the hands of children Such books as Denslows Mother Goose (1901) [Denslow was the illustrator for Baums Wonderful Wizard of Oz ] and Baums Father Goose should be banished from the sight of impressionable young children.4 It was hardly surprising, therefore, that in th e 1930s Moore decided to remove the entire Oz series from the shelves of the Central Childrens Reading Room of the New York P ublic Library. Moore refused to give a reason for their removalbut she was so well resp ected and influential that many childrens librarians across the country followed her lead.5 While Moore remained cryptic about her deci sion, other librarians and critics were hardly loath to give their reasons for disl iking the works of Baum. The source for the antipathy seems to be that: The Wizard of Oz was too popular with children. Pr esentable copies could never be kept on the shelves because they were worn out by eager hands. The Wizard of Oz won itself a bad reputation because it became a musical comedy and a movie and because it was followed by a shoddy seri es of books, mostly written by hack 4 Michael Patrick Hearn, Toto, Ive a Feeling We re Not in Kansas City Anymoreor Detroitor Washington, D.C.! The Horn Book Magazine Jan/Feb 2001, 18-9. 5 Suzanne Rahn, The Wizard of Oz: Shaping an Imaginary World (New York, Twayne Publishers, 1998), 15.

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6 6 writers who took over the original auth ors idea and extende d it to impossible lengths.6 Clearly, many librarians were dismayed by the co mmercial nature of the works of Baum. The endless toys, films, comic strips, a nd other product tie-ins had increased the popularity of the books, but they simultaneously hurt th eir reputation among those responsible for deciding which books woul d be stocked in the public libraries. Although such commercialization of children s literature was rare during the period when Baum was writing his books for childr en, it is commonplace now J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter books form the basis of a multimedia empire; movies, toys, video games, bed sheets, costumes, and a multitude of other product tie-ins are mark eted as a matter of course. Even so, many critics still criti que Baums work as being overly commercial. John Goldthwaite writes that Baum was essent ially a pulp writer who drew at need from every passing fashion, sometimes to the benefit of the story and sometimes not.7 As a writer of series books with a keen interest in the latest fads (such as the silent cinema), Baums books resided squarely in the real m of pulp fictionand this comes with a stigma attached. As a recent book written to aid teachers in selecting books for elementary students stated, the first book in the series might well have sufficed.8 Baums status as a writer of series books continues to plague his workand the quality of his now classic books is still judged ag ainst his reputation as a purveyor of pulp fiction. 6 Carol Ryrie Brink, South Dakota Library Bulletin (April-June 1948), cited in Michael Patrick Hearn, Introduction, in The Annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000), lxxxvii-iii. 7 John Goldthwaite, The Natural History of Make-Believe: A Gu ide to the Principle Works of Britain, England, and America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 212. 8 Charlotte S. Huck, Susan Hepler, and Janet Hickman, Childrens Literature in the Elementary School, 5th Edition (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovan ovich Publishers, 1989), 141.

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7 7 In many ways, adult fears concerning the di me novel in the late nineteenth century had driven the movement to establish ch ildrens libraries. Poorer children, many Progressive reformers felt, only had access to cheap reading material, which often meant they were reading dime novelswhich ha d a reputation for being sensational and mediocre. Many adults wanted to create places where children could access cheap or free reading material and be steered toward books of higher literary value. As the series book began to develop out of the dime novel tradition, librarians (w ho had resoundingly refused to stock dime novels) turned their attention toward the se ries bookattacking it for its perceived low artistic status. One editorial in Library Journal in 1905 asked: Shall the libraries resist the flood [of series books] and stand for a pur er literature and art for children, or shall they meet the demands of the people by gratifying low and lowering taste?9 The American Library Association had taken an official stance against the inclusion of series books on the basis that they were poorly written and lurid wastes of time.10 In many ways, these criticisms are not altogether unfair. Baums books were hastily written and poorly edite d. His publishers expected hi s work would be of fairly low quality. One of Baums contracts (for a nonOz series, written under a pen name) read: Baum shall delivera book for young girls on the style of Louisa M. Alcott 9 Editorial, Library Journal, December 1905, 915-916. Cited in Nancy Tillman Romalov, Childrens Series Books and the Rhetoric of Guidance: A Hist orical Overview, in Carolyn Stewart and Nancy Tillman Romalov, Rediscovering Nancy Drew (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995), 114. 10 Nancy Tillman Romalov, Childrens Series Books and the Rhetoric of Guidance: A Historical Overview, in Carolyn Stewart and Nancy Tillman Romalov, Rediscovering Nancy Drew (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995), 113-121.

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8 8 stories, but not so good.11 Baums employers expected him to produce large numbers of books, and they wanted them quickly. They were unconcerned that lack of time might reduce the literary value of his work. Just as his publishers expect ed books of little literary value, librarians and critics (such as Anne Carroll Moore) derided Baums books for this deficiency. Baum may not have been aiming for quality, but he was certainly aiming for popularity at a time when popularity and quality were incr easingly seen as divergent.12 In turning his books into a series, Baum had already alienated the ALA and other guardians of the childrens libraries. By marketing his books using a va riety of different media, by increasing the scope of the impact of his work by enteri ng the toy, movie, and theatre markets, Baum was further making himself a target for critics and librarians. All the while, though, his works were becoming increasingly belove d by the audience of children (who were experiencing Baums tales in a multimedia fashion that was rela tively rare, though not unprecedented, prior to his work).13 11 Angelica Shirley Carpenter and Jean Shirley, L. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz (Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1992), 80. 12 Clark, 136. 13 It is important to note that the Oz books were not, in fact, the first wo rks with such blat antly commercial aspects. Francis Hodgson Burnetts Little Lord Fauntleroy was also widely popular at the turn of the twentieth century. In 1893, Burnetts book was one of the two most likely books to be held by a public library (second only to Ben-Hur ). Fauntleroy traded heavily in commercial tie-ins. Little Lord Fauntleroy playing cards, writing paper, perfume, and his trademark velvet suits were all commercially available (and popular). Librarians treated Fauntleroy with disdain similar to that with which they treated the Oz books. They derided the book for its sloppiness and artificiality (Clark, 21-2). Fauntleroy, however, was unable to maintain its popularity among children. Th e books were markedly Victorianreplete with moral lessons. It was, in fact, the perennial popularity of the Oz books with children that allowed it to have the large impact that it did on the commercialization of childrens literature. This popularity stemmed from Baums setting aside the strict moralizing and embracing the role of the childrens books as pure entertainment. (For a more detailed discussion of this decision, see the introduction to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in which Baum writes of his decision to write a book free from the moralizing that typified much of childrens literature throughout the Victorian era.) While Baums Oz books might not have been the first works for children to practice heavy-handed commercialism, they were the epitome of the phenomenonand likely had the greatest impact on the movement.

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9 9 The number and variety of Oz promotiona l products available before the 1939 film release was staggering. For instance, w ithin three years of the publication of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Denslow had designed a series of six posters de picting the Oz characters that were sold as a wallpaper frie ze for childrens rooms. Little brass jewelry boxes with the Cowardly Lion mounted on the lid were given to ladies in the audience of The Wizard of Oz on April 15, 1903 to commemorate the hundredth performance of the popular stage play. Buttons featuri ng many favorite characters from the Oz books, including the Scarecrow and the Woggle-Bug, we re used to promote the release of a new Oz book almost every year. Colored maps of th e land of Oz, featurin g the royal flag of Oz on the back, were available for purch ase in 1914. Detachable cardboard figures designed by John Neill (the illustrator who took over for Denslow) were soldso children could act out their favorite scenes from the books at home. In 1921, Parker Brothers issued The Wonderful Game of Oz Fans of the books could also purchase dolls and jigsaw puzzles. Children coul d even eat Oz Peanut Butter.14 Moreover, the commercial empire of Oz incl uded four silent films, The Patchwork Girl of Oz (1914) The Magic Cloak of Oz (1914) His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz (1915) and The Wizard of Oz (1925) several stage plays (including The Wizard of Oz and The Tik-Tok Man of Oz ), and a comic strip ( Queer Visitors from th e Marvelous Land of Oz ).15 Baum had much more than a financial interest in the commercialization of his books. In fact, Baum was, in many ways, re sponsible for developing the commercial tie14 Dick Martin, The Toys and Games of Oz, Baum Bugle, Christmas 1962, 4-7; The Douglas G. and David L. Greene Collection of L. Frank Baum and Related Oziana. 15 Mark Evan Swartz, Oz Before the Rainbow: L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz on Stage and Screen to 1939 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).

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10 10 in as an advertising tool. Baum had moved his family to the Black Hills of South Dakota in the days of the gold rush to operate a ge neral store and publish a newspaper. When the gold rush was ending and Baums business wa s dropping precipitously, Baum was forced to try to find new ways of marketing his goods to make ends meet. He would become the first significant advocate of display and am ong the earliest archite cts of the dream life of the consumer age.16 In fact, one of Baums first book publications was The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors (1900)a work that garnered him a significant reputation in the bur geoning field of advertising .17 This reputation saved him from the job as a traveling salesman he was forced to take when the gold rush ended, his store closed, and his newspape r shut down. He moved to Chicago to assume a full-time position as the editor of Show Window, a magazine devoted to advertising and design the occupation that sustained him while he wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz .18 Of course, the work that Baum did for his book on shop windows and in the magazine Show Window influenced into his fantasy wr iting. The rising consumer culture created, for some, a worry that the humane spirit of the country was submerged beneath the surface allure of having and displaying possessions.19 Baums fantasy world exploited the potential of this surface allure, while exposing it as artifice. The Emerald City is a sparkling jewel of a citya symbol of light and wealth. However, the glimmer 16 William Leach, Strategists of Di splay and the Production of Desire , in Simon J. Bronner (ed.) Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989), 107. 17 Swartz, 318. 18 Michael O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum (University of Kansas, 1997) 76-7, 96. 19 Simon Bronner, Reading Consumer Culture, in Simon J. Bronner (ed.) Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989) 13.

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11 11 of the Emerald City is the product of the green glasses all its citizens are forced to wear. It is the site of artistic flair, of beautifu l subterfuge. The Wizard embodies the humane spirit. He represents the promise of the h eart, the brain, and courage. Yet, the Wizard, too, is mere surface allure. Using visual tricks, the man behind the curtain presents himself as great and terrible. Neverthele ss, the travelers are capable of finding their humanity through him. The Scarecrow receives a brain. The Cowardly Lions courage returns. The Tin Woodman finds a heart. And Dorothy finds her home. Although the Wizard is a humbug, he is still capable of bringing personal fulfillment.20 In this respect, the Wizard was not unlike the famed nineteenth century showman P.T. Barnum. People loved Barnum for his tr ickery, for his grandiose presence, and for the spectacles that he brought them. Acco rding to T.J. Jackson Lears, Barnums audiences expected a humbug and admired his skill at it.21 Twentieth century advertisers, like Baum, knew this, and advert isements mass-produced a fantasy world of wish fulfillment.22 It is in this sense that the land of Oz is intimately tied to the idea of the advertisement. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a story of wish fulfillment. The characters find everything they are lacking: a heart, a brain, courage, and a home. The Wizard is, in fact, a good-natured satire of P.T. Barnum. (The Wizard worked for 20 Selma Lanes makes an important point regarding the commercial nature of Baums books. In no Baum tale is the quest for material possessions. Despite he r abject poverty in Kansas, Dorothy never goes on a quest for richeseven to save the family farm. With Baum playing such a prominent role in the rise of consumer culture, this may seem rather counter-int uitive. However, having the creative mind of an advertising man, Baum was able to use the vivid fa ntasy realm of Oz as a place where one finds deep personal fulfillment. Like an advertisement, the read er is drawn into the world by the promise of finding the happiness one is missing. Selma Lanes, Down the Rabbit Hole: Adventures and Misadventures in the Realm of Childrens Literature, (New York: Antheum, 1971), 98. 21 T.J. Jackson Lears, From Salvation to Self-Rea lization: Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of Consumer Culture, 1880-1930, in The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880-1980 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1983), 28. 22 Ibid.

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12 12 Bailum and Barneys Consolidated Shows.)23 Despite the fact that the Wizard is a skilled humbug and trickster, the wishes of th e characters (and, thus the wishes of the children reading their adventures) are fulfille d. Oz was a utopia, but as a utopia it lacked refinement, smacking more of Barn um and Bailey than Old World elegance.24 The material abundance of Oz and the energy of its people, in conjunction with the P.T. Barnum-like ingenuity and bravado of their leader, the Wizard, are part of what make Oz utopia. In essence, Baums satire of the Wizard is also a self -satire. As the son of a medicine showman,25 a flamboyant advertiser, and a crafter of spectacular fantasies Baum had a keen sense for providing his a udiences with glittering mass spectacle. The Wizard employed trickery to sell something that didnt exist. In exchange for destroying the Wicked Witch, the Wizard gives each of the tr avelers a prize. However, the prizes he gives to the travelers are mere tokens (e.g. a bag filled with sawdust and pins to represent the brain the Scarecrow thought he was missing) In the story, each of the characters finds he or she has the power of self-fulf illment, but this fulfillment is depicted as incomplete until the Wizard provides each with a representative trinket.26 This mirrors, in certain ways, the commercialization of Baums literature. Children are excited and 23 L. Frank Baum, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz (New York: Dover, 1984), 48. This book was originally published in 1908. 24 Lanes, 98. 25 Baums father acquired a fortune marketing a product known as Castrolinea type of medicine derived from petroleum. 26 Tom St. John, Lyman Frank Baum: Looking Backward to the Promised Land, Western Humanities Review, Winter 1982, v. 35, #4, 358.

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13 13 entertained by the tale, but the toys and other associated Oz paraphernalia teach children to search for satisfaction in consumer culture as well. Dorothy and her companions are willing to accept the Wizards tokens as though they were real like so much snake oil. In this way, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz exalted consumer culture. It presented the purchas ed product as capable of bringing a new and satisfying life to its purchaser. Like a colorful advertisement, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz drew audiences into its elaborate fantasy. Modern advertising culture often depends upon creating a sense of incompleteness in its a udience. In order to be effective, an advertisement must convince the spectator his or her life is somehow incompletelike a Tin Woodman with a missing heart.27 A heart, a brain, and courage (without which each of the characters is incapable of feeling pe rsonal fulfillment) have become commodities, purchasable by the successful completion of a given task. Most of Dorothys companions were also, in a sense, commodities. The Tin Woodman, the Scarecrow, Jack Pumpkinhea d, the Sawhorse, the Patchwork Girl, the Glass Cat, and Tik-Tok are neither people no r animals. They are representations of people or animals brought to life by magical means. They are living mannequins. As long as they remain in Oz, th ey maintain their energy and th eir life. Ozs spell is the magic of the advertisement; the commodity is imbued with a life and spirit it doesnt naturally possess. For instance, when Dorot hy expresses a desire to take the Porcelain Princess of the China Village (from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ) home with her, the Princess is distressed, for, she said, her joints would stiffen and she would die in the real 27 T.J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture,1880-1925 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 37.

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14 14 world. The advertised product is alive, but the purchased product dies.28 In an advertisement, a commodity is often billed as capable of providing a fulfillment it is incapable of supplying when it is purcha sed and brought homean idea that Baum, the advertising man, knew well.29 By fragmenting the publics sense of self and imbuing inanimate objects with life, advertising causes visual and verbal signs [to] become detached from all traditional associations and meaning in general is eroded.30 In this sense, the nature of advertising can be compared to another classic childr ens book: The work of advertisements gradually acquired an Alice in Wonderland quality.31 What is intriguing about this phenomenon is that, unlike Carroll, Baums si gnifier never became detached from what it signified. Carrolls fantas y world was one in which nothing made sensewhich was distressing for both Alice (who nearly drow ns in a pool of her own tears) and the audience. Baum, on the other hand, created a world in which Dorothys (and the audiences) deepest desires were magically fu lfilled. In Baums fantasy world, there is an internal logic (for instan ce, a man with a pumpkin head must carve himself a new one before the old one spoils). Oz, unlike Wonderl and, is not wrenched from the real world; 28 Life and death was not the only dichotomy that was blurred by the advertisement. As Leach points out, the shop window as envisi oned by Baum celebrated metamorphosi s, the violation of boundarie s, the blurring of lines between hitherto opposed categoriesluxury and neces sity, artificial and natural, night and day, male and female, the expression of desire and its repression, the primitive and the civilized. William Leach, Strategies for the Display and Production of Desire, in Simon J. Bronnner (ed.) Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989), 131. The lines between these opposed categories are constantly being redrawn throughout the Oz series. The poor young boy Tip becomes Ozma, the female ruler of Oz. The inanimate is regularly brought to life. The impoverished farm in Kansas, not the opulent Emerald City, is presented as home. One of the wonders of Oz is that it is a place in which one can fulfill any desire. 29 Stuart Culver, What Manakins Want, Representations, Winter 1988, 97-116. 30 T.J. Jackson Lears, From Salvation to Self-Realization, 21. 31 Ibid.

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15 15 it is an ideal extension of an industrialized and comm ercialized United States. Wonderland is the site of the inadequacy of the logical ca pabilities of man and is a dangerous and frightening place because of this (e.g. the Qu een of Hearts Off with her head! refrain). Baums Oz is an advertis ement for what is good in mankind: a heart, a mind, courage, and a home. As such, it is a land which magically dispenses with all disagreeable incident.32 Baum exploited the newl y developed principles of advertisingprinciples he had a hand in de velopingto teach people to find fulfillment in modern consumer culture. To librarians like Moore, touting the benefits of modern consumer culture, particularly within the pages of a child rens book, was difficult to take. Baums reputation as an adman ende d up hurting his reputation as an author for children. Moreover, that Baums books were written qui ckly and published almo st as received won him renown as an author capab le of producing large amounts of writing (often of dubious literary value). Many librarians in the first half of the twentieth century chose not to include Baums works in their collecti ons, despite their im mense popularity with children, because they did not appreciate the type of literature Baums books representednor the commercial m ovement they were spearheading. 32 Michael Patrick Hearn (ed.), The Annotated Wizard of Oz, (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 4.

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16 CHAPTER 3 OZ, THE COMMUNISTIC FAIRYLAND: COLD WAR CENSORSHIP OF BAUM On August 10, 1955, General Foods (the sponsor of an Oz radio program) held a party in honor of those who worked in childre ns literature. Because of her affiliation with the Oz books, Ruth Plumly Thompson (the woman who continued the Oz series following the death of Baum) was an honored guest. Other attendees included critics, booksellers, librarians, and others involved in the childrens book industry. Anne Carroll Moore, because of her position at the Childre ns Department of the New York Public Library, was among this enclave. As Thompson saw it, throughout the evening, the critics and librarians made disparaging comments regarding the quality of the Oz books. In her words: As the drinks progressed, they grew ruder and ruder. The head of the Childrens Department in the New York Public Li brary after some fulsome remarks about my other books invited me to lunch. By th is time I was pretty madalso sober which is more than can be said for the me n. So I asked this disagreeable old lady [Moore] if she was familiar with Oz books She looked very uneasy and when I asked her point blank why the Oz books were not in the library she backed off and melted into the crowd. Needless to sa y, that was one lunch I missed with great pleasure.1 Thompson was bitter over the reception the Oz books were given by Moore and other librarians around the country. She felt that she had for twenty years fought a onewoman battle over with these pests and finally threw in the towel.2 Despite years of fighting to keep the Oz books in childrens libraries, Thompson realized she was waging 1 Ruth Plumly Thompson, Librarians, Editors, Critics, Children, and Oz, Baum Bugle Autumn 1984, 7-8. 2 Ibid.

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17 a losing battle, as the book continued to disa ppear from library shelves in one city and state after another. In the introduction to The Lost Princess of Oz, Baum expressed certain sentiments concerning the power of fantasy books to sh ape the minds of children to creative and useful adult occupations: A prominent educat or tells me that fairy tales are of untold value in developing the imaginations of the young. I believe it.3 Thompson echoed these sentiments: It is the power that create s new worlds and gives youth and radiance to worlds that are old, sends the Edisons and th e Einsteins, the Colum buses and Heyerdahls on their quests.4 Thus, the battle over keeping the Oz books in libraries is part of a bigger war over the presence and importance of fantasy in a library collection for children. In Thompsons view, the librarians of the period were increasingly against the fantastic in literature for children: The imagination of a child needs to be fostered and encouraged, but his reading needs today are in stern and realistic ha nds. Juvenile departments in publishing houses, to a gal, are manned by eager, young college graduates, young women heady with psychological theo ry and literary lorebut w ith no experience, no love for, no knowledge of, or any contact with the children themselves. If not under the supervision of a college gal or woman, the department is run by some older, theoryridden lass, on uplift and instruction bent also completely out-of-touch with the live and lively young she is supposed to entert ain. Entertain? Perish the thought! Writing for children is completely mechaniz ed and regimented like everything else in this slide rule era.5 Obviously, Thompson drastically overstates he r case. Librarians were not, to a gal, trying to remove the influences of fantas y from the minds of children. However, by 1955, the battle to keep Baums Oz books on the shelves of th e nations libraries was 3 L. Frank Baum, The Lost Princess of Oz (New York: Amereon House, 1917), 13. 4 Thompson, 8. 5 Ibid.

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18 becoming increasingly ferociousas some libra rians saw the books as either politically subversive, too fantastic to develop pr actical thinking in children, or both. Thompsons lament over the difficulty of her position as advocate for the works of Baum had become particularly acute by 1955. Although copies of Baums books began to disappear from library shelves in small but noticeable quantities after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the arrival of the immens ely popular film caused a re-evaluation of the political sub-text of the Oz series. Anticipating the release of th e 1939 MGM film version of The Wizard of Oz the leftist periodical New Masses published a piece entitled The Red Wizard of Oz which mused that Baums series of Oz books had a strong communist subtext. Good Heavens! it rea d, The land of Oz is a fairyland run on Communistic lines, and is perhaps the only Co mmunistic fairyland in all of childrens literature.6 The New Masses article claimed that Baums decision to make Oz a land in which money did not exist exposed his own Marxist sympathies. In The Road to Oz (the fifth book of the series), the Tin Woodman explains the economic system that the fairyland uses: Money! Money in Oz! What a queer idea! Did you suppose we are so vulgar as to use money here? If we used money to buy things with, instead of love and kindness and the desire to pleas e one another, then we s hould be no better than the rest of the world Fortunately money is not known in the Land of Oz at all. We have no rich and no poor; for what one wishes the others all try to give him, in order to make him happy, and no one in Oz cares to have more than he can use.7 The articles author noted the close relations hip between this passa ge and the communist mantra: from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs. The article 6 Stewart Robb, The Red Wizard of Oz, New Masses, 4 Oct. 1938, 8. 7 L. Frank Baum, The Road to Oz (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1991), 164-5. The original date of publication was 1909, and the publisher was Reilly and Britton; Robb, 8-9.

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19 also used Baums indictment of bankers (w ho sought to foreclose on Aunt Em and Uncle Henrys farm) and his declaration that Oz wa s free of cruel oversee rs set to watch over laborers as evidence of Baums radical left-wing sympathies.8 Beginning with the publication of the New Masses article, charges that the books encouraged communist thinking in children would dog the books from th at point through most of the Cold War. Accusations of a political subtext to the land of Oz were leveled by various sources. The Hollywood Tribune noted that the film version of Oz is a land full of progressive ideas such as how all should sh are alike in work and produce of work. The job of those trying to defend the Oz books became more difficult when the Daily Worker called The Wizard of Oz an outstanding film. The New Statesman even went so far as to proclaim the book a prolific American political tract: t he book of The Wizard is as common in American homes as is Mein Kampf in German.9 On the whole, it appears that a perception existed about the polit ical character of Baums utopian vision and that many people were becoming less willing to accept it as the political climate became more hostile to ideas from the left. One such hostile figure was Ralph Ulveling, head librarian at the Detroit Public Library. He removed Baums Oz books from the childrens library in Detroit in 1957 because, he argued, in them could be found nothing uplifting or elevating.10 The story quickly attracted the attention of the national media, and Ulveling was flooded with negative attention over his decision. The Detroit Times even went so far as to publish 8 L. Frank Baum, The Emerald City of Oz (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1993), 22, 31; Robb, 8-9. 9 All three are cited in Hearn, Toto, Ive a Feeling 31. The Hollywood Tribune article appeared on Aug. 21, 1939, the Daily Worker article on Aug. 18, 1939, and the New Statesman article on Feb. 3, 1940. 10 Rahn, 16.

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20 The Wonderful Wizard of Oz serially so that local children could have an opportunity to read it. In response to this onslaught of public criticism, Ulveli ng wrote his own defense in the American Library Associations Bulletin so that librarians will not be placed in an awkward situation should the matter be raised in their own localities.11 In this rebuttal Ulveling took offense at those who suggested he was involved in censorship. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz remained available, he argued in the Main Library (as it had been for 30 years). It ha d only been removed from the ch ildrens library. In fact, Ulveling had never directly removed the any of the Oz books from the ch ildrens library. Instead, he waited for the children to wear out each book in the series and simply did not replace them. This, he wrote, is not banning; it is selection.12 In Ulvelings mind, the decision not to include Baums books in the Detroit Childrens Library may have seemed logical if, indeed, the books had outlived a useful purpose in promoting reading in children.13 The American Library Association Po st-War Standards indicated that this was a valid method for choosing books for a childr ens library. The official policy of the ALA was that a special objective of the librarys program should be to foster good reading habits in children and young people in order to de velop an adult population that knows and appreciates books.14 If the sole value of the Baums Oz books was to encourage children to read, then when Ulveling began his crusade they had not outlived this function. The Oz books were 11 Ralph Ulveling, Ralph Ulveling on Freedom of Information, ALA Bulletin, Oct 1957, 653-5, 721. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 14 Emerson Greenway, What About Tomorrows Children? Library Journal April 15, 1950, 656-9.

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21 as popular with children in th e late-1950s as they had been in the past. In 1959, there were seven different editions of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in print, all selling well. The publisher Reilly and Lee was selling so ma ny copies of the books that it was forced to re-illustrate the books because the plates c ontaining the illustrations were wearing out. Milwaukee libraries (where th e books were not banned) report ed that children had worn out 135 copies of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in eight years, and the remaining fifty copies were rapi dly deteriorating.15 In February of 1959 (in the midst of this period of extraordinary affection among the nations children for the works of Baum ), Florida State Libr arian Dorothy Dodd released a list of ch ildrens books that would thereafter be banned from public libraries in Florida. Among the books on her list were many perennial childhood favorites: Uncle Wiggly Tarzan Tom Swift the works of Horatio Alger, the Campfire Girls the Hardy Boys and the Oz series.16 The national media quickly brought the list to th e attention of the American public. Life magazine, concentrating on the decision to remove the Oz books from the library, and noting the irony that Miss Dodd shared a name with the heroine of the Oz books, publicized the battle over ch ildrens books in Florida in an editorial in its February 16, 1959 issue.17 The article reported vociferous protests from parents, children, and an outspoken publici ncluding Florida Governor Leroy Collins who was dismayed that the works of his fa vorite childhood author (Alger) were in 15 Martin Gardner, Librarians in Oz, Saturday Review April 11, 1959, 18. 16 It is noteworthy that each of the books recommended for removal from Floridas libraries was a series book. The stigma against series books at the turn of the century seems to have lasted well into the twentieth century and beyond. 17 Dorothy the Librarian, Life Feb. 16, 1959, 47.

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22 jeopardy: I grew up on Horatio Alger, and I hate to have him put out of business.18 While the governor may have been most ups et with the removal of Horatio Algers works, the bulk of the public ire against th e removal of these ch ildrens books centered around L. Frank Baums Oz books. The censorship of the Oz series in Florida was intimately tied to Cold War anticommunism. Few children, it seems, worried about the potentially politically subversive subtext in their literatureand the removal of Baums beloved books proved to be a severe political liability.19 While anticommunism played a large role in determining which books would be censored from Floridas librari es, it was not solely the pe rceived communist subtext of Baums work that inspired th e decision to remove the books fr om library shelves. Efforts to increase funding and support fo r the expansion of Floridas library system were tinged with anticommunist rhetoric throughout the postwar period. Thomas Dreier, head librarian of the St. Petersburg public library and member of the State Library Board, often discussed the importance of f unding libraries as a tool prot ecting the country against the dangers posed by the Soviet Union. In one article written for The St. Petersburg Times Dreier showed concern that the Soviets were working diligently to develop a literate population, which he felt would give th em an advantage on the world stage: 18 Ibid. 19 It is also important to note that with children wearing out so many copies of the books, it would have proven quite expensive for libraries to keep the books in stock. With forty books in the series it is difficult to see how a cash-strapped library could afford to co ntinually replace the books. While financial concerns might have been used as a possible reason for keeping the books out of libraries, it does not appear they were in the case of either Detroit or Florida. Dorothy Dodds order was that all the books mentioned on her list were not to be purchased, not to be accepted as gifts, and not to be circulated. Any title now on the shelves should be withdrawn from circulation. Thus, even if the book came to the library at no expense or was already on library shelves, Dodd wanted it removed. This indicates that Dodds concern was not solely one on selecting titles that made the most of a limited library budget. Instead, she believed there was something implicitly denigrating in housing Baums book s in public libraries in Florida. Michael Hearn, Toto, Ive a Feeling Were Not in Kansas City Anymore or Detroit or Washington, D.C., 31.

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23 All of us must face the fact that Russia is seeking worl d domination. It is possible that Russia will succeed Only one thing will enable Russia to triumph It will not be sputniks or missiles or material explosives of any kind. Such things are details. What will enable Russia to win is its possession of more mental capital than the people of the free world One wa y in which it is be ing done is through building public libraries at fantastic speed.20 The challenge posed by Russias push to expand its public libraries was, as Dreier envisioned his own job as librarian, one that was intimately tied to national security. In a letter for the Florida library newsletter, Dreier reiterated his position: Russia has 394,000 libraries. The United States has 25,000. Florida ranks 39th among our 50 states. If Russia ev entually outstrips us it wi ll be because they seek everywhere the ideas and learn how to make better use of their minds. Dreier was arguing that his movement to improve the quantity and quality of Floridas libraries was a necessary front in the Cold War. He viewed libraries as extremely important institutions that would create a populace capable of defeating the Soviet Union in the marketplace of ideas. Referring to Arthur Traces popular book What Ivan Knows That Johnny Doesnt Dreier wrote an article for the St. Petersburg public library newsletter entitle d Johnny Will Read. In it he wrote, It has been cried aloud all over the country that Johnny cant read. More Johnnys would read if given the chance. One thing is sure, well not get [t he type of library required to inspire our children to read] until the citizens demand it.21 However, like the librarians who fought to keep series books out of child rens libraries in the early pa rt of the twen tieth century, he had very definite ideas about the sort of books Floridas libraries ought to carry. 20 Thomas Dreier, Libraries Will Help Russia Win Minds of the World, St. Petersburg Times (April 3, 1960). 21 Thomas Dreier, Johnny Will Read, Your Public Library: Food for the Mind newsletter for the public library of St. Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1961), series 1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee Florida. The reference to Traces book (published in 1961) being a topic of conversation among people in the country indicate that the article was published soon after the book.

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24 Public libraries, he wrote, save peopl e from suffering from mental malnutrition. Public libraries are not mere places wher e loafers may find entertaining books for a loafing hour.22 Outside the pages of his library newsletter, Dreier was an even more strident anticommunist. Elsewhere he wrote vitriolic propaganda pieces with stark depictions of leftists: The socialist is smarter than the capitalist. He has to be to get what he wants. The capitalist is the producer. He raises the fr uits and vegetables. He makes gadgets. He accumulates profits. Thats when th e socialist, himself unable to create anything, steps in and passes laws that comp el the capitalist to turn part of his profits into socialist projects. The time will come when the socialist will actually pass laws that compel the producer to surre nder complete contro l of what he has created.23 Given his antipathy toward leftist politics, the fact that Baums work was often suspected of containing subversive political ideas gave Dreier additional impetus to support Dodds list of books to be removed from Floridas libraries. Librarians from other states began to adopt Dreiers thesis that libraries provided a line of defense against communism. In Marc h of 1961, William Hinchliff, librarian in Pacific Palisades, Californi a, wrote a letter to Dreier thanking him for granting permission to reprint his St. Petersburg Times article. He noted, The reprint has already helped spur public library support in Los Angeles.24 Encouraged by this rhetoric, the principal of an elementary school in Westwood, California, announced in late 1961 that 22 Thomas Dreier, Of What Use Are Public Libraries? Your Public Library: Food for the Mind, newsletter for the public library of St. Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1956), series 1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahasseee, Florida, 1. While it isnt dated, a reference to the Florida Library Association annual meeting of 1957 indicates that the article was published soon before. 23 Thomas Dreier, The Capitalist is the Socialists Slave, The Vagabond, v. XLII, #6, 1. 24 Letter from William E. Hinchliff to Thomas Dreier (March 20, 1960), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

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25 he was banning The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in his school, because Baum had communist sympathies.25 Dreier also explained in a shor t note to Dodd th at libraries in Pennsylvania were having some success agai nst strong state opposition to increasing library funds using his anticommunist argument.26 When it came to employing the tactic of using the publics anticommuni st sentiment to remove the works of Baum from public libraries (and thereby empower the library in its fight against communism), Dreier and Dodd were not alone. These localities join ed Detroit, Washington, D.C., Chicago, (ironically) Kansas City, and ot her local library districts acro ss the nation in purging their shelves of the works of Baum. Dorothy Dodds anticommunist rhetoric was far more tempered than Thomas Dreiers, but she still appealed to public fear of falling behind the Soviet Union to give her the power to shape children s library collections. Kids dont like that fanciful stuff anymore, Dodd responded when asked to justify her decision to remove the Oz books from Florida libraries, T hey want books about missile s and atomic submarines.27 The Life magazine article saw Dodds ce nsorship attempts as part of a larger batt le over the value of fantasy fiction in an atomic ag e: They [Dodds arguments] stem from the recurrent fad for teaching kids to a dapt to reality by shunning fantasy.28 In the context of the Cold War, Dodd beli eved children who read pr actical books (or books about 25 Mary Lou White, CensorshipThreat Over Childrens Books, The Elementary School Journal (Oct 1974), 6; Michael Hearn, The Annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000), xcviii. 26 Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (March 27, 1961), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. 27 Martin Gardner, The Librarians in Oz, 18. 28 Dorothy the Librarian, 47.

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26 missiles and atomic submarines) woul d increase their pers onal knowledge and consequently increase the nations sc ientific and technological potential. Dodd, in fact, over-estimated postw ar childrens av ersion to the Oz series when she said, Kids dont like that fancif ul stuff anymore. With th e continuing popularity of the Oz books, Dodd was placed in the awkward situat ion that Ulveling wrote his article to avoid. After Life gave national exposure to her list of childrens books to be removed from the library, she was forced to explain herself and take responsibility for a major scandal: In view of what has happened, it does s eem too bad that we used the list of childrens books in the Newsle tter. I cant say, however that I would have been perceptive enough to foresee the furor it did create. As for me taking the rap, I think I am the one to take it. I do it with good grace because I think we are fundamentally right in insisting these books in question are not suitable reading material. I hope though, that this experien ce will teach us that a soft approach is better.29 Part of the furor that Dodd s list inspired came in the fo rm of letters from an irate public demanding to know why their favorite books were being removed from the library. Dodd, in fact, had to respond to so many letters that she had lit tle time for anything else. She was forced to write a letter to Thomas Dreier explaining her tardiness in fulfilling her duties as State Librarian: As a result of th e letters Ive had to write about the childrens books, I am way behind on a number of th ings including the biennial report.30 While Dodd eventually convinced the governor to stand by her decision to remove the childrens books, even some of Dodds coworkers had seri ous reservations about her censorship attempts. Library Extension Offi cer Verna Nistendirk, at great professional 29 Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dreier (Feb 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. 30 Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dreier (Feb 25, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

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27 risk, went so far as to reprint the Life article, that brutal Verboten piece, in her own library bulletin, directly defying Dodd.31 Over the course of 1959, the relationship between Dodd and Nistendirk steadily deteri orated. Their persona l relationship became ugly, and their working relationship was i nharmonious. These problems had become common knowledge among library employees acro ss the state. Thomas Dreier, in his position on the State Library Board, eventually offered Dodd the choice: You hired her. You can fire her.32 Dodd decided not to fire Nistendi rk, but Nistendirks role in the childrens book drama almost assuredly prev ented her from being promoted upon Dodds retirement.33 The wild fantasy and the perception of s ubversive political ideas in L. Frank Baums Oz books made them an obvious target fo r censorship attempts by state library officials. These censorship attempts, however, by and large failed to achieve their goals. Baums stories continued to resonate with the children who read them, and each generation found a new legion of fans who vocally defended th eir favorite works. This created the furor that Dodd found so great that, by her own admission, she would have to think twice about directly censoring books in the future. When it came to librarians attempts to control access of children to the ideas of the Oz books, Ruth Plumly Thompson, Baums successor as author of the Oz series, noted, the children 31 Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (Feb 2, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. 32 Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (Nov 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. 33 Letter from Margaret Chapman (President of Florida Library Association) to Adam Adams (Chairman of the State Library and Historical Commi ssion) (July 7, 1965), Series 1510, Carton 3, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee,Florida. The letter points out that Nistendirk would have been a likely and popular candidate to take over Dodds position upon her retirement, if it were not for the fact that Dodd would not recommend her for the position, due to personal and professional conflicts.

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28 themselves settled the matter by buying m illions of Baums books though many whose parents could not afford to buy the books were deprived of the delights and excitement of the wonderful Land of Oz.34 34 Thompson, 7-8.

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29 CHAPTER 4 SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS The Oz books were perpetually ignored or di srespected by much of the scholarly community and many librarian s throughout the first half of the twen tieth century. Despite its immense popularity, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was missing from many important encyclopedias of childrens litera ture and lists of r ecommended reading for children; none of Cornelia Meigs Critical History of Childrens Literature (1953), May Hill Arbuthnots Children and Books (1947), Bookmans 1922 list of One Hundred Story Books for Children, Laura E. Richards What Shall the Children Read? (1939), Alice M. Jordans Childrens Classics (1947), nor dozens of other important books attempting to establish standards for selection of quality literature for childrens libraries mentioned either Baum or Oz.1 A deliberate effort was made by many scholars of childrens literature and librari ans in childrens libraries to keep the works of Baum out of the cannon, although they were deeply enjoyed by generations of children by the time many of these lists and encyclopedias were published. As argued here, the emphasis Baum placed on commercial aspects of a childs experience of his work was difficult for many librarians to accept. They tended to see Baums work as pulp fiction and unworthy of a place in the ha nds of a child. The presentation of Oz as a land exploring the metaphorical possibilities of consumerism did little to assuage these negative feelings. 1 Clark,, 27, 133; Martin Gardner, Why Librarians Dislike Oz, The American Book Collector, v. 13, #4, December 1962, 14.

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30 While before World War II critics and librarians felt Baums work was overly commercial, librarians in postwar America of ten saw something quite different. Still believing that Baums books lacked literary qua lity, the sense that Baum was advocating American consumerism was replaced by the opposite feeling that the Oz books contained a coded Marxist message. In the meantime, ma ny librarians were trying to shape library collections in ways that would direct the ment al efforts of children to practical ends as a tool for fighting the Soviets in the Cold War. Baums particular brand of escapist fantasy was tossed aside by the stern and realistic hands of libra rians like Ulveling, Dodd, and Dreier. Most of the battles to keep the Oz books out of public libraries and schools subsided by the mid-1970s. By the 1970s, librarians and educators were largely defending a childs right to read freely and broadly. In part, th is new attitude was adopted as a means of protecting children from what was seen as an even more negative influence: television.2 Occasionally, concerned parents would and will complain about ethnic stereotyping in the works of L. Frank Baum, which do c ontain negative characte rizations of Blacks and other racial and ethnic minorities. Of all the charges leveled at the Oz series in its tumultuous history, the argument to keep childr en away of the pernic ious depictions of racial minorities is likely the strongest. In The Patchwork Girl of Oz and Rinkitink in Oz Dorothy and her companions visit the To ttenhots, whom Glinda the Good Witch describes as a lower form of man, with black skin and wiry haira clearly racist caricature of the Hottentot peoples of South Africa. Additionally, in some of his other 2 Romalov, 119.

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31 shorter works for children, Baum also include d negative characteriza tions of the Irish, Chinese, French, and Arabs.3 Baums own racial politics were no less troubling. Living in South Dakota at the time of the Ghost Da ncers and Custers Last Stand, Baum argued in his newspaper editorials that the only way to secure peace in South Dakota was the extermination of Native Americans.4 This was the source of racial protests against Baums books beginning in th e 1970s and continuing thro ugh the 1980s. While these protests were rather common, but they have since begun to wane. Newer editions of some of the offending titles have removed some problematic illustrations and text, and the number of concerned parents seems to be dropping.5 The Oz series, like J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter books, also seem recently to have found an enemy in fundamentalist Christia ns. In 1986, seven fundamentalist families filed suit against a public school in Tennessee for placing The Wonderful Wizard of Oz on a required reading list for students. In Oz they argued, woman assume traditional male rolespresumably referring, at least in pa rt, to the transforma tion of the young boy, Tip, into Ozma, the ruling princess of Oz, at the end of the second book. The families also objected to the promotion of magic; the idea of a Good Witch was anathema to them. Moreover, they bemoaned the fact that in the books animals achieve human status (the Cowardly Lion, for instance, is treated as an eq ual in Oz), thus viol ating the dictum that God gave man dominion over the animals. Th e judge ruled that parents with religious 3 Francis B. Randall, Ethnic Stereotypes in Baums Books for Children, Baum Bugle, 28: 1 (Spring 1984), 8-11. 4 Hearn, The Annotated Wizard of Oz, xxiv. 5 Angelica Shirley Carpenter and Jean Shirley, L. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz (Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1992), 134.

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32 objections to the books could remove their ch ildren from the classroom when Baums books were read.6 On the whole, however, arguments over the acceptability of Baums work in public libraries and schools have largely subsided. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is now absent from the ALAs annual list of the hundred mo st banned books in the United States. Debates over the literary value of series books continue, but the debates are far less intense and tend to be isolated.7 Throughout the nineteenth century, children in the United States had only Europ ean fairy tales to read. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz represented for these children the first fairy tale with distinctly American images and themes. It filled a cultural void for them and the story of Dorothy and her companions has continued to resonate with children fo r more than a centur y since its publication.8 The cultural importance of the tale in the Un ited States was strengthened considerably by its translation to film MGMs 1939 production of The Wizard of Oz has been seen more times and by more people than any other film in history.9 This level of popularity virtually ensured Baums work a place in th e pantheon of childrens literature in the United States. Now, in fact, most children re ad the works of Baum because they enjoyed 6 Ibid. 7 In 1991, the public library in Boulder, CO, removed the Nancy Drew series from the card catalog and moved the books to special collections, in an attempt to discourage children from reading series books. Romalov, 120. 8 Some scholars have begun to challenge Baums status as the first writer of fantasy for children in the United States. Mark I Wests Before Oz: Juvenile Fantasy Stories from Nineteenth Century America, (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1989) presents a compelling argument for the reevaluation of this claim and is a valuable collection of American fantasy from the nineteenth cent ury. It remains clear, nevertheless, that The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was the first book-length fantasy for children published by an American author. As such, it holds an important distinction in the history of childrens literature. 9 Neil Earle, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in American Popular Culture (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993), 1.

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33 the film (and not vice versa). In part because of the prominence of the film and despite librarians criticism of the low art of his work s, Baums most famous tale has become an integral part of Americas cultural mythology. While libra rians and critics diligently worked to keep the books away from young readers, the century-l ong support of Baums work by generations of childre n have ensured that it w ill be read, enjoyed, and remembered.

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34 WORKS CITED Baum, L. Frank, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. New York: Dover, 1984. Baum, L. Frank, The Emerald City of Oz. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1993. Baum, L. Frank, The Lost Princess of Oz. New York: Amereon House, 1917. Baum, L. Frank, The Road to Oz. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1991. Brink, Carol Ryrie, South Dakota Library Bulletin (April-June 1948), cited in Michael Patrick Hearn, Introduction, in The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000. Bronner, Simon, Reading Consumer Cultu re, in Simon J. Bronner (ed.), Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989, 13-53. Carpenter, Angela Shirley and Jean Shirley, L. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1992. Clark, Beverly Lyon, Kiddie Lit: The Cultural Constructi on of Childrens Literature in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Culver, Stuart What Manakins Want, Representations, Winter 1988, 97-116. Dorothy the Librarian, Life Feb. 16, 1959, 47. Dreier, Thomas, The Capitalis t is the Socialists Slave, The Vagabond, 42:6, 4-5. Dreier, Thomas, Johnny Will Read, Your Public Library: Food for the Mind newsletter for the public library of St. Pete rsburg, FL (not dated, circa 1961), series 1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee Florida. Dreier, Thomas, Libraries Will Help Russia Win Minds of the World, St. Petersburg Times, April 3, 1960. Dreier, Thomas, Of What Us e Are Public Libraries? Your Public Library: Food for the Mind, newsletter for the public library of St Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1956), series 1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahasseee, Florida. Earle, Neil, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in American Popular Culture. Lewsiton, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993.

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35 Eaton, Anne Widening Horizons 18 40-1890, in Cornelia Meigs (ed.) A Critical History of Childrens Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1953, 167-298. Editorial, Library Journal, December 1905, 915-916. Cited in Nancy Tillman Romalov, Childrens Series Books and the Rhetoric of Guidance: A Historical Overview, in Carolyn Stewart and Nancy Tillman Romalov (eds.), Rediscovering Nancy Drew. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995. Gardner, Martin, Librarians in Oz, Saturday Review April 11, 1959, 18-19. Gardner, Martin Why Librarians Dislike Oz, The American Book Collector, 13:4, December 1962, 14-15. Goldthwaite, John, The Natural History of Make-Believe: A Guide to the Principle Works of Britain, England, and America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. The Douglas G. and David L. Greene Collecti on of L. Frank Baum and Related Oziana. Greenway, Emerson, What About Tomorrows Children? Library Journal April 15, 1950, 656-659. Hearn, Michael Patrick (ed.), The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000. Hearn, Michael Patrick, Toto, Ive a Feeling Were Not in Kansas City Anymoreor Detroitor Washington, D.C.! The Horn Book Magazine Jan/Feb 2001, 16-34. Huck, Charlotte S., Susan Hepler, and Janet Hickman, Childrens Literature in the Elementary School, 5th Edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt Br ace Jovanovich Publishers, 1989. Lanes, Selma, Down the Rabbit Hole: Adventures and Misadventures in the Realm of Childrens Literature. New York: Antheum, 1971. Leach, William, Strategists of Display a nd the Production of Desire, in Simon J. Bronner (ed.), Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989, 99-132. Lears, T.J. Jackson, From Salvation to Self -Realization: Advertisi ng and the Therapeutic Roots of Consumer Culture, 1880-1930, in The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880-1980. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983, 1-28. Lears, T.J. Jackson, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture,1880-1925. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. Letter from Margaret Chapman (President of Florida Library Association) to Adam Adams (Chairman of the State Library a nd Historical Commis sion), (July 7, 1965), Series 1510, Carton 3, Florida Stat e Archives, Tallahassee,Florida.

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36 Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dr eier (Feb 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dr eier (Feb 25, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorot hy Dodd (Feb 2, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorot hy Dodd (Nov 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy D odd (March 27, 1961), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Letter from William E. Hinchliff to Thom as Dreier (March 20, 1960), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Martin, Dick, The Toys and Games of Oz, Baum Bugle, Christmas 1962, 4-7. Rahn, Suzanne, The Wizard of Oz: Shaping an Imaginary World. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998. Randall, Francis B., Ethnic Stereoty pes in Baums Books for Children, Baum Bugle, 28:1 (Spring 1984), 8-11. Riley, Michael O. Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997. Robb, Stewart, The Red Wizard of Oz, New Masses, Oct. 4, 1938, 8. Steinbeck, John, Reprint of One Man s Opinion, Series 900000, Box M73-16 #2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, FL. Stewart, Carolyn and Nancy Tillman Romalov, Rediscovering Nancy Drew. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995. St. John, Tom, Lyman Frank Baum: Looking Backward to the Promised Land, Western Humanities Review, 35:4 (Winter 1982), 349-360. Swartz, Mark Evan, Oz Before the Rainbow: L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz on Stage and Screen to 1939. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Thompson, Ruth Plumly, Librarians, Editors, Critics, Children, and Oz, Baum Bugle Autumn 1984, 7-8. Ulveling, Ralph, Ralph Ulveli ng on Freedom of Information, ALA Bulletin, Oct 1957, 653-655, 721.

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37 Viguers, Ruth Hill, The Golden Ag e 1920-1950, in Cornelia Meigs (ed.), A Critical History of Childrens Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1953, 427-604. West, Mark I., Before Oz Juvenile Fantasy Series in Nineteenth Century America. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Press, 1989. White, Mary Lou, CensorshipThreat Over Childrens Books, The Elementary School Journal (Oct 1974), 2-10.

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38 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Andrew Grunzke completed undergraduate degrees in mathematics and English from the University of Florida in 1999. Af ter earning his Master of Arts in Teaching mathematics, he began pursuing his Ph.D. in social foundations of education. Developing an interest in the educational func tion of childrens literature, he is currently writing his dissertation on Baums Oz books.


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Title: Money! Money in Oz!: Consumerism, Communism, and the Censorship of Baum's Oz Books
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014345/00001

Material Information

Title: Money! Money in Oz!: Consumerism, Communism, and the Censorship of Baum's Oz Books
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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"MONEY! MONEY IN OZ!":
CONSUMERISM, COMMUNISM, AND
THE CENSORSHIP OF BAUM' S OZ BOOKS
















By

ANDREW LAWRENCE GRUNZKE


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006



















TABLE OF CONTENTS




AB S TRAC T ..... ._ ................. ..........._..._ iii...

CHAPTER

1 SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS .............. ...............1.....


2 OZ, AN EDEN FOR CONSUMERISM: CENSORSHIP OF OZ IN A
TRANSITIONAL AGE ................. ...............4.................


3 OZ, THE COMMUNISTIC FAIRYLAND: COLD WAR CENSORSHIP OF
BAUM ................. ...............16.......... .....

4 SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS .............. ...............29....

W ORKS CITED .............. ...............34....

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............38....
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

"MONEY! MONEY IN OZ!":
CONSUMERISM, COMMUNISM, AND
THE CENSORSHIP OF BAUM' S OZ BOOKS

By

Andrew Lawrence Grunzke

May 2006

Chair: John Cech
Major Department: English

This thesis presents a history of efforts by critics and librarians to prevent children

from being able to read Baum's Oz books. One such librarian, Anne Carroll Moore, head

of the New York Public Library Children's Reading Room and first chair of the

American Library Association's Children Services Section, decided to remove the Oz

books from the children's reading room of the New York Public Library in the 1930s.

This set a strong precedent for librarians across the nation--and many decided to follow

her lead. Moore always left her indictments of Baum's works vague--although she

clearly held the books in low regard, like many librarians of her time, because of their

status as series books and their role in the commercialization of children' s literature.

By the 1950s, a political debate over Baum's Oz books had developed, and the

books' utopian vision made some critics and librarians suspect the books of supporting a

Marxist ideology. The Oz books were removed from library shelves around the nation

throughout the postwar period, including across Florida, in Detroit, Washington, D.C.,










New York City, and (ironically) Kansas City.l The Red Scare revived feelings that the

books were promoting communism, "negativism," and "a cowardly approach to life"

among the nation's children.2 In 1959, Florida State Librarian Dorothy Dodd released a

list of children's books which she urged librarians around the state to remove from their

collections; the Oz series topped her list. This thesis analyzes personal correspondences,

library newsletters, and other primary documents to examine the role anticommunist

crusading played in the shaping of children' s library collections in Florida.

Overall, this paper seeks to examine the status of L. Frank Baum's Oz books as

contested texts throughout the first six decades of the twentieth century. In particular, it

will focus on librarian and scholarly objections to the work of Baum-as works of low

art too overly commercial to be worthy of a child's attention, and as subversively

political works with a coded Marxist message. In essence, the thesis seeks to explore the

means by which Baum's works were able to overcome (with the help of millions of

children who were avid Oz readers) extremely negative critical attention to achieve their

status as classic American children's literature and as central texts in America's cultural

mythology.













SSuzanne Rahn, The Wizard ofOz: The \1044;,, of an Anaginary World (New York: Twayne Publishers,
1998), 15-16.

SStuart Culver, "What Manakins Want," Representations 21 (Winter 1988), 98.















CHAPTER 1
SOME INTTRODUCTORY REMARKS

L. Frank Baum's The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz and the ensuing series of books had

a tumultuous history in the decades between 1900 and 1970. Throughout the period, the

Oz books remained contested texts. Even so, the character of librarian and scholarly

objections to the works of Baum underwent considerable revision during this time. For

their entire history, librarians and critics have tended to see Baum's work as low art, too

overly commercial to be worthy of a child's attention. During the Red Scare following

World War II, however, many librarians chastised Baum's books for being, at worst,

subversively political works with a coded Marxist message or, at best, diversions that

directed the child's mind away from more serious pursuits.

In the last few decades of the nineteenth century, longstanding attitudes about the

purpose and proper function of literature for children were shifting dramatically in both

England and the United States. The idea that "instruction was the primary object in

books for the young was weakening."l For centuries, books that explicitly taught morals

formed the core texts of a child's upbringing; Bunyan's Pilgrim 's Progress, Aesop's

Fables, Perrault's fairy tales, and other such popular works prominently featured lessons

to be gleaned. In England, the shift began with the publication of Lewis Carroll's Alice 's

Adventures in Wonderlan2d (1866)--"a story designed for children without a trace of a




SAnne Eaton, "Widening Horizons 1840-1890," in Cornelia Meigs, 4 Critical History of Children 's
Literature (New York: Macmillan, 1953), 232.










lesson or moral."2 In the late nineteenth century in the United States, many authors for

children began writing works for children that did not moralize. Writers like Mark Twain

and Louisa May Alcott wrote prolific works for children without obvious instructional

purposes. The shift away from literature concerned with the admonishment and

improvement of children was, nevertheless, slower in fantasy literature in the United

States. L. Frank Baum's assertion in the introduction to 7hze Wonderfud Wizard of Oz

(1900) that "modern education includes morality; therefore the modern child seeks only

entertainment in its wondertales" 3 remained a controversial one with the librarians

endowed with the responsibility of selecting books for children. For fantasy for

children--with its roots in perennially educational fables and fairy tales--to abandon its

moral character was more difficult for many adults to accept.

Baum's retreat from moralizing in literature for children was not the only source of

dismay over his work experienced by many critics and librarians over the years. Thomas

Dreier was a member of the State Library Board in Florida in the 1950s and 1960s, head

librarian in St. Petersburg, FL, and prominent advocate for the removal of the Oz books

from library shelves. Among his personal papers, he kept a copy of a John Steinbeck

editorial entitled "One Man's Opinion" that noted: "... it is wonderful today with all

[sic] competition of records, of radio, of television, of motion pictures, the book has kept

its precious character. A book is somehow sacred."4 Although more than fifty years had

passed since Baum had begun his career as a writer, the attitude that books ought to be


SIbid., 211, 232.

SMichael Patrick Hearn (ed.), The annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 4.

SJohn Steinbeck, "Reprint of 'One Man's Opinion," Series 900000, Box M73-16 #2, Florida State
Archives, Tallahassee, FL. Circa 1954.









free of the commercial influences to which other media succumbed was still deeply

entrenched among many librarians. Baum had embraced the rising consumer culture at

the turn of the twentieth century and used his written works as source material for a

variety of media. Operating a successful traveling stage show, creating a series of silent

Oz films, and marketing Scarecrow and Tin Woodman dolls and toys, Baum created a

market for the land of Oz that extended far beyond the pages of his books. While this

commercialization of Oz may have increased the audience for Baum's books, many

librarians who saw the book, like Steinbeck, as a sacred entity felt it vulgarized children's

literature--a literature with a long legacy of serving as moral educator. Thus, many

librarians actively sought to keep the books out of the nation' s libraries.

The advent of the Cold War changed the perceptions of the political content of

Baum's Oz series. Ironically, where critics and librarians once saw an advocacy of

consumerism, they began to see the spectre of communism. Utopian thinking,

particularly in the form of a land like Oz in which money did not exist, became

associated with a leftist political agenda. Anticommunist crusaders, such as Thomas

Dreier and Florida State Librarian Dorothy Dodd, began to remove Baum's books from

library shelves in various locations across the country. Political motivations gave new

fuel to an old debate over the appropriateness of Baum's Oz books for young readers.















CHAPTER 2
OZ, AN EDEN FOR CONSUMERISM: CENSORSHIP OF OZ
INT A TRANSITIONAL AGE

From the 1920s through the 1950s, the "authoritative voice in the world of

children's books"' belonged to Anne Carroll Moore. Because of her work as the

Superintendent of Work with Children for the New York Public Library, her position as

chair of the Children's Services Section of the American Library Association, her annual

lists of recommended children's books (from 1918 to 1941), and her regular columns in

Bookman and the New York Herald Tribune, she wielded considerable power for most of

the first half of the twentieth century in determining the financial success of newly

published children's books. Publishers, editors, other librarians, book store proprietors,

and parents all sought her advice regarding the types of children's books to publish,

stock, and purchase. Moore's standards were very exacting, possessing, according to one

of her defenders, "a profound respect for children as individuals and for children's

intelligence and taste and interests."2 She panned the works of Margaret Wise Brown

and Clement Hurd (the author and illustrator of the seminal children's bedtime story

Goodnight M~oon). She advised E.B. White not to publish his first children's book, Stuart

Little, lest it should become "an embarrassment" to him.3 Both of these books went on to



SBeverly Lyon Clark, Kiddie Lit: The Cultural Construction of Children 's Literature in 4merica
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 70.

SRuth Hill Viguers, "The Golden Age 1920-1950," in Cornelia Meigs, 4 Critical History of Children 's
Literature (New York: Macmillan, 1953), 429.

SClark, 70-2.










become great successes despite Moore's harsh critiques. Many other books either

became classics because of her praise or were quickly forgotten for lack of her

recommendation.

Anne Carroll Moore always disliked the works of L. Frank Baum. As early as

1902 (two years after the publication of 7he Wonderful Wizard of Oz), she had harsh

words to say about Baum's books. While working for the Pratt Institute Free Library, she

wrote in her A List of Books Recommended for a Children 's Library for the Iowa Library

Commission: "'Most of the popular picture books of the time are unworthy of a place in

the hands of children... Such books as Denslow's M~other Goose (1901) [Denslow was

the illustrator for Baum's WonderJid Wizard of Oz] and Baum's Father Goose...should

be banished from the sight of impressionable young children."'4 It was hardly surprising,

therefore, that in the 1930s Moore decided to remove the entire Oz series from the

shelves of the Central Children' s Reading Room of the New York Public Library. Moore

refused to give a reason for their removal--but she was so well respected and influential

that many children's librarians across the country followed her lead.'

While Moore remained cryptic about her decision, other librarians and critics were

hardly loath to give their reasons for disliking the works of Baum. The source for the

antipathy seems to be that:

The Wizard of Oz was too popular with children. Presentable copies could never be
kept on the shelves because they were worn out by eager hands. The Wizard of Oz
won itself a bad reputation because it became a musical comedy and a movie and
because it was followed by a shoddy series of books, mostly written by hack


4 Michael Patrick Hearn, "Toto, I've a Feeling We're Not in Kansas City Anymore...or Detroit...or
Washington, D.C.!" The Horn Book Magazine, Jan/Feb 2001, 18-9.

5 Suzanne Rahn, The Wizard of Oz: wrou1-,, an Imaginary World (New York, Twayne Publishers, 1998),










writers who took over the original author's idea and extended it to impossible
lengths.6

Clearly, many librarians were dismayed by the commercial nature of the works of Baum.

The endless toys, fi1ms, comic strips, and other product tie-ins had increased the

popularity of the books, but they simultaneously hurt their reputation among those

responsible for deciding which books would be stocked in the public libraries.

Although such commercialization of children's literature was rare during the period

when Baum was writing his books for children, it is commonplace now. J.K. Rowling's

Harry Potter books form the basis of a multimedia empire; movies, toys, video games,

bed sheets, costumes, and a multitude of other product tie-ins are marketed as a matter of

course. Even so, many critics still critique Baum's work as being overly commercial.

John Goldthwaite writes that "Baum was essentially a pulp writer who drew at need from

every passing fashion, sometimes to the benefit of the story and sometimes not."' As a

writer of series books with a keen interest in the latest fads (such as the silent cinema),

Baum's books resided squarely in the realm of pulp fiction--and this comes with a

stigma attached. As a recent book written to aid teachers in selecting books for

elementary students stated, the first book in the series "might well have sufficed."s

Baum's status as a writer of series books continues to plague his work--and the quality

of his now classic books is still judged against his reputation as a purveyor of pulp

fiction.


6 C8TO1 Ryrie Brink, South Dakota Library Budletin (April-June 1948), cited in Michael Patrick Hearn,
"Introduction," in The annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000), lxxxvii-iii.

SJohn Goldthwaite, The Natural History ofi~ake-Believe: 4 Guide to the Principle Works ofBritain,
England, and 4merica (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 212.

SCharlotte S. Huck, Susan Hepler, and Janet Hickman, Children 's Literature in the Elementary School, 5th
Edition (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, 1989), 141.










In many ways, adult fears concerning the dime novel in the late nineteenth century

had driven the movement to establish children's libraries. Poorer children, many

Progressive reformers felt, only had access to cheap reading material, which often meant

they were reading dime novels--which had a reputation for being sensational and

mediocre. Many adults wanted to create places where children could access cheap or free

reading material and be steered toward books of higher literary value. As the series book

began to develop out of the dime novel tradition, librarians (who had resoundingly

refused to stock dime novels) turned their attention toward the series book--attacking it

for its perceived low artistic status. One editorial in Library Journal in 1905 asked:

"Shall the libraries resist the flood [of series books] and stand for a purer literature and art

for children, or shall they 'meet the demands of the people' by gratifying low and

lowering taste?"9 The American Library Association had taken an official stance against

the inclusion of series books on the basis that they were poorly written and lurid wastes

of time. 1

In many ways, these criticisms are not altogether unfair. Baum's books were

hastily written and poorly edited. His publishers expected his work would be of fairly

low quality. One of Baum's contracts (for a non-Oz series, written under a pen name)

read: "Baum shall deliver...a book for young girls on the style of Louisa M. Alcott






9 Editorial, Library Journal, December 1905, 915-916. Cited in Nancy Tillman Romalov, "Children's
Series Books andthe Rhetoric of Guidance: A Historical Overview," in Carolyn Stewart and Nancy
Tillman Romalov, Rediscovering Nancy Drew (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995), 114.

"' Nancy Tillman Romalov, "Children's Series Books and the Rhetoric of Guidance: A Historical
Overview," in Carolyn Stewart and Nancy Tillman Romalov, Rediscovering Nancy Drew (Iowa City:
University of Iowa Press, 1995), 113-121.










stories, but not so good...."" Baum's employers expected him to produce large numbers

of books, and they wanted them quickly. They were unconcerned that lack of time might

reduce the literary value of his work.

Just as his publishers expected books of little literary value, librarians and critics

(such as Anne Carroll Moore) derided Baum's books for this deficiency. Baum may not

have been aiming for quality, but he was certainly aiming for popularity at a time when

"popularity and quality were increasingly seen as divergent."12 In turning his books into

a series, Baum had already alienated the ALA and other guardians of the children's

libraries. By marketing his books using a variety of different media, by increasing the

scope of the impact of his work by entering the toy, movie, and theatre markets, Baum

was further making himself a target for critics and librarians. All the while, though, his

works were becoming increasingly beloved by the audience of children (who were

experiencing Baum's tales in a multimedia fashion that was relatively rare, though not

unprecedented, prior to his work). 13


'' Angelica Shirley Carpenter and Jean Shirley, L. Frank Baum: Roval Historian of Oz, (Minneapolis:
Lemner Publications, 1992), 80.

'2 Clark, 136.

13 It is important to note that the Oz books were not, in fact, the first works with such blatantly commercial
aspects. Francis Hodgson Bumnett's Little Lord Fauntlerov was also widely popular at the tumn of the
twentieth century. In 1893, Bumnett's book was one of the two most likely books to be held by a public
library (second only to Ben-Hur). Fauntlerov traded heavily in commercial tie-ins. Little Lord Fauntlerov
playing cards, writing paper, perfume, and his trademark velvet suits were all commercially available (and
popular). Librarians treated Fauntlerov with disdain similar to that with which they treated the Oz books.
They derided the book for its "sloppiness" and artificialityv" (Clark, 21-2). Fauntlerov, however, was
unable to maintain its popularity among children. The books were markedly Victorian-replete with moral
lessons. It was, in fact, the perennial popularity of the Oz books with children that allowed it to have the
large impact that it did on the commercialization of children's literature. This popularity stemmed from
Baum's setting aside the strict moralizing and embracing the role of the children's books as pure
"entertainment." (For a more detailed discussion of this decision, see the introduction to The Wonderfud
Wizard of Oz in which Baum writes of his decision to write a book free from the moralizing that typified
much of children's literature throughout the Victorian era.) While Baum's Oz books might not have been
the first works for children to practice heavy-handed commercialism, they were the epitome of the
phenomenon--and likely had the greatest impact on the movement.










The number and variety of Oz promotional products available before the 1939 film

release was staggering. For instance, within three years of the publication of The

Wonderful Wiza~rd of Oz, Denslow had designed a series of six posters depicting the Oz

characters that were sold as a wallpaper frieze for children's rooms. Little brass jewelry

boxes with the Cowardly Lion mounted on the lid were given to ladies in the audience of

The Wiza~rd of Oz on April 15, 1903 to commemorate the hundredth performance of the

popular stage play. Buttons featuring many favorite characters from the Oz books,

including the Scarecrow and the Woggle-Bug, were used to promote the release of a new

Oz book almost every year. Colored maps of the land of Oz, featuring the royal flag of

Oz on the back, were available for purchase in 1914. Detachable cardboard figures

designed by John Neill (the illustrator who took over for Denslow) were sold--so

children could act out their favorite scenes from the books at home. In 1921, Parker

Brothers issued The Wonderfud Gamne of Oz. Fans of the books could also purchase dolls

and jigsaw puzzles. Children could even eat Oz Peanut Butter. 14 Moreover, the

commercial empire of Oz included four silent films, The Patcinvork Girl of Oz (1914),

The Magic Cloak of Oz (1914), His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz (1915), and The Wizard

of Oz (1925), several stage plays (including The Wiza~rd of Oz and The Tik-Tok Man of

Oz), and a comic strip (Queer Visitors from the Ma'~rvelous Land of Oz).

Baum had much more than a financial interest in the commercialization of his

books. In fact, Baum was, in many ways, responsible for developing the commercial tie-



14 Dick Martin, "The Toys and Games of Oz," Baum Bugle, Christmas 1962, 4-7: The Douglas G. and
David L. Greene Collection of L. Frank Baum and Related Oziana.

15 Mark Evan Swartz, Oz Before the Rainbow: L,. Frank Baum 's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz on Stage and
Screen to 1939 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).










in as an advertising tool. Baum had moved his family to the Black Hills of South Dakota

in the days of the gold rush to operate a general store and publish a newspaper. When the

gold rush was ending and Baum's business was dropping precipitously, Baum was forced

to try to find new ways of marketing his goods to make ends meet. He would become the

"first significant advocate of display" and "among the earliest architects of the dream life

of the consumer age."16 In fact, one of Baum's first book publications was The Art of

Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors (1900)--a work that garnered him a

significant reputation in the burgeoning field of advertising. 1 This reputation saved him

from the job as a traveling salesman he was forced to take when the gold rush ended, his

store closed, and his newspaper shut down. He moved to Chicago to assume a full-time

position as the editor of .1/ww~l Window, a magazine devoted to advertising and design--

the occupation that sustained him while he wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. I

Of course, the work that Baum did for his book on shop windows and in the

magazine .1/ww~l Window influenced into his fantasy writing. The rising consumer culture

created, for some, "a worry that the humane spirit of the country was submerged beneath

the surface allure of having and displaying possessions." 19 Baum's fantasy world

exploited the potential of this surface allure, while exposing it as artifice. The Emerald

City is a sparkling jewel of a city--a symbol of light and wealth. However, the glimmer


16 William Leach, "Strategists of Display and the Production of Desire," in Simon J. Bronner (ed.)
Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton
and Co., 1989), 107.

17 Swartz, 318.

1s Michael O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World ofL. Frank Baum (University of Kansas, 1997)
76-7, 96.

19 Simon Bronner, "Reading Consumer Culture," in Simon J. Bronner (ed.) Consuming Visions:
Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989) 13.










of the Emerald City is the product of the green glasses all its citizens are forced to wear.

It is the site of artistic flair, of beautiful subterfuge. The Wizard embodies the "humane

spirit." He represents the promise of the heart, the brain, and courage. Yet, the Wizard,

too, is mere surface allure. Using visual tricks, the man behind the curtain presents

himself as "great and terrible." Nevertheless, the travelers are capable of Einding their

humanity through him. The Scarecrow receives a brain. The Cowardly Lion's courage

returns. The Tin Woodman finds a heart. And Dorothy finds her home. Although the

Wizard is a humbug, he is still capable of bringing personal fulfillment. 20

In this respect, the Wizard was not unlike the famed nineteenth century showman

P.T. Bamum. People loved Bamum for his trickery, for his grandiose presence, and for

the spectacles that he brought them. According to T.J. Jackson Lears, Barnum's

audiences "expected a humbug and admired his skill at it." 21 Twentieth century

advertisers, like Baum, knew this, and advertisements mass-produced a "fantasy world of

wish fulfillment."22 It is in this sense that the land of Oz is intimately tied to the idea of

the advertisement. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a story of wish fulfillment. The

characters find everything they are lacking: a heart, a brain, courage, and a home. The

Wizard is, in fact, a good-natured satire of P.T. Barnum. (The Wizard worked for

20 Selma Lanes makes an important point regarding the commercial nature of Baum's books. In no Baum
tale is the quest for material possessions. Despite her abject poverty in Kansas, Dorothy never goes on a
quest for riches--even to save the family farm. With Baum playing such a prominent role in the rise of
consumer culture, this may seem rather counter-intuitive. However, having the creative mind of an
advertising man, Baum was able to use the vivid fantasy realm of Oz as a place where one finds deep
personal fulfillment. Like an advertisement, the reader is drawn into the world by the promise of finding
the happiness one is missing. Selma Lanes, Down the Rabbit Hole: Adventures and Misadventures in the
Realm of Children 's Literature, (New York: Antheum, 1971), 98.

21 T.J. Jackson Lears, "From Salvation to Self-Realization: Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of
Consumer Culture, 1880-1930," in The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History,
1880-1980 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1983), 28.

22 Ibid.










"Bailum and Barney's Consolidated Shows.")23 Despite the fact that the Wizard is a

skilled humbug and trickster, the wishes of the characters (and, thus, the wishes of the

children reading their adventures) are fulfilled. Oz was a utopia, but as a utopia it

"lacked refinement, smacking more of Barnum and Bailey than Old World elegance."24

The material abundance of Oz and the energy of its people, in conjunction with the P.T.

Barnum-like "ingenuity and bravado" of their leader, the Wizard, are part of what make

Oz utopia.

In essence, Baum's satire of the Wizard is also a self-satire. As the son of a

medicine showman, 25 a flamboyant advertiser, and a crafter of spectacular fantasies

Baum had a keen sense for providing his audiences with glittering mass spectacle. The

Wizard employed trickery to sell something that didn't exist. In exchange for destroying

the Wicked Witch, the Wizard gives each of the travelers a prize. However, the prizes he

gives to the travelers are mere tokens (e.g. a bag filled with sawdust and pins to represent

the brain the Scarecrow thought he was missing). In the story, each of the characters

finds he or she has the power of self-fulfillment, but this fulfillment is depicted as

incomplete until the Wizard provides each with a representative trinket.26 This mirrors,

in certain ways, the commercialization of Baum's literature. Children are excited and





23L. Frank Baum, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, (New York: Dover, 1984), 48. This book was originally
published in 1908.

24Lanes, 98.

25Baum's father acquired a fortune marketing a product known as Castroline--a type of "medicine"
derived from petroleum.

26 Tom St. John, "Lyman Frank Baum: Looking Backward to the Promised Land," Western Humanities
Review, Winter 1982, v. 35, #4, 358.










entertained by the tale, but the toys and other associated Oz paraphernalia teach children

to search for satisfaction in consumer culture as well.

Dorothy and her companions are willing to accept the Wizard's tokens as though

they were real like so much snake oil. In this way, The Wonderful Wiza~rd of Oz exalted

consumer culture. It presented the purchased product as capable of bringing a new and

satisfying life to its purchaser. Like a colorful advertisement, The Wonderfud Wiza~rd of

Oz drew audiences into its elaborate fantasy. Modern advertising culture often depends

upon creating a sense of incompleteness in its audience. In order to be effective, an

advertisement must convince the spectator his or her life is somehow incomplete--like a

Tin Woodman with a missing heart.27 A heart, a brain, and courage (without which each

of the characters is incapable of feeling personal fulfillment) have become commodities,

purchasable by the successful completion of a given task.

Most of Dorothy's companions were also, in a sense, commodities. The Tin

Woodman, the Scarecrow, Jack Pumpkinhead, the Sawhorse, the Patchwork Girl, the

Glass Cat, and Tik-Tok are neither people nor animals. They are representations of

people or animals brought to life by magical means. They are living mannequins. As

long as they remain in Oz, they maintain their energy and their life. Oz's spell is the

magic of the advertisement; the commodity is imbued with a life and spirit it doesn't

naturally possess. For instance, when Dorothy expresses a desire to take the Porcelain

Princess of the China Village (from The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz) home with her, the

Princess is distressed, for, she said, her joints would stiffen and she would die in the real




27 T.J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: 4ntimnodernisin and the Transformation of 4merican
Culture, 1880-1925 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 37.










world. The advertised product is alive, but the purchased product dies. 28 In an

advertisement, a commodity is often billed as capable of providing a fulfillment it is

incapable of supplying when it is purchased and brought home--an idea that Baum, the

advertising man, knew well.29

By fragmenting the public's sense of self and imbuing inanimate objects with life,

advertising causes "visual and verbal signs [to] become detached from all traditional

associations and meaning in general is eroded."30 In this sense, the nature of advertising

can be compared to another classic children's book: "The work of advertisements

gradually acquired an Alice in Wonderlan2d quality."31 What is intriguing about this

phenomenon is that, unlike Carroll, Baum's signifier never became detached from what it

signified. Carroll's fantasy world was one in which nothing made sense--which was

distressing for both Alice (who nearly drowns in a pool of her own tears) and the

audience. Baum, on the other hand, created a world in which Dorothy's (and the

audience's) deepest desires were magically fulfilled. In Baum's fantasy world, there is

an internal logic (for instance, a man with a pumpkin head must carve himself a new one

before the old one spoils). Oz, unlike Wonderland, is not wrenched from the real world;


28 Life and death was not the only dichotomy that was blurred by the advertisement. As Leach points out,
the shop window as envisioned by Baum "celebrated metamorphosis, the violation of boundaries, the
blurring of lines between hitherto opposed categories--luxury and necessity, artificial and natural, night
and day, male and female, the expression of desire and its repression, the primitive and the civilized."
William Leach, "Strategies for the Display and Production of Desire," in Simon J. Bronnner (ed.)
Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton
and Co., 1989), 131. The lines between these opposed categories are constantly being redrawn throughout
the Oz series. The poor young boy Tip becomes Ozma, the female ruler of Oz. The inanimate is regularly
brought to life. The impoverished farm in Kansas, not the opulent Emerald City, is presented as home.
One of the wonders of Oz is that it is a place in which one can fulfill any desire.

29 Stuart Culver, "What Manakins Want," Representations, Winter 1988, 97-116.

30 T.J. Jackson Lears, "From Salvation to Self-Realization," 21.

31 Ibid.









it is an ideal extension of an industrialized and commercialized United States.

Wonderland is the site of the inadequacy of the logical capabilities of man and is a

dangerous and frightening place because of this (e.g. the Queen of Hearts' "Off with her

head!" refrain). Baum's Oz is an advertisement for what is good in mankind: a heart, a

mind, courage, and a home. As such, it is a land which magically "dispenses with all

disagreeable incident." 32 Baum exploited the newly developed principles of

adverti sing--principles he had a hand in developing--to teach people to Eind fulfillment

in modern consumer culture.

To librarians like Moore, touting the benefits of modern consumer culture,

particularly within the pages of a children's book, was difficult to take. Baum's

reputation as an adman ended up hurting his reputation as an author for children.

Moreover, that Baum's books were written quickly and published almost as received won

him renown as an author capable of producing large amounts of writing (often of dubious

literary value). Many librarians in the first half of the twentieth century chose not to

include Baum's works in their collections, despite their immense popularity with

children, because they did not appreciate the type of literature Baum's books

represented--nor the commercial movement they were spearheading.














32 Michael Patrick Hearn (ed.), The Annotated Wizard of Oz, (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 4.















CHAPTER 3
OZ, THE COMMUNISTIC FAIRYLAND:
COLD WAR CENSORSHIP OF BAUM

On August 10, 1955, General Foods (the sponsor of an Oz radio program) held a

party in honor of those who worked in children's literature. Because of her affiliation

with the Oz books, Ruth Plumly Thompson (the woman who continued the Oz series

following the death of Baum) was an honored guest. Other attendees included critics,

booksellers, librarians, and others involved in the children's book industry. Anne Carroll

Moore, because of her position at the Children's Department of the New York Public

Library, was among this enclave. As Thompson saw it, throughout the evening, the

critics and librarians made disparaging comments regarding the quality of the Oz books.

In her words:

As the drinks progressed, they grew ruder and ruder. The head of the Children's
Department in the New York Public Library... after some fulsome remarks about
my other books invited me to lunch. By this time I was pretty mad--also sober--
which is more than can be said for the men. So I asked this disagreeable old lady
[Moore] if she was familiar with Oz books. She looked very uneasy and when I
asked her point blank why the Oz books were not in the library... she backed off
and melted into the crowd. Needless to say, that was one lunch I missed with great
pleasure.l

Thompson was bitter over the reception the Oz books were given by Moore and

other librarians around the country. She felt that she had for "twenty years fought a one-

woman battle over with these pests and finally threw in the towel."2 Despite years of

fighting to keep the Oz books in children's libraries, Thompson realized she was waging

SRuth Plumly Thompson, "Librarians, Editors, Critics, Children, and Oz," Baum Bugle, Autumn 1984, 7-8.

2Ibid.










a losing battle, as the book continued to disappear from library shelves in one city and

state after another.

In the introduction to 7h2e Lost Princess of Oz, Baum expressed certain sentiments

concerning the power of fantasy books to shape the minds of children to creative and

useful adult occupations: "A prominent educator tells me that fairy tales are of untold

value in developing the imaginations of the young. I believe it."3 Thompson echoed

these sentiments: "It is the power that creates new worlds and gives youth and radiance to

worlds that are old, sends the Edisons and the Einsteins, the Columbuses and Heyerdahls

on their quests."4 Thus, the battle over keeping the Oz books in libraries is part of a

bigger war over the presence and importance of fantasy in a library collection for

children. In Thompson's view, the librarians of the period were increasingly against the

fantastic in literature for children:

The imagination of a child needs to be fostered and encouraged, but his reading
needs today are in stern and realistic hands. Juvenile departments in publishing
houses, to a gal, are manned by eager, young college graduates, young women
heady with psychological theory and literary lore--but with no experience, no love
for, no knowledge of, or any contact with the children themselves. If not under the
supervision of a college gal or woman, the department is run by some older, theory-
ridden lass, on uplift and instruction bent--also completely out-of-touch with the
live and lively young she is supposed to entertain. Entertain? Perish the thought!
Writing for children is completely mechanized and regimented like everything else
in this slide rule era.5

Obviously, Thompson drastically overstates her case. Librarians were not, "to a gal,"

trying to remove the influences of fantasy from the minds of children. However, by

1955, the battle to keep Baum's Oz books on the shelves of the nation's libraries was


SL. Frank Baum, The Lost Princess of Oz (New York: Amereon House, 1917), 13.

SThompson, 8.

5Ibid.










becoming increasingly ferocious--as some librarians saw the books as either politically

subversive, too fantastic to develop practical thinking in children, or both.

Thompson's lament over the difficulty of her position as advocate for the works of

Baum had become particularly acute by 1955. Although copies of Baum's books began

to disappear from library shelves in small but noticeable quantities after the Bolshevik

Revolution in 1917, the arrival of the immensely popular film caused a re-evaluation of

the political sub-text of the Oz series. Anticipating the release of the 1939 MGM film

version of The Wiza~rd of Oz, the leftist periodical New M~asses published a piece entitled

"The 'Red' Wizard of Oz" which mused that Baum's series of Oz books had a strong

communist subtext. "Good Heavens!" it read, "The land of Oz is a fairyland run on

Communistic lines, and is perhaps the only Communistic fairyland in all of children's

literature."6 The New M~asses article claimed that Baum's decision to make Oz a land in

which money did not exist exposed his own Marxist sympathies. In The Road to Oz (the

fifth book of the series), the Tin Woodman explains the economic system that the

fairyland uses:

Money! Money in Oz!... What a queer idea! Did you suppose we are so vulgar as
to use money here?... If we used money to buy things with, instead of love and
kindness and the desire to please one another, then we should be no better than the
rest of the world... Fortunately money is not known in the Land of Oz at all. We
have no rich and no poor; for what one wishes the others all try to give him, in
order to make him happy, and no one in Oz cares to have more than he can use.7

The article's author noted the close relationship between this passage and the communist

mantra: from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs. The article



6 Stewart Robb, "The 'Red' Wizard of Oz," New Masses, 4 Oct. 1938, 8.

SL. Frank Baum, The Road to Oz (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1991), 164-5. The original date
of publication was 1909, and the publisher was Reilly and Britton; Robb, 8-9.









also used Baum's indictment of bankers (who sought to foreclose on Aunt Em and Uncle

Henry's farm) and his declaration that Oz was free of "cruel overseers" set to watch over

laborers as evidence of Baum's radical left-wing sympathies. Beginning with the

publication of the New M~asses article, charges that the books encouraged communist

thinking in children would dog the books from that point through most of the Cold War.

Accusations of a political subtext to the land of Oz were leveled by various sources.

The Hollywood Tribune noted that the film version of Oz is "'a land full of progressive

ideas such as how all should share alike in work and produce of work.'" The j ob of those

trying to defend the Oz books became more difficult when the Daily Worker called The

Wizard of Oz "an outstanding film." The New Statesman even went so far as to proclaim

the book a prolific American political tract: "the book of 'The Wizard' is as common in

American homes as is M~ein Kampf in German."9 On the whole, it appears that a

perception existed about the political character of Baum's utopian vision and that many

people were becoming less willing to accept it, as the political climate became more

hostile to ideas from the left.

One such hostile figure was Ralph Ulveling, head librarian at the Detroit Public

Library. He removed Baum's Oz books from the children's library in Detroit in 1957

because, he argued, in them could be found "'nothing uplifting or elevating."'io The

story quickly attracted the attention of the national media, and Ulveling was flooded with

negative attention over his decision. The Detroit Times even went so far as to publish


SL. Frank Baum, The Emerald City of Oz (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1993), 22, 31; Robb, 8-9.

9 All three are cited in Hearn, "Toto, I've a Feeling..." 31. The Hollywood Tribune article appeared on
Aug. 21, 1939, the Daily Worker article on Aug. 18, 1939, and the New Statesman article on Feb. 3, 1940.

'O Rahn, 16.










The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz serially so that local children could have an opportunity to

read it.

In response to this onslaught of public criticism, Ulveling wrote his own defense in

the American Library Association' s Bulletin "... so that librarians... will not be placed in

an awkward situation... should the matter be raised in their own localities."ll In this

rebuttal Ulveling took offense at those who suggested he was involved in censorship.

The Wonderfud Wiza~rd of Oz remained available, he argued, in the Main Library (as it

had been for 30 years). It had only been removed from the children's library. In fact,

Ulveling had never directly removed the any of the Oz books from the children's library.

Instead, he waited for the children to wear out each book in the series and simply did not

replace them. "This," he wrote, "is not banning; it is selection."12 In Ulveling's mind,

the decision not to include Baum's books in the Detroit Children's Library may have

seemed logical if, indeed, the books had "outlived a useful purpose in promoting reading

in children."13 The American Library Association Post-War Standards indicated that this

was a valid method for choosing books for a children's library. The official policy of the

ALA was that "a special objective of the library's program should be to foster good

reading habits in children and young people in order to develop an adult population that

knows and appreciates books." 14

If the sole value of the Baum's Oz books was to encourage children to read, then

when Ulveling began his crusade they had not outlived this function. The Oz books were

11 Ralph Ulveling, "Ralph Ulveling on Freedom of Information," ALA Bulletin, Oct 1957, 653-5, 721.

I2 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

'4 Emerson Greenway, "What About Tomorrow's Children?" Library Journal, April 15, 1950, 656-9.










as popular with children in the late-1950s as they had been in the past. In 1959, there

were seven different editions of The Wonderfu~l Wiza~rd of Oz in print, all selling well.

The publisher Reilly and Lee was selling so many copies of the books that it was forced

to re-illustrate the books because the plates containing the illustrations were wearing out.

Milwaukee libraries (where the books were not banned) reported that children had worn

out 135 copies of The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz in eight years, and the remaining fifty

copies were rapidly deteriorating. 1

In February of 1959 (in the midst of this period of extraordinary affection among

the nation's children for the works of Baum), Florida State Librarian Dorothy Dodd

released a list of children' s books that would thereafter be banned from public libraries in

Florida. Among the books on her list were many perennial childhood favorites: Uncle

Wiggly, Tarzan, Tom Swift, the works of Horatio Al ger, the Camnpfire Girls, the Hardy

Boys, and the Oz series. 16 The national media quickly brought the list to the attention of

the American public. Life magazine, concentrating on the decision to remove the Oz

books from the library, and noting the irony that Miss Dodd shared a name with the

heroine of the Oz books, publicized the battle over children's books in Florida in an

editorial in its February 16, 1959 issue." The article reported vociferous protests from

parents, children, and an outspoken public--including Florida Governor Leroy Collins

who was dismayed that the works of his favorite childhood author (Alger) were in



15 Martin Gardner, "Librarians in Oz," Saturday Review, April 11, 1959, 18.

16 It is noteworthy that each of the books recommended for removal from Florida' s libraries was a series
book. The stigma against series books at the turn of the century seems to have lasted well into the
twentieth century and beyond.

'7 ((Dorothy the Librarian," Life, Feb. 16, 1959, 47.










jeopardy: "I grew up on Horatio Alger, and I hate to have him put out of business."l

While the governor may have been most upset with the removal of Horatio Alger's

works, the bulk of the public ire against the removal of these children's books centered

around L. Frank Baum's Oz books. The censorship of the Oz series in Florida was

intimately tied to Cold War anticommunism. Few children, it seems, worried about the

potentially politically subversive subtext in their literature--and the removal of Baum's

beloved books proved to be a severe political liability. 19

While anticommunism played a large role in determining which books would be

censored from Florida's libraries, it was not solely the perceived communist subtext of

Baum's work that inspired the decision to remove the books from library shelves. Efforts

to increase funding and support for the expansion of Florida' s library system were tinged

with anticommunist rhetoric throughout the postwar period. Thomas Dreier, head

librarian of the St. Petersburg public library and member of the State Library Board, often

discussed the importance of funding libraries as a tool protecting the country against the

dangers posed by the Soviet Union. In one article written for The St. Petersburg Times,

Dreier showed concern that the Soviets were working diligently to develop a literate

population, which he felt would give them an advantage on the world stage:


1s Ibid.

19 It is also important to note that with children wearing out so many copies of the books, it would have
proven quite expensive for libraries to keep the books in stock. With forty books in the series it is difficult
to see how a cash-strapped library could afford to continually replace the books. While financial concerns
might have been used as a possible reason for keeping the books out of libraries, it does not appear they
were in the case of either Detroit or Florida. Dorothy Dodd's order was that all the books mentioned on her
list were "not to be purchased, not to be accepted as gifts, and not to be circulated. Any title now on the
shelves should be withdrawn from circulation." Thus, even if the book came to the library at no expense or
was already on library shelves, Dodd wanted it removed. This indicates that Dodd's concern was not solely
one on selecting titles that made the most of a limited library budget. Instead, she believed there was
something implicitly denigrating in housing Baum's books in public libraries in Florida. Michael Heamn,
"Toto, I've a Feeling We're Not in Kansas City Anymore... or Detroit... or Washington, D.C.," 31.










All of us must face the fact that Russia is seeking world domination. It is possible
that Russia will succeed. Only one thing will enable Russia to triumph... It will
not be sputniks or missiles or material explosives of any kind. Such things... are
details. What will enable Russia to win is its possession of more mental capital
than the people of the free world... One way in which it is being done is through
building public libraries at fantastic speed.20

The challenge posed by Russia's push to expand its public libraries was, as Dreier

envisioned his own job as librarian, one that was intimately tied to national security. In a

letter for the Florida library newsletter, Dreier reiterated his position:

Russia has 394,000 libraries. The United States has 25,000. Florida ranks 39th
among our 50 states. If Russia eventually outstrips us it will be because they seek
everywhere the ideas and learn how to make better use of their minds.

Dreier was arguing that his movement to improve the quantity and quality of

Florida's libraries was a necessary front in the Cold War. He viewed libraries as

extremely important institutions that would create a populace capable of defeating the

Soviet Union in the marketplace of ideas. Referring to Arthur Trace's popular book

What Ivan Knows That Johnny Doesn 't, Dreier wrote an article for the St. Petersburg

public library newsletter entitled "Johnny Will Read." In it he wrote, "It has been cried

aloud all over the country that 'Johnny can't read'.... More Johnnys would read if given

the chance.... One thing is sure, we'll not get [the type of library required to inspire our

children to read] until the citizens demand it."21 However, like the librarians who fought

to keep series books out of children's libraries in the early part of the twentieth century,

he had very definite ideas about the sort of books Florida's libraries ought to carry.



"0 Thomas Dreier, "Libraries Will Help Russia Win Minds of the World," St. Petersburg Times (April 3,
1960).

21Thomas Dreier, "Johnny Will Read," Tour Public Library: Food for the Mind, newsletter for the public
library of St. Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1961), series 1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives,
Tallahassee Florida. The reference to Trace's book (published in 1961) being a topic of conversation
among people in the country indicate that the article was published soon after the book.










"Public libraries," he wrote, "save people from suffering from mental malnutrition...

Public libraries are not mere places where loafers may find entertaining books for a

loafing hour."22

Outside the pages of his library newsletter, Dreier was an even more strident

anticommunist. Elsewhere he wrote vitriolic propaganda pieces with stark depictions of

lefti sts:

The socialist is smarter than the capitalist. He has to be to get what he wants. The
capitalist is the producer. He raises the fruits and vegetables. He makes gadgets.
He accumulates profits. That's when the socialist, himself unable to create
anything, steps in and passes laws that compel the capitalist to turn part of his
profits into socialist projects. The time will come when the socialist will actually
pass laws that compel the producer to surrender complete control of what he has
created.23

Given his antipathy toward leftist politics, the fact that Baum's work was often suspected

of containing subversive political ideas gave Dreier additional impetus to support Dodd's

list of books to be removed from Florida' s libraries.

Librarians from other states began to adopt Dreier's thesis that libraries provided a

line of defense against communism. In March of 1961, William Hinchliff, librarian in

Pacific Palisades, California, wrote a letter to Dreier thanking him for granting

permission to reprint his St. Petersburg Times article. He noted, "The reprint has already

helped spur public library support in Los Angeles."24 Encouraged by this rhetoric, the

principal of an elementary school in Westwood, California, announced in late 1961 that


22Thomas Dreier, "Of What Use Are Public Libraries?" Tour Public Library: Food for the Mind,
newsletter for the public library of St. Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1956), series 1506, carton 2, Florida
State Archives, Tallahasseee, Florida, 1. While it isn't dated, a reference to the Florida Library Association
annual meeting of 1957 indicates that the article was published soon before.

23Thomas Dreier, "The Capitalist is the Socialists' Slave," The Vagabond, v. XLII, #6, 1.

24Letter from William E. Hinchliff to Thomas Dreier (March 20, 1960), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida
State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.










he was banning The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz in his school, because Baum "had

communist sympathies."25 Dreier also explained in a short note to Dodd that libraries in

Pennsylvania were having some success against strong state opposition to increasing

library funds using his anticommunist argument.26 When it came to employing the tactic

of using the public's anticommunist sentiment to remove the works of Baum from public

libraries (and thereby empower the library in its fight against communism), Dreier and

Dodd were not alone. These localities joined Detroit, Washington, D.C., Chicago,

(ironically) Kansas City, and other local library districts across the nation in purging their

shelves of the works of Baum.

Dorothy Dodd's anticommunist rhetoric was far more tempered than Thomas

Dreier's, but she still appealed to public fear of falling behind the Soviet Union to give

her the power to shape children's library collections. "Kids don't like that fanciful stuff

anymore," Dodd responded when asked to justify her decision to remove the Oz books

from Florida libraries, "They want books about missiles and atomic submarines."27 The

Life magazine article saw Dodd's censorship attempts as part of a larger battle over the

value of fantasy fiction in an atomic age: "They [Dodd's arguments] stem from the

recurrent fad for teaching kids to 'adapt to reality' by shunning fantasy."28 In the context

of the Cold War, Dodd believed children who read practical books (or books about





25Mary Lou White, "Censorship--Threat Over Children's Books," The Elementary School Journal (Oct
1974), 6: Michael Hearn, The annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000), xcriii.

26 Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (March 27, 1961), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State
Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

27Martin Gardner, "The Librarians in Oz," 18.

28(Dorothy the Librarian," 47.










"missiles and atomic submarines") would increase their personal knowledge and

consequently increase the nation's scientific and technological potential.

Dodd, in fact, over-estimated postwar children's aversion to the Oz series when she

said, "Kids don't like that fanciful stuff anymore." With the continuing popularity of the

Oz books, Dodd was placed in the awkward situation that Ulveling wrote his article to

avoid. After Life gave national exposure to her list of children's books to be removed

from the library, she was forced to explain herself and take responsibility for a major

scandal :

In view of what has happened, it does seem too bad that we used the list of
children's books in the Newsletter. I can't say, however, that I would have been
perceptive enough to foresee the furor it did create. As for me taking the rap, I
think I am the one to take it. I do it with good grace because I think we are
fundamentally right in insisting these books in question are not suitable reading
material. I hope though, that this experience will teach us that a soft approach is
better. 29

Part of the "furor" that Dodd's list inspired came in the form of letters from an irate

public demanding to know why their favorite books were being removed from the library.

Dodd, in fact, had to respond to so many letters that she had little time for anything else.

She was forced to write a letter to Thomas Dreier explaining her tardiness in fulfilling her

duties as State Librarian: "As a result of the letters I've had to write about the children's

books, I am way behind on a number of things including the biennial report."30

While Dodd eventually convinced the governor to stand by her decision to remove

the children' s books, even some of Dodd' s coworkers had serious reservations about her

censorship attempts. Library Extension Officer Verna Nistendirk, at great professional

29 Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dreier (Feb 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State
Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

30 Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dreier (Feb 25, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State
Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.










risk, went so far as to reprint the Life article, that "brutal Verboten piece," in her own

library bulletin, directly defying Dodd. 31 Over the course of 1959, the relationship

between Dodd and Nistendirk steadily deteriorated. Their personal relationship became

ugly, and their working relationship was inharmonious. These problems had become

common knowledge among library employees across the state. Thomas Dreier, in his

position on the State Library Board, eventually offered Dodd the choice: "You hired her.

You can fire her."32 Dodd decided not to fire Nistendirk, but Nistendirk's role in the

children's book drama almost assuredly prevented her from being promoted upon Dodd's

retirement.33

The wild fantasy and the perception of subversive political ideas in L. Frank

Baum's Oz books made them an obvious target for censorship attempts by state library

officials. These censorship attempts, however, by and large failed to achieve their goals.

Baum's stories continued to resonate with the children who read them, and each

generation found a new legion of fans who vocally defended their favorite works. This

created the "furor" that Dodd found so great that, by her own admission, she would have

to think twice about directly censoring books in the future. When it came to librarians'

attempts to control access of children to the ideas of the Oz books, Ruth Plumly

Thompson, Baum's successor as author of the Oz series, noted, "...the children


31 Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (Feb 2, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State
Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

32 Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (Nov 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2, Florida State
Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

33 Letter from Margaret Chapman (President of Florida Library Association) to Adam Adams (Chairman of
the State Library and Historical Commission) (July 7, 1965), Series 1510, Carton 3, Florida State Archives,
Tallahassee,Florida. The letter points out that Nistendirk would have been a likely and popular candidate
to take over Dodd's position upon her retirement, if it were not for the fact that Dodd would not
recommend her for the position, due to personal and professional conflicts.










themselves settled the matter by buying millions of Baum's books... though many whose

parents could not afford to buy the books were deprived of the delights and excitement of

the wonderful Land of Oz."34


34 Thompson, 7-8.















CHAPTER 4
SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS

The Oz books were perpetually ignored or disrespected by much of the scholarly

community and many librarians throughout the first half of the twentieth century.

Despite its immense popularity, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was missing from many

important encyclopedias of children's literature and lists of recommended reading for

children; none of Cornelia Meig's Critical History of Children 's Literature (1953), May

Hill Arbuthnot's Children and Books (1947), Bookman's 1922 list of "One Hundred

Story Books for Children," Laura E. Richard's What Ma//ll the Children Read? (1939),

Alice M. Jordan's Children's Classics (1947), nor dozens of other important books

attempting to establish standards for selection of quality literature for children's libraries

mentioned either Baum or Oz.' A deliberate effort was made by many scholars of

children's literature and librarians in children's libraries to keep the works of Baum out

of the cannon, although they were deeply enjoyed by generations of children by the time

many of these lists and encyclopedias were published.

As argued here, the emphasis Baum placed on commercial aspects of a child's

experience of his work was difficult for many librarians to accept. They tended to see

Baum's work as pulp fiction and unworthy of a place in the hands of a child. The

presentation of Oz as a land exploring the metaphorical possibilities of consumerism did

little to assuage these negative feelings.


SClark,, 27, 133; Martin Gardner, "Why Librarians Dislike Oz," The American Book Collector, v. 13, #4,
December 1962, 14.










While before World War II critics and librarians felt Baum's work was overly

commercial, librarians in postwar America often saw something quite different. Still

believing that Baum's books lacked literary quality, the sense that Baum was advocating

American consumerism was replaced by the opposite feeling that the Oz books contained

a coded Marxist message. In the meantime, many librarians were trying to shape library

collections in ways that would direct the mental efforts of children to practical ends as a

tool for fighting the Soviets in the Cold War. Baum's particular brand of escapist fantasy

was tossed aside by the "stern and realistic hands" of librarians like Ulveling, Dodd, and

Dreier.

Most of the battles to keep the Oz books out of public libraries and schools

subsided by the mid-1970s. By the 1970s, librarians and educators were largely

defending a child's right to read freely and broadly. In part, this new attitude was

adopted as a means of protecting children from what was seen as an even more negative

influence: television.2

Occasionally, concerned parents would and will complain about ethnic stereotyping

in the works of L. Frank Baum, which do contain negative characterizations of Blacks

and other racial and ethnic minorities. Of all the charges leveled at the Oz series in its

tumultuous history, the argument to keep children away of the pernicious depictions of

racial minorities is likely the strongest. In The Patcincork Girl of Oz and Rinkitink in Oz

Dorothy and her companions visit the Tottenhots, whom Glinda the Good Witch

describes as a "lower form of man," with black skin and wiry hair--a clearly racist

caricature of the Hottentot peoples of South Africa. Additionally, in some of his other


SRomalov, 119.










shorter works for children, Baum also included negative characterizations of the Irish,

Chinese, French, and Arabs.3 Baum's own racial politics were no less troubling. Living

in South Dakota at the time of the Ghost Dancers and Custer's Last Stand, Baum argued

in his newspaper editorials that the only way to secure peace in South Dakota was the

extermination of Native Americans. 4 This was the source of racial protests against

Baum's books beginning in the 1970s and continuing through the 1980s. While these

protests were rather common, but they have since begun to wane. Newer editions of

some of the offending titles have removed some problematic illustrations and text, and

the number of concerned parents seems to be dropping.'

The Oz series, like J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter books, also seem recently to have

found an enemy in fundamentalist Christians. In 1986, seven fundamentalist families

filed suit against a public school in Tennessee for placing The Wonderfud Wiza~rd of Oz on

a required reading list for students. In Oz, they argued, woman assume traditional male

roles--presumably referring, at least in part, to the transformation of the young boy, Tip,

into Ozma, the ruling princess of Oz, at the end of the second book. The families also

objected to the promotion of magic; the idea of a Good Witch was anathema to them.

Moreover, they bemoaned the fact that in the books animals achieve human status (the

Cowardly Lion, for instance, is treated as an equal in Oz), thus violating the dictum that

God gave man dominion over the animals. The judge ruled that parents with religious



3 Francis B. Randall, "Ethnic Stereotypes in Baum's Books for Children," Baum Bugle, 28: 1 (Spring
1984), 8-11.

SHearn, The annotated Wizard of Oz, xxiv.

5 Angelica Shirley Carpenter and Jean Shirley, L,. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz (Minneapolis: Lerner
Publications, 1992), 134.










objections to the books could remove their children from the classroom when Baum's

books were read.6

On the whole, however, arguments over the acceptability of Baum's work in public

libraries and schools have largely subsided. The Wonderfud Wiza~rd of Oz is now absent

from the ALA's annual list of the hundred most banned books in the United States.

Debates over the literary value of series books continue, but the debates are far less

intense and tend to be isolated.' Throughout the nineteenth century, children in the

United States had only European fairy tales to read. The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz

represented for these children the first fairy tale with distinctly American images and

themes. It filled a cultural void for them, and the story of Dorothy and her companions

has continued to resonate with children for more than a century since its publication.8

The cultural importance of the tale in the United States was strengthened considerably by

its translation to film. MGM's 1939 production of The Wizard of Oz has been seen more

times and by more people than any other film in history.9 This level of popularity

virtually ensured Baum's work a place in the pantheon of children's literature in the

United States. Now, in fact, most children read the works of Baum because they enjoyed



6 Ibid.

SIn 1991, the public library in Boulder, CO, removed the Nancy Drew series from the card catalog and
moved the books to special collections, in an attempt to discourage children from reading series books.
Romalov, 120.

SSome scholars have begun to challenge Baum' s status as the first writer of fantasy for children in the
United States. Mark I West's Before Oz: Juvenile Fantasy Stories from Nineteenth Century 4merica,
(Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1989) presents a compelling argument for the reevaluation of this claim
and is a valuable collection of American fantasy from the nineteenth century. It remains clear,
nevertheless, that The Wonderfud Wizard of Oz was the first book-length fantasy for children published by
an American author. As such, it holds an important distinction in the history of children's literature.

9 Neil Earle, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 4merican Popular Culture (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen
Press, 1993), 1.










the film (and not vice versa). In part because of the prominence of the film and despite

librarians' criticism of the low art of his works, Baum's most famous tale has become an

integral part of America's cultural mythology. While librarians and critics diligently

worked to keep the books away from young readers, the century-long support of Baum' s

work by generations of children have ensured that it will be read, enjoyed, and

remembered.
















WORKS CITED

Baum, L. Frank, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. New York: Dover, 1984.

Baum, L. Frank, The Emerald City of Oz. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1 993.

Baum, L. Frank, The Lost Princess of Oz. New York: Amereon House, 1917.

Baum, L. Frank, The Road to Oz. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1991.

Brink, Carol Ryrie, Saidrl Dakota Library Bulletin (April-June 1948), cited in Michael
Patrick Hearn, "Introduction," in The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: W.W.
Norton and Co., 2000.

Bronner, Simon, "Reading Consumer Culture," in Simon J. Bronner (ed.), Consuming
Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920. New York:
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Carpenter, Angela Shirley and Jean Shirley, L. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz.
Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1992.

Clark, Beverly Lyon, Kiddie Lit: The Cultural Construction of Children 's Literature in
America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Culver, Stuart "What Manakins Want," Representations, Winter 1988, 97-116.

"Dorothy the Librarian," Life, Feb. 16, 1959, 47.

Dreier, Thomas, "The Capitalist is the Socialists' Slave," The Vagabond, 42:6, 4-5.

Dreier, Thomas, "Johnny Will Read," Your Public Library: Food for the M~ind,
newsletter for the public library of St. Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1961), series
1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee Florida.

Dreier, Thomas, "Libraries Will Help Russia Win Minds of the World," St. Petersburg
Times, April 3, 1960.

Dreier, Thomas, "Of What Use Are Public Libraries?" Your Public Library: Food for the
M~ind, newsletter for the public library of St. Petersburg, FL (not dated, circa 1956),
series 1506, carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahasseee, Florida.

Earle, Neil, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in American Popular Culture. Lewsiton, NY:
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Eaton, Anne "Widening Horizons 1840-1890," in Cornelia Meigs (ed.), A Critical
History of Children 's Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1953, 167-298.

Editorial, Library Journal, December 1905, 915-916. Cited in Nancy Tillman Romalov,
"Children's Series Books and the Rhetoric of Guidance: A Historical Overview," in
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Gardner, Martin, "Librarians in Oz," Saturday Review, April 11, 1959, 18-19.

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Goldthwaite, John, The Natural History of2ake-Believe: A Guide to the Principle Works
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Hearn, Michael Patrick (ed.), The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: W.W. Norton,
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Hearn, Michael Patrick, "Toto, I've a Feeling We're Not in Kansas City Anymore...or
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Huck, Charlotte S., Susan Hepler, and Janet Hickman, Children 's Literature in the
Elementary School, 5th Edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers,
1989.

Lanes, Selma, Down the Rabbit Hole: Adventures and Misadventures in the Realm of
Children 's Literature. New York: Antheum, 1971.

Leach, William, "Strategists of Display and the Production of Desire," in Simon J.
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Lears, T.J. Jackson, "From Salvation to Self-Realization: Advertising and the Therapeutic
Roots of Consumer Culture, 1880-1930," in The Culture of Consumption: Critical
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Lears, T.J. Jackson, No Place of Grace: Antintodernisn; and the Transformation of
American Culture,1~880-1925. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Letter from Margaret Chapman (President of Florida Library Association) to Adam
Adams (Chairman of the State Library and Historical Commission), (July 7, 1965),
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Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dreier (Feb 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2,
Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

Letter from Dorothy Dodd to Thomas Dreier (Feb 25, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2,
Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (Feb 2, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2,
Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (Nov 18, 1959), Series 1506, Carton 2,
Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

Letter from Thomas Dreier to Dorothy Dodd (March 27, 1961), Series 1506, Carton 2,
Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

Letter from William E. Hinchliff to Thomas Dreier (March 20, 1960), Series 1506,
Carton 2, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

Martin, Dick, "The Toys and Games of Oz," Baum Bugle, Christmas 1962, 4-7.

Rahn, Suzanne, The Wizard of Oz: haring'" an Imaginary World. New York: Twayne
Publishers, 1998.

Randall, Francis B., "Ethnic Stereotypes in Baum's Books for Children," Baum Bugle,
28:1 (Spring 1984), 8-11.

Riley, Michael O. Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World ofL. Frank Baum. Lawrence:
University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Robb, Stewart, "The 'Red' Wizard of Oz," New M~asses, Oct. 4, 1938, 8.

Steinbeck, John, "Reprint of 'One Man's Opinion," Series 900000, Box M73-16 #2,
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Stewart, Carolyn and Nancy Tillman Romalov, Rediscovering Nancy Drew. Iowa City:
University of lowa Press, 1995.

St. John, Tom, "Lyman Frank Baum: Looking Backward to the Promised Land," Western
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Swartz, Mark Evan, Oz Before the Rainbow: L. Frank Baum 's The Wonderful Wizard of
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Viguers, Ruth Hill, "The Golden Age 1920-1950," in Cornelia Meigs (ed.), A Critical
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West, Mark I., Before Oz Juvenile Fantasy~FFF~~~~FFF~~~FFF Series in Nineteenth Century America.
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Andrew Grunzke completed undergraduate degrees in mathematics and English

from the University of Florida in 1999. After earning his Master of Arts in Teaching

mathematics, he began pursuing his Ph.D. in social foundations of education.

Developing an interest in the educational function of children' s literature, he is currently

writing his dissertation on Baum's Oz books.