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Effects of the Absence or Presence of Music on Consumers' Emotions towards Product Placement







EFFECTS OF THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMERS
EMOTIONS TOWARDS PRODUCT PLACEMENTS













By

DYANI CHIU


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2006































This thesis is dedicated to friends and family who listened to me rant and rave through
the entire process. And to my committee members who answered all my questions and
helped keep the stress at bay.








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would first like to thank my family and friends, who always reassured me that the

end would eventually come, and that I would finish on time. Without their support this

experience would not have been and fun and interesting as it turned out to be.

I would also like to thank my committee members, especially Dr. Cynthia Morton,

who was with me step by step through the entire process. Without her help, I would have

never known the nuanced differences that make a thesis what it is. She and I collaborated

to make my thesis much more than I thought it could be at the beginning. My other

committee members Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Jon Morris must also be thanked, as

they were instrumental in helping me tighten up loose ends and unsubstantiated results.

Without all three of the wonderful teachers, my journey towards a finished thesis would

not have been as smooth as it was.

Once again, I thank everyone who helped me reach this point whether it be actual

help with the thesis, or just listening to me talk on and on about it, and calming when I

started stressing at one point or another.








TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W LED G EM EN T S.............................................................................................. iii

L IST O F T A B L E S ......................................................................................................... vi

L IST O F F IG U R E S ................................................................................. ...................... vii

A B ST R A C T ............................................................................ ............. ...................... viii

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................................................................... .............................. ....

2 LITU RA TU RE REV IEW ........................................................ ...............................5...

Research Studies Concerning Product Placement .....................................................5...
The Effectiveness and Prominence of Product Placements.......................................5...
Impact of Objective and Subjective Characteristics on Recall and Recognition .........6
Link between Product Placements and Consumer Usage Behaviors .........................8
Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television...................................................9...
R research Studies Specific to M usic............................................................................10
Variations in Tone and Musical Structure Influence on Listeners ..........................12
Evaluation of M usic's Effects ................................................................................. 13
The Effects of Fit between Music and Advertising................................................. 13
The Effects of the Presence and Absence of Music in Advertisements ..................15
Research Studies Specific to Emotional Response.................................................. 16
Effectiveness of Affective Measures concerning Emotional Response ..................19
T hesis Proposition ................................................................... .............................. 2 1

3 M ETH O D O LO G Y ..................................................... ........................................... 24

Research Design and Hypotheses............................................................................ 24
S am p le .................................................. ..................................................................... 2 5
R research Stim ulus .......................................................................................... ......... 26
P retest .......................................... ........ ... .......................... .. ........................ 26
Pretest Results ................................................ 27
M easurem ent Instrum ent .......................................................................................... 34





4 D A TA A N D RESU LTS .......................................................................................... 35

Subject D em ographics....................................................................................... 35
Music's effects on Emotions and Attitude toward the Clip .............................37
Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Recall...........................................39
T-Test Results for Emotions across the All Brands ..................................40
T-Test Results for Emotions by Individual Brands...................................42
T-test Results for Subject's Previous Viewing of the Movie effects on Recall..47
Like of Clip's effect on Product Placement Recall ..........................................51

5 CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING THOUGHTS...................................................52

APPENDIX

A PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE .............................................. ............................... 56

B MAIN STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE........................................................................59

W O R K S C IT E D ............................. ............... ......... ................................................ 67

BIO G R A PH IC A L SK ETCH ............................................................ ............................ 69








LIST OF TABLES

Table page

3-1 Pleasure Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2.........................................33

3-2 Arousal Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2..........................................33

3-3 Dominance Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2....................................33

4-1 Demographics and Extraneous Variables .............................................................36

4-2 PA D Scores for Q question 1 .......................................................... ....................... 38

4-3 Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Attitudes towards the Clip................ 39

4-4 Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Subjects Recall of Brands ................39

4-5 Pleasure Scores across Brands ............................................................................... 40

4-6 A rousal Scores across Brands ................................................................................ 41

4-7 D om finance Scores across Brands .......................................................................... 41

4-8 PA D Scores for L exus............................................................................................ 43

4-9 PA D Scores for Guinness............................................................. ....................... 44

4-10 PAD Scores for American Express .....................................................................45

4-11 PA D Scores for B ulgari........................................................... ............................ 46

4-12 PA D Scores for U SA Today ................................................... ............................ 47

4-13 Seen Movie's Effects on Brand Recall. .................................................................47

4-14 Like of Clips Effects on Brand Recall ...................................................................51








LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 The chart shows where the four pretest questions stand on the pleasure and
arousal scale of A dSA M TM ........................................................ ....................... 30

3-2 In addition to where the pretest questions lie on the pleasure and arousal graph,
descriptive adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of what terms
relate to the results.................................................................................................. 3 1

3-3 This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the pretest
experiment. A larger dot means a higher level of dominance...............................32

4-1 The chart shows where questions 1-7 of the main study stand on the pleasure
and arousal scale of AdSAMTM. Questions are separated into music, and lack
of m u sic. .............................. ................................................ ................................ 4 8

4-2 In addition to where the main study questions lie on the pleasure and arousal
graph, descriptive emotional adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better
idea of w hat the results m ay m ean. ........................................................................ 49

4-3 This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the main
experiment. The larger the dot means the higher level of dominance ..................50








Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

EFFECTS OF THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMERS
EMOTIONS TOWARDS PRODUCT PLACEMENTS
By

Dyani Chiu

May 2006

Chair: Cynthia Morton
Major Department: Advertising

This study attempted to determine whether or not the absence or presence of

background music in a movie had an effect on viewers' recall abilities and emotions

towards product placements. The following variables were measured: recall, emotions

towards the brand, emotions towards the clip, and familiarity of the brand. An

experimental design was implemented, and data were collected via a sample size of 220

volunteers from five different undergraduate advertising classes. Subjects were asked to

watch a clip and then fill out a questionnaire. Data analysis indicated that the presence of

music did not have a significant affect on consumers' recall of brands or emotions

towards those brands. Therefore it can not be determined that music has an effect on

viewers' memories or emotions towards the brands they see in movies today.








CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

By definition, a product placement is the paid inclusion of branded products or

brand identifiers, through audio and/or visual means, within mass media programming

(Karrh, McKee, and Pardun 2003, pg. 138). Though the practice of product placement

can be documented as early as the 1940's (Wasko 1994), the age of its burgeoning is

typically attributed to the well known appearance of Reese's Pieces in the movie ET,

after which sales for the product increased by 65 percent three months following the

release. Because of unique benefits such as long shelf life, broadcast syndication, and

video rentals (Karrh, McKee, and Pardun, 1998 pg. 139) product placement has

become a multi-million dollar practice whereby marketers aggressively seek the best

spots in movies and on television for their brands.

More and more consumers are using TiVo, a technology that allows the user to

record up to 140 hours of programming and easily eliminates commercials with the touch

of a button. Otherwise, viewers can simply zip and zap through commercial breaks by

using popular electronic recording devices (i.e., video cassette recorders or digital

versatile recorders). Even cable television is making it more difficult for marketers to

effectively advertise to the proper target audiences. With these increasingly tough

barriers, product placement seems like a dream come true. Inconspicuously putting brand

names into the very television shows and movies that consumers want to watch seems a

perfect way to make viewers more aware of branded products, without ever knowing the

marketer's intentions. Not only can well-placed products make the story line more









realistic, they may even add something to the plot. Moreover, marketers hope that brands

placed in television shows and movies will be more noticeable, especially if the product

is well matched with the scene, and that viewers will be more likely to accept the

presence of the product. Ultimately, marketers' goals are to get the watching public to

associate the products with their favorite shows and establish preference for the

marketer's brand instead of competing brands.

As the results from placements such as Reese's Pieces in ET and the BMW in

James Bond movies show, not only do products placed in movies and TV reach millions

of viewers at a time, but viewers are more likely to pay attention during the program,

thereby improving brand recognition. It has been found that not only do product

placements reach large audiences, but also that these people are less likely to form

counterarguments to the brand message or to commit "internal zapping" (D'Astous and

Chartier 2000, pg. 31), a way of skimming past the message in part because product

placements are seen as a less intrusive promotional device and a more natural part of the

program than traditional advertisements. This gives products a greater chance of being

remembered in the future.

Yet despite the potential opportunities product placements bring, there are still

many unanswered questions concerning what factors contribute to its effectiveness in any

medium. Does the strength of product placement lie in the audience's attention, the

presentation of the product in the movie or program, or some combination of both? One

such question concerning this promotions technique is the influence that peripheral cues

(peripheral cues generally refer to events or items that do not have a prominent role in a

movie or show, yet still may influence viewers) may have on the effectiveness of brand










placements. Such cues include issues associated with the presentation of the product (e.g.,

involvement with main actors, usage in a scene, foreground/background placement), the

presentation venue (e.g., home or movie theater), or vehicle for presentation (e.g.,

television or big screen), among others. This research paper explores music as one of

many peripheral cues to placement effectiveness. Specifically, it seeks to answer whether

the presence or absence of music in a movie scene affect viewers' emotions towards

placement brands? And, does music as a peripheral cue influence the audience's recall of

branded placements?

Prior research that investigated the effects of product placements on consumer

recall and/or recognition and research into the effects that music has on memory suggests

a link could exist between music and product placements. A study on the effect of

music's absence or presence would allow marketers and advertisers to be able to

efficiently place their products in a way that gives a brand exposure, thus ensuring the

viewer not only sees the product, may but also be more receptive to it. By measuring

emotions, this paper will also be able to give some insight into the measurements used to

determine the effects certain variables have on emotional responses.

This paper will outline previous research in the area of product placement and

music, the method used for the experiment, the results, and suggestions for future

research in four chapters. Chapter 2 will discuss the previous research on product

placements effects on viewers recall and recognition, and research done on music and its

effects on emotions and memory. Chapter 3 describes and justifies the research method

used to investigate the research hypotheses. Chapter 4 discusses the findings from the





























4


experiment. Chapter 5 will discuss the future research that should be conducted to further

explore the relationship between product placements and music.








CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Research Studies Concerning Product Placement

Product placements are often referred to by many names, including brand

placements, imbedded messages, and hybrid communications (Balasubramanian, 1994;

Shrum, 2003). However, throughout the remainder of this research the practice of

inserting products and brands into movies and television shows will be referred to as

product placements. Research into product placements in movies has examined the

practice as a means for understanding in what context and under what circumstances

placements are most likely to affect viewers. Past researchers have examined low

involvement versus high involvement viewers, as well as the prominence of the

placement as criteria that can influence placement effects. Other factors include

involvement with the movie's cast, as well as if the placement is auditory or just visual,

or a mixture of both.

The Effectiveness and Prominence of Product Placements

Gupta and Lord (1998) conducted an experiment to determine the effectiveness of

different standards of placements (e.g., audio versus visual placements) and the degrees

of prominence product placements had in movies (e.g., products placed in the

background versus products with plot connection). Their study tested the effectiveness

(defined as how well the placement will affect viewers in a positive manner) and recall of

prominent versus subtle audio and visual placements. Scenes from movies were

collected, each with different degrees of product placement in them. Thirty second








advertisements were inserted into some of the scenes replacing the product placements,

so researchers could also observe the effect of ads versus product placement.

The subjects chosen to participate in the Gupta and Lord study were divided into

small groups, and randomly assigned tapes. To disguise the true intent of the study, and

maintain validity the students were given questions measuring program content and

emotions. To assess brand recall (i.e., how well subjects were able to remember brands

seen during the movie clip), subjects were asked to list products or companies they

recalled hearing during the segment (Gupta, and Lord 1998 pg. 53). The study found that

recall of prominent placements was significantly higher than recall of subtle placements.

Furthermore, there were significant differences in recall between traditional ads and

brand placements in that the commercial messages tested were associated with a lower

level of recall compared to prominent product placements. Recall was also found to be

greater for audio messages than for visual placements (Gupta, and Lord 1998, pg. 53),

and, though product placements had higher recall than advertisements, the latter were

remembered more often than subtle product placements in both audio and visual

instances.

Impact of Objective and Subjective Characteristics on Recall and Recognition

D'Astous and Chartier (2002) published a study concerning consumers and product

placement in movies. They were interested in the impact of objective and subjective

characteristics of product placements on consumer evaluations and memory (D'Astous,

and Chartier 2000, pg 4). Both a pilot study and a main study were conducted with the

intent of investigating the relationships between 1) the product prominence and consumer

recall, 2) product integration and consumer likeability, and 3) the presence of a principal

actor in a scene with the product and consumer recall. During the pilot study, a sample









frame of 19 movies was set up, and the product placements within the movies were

separated, and put on videotape. A total of 45 placements were coded on six dimensions:

1) visibility of the product in the scene, 2) mention of the brand by one or more actors, 3)

length, 4) placement subtlety, 5) use of the product by the principle actor, and 6) presence

of the principle actor within a scene containing the product placement (D'Astous, and

Chartier 2000, pg. 32). Eleven university students participated in the study. Based on the

results, D'Astous and Chartier were able to identify several product placement

descriptors and group them into two categories objective (a.k.a. length, or how long

the placement is shown) and subjective (a.k.a. subtlety, or how prominent the placement

is shown) (2000, pg. 34).

As follow-up to the pilot research, D'Astous and Chartier's (2000) main study

tested 18 placements using a similar research design as used in the pilot. One hundred

and three student subjects viewed placement stimuli that were presented randomly "as

defined by a table of random permutations" (Cochran, and Cox 1957) and individually

rated the placement stimuli via a questionnaire. They also completed questions

concerning movie attendance, and demographics. One week later a surprise follow up

telephone questionnaire (the real questionnaire) was administered to the original subjects

to test unaided recall and recognition of the placement stimuli.

The results from the experiment agreed with previous research that found the

recognition of brands is generally higher than recall, especially in prominent placements

(Babin, and Carder 1996; Brennan, Dubas, and Babin 1999; Gupta, and Lord 1998). It

was shown that prominent placements actually enhanced subject recognition of the

brands featured, however there was a negative effect on recall. The degree of a product's









integration into the movie scene was also found to have a positive impact on a consumer

liking the product, as was an actors' presence, which was attributed to an audience's

positive evaluation of placed products. The results of the study allowed for the discovery

of some of the basic dimensions consumers use when evaluating product placements at

the movies. While there were some limitations, the study the results provide good basis

for further research.

Link between Product Placements and Consumer Usage Behaviors

Morton and Friedman (2002) further explored the link between product placement,

and consumer usage behavior. They attempted to address the question "Are beliefs about

product placement related to product usage behavior?" (Morton, and Friedman 2002). A

sample of 132 college students completed a survey concerning beliefs about general

product placement practices. There was no manipulation of an independent variable, as

the research did not represent a pure experimental design. Instead "an overall score was

assumed to be a valid indicator of the sample's belief for each item" (Morton, and

Friedman 2002) that was measured, and the dependent variable was the behavior reported

after exposure to the product placement. Morton and Friedman developed a questionnaire

measuring subject's answers to eight beliefs items using a five-point Likert scale. The

results showed that subjects disagreed with the idea of banning product placements in

movies, and were averse to the idea of paying more to avoid the exposure of placements

altogether (Morton, and Friedman 2002, pg. 38). There was also support for the belief

that product placements are correlated with product usage behaviors. Specifically, the

results suggested that "a subset of beliefs, particularly those associated with a product's

portrayal in a movie, may predict behavior following exposure to product placement."








(Morton, and Friedman 2002, pg. 39). The study established a foundation for future

research into the link of product placement and usage behaviors.

Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television

Research has also moved in the direction of the effectiveness of product placement

in television shows. Russell (2002) developed two tests, a conceptual model to identify

the psychological processes underlying product placements and an experimental design to

test the hypothesis developed in the conceptual model. For the conceptual model, Russell

categorized placements along visual, auditory, and plot connection dimensions. This

Tripartite Typology of Product Placement that Russell developed was used to determine

not only how placements are cognitively processed and recalled, but also how they

affected subject's attitudes on the three dimensions (Russell 2002, pg. 307).

Russell (2002) developed a screenplay specifically for research purposes. Different

brands were placed the play, each with a different strength of visibility and plot

connection. One hundred and seven students attended a live performance of the play, and

then filled out survey questions, ranging from the enjoyment of the play to questions

concerning recall measures. Initial findings discovered that recall and recognition

measures were significantly correlated, thereby suggesting that recognition measures

could be used alone in the future study (Russell 2002, pg. 311). However, the fact that the

study was live created several unanticipated effects, and Russell determined that the main

study should use a taped version of the stimulus to ensure more control. Pilot study

results allowed Russell to strengthen the procedure and the dependent measures for the

main study.

The main test used a similar research procedure as the conceptual model and ran

them as two 'different' studies (to mask any connection between the two phases). Russell








wanted to prove two hypotheses. The first hypothesis predicted that highly visible

product plot placements (i.e., those products highly integrated into the plot) would be

remembered better than subtle plot placements (i.e., products seen only as background

placements). The second hypothesis predicted that subtle visual placements would be

more persuasive than highly visual placements, and that louder, more prominent audio

placements would be more persuasive than lower audio placements. Students divided into

groups of 30 were given credit to participate in one of five one-hour sessions. Subjects

were required to watch a thirty-minute film and then to answer three different

questionnaires that measured brand attitude, recognition, and plot connection (Russell

2002, pg. 312).

The results from the research showed that auditory placements were better recalled

than visual placements. In contrast higher visual placements were indeed better

remembered than lower visual placements (Russell 2002, pg. 313). However, there were

no significant differences between higher and lower auditory placements. It was also

shown that congruous placements, defined as those that have a correspondence between

plot elements or, more specifically between plot connection and modality, were indeed

more persuasive than incongruous ones, or those that seem inappropriate or out of place

in context with plot connection and modality.

Research Studies Specific to Music

The results from prior research suggest that products (both audio and visual) have

different effects on viewers depending on where and how they are placed. Viewers think

differently about the product if it is used by a main character than if the product is simply

in the background. However, music as a peripheral cue may also affect an audience's

emotions and the recall of product placements. Research studies have delved into the









effects of tone, musical structure, and even pitch, to see what effects viewers and in what

ways.

Music plays an integral part in today's world, especially in movies. Music has been

proven to change moods, both positively and negatively, as well as to help strengthen

viewer's memories, and change viewer's emotions both toward a brand and toward a

commercial message. In fact, it has been shown that "appropriately structured music acts

on the nervous system like a key on a lock, activating brain processes with corresponding

emotional reactions" (Clynes, and Nettheim 1982). Faster music has a positive influence

on moods, and slower music has a more calming, and sometimes negative, effect on

moods. Studies have shown that music in restaurants influences eating times (Hoyer, and

Maclnnis 2001). Advertisements with music deemed appropriate for the message it

frames (known as the right 'fit') can garner consumer likeability toward the ad which, in

turn, may transfer to the brand (Maclnnis, and Park 1991). Indeed, a tighter compatibility

between the product and the background music has the most influence on how much

attention the consumer pays to the advertisement (Maclnnis, and Park 1991).

Research studies on musical influences on advertising to date have focused on the

effects that music has on the consumer in traditional commercial advertising. It has been

shown that a tighter relevance between the product and the background music has the

most influence on how much attention the consumer pays to the advertisement. Studies

have also found that "music can significantly affect the emotional response to television

commercials" (Bruner 1990) and that music is especially effective with low involvement

consumers. However, music can actually be distracting for those consumers who are

highly involved with the message; therefore marketers must be careful in including music








without consideration for the target audience (Bruner 1990). It has also been shown that

"persuasion may be more successful by using background features, such as visual

imagery or music" (Cited by Alpert, and Alpert 1989 from Batra, and Ray 1983).

Variations in Tone and Musical Structure Influence on Listeners

Alpert and Alpert (1989) conducted an experiment to discover whether the tone of

music would influence the listener and whether variations in musical structure would

influence perceptions, overall attitude, or behavioral intentions towards greeting cards

among subjects. The study rated greeting cards into three categories happy, sad or

neutral tone and used three cards per category as the research stimuli. Ten similar

piano preludes were selected from J.S. Bach's works to be paired with the greeting cards

(i.e., greeting cards with a "happy, sad, or neutral" tone) to create the test stimuli. The

control group consisted of the same greeting cards without the music treatment. Students

subjects evaluated the stimuli on two dimensions feelings (sad, vs. happy) and attitude

toward the product.

The results from the experiment showed that there was indeed a tonal influence on

the subjects. Cheerful music influenced the subjects and tended to put them in a happy

mood. It was also shown that behavioral intentions towards the greeting cards were also

influenced by the presence of music, meaning that cards presented with happy music

playing produced the highest moods compared with the other two conditions where the

tone of the music was sad or neutral. This study helped define specific musical

characteristics, such as musical structure and level of sound, which could influence

consumers. Another finding from this study indicated that "the presence of music that

evokes emotions and other non-informational aspects of the ad may also stimulate

peripheral processing" (Alpert, and Alpert 1989). The results also concurred with








previous research in consumer behaviors and background music. This research showed

that likeability could indeed affect responses to advertised products (Alpert, and Alpert

1989).

Evaluation of Music's Effects

Bruner (1990) conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies that evaluated music's

effects in terms of time, pitch and texture. These studies supported a positive correlation

between affect and musical pace (cited from Dowling, and Harwood 1986), and

suggested that music rhythmically paced with a faster "beats per minute" (BPM) is

favored over music with a slower BPM. The preferable range of musical pace was

determined to be between 70-110 BPM; anything below or above was shown to be not as

likely to have a positive affect on the listener. Prior research also reinforced data

supporting a strong connection between the subjects' happiness and the pitch and tempo

of music. For example, music with a higher pitch is considered to generate more

happiness and excitement than music with a lower pitch, while faster music tempos are

generally associated with positive thoughts relative to moderate or slow tempos, which

are associated with more negative thoughts. Based on these studies Bruner (1990)

postulated that music "is capable of having main as well as interaction effects on moods,

cognitions, and behaviors" (pg 99) and that "the influence of music on persuasiveness is

greatest under conditions of peripheral route processing and low cognitive involvement"

(pg 100).

The Effects of Fit between Music and Advertising

MacInnis and Park (1991) conducted a study on the fit between music paired with

an advertisement, and the influence of emotional ties on the consumer's attitudes. They

studied the indexicality of music, which the researchers defined as "the extent to which










music arouses emotion-laden memories" (Maclnnis, and Park 1991). Though this

indexicality of music may not be related to the actual advertising message, it may

influence a consumer's message-based processing nonetheless. For example, strong

emotions associated with high indexicality are likely to enhance consumers' interests in

the ad, but only when a consumer involvement is low. The fit of music defined as

"consumers' subjective perceptions of the music's relevance or appropriateness to the

central ad message" (MacInnis, and Park 1991) may also influence ad processing in

that the consumer may not deem the music relevant to the advertisement, which in turn

may result in a change in the consumer belief-formation process.

MacInnis and Park conducted experimental research in which they created four

versions of a commercial for a fabricated product with the help of a leading advertising

agency. Each commercial was paired with a different song that had been pre-tested to

operationalize fit and indexicality. The commercial was then placed in an episode of the

"Oprah Winfrey Show" and shown to 178 subjects. Involvement levels (e.g., high vs.

low) were manipulated in advance of commercial exposure with a story about the test

stimuli. High involvement subjects were told that the shampoo would be released later in

the year and that the company was interested in the viewers' interest in buying the brand.

Low involvement subjects were simply told they would fill out a questionnaire

concerning their views of the contents of the show they were going to watch. Following

the program, both groups of subjects completed a questionnaire that asked about brand

and ad attitudes, emotions, attention to the commercial and the music, attention to the

advertised messages, and beliefs about the brand.








Maclnnis and Park (1991) found that musical fit has a powerful role in creating

favorable ad and brand attitudes. More unexpectedly, the effect was found to be equally

strong on high and low involvement consumers. Results for indexicality showed that

music "enhances message processing for low involvement consumers, while it possibly

distracted from high involvement consumers" (Macinnis, and Park 1991).

The Effects of the Presence and Absence of Music in Advertisements

Morris and Boone (1998) examined the differences in "emotional response, brand

attitude, and purchase intent between advertisements, with and without music" using the

AdSAMTM scale of measurement. AdSAMTM measures three dimensions of emotion

- Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD). The PAD model describes the full range of

emotions in three independent bipolar dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, arousal/non-

arousal, and dominance/submissiveness. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) is used to

measure these emotional responses and consists of three separate rows that represent the

dimensions Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance, with each dimension having nine choices

that range in intensity from the most to least. Subjects match their feelings to the

manikins as closely as possible via a questionnaire instrument. This allows the researcher

to get fairly accurate readings of each subject's emotions.

Morris and Boone's (1998) study consisted of 90 subjects, divided into six separate

sessions. Three of the subject sessions were exposed to print advertisements with

background music, and the other three sessions saw the same advertisements without

background music. Following exposure to the stimuli, subjects were given questionnaires

that measured emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent.

The results of the study showed "no significant differences between the music and

no music advertisements, for all 12 ads [to which subjects were exposed]" (Morris, and








Boone 1998). There were, however, six advertisements with significant differences

between the two groups (the one group with no music, and the other group with music).

The researchers concluded that adding background music to an advertisement may

change the viewer's feelings toward the ad, even if the ad by itself has been previously

tested with positive results. It was also shown that music potentially has a significant

effect on emotional response, attitude, and purchase intent depending on the type of

advertisement, the audience's level of involvement with the product category, or how

well the music fits with the ad.

Research Studies Specific to Emotional Response

Research studies that delve into emotional response mainly concern

advertisements. However even these studies have mixed results on how emotional

response are effectively measured. Many of the researchers claim there is a need for more

discriminating measures of emotional response due to the fact that cognitive

measurements, such as attitude toward the ad and toward the brand, fail to include

adequate emotional measures of consumer response (Hill, and Mazis 1986; Stout, and

Leckenby 1986), thus leaving researchers to rely solely on cognitive information models

to understand why consumers behave the way they do. This approach, while useful, has

not been able to 'completely explain the processes underlying advertising effects' (Hill,

and Mazis 1986).

Researchers now realize that emotions play a big role in affecting consumers,

especially when consumers make low involvement decisions. However the intricacy of

consumers' emotions and reactions towards brand advertisements has given researchers

some problems in determining an effective measurement system. Some researchers have

determined that there are actually three levels of emotional response: 1) descriptive










(where the feelings of the character are transferred to the viewer), 2) empathetic (the

viewer responds to the commercial from the standpoint of the viewers independent

'self), and 3) experiential (the viewer experiences a 'true' emotional response due to a

past or present self related event) (Stout, and Leckenby 1986). However, according to

Page, Daugherty, Eroglu, Hartman, Johnson and Lee (1998), there is no evidence that

these three dimensions are the only explanation of consumers' responses to

advertisements, and that indeed uni-dimensionality is still a possible explanation.

Stout and Leckenby (1986) examined the relationship between emotional response

and advertising effectiveness on consumers by looking at 1) differences between

respondents reporting no emotional response compared to those who reported one on any

level and 2) respondents reporting no emotional response compared to those reporting

either an experiential, empathic or descriptive emotional responses (Stout, and Leckenby

1986). One objective of this research was to develop a discriminating emotional measure.

The dependent measure included "attitude to the ad, attitude to the brand, purchase intent,

brand recall, and ad content playback".

Previous findings on the relationship of emotional response and the dependent

measures were inconclusive, therefore the study provided a basis for future

hypothesizing, and did not advance any hypothesis to be answered. However, according

to previous findings, it is possible to make some assumptions comparing respondents

who experienced an emotional response to respondents who did not experience an

emotional response towards advertising. It was expected that respondents who did

experience an emotional response would have "1) a more positive attitude to the ad, 2) a









more positive attitude to the brand, 3) a greater intent to purchase, and 4) lower brand

recall" (Stout, and Leckenby 1986).

Stout, and Leckenby conducted mall intercepts and exposed a total of 1498 subjects

to 50 commercials. The subjects pool was divided up into groups of 30 (one group of 28)

and asked to view one of the fifty commercials. Afterward, respondents answered several

open-ended questions intended to measure emotional response and evaluated 52 cognitive

statements about the product and the advertising using a six point rating scale anchored

by "agree-disagree". The results indicated that overall the three levels of intensity are

independent dimensions that tap into differences in individuals' feelings. For example,

empathetic emotional responses were negatively related to purchase intent, and the

descriptive emotional response was found to be negatively related to brand recall (Stout,

and Leckenby 1986). Results also showed that consumers with a more involving

emotional response to a commercial will have less distraction than consumers who were

distracted in some way.

Researchers Page, Daugherty, Eroglu, Hartman, Johnson, and Lee (1988) believed

that Stout and Leckenby's research was an admirable attempt to find an accurate measure

for emotional response. However they believed that there were some issues in clarity

concerning the definitions of descriptive, empathic, and emotional responses, and

whether these responses should be considered dimensions or levels. These researchers

assert that "it is conceptually incorrect to claim that different dimensions are represented

when examining more or less the same thing" (1988). There were also some issues with

Stout and Leckenby's (1986) analysis. It was thought that some of the findings made by

Stout and Leckenby could have been interpreted differently. One instance dealt with the








comparison of respondents exhibiting one level of emotional response relative to all of

the remaining subjects. This may have caused some confusion with the true effects of the

independent variable, which may have caused non-significant results. While Page et al

commended Stout and Leckenby on their attempt to shed some light on measuring

emotional responses, they believed that there were steps that could have been done to

improve the experiment.

Effectiveness of Affective Measures concerning Emotional Response

Hill and Mazis (1986) conducted a study to determine whether affective measures

assessing emotional response to ads are needed to measure the impact of emotional

advertising. They predicted that attitude toward the advertisement (ATTA) measures

would not be adequate enough to capture the impact of emotional ads on the viewer.

However, data from past studies have led the researchers to believe that the methods for

measuring attitude toward the brand (ATTB) were accurate enough measurements. Hill

and Mazis used protocols taken from past studies to measure respondent's reactions to

the stimuli. The protocols were categorized into several sections support argument,

counterargument, source derogation, and source bolstering. Support argument was

defined as a situation where the message argument is supported by a viewer's already

entrenched belief. Counter argument was seen as a viewer's immediate thought of a

disadvantage or alternate solution to the problem presented in the commercial, and source

derogation was defined as a resistive response that focuses on the source of the

information (Wright 1973). Alternately, source bolstering was defined as the positive

counterpart of source derogation, where the positive thought is directed toward the

advertiser or the method of delivering the message (Belch 1981). Emotional responses

were recorded by two other categories: positive and negative affect.









Hill and Mazis selected 99 students to participate in their experiment. They

separated the volunteers into two groups 48 were exposed to emotional advertising,

and 51 were exposed to factual advertisements. The subjects were told the purpose of the

study was to examine the impact of television programming on viewers' attitudes and

beliefs (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Subjects were shown three separate segments of a movie,

interspersed with three advertisements that were placed to simulate a viewing situation

with actual 'commercial break'. Each 'commercial break' consisted of a single product

advertisement per break- a bank, a telephone service, and a camera. The advertisements

were the same length for both groups.

Following exposure to each advertisement 'break', subjects were then asked to

complete written protocols in response to the program they just saw using the protocols

previously discussed (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Respondents were also asked to provide

their feelings towards specific brands, all of which had been featured in the

advertisements. ATTA measures were recorded on four sets of bipolar adjective scales;

overall evaluation (good-bad, like-dislike), emotional (pleasant-unpleasant, nice-awful),

savory (sensitive-insensitive, interesting-boring), and authoritative (useful-useless,

important-unimportant) (Hill, and Mazis 1986).

The results of the study suggested that factual ads produce a higher number of

support or counterarguments than emotional ads do. There was also no consistent pattern

of source bolstering or derogation responses between factual and emotional ads. In

layman's terms, there was no pattern of consumers forming either a preference or a

resistance to either version of the advertisement. The data also revealed a flaw in the

overall evaluation measures that were used in most ATTA research, in that the measures








did not distinguish between the impact of emotional and factual ads (Hill, and Mazis

1986). It was also shown that "affective brand evaluation measures were sensitive in

discriminating between the effects of emotional and factual ads than traditional

evaluation measures are" (Hill, and Mazis 1986).

Thesis Proposition

Research in music suggests that a relationship exists between consumer's emotions

and recall, and background music in advertisements. Specifically, research on the effect

of music on advertisements suggests a correlation between consumer's attitudes and the

background music of an advertisement. Music has also been found to affect recall,

recognition, and even attitudes towards both the product and the advertisement. Similarly,

research conducted on product placements show that placement stimuli influence

consumer's attitudes towards brands and that certain placements have a greater effect on

recall than others. Studies on product placements also show that visual and auditory

placements affect consumers in different ways, and can be an effective means for creating

awareness, as well as for justifying the need for a product. Furthermore, the research has

established that the absence or presence of music will have an effect on product

placement recall and that there are definite connections between music, the consumer's

attitudes, and awareness of placements. As such, it would be logical to assume that

background music would also affect consumer's emotional response to product

placements.

The presence of music has been shown to influence consumers most positively

when the consumers' are at a low level of involvement. From these, one might infer that

product placements would have a distinct advantage on potential consumers who are not

consciously shopping and have a low level of involvement. The background music used









in a movie scene containing a product may strengthen viewers' recall and/or recognition

abilities. Proof of this could help marketers decide where a product's placement would

have the most impact on the viewers or where viewers would be most likely to recall

products for future references.

An investigation on the effects of the presence or absence of music would have on

consumers attitudes towards products in movies is a logical step from the foundation

established by prior research. As there have been only a few studies concerning music's

effect on product placements, more research needs to be done to investigate the effect of

the music's presence or absence of music on the consumer recall and recognition. Based

on prior research, one might predict that the absence of music would have a negative

effect on viewers because the scene would seem 'unnaturally crafted.' Similarly, the

presence of music is expected to draw the viewers' attention to the scene more

thoroughly and may even create an association with the music and the product that would

help product placement recall or recognition at later times. Other factors that may be

taken into consideration when examining the effects of the presence or absence of this

peripheral cue are the music's volume, the fit between the scene, and the music.

The present study will explore the relationship between music and placements in an

effort to give insight to the factors affecting consumer's recall and recognition, as well as

to help marketers place their products most effectively. The purpose of the study will be

to determine if the presence or absence of music during a scene in a movie containing a

product placement has an effect on a viewer's emotions, recall, and recognition of the

placement(s) in the scene. With this in mind, two hypotheses are advanced for further

investigation:






















H1: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a
scene without music.

a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
pleasure than a clip containing no background music.

b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
arousal than a clip containing no background music.

c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
dominance than a clip containing no background music.

d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be positive for the music group than for the
group that saw the clip without music.

H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
improve consumers' recall of product placements in movies.

H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered.

H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.








CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Research Design and Hypotheses

Little research has been conducted concerning the effects that background music

has on the recall and recognition of product placements in movies. It has been shown that

there is indeed a difference in research subjects' attitudes and memory towards ads with

background music relative to advertisements without background music. The present

research study seeks to examine if the presence or absence of music in a movie scene has

an effect on a viewer's recall of a product placement within that scene, and the emotions

the viewer feels toward the placement as an outcome of this manipulation. Three

hypotheses are advanced for exploration.

HI: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a
scene without music would.

a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
pleasure than a clip containing no background music.

b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
arousal than a clip containing no background music.

c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
dominance than a clip containing no background music.

d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be more positive for the music group than for
the group that saw the clip without music.

H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
improve consumers' recall of product placements in movies.

H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered.








H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.

The hypotheses were tested using an experimental design. An experiment was

determined to be the most appropriate methods for investigating the effect of music on

viewers since "the goal of an experiment is to determine causality- [defined as] the

effect of changes in one area on one or more other areas" (Davis 1997 pg 137).

Therefore, an experiment would be able to establish a relationship between music as a

stimuli and viewer response outcomes. The independent variable was the presence or

absence of music during a movie scene. The dependent variables measured were recall

and the emotions stimulated in the viewers.

Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups and exposed to a scene

was taken from the movie Minority Report. The clip was two minutes long, and contained

five product placements. The experimental group was shown a version the clip with the

music. The control group saw the original movie clip without any music.

Each group was asked to view two minutes of the selected movie scene. Afterwards

subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring their emotions towards the

placements seen in the clip and recall. The purpose of the questionnaires was to capture

subjects' reactions to the movie clips immediately after seeing the scene.

The following sections provide a more thorough discussion of the sample recruiting

procedure, stimulus preparation, and the measurement of the research variables.

Sample

The main sample of students consisted of volunteers who were recruited from six

different lecture courses in advertising at a large Southeastern university. Permission was

procured from the professors of the classes. It is believed that this age group will be ideal

for this study as they watch a lot of movies (Packaged Facts Study 2003). They were








asked to volunteer for one of six sessions, where they viewed a movie clip and then

completed a questionnaire consisting of 28 questions. Each session was half an hour long

and was held outside of the regular class time. All of the students were given extra credit

for their participation as previously determined by their professors. A total of 220

subjects participated in the study. Data were put into the SPSS computer program for

analysis.

Research Stimulus

The selected scene is a fast paced chase scene in which the main character, played

by Tom Cruise, is running through a train terminal in an effort to escape his pursuers.

There are multiple product placements that appear throughout the scene, including audio

only placements, visual only placements, and placements that represent a combination of

both. The brand placements were for Lexus, Bulgari, Guinness, American Express, and

USA Today.

Pretest

A pretest consisting of 33 students was conducted to identify the music stimulus

that would accompany the movie clip. Two music clips, each two minutes in length,

were selected from other parts of the movie and evaluated by a pretest sample based on

the level of arousal associated with each. The purpose of this test was to determine which

music would have a higher arousal score. The music with the higher score was inserted

into the movie clip stimulus used in the research design.

Pretest respondents were recruited from a lecture course in advertising at a large

Southeastern university. Permission was procured from the professor before the class.

Respondents were asked to listen to two separate music clips and then fill out a quick

questionnaire, to determine the arousal rate of each music selection. The pretest consisted








of four AdSAMTM questions. The first question attempted to establish a reported

baseline for the participant's normal feelings. The next two questions dealt with subject's

feelings towards each music clip. The last question dealt with subjects' feelings towards

background music in general. This pretest only took 15 minutes long, and was conducted

during regular class time. The pretest questions were as follows:

PQ1: How do you normally feel?

PQ2: How did the [first] musical clip you heard make you feel?

PQ3: How did the [second] musical clip you heard make you feel?

PQ4: How does background music in general make you feel?

The pretest used the AdSAMTM scale as discussed in Chapter 2. The AdSAMTM

scale uses three emotions, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance to get more in depth

answers from subjects. Four questions were asked to determine respondent's emotions in

general, towards background music, and towards the music clips heard.

Pretest Results

Pretest results were analyzed using the AdSAMTM graphs and paired t-tests.

Significance levels were evaluated at a probability ofp < .05. The results are shown in

three different graphs that display the questions on the AdSAMTM pleasure/arousal

scale. Each graph shows the questions on a simple pleasure and arousal scale where the

graph is divided into four quadrants. The top half of the graph shows high pleasure, the

bottom half shows low pleasure. The right side of the graph shows high arousal, and the

left side shows low arousal. Data results in the upper right quadrant of the graph can be

interpreted to mean that subjects felt a strong involvement/interest. Data results in the

bottom right quadrant generally show that subjects felt an intense negativity, whereas

those in the bottom left quadrant show that subjects were feeling uninterested. Data









results in the upper left quadrant will show that subjects experienced positive feelings,

but were unmotivated.

The graph labeled Figure 3-1 simply shows the four questions in relation to the

high/low pleasure, and high/low arousal quadrants of AdSAMTM. Figure 3-2 is similar,

however emotions adjectives are placed on the graph to give viewers a basis for

evaluating respondents' questionnaire responses. These adjectives are part of the

AdSAMCTM database and each has a measured score that corresponds to the results from

a questionnaire. Figure 3-3 shows the dominance of each question. The points with

which each question is marked are made bigger or smaller depending on the dominance

levels of each question.

The results for question one ('how do you normally feel'), showed that subjects

normally felt in control of themselves. The results also showed a high level of pleasure

(M = 7.09), and medium levels of arousal (M = 5.39) and dominance (M = 6.79). This can

be interpreted to mean that respondents normally feel happy, and in charge of themselves,

but only moderately excited about things. The results on the AdSAMTM graph showed

that people felt very dominant normally (see chart 1-3, question one has the largest dot,

meaning most dominant). The adjective that was closest to question one, was 'mature,'

meaning that subjects felt along those lines on a normal basis.

Questions two and three dealt with respondents' feelings towards each music clip.

Question two asked respondents how they felt about the first music clip, and question

three asked respondents how they felt about the second music clip. Results showed that

the second music clip had a higher arousal level than the first (M = 5.91 vs. 5.52). In

addition, the descriptive adjectives that were closest to question three response results

















were 'anxious' and 'suspicious', meaning that respondents felt emotions along those lines

when they listened to the second clip. Alternately, the adjectives closest to the

respondents' responses to the first music clip were 'cynical' and 'disbelieving',

suggesting that respondents felt emotions along those lines when they listened to the first

music stimulus. Yet, in both cases, the findings suggested that respondents felt less in

control of themselves than they did normally (Mean DominanceQ2 vs. Q3 = 4.39 vs. 4.58).

Question four dealt with respondents' feelings towards background music in

general. Results showed that respondents had moderate pleasure (5.91), arousal (5.88),

and dominance (5.18). This can be interpreted to mean that respondents are more aroused

when watching something with background music (compared to an arousal level of 5.39,

which was how they felt normally). The adjective that was closest to Question four was

'tempted', suggesting that background music may have made them feel more enticed

when watching a movie/clip with background music.

The AdSAMTM graphs shown on the next three pages, give a visual description of

where the questions fall on the arousal/pleasure scale, and reinforces the discussion

above.















AdSAM Perceptual Map.


8-



7- Quon 1_







Qu bn 3
5-

Ouon 2





3-



2-


Arousal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
pleasure and arousal scores
Dyani Lyn Chiu

Figure 3-1: The chart shows where the four pretest questions stand on the pleasure and
arousal scale of AdSAMTM.















AdSAM Perceptual Map.


9

victorious
happy cheek 'ful

8

pole thankful warm stimulated
relay ed bold
7 mr u(pud4 n 1
childlike
provocative
serene wholeso ie

6 mod OuE n4
te ipted
(D aggressive
5.- nor chalant

5 *1 aloof anxious
quietly ndignant Que 4 n 3
Queon 2
un emotional cy ical tartled
4 sktpIll---
bored sus vicious
blase disbelieving
irrita ed
3 w -- ry displeased edllul
3 w ;aly
disgusted angry
glo9 my disappoint d troubled

inso cure rrified
2 dece aed
sad
reject d crushed

Aro sal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S
pleasure and arousal scores
Dyani Lyn Chiu



Figure 3-2: In addition to where the pretest questions lie on the pleasure and arousal
graph, descriptive adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of
what terms relate to the results.










AdSAM. Perceptual Mapo


8 --------_---_---_---_--- _---_---





7-



6
Q 4


5-

Q n3

4:



3-



2-


Arousal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S
pleasure and arousal with dominance
Dyani Lyn Chiu
Figure 3-3: This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the pretest
experiment. A larger dot means a higher level of dominance.

Paired sample t-tests tests also were conducted to determine if the means between

the two different types of music (Musical Clip 1 and Musical Clip 2) were significant.

The t-test for pleasure showed the difference between means is not significant, meaning









that respondents did not feel more pleasure towards one music clip than the other,

although the mean for Musical Clip 2 was higher (M = 4.64) than that for the pleasure

score of Musical Clip 1 (M= 4.43). A significance of p = .41 reinforces the lack of

significance between the means.

Table 3-1: Pleasure Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed)

Music Clip 1 Pleasure 33 4.42 1.35

Music Clip 2 Pleasure 33 4.64 1.78 -.839 32 .41

The t-test for arousal also found no significant difference between means, though

the mean for musical clip 2 (M = 5.91) was higher than that for musical clip 1 (M = 5.52).

Table 3-2: Arousal Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed)
Music Clip 1 Arousal 33 5.52 2.11
Music Clip 2 Arousal 33 5.91 2.42 -11.10 32 .28

Similar non-significant results were found for dominance. Respondents did not feel

a difference in the level of dominance toward one music clip relative to the other, even

though the mean for Musical Clip 2 (M = 4.58) was higher than the mean for Musical

Clip 1 (M = 4.39).

Table 3-3: Dominance Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed)
Music Clip 1 Dominance 33 4.39 1.94
Music Clip 2 Dominance 33 4.58 1.89 -.67 32 .51

It is believed that despite the lack of significance between respondents' PAD scores

between the music clips, the mean differences were large enough that a choice could be

made. Therefore, the second music clip was chosen as the independent variable stimulus

due to its higher ratings by pretest respondents.









Measurement Instrument

The main study was conducted with the intent of measuring background music's

effects on subj ects recall abilities and emotion towards product placements. The research

instrument contained a total of 28 questions. Subjects reported their general emotions

towards the clip via an AdSAMTM scale question.

To measure brand recall subjects were asked three open-ended questions requesting

that they recall all brands they remembered seeing during the clip. Specifically these

questions asked, "Do you recall seeing any product placements?", "How many brand

names do you remember seeing in the clip?," and "List the brand names that you

remember in the clip just shown." Seven AdSAMTM questions were then asked to

determine how subjects felt about the products recalled. Each question had a blank space

for subjects to fill in the brand names they remembered.

Next, ten questions were asked with the intention of measuring emotional

responses toward the movie clip. These questions were measured on a seven-point scale,

with 1 indicating "no agreement at all", and 7 indicating "total agreement." The questions

were used to determine if subjects found the clip they saw 'annoying', 'pleasant', 'dull,'

etc. Following these were three questions that asked about 1) subjects' like for the movie

stimulus (rated on a scale from one to 10), 2) prior exposure to the movie ("yes-no"), and

3) if they had used any of the brands that they could recall ("yes-no"). Then, subjects

completed a five-point familiarity scale that measured their degree of familiarity with the

brands they recalled from the clip. The research instrument concluded with two

classification questions that asked subjects their age and gender. A sample of the

composite instrument is included in Appendix Exhibit A.








CHAPTER 4
DATA AND RESULTS

Subject Demographics

The sample was divided into two groups one that saw the movie clip with

music, and the other that saw the movie clip without music. The entire sample size ofN =

220 subjects was taken from undergraduate and graduate advertising programs. The

sample consisted of 73% (n =161) of women, and 27% (n =59) of men. Women made up

the majority of the experimental group (n = 85 or 80%) as well as the majority of the

control group (n = 76 or 67%).

It was also found that n = 19 of the subjects who were in the experimental group

(presence of music) were between the ages of 17 and 19, n = 60 were ages 20 or 21, n

=20 of the subjects were ages 22 or 23, and n = 7 of the students were ages 24 or older.

In the control group (absence of music in the clip) n = 23 of the students were in the 17 to

19 year age group, n = 66 of the subjects were ages 20 or 21, n = 13 were either 22 or 23,

and n = 12 were 24 years or older.

It was thought that there were a few extraneous variables that may have affected

subjects' recall of the brands in the scene. Therefore, subjects were asked to note the

degree of like or dislike of the clip using a scale of from one to 10, with one being

"extremely disliked" and ten being "extremely liked." For the experimental group it was

found that 25% (n = 26) of subjects had negative feelings towards the movie, and 75% (n

= 80) had positive feelings towards the movie. For the control group it was found that








23% of subjects (n = 26) had negative feelings towards the movie, and 77% (n = 88) had

positive feelings towards the movie.

Subjects were also asked if they had seen the movie before. Fifty-eight percent (n =

128) of the subjects had seen the movie before the participated in the study, and 42% (n =

92) had not seen the movie. Further divided, 57% (n = 60) of the subjects in the

experimental group had seen the movie, and 43% (n = 46) had not. And in the control

study, 60% (n = 68) of the subjects had seen the movie beforehand, and 40% (n = 46)

had not.

Table 4-1: Demographics and Extraneous Variables
Age Sex Feelings Towards Clip Seen Movie Before
17- 20- 22- 24+ M F Positive Negative Yes No
19 21 23
Test 19 60 20 7 15 85 80 26 60 46
Group_
Control 23 66 13 12 24 76 88 26 68 46
Group
Total 42 126 33 19 59 161 168 52 128 92

The following tests were run to find answers to the hypotheses. Recall, two

hypotheses were postulated based on the presence of music, and one hypothesis concerned

the like of the movie/clip and that effect on recall. The hypotheses are as follows:

HI: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a
scene without music would.

a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
pleasure than a clip containing no background music.

b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
arousal than a clip containing no background music.

c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
dominance than a clip containing no background music.

d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be more positive for the music group than for
the group that saw the clip without music.








H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
improve consumers' recall of product placements in movies.

H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered.

H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.

Music's effects on Emotions and Attitude toward the Clip

The first hypothesis examined the effect the presence or absence of music would

have on an audience's emotional response towards product placements within the clip,

specifically their feelings of pleasure, arousal, and dominance. First, a t-test analysis was

conducted to compare subject's emotions towards the movie clip (Question 1) to see if a

difference could be detected between groups. The results showed that test-group subjects

who watched the clip with music felt moderate pleasure (M = 5.64), moderate arousal (M

= 6.45), and moderate dominance (M = 4.30). The emotional adjectives that were closest

to this question were 'tempted' and 'aggressive'. This can be interpreted to mean that

subjects felt tempted and anxious after watching the clip without music present. Control

group subjects who viewed the clip without music felt moderate pleasure (M = 5.41),

moderate arousal (M = 5.9), and moderate dominance (M = 4.69). The AdSAMTM

emotional adjectives that were closest to this question were 'tempted' and 'anxious.'

This can be interpreted to mean that subjects felt tempted and aggressive after watching

the clip with music present.

Between-group analyses of the emotional response levels reported after seeing the

movie clip show that the Arousal and Dominance scores were statistically significant.

However the Pleasure score was not significant (p = .12). The Arousal score was

significant at a probability ofp = .02. Therefore subjects felt more aroused after

watching the clip with music relative to those who watched the clip without music. The









Dominance score was significant at a probability of p = .05, with the mean for the control

group being higher (M = 4.69) than the mean for the test group (M = 4.30). This suggests

that subjects actually felt less in control of themselves and more passive in the test group

than in the control group, implying that the absence of music was more positive.

Table 4-2: PAD Scores for Question 1
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 114 5.41 1.47 -1.20 218 .12
Pleasure with Music 106 5.64 1.35
Arousal without Music 114 5.90 1.79 -2.22* 218 .02
Arousal with Music 106 6.45 1.88 __
Dominance without Music 114 4.69 1.93 1.61 218 .05
Dominance with Music 106 4.30 1.65
p- .05

From these results one could conclude that while the presence of music did not

seem to have an effect on subjects emotions towards the clip, the higher mean score for

pleasure and arousal suggest that music did influence subjects more positively than when

absent from the clip. Based on these results, Hypothesis 1 was partially supported;

emotions toward the movie clip were more positive on the dimension of Arousal. Yet, in

contrast to the stated hypothesis, subjects reported greater Dominance when exposed to

the movie clip without music.

Next, subjects were compared according to their attitudes towards the clip to see if

there was a significant cognitive difference between groups. This t-test comparison was

taken from the cognitive attitude scales used in items 17 through 26 of the questionnaire

Subjects were asked to report their attitudes towards the movie clip on a seven-point scale

where = "No Agreement" and 7 = "Most Agreement."

The results of the t-test comparison between groups on attitudes towards the clip

found that mean attitudes were lower when viewed with music (M = 4.79) than when










viewed without the presence of music (M = 4.90). However, this difference between test-

and control-group means was not statistically significant (p = .40).

Table 4-3: Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Attitudes towards the Clip
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 106 4.79 .89 -.85 218 .20
Absence of Music 114 4.90 1.00
p< .05

Therefore the results indicated that the subjects in the experimental group did not

show different attitudes towards the movie clip than the subjects in the control group, and

Hypothesis Id, was not supported.

Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Recall

Hypothesis 2 examined if the presence or absence of music would facilitate product

placement recall. To find out whether the presence of music improved subjects brand

recall abilities, a t-test was run comparing mean recall between groups. The mean of the

brand recall with a presence of music (M = 2.03) was higher than the mean of brand

recall without a presence of music (M= 1.81). There was a significance level of .05,

supporting the fact that the mean difference was statistically significant. Therefore the

results indicated that subjects in the experimental group (with music) had a tendency to

recall brands any more than the subjects in the control group (without music).

Accordingly, Hypothesis 2 is supported, and the presence of music did have an effect on

subject's recall of brands.

Table 4-4: Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Subjects Recall of Brands
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 106 2.03 1.06 1.65* 218 .05
Absence of Music 114 1.81 .92
p<.05








The results of the between t-test comparison show that Hypothesis 2 was supported,

and the presence of music did affect subjects' recall of brands within the clip.

T-Test Results for Emotions across the All Brands

Hypothesis 3 predicted that the presence of music in a movie scene would result in

more positive emotions toward the brands remembered. Three t-tests were run to

compare the means of the effects that the presence of music had on the Pleasure, Arousal,

and Dominance variables of AdSAMTM across the brands recalled. To accomplish this,

the data from each of the AdSAMTM variables was added across brands (i.e., pleasure

scores for Lexus, Guinness, American Express, Bulgari, and USA Today were added

together) to create an index score. The scores for subjects who did not recall any brands

from the movie clip were omitted from the analysis in order to provide an accurate

account of the data.

The results from the t-test for Pleasure showed that the mean for the test group (M

= 6.63) was higher than that of the mean for the control group (M = 6.54). Thus, more

subjects reported feeling pleasure towards all of the brands in general when viewing the

clip with music than the subjects who viewed it without music. However, the difference

between means was not found to be statistically significant (p = .30), reinforcing the fact

that music did not effect subjects' feelings of pleasure toward the clip differently between

groups.

Table 4-5: Pleasure Scores across Brands
N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 100 6.63 1.30 .51 203 .30
Absence of Music 105 6.54 1.41
p< .05
The results from the t-test for Arousal showed that the mean of the Arousal score

(M = 5.37) for the control group was higher than that for the test group (M = 5.19).









Therefore the results show that subjects had higher feelings of arousal when viewing the

clip without music, than the subjects who viewed it with music. However, the difference

between means (p = .24) was not statistically significant.

Table 4-6: Arousal Scores across Brands
N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 100 5.19 1.87 .62 203 .24
Absence of Music 105 5.37 1.78
p< .05
The results from the t-test for Dominance showed that the mean Dominance score

for the control group (M = 5.61) was higher than that of the mean of the Dominance score

for the test group (M = 5.55). This shows that more people felt a more dominant feeling

towards all of the brands when viewing the clip with music, than the people without.

However, similar to Arousal, the significance of p = .39 was not statistically significant,

suggesting that there was no difference between groups dominance towards the brands.

Table 4-7: Dominance Scores across Brands
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 100 5.55 1.50 -.28 203 .39
Absence of Music 105 5.61 1.74
p< .05

According to these results, participants emotions towards the brands recalled were

not positively affected by the presence of music. Instead, it seems that there was a

stronger emotional response towards brands in both arousal and dominance in the control

group, while the test group showed a higher emotional response in pleasure. However,

the lack of significance for all three results shows the results shows that the presence of

music did not have an affect on subject's emotions.

It was felt that a further exploration into the presence of music's effects on the

recall of each brand should be conducted to see if musical presence did indeed have an








effect on individual brand recall. Therefore AdSAM questions were asked about

individual brands, and the subjects answers were evaluated in the next section.

T-Test Results for Emotions by Individual Brands

Next, t-tests were run to determine the effects the music stimulus had on subjects'

emotions for each of the brands remembered. An AdSAMTM analysis was run to go

further in depth, and find out how subjects felt about each of the brands they recalled.

The results were separated into two different categories: with music (represented by

circles), and without music (represented by triangles). Subjects were asked how they felt

about each brand they remembered seeing in the clip. A blank space was provided on the

questionnaire for subjects to fill in the names of the brands they recalled without being

prodded to remember specific brands. A paired samples t-test was also conducted for

each of the AdSAMTM questions to determine if the mean differences between groups

were statistically significant on any of the items. Questions three through seven from the

research instrument were concerned with how subjects felt about each brand they recalled

in the clip. Brands that subjects did not remember were omitted to create a valid mean

score.

There were a total of 167 subjects who reported recalling the Lexus brand. Of

these, n= 79 were from the test group, and n= 88 were from the control group. Control-

group subjects who recalled the Lexus brand reported feeling moderate pleasure (M =

6.84), moderate arousal (M = 5.74), and moderate dominance (M = 5.30). The emotional

adjectives that were closest to this brand were 'childlike' and 'provocative'. This can be

interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these

lines towards the Lexus brand. Test-group subjects who recalled the Lexus brand felt

high pleasure (M = 7.30), moderate arousal (M = 5.61) and moderate dominance (M =








5.78). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were 'bold' and 'mature'.

This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Lexus brand when watching

the clip with music present.

A between group t-test found that the results were statistically significant in the

Pleasure score and the Dominance score, meaning that subjects actually felt more

pleasure, and more dominant when watching the video with music.

Table 4-8: PAD Scores for Lexus
N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 88 6.84 1.45 -2.09* 165 .02
Pleasure with Music 79 7.30 1.42
Arousal without Music 88 5.74 1.86
Arousal with Music 79 5.61 2.19 .414 153.80 .34
Dominance without 88 5.30 1.78 -1.79* 165 .04
Music
Dominance with Music 79 5.78 1.75
p< .05

A total number of 146 subjects total reported recall of the Guinness brand. Of

these, 76 were from the music group versus 70 from the non-music group. Control-group

subjects who recalled the Guinness brand reported feeling moderate pleasure (M = 6.31),

moderate arousal (M= 5.19), and moderate dominance (M= 6.11). The emotional

adjectives that were closest to this question were 'wholesome' and 'provocative'. This

can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel

along these lines towards the Guinness brand.

Test-group subjects who recalled the Guinness brand felt moderate pleasure (M=

6.11), moderate arousal (M = 4.83), and moderate dominance (M = 5.38). The emotional

adjective that was closest to the Guinness brand was 'wholesome'. This means that

subjects felt along those lines towards the Guinness brand when watching the clip with

music present.








Between-group comparisons for Guinness found statistical significance on the

dimension of Dominance (t = 2.34, p = .01). According to Table 4-4, subjects who

watched the clip without music reported feeling greater dominance than subjects who

watched the clip with music (M = 6.11 vs. M =5.38).

Table 4-9: PAD Scores for Guinness
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 70 6.31 2.12 .64 144 .26
Pleasure with Music 76 6.11 1.79
Arousal without Music 70 5.19 2.36 .97 144 .19
Arousal with Music 76 4.83 2.07__
Dominance without 70 6.11 1.99 2.34* 144 .01
Music
Dominance with Music 76 5.38 1.80
p< .05

A total number of 55 subjects reported recall of the American Express brand. Of

these, 31 were from the music group versus 24 from the non-music group. Control-group

subjects who recalled the American Express brand reported moderate pleasure (M =

6.17), moderate arousal (M = 4.67), and moderate dominance (M = 4.96). The emotional

adjective that was closest to this question was 'wholesome'. This can be interpreted to

mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards

the American Express brand.

Test-group subjects who recalled the American Express brand felt moderate

pleasure (M = 6.19), low arousal (M = 3.65), and moderate dominance (M = 5.52). The

emotional adjective that was closest to this brand was 'modest'. This means that subjects

felt along those lines towards the American Express brand when watching the clip with

music present. The between group t-test found that the Arousal showed a statistical

significance of .04. However, there was a lack of statistical significance in Pleasure and

Dominance.













Table 4-10: PAD Scores for American Express
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 24 6.17 1.49 -.07 53 .47
Pleasure with Music 31 6.19 1.28
Arousal without Music 24 4.67 2.35 1.79* 53 .04
Arousal with Music 31 3.65 1.87
Dominance without 24 4.96 1.92 -1.01 53 .16
Music
Dominance with Music 31 5.52 2.11
p< .05

A total number of 8 subjects total reported recall of the Bulgari brand. Of these, 6

were from the music group versus 2 from the non-music group. Control-group subjects

who recalled the Bulgari brand felt high pleasure (M = 9.00), high arousal (M = 7.00),

and high dominance (M = 9.00). The emotional adjective that was closest to this brand

was 'victorious'. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Bulgari brand

when watching the clip with music present.

Test-group subjects who recalled the Bulgari brand felt high pleasure (M = 9.00),

high arousal (M = 8.00), and moderate dominance (M = 5.17). The emotional adjective

that was closest to this question was 'cheerful'. This can be interpreted to mean that

subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the

Bulgari brand. There was only one instance of statistical significance between the PAD

scores between the test- and control-group subjects, in that subjects felt more dominant

(statistical significance = .03) when watching the control clip, than when watching the

test clip.













Table 4-11: PAD Scores for Bulgari
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 2 9.00 .00 __
Pleasure with Music 6 9.00 .00a_
Arousal without Music 2 7.00 2.83
Arousal with Music 6 8.00 1.10 -.49 1.10 .36
Dominance without 2 9.00 .00 2.31* 6 .03
Music
Dominance with Music 6 5.27 2.23____
a. T cannot be computed because the standard deviations of both groups are 0.
p< .05

Forty-two subjects total reported recall of the USA Today brand. Of these, 21 were

from the music group versus 21 from the non-music group. Control group subjects who

recalled the USA Today brand when watching the movie clip felt moderate pleasure (M =

6.10), moderate arousal (M = 5.24), and moderate dominance (M = 5.81). The emotional

adjectives that were closest to this question were 'wholesome' and 'provocative'. This

can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel

along these lines towards the USA Today brand.

Test group subjects who recalled the USA Today brand when watching the movie

clip felt moderate pleasure (M = 5.71), moderate arousal (M = 4.62), and moderate

dominance (M = 5.10). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were

'wholesome' and 'modest'. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the

USA Today brand when watching the clip with music present. T-test results found no

statistical significance between the PAD scores between groups.









Table 4-12: PAD Scores for USA Today
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 21 6.10 1.61 .82 40 .21
Pleasure with Music 21 5.71 1.38
Arousal without Music 21 5.24 2.14 .93 40 .18
Arousal with Music 21 4.62 2.16
Dominance without 21 5.81 2.18 1.01 40 .16
Music
Dominance with Music 21 5.10 2.39
p< .05

Results show that although no statistical significance was found between groups

when analyzed across all brands, there were multiple instances of statistical significance

in one or more of the PAD scores for multiple brands. For example, the Arousal and

Dominance scores for the Lexus brand show that subjects felt these two emotions more

strongly when watching the clip with music, than without. Therefore Hypothesis 3 is

partially supported, and it can be assumed that the presence of music does have some

effect on emotions towards the brands recalled.

T-test Results for Subject's Previous Viewing of the Movie effects on Recall

A t-test was also run to compare the variable of whether subjects had seen the

movie before, and recall of brands. It was found that the mean of the recall of subjects

who had seen the movie beforehand (M = 1.96) was higher than the mean of the recall of

those who had not seen the movie before hand (M = 1.85). However, with a significance

score of p = .41, the mean scores are not significant; whether or not subjects had seen

the movie before did not have an effect on their abilities to recall brands in the clip.

Table 4-13: Seen Movie's Effects on Brand Recall.
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-
tailed)
Seen Movie 129 1.96 .98 .83 218 .20
Did not See Movie 92 1.85 1.03
p<.05









AdSAM Perceptual Map.


8

Loxus
7- A
Lexus


6- Ax G &dav
US lday

5-



4



3-


2


Arousal
12 3 4 5 6 7 8


pleasure and arousal scores
Chiu All Questions / Both Groups


O Music
A No Music


Figure 4-1: The chart shows where questions 1-7 of the main study stand on the pleasure
and arousal scale of AdSAMTM. Questions are separated into music, and
lack of music.


9












AdSAM Perceptual Map@


victorious
happy chee ful
8 -land

poll e warm stimulated
rela> ed Lexus bold
rr I ure _
7
childlik.exu-
provocativE
serene wholesQi A ss
6 Am Ga-____da

US da teo pted
1) j aggressive
.. nor chalant

aloof anxious
quietly indignant

un emotional cy lical tartled
4 -Keplt.l.
bored sus vicious
blase disbelieving
irrite ed
w r ------------ displeased --l ----
3 wary Mar,
disgusted angry
gloc my disappoint d troubled
s ins cure t rrifled
2 dece aed
sad
reject d crushed

Aro usal
I -------- -------- -- --- ^ ^ ^ -------------------- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -


2 3 4
pleasure and arousal scores
Chiu All Questions / Both Groups


O Music

A No Music


Figure 4-2: In addition to where the main study questions lie on the pleasure and arousal
graph, descriptive emotional adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better
idea of what the results may mean.










AdSAM Perceptual Map.


9-


8


7-
Lex

6" ay


5-


4


3-


2-


Arousal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


pleasure and arousal with dominance
Chiu All Questions / Both Groups


0
A


Music

No Music


Figure 4-3: This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the main
experiment. The larger the dot means the higher level of dominance.

















Like of Clip's effect on Product Placement Recall

Hypothesis 4 examined if the like of the clip would facilitate subjects brand recall.

A between group t-test comparison was conducted, using the questionnaire question that

asked participants to rate their like of the clip from 1-10, with one being the 'least liked'

and 10 being the 'most liked'. These variables were separated into two groups and added

together, to create two variables- dislike of clip, and like of clip.

It was found that subjects who liked the movie clip had a mean of M = 6.87 for

brand recall, compared to those who did not like the movie who had a mean ofM = 5.27

for brand recall. A statistical significance of .04 shows that subjects who did not like the

clip recalled fewer brands than those subjects who liked the clip. Therefore, Hypothesis

4 is supported, and a subject's like of the clip they are watching has a positive effect on

their ability to recall the brands within that clip.

Table 4-14: Like of Clips Effects on Brand Recall
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Like of Clip 205 6.87 1.91
Dislike of 15 5.27 3.10 1.97 14.79 .04
Clip
p<.05








CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING THOUGHTS

In order to more effectively place products in movies and television shows, it is

helpful to understand how background music affects viewers' recall of brands, and their

emotions towards the brands. Existing research shows that there is indeed a connection

between music and the recall and emotions of consumers towards product placements.

During the study, subjects in both the test group and the control group tended to

remember two out of the five brands Lexus and Guinness. The reasoning for this is

that those two brands were both visual and audio placements, and both were very

prominently placed within the scene. Many of the subjects also claimed that they did not

realize that USA Today was a placement; instead it was viewed as part of the story plot.

The other two placements, Bulgari and American Express, were visual placements, and

seen only briefly.

Overall, the background music did appear to have on the subject's recall of product

placements, and their emotions towards the placements. However, the results for the

subjects emotions towards the placements were not significant, while the results for

subjects recall of placements was significant.

According to the results, Hypothesis 1 was not supported. Music did not have an

effect on subject's emotions towards the product placements in the clip. In fact, when the

results were calculated across AdSAMTM PAD scores, it was shown that Arousal and

Dominance were higher in subject's who had seen the clip without music, while subjects

who saw the clip with the music had a higher level of Pleasure. It is thought that the









limitations of the study may have caused a lack of significance in the results, such as

volume control, distractions, and the sample size.

The results of the study supported Hypothesis 2 in that the subjects who viewed the

test clip recalled more product placements then the subjects who viewed the control clip.

It is thought that the presence of background music made the subjects more involved in

the clip, and therefore they remembered more product placements. Furthermore,

Hypothesis 3 is partially supported in that respondents were emotionally positive toward

specific brands associated with the presence of music in the scene. These findings

coincide with previous findings and summations, and help strengthen the connections that

have been previously made between music and memory.

The results of the study also supported Hypothesis 4 in that subjects who liked the

clip recalled more brands than subjects who did not like the clip. This finding is

supported by previous research exploring the effects of emotions on recall. Research has

found that positive emotions can cause a greater recall of the message in subjects.

There were a variety of factors that could have contributed to the lack of

significance in the mean scores of the variables testing the effects of music on emotions.

There were circumstances in which the subjects viewed the clip and took the survey; with

six different groups, each group may have been exposed to different extraneous variables

that affected either their attention while viewing the clip or filling out the questionnaire.

Two different rooms were used in the experiment. The sessions were divided evenly

between the groups, however, the volume controls were different, and subjects may have

viewed the clip with a different volume level. There were also circumstances in which

latecomers interrupted. This was uncontrollable, and did not happen at every session.









However, when it did happen, subjects may have been distracted, and not given the clip

their full attention.

The sample itself might also have affected the results. The sample consisted of

mainly undergraduate advertising students, and a few graduate advertising students. The

knowledge of advertising that these subjects have gained may have caused them to pay

more attention during viewing the clip, or may have caused them to be more aware of

product placements in the clip.

It is also thought that a larger sample size may show more significant results. A

larger sample size will give subjects a chance to recall all brands, and therefore fewer

cases will have to be suppressed when running tests. For example, only eight subjects

recalled the Bulgari brand. If a larger sample is used in the future, a more accurate

measure may be taken of the brands.

Future research should use a more varied sample base than just college students (of

which were mainly advertising undergraduates). This will give the study a higher validity

score, and thus may allow results to be more easily projected onto the general public.

Researchers should also control for extraneous variables distractions. The study should be

held in two sessions only, instead of the four sessions this study held. This will allow for

researchers to control for extraneous variables, and allow for a higher reliability. Future

research should also include studies comparing different tempos and volumes to see

which affects subjects more, and whether or not there is a difference concerning subject's

recall abilities. Researchers should also take in consideration the degree of exposure that

the product placements have. Some of the placements were harder to see than others, or

were only visual when others were audio. Future research should make sure all brands













are either all audio, all visual, or both. To avoid extraneous variables, a mixture is not

recommended. Visibility and air time should also be closely matched. Each placement

should be shown for the same amount of time as the others, and the placements should

have similar degrees of prominence to each other.

There are several managerial implications for this research. By discovering the

effects of background music on recall and emotions towards brands, marketers and

advertisers can figure out how to best place products in both movies and commercials.

This will allow products to be placed more effectively, and thus companies will be able to

better control (to a degree) their products effects on consumers.

Researchers will also be able to translate the effects of music on recall and

emotions to other situations, such as regular television commercials. It would be useful

to find out what types of background music is more effective in raising recall, and

creating positive emotions. Research should also include the effectiveness that different

tempos and different degrees of 'fit' of the background music have on the recall of

products, in both movies and television commercials.

Overall, it does appear that music affects consumers in ways that marketers and

researchers are not yet aware of. The effects of background music are varied according

to different situations, and further research can make advertising and marketing more

efficient in raising recall and positive emotions towards the brand.







APPENDIX A
PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE

Please read the following instructions and then answer section one accordingly.


This is SAM. SAM represents you and your feelings. We would like you to use SAM
to indicate how you feel about several different things.
S You'll notice that
measure consists of three
rows of graphic
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 characters.
f- -J The top row, ranges
from a big smile to a big
frown. This represents
o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 feelings that range from
ff-. _71 a FD F extremely HAPPY or
ELATED to extremely
UNHAPPY or SAD.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Look at middle row
The middle row represents feelings that range from extremely STIMULATED or
INVOLVED, (on the left) to very CALM or BORED (on the right).
Look at the bottom row
On the bottom row SAM goes from a little figure to great big figure. The row represents
you feeling as though you are BEING CONTROLLED, or CARED FOR on the left, or
completely IN-CONTROL, or DOMINANT on the right. This row does not represent
positive or negative feelings, just how much in-control you feel.
For every question mark a circle on each row!

You'll have a total of three marks for each question; you can mark a circle directly
below a figure, or between two figures.








1. How do you normally feel?


0000 0000
2. How did the musical clip you just heard make you feel?


0000


0000 0


Please wait here for further instructions.








3. How did the musical clip you just heard make you feel?


0000


0000 0


4. How does background music in general make you feel?


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0







APPENDIX B
MAIN STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE

Please read the following instructions and then answer section one accordingly.


This is SAM. SAM represents you and your feelings. We would like you to use SAM
to indicate how you feel about several different things.
S You'll notice that
measure consists of three
rows of graphic
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 characters.
f- -J The top row, ranges
from a big smile to a big
frown. This represents
o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 feelings that range from
ff-. _71 a FD F extremely HAPPY or
ELATED to extremely
UNHAPPY or SAD.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Look at middle row
The middle row represents feelings that range from extremely STIMULATED or
INVOLVED, (on the left) to very CALM or BORED (on the right).
Look at the bottom row
On the bottom row SAM goes from a little figure to great big figure. The row represents
you feeling as though you are BEING CONTROLLED, or CARED FOR on the left, or
completely IN-CONTROL, or DOMINANT on the right. This row does not represent
positive or negative feelings, just how much in-control you feel.
For every question mark a circle on each row!

You'll have a total of three marks for each question; you can mark a circle directly
below a figure, or between two figures.








SECTION ONE
Don't spend a lot of time thinking about the question. Just indicate how it makes you feel.

1. Please tell us how you normally feel?


0000 000
2. Please indicate how the clip you just saw made you feel.


0 0


ob0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0







SECTION TWO

Please answer the following questions to the best of your abilities, based on what you
remember of the clip you have just seen.

3. Do you recall any brand names in the movie clip just shown?

Yes No

4. How many brand names do you remember seeing in the clip?

5. List the brand names that you remember in the clip just shown.





SECTION THREE

Please remember the AdSAM instructions from the previous section to complete the
following questions.

For each brand you recalled in Question 5, fill the name into the blanks provided
for each of the questions below (ONE BRAND PER BLANK). Then, indicate your
feeling about each brand on the scale below each question. Use only the number of
blanks needed to complete the brands you recall.

6. How do you feel about ?
(Please print brand name)


0000 0 0 0 0 0








7. How do you feel about


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8. How do you feel about ?


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0







9. How do you feel about


00 00 0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

10. How do you feel about ?


0000 0 0 0 0 0


n n









11. How do you feel about


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

12. How do you feel about 9


0000 0 0 0 0 0



















SECTION FOUR

Please choose whether the following words relate to your attitude toward the clip
just shown by selecting a number 1-7, one being "no agreement" and 7 being "total
agreement". The following statement refers to questions 7-16.

The clip just shown was:
No Total
Agreement Agreement
13. Annoying 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

15. Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16. Happy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17. Entertaining 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

18. Absorbing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

19. Dull 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

20. Agitating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

21. Disturbing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

22. Fun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7








SECTION FIVE

Please answer the following questions

23. Please rate how much you liked this movie from 1 to 10, with 1 being least liked
and 10 being most liked.


24. Have you seen this movie before?

Yes No

25. Have you ever used any of the brands that you remember from the clip you just
saw?
Yes No

*If Yes, Please continue onto question 26
*If No, Please skip to question 27

26. Of the brands you listed in Question 5, please write each brand into a blank below
(ONE BRAND PER QUESTION). Answer the following questions on a scale of
1= not familiar to 5= very familiar.


a. How familiar i


b. How familiar i


c. How familiar i


d. How familiar i


e. How familiar i


f. How familiar i


27. Please indicate your age
16 Under 1

28. Please record your gender

Female


s to you?
(not familiar) 1 2

s to you?
(not familiar) 1 2

s to you?
(not familiar) 1 2

s to you?
(not familiar) 1 2

s to you?
(not familiar) 1 2

is to you?
(not familiar) 1 2


7-19


20 -21


3 4 5 (very familiar)


3 4 5 (very familiar)


3 4 5 (very familiar)


_3 4 5 (very familiar)


3 4 5 (very familiar)


_3 4 5 (very familiar)


22 -23 24+


Male








WORKS CITED


Alpert, Judy, and Mark Alpert (1989) Background Music as an Influence in consumer
Mood and Advertising Responses, Advances in Consumer Research, 16, 485-491

Babin, Laurie A., and Sheri Thompson Carder (1996) Viewers' Recognition of Brands
Placed within a Film International Journal ofAdvertising, 15, 140-151

Balasubramanian, Siva K. (1994) Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages
and Public Policy Issues, Journal of Advertising, 23, 29-46

Brennan, Ian, Dubas, Khalid M., and Babin, Laurie A. (1999) The Influence of Product
Placement Type and Exposure time on Product Placement Recognition Internal
Journal ofAdvertising, 18,323-337

Bruner, Gordon C. (1990) Music, Mood, and Marketing, Journal ofMarketing, 75 (2) 94-
104

D'Astous, Alain, and Francis Chartier (2000) A Study of Factors Affecting Consumer
Evaluations and Memory of Product Placements in Movies, Journal of Current
Issues and Research in Advertising, 22 (2), 31-40

Davis, Joel J. (1997) Advertising Research Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall Inc.
Saddle River, NJ

Gupta, Pola B., and Kenneth R. Lord (1998) Product placement in Movies: The Effect of
Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall, Journal of Current Issues and
Research inAdvertising, 20 (1), 47-58

Hill, Ronald P. and Michael B. Mazis (1986) Measuring Emotional Responses to
Advertising, Advances in Consumer Research, 13 (1), 164-171

Hoyer, Wayne, and Deborah MacInnis (2001) The Differential Role of Characteristics of
Music onHigh- and Low-Involvement Consumers' Processing of Ads, Consumer
Behavior,94, 161-173

Karrh, James A., Kathy Brittain McKee, and Carol J. Pardun (2003) Practitioners'
Evolving Views on Product Placement Effectiveness, Journal ofAdvertising
Research, 138-149



















MacInnis, Deborah, and C. Whan Park (1991) The Differential role of Characteristics of
Music on High- and Low-Involvement Consumers' Processing of Ads, Journal of
Consumer Research, 18, 161-173

Morris, John D, and Mary Anne Boone (1998) The Effects of Music on Emotional
Response, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intent In an Emotional Advertising
Condition, Advances in Consumer Research, 25, 518-525

Morton, Cynthia R., and Meredith Friedman (2002)1 Saw it in the Movies: Exploring the
Link Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior, Journal of
Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 24 (2), 34-41

Page, Thomas, Patricia Daugherty, Dogan Eroglu, David E. Hartman, Scott D. Johnson,
Doo-Hee Lee (1988) Measuring Emotional Response to Advertising: A Comment
on Stout and Leckenby, Journal ofAdvertising, 17 (4), 49-52

Russell, Cristel A. (2002) Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in
Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on
Brand Memory and Attitude, Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 306-318

Shrum, L.J. (2003) Where Art and Commerce Collide: A Funnel Approach to Embedding
Messages in Non-Traditional Media, Advances in Consumer Research, 30, 170-173

Stout, Patricia and John D. Leckenby (1986) Measuring Emotional Response to
Advertising, Journal ofAdvertising, 15 (4), 35-42

The U.S. Youth Market: Deciphering the Diverse Life Stages and Subcultures of 15- to
24- Year Old," Packaged Facts, July 2003, 11-12, 85-89








BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Dyani Chiu was born in Miami, Florida in 1982. She lived in Miami until she

graduated high school in 2000, and moved to Orlando, Florida, to continue her education

at the University of Central Florida. She received a B.A in liberal studies in 2004, and

enrolled in the Master of Advertising program at the University of Florida. After

graduation she plans to remain in Florida and pursue a career in advertising.





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EFFECTS OF THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMERS EMOTIONS TOWARDS PRODUCT PLACEMENTS By DYANI CHIU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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This thesis is dedicated to friends and fam ily who listened to me rant and rave through the entire process. And to my committee members who answered all my questions and helped keep the stress at bay.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would first like to thank my family and friends, who always reassured me that the end would eventually come, and that I would finish on time. Without their support this experience would not have been and fun and interesting as it turned out to be. I would also like to thank my committee members, especially Dr. Cynthia Morton, who was with me step by step through the entire process. Without her help, I would have never known the nuanced differences that make a thesis what it is. She and I collaborated to make my thesis much more than I thought it could be at the beginning. My other committee members Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Jon Morris must also be thanked, as they were instrumental in helping me tighten up loose ends and unsubstantiated results. Without all three of the wonderful teachers, my journey towards a finished thesis would not have been as smooth as it was. Once again, I thank everyone who helped me reach this point whether it be actual help with the thesis, or just listening to me talk on and on about it, and calming when I started stressing at one point or another. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...............................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES ..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITURATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................5 Research Studies Concerning Product Placement........................................................5 The Effectiveness and Prominence of Product Placements..........................................5 Impact of Objective and Subjective Characteristics on Recall and Recognition.........6 Link between Product Placements and Consumer Usage Behaviors...........................8 Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television......................................................9 Research Studies Specific to Music............................................................................10 Variations in Tone and Musical Structure Influence on Listeners.............................12 Evaluation of Musics Effects....................................................................................13 The Effects of Fit between Music and Advertising....................................................13 The Effects of the Presence and Absence of Music in Advertisements.....................15 Research Studies Specific to Emotional Response.....................................................16 Effectiveness of Affective Measures concerning Emotional Response.....................19 Thesis Proposition......................................................................................................21 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................24 Research Design and Hypotheses...............................................................................24 Sample........................................................................................................................25 Research Stimulus......................................................................................................26 Pretest..................................................................................................................26 Pretest Results.....................................................................................................27 Measurement Instrument............................................................................................34 iv

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4 DATA AND RESULTS.............................................................................................35 Subject Demographics.........................................................................................35 Musics effects on Emotions and Attitude toward the Clip................................37 Presence or Absence of Musics effects on Recall..............................................39 T-Test Results for Emotions across the All Brands.....................................40 T-Test Results for Emotions by Individual Brands......................................42 T-test Results for Subjects Previous Viewing of the Movie effects on Recall..47 Like of Clips effect on Product Placement Recall.............................................51 5 CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING THOUGHTS......................................................52 APPENDIX A PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE..................................................................................56 B MAIN STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE..........................................................................59 WORKS CITED................................................................................................................67 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................69 v

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Pleasure Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2............................................33 3-2 Arousal Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2.............................................33 3-3 Dominance Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2.......................................33 4-1 Demographics and Extraneous Variables................................................................36 4-2 PAD Scores for Question 1......................................................................................38 4-3 Presence or Absence of Musics effects on Attitudes towards the Clip...................39 4-4 Presence or Absence of Musics effects on Subjects Recall of Brands...................39 4-5 Pleasure Scores across Brands.................................................................................40 4-6 Arousal Scores across Brands..................................................................................41 4-7 Dominance Scores across Brands............................................................................41 4-8 PAD Scores for Lexus..............................................................................................43 4-9 PAD Scores for Guinness.........................................................................................44 4-10 PAD Scores for American Express..........................................................................45 4-11 PAD Scores for Bulgari............................................................................................46 4-12 PAD Scores for USA Today....................................................................................47 4-13 Seen Movies Effects on Brand Recall....................................................................47 4-14 Like of Clips Effects on Brand Recall.....................................................................51 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 The chart shows where the four pretest questions stand on the pleasure and arousal scale of AdSAM....................................................................................30 3-2 In addition to where the pretest questions lie on the pleasure and arousal graph, descriptive adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of what terms relate to the results....................................................................................................31 3-3 This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the pretest experiment. A larger dot means a higher level of dominance..................................32 4-1 The chart shows where questions 1-7 of the main study stand on the pleasure and arousal scale of AdSAM. Questions are separated into music, and lack of music....................................................................................................................48 4-2 In addition to where the main study questions lie on the pleasure and arousal graph, descriptive emotional adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of what the results may mean...........................................................................49 4-3 This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the main experiment. The larger the dot means the higher level of dominance.....................50 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EFFECTS OF THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMERS EMOTIONS TOWARDS PRODUCT PLACEMENTS By Dyani Chiu May 2006 Chair: Cynthia Morton Major Department: Advertising This study attempted to determine whether or not the absence or presence of background music in a movie had an effect on viewers recall abilities and emotions towards product placements. The following variables were measured: recall, emotions towards the brand, emotions towards the clip, and familiarity of the brand. An experimental design was implemented, and data were collected via a sample size of 220 volunteers from five different undergraduate advertising classes. Subjects were asked to watch a clip and then fill out a questionnaire. Data analysis indicated that the presence of music did not have a significant affect on consumers recall of brands or emotions towards those brands. Therefore it can not be determined that music has an effect on viewers memories or emotions towards the brands they see in movies today. viii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION By definition, a product placement is the paid inclusion of branded products or brand identifiers, through audio and/or visual means, within mass media programming (Karrh, McKee, and Pardun 2003, pg. 138). Though the practice of product placement can be documented as early as the 1940s (Wasko 1994), the age of its burgeoning is typically attributed to the well known appearance of Reeses Pieces in the movie ET, after which sales for the product increased by 65 percent three months following the release. Because of unique benefits such as long shelf life, broadcast syndication, and video rentals (Karrh, McKee, and Pardun, 1998 pg. 139) product placement has become a multi-million dollar practice whereby marketers aggressively seek the best spots in movies and on television for their brands. More and more consumers are using TiVo, a technology that allows the user to record up to 140 hours of programming and easily eliminates commercials with the touch of a button. Otherwise, viewers can simply zip and zap through commercial breaks by using popular electronic recording devices (i.e., video cassette recorders or digital versatile recorders). Even cable television is making it more difficult for marketers to effectively advertise to the proper target audiences. With these increasingly tough barriers, product placement seems like a dream come true. Inconspicuously putting brand names into the very television shows and movies that consumers want to watch seems a perfect way to make viewers more aware of branded products, without ever knowing the marketers intentions. Not only can well-placed products make the story line more 1

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2 realistic, they may even add something to the plot. Moreover, marketers hope that brands placed in television shows and movies will be more noticeable, especially if the product is well matched with the scene, and that viewers will be more likely to accept the presence of the product. Ultimately, marketers goals are to get the watching public to associate the products with their favorite shows and establish preference for the marketers brand instead of competing brands. As the results from placements such as Reeses Pieces in ET and the BMW in James Bond movies show, not only do products placed in movies and TV reach millions of viewers at a time, but viewers are more likely to pay attention during the program, thereby improving brand recognition. It has been found that not only do product placements reach large audiences, but also that these people are less likely to form counterarguments to the brand message or to commit internal zapping (DAstous and Chartier 2000, pg. 31), a way of skimming past the message in part because product placements are seen as a less intrusive promotional device and a more natural part of the program than traditional advertisements. This gives products a greater chance of being remembered in the future. Yet despite the potential opportunities product placements bring, there are still many unanswered questions concerning what factors contribute to its effectiveness in any medium. Does the strength of product placement lie in the audiences attention, the presentation of the product in the movie or program, or some combination of both? One such question concerning this promotions technique is the influence that peripheral cues (peripheral cues generally refer to events or items that do not have a prominent role in a movie or show, yet still may influence viewers) may have on the effectiveness of brand

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3 placements. Such cues include issues associated with the presentation of the product (e.g., involvement with main actors, usage in a scene, foreground/background placement), the presentation venue (e.g., home or movie theater), or vehicle for presentation (e.g., television or big screen), among others. This research paper explores music as one of many peripheral cues to placement effectiveness. Specifically, it seeks to answer whether the presence or absence of music in a movie scene affect viewers emotions towards placement brands? And, does music as a peripheral cue influence the audiences recall of branded placements? Prior research that investigated the effects of product placements on consumer recall and/or recognition and research into the effects that music has on memory suggests a link could exist between music and product placements. A study on the effect of musics absence or presence would allow marketers and advertisers to be able to efficiently place their products in a way that gives a brand exposure, thus ensuring the viewer not only sees the product, may but also be more receptive to it. By measuring emotions, this paper will also be able to give some insight into the measurements used to determine the effects certain variables have on emotional responses. This paper will outline previous research in the area of product placement and music, the method used for the experiment, the results, and suggestions for future research in four chapters. Chapter 2 will discuss the previous research on product placements effects on viewers recall and recognition, and research done on music and its effects on emotions and memory. Chapter 3 describes and justifies the research method used to investigate the research hypotheses. Chapter 4 discusses the findings from the

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4 experiment. Chapter 5 will discuss the future research that should be conducted to further explore the relationship between product placements and music.

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CHAPTER 2 LITURATURE REVIEW Research Studies Concerning Product Placement Product placements are often referred to by many names, including brand placements, imbedded messages, and hybrid communications (Balasubramanian, 1994; Shrum, 2003). However, throughout the remainder of this research the practice of inserting products and brands into movies and television shows will be referred to as product placements. Research into product placements in movies has examined the practice as a means for understanding in what context and under what circumstances placements are most likely to affect viewers. Past researchers have examined low involvement versus high involvement viewers, as well as the prominence of the placement as criteria that can influence placement effects. Other factors include involvement with the movies cast, as well as if the placement is auditory or just visual, or a mixture of both. The Effectiveness and Prominence of Product Placements Gupta and Lord (1998) conducted an experiment to determine the effectiveness of different standards of placements (e.g., audio versus visual placements) and the degrees of prominence product placements had in movies (e.g., products placed in the background versus products with plot connection). Their study tested the effectiveness (defined as how well the placement will affect viewers in a positive manner) and recall of prominent versus subtle audio and visual placements. Scenes from movies were collected, each with different degrees of product placement in them. Thirty second 5

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6 advertisements were inserted into some of the scenes replacing the product placements, so researchers could also observe the effect of ads versus product placement. The subjects chosen to participate in the Gupta and Lord study were divided into small groups, and randomly assigned tapes. To disguise the true intent of the study, and maintain validity the students were given questions measuring program content and emotions. To assess brand recall (i.e., how well subjects were able to remember brands seen during the movie clip), subjects were asked to list products or companies they recalled hearing during the segment (Gupta, and Lord 1998 pg. 53). The study found that recall of prominent placements was significantly higher than recall of subtle placements. Furthermore, there were significant differences in recall between traditional ads and brand placements in that the commercial messages tested were associated with a lower level of recall compared to prominent product placements. Recall was also found to be greater for audio messages than for visual placements (Gupta, and Lord 1998, pg. 53), and, though product placements had higher recall than advertisements, the latter were remembered more often than subtle product placements in both audio and visual instances. Impact of Objective and Subjective Characteristics on Recall and Recognition DAstous and Chartier (2002) published a study concerning consumers and product placement in movies. They were interested in the impact of objective and subjective characteristics of product placements on consumer evaluations and memory (DAstous, and Chartier 2000, pg 4). Both a pilot study and a main study were conducted with the intent of investigating the relationships between 1) the product prominence and consumer recall, 2) product integration and consumer likeability, and 3) the presence of a principal actor in a scene with the product and consumer recall. During the pilot study, a sample

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7 frame of 19 movies was set up, and the product placements within the movies were separated, and put on videotape. A total of 45 placements were coded on six dimensions: 1) visibility of the product in the scene, 2) mention of the brand by one or more actors, 3) length, 4) placement subtlety, 5) use of the product by the principle actor, and 6) presence of the principle actor within a scene containing the product placement (DAstous, and Chartier 2000, pg. 32). Eleven university students participated in the study. Based on the results, DAstous and Chartier were able to identify several product placement descriptors and group them into two categories objective (a.k.a. length, or how long the placement is shown) and subjective (a.k.a. subtlety, or how prominent the placement is shown) (2000, pg. 34). As follow-up to the pilot research, DAstous and Chartiers (2000) main study tested 18 placements using a similar research design as used in the pilot. One hundred and three student subjects viewed placement stimuli that were presented randomly as defined by a table of random permutations (Cochran, and Cox 1957) and individually rated the placement stimuli via a questionnaire. They also completed questions concerning movie attendance, and demographics. One week later a surprise follow up telephone questionnaire (the real questionnaire) was administered to the original subjects to test unaided recall and recognition of the placement stimuli. The results from the experiment agreed with previous research that found the recognition of brands is generally higher than recall, especially in prominent placements (Babin, and Carder 1996; Brennan, Dubas, and Babin 1999; Gupta, and Lord 1998). It was shown that prominent placements actually enhanced subject recognition of the brands featured, however there was a negative effect on recall. The degree of a products

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8 integration into the movie scene was also found to have a positive impact on a consumer liking the product, as was an actors presence, which was attributed to an audiences positive evaluation of placed products. The results of the study allowed for the discovery of some of the basic dimensions consumers use when evaluating product placements at the movies. While there were some limitations, the study the results provide good basis for further research. Link between Product Placements and Consumer Usage Behaviors Morton and Friedman (2002) further explored the link between product placement, and consumer usage behavior. They attempted to address the question Are beliefs about product placement related to product usage behavior? (Morton, and Friedman 2002). A sample of 132 college students completed a survey concerning beliefs about general product placement practices. There was no manipulation of an independent variable, as the research did not represent a pure experimental design. Instead an overall score was assumed to be a valid indicator of the samples belief for each item (Morton, and Friedman 2002) that was measured, and the dependent variable was the behavior reported after exposure to the product placement. Morton and Friedman developed a questionnaire measuring subjects answers to eight beliefs items using a five-point Likert scale. The results showed that subjects disagreed with the idea of banning product placements in movies, and were averse to the idea of paying more to avoid the exposure of placements altogether (Morton, and Friedman 2002, pg. 38). There was also support for the belief that product placements are correlated with product usage behaviors. Specifically, the results suggested that a subset of beliefs, particularly those associated with a products portrayal in a movie, may predict behavior following exposure to product placement.

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9 (Morton, and Friedman 2002, pg. 39). The study established a foundation for future research into the link of product placement and usage behaviors. Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Research has also moved in the direction of the effectiveness of product placement in television shows. Russell (2002) developed two tests, a conceptual model to identify the psychological processes underlying product placements and an experimental design to test the hypothesis developed in the conceptual model. For the conceptual model, Russell categorized placements along visual, auditory, and plot connection dimensions. This Tripartite Typology of Product Placement that Russell developed was used to determine not only how placements are cognitively processed and recalled, but also how they affected subjects attitudes on the three dimensions (Russell 2002, pg. 307). Russell (2002) developed a screenplay specifically for research purposes. Different brands were placed the play, each with a different strength of visibility and plot connection. One hundred and seven students attended a live performance of the play, and then filled out survey questions, ranging from the enjoyment of the play to questions concerning recall measures. Initial findings discovered that recall and recognition measures were significantly correlated, thereby suggesting that recognition measures could be used alone in the future study (Russell 2002, pg. 311). However, the fact that the study was live created several unanticipated effects, and Russell determined that the main study should use a taped version of the stimulus to ensure more control. Pilot study results allowed Russell to strengthen the procedure and the dependent measures for the main study. The main test used a similar research procedure as the conceptual model and ran them as two different studies (to mask any connection between the two phases). Russell

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10 wanted to prove two hypotheses. The first hypothesis predicted that highly visible product plot placements (i.e., those products highly integrated into the plot) would be remembered better than subtle plot placements (i.e., products seen only as background placements). The second hypothesis predicted that subtle visual placements would be more persuasive than highly visual placements, and that louder, more prominent audio placements would be more persuasive than lower audio placements. Students divided into groups of 30 were given credit to participate in one of five one-hour sessions. Subjects were required to watch a thirty-minute film and then to answer three different questionnaires that measured brand attitude, recognition, and plot connection (Russell 2002, pg. 312). The results from the research showed that auditory placements were better recalled than visual placements. In contrast higher visual placements were indeed better remembered than lower visual placements (Russell 2002, pg. 313). However, there were no significant differences between higher and lower auditory placements. It was also shown that congruous placements, defined as those that have a correspondence between plot elements or, more specifically between plot connection and modality, were indeed more persuasive than incongruous ones, or those that seem inappropriate or out of place in context with plot connection and modality. Research Studies Specific to Music The results from prior research suggest that products (both audio and visual) have different effects on viewers depending on where and how they are placed. Viewers think differently about the product if it is used by a main character than if the product is simply in the background. However, music as a peripheral cue may also affect an audiences emotions and the recall of product placements. Research studies have delved into the

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11 effects of tone, musical structure, and even pitch, to see what effects viewers and in what ways. Music plays an integral part in todays world, especially in movies. Music has been proven to change moods, both positively and negatively, as well as to help strengthen viewers memories, and change viewers emotions both toward a brand and toward a commercial message. In fact, it has been shown that appropriately structured music acts on the nervous system like a key on a lock, activating brain processes with corresponding emotional reactions (Clynes, and Nettheim 1982). Faster music has a positive influence on moods, and slower music has a more calming, and sometimes negative, effect on moods. Studies have shown that music in restaurants influences eating times (Hoyer, and MacInnis 2001). Advertisements with music deemed appropriate for the message it frames (known as the right fit) can garner consumer likeability toward the ad which, in turn, may transfer to the brand (MacInnis, and Park 1991). Indeed, a tighter compatibility between the product and the background music has the most influence on how much attention the consumer pays to the advertisement (MacInnis, and Park 1991). Research studies on musical influences on advertising to date have focused on the effects that music has on the consumer in traditional commercial advertising. It has been shown that a tighter relevance between the product and the background music has the most influence on how much attention the consumer pays to the advertisement. Studies have also found that music can significantly affect the emotional response to television commercials (Bruner 1990) and that music is especially effective with low involvement consumers. However, music can actually be distracting for those consumers who are highly involved with the message; therefore marketers must be careful in including music

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12 without consideration for the target audience (Bruner 1990). It has also been shown that persuasion may be more successful by using background features, such as visual imagery or music (Cited by Alpert, and Alpert 1989 from Batra, and Ray 1983). Variations in Tone and Musical Structure Influence on Listeners Alpert and Alpert (1989) conducted an experiment to discover whether the tone of music would influence the listener and whether variations in musical structure would influence perceptions, overall attitude, or behavioral intentions towards greeting cards among subjects. The study rated greeting cards into three categories happy, sad or neutral tone and used three cards per category as the research stimuli. Ten similar piano preludes were selected from J.S. Bachs works to be paired with the greeting cards (i.e., greeting cards with a happy, sad, or neutral tone) to create the test stimuli. The control group consisted of the same greeting cards without the music treatment. Students subjects evaluated the stimuli on two dimensions feelings (sad, vs. happy) and attitude toward the product. The results from the experiment showed that there was indeed a tonal influence on the subjects. Cheerful music influenced the subjects and tended to put them in a happy mood. It was also shown that behavioral intentions towards the greeting cards were also influenced by the presence of music, meaning that cards presented with happy music playing produced the highest moods compared with the other two conditions where the tone of the music was sad or neutral. This study helped define specific musical characteristics, such as musical structure and level of sound, which could influence consumers. Another finding from this study indicated that the presence of music that evokes emotions and other non-informational aspects of the ad may also stimulate peripheral processing (Alpert, and Alpert 1989). The results also concurred with

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13 previous research in consumer behaviors and background music. This research showed that likeability could indeed affect responses to advertised products (Alpert, and Alpert 1989). Evaluation of Musics Effects Bruner (1990) conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies that evaluated musics effects in terms of time, pitch and texture. These studies supported a positive correlation between affect and musical pace (cited from Dowling, and Harwood 1986), and suggested that music rhythmically paced with a faster beats per minute (BPM) is favored over music with a slower BPM. The preferable range of musical pace was determined to be between 70-110 BPM; anything below or above was shown to be not as likely to have a positive affect on the listener. Prior research also reinforced data supporting a strong connection between the subjects happiness and the pitch and tempo of music. For example, music with a higher pitch is considered to generate more happiness and excitement than music with a lower pitch, while faster music tempos are generally associated with positive thoughts relative to moderate or slow tempos, which are associated with more negative thoughts. Based on these studies Bruner (1990) postulated that music is capable of having main as well as interaction effects on moods, cognitions, and behaviors (pg 99) and that the influence of music on persuasiveness is greatest under conditions of peripheral route processing and low cognitive involvement (pg 100). The Effects of Fit between Music and Advertising MacInnis and Park (1991) conducted a study on the fit between music paired with an advertisement, and the influence of emotional ties on the consumers attitudes. They studied the indexicality of music, which the researchers defined as the extent to which

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14 music arouses emotion-laden memories (MacInnis, and Park 1991). Though this indexicality of music may not be related to the actual advertising message, it may influence a consumers message-based processing nonetheless. For example, strong emotions associated with high indexicality are likely to enhance consumers interests in the ad, but only when a consumer involvement is low. The fit of music defined as consumers subjective perceptions of the musics relevance or appropriateness to the central ad message (MacInnis, and Park 1991) may also influence ad processing in that the consumer may not deem the music relevant to the advertisement, which in turn may result in a change in the consumer belief-formation process. MacInnis and Park conducted experimental research in which they created four versions of a commercial for a fabricated product with the help of a leading advertising agency. Each commercial was paired with a different song that had been pre-tested to operationalize fit and indexicality. The commercial was then placed in an episode of the Oprah Winfrey Show and shown to 178 subjects. Involvement levels (e.g., high vs. low) were manipulated in advance of commercial exposure with a story about the test stimuli. High involvement subjects were told that the shampoo would be released later in the year and that the company was interested in the viewers interest in buying the brand. Low involvement subjects were simply told they would fill out a questionnaire concerning their views of the contents of the show they were going to watch. Following the program, both groups of subjects completed a questionnaire that asked about brand and ad attitudes, emotions, attention to the commercial and the music, attention to the advertised messages, and beliefs about the brand.

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15 MacInnis and Park (1991) found that musical fit has a powerful role in creating favorable ad and brand attitudes. More unexpectedly, the effect was found to be equally strong on high and low involvement consumers. Results for indexicality showed that music enhances message processing for low involvement consumers, while it possibly distracted from high involvement consumers (Macinnis, and Park 1991). The Effects of the Presence and Absence of Music in Advertisements Morris and Boone (1998) examined the differences in emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent between advertisements, with and without music using the AdSAM scale of measurement. AdSAM measures three dimensions of emotion Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD). The PAD model describes the full range of emotions in three independent bipolar dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, arousal/non-arousal, and dominance/submissiveness. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) is used to measure these emotional responses and consists of three separate rows that represent the dimensions Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance, with each dimension having nine choices that range in intensity from the most to least. Subjects match their feelings to the manikins as closely as possible via a questionnaire instrument. This allows the researcher to get fairly accurate readings of each subjects emotions. Morris and Boones (1998) study consisted of 90 subjects, divided into six separate sessions. Three of the subject sessions were exposed to print advertisements with background music, and the other three sessions saw the same advertisements without background music. Following exposure to the stimuli, subjects were given questionnaires that measured emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent. The results of the study showed no significant differences between the music and no music advertisements, for all 12 ads [to which subjects were exposed] (Morris, and

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16 Boone 1998). There were, however, six advertisements with significant differences between the two groups (the one group with no music, and the other group with music). The researchers concluded that adding background music to an advertisement may change the viewers feelings toward the ad, even if the ad by itself has been previously tested with positive results. It was also shown that music potentially has a significant effect on emotional response, attitude, and purchase intent depending on the type of advertisement, the audiences level of involvement with the product category, or how well the music fits with the ad. Research Studies Specific to Emotional Response Research studies that delve into emotional response mainly concern advertisements. However even these studies have mixed results on how emotional response are effectively measured. Many of the researchers claim there is a need for more discriminating measures of emotional response due to the fact that cognitive measurements, such as attitude toward the ad and toward the brand, fail to include adequate emotional measures of consumer response (Hill, and Mazis 1986; Stout, and Leckenby 1986), thus leaving researchers to rely solely on cognitive information models to understand why consumers behave the way they do. This approach, while useful, has not been able to completely explain the processes underlying advertisings effects (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Researchers now realize that emotions play a big role in affecting consumers, especially when consumers make low involvement decisions. However the intricacy of consumers emotions and reactions towards brand advertisements has given researchers some problems in determining an effective measurement system. Some researchers have determined that there are actually three levels of emotional response: 1) descriptive

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17 (where the feelings of the character are transferred to the viewer), 2) empathetic (the viewer responds to the commercial from the standpoint of the viewers independent self), and 3) experiential (the viewer experiences a true emotional response due to a past or present self related event) (Stout, and Leckenby 1986). However, according to Page, Daugherty, Eroglu, Hartman, Johnson and Lee (1998), there is no evidence that these three dimensions are the only explanation of consumers responses to advertisements, and that indeed uni-dimensionality is still a possible explanation. Stout and Leckenby (1986) examined the relationship between emotional response and advertising effectiveness on consumers by looking at 1) differences between respondents reporting no emotional response compared to those who reported one on any level and 2) respondents reporting no emotional response compared to those reporting either an experiential, empathic or descriptive emotional responses (Stout, and Leckenby 1986). One objective of this research was to develop a discriminating emotional measure. The dependent measure included attitude to the ad, attitude to the brand, purchase intent, brand recall, and ad content playback. Previous findings on the relationship of emotional response and the dependent measures were inconclusive, therefore the study provided a basis for future hypothesizing, and did not advance any hypothesis to be answered. However, according to previous findings, it is possible to make some assumptions comparing respondents who experienced an emotional response to respondents who did not experience an emotional response towards advertising. It was expected that respondents who did experience an emotional response would have ) a more positive attitude to the ad, 2) a

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18 more positive attitude to the brand, 3) a greater intent to purchase, and 4) lower brand recall (Stout, and Leckenby 1986). Stout, and Leckenby conducted mall intercepts and exposed a total of 1498 subjects to 50 commercials. The subjects pool was divided up into groups of 30 (one group of 28) and asked to view one of the fifty commercials. Afterward, respondents answered several open-ended questions intended to measure emotional response and evaluated 52 cognitive statements about the product and the advertising using a six point rating scale anchored by agree-disagree. The results indicated that overall the three levels of intensity are independent dimensions that tap into differences in individuals feelings. For example, empathetic emotional responses were negatively related to purchase intent, and the descriptive emotional response was found to be negatively related to brand recall (Stout, and Leckenby 1986). Results also showed that consumers with a more involving emotional response to a commercial will have less distraction than consumers who were distracted in some way. Researchers Page, Daugherty, Eroglu, Hartman, Johnson, and Lee (1988) believed that Stout and Leckenbys research was an admirable attempt to find an accurate measure for emotional response. However they believed that there were some issues in clarity concerning the definitions of descriptive, empathic, and emotional responses, and whether these responses should be considered dimensions or levels. These researchers assert that it is conceptually incorrect to claim that different dimensions are represented when examining more or less the same thing (1988). There were also some issues with Stout and Leckenbys (1986) analysis. It was thought that some of the findings made by Stout and Leckenby could have been interpreted differently. One instance dealt with the

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19 comparison of respondents exhibiting one level of emotional response relative to all of the remaining subjects. This may have caused some confusion with the true effects of the independent variable, which may have caused non-significant results. While Page et al commended Stout and Leckenby on their attempt to shed some light on measuring emotional responses, they believed that there were steps that could have been done to improve the experiment. Effectiveness of Affective Measures concerning Emotional Response Hill and Mazis (1986) conducted a study to determine whether affective measures assessing emotional response to ads are needed to measure the impact of emotional advertising. They predicted that attitude toward the advertisement (ATTA) measures would not be adequate enough to capture the impact of emotional ads on the viewer. However, data from past studies have led the researchers to believe that the methods for measuring attitude toward the brand (ATTB) were accurate enough measurements. Hill and Mazis used protocols taken from past studies to measure respondents reactions to the stimuli. The protocols were categorized into several sections support argument, counterargument, source derogation, and source bolstering. Support argument was defined as a situation where the message argument is supported by a viewers already entrenched belief. Counter argument was seen as a viewers immediate thought of a disadvantage or alternate solution to the problem presented in the commercial, and source derogation was defined as a resistive response that focuses on the source of the information (Wright 1973). Alternately, source bolstering was defined as the positive counterpart of source derogation, where the positive thought is directed toward the advertiser or the method of delivering the message (Belch 1981). Emotional responses were recorded by two other categories: positive and negative affect.

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20 Hill and Mazis selected 99 students to participate in their experiment. They separated the volunteers into two groups 48 were exposed to emotional advertising, and 51 were exposed to factual advertisements. The subjects were told the purpose of the study was to examine the impact of television programming on viewers attitudes and beliefs (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Subjects were shown three separate segments of a movie, interspersed with three advertisements that were placed to simulate a viewing situation with actual commercial break. Each commercial break consisted of a single product advertisement per break a bank, a telephone service, and a camera. The advertisements were the same length for both groups. Following exposure to each advertisement break, subjects were then asked to complete written protocols in response to the program they just saw using the protocols previously discussed (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Respondents were also asked to provide their feelings towards specific brands, all of which had been featured in the advertisements. ATTA measures were recorded on four sets of bipolar adjective scales; overall evaluation (good-bad, like-dislike), emotional (pleasant-unpleasant, nice-awful), savory (sensitive-insensitive, interesting-boring), and authoritative (useful-useless, important-unimportant) (Hill, and Mazis 1986). The results of the study suggested that factual ads produce a higher number of support or counterarguments than emotional ads do. There was also no consistent pattern of source bolstering or derogation responses between factual and emotional ads. In laymans terms, there was no pattern of consumers forming either a preference or a resistance to either version of the advertisement. The data also revealed a flaw in the overall evaluation measures that were used in most ATTA research, in that the measures

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21 did not distinguish between the impact of emotional and factual ads (Hill, and Mazis 1986). It was also shown that affective brand evaluation measures were sensitive in discriminating between the effects of emotional and factual ads than traditional evaluation measures are (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Thesis Proposition Research in music suggests that a relationship exists between consumers emotions and recall, and background music in advertisements. Specifically, research on the effect of music on advertisements suggests a correlation between consumers attitudes and the background music of an advertisement. Music has also been found to affect recall, recognition, and even attitudes towards both the product and the advertisement. Similarly, research conducted on product placements show that placement stimuli influence consumers attitudes towards brands and that certain placements have a greater effect on recall than others. Studies on product placements also show that visual and auditory placements affect consumers in different ways, and can be an effective means for creating awareness, as well as for justifying the need for a product. Furthermore, the research has established that the absence or presence of music will have an effect on product placement recall and that there are definite connections between music, the consumers attitudes, and awareness of placements. As such, it would be logical to assume that background music would also affect consumers emotional response to product placements. The presence of music has been shown to influence consumers most positively when the consumers are at a low level of involvement. From these, one might infer that product placements would have a distinct advantage on potential consumers who are not consciously shopping and have a low level of involvement. The background music used

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22 in a movie scene containing a product may strengthen viewers recall and/or recognition abilities. Proof of this could help marketers decide where a products placement would have the most impact on the viewers or where viewers would be most likely to recall products for future references. An investigation on the effects of the presence or absence of music would have on consumers attitudes towards products in movies is a logical step from the foundation established by prior research. As there have been only a few studies concerning musics effect on product placements, more research needs to be done to investigate the effect of the musics presence or absence of music on the consumer recall and recognition. Based on prior research, one might predict that the absence of music would have a negative effect on viewers because the scene would seem unnaturally crafted. Similarly, the presence of music is expected to draw the viewers attention to the scene more thoroughly and may even create an association with the music and the product that would help product placement recall or recognition at later times. Other factors that may be taken into consideration when examining the effects of the presence or absence of this peripheral cue are the musics volume, the fit between the scene, and the music. The present study will explore the relationship between music and placements in an effort to give insight to the factors affecting consumers recall and recognition, as well as to help marketers place their products most effectively. The purpose of the study will be to determine if the presence or absence of music during a scene in a movie containing a product placement has an effect on a viewers emotions, recall, and recognition of the placement(s) in the scene. With this in mind, two hypotheses are advanced for further investigation:

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23 H1: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a scene without music. a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of pleasure than a clip containing no background music. b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of arousal than a clip containing no background music. c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of dominance than a clip containing no background music. d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be positive for the music group than for the group that saw the clip without music. H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will improve consumers recall of product placements in movies. H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered. H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Research Design and Hypotheses Little research has been conducted concerning the effects that background music has on the recall and recognition of product placements in movies. It has been shown that there is indeed a difference in research subjects attitudes and memory towards ads with background music relative to advertisements without background music. The present research study seeks to examine if the presence or absence of music in a movie scene has an effect on a viewers recall of a product placement within that scene, and the emotions the viewer feels toward the placement as an outcome of this manipulation. Three hypotheses are advanced for exploration. H1: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a scene without music would. a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of pleasure than a clip containing no background music. b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of arousal than a clip containing no background music. c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of dominance than a clip containing no background music. d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be more positive for the music group than for the group that saw the clip without music. H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will improve consumers recall of product placements in movies. H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered. 24

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25 H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall. The hypotheses were tested using an experimental design. An experiment was determined to be the most appropriate methods for investigating the effect of music on viewers since the goal of an experiment is to determine causality [defined as] the effect of changes in one area on one or more other areas (Davis 1997 pg 137). Therefore, an experiment would be able to establish a relationship between music as a stimuli and viewer response outcomes. The independent variable was the presence or absence of music during a movie scene. The dependent variables measured were recall and the emotions stimulated in the viewers. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups and exposed to a scene was taken from the movie Minority Report. The clip was two minutes long, and contained five product placements. The experimental group was shown a version the clip with the music. The control group saw the original movie clip without any music. Each group was asked to view two minutes of the selected movie scene. Afterwards subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring their emotions towards the placements seen in the clip and recall. The purpose of the questionnaires was to capture subjects reactions to the movie clips immediately after seeing the scene. The following sections provide a more thorough discussion of the sample recruiting procedure, stimulus preparation, and the measurement of the research variables. Sample The main sample of students consisted of volunteers who were recruited from six different lecture courses in advertising at a large Southeastern university. Permission was procured from the professors of the classes. It is believed that this age group will be ideal for this study as they watch a lot of movies (Packaged Facts Study 2003). They were

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26 asked to volunteer for one of six sessions, where they viewed a movie clip and then completed a questionnaire consisting of 28 questions. Each session was half an hour long and was held outside of the regular class time. All of the students were given extra credit for their participation as previously determined by their professors. A total of 220 subjects participated in the study. Data were put into the SPSS computer program for analysis. Research Stimulus The selected scene is a fast paced chase scene in which the main character, played by Tom Cruise, is running through a train terminal in an effort to escape his pursuers. There are multiple product placements that appear throughout the scene, including audio only placements, visual only placements, and placements that represent a combination of both. The brand placements were for Lexus, Bulgari, Guinness, American Express, and USA Today. Pretest A pretest consisting of 33 students was conducted to identify the music stimulus that would accompany the movie clip. Two music clips, each two minutes in length, were selected from other parts of the movie and evaluated by a pretest sample based on the level of arousal associated with each. The purpose of this test was to determine which music would have a higher arousal score. The music with the higher score was inserted into the movie clip stimulus used in the research design. Pretest respondents were recruited from a lecture course in advertising at a large Southeastern university. Permission was procured from the professor before the class. Respondents were asked to listen to two separate music clips and then fill out a quick questionnaire, to determine the arousal rate of each music selection. The pretest consisted

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27 of four AdSAM questions. The first question attempted to establish a reported baseline for the participants normal feelings. The next two questions dealt with subjects feelings towards each music clip. The last question dealt with subjects feelings towards background music in general. This pretest only took 15 minutes long, and was conducted during regular class time. The pretest questions were as follows: PQ1: How do you normally feel? PQ2: How did the [first] musical clip you heard make you feel? PQ3: How did the [second] musical clip you heard make you feel? PQ4: How does background music in general make you feel? The pretest used the AdSAM scale as discussed in Chapter 2. The AdSAM scale uses three emotions, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance to get more in depth answers from subjects. Four questions were asked to determine respondents emotions in general, towards background music, and towards the music clips heard. Pretest Results Pretest results were analyzed using the AdSAM graphs and paired t-tests. Significance levels were evaluated at a probability of p < .05. The results are shown in three different graphs that display the questions on the AdSAM pleasure/arousal scale. Each graph shows the questions on a simple pleasure and arousal scale where the graph is divided into four quadrants. The top half of the graph shows high pleasure, the bottom half shows low pleasure. The right side of the graph shows high arousal, and the left side shows low arousal. Data results in the upper right quadrant of the graph can be interpreted to mean that subjects felt a strong involvement/interest. Data results in the bottom right quadrant generally show that subjects felt an intense negativity, whereas those in the bottom left quadrant show that subjects were feeling uninterested. Data

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28 results in the upper left quadrant will show that subjects experienced positive feelings, but were unmotivated. The graph labeled Figure 3-1 simply shows the four questions in relation to the high/low pleasure, and high/low arousal quadrants of AdSAM. Figure 3-2 is similar, however emotions adjectives are placed on the graph to give viewers a basis for evaluating respondents questionnaire responses. These adjectives are part of the AdSAM database and each has a measured score that corresponds to the results from a questionnaire. Figure 3-3 shows the dominance of each question. The points with which each question is marked are made bigger or smaller depending on the dominance levels of each question. The results for question one (how do you normally feel), showed that subjects normally felt in control of themselves. The results also showed a high level of pleasure (M = 7.09), and medium levels of arousal (M = 5.39) and dominance (M = 6.79). This can be interpreted to mean that respondents normally feel happy, and in charge of themselves, but only moderately excited about things. The results on the AdSAM graph showed that people felt very dominant normally (see chart 1-3, question one has the largest dot, meaning most dominant). The adjective that was closest to question one, was mature, meaning that subjects felt along those lines on a normal basis. Questions two and three dealt with respondents feelings towards each music clip. Question two asked respondents how they felt about the first music clip, and question three asked respondents how they felt about the second music clip. Results showed that the second music clip had a higher arousal level than the first (M = 5.91 vs. 5.52). In addition, the descriptive adjectives that were closest to question three response results

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29 were anxious and suspicious, meaning that respondents felt emotions along those lines when they listened to the second clip. Alternately, the adjectives closest to the respondents responses to the first music clip were cynical and disbelieving, suggesting that respondents felt emotions along those lines when they listened to the first music stimulus. Yet, in both cases, the findings suggested that respondents felt less in control of themselves than they did normally (Mean Dominance Q2 vs. Q3 = 4.39 vs. 4.58). Question four dealt with respondents feelings towards background music in general. Results showed that respondents had moderate pleasure (5.91), arousal (5.88), and dominance (5.18). This can be interpreted to mean that respondents are more aroused when watching something with background music (compared to an arousal level of 5.39, which was how they felt normally). The adjective that was closest to Question four was tempted, suggesting that background music may have made them feel more enticed when watching a movie/clip with background music. The AdSAM graphs shown on the next three pages, give a visual description of where the questions fall on the arousal/pleasure scale, and reinforces the discussion above.

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30 12345678912345678ArousalPleasure 9 AdSAM Perceptual Mappleasure and arousal scores DyaniLyn Chiu Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Figure 3-1: The chart shows where the four pretest questions stand on the pleasure and arousal scale of AdSAM.

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31 crushedinsecuregloomyangryirritatednonchalantprovocativeAdSAM Perceptual Map 123456789123456789aggressivealoofanxiousblaseboldboredcheerfulchildlikecynicaldeceiveddisappointeddisbelievingdisgusteddispleasedfearfulhappykindquietly indignantrejectedrelaxedsadskepticalstartledstimulatedsuspicioustemptedterrifiedthankfultroubledunemotionalvictoriouswarmwearywholesomepolitesereneArousalPleasurematuremodestpleasure and arousal scores DyaniLyn Chiu Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Figure 3-2: In addition to where the pretest questions lie on the pleasure and arousal graph, descriptive adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of what terms relate to the results.

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32 12345678912345678ArousalPleasure 9 AdSAM Perceptual Mappleasure and arousal with dominance DyaniLyn Chiu Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Figure 3-3: This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the pretest experiment. A larger dot means a higher level of dominance. Paired sample t-tests tests also were conducted to determine if the means between the two different types of music (Musical Clip 1 and Musical Clip 2) were significant. The t-test for pleasure showed the difference between means is not significant, meaning

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33 that respondents did not feel more pleasure towards one music clip than the other, although the mean for Musical Clip 2 was higher (M = 4.64) than that for the pleasure score of Musical Clip 1 (M = 4.43). A significance of p = .41 reinforces the lack of significance between the means. Table 3-1: Pleasure Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2 N Mean e led) easure Music Clip 2 Pleasure 33 4.64 1.78 -.839 32 .41 The t-test for arousal also found no significant difference between means, though the mean for musical clip 2 (M = 5.91) was higher than that for musical clip 1 (M = 5.52). Table 3-2: Arousal Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2 df Sig. (2-tailed) ousal 1.10 2 8 Similar non-significant results were found for dominance. Respondents did not feel a difference in the level of doml Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2 df Sig. (2-tailed) inance 67 It is believed that despite the lack of significance between respondents PAD scores betwe SD t-valu df Sig. (2-tai Music Clip 1 Pl 33 4.42 1.35 N Mean SD t-value Music Clip 1 Arousal 33 5.52 2.11 Music Clip 2 Ar 33 5.91 2.42 -1 3 .2 inance toward one music clip relative to the other, even though the mean for Musical Clip 2 (M = 4.58) was higher than the mean for Musical Clip 1 (M = 4.39). Table 3-3: Dominance Scores Musica N Mean SD t-value inance 4 Music Clip 1 Dom 33 4.39 1.9 Music Clip 2 Dom 33 4.58 1.89 -. 32 .51 en the music clips, the mean differences were large enough that a choice could be made. Therefore, the second music clip was chosen as the independent variable stimulusdue to its higher ratings by pretest respondents.

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34 Measurement Instrument The main study was conducted with the intent of measuring background musics effects on subjects recall abilities and emotion towards product placements. The research instrument contained a total of 28 questions. Subjects reported their general emotions towards the clip via an AdSAM scale question. To measure brand recall subjects were asked three open-ended questions requesting that they recall all brands they remembered seeing during the clip. Specifically these questions asked, Do you recall seeing any product placements?, How many brand names do you remember seeing in the clip?, and List the brand names that you remember in the clip just shown. Seven AdSAM questions were then asked to determine how subjects felt about the products recalled. Each question had a blank space for subjects to fill in the brand names they remembered. Next, ten questions were asked with the intention of measuring emotional responses toward the movie clip. These questions were measured on a seven-point scale, with 1 indicating no agreement at all, and 7 indicating total agreement. The questions were used to determine if subjects found the clip they saw annoying, pleasant, dull, etc. Following these were three questions that asked about 1) subjects like for the movie stimulus (rated on a scale from one to 10), 2) prior exposure to the movie (yes-no), and 3) if they had used any of the brands that they could recall (yes-no). Then, subjects completed a five-point familiarity scale that measured their degree of familiarity with the brands they recalled from the clip. The research instrument concluded with two classification questions that asked subjects their age and gender. A sample of the composite instrument is included in Appendix Exhibit A.

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CHAPTER 4 DATA AND RESULTS Subject Demographics The sample was divided into two groups one that saw the movie clip with music, and the other that saw the movie clip without music. The entire sample size of N = 220 subjects was taken from undergraduate and graduate advertising programs. The sample consisted of 73% (n =161) of women, and 27% (n =59) of men. Women made up the majority of the experimental group (n = 85 or 80%) as well as the majority of the control group (n = 76 or 67%). It was also found that n = 19 of the subjects who were in the experimental group (presence of music) were between the ages of 17 and 19, n = 60 were ages 20 or 21, n =20 of the subjects were ages 22 or 23, and n = 7 of the students were ages 24 or older. In the control group (absence of music in the clip) n = 23 of the students were in the 17 to 19 year age group, n = 66 of the subjects were ages 20 or 21, n = 13 were either 22 or 23, and n = 12 were 24 years or older. It was thought that there were a few extraneous variables that may have affected subjects recall of the brands in the scene. Therefore, subjects were asked to note the degree of like or dislike of the clip using a scale of from one to10, with one being extremely disliked and ten being extremely liked. For the experimental group it was found that 25% (n = 26) of subjects had negative feelings towards the movie, and 75% (n = 80) had positive feelings towards the movie. For the control group it was found that 35

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36 23% of subjects (n = 26) had negative feelings towards the movie, and 77% (n = 88) had positive feelings towards the movie. Subjects were also asked if they had seen the movie before. Fifty-eight percent (n = 128) of the subjects had seen the movie before the participated in the study, and 42% (n = 92) had not seen the movie. Further divided, 57% (n = 60) of the subjects in the experimental group had seen the movie, and 43% (n = 46) had not. And in the control study, 60% (n = 68) of the subjects had seen the movie beforehand, and 40% (n = 46) had not. Table 4-1: Demographics and Extraneous Variables Age Sex Feelings Towards Clip Seen Movie Before 17-19 20-21 22-23 24+ M F Positive Negative Yes No Test Group 19 60 20 7 15 85 80 26 60 46 Control Group 23 66 13 12 24 76 88 26 68 46 Total 42 126 33 19 59 161 168 52 128 92 The following tests were run to find answers to the hypotheses. Recall, two hypotheses were postulated based on the presence of music, and one hypothesis concerned the like of the movie/clip and that effect on recall. The hypotheses are as follows: H1: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a scene without music would. a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of pleasure than a clip containing no background music. b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of arousal than a clip containing no background music. c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of dominance than a clip containing no background music. d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be more positive for the music group than for the group that saw the clip without music.

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37 H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will improve consumers recall of product placements in movies. H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered. H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall. Musics effects on Emotions and Attitude toward the Clip The first hypothesis examined the effect the presence or absence of music would have on an audiences emotional response towards product placements within the clip, specifically their feelings of pleasure, arousal, and dominance. First, a t-test analysis was conducted to compare subjects emotions towards the movie clip (Question 1) to see if a difference could be detected between groups. The results showed that test-group subjects who watched the clip with music felt moderate pleasure (M = 5.64), moderate arousal (M = 6.45), and moderate dominance (M = 4.30). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this question were tempted and aggressive. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects felt tempted and anxious after watching the clip without music present. Control group subjects who viewed the clip without music felt moderate pleasure (M = 5.41), moderate arousal (M = 5.9), and moderate dominance (M = 4.69). The AdSAM emotional adjectives that were closest to this question were tempted and anxious. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects felt tempted and aggressive after watching the clip with music present. Between-group analyses of the emotional response levels reported after seeing the movie clip show that the Arousal and Dominance scores were statistically significant. However the Pleasure score was not significant (p = .12). The Arousal score was significant at a probability of p = .02. Therefore subjects felt more aroused after watching the clip with music relative to those who watched the clip without music. The

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38 Dominance score was significant at a probability of p = .05, with the mean for the control group being higher (M = 4.69) than the mean for the test group (M = 4.30). This suggests that subjects actually felt less in control of themselves and more passive in the test group than in the control group, implying that the absence of music was more positive. Table 4-2: PAD Scores for Question 1 N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1tailed) Pleasure without Music 114 5.41 1.47 -1.20 218 .12 Pleasure with Music 106 5.64 1.35 Arousal without Music 114 5.90 1.79 -2.22* 218 .02 Arousal with Music 106 6.45 1.88 Dominance without Music 114 4.69 1.93 1.61 218 .05 Dominance with Music 106 4.30 1.65 p < .05 From these results one could conclude that while the presence of music did not seem to have an effect on subjects emotions towards the clip, the higher mean score for pleasure and arousal suggest that music did influence subjects more positively than when absent from the clip. Based on these results, Hypothesis 1 was partially supported; emotions toward the movie clip were more positive on the dimension of Arousal. Yet, in contrast to the stated hypothesis, subjects reported greater Dominance when exposed to the movie clip without music. Next, subjects were compared according to their attitudes towards the clip to see if there was a significant cognitive difference between groups. This t-test comparison was taken from the cognitive attitude scales used in items 17 through 26 of the questionnaire Subjects were asked to report their attitudes towards the movie clip on a seven-point scale where1 = No Agreement and 7 = Most Agreement. The results of the t-test comparison between groups on attitudes towards the clip found that mean attitudes were lower when viewed with music (M = 4.79) than when

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39 viewed without the presence of music (M = 4.90). However, this difference between testand control-group means was not statistically significant (p = .40). Table 4-3: Presence or Absence of Musics effects on Attitudes towards the Clip N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed) Presence of Music 106 4.79 .89 -.85 218 .20 Absence of Music 114 4.90 1.00 p < .05 Therefore the results indicated that the subjects in the experimental group did not show different attitudes towards the movie clip than the subjects in the control group, and Hypothesis 1d, was not supported. Presence or Absence of Musics effects on Recall Hypothesis 2 examined if the presence or absence of music would facilitate product placement recall. To find out whether the presence of music improved subjects brand recall abilities, a t-test was run comparing mean recall between groups. The mean of the brand recall with a presence of music (M = 2.03) was higher than the mean of brand recall without a presence of music (M = 1.81). There was a significance level of .05, supporting the fact that the mean difference was statistically significant. Therefore the results indicated that subjects in the experimental group (with music) had a tendency to recall brands any more than the subjects in the control group (without music). Accordingly, Hypothesis 2 is supported, and the presence of music did have an effect on subjects recall of brands. Table 4-4: Presence or Absence of Musics effects on Subjects Recall of Brands N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed) Presence of Music 106 2.03 1.06 1.65* 218 .05 Absence of Music 114 1.81 .92 p< .05

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40 The results of the between t-test comparison show that Hypothesis 2 was supported, and the presence of music did affect subjects recall of brands within the clip. T-Test Results for Emotions across the All Brands Hypothesis 3 predicted that the presence of music in a movie scene would result in more positive emotions toward the brands remembered. Three t-tests were run to compare the means of the effects that the presence of music had on the Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance variables of AdSAM across the brands recalled. To accomplish this, the data from each of the AdSAM variables was added across brands (i.e., pleasure scores for Lexus, Guinness, American Express, Bulgari, and USA Today were added together) to create an index score. The scores for subjects who did not recall any brands from the movie clip were omitted from the analysis in order to provide an accurate account of the data. The results from the t-test for Pleasure showed that the mean for the test group (M = 6.63) was higher than that of the mean for the control group (M = 6.54). Thus, more subjects reported feeling pleasure towards all of the brands in general when viewing the clip with music than the subjects who viewed it without music. However, the difference between means was not found to be statistically significant (p = .30), reinforcing the fact that music did not effect subjects feelings of pleasure toward the clip differently between groups. Table 4-5: Pleasure Scores across Brands N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1-tailed) Presence of Music 100 6.63 1.30 .51 203 .30 Absence of Music 105 6.54 1.41 p < .05 The results from the t-test for Arousal showed that the mean of the Arousal score (M = 5.37) for the control group was higher than that for the test group (M = 5.19).

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41 Therefore the results show that subjects had higher feelings of arousal when viewing the clip without music, than the subjects who viewed it with music. However, the difference between means (p = .24) was not statistically significant. Table 4-6: Arousal Scores across Brands N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1-tailed) Presence of Music 100 5.19 1.87 .62 203 .24 Absence of Music 105 5.37 1.78 p < .05 The results from the t-test for Dominance showed that the mean Dominance score for the control group (M = 5.61) was higher than that of the mean of the Dominance score for the test group (M = 5.55). This shows that more people felt a more dominant feeling towards all of the brands when viewing the clip with music, than the people without. However, similar to Arousal, the significance of p = .39 was not statistically significant, suggesting that there was no difference between groups dominance towards the brands. Table 4-7: Dominance Scores across Brands N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed) Presence of Music 100 5.55 1.50 -.28 203 .39 Absence of Music 105 5.61 1.74 p < .05 According to these results, participants emotions towards the brands recalled were not positively affected by the presence of music. Instead, it seems that there was a stronger emotional response towards brands in both arousal and dominance in the control group, while the test group showed a higher emotional response in pleasure. However, the lack of significance for all three results shows the results shows that the presence of music did not have an affect on subjects emotions. It was felt that a further exploration into the presence of musics effects on the recall of each brand should be conducted to see if musical presence did indeed have an

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42 effect on individual brand recall. Therefore AdSAM questions were asked about individual brands, and the subjects answers were evaluated in the next section. T-Test Results for Emotions by Individual Brands Next, t-tests were run to determine the effects the music stimulus had on subjects emotions for each of the brands remembered. An AdSAM analysis was run to go further in depth, and find out how subjects felt about each of the brands they recalled. The results were separated into two different categories: with music (represented by circles), and without music (represented by triangles). Subjects were asked how they felt about each brand they remembered seeing in the clip. A blank space was provided on the questionnaire for subjects to fill in the names of the brands they recalled without being prodded to remember specific brands. A paired samples t-test was also conducted for each of the AdSAM questions to determine if the mean differences between groups were statistically significant on any of the items. Questions three through seven from the research instrument were concerned with how subjects felt about each brand they recalled in the clip. Brands that subjects did not remember were omitted to create a valid mean score. There were a total of 167 subjects who reported recalling the Lexus brand. Of these, n= 79 were from the test group, and n= 88 were from the control group. Control-group subjects who recalled the Lexus brand reported feeling moderate pleasure (M = 6.84), moderate arousal (M = 5.74), and moderate dominance (M = 5.30). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were childlike and provocative. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the Lexus brand. Test-group subjects who recalled the Lexus brand felt high pleasure (M = 7.30), moderate arousal (M = 5.61) and moderate dominance (M =

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43 5.78). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were bold and mature. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Lexus brand when watching the clip with music present. A between group t-test found that the results were statistically significant in the Pleasure score and the Dominance score, meaning that subjects actually felt more pleasure, and more dominant when watching the video with music. Table 4-8: PAD Scores for Lexus N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1tailed) Pleasure without Music 88 6.84 1.45 -2.09* 165 .02 Pleasure with Music 79 7.30 1.42 Arousal without Music 88 5.74 1.86 Arousal with Music 79 5.61 2.19 .414 153.80 .34 Dominance without Music 88 5.30 1.78 -1.79* 165 .04 Dominance with Music 79 5.78 1.75 p < .05 A total number of 146 subjects total reported recall of the Guinness brand. Of these, 76 were from the music group versus 70 from the non-music group. Control-group subjects who recalled the Guinness brand reported feeling moderate pleasure (M = 6.31), moderate arousal (M = 5.19), and moderate dominance (M = 6.11). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this question were wholesome and provocative. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the Guinness brand. Test-group subjects who recalled the Guinness brand felt moderate pleasure (M = 6.11), moderate arousal (M = 4.83), and moderate dominance (M = 5.38). The emotional adjective that was closest to the Guinness brand was wholesome. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Guinness brand when watching the clip with music present.

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44 Between-group comparisons for Guinness found statistical significance on the dimension of Dominance (t = 2.34, p = .01). According to Table 4-4, subjects who watched the clip without music reported feeling greater dominance than subjects who watched the clip with music (M = 6.11 vs. M =5.38). Table 4-9: PAD Scores for Guinness N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1tailed) Pleasure without Music 70 6.31 2.12 .64 144 .26 Pleasure with Music 76 6.11 1.79 Arousal without Music 70 5.19 2.36 .97 144 .19 Arousal with Music 76 4.83 2.07 Dominance without Music 70 6.11 1.99 2.34* 144 .01 Dominance with Music 76 5.38 1.80 p < .05 A total number of 55 subjects reported recall of the American Express brand. Of these, 31 were from the music group versus 24 from the non-music group. Control-group subjects who recalled the American Express brand reported moderate pleasure (M = 6.17), moderate arousal (M = 4.67), and moderate dominance (M = 4.96). The emotional adjective that was closest to this question was wholesome. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the American Express brand. Test-group subjects who recalled the American Express brand felt moderate pleasure (M = 6.19), low arousal (M = 3.65), and moderate dominance (M = 5.52). The emotional adjective that was closest to this brand was modest. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the American Express brand when watching the clip with music present. The between group t-test found that the Arousal showed a statistical significance of .04. However, there was a lack of statistical significance in Pleasure and Dominance.

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45 Table 4-10: PAD Scores for American Express N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1tailed) Pleasure without Music 24 6.17 1.49 -.07 53 .47 Pleasure with Music 31 6.19 1.28 Arousal without Music 24 4.67 2.35 1.79* 53 .04 Arousal with Music 31 3.65 1.87 Dominance without Music 24 4.96 1.92 -1.01 53 .16 Dominance with Music 31 5.52 2.11 p < .05 A total number of 8 subjects total reported recall of the Bulgari brand. Of these, 6 were from the music group versus 2 from the non-music group. Control-group subjects who recalled the Bulgari brand felt high pleasure (M = 9.00), high arousal (M = 7.00), and high dominance (M = 9.00). The emotional adjective that was closest to this brand was victorious. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Bulgari brand when watching the clip with music present. Test-group subjects who recalled the Bulgari brand felt high pleasure (M = 9.00), high arousal (M = 8.00), and moderate dominance (M = 5.17). The emotional adjective that was closest to this question was cheerful. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the Bulgari brand. There was only one instance of statistical significance between the PAD scores between the testand control-group subjects, in that subjects felt more dominant (statistical significance = .03) when watching the control clip, than when watching the test clip.

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46 Table 4-11: PAD Scores for Bulgari N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1tailed) Pleasure without Music 2 9.00 .00 Pleasure with Music 6 9.00 .00 Arousal without Music 2 7.00 2.83 Arousal with Music 6 8.00 1.10 -.49 1.10 .36 Dominance without Music 2 9.00 .00 2.31* 6 .03 Dominance with Music 6 5.27 2.23 T cannot be computed because the standard deviations of both groups are 0. p < .05 Forty-two subjects total reported recall of the USA Today brand. Of these, 21 were from the music group versus 21 from the non-music group. Control group subjects who recalled the USA Today brand when watching the movie clip felt moderate pleasure (M = 6.10), moderate arousal (M = 5.24), and moderate dominance (M = 5.81). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this question were wholesome and provocative. This can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the USA Today brand. Test group subjects who recalled the USA Today brand when watching the movie clip felt moderate pleasure (M = 5.71), moderate arousal (M = 4.62), and moderate dominance (M = 5.10). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were wholesome and modest. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the USA Today brand when watching the clip with music present. T-test results found no statistical significance between the PAD scores between groups.

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47 Table 4-12: PAD Scores for USA Today N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2tailed) Pleasure without Music 21 6.10 1.61 .82 40 .21 Pleasure with Music 21 5.71 1.38 Arousal without Music 21 5.24 2.14 .93 40 .18 Arousal with Music 21 4.62 2.16 Dominance without Music 21 5.81 2.18 1.01 40 .16 Dominance with Music 21 5.10 2.39 p < .05 Results show that although no statistical significance was found between groups when analyzed across all brands, there were multiple instances of statistical significance in one or more of the PAD scores for multiple brands. For example, the Arousal and Dominance scores for the Lexus brand show that subjects felt these two emotions more strongly when watching the clip with music, than without. Therefore Hypothesis 3 is partially supported, and it can be assumed that the presence of music does have some effect on emotions towards the brands recalled. T-test Results for Subjects Previous Viewing of the Movie effects on Recall A t-test was also run to compare the variable of whether subjects had seen the movie before, and recall of brands. It was found that the mean of the recall of subjects who had seen the movie beforehand (M = 1.96) was higher than the mean of the recall of those who had not seen the movie before hand (M = 1.85). However, with a significance score of p = .41, the mean scores are not significant; whether or not subjects had seen the movie before did not have an effect on their abilities to recall brands in the clip. Table 4-13: Seen Movies Effects on Brand Recall. N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed) Seen Movie 129 1.96 .98 .83 218 .20 Did not See Movie 92 1.85 1.03 p< .05

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48 123456789123456789ArousalPleasure AdSAM Perceptual Mappleasure and arousal scores Chiu -All Questions / Both Groups Q1 Q2 Lexus Guiness AmEx Bulgari USAtoday Q1 Q2 Lexus Guiness AmEx Bulgari USAtoday MusicNo Music Figure 4-1: The chart shows where questions 1-7 of the main study stand on the pleasure and arousal scale of AdSAM. Questions are separated into music, and lack of music.

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49 crushedinsecuregloomyangryirritatednonchalantprovocativeAdSAM Perceptual Map 12345678912345678aggressivealoofanxiousblaseboldboredcheerfulchildlikecynicaldeceiveddisappointeddisbelievingdisgusteddispleasedfearfulhappykindquietly indignantrejectedrelaxedsadskepticalstartledstimulatedsuspicioustemptedterrifiedthankfultroubledunemotionalvictoriouswarmwearywholesomepolitesereneArousalPleasurematuremodestpleasure and arousal scores Chiu -All Questions / Both Groups 9 Q1 Q2 Lexus Guiness AmEx Bulgari USAtoday Q1 Q2 Lexus Guiness AmEx Bulgari USAtoday MusicNo Music Figure 4-2: In addition to where the main study questions lie on the pleasure and arousal graph, descriptive emotional adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of what the results may mean.

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50 123456789123456789ArousalPleasure AdSAM Perceptual Mappleasure and arousal with dominance Chiu -All Questions / Both Groups Q1 Q2 Lexus Guiness AmEx Bulgari USAtoday Q1 Q2 Lexus Guiness AmEx Bulgari USAtoday MusicNo Music Figure 4-3: This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the main experiment. The larger the dot means the higher level of dominance.

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51 Like of Clips effect on Product Placement Recall Hypothesis 4 examined if the like of the clip would facilitate subjects brand recall. A between group t-test comparison was conducted, using the questionnaire question that asked participants to rate their like of the clip from 1-10, with one being the least liked and 10 being the most liked. These variables were separated into two groups and added together, to create two variablesdislike of clip, and like of clip. It was found that subjects who liked the movie clip had a mean of M = 6.87 for brand recall, compared to those who did not like the movie who had a mean of M = 5.27 for brand recall. A statistical significance of .04 shows that subjects who did not like the clip recalled fewer brands than those subjects who liked the clip. Therefore, Hypothesis 4 is supported, and a subjects like of the clip they are watching has a positive effect on their ability to recall the brands within that clip. Table 4-14: Like of Clips Effects on Brand Recall N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed) Like of Clip 205 6.87 1.91 Dislike of Clip 15 5.27 3.10 1.97 14.79 .04 p < .05

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING THOUGHTS In order to more effectively place products in movies and television shows, it is helpful to understand how background music affects viewers recall of brands, and their emotions towards the brands. Existing research shows that there is indeed a connection between music and the recall and emotions of consumers towards product placements. During the study, subjects in both the test group and the control group tended to remember two out of the five brands Lexus and Guinness. The reasoning for this is that those two brands were both visual and audio placements, and both were very prominently placed within the scene. Many of the subjects also claimed that they did not realize that USA Today was a placement; instead it was viewed as part of the story plot. The other two placements, Bulgari and American Express, were visual placements, and seen only briefly. Overall, the background music did appear to have on the subjects recall of product placements, and their emotions towards the placements. However, the results for the subjects emotions towards the placements were not significant, while the results for subjects recall of placements was significant. According to the results, Hypothesis 1 was not supported. Music did not have an effect on subjects emotions towards the product placements in the clip. In fact, when the results were calculated across AdSAM PAD scores, it was shown that Arousal and Dominance were higher in subjects who had seen the clip without music, while subjects who saw the clip with the music had a higher level of Pleasure. It is thought that the 52

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53 limitations of the study may have caused a lack of significance in the results, such as volume control, distractions, and the sample size. The results of the study supported Hypothesis 2 in that the subjects who viewed the test clip recalled more product placements then the subjects who viewed the control clip. It is thought that the presence of background music made the subjects more involved in the clip, and therefore they remembered more product placements. Furthermore, Hypothesis 3 is partially supported in that respondents were emotionally positive toward specific brands associated with the presence of music in the scene. These findings coincide with previous findings and summations, and help strengthen the connections that have been previously made between music and memory. The results of the study also supported Hypothesis 4 in that subjects who liked the clip recalled more brands than subjects who did not like the clip. This finding is supported by previous research exploring the effects of emotions on recall. Research has found that positive emotions can cause a greater recall of the message in subjects. There were a variety of factors that could have contributed to the lack of significance in the mean scores of the variables testing the effects of music on emotions. There were circumstances in which the subjects viewed the clip and took the survey; with six different groups, each group may have been exposed to different extraneous variables that affected either their attention while viewing the clip or filling out the questionnaire. Two different rooms were used in the experiment. The sessions were divided evenly between the groups, however, the volume controls were different, and subjects may have viewed the clip with a different volume level. There were also circumstances in which latecomers interrupted. This was uncontrollable, and did not happen at every session.

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54 However, when it did happen, subjects may have been distracted, and not given the clip their full attention. The sample itself might also have affected the results. The sample consisted of mainly undergraduate advertising students, and a few graduate advertising students. The knowledge of advertising that these subjects have gained may have caused them to pay more attention during viewing the clip, or may have caused them to be more aware of product placements in the clip. It is also thought that a larger sample size may show more significant results. A larger sample size will give subjects a chance to recall all brands, and therefore fewer cases will have to be suppressed when running tests. For example, only eight subjects recalled the Bulgari brand. If a larger sample is used in the future, a more accurate measure may be taken of the brands. Future research should use a more varied sample base than just college students (of which were mainly advertising undergraduates). This will give the study a higher validity score, and thus may allow results to be more easily projected onto the general public. Researchers should also control for extraneous variables distractions. The study should be held in two sessions only, instead of the four sessions this study held. This will allow for researchers to control for extraneous variables, and allow for a higher reliability. Future research should also include studies comparing different tempos and volumes to see which affects subjects more, and whether or not there is a difference concerning subjects recall abilities. Researchers should also take in consideration the degree of exposure that the product placements have. Some of the placements were harder to see than others, or were only visual when others were audio. Future research should make sure all brands

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55 are either all audio, all visual, or both. To avoid extraneous variables, a mixture is not recommended. Visibility and air time should also be closely matched. Each placement should be shown for the same amount of time as the others, and the placements should have similar degrees of prominence to each other. There are several managerial implications for this research. By discovering the effects of background music on recall and emotions towards brands, marketers and advertisers can figure out how to best place products in both movies and commercials. This will allow products to be placed more effectively, and thus companies will be able to better control (to a degree) their products effects on consumers. Researchers will also be able to translate the effects of music on recall and emotions to other situations, such as regular television commercials. It would be useful to find out what types of background music is more effective in raising recall, and creating positive emotions. Research should also include the effectiveness that different tempos and different degrees of fit of the background music have on the recall of products, in both movies and television commercials. Overall, it does appear that music affects consumers in ways that marketers and researchers are not yet aware of. The effects of background music are varied according to different situations, and further research can make advertising and marketing more efficient in raising recall and positive emotions towards the brand.

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APPENDIX A PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE Please read the following instructions and then answer section one accordingly. This is SAM. SAM represents you and your feelings. We would like you to use SAM to indicate how you feel about several different things. You'll notice that measure consists of three rows of graphic characters. The top row, ranges from a big smile to a big frown. This represents feelings that range from extremely HAPPY or ELATED to extremely UNHAPPY or SAD. Look at middle row The middle row represents feelings that range from extremely STIMULATED or INVOLVED, (on the left) to very CALM or BORED (on the right). Look at the bottom row On the bottom row SAM goes from a little figure to great big figure. The row represents you feeling as though you are BEING CONTROLLED, or CARED FOR on the left, or completely IN-CONTROL, or DOMINANT on the right. This row does not represent positive or negative feelings, just how much in-control you feel. For every question mark a circle on each row! You'll have a total of three marks for each question ; you can mark a circle directly below a figure, or between two figures. 56

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57 1. How do you normally feel? 2. How did the musical clip you just heard make you feel? Please wait here for further instructions.

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58 3. How did the musical clip you just heard make you feel? 4. How does background music in general make you feel?

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APPENDIX B MAIN STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE Please read the following instructions and then answer section one accordingly. This is SAM. SAM represents you and your feelings. We would like you to use SAM to indicate how you feel about several different things. You'll notice that measure consists of three rows of graphic characters. The top row, ranges from a big smile to a big frown. This represents feelings that range from extremely HAPPY or ELATED to extremely UNHAPPY or SAD. Look at middle row The middle row represents feelings that range from extremely STIMULATED or INVOLVED, (on the left) to very CALM or BORED (on the right). Look at the bottom row On the bottom row SAM goes from a little figure to great big figure. The row represents you feeling as though you are BEING CONTROLLED, or CARED FOR on the left, or completely IN-CONTROL, or DOMINANT on the right. This row does not represent positive or negative feelings, just how much in-control you feel. For every question mark a circle on each row! You'll have a total of three marks for each question ; you can mark a circle directly below a figure, or between two figures. 59

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60 SECTION ONE Dont spend a lot of time thinking about the question. Just indicate how it makes you feel. 1. Please tell us how you normally feel? 2. Please indicate how the clip you just saw made you feel.

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61 SECTION TWO Please answer the following questions to the best of your abilities, based on what you remember of the clip you have just seen. 3. Do you recall any brand names in the movie clip just shown? ___ Yes ___ No 4. How many brand names do you remember seeing in the clip? ____ 5. List the brand names that you remember in the clip just shown. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION THREE Please remember the AdSAM instructions from the previous section to complete the following questions. For each brand you recalled in Question 5, fill the name into the blanks provided for each of the questions below (ONE BRAND PER BLANK). Then, indicate your feeling about each brand on the scale below each question. Use only the number of blanks needed to complete the brands you recall. 6. How do you feel about _________________________________________? (Please print brand name)

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62 7. How do you feel about ____________________________? 8. How do you feel about ___________________________________?

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63 9. How do you feel about ___________________________________? 10. How do you feel about ___________________________________?

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64 11. How do you feel about ___________________________________? 12. How do you feel about ___________________________________?

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65 SECTION FOUR Please choose whether the following words relate to your attitude toward the clip just shown by selecting a number 1-7, one being no agreement and 7 being total agreement. The following statement refers to questions 7-16. The clip just shown was: No Total Agreement Agreement 13. Annoying 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14. Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15. Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. Happy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. Entertaining 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. Absorbing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. Dull 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20. Agitating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. Disturbing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22. Fun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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66 SECTION FIVE Please answer the following questions 23. Please rate how much you liked this movie from 1 to 10, with 1 being least liked and 10 being most liked. _______ 24. Have you seen this movie before? __ Yes __ No 25. Have you ever used any of the brands that you remember from the clip you just saw? __ Yes __ No *If Yes, Please continue onto question 26 *If No, Please skip to question 27 26. Of the brands you listed in Question 5, please write each brand into a blank below (ONE BRAND PER QUESTION). Answer the following questions on a scale of 1= not familiar to 5= very familiar. a. How familiar is ____________ to you? (not familiar) ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 (very familiar) b. How familiar is ____________ to you? (not familiar) ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 (very familiar) c. How familiar is ____________ to you? (not familiar) ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 (very familiar) d. How familiar is ____________ to you? (not familiar) ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 (very familiar) e. How familiar is ____________ to you? (not familiar) ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 (very familiar) f. How familiar is ____________ to you? (not familiar) ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 (very familiar) 27. Please indicate your age __ 16 Under __ 17 19 __ 20 21 __ 22 23 __ 24+ 28. Please record your gender __ Female __ Male

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WORKS CITED Alpert, Judy, and Mark Alpert (1989) Background Music as an Influence in consumer Mood and Advertising Responses, Advances in Consumer Research, 16, 485-491 Babin, Laurie A., and Sheri Thompson Carder (1996) Viewers Recognition of Brands Placed within a Film International Journal of Advertising, 15, 140-151 Balasubramanian, Siva K. (1994) Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues, Journal of Advertising, 23, 29-46 Brennan, Ian, Dubas, Khalid M., and Babin, Laurie A. (1999) The Influence of Product Placement Type and Exposure time on Product Placement Recognition Internal Journal of Advertising, 18,323-337 Bruner, Gordon C. (1990) Music, Mood, and Marketing, Journal of Marketing, 75 (2) 94-104 DAstous, Alain, and Francis Chartier (2000) A Study of Factors Affecting Consumer Evaluations and Memory of Product Placements in Movies, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 22 (2), 31-40 Davis, Joel J. (1997) Advertising Research Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall Inc. Saddle River, NJ Gupta, Pola B., and Kenneth R. Lord (1998) Product placement in Movies: The Effect of Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall, Journal of Current Issues and Research inAdvertising, 20 (1), 47-58 Hill, Ronald P. and Michael B. Mazis (1986) Measuring Emotional Responses to Advertising, Advances in Consumer Research, 13 (1), 164-171 Hoyer, Wayne, and Deborah MacInnis (2001) The Differential Role of Characteristics of Music onHighand Low-Involvement Consumers Processing of Ads, Consumer Behavior,94, 161-173 Karrh, James A., Kathy Brittain McKee, and Carol J. Pardun (2003) Practitioners Evolving Views on Product Placement Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising Research, 138-149 67

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68 MacInnis, Deborah, and C. Whan Park (1991) The Differential role of Characteristics of Music on Highand Low-Involvement Consumers Processing of Ads, Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 161-173 Morris, John D, and Mary Anne Boone (1998) The Effects of Music on Emotional Response, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intent In an Emotional Advertising Condition, Advances in Consumer Research, 25, 518-525 Morton, Cynthia R., and Meredith Friedman (2002)I Saw it in the Movies: Exploring the Link Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 24 (2), 34-41 Page, Thomas, Patricia Daugherty, Dogan Eroglu, David E. Hartman, Scott D. Johnson, Doo-Hee Lee (1988) Measuring Emotional Response to Advertising: A Comment on Stout and Leckenby, Journal of Advertising, 17 (4), 49-52 Russell, Cristel A. (2002) Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude, Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 306-318 Shrum, L.J. (2003) Where Art and Commerce Collide: A Funnel Approach to Embedding Messages in Non-Traditional Media, Advances in Consumer Research, 30, 170-173 Stout, Patricia and John D. Leckenby (1986) Measuring Emotional Response to Advertising, Journal of Advertising, 15 (4), 35-42 The U.S. Youth Market: Deciphering the Diverse Life Stages and Subcultures of 15to 24Year Old, Packaged Facts, July 2003, 11-12, 85-89

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dyani Chiu was born in Miami, Florida in 1982. She lived in Miami until she graduated high school in 2000, and moved to Orlando, Florida, to continue her education at the University of Central Florida. She received a B.A in liberal studies in 2004, and enrolled in the Master of Advertising program at the University of Florida. After graduation she plans to remain in Florida and pursue a career in advertising. 69


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014329/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of the Absence or Presence of Music on Consumers' Emotions towards Product Placement
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014329:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014329/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of the Absence or Presence of Music on Consumers' Emotions towards Product Placement
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014329:00001


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EFFECTS OF THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMERS
EMOTIONS TOWARDS PRODUCT PLACEMENTS














By

DYANI CHIU


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2006

































This thesis is dedicated to friends and family who listened to me rant and rave through
the entire process. And to my committee members who answered all my questions and
helped keep the stress at bay.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would first like to thank my family and friends, who always reassured me that the

end would eventually come, and that I would finish on time. Without their support this

experience would not have been and fun and interesting as it turned out to be.

I would also like to thank my committee members, especially Dr. Cynthia Morton,

who was with me step by step through the entire process. Without her help, I would have

never known the nuanced differences that make a thesis what it is. She and I collaborated

to make my thesis much more than I thought it could be at the beginning. My other

committee members Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Jon Morris must also be thanked, as

they were instrumental in helping me tighten up loose ends and unsubstantiated results.

Without all three of the wonderful teachers, my journey towards a finished thesis would

not have been as smooth as it was.

Once again, I thank everyone who helped me reach this point whether it be actual

help with the thesis, or just listening to me talk on and on about it, and calming when I

started stressing at one point or another.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ............................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ......... ............ .................... .. ............... vi

LIST OF FIGURE S ......... ..................................... ........... vii

A B STR A C T ..................... ................................... ........... ... .............. viii

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 L ITU R A TU R E R EV IEW ................................................................ ......... ..............5

Research Studies Concerning Product Placement................................... ...............5
The Effectiveness and Prominence of Product Placements..................................5
Impact of Objective and Subjective Characteristics on Recall and Recognition .........6
Link between Product Placements and Consumer Usage Behaviors .......................8
Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television..................... ..................9
Research Studies Specific to Music...... ................. .... ............ ...................10
Variations in Tone and Musical Structure Influence on Listeners ...........................12
Evaluation of M usic's Effects .......................... ............. ....................... 13
The Effects of Fit between Music and Advertising ............................... ...............13
The Effects of the Presence and Absence of Music in Advertisements ...................15
Research Studies Specific to Emotional Response....................................16
Effectiveness of Affective Measures concerning Emotional Response ................19
T h esis P ropo sition ...............................................................2 1

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 24

Research D esign and H ypotheses........................................ ........................... 24
S a m p le ................................................................2 5
R research Stim ulu s ...............................................................26
P re te st ................................................................2 6
Pretest Results ..................................... ........... .............. 27
M easurem ent Instrum ent .................................................................... ..................34









4 D A T A A N D R E SU L T S ..................................................................... ..................35

Subject D em ographics...... ........... ............. ....... ......................... .............. 35
Music's effects on Emotions and Attitude toward the Clip .............................37
Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Recall...........................................39
T-Test Results for Emotions across the All Brands ...................................40
T-Test Results for Emotions by Individual Brands...................................42
T-test Results for Subject's Previous Viewing of the Movie effects on Recall..47
Like of Clip's effect on Product Placement Recall ...................................51

5 CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING THOUGHTS.....................................................52

APPENDIX

A PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE ............................................................................56

B MAIN STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE .............................................................. 59

W ORK S CITED .................................... ... ..... .. ...... ........ ...... 67

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................69
















LIST OF TABLES


Table p

3-1 Pleasure Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2.........................................33

3-2 Arousal Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2..........................................33

3-3 Dominance Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2.............. ... ................33

4-1 Demographics and Extraneous Variables ..................................... .................36

4-2 P A D Scores for Q question 1 ........................................................... .....................38

4-3 Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Attitudes towards the Clip .................39

4-4 Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Subjects Recall of Brands .................39

4-5 Pleasure Scores across Brands ........................................ ........................... 40

4-6 A rousal Scores across Brands ............................................................................ 41

4-7 D om finance Scores across Brands ........................................ ........................ 41

4-8 P A D Scores for L exus.............................................................................. ............43

4-9 PA D Scores for G uinness................................................ ............................. 44

4-10 PAD Scores for Am erican Express ........................................ ....... ............... 45

4-11 P A D Scores for B ulgari......................................... .............................................46

4-12 PAD Scores for U SA Today ............................................................................. 47

4-13 Seen Movie's Effects on Brand Recall. ...................................... ............... 47

4-14 Like of Clips Effects on Brand Recall ........................................ ............... 51















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 The chart shows where the four pretest questions stand on the pleasure and
arousal scale of AdSAM TM .......................... ................... .. ............ ... 30

3-2 In addition to where the pretest questions lie on the pleasure and arousal graph,
descriptive adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of what terms
relate to the results.................................................. ............................... .3 1

3-3 This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the pretest
experiment. A larger dot means a higher level of dominance ..............................32

4-1 The chart shows where questions 1-7 of the main study stand on the pleasure
and arousal scale of AdSAMTM. Questions are separated into music, and lack
of m u sic ..... .......... ..... ... ...... ................ .. .................. ................... .. .. 4 8

4-2 In addition to where the main study questions lie on the pleasure and arousal
graph, descriptive emotional adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better
idea of what the results may mean. ............................................................. ........ 49

4-3 This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the main
experiment. The larger the dot means the higher level of dominance ...................50















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

EFFECTS OF THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMERS
EMOTIONS TOWARDS PRODUCT PLACEMENTS
By

Dyani Chiu

May 2006

Chair: Cynthia Morton
Major Department: Advertising

This study attempted to determine whether or not the absence or presence of

background music in a movie had an effect on viewers' recall abilities and emotions

towards product placements. The following variables were measured: recall, emotions

towards the brand, emotions towards the clip, and familiarity of the brand. An

experimental design was implemented, and data were collected via a sample size of 220

volunteers from five different undergraduate advertising classes. Subjects were asked to

watch a clip and then fill out a questionnaire. Data analysis indicated that the presence of

music did not have a significant affect on consumers' recall of brands or emotions

towards those brands. Therefore it can not be determined that music has an effect on

viewers' memories or emotions towards the brands they see in movies today.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

By definition, a product placement is the paid inclusion of branded products or

brand identifiers, through audio and/or visual means, within mass media programming

(Karrh, McKee, and Pardun 2003, pg. 138). Though the practice of product placement

can be documented as early as the 1940's (Wasko 1994), the age of its burgeoning is

typically attributed to the well known appearance of Reese's Pieces in the movie ET,

after which sales for the product increased by 65 percent three months following the

release. Because of unique benefits such as long shelf life, broadcast syndication, and

video rentals (Karrh, McKee, and Pardun, 1998 pg. 139) product placement has

become a multi-million dollar practice whereby marketers aggressively seek the best

spots in movies and on television for their brands.

More and more consumers are using TiVo, a technology that allows the user to

record up to 140 hours of programming and easily eliminates commercials with the touch

of a button. Otherwise, viewers can simply zip and zap through commercial breaks by

using popular electronic recording devices (i.e., video cassette recorders or digital

versatile recorders). Even cable television is making it more difficult for marketers to

effectively advertise to the proper target audiences. With these increasingly tough

barriers, product placement seems like a dream come true. Inconspicuously putting brand

names into the very television shows and movies that consumers want to watch seems a

perfect way to make viewers more aware of branded products, without ever knowing the

marketer's intentions. Not only can well-placed products make the story line more









realistic, they may even add something to the plot. Moreover, marketers hope that brands

placed in television shows and movies will be more noticeable, especially if the product

is well matched with the scene, and that viewers will be more likely to accept the

presence of the product. Ultimately, marketers' goals are to get the watching public to

associate the products with their favorite shows and establish preference for the

marketer's brand instead of competing brands.

As the results from placements such as Reese's Pieces in ET and the BMW in

James Bond movies show, not only do products placed in movies and TV reach millions

of viewers at a time, but viewers are more likely to pay attention during the program,

thereby improving brand recognition. It has been found that not only do product

placements reach large audiences, but also that these people are less likely to form

counterarguments to the brand message or to commit "internal zapping" (D'Astous and

Chartier 2000, pg. 31), a way of skimming past the message in part because product

placements are seen as a less intrusive promotional device and a more natural part of the

program than traditional advertisements. This gives products a greater chance of being

remembered in the future.

Yet despite the potential opportunities product placements bring, there are still

many unanswered questions concerning what factors contribute to its effectiveness in any

medium. Does the strength of product placement lie in the audience's attention, the

presentation of the product in the movie or program, or some combination of both? One

such question concerning this promotions technique is the influence that peripheral cues

(peripheral cues generally refer to events or items that do not have a prominent role in a

movie or show, yet still may influence viewers) may have on the effectiveness of brand









placements. Such cues include issues associated with the presentation of the product (e.g.,

involvement with main actors, usage in a scene, foreground/background placement), the

presentation venue (e.g., home or movie theater), or vehicle for presentation (e.g.,

television or big screen), among others. This research paper explores music as one of

many peripheral cues to placement effectiveness. Specifically, it seeks to answer whether

the presence or absence of music in a movie scene affect viewers' emotions towards

placement brands? And, does music as a peripheral cue influence the audience's recall of

branded placements?

Prior research that investigated the effects of product placements on consumer

recall and/or recognition and research into the effects that music has on memory suggests

a link could exist between music and product placements. A study on the effect of

music's absence or presence would allow marketers and advertisers to be able to

efficiently place their products in a way that gives a brand exposure, thus ensuring the

viewer not only sees the product, may but also be more receptive to it. By measuring

emotions, this paper will also be able to give some insight into the measurements used to

determine the effects certain variables have on emotional responses.

This paper will outline previous research in the area of product placement and

music, the method used for the experiment, the results, and suggestions for future

research in four chapters. Chapter 2 will discuss the previous research on product

placements effects on viewers recall and recognition, and research done on music and its

effects on emotions and memory. Chapter 3 describes and justifies the research method

used to investigate the research hypotheses. Chapter 4 discusses the findings from the






4


experiment. Chapter 5 will discuss the future research that should be conducted to further

explore the relationship between product placements and music.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Research Studies Concerning Product Placement

Product placements are often referred to by many names, including brand

placements, imbedded messages, and hybrid communications (Balasubramanian, 1994;

Shrum, 2003). However, throughout the remainder of this research the practice of

inserting products and brands into movies and television shows will be referred to as

product placements. Research into product placements in movies has examined the

practice as a means for understanding in what context and under what circumstances

placements are most likely to affect viewers. Past researchers have examined low

involvement versus high involvement viewers, as well as the prominence of the

placement as criteria that can influence placement effects. Other factors include

involvement with the movie's cast, as well as if the placement is auditory or just visual,

or a mixture of both.

The Effectiveness and Prominence of Product Placements

Gupta and Lord (1998) conducted an experiment to determine the effectiveness of

different standards of placements (e.g., audio versus visual placements) and the degrees

of prominence product placements had in movies (e.g., products placed in the

background versus products with plot connection). Their study tested the effectiveness

(defined as how well the placement will affect viewers in a positive manner) and recall of

prominent versus subtle audio and visual placements. Scenes from movies were

collected, each with different degrees of product placement in them. Thirty second









advertisements were inserted into some of the scenes replacing the product placements,

so researchers could also observe the effect of ads versus product placement.

The subjects chosen to participate in the Gupta and Lord study were divided into

small groups, and randomly assigned tapes. To disguise the true intent of the study, and

maintain validity the students were given questions measuring program content and

emotions. To assess brand recall (i.e., how well subjects were able to remember brands

seen during the movie clip), subjects were asked to list products or companies they

recalled hearing during the segment (Gupta, and Lord 1998 pg. 53). The study found that

recall of prominent placements was significantly higher than recall of subtle placements.

Furthermore, there were significant differences in recall between traditional ads and

brand placements in that the commercial messages tested were associated with a lower

level of recall compared to prominent product placements. Recall was also found to be

greater for audio messages than for visual placements (Gupta, and Lord 1998, pg. 53),

and, though product placements had higher recall than advertisements, the latter were

remembered more often than subtle product placements in both audio and visual

instances.

Impact of Objective and Subjective Characteristics on Recall and Recognition

D'Astous and Chartier (2002) published a study concerning consumers and product

placement in movies. They were interested in the impact of objective and subjective

characteristics of product placements on consumer evaluations and memory (D'Astous,

and Chartier 2000, pg 4). Both a pilot study and a main study were conducted with the

intent of investigating the relationships between 1) the product prominence and consumer

recall, 2) product integration and consumer likeability, and 3) the presence of a principal

actor in a scene with the product and consumer recall. During the pilot study, a sample









frame of 19 movies was set up, and the product placements within the movies were

separated, and put on videotape. A total of 45 placements were coded on six dimensions:

1) visibility of the product in the scene, 2) mention of the brand by one or more actors, 3)

length, 4) placement subtlety, 5) use of the product by the principle actor, and 6) presence

of the principle actor within a scene containing the product placement (D'Astous, and

Chartier 2000, pg. 32). Eleven university students participated in the study. Based on the

results, D'Astous and Chartier were able to identify several product placement

descriptors and group them into two categories objective (a.k.a. length, or how long

the placement is shown) and subjective (a.k.a. subtlety, or how prominent the placement

is shown) (2000, pg. 34).

As follow-up to the pilot research, D'Astous and Chartier's (2000) main study

tested 18 placements using a similar research design as used in the pilot. One hundred

and three student subjects viewed placement stimuli that were presented randomly "as

defined by a table of random permutations" (Cochran, and Cox 1957) and individually

rated the placement stimuli via a questionnaire. They also completed questions

concerning movie attendance, and demographics. One week later a surprise follow up

telephone questionnaire (the real questionnaire) was administered to the original subjects

to test unaided recall and recognition of the placement stimuli.

The results from the experiment agreed with previous research that found the

recognition of brands is generally higher than recall, especially in prominent placements

(Babin, and Carder 1996; Brennan, Dubas, and Babin 1999; Gupta, and Lord 1998). It

was shown that prominent placements actually enhanced subject recognition of the

brands featured, however there was a negative effect on recall. The degree of a product's









integration into the movie scene was also found to have a positive impact on a consumer

liking the product, as was an actors' presence, which was attributed to an audience's

positive evaluation of placed products. The results of the study allowed for the discovery

of some of the basic dimensions consumers use when evaluating product placements at

the movies. While there were some limitations, the study the results provide good basis

for further research.

Link between Product Placements and Consumer Usage Behaviors

Morton and Friedman (2002) further explored the link between product placement,

and consumer usage behavior. They attempted to address the question "Are beliefs about

product placement related to product usage behavior?" (Morton, and Friedman 2002). A

sample of 132 college students completed a survey concerning beliefs about general

product placement practices. There was no manipulation of an independent variable, as

the research did not represent a pure experimental design. Instead "an overall score was

assumed to be a valid indicator of the sample's belief for each item" (Morton, and

Friedman 2002) that was measured, and the dependent variable was the behavior reported

after exposure to the product placement. Morton and Friedman developed a questionnaire

measuring subject's answers to eight beliefs items using a five-point Likert scale. The

results showed that subjects disagreed with the idea of banning product placements in

movies, and were averse to the idea of paying more to avoid the exposure of placements

altogether (Morton, and Friedman 2002, pg. 38). There was also support for the belief

that product placements are correlated with product usage behaviors. Specifically, the

results suggested that "a subset of beliefs, particularly those associated with a product's

portrayal in a movie, may predict behavior following exposure to product placement."









(Morton, and Friedman 2002, pg. 39). The study established a foundation for future

research into the link of product placement and usage behaviors.

Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television

Research has also moved in the direction of the effectiveness of product placement

in television shows. Russell (2002) developed two tests, a conceptual model to identify

the psychological processes underlying product placements and an experimental design to

test the hypothesis developed in the conceptual model. For the conceptual model, Russell

categorized placements along visual, auditory, and plot connection dimensions. This

Tripartite Typology of Product Placement that Russell developed was used to determine

not only how placements are cognitively processed and recalled, but also how they

affected subject's attitudes on the three dimensions (Russell 2002, pg. 307).

Russell (2002) developed a screenplay specifically for research purposes. Different

brands were placed the play, each with a different strength of visibility and plot

connection. One hundred and seven students attended a live performance of the play, and

then filled out survey questions, ranging from the enjoyment of the play to questions

concerning recall measures. Initial findings discovered that recall and recognition

measures were significantly correlated, thereby suggesting that recognition measures

could be used alone in the future study (Russell 2002, pg. 311). However, the fact that the

study was live created several unanticipated effects, and Russell determined that the main

study should use a taped version of the stimulus to ensure more control. Pilot study

results allowed Russell to strengthen the procedure and the dependent measures for the

main study.

The main test used a similar research procedure as the conceptual model and ran

them as two 'different' studies (to mask any connection between the two phases). Russell









wanted to prove two hypotheses. The first hypothesis predicted that highly visible

product plot placements (i.e., those products highly integrated into the plot) would be

remembered better than subtle plot placements (i.e., products seen only as background

placements). The second hypothesis predicted that subtle visual placements would be

more persuasive than highly visual placements, and that louder, more prominent audio

placements would be more persuasive than lower audio placements. Students divided into

groups of 30 were given credit to participate in one of five one-hour sessions. Subjects

were required to watch a thirty-minute film and then to answer three different

questionnaires that measured brand attitude, recognition, and plot connection (Russell

2002, pg. 312).

The results from the research showed that auditory placements were better recalled

than visual placements. In contrast higher visual placements were indeed better

remembered than lower visual placements (Russell 2002, pg. 313). However, there were

no significant differences between higher and lower auditory placements. It was also

shown that congruous placements, defined as those that have a correspondence between

plot elements or, more specifically between plot connection and modality, were indeed

more persuasive than incongruous ones, or those that seem inappropriate or out of place

in context with plot connection and modality.

Research Studies Specific to Music

The results from prior research suggest that products (both audio and visual) have

different effects on viewers depending on where and how they are placed. Viewers think

differently about the product if it is used by a main character than if the product is simply

in the background. However, music as a peripheral cue may also affect an audience's

emotions and the recall of product placements. Research studies have delved into the









effects of tone, musical structure, and even pitch, to see what effects viewers and in what

ways.

Music plays an integral part in today's world, especially in movies. Music has been

proven to change moods, both positively and negatively, as well as to help strengthen

viewer's memories, and change viewer's emotions both toward a brand and toward a

commercial message. In fact, it has been shown that "appropriately structured music acts

on the nervous system like a key on a lock, activating brain processes with corresponding

emotional reactions" (Clynes, and Nettheim 1982). Faster music has a positive influence

on moods, and slower music has a more calming, and sometimes negative, effect on

moods. Studies have shown that music in restaurants influences eating times (Hoyer, and

MacInnis 2001). Advertisements with music deemed appropriate for the message it

frames (known as the right 'fit') can garner consumer likeability toward the ad which, in

turn, may transfer to the brand (MacInnis, and Park 1991). Indeed, a tighter compatibility

between the product and the background music has the most influence on how much

attention the consumer pays to the advertisement (MacInnis, and Park 1991).

Research studies on musical influences on advertising to date have focused on the

effects that music has on the consumer in traditional commercial advertising. It has been

shown that a tighter relevance between the product and the background music has the

most influence on how much attention the consumer pays to the advertisement. Studies

have also found that "music can significantly affect the emotional response to television

commercials" (Bruner 1990) and that music is especially effective with low involvement

consumers. However, music can actually be distracting for those consumers who are

highly involved with the message; therefore marketers must be careful in including music









without consideration for the target audience (Bruner 1990). It has also been shown that

"persuasion may be more successful by using background features, such as visual

imagery or music" (Cited by Alpert, and Alpert 1989 from Batra, and Ray 1983).

Variations in Tone and Musical Structure Influence on Listeners

Alpert and Alpert (1989) conducted an experiment to discover whether the tone of

music would influence the listener and whether variations in musical structure would

influence perceptions, overall attitude, or behavioral intentions towards greeting cards

among subjects. The study rated greeting cards into three categories happy, sad or

neutral tone and used three cards per category as the research stimuli. Ten similar

piano preludes were selected from J.S. Bach's works to be paired with the greeting cards

(i.e., greeting cards with a "happy, sad, or neutral" tone) to create the test stimuli. The

control group consisted of the same greeting cards without the music treatment. Students

subjects evaluated the stimuli on two dimensions feelings (sad, vs. happy) and attitude

toward the product.

The results from the experiment showed that there was indeed a tonal influence on

the subjects. Cheerful music influenced the subjects and tended to put them in a happy

mood. It was also shown that behavioral intentions towards the greeting cards were also

influenced by the presence of music, meaning that cards presented with happy music

playing produced the highest moods compared with the other two conditions where the

tone of the music was sad or neutral. This study helped define specific musical

characteristics, such as musical structure and level of sound, which could influence

consumers. Another finding from this study indicated that "the presence of music that

evokes emotions and other non-informational aspects of the ad may also stimulate

peripheral processing" (Alpert, and Alpert 1989). The results also concurred with









previous research in consumer behaviors and background music. This research showed

that likeability could indeed affect responses to advertised products (Alpert, and Alpert

1989).

Evaluation of Music's Effects

Bruner (1990) conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies that evaluated music's

effects in terms of time, pitch and texture. These studies supported a positive correlation

between affect and musical pace (cited from Dowling, and Harwood 1986), and

suggested that music rhythmically paced with a faster "beats per minute" (BPM) is

favored over music with a slower BPM. The preferable range of musical pace was

determined to be between 70-110 BPM; anything below or above was shown to be not as

likely to have a positive affect on the listener. Prior research also reinforced data

supporting a strong connection between the subjects' happiness and the pitch and tempo

of music. For example, music with a higher pitch is considered to generate more

happiness and excitement than music with a lower pitch, while faster music tempos are

generally associated with positive thoughts relative to moderate or slow tempos, which

are associated with more negative thoughts. Based on these studies Bruner (1990)

postulated that music "is capable of having main as well as interaction effects on moods,

cognitions, and behaviors" (pg 99) and that "the influence of music on persuasiveness is

greatest under conditions of peripheral route processing and low cognitive involvement"

(pg 100).

The Effects of Fit between Music and Advertising

MacInnis and Park (1991) conducted a study on the fit between music paired with

an advertisement, and the influence of emotional ties on the consumer's attitudes. They

studied the indexicality of music, which the researchers defined as "the extent to which









music arouses emotion-laden memories" (MacInnis, and Park 1991). Though this

indexicality of music may not be related to the actual advertising message, it may

influence a consumer's message-based processing nonetheless. For example, strong

emotions associated with high indexicality are likely to enhance consumers' interests in

the ad, but only when a consumer involvement is low. The fit of music defined as

"consumers' subjective perceptions of the music's relevance or appropriateness to the

central ad message" (MacInnis, and Park 1991) may also influence ad processing in

that the consumer may not deem the music relevant to the advertisement, which in turn

may result in a change in the consumer belief-formation process.

MacInnis and Park conducted experimental research in which they created four

versions of a commercial for a fabricated product with the help of a leading advertising

agency. Each commercial was paired with a different song that had been pre-tested to

operationalize fit and indexicality. The commercial was then placed in an episode of the

"Oprah Winfrey Show" and shown to 178 subjects. Involvement levels (e.g., high vs.

low) were manipulated in advance of commercial exposure with a story about the test

stimuli. High involvement subjects were told that the shampoo would be released later in

the year and that the company was interested in the viewers' interest in buying the brand.

Low involvement subjects were simply told they would fill out a questionnaire

concerning their views of the contents of the show they were going to watch. Following

the program, both groups of subjects completed a questionnaire that asked about brand

and ad attitudes, emotions, attention to the commercial and the music, attention to the

advertised messages, and beliefs about the brand.









MacInnis and Park (1991) found that musical fit has a powerful role in creating

favorable ad and brand attitudes. More unexpectedly, the effect was found to be equally

strong on high and low involvement consumers. Results for indexicality showed that

music "enhances message processing for low involvement consumers, while it possibly

distracted from high involvement consumers" (Macinnis, and Park 1991).

The Effects of the Presence and Absence of Music in Advertisements

Morris and Boone (1998) examined the differences in "emotional response, brand

attitude, and purchase intent between advertisements, with and without music" using the

AdSAMTM scale of measurement. AdSAMTM measures three dimensions of emotion

- Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD). The PAD model describes the full range of

emotions in three independent bipolar dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, arousal/non-

arousal, and dominance/submissiveness. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) is used to

measure these emotional responses and consists of three separate rows that represent the

dimensions Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance, with each dimension having nine choices

that range in intensity from the most to least. Subjects match their feelings to the

manikins as closely as possible via a questionnaire instrument. This allows the researcher

to get fairly accurate readings of each subject's emotions.

Morris and Boone's (1998) study consisted of 90 subjects, divided into six separate

sessions. Three of the subject sessions were exposed to print advertisements with

background music, and the other three sessions saw the same advertisements without

background music. Following exposure to the stimuli, subjects were given questionnaires

that measured emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent.

The results of the study showed "no significant differences between the music and

no music advertisements, for all 12 ads [to which subjects were exposed]" (Morris, and









Boone 1998). There were, however, six advertisements with significant differences

between the two groups (the one group with no music, and the other group with music).

The researchers concluded that adding background music to an advertisement may

change the viewer's feelings toward the ad, even if the ad by itself has been previously

tested with positive results. It was also shown that music potentially has a significant

effect on emotional response, attitude, and purchase intent depending on the type of

advertisement, the audience's level of involvement with the product category, or how

well the music fits with the ad.

Research Studies Specific to Emotional Response

Research studies that delve into emotional response mainly concern

advertisements. However even these studies have mixed results on how emotional

response are effectively measured. Many of the researchers claim there is a need for more

discriminating measures of emotional response due to the fact that cognitive

measurements, such as attitude toward the ad and toward the brand, fail to include

adequate emotional measures of consumer response (Hill, and Mazis 1986; Stout, and

Leckenby 1986), thus leaving researchers to rely solely on cognitive information models

to understand why consumers behave the way they do. This approach, while useful, has

not been able to 'completely explain the processes underlying advertising effects' (Hill,

and Mazis 1986).

Researchers now realize that emotions play a big role in affecting consumers,

especially when consumers make low involvement decisions. However the intricacy of

consumers' emotions and reactions towards brand advertisements has given researchers

some problems in determining an effective measurement system. Some researchers have

determined that there are actually three levels of emotional response: 1) descriptive









(where the feelings of the character are transferred to the viewer), 2) empathetic (the

viewer responds to the commercial from the standpoint of the viewers independent

'self), and 3) experiential (the viewer experiences a 'true' emotional response due to a

past or present self related event) (Stout, and Leckenby 1986). However, according to

Page, Daugherty, Eroglu, Hartman, Johnson and Lee (1998), there is no evidence that

these three dimensions are the only explanation of consumers' responses to

advertisements, and that indeed uni-dimensionality is still a possible explanation.

Stout and Leckenby (1986) examined the relationship between emotional response

and advertising effectiveness on consumers by looking at 1) differences between

respondents reporting no emotional response compared to those who reported one on any

level and 2) respondents reporting no emotional response compared to those reporting

either an experiential, empathic or descriptive emotional responses (Stout, and Leckenby

1986). One objective of this research was to develop a discriminating emotional measure.

The dependent measure included "attitude to the ad, attitude to the brand, purchase intent,

brand recall, and ad content playback".

Previous findings on the relationship of emotional response and the dependent

measures were inconclusive, therefore the study provided a basis for future

hypothesizing, and did not advance any hypothesis to be answered. However, according

to previous findings, it is possible to make some assumptions comparing respondents

who experienced an emotional response to respondents who did not experience an

emotional response towards advertising. It was expected that respondents who did

experience an emotional response would have "1) a more positive attitude to the ad, 2) a









more positive attitude to the brand, 3) a greater intent to purchase, and 4) lower brand

recall" (Stout, and Leckenby 1986).

Stout, and Leckenby conducted mall intercepts and exposed a total of 1498 subjects

to 50 commercials. The subjects pool was divided up into groups of 30 (one group of 28)

and asked to view one of the fifty commercials. Afterward, respondents answered several

open-ended questions intended to measure emotional response and evaluated 52 cognitive

statements about the product and the advertising using a six point rating scale anchored

by "agree-disagree". The results indicated that overall the three levels of intensity are

independent dimensions that tap into differences in individuals' feelings. For example,

empathetic emotional responses were negatively related to purchase intent, and the

descriptive emotional response was found to be negatively related to brand recall (Stout,

and Leckenby 1986). Results also showed that consumers with a more involving

emotional response to a commercial will have less distraction than consumers who were

distracted in some way.

Researchers Page, Daugherty, Eroglu, Hartman, Johnson, and Lee (1988) believed

that Stout and Leckenby's research was an admirable attempt to find an accurate measure

for emotional response. However they believed that there were some issues in clarity

concerning the definitions of descriptive, empathic, and emotional responses, and

whether these responses should be considered dimensions or levels. These researchers

assert that "it is conceptually incorrect to claim that different dimensions are represented

when examining more or less the same thing" (1988). There were also some issues with

Stout and Leckenby's (1986) analysis. It was thought that some of the findings made by

Stout and Leckenby could have been interpreted differently. One instance dealt with the









comparison of respondents exhibiting one level of emotional response relative to all of

the remaining subjects. This may have caused some confusion with the true effects of the

independent variable, which may have caused non-significant results. While Page et al

commended Stout and Leckenby on their attempt to shed some light on measuring

emotional responses, they believed that there were steps that could have been done to

improve the experiment.

Effectiveness of Affective Measures concerning Emotional Response

Hill and Mazis (1986) conducted a study to determine whether affective measures

assessing emotional response to ads are needed to measure the impact of emotional

advertising. They predicted that attitude toward the advertisement (ATTA) measures

would not be adequate enough to capture the impact of emotional ads on the viewer.

However, data from past studies have led the researchers to believe that the methods for

measuring attitude toward the brand (ATTB) were accurate enough measurements. Hill

and Mazis used protocols taken from past studies to measure respondent's reactions to

the stimuli. The protocols were categorized into several sections support argument,

counterargument, source derogation, and source bolstering. Support argument was

defined as a situation where the message argument is supported by a viewer's already

entrenched belief. Counter argument was seen as a viewer's immediate thought of a

disadvantage or alternate solution to the problem presented in the commercial, and source

derogation was defined as a resistive response that focuses on the source of the

information (Wright 1973). Alternately, source bolstering was defined as the positive

counterpart of source derogation, where the positive thought is directed toward the

advertiser or the method of delivering the message (Belch 1981). Emotional responses

were recorded by two other categories: positive and negative affect.









Hill and Mazis selected 99 students to participate in their experiment. They

separated the volunteers into two groups 48 were exposed to emotional advertising,

and 51 were exposed to factual advertisements. The subjects were told the purpose of the

study was to examine the impact of television programming on viewers' attitudes and

beliefs (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Subjects were shown three separate segments of a movie,

interspersed with three advertisements that were placed to simulate a viewing situation

with actual 'commercial break'. Each 'commercial break' consisted of a single product

advertisement per break- a bank, a telephone service, and a camera. The advertisements

were the same length for both groups.

Following exposure to each advertisement 'break', subjects were then asked to

complete written protocols in response to the program they just saw using the protocols

previously discussed (Hill, and Mazis 1986). Respondents were also asked to provide

their feelings towards specific brands, all of which had been featured in the

advertisements. ATTA measures were recorded on four sets of bipolar adjective scales;

overall evaluation (good-bad, like-dislike), emotional (pleasant-unpleasant, nice-awful),

savory (sensitive-insensitive, interesting-boring), and authoritative (useful-useless,

important-unimportant) (Hill, and Mazis 1986).

The results of the study suggested that factual ads produce a higher number of

support or counterarguments than emotional ads do. There was also no consistent pattern

of source bolstering or derogation responses between factual and emotional ads. In

layman's terms, there was no pattern of consumers forming either a preference or a

resistance to either version of the advertisement. The data also revealed a flaw in the

overall evaluation measures that were used in most ATTA research, in that the measures









did not distinguish between the impact of emotional and factual ads (Hill, and Mazis

1986). It was also shown that "affective brand evaluation measures were sensitive in

discriminating between the effects of emotional and factual ads than traditional

evaluation measures are" (Hill, and Mazis 1986).

Thesis Proposition

Research in music suggests that a relationship exists between consumer's emotions

and recall, and background music in advertisements. Specifically, research on the effect

of music on advertisements suggests a correlation between consumer's attitudes and the

background music of an advertisement. Music has also been found to affect recall,

recognition, and even attitudes towards both the product and the advertisement. Similarly,

research conducted on product placements show that placement stimuli influence

consumer's attitudes towards brands and that certain placements have a greater effect on

recall than others. Studies on product placements also show that visual and auditory

placements affect consumers in different ways, and can be an effective means for creating

awareness, as well as for justifying the need for a product. Furthermore, the research has

established that the absence or presence of music will have an effect on product

placement recall and that there are definite connections between music, the consumer's

attitudes, and awareness of placements. As such, it would be logical to assume that

background music would also affect consumer's emotional response to product

placements.

The presence of music has been shown to influence consumers most positively

when the consumers' are at a low level of involvement. From these, one might infer that

product placements would have a distinct advantage on potential consumers who are not

consciously shopping and have a low level of involvement. The background music used









in a movie scene containing a product may strengthen viewers' recall and/or recognition

abilities. Proof of this could help marketers decide where a product's placement would

have the most impact on the viewers or where viewers would be most likely to recall

products for future references.

An investigation on the effects of the presence or absence of music would have on

consumers attitudes towards products in movies is a logical step from the foundation

established by prior research. As there have been only a few studies concerning music's

effect on product placements, more research needs to be done to investigate the effect of

the music's presence or absence of music on the consumer recall and recognition. Based

on prior research, one might predict that the absence of music would have a negative

effect on viewers because the scene would seem 'unnaturally crafted.' Similarly, the

presence of music is expected to draw the viewers' attention to the scene more

thoroughly and may even create an association with the music and the product that would

help product placement recall or recognition at later times. Other factors that may be

taken into consideration when examining the effects of the presence or absence of this

peripheral cue are the music's volume, the fit between the scene, and the music.

The present study will explore the relationship between music and placements in an

effort to give insight to the factors affecting consumer's recall and recognition, as well as

to help marketers place their products most effectively. The purpose of the study will be

to determine if the presence or absence of music during a scene in a movie containing a

product placement has an effect on a viewer's emotions, recall, and recognition of the

placement(s) in the scene. With this in mind, two hypotheses are advanced for further

investigation:









HI: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a
scene without music.

a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
pleasure than a clip containing no background music.

b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
arousal than a clip containing no background music.

c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
dominance than a clip containing no background music.

d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be positive for the music group than for the
group that saw the clip without music.

H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
improve consumers' recall of product placements in movies.

H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered.

H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Research Design and Hypotheses

Little research has been conducted concerning the effects that background music

has on the recall and recognition of product placements in movies. It has been shown that

there is indeed a difference in research subjects' attitudes and memory towards ads with

background music relative to advertisements without background music. The present

research study seeks to examine if the presence or absence of music in a movie scene has

an effect on a viewer's recall of a product placement within that scene, and the emotions

the viewer feels toward the placement as an outcome of this manipulation. Three

hypotheses are advanced for exploration.

HI: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a
scene without music would.

a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
pleasure than a clip containing no background music.

b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
arousal than a clip containing no background music.

c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
dominance than a clip containing no background music.

d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be more positive for the music group than for
the group that saw the clip without music.

H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
improve consumers' recall of product placements in movies.

H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered.









H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.

The hypotheses were tested using an experimental design. An experiment was

determined to be the most appropriate methods for investigating the effect of music on

viewers since "the goal of an experiment is to determine causality- [defined as] the

effect of changes in one area on one or more other areas" (Davis 1997 pg 137).

Therefore, an experiment would be able to establish a relationship between music as a

stimuli and viewer response outcomes. The independent variable was the presence or

absence of music during a movie scene. The dependent variables measured were recall

and the emotions stimulated in the viewers.

Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups and exposed to a scene

was taken from the movie Minority Report. The clip was two minutes long, and contained

five product placements. The experimental group was shown a version the clip with the

music. The control group saw the original movie clip without any music.

Each group was asked to view two minutes of the selected movie scene. Afterwards

subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring their emotions towards the

placements seen in the clip and recall. The purpose of the questionnaires was to capture

subjects' reactions to the movie clips immediately after seeing the scene.

The following sections provide a more thorough discussion of the sample recruiting

procedure, stimulus preparation, and the measurement of the research variables.

Sample

The main sample of students consisted of volunteers who were recruited from six

different lecture courses in advertising at a large Southeastern university. Permission was

procured from the professors of the classes. It is believed that this age group will be ideal

for this study as they watch a lot of movies (Packaged Facts Study 2003). They were









asked to volunteer for one of six sessions, where they viewed a movie clip and then

completed a questionnaire consisting of 28 questions. Each session was half an hour long

and was held outside of the regular class time. All of the students were given extra credit

for their participation as previously determined by their professors. A total of 220

subjects participated in the study. Data were put into the SPSS computer program for

analysis.

Research Stimulus

The selected scene is a fast paced chase scene in which the main character, played

by Tom Cruise, is running through a train terminal in an effort to escape his pursuers.

There are multiple product placements that appear throughout the scene, including audio

only placements, visual only placements, and placements that represent a combination of

both. The brand placements were for Lexus, Bulgari, Guinness, American Express, and

USA Today.

Pretest

A pretest consisting of 33 students was conducted to identify the music stimulus

that would accompany the movie clip. Two music clips, each two minutes in length,

were selected from other parts of the movie and evaluated by a pretest sample based on

the level of arousal associated with each. The purpose of this test was to determine which

music would have a higher arousal score. The music with the higher score was inserted

into the movie clip stimulus used in the research design.

Pretest respondents were recruited from a lecture course in advertising at a large

Southeastern university. Permission was procured from the professor before the class.

Respondents were asked to listen to two separate music clips and then fill out a quick

questionnaire, to determine the arousal rate of each music selection. The pretest consisted









of four AdSAMTM questions. The first question attempted to establish a reported

baseline for the participant's normal feelings. The next two questions dealt with subject's

feelings towards each music clip. The last question dealt with subjects' feelings towards

background music in general. This pretest only took 15 minutes long, and was conducted

during regular class time. The pretest questions were as follows:

PQ1: How do you normally feel?

PQ2: How did the [first] musical clip you heard make you feel?

PQ3: How did the [second] musical clip you heard make you feel?

PQ4: How does background music in general make you feel?

The pretest used the AdSAMTM scale as discussed in Chapter 2. The AdSAMTM

scale uses three emotions, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance to get more in depth

answers from subjects. Four questions were asked to determine respondent's emotions in

general, towards background music, and towards the music clips heard.

Pretest Results

Pretest results were analyzed using the AdSAMTM graphs and paired t-tests.

Significance levels were evaluated at a probability ofp < .05. The results are shown in

three different graphs that display the questions on the AdSAMTM pleasure/arousal

scale. Each graph shows the questions on a simple pleasure and arousal scale where the

graph is divided into four quadrants. The top half of the graph shows high pleasure, the

bottom half shows low pleasure. The right side of the graph shows high arousal, and the

left side shows low arousal. Data results in the upper right quadrant of the graph can be

interpreted to mean that subjects felt a strong involvement/interest. Data results in the

bottom right quadrant generally show that subjects felt an intense negativity, whereas

those in the bottom left quadrant show that subjects were feeling uninterested. Data









results in the upper left quadrant will show that subjects experienced positive feelings,

but were unmotivated.

The graph labeled Figure 3-1 simply shows the four questions in relation to the

high/low pleasure, and high/low arousal quadrants of AdSAMTM. Figure 3-2 is similar,

however emotions adjectives are placed on the graph to give viewers a basis for

evaluating respondents' questionnaire responses. These adjectives are part of the

AdSAMTM database and each has a measured score that corresponds to the results from

a questionnaire. Figure 3-3 shows the dominance of each question. The points with

which each question is marked are made bigger or smaller depending on the dominance

levels of each question.

The results for question one ('how do you normally feel'), showed that subjects

normally felt in control of themselves. The results also showed a high level of pleasure

(M= 7.09), and medium levels of arousal (M= 5.39) and dominance (M= 6.79). This can

be interpreted to mean that respondents normally feel happy, and in charge of themselves,

but only moderately excited about things. The results on the AdSAMTM graph showed

that people felt very dominant normally (see chart 1-3, question one has the largest dot,

meaning most dominant). The adjective that was closest to question one, was 'mature,'

meaning that subjects felt along those lines on a normal basis.

Questions two and three dealt with respondents' feelings towards each music clip.

Question two asked respondents how they felt about the first music clip, and question

three asked respondents how they felt about the second music clip. Results showed that

the second music clip had a higher arousal level than the first (M= 5.91 vs. 5.52). In

addition, the descriptive adjectives that were closest to question three response results









were 'anxious' and 'suspicious', meaning that respondents felt emotions along those lines

when they listened to the second clip. Alternately, the adjectives closest to the

respondents' responses to the first music clip were 'cynical' and 'disbelieving',

suggesting that respondents felt emotions along those lines when they listened to the first

music stimulus. Yet, in both cases, the findings suggested that respondents felt less in

control of themselves than they did normally (Mean DominanceQ2 vs. Q3 = 4.39 vs. 4.58).

Question four dealt with respondents' feelings towards background music in

general. Results showed that respondents had moderate pleasure (5.91), arousal (5.88),

and dominance (5.18). This can be interpreted to mean that respondents are more aroused

when watching something with background music (compared to an arousal level of 5.39,

which was how they felt normally). The adjective that was closest to Question four was

'tempted', suggesting that background music may have made them feel more enticed

when watching a movie/clip with background music.

The AdSAMTM graphs shown on the next three pages, give a visual description of

where the questions fall on the arousal/pleasure scale, and reinforces the discussion

above.











AdSAM Perceptual Map.


8



7 Queon 1




6
Qu )n 4





Qu n3
QuEon 2

4



3



2


Arousal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
pleasure and arousal scores
Dyani Lyn Chiu


Figure 3-1: The chart shows where the four pretest questions stand on the pleasure and
arousal scale of AdSAMTM.













AdSAM Perceptual Map.


9

ictorlous
happy che rful
Q --------------------------------- ~k in d------------------


polite thankful warm stimulated
rela> ed bold
7 tut Uue n 1
childlike

provocatrw
serene wholesome
6 ----- ---- -- modes ---- o--- ^---- ---------
6 Que1bn 4
tempted
Q) aggressive
L. nor chalant

aloof
a alof anxious
quietly indignant Que n 3
Qu e n 2
unemotional cy ical startled
4 -kephtual
bored sus vicious
blase disbelieving
irrita ed

3 w dary isoleased -a-ful
disgusted angry
glot my disappoint, d troubled

Inse cure trrfed
2 dece ved
sad
rejected crushed

Aro sal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 c
pleasure and arousal scores
Dyani Lyn Chiu



Figure 3-2: In addition to where the pretest questions lie on the pleasure and arousal
graph, descriptive adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better idea of
what terms relate to the results.











AdSAM Perceptual Map.


8



7-



6
Q n4

L.:
5-

Qu n3
Qun 2
4



3-



2


Arousal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
pleasure and arousal with dominance
Dyani Lyn Chiu
Figure 3-3: This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the pretest
experiment. A larger dot means a higher level of dominance.

Paired sample t-tests tests also were conducted to determine if the means between

the two different types of music (Musical Clip 1 and Musical Clip 2) were significant.

The t-test for pleasure showed the difference between means is not significant, meaning









that respondents did not feel more pleasure towards one music clip than the other,

although the mean for Musical Clip 2 was higher (M= 4.64) than that for the pleasure

score of Musical Clip 1 (M= 4.43). A significance ofp = .41 reinforces the lack of

significance between the means.

Table 3-1: Pleasure Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed)

Music Clip 1 Pleasure 33 4.42 1.35

Music Clip 2 Pleasure 33 4.64 1.78 -.839 32 .41

The t-test for arousal also found no significant difference between means, though

the mean for musical clip 2 (M= 5.91) was higher than that for musical clip 1 (M= 5.52).

Table 3-2: Arousal Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed)
Music Clip 1 Arousal 33 5.52 2.11
Music Clip 2 Arousal 33 5.91 2.42 -11.10 32 .28

Similar non-significant results were found for dominance. Respondents did not feel

a difference in the level of dominance toward one music clip relative to the other, even

though the mean for Musical Clip 2 (M= 4.58) was higher than the mean for Musical

Clip 1 (M= 4.39).

Table 3-3: Dominance Scores Musical Clip 1 versus Musical Clip 2
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-tailed)
Music Clip 1 Dominance 33 4.39 1.94
Music Clip 2 Dominance 33 4.58 1.89 -.67 32 .51

It is believed that despite the lack of significance between respondents' PAD scores

between the music clips, the mean differences were large enough that a choice could be

made. Therefore, the second music clip was chosen as the independent variable stimulus

due to its higher ratings by pretest respondents.









Measurement Instrument

The main study was conducted with the intent of measuring background music's

effects on subjects recall abilities and emotion towards product placements. The research

instrument contained a total of 28 questions. Subjects reported their general emotions

towards the clip via an AdSAMTM scale question.

To measure brand recall subjects were asked three open-ended questions requesting

that they recall all brands they remembered seeing during the clip. Specifically these

questions asked, "Do you recall seeing any product placements?", "How many brand

names do you remember seeing in the clip?," and "List the brand names that you

remember in the clip just shown." Seven AdSAMTM questions were then asked to

determine how subjects felt about the products recalled. Each question had a blank space

for subjects to fill in the brand names they remembered.

Next, ten questions were asked with the intention of measuring emotional

responses toward the movie clip. These questions were measured on a seven-point scale,

with 1 indicating "no agreement at all", and 7 indicating "total agreement." The questions

were used to determine if subjects found the clip they saw 'annoying', 'pleasant', 'dull,'

etc. Following these were three questions that asked about 1) subjects' like for the movie

stimulus (rated on a scale from one to 10), 2) prior exposure to the movie ("yes-no"), and

3) if they had used any of the brands that they could recall ("yes-no"). Then, subjects

completed a five-point familiarity scale that measured their degree of familiarity with the

brands they recalled from the clip. The research instrument concluded with two

classification questions that asked subjects their age and gender. A sample of the

composite instrument is included in Appendix Exhibit A.














CHAPTER 4
DATA AND RESULTS

Subject Demographics

The sample was divided into two groups one that saw the movie clip with

music, and the other that saw the movie clip without music. The entire sample size ofN=

220 subjects was taken from undergraduate and graduate advertising programs. The

sample consisted of 73% (n =161) of women, and 27% (n =59) of men. Women made up

the majority of the experimental group (n = 85 or 80%) as well as the majority of the

control group (n = 76 or 67%).

It was also found that n = 19 of the subjects who were in the experimental group

(presence of music) were between the ages of 17 and 19, n = 60 were ages 20 or 21, n

=20 of the subjects were ages 22 or 23, and n = 7 of the students were ages 24 or older.

In the control group (absence of music in the clip) n = 23 of the students were in the 17 to

19 year age group, n = 66 of the subjects were ages 20 or 21, n = 13 were either 22 or 23,

and n = 12 were 24 years or older.

It was thought that there were a few extraneous variables that may have affected

subjects' recall of the brands in the scene. Therefore, subjects were asked to note the

degree of like or dislike of the clip using a scale of from one tolO, with one being

"extremely disliked" and ten being "extremely liked." For the experimental group it was

found that 25% (n = 26) of subjects had negative feelings towards the movie, and 75% (n

= 80) had positive feelings towards the movie. For the control group it was found that









23% of subjects (n = 26) had negative feelings towards the movie, and 77% (n = 88) had

positive feelings towards the movie.

Subjects were also asked if they had seen the movie before. Fifty-eight percent (n =

128) of the subjects had seen the movie before the participated in the study, and 42% (n =

92) had not seen the movie. Further divided, 57% (n = 60) of the subjects in the

experimental group had seen the movie, and 43% (n = 46) had not. And in the control

study, 60% (n = 68) of the subjects had seen the movie beforehand, and 40% (n = 46)

had not.

Table 4-1: Demographics and Extraneous Variables
Age Sex Feelings Towards Clip Seen Movie Before
17- 20- 22- 24+ M F Positive Negative Yes No
19 21 23
Test 19 60 20 7 15 85 80 26 60 46
Group
Control 23 66 13 12 24 76 88 26 68 46
Group
Total 42 126 33 19 59 161 168 52 128 92

The following tests were run to find answers to the hypotheses. Recall, two

hypotheses were postulated based on the presence of music, and one hypothesis concerned

the like of the movie/clip and that effect on recall. The hypotheses are as follows:

HI: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in a more positive response toward product placements in the movie than a
scene without music would.

a) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
pleasure than a clip containing no background music.

b) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
arousal than a clip containing no background music.

c) A movie clip containing background music will result in a more positive feeling of
dominance than a clip containing no background music.

d) Attitude towards the movie clip will be more positive for the music group than for
the group that saw the clip without music.









H2: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
improve consumers' recall of product placements in movies.

H3: The presence of music during a movie scene containing product placements will
result in more positive emotions towards the brands remembered.

H4: Like for the movie clip will result in a greater brand recall.

Music's effects on Emotions and Attitude toward the Clip

The first hypothesis examined the effect the presence or absence of music would

have on an audience's emotional response towards product placements within the clip,

specifically their feelings of pleasure, arousal, and dominance. First, a t-test analysis was

conducted to compare subject's emotions towards the movie clip (Question 1) to see if a

difference could be detected between groups. The results showed that test-group subjects

who watched the clip with music felt moderate pleasure (M= 5.64), moderate arousal (M

= 6.45), and moderate dominance (M= 4.30). The emotional adjectives that were closest

to this question were 'tempted' and 'aggressive'. This can be interpreted to mean that

subjects felt tempted and anxious after watching the clip without music present. Control

group subjects who viewed the clip without music felt moderate pleasure (M= 5.41),

moderate arousal (M= 5.9), and moderate dominance (M= 4.69). The AdSAMTM

emotional adjectives that were closest to this question were 'tempted' and 'anxious.'

This can be interpreted to mean that subjects felt tempted and aggressive after watching

the clip with music present.

Between-group analyses of the emotional response levels reported after seeing the

movie clip show that the Arousal and Dominance scores were statistically significant.

However the Pleasure score was not significant (p = .12). The Arousal score was

significant at a probability ofp = .02. Therefore subjects felt more aroused after

watching the clip with music relative to those who watched the clip without music. The









Dominance score was significant at a probability ofp = .05, with the mean for the control

group being higher (M= 4.69) than the mean for the test group (M= 4.30). This suggests

that subjects actually felt less in control of themselves and more passive in the test group

than in the control group, implying that the absence of music was more positive.

Table 4-2: PAD Scores for Question 1
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 114 5.41 1.47 -1.20 218 .12
Pleasure with Music 106 5.64 1.35
Arousal without Music 114 5.90 1.79 -2.22* 218 .02
Arousal with Music 106 6.45 1.88
Dominance without Music 114 4.69 1.93 1.61 218 .05
Dominance with Music 106 4.30 1.65
p< .05

From these results one could conclude that while the presence of music did not

seem to have an effect on subjects emotions towards the clip, the higher mean score for

pleasure and arousal suggest that music did influence subjects more positively than when

absent from the clip. Based on these results, Hypothesis 1 was partially supported;

emotions toward the movie clip were more positive on the dimension of Arousal. Yet, in

contrast to the stated hypothesis, subjects reported greater Dominance when exposed to

the movie clip without music.

Next, subjects were compared according to their attitudes towards the clip to see if

there was a significant cognitive difference between groups. This t-test comparison was

taken from the cognitive attitude scales used in items 17 through 26 of the questionnaire

Subjects were asked to report their attitudes towards the movie clip on a seven-point scale

where = "No Agreement" and 7 = "Most Agreement."

The results of the t-test comparison between groups on attitudes towards the clip

found that mean attitudes were lower when viewed with music (M= 4.79) than when









viewed without the presence of music (M= 4.90). However, this difference between test-

and control-group means was not statistically significant (p = .40).

Table 4-3: Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Attitudes towards the Clip
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 106 4.79 .89 -.85 218 .20
Absence of Music 114 4.90 1.00
p< .05

Therefore the results indicated that the subjects in the experimental group did not

show different attitudes towards the movie clip than the subjects in the control group, and

Hypothesis Id, was not supported.

Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Recall

Hypothesis 2 examined if the presence or absence of music would facilitate product

placement recall. To find out whether the presence of music improved subjects brand

recall abilities, a t-test was run comparing mean recall between groups. The mean of the

brand recall with a presence of music (M= 2.03) was higher than the mean of brand

recall without a presence of music (M= 1.81). There was a significance level of .05,

supporting the fact that the mean difference was statistically significant. Therefore the

results indicated that subjects in the experimental group (with music) had a tendency to

recall brands any more than the subjects in the control group (without music).

Accordingly, Hypothesis 2 is supported, and the presence of music did have an effect on

subject's recall of brands.

Table 4-4: Presence or Absence of Music's effects on Subjects Recall of Brands
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 106 2.03 1.06 1.65* 218 .05
Absence of Music 114 1.81 .92
p< .05









The results of the between t-test comparison show that Hypothesis 2 was supported,

and the presence of music did affect subjects' recall of brands within the clip.

T-Test Results for Emotions across the All Brands

Hypothesis 3 predicted that the presence of music in a movie scene would result in

more positive emotions toward the brands remembered. Three t-tests were run to

compare the means of the effects that the presence of music had on the Pleasure, Arousal,

and Dominance variables of AdSAMOTM across the brands recalled. To accomplish this,

the data from each of the AdSAMTM variables was added across brands (i.e., pleasure

scores for Lexus, Guinness, American Express, Bulgari, and USA Today were added

together) to create an index score. The scores for subjects who did not recall any brands

from the movie clip were omitted from the analysis in order to provide an accurate

account of the data.

The results from the t-test for Pleasure showed that the mean for the test group (M

= 6.63) was higher than that of the mean for the control group (M= 6.54). Thus, more

subjects reported feeling pleasure towards all of the brands in general when viewing the

clip with music than the subjects who viewed it without music. However, the difference

between means was not found to be statistically significant (p = .30), reinforcing the fact

that music did not effect subjects' feelings of pleasure toward the clip differently between

groups.

Table 4-5: Pleasure Scores across Brands
N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 100 6.63 1.30 .51 203 .30
Absence of Music 105 6.54 1.41
p<.05
The results from the t-test for Arousal showed that the mean of the Arousal score

(M= 5.37) for the control group was higher than that for the test group (M= 5.19).









Therefore the results show that subjects had higher feelings of arousal when viewing the

clip without music, than the subjects who viewed it with music. However, the difference

between means (p = .24) was not statistically significant.

Table 4-6: Arousal Scores across Brands
N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 100 5.19 1.87 .62 203 .24
Absence of Music 105 5.37 1.78
p< .05
The results from the t-test for Dominance showed that the mean Dominance score

for the control group (M= 5.61) was higher than that of the mean of the Dominance score

for the test group (M = 5.55). This shows that more people felt a more dominant feeling

towards all of the brands when viewing the clip with music, than the people without.

However, similar to Arousal, the significance ofp = .39 was not statistically significant,

suggesting that there was no difference between groups dominance towards the brands.

Table 4-7: Dominance Scores across Brands
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Presence of Music 100 5.55 1.50 -.28 203 .39
Absence of Music 105 5.61 1.74
p< .05

According to these results, participants emotions towards the brands recalled were

not positively affected by the presence of music. Instead, it seems that there was a

stronger emotional response towards brands in both arousal and dominance in the control

group, while the test group showed a higher emotional response in pleasure. However,

the lack of significance for all three results shows the results shows that the presence of

music did not have an affect on subject's emotions.

It was felt that a further exploration into the presence of music's effects on the

recall of each brand should be conducted to see if musical presence did indeed have an









effect on individual brand recall. Therefore AdSAM questions were asked about

individual brands, and the subjects answers were evaluated in the next section.

T-Test Results for Emotions by Individual Brands

Next, t-tests were run to determine the effects the music stimulus had on subjects'

emotions for each of the brands remembered. An AdSAMTM analysis was run to go

further in depth, and find out how subjects felt about each of the brands they recalled.

The results were separated into two different categories: with music (represented by

circles), and without music (represented by triangles). Subjects were asked how they felt

about each brand they remembered seeing in the clip. A blank space was provided on the

questionnaire for subjects to fill in the names of the brands they recalled without being

prodded to remember specific brands. A paired samples t-test was also conducted for

each of the AdSAMTM questions to determine if the mean differences between groups

were statistically significant on any of the items. Questions three through seven from the

research instrument were concerned with how subjects felt about each brand they recalled

in the clip. Brands that subjects did not remember were omitted to create a valid mean

score.

There were a total of 167 subjects who reported recalling the Lexus brand. Of

these, n= 79 were from the test group, and n= 88 were from the control group. Control-

group subjects who recalled the Lexus brand reported feeling moderate pleasure (M=

6.84), moderate arousal (M= 5.74), and moderate dominance (M= 5.30). The emotional

adjectives that were closest to this brand were 'childlike' and 'provocative'. This can be

interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these

lines towards the Lexus brand. Test-group subjects who recalled the Lexus brand felt

high pleasure (M= 7.30), moderate arousal (M= 5.61) and moderate dominance (M=









5.78). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were 'bold' and 'mature'.

This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Lexus brand when watching

the clip with music present.

A between group t-test found that the results were statistically significant in the

Pleasure score and the Dominance score, meaning that subjects actually felt more

pleasure, and more dominant when watching the video with music.

Table 4-8: PAD Scores for Lexus
N Mean SD t-value Df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 88 6.84 1.45 -2.09* 165 .02
Pleasure with Music 79 7.30 1.42
Arousal without Music 88 5.74 1.86
Arousal with Music 79 5.61 2.19 .414 153.80 .34
Dominance without 88 5.30 1.78 -1.79* 165 .04
Music
Dominance with Music 79 5.78 1.75
p< .05

A total number of 146 subjects total reported recall of the Guinness brand. Of

these, 76 were from the music group versus 70 from the non-music group. Control-group

subjects who recalled the Guinness brand reported feeling moderate pleasure (M = 6.31),

moderate arousal (M= 5.19), and moderate dominance (M= 6.11). The emotional

adjectives that were closest to this question were 'wholesome' and 'provocative'. This

can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel

along these lines towards the Guinness brand.

Test-group subjects who recalled the Guinness brand felt moderate pleasure (M=

6.11), moderate arousal (M= 4.83), and moderate dominance (M= 5.38). The emotional

adjective that was closest to the Guinness brand was 'wholesome'. This means that

subjects felt along those lines towards the Guinness brand when watching the clip with

music present.









Between-group comparisons for Guinness found statistical significance on the

dimension of Dominance (t = 2.34, p = .01). According to Table 4-4, subjects who

watched the clip without music reported feeling greater dominance than subjects who

watched the clip with music (M 6.11 vs. M 5.38).

Table 4-9: PAD Scores for Guinness
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 70 6.31 2.12 .64 144 .26
Pleasure with Music 76 6.11 1.79
Arousal without Music 70 5.19 2.36 .97 144 .19
Arousal with Music 76 4.83 2.07
Dominance without 70 6.11 1.99 2.34* 144 .01
Music
Dominance with Music 76 5.38 1.80
p< .05

A total number of 55 subjects reported recall of the American Express brand. Of

these, 31 were from the music group versus 24 from the non-music group. Control-group

subjects who recalled the American Express brand reported moderate pleasure (M=

6.17), moderate arousal (M= 4.67), and moderate dominance (M= 4.96). The emotional

adjective that was closest to this question was 'wholesome'. This can be interpreted to

mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards

the American Express brand.

Test-group subjects who recalled the American Express brand felt moderate

pleasure (M= 6.19), low arousal (M= 3.65), and moderate dominance (M= 5.52). The

emotional adjective that was closest to this brand was 'modest'. This means that subjects

felt along those lines towards the American Express brand when watching the clip with

music present. The between group t-test found that the Arousal showed a statistical

significance of .04. However, there was a lack of statistical significance in Pleasure and

Dominance.









Table 4-10: PAD Scores for American Express
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 24 6.17 1.49 -.07 53 .47
Pleasure with Music 31 6.19 1.28
Arousal without Music 24 4.67 2.35 1.79* 53 .04
Arousal with Music 31 3.65 1.87
Dominance without 24 4.96 1.92 -1.01 53 .16
Music
Dominance with Music 31 5.52 2.11
p<.05

A total number of 8 subjects total reported recall of the Bulgari brand. Of these, 6

were from the music group versus 2 from the non-music group. Control-group subjects

who recalled the Bulgari brand felt high pleasure (M= 9.00), high arousal (M= 7.00),

and high dominance (M= 9.00). The emotional adjective that was closest to this brand

was 'victorious'. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the Bulgari brand

when watching the clip with music present.

Test-group subjects who recalled the Bulgari brand felt high pleasure (M= 9.00),

high arousal (M= 8.00), and moderate dominance (M= 5.17). The emotional adjective

that was closest to this question was 'cheerful'. This can be interpreted to mean that

subjects who saw the clip without music present feel along these lines towards the

Bulgari brand. There was only one instance of statistical significance between the PAD

scores between the test- and control-group subjects, in that subjects felt more dominant

(statistical significance = .03) when watching the control clip, than when watching the

test clip.









Table 4-11: PAD Scores for Bulgari
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 2 9.00 .00a
Pleasure with Music 6 9.00 .00a
Arousal without Music 2 7.00 2.83
Arousal with Music 6 8.00 1.10 -.49 1.10 .36
Dominance without 2 9.00 .00 2.31* 6 .03
Music
Dominance with Music 6 5.27 2.23


a. T cannot be computed because the standard deviations of both groups are 0.
p< .05

Forty-two subjects total reported recall of the USA Today brand. Of these, 21 were

from the music group versus 21 from the non-music group. Control group subjects who

recalled the USA Today brand when watching the movie clip felt moderate pleasure (M

6.10), moderate arousal (M= 5.24), and moderate dominance (M= 5.81). The emotional

adjectives that were closest to this question were 'wholesome' and 'provocative'. This

can be interpreted to mean that subjects who saw the clip without music present feel

along these lines towards the USA Today brand.

Test group subjects who recalled the USA Today brand when watching the movie

clip felt moderate pleasure (M= 5.71), moderate arousal (M= 4.62), and moderate

dominance (M= 5.10). The emotional adjectives that were closest to this brand were

'wholesome' and 'modest'. This means that subjects felt along those lines towards the

USA Today brand when watching the clip with music present. T-test results found no

statistical significance between the PAD scores between groups.









Table 4-12: PAD Scores for USA Today
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2- tailed)
Pleasure without Music 21 6.10 1.61 .82 40 .21
Pleasure with Music 21 5.71 1.38
Arousal without Music 21 5.24 2.14 .93 40 .18
Arousal with Music 21 4.62 2.16
Dominance without 21 5.81 2.18 1.01 40 .16
Music
Dominance with Music 21 5.10 2.39
p< .05

Results show that although no statistical significance was found between groups

when analyzed across all brands, there were multiple instances of statistical significance

in one or more of the PAD scores for multiple brands. For example, the Arousal and

Dominance scores for the Lexus brand show that subjects felt these two emotions more

strongly when watching the clip with music, than without. Therefore Hypothesis 3 is

partially supported, and it can be assumed that the presence of music does have some

effect on emotions towards the brands recalled.

T-test Results for Subject's Previous Viewing of the Movie effects on Recall

A t-test was also run to compare the variable of whether subjects had seen the

movie before, and recall of brands. It was found that the mean of the recall of subjects

who had seen the movie beforehand (M= 1.96) was higher than the mean of the recall of

those who had not seen the movie before hand (M= 1.85). However, with a significance

score of p = .41, the mean scores are not significant; whether or not subjects had seen

the movie before did not have an effect on their abilities to recall brands in the clip.

Table 4-13: Seen Movie's Effects on Brand Recall.
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (2-
tailed)
Seen Movie 129 1.96 .98 .83 218 .20
Did not See Movie 92 1.85 1.03
p< .05









AdSAM Perceptual Mape


Lus
Lex us

Ax G av
USOday
A s Al
a3












Aro usal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


pleasure and arousal scores
Chiu All Questions / Both Groups


0
A


Music

No Music


Figure 4-1: The chart shows where questions 1-7 of the main study stand on the pleasure
and arousal scale of AdSAMTM. Questions are separated into music, and
lack of music.







49




AdSAM Perceptual Mape


2 3 4
pleasure and arousal scores
Chiu All Questions / Both Groups


O Music

A No Music


Figure 4-2: In addition to where the main study questions lie on the pleasure and arousal
graph, descriptive emotional adjectives are placed on the graph to give a better
idea of what the results may mean.


9 rl Barl

ictorlous
happy cheeful



polite thankful warm stimulated
rela ed LIxus bold
n iture A
childl keLexuE
provocatie
serene wholes I vss

6 -------
USOda tempted 1
) I aggressive
L I- nor chalant

Saoo anxious
I_ quietly indignant

un emotional cy ical startled
4 -kepbta
bored sus vicious
blase disbelieving
irrita ed
3 w eery displeased earful
wary
disgusted angry
gloc my disappoint d troubled
inse cure
decel ed rrified
sad
reject d crushed

Arcusal
I ---------------------------------- ---------------------------------






50


AdSAM Perceptual Mape


ri






Lex
XL
Lex u







-o s
..












Arousal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


pleasure and arousal with dominance
Chiu All Questions / Both Groups


0

A


Music

No Music


Figure 4-3: This chart shows the level of dominance that subjects felt during the main
experiment. The larger the dot means the higher level of dominance.









Like of Clip's effect on Product Placement Recall

Hypothesis 4 examined if the like of the clip would facilitate subjects brand recall.

A between group t-test comparison was conducted, using the questionnaire question that

asked participants to rate their like of the clip from 1-10, with one being the 'least liked'

and 10 being the 'most liked'. These variables were separated into two groups and added

together, to create two variables- dislike of clip, and like of clip.

It was found that subjects who liked the movie clip had a mean ofM= 6.87 for

brand recall, compared to those who did not like the movie who had a mean ofM = 5.27

for brand recall. A statistical significance of .04 shows that subjects who did not like the

clip recalled fewer brands than those subjects who liked the clip. Therefore, Hypothesis

4 is supported, and a subject's like of the clip they are watching has a positive effect on

their ability to recall the brands within that clip.

Table 4-14: Like of Clips Effects on Brand Recall
N Mean SD t-value df Sig. (1-tailed)
Like of Clip 205 6.87 1.91
Dislike of 15 5.27 3.10 1.97 14.79 .04
Clip
p< .05














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING THOUGHTS

In order to more effectively place products in movies and television shows, it is

helpful to understand how background music affects viewers' recall of brands, and their

emotions towards the brands. Existing research shows that there is indeed a connection

between music and the recall and emotions of consumers towards product placements.

During the study, subjects in both the test group and the control group tended to

remember two out of the five brands Lexus and Guinness. The reasoning for this is

that those two brands were both visual and audio placements, and both were very

prominently placed within the scene. Many of the subjects also claimed that they did not

realize that USA Today was a placement; instead it was viewed as part of the story plot.

The other two placements, Bulgari and American Express, were visual placements, and

seen only briefly.

Overall, the background music did appear to have on the subject's recall of product

placements, and their emotions towards the placements. However, the results for the

subjects emotions towards the placements were not significant, while the results for

subjects recall of placements was significant.

According to the results, Hypothesis 1 was not supported. Music did not have an

effect on subject's emotions towards the product placements in the clip. In fact, when the

results were calculated across AdSAMTM PAD scores, it was shown that Arousal and

Dominance were higher in subject's who had seen the clip without music, while subjects

who saw the clip with the music had a higher level of Pleasure. It is thought that the









limitations of the study may have caused a lack of significance in the results, such as

volume control, distractions, and the sample size.

The results of the study supported Hypothesis 2 in that the subjects who viewed the

test clip recalled more product placements then the subjects who viewed the control clip.

It is thought that the presence of background music made the subjects more involved in

the clip, and therefore they remembered more product placements. Furthermore,

Hypothesis 3 is partially supported in that respondents were emotionally positive toward

specific brands associated with the presence of music in the scene. These findings

coincide with previous findings and summations, and help strengthen the connections that

have been previously made between music and memory.

The results of the study also supported Hypothesis 4 in that subjects who liked the

clip recalled more brands than subjects who did not like the clip. This finding is

supported by previous research exploring the effects of emotions on recall. Research has

found that positive emotions can cause a greater recall of the message in subjects.

There were a variety of factors that could have contributed to the lack of

significance in the mean scores of the variables testing the effects of music on emotions.

There were circumstances in which the subjects viewed the clip and took the survey; with

six different groups, each group may have been exposed to different extraneous variables

that affected either their attention while viewing the clip or filling out the questionnaire.

Two different rooms were used in the experiment. The sessions were divided evenly

between the groups, however, the volume controls were different, and subjects may have

viewed the clip with a different volume level. There were also circumstances in which

latecomers interrupted. This was uncontrollable, and did not happen at every session.









However, when it did happen, subjects may have been distracted, and not given the clip

their full attention.

The sample itself might also have affected the results. The sample consisted of

mainly undergraduate advertising students, and a few graduate advertising students. The

knowledge of advertising that these subjects have gained may have caused them to pay

more attention during viewing the clip, or may have caused them to be more aware of

product placements in the clip.

It is also thought that a larger sample size may show more significant results. A

larger sample size will give subjects a chance to recall all brands, and therefore fewer

cases will have to be suppressed when running tests. For example, only eight subjects

recalled the Bulgari brand. If a larger sample is used in the future, a more accurate

measure may be taken of the brands.

Future research should use a more varied sample base than just college students (of

which were mainly advertising undergraduates). This will give the study a higher validity

score, and thus may allow results to be more easily projected onto the general public.

Researchers should also control for extraneous variables distractions. The study should be

held in two sessions only, instead of the four sessions this study held. This will allow for

researchers to control for extraneous variables, and allow for a higher reliability. Future

research should also include studies comparing different tempos and volumes to see

which affects subjects more, and whether or not there is a difference concerning subject's

recall abilities. Researchers should also take in consideration the degree of exposure that

the product placements have. Some of the placements were harder to see than others, or

were only visual when others were audio. Future research should make sure all brands









are either all audio, all visual, or both. To avoid extraneous variables, a mixture is not

recommended. Visibility and air time should also be closely matched. Each placement

should be shown for the same amount of time as the others, and the placements should

have similar degrees of prominence to each other.

There are several managerial implications for this research. By discovering the

effects of background music on recall and emotions towards brands, marketers and

advertisers can figure out how to best place products in both movies and commercials.

This will allow products to be placed more effectively, and thus companies will be able to

better control (to a degree) their products effects on consumers.

Researchers will also be able to translate the effects of music on recall and

emotions to other situations, such as regular television commercials. It would be useful

to find out what types of background music is more effective in raising recall, and

creating positive emotions. Research should also include the effectiveness that different

tempos and different degrees of 'fit' of the background music have on the recall of

products, in both movies and television commercials.

Overall, it does appear that music affects consumers in ways that marketers and

researchers are not yet aware of. The effects of background music are varied according

to different situations, and further research can make advertising and marketing more

efficient in raising recall and positive emotions towards the brand.













APPENDIX A
PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE

Please read the following instructions and then answer section one accordingly.


This is SAM. SAM represents you and your feelings. We would like you to use SAM
to indicate how you feel about several different things.
SYou'll notice that
measure consists of three
rows of graphic
S0 0 0 0 0 0 0 characters.
S. -, The top row, ranges


frown. This represents
O 0 O 0 0 0 O O O feelings that range from
STD] T | extremely HAPPY or
ELATED to extremely
1 UNHAPPY or SAD.
O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Look at middle row
The middle row represents feelings that range from extremely STIMULATED or
INVOLVED, (on the left) to very CALM or BORED (on the right).
Look at the bottom row
On the bottom row SAM goes from a little figure to great big figure. The row represents
you feeling as though you are BEING CONTROLLED, or CARED FOR on the left, or
completely IN-CONTROL, or DOMINANT on the right. This row does not represent
positive or negative feelings, just how much in-control you feel.
For every question mark a circle on each row!

You'll have a total of three marks for each question; you can mark a circle directly
below a figure, or between two figures.








1. How do you normally feel?


0000 000
2. How did the musical clip you just heard make you feel?


0 0


0000 0000 0


Please wait here for further instructions.







3. How did the musical clip you just heard make you feel?


0000


4. How does background music in general make you feel?


0000 0


0 0 0













APPENDIX B
MAIN STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE

Please read the following instructions and then answer section one accordingly.


This is SAM. SAM represents you and your feelings. We would like you to use SAM
to indicate how you feel about several different things.
SYou'll notice that
measure consists of three
rows of graphic
S0 0 0 0 0 0 0 characters.
S. The top row, ranges


frown. This represents
O 0 O 0 0 0 O O O feelings that range from
STD] T | extremely HAPPY or
ELATED to extremely
1 UNHAPPY or SAD.
O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Look at middle row
The middle row represents feelings that range from extremely STIMULATED or
INVOLVED, (on the left) to very CALM or BORED (on the right).
Look at the bottom row
On the bottom row SAM goes from a little figure to great big figure. The row represents
you feeling as though you are BEING CONTROLLED, or CARED FOR on the left, or
completely IN-CONTROL, or DOMINANT on the right. This row does not represent
positive or negative feelings, just how much in-control you feel.
For every question mark a circle on each row!

You'll have a total of three marks for each question; you can mark a circle directly
below a figure, or between two figures.








SECTION ONE
Don't spend a lot of time thinking about the question. Just indicate how it makes you feel.

1. Please tell us how you normally feel?


0000 000
2. Please indicate how the clip you just saw made you feel.


0000 0


0 0 0









SECTION TWO

Please answer the following questions to the best of your abilities, based on what you
remember of the clip you have just seen.

3. Do you recall any brand names in the movie clip just shown?

Yes No

4. How many brand names do you remember seeing in the clip?

5. List the brand names that you remember in the clip just shown.





SECTION THREE

Please remember the AdSAM instructions from the previous section to complete the
following questions.

For each brand you recalled in Question 5, fill the name into the blanks provided
for each of the questions below (ONE BRAND PER BLANK). Then, indicate your
feeling about each brand on the scale below each question. Use only the number of
blanks needed to complete the brands you recall.


6. How do you feel about


(Please print brand name)


0000 0000








7. How do you feel about


0000 0000 0
8. How do you feel about ?


0000 0000 0








9. How do you feel about


0000 0000 0


10. How do you feel about ?


0000 0000 0









11. How do you feel about


0000 0000 0

12. How do you feel about ?


0000 0000 0










SECTION FOUR

Please choose whether the following words relate to your attitude toward the clip
just shown by selecting a number 1-7, one being "no agreement" and 7 being "total
agreement". The following statement refers to questions 7-16.


The clip just shown was:


13. Annoying

14. Pleasant

15. Uncomfortable

16. Happy


17. Entertaining

18. Absorbing

19. Dull

20. Agitating

21. Disturbing


22. Fun


No
Agreement
1


Total
Agreement
2 3 4 5 6 7


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7










SECTION FIVE

Please answer the following questions

23. Please rate how much you liked this movie from 1 to 10, with 1 being least liked
and 10 being most liked.


24. Have you seen this movie before?

Yes No

25. Have you ever used any of the brands that you remember from the clip you just
saw?
Yes No

*If Yes, Please continue onto question 26
*If No, Please skip to question 27

26. Of the brands you listed in Question 5, please write each brand into a blank below
(ONE BRAND PER QUESTION). Answer the following questions on a scale of
1= not familiar to 5= very familiar.


a. How familiar is
(not familiar)

b. How familiar is
(not familiar)

c. How familiar is
(not familiar)

d. How familiar is
(not familiar)

e. How familiar is
(not familiar)

f How familiar is
(not familiar)

27. Please indicate your age
16 Under 17 19

28. Please record your gender


to you?
2

to you?
2

to you?
2

to you?
2

to you?
2

to you?
2


20 21


4


4


4


4


4


4


22 23


(very familiar)


(very familiar)


(very familiar)


(very familiar)


(very familiar)


(very familiar)


24+


Female


Male















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Dyani Chiu was born in Miami, Florida in 1982. She lived in Miami until she

graduated high school in 2000, and moved to Orlando, Florida, to continue her education

at the University of Central Florida. She received a B.A in liberal studies in 2004, and

enrolled in the Master of Advertising program at the University of Florida. After

graduation she plans to remain in Florida and pursue a career in advertising.