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Beginnings, Middles, and Endings in Horace's Odes


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BEGINNINGS, MIDDLES, AN D ENDINGS IN HORACES ODES By KATHLEEN R. BURT A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT...iii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION...............1 2 MEET THE LYRIC POET............. 3 LOVE AND WINE: A POET S TWO BEST FRIENDS.............17 4 THE POETS JOURNEY TO IMMORTALITY..............31 5 CANEMUS: THE POETS FINAL INVITATION..............41 6 CONCLUSION.............51 WORKS CITED ...............52 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............55

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iii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts BEGINNINGS, MIDDLES, AN D ENDINGS IN HORACES ODES By Kathleen R. Burt May 2006 Chair: Timothy S. Johnson Major Department: Classics As a skilled lyric poet, Horace wrote poems that not only entertain, but also teach a lesson. Horaces major themes in the Odes consider how the poet and his poetry allow the poet and humanity to overcome their mort al limitations, especially death. Horaces use of imagery in the poems in the promin ent places (beginning, middle, and end poems) in each of the first three books of his Odes develops into a sequence revealing some of his most important themes and how the poems interact to reinforce each other. The beginning poems define the power of the poet an d his poetry. The poems in the center set forth Horaces advice on how to live well w ith the burden of mortality. The end poems follow the poet on his transformation from mort al poet to immortal bard. Book 4 presents a review of each of these major themes of the first three books.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Horace is a multifaceted writer. He is a satiri st, iambist, lyricist, and literary critic. Despite such versatility, Horace maintains one constant characteristic upon which he bases his entire literary persona; through all th e genres, Horace is metapoetic. His poetic vocation is never far from his mind and it pe rmeates his writings. In Horaces two lyric collections, which together make up the four books of the Odes he pays close attention to the topic of poetry and its uses. Horace bases his lyrics on such past great lyricists as Alcaeus, Sappho, and Pindar, but as Conte points out, never hesitates to proclaim his own originality and creativity.1 Horace combines a few central themes including the brevity of life and the achievements of poetic wisdom with a variet y of lyric categories, which include love poetry and hymns.2 Many scholars of Horatian lyric ha ve noted the pres ence of these thematic patterns that run throughout his wo rks. However, scholarly opinions diverge when they address the sequential nature of these patterns. For example, Fraenkel and Nisbet and Hubbard treat the individual odes as essentially self-contained units.3 Others have sought out ways in which to read either of the lyric co llections as cohesive units by 1 Conte (1994: 303-306). 2 Conte (1994: 306-312). 3 Fraenkel (1957); Nisbet and Hubbard (1968: xi-xxvi). Even Fraenkel (1957) must admit to some overall organization. He divides Odes 1-3 into poems that relate to Alcaeu s or other Greek lyricists, Maecenas, Agrippa and Pollio, Agustus, the epilogue odes; then Book 4.

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2 examining narrative stru cture or arrangement.4 Besides the coheren ce of entire sections or runs of poems, Moritz has marked out how Horace attaches significance to certain locations in his poetry, namely the center. 5 Although scholars have examined potential unity within the Odes and the importance Horace places on certain locations in his poetry, very little has been said on the possibility of using thematic unity and pr ogrammatic locations to look at all four books of Horaces Odes In a book of poetry, special atten tion is generally given to the poems in three locations in a book: the beginni ng, middle and end. In this respect, Horace is no different. Further, what has not been given nearly enough consideration is how Horace might use a sequence of images spre ad over multiple poems across several books. Since Horace undeniably wrote intricate poetr y, it is not unreasonabl e to investigate how Horace might expand not only themes but also imagery in sequences spanning several poems.6 Some attention has also been given to i nvestigating the imagery that Horace uses. Scholars efforts range from studies of speci fic odes, to tracing a single image throughout an entire book or collection, to how the poet in general used imagery in his works.7 Horaces use of imagery in the poems in th e prominent places in each book of his two 4 See Santirocco (1986) and Porter (1987) on arrangement; Lowrie (1997) on narrative. The most detailed (and in some ways extreme) analysis of Horaces structure remains Dettmer (1983). 5 Moritz (1968); Fraenkel (1957: 297-307) treats specially the epilogues to Books 1-3. 6 Collinge (1961: 4-18) investigates how Horace uses verbal echoes be tween multiple odes and within a single ode, but does not extend his analysis to trace patterns that run th rough all four books. 7 Specific odes: for exam ple, Tatum (1973) on Ode 2.20, and Pomeroy (1999) on Ode 1.1; a simple image in an entire collection: Commager (1957) on wine, Blaiklock (1959) on storms, and Porter (1975) on certain themes and images in Book 4; general considerations of Horatian imagery: Andrewes (1950). Lee (1969) discusses Horaces imagery and his use of language for effect.

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3 lyric collections develops into a sequence re vealing some of his most important themes and how the poems interact to reinforce the themes of human mortality and the lyric poets triumph over death. These themes and the accompanying images at the beginning, middle, and end of Horaces lyrics affirm th e poets identity as Romes immortal bard.

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4 CHAPTER 2 MEET THE LYRIC POET The lead odes to each of the three books of Horaces first ly ric collection present a thematic course maintained by consistent imagery defining the character of the poet and his poetry. This linear progression develops into a sequence defining the supremacy of lyric poetry and asser ting the poets power. Ode 1.1 privileges the poets vocation above all human endeavors, while Ode 2.1 declares the primacy of Horaces specific genre, lyric. Ode 3.1 envisions the poet as the special favo rite of the divine, proclaiming him a priest of the Muses. Anticipating the rewards for his poetic labors, Horace claims at the end of Ode 1.1 that he will become immortal, although he re alizes that even as the lyric bard his immortality will be dependant upon the a ppreciation and applause of his patron, Maecenas. Horace indicates reliance upon Maecen as at the beginning and end of the ode, which makes the first song a dedication to his friend and patron. The extent of Horaces acknowledgement is not immediately apparent, si nce after the ardent praise for Maecenas in the first two lines of the poem ( Maecenas, atavis edite regibus / o et praesidium et dulce decus meum, 1.1.1-2) Maecenas all but disappears.1 Instead, the body of the ode rolls through a list of traditional Roman o ccupations, which each practitioner prefers above any other, capped by the poets conclusion that poetry is the best of all possible human activities. Maecenas reappears in the la st two lines as the purveyor of the poets 1 All quotations of Horace are taken from Sh ackleton Baileys Teubner edition (1985).

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5 fame ( quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres, 1.1.35), indicating that even Horace is not immune from the need of some support.2 The list of professions begins with what a ppears to be an idyllic, positive view of employments all engaged in a quest for fa me, but as Horace lists occupations, he becomes increasingly pessimistic, pointing ou t the problems inherent in each line of work. The athlete, the politician, and someone in the grain trade3 form a group that is connected by one lengthy relative clause ( sunt quos . iuvat, 1.3-4) and a pair of demonstratives ( hunc, 1.1.7; illum, 1.1.9). Each participates in a profession regarded as an honorable pursuit through which to gain re nown. Athletic glory is represented by the palma nobilis which raises the winners as master s of the lands up to the gods (1.1.6).4 The politician also seeks to ga in recognition from the citizen s of Rome in order to be exalted (1.1.7-8). The unspoken problem with these pursuits is that they are dependent upon the fickle mob ( mobilium turba Quiritium, 1.1.7). The final member of this group, the grain trader, also seeks power over the Roman populace, although his chosen method is the manipulation of the grain supply.5 The more selfish motives of the grain trader 2 One explanation for Maecenas relative scarcity in the Odes can be attributed to the poets quest for obtaining greater fame by appealing to the Roman people at large for approval. For more on this interpretation, see Oliensis (1998: 152, 156, 180, 227); Johnson (2004: xiii, 67-68). Pomeroy (1980:5-6) proposes that Maecenas is gradually transformed into a general reader to whom Horace makes his appeal. A second explanation could be the theory that Maecenas fell out of fa vor with Augustus, and accordingly lost control over the literary group he had founded. For discussion and refutation of this idea, see White (1991: 130-136). 3 The illum could be either a large landowner or a grain tr ader (See Nisbet and Hubbard [hereafter referred to as NH] 1970: 8). 4 The dominos in line 6 is strategically placed to refer to the quos in apposition as well as to the deos In agreement with NH (1970: 6), I have to chosen to accept the reading of dominos primarily modifying quos (the athletes), which balances the later relationship between the poet and the divine. 5 During his reign Augustus made considerable contributions to improving Romes grain supply by streamlining the distribution system and personally directing disbursements (See Suet. Div. Aug. 40-41; Augustus R.G. 5, 18).

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6 mark a more pessimistic turning point in the li st of occupations that Horace develops in the next group of careers. The next series of jobs takes on an even da rker tone as Horace pays tribute to the honorable farmer ( gaudentem patrios findere sarculo / agros, 1.1.11-12) but makes no effort to hide the difficulty of the job thr ough the symbolism of the splitting of unfriendly fields with nothing but the sarculum.6 Horaces analysis bypasses any mention of the fruits of successful labor. The mercator, forced by greed to risk the dangers of sailing ( mercator metuens otium et oppidi / laudat rura sui, mox reficit rates / quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati, 1.1.16-18), parallels the very unhappy sailor ( Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare, 1.1.14) pictured just before him. Both must risk life and limb for the sake of profit. The soldier and hunt er, their occupations being even more dangerous, are chastised for disrupting their family life. The hunters disregard for his wife ( venator tenerae coniungis immemor, 1.1.26) and the soldiers for his mother ( castra iuvantbellaque matribus / detestata, 1.1.23-25) emphasize the pains of their jobs.7 Each of these professional choices serves to enha nce the idealization of the poet that Horace will finally introduce at the close of the poem. When readers reach the description of the poet at the conclusion of the poem (1.1.29-36), they are reminded of a mysterious individual who already appeared at the center of Ode 1.1. This idyllic character (1.1.19-22) cr eates a break in the increasingly pessimistic view of human as pirations. The mystery man at the center is not easily separated out from the preceding pursuits sin ce he is linked grammatic ally to the list of 6 The sarculum was a tool used to till rocky difficult soil, a labor intensive, difficult activity (See Cato Agr .155; Pliny Nat 18.178; NH 1970: 9). 7 Pomeroy (1980: 9-10).

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7 occupations, but the similarities end there.8 Instead of striving for fame and/or fortune, this man prefers simply to lie back and enj oy himself. The poet describes this person as a man who likes to enjoy a cup of wine, while reclining under a shady tree or resting by a sacred brook ( nec veteris pocula Massici / nec partem solido demere de die / spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto / stratu s, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae, 1.1.19-22). Because he is not defined by a particular occ upation as the others, the reader is left to wonder what sort of professional label to appl y. Now, when the poet appears as a definite character, the reader is reminded of the prev iously unspecified figur e by similarities in imagery. The mystery man is surrounded by sympotic symbols including wine, green leaves, and a sacred spring ( pocula Massici, viridus arbutus, and aqua sacra ), which parallels the poets Satyr-companions, ivy crown and cool grove, and the nymphs ( chorus Satyri, docta hedera / gelidum nemus, and nymphae, 1.1.29-31). By placing this generic embodiment of carefree living in the middle of the parade of or dinary jobs, Horace prepares the reader for the appearance of the blissful poet at the end of the poem.9 In the poems conclusion the singer distinguishes hi s own vocation and signals that it alone offers idyllic relief from th e problems of everyday life. Whether or not the reader identifies the poet with the idealized escapist at the center of the poem,10 the imagery Horace uses in the last stanza, when the poet makes an appearance, demonstrates how poetry allows th e poet to escape the da ngers of the earthly realm. The poets reward, the crown of ivy, will associate the lyri c poet with the gods ( me 8 The first set of occupations is introduced by sunt quos (1.1.3), which is paralleled by est qui (1.1.19) introducing the mystery man. 9 See West (1995: 4) on the elements of the absurd in the descriptions of occupations. 10 The ambiguous aspect of this ch aracter makes the question of who he might be difficult to answer. In their commentaries both Garrison (1991: 201) and West (1995: 6) point out the ambiguity, while Johnson (2004: 66) considers this person to be the poet.

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8 doctarum hederae praemia frontium / dis miscent superis 1.1.29-30). This glory is better than what athletes and politicians strive after ( evehit ad deos, 1.1.6), because the poet actually reaches his goal of mingling with the immortals ( dis miscent superis, 1.1.30). Likewise, the companionship of nymphs and Sa tyrs in groves separates the poet from the rest of humanity (1.1.31-32), 11 as long as the Muses, who favor the poet, continue to bless him (1.1.33-34). Horace concludes that when he reaches the ranks of the lyric vates, he will reside with the stars in the sky (1.1.35-6), a common de piction of apotheosis. This eternal glory cannot be achieved without th e approval of the poets patron Maecenas, a fact that the poet acknowledges with the retu rn of Maecenas at the conclusion of the poem ( quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres, / sublimi feriam sidera vertice, 1.1.35-6). Horace must look for applause from Maecenas to achieve his goal, even at the risk of struggling with the same shortcoming the poe t associates with th e previously cataloged professions: the need for human approval.12 After declaring the preeminen ce of his poetic vocation in Ode 1.1, the introduction to Book 2 ( Ode 2.1) specifically privileges Ho races chosen genre of lyric by comparing his (lyric) poetry to the writings and career of Gaius Asinius Pollio.13 The poet sets up the comparison of his own works and Pollios by examining everything that Pollio has done to make a name for himself, beginning with a celebration of Pollios 11 This separation can refer to either the peace of the countryside away from the crowded city or the rejection of popular approval, a sentiment Horace will repeat in Ode 3.1 (cf. NH 1970: 14). 12 Cp. S 1.9.43-59. Horace shows that th ere is a difference between the turba Quiritium and Maecenas, since the pest still decides to try to bribe Maecenas after Horace tells hi m that Maecenas admits people to the circle based on merit. 13 Pollios topics include such serious subjects as civil disturbance, war, and alliances ( Motum ex Metello consule civicum / bellique causas et vitia et modos / ludumque Fortunae gravisque / principum amicitias, 2.1.1-4) as opposed to Horaces lighter lyrics.

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9 now-lost history and his other accomplishments.14 Pollios list of achievements, including his work as a tragic playwright, legal prow ess, and military skills, recognizes the power of Pollios writing and fame ( 2.1.1-16). The Civil War and its politics that Pollio claimed as the subject of his history ar e described as risky topics ( periculosae plenum opus aleae, 2.1.6). The dangers could refer either to the perils the men in his writings faced or the treacherous political intricac ies of writing contemporary hist ory under the principate. By reviewing Pollios role in Romes illustrious history, Horace sets the stage for his own foray into the genre of history, in spite of his recognition of th e risks (2.1.1-8). Despite the dangers, Horace finds himself drawn by the allure of an historical project ( audire magnos iam videor duces, 2.1.21), and in the following three stanzas Horace turns suddenly from describing Pollios historical work to imitating them. But before Horace broaches history, he lends an ironic tone to his surrender to history by borrowing an image from a previous poem on the subject of writing as a way of achieving fame. The imagery of the wreath of leaves (the laurus of 2.1.15) bestowing eternal honor recalls the lyric poets reward from Ode 1.1 ( hederae praemia, 1.1.29). The fame granted by the leafy wreat h has a double beneficiary in Ode 2.1: Pollio for his literary and other historical accomplishments and the lyric poet for recording them. This allusion to the poet and the delay of Pollios name until the fourth stanza foreshadow the poets ultimate assertion of lyric over history. When Horace writes history (2.1.16-36), he us es the lyric present to enliven the historical past as well as dramatize the loss of Roman life in the hostilities that occurred in both the poets own generation and those prev ious. Horaces version of history begins 14 Cf. West (1998: 5-8); NH (1978: 8-9).

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10 in the past ( Iuno et deorum quisquis . cesserat . rettulit, 2.1.25-7) but quickly transitions to similar horrific events in the present ( quis non . testatur, 2.1.29-31). Horace repeats this pattern of comparison betw een past and present in the rest of his historical account ( Qui gurges . ignara belli, 2.1.33-4; quae caret ora, 2.1.36). For the lyric poet, time moves backwards from the pres ent to the past, and then returns back to the present. Horace first refers to the Civil Wars (2.1.19-23) w ithin living memory of the poets generation.15 Next, he wonders whether the gods who fled Carthage for Rome are sacrificing Roman lives to avenge or app ease Iugurtha (2.1.26-8), events which occurred a generation before (146-104 B.C.). The poet en ds the list of violent encounters with the even more recent Parthian invasion (2.1.31-2). The high death rate in these conflicts is represented by the streams and rivers and o ceans and shores all facing an overwhelming loss of life. In Horaces lyric history, the singer personifies the field of battle, the rivers and streams, the oceans, and the shores as the witnesses of the slaughter (2.1.29-36). Horace emphasizes the breadth of the loss by wondering if any water or land has not experienced Roman deaths (2.1.33-36). Th e poet increases the drama by recounting events starting in the present and moving to wards the past, and e nhances the effects by employing dramatic metaphors. Suddenly the poet comes to his senses and returns to the point at which he began. He advises Pollio to set aside se rious genres for lighter lyric ( sed ne . retractes . quaere, 2.1.37-40).16 Horaces version of events and the suddenness of the shift illustrates how the poets genre can do what Pollio would attempt, but with an extra 15 West (1998: 7-13) discu sses the specific instances of allusions to various battles that took place in this time period, including those at Pharsalus (48 B.C.) and Thapsus (46 B.C.). 16 Horaces attempt to imitate and outperform Pollio is discussed in depth by Lowrie (1997: 180-185). See Henderson (1996) for a detailed analysis of Ho races treatment of Pollio s life and works in Ode 2.1.

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11 attraction. Horace can write about the same serious subjects but actually make them come alive in the lyrical present time. Horace recreates the sounds and sights of battle for his reader ( iam nunc . iam . iam . iam ): iam nunc minaci murmure cornuum perstringis auris, iam litui strepunt, iam fulgor armorum fugacis terret equos equitumque vultus. audire magnos iam videor duces non indecoro pulvere sordidos et cuncta terrarum subacta praeter atrocem animum Catonis. (2.1.17-24) [Right now you deaden your ears with the menacing roar of horns, now trumpets blare, now the flash of weapons puts fear into the fleeing horses and the faces of the riders. No w I seem to hear the great leaders dirtied with no inglorious dust, and all of the lands subdued, except the fierce spirit of Cato]. Horace increases the drama of the historical account by involving multiple senses within a series of dramatic metaphors (2.1.25-36): the personification of the trumpets and flashing weapons; the audience lis tening to the battle as if it were a dramatic production set on stage; the metonymy of Cato for the br ave resistance to a di ctator; the zeugma of hearing the dirtied generals.17 Following the gloomy depiction of war, Ho race ends on a more cheerful note in the conclusion of the poem by visualizing the lyric poet and his Muse collaborating to escape the chaos of warfare. After bringing hist ory to life, as he envisioned it, Horace abruptly turns back to lighter lyric, and ends the ode with a final appeal to his own playful Muse. The poet asks that the Muse not start up with dirges but accompany him on a quest for lighter verses (2.1.37-40). The final stanza of Ode 2.1 consists of two representations of poetic creativity that join forces to form a merry foil to the depressing 17 Shackleton Bailey removes the zeugma and replaces audire with videre

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12 and violent images of the rest of the poem.18 The first is the Musa procax whom the poet asks to put away the more se rious songs of mourni ng. The second is the poet in a grotto writing lighter verses. Horace combines the tw o by asking the Muse to join forces with the poet in the grove for the composition of ly ric verses. By the end of the poem, lyric prevails through history and over history. In Ode 2.1 Horace illustrates that his genre of lyric can encompass the supposedly more elevated genres of hist ory and tragedy. He reasserts th e power of lyric by seemingly allowing himself to be taken in by serious topics (2.1.16-36), and then performing them in a lyric manner. The victory of lyric at the end of the poem recalls the previous introductory ode (1.1) in which Horace uses the same tactic of saving the triumphal poet for the end. He chooses imagery for the represen tation of lyric that is remarkably similar to the scene he used for the trium ph of the poets calli ng at the end of Ode 1.1. In Ode 2.1 Horace shows the poet performi ng his craft in a grotto ( mecum Dionaeo sub antro / quaere modos leviore plectro, 2.1.39-40), which closely reca lls the corresponding scene in Ode 1.1 in which the poet composes his vers es in leafy, sympotic surroundings ( me gelidum nemus . quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres, 1.1.30-36). By linking the first two beginning odes,19 Horace creates a thematic progressi on that will be maintained in the introductory odes of his first collection. In Ode 1.1 Horace predicts that he will rise to meet the gods; in Ode 2.1 he requests a meeting with his Muse. The next ode in the sequence reveals what will come of this meeting. In Ode 3.1 the poet returns to earth from his h eavenly get-together in the mystic grotto in order to provide direction and inst ruction to a floundering ra ce of mortals as the 18 Syndikus (1995: 18). 19 Ode 2.1 contains references to Ode 1.38 as well as Ode 1.1 (cf. Lowrie, 1997: 168-171).

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13 priest of the Muse. Horace begi ns the ode by casting himself in the part of the priest of the Muse, a role traditionally reserved for t hose with a special conne ction to the divine. Horace uses the separation of the poet from ordinary mortals ( Odi profanum et vulgus et arceo, 3.1.1) as a platform from which to spea k. This separation has opened a debate because although the poet separates himself fr om the general public, he takes on the role of a priest preparing to sing a hymn ( favete linguis: carmina non prius / audita Musarum sacerdos / virginibus puerisque canto, 3.1.2-4), which is a distinctly public role.20 Horace creates a balance between the public and private spheres of his poetry by presenting public and private aspects in combination. The very first words of Ode 3.1 proclaim a dislike for the general public ( Odi profanum vulgus arceo, 3.1.1), and the poem ends with the poet enjoyi ng the solitude of his (priva te) Sabine estate (3.1.45-8). The private aspect at the end of the poem dem onstrates that the poet is not in the same league as the rest of the worl d. In contrast, the poem introduces the poet in a grand public role of a priest (3.1.2-3). The poetic role as a priest accounts for the very philosophical tone of the poem as well as justifies the a dvice the poet gives on how to live well. Since the poet-priest inhabits both the worlds of the divine and mortal, he can give advice to humanity on how to live in a way that is agreeable to them and the gods.21 Once the poet-priest has es tablished his authority at the opening of the song, he reveals his life-philosophy by stating the pr oblem with the typical human notion that wealth solves problems. The poet-priest then proposes his solution. Since even the most 20 Both Fraenkel (1957: 263-265) and Reckford (1969: 73-74) offer full discussions on the public and private aspects of Ode 3.1. 21 Horace identifies himself as a v ates in 1.1.35, a term which appears frequently in the Odes (in poems 1.31.2; 2.20.3; 3.19.15; 2.6.24; 4.6.44; 4.3.15; 4.8.27) referring to the prophet/poet. The term is quite appropriate for the context of the human poet with the authority to grant divine dispensation. See Newman (1967: 43-74) for a thorough discussion of Horace and the concept of vates.

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14 powerful kings on Earth have to answer to th e gods (3.1.5-8), clearly Fate does not care in what way or how much someone is successful ( omne capax movet urna nomen, 3.1.16), and this overshadowing indiscriminant threat ( destrictus ensis 3.1.17) is what keeps men up at night. Before observing that no amount of wealth can bring peace of mind ( non Siculae dapes / dulcem elaborabunt sapor em, / non avium citharaeque cantus / somnum reducent, 3.1.18-21), Horace clearly states that Fate does not play favorites ( aequa lege Necessitas / sort itur insignis et imos, 3.1.14-15). This reflection leads into the first central stanza (3.1.2124) that states the poets perspective on how to live properly. Sleep, the odes symbol for peace of mind, does not shun the homes of the humble farmer or the shady riverbank of th e poet. As opposed to those overshadowed by wealth (3.1.17-21), neither farmer nor poet ca rry the burden that w ould deprive them of sleep. The differentiation between those who su ffer the loss of sleep, because of their false trust in wealth, and those who do not fo reshadows the specific criteria for living the good life that the poet sets forth in the following stanza.22 The second central stanza (3.1.25-8) turn s towards the final message of the poem,23 which proposes a method for avoiding th e worries humanity brings upon itself by trying to achieve more than the necessities for survival. The poet illustrates his teaching by praising the example of those w ho only seek enough to be comfortable. These people do not share in ordinary human worries ( desiderantem quod satis est neque . sollicitat . 3.1.25-6). Horace elaborates his descrip tion of good living with a list of 22 The shady riverbank provides the pastoral link in 3.1 to the other introductory odes. 23 The ode consists of 12 stanzas, which places the ce nter of the poem at stanzas 5 and 6. Stanza 5 is endstopped, which allows the second central stanza (stanza 6) to begin a new thought. The two stanzas neatly divide the poem into two halves; the first half desc ribes the problem humanity faces in attempting to avoid Fate, while the second half gives advice on what to do and not do to achieve peace of mind.

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15 things such a person does not need to worry about, including storms or bad weather that damage crops. By seeking only what is needed for survival, humankind need not fear the destructive forces of nature (3.1.27-32). The examples from nature continue in the following stanzas, but now it is nature that is threatened by humanity. The fish are displaced by a building project on the wate rs edge, an act of human progress that symbolizes humanitys disregard for the boundaries set by nature.24 The punishment for this violation of natural or der is clear. The one who invites trouble and pushes beyond natures boundaries will be haunted by Timor et Minae . et atra Cura (3.1.37-40). Horace links Ode 3.1 to the previous introductor y odes by ending with the lyric poet as the ultimate example for the good life. Odes 1.1 and 2.1 both end with the poet as the picture of contentment in a pastoral scene, while Ode 3.1 concludes with the poet proclaiming his enduring preference for wher e he is: his Sabine villa on his country estate.25 The poet uses himself as an example ( cur valle permutem Sabina / divitias operosiores?, 3.1.47-8) to sum up his point that with specters such as Fear, Threat, and Worry waiting as the reward for greed and ambition, he recommends retreat to a more idyllic place. The imagery of the sympotic/pastoral poe t holds together th e three introductory odes, and provides a consistent means for th e lyric poets unfolding message. In each of these odes, the poet is always shown in an id yllic pastoral/sympotic scene immune to the uncertainty and violence that di sturbs the rest of the world. Ode 1.1 establishes the poet as the ideal occupation and Ode 2.1 proves that lyric is the best genre. Ode 3.1 presents a 24 See Whitehorne (1969) for the metaphoric use of build ing over nature in early Imperial Latin poetry. 25 Compared to Tibur, the Sabine region was not the most fashionable, which allows the poet again to emphasize his moderation. Horace himself admits that his farm may not be the richest but it gives him enough (3.16.29-44) For a discussion of Hor aces real estate holdings, see Lyne (1995: 6-10).

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16 didactic portrait about the poet s unostentatious way of living as the only means to have a carefree life. By proceeding from vocation to genre to way of life, Horace declares the poets preeminence while he moves in a practi cal way from heaven to earth. Horace also neatly provides for the reader three major them es of his poetry in the introductory odes of his first lyric collection. The poet con tinues to develop aspirations of the vates the supremacy of lyric, and living the s imple life throughout the rest of the Odes .26 26 E.g. Odes 1.1; 1.6; 1.7; 1.11; 1.17; 1.22; 1.26; 1.31; 1.38; 2.18; 2.20; 3.1; 3.16; 3.24; 3.30.

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17 CHAPTER 3 LOVE AND WINE: A POETS TWO BEST FRIENDS In Books 1-3 of Horaces Odes the odes in the central positions within their respective books present a thematic sequence on how to live. In th is sequence the poet demonstrates humanitys futile struggle to obtain control of its destiny by using wealth (3.16) or by simply refusing to accept fate (3.15). Horace reveals the two main elements of the lyric poets strategy for good living, aurea mediocritas (2.10) and carpe diem (2.11) which can end these struggles. Horaces sp ecific remedies for the pains of the human condition are love (1.18) and wine (1.19), as long as they are used in a manner compatible with both elements of his life-st rategy. Together these central poems express the idea that only the poet, by using his lyri c powers, can rise above the limitations of humanity. The central pair of odes in Book 3 illustrat es both that the hu man struggle against its mortal fate is destined to fail and that th e poet is exempt from such worries because of his poetic skill. The first of the two poems ( 3.15) gives an example of what not to do in order to preserve youthfulness. The sec ond (3.16) broadens the discussion to how humanity in general attempts to use wealth to gain contro l over its destiny. While 3.16 presents a more general human problem and the poets solution, 3.15 gives an introduction to humanitys foolishness through a specific example of the matron Chloris who refuses to grow old.1 1 Nisbet and Rudd (2004:194-195) and West (2004: 132-133) both offer an analysis of the name Chloris.

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18 In Ode 3.15 the poet first presents the correct way for Chloris young daughter, Phloe, to act ( filia rectius / . lascivae similiem ludere capreae 3.15.8-12), and then parallels it with the description of proper be havior for her mother, Chloris. Horaces description of the wild, barely controlled lifestyle of the younger woman is concise and pointed. The daughter assails her beloved at his home ( expugnat iuvenum domos 3.15.9) like a Bacchant ( pulso Thyias uti concita tympano, 3.15.10). Phloe is forced by lust to act like a she-goat in heat ( illam cogat amor Nothi / lasciv ae similem ludere capreae, 3.15.11-12). The imagery of the Bacchant and th e she-goat both set up parallels to the following description of how the mother should behave. The mother should avoid sympotic behavior: no music, wine and flowers ( non citharae decent / nec flos purpureus rosae / nec poti vetulam faece tenus cadi, 3.15.14-16). While the young daughter Phloe plays like a goat ( lasciva caprea ), the old mother Chloris ought to stay home and spin wool ( te lanae prope nobilem / tonsae Luceriam, 3.15.13-14) Both times the young woman is compared with the old, the poet directly tells th e older woman that what is expected of the daughter is not appropriate for her ( non decet, 3.15.7-8; non decent, 3.15.14). The poets disapproval of Chloris behavi or points out that what is permissible for her daughter Phloe is no longer appr opriate for the mother (3.15.7-8; 14-16). When the poet first introduces this Ro man matron, she is engaged in behavior unbecoming to her age, and the poet commands her to stop with a pair of imperatives: nequitiae fige modum tuae (3.15.2) and maturo propior desine funeri / inter ludere virgines (3.15.4-5). The poet tells Ch loris that she should present herself as an honorable

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19 Lucretia-like character, 2 spending her time at the loom (3.15.13-14) instead of with music, flowers, and wine (3.15.15-16), whic h are emblematic of the symposion and young lovers. Ode 3.15 contains poetic advice on proper behavior in the face of human destiny but offers no positive model for those confronting the human dilemma. Horace delays such a positive model until Ode 3.16, when he presents the poet himself as the model for correct behavior and broadens the stru ggle against fate to humanity in general. In Ode 3.16 divine laughter at the human attemp t to defy fate defines the futility of humankinds struggle before the poet ever presents the human races flawed solution of using wealth to control their lives. Th e gods laugh at King Acrisius attempt to avoid the fulfillment of an oracle that his daughter Danae would bear a son who would kill him ( si non Acrisium virginis abditae / custode m pavidum Iuppiter et Venus / rissent, 3.16.57). The tower with its walls, dogs, and watchmen that the king thought would keep lovers out (3.16.1-4) is ineffective because the gods know the secret to overcome any human barrier, gold ( fore enim tutum iter et paten s / converso in pretium deo, 3.16.7-8). The image of the shower of gold does double dut y because a metaphoric interpretation shows the futility of trying to outrun the powers that govern human life, while a literal interpretation provides the fi rst example of humanitys misguided love for money ( aurum per medios ire satellites / et perrumpere amat saxa 3.16.9-10). 3 The poet continues to combine the li teral and symbolic by introducing both historic and mythological examples of how gold can lead to destruction. An entire 2 Chloris as the uxor pauperis Ibyci (3.15.1) refuses to accept both her st atus as a poor mans wife and an aging matron. Garrison (1990: 317), West (2002: 132), and Nisbet and Rudd (2004: 192) briefly examine the exact connotation of the name and description of the husband as poor Ibycus. 3 Lowrie (1997: 46) notes that the story of Danae is a crucial part of the argument of the poem and not merely a convenient exemplum.

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20 household destroyed by money ( concidit auguris / Argivi domus ob lucrum / demersa exitio 3.16.11-13) illustrates the disastrous a ffects of the human weakness for profit. Polyneices bribed Amphiaraus wife Eriphyle with Harmonias necklace to ensure that her husband would join the seige of Thebes. Th is act of bribery resu lted in Amphiaraus death, as well as Eriphyles at the hands of her son Alcmaeon who avenged his father. Alcmaeon also died, when he tried to secure the necklace for his own wife. Phillip of Macedons exploitation of the same weakne ss to the detriment of rival leaders ( diffidit urbium / portas vir Macedo et s ubruit aemulos / reges muneribus, 3.13-15) provides an example of the destructive nature of wealth from Greek history. Horaces examples of human greed also demonstrate th at money is capable of dest ruction at sea as well as on land ( munera navium / saevos illaqueant duces 3.16.15-16).4 After listing a series of negative exampl es, Horace provides the positive examples of good living, which include both the poet a nd his patron Maecenas. Horace presents his patron and himself side-by-side ( iure perhorrui / late conspicuum tollere verticem, / Maecenas, equitum decus, 3.16.18-20).5 Horace refuses to make more of a spectacle of himself than he should, and praises M aecenas for doing the same. By addressing Maecenas specifically as an equites the poet implies that Maecenas also avoids the spotlight because Maecenas refused elevation to the patrician ranks as a senator. The noun decus, which invites comparison to Ode 1.1, where Horace addresses Maecenas 4 Do these verses a reference the Roman admiral Menas who switched sides three times in four years during the war between Pompey and Octavian? See West (1998: 154) in support of the Menas reading; Lowrie (1997: 33) considers the sea captain a generalization. 5 Fraenkel (1957: 229-230) explains the importance of Horaces address to Maecenas in the middle of Book 3 as a dedication.

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21 royal ancestry ( Maecenas, atavis edite regibus, / o et praesidium et dulce decus meum 1.1.1-2), emphasizes the magnitude of Maecenas c hoice, as well as the poets approval. Horace surrounds the positive examples of himself and his patron with a pointed gnomic pronouncement against wealth and in favor of the benefits of moderation. Horace states that the problem with profit is that more money only means more worries ( crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam / maiorumque fames, 3.16.17-18) Then the lyric poet moves on to the benefits that accompany his and Maecenas lifestyle, especially the heavenly favors that result from moderation ( quanto quisque sibi pl ura negaverit, / ab dis plura feret, 3.16.21-22). After securing divine blessi ng, Horace separates himself from the majority of humanity who subscribe to the use of wealth for a better life ( nil cupientium / nudus castra peto et tr ansfuga divitum / partis linquere gestio, 3.16.22-24). Horace ends Ode 3.16 by contrasting the example of someone who does not follow his advice ( multa petentibus / desunt multa, 3.16.42-43) with someone who does ( bene est cui deus obtulit / parca quod satis est manu, 3.16.43-44) and thereby succeeds in escaping from the trap of trying to avoi d fate. Likewise, the poet himself has wisely kept a low profile ( iure perhorrui / late conspicuum tollere verticem, 3.16.18-19). Horace goes on to claim that he is proud that his own possessions seem inconsequential to the rest of the world (3.25-28).6 Horace acknowledges that he has some wealth but emphasizes that it is only enough to be comfortable ( quamquam nec Calabrae mella ferunt apes / . importuna tamen pauperies abest 3.16.33-37). The lyric poet defines what is necessary as some wate r, trees and dependable crop ( purae rivus aquae silvaque iugerum / paucorum et se getis certa fides meae, 3.16.29-30). The comfortable but not 6 3.16.18-19 contain two references back to Ode 1.1: the image of the poet raising his head ( sublimi feriam sidera vertice, 1.1.36) and the addr ess to Maecenas ( dulce decus, 1.1.2).

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22 excessive yield of the poets holdings pr ovides an example of what is enough. He may not have the best honey, wine, or wool (3.16.33-36) but Horace makes clear he has enough to live well ( importuna tamen pauperies abest, 3.16.37). Horace knows that the gods will provide everything necessary to those who accept the poets advice (3.16.4344).7 Humanitys rebellion against its mortal de stiny and the poets ab ility to avoid this battle is a primary link between Book 3 and Book 2. Ode 3.16 investigates wealth as one of ways most people attempt to influence destiny, while Ode 2.11 specifically defines the poets strategy for coping with a fixed destiny through the carpe diem outlook. Ode 3.15 admonishes the aging Chloris to stop acting like her daughter Phloe, while Ode 2.11 exhorts Hirpinus Quintius to have fun while he is still young enough to do so. Horaces advice to Quintius parallels his description of the youthful Phloe. The lyric poet balances the exuberance of his carpe diem attitude (2.11) with the principle of mediocritas (2.10). This balance allows the poet to live well, perhaps even beyond th e limitations of his mortality. Together Odes 2.10 and 2.11 advocate both aurea mediocritas and carpe diem which are the poets essential components for a good life. Ode 2.11 again consists of two contrasting sections: one describing what not to do, while the second part of the poem describe s how life ought to be lived. Horace sets out what not to do in a pair of commands to Quintius that he should not worry about what foreign nations are plotting ( Quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes, / Hirpine Quinti, cogitetremittas / quaerere 2.11.1-4) and not worry about the future ( nec trepides in usum / poscentis aevi pauca, 2.11.4-5). Horace uses the question why worry about 7 The poet makes clear the divine favor for those who use moderation by using a relative pronoun ( cui ) in reference to the man who decides to live according to the poets recommendation.

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23 whats going to happen? ( quid aeternis minorem / consiliis animum fatigas? 2.11.1112) to transition into his advice on how to count er the potentially deb ilitating effects of worrying about what the future might bring. Horaces answer to the problem of worrying about what cannot be changed is carpe diem .8 The setting is a sympotic scene similar to the one that the poet used when describing the superiority of hi s vocation and ideal lifestyle (cp. Ode 1.1).9 The scene sets the idyllic atmosphere of lying under trees, drinking, and adorning graying ha ir with roses and perfume ( cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac / pinu iacentes sic temere et rosa / canos odorati capillos, / dum licet, Assyriaque nardo / potamus uncti, 2.11.13-17). This brief allusion to the gray head makes the point that youth and beauty are short-lived for ever yone, including the poet. Therefore, Horace includes himself as well as his audience in his invitation to enjoy life: why do we not drink ( cur non . potamus, 2.11.14-7). The poet is quite blunt with his imager y that youth and beauty will not only shortly be lost but will be accompanied by the absence of pleasurable love and sleep (2.11.5-9). The spring beauty of flowers a nd the blushing moon, symbols of youth, are doomed to fade (2.11.9-11). The switch from the second person ( remittas / quaerere, nec trepides in usum / poscentis aevi pauca 2.11.3-5) to the third person ( fugit retro / levis iuventas et decor, 2.11.5-6; non semper idem floribus est honor / vernis, neque uno luna rubens nitet / vultu, 2.11.9-11) and back to the second ( quid aeternis minorem / consiliis animum fatigas? 2.11.11-12) gives Horaces instructions to Quintius a very personal edge that Quintius should not ignore. Carpe diem is not a luxury but a necessity. 8 Harrison offers two possible interpretations: the poet may be attempting to cheer up a friend or simply describing an ideal retirement (1995: 23, 256). 9 For the discussion on how Odes 1.1, 2.1 and 3.1 present sympotic imagery, see the previous chapter.

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24 Horace, through sympotic scenery, proposes the appropriate reaction to human mortality. Once the poet has crowned old me n with roses and anointed them with perfume ( rosa / canos odorati capillos, / dum licet, Assyriaque nardo / potamus uncti?, 2.11.14-17), he introduces his answer to the problems of aging: wine and women ( dissipat Euhius curas edacis . / qu is devium scortum eliciet domo / Lyden? 2.11.1722). Wine and love complete the sympotic at mosphere and provide a way to regain some of what was lost with age.10 Horace asks two general questions about his proposed solution, both directed as if to a larger audience, indicat ing their universality. Horace first asks which slave more quickly will quench the cups of burning Fale rnian wine with water flowing nearby ( quis puer ocius / restinguet ardentis Fa lerni / pocula praetereunte lympha, 2.11.18-20). The second question sets up the hopeful conclusi on that the poem reaches: Who will go and bring Lyde? The poet suggests that someone should go get the girl ( quis devium scortum eliciet domo / Lyden?, 1.11.21-22). The girl should make herself pretty, bring her lyre, and come over as soon as she can ( eburna dic, age, cum lyra / maturet incomptam Lacaenae / more comam religata nodo, 2.11.22-4). 11 The imperatives suggest not only eagerness but also a certainty th at the request will be honored thus ending the ode with the idea that with the carpe diem outlook even the worries of old age can be avoided. 12 The carpe diem invitation and pleasures of the party in Ode 2.11 are balanced by the mediocritas of Ode 2.10. Ode 2.11 suggests putting aside worries about life in favor 10 For more on sympotic elements combined with the carpe diem motif, see Johnson (2004: 11). 11 The knot in Lydes hair can represent the perfection and closure of Horaces poetry (Oliensis, 1998: 123; Reckford, 1969: 97-8); cf. Putnam s discussion on Phy llis and the garlands woven for her hair (1986: 186189, 194). 12 The movement from pastoral serenity to sympotic carousal involved in the carpe diem advice of the poem is discussed by Reckford (1969: 96-97).

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25 of a symposium ( cur non sub alta vel platanopotamus uncti? 2.11.13-17). Ode 2.10 takes a less idyllic approach and recommends that through the adherence to moderation and the poets proposal to face life as it comes ( sperat infestis, metuit secundis / alteram sortem bene preparatum / pectus 2.10.13-15), humanity can at least find sanity in life. The golden mean rests on the acceptance of the belief that whatever ones current fortunes, they will soon change. Horace advocates that the simple sympotic outlook is the way to obtain a life based on auream mediocritatem The poet tells his addressee, Licinius, that the right way to live is not always to sail fa r out to sea at the mercy of strong storms ( Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum / semper urgendo, 2.10.1-2), but neither should Licinius stay too close to shore (2.10.3-4). The lyric poets advice is simple: stay in the middle ( auream quisquis mediocritatem / diligit, 2.10.5-6). Horace defines such balance as neither living in squalor nor so richly as to arouse envy ( tutus caret obsoleti / sordibus tecti, caret invidenda / sobrius aula 2.10.6-8). To drive home his point of mediocritas the poet resorts to the power of the natural versus manmade objects. Nature, the simple and pure, is stronger than what people can construct. After pr esenting the image of a pine tree withstanding blustery weather ( saepius ventis agitatur ingens / pinus, 2.10.9-10 ) the poet describes a manmade structure ( celsae graviore casu / decidunt turres, 2.10.10-11) that cannot withstand the same natural forces. Towers fall, but the to wering mountains withst and a lighting strike ( feriuntque summos / fulgura montis, 2.10.11-12), and trees stand up to the wind that whirls around the towers. The lighting strike br ings to the readers mind the crash of the falling towers ( graviore casu ). References to height al so help set up the theme of moderation. The first and third stanzas reference tallness ( altum, 2.10.1; summos,

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26 2.10.11). These stanzas stand on either side of moderation ( mediocritatem, 2.10.5) in the second stanza. By placing moderation between the high seas and tall mountains, Horace foreshadows his advice about staying in the middle. After Horace declares that it is best to simply accept that life has its ups and downs, the poet adds two divine examples of ba lance in contrast to the natural and human examples of the first three stanzas. The king of the gods, Jupiter, is responsible for both good and bad weather ( informis hiemes reducit / Iuppiter, idem / summovet, 2.10.15-17), while Apollo sometimes leads the Muses choir and other times has his bow in hand ( quondam cithara tacentem / suscitat Musam neque semper arcum / tendit Apollo, 2.10.18-20). Once again for emphasis, Horace places between these two divine exempla a balanced gnomic principle: If things are bad now, they will get better ( non, si male nunc, et olim / sic erit, 2.10.17-18). Horace achieves closure in his argument by repeating the nautical imagery from the beginning of the poem ( sapienter idem / contrahes ven to nimium secundo / turgida vela, 2.10.22-25). The poets advice to pull in swo llen sails brings to mind the warning at the opening of the poem not to sail out t oo far or stay too close to shore ( neque altum / semper urgendo neque, dum procellas / cautus horrescis, nimium premendo / litus iniquum, 2.10.1-4). Horace nevertheless has subtly shifted the meaning in the two images. Ode 2.10 begins with advice to stay the middle course, while it ends with the more positive encouragement to remain st rong whatever difficulties fate brings ( rebus angustis animosus atque / fortis appare 2.10.21-22). According to the central poems of Horaces first book of Odes love and wine can be the pleasures that offset the pains of th e human condition, as long as they are used in

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27 accordance with the principle of aurea mediocritas described in the central odes of the second book Horace portrays Bacchus and Venus as allies. In Ode 1.19 Venus, accompanied by Bacchus, commands the poet to accept love ( Mater saeva Cupidinum / Thebanaeque iubet me Semelae puer 1.19.1-2). Ode 1.18 also pairs the two deities when Horace mentions the positive relief that wine and love have to offer ( quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat? / quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque decens Venus? 1.18.5-6), if used in the proper manner. Ode 1.18 concentrates on the description of the correct use of wine,13 while Ode 1.19 focuses on moderation in love. Both odes include examples of the negativ e affects of wine or love, a nd end with the poet declaring his plan to achieve enjoyment with moderation. In Ode 1.19, Horace demonstrates his desire to keep Venus under control by offering sacrifices. Venus, aided by Bacchus and Dissolution, has caused the poet pain ( urit me Glycerae nitor / . urit grata proterv itas / . in me tota ruens Venus / Cyprum deseruit, 1.19.5-10), and Venus will not allow the poe t to write about anything but herself ( nec patitur Scythas / et versis animosum equis / Parthum dice re nec quae nihil attinent, 1.19.10-12). The recommended sacrifices to appeas e Venus are plants to garland the turf altar, incense, and wine ( hic vivum mihi caespitem, hic / verbenas, pueri, ponite turaque / bimi cum patera meri, 1.19.13-15), which all are representa tions that Horace uses for his poetry.14 Horace suggests sacrifices (lyric poetry) in order to bring loves excessive 13 See Kiessling (1958: 90) on various uses of the term merum in the Odes 14 Ode 1.1 uses images of plants to represent the poet or his works (1.1.29-30) as do Odes 1.38, 3.4.19, 3.30, and 4.11.4. The wine and incense are both sympo tic elements that the poet uses elsewhere in his poetry ( tura : 4.1.22, 4.2.52; vinum : 1.4.18, 1.7.31, 1.27.5, 2.19.10, 3.12.2). For the use of wine in Horace, see Commager (1957).

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28 influence down to a level compatible with aurea mediocritas ( mactata veniet lenior hostia 1.19.16). Ode 1.18 reveals how to use wine in accordance with aurea mediocritas According to Horace, wine is a blessing. Th e poet admonishes Varus that he must not plant anything before he plan ts his sacred grape vines ( Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem, 1.18.1). Wine is helpful in relieving the stress of daily life ( quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat?, 1.18.5), but must be used with care. Horace first offers the cautionary ex ample of the Centaurs and Lapiths ( ac ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi / Ce ntaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero / debellata 1.18.7-9). Because the Centaurs abused the wine at the wedding of Pirithous and Hippodamia and tried to carry off the bride, th ey were slaughtered by the Lapith people. The next example alludes to an unspecified Sithonian scandal ( monet Sithoniis non levis Euhius, / cum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum / discernunt avidi 1.18.9-11),15 which resulted in the god of wine taking aw ay the ability to tell right from wrong. Because wine has a split personality th at must be balanced, the wine god is addressed by four different t itles in three different roles representing various affects of wine. As the dangers of wine increase, the ti tles of the god become progressively hostile, moving from the friendly Bacchus and Liber to titles associated w ith orgiastic worship, Euhius and Bassareus.16 Benevolent Bacchus pater (1.18.6) banishes worries ( siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit, neque / mor daces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines, 1.18.34). Because the Centaurs went overboard and did not stay with moderate Liber ( modici 15 Two of the most likely instances that Horace had in mind could be Lycurgus drunken rape of his mother, or Sithons incest with his own daughter and subsequent death at the wine gods hands (NH 1970: 233; West, 1998:88). 16 Cf. NH (1970: 234).

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29 Liber 1.18.7), they were punished (1.18.7-9). Euhius causes men to forget the difference between right and wrong (1.18.9-11), and theref ore the poet proposes an agreement with Bassareus : Horace promises that he at least will observe limitations in drinking as long as the god of wine promises to behave as well ( non ego te, candide Bassareu, / invitum quatiamsaeve tene cum Berecyntio / cornu tympana 1.18.11-14). The wine and women of carpe diem provide relief from humanitys immutable sentence of death, while aurea mediocritas prevents the disasters that can result from misuse. Horace uses wine as a symbol for the pleasures of a carpe diem lifestyle when he points out wines ability to remove worries ( quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat?/ quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque decens Venus?, 1.18.5-6) After the warnings regarding the use of wine depicted by the wine god in a variety of roles, Horace promises that he will follow the principle of aurea mediocritas thereby avoiding the harsh consequences that carpe diem can precipitate ( non ego te, candide Bassareu, / invitum quatiam, nec variis obsita frondibus 1.18.11-12). The central poems of Hor aces first three books of Odes all revolve around aurea mediocritas and carpe diem as dual principles that can offe r some comfort to the anguish of mortal existence. The poet defi nes both the Golden Mean and the carpe diem outlook in the middle of Book 2. Ode 2.10 considers aurea mediocritas by comparing human, natural and divine examples, while a sympotic scene in Ode 2.11 is the setting for observance of the carpe diem theme The proper use of wine and pacification of Venus in Odes 1.18 and 1.19 demonstrate the Horatian stra tegy to live a good life in observance of the Golden Mean. The thematic continuity of carpe diem and aurea mediocritas that runs through all of the central odes of Horaces first lyric collect ion serves to highlight the

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30 poets advice on how to avoid the disasters that result from attempting to circumvent mortality and the Fates. Humanitys failed atte mpts to regain power over its destiny with money in Ode 3.16 highlights the simplicity of Horaces lifestyle. Ode 3.15 exemplifies the grace of accepting the inevitable. The expressions of carpe diem and aurea mediocritas in the central odes of each book provi de guiding examples for the race of mortals through which Horace asserts that hi s lyric has the power to teach, not just entertain.

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31 CHAPTER 4 THE POETS JOURNEY TO IMMORTALITY The epilogue of each book of Horace s first collection (1.38; 2.20; 3.30) represents a step in the tran sformation of the poet as he ri ses above all the worries and difficulties of human life through his poetry.1 Each one of the odes concluding the first three books uses unique symbols to reinforce the theme of each poem. Each step in the poets journey to overcome the difficulties of human existence and finally succeed in his quest for poetic immortality is represented by a different symbol for poetry: sympotic moderation and the late blooming rose (1.38) the soaring swan (2.20), and the lofty pyramids (3.30). From the sympotic yet m oderate essence of the poets being in Ode 1.38, Horace rises above mortality on his poetic wings in Ode 2.20. The lyric poets triumphant monuments destined to last for eternity in Ode 3.30 complete the summary of the poetic journey to immortality. The final ode of Book 1, Ode 1.38, envisions a semi-private symposion, which allows the poet to show himself in a familiar setting that he uses to represent the pleasures of his poetry while including the principle of moderation. The essential elements of the typical symposion ar e present: the wine, leafy garland, and companionship ( neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta / vite bibentem, 1 Woodman (1999: 205-207) mentions Horaces use of a sphragis in the epilogue odes of Books 1-3.

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32 1.38.6-8). Such imagery is standard for Hor ace in representations of the idyllic poet.2 The brevity of the poetic portrait (only eight lin es of verse), along with the advice on simplicity it contains, emphasizes the theme of moderation. Within the compass of this abbreviated symposion, Horace includes the contra st between the rose and the myrtle that represents the worries about aging that the poet avoids by following his own advice on moderation. The two symbols of the rose and myrtle combine in Ode 1.38 to emphasize Horaces poetic principle of maintaining balance. The poet declares to the servant that Persian luxuries and fancy garl ands ought to be avoided ( Persicos odi, puer, apparatus. / displicent nexae philyra coronae, 1.38.1-2), as should chasing th e rose which is already beginning and will soon completely fade ( mitte sectari, / rosa quo locorum / sera moretur, 1.38.3-4 ). The rose is used elsewhere by Ho race as a symbol of luxury and youth, while the myrtle is used as a symbol of advancing age.3 The poet tells his servant that common simple myrtle will be good enough for both of them ( neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta / vite bibentem, 1.38.6-8).4 The contrast between the simple and the exotic portrayed by the my rtle and the rose represent corresponding lifestyles.5 After the grand imagery a nd 32 lines of the preceding Ode 1.37 in celebration 2 For example, see Odes 1.1, 1.18, 1.19, and 2.11. 3 For example, Odes 2.3, 2.11, 3.15, 4.10. See also Ode 3.19 and 3.29 for the rose as a symbol of luxury. Gold (1993: 16) provides specific discussion of Horaces use of the rose in Ode 1.38: This flower is often linked to other sympotic elements in Horaces poetry, but Horace embeds the rose in a larger imaginative context by making it a symbol of human interchange and by adding references to death, the passage of time, and seasonal cycles. See Ode 1.25.17-20 for another example of myrtle symbolizing age. 4 See NH (1970) ad loc. 5 Ode 1.38 has been read as a seduction ode. West contends that there is more to this poem than meets the eye and sees adumbrations of homosexual love in this poem (West 1995: 192). This interpretation likewise depends upon the comparison of the rose and myrtle. This reading centers on the implied invitation expressed in the final lines of the ode ( neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta /

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33 of Augustus victory over Cleopatra, th e mere eight lines concentrating on the comparison between the luxurious rose and the plain myrtle exhibit th e poets preference for a simple life style.6 In this deceptively simple poem, Horace, in a quick moment, infuses the sympotic with the carpe diem theme ( mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum / sera moretur. / simplici myrto nihil allabores / sedulus curo, 1.38.3-6). The words sera and moretur imply the passage of time, and first two lines of the ode ally the rose with persicos apparatus and philyra nexae coronae attributing to the rose the charac teristics of exotic beauty. This single rose embodies the entire message of the odes lesson by infusing a single flower with aspects of both life and death, which together make up the carpe diem motif: life must be lived in the present because death is always lurking nearby. Being content with myrtle, then, represents the simplicity of living only in the present time, a choice that the poet makes for himself and recommends to the servant ( neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me, 1.38.6-7). Horace turns from overcoming fears about mortality through simple living in Ode 1.38 to his transformation in to the immortal poet in Ode 2.20, an apotheosis (of a different sort) that he envisioned in Ode 1.1. 7 Horace first states with humility who he has been as a mortal ( non ego pauperum / sanguis parentum, non ego quem vocas, / dilecte Maecenas, 2.20.5-7). Yet even in this statemen t of his relatively low hereditary vite bibentem 1.38.7-8). The speaker ( me ), while acknowledging his targets status as ministrum makes the two characters equal by saying that the myrtle is suitabl e for them both. The master tells the servant to take a break and then invites his possibly young and attractive servant to join him. 6 Simplicity, but to what degree? For simplicity of style as a possible reading, see Fraenkel (1957: 297298); The first thing we notice that this short poem is simplex munditiis to an uncommon degree . We must assume that Horace intended the ode, besides its su rface value, to refer in some way to the new kind of poetry contained in this book. For simplicity in life, see Lee (1969: 90) and West (1995: 190-191). 7 See Ode 3.1 for the completion of the poets quest for immortality.

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34 social status and reliance upon his patron, the poet begins to separate himself from the ordinary by using the pair of negatives ( non ). The poet completes his ascent from mere mortal by saying that even though he recognizes his humanity, he will overcome death ( non ego . obibo / nec Stygia cohibebor unda, 2.20.5-8). After distinguishing himself from the re st of humankind, Horace ends the first half of the ode by detailing the transformation that he predicts at the beginning of the poem. Horace proclaims that he will be carri ed all over the world on the powerful wings of his poetry as a lyric bard ( non usitata nec tenui ferar / penna biformis per liquidam aethera / vates, neque in terris morabor / longius invidiaque maior 2.20.1-4). After he leaves his mortality behind, the poet then gr aphically describes himself morphing into a swan, a type of lyric bird, which becomes the incarnation of the poet made immortal through his poetry. iam iam residunt cruribus asperae pelles et album mutor in alitem superne, nascunturque leves per digitos umerosque plumae. iam Daedalo notior Icaro visam gementis litora Bosphori Syrtisque Gaetulas canorus ales Hyperboreosque campos. (2.20.9-16). [Right now rough skins settle on my shins and I am changed into a white bird from top to bottom, and light feathers arise over my fingers and shoulders. Now I, more infamous than Icarus, Daedalus son, as melodious bird, will see the shores of groaning Bosphorus and Gaetulian Syrtis and the Hyperborean fields.] The birdman that Horace claims he will become is the central symbol of the poem, and it unites the poets present with hi s future. The avian imagery is reflected in both halves of the poem, and provides the tran sition from the beginni ng to the end of the poem. Overall, the symbol serves as a reminde r of the final goal of eternal fame at each

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35 stage of the poets journey. In the odes ope ning strophe, the poet cl aims that his wings will be strong enough to carry him into eternity ( Non usitata nec tenui ferar / penna biformis per liquidum aethera / vates, neque in terris morabor . obibo / nec Stygia cohibeor unda, 2.20.1-8). The second half of the poem continues the bird imagery by describing the poet as a songbird on the wing ( iam Daedalo notior Icaro / visam . canorus / ales, 2.20.13-16). The transition between the two sections is provided by the transformation of the poet into the bird at the center of the ode ( album mutor in alitem / superne, nascunturque leves / per digitos umerosque plumae, 2.20.10-12). The central third stanza of Ode 2.20 vividly reflects the change fr om the poets predictions of the future at the beginning of the ode (2.20.1-8) to Horaces certaint y about the present. Many commentaries on this ode remark in so me way about the outlandish extremes of Horaces metamorphosis because it appears so incongruous with the moderate conclusion of the first book. 8 A key factor in the reading of Ode 2.20 is how iam iam at the beginning of the stanza along with the present tense residunt merge together to shown an imaginary or imminent present.9 Considered with the previous future tenses ferar, morabor, reliquam, obibo and cohibebor this construction suggests that Horace is preparing for his immediate transformation; a transformation which Horace himself 8 Two sides emerge in the discussion of the third stanza of Ode 2.20: one rejecting th e stanza as bad poetry and the whole ode as poor quality, and the other defend ing Horaces art. Detractors reserve special bile for the lines, iam iam residunt cruribus asperae / pelles et album mutor in alitem / superne, nascunturque leves / per digitos umerosque plumae (2.20.9-12). Horaces defenders cite numerous illustrious precedents including Plato ( Phaedrus 251B, 251A), Pindar ( Isthmian 7.39-48), and Theognis (237-254) who also used the metaphor of flight to expr ess reaching for eternity. Kiessling si mply lists off the literary precedents (1958: 245-246). Fraenkel calls the stanza, repulsive, ridiculous, or both (1957: 301) and notes with a degree of regret that he cannot simply remove the offending verse. Objectors, most notably Fraenkel (1957: 299-302), do not like the contrast of the illustrious vates undergoing such a graphic, grotesque transfiguration. Defenders of the stanza include He ndrickson (1949), Tatum (1973), and Williams (1968: 567-574). See also Fraenkel (1957: 299-302), NH (1978: 332-348), Garrison (1990: 289-290), West (1998: 144-148) for overviews of the debate. 9 Hendrickson (1949: 31).

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36 predicted at the very beginning of the Odes ( quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres, / sublimi feriam sidera vertice, 1.1.36-37). After the grand proclamation and gra phic transformation of the poet, Horace envisions the fame that will en able him to achieve eternity.10 The poet imagines himself traveling past the straits of Bosphorus, G aetulia, the Hyperborean fields, and gaining recognition from Colchians, Dacians, Gel onians, Hiberians, and Rhodians (2.20.14-20). Some subtle wordplay allows Horace to main tain the atmosphere of expectation for glory while using humor to soften the magnitude of his claims. He has not yet become the vates biformis although he soon expects to. Hor ace recounts the whole expected transformation to Maecenas, whom at the end of the ode he instructs to dismiss any of the traditional mourning at the poets funeral ( absint inani funere neniae / luctusque turpes et querimoniae; / compesce clamorem ac sepulchri / mitte supervacuos honores, 2.20.23-4). This reference to the poets patron again emphasizes that Horaces fame is at least partially dependent upon his patron, a sentiment borrowed from Ode 1.1. 11 Horace also cites the Icarus myth ( iam Daedalo notior Icaro / visam, 2.20.13-14).12 The poet is aware of the risks of his claims and knows that in the end he will die, at least physically. The humor in the word play comes out in how literally or metaphorically inani and funere are taken. Horace could be me taphorical, talking about inani as meaningless, or literal, taking the same word as empty. Likewise, funere could mean death or the dead body or 10 A reason for the over-the-top imagery in the third stan za is that, grand though his claims are, Horace may not be entirely serious. The move to lighten his claims a little may be linked to his discussion of fame seeking in Ode 1.1 in which Horace points out potential problem s with this natural human character trait. 11 See the discussion of Ode 1.1 in Chapter 1. 12 Horace uses the adjective daedaleus,a,um in one other place in the Odes Ode 4.2 also uses the term to warn against Iullus Antonius overly Pindaric poetry ( Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari, / Iulle, ceratis ope Daedala / nititur pennis vitreo daturus / nomina ponto 4.2.1-4).

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37 the funeral itself. The poets death is made a joke because it holds none of the serious implications that death carries for ordinary mortals. Horaces funeral could be missing his body. The possibilities for any number of comb ined meanings show Horace looking at the fame of his future works, but also defl ating his own boastfulness in a serious but cleverly amusing way.13 There is no hint of amusing self-doubt in the poets claim to immortality at the end of Horaces first lyric collection ( Ode 3.30), when he confidently predicts his immortality. Ode 2.20 ends with the poets commands for his funeral to Maecenas ( absint inani funere neniae / . mitte supervacuos honores 2.20.21-24 ), while Ode 3.30 ends with the poets command to the Muse for his reception in eternity ( sume superbiam / quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam 3.30.1416) .14 While Ode 2.20 looks forwards to the poets future as a winged poet, Ode 3.30 shows the completion of the poets desire to render himself immortal through the poetry that is the poets monumenta towering over the pyramids of Egypt. Horace rejects ordinary conceptions of death and states th at whatever death he will face ultimately has no meaning for him as vates because his name will always be kept alive through his poetry ( non omnis moriar multaque pars mei / vitabit Libitinam. usque ego postera / crescam laude recens, 3.30.6-8). Horace also recalls the very beginning ( Ode 1.1) at the end ( Ode 3.30), and brings the first lyric collection full circle. After stating his claim to fame, Horace ends 3.30 with a demand for his reward. Horace tells his Muse that she owes him the fame he requests, presented to him in the form of a wreath of laurel ( sume superbiam / quaesitam meritis et mihi Del phica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, 13 West (1998: 147). 14 Woodman (1999: 205-207) discusses the aspects of an epitaph in Ode 3.30.

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38 comam 3.30.14-16). This demand for his immortality is again reminiscent of the apotheosis that Horace predicted for himself in Ode 1.1 ( Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium / . si neque tibias / Euterpe cohi bet nec Polyhymnia / Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton 1.1.29-36). Ode 3.30 itself can be divided into four sections, each part bringing the poet closer to immortality.15 After predicting his transformation in Ode 2.20, Horace first proclaims that he has succeeded in co ntriving a product that will be eternal: Exegi monumentum aere perennius regalique situ pyramidum altius, quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens possit diruere aut innumerabilis annorum series et fuga temporum (3.30.1-5). [I have built a monument more lasting than br onze and higher than the royal building of the pyramids, which neither a destructive rainstorm nor raging north wind is able to demolish nor the infinite succession of years and flight of ages.] The second part of the ode is a declaration th at not only the poets lyric achievements but the poet himself, or at least part of him, will prove immortal ( non omnis moriar multaque pars mei / vitabit Libitinam, 3.30.6-7). The third section cons ists of an explanation of how this eternity will be real ized, including a list of places the poet will see as he is constantly reread ( usque ego postera / crescam laude recens, . princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos / deduxisse modos, 3.30.7-14). The final section of the ode is a request to the Muse Melpomene to accept the poet ( sume superbiam / quaes itam meritis et mihi Delphica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam, 3.30.14-16) and recognize him as a 15 I have used Woodmans (1999: 207-216) divisions of the poem, but added the idea of the poets progression towards immortality.

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39 lyric vates by crowning him with the prized wreath.16 The poet thus completes his rise from earth to heaven. The monumentum of the poet is the paramount image of 3.30 ( Exegi monumentum aere perennius / regalique situ pyramidum altius 3.30.1-2), and Horace makes two claims about his poetic monument: natural forc es do not have the power to erode what he will leave behind ( quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens / possit diruere aut innumerabilis / annorum seri es et fuga temporum, 3.30.3-5) and Horaces accomplishments will always keep his name alive.17 The monument described in Ode 3.30 is what will allow him to escape death and continue to grow in fame. Horace shifts into the future tense to deny death ( non omnis moriar mult aque pars mei / vitabit Libitinam, 3.30.6-7). Horace also uses his poetic monu ment to return to the images he started with at the beginning of his lyri c career. After the prologue to Maecenas ( Ode 1.1), the second ( Ode 1.2) and last odes ( Ode 3.30) of the firs t three books mention monumenta.18 These are the only instances of the word monumentum in the Odes and two of three times the word occurs in Horaces writings.19 The sparing use of the term, and the context in which it is used indicate the importance of his m onuments to the poet. Ode 2.1 speaks of waves rushing to erode ro yal monuments and temples of the gods ( vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis / litore Etrusco violenter un dis / ire deiectum monumenta regis / templaque Vestae 1.2.13-16), while Ode 3.30 proclaims the 16 The leafy crown as a symbol of the lyric vates appears also in Ode 1.1 ( Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium / dis miscent superis 1. 1.29-30). 17 West (2002: 360-362) examines Horaces powerful music in the first five lines of Ode 3.30. 18 violenter undis / ire deiectum monumenta regis, 1.2.14-15; Exegi monumentum aere perennius / regalique situ pyramidum altius, 3.30.1-2. 19 The third use occurs in Sermones 1.8.13.

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40 supremacy of Horaces poetic monuments over both royal tombs and nature (3.30.1-5). The poets lyric monuments are what guarantee the immortality that Horace claims from the Muse at the end of Ode 3.30. The concluding poems of Books 1-3 chroni cle the poets journe y to achieve the immortal status he envisions in the introductory poems by overcoming the human limitations presented in the central poems.20 Each concluding ode relies upon specific imagery to project the main theme. Ode 1.38 uses the rose and my rtle to highlight the sympotic poets carpe diem theme, Ode 2.20 uses the biformis vates to reveal the poet beginning to overcome his mortality, and Ode 3.30 uses the image of the lyric poets monuments to declare the poet s success in achieving his goa l of immortality. These three images show Horace moving through his poetic journey on the way to reaching the poets final goal of undying fame. 20 Cf. Porter (1987: 240-253; 270-273) who turns Horaces metaphor of a journey into the title for his book.

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41 CHAPTER 5 CANEMUS: THE POETS FINAL INVITATION The odes at the beginning, middle and end of Horaces second collection of Odes (Book 4) form the same thematic sequence as the introductory, cen tral, and concluding odes of his first collection: the symposion a nd mortality (4.1); lyric s power to preserve memory (4.8); and the lyric poet s immortalizing triumph (4.15). Ode 4.1, like Odes 1.89, 2.10-11, and 3.15-16, examines the intransigence of human existence. Ode 4.8, at the center of the Book, defines Horatian lyric poe try and its power in a manner similar to Odes 1.1, 2.1, and 3.1. In Ode 4.15, Horace constructs his final lyric triumph. Odes 1.38, 2.20, and 3.30 also summarize the poets expedition towards eternity, but Ode 4.15 pushes even further and invites the reader to join Horace in his immortalizing song. In the first poem of Book 4, Horace re introduces the concept of the sympotic lifestyle as a remedy for the human problem of mortality.1 Ode 4.1 opens with a plea to Venus on behalf of the poet, unwillingly (s o he says) recalled into Venus service ( Intermissa, Venus, diu / rursus bella moves ? parce precor, precor. / non sum qualis eram bonae / sub regno Cinarae, 4.1.1-4). 2 Horace instructs Venus that the youthful Paullus is better able to live the sympotic lif estyle than the now fifty-year-old poet in Ode 4.1. The center of Ode 4.1 reminds the reader what sort of man is suited for the sympotic 1 The same principle is also found in the odes at the center of Books 1-3 (1.18-19; 2.10-11; 3.15-16). 2 Ode 1.19 also depicts the poet struggling against powerful Venus ( Mater saeva Cupidinum / Thebanaeque iubet me Semelae puer / . finitis animum reddere amoribus 1.19.1-4; hic vivum mihi caespitem . mactata veniet lenior hostia 1.19.13-16).

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42 life: the young Roman nobleman who is skilled in the courts and fit for military service ( namque et nobilis et decens / et pro sollicitis non tacitus reis / et centum puer artium / late signa feret militiae tuae, 4.1.13-16). Horace visualizes the sympotic context of young Paullus surroundings. The presence of incense lyres, flutes, and songs (4.1.21-24) all add to the sympotic scene, wh ere the boys and girls with Paul lus dance in praise of Venus ( bis pueri die / numen cum teneris virginibus tuum / laudantes pede candido / in morem Salium ter quatient humum 4.1.25-28). The uninhibited party atmo sphere pictured in Ode 4.1 and the lack of sympotic restraint contrasts to Ode 1.18 where wine is useful, but only in moderation ( quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat? / quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque decens Venus? / ac ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi . 1.18.5-7). Horace affirms the importance of moderation in Ode 2.10 when he clearly states that moderation is key for a happy life ( auream quisquis mediocritatem / diligit, tutus caret obsoleti / sordibus tecti, caret invidenda / sobrius aula 2.10.5-8). Now Horace uses the same comparison between restraint a nd sympotic revelry when he describes himself as an aging poet. By the time Hor ace (and the reader) reaches Ode 4.1, approximately 10 years has passed after the publication of the first lyric collection.3 Horaces use of the same themes and images puts into play the que stion of how time effects the lyric poet,4 and he acknowledges that time appears to have some form of power over the poet. Horace uses the unrestrained and exuberan t sympotic atmosphere that surrounds Paullus to demonstrate conclusively the difference between the young partygoers and the 3 See Commagers discussion of Book 4 (1962: 291-306); Johnson (2004:152-153) on the movement of time for the poet. 4 Ancona (1994:95) notes that time fails to diminish the poets desire.

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43 old poet. The comparison between the younger Paullus and the older poet repeats the same discussion of youth and age that appears in Odes 2.11, 3.15, and 3.16. Horace does allow that the elderly can enjoy themselves in Ode 2.11 ( cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac / pinu iacentes sic temere et rosa / canos odorati capillos, / dum licet, Assyrique nardo / potamus uncti ?, 2.11.13-17), but points out in Ode 3.16 that most people can neither gracefully accept their mortal destiny nor understand that moderation is the key to happiness ( custodem pavidum Iuppiter et Venus / rissent: fore enim tutum iter et patens / converso in pretium deo 3.16.6-8; crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam / maiorumque fames 3.16.17-18; bene est, cui deus obtulit / parca quod satis est manu 3.16.43-44). In Ode 4.1 the young people with Paullus gather for a party, while Horace claims to enjoy none of the sympotic elements that Paullus youth represents: me nec femina nec puer iam nec spes animi credula mutui nec certare iuvat mero nec vincire novis tempora floribus, 4.1.29-32. [Neither maid nor youth pleases me nor does the gullible hope of a reciprocal spirit please me now, neither does it please me to enjoy wine nor to wreath my temples with fresh flowers.] In reference to the speaker, the negative nec marks each of the sympotic elements.5 The poets renunciation of a symposion and his pleas to Venus that he is no longer fit to serve her insinuate that the poets years make it t oo difficult for him to participate properly. The aging matron Chloris of Ode 3.15 is in the same position that the poet claims in 4.1, and like Chloris, who has difficulty accepting her destiny ( Uxor pauperis Ibyci, / tandem nequitiae fige modum tuae / famosisque laboribus; / maturo propior desine funeri 5 Oliensis offers the interpretation of the sympotic garland as a symbol that binds lyric poems (1998:119).

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44 / inter ludere vigines / et st ellis nebulam spargere candidis 3.15.1-6), Horace cannot escape the passions of Venus. Even the lyric poe t is still vulnerable to the allurements of youth, and at the end of Ode 4.1, Horace admits to his belove d Ligurinus that he suffers from the two symptoms most emblematic of lovers: tears and the loss of his powers of speech.6 The loss of words is especially critical for any poet, and Horace draws attention to the calamity by enjambing a hypermetric line ( cur facunda parum decoro / inter verba cadit lingua silentio? 4.1.35-36) .7 This run-on verse highlights Horaces failure to resist Venus as he attempts to refuse love in the opening of the poem ( Intermissa, Venus, diu / rursus bella moves?, 4.1.1-2). Horace uses the claim that he too old and unwilling, but nevertheless unable to resist passion, to create tension whic h he resolves in the final stanza.8 While Horace admits in Ode 4.1 that he may be too old to continue living like a young man, at the end of the poem he reveals that there is a final proper refuge for those who are too stricken in years to particip ate in the pleasures of youth: dreams ( nocturnis ego somniis / iam captum teneo 4.1.37-38).9 The placement of himself between nighttime and dreams ( nocturnis ego somnis ) emphasizes the entrapment of the poet inside his dreams. The poets reference to his young, fancy-free l ove interest at the beginning of the line ( iam volucrem sequor / te per gramina Martii, 4.1.38-39) similarly 6 Horace borrows these images from Sappho 31 an d Catullus 51. Putnam (1986: 39) examines Horaces poem specifically in relation to Sappho. Oliensis (1998:120-121) notes that 4.1.33-40 also references Catullus 8. 7 Horace cleverly uses irony by ra mbling on about the loss of speech. 8 Reckford (1969: 124-126) discusses the struggle between love and reason in Ode 4.1. 9 West (1967: 135) questions the r eality of Horaces dream about Ligu rinus. Wests point that Horace may never have had such a dream emphasizes the imaginary and escapist nature of dreams.

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45 accentuates the freedom of youth ( sequor / te per gramina Martii ). However, Horace as a lyric poet has one further recourse against growin g old that Chloris lack s: his lyric poetry. Ode 4.8 defines the value and power of ly ric poetry to preserve names and deeds.10 Because monuments of stone cannot record the vibrant essence of the meritorious as well as poetry can ( non incisa notis marmora publicis, / per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis / post mortem ducibusclarius i ndicant / laudes quam Calabrae Pierides 4.8.13-20), inscriptions on public monuments, mostly military accomplishments, are inferior to poetry. Ennius Muses ( Calabrae Pierides) in contrast, will never die. Poetry is simply superior at proclaiming fame ( neque / si chartae sileant quod bene feceris, / mercedem tule ris. quid foret Iliae / Mavortis que puer, si ta citurnitas / obstaret meritis invida Romuli?, 4.8.20-24). Horace claims that even Romulus needs poetry to keep his name alive. Even Aeacus owes his fame to the poets ( ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum / virtus et favor et lingua poten tium / vatum divitibus consecrat insulis, 4.8.25-27). Horace inserts references to each of the introductory odes of his first collection (1.1; 2.1; 3.1) into Ode 4.8. Ode 4.8 demonstrates poetrys role in recording and preserving history ( non incisa notis marmora publicis / . non celeres fugae / reiectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, / non incendia Karthaginis impiae / eius 4.8.13-18). Horace examines poetry and history in Ode 2.1, when Horace proves the ability of lyric poetry to en compass historical writing ( mox, ubi publicas / res ordinaris, grande munus / Cecropio repetes cothurno, / insigne maestis praesidium reis / et consulenti, Pollio, Curiae 2.1.10-14; sed ne relictis, Musa proc ax, iocis / Ceae retractes 10 The text of Ode 4.8 remains disputed. I have chosen to follow Wickham (1896: 314) who argues for retaining all the verses in spite of Meinekes law. For a detailed description of the textual difficulties and various solutions, see Harrison, 1990.

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46 munera neniae, / mecum Dionaeo sub antro / quaere modos leviore plectro 2.1.37-40). Hercules, Castor and Pollux, and Bacchus ar e also deified thr ough the poets art ( sic Iovis interest / optatis epulis impiger Hercul es/ . Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus, 4.8.2934). This allusion implies that the poet, who bestows immortality upon the likes of Hercules and Bacchus, deserves to be rememb ered for all eternity, as Horace predicted his own apotheosis among the stars at the end of Ode 1.1 ( Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium / dis miscent superis, 1.1.29-30; quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres, / sublimi feriam sidera vertice, 1.1.35-36).11 This special relationship with the divine that appears in Odes 1.1 and 4.8 is also found in Ode 3.1, when Horace envisions himself as the priest of the Muses ( Odi profanum vulgus et arceo. / fa vete linguis: carmina non prius / audita Musarum sacerdos / virginibus puerisque canto 3.1.1-4). Despite the recognition of his aging in Ode 4.1, Horace demonstrates in Odes 4.8 and 4.15 that as a lyric poet, he remains strong.12 Ode 4.15 begins with a command from Apollo that Horace must write lyric ( Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui / victas et urbis increpuit lyra, 4.15.1-2 ). As in Ode 2.1, Horace addresses current history with his lyric, and takes as his topic in Ode 4.15 the pax Augusti Unlike Ode 2.1, the history recounted in Ode 4.15 has a happy outcome ( tua, Caesar, aetas / fruges et agris rettulit uberes / et signa nostro restituit Iovi 4.15.4-6). The list of Augustus accomplishments includes ending the civil war (4.15.17-20) and bringi ng back ancestral morality and customs 11 Reckford (1969: 130-132) considers Horaces praise of poetry a respons e to excellence that bestows life after death. 12 Cp. Putnams investigation of the relationship between Odes 4.1 and 4.15 (1986: 24-6), and the interactions between Odes 3.30, 4.8, and 4.15 (1986: 300-302).

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47 ( ordinem / rectum evaganti fr ena licentiae / iniecit emov itque culpas / et veteres revocavit artis, / per quas Latinum nomen et Italae crevere vires, 4.15.9-14). Ode 4.15 also demonstrates lyric poetrys power by reiterating the poets ability to immortalize famous men. By opening and cl osing the ode with the poet, but spending the whole body of the ode on Augustus deeds, Horace showcases his own poetic power.13 In Ode 4.8 Horace established that poetry wa s the only truly lasting monument that a hero or even god could earn ( non incisa notis marmora pub licis, / . neque / si chartae sileant quod bene fece ris, / mercedem tuleris, 4.8.13-22 ; dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori / cael o Musa beat . 4.8.28-29). Then Horace, in the concluding lines of Ode 4.15, gives an exemplum of the poe ts power to create immortality: cum prole matronisque nostris rite deos prius apprecati virtute functos more patrum duces Lydis remixto carmine tibiis Troiamque et Anchisen et almae progeniem Veneri canemus 4.15.27-32. [with our children and wives first rightly praying to the gods let us sing about leaders who died with virtue according to the custom of our fathers with song mingled with Lydian flutes and let us sing of Troy and Anchises and the descendant of kind Venus]. 14 Horace provides a substantial amount of prai se for Augustus in his poem as the doer of great deeds, but by ending the ode, and the ly ric collection, with himself, Horace reminds the reader that the lyric poets leading role as th e creator of immortality remains the most powerful of all. 13 Cp. Lowrie on Augustus and the poet in Ode 4.15 (1997: 338-347). 14 Augustus had been adopted by Julius Caesar, whose family claimed descent from Venus, and therefore Augustus would be a logical interpretation for progeniem Veneris (4.15.32).

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48 Horace proclaims the same power of poetry to assure immortality in Odes 4.8 and 4.15 that he previously announced in Ode 3.30 ( Exegi monumentum aere perennius / regalique situ pyramidum altius / . non omnis moriar multaque pars mei / vitabit Libitinam 3.30.1-7). Ode 3.30 claims the immortality of both the poet and his poetry which even nature cannot destroy ( quod non imber edax, non A quilo ompotens / possit diruere aut innumerabilis / annorum series et fuga temporum 3.30.3-5), and Horace cites his poetic genius as the reason for his fame and immortality ( princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos / deduxisse modos. sume superbiam / quaesitam meritis et mi hi Delphica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam 3.30.13-16). Ode 4.15 announces again the triumph of the poets immortalizing powers, which Ho race previously gradually unfolded in Odes 1.38 and 2.20, and fully realized in Ode 3.30. The poets immortality in Ode 3.30 depends largely upon local memory kept alive by retelling ancestral stories ( dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus / et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium / regnavit populorum 3.30.10-12), and Apollo in the opening of Ode 4. 15 essentially forbids Horace to write an Augustan epic ( Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui / vi ctas et urbes increpuit lyra / ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor / vela darem 4.15.1-4).15 After being prohibited from writing a poem in celebration of Augustus m ilitary victories, Hor ace must find another broader method in his poetry to celebrate he reditary memory with the people of Rome. Horace reconnects to his readers in Ode 4.15 by staging a festival and inviting the citizens of Rome to join hi m. The last two stanzas of Ode 4.15 show the poet once again surrounded by wine and music ( nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris / inter iocosi munera Liberi, 4.15.25-26 ; Lydis remixto carmine tibias / . canemus, 4.15.30-32), a scene that 15 Cf. Putnams analysis of Ode 4.15 (1986: 263-306) as it relates to Virgil and Propertius book 4; Johnson (2004:198-213) and Levi (1997: 224-225) also examine Horaces final lyric poem in relation to Virgil.

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49 recalls the setting of Ode 1.38. Ode 1.38 shows the poet at peace with the world in a sympotic setting that becomes emblematic of Horatian lyric ( simplici myrto nihil allabores / sedulus curo. neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta / vite bibentem 1.38.5-8). Thus in the final stanzas of Ode 4.15, the sympotic poet has returned in the company of citizen singers ready to immortalize Romes heroes. Despite all of the refere nces to previous poems, Ode 4.15 is much more than a simple summary of the concluding odes of Bo oks 1-3. In Horaces first lyric collection, the poets rise to immortality is chronicl ed in the odes at th e end of Books 1-3.16 Once Horace establishes that he can make himself immortal in his first lyric collection, he begins throughout Book 4 to bestow immort ality on those who have earned the reward. Ode 4.15 presents the lyric poet in one of hi s most powerful roles as the giver of immortality, and completes Horaces lyric coll ections with an invita tion to the reader to join him in his immortalizing song. The last wo rd of the ode, and the lyric collection, is canemus.17 The inclusion of the reader as a particip ant in the poets song implies that the poet has succeeded in educating his reader su fficiently that Horace is confident enough to invite the reader to join him.18 Horace includes his readers in a vision of Romans embracing their ancestral traditi on of celebrating their heroes ( nosque . cum prole matronisque nostris / rite deos prius appr ecati / virtute functos more patrum duces, 16 First, Ode 1.38 establishes the peace of mind that th e lyric poet enjoys in his world. Next, Ode 2.20 declares that even in death the spirit of the poet will remain alive, and finally Ode 3.30 demonstrates the permanence of the poets legacy (3.30.1-5) which merits the poets reward from the Muse (3.30.14-16). 17 See Johnson (2004: 210-213) for echoes of the opening of the Aeneid in Horaces Ode 4.15. 18 The education of the reader by the poet is made explicit in Ode 3.1 when the poet presents himself as the priest of the Muse preparing to pray ( Odi profanum vulgus et arceo. / favete linguis: carmina non prius / audita Musarum sacerdos / virginibus puerisque canto, 3.1.1-4). Lowrie (1997: 349) examines the invitation to the reader and the final statement of immortality in comparison to Ode 3.30.

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50 4.15.25-29 ).19 The picture of the poet as preacher in Ode 3.1 has broadened in Ode 4.15 to poet as choirmaster. The introductory, central and final odes of Book 4 present varia tions of the same major themes that occupy the introductory, cent ral, and end odes of the first collection. Ode 4.1 examines the theme of humanity atte mpting to gain contro l over their lives ( Odes 1.8-9; 2.10-11; 3.15-16). Ode 4.8 considers the value of poetry and the eternal reward that awaits the poet, themes which also appe ar in both the introducto ry and central odes of the first collection ( Odes 1.1; 2.1; 3.1). Ode 4.15 depicts the immortal poet directing national song. While the final odes of the first collection consider the poets own immortality ( Odes 1.38; 2.20; 3.30), the final ode of the second collection (4.15) goes further to consider not only the poets immo rtalizing power but his power to invite the reader to join forces with him to preserve Roman traditions. 19 See McNeill on the poets role of bestowing immortality to the deserving combined with the vates role as moral tutor (2001:81-82).

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51 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION One of Horaces strengths as a poet is his ability to combine successfully seemingly incompatible themes and images. But, nevertheless, Horace keeps returning to certain themes and images. There is a consis tency. Horace has three favorite themes that he places in the prominent beginning, middle, and end poems of each book of the Odes : the immortalizing powers of poetry, the e ndurance of poetry, and the combination carpe diem aurea mediocritas strategy for good living. Horace desc ribes each of these themes with multiple images, but certain images emerge as the poets favorites: sympotic love and wine, garlands (indicative of both the symposion and victory), and lyric monumenta By closely looking at the interplay betw een beginnings, middles, and ends in the Odes of Horace, some clear thematic patterns are evident. Horace places front and center in his lyrics humanitys failed attempts to overcome the limits of its mortality. The lyric poet, on the other hand, lives not only in ha rmony with nature through a life-style based on equilibrium between carpe diem and aurea mediocritas but by the immortality of his poetry proves immune to deat h itself. As the immortal vates Horace is able to pass on his knowledge to the Roman people, so that by th e end of his lyrics, Horaces readers are equipped to join the poet in song. Horaces lyrics prove didactic.

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52 WORKS CITED Ancona, Ronnie. Time and the Erotic in Horaces Odes Durham: Duke University Press, 1994. Anderson, William S. ed. Why Horace?: A Collection of Interpretations. Wauconda: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 1999. Andrewes, M. Horaces Use of Im agery in the Epodes and Odes. G&R 19.57 (1950): 106-115. Blaiklock, E.M. The Dying Storm: A Study in the Imagery of Horace. G&R 6.2 (1959): 205-210. Collinge, N.E. The Structure of Horaces Odes London: Oxford University Press, 1961. Commager, Steele. The Function of Wine in Horaces Odes. TPAPA 88 (1957): 68-80. ---. The Odes of Horace: A Critical Study Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962. Conte, Gian Biagio. Latin Literature: A History Trans. Joseph B. Solodow. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. Dettmer, Helena. Horace: A Study in Structure New York: Hildesheim, 1983. Fraenkel, E. Horace Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957. Garrison, Daniel. H. Horace: Odes and Epodes Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Gold, Barbara. Mitte Sectari, Rosa Quo Locorum Sera Moretur: Time and Nature in Horaces Odes. CP 88.1 (1993): 16-31. Harrison, S.J. The Praise Singer: Horace, Censorinus, and Odes 4.8. JRS 80 (1990): 3143. ---. ed. Homage to Horace Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. ---. Some Twentieth-century Views of Horace. In Harrison (1995): 1-16.

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53 Henderson, John. Polishing off the Polit ics: Horaces Ode to Pollio, 2,1. MD 37 (1996): 59-136. Hendrickson, G.L. Vates Biformis. CP 44.1 (1949): 30-32. Johnson, Timothy. A Symposion of Praise: Horace Returns to Lyric in Odes IV Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004. Kiessling, Adolf. Q. Horactius Flaccus: Oden und Epoden Ed. Richard Heinze. Berlin: Weidmannsche Verlaggsbuchhandlung, 1958. Lee, M. Owen. Word, Sound, and Image in the Odes of Horace Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1969. Levi, Peter. Horace: A Life London: Duckworth, 1997. Lowrie, Michle. Horaces Narrative Odes Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Lyne, R.O.A.M. Horace: Behind the Public Poetry New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. McNeill, Randall L.B. Horace: Image, Identity, and Audience Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. Moritz, L.A. Some Central Thoughts on Horaces Odes. CQ 18.1 (1968): 116-131. Newman, J.K. The Concept of Vates in Augustan Poetry Latomus 89. Bruxelles: Latomus, 1967. Nisbet, R.G.M., and M. Hubbard. A Commentary on Horace Odes, Book I Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. ---. A Commentary on Horace Odes, Book II Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. Nisbet, R.G.M., and Niall Rudd. A Commentary on Horace: Odes, Book III Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Oliensis, Ellen. Horace and the Rhetoric of Authority Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pomeroy, A.J. A Man at a Spring: Hor ace, Odes 1.1. In Anderson (1999): 3-19. Porter, David H. The Recurrent Motifs of Horace, Carmina IV. HSCP 79 (1975): 189228.

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54 ---. Horaces Poetic Journey: A Reading of Odes 1-3 Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987. Putnam, Michael C.J. Artifices of Eternity: Horaces Fourth Book of Odes Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. Reckford, Kenneth J. Horace New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1969. Santirocco, Matthew S. Unity and Design in Horaces Odes Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986. Shackleton Bailey, D.R. e.d. Horatius Opera Munich: Biblioteca Teubneriana, 2001. Syndikus, H.P. Some Structures in Horaces Odes. In Harrison (1995): 17-31. Tatum, James. Non Usitata Nec Tenui Ferar. AJP 94.1 (1973): 4-25. West, David. Reading Horace Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1967. ---. Horace Odes I: Carpe Diem Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. ---. Horace Odes II: Vatis Amici Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. ---. Horace Odes III: Dulce Periculum Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2002. White, Peter. Maecenas Retirement. CP 86.2 (1991): 130-138. Whitehorne, J.E.G. The Ambitious Builder. AUMLA 31 (1969): 28-39. Wickham, E.C. The Works of Horace Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896. Williams, Gordon. Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. Woodman, Tony. Exegi Monumentum: Horace, Odes 3.30 . In Anderson (1999): 205222.

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55 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kathleen Burt was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, on March 29, 1982. She attended school in St. Paul and graduated from Roseville Area High School in 2000. She graduated from St. Olaf College in 2004 with a Bachelor of Arts in classics and English. She will receive a Master of Arts in Latin from the University of Florida in 2006.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014327/00001

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Title: Beginnings, Middles, and Endings in Horace's Odes
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Material Information

Title: Beginnings, Middles, and Endings in Horace's Odes
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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BEGINNINGS, MIDDLES, AND ENDINGS IN HORACE' S ODES


By

KATHLEEN R. BURT














A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006















TABLE OF CONTENTS

A B S T R A C T ............ i.......................................................... iii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ..................................... ...................... ... ...... 1

2 M EET THE LYRIC POET .................. .................. .................. .......... 4

3 LOVE AND WINE: A POET'S TWO BEST FRIENDS..........................17

4 THE POET'S JOURNEY TO IMMORTALITY ........................................31

5 CANEMUS: THE POET'S FINAL INVITATION................................... 41

6 CONCLUSION ............ ..... ......................................... ...... .. 51

W ORKS CITED .................................. ................... ...... ......... 52

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......... ........................................55















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

BEGINNINGS, MIDDLES, AND ENDINGS IN HORACE'S ODES


By

Kathleen R. Burt

May 2006

Chair: Timothy S. Johnson
Major Department: Classics

As a skilled lyric poet, Horace wrote poems that not only entertain, but also teach

a lesson. Horace's major themes in the Odes consider how the poet and his poetry allow

the poet and humanity to overcome their mortal limitations, especially death. Horace's

use of imagery in the poems in the prominent places (beginning, middle, and end poems)

in each of the first three books of his Odes develops into a sequence revealing some of

his most important themes and how the poems interact to reinforce each other. The

beginning poems define the power of the poet and his poetry. The poems in the center set

forth Horace's advice on how to live well with the burden of mortality. The end poems

follow the poet on his transformation from mortal poet to immortal bard. Book 4 presents

a review of each of these major themes of the first three books.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Horace is a multifaceted writer. He is a satirist, iambist, lyricist, and literary critic.

Despite such versatility, Horace maintains one constant characteristic upon which he

bases his entire literary persona; through all the genres, Horace is metapoetic. His poetic

vocation is never far from his mind and it permeates his writings. In Horace's two lyric

collections, which together make up the four books of the Odes, he pays close attention to

the topic of poetry and its uses. Horace bases his lyrics on such past great lyricists as

Alcaeus, Sappho, and Pindar, but as Conte points out, never hesitates to proclaim his own

originality and creativity.1

Horace combines a few central themes including the brevity of life and the

achievements of poetic wisdom with a variety of lyric categories, which include love

poetry and hymns.2 Many scholars of Horatian lyric have noted the presence of these

thematic patterns that run throughout his works. However, scholarly opinions diverge

when they address the sequential nature of these patterns. For example, Fraenkel and

Nisbet and Hubbard treat the individual odes as essentially self-contained units.3 Others

have sought out ways in which to read either of the lyric collections as cohesive units by





1 Conte (1994: 303-306).
2 Conte (1994: 306-312).

3 Fraenkel (1957); Nisbet and Hubbard (1968: xi-xxvi). Even Fraenkel (1957) must admit to some overall
organization. He divides Odes 1-3 into poems that relate to Alcaeus or other Greek lyricists, Maecenas,
Agrippa and Pollio, Agustus, the epilogue odes; then Book 4.






2


examining narrative structure or arrangement.4 Besides the coherence of entire sections

or runs of poems, Moritz has marked out how Horace attaches significance to certain

locations in his poetry, namely the center.

Although scholars have examined potential unity within the Odes and the

importance Horace places on certain locations in his poetry, very little has been said on

the possibility of using thematic unity and programmatic locations to look at all four

books of Horace's Odes. In a book of poetry, special attention is generally given to the

poems in three locations in a book: the beginning, middle and end. In this respect, Horace

is no different. Further, what has not been given nearly enough consideration is how

Horace might use a sequence of images spread over multiple poems across several books.

Since Horace undeniably wrote intricate poetry, it is not unreasonable to investigate how

Horace might expand not only themes but also imagery in sequences spanning several

6
poems.

Some attention has also been given to investigating the imagery that Horace uses.

Scholars' efforts range from studies of specific odes, to tracing a single image throughout

an entire book or collection, to how the poet in general used imagery in his works.7

Horace's use of imagery in the poems in the prominent places in each book of his two



4 See Santirocco (1986) and Porter (1987) on arrangement; Lowrie (1997) on narrative. The most detailed
(and in some ways extreme) analysis of Horace's structure remains Dettmer (1983).

5 Moritz (1968); Fraenkel (1957: 297-307) treats specially the epilogues to Books 1-3.

6 Collinge (1961: 4-18) investigates how Horace uses verbal echoes between multiple odes and within a
single ode, but does not extend his analysis to trace patterns that run through all four books.

7 Specific odes: for example, Tatum (1973) on Ode 2.20, and Pomeroy (1999) on Ode 1.1; a simple image
in an entire collection: Commager (1957) on wine, Blaiklock (1959) on storms, and Porter (1975) on
certain themes and images in Book 4; general considerations of Horatian imagery: Andrewes (1950). Lee
(1969) discusses Horace's imagery and his use of language for effect.









lyric collections develops into a sequence revealing some of his most important themes

and how the poems interact to reinforce the themes of human mortality and the lyric

poet's triumph over death. These themes and the accompanying images at the beginning,

middle, and end of Horace's lyrics affirm the poet's identity as Rome's immortal bard.














CHAPTER 2
MEET THE LYRIC POET

The lead odes to each of the three books of Horace's first lyric collection present

a thematic course maintained by consistent imagery defining the character of the poet and

his poetry. This linear progression develops into a sequence defining the supremacy of

lyric poetry and asserting the poet's power. Ode 1.1 privileges the poet's vocation above

all human endeavors, while Ode 2.1 declares the primacy of Horace's specific genre,

lyric. Ode 3.1 envisions the poet as the special favorite of the divine, proclaiming him a

priest of the Muses.

Anticipating the rewards for his poetic labors, Horace claims at the end of Ode 1.1

that he will become immortal, although he realizes that even as the lyric bard his

immortality will be dependant upon the appreciation and applause of his patron,

Maecenas. Horace indicates reliance upon Maecenas at the beginning and end of the ode,

which makes the first song a dedication to his friend and patron. The extent of Horace's

acknowledgement is not immediately apparent, since after the ardent praise for Maecenas

in the first two lines of the poem (Maecenas, atavis edite regibus, /o etpraesidium et

dulce decus meum, 1.1.1-2) Maecenas all but disappears.1 Instead, the body of the ode

rolls through a list of traditional Roman occupations, which each practitioner prefers

above any other, capped by the poet's conclusion that poetry is the best of all possible

human activities. Maecenas reappears in the last two lines as the purveyor of the poet's



1 All quotations of Horace are taken from Shackleton Bailey's Teubner edition (1985).










fame (quodsi me lyrics vatibus inseres, 1.1.35), indicating that even Horace is not

immune from the need of some support.2

The list of professions begins with what appears to be an idyllic, positive view of

employment all engaged in a quest for fame, but as Horace lists occupations, he

becomes increasingly pessimistic, pointing out the problems inherent in each line of

work. The athlete, the politician, and someone in the grain trade3 form a group that is

connected by one lengthy relative clause (sunt quos. .. iuvat, 1.3-4) and a pair of

demonstratives (hunc, 1.1.7; illum, 1.1.9). Each participates in a profession regarded as

an honorable pursuit through which to gain renown. Athletic glory is represented by the

palma nobilis, which raises the winners as masters of the lands up to the gods (1.1.6).4

The politician also seeks to gain recognition from the citizens of Rome in order to be

exalted (1.1.7-8). The unspoken problem with these pursuits is that they are dependent

upon the fickle mob (mobilium turba Quiritium, 1.1.7). The final member of this group,

the grain trader, also seeks power over the Roman populace, although his chosen method

is the manipulation of the grain supply.5 The more selfish motives of the grain trader



2 One explanation for Maecenas' relative scarcity in the Odes can be attributed to the poet's quest for
obtaining greater fame by appealing to the Roman people at large for approval. For more on this
interpretation, see Oliensis (1998: 152, 156, 180, 227); Johnson (2 "14 xiii, 67-68). Pomeroy (1980:5-6)
proposes that Maecenas is gradually transformed into a general reader to whom Horace makes his appeal.
A second explanation could be the theory that Maecenas fell out of favor with Augustus, and accordingly
lost control over the literary group he had founded. For discussion and refutation of this idea, see White
(1991: 130-136).

3 The illum could be either a large landowner or a grain trader (See Nisbet and Hubbard [hereafter referred
to as NH] 1970: 8).

4 The dominos in line 6 is strategically placed to refer to the quos in apposition as well as to the deos. In
agreement with NH (1970: 6), I have to chosen to accept the reading of dominos primarily modifying quos
(the athletes), which balances the later relationship between the poet and the divine.

5 During his reign Augustus made considerable contributions to improving Rome's grain supply by
streamlining the distribution system and personally directing disbursements (See Suet. Div. Aug. 40-41;
Augustus R.G. 5, 18).









mark a more pessimistic turning point in the list of occupations that Horace develops in

the next group of careers.

The next series of jobs takes on an even darker tone as Horace pays tribute to the

honorable farmer (gaudentem patriosfindere sarculo / agros, 1.1.11-12) but makes no

effort to hide the difficulty of the job through the symbolism of the splitting of unfriendly

fields with nothing but the sarculum.6 Horace's analysis bypasses any mention of the

fruits of successful labor. The mercator, forced by greed to risk the dangers of sailing

(mercator metuens otium et oppidi /laudat rura sui, mox reficit rates /quassas, indocilis

pauperiem pati, 1.1.16-18), parallels the very unhappy sailor (Myrtoum pavidus nauta

secet mare, 1.1.14) pictured just before him. Both must risk life and limb for the sake of

profit. The soldier and hunter, their occupations being even more dangerous, are

chastised for disrupting their family life. The hunter's disregard for his wife (venator

tenerae coniungis immemor, 1.1.26) and the soldier's for his mother (castra

iuvant... bellaque matribus detestata, 1.1.23-25) emphasize the pains of their jobs.7 Each

of these professional choices serves to enhance the idealization of the poet that Horace

will finally introduce at the close of the poem.

When readers reach the description of the poet at the conclusion of the poem

(1.1.29-36), they are reminded of a mysterious individual who already appeared at the

center of Ode 1.1. This idyllic character (1.1.19-22) creates a break in the increasingly

pessimistic view of human aspirations. The mystery man at the center is not easily

separated out from the preceding pursuits since he is linked grammatically to the list of


6 The sarculum was a tool used to till rocky difficult soil, a labor intensive, difficult activity (See Cato
Agr.155; Pliny Nat. 18.178; NH 1970: 9).

7 Pomeroy (1980: 9-10).









occupations, but the similarities end there.8 Instead of striving for fame and/or fortune,

this man prefers simply to lie back and enjoy himself. The poet describes this person as a

man who likes to enjoy a cup of wine, while reclining under a shady tree or resting by a

sacred brook (nec veteris pocula Massici /nec partem solido demere de die /spernit,

nunc viridi membra sub arbuto /stratus, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae, 1.1.19-22).

Because he is not defined by a particular occupation as the others, the reader is left to

wonder what sort of professional label to apply. Now, when the poet appears as a definite

character, the reader is reminded of the previously unspecified figure by similarities in

imagery. The mystery man is surrounded by sympotic symbols including wine, green

leaves, and a sacred spring (pocula Massici, viridus arbutus, and aqua sacra), which

parallels the poet's Satyr-companions, ivy crown and cool grove, and the nymphs (chorus

Satyri, docta hedera/ gelidum nemus, and nymphae, 1.1.29-31). By placing this generic

embodiment of carefree living in the middle of the parade of ordinary jobs, Horace

prepares the reader for the appearance of the blissful poet at the end of the poem.9 In the

poem's conclusion the singer distinguishes his own vocation and signals that it alone

offers idyllic relief from the problems of everyday life.

Whether or not the reader identifies the poet with the idealized escapist at the

center of the poem, 10 the imagery Horace uses in the last stanza, when the poet makes an

appearance, demonstrates how poetry allows the poet to escape the dangers of the earthly

realm. The poet's reward, the crown of ivy, will associate the lyric poet with the gods (me

8 The first set of occupations is introduced by sunt quos (1.1.3), which is paralleled by est qui (1.1.19)
introducing the mystery man.

9 See West (1995: 4) on the elements of the absurd in the descriptions of occupations.

10 The ambiguous aspect of this character makes the question of who he might be difficult to answer. In
their commentaries both Garrison (1991: 201) and West (1995: 6) point out the ambiguity, while Johnson
_'i" 14 66) considers this person to be the poet.









doctarum hederae praemia frontium /dis miscent superis, 1.1.29-30). This glory is better

than what athletes and politicians strive after (evehit addeos, 1.1.6), because the poet

actually reaches his goal of mingling with the immortals (dis miscent superis, 1.1.30).

Likewise, the companionship of nymphs and Satyrs in groves separates the poet from the

rest of humanity (1.1.31-32), 1 as long as the Muses, who favor the poet, continue to

bless him (1.1.33-34). Horace concludes that when he reaches the ranks of the lyric vates,

he will reside with the stars in the sky (1.1.35-6), a common depiction of apotheosis. This

eternal glory cannot be achieved without the approval of the poet's patron Maecenas, a

fact that the poet acknowledges with the return of Maecenas at the conclusion of the

poem (quod si me lyrics vatibus inseres, /sublimiferiam sidera vertice, 1.1.35-6).

Horace must look for applause from Maecenas to achieve his goal, even at the risk of

struggling with the same shortcoming the poet associates with the previously cataloged

professions: the need for human approval. 12

After declaring the preeminence of his poetic vocation in Ode 1.1, the

introduction to Book 2 (Ode 2.1) specifically privileges Horace's chosen genre of lyric by

comparing his (lyric) poetry to the writings and career of Gaius Asinius Pollio.13 The

poet sets up the comparison of his own works and Pollio's by examining everything that

Pollio has done to make a name for himself, beginning with a celebration of Pollio's




1 This separation can refer to either the peace of the countryside away from the crowded city or the
rejection of popular approval, a sentiment Horace will repeat in Ode 3.1 (cf. NH 1970: 14).
12 Cp. S. 1.9.43-59. Horace shows that there is a difference between the turba Quiritium and Maecenas,
since the pest still decides to try to bribe Maecenas after Horace tells him that Maecenas admits people to
the circle based on merit.

13 Pollio's topics include such serious subjects as civil disturbance, war, and alliances (Motum exMetello
consule civicum /bellique causes et vitia et modos / ludumque Fortunae gravisque /principum amicitias,
2.1.1-4) as opposed to Horace's lighter lyrics.









now-lost history and his other accomplishments. 14 Pollio's list of achievements, including

his work as a tragic playwright, legal prowess, and military skills, recognizes the power

of Pollio's writing and fame (2.1.1-16). The Civil War and its politics that Pollio claimed

as the subject of his history are described as risky topics (periculosae plenum opus aleae,

2.1.6). The dangers could refer either to the perils the men in his writings faced or the

treacherous political intricacies of writing contemporary history under the principate. By

reviewing Pollio's role in Rome's illustrious history, Horace sets the stage for his own

foray into the genre of history, in spite of his recognition of the risks (2.1.1-8).

Despite the dangers, Horace finds himself drawn by the allure of an historical

project (audire magnos iam videor duces, 2.1.21), and in the following three stanzas

Horace turns suddenly from describing Pollio's historical work to imitating them. But

before Horace broaches history, he lends an ironic tone to his surrender to history by

borrowing an image from a previous poem on the subject of writing as a way of

achieving fame. The imagery of the wreath of leaves (the laurus of 2.1.15) bestowing

eternal honor recalls the lyric poet's reward from Ode 1.1 (hederae praemia, 1.1.29). The

fame granted by the leafy wreath has a double beneficiary in Ode 2.1: Pollio for his

literary and other historical accomplishments and the lyric poet for recording them. This

allusion to the poet and the delay of Pollio's name until the fourth stanza foreshadow the

poet's ultimate assertion of lyric over history.

When Horace writes history (2.1.16-36), he uses the lyric present to enliven the

historical past as well as dramatize the loss of Roman life in the hostilities that occurred

in both the poet's own generation and those previous. Horace's version of history begins


14 Cf. West (1998: 5-8); NH (1978: 8-9).









in the past (Iuno et deorum quisquis ... cesserat ... rettulit, 2.1.25-7) but quickly

transitions to similar horrific events in the present (quis non testatur, 2.1.29-31).

Horace repeats this pattern of comparison between past and present in the rest of his

historical account (Qui gurges .. ignara belli, 2.1.33-4; quae caret ora, 2.1.36). For the

lyric poet, time moves backwards from the present to the past, and then returns back to

the present. Horace first refers to the Civil Wars (2.1.19-23) within living memory of the

poet's generation. 15 Next, he wonders whether the gods who fled Carthage for Rome are

sacrificing Roman lives to avenge or appease lugurtha (2.1.26-8), events which occurred

a generation before (146-104 B.C.). The poet ends the list of violent encounters with the

even more recent Parthian invasion (2.1.31-2). The high death rate in these conflicts is

represented by the streams and rivers and oceans and shores all facing an overwhelming

loss of life. In Horace's lyric history, the singer personifies the field of battle, the rivers

and streams, the oceans, and the shores as the witnesses of the slaughter (2.1.29-36).

Horace emphasizes the breadth of the loss by wondering if any water or land has not

experienced Roman deaths (2.1.33-36). The poet increases the drama by recounting

events starting in the present and moving towards the past, and enhances the effects by

employing dramatic metaphors.

Suddenly the poet comes to his senses and returns to the point at which he began.

He advises Pollio to set aside serious genres for lighter lyric (sedne retractes ...

quaere, 2.1.37-40). 16 Horace's version of events and the suddenness of the shift

illustrates how the poet's genre can do what Pollio would attempt, but with an extra


15 West (1998: 7-13) discusses the specific instances of allusions to various battles that took place in this
time period, including those at Pharsalus (48 B.C.) and Thapsus (46 B.C.).
16 Horace's attempt to imitate and outperform Pollio is discussed in depth by Lowrie (1997: 180-185). See
Henderson (1996) for a detailed analysis of Horace's treatment of Pollio's life and works in Ode 2.1.










attraction. Horace can write about the same serious subjects but actually make them come

alive in the lyrical present time. Horace recreates the sounds and sights of battle for his

reader (iam nunc ... iam iam iam):

iam nunc minaci murmure cornuum
perstringis auris, iam litui strepunt,
iam fulgor armorum fugacis
terret equos equitumque vultus.

audire magnos iam videor duces
non indecoro pulvere sordidos
et cuncta terrarum subacta
praeter atrocem animum Catonis.
(2.1.17-24)

[Right now you deaden your ears with the menacing roar of horns, now
trumpets blare, now the flash of weapons puts fear into the fleeing
horses and the faces of the riders. Now I seem to hear the great leaders
dirtied with no inglorious dust, and all of the lands subdued, except the
fierce spirit of Cato].


Horace increases the drama of the historical account by involving multiple senses within

a series of dramatic metaphors (2.1.25-36): the personification of the trumpets and

flashing weapons; the audience listening to the battle as if it were a dramatic production

set on stage; the metonymy of Cato for the brave resistance to a dictator; the zeugma of

hearing the dirtied generals."

Following the gloomy depiction of war, Horace ends on a more cheerful note in

the conclusion of the poem by visualizing the lyric poet and his Muse collaborating to

escape the chaos of warfare. After bringing history to life, as he envisioned it, Horace

abruptly turns back to lighter lyric, and ends the ode with a final appeal to his own

playful Muse. The poet asks that the Muse not start up with dirges but accompany him

on a quest for lighter verses (2.1.37-40). The final stanza of Ode 2.1 consists of two

representations of poetic creativity that join forces to form a merry foil to the depressing


1 Shackleton Bailey removes the zeugma and replaces audire with videre.









and violent images of the rest of the poem. 18 The first is the Musa procax whom the poet

asks to put away the more serious songs of mourning. The second is the poet in a grotto

writing lighter verses. Horace combines the two by asking the Muse to join forces with

the poet in the grove for the composition of lyric verses. By the end of the poem, lyric

prevails through history and over history.

In Ode 2.1 Horace illustrates that his genre of lyric can encompass the supposedly

more elevated genres of history and tragedy. He reasserts the power of lyric by seemingly

allowing himself to be taken in by serious topics (2.1.16-36), and then performing them

in a lyric manner. The victory of lyric at the end of the poem recalls the previous

introductory ode (1.1) in which Horace uses the same tactic of saving the triumphal poet

for the end. He chooses imagery for the representation of lyric that is remarkably similar

to the scene he used for the triumph of the poet's calling at the end of Ode 1.1. In Ode 2.1

Horace shows the poet performing his craft in a grotto mecumm Dionaeo sub antro /

quaere modos leviore plectro, 2.1.39-40), which closely recalls the corresponding scene

in Ode 1.1 in which the poet composes his verses in leafy, sympotic surroundings (me

gelidum nemus ... quodsi me lyrics vatibus inseres, 1.1.30-36). By linking the first two

beginning odes,19 Horace creates a thematic progression that will be maintained in the

introductory odes of his first collection. In Ode 1.1 Horace predicts that he will rise to

meet the gods; in Ode 2.1 he requests a meeting with his Muse. The next ode in the

sequence reveals what will come of this meeting.

In Ode 3.1 the poet returns to earth from his heavenly get-together in the mystic

grotto in order to provide direction and instruction to a floundering race of mortals as the

18 Syndikus (1995: 18).

19 Ode 2.1 contains references to Ode 1.38 as well as Ode 1.1 (cf. Lowrie, 1997: 168-171).









priest of the Muse. Horace begins the ode by casting himself in the part of the priest of

the Muse, a role traditionally reserved for those with a special connection to the divine.

Horace uses the separation of the poet from ordinary mortals (Odiprofanum et vulgus et

arceo, 3.1.1) as a platform from which to speak. This separation has opened a debate

because although the poet separates himself from the general public, he takes on the role

of a priest preparing to sing a hymn (favete linguis: carmina non prius audita Musarum

sacerdos /virginibuspuerisque canto, 3.1.2-4), which is a distinctly public role.20

Horace creates a balance between the public and private spheres of his poetry by

presenting public and private aspects in combination. The very first words of Ode 3.1

proclaim a dislike for the general public (Odiprofanum vulgus arceo, 3.1.1), and the

poem ends with the poet enjoying the solitude of his (private) Sabine estate (3.1.45-8).

The private aspect at the end of the poem demonstrates that the poet is not in the same

league as the rest of the world. In contrast, the poem introduces the poet in a grand public

role of a priest (3.1.2-3). The poetic role as a priest accounts for the very philosophical

tone of the poem as well as justifies the advice the poet gives on how to live well. Since

the poet-priest inhabits both the worlds of the divine and mortal, he can give advice to

humanity on how to live in a way that is agreeable to them and the gods.21

Once the poet-priest has established his authority at the opening of the song, he

reveals his life-philosophy by stating the problem with the typical human notion that

wealth solves problems. The poet-priest then proposes his solution. Since even the most

20 Both Fraenkel (1957: 263-265) and Reckford (1969: 73-74) offer full discussions on the public and
private aspects of Ode 3.1.

21 Horace identifies himself as a vates in 1.1.35, a term which appears frequently in the Odes (in poems
1.31.2; 2.20.3; 3.19.15; 2.6.24; 4.6.44; 4.3.15; 4.8.27) referring to the prophet/poet. The term is quite
appropriate for the context of the human poet with the authority to grant divine dispensation. See Newman
(1967: 43-74) for a thorough discussion of Horace and the concept of vates.









powerful kings on Earth have to answer to the gods (3.1.5-8), clearly Fate does not care

in what way or how much someone is successful (omne capax movet urna nomen,

3.1.16), and this overshadowing indiscriminant threat (destrictus ensis, 3.1.17) is what

keeps men up at night. Before observing that no amount of wealth can bring peace of

mind (non Siculae dapes / dulcem elaborabunt saporem, /non avium citharaeque cantus

/somnum reducent, 3.1.18-21), Horace clearly states that Fate does not play favorites

(aequa lege Necessitas /sortitur insignis et imos, 3.1.14-15). This reflection leads into

the first central stanza (3.1.21-24) that states the poet's perspective on how to live

properly. Sleep, the ode's symbol for peace of mind, does not shun the homes of the

humble farmer or the shady riverbank of the poet. As opposed to those overshadowed by

wealth (3.1.17-21), neither farmer nor poet carry the burden that would deprive them of

sleep. The differentiation between those who suffer the loss of sleep, because of their

false trust in wealth, and those who do not foreshadows the specific criteria for living the

good life that the poet sets forth in the following stanza.22

The second central stanza (3.1.25-8) turns towards the final message of the

23
poem,23 which proposes a method for avoiding the worries humanity brings upon itself

by trying to achieve more than the necessities for survival. The poet illustrates his

teaching by praising the example of those who only seek enough to be comfortable.

These people do not share in ordinary human worries (desiderantem quodsatis est neque

... sollicitat 3.1.25-6). Horace elaborates his description of good living with a list of



22 The shady riverbank provides the pastoral link in 3.1 to the other introductory odes.

23 The ode consists of 12 stanzas, which places the center of the poem at stanzas 5 and 6. Stanza 5 is end-
stopped, which allows the second central stanza (stanza 6) to begin a new thought. The two stanzas neatly
divide the poem into two halves; the first half describes the problem humanity faces in attempting to avoid
Fate, while the second half gives advice on what to do and not do to achieve peace of mind.









things such a person does not need to worry about, including storms or bad weather that

damage crops. By seeking only what is needed for survival, humankind need not fear the

destructive forces of nature (3.1.27-32). The examples from nature continue in the

following stanzas, but now it is nature that is threatened by humanity. The fish are

displaced by a building project on the water's edge, an act of human progress that

symbolizes humanity's disregard for the boundaries set by nature.24 The punishment for

this violation of natural order is clear. The one who invites trouble and pushes beyond

nature's boundaries will be haunted by Timor etMinae ... et atra Cura (3.1.37-40).

Horace links Ode 3.1 to the previous introductory odes by ending with the lyric

poet as the ultimate example for the good life. Odes 1.1 and 2.1 both end with the poet as

the picture of contentment in a pastoral scene, while Ode 3.1 concludes with the poet

proclaiming his enduring preference for where he is: his Sabine villa on his country

estate.25 The poet uses himself as an example (cur valle permutem Sabina /divitias

operosiores?, 3.1.47-8) to sum up his point that with specters such as Fear, Threat, and

Worry waiting as the reward for greed and ambition, he recommends retreat to a more

idyllic place.

The imagery of the sympotic/pastoral poet holds together the three introductory

odes, and provides a consistent means for the lyric poet's unfolding message. In each of

these odes, the poet is always shown in an idyllic pastoral/sympotic scene immune to the

uncertainty and violence that disturbs the rest of the world. Ode 1.1 establishes the poet

as the ideal occupation and Ode 2.1 proves that lyric is the best genre. Ode 3.1 presents a


24 See Whitehorne (1969) for the metaphoric use of building over nature in early Imperial Latin poetry.

25 Compared to Tibur, the Sabine region was not the most fashionable, which allows the poet again to
emphasize his moderation. Horace himself admits that his farm may not be the richest but it gives him
enough (3.16.29-44). For a discussion of Horace's real estate holdings, see Lyne (1995: 6-10).









didactic portrait about the poet's unostentatious way of living as the only means to have a

carefree life. By proceeding from vocation to genre to way of life, Horace declares the

poet's preeminence while he moves in a practical way from heaven to earth. Horace also

neatly provides for the reader three major themes of his poetry in the introductory odes of

his first lyric collection. The poet continues to develop aspirations of the vates, the

supremacy of lyric, and living the simple life throughout the rest of the Odes.26


26 E.g. Odes 1.1; 1.6; 1.7; 1.11; 1.17; 1.22; 1.26; 1.31; 1.38; 2.18; 2.20; 3.1; 3.16; 3.24; 3.30.














CHAPTER 3
LOVE AND WINE: A POET'S TWO BEST FRIENDS

In Books 1-3 of Horace's Odes, the odes in the central positions within their

respective books present a thematic sequence on how to live. In this sequence the poet

demonstrates humanity's futile struggle to obtain control of its destiny by using wealth

(3.16) or by simply refusing to accept fate (3.15). Horace reveals the two main elements

of the lyric poet's strategy for good living, aurea mediocritas (2.10) and carpe diem

(2.11), which can end these struggles. Horace's specific remedies for the pains of the

human condition are love (1.18) and wine (1.19), as long as they are used in a manner

compatible with both elements of his life-strategy. Together these central poems express

the idea that only the poet, by using his lyric powers, can rise above the limitations of

humanity.

The central pair of odes in Book 3 illustrates both that the human struggle against

its mortal fate is destined to fail and that the poet is exempt from such worries because of

his poetic skill. The first of the two poems (3.15) gives an example of what not to do in

order to preserve youthfulness. The second (3.16) broadens the discussion to how

humanity in general attempts to use wealth to gain control over its destiny. While 3.16

presents a more general human problem and the poet's solution, 3.15 gives an

introduction to humanity's foolishness through a specific example of the matron Chloris

who refuses to grow old.1



1 Nisbet and Rudd (2'1 1'4 194-195) and West (2I" 14 132-133) both offer an analysis of the name 'Chloris'.









In Ode 3.15 the poet first presents the correct way for Chloris' young daughter,

Phloe, to act (filia rectius /.. lascivae similiem ludere capreae, 3.15.8-12), and then

parallels it with the description of proper behavior for her mother, Chloris. Horace's

description of the wild, barely controlled lifestyle of the younger woman is concise and

pointed. The daughter assails her beloved at his home (expugnat iuvenum domos, 3.15.9)

like a Bacchant (pulso Thyias uti concita tympano, 3.15.10). Phloe is forced by lust to act

like a she-goat in heat (illam cogat amor Nothi / lascivae similem ludere capreae,

3.15.11-12). The imagery of the Bacchant and the she-goat both set up parallels to the

following description of how the mother should behave. The mother should avoid

sympotic behavior: no music, wine and flowers (non citharae decent /necflospurpureus

rosae /nec poti vetulamfaece tenus cadi, 3.15.14-16). While the young daughter Phloe

plays like a goat (lasciva caprea), the old mother Chloris ought to stay home and spin

wool (te lanae prope nobilem / tonsae Luceriam, 3.15.13-14). Both times the young

woman is compared with the old, the poet directly tells the older woman that what is

expected of the daughter is not appropriate for her (non decet, 3.15.7-8; non decent,

3.15.14). The poet's disapproval of Chloris' behavior points out that what is permissible

for her daughter Phloe is no longer appropriate for the mother (3.15.7-8; 14-16).

When the poet first introduces this Roman matron, she is engaged in behavior

unbecoming to her age, and the poet commands her to stop with a pair of imperatives:

nequitiaefige modum tuae (3.15.2) and mature propior desinefuneri / inter ludere

virgines (3.15.4-5). The poet tells Chloris that she should present herself as an honorable









Lucretia-like character, 2 spending her time at the loom (3.15.13-14) instead of with

music, flowers, and wine (3.15.15-16), which are emblematic of the symposion and

young lovers. Ode 3.15 contains poetic advice on proper behavior in the face of human

destiny but offers no positive model for those confronting the human dilemma. Horace

delays such a positive model until Ode 3.16, when he presents the poet himself as the

model for correct behavior and broadens the struggle against fate to humanity in general.

In Ode 3.16 divine laughter at the human attempt to defy fate defines the futility

of humankind's struggle before the poet ever presents the human race's flawed solution

of using wealth to control their lives. The gods laugh at King Acrisius' attempt to avoid

the fulfillment of an oracle that his daughter Danae would bear a son who would kill him

(si non Acrisium virginis abditae /custodem pavidum luppiter et Venus / rissent, 3.16.5-

7). The tower with its walls, dogs, and watchmen that the king thought would keep lovers

out (3.16.1-4) is ineffective because the gods know the secret to overcome any human

barrier, gold (fore enim tutum iter etpatens converseo inpretium deo, 3.16.7-8). The

image of the shower of gold does double duty because a metaphoric interpretation shows

the futility of trying to outrun the powers that govern human life, while a literal

interpretation provides the first example of humanity's misguided love for money aurumm

per medios ire satellites /et perrumpere amat saxa, 3.16.9-10).3

The poet continues to combine the literal and symbolic by introducing both

historic and mythological examples of how gold can lead to destruction. An entire



2 Chloris as the uxor pauperis Ibyci (3.15.1) refuses to accept both her status as a poor man's wife and an
aging matron. Garrison (1990: 317), West (2002: 132), and Nisbet and Rudd (2i" 14 192) briefly examine
the exact connotation of the name and description of the husband as 'poor Ibycus.'

3 Lowrie (1997: 46) notes that the story of Danae is a crucial part of the argument of the poem and not
merely a convenient exemplum.









household destroyed by money (concidit auguris /Argivi domus ob lucrum / demersa

exitio, 3.16.11-13) illustrates the disastrous affects of the human weakness for profit.

Polyneices bribed Amphiaraus' wife Eriphyle with Harmonia's necklace to ensure that

her husband would join the seige of Thebes. This act of bribery resulted in Amphiaraus'

death, as well as Eriphyle's at the hands of her son Alcmaeon who avenged his father.

Alcmaeon also died, when he tried to secure the necklace for his own wife. Phillip of

Macedon's exploitation of the same weakness to the detriment of rival leaders (diffidit

urbium /portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos / reges muneribus, 3.13-15) provides an

example of the destructive nature of wealth from Greek history. Horace's examples of

human greed also demonstrate that money is capable of destruction at sea as well as on

land (munera navium / saevos illaqueant duces, 3.16.15-16).4

After listing a series of negative examples, Horace provides the positive examples

of good living, which include both the poet and his patron Maecenas. Horace presents his

patron and himself side-by-side (iure perhorrui /late conspicuum tollere verticem,

Maecenas, equitum decus, 3.16.18-20).5 Horace refuses to make more of a spectacle of

himself than he should, and praises Maecenas for doing the same. By addressing

Maecenas specifically as an equites, the poet implies that Maecenas also avoids the

spotlight because Maecenas refused elevation to the patrician ranks as a senator. The

noun decus, which invites comparison to Ode 1.1, where Horace addresses Maecenas'





4 Do these verses a reference the Roman admiral Menas who switched sides three times in four years during
the war between Pompey and Octavian? See West (1998: 154) in support of the Menas reading; Lowrie
(1997: 33) considers the sea captain a generalization.

5 Fraenkel (1957: 229-230) explains the importance of Horace's address to Maecenas in the middle of Book
3 as a dedication.









royal ancestry (Maecenas, atavis edite regibus, /o etpraesidium et dulce decus meum,

1.1.1-2), emphasizes the magnitude of Maecenas' choice, as well as the poet's approval.

Horace surrounds the positive examples of himself and his patron with a pointed

gnomic pronouncement against wealth and in favor of the benefits of moderation. Horace

states that the problem with profit is that more money only means more worries

(crescentem sequitur curapecuniam / maiorumque fames, 3.16.17-18). Then the lyric

poet moves on to the benefits that accompany his and Maecenas' lifestyle, especially the

heavenly favors that result from moderation (quanto quisque sibiplura negaverit, /ab dis

pluraferet, 3.16.21-22). After securing divine blessing, Horace separates himself from

the majority of humanity who subscribe to the use of wealth for a better life (nil

cupientium /nudus castrapeto et transfuga divitum partiess linquere gestio, 3.16.22-24).

Horace ends Ode 3.16 by contrasting the example of someone who does not

follow his advice (multapetentibus desunt multa, 3.16.42-43) with someone who does

(bene est cui deus obtulit /parca quod satis est manu, 3.16.43-44) and thereby succeeds

in escaping from the trap of trying to avoid fate. Likewise, the poet himself has wisely

kept a low profile (iure perhorrui /late conspicuum tollere verticem, 3.16.18-19). Horace

goes on to claim that he is proud that his own possessions seem inconsequential to the

rest of the world (3.25-28).6 Horace acknowledges that he has some wealth but

emphasizes that it is only enough to be comfortable (quamquam nec Calabrae mella

ferunt apes /. .. importuna tamen pauperies abest, 3.16.33-37). The lyric poet defines

what is necessary as some water, trees and dependable crop (purae rivus aquae silvaque

iugerum /paucorum et segetis certa fides meae, 3.16.29-30). The comfortable but not


6 3.16.18-19 contain two references back to Ode 1.1: the image of the poet raising his head (sublimiferiam
sidera vertice, 1.1.36) and the address to Maecenas (dulce decus, 1.1.2).









excessive yield of the poet's holdings provides an example of what is enough. He may

not have the best honey, wine, or wool (3.16.33-36) but Horace makes clear he has

enough to live well (importuna tamen pauperies abest, 3.16.37). Horace knows that the

gods will provide everything necessary to those who accept the poet's advice (3.16.43-

44).7

Humanity's rebellion against its mortal destiny and the poet's ability to avoid this

battle is a primary link between Book 3 and Book 2. Ode 3.16 investigates wealth as one

of ways most people attempt to influence destiny, while Ode 2.11 specifically defines the

poet's strategy for coping with a fixed destiny through the carpe diem outlook. Ode 3.15

admonishes the aging Chloris to stop acting like her daughter Phloe, while Ode 2.11

exhorts Hirpinus Quintius to have fun while he is still young enough to do so. Horace's

advice to Quintius parallels his description of the youthful Phloe. The lyric poet balances

the exuberance of his carpe diem attitude (2.11) with the principle of mediocritas (2.10).

This balance allows the poet to live well, perhaps even beyond the limitations of his

mortality. Together Odes 2.10 and 2.11 advocate both aurea mediocritas and carpe diem,

which are the poet's essential components for a good life.

Ode 2.11 again consists of two contrasting sections: one describing what not to

do, while the second part of the poem describes how life ought to be lived. Horace sets

out what not to do in a pair of commands to Quintius that he should not worry about what

foreign nations are plotting (Quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes, /Hirpine Quinti,

cogitet... remittas / quaerere, 2.11.1-4) and not worry about the future (nec trepides in

usum /poscentis aevipauca, 2.11.4-5). Horace uses the question "why worry about

7 The poet makes clear the divine favor for those who use moderation by using a relative pronoun (cui) in
reference to the man who decides to live according to the poet's recommendation.









what's going to happen?" (quid aeternis minorem / consilis animum fatigas?, 2.11.11-

12) to transition into his advice on how to counter the potentially debilitating effects of

worrying about what the future might bring. Horace's answer to the problem of worrying

about what cannot be changed is carpe diem.8 The setting is a sympotic scene similar to

the one that the poet used when describing the superiority of his vocation and ideal

lifestyle (cp. Ode 1.1).9 The scene sets the idyllic atmosphere of lying under trees,

drinking, and adorning graying hair with roses and perfume (cur non sub alta velplatano

vel hac /pinu iacentes sic temere et rosa / canos odorati capillos, / dum licet, Assyriaque

nardo potamus uncti, 2.11.13-17). This brief allusion to the gray head makes the point

that youth and beauty are short-lived for everyone, including the poet. Therefore, Horace

includes himself as well as his audience in his invitation to enjoy life: "why do we not

drink" (cur non potamus, 2.11.14-7).

The poet is quite blunt with his imagery that youth and beauty will not only

shortly be lost but will be accompanied by the absence of pleasurable love and sleep

(2.11.5-9). The spring beauty of flowers and the blushing moon, symbols of youth, are

doomed to fade (2.11.9-11). The switch from the second person (remittas /quaerere, nec

trepides in usum /poscentis aevipauca, 2.11.3-5) to the third person (fugit retro levis

iuventas et decor, 2.11.5-6; non semper idem floribus est honor / vernis, neque uno luna

rubens nitet / vultu, 2.11.9-11) and back to the second (quid aeternis minorem /consiliis

animumfatigas?, 2.11.11-12) gives Horace's instructions to Quintius a very personal

edge that Quintius should not ignore. Carpe diem is not a luxury but a necessity.



8 Harrison offers two possible interpretations: the poet may be attempting to cheer up a friend or simply
describing an ideal retirement (1995: 23, 256).

9 For the discussion on how Odes 1.1, 2.1 and 3.1 present sympotic imagery, see the previous chapter.









Horace, through sympotic scenery, proposes the appropriate reaction to human

mortality. Once the poet has crowned old men with roses and anointed them with

perfume (rosa / canos odorati capillos, /dum licet, Assyriaque nardo /potamus uncti?,

2.11.14-17), he introduces his answer to the problems of aging: wine and women

(dissipat Euhius curas edacis .. / quis devium scortum eliciet domo /Lyden?, 2.11.17-

22). Wine and love complete the sympotic atmosphere and provide a way to regain some

of what was lost with age.10

Horace asks two general questions about his proposed solution, both directed as if

to a larger audience, indicating their universality. Horace first asks which slave more

quickly will quench the cups of burning Falernian wine with water flowing nearby (quis

puer ocius / restinguet ardentis Falerni /pocula praetereunte lympha, 2.11.18-20). The

second question sets up the hopeful conclusion that the poem reaches: "Who will go and

bring Lyde?" The poet suggests that someone should go get the girl (quis devium scortum

eliciet domo /Lyden?, 1.11.21-22). The girl should make herself pretty, bring her lyre,

and come over as soon as she can (eburna die, age, cum lyra maturet incomptam

Lacaenae /more comam religata nodo, 2.11.22-4). 1 The imperatives suggest not only

eagerness but also a certainty that the request will be honored, thus ending the ode with

the idea that with the carpe diem outlook even the worries of old age can be avoided. 12

The carpe diem invitation and pleasures of the party in Ode 2.11 are balanced by

the mediocritas of Ode 2.10. Ode 2.11 suggests putting aside worries about life in favor

10 For more on sympotic elements combined with the carpe diem motif, see Johnson (p2" 14 11).

11 The knot in Lyde's hair can represent the perfection and closure of Horace's poetry (Oliensis, 1998: 123;
Reckford, 1969: 97-8); cf. Putnam 's discussion on Phyllis and the garlands woven for her hair (1986: 186-
189, 194).
12 The movement from pastoral serenity to sympotic carousal involved in the carpe diem advice of the
poem is discussed by Reckford (1969: 96-97).









of a symposium (cur non sub alta velplatano...potamus uncti?, 2.11.13-17). Ode 2.10

takes a less idyllic approach and recommends that through the adherence to moderation

and the poet's proposal to face life as it comes (sperat infestis, metuit secundis / alteram

sortem bene preparatum /pectus, 2.10.13-15), humanity can at least find sanity in life.

The golden mean rests on the acceptance of the belief that whatever one's current

fortunes, they will soon change. Horace advocates that the simple sympotic outlook is the

way to obtain a life based on auream mediocritatem. The poet tells his addressee,

Licinius, that the right way to live is not always to sail far out to sea at the mercy of

strong storms (Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum /semper urgendo, 2.10.1-2), but neither

should Licinius stay too close to shore (2.10.3-4). The lyric poet's advice is simple: stay

in the middle (auream quisquis mediocritatem /diligit, 2.10.5-6). Horace defines such

balance as neither living in squalor nor so richly as to arouse envy (tutus caret obsoleti/

sordibus tecti, caret invidenda /sobrius aula, 2.10.6-8).

To drive home his point of mediocritas, the poet resorts to the power of the

natural versus manmade objects. Nature, the simple and pure, is stronger than what

people can construct. After presenting the image of a pine tree withstanding blustery

weather (saepius ventis agitatur ingens /pinus, 2.10.9-10), the poet describes a manmade

structure (celsae graviore casu /decidunt turres, 2.10.10-11) that cannot withstand the

same natural forces. Towers fall, but the towering mountains withstand a lighting strike

(feriuntque summos /fulgura months, 2.10.11-12), and trees stand up to the wind that

whirls around the towers. The lighting strike brings to the reader's mind the crash of the

falling towers (graviore casu). References to height also help set up the theme of

moderation. The first and third stanzas reference tallness (altum, 2.10.1; summos,









2.10.11). These stanzas stand on either side of moderation (mediocritatem, 2.10.5) in the

second stanza. By placing moderation between the high seas and tall mountains, Horace

foreshadows his advice about staying in the middle.

After Horace declares that it is best to simply accept that life has its ups and

downs, the poet adds two divine examples of balance in contrast to the natural and human

examples of the first three stanzas. The king of the gods, Jupiter, is responsible for both

good and bad weather (informis hiemes reducit / uppiter, idem /summovet, 2.10.15-17),

while Apollo sometimes leads the Muses' choir and other times has his bow in hand

quondamm cithara tacentem / suscitat Musam neque semper arcum / tendit Apollo,

2.10.18-20). Once again for emphasis, Horace places between these two divine exempla a

balanced gnomic principle: "If things are bad now, they will get better" (non, si male

nunc, et olim /sic erit, 2.10.17-18).

Horace achieves closure in his argument by repeating the nautical imagery from

the beginning of the poem (sapienter idem / contrahes vento nimium secundo / turgida

vela, 2.10.22-25). The poet's advice to pull in swollen sails brings to mind the warning at

the opening of the poem not to sail out too far or stay too close to shore (neque altum /

semper urgendo neque, dum procellas / cautus horrescis, nimium premendo / litus

iniquum, 2.10.1-4). Horace nevertheless has subtly shifted the meaning in the two

images. Ode 2.10 begins with advice to stay the middle course, while it ends with the

more positive encouragement to remain strong whatever difficulties fate brings (rebus

angustis animosus atque fortiss appare, 2.10.21-22).

According to the central poems of Horace's first book of Odes, love and wine can

be the pleasures that offset the pains of the human condition, as long as they are used in









accordance with the principle of aurea mediocritas described in the central odes of the

second book. Horace portrays Bacchus and Venus as allies. In Ode 1.19 Venus,

accompanied by Bacchus, commands the poet to accept love (Mater saeva Cupidinum /

Thebanaeque iubet me Semelae puer, 1.19.1-2). Ode 1.18 also pairs the two deities when

Horace mentions the positive relief that wine and love have to offer (quispost vina

gravem militia autpauperiem crepat? / quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque decens

Venus?, 1.18.5-6), if used in the proper manner. Ode 1.18 concentrates on the description

of the correct use of wine,13 while Ode 1.19 focuses on moderation in love. Both odes

include examples of the negative affects of wine or love, and end with the poet declaring

his plan to achieve enjoyment with moderation.

In Ode 1.19, Horace demonstrates his desire to keep Venus under control by

offering sacrifices. Venus, aided by Bacchus and Dissolution, has caused the poet pain

(urit me Glycerae nitor /. urit grata protervitas /. in me tota ruens Venus / Cyprum

deseruit, 1.19.5-10), and Venus will not allow the poet to write about anything but herself

(nec patitur Scythas / et versis animosum equis / Parthum dicere nec quae nihil attinent,

1.19.10-12). The recommended sacrifices to appease Venus are plants to garland the turf

altar, incense, and wine (hic vivum mihi caespitem, hic / verbenas, pueri, ponite turaque /

bimi cumpatera meri, 1.19.13-15), which all are representations that Horace uses for his

poetry. 14 Horace suggests sacrifices (lyric poetry) in order to bring love's excessive




13 See Kiessling (1958: 90) on various uses of the term merum in the Odes.
14 Ode 1.1 uses images of plants to represent the poet or his works (1.1.29-30) as do Odes 1.38, 3.4.19,
3.30, and 4.11.4. The wine and incense are both sympotic elements that the poet uses elsewhere in his
poetry (tura: 4.1.22, 4.2.52; vinum: 1.4.18, 1.7.31, 1.27.5, 2.19.10, 3.12.2). For the use of wine in Horace,
see Commager (1957).









influence down to a level compatible with aurea mediocritas (mactata veniet lenior

hostia, 1.19.16).

Ode 1.18 reveals how to use wine in accordance with aurea mediocritas.

According to Horace, wine is a blessing. The poet admonishes Varus that he must not

plant anything before he plants his sacred grape vines (Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius

severis arborem, 1.18.1). Wine is helpful in relieving the stress of daily life (quispost

vina gravem militia autpauperiem crepat?, 1.18.5), but must be used with care.

Horace first offers the cautionary example of the Centaurs and Lapiths (ac ne quis modici

transiliat munera Liberi / Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero /debellata,

1.18.7-9). Because the Centaurs abused the wine at the wedding of Pirithous and

Hippodamia and tried to carry off the bride, they were slaughtered by the Lapith people.

The next example alludes to an unspecified Sithonian scandal (monet Siitl,ii\ non levis

Euhius, /cum fas atque nefas exiguofine libidinum / discernunt avidi, 1.18.9-11),15

which resulted in the god of wine taking away the ability to tell right from wrong.

Because wine has a split personality that must be balanced, the wine god is

addressed by four different titles in three different roles representing various affects of

wine. As the dangers of wine increase, the titles of the god become progressively hostile,

moving from the friendly Bacchus and Liber to titles associated with orgiastic worship,

Euhius and Bassareus. 16 Benevolent Bacchus pater (1.18.6) banishes worries (siccis

omnia nam dura deus proposuit, neque /mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines, 1.18.3-

4). Because the Centaurs went overboard and did not stay with moderate Liber (modici


15 Two of the most likely instances that Horace had in mind could be Lycurgus' drunken rape of his mother,
or Sithon's incest with his own daughter and subsequent death at the wine god's hands (NH 1970: 233;
West, 1998:88).
16 Cf. NH (1970: 234).









Liber, 1.18.7), they were punished (1.18.7-9). Euhius causes men to forget the difference

between right and wrong (1.18.9-11), and therefore the poet proposes an agreement with

Bassareus: Horace promises that he at least will observe limitations in drinking as long as

the god of wine promises to behave as well (non ego te, candide Bassareu, /invitum

quatiam... saeve tene cum Berecyntio / cornu tympana, 1.18.11-14).

The wine and women of carpe diem provide relief from humanity's immutable

sentence of death, while aurea mediocritas prevents the disasters that can result from

misuse. Horace uses wine as a symbol for the pleasures of a carpe diem lifestyle when he

points out wine's ability to remove worries (quispost vina gravem militia aut

pauperiem crepat?/quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque decens Venus?, 1.18.5-6).

After the warnings regarding the use of wine, depicted by the wine god in a variety of

roles, Horace promises that he will follow the principle of aurea mediocritas, thereby

avoiding the harsh consequences that carpe diem can precipitate (non ego te, candide

Bassareu, / invitum quatiam, nec variis obsitafrondibus, 1.18.11-12).

The central poems of Horace's first three books of Odes all revolve around aurea

mediocritas and carpe diem as dual principles that can offer some comfort to the anguish

of mortal existence. The poet defines both the Golden Mean and the carpe diem outlook

in the middle of Book 2. Ode 2.10 considers aurea mediocritas by comparing human,

natural and divine examples, while a sympotic scene in Ode 2.11 is the setting for

observance of the carpe diem theme. The proper use of wine and pacification of Venus in

Odes 1.18 and 1.19 demonstrate the Horatian strategy to live a good life in observance of

the Golden Mean. The thematic continuity of carpe diem and aurea mediocritas that runs

through all of the central odes of Horace's first lyric collection serves to highlight the






30


poet's advice on how to avoid the disasters that result from attempting to circumvent

mortality and the Fates. Humanity's failed attempts to regain power over its destiny with

money in Ode 3.16 highlights the simplicity of Horace's lifestyle. Ode 3.15 exemplifies

the grace of accepting the inevitable. The expressions of carpe diem and aurea

mediocritas in the central odes of each book provide guiding examples for the race of

mortals through which Horace asserts that his lyric has the power to teach, not just

entertain.














CHAPTER 4
THE POET'S JOURNEY TO IMMORTALITY


The epilogue of each book of Horace's first collection (1.38; 2.20; 3.30)

represents a step in the transformation of the poet as he rises above all the worries and

difficulties of human life through his poetry. Each one of the odes concluding the first

three books uses unique symbols to reinforce the theme of each poem. Each step in the

poet's journey to overcome the difficulties of human existence and finally succeed in his

quest for poetic immortality is represented by a different symbol for poetry: sympotic

moderation and the late blooming rose (1.38), the soaring swan (2.20), and the lofty

pyramids (3.30). From the sympotic yet moderate essence of the poet's being in Ode

1.38, Horace rises above mortality on his poetic wings in Ode 2.20. The lyric poet's

triumphant monuments destined to last for eternity in Ode 3.30 complete the summary of

the poetic journey to immortality.

The final ode of Book 1, Ode 1.38, envisions a semi-private symposion, which

allows the poet to show himself in a familiar setting that he uses to represent the

pleasures of his poetry while including the principle of moderation. The essential

elements of the typical symposion are present: the wine, leafy garland, and

companionship (neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta /vite bibentem,





1 Woodman (1999: 205-207) mentions Horace's use of a sphragis in the epilogue odes of Books 1-3.










1.38.6-8). Such imagery is standard for Horace in representations of the idyllic poet.2 The

brevity of the poetic portrait (only eight lines of verse), along with the advice on

simplicity it contains, emphasizes the theme of moderation. Within the compass of this

abbreviated symposion, Horace includes the contrast between the rose and the myrtle that

represents the worries about aging that the poet avoids by following his own advice on

moderation.

The two symbols of the rose and myrtle combine in Ode 1.38 to emphasize

Horace's poetic principle of maintaining balance. The poet declares to the servant that

Persian luxuries and fancy garlands ought to be avoided (Persicos odi, puer, apparatus.

displicent nexae philyra coronae, 1.38.1-2), as should chasing the rose which is already

beginning and will soon completely fade (mitte sectari, /rosa quo locorum seraa

moretur, 1.38.3-4). The rose is used elsewhere by Horace as a symbol of luxury and

youth, while the myrtle is used as a symbol of advancing age.3 The poet tells his servant

that common simple myrtle will be good enough for both of them (neque te ministrum /

dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta/vite bibentem, 1.38.6-8).4 The contrast between the

simple and the exotic portrayed by the myrtle and the rose represent corresponding

lifestyles.5 After the grand imagery and 32 lines of the preceding Ode 1.37 in celebration


2 For example, see Odes 1.1, 1.18, 1.19, and 2.11.

3 For example, Odes 2.3, 2.11, 3.15, 4.10. See also Ode 3.19 and 3.29 for the rose as a symbol of luxury.
Gold (1993: 16) provides specific discussion of Horace's use of the rose in Ode 1.38: "This flower is often
linked to other sympotic elements in Horace's poetry, but Horace embeds the rose in a larger imaginative
context by making it a symbol of human interchange and by adding references to death, the passage of
time, and seasonal cycles." See Ode 1.25.17-20 for another example of myrtle symbolizing age.

4 See NH (1970) ad loc.

5 Ode 1.38 has been read as a seduction ode. West contends that "there is more to this poem than meets the
eye" and sees "adumbrations of homosexual love in this poem" (West 1995: 192). This interpretation
likewise depends upon the comparison of the rose and myrtle. This reading centers on the implied
invitation expressed in the final lines of the ode (neque te ministrum / dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta /









of Augustus' victory over Cleopatra, the mere eight lines concentrating on the

comparison between the luxurious rose and the plain myrtle exhibit the poet's preference

for a simple life style.6

In this deceptively simple poem, Horace, in a quick moment, infuses the sympotic

with the carpe diem theme (mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum seraa moretur. /simplici

myrto nihil allabores /sedulus curo, 1.38.3-6). The words sera and moretur imply the

passage of time, and first two lines of the ode ally the rose with persicos apparatus and

philyra nexae coronae, attributing to the rose the characteristics of exotic beauty. This

single rose embodies the entire message of the ode's lesson by infusing a single flower

with aspects of both life and death, which together make up the carpe diem motif: life

must be lived in the present because death is always lurking nearby. Being content with

myrtle, then, represents the simplicity of living only in the present time, a choice that the

poet makes for himself and recommends to the servant (neque te ministrum /dedecet

myrtus neque me, 1.38.6-7).

Horace turns from overcoming fears about mortality through simple living in Ode

1.38 to his transformation into the immortal poet in Ode 2.20, an apotheosis (of a

different sort) that he envisioned in Ode 1.1.7 Horace first states with humility who he

has been as a mortal (non ego pauperum / sanguisparentum, non ego quem vocas, /

dilecte Maecenas, 2.20.5-7). Yet even in this statement of his relatively low hereditary


vite bibentem 1.38.7-8). The speaker (me), while acknowledging his target's status as ministrum, makes the
two characters equal by saying that the myrtle is suitable for them both. The master tells the servant to take
a break and then invites his possibly young and attractive servant to join him.
6 "Simplicity," but to what degree? For simplicity of style as a possible reading, see Fraenkel (1957: 297-
298); "The first thing we notice that this short poem is simplex munditiis to an uncommon degree ... We
must assume that Horace intended the ode, besides its surface value, to refer in some way to the new kind
of poetry contained in this book." For simplicity in life, see Lee (1969: 90) and West (1995: 190-191).

7 See Ode 3.1 for the completion of the poet's quest for immortality.










social status and reliance upon his patron, the poet begins to separate himself from the

ordinary by using the pair of negatives (non). The poet completes his ascent from mere

mortal by saying that even though he recognizes his humanity, he will overcome death

(non ego ... obibo /nec Stygia cohibebor unda, 2.20.5-8).

After distinguishing himself from the rest of humankind, Horace ends the first

half of the ode by detailing the transformation that he predicts at the beginning of the

poem. Horace proclaims that he will be carried all over the world on the powerful wings

of his poetry as a lyric bard (non usitata nec tenuiferar /penna biformis per liquidam

aethera / vates, neque in terris morabor / longius invidiaque maior, 2.20.1-4). After he

leaves his mortality behind, the poet then graphically describes himself morphing into a

swan, a type of lyric bird, which becomes the incarnation of the poet made immortal

through his poetry.

iam iam resident cruribus asperae
pelles et album mutor in alitem
superne, nascunturque leves
per digitos umerosque plumae.

iam Daedalo notior Icaro
visam gementis litora Bosphori
Syrtisque Gaetulas canorus
ales Hyperboreosque campos.
(2.20.9-16).

[Right now rough skins settle on my shins and I am changed into a white bird from top to
bottom, and light feathers arise over my fingers and shoulders. Now I, more infamous
than Icarus, Daedalus' son, as melodious bird, will see the shores of groaning Bosphorus
and Gaetulian Syrtis and the Hyperborean fields.]


The birdman that Horace claims he will become is the central symbol of the

poem, and it unites the poet's present with his future. The avian imagery is reflected in

both halves of the poem, and provides the transition from the beginning to the end of the

poem. Overall, the symbol serves as a reminder of the final goal of eternal fame at each










stage of the poet's journey. In the ode's opening strophe, the poet claims that his wings

will be strong enough to carry him into eternity (Non usitata nec tenuiferar /penna

biformis per liquidum aethera / vates, neque in terris morabor obibo /nec Stygia

cohibeor unda, 2.20.1-8). The second half of the poem continues the bird imagery by

describing the poet as a songbird on the wing (iam Daedalo notior Icaro / visam ...

canorus /ales, 2.20.13-16). The transition between the two sections is provided by the

transformation of the poet into the bird at the center of the ode (album mutor in alitem /

superne, nascunturque leves /per digitos umerosque plumae, 2.20.10-12). The central

third stanza of Ode 2.20 vividly reflects the change from the poet's predictions of the

future at the beginning of the ode (2.20.1-8) to Horace's certainty about the present.

Many commentaries on this ode remark in some way about the outlandish extremes of

Horace's metamorphosis because it appears so incongruous with the moderate conclusion

of the first book. 8 A key factor in the reading of Ode 2.20 is how iam iam at the

beginning of the stanza along with the present tense resident merge together to shown an

'imaginary' or 'imminent' present.9 Considered with the previous future tensesferar,

morabor, reliquam, obibo, and cohibebor, this construction suggests that Horace is

preparing for his immediate transformation; a transformation which Horace himself


8 Two sides emerge in the discussion of the third stanza of Ode 2.20: one rejecting the stanza as bad poetry
and the whole ode as poor quality, and the other defending Horace's art. Detractors reserve special bile for
the lines, iam iam resident cruribus asperae /pelles et album mutor in alitem /superne, nascunturque levels
/per digitos umerosque plumae (2.20.9-12). Horace's defenders cite numerous illustrious precedents
including Plato (Phaedrus 251B, 251A), Pindar (Isthmian 7.39-48), and Theognis (237-254) who also
used the metaphor of flight to express reaching for eternity. Kiessling simply lists off the literary precedents
(1958: 245-246). Fraenkel calls the stanza, "repulsive, ridiculous, or both" (1957: 301) and notes with a
degree of regret that he cannot simply remove the offending verse. Objectors, most notably Fraenkel (1957:
299-302), do not like the contrast of the illustrious vates undergoing such a graphic, grotesque
transfiguration. Defenders of the stanza include Hendrickson (1949), Tatum (1973), and Williams (1968:
567-574). See also Fraenkel (1957: 299-302), NH (1978: 332-348), Garrison (1990: 289-290), West (1998:
144-148) for overviews of the debate.

9 Hendrickson (1949: 31).









predicted at the very beginning of the Odes (quod si me lyrics vatibus inseres, /sublimi

feriam sidera vertice, 1.1.36-37).

After the grand proclamation and graphic transformation of the poet, Horace

envisions the fame that will enable him to achieve eternity. 10 The poet imagines himself

traveling past the straits of Bosphorus, Gaetulia, the Hyperborean fields, and gaining

recognition from Colchians, Dacians, Gelonians, Hiberians, and Rhodians (2.20.14-20).

Some subtle wordplay allows Horace to maintain the atmosphere of expectation for glory

while using humor to soften the magnitude of his claims. He has not yet become the vates

biformis, although he soon expects to. Horace recounts the whole expected

transformation to Maecenas, whom at the end of the ode he instructs to dismiss any of the

traditional mourning at the poet's funeral (absint inanifunere neniae /luctusque turpes et

querimoniae; / compesce clamorem ac sepulchri / mitte supervacuos honors, 2.20.23-4).

This reference to the poet's patron again emphasizes that Horace's fame is at least

partially dependent upon his patron, a sentiment borrowed from Ode 1.1.11 Horace also

cites the Icarus myth (iam Daedalo notior Icaro /visam, 2.20.13-14). 12 The poet is aware

of the risks of his claims and knows that in the end he will die, at least physically. The

humor in the word play comes out in how literally or metaphorically inani andfunere are

taken. Horace could be metaphorical, talking about inani as "meaningless," or literal,

taking the same word as "empty." Likewise, fiunere could mean death or the dead body or

10 A reason for the over-the-top imagery in the third stanza is that, grand though his claims are, Horace may
not be entirely serious. The move to lighten his claims a little may be linked to his discussion of fame
seeking in Ode 1.1 in which Horace points out potential problems with this natural human character trait.

1 See the discussion of Ode 1.1 in Chapter 1.
12 Horace uses the adjective daedaleus,a,um in one other place in the Odes. Ode 4.2 also uses the term to
warn against lullus Antonius' overly Pindaric poetry (Pindarum quisquis student aemulari, /Iulle, ceratis
ope Daedala / nititur pennis vitreo daturus / nomina ponto, 4.2.1-4).









the funeral itself. The poet's death is made a joke because it holds none of the serious

implications that death carries for ordinary mortals. Horace's funeral could be missing his

body. The possibilities for any number of combined meanings show Horace "looking at

the fame of his future works, but also deflating his own boastfulness" in a serious but

cleverly amusing way.13

There is no hint of amusing self-doubt in the poet's claim to immortality at the

end of Horace's first lyric collection (Ode 3.30), when he confidently predicts his

immortality. Ode 2.20 ends with the poet's commands for his funeral to Maecenas (absint

inanifunere neniae /. mitte supervacuos honors 2.20.21-24), while Ode 3.30 ends

with the poet's command to the Muse for his reception in eternity (sume superbiam /

quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam, 3.30.14-

16). 14 While Ode 2.20 looks forwards to the poet's future as a winged poet, Ode 3.30

shows the completion of the poet's desire to render himself immortal through the poetry

that is the poet's monument, towering over the pyramids of Egypt. Horace rejects

ordinary conceptions of death and states that whatever death he will face ultimately has

no meaning for him as vates because his name will always be kept alive through his

poetry (non omnis moriar multaque pars mei / vitabit Libitinam. usque ego poster /

crescam laude recens, 3.30.6-8). Horace also recalls the very beginning (Ode 1.1) at the

end (Ode 3.30), and brings the first lyric collection full circle. After stating his claim to

fame, Horace ends 3.30 with a demand for his reward. Horace tells his Muse that she

owes him the fame he requests, presented to him in the form of a wreath of laurel (sume

superbiam / quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene,

13 West (1998: 147).

14 Woodman (1999: 205-207) discusses the aspects of an epitaph in Ode 3.30.










comam, 3.30.14-16). This demand for his immortality is again reminiscent of the

apotheosis that Horace predicted for himself in Ode 1.1 (Me doctarum hederae praemia

frontium /. si neque tibias /Euterpe cohibet nec Polyhymnia /Lesboum refugit tender

barbiton, 1.1.29-36).

Ode 3.30 itself can be divided into four sections, each part bringing the poet

closer to immortality.15 After predicting his transformation in Ode 2.20, Horace first

proclaims that he has succeeded in contriving a product that will be eternal:

Exegi monumentum aere perennius
regalique situ pyramidum altius,
quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens
possit diruere aut innumerabilis

annorum series et fuga temporum
(3.30.1-5).

[I have built a monument more lasting than bronze and higher than the royal building of
the pyramids, which neither a destructive rainstorm nor raging north wind is able to
demolish nor the infinite succession of years and flight of ages.]


The second part of the ode is a declaration that not only the poet's lyric achievements but

the poet himself, or at least part of him, will prove immortal (non omnis moriar multaque

pars mei / vitabit Libitinam, 3.30.6-7). The third section consists of an explanation of

how this eternity will be realized, including a list of places the poet will see as he is

constantly reread (usque ego poster / crescam laude recens, princeps Aeolium

carmen adltalos /deduxisse modos, 3.30.7-14). The final section of the ode is a request

to the Muse Melpomene to accept the poet (sume superbiam /quaesitam meritis et mihi

Delphica / lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam, 3.30.14-16) and recognize him as a






15 have used Woodman's (1999: 207-216) divisions of the poem, but added the idea of the poet's
progression towards immortality.









lyric vates by crowning him with the prized wreath. 16 The poet thus completes his rise

from earth to heaven.

The monumentum of the poet is the paramount image of 3.30 (Exegi monumentum

aere perennius / regalique situ pyramidum altius, 3.30.1-2), and Horace makes two

claims about his poetic monument: natural forces do not have the power to erode what he

will leave behind (quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens /possit diruere aut

innumerabilis / annorum series etfuga temporum, 3.30.3-5) and Horace's

accomplishments will always keep his name alive. 17 The monument described in Ode

3.30 is what will allow him to escape death and continue to grow in fame. Horace shifts

into the future tense to deny death (non omnis moriar multaque pars mei / vitabit

Libitinam, 3.30.6-7). Horace also uses his poetic monument to return to the images he

started with at the beginning of his lyric career. After the prologue to Maecenas (Ode

1.1), the second (Ode 1.2) and last odes (Ode 3.30) of the first three books mention

monument. 18 These are the only instances of the word monumentum in the Odes, and

two of three times the word occurs in Horace's writings.19 The sparing use of the term,

and the context in which it is used indicate the importance of his monuments to the poet.

Ode 2.1 speaks of waves rushing to erode royal monuments and temples of the gods

(vidimusflavum Tiberim retortis / litore Etrusco violenter undis / ire deiectum

monument regis / templaque Vestae, 1.2.13-16), while Ode 3.30 proclaims the

16 The leafy crown as a symbol of the lyric vates appears also in Ode 1.1 (Me doctarum hederae praemia
frontium /dis miscent superis, 1. 1.29-30).
17 West (2002: 360-362) examines Horace's po c iflul music" in the first five lines of Ode 3.30.

18 violenter undis / ire deiectum monument regis, 1.2.14-15; Exegi monumentum aere perennius /
regalique situ pyramidum altius, 3.30.1-2.

19 The third use occurs in Sermones 1.8.13.









supremacy of Horace's poetic monuments over both royal tombs and nature (3.30.1-5).

The poet's lyric monuments are what guarantee the immortality that Horace claims from

the Muse at the end of Ode 3.30.

The concluding poems of Books 1-3 chronicle the poet's journey to achieve the

immortal status he envisions in the introductory poems by overcoming the human

limitations presented in the central poems.20 Each concluding ode relies upon specific

imagery to project the main theme. Ode 1.38 uses the rose and myrtle to highlight the

sympotic poet's carpe diem theme, Ode 2.20 uses the biformis vates to reveal the poet

beginning to overcome his mortality, and Ode 3.30 uses the image of the lyric poet's

monuments to declare the poet's success in achieving his goal of immortality. These three

images show Horace moving through his poetic journey on the way to reaching the poet's

final goal of undying fame.

























20 Cf. Porter (1987: 240-253; 270-273) who turns Horace's metaphor of journey into the title for his
book.















CHAPTER 5
CANEMUS: THE POET'S FINAL INVITATION


The odes at the beginning, middle and end of Horace's second collection of Odes

(Book 4) form the same thematic sequence as the introductory, central, and concluding

odes of his first collection: the symposion and mortality (4.1); lyric's power to preserve

memory (4.8); and the lyric poet's immortalizing triumph (4.15). Ode 4.1, like Odes 1.8-

9, 2.10-11, and 3.15-16, examines the intransigence of human existence. Ode 4.8, at the

center of the Book, defines Horatian lyric poetry and its power in a manner similar to

Odes 1.1, 2.1, and 3.1. In Ode 4.15, Horace constructs his final lyric triumph. Odes 1.38,

2.20, and 3.30 also summarize the poet's expedition towards eternity, but Ode 4.15

pushes even further and invites the reader to join Horace in his immortalizing song.

In the first poem of Book 4, Horace reintroduces the concept of the sympotic

lifestyle as a remedy for the human problem of mortality. Ode 4.1 opens with a plea to

Venus on behalf of the poet, unwillingly (so he says) recalled into Venus' service

(Intermissa, Venus, diu / rursus bella moves? parce precor, precor. / non sum qualis

eram bonae /sub regno Cinarae, 4.1.1-4). 2 Horace instructs Venus that the youthful

Paullus is better able to live the sympotic lifestyle than the now fifty-year-old poet in Ode

4.1. The center of Ode 4.1 reminds the reader what sort of man is suited for the sympotic


1 The same principle is also found in the odes at the center of Books 1-3 (1.18-19; 2.10-11; 3.15-16).

2 Ode 1.19 also depicts the poet struggling against powerful Venus (Mater saeva Cupidinum / Thebanaeque
iubet me Semelae puer /. finitis animum reddere amoribus, 1.19.1-4; hic vivum mihi caespitem ...
mactata veniet lenior hostia, 1.19.13-16).









life: the young Roman nobleman who is skilled in the courts and fit for military service

(namque et nobilis et decens / etpro sollicitis non tacitus reis / et centum puer artium /

late signaferet militia tuae, 4.1.13-16). Horace visualizes the sympotic context of young

Paullus' surroundings. The presence of incense, lyres, flutes, and songs (4.1.21-24) all

add to the sympotic scene, where the boys and girls with Paullus dance in praise of Venus

(bis pueri die / numen cum teneris virginibus tuum / laudantes pede candido / in morem

Salium ter quatient humum, 4.1.25-28).

The uninhibited party atmosphere pictured in Ode 4.1 and the lack of sympotic

restraint contrasts to Ode 1.18 where wine is useful, but only in moderation (quis post

vina gravem militia autpauperiem crepat? / quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque

decens Venus? /ac ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi ., 1.18.5-7). Horace

affirms the importance of moderation in Ode 2.10 when he clearly states that moderation

is key for a happy life (auream quisquis mediocritatem /diligit, tutus caret obsoleti /

sordibus tecti, caret invidenda /sobrius aula, 2.10.5-8). Now Horace uses the same

comparison between restraint and sympotic revelry when he describes himself as an

aging poet. By the time Horace (and the reader) reaches Ode 4.1, approximately 10 years

has passed after the publication of the first lyric collection.3 Horace's use of the same

themes and images puts into play the question of how time effects the lyric poet,4 and he

acknowledges that time appears to have some form of power over the poet.

Horace uses the unrestrained and exuberant sympotic atmosphere that surrounds

Paullus to demonstrate conclusively the difference between the young partygoers and the



3 See Commager's discussion of Book 4 (1962: 291-306); Johnson ( l 14 152-153) on the movement of
time for the poet.

4 Ancona (1994:95) notes that time fails to diminish the poet's desire.










old poet. The comparison between the younger Paullus and the older poet repeats the

same discussion of youth and age that appears in Odes 2.11, 3.15, and 3.16. Horace does

allow that the elderly can enjoy themselves in Ode 2.11 (cur non sub alta velplatano vel

hac /pinu iacentes sic temere et rosa / canos odorati capillos, / dum licet, Assyrique

nardo /potamus uncti?, 2.11.13-17), but points out in Ode 3.16 that most people can

neither gracefully accept their mortal destiny nor understand that moderation is the key to

happiness (custodem pavidum luppiter et Venus /rissent: fore enim tutum iter etpatens /

converse in pretium deo, 3.16.6-8; crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam / maiorumque

fames, 3.16.17-18; bene est, cui deus obtulit /parca quod satis est manu, 3.16.43-44). In

Ode 4.1 the young people with Paullus gather for a party, while Horace claims to enjoy

none of the sympotic elements that Paullus' youth represents:


me nec femina nec puer
iam nec spes animi credula mutui
nec certare iuvat mero
nec vincire novis tempora floribus,
4.1.29-32.

[Neither maid nor youth pleases me
nor does the gullible hope of a reciprocal spirit please me now,
neither does it please me to enjoy wine
nor to wreath my temples with fresh flowers.]


In reference to the speaker, the negative nec marks each of the sympotic elements.5 The

poet's renunciation of a symposion and his pleas to Venus that he is no longer fit to serve

her insinuate that the poet's years make it too difficult for him to participate properly.

The aging matron Chloris of Ode 3.15 is in the same position that the poet claims

in 4.1, and like Chloris, who has difficulty accepting her destiny (Uxorpauperis Ibyci, /

tandem nequitiaefige modum tuae /famosisque laboribus; / mature propior desinefuneri

5 Oliensis offers the interpretation of the sympotic garland as a symbol that binds lyric poems (1998:119).









/inter ludere vigines /et stellis nebulam spargere candidis, 3.15.1-6), Horace cannot

escape the passions of Venus. Even the lyric poet is still vulnerable to the allurements of

youth, and at the end of Ode 4.1, Horace admits to his beloved Ligurinus that he suffers

from the two symptoms most emblematic of lovers: tears and the loss of his powers of

speech.6 The loss of words is especially critical for any poet, and Horace draws attention

to the calamity by enjambing a hypermetric line (curfacunda parum decoro /inter verba

cadit lingua silentio?, 4.1.3 5-36).7 This run-on verse highlights Horace's failure to resist

Venus as he attempts to refuse love in the opening of the poem (Intermissa, Venus, diu

rursus bella moves?, 4.1.1-2). Horace uses the claim that he too old and unwilling, but

nevertheless unable to resist passion, to create tension which he resolves in the final

stanza.8

While Horace admits in Ode 4.1 that he may be too old to continue living like a

young man, at the end of the poem he reveals that there is a final proper refuge for those

who are too stricken in years to participate in the pleasures of youth: dreams (nocturnis

ego somniis / iam captum teneo, 4.1.37-38).9 The placement of himself between

nighttime and dreams (nocturnis ego somnis) emphasizes the entrapment of the poet

inside his dreams. The poet's reference to his young, fancy-free love interest at the

beginning of the line (iam volucrem sequor /te per gramina Martii, 4.1.38-39) similarly



6 Horace borrows these images from Sappho 31 and Catullus 51. Putnam (1986: 39) examines Horace's
poem specifically in relation to Sappho. Oliensis (1998:120-121) notes that 4.1.33-40 also references
Catullus 8.

SHorace cleverly uses irony by rambling on about the loss of speech.

8 Reckford (1969: 124-126) discusses the struggle between love and reason in Ode 4.1.

9 West (1967: 135) questions the reality of Horace's dream about Ligurinus. West's point that Horace may
never have had such a dream emphasizes the imaginary and escapist nature of dreams.









accentuates the freedom of youth (sequor /te per gramina Martii). However, Horace as a

lyric poet has one further recourse against growing old that Chloris lacks: his lyric poetry.

Ode 4.8 defines the value and power of lyric poetry to preserve names and

deeds. 10 Because monuments of stone cannot record the vibrant essence of the

meritorious as well as poetry can (non incisa notis marmorapublicis, /per quae spirits

et vita redit bonis /post mortem ducibus... clarius indicant / laudes quam Calabrae

Pierides, 4.8.13-20), inscriptions on public monuments, mostly military

accomplishments, are inferior to poetry. Ennius' Muses (Calabrae Pierides), in contrast,

will never die. Poetry is simply superior at proclaiming fame (neque /si chartae silent

quod benefeceris, /mercedem tuleris. quidforet Iliae /Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas /

obstaret meritis invida Romuli?, 4.8.20-24). Horace claims that even Romulus needs

poetry to keep his name alive. Even Aeacus owes his fame to the poets (ereptum Stygiis

fluctibus Aeacum /virtus etfavor et lingua potentium /vatum divitibus consecrat insulis,

4.8.25-27).

Horace inserts references to each of the introductory odes of his first collection

(1.1; 2.1; 3.1) into Ode 4.8. Ode 4.8 demonstrates poetry's role in recording and

preserving history (non incisa notis marmorapublicis /. non celeresfugae /

reiectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, /non incendia Karthaginis impiae /eius,

4.8.13-18). Horace examines poetry and history in Ode 2.1, when Horace proves the

ability of lyric poetry to encompass historical writing (mox, ubipublicas /res ordinaris,

grande munus / Cecropio repetes cothurno, / insigne maestis praesidium reis / et

consulenti, Pollio, Curiae, 2.1.10-14; sed ne relictis, Musaprocax, iocis / Ceae retractes

10 The text of Ode 4.8 remains disputed. I have chosen to follow Wickham (1896: 314) who argues for
retaining all the verses in spite of Meineke's law. For a detailed description of the textual difficulties and
various solutions, see Harrison, 1990.









munera neniae, / mecum Dionaeo sub antro /quaere modos leviore plectro, 2.1.37-40).

Hercules, Castor and Pollux, and Bacchus are also deified through the poet's art (sic lovis

interest / optatis epulis impiger Hercules/... Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus, 4.8.29-

34). This allusion implies that the poet, who bestows immortality upon the likes of

Hercules and Bacchus, deserves to be remembered for all eternity, as Horace predicted

his own apotheosis among the stars at the end of Ode 1.1 (Me doctarum hederae praemia

frontium /dis miscent superis, 1.1.29-30; quod si me lyrics vatibus inseres, /sublimi

feriam sidera vertice, 1.1.35-36). 1 This special relationship with the divine that appears

in Odes 1.1 and 4.8 is also found in Ode 3.1, when Horace envisions himself as the priest

of the Muses (Odi profanum vulgus et arceo. /favete linguis: carmina non prius / audit

Musarum sacerdos / virginibus puerisque canto, 3.1.1-4).

Despite the recognition of his aging in Ode 4.1, Horace demonstrates in Odes 4.8

and 4.15 that as a lyric poet, he remains strong. 12 Ode 4.15 begins with a command from

Apollo that Horace must write lyric (Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui /victas et urbis

increpuit lyra, 4.15.1-2). As in Ode 2.1, Horace addresses current history with his lyric,

and takes as his topic in Ode 4.15 thepax Augusti. Unlike Ode 2.1, the history recounted

in Ode 4.15 has a happy outcome (tua, Caesar, aetas /fruges et agris rettulit uberes /et

signa nostro restituitlovi, 4.15.4-6). The list of Augustus' accomplishments includes

ending the civil war (4.15.17-20) and bringing back ancestral morality and customs





11 Reckford (1969: 130-132) considers Horace's praise of poetry a response to excellence that bestows life
after death.
12 Cp. Putnam's investigation of the relationship between Odes 4.1 and 4.15 (1986: 24-6), and the
interactions between Odes 3.30, 4.8, and 4.15 (1986: 300-302).










(ordinem /rectum evagantifrena licentiae /iniecit emovitque culpas /et veteres

revocavit artis, /per quas Latinum nomen et Italae crevere vires, 4.15.9-14).

Ode 4.15 also demonstrates lyric poetry's power by reiterating the poet's ability

to immortalize famous men. By opening and closing the ode with the poet, but spending

the whole body of the ode on Augustus' deeds, Horace showcases his own poetic

power.13 In Ode 4.8 Horace established that poetry was the only truly lasting monument

that a hero or even god could earn (non incisa notis marmorapublicis, /... neque / si

chartae silent quod bene feceris, /mercedem tuleris, 4.8.13-22; dignum laude virum

Musa vetat mori /caelo Musa beat ..., 4.8.28-29). Then Horace, in the concluding lines

of Ode 4.15, gives an exemplum of the poet's power to create immortality:

cum prole matronisque nostris
rite deos prius apprecati

virtute functos more patrum duces
Lydis remixto carmine tibiis
Troiamque et Anchisen et almae
progeniem Veneri canemus
4.15.27-32.

[with our children and wives first rightly praying to the gods

let us sing about leaders who died with virtue according to the custom of our
fathers with song mingled with Lydian flutes and let us sing of Troy and Anchises
and the descendant of kind Venus]. 14

Horace provides a substantial amount of praise for Augustus in his poem as the doer of

great deeds, but by ending the ode, and the lyric collection, with himself, Horace reminds

the reader that the lyric poet's leading role as the creator of immortality remains the most

powerful of all.




13 Cp. Lowrie on Augustus and the poet in Ode 4.15 (1997: 338-347).

14 Augustus had been adopted by Julius Caesar, whose family claimed descent from Venus, and therefore
Augustus would be a logical interpretation for progeniem Veneris (4.15.32).









Horace proclaims the same power of poetry to assure immortality in Odes 4.8 and

4.15 that he previously announced in Ode 3.30 (Exegi monumentum aere perennius/

regalique situ pyramidum altius /. non omnis moriar multaque pars mei / vitabit

Libitinam, 3.30.1-7). Ode 3.30 claims the immortality of both the poet and his poetry

which even nature cannot destroy (quod non imber edax, non Aquilo ompotens /possit

diruere aut innumerabilis /annorum series etfuga temporum, 3.30.3-5), and Horace cites

his poetic genius as the reason for his fame and immortality princepss Aeolium carmen ad

Italos / deduxisse modos. sume superbiam / quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica / lauro

cinge volens, Melpomene, comam, 3.30.13-16). Ode 4.15 announces again the triumph of

the poet's immortalizing powers, which Horace previously gradually unfolded in Odes

1.38 and 2.20, and fully realized in Ode 3.30. The poet's immortality in Ode 3.30

depends largely upon local memory kept alive by retelling ancestral stories (dicar, qua

violens obstrepit Aufidus / et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium / regnavitpopulorum,

3.30.10-12), and Apollo in the opening of Ode 4.15 essentially forbids Horace to write an

Augustan epic (Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui / victas et urbes increpuit lyra / ne

parva Tyrrhenum per aequor / vela darem, 4.15.1-4). 15 After being prohibited from

writing a poem in celebration of Augustus' military victories, Horace must find another

broader method in his poetry to celebrate hereditary memory with the people of Rome.

Horace reconnects to his readers in Ode 4.15 by staging a festival and inviting the

citizens of Rome to join him. The last two stanzas of Ode 4.15 show the poet once again

surrounded by wine and music (nosque etprofestis lucibus et sacris / inter iocosi munera

Liberi, 4.15.25-26; Lydis remixto carmine tibias /... canemus, 4.15.30-32), a scene that

15 Cf. Putnam's analysis of Ode 4.15 (1986: 263-306) as it relates to Virgil and Propertius book 4; Johnson
(2' 114 198-213) and Levi (1997: 224-225) also examine Horace's final lyric poem in relation to Virgil.









recalls the setting of Ode 1.38. Ode 1.38 shows the poet at peace with the world in a

sympotic setting that becomes emblematic of Horatian lyric (simplici myrto nihil

allabores /sedulus curo. neque te ministrum /dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta /vite

bibentem, 1.38.5-8). Thus in the final stanzas of Ode 4.15, the sympotic poet has returned

in the company of citizen singers ready to immortalize Rome's heroes.

Despite all of the references to previous poems, Ode 4.15 is much more than a

simple summary of the concluding odes of Books 1-3. In Horace's first lyric collection,

the poet's rise to immortality is chronicled in the odes at the end of Books 1-3.16 Once

Horace establishes that he can make himself immortal in his first lyric collection, he

begins throughout Book 4 to bestow immortality on those who have earned the reward.

Ode 4.15 presents the lyric poet in one of his most powerful roles as the giver of

immortality, and completes Horace's lyric collections with an invitation to the reader to

join him in his immortalizing song. The last word of the ode, and the lyric collection, is

canemus.n The inclusion of the reader as a participant in the poet's song implies that the

poet has succeeded in educating his reader sufficiently that Horace is confident enough to

invite the reader to join him.18 Horace includes his readers in a vision of Romans

embracing their ancestral tradition of celebrating their heroes (nosque cum prole

matronisque nostris / rite deos prius apprecati / virtute functos more patrum duces,



16 First, Ode 1.38 establishes the peace of mind that the lyric poet enjoys in his world. Next, Ode 2.20
declares that even in death the spirit of the poet will remain alive, and finally Ode 3.30 demonstrates the
permanence of the poet's legacy (3.30.1-5) which merits the poet's reward from the Muse (3.30.14-16).

17 See Johnson (' i 14 210-213) for echoes of the opening of the Aeneid in Horace's Ode 4.15.

18 The education of the reader by the poet is made explicit in Ode 3.1 when the poet presents himself as the
priest of the Muse preparing to pray (Odi profanum vulgus et arceo. /favete linguis: carmina non prius /
audita Musarum sacerdos /virginibus puerisque canto, 3.1.1-4). Lowrie (1997: 349) examines the
invitation to the reader and the final statement of immortality in comparison to Ode 3.30.









4.15.25-29).19 The picture of the poet as preacher in Ode 3.1 has broadened in Ode 4.15

to poet as choirmaster.

The introductory, central and final odes of Book 4 present variations of the same

major themes that occupy the introductory, central, and end odes of the first collection.

Ode 4.1 examines the theme of humanity attempting to gain control over their lives (Odes

1.8-9; 2.10-11; 3.15-16). Ode 4.8 considers the value of poetry and the eternal reward

that awaits the poet, themes which also appear in both the introductory and central odes

of the first collection (Odes 1.1; 2.1; 3.1). Ode 4.15 depicts the immortal poet directing

national song. While the final odes of the first collection consider the poet's own

immortality (Odes 1.38; 2.20; 3.30), the final ode of the second collection (4.15) goes

further to consider not only the poet's immortalizing power but his power to invite the

reader to join forces with him to preserve Roman traditions.
























19 See McNeill on the poet's role of bestowing immortality to the deserving combined with the vates' role
as moral tutor (2001:81-82).














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

One of Horace's strengths as a poet is his ability to combine successfully

seemingly incompatible themes and images. But, nevertheless, Horace keeps returning to

certain themes and images. There is a consistency. Horace has three favorite themes that

he places in the prominent beginning, middle, and end poems of each book of the Odes:

the immortalizing powers of poetry, the endurance of poetry, and the combination carpe

diem-aurea mediocritas strategy for good living. Horace describes each of these themes

with multiple images, but certain images emerge as the poet's favorites: sympotic love

and wine, garlands (indicative of both the symposion and victory), and lyric monument.

By closely looking at the interplay between beginnings, middles, and ends in the

Odes of Horace, some clear thematic patterns are evident. Horace places front and center

in his lyrics humanity's failed attempts to overcome the limits of its mortality. The lyric

poet, on the other hand, lives not only in harmony with nature through a life-style based

on equilibrium between carpe diem and aurea mediocritas, but by the immortality of his

poetry proves immune to death itself. As the immortal vates, Horace is able to pass on his

knowledge to the Roman people, so that by the end of his lyrics, Horace's readers are

equipped to join the poet in song. Horace's lyrics prove didactic.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Kathleen Burt was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, on March 29, 1982. She attended

school in St. Paul and graduated from Roseville Area High School in 2000. She

graduated from St. Olaf College in 2004 with a Bachelor of Arts in classics and English.

She will receive a Master of Arts in Latin from the University of Florida in 2006.