<%BANNER%>

Study Abroad: Impacts and Contributions to Student Development

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101118_AAAAEW INGEST_TIME 2010-11-19T03:48:46Z PACKAGE UFE0014293_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 13348 DFID F20101118_AACWCI ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH robalik_h_Page_136.QC.jpg GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
26b7c47a3b5111ce8ac77f390d8b22a8
SHA-1
47ee896adee00f501642361f78daa601de9d096d
4808 F20101118_AACWBU robalik_h_Page_128thm.jpg
4236427ff0c4c5751a9d859e2d1e0951
b346c50cb5bd50cd91b8b9471c748e9977a1c73e
6110 F20101118_AACVXC robalik_h_Page_054thm.jpg
68c95c909d61ad700cd97a96805d49cc
d3d321d27e7c08479809d728a8424c2d9f2fef97
6200 F20101118_AACVVZ robalik_h_Page_037thm.jpg
53ddba5b3467d080a0395b0aa7ab9a26
84c1f34706329b3240d0acb44a9e5771f371c96c
80708 F20101118_AACUSX robalik_h_Page_022.jpg
93c33b53fcbc789e340fed100916ca92
cddf04c21cb00c5d5d066fb45ffa7cf9badd319d
84547 F20101118_AACUUA robalik_h_Page_053.jpg
fb81b1cc810b8acea1a8bed619fd1d8e
e7e4104c4a338278e3f066663c8e3268ec9fee4e
1178 F20101118_AACWCJ robalik_h_Page_137thm.jpg
c588475edec449692ef23194330c9c83
e3ffa48c19d2f6fa5f5fb8af2bce833360659eb9
18246 F20101118_AACWBV robalik_h_Page_128.QC.jpg
af89685ed4ab76b5f6d52a2a707d8f51
f1185dca8814d9a66a2f89f5a744da9c7a5ef69f
25667 F20101118_AACVXD robalik_h_Page_055.QC.jpg
ceff0ffe6e5c701aa83f4161c45d15ce
cd3a8a294ce0c816ed282579d1003fc09a00d757
25930 F20101118_AACVWO robalik_h_Page_045.QC.jpg
bc61cba746fda981f75927a59e7f887e
cbf8c05805c9dbab9a13f19368afafbbab42c407
81162 F20101118_AACUSY robalik_h_Page_023.jpg
683340b6f73587f20e823fc96f40270e
8b3d1d793f6198fe53aebcef7bc97e3637cb542c
83476 F20101118_AACUUB robalik_h_Page_054.jpg
9120d1252d6c3fb4c3bd36ac9cb56578
42e42393884b18f58a207fa217fd89bb66d83fcc
81939 F20101118_AACUTM robalik_h_Page_038.jpg
9420ea43e807a6e8c7b4fee425e33ccc
cd24b2f1cb429cb7604da75e9fb55e91741fffe4
4215 F20101118_AACWCK robalik_h_Page_138thm.jpg
d4e0fd0683653d06944dbd5e017a841a
ac07270f6b8f10c9dc31a1b9347e55b4af27b51f
3941 F20101118_AACWBW robalik_h_Page_129thm.jpg
794368f236ba39d2a78b2b1d0edc96a4
1659feedaa95fc197f9250b06a7a36dc4b23aea0
6367 F20101118_AACVXE robalik_h_Page_056thm.jpg
637b1105369f41262881a466f224d5a1
1208895f0f52a3e6eace3e8d4b04409493da03ad
6238 F20101118_AACVWP robalik_h_Page_046thm.jpg
f2efeb1217ff68cfc00e0ac58cc413f0
44d9c26b37d2578b9c727156115b829646eee17b
78250 F20101118_AACUSZ robalik_h_Page_025.jpg
0a50a5645bd9bc8f1788649f0d29ee99
d60e9fde8433381c7c40a71efdeea4cbe230f9e8
87790 F20101118_AACUUC robalik_h_Page_055.jpg
13721f6fcbb4c09dcb2800dfcae66eef
95cb4f3ebc474e15b57b80fa151d47591923bbaf
86754 F20101118_AACUTN robalik_h_Page_039.jpg
17ff8d5e940e478ad84ceed2e486ea8f
1e0ed31faa46a02675a459125788d87dfe4617e1
16099 F20101118_AACWCL robalik_h_Page_138.QC.jpg
37301e8f005b9de6c6404534d9afc3cc
596c0b35ccdfb86748a57281fb69b4b84f082368
11843 F20101118_AACWBX robalik_h_Page_129.QC.jpg
ce13f0958efa99813a772d408f05a203
3895dbc0a7a8e800e1088ec591791b4e471792bb
5781 F20101118_AACVXF robalik_h_Page_057thm.jpg
b79a761896ccf576f0bf821588aa06d2
84a2900256741a7de0cc52cbde18ca47bd647bdf
6384 F20101118_AACVWQ robalik_h_Page_047thm.jpg
36d0b747a84e92b24fef4b894d1a3af7
ab55c11fdbc9c2446f432273d7e6136f17cb6c46
88514 F20101118_AACUUD robalik_h_Page_056.jpg
224289302e0a42f0440381e74ecfbc2e
de725fd966308f6b44252babb45adfab98b1d059
81225 F20101118_AACUTO robalik_h_Page_040.jpg
eba085f164dd50ca2b34cec19e6e13db
e661828874cbd23c965dfe8750447cc4625b79ed
15148 F20101118_AACWDA robalik_h_Page_148.QC.jpg
8878761a74a85453066de4e56de9d9eb
6d2f896642c3b5fcf9b9a73e1da7631c93b5c3ef
3714 F20101118_AACWCM robalik_h_Page_139thm.jpg
491d83430fed01d0dfd7252228e60e80
42d288d98fb3c792524f082a7a952a400848429c
24147 F20101118_AACVXG robalik_h_Page_057.QC.jpg
05cea68bb402d49994077a67498e9fea
8f2b6c3fb25171838f7b337c44316e74ad00f56e
26614 F20101118_AACVWR robalik_h_Page_047.QC.jpg
13ff9da12b894dd93b89c6bce5a4a87f
19686e01a8933426504e59ce5b3d513263049002
77445 F20101118_AACUUE robalik_h_Page_057.jpg
841f38d18046bca66e839d07d102e5c5
b52ca2fbc1cbfa0e3b7f478d9257f24fdded8306
83465 F20101118_AACUTP robalik_h_Page_041.jpg
bf1bc708eac91521a1338296eca3754e
c6cebafd925d33d35069d19d74a49cc062ccdbe1
4766 F20101118_AACWDB robalik_h_Page_149thm.jpg
ebc733b4180f78dfb09fec8aebed6044
463f6ece688264671027442be3cf39749d0e08bb
15418 F20101118_AACWCN robalik_h_Page_139.QC.jpg
15a3961ccdbd70e95833ffda06250cb3
026d6cab09e4056fbe7a5632a073815606f54e78
4354 F20101118_AACWBY robalik_h_Page_130thm.jpg
f8937cc53e17f67def12eb24efe09c61
465f31a45d0780b2e4e1af7bd1453c03f3ed522f
6358 F20101118_AACVXH robalik_h_Page_058thm.jpg
389b5781b0730fe90ac2c2fbc1af1537
84342d24b3b3bbc04a4167208493881468bdda07
6565 F20101118_AACVWS robalik_h_Page_048thm.jpg
f87f1abe50b7ce520c7e512ab732116a
d71c7dc9deacee88e05bff2cb82ffa086ff881b3
86244 F20101118_AACUUF robalik_h_Page_058.jpg
7142ca343f4251cfc2afc74bdea9efd8
8515ff1cfa9bfeca1f2b12f43ac89818a6446473
82848 F20101118_AACUTQ robalik_h_Page_042.jpg
64d020629f9486c4f18aa6a09b7d66ca
a105cc7cd9d5b1a89f1bf29fa90e056919b626a3
16224 F20101118_AACWDC robalik_h_Page_149.QC.jpg
3e93ee9756c0651197547a8c9df99c71
2cc8beda70ce032c5d9a0e30058382a63298150e
15466 F20101118_AACWCO robalik_h_Page_140.QC.jpg
b76d58352a0a261695f253f89373583a
31a3b837806729b2d5a2b699bf04ffff8b645aa1
4822 F20101118_AACWBZ robalik_h_Page_131thm.jpg
9e5c20e53efa90dae3396582541158be
a365657ffb12fa022c4e0ef092463cf9b0ae4e61
27361 F20101118_AACVXI robalik_h_Page_058.QC.jpg
96f13b65165c160df25c67940166ec53
3df384ce02198c176e90fe25793dea942689a11f
26841 F20101118_AACVWT robalik_h_Page_048.QC.jpg
4a3c955dd093ae34773deab7c2691fa5
ee0eb69307d8cba47836f5a05b62b32f883dec71
86144 F20101118_AACUUG robalik_h_Page_059.jpg
ea1214c222936bbdd467d5b5be64aab9
efe2641f02b59cc68a5461b7e78f2288c0f12a73
95042 F20101118_AACUTR robalik_h_Page_043.jpg
d8309cc70e3021c002e92320ecd0379c
9e6b217948ade226ae9ea1db0752bbfe5f7bfa41
106306 F20101118_AACVAA robalik_h_Page_064.jp2
efc4e5181215b059a582afea674e7e79
6bcd465efe687ad9c80d16ee0c5109c49daf4558
3398 F20101118_AACWDD robalik_h_Page_150thm.jpg
48e70a911a423bb939519f21a0004720
9337fdefb9b51b9dc3998136227a6f70d9f105b0
3744 F20101118_AACWCP robalik_h_Page_141thm.jpg
d36d786f4f4b8760bc68e6d50d5e8451
060d478b154df229686cf60dff877023af36f395
6292 F20101118_AACVXJ robalik_h_Page_059thm.jpg
5174fa8be870c68ca6452b2c9aeedf0a
75769bc69f6f8f40cf3569ba11d4c60952bf062e
25561 F20101118_AACVWU robalik_h_Page_049.QC.jpg
3212c74390e61029d6c74f23c46f4e6e
f765abbc98dbfc798591139f44fb939c683f6a50
82992 F20101118_AACUUH robalik_h_Page_060.jpg
cc5e15236733131c1ff2727dc97386a1
e265800b6a300bc7a5f69eacaeb1cb8d0e0190a6
85383 F20101118_AACUTS robalik_h_Page_044.jpg
6ea264be22af857cf4848368b04f81a6
1e0633ff23e5bfbd3bcf53e9f4594dc8814ca4be
68021 F20101118_AACVAB robalik_h_Page_065.jp2
3307364aeed9bdcc5a5afebcccc0ac44
290b22e8aefd5045f8f0879dfa256eec8055723b
11961 F20101118_AACWDE robalik_h_Page_150.QC.jpg
b04f04eada18ac8d2ce3856cdc683768
9a9b5d28b77cce98744fd81188f9b0fd07d62f9f
15477 F20101118_AACWCQ robalik_h_Page_141.QC.jpg
d1e88096fedd5a2d95fccd0edeabe23a
f228a7bc366f8d6978ede7b90e224f5041c955d3
27461 F20101118_AACVXK robalik_h_Page_059.QC.jpg
8c75be8e2bd311dd7f241ddf232bbfbe
dfa1d7b3b4dae078a8f1acc12ef85b98facb0ced
6500 F20101118_AACVWV robalik_h_Page_050thm.jpg
c48195fe3d6f3a9a2d6ba32907950882
d26780315fbece1c0573d390ea792e6b429e3929
60134 F20101118_AACUUI robalik_h_Page_061.jpg
3564c25954d9fa93207c23adebef5ea5
450b7b3758573b87add8464da14aa34a621b6613
83549 F20101118_AACUTT robalik_h_Page_046.jpg
51dc1139703da6fac40c704784db20c3
380b576e672b347ecf6cea015c29e034de8504d3
68445 F20101118_AACVAC robalik_h_Page_066.jp2
0a6966b85fe6930688285074c08467b2
74991a5211959218c8cbc9037906bc38f5520078
4629 F20101118_AACWDF robalik_h_Page_151thm.jpg
7d0d0612e64a77720576801cf014305c
f0e8daab4c95a489d433c2a6761d6bdd08d4da49
F20101118_AACWCR robalik_h_Page_142thm.jpg
5dec8446575c00898dd761802afcc139
fd6b10c57d0f4625de8b7e267347e9caa8d619ec
6224 F20101118_AACVXL robalik_h_Page_060thm.jpg
e4423493f3242cd3461317d7007da118
8f4f94a5a1f6da3b331965dbb9326a775633cd80
27116 F20101118_AACVWW robalik_h_Page_050.QC.jpg
2aafb810affae3e7d1f1c3999e642c13
cb59ed1e2ae9c5c39b3a6b03bd9c577d1c7464d6
71749 F20101118_AACUUJ robalik_h_Page_062.jpg
ab35eb05d4b94e1c597b9afa17ab7ff9
36a8074d5a0dfef63a5a9cc657040e7e1182c8f7
85106 F20101118_AACUTU robalik_h_Page_047.jpg
575db60a47da174f0ea0856cb3b1ed24
eed7da95058971e8f465b0f7f0252cb01f6a4646
82689 F20101118_AACVAD robalik_h_Page_067.jp2
bbea329d14ad4249cb7e00be8a6023d6
5ee84fe4a3535e2e64fc9cff9f534472663b16dc
16015 F20101118_AACWDG robalik_h_Page_151.QC.jpg
fd9a2567dc35c755bcdc253bc05796ef
e55ae20758e5a518085a342fe615d1cad80e8bce
17163 F20101118_AACWCS robalik_h_Page_142.QC.jpg
c69bcf0c047fb07b19289d33a998e610
1ad173f27a7badd1b06a86559db78cf8d9fa52b7
9834 F20101118_AACVYA robalik_h_Page_070.QC.jpg
bff55c8f74c5d48c8d5ca974b1978638
b05c148f78570226143d20f1996964f102c0d3f1
25752 F20101118_AACVXM robalik_h_Page_060.QC.jpg
044ebb68ebd7b0436a471f52d25372fc
675dec6823a43cdd08f0c705c8cd09b8b383e2c1
6516 F20101118_AACVWX robalik_h_Page_051thm.jpg
8cefe89c1e92f56267fa0b3afedaf58a
28e165e76381cf5d8544f51c668f7ed8e63afdba
82100 F20101118_AACUUK robalik_h_Page_063.jpg
e79a8a7d2a28ef3b65f46132ffc66a47
7dd2f2a3d7f8d8da49f3da1ab71cc898a47d73b9
87019 F20101118_AACUTV robalik_h_Page_048.jpg
2fdd0a0a24e6e056287d8ce949e7c5af
6b839b8272570e229325f6a04c76e9124666b370
56855 F20101118_AACVAE robalik_h_Page_068.jp2
95af5e62668932a224cabe9f9bb005bd
3f68a615ca08758cdda365fa93e19bcafa5dea24
4721 F20101118_AACWDH robalik_h_Page_152thm.jpg
8efb8fb77d4ee87dcb8e6a8de19ad8e9
112e55a343a086073d502066c337d0851f6a1a14
18436 F20101118_AACWCT robalik_h_Page_143.QC.jpg
da087f01bd225dfa9a423748bbed619f
9c746f6f222daa153cb532d9756492cdfea92406
22531 F20101118_AACVYB robalik_h_Page_071.QC.jpg
a5095910a763338f628599f653439191
2a2ac9442ef1e36f7615bd9660f76134356a6490
5390 F20101118_AACVXN robalik_h_Page_062thm.jpg
7b6c9069003fb8ca1dd518bdd07e19a2
94b75fd3643910016b2b9324875d654ec3df59d5
26880 F20101118_AACVWY robalik_h_Page_051.QC.jpg
26478ac1f4bddc0bdda28548ba26f5af
159135821878954a0283ce6454ae199587440d75
81213 F20101118_AACUUL robalik_h_Page_064.jpg
a7b4d476d70dce20ee5b93e21c8daf5a
92e5059baad6bd5226744736f17b89076bcdce7f
83642 F20101118_AACUTW robalik_h_Page_049.jpg
1140922f991b50d46308a4e1624a3fc4
fc8f5ef8d4d93e629b35e56bd5ed161bc0a3aca1
60612 F20101118_AACVAF robalik_h_Page_069.jp2
88661c5b207c70218a2be473baae0638
6b5287d064aaf51421fb7b4f253bdb9f901bc749
16225 F20101118_AACWDI robalik_h_Page_152.QC.jpg
0e87d3385460e7508b7c926ed651cd95
7ff740de5157c7bb5ce853f8bdade0fe8caac0a0
3224 F20101118_AACWCU robalik_h_Page_144thm.jpg
dbcbe7a5293bec53883469ae52ae6c74
2e5f51c672f014996796ac77df90f8709a84e342
F20101118_AACVYC robalik_h_Page_072thm.jpg
123aaee3b08ecb5cd7315186b96df3ce
823c05f7486e5f26e5147d35e6c038acd5bd4853
21677 F20101118_AACVXO robalik_h_Page_062.QC.jpg
658aaa7acfa06c69da4e04fbcdf2ec29
08c17fd4514b0bbfa4cfa66fd6d3f540a64eee47
6351 F20101118_AACVWZ robalik_h_Page_052thm.jpg
fa8e451de46ce775af6367ece26d9c7f
2a9a35bc9b79edd8265789d6ce13f0cdc4d09cdb
53968 F20101118_AACUVA robalik_h_Page_079.jpg
d51562542e2f8438a69b329dc96ffd4a
51d48f6dcffb062708599351f0cc8f0e7856a500
53789 F20101118_AACUUM robalik_h_Page_065.jpg
e1da7afbd5216aee461a2579904278e0
39d1fdc8f063789892e858376cab032c9730459b
87396 F20101118_AACUTX robalik_h_Page_050.jpg
11457342982c921101b0e98b9a803763
d50f717b76e39aadc2dfb4b6f179e3becd493ab5
40091 F20101118_AACVAG robalik_h_Page_070.jp2
8f1b9f0bb8464943bd3fdc193bc3b1e3
579e08a2952e36c3d2418d60444a9c70d5754805
3601 F20101118_AACWDJ robalik_h_Page_153thm.jpg
13feb91c2d0b2a224b78a65252a65c76
05147252c87430a35408fa4466c3daca956a79eb
4753 F20101118_AACWCV robalik_h_Page_145thm.jpg
d60832fddf6aedf68912dfe2dc584656
3a1baf90631747f26d045062c7938277dc3d2fe5
25805 F20101118_AACVYD robalik_h_Page_072.QC.jpg
fba65b77aa02cb25715267952cd729e9
bf1c719537152ce485ee15682abad0bd50a31358
53503 F20101118_AACUVB robalik_h_Page_080.jpg
026e58f567819399953075a6d8acea87
f608f0f66d0f5c7873a14ecfaa79fff09c2ecd1c
86953 F20101118_AACUTY robalik_h_Page_051.jpg
216e6835302671fe14ca03095805bf4e
c4739f8449b21dbb2096ff6d1a07391a001359f2
90002 F20101118_AACVAH robalik_h_Page_071.jp2
36e5e2704fc5aebeee826ab78926304c
6446eb23b43169d552244122d0fd1d3ac1e904a6
11727 F20101118_AACWDK robalik_h_Page_153.QC.jpg
5172dd2fb82165cb12274dbe7c595885
f214c1f1ed83028401f4959c4272db844f409016
5385 F20101118_AACWCW robalik_h_Page_146thm.jpg
3bf78ef1ed2c54351edbab15304ebf09
4bbffd6f236794a6dc4afbe36cca0e334020dda8
6112 F20101118_AACVYE robalik_h_Page_073thm.jpg
d13b5dab38592095b6b999fdca8ac9d9
565ec5ba1d7ca328565d5a857ba2eefcd13e8e64
6428 F20101118_AACVXP robalik_h_Page_063thm.jpg
7f94ae0644ca0b10145fa7d3a5b1a260
cf73fe076a548449de70d246b8d043aac66f99c3
66666 F20101118_AACUVC robalik_h_Page_081.jpg
d0eee96a3780f5d484ce34095119cadb
9fce2a19f250806f97a61faa3abad5158c4d7d6a
54355 F20101118_AACUUN robalik_h_Page_066.jpg
986d4a129f302d765b02ad3bba775756
ea650a353247bc46f7e6bc13bc4639a4b2c4d3d1
83365 F20101118_AACUTZ robalik_h_Page_052.jpg
573bc07d07101f792b65949630abc7fa
f6054a94d2169ba1738053329890a0bc6a11d2d8
110722 F20101118_AACVAI robalik_h_Page_072.jp2
8599f8f05d29352f2228e371229fecd6
c726e41b4282b6b9aff6110eafa1d8ab12a7a854
4365 F20101118_AACWDL robalik_h_Page_154thm.jpg
c5d5a6400363ab452cb8e041fec8d61f
3d2c6ff0417a8325bbda92f40bf8aa42985c954f
18981 F20101118_AACWCX robalik_h_Page_146.QC.jpg
a64d1741fbbcc49fef9fb0b3c8054a31
5a6db74dd9367c31be4a59870ca2c5294b05926c
26103 F20101118_AACVYF robalik_h_Page_073.QC.jpg
edb4a034d73b111e0714d42d2c6b8124
d69d3b46bebef515636ea0fdaa1931d4790ba3db
25423 F20101118_AACVXQ robalik_h_Page_063.QC.jpg
bd6460ac34ad1c7f9cc88124bdfcae7f
816c646158995b15401472a76d951df89667f29e
89356 F20101118_AACUVD robalik_h_Page_082.jpg
99a5cfa963f684fec6d53e023ec65f1f
6602529fa02418b8df6da700c99789357ed262e3
64590 F20101118_AACUUO robalik_h_Page_067.jpg
7446971eb4b5144a40a4a9ce5fcd3391
b0f021ac75741bdb2d07d6a80a8684d6d2c2ffa5
109324 F20101118_AACVAJ robalik_h_Page_073.jp2
d54b79856838f8f75df8b630d74cfa4c
fb94568f192bfe48905cd82d01420e74d27ce519
28000 F20101118_AACWEA robalik_h_Page_162.QC.jpg
2fcfb6b047dcde4f9411841dfa2c27ff
f777fff458964d2cd4b3035bf2b56798333343f2
15284 F20101118_AACWDM robalik_h_Page_154.QC.jpg
03a3070cccc7600ae87f5d96b2d11afe
29ef24d57c3fba21f717722642ded692ceaec690
2980 F20101118_AACWCY robalik_h_Page_147thm.jpg
a6cd40ba5a7e6beb64b16f1b0a6159cc
69fb8664a424ed4ed14b074157c93fe5666e2964
6083 F20101118_AACVYG robalik_h_Page_074thm.jpg
eb86f0c9d135d9158a8aa0cbf24e0ec0
41cbe74647cdb5ad19cf6bf04842601b9aa22d58
6177 F20101118_AACVXR robalik_h_Page_064thm.jpg
d94236fa2f416d776bd21ad9bfafa79a
47d78178c4637c5e07eaad106a09e84c72c080cd
58474 F20101118_AACUVE robalik_h_Page_083.jpg
f6118447391a734035db98a3a24933c6
e5bd4596e643907414b3bc5b6d2e19761d0b97ff
44008 F20101118_AACUUP robalik_h_Page_068.jpg
66b1a5db6756cea7617b4d9f1eb1636b
57d715795d1bf8c45460efd9b15486027e68b695
107649 F20101118_AACVAK robalik_h_Page_074.jp2
c7930097db38fbcb0b7a2de01de64266
b43c1ec56340dabbb9b94915cdc68e120d9888ad
6401 F20101118_AACWEB robalik_h_Page_163thm.jpg
e00415edb71f4706eccb9165ce7a51f9
4ab382b05fe15647ff333065c822a04d81708ad5
5051 F20101118_AACWDN robalik_h_Page_155thm.jpg
4ff97b18f9583adc8f2e6b72b12b6c5d
d47d2fd2eeeaf08fbe482fa3e6cc3ce7b01b3f14
6097 F20101118_AACVYH robalik_h_Page_075thm.jpg
7fb6e63c091fc4a4e5432ec882ea7131
f4cf7eec0636edfbbbfb14b41bbdc988c4ab6e7d
25276 F20101118_AACVXS robalik_h_Page_064.QC.jpg
645234ae8033202158d940805aeddc39
896f3f472f3c7674f41e10b8391593b9c3ba1fa0
51395 F20101118_AACUVF robalik_h_Page_084.jpg
47ac0abd44d32845dbd056ace50ec2b3
166e87a4fbc7a0877dd85e805c7e5126136e65fd
49013 F20101118_AACUUQ robalik_h_Page_069.jpg
4bc1c75da7f5b1670882a635e88aeaa5
3424747a2f5119824dce703074e9ca6e1b2d0a3d
109191 F20101118_AACVAL robalik_h_Page_075.jp2
f292b5b9eca45feb02c51547ad80d70d
c6ac9eb51961b3d302f2f0b96f455306351e7e57
27451 F20101118_AACWEC robalik_h_Page_163.QC.jpg
6a412a980bede50c89a8e74fc999d015
dd1b7a5bb503eced60a1e6520d31f9fd5f36e19f
16665 F20101118_AACWDO robalik_h_Page_155.QC.jpg
464c2b7548d1bab844327db52ae8c724
9ba017b5989a54df4c31a0d858b73155da100e8f
9881 F20101118_AACWCZ robalik_h_Page_147.QC.jpg
c861b6261d312a2e83e48af38f0ce086
35c1acd4edc8760eecd4fc61ba758930c8945ea1
26377 F20101118_AACVYI robalik_h_Page_075.QC.jpg
bc048f1b3734c6062f2a1e5854d02dc7
a69e0328dd81f218d98a834da71df7e3cd47e2db
16620 F20101118_AACVXT robalik_h_Page_065.QC.jpg
ec1a064bf8d4c347fd027bed037aa42d
5837a0587097514d4551a81898e3f18768ce9d06
31509 F20101118_AACUUR robalik_h_Page_070.jpg
2ecf7c3fe133587e8e8dd42c0b2dee9e
bb874f068b65701301228935f181ef5cd3ac52c4
113295 F20101118_AACVBA robalik_h_Page_095.jp2
21e5ef7e97f6053cfcdd1dd9f7f55b05
6990615f3bda334b342a428113353e951c97a5f2
26107 F20101118_AACVAM robalik_h_Page_077.jp2
78d2ad3893fd6c70b174ed92d23ae6e8
87cb8c35039a9ee92a6c5fe2b076ff88b73683b3
87457 F20101118_AACUVG robalik_h_Page_086.jpg
4428b5cf071966d6a61c3145e5f1b8ca
38d06608054e378fc32adc075ee088dff4673ad4
6285 F20101118_AACWED robalik_h_Page_164thm.jpg
d4077cd6d5b3000180f621f9d3cece98
a3d7837623e7ea83d739067c071b4d24b5411a21
2972 F20101118_AACWDP robalik_h_Page_156thm.jpg
8051a818343ef29c7115c029145e9605
04ccf1983993da771ed1fe7b892423de1c49b027
6403 F20101118_AACVYJ robalik_h_Page_076thm.jpg
1659360afe67b1c52273747dd935e495
e64b2adce7c33a286ed485036252d18d7aee0176
4732 F20101118_AACVXU robalik_h_Page_066thm.jpg
e1d2bef5b5da69fa6c2ae5bb101bd484
f3e273afb1520b8ab287273a3ed029b262ed2902
71190 F20101118_AACUUS robalik_h_Page_071.jpg
f32b3780b9255ca72e018d89f184bbd4
27731d34a8f6ab4973b9d0e5f5e51e8ca2cbbfbe
114387 F20101118_AACVBB robalik_h_Page_098.jp2
02f526775a56feeebbd904ddf0be6aaf
2e868ee0632b62a98dbb340d1fd8d40a92864d09
84183 F20101118_AACVAN robalik_h_Page_078.jp2
69175d65a2ee69d6268c14f817dc3386
b8438da7d328b5cebe204fb7c302e788ca2be462
57823 F20101118_AACUVH robalik_h_Page_087.jpg
ef3c0011440b2d0e1a6be9ad30672935
ad7cf4d6205ef32447e2ca771c18a6dabcc67b76
25749 F20101118_AACWEE robalik_h_Page_164.QC.jpg
4ff3d4014d912c44fbf1d9da81cb9bf8
0b756140637cbe0d3d7fd4b919fa5674476bd467
9395 F20101118_AACWDQ robalik_h_Page_156.QC.jpg
b0bd0e986814ce205c97c7a3c8312b1c
e3d7bc165a0bfad46a661223b7ffe8073cc4114d
26390 F20101118_AACVYK robalik_h_Page_076.QC.jpg
8d2eda9f2243d953e4750f05a2fc5f89
7ca8edc5058730923ddcd22b351ce53282f81e69
5242 F20101118_AACVXV robalik_h_Page_067thm.jpg
191ede4ee4912dde9cdb4fa67c1d1fc6
bd69955b82250ac8fdf69bc0c8007294776e3a0e
83273 F20101118_AACUUT robalik_h_Page_072.jpg
1590b505b4118833df3bfd434abdd343
359765ec0c50ac8e8eabc827911976af950a33c4
107552 F20101118_AACVBC robalik_h_Page_100.jp2
bf4a344c8eefcf584d320f5742b1bcf7
cb41381086ea97ba0c570728a84925f6b56e5363
69800 F20101118_AACVAO robalik_h_Page_079.jp2
73a4565f22dafb48be7fe1f56e146d32
14d0ed8c4ec961de79f12c3669f1efba18b10b32
52083 F20101118_AACUVI robalik_h_Page_088.jpg
3a25c9f0e0ee2ccd63ba8c021afda6c8
cd426b0a81b18a284a74df0651f70e3cfb1a3c4e
5260 F20101118_AACWEF robalik_h_Page_165thm.jpg
c88b6bfda06dcf640e3c7db8f76f4451
b6ab8ea237b151d66c33fa88c44f3e69eb5c3307
4567 F20101118_AACWDR robalik_h_Page_157thm.jpg
04bd258a0b6ad52af3ba52caa747b8b3
127099ccb8246e05b4da1ba423cba3b6c6dc2388
1707 F20101118_AACVYL robalik_h_Page_077thm.jpg
2b91e1b134c1c88a676aa2e18f3d0598
8dc8c104c694b8893af50d740dcae9129faefe7d
4010 F20101118_AACVXW robalik_h_Page_068thm.jpg
92ecf43982526e25baab3d8d62b8f69f
0397de47ffbb971805fcb3c162cf2c862c9db42d
83591 F20101118_AACUUU robalik_h_Page_073.jpg
ba637350dbd8d197472dfb7ed467a92d
551b6472d27c43840ebed734672a5b6b92555a7f
112106 F20101118_AACVBD robalik_h_Page_101.jp2
0d3436982f935d21c2cd02c2cbb0279d
ee305a1ace449da7fe595778f5fbbd72e6d56181
68591 F20101118_AACVAP robalik_h_Page_080.jp2
78ce101da82ad96dc1281ddde93c684f
a2005844bb91b9cf17aca68784726687f7eb1722
68253 F20101118_AACUVJ robalik_h_Page_089.jpg
ddc9dab1a90f1622aeae70157bbe096e
4fbb09e80686d884561cf621589a449cd9e4e887
21778 F20101118_AACWEG robalik_h_Page_165.QC.jpg
e7e01452b7781e4ea6fa1b33b72a8b42
25e0fdbeb94b67d1c199a26eeec8a9da1ccc0f0f
16574 F20101118_AACWDS robalik_h_Page_157.QC.jpg
7264e9924bfc1b34ff000ace41942dc0
0601220cb7b85dbdc209b8dca018fa3fc267c357
18116 F20101118_AACVZA robalik_h_Page_085.QC.jpg
aaa0d2818cb3aa22d865f63a3325b9e5
8eae111cbbf87e815d11c1d0d8ef150e1a23affb
6368 F20101118_AACVYM robalik_h_Page_077.QC.jpg
e7f9ae486c184739f3f56b046641aa5a
0560a27b2c49fa63be610587bc34c6a07a28f4d6
14272 F20101118_AACVXX robalik_h_Page_068.QC.jpg
eb5eec1813641a053d6f77b2b53ac572
74d968af31bebec82620311de0ccd46995a0642c
80630 F20101118_AACUUV robalik_h_Page_074.jpg
9f025c0b617ce77039417db3013247b8
ab7d03a9810a5698eaf761374bd1848c6dde3475
109624 F20101118_AACVBE robalik_h_Page_104.jp2
21dd46e827c6ff8b85c7e1b29cf4e52a
1cd7dde638a0eae210847381a1aad07598e4973c
117373 F20101118_AACVAQ robalik_h_Page_082.jp2
ed940d92d17bb3c89bbcad87b5c3e91e
50caf48ac36b72bf48149783f901eeb21d4660ee
82007 F20101118_AACUVK robalik_h_Page_092.jpg
c42e7b49f5a56a0eab8ae1793b1b59f6
a6b227190919080677a4439308a05e79c41eba5a
1992 F20101118_AACWEH robalik_h_Page_166thm.jpg
74c0d26baa1584f5a67ce8f5b25010af
68229de005707358ee4a69cf10e32aa5609ef9af
5237 F20101118_AACWDT robalik_h_Page_158thm.jpg
6859d9ab74146d9449c070e61e62ce83
bc9e64447c100a0a8ca044586a7be8b22df07013
6501 F20101118_AACVZB robalik_h_Page_086thm.jpg
6ce60c49dc5f822c17feebf535b83f4b
07388e8328ea8d134ec4df39150cd2ac3a1baa56
4883 F20101118_AACVYN robalik_h_Page_078thm.jpg
ec4ed3a7d6b0c58334d815c2f97f21bd
5cc10f5831a888b27791d4d28d85d37c13b61980
15594 F20101118_AACVXY robalik_h_Page_069.QC.jpg
ab8af4852c5199b38f1ae57fbf0bcb17
01d01f42dff4713a7d9c4340620050b1cca72f5f
81353 F20101118_AACUUW robalik_h_Page_075.jpg
43fb3a0730d90cfa238263d8e2b66d4b
3a99eedb822916abf0e3b76e1ff5611c4be76eb7
108237 F20101118_AACVBF robalik_h_Page_106.jp2
cb81e9dbf9e802bd143f0dea6eb1e928
faa61d6a461eb51f8f0176dabc4bf59f4cb251c1
76127 F20101118_AACVAR robalik_h_Page_083.jp2
ede0924ea66ea68b4b77b18b73a93224
7e4e1382b641db5ad19c3a73f8eedc0095127ca4
77103 F20101118_AACUVL robalik_h_Page_093.jpg
f280ee777744cf7a940289cdcd09558d
5bf95482ffae9828eba60239ed448dfcc2956652
7247 F20101118_AACWEI robalik_h_Page_166.QC.jpg
8ccb87ceb333e383f481232f407c0bb0
ee9a0287b84d6e13fd08393b053e67d7b8d1099b
16718 F20101118_AACWDU robalik_h_Page_158.QC.jpg
2ea7963d5dec26caf5c554b4436c3409
8a4c6d8b1d1b3ed642311eccda9ad421de0ed9ac
5222 F20101118_AACVZC robalik_h_Page_087thm.jpg
928b60913d35e4a4c72d851d6fd35035
11ebb344e68df18d58ea27b9c372bc09dd23729c
20457 F20101118_AACVYO robalik_h_Page_078.QC.jpg
21a92b4267597c0ce62bf5af9e0d2e63
8ca24e49b865c7052269834ed408c90f67fcf48f
3313 F20101118_AACVXZ robalik_h_Page_070thm.jpg
b0838cb48c08bb2754902ea38dc3b061
cfe3557e21b35b5724e399b2251cff7431329418
84029 F20101118_AACUUX robalik_h_Page_076.jpg
d53f32b6ba3287def0fbb99897c52e74
63f646d930c88ada5f06319c554f69415f22dc04
113358 F20101118_AACVBG robalik_h_Page_107.jp2
24268840bdd67e7c65be20759940655b
4084f625f3947a33820eb8cc53e95b6d3e809437
83167 F20101118_AACUWA robalik_h_Page_111.jpg
7a88f7b919b164756e906f82f56c90bf
628bf13234c1b70e760aa8eebba84ed4bfcac8fb
68057 F20101118_AACVAS robalik_h_Page_084.jp2
71b09f79cc6cf9bfa8ddcfba54405b44
744f60adf6627a70c473699c8fd1552287c782ce
82386 F20101118_AACUVM robalik_h_Page_094.jpg
d72a030bd669009c42f5f37e95113ce2
ff88d3d5a06bf3c24bb8478ac4cf5c55808a2303
191934 F20101118_AACWEJ UFE0014293_00001.mets FULL
e2c87cd64f3fa56029c6041b394598ea
b529813fa6c648955002ac5c025fb23570b0df30
2951 F20101118_AACWDV robalik_h_Page_159thm.jpg
a75d5334d91b21ddb719d33e4f96254f
f40afb08e9a51081f92f74be90d43b1bdfa3f728
18667 F20101118_AACVZD robalik_h_Page_087.QC.jpg
ac380e487c2e50d6fc7f49e695ba5d4f
8c65d58256900398c0f5d61369dfe3d65183a6ef
5585 F20101118_AACVYP robalik_h_Page_079thm.jpg
dca910d9d1a95a2dc6cb4b75d23eff60
b634bf0f5fbe0843aa4d0f234b6fd86226a556dd
20033 F20101118_AACUUY robalik_h_Page_077.jpg
1cf46e4e21393a38862fbb39cbc15a5f
6f636f973299559e7497306b56dba490d083bda2
112427 F20101118_AACVBH robalik_h_Page_108.jp2
71e05a67326f4f27a9f2cfed2b8d79f0
8f213aa1b92166d8a07aae7c3859173bfb74d84c
81182 F20101118_AACUWB robalik_h_Page_112.jpg
1253ca8818ff99d2b4aa73319fca732b
12abb7bd2f5ab4d8a7e0bb0914c9f4fe98b490fa
112727 F20101118_AACVAT robalik_h_Page_086.jp2
5313b8f6002c8eab90ccca6bcca613a0
4777d1c608847fcbb5dc11ea972c9ba92db4deb8
86844 F20101118_AACUVN robalik_h_Page_095.jpg
62a1170a362ef9fa6e7f52df5d4e2224
cce09f839025036fa1c92a12afc58d73b01ba0f3
5779 F20101118_AACWDW robalik_h_Page_160thm.jpg
f8aa2cd898d67533e88eeab0dd79960b
02992e466dc04afa6d07e4c5cdb7c2b3c63a4601
5383 F20101118_AACVZE robalik_h_Page_088thm.jpg
71ae4cea2538a06d2355cd3ef59dcaa3
b6e5313c838d62267ceb598947834136f7bf1250
66615 F20101118_AACUUZ robalik_h_Page_078.jpg
14f4e9f00f1c6d1f193cbd9770f551d3
5ccc30d527c5655918d28dca67c0d147dfdc90d7
113322 F20101118_AACVBI robalik_h_Page_109.jp2
15f200635d68832c930e24d6d54eb2b5
213f6b84512082171fd58cc7c1304daae7e00680
71548 F20101118_AACUWC robalik_h_Page_113.jpg
6a56e53ad95e6da288cbed7e07e87805
d45833202bc4679bda4b2f4973d1122945c02bcd
76985 F20101118_AACVAU robalik_h_Page_087.jp2
ccfee0055e0c8cf16cc8574bc65287d8
abe26fb703ebe175c1afff2409fe042835e2343f
23609 F20101118_AACWDX robalik_h_Page_160.QC.jpg
6239b9e50235e44ee59b8c41978f2697
0bd3fbd6fc000a9ccb37ababe2158b2819e6f58b
15360 F20101118_AACVZF robalik_h_Page_088.QC.jpg
9171d5f31183eb53af669c7ce0c12bc1
7b2ce5c134b342046571c9552d7e1368190895de
16936 F20101118_AACVYQ robalik_h_Page_079.QC.jpg
453fae602c54b697096d96f2f5cb66d5
9f4ff439fc0655b5241c508f3b244ef455750e61
106131 F20101118_AACVBJ robalik_h_Page_110.jp2
0054243f40fd7691a5621746276f0034
238fc8fa5dae323930e9e61611ab1634cb92a0cd
61254 F20101118_AACUWD robalik_h_Page_114.jpg
1434d07f5245a12af444d28e679b8884
6784b70d7f56019c6797d2f8b17b3615e0e7a029
67239 F20101118_AACVAV robalik_h_Page_088.jp2
4a1eaba4885c2479ff70bc81631bc077
34fb9a8e4934247da26b660db20ad71981ffcb8b
88769 F20101118_AACUVO robalik_h_Page_096.jpg
0277b02ae638a4f10ef2ba98c7027f40
5a5170f5f0d8f6deddf0787a21a37b70a62c8977
F20101118_AACWDY robalik_h_Page_161thm.jpg
debf9604e6a710064020215aa7d400a5
58ad396922ab8b9988b7c0cc84b060b716a628d1
21117 F20101118_AACVZG robalik_h_Page_089.QC.jpg
ef7538cc37e0f637847c64ebc4adbf21
a2552a83e2f26009bd6facb3115e97d75f1c6928
5502 F20101118_AACVYR robalik_h_Page_080thm.jpg
81d70b9ce076b40628969a5964ec1528
73134ea1f8a1ee8e843e811ff2dd87b87e140379
108171 F20101118_AACVBK robalik_h_Page_111.jp2
67b7f963575fd28a1b360dc15bf74c11
04fe4fdc0ca9eee12fba10bd661bfc7cf9409f40
88014 F20101118_AACUWE robalik_h_Page_115.jpg
c9e29fdf72795b64fee89d244d3db9b0
8d6bd33a58ab4e3b9c43c00ea98a745ed080bced
88141 F20101118_AACVAW robalik_h_Page_089.jp2
6067aa49ca6c283e0b3e9b7231917db2
8ed40f4d2d2db4475f94e786805433ce81e761da
84746 F20101118_AACUVP robalik_h_Page_097.jpg
6ca9a5af7364be825d1e3b5fa4f2dae9
3efd1123516f1522fa66245b509a48fd6f7108af
6407 F20101118_AACWDZ robalik_h_Page_162thm.jpg
daf154791c4e1889bd80e5f3d1a97af7
8a55a9add9a5fe6c7df4e7207e00b9f28e3adbcc
5988 F20101118_AACVZH robalik_h_Page_090thm.jpg
2514b5f18be6447c09ff6f524dcfeacc
1d5c52427f230b5dac7f11dbe2d80c80b7dc70a7
5653 F20101118_AACVYS robalik_h_Page_081thm.jpg
676c8922fa1c16dde8c34d471e1a045a
8ae44e4f235787cef59d2f34188aca4135cd0412
106089 F20101118_AACVBL robalik_h_Page_112.jp2
d50a4625a076d044095951608b004530
27808d696f7615e7947ebf0abaf112ddb2d9a66c
63913 F20101118_AACUWF robalik_h_Page_116.jpg
fc8e2f3772a1e63472c2179697594ecd
4c6af9a575144a185d9f9f2cdf83a688a74d1955
103679 F20101118_AACVAX robalik_h_Page_090.jp2
3c7b719a77ee2e97e55a4ba9339b0ee5
bbac8db8b48417ca179da4fe8702ffda1587ce10
89100 F20101118_AACUVQ robalik_h_Page_098.jpg
201135241f05cfda360277382886d605
8b17cfaec57c0d7d73f178327d50f27a5699891a
6019 F20101118_AACVZI robalik_h_Page_091thm.jpg
e10cbc6aef345906818191ee997bb2c8
bd93296646a6bd82e7cdd4c85d07fa64417b354a
20920 F20101118_AACVYT robalik_h_Page_081.QC.jpg
3b2116cd97f1814a84e173e6e4833e6b
ffd18dd387b2d574ac165a12086390214339f974
92922 F20101118_AACVCA robalik_h_Page_131.jp2
5f0b3d12c159fb8719f8448c885c9731
60d3eb53fd71830e93668dac1a360bc11e0a8110
93811 F20101118_AACVBM robalik_h_Page_113.jp2
82bb31c2121b1a07b38f21d9ebdcefdb
31a0edb90ea2fc45ab2a0a6018f302b53bff24ea
39408 F20101118_AACUWG robalik_h_Page_118.jpg
402db5be6234c3107f2c1c46ca420311
afec3fb324aff30c1c1145a98961df2509a0e939
87527 F20101118_AACUVR robalik_h_Page_101.jpg
64d3699b2f03dbe3506af4e633161848
ab824b4b5e338b65fded2a75e7219a32821a9f58
25081 F20101118_AACVZJ robalik_h_Page_091.QC.jpg
75258588153eefb508027dd5fd455224
d1d243e488673d7b79e39b5948b1d644443acbf7
26526 F20101118_AACVYU robalik_h_Page_082.QC.jpg
505bf33d7135f68cb4e8605c8a3dd1f2
5ddf7c0e35781b3f50cf3475cec6ea462e81fdf1
50228 F20101118_AACVCB robalik_h_Page_132.jp2
0721ff8762bb819bf76a1321900c8a4a
ceb5f30b93b564a1d6caba04301b2ecb53fcf3e5
78968 F20101118_AACVBN robalik_h_Page_114.jp2
5b33df745c246561afdca1923b9fd5c0
2a4275a1a48d731848a7714d72e383106fe1afa3
70395 F20101118_AACUWH robalik_h_Page_119.jpg
2a5566ca38f1a0f50b50bcfdb7d17b09
e10f71039be23a563872b0d05f710723850e8001
103632 F20101118_AACVAY robalik_h_Page_092.jp2
725453d455eb68f4f28b92eb7a3b8e9d
e469bada6bce469a348affc40a924f24e7ee31f3
77532 F20101118_AACUVS robalik_h_Page_102.jpg
e4c4721e77a73e7898fb8374a0adf1d4
66ded3d0a4ad3e96a186830ff8f4bd91f9760651
5640 F20101118_AACVZK robalik_h_Page_092thm.jpg
7936f8917c1f86bdd5b04ddf39dccd46
13c3fb72b11a5184531c03e280ec901631e47cdf
5114 F20101118_AACVYV robalik_h_Page_083thm.jpg
6c77f7c43e674a0568d71d884682d170
4afb02834ac1f0a9b0c2410d65ddf4ab1c43cdcd
55787 F20101118_AACVCC robalik_h_Page_133.jp2
234783dced84a3a85ad4eba9999f6672
69d4368e4fec71fa049ea1086ff2daf24283d7fd
109516 F20101118_AACVBO robalik_h_Page_115.jp2
419177c0c25878d5b4dce271a7c6fff0
f57cae23fd541d948fe3918a9242c9a3b26ecab7
42512 F20101118_AACUWI robalik_h_Page_120.jpg
351e2122d4239293202d0a4cb73fd921
45aa23b89fa5c08cb428678f05f5fbf5d74fb0d4
101680 F20101118_AACVAZ robalik_h_Page_093.jp2
345ae51fe1ca7b58799be58d1bbc3bd9
7561d2378aa801b57f5c668691e4fb83f9b1ca81
73996 F20101118_AACUVT robalik_h_Page_103.jpg
ed727203b63abeebc5922a235c3097f7
4adf434d4ff5c608a4eb60be5a4507d8a9c823eb
23233 F20101118_AACVZL robalik_h_Page_092.QC.jpg
721a4ac9d2112c53cb0a24d0121887ae
e812846d3665579dfe2da65f61785321d0624a45
18595 F20101118_AACVYW robalik_h_Page_083.QC.jpg
27428963ef7dcffba4578d878d190ce5
2a797543757b4d807800bff826d6e03e83adc12f
51585 F20101118_AACVBP robalik_h_Page_117.jp2
3d53bd698cf39569856a64ae9f078ecd
1c77c3f39c39a9e5f00ed565b42978515e5ade3c
42683 F20101118_AACUWJ robalik_h_Page_121.jpg
7b84442944bf2a2403e2049ea14e846b
7d9612e4f2409284cfcbee28471e973e7fc093e3
82774 F20101118_AACUVU robalik_h_Page_104.jpg
8e7d18f547f4ebd7e30dc9d1baaf60dd
e10d26ed97dfa4226b4d47fff8d44622103e88be
55818 F20101118_AACVCD robalik_h_Page_134.jp2
677f9976c448597a5b2ea1bbfed48a7c
68c11258bd9b823efdb2ac00144084a31d2a3709
5764 F20101118_AACVZM robalik_h_Page_093thm.jpg
e859a770ebb42c74e36fbe5f412964f0
24355d32eb64711bf89b707e04d8a5c486694e3b
5048 F20101118_AACVYX robalik_h_Page_084thm.jpg
f16c3cc2c3ee7c26a4b0e315e888f5ab
4fb70dd2460c1f1b316ef7d174705e5b434f9859
52779 F20101118_AACVBQ robalik_h_Page_118.jp2
34d74a9c92bdd204cd43a9c023669bea
5ed98a88f117e3a1e54afe24bb1e18bf6f6a54ba
43332 F20101118_AACUWK robalik_h_Page_122.jpg
12b5fc71cda6350c1de0da4142ba5fd6
44683765aafd10806f291bafa80b9ddbd6e6b727
82678 F20101118_AACUVV robalik_h_Page_105.jpg
52fd22322a6e97b7e2db24d76cc107bc
4dfca09c6f4e3b6b62e6a86da833bf1f4a19b56b
52265 F20101118_AACVCE robalik_h_Page_135.jp2
1f52a06b335b43d46187bab7e7d3b723
009c8141b71f739542fd4334af40f12405b3ff7b
23838 F20101118_AACVZN robalik_h_Page_093.QC.jpg
112fd9502b32f3bd76130759559cddb0
e363d86b6c34c364d4c90569d7280e8858f475b6
15333 F20101118_AACVYY robalik_h_Page_084.QC.jpg
bdfe3f429a4fac8c352bfb5ff4183e15
ee6c34019e31ce4c7ca1f2230c7234e130f34c48
90328 F20101118_AACVBR robalik_h_Page_119.jp2
c7f8f764851a27eecac7753dd25f5853
791112647857930de031dd622a5edf9074738c5b
42738 F20101118_AACUWL robalik_h_Page_123.jpg
95f005d736a397628b27916a205f28bd
acdc3c73dedde8b2d622dd19a3d333327176277a
82906 F20101118_AACUVW robalik_h_Page_106.jpg
37a08224c39fa480fad2240d0ce47e62
fb0b48031b1381c0ec69aa54b5b1c25e350628fa
48907 F20101118_AACVCF robalik_h_Page_136.jp2
72f7726a78c3b59e3ccd60f4823dbebd
ac0a291778b6754030f80d7ca75202767efd1826
6408 F20101118_AACVZO robalik_h_Page_094thm.jpg
7f0b405ab5cfdccb351a13cc0eb9c1f6
eeb1011b8782dbf23c34773939676554e7dda914
5458 F20101118_AACVYZ robalik_h_Page_085thm.jpg
f957fd299fbded180139d98c3301bf23
11dfff8e992a4b44727675be1319b9ea2a17b7d7
53942 F20101118_AACUXA robalik_h_Page_140.jpg
4a3fe68b37f8d73d48e31502906b08ae
e1e6542a9cc9572778bb105e7bc99fc7d1d5b94d
53447 F20101118_AACVBS robalik_h_Page_120.jp2
c5303021adc36af8e3d83faf428694df
c5cfbe3c2975c98f2daae843198ab02db6d69df4
28108 F20101118_AACUWM robalik_h_Page_124.jpg
29a4d3b8be0c2c9d74c5b85a0f02f45e
88dcc88f113621a3605b36299ea542c7a92b7c09
86617 F20101118_AACUVX robalik_h_Page_107.jpg
354a4058f40bab23d8fa08d17e81af2e
be6f4c2cbc3161aef45e1162fb6426349ca1953e
14082 F20101118_AACVCG robalik_h_Page_137.jp2
d12e9417720eb86387f297bb6ba15086
8ea6ec397fbe5c3897b212c63a20912efb1afe70
25853 F20101118_AACVZP robalik_h_Page_094.QC.jpg
b842288d8e0a9a9de26ddf36b4d295e1
da5287e8002fa662324b5623db6162e3e8b3e14c
55207 F20101118_AACUXB robalik_h_Page_143.jpg
37fb67f292d0d2f82673b7ea505ec241
3165ffe1f7cca99d82b29a0fd0687f984cbe48de
57293 F20101118_AACVBT robalik_h_Page_121.jp2
2369b275b50f80928bd5ca4435ace2fe
3968674220204660f70307dc3364d289bc7375ff
36459 F20101118_AACUWN robalik_h_Page_125.jpg
dd4d630b332505c73a73593a54582238
524b29963c0e082a8995f610b9e99656701fc167
86217 F20101118_AACUVY robalik_h_Page_109.jpg
f17150f1ec75a6e3b057314d238ca636
5f4fef54453249d69a95fee146c5fca9d37f520e
75252 F20101118_AACVCH robalik_h_Page_138.jp2
245ccff8daee43fe4a0abda34206bd73
474fcbe3d402839ae724663089da6a72c1157d6a
6274 F20101118_AACVZQ robalik_h_Page_095thm.jpg
9c809f99356b072ac783de60c47c03df
d5c63a0c4db980005433717d1c9762a264f3556c
36037 F20101118_AACUXC robalik_h_Page_144.jpg
375eb084f0279ceab7e5389629076301
5665282c7b727bcccca393e5346f9d773d987e42
55344 F20101118_AACVBU robalik_h_Page_122.jp2
afd61a801b5a01a52273088552151ad8
9b7c8f33040d15b126dd1dfb52f0a9a9e91614ef
26999 F20101118_AACUWO robalik_h_Page_126.jpg
be9eaa110229746ac6590e481e677e8b
ceecb2d2b4f722a8999c2f757c87f1208300585b
80700 F20101118_AACUVZ robalik_h_Page_110.jpg
013d82e2aac7aef8528850f093e4a19a
56185e373cc2de57ac417a7f967e4e7609fa8490
65499 F20101118_AACVCI robalik_h_Page_139.jp2
630b35b027a0cb5b3557fe7747a56411
30c73ae07b746b5c7c8941f41f59bef8600b3b58
49088 F20101118_AACUXD robalik_h_Page_145.jpg
7827f77a5f12115900e15dbfcee3becb
1841138cde648565c18c4888488e3bf4f6865eb4
54894 F20101118_AACVBV robalik_h_Page_123.jp2
d7f93cc437e68c17a83e23b35ec0f1b5
73707fab710517e0b58c568336c2792c2bafb029
65728 F20101118_AACVCJ robalik_h_Page_140.jp2
6c725581f8d0854a5c7a6dd2298c0f7a
16c636cf67f05cb9e2c6eb0f5b15ea4533d706ab
26698 F20101118_AACVZR robalik_h_Page_095.QC.jpg
b16922162f10ab67beba0b981a5e852f
bf47f66dfbfeac642ff4daff5b749997799574e1
57082 F20101118_AACUXE robalik_h_Page_146.jpg
0d1e6be707057a24e5b952aef57787a5
b5fe60f39dea2b8aa0fe3b434c3cbdb99ff615f5
36397 F20101118_AACVBW robalik_h_Page_124.jp2
95190eacaba513969b7e260a27302045
8c310609cb9ff0cc6bca6a883a162a0d1cfc4d38
88069 F20101118_AACUWP robalik_h_Page_127.jpg
e95da85715bb411d40f26d662825bbc3
27d36968571c23e9b877a798a6cd2ea384e37c49
64945 F20101118_AACVCK robalik_h_Page_142.jp2
b8ff86f4a8ec81e296d5f9942045d008
a3cd1d8dcd173f181755ba4818630c06bec55d4e
6435 F20101118_AACVZS robalik_h_Page_096thm.jpg
2ced2fdd602091961f337a4fabac88c3
ee6c1addcc3563343ab6dd18f191116c992a4af4
30385 F20101118_AACUXF robalik_h_Page_147.jpg
95192ad2747609f4063b284caeb1be6d
5d3a60c164d6b67d12cdbde0e4ddbdc2f7595bcf
29646 F20101118_AACVBX robalik_h_Page_126.jp2
0d3986a5eb69c530e182296a15e05703
c48c0148512c70f25199a2a6bf9edf19ce6fed28
37759 F20101118_AACUWQ robalik_h_Page_129.jpg
67ab76d82d6162fc633a28974a58aae0
eb298a158b120b3596910bcc2d65f670cbcf92f6
69824 F20101118_AACVCL robalik_h_Page_143.jp2
289c75d6da7f0328f6091c67b55e749c
cf0252d7a8ada76f266c348bd0c4d8f38397c982
27310 F20101118_AACVZT robalik_h_Page_096.QC.jpg
2a101eafccfdabb4c475eefc102aa48a
c3ee9a0a1fbf46985dcbe2d0e8590a38aa2a71cc
49837 F20101118_AACUXG robalik_h_Page_148.jpg
7a505246aac313acaab9ffcd70c47a3a
b249672c7196945d0efb881844feca8a1793aa11
109575 F20101118_AACVBY robalik_h_Page_127.jp2
948536563a8692af85e42c206cbeb42e
3deecba7286228844c1d4d680d717800b981b24d
39223 F20101118_AACUWR robalik_h_Page_130.jpg
1c367ef58aa6d532457db79e19ac6ef5
64846151341ea6f68e6e3c798163c16cab1cc659
38157 F20101118_AACVDA robalik_h_Page_159.jp2
7b7e28b1240363c77e8162743f3e4d35
5750308f5ed4ac95d1cec3961402592fff5eb45a
44470 F20101118_AACVCM robalik_h_Page_144.jp2
239479bb39d5c381a02ce398c554db27
e1a1d56bf69815883c9db77eb4add07193fd79a6
6171 F20101118_AACVZU robalik_h_Page_097thm.jpg
76a2055cf65c4aa2e30764b8b4cfe661
21c8a271e95d7d8925412e26e1b4c481c918a655
51066 F20101118_AACUXH robalik_h_Page_151.jpg
d6e5378aa7b39d2150b80f5cdfbcb5a5
0eb9860d1d8d6797a110c7f4a98be0f73bb0f180
72224 F20101118_AACUWS robalik_h_Page_131.jpg
b08f51e14a0f2ee867251c0b20883b51
3e08b5f87e9e01e9e2975a872028e9b2c9897e58
111162 F20101118_AACVDB robalik_h_Page_160.jp2
a05f0e0abdd4b5755a0927bd1e5edd42
1b82fccb8a651f18447f473f209ca7e8862c2eb7
63602 F20101118_AACVCN robalik_h_Page_145.jp2
2eb86da04d28c05109d18e65a8db4dd7
af8975cf352e1b2a46d0865e91ab23ddf15d21c3
25550 F20101118_AACVZV robalik_h_Page_097.QC.jpg
74f29067559bb7b42b8ae7d2345c91bb
bd009348d63c2127aa60069503bd9213bfcdfbd6
55638 F20101118_AACUXI robalik_h_Page_152.jpg
3cf240d1c14f63aed3709d69c588b8e2
cf203286c48253e1c4bdfe8b3248f478f57bb5a4
53909 F20101118_AACVBZ robalik_h_Page_130.jp2
97c387c114daf696837435e31e792707
68a3c8326979ba597bd2e7bf429b7b6fae39da3b
39531 F20101118_AACUWT robalik_h_Page_132.jpg
b7534dcaa12b1db93e4d31f3b94e513a
b48a84f5616cf519b3eca55f175ae4449d075eba
134688 F20101118_AACVDC robalik_h_Page_161.jp2
10987b19d18f14ccfa7bded664b2c4ab
f503251f3538029a7b758d13fe7b141be6844988
74674 F20101118_AACVCO robalik_h_Page_146.jp2
0e4f0143469d5607530461016fbd19b1
a308244571ce20bce0a1e59b7875e1884eeff06f
6289 F20101118_AACVZW robalik_h_Page_098thm.jpg
9bf9d5d81c3ae86d81b18fb6616d640f
545d4c94967d6166140e9c8256a653a1cf6e7368
39194 F20101118_AACUXJ robalik_h_Page_153.jpg
4cf801b93ac0b313c27cdf70040cc31f
bb2cd52ceea0b8edd6b3ccc525f7fd7325f28388
43492 F20101118_AACUWU robalik_h_Page_133.jpg
621d00687da744b7eaf45e5635ca7b67
e3a1461be84d496436cef0e771f6f9855169d165
137987 F20101118_AACVDD robalik_h_Page_162.jp2
9262822ee0707a23153a70b1c653ad25
b67d5d9d3b88d9ffc3d96b3b311bf550fefc75b8
37991 F20101118_AACVCP robalik_h_Page_147.jp2
00636d47916fdc6e174844a4caee9ea0
72be9d5123d9f463d850903f5b6d99933d4b220e
26231 F20101118_AACVZX robalik_h_Page_098.QC.jpg
82cf26afa1fc408c964c9345a86530c7
2d34e0eac343ba5c7b73d8684bfec1dda3321021
49278 F20101118_AACUXK robalik_h_Page_154.jpg
022e707ebe8735bdd7405d6f531ca73f
64575520e5e0a793ca2d5fc29cfe2c1eafbb9ced
40941 F20101118_AACUWV robalik_h_Page_135.jpg
34d3bafa2e1d7aab31f7730baed707bf
1ed69c44196f5f1779c280e4a95bff1446ee1efe
27995 F20101118_AACVDE robalik_h_Page_166.jp2
3a638ab294db785c2d86d98d5e787568
f716aad986b1224364de548f7984e046a4fb7909
69794 F20101118_AACVCQ robalik_h_Page_149.jp2
bc6f23e379a0c55ed41066e46ed03277
dbde249f75c23de6ac45497d3eb5820f0c257d8c
6427 F20101118_AACVZY robalik_h_Page_099thm.jpg
39d622e83012156a68043c0d27aee612
4e818b652d222003fdabf8bb965404c2f77cedb3
52836 F20101118_AACUXL robalik_h_Page_155.jpg
cd589930e7393126c2d32bb7446191f7
d36d8d284dda074429345399a3cf07047bedc5c2
43839 F20101118_AACUWW robalik_h_Page_136.jpg
eeac917e530b1056a57fc76c9bf5a328
f98ceac56986f041064e5d1825f6ffbdf85012fb
1053954 F20101118_AACVDF robalik_h_Page_001.tif
ba10a13ca06e22984f58c1b16845fbb8
42dc13ecacc9666c761e6f7a416bac89127d8375
47890 F20101118_AACVCR robalik_h_Page_150.jp2
b81aea97ed33772828b9d07d53b27832
63634e6767bb65c4fe463824ef2857baaabb1d9f
27468 F20101118_AACVZZ robalik_h_Page_099.QC.jpg
ffca2912d2a3e4c220bc02dcc5c765e3
eef7ee89f07d2e6e4e670d746c66c01570d39cad
30841 F20101118_AACUXM robalik_h_Page_156.jpg
c70a882238c1e20aada1e7e9ee6ac432
f501de6e9edb8c419b5c832c53b7a9d77eafcfbd
11730 F20101118_AACUWX robalik_h_Page_137.jpg
771141d5584e10b5224966f6d53d87b7
41de0b716e7c24197d39acafb14c3559a81b04ef
F20101118_AACVDG robalik_h_Page_003.tif
62f85d5ce5b909daacbaca756995bbb3
7a4b9b850026290968cb6a4053915100b381c872
1051979 F20101118_AACUYA robalik_h_Page_006.jp2
e075324e259f54d8a85b9516d4cae5e2
5620cb3ad501b32b1b61b4b5a0fb37048c4059a3
62042 F20101118_AACVCS robalik_h_Page_151.jp2
cb893bd44347bb697a480019e3944950
b228ef00652f6c14a64fd3adcefd10a542209509
53544 F20101118_AACUXN robalik_h_Page_158.jpg
1d10b83dd590810b661c9731e5567b7f
00ce51ed1ae25168974d29a0084a589b36faccc3
62278 F20101118_AACUWY robalik_h_Page_138.jpg
90c0c069a2827fb819bd28f99a22326e
e99fca474c5ee6bff7cc88941ed99fbc63c22f45
25271604 F20101118_AACVDH robalik_h_Page_004.tif
8d66a73aeff88771c09f237127b9589f
4ce56c58c63bd2059bfa1379829b613a62d9435d
777420 F20101118_AACUYB robalik_h_Page_007.jp2
61dfd5dd0e70955123e175295670a1ce
348a96234d85ee5d5b969138d8fc4eeb03bbfc8b
70074 F20101118_AACVCT robalik_h_Page_152.jp2
384142cd2b2e40880bbddda0c5e0851c
d182def83a102b661d02dce3487c12f8c934df6c
31100 F20101118_AACUXO robalik_h_Page_159.jpg
30ea51760828ddff6a7ab0d8b1dd78e3
82102ba73f253406641410451744593257256f79
53788 F20101118_AACUWZ robalik_h_Page_139.jpg
29bd3206c6520b7351f80fbc5a79da32
c989fe0775849ebc72db85289cb854acff7e944b
F20101118_AACVDI robalik_h_Page_006.tif
3c11c338fcc188e0452f86b5d4592ca3
81658b653c323956430e57a831e7701805443cb5
197623 F20101118_AACUYC robalik_h_Page_008.jp2
c45b560774179265e24cc64d7c7f6613
c176d94a6998ebc6e30876a65071facc1678548f
47173 F20101118_AACVCU robalik_h_Page_153.jp2
1e4498758f6fa0a30773ca27317eb00a
95b714c9dd7aa5ed26d928ea78b3e693d36f8b31
84224 F20101118_AACUXP robalik_h_Page_160.jpg
1ce50941b419c2166663dd3a30020f27
c79c5f273dea28a0e348f4e60db391c9997fe68b
F20101118_AACVDJ robalik_h_Page_007.tif
a7d8e4467c07a0fb3071348fd5039bdc
a40d57da200965fa8def605193f491ee65f3c4c9
108919 F20101118_AACUYD robalik_h_Page_010.jp2
8089ffa501d12ae7869d4232719cf158
a87f342e1a1631ae01e8084d845b6427bd282529
60787 F20101118_AACVCV robalik_h_Page_154.jp2
1ae46f652a4062f028b09d8c350edd6f
bfa6f4ce3dd179a00514a820333a01981c1c5b5c
F20101118_AACVDK robalik_h_Page_008.tif
be33fc8cb2ce334e18b2972d5bab383c
1ae827db9cb48b83a0126eaa920225bcf18d08cf
99552 F20101118_AACUYE robalik_h_Page_011.jp2
00324bcb8de9fc74dcbeded90191fd43
5be16242b52b7c46717a67901c7f037e4d5fbe54
68453 F20101118_AACVCW robalik_h_Page_155.jp2
0fd59b62da73859a1d55eac2f689ed52
2ca012e6afbf44f8f8755a9acdc78fbeabbab4ae
96979 F20101118_AACUXQ robalik_h_Page_161.jpg
46cbf5a3c2830e91babc67a46e20f71a
f5cac7b981668ca5daff1c5f305f276396c4391c
F20101118_AACVDL robalik_h_Page_009.tif
5115ecf5cc781d9c07cf0d272e83e73e
3a5769028e517dfad262cb8a8683d5ca4dcfe156
114140 F20101118_AACUYF robalik_h_Page_012.jp2
9471fa6f26ec787cf8c836292b1d974b
12a5c18611645c58d6e89e644bbd9eb1e3eaeede
37999 F20101118_AACVCX robalik_h_Page_156.jp2
8388d9c6faf894b8a38c1ea8070d845b
7ad901c1fbb9d1017e1aa0f235a4ccac78380bd2
104688 F20101118_AACUXR robalik_h_Page_162.jpg
3fcb303bb6f215a49cdba70d1b8aa362
0c3b8214d7b321f63e89f11fdae61b05d2305257
F20101118_AACVEA robalik_h_Page_024.tif
81abc7c9d00ac37e8d6d16d61454beee
8648b3b6571c11ca80e557e88f4d69758b3dc711
F20101118_AACVDM robalik_h_Page_010.tif
c3af7f0064c757e2ef4264a022bc02e3
1698cb2a3775bfaa44f5c73162ed9f85d0fa2530
108422 F20101118_AACUYG robalik_h_Page_013.jp2
e0259c084136cbbd6025a0b29d2fde82
7c9a7b85cf2c7ad105f642967afc93fcbffb29ae
60151 F20101118_AACVCY robalik_h_Page_157.jp2
a066d82b203120a111648220c21a071b
1a53ee44ecc80dde3176d6ac27295fd88b2e74fd
91005 F20101118_AACUXS robalik_h_Page_164.jpg
a67cc9b34fb6ddb07c14aa53e5760828
ff8108fe92094391b808ba7caf9717baea656203
F20101118_AACVEB robalik_h_Page_025.tif
47b4532854a9419d826b940fcdcf3915
44a3baa64672304a59b75cd7c2e846fea8e2171c
F20101118_AACVDN robalik_h_Page_011.tif
030c8295d39afaf84a89130ab4d8273c
44a2b2ad13fccfcc166f24f3b00619cac619e200
111511 F20101118_AACUYH robalik_h_Page_014.jp2
fa7538b7ac8df0b2fdabac3776cb0907
a3f1ff7c2fd9d4e21f50dcfc56f087a53ff06483
68575 F20101118_AACVCZ robalik_h_Page_158.jp2
7944fee2fa12fd90f3b9fe2e49028fec
130bf459ef634ff1c9a42c00e9686c4270082a7b
77365 F20101118_AACUXT robalik_h_Page_165.jpg
92ec5a7f75a70178c9c68ee057a6f348
d4428e97e277f148a961f986037832a8e4431d4d
F20101118_AACVEC robalik_h_Page_026.tif
e413f36b4d48b25d4e798b3d4937a2ca
b597b068bf317f838a24aa73e973b9035fc5dbe2
F20101118_AACVDO robalik_h_Page_012.tif
b5d6fd8dc92999565abd614fca29ae60
944c2f19f1a02ec6ded807424cc3e7789f58a68a
116536 F20101118_AACUYI robalik_h_Page_015.jp2
722180337ae0d011281ddd9e087f92d5
e8f0d85bec51860efa14ed767e5543650d1a8b6a
22614 F20101118_AACUXU robalik_h_Page_166.jpg
6037b102820487a2bcdd7f4362221771
dd9b36733c4c3b5e6c64b281537f74f69198d117
F20101118_AACVED robalik_h_Page_028.tif
c77ab89bff61b3e99fdd65f87f847b80
c856d23f71b1cc077e608ff911f00958f98f5a9b
F20101118_AACVDP robalik_h_Page_013.tif
2aaa05ab20646c00217abc6b6a2a00c7
c9a05d0aeaee83ffe5380958d84863fe52f5313b
115150 F20101118_AACUYJ robalik_h_Page_016.jp2
3806b9bada08e76bcd18bd527ab2d995
f20c5e51a608a7e597022e97bf4131ee25ae4500
23458 F20101118_AACUXV robalik_h_Page_001.jp2
2da407a17dba5602fd5701e8509be32e
ff9d1842442c5aaaccf48cf2e74959995215b5c5
F20101118_AACVEE robalik_h_Page_029.tif
929ef61e8fa3794c3ca8f24a363d2c77
af9f658d5c8fcb7bf628dc294e415f3c4aa219af
F20101118_AACVDQ robalik_h_Page_014.tif
77242d1b16511d7e296b586bc3378181
e9e4c16d80bb6e85836dc096cdc747e804d47bf9
108723 F20101118_AACUYK robalik_h_Page_017.jp2
f25f728f9086967b0caa1be31e312cf2
3ee4a9989afcf03a2af3b26b7dad56f162376659
5991 F20101118_AACUXW robalik_h_Page_002.jp2
e0d5693dbf584ce1e76d79963b26a111
d3918275d81ed540c3f960e4ed9380a8a47763f2
F20101118_AACVEF robalik_h_Page_031.tif
9b000dff58e7520591ff5df49ea71f27
9eaa43e2d7f180a67201db8fd1156024142d0df8
F20101118_AACVDR robalik_h_Page_015.tif
c590f4b8713d0cd29c9749e682e11b48
a83359214cc2bea2a7cf31fe1df8bc409acbefd4
106762 F20101118_AACUYL robalik_h_Page_018.jp2
d7a02d1a1bc1c48e5c5ef3904fae0f9d
165d967500771348eec748c73fbdb4324d7aebed
13938 F20101118_AACUXX robalik_h_Page_003.jp2
e685eecd3a2c367a9359991070c49320
fc820f5c30f69ec11913ada6d9e44c031a869126
F20101118_AACVEG robalik_h_Page_032.tif
ae38fef94fce60dca2387802c8519fba
60735e17d41e747738820fc0250f68ff7c47717c
71842 F20101118_AACUZA robalik_h_Page_034.jp2
6f800a4f8538478d1b0cb30815ee0090
1a4472714e431d3db7019b356bf1537498874cae
F20101118_AACVDS robalik_h_Page_016.tif
ceeb054a1c9d0b1a4196313e50e2bbc5
3b6a4dbcdbea73d4f69b6fef8fd4b7035532ea89
110584 F20101118_AACUYM robalik_h_Page_019.jp2
23c17bf1b540e1e3ad0c6793546257c1
ae25bd065c51d2614af23e672bc92f8822be4910
1051984 F20101118_AACUXY robalik_h_Page_004.jp2
86c59a9059027e275889d6191e8b98d2
8c5e43d6050da7dd948ff11e0fb5f3343d595630
F20101118_AACVEH robalik_h_Page_033.tif
2aae238340010eb568d943bab89a90e2
281b0049dec3c141b8447b4b166358c352098302
109858 F20101118_AACUZB robalik_h_Page_035.jp2
11a1a4c9b8bec9b3f9c87db71599554f
4371f4ac523191872aff6feb0e7be5102508edd2
F20101118_AACVDT robalik_h_Page_017.tif
b0c70dd104e164c9246b8ca68c9a5f15
4736ba8b9885989ca89c06e63a8cb01daa76db2c
84970 F20101118_AACUYN robalik_h_Page_020.jp2
a74f768d58eef8f8eff4d8428a2feb51
73b9c460e769536e0a425af5f7f88b8c16689d1e
F20101118_AACUXZ robalik_h_Page_005.jp2
872c0c40e56ecde9b9e9dd9627553aa8
8922c0be5458d4f97b4f82e4f4216684b3bb38ac
F20101118_AACVEI robalik_h_Page_034.tif
5f8e4ff9ac9ae20f0bf53033e8628fd7
273c8505f3ee1f5e36e53798f152a8145ea80149
107625 F20101118_AACUZC robalik_h_Page_036.jp2
176f0458b20041ef828589b425108006
d9be66411f0e999c9a8e6a91fa14c7016fcc2abb
F20101118_AACVDU robalik_h_Page_018.tif
8432a7151667639f91dd3d294489e4e0
0666a7bddb33751005d25fa94fc7b7202142fbb5
107052 F20101118_AACUYO robalik_h_Page_021.jp2
c17f9e99cbc4085da5e90bac15954064
86216923e94b0daa129f89ec274f97b0241e2d20
F20101118_AACVEJ robalik_h_Page_035.tif
a2740ca275749daa8e4dec7babc5de14
5c20f4aaf487add63c55958e15d9d285a06e30c3
106096 F20101118_AACUZD robalik_h_Page_037.jp2
e0dc5c2a876711812c9551a4e6625684
fefcecfdd887985d460e6121d42dc10ea65c51fa
F20101118_AACVDV robalik_h_Page_019.tif
77436ee04e94214afd8eb663a0f35100
455d1d33cced0bb3efe349e6325df320d41ca994
106360 F20101118_AACUYP robalik_h_Page_022.jp2
417223fadbc2158a38d6da3259a75bbc
a8ae4a7a4c0cd6043cc12d0b48b84e76e8c7f4ec
F20101118_AACVEK robalik_h_Page_036.tif
37695c0b1cfad608734e08566d29aa70
6b86e32e9183e34683ccab37a262ca43f1b4a1a7
106327 F20101118_AACUZE robalik_h_Page_038.jp2
a68e2fe143ddf130329bf80daa624e4f
32cbd310914362930b2588c95937f80a05891489
F20101118_AACVDW robalik_h_Page_020.tif
27703c861d300aeadfa0331ca8f38d3e
22cb4fecb9ca8ffc1e4501a0c0029b344a502e5f
106920 F20101118_AACUYQ robalik_h_Page_023.jp2
29794498a74ccc99ff04d76383ff5048
9e96df6fb818f5e743ce1b2e417250866cdcd6b8
F20101118_AACVEL robalik_h_Page_037.tif
705045cbe19f0bce0adb4e17ac127a3f
d67c24e436bcac5ed5cf81dd7b63d34711866d59
112265 F20101118_AACUZF robalik_h_Page_039.jp2
eb98651ec8a0904796e7cfb8184c97f7
b8ce0cf456b69caae75691aef32081e43f6b0d57
F20101118_AACVDX robalik_h_Page_021.tif
c71400efa61b1aea61c76b9235d1e2da
9d1591bc1eef598da6f4724bb007e6a0a0f90baf
F20101118_AACVEM robalik_h_Page_038.tif
b860fd69f34e79172774a80dc81415db
d41ed96095ed2ed690b9e0ff50dc5f17d98a8d29
104084 F20101118_AACUZG robalik_h_Page_040.jp2
41230abc468dd580ea1925370c3f3464
3494eb1bd2fe8e2416323eb9eea25e338151b937
F20101118_AACVDY robalik_h_Page_022.tif
15c7a1753287385109a140be936adea3
eae6a39d7e388cb7271f6ac0d7d5ac9b5bc99765
108403 F20101118_AACUYR robalik_h_Page_024.jp2
458c9371f55e93695fa78aba11a28cc5
808a6b028d1409853143a1ac28100e17ea274bcd
F20101118_AACVFA robalik_h_Page_056.tif
acc708e0a898388a11116cc8c9cb4c78
fe4016d8ee1812c3d693a00b5cc66543ab028b35
F20101118_AACVEN robalik_h_Page_039.tif
37fc4511e9ddc48421096b04c540facd
3ea44f602d6e61e1ecd0d8e5abbb8b682e348263
109665 F20101118_AACUZH robalik_h_Page_042.jp2
1f57a3770434231abe04af16960d1746
65a48df73ede0a6f2ee03ef1ff0adc6ee4efbe54
F20101118_AACVDZ robalik_h_Page_023.tif
5648ddc16b4b59ee77db6ab56db85605
61265d26637722c7a119e22a68fb21ef35434ade
101086 F20101118_AACUYS robalik_h_Page_025.jp2
ce122f42464a840447eb0b1407d2ebde
7f53dc8efcaf5a3de48aa75e0ecd6cb054055cef
F20101118_AACVFB robalik_h_Page_057.tif
a2a7c6678b2728a02e0aa5be86942a2b
1283b38749745309005bedc835fd4ffdb79d1533
F20101118_AACVEO robalik_h_Page_040.tif
6f1b6183780d9a9362475082d837167b
56656860277a5849d8c87402295301a376ad6317
122607 F20101118_AACUZI robalik_h_Page_043.jp2
dfc35467db1e3d2be78d33f3ef17b612
df1ff2525156677e545de7ef34089c729f180c17
110117 F20101118_AACUYT robalik_h_Page_026.jp2
d4ee3794bcb81c15c3613ed66e4fbe48
e1e007bb76fe0538ee869d58c9f96530ed29df76
F20101118_AACVFC robalik_h_Page_058.tif
f59355c9338e4409de50657bb6ae38ae
59145d39b70b3422d0d5e73fbccbd3a88d4465b1
F20101118_AACVEP robalik_h_Page_041.tif
209cb2fcb6b800c0b67732bd51d24d19
c47b2d6859e22b0035ff2d19fad186038f0af53d
111114 F20101118_AACUZJ robalik_h_Page_044.jp2
ba1d745874cc275112d89ca4e46d869b
ac28eb89248797c8d2e86fbd086d485aaf8564a4
103990 F20101118_AACUYU robalik_h_Page_027.jp2
2502bf5ca09aa2b143ffbb2faa5fa6b9
4b0e8e438f2308506cbbc3240fc7e9b19e5a7d14
F20101118_AACVFD robalik_h_Page_059.tif
e3a1ae29414845102f6f8a51ccae7af9
1489711c2cf8ff39a0b2e95e80b511416383de75
F20101118_AACVEQ robalik_h_Page_042.tif
c2b661179fa715b5b5871ebb5eaed82d
b99009c2fa4af7a392f2fc3f01280addeb6981be
110314 F20101118_AACUZK robalik_h_Page_045.jp2
bb6610a8d994d37c46cb3739ac3444a1
b5a4bf3ced741e67861126b9cf8bc1ff45b52326
108163 F20101118_AACUYV robalik_h_Page_028.jp2
50ce87c7de8542878f6393fb09f8e527
6ed14724cd57d9b12fd181d2af3639782c79c836
F20101118_AACVFE robalik_h_Page_060.tif
7c98bf9935ad6676365f44b6bf5f875f
284f2ace102b4d047d22d56f3bcb57fd911223a3
F20101118_AACVER robalik_h_Page_044.tif
04567dac729cef422c9130bc3aff8eb4
8cd270f33bf49550ecd38fbff810d50be8aff437
109171 F20101118_AACUZL robalik_h_Page_046.jp2
576ced6ce2c823f923066bb6374fe1c6
3c598048bf0dc5ba8bf1a00e8eede2d1221a7b60
110199 F20101118_AACUYW robalik_h_Page_030.jp2
08481a57f6aa1263910f3ddc4f399d0b
de0885659164286271d4695e51580295d11918c4
F20101118_AACVFF robalik_h_Page_061.tif
e00e9c83a9d795bf46959794b075c799
80b38461fc2530cca101a4cebedf59e01a0e23b3
F20101118_AACVES robalik_h_Page_045.tif
793fa938b131cd1f755b4041266edd5f
7bbb869128c386c59841a3fadeadd5d8d3a81c2c
112869 F20101118_AACUZM robalik_h_Page_047.jp2
40367a8e1886c4597cd9f49539f9ea76
095cdb9a2b01be3a6ac1c275535209e1494017f7
122712 F20101118_AACUYX robalik_h_Page_031.jp2
f2f28cd3e1a699ed14d3eeb50e231113
e7778dd8593f6cf8707b46a57f6c00c15ea177c6
F20101118_AACVFG robalik_h_Page_062.tif
ed9af47bd7d910a000c748e2ad8f7d24
57c748c11cfc67a29636a8f0ca50f9e519ee1cc1
F20101118_AACVET robalik_h_Page_046.tif
1dc65f987775430981e0dbc5467b268a
2f018a9b93a8e7825e6ccea004b920933ffa44ff
115694 F20101118_AACUZN robalik_h_Page_048.jp2
c0c15489e14184e633e940d5f7332b42
3a2c88e3b1bda54d7832b9c0b8f4bf0af9d3cd2d
59948 F20101118_AACUYY robalik_h_Page_032.jp2
39d43c80c1d4aa9c93907054e6a86c05
28019aad32b3853e5ca4a4f39cf3d36c8d407582
F20101118_AACVFH robalik_h_Page_063.tif
603d7a5836fab468d4f8337cdea967c0
259dd9d965ea662109286938ab0d3a253e3b6e17
F20101118_AACVEU robalik_h_Page_048.tif
e0fb7f05b0198a1eb8d86c79484dab5f
d4572155ea94b23750569424092fb89fda0411ee
110984 F20101118_AACUZO robalik_h_Page_049.jp2
45ef75b434f1a84e4ad94546b6b9d87b
f3ae4960d39196072644740afdb00f9053fdd453
91365 F20101118_AACUYZ robalik_h_Page_033.jp2
2cc1190b47cd209be374bc41095e3079
8b957ef8e0ec9433f33f97660c3b359f2015372a
F20101118_AACVFI robalik_h_Page_064.tif
cea9067263f2b67fb01fbccb75fade22
c1d92c950741bd7c94edd0170b456d25ee495c5a
F20101118_AACVEV robalik_h_Page_049.tif
dc5c90b49e9245ae0aa5a4f3d2663d0a
76f5f564af3ce5ec7dcadfed7289a1420b4ed302
114620 F20101118_AACUZP robalik_h_Page_050.jp2
707bc359037ecc79cb71eb0baa8922c9
5df69d0af42ce089ccbdc67afedeb9f21e56d9c8
F20101118_AACVFJ robalik_h_Page_065.tif
d672c9d61efa5b41c4a3558d8cf45774
6448dad75d7c063d8b6671513eaa11299c1638ae
F20101118_AACVEW robalik_h_Page_051.tif
9f7a5bb255bd659547ecf9eaf1502aa2
9a3ca82e4b693db56eb8e1405be1c16490e76b31
109813 F20101118_AACUZQ robalik_h_Page_052.jp2
0417d669717ee6e35fbd5133dedec007
a79f841940b847bd444fa777e2e55ae9bb98dee9
F20101118_AACVFK robalik_h_Page_066.tif
40f8b7e6abbad67f31f228f58b199ae4
16852245aa66952cd94c9205637068df47c36bd0
F20101118_AACVEX robalik_h_Page_052.tif
0a56521f5b26721c9cb630811a857502
8388fcbcdc4945ab61aa0f8ea02c5bc32586fe36
110993 F20101118_AACUZR robalik_h_Page_053.jp2
82fb1ce9947bf7254327673c1cedda85
fb2c6ee76bbbf3e464b995d22c5266e04b327797
F20101118_AACVFL robalik_h_Page_067.tif
8999f7cdca23d16b5fe69ee4c0a3281f
b32cf7540072a55c85b04df475d0eb9bd75123b6
F20101118_AACVEY robalik_h_Page_054.tif
ccb124afda21494634c1aa34f5858113
92b149b6a60a79227f6dd83eb1e49f69912fff21
F20101118_AACVGA robalik_h_Page_083.tif
e1b706b7dcf94674f8975d489f2be05f
5a6251ca48aba73c165893ba6a8987aa357814ae
F20101118_AACVFM robalik_h_Page_068.tif
351722481d6af55a52c1b9f7018c811a
4398ccea489dadcfd80a132d254a28919a9420d4
F20101118_AACVEZ robalik_h_Page_055.tif
361dd222dd947b233afd96aa0a9bd43b
3d69295bac6e17a0fff6b46473d6619f7f34d8f6
108482 F20101118_AACUZS robalik_h_Page_054.jp2
4d92794303d81a20ec58c65ef3e7fb45
597e55174abea90330783c1a432e49456bc88857
F20101118_AACVGB robalik_h_Page_085.tif
7ad3a6030aa431566ac7ab3f9f2cb7c3
b6306ec21ef9ef759e85aec5daf02e38afcafe6a
F20101118_AACVFN robalik_h_Page_069.tif
f71fd414d0280fdfeb69546c355d8a32
0db721aea9a360a4c51ccfb2dfd8d7e2c94349cf
112251 F20101118_AACUZT robalik_h_Page_055.jp2
4f390dac08d615082b04242515f32dcc
94ca8eee5e87de1d32e0d0ff1eb8a8d7d94d1435
F20101118_AACVGC robalik_h_Page_086.tif
0a474a57d82a7e227d8d40e1c84b30a5
84a0f984cc7356010f392e62e685e51d028c5a04
F20101118_AACVFO robalik_h_Page_071.tif
006b71d95ee9d98574a3561b13de20bd
aee1f931948ce463df29d2d49d56ecec5bb31618
101481 F20101118_AACUZU robalik_h_Page_057.jp2
2eb27c90ef9184312a2a9964810a6c26
4ec3c225bac4c01be77b94c87edb76d3e71ade5c
F20101118_AACVGD robalik_h_Page_088.tif
c551572ad9b51207683f9838bf31b8c3
b3be83338c6b04b528407da01d1916ee0e2b2a5c
F20101118_AACVFP robalik_h_Page_072.tif
fc34b235877919f4313211c85957e870
b7aa9ee5b4fb1c7cde25d1a96eaff09e4ac9c874
115410 F20101118_AACUZV robalik_h_Page_058.jp2
83e43451b5a48a6b4a08ec89c5b56619
39305d37c750437c3f011ea298358c5f5bf54671
F20101118_AACVGE robalik_h_Page_089.tif
d6125f1758ac0b27233aafd45d86060a
cc2267d00f56827da835dc602d98ee08923c6661
F20101118_AACVFQ robalik_h_Page_073.tif
92ba471e11d58ae0513e0c6406356e73
66ab66a96a08a9f1b63394556921caa436119302
112775 F20101118_AACUZW robalik_h_Page_059.jp2
316b97259fb4ad0e70744b1449789989
a75420f9dd3baac924f391ce5d39c58ff16a7227
F20101118_AACVGF robalik_h_Page_090.tif
f22a5e85c99b0caf383a4c7e8b7153d8
7ae8e0982d7fe627c8fb05c890b8a2315de77c6c
F20101118_AACVFR robalik_h_Page_074.tif
d9d799c8a67b278851e5d54bd99f6e36
acad0c1d33af11f9eb4e1e5984c876f6c3579a00
79530 F20101118_AACUZX robalik_h_Page_061.jp2
abc3c37fec73c69d043388ab05234703
5e59f0ab0affa684f2ea6f276c6fc17c507bd717
F20101118_AACVGG robalik_h_Page_091.tif
742cc1705f69c5d026ce212e71c4b108
4d60128e72d613e3c71b3c170afc4f4cf7a5c658
F20101118_AACVFS robalik_h_Page_075.tif
4e384bff91e6e9fcb2d01e4dcc352dee
1312e126f2dba98c492354291ab80a6c5932f61d
93936 F20101118_AACUZY robalik_h_Page_062.jp2
77769312ff09ac7d6d03a826be6e8cbe
5255b14384990f788e0124ec35e98f6ce902d917
F20101118_AACVGH robalik_h_Page_092.tif
eafccb7951f04a2761920c2f1c3c3586
b244249a3825c1f4b8b775ff43d03487bc156533
F20101118_AACVFT robalik_h_Page_076.tif
e1da2d7689177faa36b0553ebe1f9fde
057d4d2462db5c8ba7a24d2cb26a527e9e58bc0f
107585 F20101118_AACUZZ robalik_h_Page_063.jp2
c425d23702267f0eb3cc83ec3f87f3c4
34759d6272bd03759fd5c7344c6a0f1eac725203
F20101118_AACVGI robalik_h_Page_093.tif
c1e3604eb4cb760fd4d55d0132a406d2
57f58ace613dbe837705c9cad64c6a2af261ed3e
F20101118_AACVFU robalik_h_Page_077.tif
a74f05ca81c20ca2f424c5b5ef8e1354
a54c0ac25f5151286e61c17508c94cd5ddc966bc
F20101118_AACVGJ robalik_h_Page_094.tif
bc5cd97cf516afdafafb43909eeecff8
8c6735c91b6eee976260c0c54bcd1fbd4d817641
F20101118_AACVFV robalik_h_Page_078.tif
ca0083ded8e9982750fa72a03e8da32b
306ee928ff3d498310d11a4b0b2c889c531cd8c9
F20101118_AACVGK robalik_h_Page_095.tif
7f625e4f15f371e7316261124d59c2d1
59c3d56f9e64f18e5aa12571de21494eb9d024ae
F20101118_AACVFW robalik_h_Page_079.tif
81e1edaea95c6dd9b09c8f386df19c97
fb072251586e9672598dc7ff339c5734ff57c0da
F20101118_AACVGL robalik_h_Page_096.tif
432b8e27a0078291f5b2d66f2875304f
50e3832d88197bb267057a1cd806ce2b5da06657
F20101118_AACVFX robalik_h_Page_080.tif
21e406343d285bdfc8735ff8269abe8e
79bb62b19d88fbe8c016ccc472050383f20eeb3b
F20101118_AACVGM robalik_h_Page_098.tif
05c7165408cc70d24c2fad2dfef71fd5
5ce798a11b435d83239192643be77c18dc901146
F20101118_AACVFY robalik_h_Page_081.tif
65f7402b491d053c32362e44e5d198c5
4266989c21dc37ef8237d11319a23d1ad28d66ca
F20101118_AACVHA robalik_h_Page_114.tif
f74aebe003fcea59b01751e288be1c50
8fab374eef3f2bb6dab2dd401597d2bf446e5dfe
F20101118_AACVGN robalik_h_Page_099.tif
11b1728aa5942afd838a6de6d2403b54
e5ca72482f1e3af04f561a60ee34c12feb62a758
F20101118_AACVFZ robalik_h_Page_082.tif
eb4091730cf94bb10c9c68d3a6aedb1b
4ac05709fa39eb73d5c00f463b1c705b415a786a
F20101118_AACVHB robalik_h_Page_115.tif
ce79bf40a87b00cd99d8dcee60260064
1087ef2c3d1640b9a953cc0ba685fe5938e1d3e6
F20101118_AACVGO robalik_h_Page_101.tif
fe942a9b8e2a92aacafaab18dcc66029
5bc4661a347703e97b0dfa32e10bcdd4e4bcf1e9
F20101118_AACVHC robalik_h_Page_117.tif
1781bbe2d3e5e1a342909e41e52f258a
ec2489dba7337e170805364f51810f318b8f67de
F20101118_AACVGP robalik_h_Page_102.tif
62ebdc46f9c16c249b0125b280a9e89a
d440f24e1abc0ad60aec8a68f5114d1bf4674f06
F20101118_AACVHD robalik_h_Page_118.tif
c69b41216c822f63e95184c2524419bd
34632b90c28c8ebfd8647e68535b94f3e077b969
F20101118_AACVGQ robalik_h_Page_103.tif
ac633560f765ed7fed381e320ceb0b06
031791fb0fbeb98aadbed10836eab309f17d0c45
F20101118_AACVHE robalik_h_Page_119.tif
6bf316028650b2a97c4550ca37866978
8484e3877ef843bc3ffd68219c7bb614923e135f
F20101118_AACVGR robalik_h_Page_105.tif
d4aecf4c2df55908f1a9cba779b7b844
c4ee34da6f267984f8f34affddb9ef41a4acea36
F20101118_AACVHF robalik_h_Page_120.tif
cc5cf2fb289cccebc72cdbf66e6f2f8e
23f0adf4d3edcc1452af47fb4a995d676093f406
F20101118_AACVGS robalik_h_Page_106.tif
2bfe2edd9de608b483a1cdfc4ab78bcd
13ca03bd51588c085d9d9994578cc3c671d10c2f
F20101118_AACVHG robalik_h_Page_121.tif
671582ff065ebe6c1c59554fa0f45fd9
38216f37998bdc4f21f5dba4dd3e6acd0019b5b5
F20101118_AACVGT robalik_h_Page_107.tif
9b110a3cd79ebaa4087af77147eda5fc
edd46e057306fd78d9d11d46e30b8886ca7a56db
F20101118_AACVHH robalik_h_Page_123.tif
7f73059721f0707c246a34ca91b36463
bb59e3c0f3bb101e1fe0a77c9e866f3331e31564
F20101118_AACVGU robalik_h_Page_108.tif
5c2e7a854c8119a299906888b9301209
868ca590aa8cc7cf00b89fac62ac6149ef07a75a
F20101118_AACVHI robalik_h_Page_124.tif
d9e152e197240789dc3bb84ce652026b
0d68aa0ecef471d34fb60a78721c7a418b2f245d
F20101118_AACVGV robalik_h_Page_109.tif
a3e57d40336b78c418f33959e0219375
4381450f933d0ca22494aab49dd7a1257c9e9765
F20101118_AACVHJ robalik_h_Page_125.tif
a892213bc586f52c1dc720b921b8490f
52ec899c7b66cb6c76054a5b42ad1a6be38aba04
F20101118_AACVGW robalik_h_Page_110.tif
5a42461c314b73a0dd715f44cac7b583
2cee363a1ef2d168342c06949f74a9278eb3465f
F20101118_AACVHK robalik_h_Page_126.tif
62d46be6474c8de68db3a8763f53bb97
3a2c8c2afd5ae79d5f98acbf1fceade36730a1a8
F20101118_AACVGX robalik_h_Page_111.tif
7476d30dd13d5fed369759805e527f2c
a513e097f2ab25144f01d8719379378f061395ff
F20101118_AACVHL robalik_h_Page_127.tif
7258e09cc4d17a3007be34e751933781
cf149d7a0c2fd447926f711a00d410cc5295bde2
F20101118_AACVGY robalik_h_Page_112.tif
31c940bf5a5120603953cdebf6af694c
4fbb6171b0bfa47496abdb1afdfb1ed30224b9e2
F20101118_AACVIA robalik_h_Page_146.tif
3c4b63f6d1701dc450147c21d3a70830
adaea5e91ce86f6e808f169fcd57d0e7c4754778
F20101118_AACVHM robalik_h_Page_128.tif
5dadc197acc21259adabb42d45572fc8
06cd1d4ee0d7e45646306dc47bc8a757bc966605
F20101118_AACVGZ robalik_h_Page_113.tif
22e474d211dcf3c2d23520cf0230872e
671d7fc970384b1566e7ca361a5b1fbe0323ea07
F20101118_AACVIB robalik_h_Page_147.tif
80172c4e0fac7c5f50b45dbca553b619
ba9068c73a9ec056c2613e027960f949e658c434
F20101118_AACVHN robalik_h_Page_129.tif
1ae5369ab10a9c5c6a6be05094775e5f
abd13bbb5b73b56da911e7fcc4549c24be1fd089
F20101118_AACVIC robalik_h_Page_148.tif
0cb610f262946130ad89d0b14ebefb15
bf7f80681310f2d10685b38cee794edf0d02cfc1
F20101118_AACVHO robalik_h_Page_130.tif
212ae33e5d4318df57562d05be3da43f
a96e6f4f9a64a5635b31f7bbff9234501e196308
F20101118_AACVID robalik_h_Page_149.tif
93513e38a0c3800e3f3a7a435fa3339d
b8980d2ff2416be0d0344574b1bf0ab8ab101474
F20101118_AACVHP robalik_h_Page_131.tif
76b45431dcac7868ea89a8d0eda6ba9b
7855129f43c758f9e2b57bed9e49b1d0987019a0
F20101118_AACVIE robalik_h_Page_150.tif
17bdb045e3842f03c4aeb54a24856918
28e56cc81de09908a34792e12c837e1d951c330e
F20101118_AACVHQ robalik_h_Page_132.tif
2694196b530cc1dc222b1664712dd04c
69755597e3047058a9ed25da4a1162c4d37a764d
F20101118_AACVIF robalik_h_Page_151.tif
5b6624e17a16d8f1d57460b6c2969233
93bce1f198d27c3cc1c60f3d8f9b7295f4b68f31
F20101118_AACVHR robalik_h_Page_133.tif
e6362ee2714d51dc82318e901ca363ef
4bca4efadc4969ba228190a1281fb6e310a3d5dd
F20101118_AACVIG robalik_h_Page_152.tif
0d66696c56d896afcdc25ebf02828226
06f45962f5d6718047bc75790d0ada2c2cfd3790
F20101118_AACVHS robalik_h_Page_135.tif
7aa4c9ac6b587eab3381443a9ce0c058
ac8f3b5f89e963b07b26dff78c77d372774b8fb2
F20101118_AACVIH robalik_h_Page_153.tif
ad89030e815dfceb3d6540a17d9ce4f3
f291f170a72ee3539c8ed473e901899dd5a49acc
F20101118_AACVHT robalik_h_Page_136.tif
563bcdb5ea85680d5973b800982f0e70
e0e244249532ab01501a973785321a3f89f55990
F20101118_AACVII robalik_h_Page_154.tif
887d872c0369ec3f6fb62c96c13d1841
9601a6ccd2287cfcb7809c9349c32048e270fba2
F20101118_AACVHU robalik_h_Page_137.tif
eb7734d7f0522efacc4e7d0f68f20231
5cd87c2eafacf24f58f27410bdad5d169dbcaaae
F20101118_AACVIJ robalik_h_Page_155.tif
020e93f8c7c8f20ae15a49f55d7acf0a
db32ee43076ab8747135a621045ff75307338b4f
F20101118_AACVHV robalik_h_Page_138.tif
00a74afbb8454f3798cc9bfb141ffb1b
867301e0107884b8fb45993e41cc5e52c8e2b919
F20101118_AACVIK robalik_h_Page_156.tif
1f6609ea748d18de98bd2777a4932c8a
f39673a2b0a1f0e1a029fd855550fb33c842044d
F20101118_AACVHW robalik_h_Page_139.tif
7419e29ae9766468d2a85bd71ab1a73f
0989173867a07acfee1282ae621d651532312b36
50504 F20101118_AACVJA robalik_h_Page_010.pro
6ac2e020d805610cef9a033dcc13272c
2fe547384a5fc275f2793312659e4721fbc10e38
F20101118_AACVIL robalik_h_Page_157.tif
7ef058f8c8a2834c188096fdeab7754f
6c3a240b270a7486aedfd8a749ad304a8df67ce9
F20101118_AACVHX robalik_h_Page_140.tif
c5574720ebb842a471433a099434cb44
930402391b7843d2e627d4205cbec2a4916e148c
F20101118_AACVIM robalik_h_Page_158.tif
343d1d05b564d26ae456ee29fbf57d22
3dc467a93037fe8e110d3741de58e1e2a7cd9e94
F20101118_AACVHY robalik_h_Page_142.tif
5062c914a38145aa967e4fc257e18975
c8f4d733e1ae0edb4c5d031908ef4abb4f0daae8
45749 F20101118_AACVJB robalik_h_Page_011.pro
a414fbe4a27ae0ebe0cad8e92667243a
249fa0dbbc99adb595a4e2f3afea86cb8e7b6715
F20101118_AACVIN robalik_h_Page_159.tif
beadb05968305cece122f381ad2f367b
8989bb1d729911a33d96ce3cca7a466c9623d27d
F20101118_AACVHZ robalik_h_Page_145.tif
60f7f2b1a8c4135553c451aa6ab5d63b
21f08517de4d5e5bd2412d84645026bbcb924344
52696 F20101118_AACVJC robalik_h_Page_012.pro
91a0ec8f6fc86e1dfb8b1720fc8203fb
b8af7214c0f8564f3e30428640b6ca719f383025
F20101118_AACVIO robalik_h_Page_161.tif
b80a75eb96774b848014d098eee7636c
d817522c789cfe1c4b6d615c7deff20c4e24168a
49475 F20101118_AACVJD robalik_h_Page_013.pro
d30b129646453041e271c7978159d32c
0668b683e2e10d8c72ff6cbf2421c2d03d3d6b75
F20101118_AACVIP robalik_h_Page_163.tif
f09ef05e7d649b5fd2656d58a116dad6
f1e7efd40ea5a92871a669b8c4242e7cfe6fde31
53684 F20101118_AACVJE robalik_h_Page_015.pro
7dfb96349a706e38b413bc6e63d29be6
feca16c297fbaea90203a7395db8cf49db18b74e
F20101118_AACVIQ robalik_h_Page_164.tif
75010a0fefcaeb869a3d24ad1e37aaf0
b2dea17e2300612532affdd734fda29e79ebbf18
52886 F20101118_AACVJF robalik_h_Page_016.pro
96d34f7af92960c4ea08b4079491704f
39e56404c33037c05b6cdd2c7dd9e87de991fb0a
F20101118_AACVIR robalik_h_Page_165.tif
cbffd0a04d0ee77b8200c992adc64abd
2675b97ae514e86cd64b9cda5927ddbf420503f0
49529 F20101118_AACVJG robalik_h_Page_017.pro
a3856b4f2b302e60552583f0151b5475
fb65c7576f7af40b970179b8484baa9a0628cd34
F20101118_AACVIS robalik_h_Page_166.tif
4b1022e5e2390352502f02fbb4902488
1ec1fd703b4ec24b69d317ff804e952bcba4080e
48360 F20101118_AACVJH robalik_h_Page_018.pro
2d05064940217713970ee23174a1b515
8a83eda9da88cb7aadaebe55a9ad0cb0edca3587
7857 F20101118_AACVIT robalik_h_Page_001.pro
c0f36e263a65ff874bbca7933ba9dc87
2c2280be3d901980ca993324f781f10e8bad17e4
51689 F20101118_AACVJI robalik_h_Page_019.pro
d57bb3311e3b82450141764d1109bb98
d4b05257bebd5dda790f6f79e084cde960ec5026
1306 F20101118_AACVIU robalik_h_Page_002.pro
5525cc21e36722ee4545bf973247efe2
6fbc47d713ec3c852372058249c2a1f0a6c7bc7e
49046 F20101118_AACVJJ robalik_h_Page_021.pro
1f909ad0797e76264a1bbed831588411
24e84d6cde39ca8759cc6cf5a46bd034b09abc3e
5388 F20101118_AACVIV robalik_h_Page_003.pro
cb3d50fdf981d549718446b0b0fa5e6c
c9b2ca9614910de903b4af81fb46ad9b9ec33178
48997 F20101118_AACVJK robalik_h_Page_022.pro
368ca362d525facf69472bbf9ed8881b
8077ffd9e5de15be15a8ced2c10b82e5089adbef
80647 F20101118_AACVIW robalik_h_Page_004.pro
7f0718948d52cac3bf1655c08e176058
29e58c4ff5ebf73afcfee8ea069ce5f9aa0442c9
49355 F20101118_AACVJL robalik_h_Page_023.pro
0138297c5e80be821ff07277b412a643
e16fd6dc6e6c474ade3d3c66c2b472aaa459b2ad
32067 F20101118_AACVIX robalik_h_Page_006.pro
960ea1afc64a7c8d303ae93551b355d8
b3047144a24df5f19f635204a34ceed90e74ee51
49418 F20101118_AACVKA robalik_h_Page_041.pro
c17cb77d604ae3ecedab452b03950ea0
e7ad960e76fd3e6cedaae2c5f616a808982ef316
50055 F20101118_AACVJM robalik_h_Page_024.pro
b802d6b07be7c23cd9043ca19c6db4e9
f21e98d830767dd608aae5ba42f732e0b5464411
6763 F20101118_AACVIY robalik_h_Page_008.pro
814d689865d657249613cff1475240f4
f88671bec23bdc523224b63e32f83a76199db8f6
50159 F20101118_AACVKB robalik_h_Page_042.pro
d71511ed9ba0b087ad5cbbf624fc004b
337f85fee885946282cd79a2fac36da769f5fafd
46389 F20101118_AACVJN robalik_h_Page_025.pro
3128f9475e004ec34d88d73221f1e565
d2332a22e5aea3a0d1a7298baa436eaa7182e76a
34207 F20101118_AACVIZ robalik_h_Page_009.pro
934e60c2a59302f74a2d72948ada977c
a8c3a295900d8ce7b0e256acfef7866227a6979b
51416 F20101118_AACVJO robalik_h_Page_026.pro
7afa4acd66f366e5933dcee167a93169
53538bcf6c65a47076a5627c5e2890094a86f87f
58637 F20101118_AACVKC robalik_h_Page_043.pro
4b5a53bbe97c68757c591731f19c1a38
f13b09a3db2ec65a50499dfaef1062809fb3d226
48153 F20101118_AACVJP robalik_h_Page_027.pro
8b9468796330b8c8dc96b4de5d86f13f
b404b065ace59d44f8ff836a4ce9781e48d889a8
48883 F20101118_AACVKD robalik_h_Page_046.pro
d22883f6f6643f45f39c860776acc0b6
47a2ad2dce584f345948254e1f96621c3625222d
49819 F20101118_AACVJQ robalik_h_Page_028.pro
e3f018b842bf6089c8b104b3faaed57a
962e2a65eb39a210d209876f6a40ad9af5d43639
51358 F20101118_AACVKE robalik_h_Page_047.pro
591868449afa6bcda4265fa975dceca5
ff536e8fd5d75bfcc10d91699a7e7e8f0a43c654
52428 F20101118_AACVJR robalik_h_Page_029.pro
ec7f209a8a96915f38a783e16911eb38
061e9b318cfe131d4ef2471f7e4e4d66c574e114
52795 F20101118_AACVKF robalik_h_Page_048.pro
da1833dddaf11cba22c36377a3b3baec
a94eca7d9d1837facdd3873a169884f5bd0796a1
50521 F20101118_AACVJS robalik_h_Page_030.pro
a2392f152201f42b06aa2279b93c5e36
b6a0c97d73cf6239ce1125637b2a5af2242b9b53
51495 F20101118_AACVKG robalik_h_Page_049.pro
586d3b9617dcf0c63ffbdb3a52086f96
38b50d124efb838d93a1f1ebbe33f2b692ffbede
58566 F20101118_AACVJT robalik_h_Page_031.pro
d155f419f3d945e6705f5ec13e01413c
674cdb4141cc4d1033934b9baeb2c252886d9732
52907 F20101118_AACVKH robalik_h_Page_050.pro
b3413d9b9a19faa3bc204757c0320fdf
3dfc2f4580facb0d9b15dddbbdb814f371b84447
41690 F20101118_AACVJU robalik_h_Page_033.pro
04552105f2823a0036e67e555b97cff0
c6c1965eea7c65ae789213143c24d09cb91537fa
53201 F20101118_AACVKI robalik_h_Page_051.pro
3ac3effc7e5d1b22e0efcebf235295e0
64d9e18dae6c624a841324f81504ee8fb8ad1fa7
49683 F20101118_AACVJV robalik_h_Page_036.pro
f29baeb787c69dd4171abbf55df3a69b
b387c834c38cc1e5f77af3edd0161bfc06b81435
51037 F20101118_AACVKJ robalik_h_Page_052.pro
8d63cb9a48106060bf25476e0e55e7de
e09e06cbc2ef3b24fe267a3c8c8da0f52eba8b36
48787 F20101118_AACVJW robalik_h_Page_037.pro
d63d01058b1f519dcf01ec040cc3af36
36e7474c2511b510b64d5d4bc4e241a51cf30119
51407 F20101118_AACVKK robalik_h_Page_053.pro
f0baf98daac029c1b898d694a1df88a5
f07a7533535277790cc531afbc7d1f40af5f8227
48835 F20101118_AACVJX robalik_h_Page_038.pro
48bdef7fafc7ff69630b474d358a7b5a
66b3256fb1b4e1ced96becc7a85f88b81f684732
45341 F20101118_AACVLA robalik_h_Page_071.pro
c112898b88cb3fcc5adebe3982dd6d47
325be9c82c86228835483a5ba6b3827b654b62da
50276 F20101118_AACVKL robalik_h_Page_054.pro
e5a457286a642a0785d329d2f34f15b9
85cef4c95b233c190dd2efc0050f71961be07029
52659 F20101118_AACVJY robalik_h_Page_039.pro
a541cfd6c816b5191657e5dd5e39bbd2
c87a5cedc8e69a2fc526f4394e5f67033f51b426
50972 F20101118_AACVLB robalik_h_Page_072.pro
7b0cad2c48102e84210faa50ac88a50e
820d9f0deac7dbbb269287782a868f2833ff2337
52333 F20101118_AACVKM robalik_h_Page_055.pro
12110fae4edf1f23008300ab95a3d2cd
7b2c9bba44ab2be76a7d8ecf6a8890dc41887c55
50156 F20101118_AACVLC robalik_h_Page_073.pro
1f3a0615a96624e34b3e31e614ec26fa
cf87a66b3faab181f6cb037b3b60f1afb226da99
45811 F20101118_AACVKN robalik_h_Page_057.pro
e71d23a62586b1f9e3a5505454159aab
09e188d8f2b8622dc6e67f43a4d1bd39f875283e
50098 F20101118_AACVJZ robalik_h_Page_040.pro
3dd24bb23307b500f1449ab22cf32ee7
ca498dee005ab10c204d6e5dc9f338319518481f
52882 F20101118_AACVKO robalik_h_Page_058.pro
d9d5f7ed756cff8bd8439b63a4752a49
e1f68a968306f1560a568c218d15f2f409dbe755
49629 F20101118_AACVLD robalik_h_Page_075.pro
cddd698fc9713549a6065d0f0f18c68b
ab98fc871674d207b03f6ededf5e407469b27ae4
52047 F20101118_AACVKP robalik_h_Page_059.pro
3e127471c2e62c76874fc1f9c6ef088c
e13ad9dba7b2396cd2a8ec82030726cea811a064
51466 F20101118_AACVLE robalik_h_Page_076.pro
a61969e08c35972d38ba946a7a944788
377223541247b592332a5822706241e7011e2ba8
49987 F20101118_AACVKQ robalik_h_Page_060.pro
8b031d8dff212c5dc09bc69d7fa4c26a
372988a0f65934b8e1d4c520701a103cfd180f9d
10444 F20101118_AACVLF robalik_h_Page_077.pro
da3573e86f3abb4671446f9baaa7fa8f
ae6931bfbe32887cbafc8a44d33286ff5fc6d652
35150 F20101118_AACVKR robalik_h_Page_061.pro
4661b8f26cee474e1b584b97fb5ccd5d
8dee16ab2a8e50967f3c05b88f04729b1163c326
37895 F20101118_AACVLG robalik_h_Page_078.pro
779ddaea237c133a7640460aaee05b56
a3e3ea5b9098b42ad62313e783dd72dfd95ec412
42475 F20101118_AACVKS robalik_h_Page_062.pro
8581cd4f9c42fe3ff46e58317989eb26
c0b7e0baf56c1cc312e064a541184c74d6eddf71
30082 F20101118_AACVLH robalik_h_Page_080.pro
02c8a5ee3c4ec0edf482c3d13492ba19
0fbcf65cc74217c0c8941f0ae4142bcf82c28979
49997 F20101118_AACVKT robalik_h_Page_063.pro
6d4571dea2378bb1dccf51aa44e61984
f5817bb58acdaf724f7fe04a9257a6124877f91b
38122 F20101118_AACVLI robalik_h_Page_081.pro
1adcd0faa9066ad6f10a19cf56b602af
b528c4047f078882ba1bf4043b3d2e0a2e3ead63
49223 F20101118_AACVKU robalik_h_Page_064.pro
48534b4029abfcc2a4a805009cc90723
341824fd4c64f2b007a41932399f013dba5fe898
34857 F20101118_AACVLJ robalik_h_Page_083.pro
6257d3ebbaea9acf5eee42676dd0c382
24be4f4619589facae603b75c6df1108ee404621
43869 F20101118_AACVKV robalik_h_Page_065.pro
f06247a4360b540b04d22d6601dbde16
b6e2af35d977762bba0da87de2f5adacd3e7512d
31010 F20101118_AACVLK robalik_h_Page_084.pro
148d8fa50bd0537d5630461bf3902a5d
1ca0a86eb6bd28a5ccbd87e2282c3f0c6dce3ca0
42996 F20101118_AACVKW robalik_h_Page_066.pro
2202366ac4e362f415e14bf5b4e4b3e1
cd5d552e992aad7f948e35e9187ab8593cab2319
35785 F20101118_AACVLL robalik_h_Page_085.pro
39ee6135f1e49730868173d48c75d838
0e6a73534b32f55540712c7f0f3691f643764ee3
48278 F20101118_AACVKX robalik_h_Page_067.pro
0ebc1bfe3072b8ce3afc2d2f9c3848e8
d7cf330ad814b5fcc3a3287c5406a900fa8e4558
43906 F20101118_AACVMA robalik_h_Page_103.pro
6ef08398c9228870410726944840faef
650c162aee7dc48df91a5a2777c573ff2bfb55a3
52384 F20101118_AACVLM robalik_h_Page_086.pro
b2a8585737d87fff4d8166cebb5005de
63037f30749c4756f109e6deba3e07a014808a6d
39641 F20101118_AACVKY robalik_h_Page_068.pro
6b66f9e6efd78dc47c41babc9f318d56
6487cbc3ed3ee7abf67c8ab250a6b2d5182f975d
49657 F20101118_AACVMB robalik_h_Page_104.pro
7cb908d7152403807811595351eae164
b94fc522b411a65ddedd7319c50d924b6a802f52
35942 F20101118_AACVLN robalik_h_Page_087.pro
3afc799bbe24a1cf01620b1afab7e6bf
7263f14a403ee66da904785b4ad75a5f70518a59
42520 F20101118_AACVKZ robalik_h_Page_069.pro
4fad2cb4a33e08ed8f9c81f2e350d8d0
0e212e9fa8e620977b29593ad65ed59e3df83f73
50347 F20101118_AACVMC robalik_h_Page_105.pro
6c2cd2e95d93de3ddc5439121fd5c0ec
3e5b6de5a71a6070487476da1efafc455778f760
31705 F20101118_AACVLO robalik_h_Page_088.pro
d0bb5d3d884312959d522f18ba9bedfd
ab22615d5751a36a903085fda0935b598e4006e8
49471 F20101118_AACVMD robalik_h_Page_106.pro
f76c46ef6713aee284feac4ca498af82
1985aaef2e2ae7d0d27f5300e9863f54aaebd7a1
47680 F20101118_AACVLP robalik_h_Page_090.pro
61c40e69a84d7ac8f5ca14478884ac91
490933d7f3aedfeae4fae6f379a1744a2e642f2e
47560 F20101118_AACVLQ robalik_h_Page_092.pro
daefba28e448e3db92bf8d628ab74873
3ae9a5606095c7d09056ed5c9ad55447cf7cf40f
F20101118_AACVME robalik_h_Page_107.pro
df8a57b3562e0ef69daea7ac5bb1e466
e14c9ccebaddd8eb5d9dec13e9b1e035a5ac69e5
46163 F20101118_AACVLR robalik_h_Page_093.pro
f597b4b4b2227a5c045a5f6663493001
206e58eb043fa3a1173fed23f9600d458061f960
52312 F20101118_AACVMF robalik_h_Page_108.pro
faa4d9148e0b8916dc59e95d81884b15
9d427d4a73e023ce655e717a7f5ac0532f21d4c6
49693 F20101118_AACVLS robalik_h_Page_094.pro
4af914dae924f193ca3b222ee15f7bd6
16c80b85cd8c2d9ce6c94e7901fbabb75187d6b3
52295 F20101118_AACVMG robalik_h_Page_109.pro
07b47d7cc1f5c1573d2bb858c316d339
1ba7ef3c06d0479a55f087f4920f64d897f73c6d
54322 F20101118_AACVLT robalik_h_Page_095.pro
054d9066b2c5d1b03297b2be21bfdd0c
14f8aa54e5a2ccff6e91505845fb0ea17a577cb9
48491 F20101118_AACVMH robalik_h_Page_110.pro
6859da3ad72326387381555615f3edf8
4311ce920befb6c3b3f46ce0767349b27f73440d
54318 F20101118_AACVLU robalik_h_Page_096.pro
d622904f3052e5516dc1288e42f68928
3f495040631a7027a7aa0c7d91f6d5b2508d4419
49635 F20101118_AACVMI robalik_h_Page_111.pro
80b80fe4e5cf605d526854a2f7e2f123
61a54239e42c0c8c6c18576c657d914f01f4129f
53620 F20101118_AACVLV robalik_h_Page_098.pro
84af61a829c77b819c0e1ad757451cbb
e1923f6a0554c830f2e53d2863acdd407dff4981
49470 F20101118_AACVMJ robalik_h_Page_112.pro
7e8ee9d8224372abda054e63e5f33632
1b23355a284100a3e17f58daea49d6f1b6c2a4a4
53296 F20101118_AACVLW robalik_h_Page_099.pro
de306b6b0f5a42ab4ae9f57ab89d7679
f066452672645e6304fda05645205b44b1baadd7
34927 F20101118_AACVMK robalik_h_Page_114.pro
df8105335b87940a8a27eb5241d30812
ae6c098c42cdb3a0ab5e867e8704ededeea5aded
51142 F20101118_AACVLX robalik_h_Page_100.pro
10a7caaf231bba1a9e69e362ee78799f
546dedfa3d5d8d072de0f8666d62b515026caaac
26885 F20101118_AACVNA robalik_h_Page_132.pro
76134fddc12a65b8b47d72ff586c15dc
d5c4e5c5b1721d5d13f26f05c63adfb89a74dfe3
52497 F20101118_AACVML robalik_h_Page_115.pro
77c57512971602d16c2c1341dceb50ff
2143103bd5587b6fe14f85d130e622df32ccd560
54452 F20101118_AACVLY robalik_h_Page_101.pro
127ff952bffacce77fdcb3e8c94b732b
c08e99c0e161920b7bad75efd9f80bb6b7d4d398
29422 F20101118_AACVNB robalik_h_Page_133.pro
dd6ee84298fdbaffece28c0157e5d566
69d3310fff9a50f3af66873c5495b0211a625407
34611 F20101118_AACVMM robalik_h_Page_116.pro
23d27c78dd5bbb446612a1f51f18e1ef
8cf76f3566c8d837f2f5cc693ce8fa834488bb2f
47355 F20101118_AACVLZ robalik_h_Page_102.pro
d2814def5dff28506e6f95f547098f62
09a597fccf14402bcdd12d8920314fbe58a7b731
29453 F20101118_AACVNC robalik_h_Page_134.pro
b582a7b2ccb0a0aa91ec70fcb8876b2f
15e3d872d5b627dc144b06d3e52455bf127dcfe8
28767 F20101118_AACVMN robalik_h_Page_117.pro
7f1e0504301050919b9f2c314a4e39c3
c29dd587e27438e66ab3f6107a5245f4c1b5384a
28194 F20101118_AACVND robalik_h_Page_135.pro
0c0c3a76fd66dbdb87de1f321daee2f9
0bd3367c735b9e19d6e3faaba7c89eb7975cc1df
44564 F20101118_AACVMO robalik_h_Page_119.pro
c3147fb5deff9369c1adb36148b5adbb
c994d9b1c66cc4bcddc61870255282c1c7232c4b
18613 F20101118_AACVNE robalik_h_Page_136.pro
95a58f1744324fb1abec1a8fc517ee87
0edf959aac35ac95046a80d5543fcf195401db82
28808 F20101118_AACVMP robalik_h_Page_120.pro
7067709102d1bd1a01daf457e183d861
de05b00cf2b6710e99df1fd304864e935001894c
31162 F20101118_AACVMQ robalik_h_Page_121.pro
c0ee31e63a3488ca6c4776eb5aefb7ee
c12da0c890d7b3ea6c083b53af073498652ce1eb
35079 F20101118_AACVNF robalik_h_Page_138.pro
ea00d4aa94811a3e8847f2d80efb6126
e84ba1f060fd14e6a8c43603c97d59a7058830a7
29347 F20101118_AACVMR robalik_h_Page_122.pro
f353ae97dbb47e08af4b2aacc3406e17
9cbd87ce32362acb3154d5b6ddfed553a8de4ce1
29876 F20101118_AACVNG robalik_h_Page_139.pro
f750c82783eca08c686cdf968addea66
7cf5b9034bdf362e3e4d57b6b14b0f058ba0fe7b
15768 F20101118_AACVMS robalik_h_Page_124.pro
d6b0981398f4bbbfc322065c086fd831
5af19d2dcd57e8ff92d46158c10637a8f1529683
29902 F20101118_AACVNH robalik_h_Page_140.pro
4d0cd904ea98b3d917c7c27582fb94a9
a7f040c36769e2f851ea7d9add628b2663709993
21762 F20101118_AACVMT robalik_h_Page_125.pro
3116fa8b49e4bbae7bbfb331890b92a4
d10ab01db9e949722359da81b0cdd4fdde4ad917
30032 F20101118_AACVNI robalik_h_Page_141.pro
ce61bb1b732fc22461a8903cfc36821d
a024acc74342935650d1878294b9b0ac3d7394fc
10469 F20101118_AACVMU robalik_h_Page_126.pro
6af96ca5579b8190d3d36c3fca26bd98
2a8400a8e4d996022abab3fcf65760f5fb0ced01
29648 F20101118_AACVNJ robalik_h_Page_142.pro
59e6633e0dfe1b17e3e3d41df9f0276e
971945d44f8448f0b212de51daf07a2810505db6
52523 F20101118_AACVMV robalik_h_Page_127.pro
8fdbb12905e5f8111e61ea98c950a74a
56e5f7ba14e310aa6bdd2dac4a2a33114679fb79
32192 F20101118_AACVNK robalik_h_Page_143.pro
22c6da4bcf2bb6ac985732be14d96c98
23ee659c264faca9c6a509c1bdb8b4052c82f117
33628 F20101118_AACVMW robalik_h_Page_128.pro
0c11abfb6fe56d0a46f7fa748afdff91
7fc72e039339804121c980c42554b997b3ed2a1a
50661 F20101118_AACVOA robalik_h_Page_160.pro
3c1ba70dd5a86bd1485bf61abbd75b46
655a31075bbb146fa86db9580480c9456592ff39
19809 F20101118_AACVNL robalik_h_Page_144.pro
f218e55234180c78a82ccd86ebcdc748
15958ea495bf3b0723374b6b3e1759155b87f247
29175 F20101118_AACVMX robalik_h_Page_129.pro
3fecfdb91969bc2b84627028f1103137
e38d9065ee514b8628bb17dbd91dbbbca4aa45f2
57236 F20101118_AACVOB robalik_h_Page_164.pro
b275a8c83c0167a318c72b9d558b09ae
835df5b076fc00169d4abdd724f91cc6c16e13f0
28010 F20101118_AACVNM robalik_h_Page_145.pro
2296cc08f7cd634ca88f22a62586f20e
183b7d7632cec6ca5a8d4562827e9e25bf59a36e
20763 F20101118_AACVMY robalik_h_Page_130.pro
a4584107e93f844269b97ce68fc9c891
a18e1a6f2105e096b5fd838ddfa519520e6efe3e
46101 F20101118_AACVOC robalik_h_Page_165.pro
435ad98426268447751349c8ee945bd2
76f30c256b0311f01c1bbe42b9bbc142c5341194
32736 F20101118_AACVNN robalik_h_Page_146.pro
97d8b67bdb904e96c74a687c8fc0401a
c082d8197546bf505ff3ee4183820f0c1169f17a
45623 F20101118_AACVMZ robalik_h_Page_131.pro
cf4979765b67651c0fbb4d3686ca0184
14d3786bcc064d12f5944ba77c1297c32ea12ea1
11127 F20101118_AACVOD robalik_h_Page_166.pro
39bb5c61c7a052b53ac8b518a1fb5ec8
f0e25804047feecec7d2fd6b62413f55e4c60341
16330 F20101118_AACVNO robalik_h_Page_147.pro
30fe50075a2b294bfaf1ea715a4fdee2
9537e360e749e87c51e3110430225c641834ed47
455 F20101118_AACVOE robalik_h_Page_001.txt
7e8b581aa345d976327f36e9e082cd20
dfbbd945bf1524416c0f214835f398a0f65efa17
28573 F20101118_AACVNP robalik_h_Page_148.pro
1d90ff4b22e81a64af93af1cd40f70ba
b7254f4f5e28faeb2a872f2c09f60a81aed91a82
120 F20101118_AACVOF robalik_h_Page_002.txt
9bb4b3f0fbae98717a40cc92b0b33343
928b6c748ff3944bccc41d674a2b59c51f772ad5
32429 F20101118_AACVNQ robalik_h_Page_149.pro
dd5291d1539c8b771c3615d17580bdf2
0c450c80c067e47bb1a3b3e002ffb7211426f3b1
21770 F20101118_AACVNR robalik_h_Page_150.pro
e095f7ae0bb2e713cbf9fe2eaef37b45
69a15d052d7294c0eb0fd8973767146fd70c9767
296 F20101118_AACVOG robalik_h_Page_003.txt
5b4bed1ad1685b299c6089180f759af2
4db8850b3ee6d25dbb5fc034e28450777c6ddd4e
27806 F20101118_AACVNS robalik_h_Page_151.pro
6155b4f888765631ea1ea658bcf7dc31
30d7c4880f9526db137258bc263d7c9016b6d904
3330 F20101118_AACVOH robalik_h_Page_004.txt
1fb65504993a8b014de88ee74951b1ed
1530668007dbe78c8c805b3ebef44b305dd719e7
31971 F20101118_AACVNT robalik_h_Page_152.pro
4ffffc8aa9048eb4c94453a8f069c339
3cabd75d209d99c8ade3b1084f461b1846bc70b1
4119 F20101118_AACVOI robalik_h_Page_005.txt
7d908d8f4477a6c1685b743ed0a2313a
495cdb527a05102a9921ef40f464fc819a7d878f
21726 F20101118_AACVNU robalik_h_Page_153.pro
b1b97e396761c3fdc5d8e56ab1562c6f
e2d8bdb59a78332438c0edad5804db35b42c38e2
1275 F20101118_AACVOJ robalik_h_Page_006.txt
4d94cd007a7aba6ea96598a70d6a220d
8f427fae317452cc7fe748955b457c7b338fb39a
31706 F20101118_AACVNV robalik_h_Page_155.pro
5bcca67de6ab0ee3073155c388ae9aa0
cb3535845bac28ccec7380e70804d39edfd8d5d6
340 F20101118_AACVOK robalik_h_Page_008.txt
dbf0578fa0500ec38f310d5f800a7fcf
b7c6a82ad30e9b6191edd42f805ce8806f24d313
16257 F20101118_AACVNW robalik_h_Page_156.pro
8615974307f29760a7a9df92ce5383c2
1e14b7d107117d6611f0bf38a8c8295194177d41
1556 F20101118_AACVOL robalik_h_Page_009.txt
8b1430242e372b192e33847bff10d033
e318f8e5e0e5bd66d8d15761143b5028a1ac2411
26906 F20101118_AACVNX robalik_h_Page_157.pro
b2feca1f0c2ba9d8f14bda40ca8356c4
da038c61907c48964f5a19225664881da03cf7c4
1974 F20101118_AACVPA robalik_h_Page_028.txt
4814224e3c368b1b3ead20c31e8ce0a6
7c9da3a3d2641ffca4ea139b60c07a3210fb756a
F20101118_AACVOM robalik_h_Page_010.txt
80d0341ee6fb8acb4e9bd0db71dfeb42
7001ff3c1109df4db8309c93ca4622813a7f00cc
31923 F20101118_AACVNY robalik_h_Page_158.pro
4cebd25d75d30704ef532707319d2dee
e5bb25c3e8302a141df8a04a331049cf983852b0
2049 F20101118_AACVPB robalik_h_Page_029.txt
b25b716dc842370692c11d60838a5c80
6e2acf5600447e8c000b47b7e9c299b411f29e35
1873 F20101118_AACVON robalik_h_Page_011.txt
7020876f7da0678ced96825ef637d403
298e997aded1bc70cfa8c125bb11eae9416cb716
16656 F20101118_AACVNZ robalik_h_Page_159.pro
33aa2cb8c46699f2b1cfc40bd947e56b
4276d4fc6b7132ed229925e7faffcccf5a9a61bb
F20101118_AACUMA robalik_h_Page_162.tif
47221ae717d5bb0c7fbfa15f5ba237ba
0f9d169b1d4e82c31a33ed98790fc2e99ba2f982
2089 F20101118_AACVPC robalik_h_Page_030.txt
e51739b49e7bcead7105be605820dea9
80fe38d8904263cc2990a2021880625e82883431
2067 F20101118_AACVOO robalik_h_Page_012.txt
0785455a2dab6633b12c9c3830bb58a1
df32e4dcbbd9c73fdfb06b4c500317e66b4af14e
5713 F20101118_AACUMB robalik_h_Page_011thm.jpg
7b5e00e25aa73568d638c8ca1b97171f
ae4d4e179d5e657a76f6ddd97f96ba863735cafb
2545 F20101118_AACVPD robalik_h_Page_031.txt
aa0ceba6493fc63b19a870dd36a1ad57
43830a43f4ac3e092269c678bd17b07bbf912262
2003 F20101118_AACVOP robalik_h_Page_014.txt
7f03486672c9043e6e95c94aae6aa4bc
df2b0b23861f729baffd281f93df4b59134103a2
65409 F20101118_AACUMC robalik_h_Page_141.jp2
7a1085bd33f3e813e84510977d89d2f4
f058e87d7168fbfae8bcaf28cb8fff20bae83edb
1204 F20101118_AACVPE robalik_h_Page_032.txt
9087a89dacdcd9fa4e5e853e55240f36
bd54da2ab7db473bb27ae441b481ffad0d814899
18514 F20101118_AACULN robalik_h_Page_116.QC.jpg
a6628ae1636d47cecaf77173926f0450
0966b0fb69608b0561d59aaf89d132c3472904b0
1986 F20101118_AACVOQ robalik_h_Page_017.txt
8bd26c3bfe466357fa2b10c15e3bf0c3
91cd833ecc8aff6d261d99d103e9773513f7e4da
1970 F20101118_AACUMD robalik_h_Page_040.txt
1d6d7ea5d7a448f81c989a45d61304a4
727890ac381d12627667a3358a982ae0e4a11698
1462 F20101118_AACVPF robalik_h_Page_034.txt
0b01341347f27684c498045f31752e96
425d73685b4722ab245929a73b062fbe4970554d
18066 F20101118_AACULO robalik_h_Page_061.QC.jpg
4f710db093681a3f18098fee2c346c5c
0c911ca396c8ceb3fde0f51079a6d4d9b6e9faae
1938 F20101118_AACVOR robalik_h_Page_018.txt
59f5d3ae2a441bc637572103ee35e906
446b9eee2ddcf3a2be9c84aa924ff18646c9578d
3481 F20101118_AACUME robalik_h_Page_134thm.jpg
28d4884ffb48696a28258653ae20f753
ebf7ad7960627656f2621921341703a1f8b7808a
2005 F20101118_AACVPG robalik_h_Page_035.txt
0c1345ff2894c328b0caf1a20e397e11
3829544033a19c775c9d1655115e797a41c3146b
25266 F20101118_AACULP robalik_h_Page_013.QC.jpg
8c5e643e9a43967af46761e5ee0baec5
e5b345e668c8ab33b6e25e9f8b404b92f7163102
1671 F20101118_AACVOS robalik_h_Page_020.txt
e2925fb8f54f28baad5edcdbf6d72c72
5fb1cda7c55b16a3cb834682bbb487932a12e61f
4504 F20101118_AACULQ robalik_h_Page_148thm.jpg
0658be18129137c30bf9b2c0aae6b5d6
d58724279d4386a91b11d395c66514910b5de363
1932 F20101118_AACVOT robalik_h_Page_021.txt
6419ac657fa117c07b9def0518bd6647
4ae100899ad2f7e3d7ab31c1cba1b3e0c5329e51
3275 F20101118_AACUMF robalik_h_Page_125thm.jpg
7c57ee241d02a2ade31415f454117969
f1be0e546da500c27ae746abadbe06161f8a7204
1963 F20101118_AACVPH robalik_h_Page_036.txt
fe18f5ab2a4a1743b4662d8a207c6021
bae9a3af0697f6cb7a32495e8756bd5c1eff7cc4
5525 F20101118_AACULR robalik_h_Page_127thm.jpg
e429abf64b7dfcfb52275a1016974bf8
fbdea4e0bd45cb6faa848d3411de14bf9920d045
1935 F20101118_AACVOU robalik_h_Page_022.txt
d3997cb686302d87ce0773caf59d65f6
855b7ad7c8f7d89fcb771af992866392d03d9755
22450 F20101118_AACUMG robalik_h_Page_007.pro
d9acee5af3f15f2683e0e1418797f013
5b940de68afeb4417237d40c4a30a08f54ffaba3
1923 F20101118_AACVPI robalik_h_Page_037.txt
11e851d3d656a9c371033640b23fe477
cd0934279d7fd0b8434e9e4775e365655bbef758
81894 F20101118_AACULS robalik_h_Page_100.jpg
01936938a28f5792d7a52ef11d88e361
5dbc8092bbaaf1a720f17eb6cd7ee1cc4e92bf9a
1943 F20101118_AACVOV robalik_h_Page_023.txt
a4c899d225e73aba1866cb08666bf10b
955302addd445fa9e532813105810c3c30e6641a
24920 F20101118_AACUMH robalik_h_Page_040.QC.jpg
a6d680f354093991f4cdff62bfd0d5ad
fd4f3bf3caa42c7aa4f722c347ceeda91933c61c
1930 F20101118_AACVPJ robalik_h_Page_038.txt
fb13272b3e61e8528e7279f7ddf2e006
7b549b57d9135a712b75c7e48502792e3156d3e5
53217 F20101118_AACULT robalik_h_Page_149.jpg
82e09d88c08e2745c307eaf1c31309db
d1e27a3d66f86251134754b1f27a4fac743aa958
97482 F20101118_AACUMI robalik_h_Page_103.jp2
b061397fbed77306e46c452e0e845959
ceb1a14e53e10aae62e8a427d5307e532f84f6eb
1948 F20101118_AACVPK robalik_h_Page_041.txt
9cde590f8c02636cac1b1ee512de44d2
572d2229af78c294e7482b09c5e9228a6e72be5c
6069 F20101118_AACULU robalik_h_Page_110thm.jpg
7c16a0b888358dd9a68b341a878ffeba
cf575938caaee3be0c425c4103daaf712c3c20b9
1971 F20101118_AACVOW robalik_h_Page_024.txt
641057d7aaeb54f653a544bbaac68671
2b94a6c342658dee1cf509007f0f26656eb005e8
2057 F20101118_AACVQA robalik_h_Page_059.txt
901e3b1977b80a5aa8a5bb6f52f7ce0b
5ad96678b29c30ddf2d8a2a4db497eee46aabd0d
11612 F20101118_AACUMJ robalik_h_Page_008.jpg
652e0f198d4b074309dff4c610ea42e6
a4f06823b3ae2f31da9a8bdf84b212ea33b330ca
1979 F20101118_AACVPL robalik_h_Page_042.txt
4f5ca0337cb0451cf04eb9cab512198d
ff24d7fde53f0ca94425faab9497b97b912c7561
103332 F20101118_AACULV robalik_h_Page_163.jpg
cb71f4919ba0c16cb3eb8ca6175f83b1
de82118e3393ce830efcf7e98d2d1c694415dff2
1834 F20101118_AACVOX robalik_h_Page_025.txt
8ae21bbc2d7257d9fb54a8e181e76fbf
8acd861ac053e7743543de2a11135197bfb782f8
1966 F20101118_AACVQB robalik_h_Page_060.txt
0f4a6018c070d6e4f5e671f47d38b773
a558d028dd43f3a598cddbc351576ed0dae735ea
F20101118_AACUMK robalik_h_Page_043.tif
e6e859464eb2826d18d0fdcc7ff21990
286ae5b95456f6354de9ea30f244080c1850ac13
2353 F20101118_AACVPM robalik_h_Page_043.txt
c0fb68e1d9f9dd073e96b42779a824c8
591c04ed47960c96551b0a9630a285b746fba462
27349 F20101118_AACULW robalik_h_Page_161.QC.jpg
bbd05bd8eee4f2ed74717d3cbd30eb59
f42a0bcab710c0f1920e37f31d48143e564ee134
2031 F20101118_AACVOY robalik_h_Page_026.txt
91301e207a9d40e6c581b60e46b2c9cd
b58b1dab9012fda02aba57e0ec4451fbc67f1d04
1454 F20101118_AACVQC robalik_h_Page_061.txt
eabcb3c7bbcf0c7264d9439092a9c3be
6a4518ceeff676d17f42173e52d24177a944ff26
110919 F20101118_AACUNA robalik_h_Page_076.jp2
17b351fc40aef8c62dce966e32f2a608
3442f9cfc3942aba8b78dd5acba6444de49a729c
6009 F20101118_AACUML robalik_h_Page_089thm.jpg
ed38070d6598c243b7486ebb8138df4b
db993de9f4ee89c815ba9eb7e2210bca58cacb7c
2024 F20101118_AACVPN robalik_h_Page_044.txt
24431a20effea28b130613660d28675d
d86678dc40861eacfef471106198afe63a4eec52
F20101118_AACULX robalik_h_Page_122.tif
89005edef4a2939508a07795acaf894f
ad3ed1aef9144f522513176cc078958003070363
1901 F20101118_AACVOZ robalik_h_Page_027.txt
fa6fcb0e3dd436c309da5af152a15637
0648b261ff70d8a1c92da602898aa17270c7f394
1799 F20101118_AACVQD robalik_h_Page_062.txt
11d0f035c82b03fd7678630d0ae77ccd
e4ac4ef41c9fab46683dfbd7d153920c37220b40
51412 F20101118_AACUNB robalik_h_Page_044.pro
6e43e799e6cfd07a6ad5a8d119b0801c
c60b74f92a007cb93a16c662d49ba5b1fb903631
19940 F20101118_AACUMM robalik_h_Page_067.QC.jpg
6b88acc742d0dd6cb133d1c8cbfa5d05
2bf0b9a9473203df84e6943c0304e7a2fd53f69c
1968 F20101118_AACVPO robalik_h_Page_045.txt
b0dd3dc28b1a4a2d873fe49224808e29
98c5336d946a1a3c6e226e7fd8d02eebe29eee33
5546 F20101118_AACULY robalik_h_Page_115thm.jpg
47ce0010881b9ae68292c67393a1379a
79c3fc10cd7ae66f6c3b2893c804e526641e7e78
1969 F20101118_AACVQE robalik_h_Page_063.txt
79d6cbf00063b2a6e3a09245ec850b0d
104cb13ba4f1db3c11f734a9e668c175d2e4b65a
100545 F20101118_AACUNC robalik_h_Page_005.pro
50c057b92b3eac967400bc3329670f9e
db85a06944d92c2b02e0fcab9cd0934d8160be48
3921 F20101118_AACUMN robalik_h_Page_006thm.jpg
ef68dbb7f2f139353701df3ae1180f5b
0f8110c0e48198cde93b849c17ee3dfcc4aa6cfe
F20101118_AACVPP robalik_h_Page_046.txt
0e6e07d82cf636289c865c0c1e702e79
0989a46aaa9e35abecc5ba36f3b2bad3d3c49a0c
1747 F20101118_AACULZ robalik_h_Page_033.txt
61779bcdb20fa33effc61ba0774e438c
db2ead108dfe91a423fb57e887839b172f5c506c
1941 F20101118_AACVQF robalik_h_Page_064.txt
83d7e2dd16eb13b94d00910952a8e876
621f2310cfce21d17f386217505de4a5d2d2146f
12583 F20101118_AACUND robalik_h_Page_130.QC.jpg
30c7eff8424f050d5b8521f2e7246281
1de8f7056c4e3744fad86849e3395e675a9b20de
4650 F20101118_AACUMO robalik_h_Page_065thm.jpg
b38087f4cb6571acb7dfd734ab148761
abe10307e79edef8cdf0baf2144e92b56e272cad
2069 F20101118_AACVPQ robalik_h_Page_048.txt
3ed1968da68bdf0dd988ba055dd17339
fa7f23af1300971fb2b52f0937166fb4e905169c
2285 F20101118_AACVQG robalik_h_Page_065.txt
18aaa1bd0f2b1185ad32f9086015a904
a04348f26666a8a38e7d9d3f3a9417feed7b13e9
2021 F20101118_AACUNE robalik_h_Page_047.txt
41c7419186d2baa2c0881c11b788a2b2
635d3c1802543390936f4a367d3e92a0ef4ff935
27202 F20101118_AACUMP robalik_h_Page_032.pro
774127ee49f4495b54f9b03aae0fefcf
08b2d2d352c98a58458fd788f7ee79be8f2f5b09
2020 F20101118_AACVPR robalik_h_Page_049.txt
be0a914c4abb607e16247053bba8e75e
9136a1044003f54282ef0b80e62d6eb878561715
2211 F20101118_AACVQH robalik_h_Page_066.txt
0948e512fdd7e4b84cd2c61c775fc45b
f901e7cc259ee46f4e5e42719b77a93a5460a605
2058 F20101118_AACUNF robalik_h_Page_107.txt
d8e253b431917459d90fc127ffbbac62
002bf9efabc851ef9d12a70147c7a77e929bc19f
9581 F20101118_AACUMQ robalik_h_Page_159.QC.jpg
ded8c0e06a84a0899871e173f576ee7d
b83aa8b29990ae804f3cd33d7e67451b1d46fef6
F20101118_AACVPS robalik_h_Page_050.txt
546d73c9f03f80315479ba53e99133c7
b6eabc764a27ebe91d4e9b2849087f33d520d477
2085 F20101118_AACVPT robalik_h_Page_051.txt
d692414e3e31dfe30802a3e747c4f5b2
71fb61e8eb3fb2a40bbdf54df2fb9b34310ce791
81816 F20101118_AACUMR robalik_h_Page_021.jpg
138a189a16e942613bd3f0f5af245a64
827d07b2bd799d3e007a5059017a3cbfe3f6d7d3
2395 F20101118_AACVQI robalik_h_Page_067.txt
9550649579c0cb85c6c8043161995034
654d43f540ecbb55bbfde5fa0cb3042f3b0ce8a3
2002 F20101118_AACVPU robalik_h_Page_052.txt
35f76c5aa0bd7fba2fed5544cedc9634
2f0f83ab9317ee98cf01558a7b031fb32673323e
102000 F20101118_AACUNG robalik_h_Page_102.jp2
8f93a97e0692f0a35a7fc55d8f169b51
c64eefa4bb93e6c1f8048fa29a32f8540eae38b0
104705 F20101118_AACUMS robalik_h_Page_165.jp2
e2c10c03a99814bee9da4ce24e05c60e
2788306c143ab89cbc7cf1c17a0106cbbddb8a0b
2246 F20101118_AACVQJ robalik_h_Page_068.txt
58090a96c72950c7e52734ff6d85f890
327786ccd71ce93f0539d16d2ee4032ad6e8d2be
F20101118_AACVPV robalik_h_Page_053.txt
3539b6c91550861ca3c0091f2d3878c8
bafb9fb86a8ae2e4db88c8ac4d4a8a431f499791
F20101118_AACUNH robalik_h_Page_002.tif
514684d48394aac986b279312007dc9f
eb2bb213a1a1f6dc50233dfe49a1aeb2969e6881
87877 F20101118_AACUMT robalik_h_Page_091.jpg
05fb5fb84326dd814e9552b2f0dc5c26
e4837873f86948a34ea1c0d206397dae026463a0
2378 F20101118_AACVQK robalik_h_Page_069.txt
a51b5bf977b3b4aceb3b7449c3e193fb
d1a3ad4c89e1372558253952bb29b44c7ec128f5
2015 F20101118_AACVPW robalik_h_Page_054.txt
8a742b77662d3fa13cc43713b1a6fcf3
af2f514c42ffe846967424ded456e8ad00eddeb4
58530 F20101118_AACUNI robalik_h_Page_163.pro
3bbda750e9338d023d2f99a25ff6d1b6
ac24475a0b5733a773d6ff3ccd1efa954e2ae738
78666 F20101118_AACUMU robalik_h_Page_090.jpg
01fdadb2060780821dc050751654b6a8
8be749cde33ffd3ef6834e952d0c968d2a10e280
1608 F20101118_AACVRA robalik_h_Page_088.txt
284fdc7ce02d4ef946225675934e902e
098e8f45f8cc97c0cae01a48955776d0c63cba75
2481 F20101118_AACVQL robalik_h_Page_070.txt
f1028d2189da09554d352aea6547643c
318a9ec8a20bdad2a9663a189e02cab97c81bc4b
2098 F20101118_AACVPX robalik_h_Page_056.txt
4654b331aa4e13ce32dcd4b9ddb55d9e
b35d5d498ab74eef7f7fa0d996fd74fc3277d4f6
2033 F20101118_AACUNJ robalik_h_Page_019.txt
19ef18d8748463800c778136ee5522a6
6d79569f330b0bd6656f44c035694b829ab12e0e
78771 F20101118_AACUMV robalik_h_Page_085.jp2
7e0bafcc1b20c7ccbaf433f5d1aa6038
8fad0d7f6c4ef5c4447e6d716c4aae06c8ea8c6e
1711 F20101118_AACVRB robalik_h_Page_089.txt
a5c6e879298423adb7cd163048d43252
6f806e5f841eb5956644b244daeb8a689e9e1da7
2010 F20101118_AACVQM robalik_h_Page_071.txt
bf38b2ee5cee33d258abcabae4eb6192
cbe8f6f09474f68788f5b1c6c6efe087b849c96c
1817 F20101118_AACVPY robalik_h_Page_057.txt
fd0f4140862c0388601aaf74b9457e53
c8364c86bb38aa4d54827ad05ed8f75fbf0dbcf6
63430 F20101118_AACUNK robalik_h_Page_162.pro
ab9d5e23414b69ceb8ff51eb2314d132
2373b613f94966121e7da84822c9c357f0ff5a96
1958 F20101118_AACUMW robalik_h_Page_131.txt
8e98bfaec6041eed0b7b65dd05028bd2
c1abb3000cc2e2bccf8c54f2542f63c55f69c082
1980 F20101118_AACVRC robalik_h_Page_090.txt
9a472fbdaa6191f4cd9e3cf336383d9e
0a40c82be3cb7ad29612ea7e1cb6d52cab071460
2006 F20101118_AACVQN robalik_h_Page_072.txt
506b5c38cf42eca00910f48ca615c9ea
6efdc89aed026e8823d88398446e78b85e977673
2076 F20101118_AACVPZ robalik_h_Page_058.txt
968c902f1fe0cc12862c2ce545bdd106
a2aadeed55b42e45aeb438a138e8a1c97bb9c501
45917 F20101118_AACUNL robalik_h_Page_125.jp2
6fbab00139b3606e92497b2a121f770a
ee3aa39ed4cc0a29e903e11a7e56ab160f05d5ed
49971 F20101118_AACUMX robalik_h_Page_045.pro
87478bb54de4058132882f0ff978fb81
165e1bec68f9aa762d80b7a34b4e6562a1c039d6
42660 F20101118_AACUOA robalik_h_Page_113.pro
a3f61d0f718511d6675c053b804afbb4
fbf89af44499731fe87a44fc6c9e7d38040c3a41
2016 F20101118_AACVRD robalik_h_Page_092.txt
c7ff5094feefcbfe77cb18f38cda6fec
517c88a1fb51f9fb877fa924b11110ec93b51e00
F20101118_AACVQO robalik_h_Page_073.txt
11f054a65508f57960b8070c82f2cf6e
72d0aaaade1264465d8a5f66eb448e740b6dcd4c
4367 F20101118_AACUNM robalik_h_Page_061thm.jpg
2a204a4745c5ee3fa9ddbe91c8ac4f99
e9faac1bee8b494e603af3aa6cc83165e0ef9df4
F20101118_AACUMY robalik_h_Page_084.tif
ebb8537f999457d31267e87e1be378b0
ff622c38996f26cd415a5c9c1aa40fe5dbcd8f4d
1481 F20101118_AACUOB robalik_h_Page_117.txt
594d333075e3a66882d1b3bcab888c2b
4f280d2866a2a399c816fda5152a93fdd9e83b1e
1856 F20101118_AACVRE robalik_h_Page_093.txt
40cfa1a6421ae98ccf0ac194829e309e
7231de1ec0225cfd478249978f1380da2471282f
1967 F20101118_AACVQP robalik_h_Page_074.txt
8add68146a802bbf1ba7a6f514caade2
6d2a8d9c461b64243e349f4982e7f8c75372f162
54191 F20101118_AACUNN robalik_h_Page_091.pro
0c0e91a84c2e68038ae200be17049426
0ea20b8848d70906509ea12a884d8be40e04dc74
30420 F20101118_AACUMZ robalik_h_Page_118.pro
7b1b6c16da3e9c41a963d144ad599980
7796bff738688b6ab89db25cf10845e60c6613d6
52322 F20101118_AACUOC robalik_h_Page_142.jpg
e3d850448498d968b3b0d4c2a307e85f
ebc6df3cc2877f11206eb304e805ddea847ea4be
F20101118_AACVRF robalik_h_Page_094.txt
e684d0043102aad526402aca36569fd3
69d8628202929c5d53e290753ce390c19c4f4cc5
2019 F20101118_AACVQQ robalik_h_Page_076.txt
60c023f20d8e197f9a2fb06e0868c823
b8749aedeb0a5e043f878fd233734414533dbc02
71048 F20101118_AACUNO robalik_h_Page_004.jpg
d51e90fab021c22e2a3837b52cf92d48
8fc462a41dd498f69bd80fc2e0656a7b111fdae1
11611 F20101118_AACUOD robalik_h_Page_144.QC.jpg
cab480a8ae77db22ed2301e3bbb9bbc2
8a865368c4074336ccde8b9f8538e863e3885420
2166 F20101118_AACVRG robalik_h_Page_095.txt
44b344fe54103e26e7f6bfea7fde9e72
f81dbe90441bf11cec14f96b7dbd5db9b42966c0
457 F20101118_AACVQR robalik_h_Page_077.txt
e63b8057825ef7b14cdecd53c8871350
5fdcf101916963eaaaf14f126398283b354b4a45
4718 F20101118_AACUNP robalik_h_Page_137.pro
eba4d6b575c5617e566d6797a3ca8c4e
290a6d216f4e16047d26ba55c0752e31ecf1d2bd
881 F20101118_AACUOE robalik_h_Page_144.txt
c1abd2f2586474dbe674fa105cf9323d
8e78564c3fa05ba79ed4e2dcbad6d5aa22502fb9
2145 F20101118_AACVRH robalik_h_Page_096.txt
79ed93c2def5a9d1a7bfa5f899eaa650
8d01f69a0683a262c17ed475041d9b225466e91f
1599 F20101118_AACVQS robalik_h_Page_078.txt
7a114c8e15f1472a498cd4f0186ced0f
9913391e6de3887bf71592aa0b8c5119246ade28
85993 F20101118_AACUNQ robalik_h_Page_108.jpg
90d3c008df979ef779bd48b0eec8dd2f
3b8a0be5063a6a7ffbd599696df39c947ad0c97e
108449 F20101118_AACUOF robalik_h_Page_097.jp2
b5b719646ee82ee63ae0c001c3276317
61962e8fb4ebb92ff34220ced3ac9cb131a14c50
F20101118_AACVRI robalik_h_Page_097.txt
fec5694f00aa3f305b30d44b53a2e429
bf4e153faa026af88be60571a25f9819ee9b9fbc
1433 F20101118_AACVQT robalik_h_Page_079.txt
39d12588704a2a198a33eebc6f86673e
c4ad9d14f76008fe3d5708865ea38a63d09ba4e3
52614 F20101118_AACUNR robalik_h_Page_129.jp2
8c71363cdd1f8126f1f5117da08753c4
e14fb39db86a4806b674a917be3477cf841e6065
1905 F20101118_AACUOG robalik_h_Page_102.txt
b1e18510d812473ae547c6e1ca2979f1
aee48ec20b25c20b92d7c989b8066a5ca2232aa7
1609 F20101118_AACVQU robalik_h_Page_081.txt
4d74d17bee12ea2b3f1efcf4ca837958
88851b76c7fd9c15afbd0c98ca4547d66394b529
131148 F20101118_AACUNS robalik_h_Page_163.jp2
e4859644cd49a18c4471a077c71fb532
62e78a31744d1edf46cec4d7a54363e95d8604ca
2158 F20101118_AACVRJ robalik_h_Page_098.txt
0b6c4b01fccc0353ff491ef06515ecde
e9a467a824122665dbf80832f9f0062b37616c95
2241 F20101118_AACVQV robalik_h_Page_082.txt
6ef0632a0b9410130afbd1670e6f4f6d
118742a0110e39035406492fbc0594799f620cd1
12527 F20101118_AACUNT robalik_h_Page_122.QC.jpg
f9b923fdf2895b71f10b753687bd97cd
1a8c4c6edd270777ac95d2ff32a29abb1e9c6a41
38945 F20101118_AACUOH robalik_h_Page_070.pro
98266e971aaba9b9909e64595e103585
e9a7e074da0ee299b2ccf3c6dfb48a52a148f03b
2121 F20101118_AACVRK robalik_h_Page_099.txt
13e2d270980d3846fab5d75f3b02e9e2
1551bbc4f78e9ff62fcdafdacf01967b08c0fcee
1524 F20101118_AACVQW robalik_h_Page_083.txt
8c3d71ecda6ab396f794de511722f5d2
f94fac3bd0631565dee38e439acaa3dae9732d75
241 F20101118_AACUNU robalik_h_Page_137.txt
d06876627d2074dbaf649ad44b38c7b9
30f3c5e20068873645633089ba1f04c4b3c949cc
37283 F20101118_AACUOI robalik_h_Page_020.pro
cc5e15e361a8ecd08c4a9052f8f6c8e3
fcdfdeb00a3ea39a5338e05ee9c75b8e500807b1
1544 F20101118_AACVSA robalik_h_Page_121.txt
76da536878b1c2b53590f35e3cbcbe8d
a041e5d9fd0297be6132bed7596f525a6e09cb98
2182 F20101118_AACVRL robalik_h_Page_101.txt
893b59ae22413a2b18d3969c1f8c97dd
0c8c56e8ad2ae6ba0d7cab877195bd5d9aa823f0
1558 F20101118_AACVQX robalik_h_Page_085.txt
28de32d25e50d3dfb5553b3e66e02400
b668e1494028f0d9560350c5dc27d54f01affb96
1949 F20101118_AACUNV robalik_h_Page_013.txt
46ec79873f9c8a1b5d338cca3307de36
3739861269e3347f9e708b8090dd2121a2585cc7
22285 F20101118_AACUOJ robalik_h_Page_005.QC.jpg
7cff3092f1da9ab73c03f96f082864d7
2758728e832396d0a6d8ced8111b6d602a76838b
1461 F20101118_AACVSB robalik_h_Page_122.txt
acd53078421eaa2a91e5c51ace1ddc6e
d6ffa829432ff940b0bc239481fd590f823b47ae
1835 F20101118_AACVRM robalik_h_Page_103.txt
c68a31ea7bd308d2df0f0e1d50ed0c9d
d61090b0694f2ac1eaed0a149b7e2b4275259bdb
2052 F20101118_AACVQY robalik_h_Page_086.txt
cbb6698c200797114d0b8d4b285234a6
0357145389854bc9b37aeba14ecf003903c19423
49844 F20101118_AACUNW robalik_h_Page_074.pro
b0e3cab6c51e17733afa7fc6963efd7f
64d0969f82c9e631ac01e3dafbd93dc653d0a666
F20101118_AACUOK robalik_h_Page_087.tif
27b41a08b5c3cb9839d7c3ff64d94c37
a5403331b8a9174931529c5d7bb62a2bc3e3cc57
1495 F20101118_AACVSC robalik_h_Page_123.txt
4c7f05527895d63b9b76da85dde11878
fe55e275c6df375342e433ff9a01bd72973906db
1956 F20101118_AACVRN robalik_h_Page_104.txt
51bd73c30d2ad166000a2a0c5c599bce
d7d82db2293b8c3d152dc0550be07a056515d085
1569 F20101118_AACVQZ robalik_h_Page_087.txt
53202770340758fbc3135c62245095b8
256605884b13224fa26ca2a586dabbd43e8fe2e9
6258 F20101118_AACUNX robalik_h_Page_049thm.jpg
4d07e9fb68063e28161760a8e5c4a2e0
885c30be70dda2b5281c3cdb6c239418c520ad3f
F20101118_AACUPA robalik_h_Page_100.tif
845e2c7fdab2b34906c2ff404931fbd4
32c69e2581950435b1c62b6b2dd1b2a26d840deb
1998 F20101118_AACUOL robalik_h_Page_112.txt
123eb261a4883701412ea977e90ac6ff
37c56a409b29c153d831a2d8a0f9410711753f52
665 F20101118_AACVSD robalik_h_Page_124.txt
0fed84858b05629626e6ad2a4b5d463c
af0648f38650e1a2cfe9adb31beb27863a5ea56a
1976 F20101118_AACVRO robalik_h_Page_105.txt
00378af02f1b4fb59173c26ebabe0c17
454044ad3c3bb3b26836d89d414f0c730cea0b04
2073 F20101118_AACUNY robalik_h_Page_016.txt
910ab305a23831e1a8dcb497cfef2026
69db4aece8e7931054ac27870b676da75b38b859
113143 F20101118_AACUPB robalik_h_Page_099.jp2
b5ac097d80bd9665f09855fdb0f539ab
56745e78266cc56115bf45cceceb3367591ce67a
2053 F20101118_AACUOM robalik_h_Page_100.txt
2ac67b081456b8523147f37cef474147
174ec2d7ac21cef2313bcf55f17f70388c30dbf1
897 F20101118_AACVSE robalik_h_Page_125.txt
06502c060f6e1c90ee258d39aa9e0e8f
cdaaf3ef5979c4aad767d740fee7ecd7e11c08cd
1977 F20101118_AACVRP robalik_h_Page_106.txt
2f6cbcb0717eb542d393ddaf9b189234
71f861a25a2295d766bf7e73096795c3144b3673
12030 F20101118_AACUNZ robalik_h_Page_132.QC.jpg
37104305e373c39267d177ef069e317a
5fb1da35277850d687af458c8b682af3491aef14
F20101118_AACUPC robalik_h_Page_030.tif
44c7d0a69a044acf9bcaadc7cccc126f
d6f25b0dbc51cd4d76cc70db8d454e352cc632d9
6390 F20101118_AACUON robalik_h_Page_105thm.jpg
68f2cdcaa9c62f2d6b2281d52c4903fe
14d010285acbdf3a7bf1f48e58baa64da3b791bd
517 F20101118_AACVSF robalik_h_Page_126.txt
e6cc6fef6c537d399bff22cc59bb204a
560cb1729d23bac6aa3d78e1654d2b13f856c8d4
2095 F20101118_AACVRQ robalik_h_Page_108.txt
16f044309b18f332524c862ecbcd66b7
154a11462ff1f59c1f18080a5f8c5c4aaaa952a8
108896 F20101118_AACUPD robalik_h_Page_060.jp2
fca2e3e1857ade62acd9244d52fc2bc9
2e3f1db8b72ca174adbcad98d529cae8880c2592
F20101118_AACUOO robalik_h_Page_160.tif
b082d8099774ddaca947aecd45d3f107
37cdc0cb67b3fa5b00e8c9b8282f507bdd457873
1382 F20101118_AACVSG robalik_h_Page_128.txt
00093008a72ebe1b58b1223be3b58100
04172bf4aa7e4dbabb668682edb8fb96370d2a4c
2075 F20101118_AACVRR robalik_h_Page_109.txt
0f8243d546c262cddba3736f2b7686d8
234c319079671fe1df2303fc160b0a40c502495e
109131 F20101118_AACUPE robalik_h_Page_105.jp2
74f4355aac19118cb12cc027a7c0e2e7
53751c742eba4716a1b25bd41063b039581bbfa5
11919 F20101118_AACUOP robalik_h_Page_003.jpg
87581bbcc5e3ae214ee71482368d2dde
66415728d8dfc05ebcc172deeb05349358368d85
1548 F20101118_AACVSH robalik_h_Page_129.txt
6d0c1eec13172bfacc96a7d3fe0f8e28
a06afdb4981675253c8f826816daa52917ab35e3
F20101118_AACVRS robalik_h_Page_110.txt
d2c61c2881d216326df28587d1efef4f
03c48c6e3591f08886549125faccc3d6cda33feb
F20101118_AACUPF robalik_h_Page_104.tif
234300275bdc6e73faf6c28eb3d1a932
59988cd6753c465622f50862e80a540572720181
50995 F20101118_AACUOQ robalik_h_Page_035.pro
11ebe6952f041d29149e7a4ba7a31010
be77be73554639a17dbf7b770a47597379b0b0e7
981 F20101118_AACVSI robalik_h_Page_130.txt
fa8c8ca90efddfecd6729728b262aa65
b439be05bed5c82832cd218be505ff2010b5f52d
F20101118_AACVRT robalik_h_Page_111.txt
d9cdfa54182366dc1611170a66e9e673
e3d3bf46461e0e93c2dc2b61761ad2d515cafb9f
34834 F20101118_AACUPG robalik_h_Page_007.jpg
c30d511c49a9144b6fe089238e82853e
eedf72ca69e0b214adcc9e1f4d6744b5cecff1a9
78708 F20101118_AACUOR robalik_h_Page_116.jp2
154f1a5c816e7f23c6bb3a5e8a44fd39
0f469900269b1eab3126c089df94f3df038b1088
1371 F20101118_AACVSJ robalik_h_Page_132.txt
9d5d5b06ccdb0ece237ccd9bac8c8dbf
0e9f9d371f9f984cca43ab774ee0b85f18730735
1737 F20101118_AACVRU robalik_h_Page_113.txt
54070550c718b595bf4bbe2f39f44d70
9c9996ad440bda7cf4675f16a886b0d7c692ccc1
25784 F20101118_AACUPH robalik_h_Page_053.QC.jpg
f1d2cf6c980d6bd136f780cda6780511
b88bf84e68bda618ae5983bb9e42c2d395648f56
115899 F20101118_AACUOS robalik_h_Page_091.jp2
7778521b13ff3b0a53ca389fcc4d95cf
5470526cf514695dc192fd7c3cb1309a7855e897
1436 F20101118_AACVRV robalik_h_Page_114.txt
46f17363d8b860a7196777a3fc26842b
bc5ead32a15e6eac76746af100c4a6f8290859f3
2233 F20101118_AACUOT robalik_h_Page_127.txt
381566bda6f46b617adb1e3f482b3639
a6ff779f6a796ebbe17d0d3b93d16ee25c184f15
1471 F20101118_AACVSK robalik_h_Page_133.txt
5a758a7a1869b6398d2e7d9a641d7e1a
6546d1d59ac28d6ab5a9808a6960e7bb43409e36
2230 F20101118_AACVRW robalik_h_Page_115.txt
e3263a28b4d8195eb82eb409ba2d5ee6
e222917845a2daba2316351a9528c21827abcdcc
33882 F20101118_AACUPI robalik_h_Page_034.pro
7bc0142b44f0274520c071a2c8b7e1db
853f8b814ed36895952de1cfd811400e16601f6a
1403 F20101118_AACUOU robalik_h_Page_080.txt
d00d727c9fd214a915cebda6ccc4ffc7
39ac1d9cfc1cf4584b18b7d13eb062a5dde21491
1314 F20101118_AACVTA robalik_h_Page_151.txt
cd8346abf033ccfa5c4ca9fa773b9e83
1985f14e504d74cd6661d2a41769a68014be531e
1465 F20101118_AACVSL robalik_h_Page_134.txt
b8bd47f98ad28c2e91702d05c430035c
1c29f3f0518b9e6abb0a035c9e4be939f6892ee0
1428 F20101118_AACVRX robalik_h_Page_116.txt
f200a784ebd18fff3e2af821deb784d4
9d4409e2112f257709748106def1caace7e876e7
113834 F20101118_AACUPJ robalik_h_Page_029.jp2
0411a6085849836cbe784ab539e05f6a
e54678f9a68bff676f31e7122c40bad14344f069
25406 F20101118_AACUOV robalik_h_Page_021.QC.jpg
f1bd7964fdc72ec311acc0c40861bcdd
c81ce29d9f18a2cf62ce15728cfdc587dc7296fa
1422 F20101118_AACVTB robalik_h_Page_152.txt
690eec42f43ec27cb5649b7b64a539c7
2e6a01d5edf29f1b943bcca7697753f88094ce58
F20101118_AACVSM robalik_h_Page_135.txt
e94d489f759a2f9c1c454cc7062322bb
45793ce20827ead45445f759a5647364d0a0f9e8
1990 F20101118_AACVRY robalik_h_Page_119.txt
d239360d73e313391f57d4e9477b580e
e311916ff867c043c9d3b72017ac45c0cac2e0f8
F20101118_AACUPK robalik_h_Page_050.tif
504718fb903937936969040d04885b31
a5c9df675ef09544569d98629d07f06aeaf612ee
F20101118_AACUOW robalik_h_Page_027.tif
742ef812ea31b6f5367379b519ae793e
14eea97eb5b4183245c56cdcf3b776800fbd5072
977 F20101118_AACVTC robalik_h_Page_153.txt
33d2a8fa422277ac04a526bb86331f01
3d8b38b716fb62d3c734821b04fc2b46319d3464
867 F20101118_AACVSN robalik_h_Page_136.txt
985ddf178f4efa114737ff75199496a6
6f2de7e8acc349029b8247f502a8883b3080cf7d
1432 F20101118_AACVRZ robalik_h_Page_120.txt
252bffa1a5cc0304111534391cdf263e
6f5a5dd44334a43e53c9a7e31c81be142dd2a0d5
4289 F20101118_AACUQA robalik_h_Page_137.QC.jpg
120cda9aeb9aa8025223c422bebf1c65
849281fbea18b915f198d6e0a9306e75d6daed71
84401 F20101118_AACUPL robalik_h_Page_045.jpg
5935fbf0d6e194916ba279609e1bb66a
a8bbdc78dd2310d5d3417d64d543388a528ad6f1
50415 F20101118_AACUOX robalik_h_Page_097.pro
9d0abed2ef3180b3c68233e6dace1f68
86a88a7ab4dd1e45585e558ef19eebf10ccf0f8b
1281 F20101118_AACVTD robalik_h_Page_154.txt
ffa3106586894a0fc7ef97dd4d50b9ca
329d445164f5f0253862500ef2787cd97fa96cf4
1440 F20101118_AACVSO robalik_h_Page_138.txt
42a59329f31acc66fe571ca18e6327c4
bb415b0d407ec1b9bcb2d4ce74c8c3621bff99bb
1893 F20101118_AACUQB robalik_h_Page_165.txt
1e885b56ac13b15b23c1e48491ad8fd5
933c84412a0a81c013962dae282e5cc5953359d5
43258 F20101118_AACUPM robalik_h_Page_134.jpg
df2d46118685cc8e13fa926cfbef9103
b9b968a0dd4d2c0ea51121dff5a7d1e3d223c2cf
84551 F20101118_AACUOY robalik_h_Page_081.jp2
e7f5f604960bf028be71f7c3319b4d59
757b0464382286a65b2aa25dab395ed3d4473006
F20101118_AACVTE robalik_h_Page_155.txt
07946ddc1e8bbdce6fd5921fcd0ae598
97ffbff11b5e8f4f2386163176b867446adc5123
1237 F20101118_AACVSP robalik_h_Page_139.txt
514a2c47bc980dd8b065fce5c7cbadd3
939132cdcb09e9daa433c6487e09346304621263
27061 F20101118_AACUQC robalik_h_Page_154.pro
4155cd70325a707704054981f3e9376d
5a810ac365d0beb18b302326765159153fde7705
17619 F20101118_AACUPN robalik_h_Page_080.QC.jpg
a27d648fd5533607b272293730bac7ea
7f3576e8691fdc35b5666301d9e19cdd8f59f78d
2129 F20101118_AACUOZ robalik_h_Page_015.txt
8ab443efb188ec95dfd4b2151ad1741a
ab1159deefbc8e24cc531e0ce52271bd128904af
715 F20101118_AACVTF robalik_h_Page_156.txt
94694e31c8db97c5efa59b7789e4dd11
718371e55d91cbc1f8f938aaa8b924f34c2f3daf
1239 F20101118_AACVSQ robalik_h_Page_140.txt
9ecfb2c7b0a6f6e058dc497fcd468249
649719bd9d0360fa027b403a1009ec19e8f674de
59617 F20101118_AACUQD robalik_h_Page_085.jpg
489dd8b022d3709b6d81c3699969ca11
11a3244c2a19841a88b866da2313871d2fe1c275
16132 F20101118_AACUPO robalik_h_Page_145.QC.jpg
2151a8959bc2e6ebc239c8c3ff94b1ca
4866b4d3c935ff825c789423630374d747ffbdbd
1482 F20101118_AACVTG robalik_h_Page_158.txt
b885bb5a03f4b7d25090ee0f1e301c05
574298aea8bc2944196ffb7045d9ab1e772eb7a8
1243 F20101118_AACVSR robalik_h_Page_141.txt
69b260eb04a832f4bff099689af354f3
12ecf340485856cb2c486dc33923902ebd49bb84
30736 F20101118_AACUQE robalik_h_Page_079.pro
df1e886bfe659876723a6681668f3212
83db6158dea26e876162241862a7aa2813cac535
116350 F20101118_AACUPP robalik_h_Page_056.jp2
151e47eddf8d0b4aee4d8a383b974936
779eae9f8ab25286ef0638d4c861356cbb4b5c53
775 F20101118_AACVTH robalik_h_Page_159.txt
7c7c52cf4ed97ebccf2e4751ff89c1fd
3cc831f0acaebf05436b8b93f52b9aa36a37aeda
1337 F20101118_AACVSS robalik_h_Page_142.txt
e6cea0fcb81c7cd733ee8b10525621a1
e23153a377b30082ac2906e6e3e5e545f6a64725
16677 F20101118_AACUQF robalik_h_Page_066.QC.jpg
48b7279abd73c34b12635081c00d7048
2e0ae9d5ea8661c6d6fd4185d56837f9b93fb5d9
24677 F20101118_AACUPQ robalik_h_Page_074.QC.jpg
affefefe46944a2f3b2262bf48fa4f16
314f1797540242a3c1d9326f17f83d1d128aedec
2060 F20101118_AACVTI robalik_h_Page_160.txt
b31bd34e62cd5fad05f0e9acdf9ce2dc
495d63a0ea1e9fe6bd20ca1638412279d0d055fc
F20101118_AACVST robalik_h_Page_143.txt
719015df6d5fd7001842b7bddb5fba41
2a7210cf42d1bf554224963e1456e1b657544a4a
1268 F20101118_AACUQG robalik_h_Page_157.txt
6c74164b71640190edc4c424fbf1854c
aa22baad817db5c2cdc610f0ea84fdb9d1b1fd13
1576 F20101118_AACUPR robalik_h_Page_118.txt
c0c13716ec074c656749357bdae5ef6e
912a047e96780a5253ba8249f15d5e5da2b44ae5
2453 F20101118_AACVTJ robalik_h_Page_161.txt
c56002a6aba4f2815cf7a29460e9fae9
334cea27abf297718c5d023c9bac4563f6889d83
1304 F20101118_AACVSU robalik_h_Page_145.txt
300fa9e55336d9417383fde778373236
7695383d241f1dceb078aa64fc04fce6b627daae
F20101118_AACUQH robalik_h_Page_097.tif
b067ce2c36a61d8db973cc604d525e81
40d43161c246224e00999986260dab1d26471347
109067 F20101118_AACUPS robalik_h_Page_041.jp2
8a21417dafc4b14c33e2039af316d88e
f06b8b8e2cc8c730a0cca524d887702bb205b798
2568 F20101118_AACVTK robalik_h_Page_162.txt
786e9a7f0abf58ec2f7b4795f496fcd8
2d6541e2daf3b43cfbcd04d5d3f7653a5a1c34de
1478 F20101118_AACVSV robalik_h_Page_146.txt
dbe71db69bb98c59b96f2d266f8afa01
cfd91d576d51132c7cf578f7680757f24bd44233
87590 F20101118_AACUQI robalik_h_Page_099.jpg
3d16489c2f4e38d5c534f4c3d293fe28
c19ae14806e4affbb4e288613499d5811520bbe0
F20101118_AACUPT robalik_h_Page_047.tif
0820917a93ef73888033d5fbbf83f2b9
1cb1d24724d2e38bb5c7abd801c22793035466f6
734 F20101118_AACVSW robalik_h_Page_147.txt
24a4ce43f3248546498807349e1591e1
8ef3d18006af389b26deb1e3b65e3afaa7bd830d
109441 F20101118_AACUPU robalik_h_Page_094.jp2
48cecdbe3127028cbc8202e4e56aab12
5d103116f323a7a8e96dc4c131d6e5ffa2f81418
1277 F20101118_AACVUA robalik_h_Page_008thm.jpg
52709ae719ff7ee0c85d36c63aa5b6b0
89ecd7857262e343c59279a56295c127cad3f666
2379 F20101118_AACVTL robalik_h_Page_163.txt
3c1074f18db1931caae451588817325d
6a6ece7efd3f48ff8d7d841869d86592c94ca6fc
1326 F20101118_AACVSX robalik_h_Page_148.txt
975c41b83fc1321e3aa42ac816cf1551
6912257fd2ec4cf67bb3b5497dbe9dcebfc30e53
25737 F20101118_AACUPV robalik_h_Page_101.QC.jpg
80dbec8e8ce6fde9e02e6aeadf1407fd
af8ca42c27c6673fc52959da6b88c58749ebf0f7
F20101118_AACUQJ robalik_h_Page_039.txt
85fea77ec4ea3dde7d426921ff1cafaa
0860da714b501b4eccfdbd0e098933b6afe8bf59
3695 F20101118_AACVUB robalik_h_Page_008.QC.jpg
214dfdf81d555357d9dd7f91acb6ad7f
19b93574ec97ea92fc3d3f78c3692648660bdcc0
490 F20101118_AACVTM robalik_h_Page_166.txt
e311c017d7c0133aa6fe511eb3f17f4b
ec27229cba9af666c80fa92d5f82c8dd5ac5607b
1412 F20101118_AACVSY robalik_h_Page_149.txt
bfb36c9b7c2ab87ced1218f66452cb43
fc77f3c05eebf306213b215acac7fca8944806be
F20101118_AACUPW robalik_h_Page_134.tif
935f8bffd44cd113e94e9053b35a6f79
43be7c2e11832486e75030a32d98f85e229c7ba1
76955 F20101118_AACUQK robalik_h_Page_128.jp2
110108ac0f612786ed64a74c02c38fa0
255fdda6fe3b2e6757c2425a1351e135eaee1de3
4373 F20101118_AACVUC robalik_h_Page_009thm.jpg
767d0507b5090fb68e07b05569a47a01
a97c95261a71e99c822eb60dc0262c6feaaa8266
1855 F20101118_AACVTN robalik_h_Page_001thm.jpg
0154c84f77560369392163bf5f72f5a7
a42756cb4dabd31e2247326f513d0871ed1caf31
959 F20101118_AACVSZ robalik_h_Page_150.txt
fe9dc61d713ff979a4854ff1f21e25c5
4b4d9ec68c7584722024d2cbcb854f474c1b7eed
F20101118_AACUPX robalik_h_Page_005.tif
f6198efa8230e1ffc13a1b94f0073eb2
f10f01a4ca4de26b313ebe6fee76f99f1248cfed
37842 F20101118_AACURA robalik_h_Page_117.jpg
cdbddabb2438b11beeac1d5dbfb5a8f0
cea230e2a9229a135a1ce50ca56d251089ca53aa
5869 F20101118_AACUQL robalik_h_Page_027thm.jpg
0319fffd8f6ba9e1bcf849bd5759946f
83ed16f1069baf720ec4527b29cfe9cc9ce57268
18067 F20101118_AACVUD robalik_h_Page_009.QC.jpg
6ee83e95adeb8bac94bb62926527c2c4
9ed06e221be4b4f2ad89ed89a3fcc9d333bb1e04
360853 F20101118_AACVTO robalik_h.pdf
4488de61e510484ac087fb1c9e692da0
4bd271bfe6e5e183b79d5a8db04122ea5162daac
6095 F20101118_AACUPY robalik_h_Page_040thm.jpg
bff9f013edcb8a09c883b97dc6673a29
d24d7a29c669931f200b1f7bce4231798ad786f0
5923 F20101118_AACURB robalik_h_Page_101thm.jpg
7dae3ade51e6dc7bc9b796e731a4e77a
35332eca037b213ea3dd2cd1c1e26e7a17301d62
2325 F20101118_AACUQM robalik_h_Page_091.txt
c737df0f9d22c2ef76d5734b962386b1
f2e6aba43a9e11480fc4a94d0957eedd97eca7ae
6117 F20101118_AACVUE robalik_h_Page_010thm.jpg
e6caa296e62f8428655cc81b72195f32
6aec29a8a369157086d4d0a4d855d80cc1208afa
6422 F20101118_AACVTP robalik_h_Page_001.QC.jpg
e9d10bbdfbe649d5ef9ded0d4957c2c5
56b53656a263762667c68bc6b1d9b427aaa26d17
2093 F20101118_AACUPZ robalik_h_Page_055.txt
a2031265533da083a981fff95d1f78b2
69b8ac4769d856b3193411d1853b358f74dfd400
29626 F20101118_AACURC robalik_h_Page_123.pro
eec8e9175060b52a527887665809af88
9eabe3c6d96a5f149131ecdaf97b7036a1459424
115802 F20101118_AACUQN robalik_h_Page_096.jp2
381cafd62aabbb0256afbb9cf50ace86
531a9fbc0879b1c044647c74cc8c73d5d2bbf2ac
25950 F20101118_AACVUF robalik_h_Page_010.QC.jpg
22c8b632489867ee01f9cb0dd3d496be
4dddee3141bbbe1468da09bcd3cb4907c360050d
550 F20101118_AACVTQ robalik_h_Page_002thm.jpg
7375ff7f8c573c9fbd945ae60c5a822d
cb068af1a0f0b32db96686c1b29fdd2912cf6147
40989 F20101118_AACURD robalik_h_Page_089.pro
0bc2fc3ddeef73bd8776c1a0b4d930e8
4f69e54cc8b21bd293cec91668e0e7600f4f0d94
27444 F20101118_AACUQO robalik_h_Page_086.QC.jpg
f32bf162192b413507951165d1899539
2fe49eeba1e2dd3b872152161df5253704dbafea
6086 F20101118_AACWAA robalik_h_Page_100thm.jpg
28e09bd592feb82668036db8c32ddabb
4817fde008b4cc778743df3de9562a92e64faa1c
24328 F20101118_AACVUG robalik_h_Page_011.QC.jpg
7cf465e48541651adb89aa47c96e0e15
a4359dc8d76046a60f7d3f534bb7f37a4a9474ad
1516 F20101118_AACVTR robalik_h_Page_002.QC.jpg
676a301d602ee254837c96e591096848
9d1014d2ec2ff5ea14413692df0f0ade67c625db
53626 F20101118_AACURE robalik_h_Page_056.pro
4a99a8f24152d63849211930453b884d
7a8156a395ac8c1af5edf5134a5f5a016ef088b4
6462 F20101118_AACUQP robalik_h_Page_029thm.jpg
cb16d8b0f66708acce80fdaff2b30f08
a2d65c0c8fb32a13ef1f1cbdba2aa1930c08fc88
24091 F20101118_AACWAB robalik_h_Page_100.QC.jpg
1d4cf9943f90b30c6afc8c8eb3ea50c5
f8c18e07f25fc58101d61830cd6b72836129457e
6492 F20101118_AACVUH robalik_h_Page_012thm.jpg
9feaab63e639efc944f50ac9ab654fd4
71d87b03bdb88ccb40b042777254f1a108435c85
1001 F20101118_AACVTS robalik_h_Page_003thm.jpg
9448e84944ae568e9cbe4bff8207adab
4a9bb0c726e506f613007459ea5e7a2ab59752d4
3743 F20101118_AACURF robalik_h_Page_140thm.jpg
959c35237f064f16930f2fc370363a8f
429c97f7f66f84645154bf02aa317aaada15eccc
37041 F20101118_AACUQQ robalik_h_Page_150.jpg
c56d4bbb4a82a4b766892623ba7e27bc
f9fd4e4a75735d2dbf926b8547ef5ccd57464b1d
5817 F20101118_AACWAC robalik_h_Page_102thm.jpg
6d745cd8987dbb2eb471020b528e07bc
1082da447c68787ee1da895f763ca945e8ac1c97
26696 F20101118_AACVUI robalik_h_Page_012.QC.jpg
6fcf251b4bbff8aa1f42646663ffa9af
a16493b8873f4f8bc0f322a764e0527c9e91cb77
2953 F20101118_AACVTT robalik_h_Page_003.QC.jpg
1a9398d368ffff01927b571d78d62775
5b9671439cef60d4de046d032ff7c9eaef338c7b
26629 F20101118_AACURG robalik_h_Page_054.QC.jpg
152779349c09ca5dc2bebc92f73b2682
9ce38c93830551d17a1bd3c620285b05509b2518
F20101118_AACUQR robalik_h_Page_143.tif
8fd23eeb1d46387a6be99f579ea91dfc
ebe6afdd7c1e4e39d75a0b2e2a5ea234dc9b7299
24088 F20101118_AACWAD robalik_h_Page_102.QC.jpg
9ea0b4d0dee3ef2ddad0b632801781d4
867fef4761cdeda6cb279939cafb7ccef45b7d24
6236 F20101118_AACVUJ robalik_h_Page_013thm.jpg
d36325042039c8cbf9b93599aad14af5
ef6bb497851cf802c0b8ea38df0428d8787d1146
3774 F20101118_AACVTU robalik_h_Page_004thm.jpg
ed7af7c6295cae3d9e78bfd67f9cc7fd
2684e1623971ef73ddede7dc0ab909cea4528378
F20101118_AACURH robalik_h_Page_075.txt
64aff8b386c2949ff0bebf9f98fa0f01
99644bb0db11eef3e7017032506c858808cc1ac0
F20101118_AACUQS robalik_h_Page_053.tif
cb51c809eaa0d4f103220e076c394d19
e53630f4da353bfbf06eabba0b0f925e55925f1a
5561 F20101118_AACWAE robalik_h_Page_103thm.jpg
ba69422eada8c6fb7033625a2c80526a
f770ff647b17bb4d01e3a6720ec0602587c8d10c
6388 F20101118_AACVUK robalik_h_Page_014thm.jpg
dde73d6983003cffb7f7d920749fd80f
d2cbe678b89e5adf33bba2d834fce2f45d3b9ad3
15204 F20101118_AACVTV robalik_h_Page_004.QC.jpg
f8d0458e6dc3c1eb2b92ed5161781c16
d7cb6fbb440af51cc81df9be2c9584b90a076e3e
62673 F20101118_AACURI robalik_h_Page_148.jp2
a25b2d84ce6cc8dc845e4b250deb3b6a
4037ea55562c4e8deb5f4470c332cf3f1cf58c64
61763 F20101118_AACUQT robalik_h_Page_128.jpg
c497a7deda16010c7ed255bdca0edf40
8a39129c9abc4b71e1eb58f2d54cc2446ce93c6d
22963 F20101118_AACWAF robalik_h_Page_103.QC.jpg
a2cc5046efdc69bd27d30fa3573f741b
6d8521fb13c02e4cbfa822d3b9d24417ff57cf64
26188 F20101118_AACVUL robalik_h_Page_014.QC.jpg
5023a3deaf3351bec8e8bc73f5a05eee
8b85d568a0f034880872401a05f00bcea6bdac66
5165 F20101118_AACVTW robalik_h_Page_005thm.jpg
92ca0dea6a9543b402958d212657d8d3
3142f951a577b65b59dd26e60cd23bf507d2d16f
126451 F20101118_AACURJ robalik_h_Page_164.jp2
bb18dd5e84568e8ba347925d9dd67983
e1841077e4157ad811ef4f77a314dc3e570b4324
114782 F20101118_AACUQU robalik_h_Page_051.jp2
7e612ffee906c108866371187f6edfb5
46bf4fb66cb915499a837b55b23d2df4378f8b1b
6328 F20101118_AACWAG robalik_h_Page_104thm.jpg
f910093ed79dd9176a2121d6d6f83614
6b22bd79f19001c6251f5042c7bb9c4e66e42444
6315 F20101118_AACVVA robalik_h_Page_023thm.jpg
5f68e72253b976a72b50f151c5ffeeb6
425f1c5d14b33b5ae3e5d48ff94ac159097ff322
16823 F20101118_AACVTX robalik_h_Page_006.QC.jpg
9956ad5ebd5ba5ef055a954603156f8b
81c0b5e34e01222764da6a4930289d60cc8bdd3d
2589 F20101118_AACUQV robalik_h_Page_126thm.jpg
d768655890246d138383f9c3c68b6bf6
31b072a480c2fb1e1cb757fb7e8dc6fbc11a2330
25510 F20101118_AACWAH robalik_h_Page_104.QC.jpg
40190d8217fd04c488c90d9e7b5a6f89
d3f9b0e9ba1fbf5aceec5f63c2170956423be402
25689 F20101118_AACVVB robalik_h_Page_023.QC.jpg
b9ed1d422365fb5c08f039db425a6d9c
cd507c0759f85139f0d97835aa82ecd9181a1507
6294 F20101118_AACVUM robalik_h_Page_015thm.jpg
878b479cc5e94bab06c0c26d7e43ebc1
8607cff3a5e91289051d90463c8ccdf8342ce09c
2598 F20101118_AACVTY robalik_h_Page_007thm.jpg
cb2da779262ff542da3ad56df58250db
238bd9af3db54c94ca72ee253ff9b3422d7026f8
6311 F20101118_AACURK robalik_h_Page_082thm.jpg
60e653e336ded8c0d7a150964dbb1b5c
aa1442f0756174cc0ff3f7abe7b12bdf86aa4194
F20101118_AACUQW robalik_h_Page_070.tif
f92aa7352d23928ca4a6f2ffa0911f5d
0036737782718ee7d8fb23bdeca16a0a27dcbb67
25594 F20101118_AACWAI robalik_h_Page_105.QC.jpg
9a2498f2bb15cedc3c9aa66f7dc71cb6
78115e54d59a58aa63f564d78ccf68376148faa5
6298 F20101118_AACVVC robalik_h_Page_024thm.jpg
9d2b42757fee0624eca400905b44050b
c54850b1e25d5c959bdfe55040fd2b01d13f46aa
27510 F20101118_AACVUN robalik_h_Page_015.QC.jpg
136be6c6c5b4c14fc763ca30c099b621
0a4c2813434497b67845d98448def23e554b33be
9890 F20101118_AACVTZ robalik_h_Page_007.QC.jpg
b1d3d728ef083232fafe0220ff8e2ed9
1eecb9c56822b7065021f5283a18f0d6a776723c
53890 F20101118_AACUSA robalik_h_Page_141.jpg
971340f219a0fb88f5281505a14bf1b0
82ae4610eec448863816e15d6a073d40e34ccbe0
F20101118_AACURL robalik_h_Page_144.tif
b5f3aecf9ea84a919629efdc74a41e9d
01a4ce1740dd2837597eab800344e2c49ba419f5
4489 F20101118_AACUQX robalik_h_Page_069thm.jpg
8c98fb5ff02abca76f688ca7dfc17eae
1607d86808c90e07d1daf783272a83163f37bf07
6282 F20101118_AACWAJ robalik_h_Page_106thm.jpg
9d87ca1b775d7bd25765f553b800ae9f
ef691e3011888ec8e3f2c7c2d76e4f577c16a6cb
25929 F20101118_AACVVD robalik_h_Page_024.QC.jpg
3a2b3c77edd750a569dbf4069a455fe6
8b7f41bdbbad76a85c1cab9adcd5f66fbb2c21b6
6532 F20101118_AACVUO robalik_h_Page_016thm.jpg
9f63e00df9ac8129f90b6dd4de930fae
8983506ca83df7c8bbe96f4d375390c34f6e7829
54602 F20101118_AACUSB robalik_h_Page_082.pro
6774813e4bb42bc5d381192488c100ff
d151c801b03ae8a114a5a81e27b8508d84fae9a2
49662 F20101118_AACURM robalik_h_Page_157.jpg
cfeb4287a2d9547fa66f87ac9a75cd3d
8b39946fef654aca2e26e12069593ca067084c8c
F20101118_AACUQY robalik_h_Page_141.tif
3326b3b2969d034c6cb3e8fd835e29a6
1a8f35346ccd0a261645249ba1e80ddcbf6a25cb
26304 F20101118_AACWAK robalik_h_Page_106.QC.jpg
18c00c31201253a218ffb43092ec329f
87e36e7d972d8b972054f066f53e7cbc9c093ac3
5862 F20101118_AACVVE robalik_h_Page_025thm.jpg
bb8d4876402778e6210fef19112ebce6
1516dad241aff4c6e42a195f02e5c780f29dea4b
27200 F20101118_AACVUP robalik_h_Page_016.QC.jpg
29fe1fe4a9c8ba514f2bee8a46579860
f870bd462044a75d09ca642ddf0d0ad71249f159
F20101118_AACUSC robalik_h_Page_116.tif
a297f4aeb14bb72042d8acfe87528170
2add398a2f7a40385220c64eb47cf2fce68c0036
5925 F20101118_AACURN robalik_h_Page_071thm.jpg
15442cfa220748344a69b224614b994b
acf7389266a803d02f9215c4a5743572d6275c80
6317 F20101118_AACUQZ robalik_h_Page_019thm.jpg
48ff5c96945d36c5e3080863c71b74e6
1cd5299f968d76498d9d203b8f3bb0d01b0ff9f6
6464 F20101118_AACWAL robalik_h_Page_107thm.jpg
ab6403e209dd9da5908b171e30df2fe5
00303b35fd8cd4027ba43d990e673572e9eb3612
23930 F20101118_AACVVF robalik_h_Page_025.QC.jpg
321a9e0511e098de308ae8ea0577e3c7
544eb0fa8f5eb81e86841a0d26a3ada056f716f4
6182 F20101118_AACVUQ robalik_h_Page_017thm.jpg
84f1f077f809076e1ecb3bfee581fda3
7347ef0a6d2aa6b4b65e0787324de5995fe92243
938 F20101118_AACUSD robalik_h_Page_007.txt
5cb0084fcce42a0be5ba323f2e439860
c2fca3636f21070d4a519eb82194102044e0473d
78820 F20101118_AACURO robalik_h_Page_009.jp2
8399a0dac69bbfe7986a609f0c94296e
2c34e1c52c263210f76f33da522c1c4afaf4e716
23820 F20101118_AACWBA robalik_h_Page_115.QC.jpg
650d8d48d965c27e1cb488119a9e46d3
761b4e195ebf714107a3cbf09619eca6f7af6432
27019 F20101118_AACWAM robalik_h_Page_107.QC.jpg
a3878949540ba0dc2dd3f4da862287b5
80ce9136061f863b6157e4edfa1d75a41d348ed6
6305 F20101118_AACVVG robalik_h_Page_026thm.jpg
eb3db068edb812f5a8d0b68f6a8f9874
9d1bc9bf3a899f4130403926622aeb71257595dc
26134 F20101118_AACVUR robalik_h_Page_017.QC.jpg
2443ba1f251c47be1f399893e39c5574
5271e7ec114f4827328cfd264f549f1c9748ed9c
248725 F20101118_AACUSE UFE0014293_00001.xml
345615b8a7c07b2a28f268f98e440dbe
84ff9bfb47ad5acf4f883fc3f5da4a8f4f8fe636
25990 F20101118_AACURP robalik_h_Page_026.QC.jpg
97ecdf543595e8708c48fd116119a446
3a7dad20e213f3c72ac289a802e0ad4da70191b2
4834 F20101118_AACWBB robalik_h_Page_116thm.jpg
df8b9f3f53cf8397f203dc1fcc9e84ed
4d6538c0a084d8d27296a368316b90474403cf59
6217 F20101118_AACWAN robalik_h_Page_108thm.jpg
c2660618376cf629e1296419eb61d80c
6c650950a8dd1f2a3bc6b997a9ac8df0806c9d6c
24137 F20101118_AACVVH robalik_h_Page_027.QC.jpg
fc409d4fee807436db97e147c600415a
31c19470ba00eebdd10ef5dbeb997ebfb3455dc6
6141 F20101118_AACVUS robalik_h_Page_018thm.jpg
0a88ba8fbf09db286b5b1e9f53cfb268
dd70bd95089aac36f8464be987d5690c3b7fd641
5398 F20101118_AACURQ robalik_h_Page_143thm.jpg
1a538de6f3f64d59f2b92ce0d31cd022
c37e2d26b7a77a9b178d53eca7d27fad6017da91
3758 F20101118_AACWBC robalik_h_Page_117thm.jpg
6c2fe4e4a6933cc6c6ff8cb0035b9092
2c5106803206a39764fa510113ccbb8d7efb88e2
26915 F20101118_AACWAO robalik_h_Page_108.QC.jpg
0c3a8447a2ce2f6659e05295d12161da
dd6c01804c96c6f119f0764d9784696910da5062
6181 F20101118_AACVVI robalik_h_Page_028thm.jpg
fe22eedadd643ebf082c7bb59e699134
caf26b9565caee6bb95b6aaf13e578e1fc857912
25195 F20101118_AACVUT robalik_h_Page_018.QC.jpg
e88a4f5e376bed51bcee70d5fb87493b
6e774240c46c56065a037b7ca99945fafb99f189
26020 F20101118_AACURR robalik_h_Page_046.QC.jpg
3a14285e5167dc8dfedb666e138349db
7a9d37825eed788aa96b81a2d3e299d591547601
11934 F20101118_AACWBD robalik_h_Page_117.QC.jpg
c0699d4208614ccc1b81bd0bf1612aba
67b645e274f065e8ba8cae9f9936c0610780f4f2
F20101118_AACWAP robalik_h_Page_109thm.jpg
d059231b44c3a038ce3f7b6d7a9ce75e
d576aed28675f9706db1801e087ea9b7ab70f44b
25498 F20101118_AACVVJ robalik_h_Page_028.QC.jpg
8761780c6616150326ab4723282d962b
c9bc5e49c0aa875b7bbdfaf05a85e44cf41451b0
25876 F20101118_AACVUU robalik_h_Page_019.QC.jpg
601954d75de88f9eb429cc72a08885c1
3b6a3db06c738d3dc32499013815405572e7a7fd
21032 F20101118_AACUSH robalik_h_Page_001.jpg
952e73a9068400419bcf3654135cf792
4993104bf79874e13249f0a4a01872fcbcc5569e
2321 F20101118_AACURS robalik_h_Page_164.txt
e402e7ab41d24e8ac34dbe516f9f4949
ca1a2eb66433e9e7fd5f5305007ced6d9c411a20
4088 F20101118_AACWBE robalik_h_Page_118thm.jpg
3dbc54b073e97c68c3dffa87d6e9ee9c
78ae33a9c52e5299c7b2c19180582b7bace6e7a0
27124 F20101118_AACWAQ robalik_h_Page_109.QC.jpg
b4b2d59bc911f663c0a38245f2f305ad
2380cdb13b0c9983f19bda28858500fe0d3aba8c
26870 F20101118_AACVVK robalik_h_Page_029.QC.jpg
d10030538291c58157afe08a5ef6e865
9b27bbe4d48a2e667208a34e584dfd19c4530b49
5577 F20101118_AACVUV robalik_h_Page_020thm.jpg
828d80b4fe6dc288ac4d14a39c9fc697
83d7dbbcc29612c8bd739f3cf284bc9ffd9a95e9
4577 F20101118_AACUSI robalik_h_Page_002.jpg
0ad024b86c4f3ae61bc912c7f6f6e077
de111d934b615f8e27382c3d1909d87083335704
6037 F20101118_AACURT robalik_h_Page_055thm.jpg
b7b8ebcf23bb0ce8a5ae8936cefe0331
902730714b56ac89ded0153bcfff6563923fe1e6
12420 F20101118_AACWBF robalik_h_Page_118.QC.jpg
e19dfd5e116cda03310dcbc530def9b0
9589a12e2e6bbb0b84f71ce3a5f4c96388dc6f01
25585 F20101118_AACWAR robalik_h_Page_110.QC.jpg
5906156fa718cb1463358566e5912423
52c0efc06bed050edb00d0c24a6828255387fc71
F20101118_AACVVL robalik_h_Page_030thm.jpg
72d4e8edb25cb5f7d19def0e2e18a922
c79de84b315f70d3c0f30a8bb3666322f3960e22
21523 F20101118_AACVUW robalik_h_Page_020.QC.jpg
fcaa8fcffd79092bf5e46f19cf21e025
3f7b8b79b18a1ef159f2ae5e4663d7c7869de9ec
101745 F20101118_AACUSJ robalik_h_Page_005.jpg
0147f2596496a27ecef0b84956047fbf
2963f5c25402c1484be799742a82c16b050fe261
83244 F20101118_AACURU robalik_h_Page_024.jpg
976e7a2ef9ca2244300c5775603bb690
f99e68d21efa239b29388c99202e42c83be6264a
5053 F20101118_AACWBG robalik_h_Page_119thm.jpg
b8fbc4ac5c72b04c5f23bec18e917df1
4b39da749ee3004ea499058ccbe493492130e468
F20101118_AACWAS robalik_h_Page_111thm.jpg
0ec73ae9a8af7aa573148ff97be56736
b746dd57ea95d99f0d7a47df3dcd0bb35b787bcb
25386 F20101118_AACVWA robalik_h_Page_037.QC.jpg
1cf0c8925819d8772057d162ac621c05
ad04c36196c09dc9eff2fa057c76eb77b2515a94
24646 F20101118_AACVVM robalik_h_Page_030.QC.jpg
3c787c61f34d4f1422f0e2469b4aaa74
f7696475e58298a4d255e0f4b9d5ba736f707adf
6290 F20101118_AACVUX robalik_h_Page_021thm.jpg
03e9e570bb22371991f237ba6ae832dd
cbd76b3014bf9e42034fd2a24d24e520f273818f
60448 F20101118_AACUSK robalik_h_Page_006.jpg
4d986a415fd1a511d446fe6b54ebc1c5
67d9fa3d098b2499029f6af847887e9dcce1d1fc
60716 F20101118_AACURV robalik_h_Page_161.pro
9a98061bc5295eeca9b4faf1555b5075
33ec123e7c4a1758c84f9253c7860df1e6f3460d
19120 F20101118_AACWBH robalik_h_Page_119.QC.jpg
297db40b7cd9849245716c8cfa8a9f09
572dcd8f9bbf20dbbf6324178e1b2656ee303f3c
F20101118_AACWAT robalik_h_Page_111.QC.jpg
4ccfee23b172f7947bbb8a8fa00137a8
a84988574408e7ab70eb9593c6a9351add1f4599
6373 F20101118_AACVWB robalik_h_Page_038thm.jpg
bc92452690fab7ce9f54f6e9e20f0d67
626f0fb0cec918f74b2df9bc494b4a8bba1b48cc
6325 F20101118_AACVUY robalik_h_Page_022thm.jpg
29144299479dcf08eebd32d6eaf596f5
74b189bc1a8a979d60102b8d2f69a282e96ea8fd
23591 F20101118_AACURW robalik_h_Page_090.QC.jpg
a396ef738ca234ad2ac349f73784ecfc
9fe7975d5e903f78e2092fabf93197ca63e76662
3584 F20101118_AACWBI robalik_h_Page_120thm.jpg
f02cb7c8d4fa102fdb360901d0b5a476
a568f7448034f76f2e6b54d9726e1930bfa16198
6187 F20101118_AACWAU robalik_h_Page_112thm.jpg
c59819dade12e254c56e032c6df4f84e
0dd29ad725bbd31944ec93c94f82a4d6a1c80c92
25736 F20101118_AACVWC robalik_h_Page_038.QC.jpg
acf0fb12165a69f78e2006c20e4eb310
b57ff1684210d040d9dbde2a84cc6ae3f7b437df
5949 F20101118_AACVVN robalik_h_Page_031thm.jpg
25f5a6e257f60c01e6613edb698c47cd
1686ab525fd96369b52509ca4e91fb5300675ceb
24899 F20101118_AACVUZ robalik_h_Page_022.QC.jpg
4f429d34e5e18a1517a737f470def03d
ad07b1da7a05ed8cb25b213c508b484c44bf1a7d
61344 F20101118_AACUSL robalik_h_Page_009.jpg
66797121185fec35545a4055ce95a2f1
19f13fbef50c54f9075cee7e9adcd642dc4868c3
27412 F20101118_AACURX robalik_h_Page_056.QC.jpg
d72c39a941ea6a59e82545ee0ede3b0b
b8d516f5297f66034c4d0a6458dfe7209c7f7183
83694 F20101118_AACUTA robalik_h_Page_026.jpg
7df57426d13da43d83fed67c36d68ca6
4f407f19f149a0673ff81740b2c2857c46ad3d43
12737 F20101118_AACWBJ robalik_h_Page_120.QC.jpg
585c06ce9a5228381da99e76ca53f94a
b4104c2d6f59977a19d8ddc7bc70e55b9e3bbe9b
25067 F20101118_AACWAV robalik_h_Page_112.QC.jpg
4fd16d638d49ae63cc99f7890416adfa
150a62deb8755de48e456d9178d14d5ce83d6903
6591 F20101118_AACVWD robalik_h_Page_039thm.jpg
0f62489ba85c9db78577a127bd1e8cf9
eaea1fff76f2803833095ccbe0d8ab2aff66e83b
24997 F20101118_AACVVO robalik_h_Page_031.QC.jpg
33bdb2a5c608dc502210852ac20e0810
babd5dc30d923d1b749a685bacce4e89789f9096
83353 F20101118_AACUSM robalik_h_Page_010.jpg
54714fbd2c8a4a89aff5337abf731767
26d05eb190817886e79ec63737fe9ca82fd3597e
50959 F20101118_AACURY robalik_h_Page_014.pro
9dda8a677f15522fb4e0bcd9c64541aa
61f7e36ebcb7bf0f4898e45ab88796bbd0e27c3a
78731 F20101118_AACUTB robalik_h_Page_027.jpg
c79b52226b2e8fb8cc8eea6f4e9e15cd
c5e6b173bdfb79a695914eb89e711ed3453496aa
3773 F20101118_AACWBK robalik_h_Page_121thm.jpg
b22e5af5ea6561da377ad7ea0113a980
78f36fff7356c2e5d12a9511c9ca17ff03b658a5
5467 F20101118_AACWAW robalik_h_Page_113thm.jpg
c6061f17ab7e9bbff848a38834010ff0
f755fb22f89331c799080d2ef41cb9506953eea7
27768 F20101118_AACVWE robalik_h_Page_039.QC.jpg
5148585c9524544e4d16f28f467bcb8a
0a9ab8364e02861b8881010204eafecb254703e9
3180 F20101118_AACVVP robalik_h_Page_032thm.jpg
cab155eca87c951aa085731e735db57d
2e234bb543c3475ec39b5d865ee192a63695bd03
77915 F20101118_AACUSN robalik_h_Page_011.jpg
a348a901bb82c063a8c7572b8f217521
2ae3a26502fe4cd7b5725adae69b7e7d91ca3ed4
1444 F20101118_AACURZ robalik_h_Page_084.txt
02f783445d9ac84fd9a925ced6cc3175
1a688015dcd46ec4c4d34280d50434fd1c23579e
82153 F20101118_AACUTC robalik_h_Page_028.jpg
d6f698aca0754a50057497ebc35eb70a
8b0781bffd718b32503059b2a693b1ea7e121934
12556 F20101118_AACWBL robalik_h_Page_121.QC.jpg
3da59d515684428739f428400b1529ac
ac7aa98b5d3e72b0378d5426e4f79a051316d205
6174 F20101118_AACVWF robalik_h_Page_041thm.jpg
da22585c10e0d20dae4c782487aeda6c
124ea8d0ff2e204e93a609bb3bdcb96f0c042a43
12822 F20101118_AACVVQ robalik_h_Page_032.QC.jpg
006f0621aa930d199bf1117e9b654c69
d9775db258a8ec7fcc8dda4cf37ea924247dca6d
86892 F20101118_AACUSO robalik_h_Page_012.jpg
c0d6f6d2c34d51e309067740a51e65da
2fc9b512365e6ccbcc77f52711c68882c5aec107
86409 F20101118_AACUTD robalik_h_Page_029.jpg
d7612de917afab76a1aa2e4eb2c839f8
d067e260f492ecef65b73ffc1b0860cef052c763
19589 F20101118_AACWCA robalik_h_Page_131.QC.jpg
2839ad12caeeeeb80cad3b0b7a33a60a
7bb71ff450b48c47582a7d0c5db51689b4a936c2
3375 F20101118_AACWBM robalik_h_Page_122thm.jpg
ab627d40231224e04c06e180cb885eda
27361db156c391154eea1ee2325e21a5918f5b79
21997 F20101118_AACWAX robalik_h_Page_113.QC.jpg
e0026dc87d73682df4e6e8552b7c968d
0220700ddb18a996b2e17605ef0a6f6172a8aa23
26189 F20101118_AACVWG robalik_h_Page_041.QC.jpg
0e9283bdc3f7545759bbba7cb6179e03
90e94b67859d43c3d70a821434e75b99df7c4746
5274 F20101118_AACVVR robalik_h_Page_033thm.jpg
5b8030327be3901fcdbe2248ae7d95f9
116cb6fba4f37370a34d459a536623f4654d27ac
81471 F20101118_AACUSP robalik_h_Page_013.jpg
8aa59373fcc5869de401b94a9b7bf40c
ae9d41aa4799ccaa91c7bb1e8739068700cbc8ad
83641 F20101118_AACUTE robalik_h_Page_030.jpg
8fdc7326d6b49a3ad9c01e3810bac4f1
b2cd6ee4ff7abc4d916d0e105306ee9a0ab05a52
F20101118_AACWCB robalik_h_Page_132thm.jpg
1e76b824b9e5b28e7750116e524eef13
95f3b770d84110e98b49b019b717a48297944d0f
3589 F20101118_AACWBN robalik_h_Page_123thm.jpg
8ba7d1d599553b3f5d36465759f83055
0c65932659f41afaf081a86e4400b69366ddb9b9
4391 F20101118_AACWAY robalik_h_Page_114thm.jpg
a1706f705c70faeee5582a11ef6fe39c
43b051416b7e4616d61ab22d0d9bb171c8d8b78e
6195 F20101118_AACVWH robalik_h_Page_042thm.jpg
4261ad7d72ba5632e26d5d50edbb3d64
041d344ff73ee97ffc723a9c93c84afca4cbc8e6
22184 F20101118_AACVVS robalik_h_Page_033.QC.jpg
13817e7f6867604c3421684c6d50d49d
4da8946e7f8e061d7a28328b295ed3fe75310540
84560 F20101118_AACUSQ robalik_h_Page_014.jpg
221c89a7d71175ec3054d30ced9dee2c
2fe449912a549e69e38b98e79ff05f0c59411e23
91577 F20101118_AACUTF robalik_h_Page_031.jpg
50aff6423a592fa3cf218a00c0d7a5ac
426eb118834907a4653177177f9b81a73e579768
3609 F20101118_AACWCC robalik_h_Page_133thm.jpg
3200a81f0fbe82a359d81b0feb5c0a07
8903a8c94f129fa6dc23e0a21c48312523cbefaa
12821 F20101118_AACWBO robalik_h_Page_123.QC.jpg
fc2c55ac9aa19d5d12fb2125c5512d74
1ca97277aa62656c097a7a5dce47065ae68b8bbe
18502 F20101118_AACWAZ robalik_h_Page_114.QC.jpg
e6844237c8f18a3b74a64a18d3623cf1
4acc22b52aa89db63a85cc3a8dcdd5038f0fe1e3
25544 F20101118_AACVWI robalik_h_Page_042.QC.jpg
7cfa458214a6b1bf1cda7a721d4d172e
cbdc1d13a94953722e797ddd4cc266eab5857877
4490 F20101118_AACVVT robalik_h_Page_034thm.jpg
0bd4cc2c5c166c4ac1ed57a32b700b2d
118b87593ab7b839d6cfaf9e7376adcb27a7c1a5
88668 F20101118_AACUSR robalik_h_Page_015.jpg
6e834b501161b7ac883b6f3626739a29
360a046d53618bd5064a1dee9bea889729214308
49416 F20101118_AACUTG robalik_h_Page_032.jpg
143f90454979b89f6cfb8a382c1acecb
02f703ca7451bfc8bf6bc68bd6c1bfc75bdee696
12656 F20101118_AACWCD robalik_h_Page_133.QC.jpg
47df848d09e12b94eca921d01052a92e
b94315e13a73de02296ea0e6635cbcb8a5859f5d
2866 F20101118_AACWBP robalik_h_Page_124thm.jpg
512b69a7f699c677bde723524cb4ee4f
cd51c6358ef255a86f367b2569911bada396aa51
6398 F20101118_AACVWJ robalik_h_Page_043thm.jpg
183d5a37fb105581fcd0064ea147187c
1e47ff95ebe384b97ceb14264680ce1e96adfa39
16517 F20101118_AACVVU robalik_h_Page_034.QC.jpg
f25c51bd8f0d0781c3711d3496e42b45
820b88b3e8cbdcd1615a146e567f315bf6227123
87003 F20101118_AACUSS robalik_h_Page_016.jpg
c8c056a70862efffe820625ba4e4ea42
9ecc579af30fc1db04370938f93d424bc82e9433
71640 F20101118_AACUTH robalik_h_Page_033.jpg
13c6215965c3d279b4d1ec8c35a9faad
9ef746260caa8b36f66addf39c2fcc7126cbbd88
12392 F20101118_AACWCE robalik_h_Page_134.QC.jpg
4fec1ac3d5c28157592cd669b9c9b43a
20a5c8c43e7d91b19e7742ab77d60f868d2e6475
9323 F20101118_AACWBQ robalik_h_Page_124.QC.jpg
40ce6a2084d138f3acbf6345634c330b
9d47bf5271279a113f33d300701901651754d94b
28143 F20101118_AACVWK robalik_h_Page_043.QC.jpg
5b38a70c5ee06b6985438798f1d831ef
c624ff150035446232617da4ecba6824d1316846
6342 F20101118_AACVVV robalik_h_Page_035thm.jpg
a658c5b8dfbc68f76b00eb7c2a434e52
7165dcdcbbc606479ea90027dc14f9a96ca0d40e
81547 F20101118_AACUST robalik_h_Page_017.jpg
77e86df21d2693e876ee467bda6bc2be
49e979320200eb43d7f57741765e7f8350b712e9
56706 F20101118_AACUTI robalik_h_Page_034.jpg
f8ef783089c71ba61351ebf43ed783fa
eea1992970da68a7a4bb7e8670aeccf9e950a55e
3555 F20101118_AACWCF robalik_h_Page_135thm.jpg
c6ff3471d2289524e227a93a2d204e1a
182a764ad3213f3adf9bb0d80d250e4e541f7e94
12351 F20101118_AACWBR robalik_h_Page_125.QC.jpg
ca4a550242463aec95f773daf2a908bc
8b35db8339f26a327b26b15a0503190e8570e276
6576 F20101118_AACVWL robalik_h_Page_044thm.jpg
ff499236f04919f1b8969a97233e90b5
61a8f7d8c9f7d6e0201082cbbed8e43b12e02bf1
26344 F20101118_AACVVW robalik_h_Page_035.QC.jpg
5ef8e5b093a941fc18f1e2dc7a54f965
49cd02f708d419856ff68c38bc303d3a5204ae11
81419 F20101118_AACUSU robalik_h_Page_018.jpg
79cc2100039f2ac85bdf35a3280117cd
62c7d2cf8b3e88df0b7fb57f4a01942e350da78c
84595 F20101118_AACUTJ robalik_h_Page_035.jpg
29de96a7d80ea13596337dce29813586
f632633522736997b028f3ca4888cbf95f98d3a6
12238 F20101118_AACWCG robalik_h_Page_135.QC.jpg
9e70a1d3c39991c3b31b8eea2d534edb
7781a07f21acb4fbe8eb7413ddf0281b1a4d05e2
9390 F20101118_AACWBS robalik_h_Page_126.QC.jpg
e53fd34567c0f629d6a0b3f1e937d4d5
f68fc91a947c5a65a19b382a11983940975265d1
26143 F20101118_AACVXA robalik_h_Page_052.QC.jpg
d70b184ad68d1c4a26b081408524ad39
a683c92b54b29b679f5542265ef7f39db9becf3f
26748 F20101118_AACVWM robalik_h_Page_044.QC.jpg
75f86c128d2843575475d5598e122239
caf50ec8d49498e19f5b399a410bbacf91b10b11
6337 F20101118_AACVVX robalik_h_Page_036thm.jpg
14b485537fa33f5780049ae407c33142
e8393d70976137014ce1e6b769e46a098b93fd66
83773 F20101118_AACUSV robalik_h_Page_019.jpg
9706f1308fe2a32043c17a1f4d2c0078
abbca85dec676de843d5b87cdd7f9e22d0b836ed
82646 F20101118_AACUTK robalik_h_Page_036.jpg
e0fafd84a37631138de34b73c5e482f3
72dfbb6395924a6d571abc21fda5f12878fe5d3c
3986 F20101118_AACWCH robalik_h_Page_136thm.jpg
6dcf74808cdb340dd70cbba23943fdf5
5a24b9a9f3b1903790cff0912eb9c3e233049489
23811 F20101118_AACWBT robalik_h_Page_127.QC.jpg
0ff59a9be8cfc050be9073b734bc7a4d
55de9661bad4ac2fa8b34122920b1c8732118f2b
6334 F20101118_AACVXB robalik_h_Page_053thm.jpg
b9041bc15d80675f2a1d0217cf2a3fa3
4203ec5cd2417fc9825c140438dde2d559f7e7b1
6237 F20101118_AACVWN robalik_h_Page_045thm.jpg
ba6462e8c407384a4ec5500b8df91761
11bce847ebc4b3618fdce8d67e9942445ead60e9
25718 F20101118_AACVVY robalik_h_Page_036.QC.jpg
35e482086a51dc57575bcbafdcca1ea1
c478407b7ee0be190cb818aa2ffa72752037ac61
67047 F20101118_AACUSW robalik_h_Page_020.jpg
849fe30752f0db11d274cd21eb1d5c54
cc9774b1d78fbbc52a1f891404b917ce740e8dee
82888 F20101118_AACUTL robalik_h_Page_037.jpg
646f0374ef149a4fbde4be1de842406a
6072357982aa53c0da825e84c7012aa99345072e



PAGE 1

STUDY ABROAD: AN EXPLORATION OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT AND STUDENT PERCEPTIONS By HEATHER ANNE ROBALIK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 by Heather Anne Robalik

PAGE 3

I would like to dedicate this project in loving memory of my grandmother, Anna Mary Leeper, who has inspired me to continually stri ve to be the best person I can be and not to waste a single day.

PAGE 4

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................5 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................7 Theoretical Rationale....................................................................................................8 Research Questions.....................................................................................................20 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................................................................23 Evolution of Youth Travel..........................................................................................23 The Grand Tour...................................................................................................23 Tramping.............................................................................................................28 Long-Term Budget Travelers..............................................................................29 Backpacker..........................................................................................................31 Study Abroad.......................................................................................................34 Personal Development................................................................................................44 Gender.................................................................................................................46 Previous Overseas Experience............................................................................48 Duration of Program............................................................................................49 Summary.....................................................................................................................51 3 METHODS.................................................................................................................52 Data Collection...........................................................................................................52 Participants.................................................................................................................55 Before Travel.......................................................................................................55 After Travel.........................................................................................................61 Instrument...................................................................................................................61 Michigan State University Study Abroad Inventory...........................................61 Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory..........................................63

PAGE 5

v Demographics and Open-Ended Questions.........................................................65 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................65 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................68 Perceptions of the Study Abroad Experience.............................................................68 Pre-travel Group..................................................................................................68 Post-travel Group.................................................................................................71 Student Development and Study Abroad...................................................................72 Pre-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale...............................................................72 Post-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale..............................................................75 Pre-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale........................................76 Post-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale.......................................79 Gender and Student Development..............................................................................80 Tolerance Sub-scale.............................................................................................80 Quality of Relationships Sub-scale.....................................................................80 Previous Overseas Experience and Student Development.........................................81 Tolerance Sub-scale.............................................................................................81 Quality of Relationships Sub-scale.....................................................................81 Duration of Program and Student Development........................................................82 Tolerance Sub-scale.............................................................................................82 Quality of Relationships Sub-scale.....................................................................83 Open-ended Questions................................................................................................83 Pre-travel Group..................................................................................................83 Post-travel Group.................................................................................................86 Summary.....................................................................................................................92 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION........................................................................93 Perceptions..................................................................................................................93 Student Development..................................................................................................96 Gender......................................................................................................................... 98 Previous Overseas Experience....................................................................................99 Duration of Program.................................................................................................100 Summary and Implications.......................................................................................100 Recommendations for Further Research..................................................................101 Limitations................................................................................................................102 Delimitations.............................................................................................................103 Conclusion................................................................................................................104 APPENDIX A PRE-TEST QUESTIONNAIRE...............................................................................105 B POST-TEST QUESTIONNAIRE............................................................................117 C FIRST EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY............................128

PAGE 6

vi D SECOND EMAIL CONTACT FO R STUDY ABROAD SURVEY.......................129 E THIRD EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY...........................130 F FOURTH EMAIL CONTACT FO R STUDY ABROAD SURVEY.......................131 G STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS PR IOR TO STUDYING ABROAD.......................132 H STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AFTER STUDYING ABROAD............................135 I RESPONSES TO ITEMS ON THE TOLERANCE SUBSCALE BEFORE STUDYING ABROAD............................................................................................138 J RESPONSES TO ITEMS ON THE TOLERANCE SUBSCALE AFTER STUDYING ABROAD............................................................................................141 K RESPONSES TO THE QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIPS SUB-SCALE BEFORE STUDYING AROAD..............................................................................144 L RESPONSES TO THE QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIPS SUB-SCALE AFTER STUDYING ABROAD............................................................................................147 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................150 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................156

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Respondent Profile fo r the Pre-test Sample.............................................................55 3-2 Major or Intended Major Prior to Studying Abroad................................................56 3-3 Destinations Visited Prior to Studying Abroad........................................................58 3-4 Countries to be Visi ted During Study Abroad.........................................................59 4-1 Comparison of Impacts Before and After Studying Abroad....................................69 4-2 Comparison of Tolerance Sub-scal e Before and After Studying Abroad................73 4-3 Comparison of Quality of Relationshi ps Sub-scale Before and After Studying Abroad......................................................................................................................77

PAGE 8

viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 The Seven Vectors...................................................................................................10 2-1 The Backpacker Phenomenon: An Evolutionary Framework..................................24

PAGE 9

ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science STUDY ABROAD: AN EXPLORATION OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT AND STUDENT PERCEPTIONS By Heather Anne Robalik May 2006 Chair: Heather Gibson Major Department: Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management It is generally considered that study abroad programs are educationally beneficial to students. However, while various aspects of studying abroad have been investigated, few of these studies have been grounded in any form of developmental theory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relati onship between study abro ad participation and student development. Furthermore, this st udy examined gender, previous overseas travel experience, and duration of th e study abroad experience. Two groups were evaluated, a pre-travel group and a post-travel group. Student perceptions were divided into five areas: pe rsonal development, academics, professional development, global perspective, and intelle ctual development. Student development was divided into two areas: tolerance and quali ty of relationships. Frequencies were the primary analysis tools; content analysis wa s used to reveal patte rns in the open-ended questions.

PAGE 10

x Differences in level of development we re found by gender within the pre-travel group as well as in the post -travel group. Differences were also found by previous overseas experience within the pre-travel group and in the post-travel group. Finally, differences were found by durati on of program within the pre-travel group but could not be evaluated in the post-travel group. Resu lts from the open-ended questions revealed that language acquisition skills, self-exploration and the cult ural experience in general were the primary motivations for studying abroa d. Participants also revealed that they were most looking forward to experiencing a different culture, mee ting new people, and self-exploration during the study abroad trip. Based on participant responses, prior to their study abroad programs students felt adequa tely prepared, while one third did not, and the rest had mixed emotions. Participan ts felt most nervous about being far from home, terrorism, and language barriers. Upon reflection, participants felt that cultural immersion in general was the best expe rience of studying abroad. In comparison, cultural differences and not being accepted by the locals were cited as the worst experiences. Participants also felt that communication and adjustment issues were the most challenging aspects of studying abroad. Students reported that the biggest impacts from the study abroad experience were rela ted to personal changes. Finally, selfconfidence and a sense of newfound independenc e were identified by the students as the most important characteristics that they learned about themselves. This study may be the first to consider a student development theory in a study abroad context. Regarding the practical a pplications of this study, practitioners and researchers alike will be able to use this in formation to support the benefits experienced as a result of studying abroad.

PAGE 11

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The idea of travel as a form of educa tion has a long history. Indeed, early philosophers such as Mencius (372-289 B.C.) noted the impor tance of travel by saying, “to see once is better than to read a hundred times” (cited in Brodsky-Porges, 1981, p.174). In the 17th Century Jan Amos Comenius proposed an education system in which the last two years of study for students were spent seeking freedom and enrichment through travel (Comenius Foundation, n.d.; Me yer, 1972), in fact, it was during the 1630’s that the Grand Tour evolved. Over the next 150 years, young, wealthy Englishmen were sent abroad on a Grand Tour This time spent in other countries was perceived as a finishing school beyond the fo rmal classroom (Brodsky-Porges). While the Grand Tour was regarded as an integral part of the formal education of young Britons, in America, young males were discouraged from traveling to Europe. It was considered a betrayal to the American spirit to send its s ons to the old world. However, as the antiEuropean sentiments declined with the te rmination of the Napoleonic hostilities, the yearly transatlantic journeys to Europe comm enced and are still part of the lifestyle of many young college students today (BrodskyPorges). In fact, since the 1991-1992 academic school year, the number of U.S. st udents studying abroad for credit has more than doubled from 71,154 to 174,629, an increas e of 145% (Gardner & Witherell, 2004). Scholars such as Noy (2004), Graburn ( 1983) and Brodsky-Porges (1981) suggest that youth travel may comprise a rite of passage into adulthood for young adults. Many young people want to learn about themselves, other people and cultu res. Vogt (1976)

PAGE 12

2 supports this contention and sugge sts that such “travel experien ce is seen as providing the necessary challenges and opportunities to expa nd oneself in areas valued by adventurous youth; independence, adaptability, resourcef ulness, open-mindedness…” (p. 28). Due to the basic elements of living and learning in a foreign country, it is e xpected that a student will grow and change from a study abroad experience (Inglis, Rolls, & Kristy, 1998). Vogt suggests that through travel, growth is sought and achieved in four major ways; stimulation and intensity in daily life, aut onomy in decision-making, intense interpersonal relations and learning about the world and se lf. In addition, hardships and difficulties that are overcome while traveling allow youth to develop a heightened sense of confidence (Noy, 2004). Vogt explains that the challenge of novel situations and environments necessitates that the traveler must exist in a new way, thus questioning the self and consequently learning more about his or her own identity and abilities. Moreover, a benefit of travel when consider ed, as a form of physical and emotional escape is that it can prompt a personal reawak ening. This renaissan ce enables a person to return to his/her established environmen t with fresh vivaci ty and alertness. The literature shows that young travelers have a variety of feelings regarding their travel experiences (Todd, 2001). There is a pervasive belief that international travel changes people’s lives both personally and professionally (STA Travel, n.d.). International travel experiences clearly affect youth and the li terature tends to support the idea that travel is benefici al (Armstrong, 1984; Baty & Dol d, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauf fman, 1985; Martin, 1989; Nash, 1976; Noy, 2004; Todd). Students who partic ipate in study abroad progra ms experience a heightened international outlook and personal developm ent (Barnhart & Groth, 1987; Carsello &

PAGE 13

3 Greaser; Dukes, Lockwood, Oliver, Pezalila, & Wilker, 1994; Farrell & Suvedi; Inglis et al., 1998). A review of the lite rature informs us that study abroad and its impacts is a topic that is growing in impor tance and relevance. For example, the ways in which study abroad affects alternative language acquisition, self-esteem self-confidence, emotional maturity, academic success, peer relationshi ps, and many others have been evaluated (Inglis et al.). The participation rates s uggest that the number of students studying abroad is increasing (Gardner & Witherell, 2004; St ephenson, 1999). Particularly, American students are beginning to recognize the value of study abroad in an internationa lly interreliant world (Gardner & Witherell). While the terrorist attack s of September 11, 2001 suppressed much international pleasure tr avel among Americans, in contrast, 9/11 stimulated interest in study abroad programs among U.S. students (Gardner & Witherell). It appears among students that a legacy of this national tragedy has been an elevated need to understand the importance of global affair s. During the first complete school year following the attacks of 9/11 (academic year 2002-2003), the number of American college and university students earning cr edit abroad increased by 8.5% from the preceding academic year (Gardner & Witherell). Not only are more and more American st udents studying abroad, but the diversity in destinations visited is also increasing (Inst itute of Internatio nal Education, 2003). Historically, most students st udied in Western Europe. Wh ile the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain are still the top study abroad destinations for American students, less traditional destinations are growing in popularity. During the 2001-2002 academic school year, uncommon destinations like China saw a 33% increase in student visitors up

PAGE 14

4 to a total of 3,911. Japan e xperienced a 21% increase to 3,168 students, and the Czech Republic received 30% more student visi tors totaling 1,659. In addition, since 1985 Latin America has seen their student visito r population more than double when compared to the 2001-2002 academic school year (Gardner & Witherell, 2003). The 8.5% increase in American students ea rning credit for study abroad during the academic year 2002-2003 denotes stronger growth than the preceding year’s 4.4% increase. This increase is a strong indicator of the growing interest in studying abroad, both in the face of, and in reaction to the shifting geopolitical climate subsequent to September 11, 2001 (Boyd et al., 2001; Gardner & Witherell, 2004). However, although the study abroad numbers are steadily increasi ng, still only 1% of all American students study abroad. As a result, educators are ca lling for more support to encourage more students to study abroad (Lane, 2003). One stat ed goal in higher education is to increase student participation in study abroad to 20% by the year 2010 and 50% by the year 2040 (Lane). The Institute of International Edu cation (n.d.) argues, “peace and prosperity in the 21st Century depend on increasing the capac ity of people to think and work on a global and intercultural basis. As technology opens borders, educational and professional exchange opens minds.” The mission statement for the University of Florida’s International Center is consis tent with this philosophy as it emphasizes the importance of enhancing the educational experience and environment of its st udents by promoting a global perspective (University of Florida International Center n.d.). Therefore, not only is student interest steadily increasing, the academic community is increasingly recognizing the need to provide programs that allow their students opportunities to travel abroad as they value global awareness.

PAGE 15

5 Statement of the Problem Chadee and Cutler (1996) assert, “interna tional travel by students remains a neglected area of research.” A review of the literature indicates that the issue of study abroad and the effects of such programs on students have been wr itten about at length (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Inglis et al., 1998), however, very little of this research has been grounded in any student development theory a nd overall, lacks system atic investigation (Dukes et al., 1994). As a result, empirical st udies that have utilized student development theories in relation to study abroad are extr emely scarce. A theoretical framework that may be of specific use in enhancing our unders tanding of some of the effects on students that accrue from studying abroad is located in psychosocial student development. Conceivably the most widely accepted and infl uential theory of st udent development is Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) student development model. This model is based on Chickering’s (1969) work, although the revi sed version encompasses advances in research and other theoretical influences ove r the last 25 years (C hickering & Reisser; University of Calgary, n.d.). This theoreti cal perspective “provides a framework for thinking systematically about students’ de velopmental patterns and makes concrete suggestions for fostering growth in areas su ch as interpersonal re lationships, identity, purpose and integrity” (Chickering & Reisser, in side cover). As a result, this framework appears to be the most logical and meaningf ul way to assess student development and study abroad. Despite the importance and wide use of Chickering a nd Reisser’s student development theory of identity in a variety of educational set tings, it has never been used to comprehensively assess the impact a nd outcomes as experienced by study abroad participants. Consequently, the marriage of this robust and greatly utilized theoretical framework with an increasingly popular form of alternative educa tion (study abroad) may

PAGE 16

6 provide some potentially valuable insights. Accordingly, this study attempted to take the first steps to bridge a gap in the existing lite rature. However, due to the lack of survey participants, an analysis of change in student development is not possible; descriptive information only is provided for the pr e-travel group and the post-travel group. Most research on the benefits of study abroad is anec dotal; there is a need for empirical research to illustrate the outcomes (Inglis et al., 1998). This study contributes to the body of knowledge that exists regarding student out comes and study abroad, while being the first study to be guided by Ch ickering and Reisser’s (1993) student development theory of identity. Some of the literature suggests that gender and previous international travel experience does not appe ar to influence the outcomes for students from study abroad (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). However, Chickering and Reisser suggest that males and females develop at different rates. This study examined the impact of gender on student development and study abroad. In addition, Inglis et al. report that the length of the program abroad impacts the long -term benefits experi enced by students. A final aspect under considerati on was previous overseas trav el experience; Pearce (1988) suggests that prior travel e xperiences impacts the choices and experience individuals make when traveling. For example, more e xperienced travelers tend to be less concerned about safety and security and more concerne d with self-actualization needs. Indeed, Snmez and Graefe (1998) found that previous travel experiences impacts future decisions as well as future experiences. C onsequently, this study hoped to contribute to the body of literature regarding developmenta l differences by gender, previous overseas experience as well as differences by duration of program. Once again however, due to the lack of survey participants, an analysis of differences before and after the travel

PAGE 17

7 experience was not possible; de scriptive information only is provided for the pre-travel group and the post-travel group. The results of such a study hold many potential implicati ons for programming, curriculum design, and recruitment among other facets for improving study abroad experiences. Overall, most studies that cons ider study abroad and its effects on students report participants are impacted in positiv e ways (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). After studying abroad, students are more likely to engage in on-campus programs that are designed to broaden their international understanding (Gray, Murdock, & Stebbins, 2002). Additionally, study abroad participants experience a heightened interest in the welfare of others, increased feelings of well-be ing and self-confidence, and an interest in reflective thought (Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). Almo st collectively, part icipants felt that the study abroad experience helped them to r ealize their potential, and that they had a deeper understanding of the world an d its people (Dukes et al., 1994). When a student development theory is adopt ed and applied to practice, the student service being provided will be th e most effective. Without a theoretical and an empirical grounding, practitioners may design programs that do not help students reach their full potential through study abroad. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to investigat e the relationship between study abroad participation and student development. Study abroad participation constituted undergraduate and graduate students enrolled during the 2005 fall term that participated in university sponsored study abroad program s. Student development was measured according to the fourth vector of Chickeri ng and Reisser’s (1993) student development theory: Developing Mature, Interpersonal Relationships. Furthermore, this study

PAGE 18

8 examined the relationship between gender, previous overseas travel experience, and duration of the study abroad experience on student development. Theoretical Rationale The student populations of the U.S. and th e developmental tasks they face are more varied and multifaceted than ever (Evans, Fo rney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998). One of the most widely known and accepted psychosocial student development theories is Chickering’s (1969) student development theory of identity. In 1993, Chickering and Reisser introduced a revised ve rsion of Chickering’s theory based on 25 years of research and theory development and advancement. This revised framework formed the foundation for this study. Chickering and Reisser’s student development theory of identity suggests that human development consists of seven “vect ors,” these are: Developing competence, managing emotions, moving through autonom y toward interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationships, establ ishing identity, developing purpose, and developing integrity. The development of today’s college student involves a complex process. Just as the typical college student does not necessarily progress through their curriculum as scheduled, neither does their development f it into an organized predictable path. However, the seven vectors of development can be utilized as a map to help researchers and practitioners determine the stage of a student’s developmen t as well at the direction in which they are moving. The purpose of the vectors is that they explain key avenues for journeying in the direction of individuati on. This includes a pe rson’s discovery and continual enhancement of themselves, of re lationships, and of people around them and around the world. Chickering and Reisser (1993) suggest that ultimately all students will

PAGE 19

9 move through the seven vectors, despite the fact that each student will maneuver in a different way, with varying mode s and self-chosen diversions. Movement along any single vector can take place at various rates and can intermingle with advancement along the othe rs. Every movement from “lower” to “higher” produces greater skill, awarene ss, complexity, confidence, integration, and stability, although it does not prohibit an unint entional or deliberate return to areas already navigated. Chickering and Reisser (199 3) presume that “higher” is better than “lower,” for the reason that in tallying the strengths and skills encompassed by the vectors, students mature in strength, vers atility, and the aptitude to adjust when unanticipated obstacles or drawbacks emer ge. Chickering and Reisser suggest that university and college stude nts carry out habitual th emes: Learning control and flexibility, gaining competence and self-a wareness, finding one’s vocation or voice, balancing intimacy with freedom, making co mmitments as well as refining beliefs. In terms of assessment it is especially im portant not to oversimplify the stages of development a college student may go through. As previously stated, it is unlikely that a person will fit neatly into one stage, inst ead there could be overl ap or relapse (King, 1990). Therefore it is imperative to identify wh ere a person is holistically, rather than to identify the stage or vector of development within which a st udent is perceivably located. Therefore, the seven vectors should be cons idered as building bl ocks to the foundation for human development, rather than a limited linear model of sequential steps (Figure 11). However, the measurement protocol for all seven vectors is extensive. This is due to the time constraints of respondents, and in th e anticipation of a highe r response rate, this study focused only on one of Chickering and Re isser’s vectors. The fourth vector,

PAGE 20

10 Developing Mature Personal Re lationships was chosen due to its perceived relevant relationship with some elements of studying abroad. For example, the development of mature relationships includes acceptance and admiration of differences, and can be seen in an intercultural context. The foundation fo r this vector is one’s ability to react to people based on them as individuals, rather th an as typecasts. Eventually, the person may value differences in close relationships. This may ultimately transfer to general acquaintances and then to those fr om other countrie s and cultures. Figure 1-1. The Seven Vectors The Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory measured social development. The Inventory was created to measure Chicke ring and Reisser’s fourth vector (Hood & Mines, 1997), Developing Mature Interperso nal Relationships. The developmental phase of interpersonal relationships is comprise d of two areas: (1) im proved tolerance and respect for people of different values, background s, and lifestyles, and (2) a change in the -New Students-Graduating U ndergraduate Students-Graduate StudentsDeveloping Competence Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependence Managing Emotions Developing Purpose Developing Integrity Establishing Identity

PAGE 21

11 quality of relationships with close family and friends, moving from dependence through independence toward an interdependence that allows for a greater level of personal freedom. Although the seven vectors should not necessarily be viewed as a linear model, it is helpful to recognize that there is a genera lly acceptable timeframe of development. Figure 1-1 illustrates that first and second y ear college students usually progress through the first four vectors, developing comp etence, managing emotions, moving through autonomy toward interdependence and devel oping mature interpersonal relationships (Chickering & Reisser, 1993). Third and fourth year colle ge students usually experience the fifth vector, establishing identity. The fi nal vectors, the fifth and sixth, developing purpose and developing integrity are typically experienced by graduate students or soon after graduation. First vector: Developing competence Three types of competence are cultivated during the college years, they are: intellect ual competence, physic al and manual skills, and interpersonal competence. (a) Intellectual competence is proficiency in utilizing the mind. It entails expanding artistic and in tellectual sophistication, mastering subject matter, and, primarily, constructing a range of skills to understand, evaluate, and synthesize. Intellectual compet ence also involves cultivating new frames of reference so as to assimilate additional points of view and function as more sufficient formations for interpreting our experiences and observations. (b) Physical and manual competence may include artistic and athletic achievements making and designing intangible items, and increasing fitness, self-discipline, and physical strength. Creation and competition promote feelings to emerge as projects a nd performances are put on view for others’

PAGE 22

12 endorsement or disapproval. Chickering and Reisser suggest that leisure activities may develop into lasting interests and conseque ntly become part of one’s identity. Interpersonal competence includes not just the abilities of comm unicating, listening, and cooperating successfully, but in addition the more complex task of listening without distraction to another person and providi ng a proper response, to bring into line individual agendas along with the objectives of the group, and to select from numerous strategies in order to aid in the prospe rity of a relationship or a group meeting. Consequently, when students’ feelings of competence flourish as they realize how to have faith in their capabilities, receive re liable comments from others, and are able to put together their skills in to a solid confidence, they have more than likely moved through the first vector. Second vector: Managing emotions Regardless of whether a student is new or returning back to schoo l from time off, most experience feelings of anger, hurt, fear, boredom, tension, and longing; these feelings ha ve the potential to di srupt the educational progression when they become overwhelming or extreme. However, these emotions simply need to be managed. This can be accomplished by being responsive and recognizing them as warning signs. Chickering and Reisser explain that it may be a challenge to accept that a small amount of boredom and tension is typical a nd that anxiety can help performance. Development occurs when students learn to ma nage these emotions by dealing with fears before they are immobilized, finding healthy ch annels to release irri tation before they blow up, and healing emotional damage before other relationships are contaminated. The challenge is for the student to get in touch w ith their emotions and le arn to exercise self-

PAGE 23

13 regulation rather than repre ssion. Some students are closed and need to open up, while others may be considered an open book and their undertaking is to develop adaptable controls. As self-discipline and self-e xpression acquire bala nce, perception and integration ideally support each other. Positive feelings must also be considered, although instead of learning to manage them, they should be brought into the conscious ness and permitted to exist. It is essential that students learn to equaliz e self-assertive tendencies, which include surpassing the boundaries of the individual self recognizing or connecting with another, or feeling part of bigger whole. Third vector: Moving through autonomy toward interdependence An important step in the development process for college students is realizing how to perform with relative self-suffi ciency, to be less influenced by others’ judgments, and to take responsibility for following self-chosen goals. Advancement requires emotional and instrumental independence, and subse quently acknowledgment and acceptance of interdependence. (a) Emotiona l independence can be defined, as autonomy from repeated and urgent needs for approval, affection, or r eassurance. It commen ces with the parting from parents and continues through depende nce on friends, unrelated adults, and institutional or professional reference groups. It concludes in the lessening of need for such supports and improved willingness to jeopa rdize the loss of status or friends in exchange for the pursuit of strong interest s or position on beliefs. (b) Instrumental independence is comprised of two chief factors: having the capacity to be mobile and the aptitude to manage activities and to work out problems in a self-sufficient manner. Additionally, it indicates developing that volitional piece of the self that is able to think

PAGE 24

14 analytically and individually a nd can then decipher ideas into concentrated action. It also entails learning to get from one destination to another without having to be handheld or given specific instructions, as well as to locate the information or means essential in order to realize personal desires and needs. Achieving autonomy concludes in the rea lization that one cannot function in a vacuum and that superior autonomy allows improved types of interdependence. New relationships founded on reciprocity and equality substitutes the outdated, less deliberately chosen ones. Relationships w ith parents are modified. Interpersonal circumstances expand to consist of the worl d, society and the community. The yearning for inclusion and the desire to be autonom ous become better balanced. Interdependence denotes respecting the independe nce of others and trying to discover ways to give and take with an always-gro wing network of friends. Fourth vector: Developing mature interpersonal relationships The fourth vector is the focus of this study. Accordi ng to Chickering (1969), th e fourth vector is comprised of two elements, (l) improved to lerance and esteem for people of diverse upbringings, values, and life styles, and (2) a ch ange in the quality of relationships with intimate friends and loved ones. Improved to lerance can be defined as an openness to and acceptance of diversity, resulting in th e expansion of a person’s sensitivities and options for rewarding relationships. The adjust ment in the quality of relationships with friends refers to moving from dependence th rough independence towa rd interdependence, which gives a person a wider choice of freed om of movement and behavior (Mines, 1977). Young adults are infl uenced by friends, adults, and loved ones. As freeing of interpersonal relationships evolves, people r eact differently to them. Friendships grow

PAGE 25

15 stronger and people choose to spend more time with select friends rather than participating in a large group activity. Additionally, relations hips with adults become easier. The development of mature relationshi ps entails acceptance and admiration of differences, as well as having a capability for intimacy. Acceptance can be seen in an interpersonal as well as an intercultural context. At its core is one’s ability to react to people based on them as individuals, rather than as typecasts. Eventually, valuing differences in close relationships will transfer to general acquaintances and then to those from other countries and cultures. Aware ness, openness, breadth of experience, inquisitiveness, and impa rtiality facilitate stude nts’ ability to cultiv ate first impressions, minimize prejudice and ethnocentrism, foster empathy and selflessness, and get pleasure from diversity. As well as increased acceptance, the aptit ude for healthy intimacy grows. For the majority of youthful couples, each is the na rcissus. Gratifying relationships usually require geographic proximity, “so that each can nod to the other and in the reflection observe himself or herself” (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 48). Cultivating mature relationships encompasses selfle ssness, as well as the aptitude to choose relationships that are healthy. Additionally, long-term commitments are based on unconditional regard, responsiveness, and honesty. Better capacity for intimacy includes an adjustment in the quality of relationships from too much domi nance or dependence toward interdependence amongst equals. Development can be defi ned as less clinging and more profound sharing, being more selective in finding nurturi ng relationships, increa sed appreciation of

PAGE 26

16 qualities and more acceptance of imperfections, and increased enduring relationships that thrive through separatio n, crises, and distance. Fifth vector: Establishing identity Developing identity could be compared to the putting together of a jigsaw puzzle. The fo rmation of identity depends partially on the four vectors previously menti oned. It is the progression of discovering at what degrees of frequency and intensity, with what types of experience, we resound in satisfying, in secure, or in selfdetrimental ways. Se ven components exist in the development of identity: (1) contentment with body and appearance, (2) accepta nce of sexual orientation and gender, (3) sense of self in a historical, social, a nd cultural perspective, (4) explanation of self-conc ept through life-style and roles, (5 ) sense of self in reaction to feedback from esteemed friends, family and others, (6) self-esteem and self-acceptance, and (7) individual stability and integration. A sound sense of self is clear when the individual is comfortable and can ha rmonize all components of personality. Establishing one’s identity al so consists of taking into account ethnic heritage and family of origin, classifying self as part of a cultural or re ligious tradition, and considering self within a hist orical and social context. It encompasses discovering roles and methods at home, work and play that are authentic demonstrations of self and that further delineate self-definition. It includes gaining an awareness of how he or she is viewed by others. “It leads to clarity and stab ility and a feeling of warmth for this core self as capable, familiar, worthwh ile” (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 50). Sixth vector: Developing purpose Most students spe nd years in college to prepare for a good job, not necessarily to broaden their philosophy on life. Developing purpose includes an escalating capability to be purposeful, to eval uate interests and

PAGE 27

17 choices, to clarify objectives, to formulate pl ans, and to persevere despite hurdles. It necessitates devising action plan s, and a set of priorities that incorporate three key components: (1) vocational aspirations and plan s, (2) personal intere sts, and (3) family and interpersonal responsibilities. Also include d, is the aptitude to bring together one’s varied goals within the fram ework of a bigger, more sign ificant purpose, and to live intentionally day-by-day. The term vocational is used loosely, as it c ould be as precise as a career or as farreaching as a calling. Vocations are discovere d by what is fulfilling and energizing, what utilizes talents and what ch allenges a person to develop ne w ones, what causes joy in doing, and what actualizes all a person’s possib ilities for success. The vocations can be unpaid, paid or both. Preferably, they will surf ace as a result of in tensifying curiosities, and accordingly provide impetus to further amb itions that contain value and meaning. At this time, concerns for family and life-style become significant. As long-term partnerships become a part of the equa tion and formal education and vocational explorations come to a close, the next moves must be determined. It is a challenge to devise a course of action that balances st andard of living considerations, vocational desires, and extracurricular pursuits. Numerous compromise s are necessary, and clearer ideals assist in the decision-making process. Seventh vector: Developing integrity This vector entails three chronological, however, overlapping phases: (1) humanizing va lues – distancing oneself from automatic use of adamant beliefs and util izing ethical thinking as a m eans to balance personal selfinterest with the we lfare of others, (2) personalizing values – purposely upholding core

PAGE 28

18 beliefs and values at the same time as re garding other viewpoints, and (3) developing congruence – harmonizing individual valu es with socially sensible actions. Humanizing values entails a change from a literal application of rules, to a more situational view resulting in the connection between the rules and the goals they are meant to support. Rules regarding aggre ssiveness, honesty or sex may change with situations and circumstances, while prevaili ng principles become the most important. Personalizing of values takes place when the values to be lived are selected individually as a result of the situations to be encountered, by the work expected to be completed, and by the people who are viewed as important. In summary, persons select guiding principles to suit themselves and the circumstances of their lives. Eventually these elements are adopted as a permanent part of self and grow to be standards by which to evaluate personal decisions. The personalizing of values encourages th e development of congruence, which is the realization of behavior that is consistent w ith the individual values held. In this last stage, internal debate is re duced. As results of the cons equences of a situation are inherent and the costs of alternative op tions are evident, the response is easily determined; the choice is made with conviction, without debate or hedging. No published study exists according to th e author’s knowledge that utilizes Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) theory of de velopment to investig ate the outcomes of a study abroad experience. Therefore, a goal of this study was to examine the outcomes experienced as a consequence of studying abroad guided by a widely used student development theoretical framew ork. In addition, there has be en a call to i nvestigate the ways in which cross-cultural and study ab road experiences impact males and females

PAGE 29

19 differently (Baty & Dold, 1977; Crust, 1998; Herman, 1996). Baty and Dold found that the study abroad experience affected men a nd women differently. These findings are supported by studies of student development such as Chickering and Reisser’s who found that males and females develop at different ra tes. In contrast, se veral studies reported there are no differences in personal devel opment outcomes between males and females (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Herman). The commo nality in all of th ese studies is the documented recommendation to further i nvestigate differences in outcomes as experienced by males and females (Baty & Do ld; Farrell & Suvedi; Herman; Noy, 2004). As a result, this study examined outcomes as they relate to gender differences in the hopes of providing clarification to this seem ingly unclear issue. Another important variable under consideration is that of previous travel experi ence. Farrell and Suvedi in a study investigating the impacts of a study abroad program found that 77% of the participants had travel ed overseas previously. The aut hors reported that there were no significant differences in outcomes reported by participants based on those that had previous overseas experience and those that did not. They attributed these findings, however, to the fact that the majority of thei r participants had traveled overseas before. Therefore, by examining previous overseas experience in the current study the author hoped to shed some light on the potential impact(s) this variable may have on the psychosocial development of the study abroad participants. Particularly, since there is evidence in the tourism literature suggesting th at pervious travel experiences, impacts, future travel decisions and experience (Pea rce, 1988; Snmez & Graefe, 1998). A final consideration in this study is that of length of the st udy abroad program. The literature supports the notion that the l onger the length of time a student is immersed in another

PAGE 30

20 culture the greater the development (Herman) Nevertheless, published research on this variable is minimal; theref ore this study hoped to contri bute to the body of knowledge regarding the impacts of study abroad program as it pertains to length of program. Consequently, the goal of this study was to consider Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector in order to assess the development e xperienced as a result of the international experience. However, due to the lack of responses to the questionnaire, the group that responded prior to the travel experience a nd the group that responde d after the travel experience were evaluated independently. Research Questions The research questions addr essed in this study were: 1a. What perceptions do the students report before their study abroad experience as measured by the Michigan State Univ ersity study abroad questionnaire? 1b. What perceptions do the students repor t after their study ab road experience as measured by the Michigan State Univ ersity study abroad questionnaire? 2a. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) fourth vector of development have the students ach ieved before their study abroad experience? i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the students achieved before thei r study abroad experience? ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale have the students achieved before their study abroad experience? 2b. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) fourth vector of development have the students achieved after their st udy abroad experience? i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the students achieved after thei r study abroad experience? ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale have the students achieved afte r their study abroad experience?

PAGE 31

21 3a. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector before their study abroad experience? i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Tolerance scale before thei r study abroad experience? ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality of Relationships scale before their study abroad experience? 3b. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector after their study abroad experience? i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Tolerance scale after thei r study abroad experience? ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality of Relationships scale after th eir study abroad experience? 4a. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous overseas expe rience, regarding Chickering a nd Reisser’s fourth vector prior to their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Tolera nce scale prior to their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between students w ho have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Qualit y of Relationships scale prior to their study abroad experience? 4b. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous overseas expe rience, regarding Chickering a nd Reisser’s fourth vector after their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between students w ho have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Tole rance scale after their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale after their study abroad experience?

PAGE 32

22 5a. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector prior to their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding level of development as measured by th e Tolerance scale prior to their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale prior to their study abroad experience? 5b. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector afte r their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, and the level of development measured by th e Tolerance scale after their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale after their study abroad experience?

PAGE 33

23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Evolution of Youth Travel Youth travel dates back to the Gra nd Tour of the 1630’s. Loker-Murphy and Pearce (1995) illustrate the e volution of youth travel through history (Figure 2-1). After the Grand Tour phenomenon of the upper class faded, tramping by the working class became popular; following this trend youth trav elers typically were middle-class longterm budget travelers. Today, the inclinati on of youth traveling on a budget still exists, and is currently termed backpacking. The Grand Tour Education as a reason for travel was a ph ilosophy that emerged during the medieval period until around 1800. Charles Wm. Elliot, president of Harvard University said during his inaugural address that travel is a “foolish beginning and” an “excellent sequel to education” (cited in Brodsky-Porges, 1981, p.72). The origins of educational travel can be traced back to the Grand Tour of wealthy British aristocrats. Educational experiences, status seeking, adventure (Cohe n, 1972), and a declaration of independence have all been linked to the migration of youth travel to Europe (Brodsky-Porges). Americans share many cultural and traditional ties with England, the idea of travel as a form of education is one custom Amer icans have adopted from their ancestors. Roeming (1971) suggested “the educated Amer ican insisted on contact with European culture as a means of casting into the sha dows of the past, coarseness and presumed undesirability of his frontier or igins” (p.70). Several early ed ucators integrated travel

PAGE 34

24 Key Motives Education/selfdevelopment Employment/Training Subsidiary Leisure Temporary escape from urban life/health and fitness 17th Century The Grand Tour (travel as education) Craft Guilds 18th Century Tramping for work Youth movement/ wanderlust 19th Century Tramping for touristic purposes Youth hostel association (YHA) 1910 YHA in Australia 1930’s Hitchhiking-Students and Middle Class Youth Defining features: Activity/Transport Mode 1950’s Drifters and Wonderers 1960’s Defining features: Low social/spatial organization 1970’s Long-term budget travelers Defining features: Money/Extended time 1980’s Modern Youth Touris m Contemporary Backpackers Defining features: Age/Increasing degree of independence from family Defining features: Preference for budget accommodations, Emphasis on meeting other people, Independently organized/Flexible travel schedule, Longer rather than brief holidays, Emphasis on informal/participatory recreational activities Figure 2-1. The Backpacker Phenom enon: An Evolutionary Framework into their set of courses, as they believed it increased lear ning. The Frenchman Michael Eyquem was the leading voice against an educ ation system that only utilized books.

PAGE 35

25 During the 1500’s he created a pedagogy that reflected his belief that “A mere bookish learning is a paltry learning” (cited in Meyer, 1972, p.231). Eyquem also known as Montaigne felt that students re quired “…some direct advent uring with the world, a steady and lively interplay with common folk, suppl emented and fortified with trips abroad” (cited in Meyer, p.231). Another scholar at th is time, who shared similar views, was Jan Amos Comenius. During the 1600’s Comenius d eclared that there was more to education than what was simply found within the pages of a book. In order to rescue the student from “degenerating into a mere bookworm, he was to relax his concentration during the last two years by seeking breadth and enrichment in travel” (Meyer, p.250). Travel has been a part of human existen ce since pre-historic times; those that followed their herds season to season for food are evidence of this. In time, as social systems developed, people traveled for reli gious, economic, healt h, political, recreation, and finally educational reasons (Brodsky-Po rges, 1981). The British government also played a role in student travel during these ea rlier years. Often time’s students acted as informed spies and sent letters back to the crown describing social, military, and political conditions of the places they were visiti ng. This information often resulted in compensation usually in the form of a gran t (Brodsky-Porges). The Grand Tour was viewed as a rite of passage, to encourage separation from youth to adulthood (Adler, 1985; Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995; Nash, 1976). However, during this period of time, youth travel was considered a pol itical obligation more than anything else; self-discovery was not at the forefront. The sons of the ar istocracy used the opportunity of travel to attend acclaimed universities, meet influential people and to experien ce the arts (Adler, 1985; Brodsky-Porges).

PAGE 36

26 Three philosophies surrounded the Grand T our. The first one placed the most emphasis of travel on meeting the influentia l and the well known, ra ther than following theoretical and scien tific knowledge. This philosophy was called “Baconian;” it was inspired by Francis Bacon who felt that young me n should travel for the experience itself, rather than explicit knowledge (Brodsky-Po rges, 1981). The second philosophy placed the emphasis of travel on fashion, parties, ba llet, and the arts. The “Jacobean” traveler was motivated by societal accomplishments and was to be considered a graduate of the European finishing school. The combin ation of the two previously mentioned philosophies, comprise the third. It promoted the importance of refining social skills, as well as students attendin g the best universities. The level of difficulty in travel, natura l topography, religion and politics played significant roles in determining an individua l’s route. Brodsky-P orges (1981) explained that for approximately 30 years there was no predictable route for the Grand Tour, however, a typical route emerged around 1630. Th e itinerary varied to some degree, but usually the starting point was Dover, Engla nd. From there, the student crossed the English Channel to France and would then travel through Switzerland and Italy. Following extended stays in several Italian ci ties, the student traveled to Germany and then back home via the English Channel. The English are given credit for establishi ng travel as an educational modality; however, the wealthy sons of Venice, Fran ce, Poland and others also traveled for education. As a result, the typical touris t during the 1600’s was th e aristocratic male (Brodsky-Porges, 1981; Loker-Murphy & Pear ce, 1995). Traveling for education was considered an essential part of a young ma n’s education. The relative period of peace

PAGE 37

27 during the 16th century allowed for civility among European nations to evolve, thus making the Grand Tour possible (Brodsky-Porges). America’s youth began experiencing Eur ope first-hand in the late 1700’s. Brodsky-Porges (1981) explains that the American colonies during this time were very primitive; accordingly colonial families felt the need to send their sons back to Europe to enhance their education and social skills. Ju st a short time after the East to West migration began, it quickly declined. As a result of America’s independence, the sentiment of sending its youth to England was regarded as a betray al of the American sprit. Noah Webster who supported the Gra nd Tour prior to the War of Independence turned America’s youth away from Europe and instead encouraged students to explore their own country. Additionally, in 1785 Thomas Jefferson made it known that he believed students would risk “moral infection” if they traveled to Europe. In time these feelings subsided, and the tradit ion for American students to tr avel to Europe continues to this day. Around the middle of the 19th century the era of the Grand Tour was coming to an end. The time period from 1821 through 1855 saw many changes. In 1821, the first crossing of the English Channel by steam was ma de one year after the battle of Waterloo. Austria, England and France experienced the beginning of the railway networks in 1828. Later, in 1835 roads were built through the Alps. Karl Baedekor published the first European guidebook in 1839. In 1841, Thomas Cook introduced “org anized profitable mass touring” (Trease, 1965, p.239), which Cohen (1972) defines as the “least adventurous” as the traveler remains largely confined to their comfort zone (p.167). The timetables for the Continental Railway Guide were first published in 1847, and Napoleon

PAGE 38

28 III held the Paris Exposition, the first world’s fair in 1855. “The age of the Grand Tour was over and the age of tourism had arrived” (Trease, p.239). Tramping In the mid 19th century the idea of the Grand Tour “was gradually democratized and adopted in modified form by the middle classes” (Adler, 1985, p.335). Although travel by the aristocracy was never constraine d, the lower classes did not have the same access. Their ability to travel freely needed to be justified. Adler explains if they did not provide written statements from their parish pr iest regarding their tr avel, they would face punishment, which included being whipped in public or arrested. During this era, there was a shift from prevention by government agencies to organization and accommodation as government controls changed. Throughout this time of organization trade guilds, such as thos e for machine workers and bricklayers among others started sending young tradesmen oversea s to acquire benefici al hands-on training, essentially “on tramp from town to town ” (Adler, 1985, p.338). Upon presentation of an employment I.D. card, tramps could find themse lves a job and a bed. At this point in time, the term hostel was coined and utilized by craft associations. Adler explains in addition to being a financial necessity, this type of travel was also seen as a “passage to full male adulthood” (p.339), especially for the British. World War I denoted the end of such trav el sponsored by craft associations. The European tramp phenomenon evolved into one with unskilled workers that were simply relying on public charity rather than just hos pitality for their work. This new movement was perceived as a social problem that psyc hologists named wanderlust. Characteristics of the new-age trampers included one’s diffi culty adjusting back into work, avoiding

PAGE 39

29 work, and taking pleasure in travel, which led to repeat trips. Trampers used work as a means to sustain travel, this phenomenon e volved into the long-term budget traveler. Long-Term Budget Travelers Long-term budget travelers consider travel as leisure, and sometimes view it as a means to avoid or delay work (Adler, 1985; Riley, 1988). Riley expl ains the long-term budget traveler is usually at a juncture in li fe, and many times a recent college graduate. He or she is typically Australian, Canadian, European or from New Zealand, and prefers to travel alone, and is single. Young adults frequently hope to delay the shift from being a student to the responsibilitie s and lifestyle associated with the adult world. Ironically, in an effort to pro-long the time he or sh e can stay abroad, the budget traveler commonly seeks employment (Riley). Because this type of traveler travels for longer than the typical holiday a tight budget has to be maintained. From this phenomenon, the phrase “budget” traveler evolved. Howe ver, Riley points out that it is important to note that being classified as a budget traveler does not signify that the traveler came from a low socio-economic background, in fact, they mo re often than not had a middle-class upbringing (Cohen, 1972; Riley). In Cohen’s (1972) groundbreak ing article, he describes a typology comprised of four tourist roles, one of these being the drifter. Traditiona lly, the long-term budget traveler has been associated with the drif ter role; however, over time as budget tourism has become more institutionalized the long-te rm budget traveler can fit into one of two categories described by Cohen, th e Explorer or the Drifter. According to Cohen the Explorer will organize his or her own tri p, and seek comfortable accommodations while attempting to travel “off the beaten track” ( p. 168). The Explorer will try to speak the native language and socialize w ith the locals. Although the Explorer actively seeks new

PAGE 40

30 experiences, he or she is never far from familiarity of his or her home lifestyle. Similar, although different is the Drifter. Cohen explains that this kind of tourist is most likely to embark on a trip that is the farthest from ho me and his or her way of living. This tourist attempts to live, eat and sleep like the i ndigenous people, rejec ting all things that resemble the mass tourist. The Drifter seeks nove lty at the highest level, and life as he or she used to live it is non-existent. The motivation of the Drifte r is curiosity and hunger for adventure. Cohen (1973) describes the somewhat mi nor drifter phenomenon as experiencing major attention after the publica tion of his 1972 article. Initia lly the concept of the drifter was that of a “counter-culture” role (p.90). In contrast, Cohe n argues that drifter tourism is somewhat of a paradox. On the one hand it is closely aligned with non-routine forms of travel, while at the same time it has become institutionalized in a way that is completely separate from, although equivalent to that of the regular mass tourist, with its own accommodations, food establishments and attractions. Although the drifter shares several characteristics with other forms of youth travel such as an aversion to a dull and scheduled way of life, there are also diffe rences. Unlike the tramper who travels for necessity, the drifter travels by choice; in cont rast to the grand tour traveler who is in pursuit of knowledge, the drifter has no instru mental purpose for travel ing. Drifting, as it is known first appeared several years afte r World War II when middle-class youth and students first started to hitc h hike in Western Europe a nd throughout the continent. However, drifting experienced a major boom as a result of inexpensiv e airfares during the late sixties and early seventies. As a re sult, youth flooded into Europe’s hot spots like

PAGE 41

31 London and Amsterdam in unprecedented numbers. Today, this type of tourism is still popular, although this style of travel is more commonly called backpacking. Backpacker The backpacker is today’s current youth traveler, and yester day’s budget traveler (Loker-Murphy, 1996; Murphy, 2001). Th e backpacker encompasses many characteristics from the grand tour part icipants, the trampers, the long-term budget travelers, and the previously me ntioned drifter travelers. C onsistent with other forms of youth travel, the backpacker is usually at a crossroads in life (Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1992; Noy, 2004). Backpackers are typically between 18-33 years of age (Sorenson, 2003), budget-minded tourists who demonstrat e a tendency to stay in low-priced accommodations, maintain a preference for longe r rather than shorter holidays, put an emphasis on meeting other budget travelers and the indigenous people; they also have flexible itineraries that are usually independently organized (Loker-Murphy; LokerMurphy & Pearce, 1995; Murphy). Like the long-term budget traveler, bac kpackers often begin their journey by traveling solo. However, due to the so cial climate of hostels and other budget accommodations, meeting others along the way is easy and sometimes results in attaining temporary travel companions (Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995). A priority for the backpacker is to spend as little money as po ssible, as the length of time on the road for a typical backpacker is usually three months to one year. Backpackers typically see themselves as not the typical tourist, and especially not like the mass tourist (Loker-Murphy, 1996; Sorenson, 2003) described by Cohen (1972). Many backpackers consider themselves as fillin g a role that is diffe rent from that of the mainstream tourist. In a study conducted by Murphy (2001) backpackers felt the main

PAGE 42

32 difference between themselves and other trav elers was the adheren ce to a tight budget, that they had more flexibility in time compared to the other tourists, and that they had the desire and actively sought out places away fr om the mainstream tourist routes. Recently, new characteristics of backpackers have been identified that are reminiscent of drifters (Cohen, 1973), these include: hedonistic tendencies, they tend to gather in groups with other Westerners, and they are not socially conscious while overseas (Murphy). Although it is important to note the ac cepted characteristics that define backpacking, Sorenson (2003) questions the idea of backpacking as a homogeneous and distinctive category. Sorenson asserts that to include all of the above mentioned traits in one grouping would make it all bu t impractical to assign them an individual category; in doing so numerous traits would make up such a broad category as to make it insignificant. However, Sorenson also points out that if questioned, the majority of the travelers would more than likely concede that they are backpackers; even those that would not allow for such labels would still react or relate to them. Furthermore, Sorenson deems it valuable to employ the concept of culture when attempting to comprehend backpacker tourism, whereby a backpacker culture is recognized as fundamental to this style of travel. So renson suggests, “instead of defining them [backpackers] by means of fixed criteria, the cu ltural angle enables the backpacker to be viewed as a socially construed catego ry, involving both self-perception and peer recognition” (p.862). Sorenson suggests that one construct is c onsistent across all ty pes of backpacking, that being experience. Noy (2004) recounts self-change repo rted by youth travelers in a study about Israeli backpackers and their shared experiences Noy conducted 40 in-depth

PAGE 43

33 conversation-interviews with backpackers within five weeks of their return home. Each backpacker who was interviewed had traveled at least three months, ha lf in Asia, and half in South America. Noy conte nds that the unique experiences as a result of adventure and authenticity inherent in their trips allow backpackers to self-ref lect and realize the changes within themselves. Noy explains that “experienced backpackers tell of their new place in life in positive termsthey are wiser, more knowledgeable, more socially and emotionally apt, etc., than they were prior to their journey” (p. 84) A consistent theme among the narratives was that the backpacker s continually portrayed profound and deep personal changes that resulted from their trip s abroad. Furthermore, the changes were constantly positive, as one male backpacker recounted: You see, when you leave the country you don’t know that much, and when you return you suddenly know ever ything. You also know yourself differently, because you put yourself in may situ ations, like I told you—suddenly on top of the volcano mountain, or in very strenuous conditions during the trek … You extend your own capabilities, and the limits of your knowledge of yourself. It’s just like that. You know yourself better (p.87). Likewise one female backpacker said: All in all, the journe y changed me quite a b it. Not that I went searching for myself and returned a different person—it’s just r eally not like that. It’s like I simply traveled in order to enjoy myself and to have fun, and I was surprised, like—it was much more fun than I initia lly thought I could ever experience. And I learned a lot of things about myself (p.87). Noy (2004) reported that 62% of the backp ackers interviewed revealed that they experienced significant changes as a result of the trip; the remaining participants acknowledged the same changes through directed questions during the interview process. Backpacking for young Israelis is considered a rite of passage. As a result, Noy suggests that the expectation for positive self-change as a result of backpacking is not surprising. However, he does believe that travel for young adults and im mersion in a foreign culture

PAGE 44

34 is a true catalyst for self-change. Followi ng this line of thinking foreign travel and cultural immersion may also be used to explain positive self-change and study abroad. Study Abroad Many believe that today’s study abroad phenomenon shares many characteristics with the grand tour, tramping, the long-term budget traveler, and the backpacker. Like the Grand Tour, studying abroad is a form of educational travel (Dukes et al., 1994; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). While studying abroad, it is common for students to participate in internship or practicum programs. Although, the student is not traveling from place to place to improve their trade, the student is working in another count ry to improve their job skills. Additionally, study abroad student s encompass similar qualities with the longterm budget traveler and the backpacker. Alt hough the study abroad st udent is not on the road traveling for an extended period of time, they live in a nother country anywhere from a week to an academic year. During the st udy abroad program, it is common to have a weeklong break from classes. During this time, a student will em body the attributes of the long-term budget traveler and backpack er by celebrating on a long journey, adhering to a strict budget, seeking out ine xpensive lodging and eating local food. In this study, the phrases exchange program and study abroad will be used synonymously. Studying abroad is a vacation; it is an adventure, an opportunity to travel and visit distant lands that have only been read about. It is a chan ce to encounter people of different cultures and backgrounds. Studyi ng abroad provides students an opportunity to live without parental restrictions, even more so than when students are away from home during college. Carsello and Greaser (1976 ) suggest that it is an opportunity to live in a new and challenging environment. In summary, it is simply an exciting time for college students.

PAGE 45

35 Study abroad as a topic for research be gan in the middle of the 1950’s (Herman, 1996). With the conclusion of the Second World War, an increased interest in international understanding developed. As a result, U.S. citizens supported government programs that promoted a global outlook. Th rough the years, the American government has shown its support of study abroad in ma ny ways. William J. Fulbright encouraged Congress to pass a law for a program that fo stered study abroad. Additionally, the G.I. Bill of Rights to some degree provides grants for foreign study. As well, other organizations that supply grants for forei gn travel and study include: the American Field Service Committee and the Experiment in Inte rnational Living. Furthermore, the United Nations sponsors internationa l educational exchanges under th e sponsorship of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultu ral Organization (UNESCO). Most recently, the Commission on the Abraham Lincoln St udy Abroad Program asked Congress to provide $125 million per year in funding by 2011 in order to reach the goal of sending one million students abroad by the year 2017 (Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, 2005). Since this time, scholarly inquiry relate d to study abroad has increased as the number of participants w ho go abroad has done the same (Herman, 1996; Gardner & Witherell, 2004). The necessity to understand how study abroad programs impact students becomes increasingly important as st udent participation ra tes increased. The Presidents Commission on Fore ign Languages and Internationa l Studies was created in 1979 in response to this need. The Commi ssion recognized the impor tance of scholarly investigation into in ternational programs that fo ster global mindedness among U.S. college students (Herman). Ever since, res earchers have made an effort to learn what

PAGE 46

36 personal and academic outcomes occur as a re sult of studying, living, and adjusting to life in another country. Topics of interest have included: autonomy, self-awareness, worldview, attitudes toward ot hers, international understandi ng, future career orientation, and academic and cultural interests among others (Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; K uh & Kauffman, 1985; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001). Additionally, internationa l educators agree that due to the increasing number of students studying abroad there must be some personal developmenta l changes, which in turn will impact American society in general (Lamet & Lamet, 1982). There are many benefits of studying abro ad (Armstrong, 1984; Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Martin, 1989; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001), and many methods ha ve been used to evaluate them. Numerous researchers have used standardiz ed instruments (Carsello & Greaser; Kuh & Kauffman; Marion, 1978; Nash). Others ha ve used participant observation (Morgan, 1975), and others have made use of personal interviews (James, 1976; Pfinster, 1972). The amount of literature relate d to study abroad is vast; this is evidenced by the more than 300 page bibliography entitled “Research on U.S. Students Study Abroad: An Update, Volume III, 2001-2003, With Updates to the 1989 and Volume II Editions 20002003” produced by the Center for Global Education housed at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California (C omp & Rhodes, 1989-2003). Consequently, the review of every article that exists on the effects of study abroad is beyond the scope of this project. However, the researcher will attempt to highlight key studies that elucidate the many findings of the invest igations that have examined the impacts of study abroad.

PAGE 47

37 In general, studying abroad appears to ha ve positive effects (Armstrong, 1984; Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Fa rrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Martin, 1989; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001); howeve r, there are also areas of concern for future students and administrators regard ing the influences of study abroad (Carsello & Greaser). Carsello and Greaser suggest that college students probably give minimal attention to the ways in which they cha nge during their time overseas, as well as how they will be different when they retu rn home. Studying abroad provides diverse experiences that may change a student’s interest s, personality, values, and attitudes. As a result of studying abroad, their views on lif e in general may change as well as their physical and mental health. A consequence of studying abroad may be that a student’s feelings on career and what he or she wants to do with their lives may adjust after being exposed to new ways of thinking. Additiona lly, a college student’s views on the visited countries as well as the U.S., and their family may change. Carsello and Greaser (1976) investig ated the positive and negative changes experienced during a study abroad trip. They surveyed 209 U.S. students in four Western European countries. The college students were asked to specif y whether they had observed changes in their attitudes, interests, or skills relating to personal or academic concerns. If the students reported a cha nge, they were asked to assess whether the change was considered to be positive or negative. The results showed there was a negative correlation between pos itive and negative changes. In other words, the more positive changes experienced by a student, the less negative ones were experienced. The topics in which the most positive changes occurred were those related to the novel experiences college students had in the foreign country and consisted of improved

PAGE 48

38 interest in art, travel, hist ory, foreign languages, meeting strangers, and architecture. Almost 64% of the respondents felt they had experienced a positive change in their selfconcept, 42% experienced an improvement in their social life, more than 37% discovered greater peace of mind, and 34% felt their em otional health improved. Additionally, 61% of the students experienced a greater interest in the Unite d States and 57% perceived a greater interest in their families. Most of the negative experiences were related to health and academic concerns. However, Carsello a nd Greaser suggested that this was probably a transitory situation, produced by the distrac tion of new places, sights, and experiences. It was also suggested that health deteriora tion was temporary, and may have been due to ignoring normal health practices, or to the change in water or diet. A recommendation was to better prepare the stude nts in these areas of concern. Living and studying abroad for an unlimite d length of time may encourage personal development because numerous elements of foreign culture create unique and compelling challenges (Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). Kuh and Kauffman designed a study to determine whether changes in selected aspects of pe rsonal development were associated with a study abroad experience. The authors utili zed two instruments to assess students, The Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) Form F and the Debriefing Interview Guide. The OPI was administered to 126 students who were preparing to study abroad during the fall semester 1981, as well as to 90 comparable st udents who were not studying abroad; this second group was used as a control group. Re sults indicated that study abroad students experienced increases in beliefs toward the we lfare of others, self-c onfidence, feelings of well being, and in reflective t hought. Significant increases in impulse expression and the capacity to actively imagine and attend to se nsual reactions were reported, as well as

PAGE 49

39 increased interest in esthetic matters and emotional sensit ivity. Decreased nervousness and tension, in addition to less anxiety were found in the results. Thirty-seven percent felt they became more self-reliant and better able to make decisions on their own, and all but one respondent reported being more at peace after studying abroad, as opposed to before. Thirty percent reported that the mo st significant aspect of personal development was enhanced intellectualism and toleran ce for ambiguity, while 22% of students reported that sensitivity to the needs of others was most significant. The changes recorded were still present one year after the study. The el ement of surviving different situations presented by a different culture a ppeared to be a strong means for promoting personal development in these college students. The results of this study imply that differences in three dimensions of behavi or performance were associated with study abroad: (1) increased interest in the welfare of others; (2) increased self confidence and sense of well being, and (3) in creased interest in reflect ive thought and in the arts, literature, and culture. The heightened accepta nce for uncertainty a nd interest in deep thought shared with better emotionality and se nsitivity, and an amplified interest in the esthetic suggest that study abroad may be an integral general edu cation element of the liberal arts curriculum. The outcomes of this study suggest that engagement in a different culture may challenge students to develop a more mature, multifaceted view of the world and themselves. Growth is the outcome of experiencing si gnificant connections with other people and cultures (Dukes et al., 1994). It has been demonstrated that students grow from study abroad experiences. An alternative to th e traditional study abro ad programs on land is the Semester at Sea program offered through the University of Pittsburgh. The Semester

PAGE 50

40 at Sea program provides 50 days of classes with 50 days of direct travel observation. The 2005 CEO of Semester at Sea refers to the international educati onal experience as one that “is a life-altering learning adventure” (Tymitz, n.d.). Duke s et al. recognized that the impacts of travel on the growth of meaning had yet to be investigated systematically; consequently, their study evaluated the degree to which the educational travel experience was a factor in the development of meani ng among the participants Originally, data were collected at the commencement, during the middle, and at the conclusion of the spring 1982 voyage. Students described thei r experiences, as we ll as completed the Purpose in Life (PIL) test (Dukes et al.). One year following the voyage, a random sample of 100 respondents was selected fr om the population of 390 participants for a longitudinal study of 10 years in length. Ei ghty respondents were c ontacted by telephone and through postal mail. The respondents finish ed a follow-up survey of life events since the voyage as well as the Purpose in Life te st. In 1986, a sub-sample of 40 cases was drawn, and 26 respondents were surveyed. Resu lts suggested that participants upheld a worldly perspective; in a ddition, personal growth perpet uated beyond the conclusion of the voyage. More or less all participants felt that the in ternational expe dition helped them to come closer to realizing their poten tial. Most frequentl y, it was reported that participants had a more meaningful understa nding of the world a nd its inhabitants. Respondents said they had experienced a gr eater level of confid ence and self-assured feelings. Additionally, they had learned to be more self-sufficient and make their own decisions. The voyage assisted participants in the ability to set their own goals. The authors concluded that the voya ge continued to have an e ffect on personal growth beyond the conclusion. The findings suggest that the meaning of a Semester at Sea or

PAGE 51

41 educational travel experience reaches beyond the conclusion of the voyage. Indeed, other types of international educational experiences produce changes in participants. It seems therefore that educational trav el makes a significant contribu tion to personal growth, and that program participants can pe rsistently make the most of th e experience long after it is over. However, it is important to explore th ese contributions systematically to determine the significant programmatic impacts. The fundamental characteristic of programs like Semester at Sea is that they bring together tr avel with study, and the core curriculum offers an interpretive basis for the travel e xperience. Practitioners and administrators alike should recognize that the international journey is a sp ringboard for the development of meaning as well as the increased pe rsonal growth in some participants. Colleges and universities should focus on developing the individual student, and encourage an identity founded on attributes in cluding flexibility, openness to experiences, creativity and individual accountability (Nash, 1976). Parents mention personal development most frequently as the principle goal of study abroad programs. The student that studies abroad should become more aut onomous, as they have lived self-reliantly for an extended period of time in a foreign la nd. The purpose of a study conducted by Nash was to evaluate the effects of a year of study abroad on self-realization of a group of junior-year students in Fran ce. Approximately 30 student s in the experimental group were compared with roughly 20 students in the control group. The study abroad participants reported most fre quently that an increased l earning of the French language was their main accomplishment. Multiple pers onal developments were mentioned almost as frequently; these included personal grow th, self-understanding, in creased tolerance, independence, greater openness, and a higher level of satisfac tion. In addition, the degree

PAGE 52

42 of autonomy increased for study abroad part icipants. Nash also found that selfperception improved and decreased alienati on for study abroad pa rticipants were reported. However, improved tolerance and fl exibility did not increase when compared to the control group. There was also no significa nt change in the par ticipant’s feelings of purpose and life-direction when compared with the contro l group. Furthermore, the majority of the personality changes taken from the international experience did not continue after the return ho me. However, Nash suggests that the results of this exploratory study should only be taken as suggestive and gene ralizations should be made very cautiously. Study abroad practitioners should attemp t to provoke within the students, the ability to remain authentic to one’s own beliefs while at th e same time truly appreciating those values of other cultures (Steph enson, 1999). Stephenson designed a study to examine effects of the study abroad trip upon host families, professors, and students’ personal values and cultural perceptions. For the purposes of this paper only the details regarding the students will be discussed. In 1998 during the first semester students were asked to complete a questionnaire immediatel y upon arrival and shortl y before departure of their stay in Santiago, Chile; this consis ted of a five-month durat ion. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine two main issues, the first being if the students’ original expectations diverged from their actual e xperiences, and second, how the students’ view of Chilean culture varied during their stay. The questionnaire asked students to indicate the difficulty or ease they were expecting (arrival) or what they had experienced (departure) in adjusting to or adapting to a multitude of value orientations and situation. The 40-item questionnaire cons isted of five themes, opinions /beliefs, life in Santiago,

PAGE 53

43 cultural differences, the host family e nvironment, and the classroom/university environment. The students anticipated language, academic environment, and making Chilean friends to be the gr eatest challenges. Stephenson found however, that the study abroad experience in general tended to be more stressful than reported upon arrival. Additionally, the number of items that were reported as being chal lenging increased from the first questionnaire. Three areas emerged as the most difficult for the students; these included social interactions, the academic environment, and cultural/beliefs/values differences. Stephenson also reported on the items that experienced the largest difference between the arrival questionnaire and the depa rture questionnaire. Stephenson found that keeping a clear concept of one’s personal be liefs, maintaining an open mind regarding the Chilean culture, and adjusting personal belief s resulting from the study abroad experience proved to be more challenging than originally anticipated. In an an swer to an open-ended question asking a students’ biggest challeng e to respecting Chilean values, numerous students explained how problem atical it was in answering the question. One said, “Chileans tend to be just as diverse, co mplicated, simple, loving, selfish, brilliant, ignorant, shy, loud, and fascinating as a ny other group of people” (p.16). Another respondent said, “Chileans are li ke everyone else in the world. They vary and I don’t see a lot of generalizations worth making” (p. 16). With these final statements the research comes full circle to the overarching them e of the study, the importance of acknowledging shared humanity. When considering that most of the study abroad literature suppor ts the notion that positive impacts are experienced as a result of studying abroad, it should be noted that for Americans, it is not the act of “studying ab road” that results in self-exploration and

PAGE 54

44 identity evaluation, but that trav el in and of itself is an expr ession of self-discovery. This act is what prompts inner reflection a nd appraisal (Dolby, 2004) Since the 1991-1992 academic year the number of U.S. students who have studied abroad has more than doubled (Gardner & Witherell, 2003). The tr end has continued as the numbers have increased or remained the same since fa ll 2003 (Institute of Inte rnational Education, 2003). In fact, some students place such an im portance on travel that it has driven many into debt (Carr, 2004). In a study of 662 undergraduate students from a British university, Carr found that the st udents who were all under th e age of 25 were likely to spend much of their money on travel. Carr repo rted that university students had a high propensity for travel as well as a passi onate yearning to participate in tourism experiences. In essence, the study describes the importance of travel for British students, and that regardless of financial means or the subsequent need to work after the trip, many students will find a way to travel. Evaluating the impacts of study abroad is not just an American phenomenon, quite the opposite. The European education system also emphasizes the importance of being citizens of the world (Osler, 1998). Osler s uggested that the experi ence of living abroad and observing another culture encouraged ma ny to evaluate how well they know their own culture. The American education system should consider the European’s emphasis on international educa tion and view the benefits of th e experience to assist in the justification of program availability. Personal Development A primary goal in higher education is th e well-rounded develo pment of the whole person (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrit o, 1998). During the 1982-1983 school year, Koester (1986) studied applicants who purchased an International Student ID card (ISIC).

PAGE 55

45 Of the 5,900 students who provided responses, th e personal goal predominantly cited was that of adding a new dimension to their sc hooling. Various studies over the years have shown that studying abroad contributes to pe rsonal growth (Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001). In Farrell and Suvedi’s study, one stude nt expressed what he learned during his study abroad program: “I learned the experi ence to be gained from cross-cultural experiences is invaluable in the developmen t of perspective, of self-fulfillment, and educational exposure” (p.175). A female student said: I plan on getting my doctorate so that I can teach college students. I want my teaching to reflect the experiential basis that I received from my experiences overseas. I have a wanderlust that led me into teaching so that others may experience the value of life outside their comfort level and beyond their own culture (p.181). A male student in the same study experienced impacts related to career and worldviews, he said: This program has given my career a focus I could not have possibly foreseen prior to my experience overseas. It has proved invaluable in my exposure to the possibilities in the changing wo rld, one policy at a time (p.181). Finally, a second male student summarized hi s experience best when he said: “it was easily the most powerful experience I’ve ever ha d. I learned that I could let myself go around people and be accepted for who I am” (Farrell & Suvedi, p.181). James (1976) reported that 52 students, who studied abro ad in 1972 to 1973, experienced increased self-confidence. They also reawakened th eir intellectual interest, enhanced their interpersonal relationships, and improved their perception of the strengths and weaknesses of American culture. Results of the studies outlined in this study suggest that studying abroad and experiencing pers onal development are closely linked.

PAGE 56

46 Gender According to Chickering and Reisser (1993) the purpose of the vectors is that they explain key avenues for journe ying in the direction of indi viduation, changes in attitude toward self, family, and other contributes to this journey. Furthe rmore, Chickering and Reisser suggest that there may be difference s in the rate of development between male and female students. Certainly, in the st udy abroad literature on student development gender differences have been found. In a study conducted by Baty and Dold (1977), numerous differences were found between males and females in relation to their feelings about their study abroad experience. The pur pose of their study was to investigate the effects of a cross-cultural pr ogram located in Mexico upon st udents’ attitudes. Students were asked to take the survey two to three days before the program began, and one week after it ended. The findings suggested that th e females were significa ntly more optimistic than the males on both the preand post-te st, although the difference between them was reduced by the time of the post-test. Twenty-t wo percent showed a decrease in optimism and an increase in tolerance. Sixteen percen t decreased in both optimism and tolerance. In most instances, females showed a greater in crease than males. The greatest decrease was associated with feelings of inadequacy; the greatest increases were associated with anger and anxiety. The females reported great er emotional problems at the time of the pre-test than did the males; however, at th e time of the post-test the females reported fewer emotional problems than the males. Th e differences in scores suggest that females and males were affected differently by the cross-cultural experience. The females changed in terms of greater stability, reflecting less depres sion regarding self and the environment. The males reported more depr ession and alienation regarding themselves and the environment. Generally speaking, it ap pears that the males’ experience was more

PAGE 57

47 distressful or upsetting than the females’ experience. Ba ty and Dold (1977) suggested that young adult men and women may exhibit different learning styles and this may possibly explain their findings. For example, females may be more skilled in adapting to new situations in which they are required, fo r a time, to be dependent. For the males, such dependency could be more threatening. In support of this supposition, Hood and Jackson (1997b), when validating the Developing Competency Invent ory, found that male students tend to report greater selfconfidence scores than female students. Furthermore, when the Emotional Independence-Parents scale was correlated w ith gender it showed that males tended to feel more emotionally independent from th eir parents than did females (Hood & Jackson, 1997a). Indeed, Martin and Rohrlich ( 1991) found women had more pre-departure concerns than men before leaving for a st udy abroad program. On the other hand, some of the literature suggests that gender does not appear to influe nce the outcomes for students during study abroad (Far rell & Suvedi, 2003). For ex ample, the results of the previously mentioned Semester at Sea st udy revealed there to be no statistically significant differences among male and female students (Dukes et al., 1994). Similarly, Noy (2004) reported that varian ce in findings might be attributed to gender differences. Male backpackers desc ribed a more distinct connection between personal changes and their preference for taki ng part in risky activities. In contrast, female interviewees rejected the more masc uline themes of strenuous or risky activities as a catalyst for self-change; instead, fema les tended to describe their experiences holistically.

PAGE 58

48 Although there is a lack of consistency in terms of ge nder and development, much of the literature suggests that there are differences between ma les and females in terms of their development. What is cl ear is that gender differences with regards to study abroad experiences are inconclusive. Previous Overseas Experience Literature exists that implies previous travel experience has an impact on personal experiences as well as future travel decisions (Stephens on, 1999). The concept of the travel career ladder has been cited ofte n since Pearce proposed it in 1988 (Ryan, 1998). The travel career ladder (Pearce, 1988) is a concept based upon Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1970) and consumer experience m odeling (Ryan, 1998). The model postulates that individuals possess a career in their travel activities; this reflects ones’ travel motives in a hierarchy (Pearce, 2003) as it offers an explanation for the impact of previous travel behavior (Loker-Murphy, 1996; Pearce, 1988; Ryan ). The initial form of the travel career ladder kept Maslow’s principles that lower levels of the ladder must be satisfied prior to one advancing to hi gher levels on the ladder. P earce (2003) hypothesized that five distinct hierarchical leve ls which coincide with Maslow ’s hierarchy of needs affect travel behavior. Pearce (1988) describes the tr avel career ladder as highlighting each of a tourist’s motives or patterns, as opposed to one specific reason for traveling. The five levels beginning with the lowest include: (1) physiological needs, (2) safety/security needs, (3) relationship needs, (4) self-e steem/development needs, and (5) fulfillment needs. As lower order needs become fulfilled a person may move towards fulfillment, the highest level. Pearce (1988) suggests that more experienced travelers concentrate more on the higher order needs identified by Maslow like relationships, self-esteem development, and personal fulfillment. P earce (1988) hypothesized that less experienced

PAGE 59

49 travelers may be more concerned with the lowe r order physiological need s, such as safety and relaxation. With up to date and conti nued modifications, the revised model places “less emphasis on the strict hierarchy of needs and more on changing patterns of motives” (Pearce, 2003, p.254). Therefore, the ex tent of previous tr avel experiences a student has prior to their study abroad tr ip may affect impacts felt by the student. In a case study conducted by Ryan (1998) t ourists from the United Kingdom were asked at the end of their holiday several ques tions relating to satisfa ction. He found that the two most experienced groups of tourists showed higher scores in self-actualization items than the less experienced ones. The trav el career ladder concept implies that more experienced tourists would value more highly the intellectual needs when compared with the other needs located lower on the hierar chy, and it might be argued that the less experienced might score higher on such “low er” needs through in experience; people ascend towards self actualization as lower needs become fulfilled (Ryan). The pinnacle of the travel ca reer ladder, the personal jo urney to self-actualization, may be applied to the Grand Tour, trampi ng, long-term budget traveler, backpacking and study abroad in that all of these young travel ers in their various time periods are at a crossroads in life and essentially looking for a higher sense of self-meaning. Pearce (1988) advances the notion th at holiday experiences enab le people to psychologically mature. The model puts forward a career goal in travel activities, and as tourists become more skilled they continue to seek fulfillment of higher needs. Duration of Program Being exposed to the unique challenges of studying abroad for an extended period of time may contribute to pe rsonal development (Inglis et al., 1998). Gardner and Witherell (2004) shows that American stude nts continue to study abroad in larger

PAGE 60

50 numbers but for shorter time periods. They reported that more than 50% of U.S. undergraduates and Master’s degree student s elect summer, January term, and other programs of eight weeks or less ; the longer-term programs conti nue to decline in terms of enrollment numbers. The vast majority of American students who studied abroad in 2002/03 (92%) did so for one semester or less. Only 7% study abroad for a full academic year, compared to 18% in 1985/86, with 9% studying overseas in ve ry short programs (eight weeks or less) usually held between se mesters. The growth in these short-term programs, often integrated in the home cam pus curriculum, allows more students who were previously unable to study abroad due to financial or curric ular constraints to participate in an international edu cation experience (Gardner & Witherell). The justification to include duration of travel program in the current study is that it has been suggested that the short-term study abroad experience is not enough time to form an accurate opinion of their host country or people (Osler, 1998). This finding suggests that the duration of the study abroad program may affect the impacts experienced by students. Additionally, w ith the rapid growth in study abroad enrollments, international educators are expr essing growing concerns regarding the lack of data for shorter-term programs. As more students choose shorter programs in winter and summer terms, instead of enrolling in semester and year-long programs, it is important to understand if there are differen tial developmental effects between shorter and longer study abroad experiences. For ex ample, a student who participates in a month-long program may not have the opportuni ties for intercultural learning or foreign language acquisition similar to that of a student enrolled in a semester program (Sideli, Berg, Rubin, & Sutton, n.d.).

PAGE 61

51 Summary In summary, educational experiences (Cohen, 1972), and a declaration of independence have all been linked to the mi gration of youth to tr avel (Brodsky-Porges, 1981). Lengthy overseas travel has also been seen as a passage to adulthood (Adler, 1985); with the travelers usually at a juncture in life, a nd many times a recent college graduate (Riley, 1988). Since the 1950’s researchers have made an effort to learn what personal and academic outcomes occur as a result of studyi ng, living, and adjusting to life in another country. International educat ors agree that due to the increasing number of students studying abroad there must be some personal impacts experienced, which in turn will impact American society in general (Lamet & Lamet, 1982). Thus, although numerous studies have shown that students experience positive change as a result of studying abroad, ma ny are descriptive, and lack a theoretical foundation. This study hoped to contribute to the body of literature by using a widely used student development theory (Chicker ing & Reisser, 1993) to describe the experiences by students in a systematic way. However, due to the lack of survey participants, an analysis of change in student development was not possible; descriptive information only is provided for the pr e-travel group and the post-travel group.

PAGE 62

52 CHAPTER 3 METHODS A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental de sign was originally adopted for this study. However, due to the small response rate, a nd the fact that so few participants who completed the questionnaire before the travel experience completed it after the travel experience, the design changed to a descriptiv e study both prior to travel and after travel. The researcher evaluated responses from the entire group before their travel experience and then responses from the entire group afte r their travel experience. Specifically, a questionnaire was administered before (A ppendix A) and after (Appendix B) students participated in a university sponsored st udy abroad program. Both closed-ended and open-ended questions were used. Participants were students registered at th e University of Florida and studied abroad during the fall 2005 semester. The dependent va riables were the perceptions of impacts experienced by the students (F arell & Suvedi, 2003), as well as responses to the Mines Jensen Interpersonal Relationship Inventory, which measures the development of mature interpersonal relationships, the fourth vector of Chickering and Re isser’s (1993) student identity theory. The inde pendent variables were the duration of the study abroad program, gender, and previous overseas travel experience. Data Collection The University of Florida ranks 12th in the nation for doctoral/research institutions that send students abroad (Gardner & Witherel l, 2004). Contact with The University of Florida’s International Center (UFIC) was made in January 2005. The Coordinator for

PAGE 63

53 Study Abroad Services was the primary liais on with the UFIC for this study. During February 2005 the researcher met with the coordinator, explained the purpose of the study and permission was given to survey program participan ts during fall 2005. Prior to each student’s overseas departure, summer and fall program participants were required to attend one of two informati on sessions, each of which was held in April 2005. The researcher attended both of these information sessions. The purpose of attending the sessions was to introduce the study and to e xplain the purpose of the research to the study abroad students. Additi onally, instructions were given as to how the students would be contacted, how they woul d be able to access the on-line survey, and the researcher’s contact information was provi ded in the event there were any questions or concerns. All communication from the researcher to the study abroad participants was through the Coordinator for Study Abroad Services; this ensu red the full anonymity and privacy of all program participants. Two ema ils were sent to students periodically prior to the fall semester beginning and two emails were sent following the conclusion of the semester. The first email (Appendix C) wa s sent approximately one week prior to departure. It was an invitation to part icipate in the study including a link to the instrument, as well as instru ctions for completing the ques tionnaire. The second email (Appendix D) was a follow-up to the first. The purpose of the second email was to thank those who had participated and to encour age those who had not participated; also included was a link to the instrument, as well as instructions for completing the questionnaire. The third email (Appendix E) wa s sent within one week after each student arrived back in the U.S. This email welcomed students home and was used as a reminder

PAGE 64

54 to complete the post-survey; also included was a link to the instrument, as well as instructions for completing the questionnaire. The fourth and final email (Appendix F) was a follow-up to the third, thanking those who had completed the post-travel group questionnaire, and a reminder to those who had not completed the post-survey; additionally, a link to the inst rument as well as instructions for completion was included. The survey was posted on the College of Hea lth and Human Performance server at the University of Florida. Due to the logistics of this study, non-random sampling procedures were utilized to obtain participants. Approximately 200 stude nts were registered to study abroad during the fall 2005 semester. Each study abroad stude nt was invited to par ticipate in the study during the pre-departure orientation as well as via email. The estimated time to complete the survey was five to ten minutes. The resear cher anticipated a par ticipation rate of at least 30%. The actual response rate for the group before traveling was 30% (N = 60), however only 56 surveys were completed fully re sulting in an actual pa rticipation rate of 28% (N = 56). The initial response rate fo r the group after traveli ng was 14.5% (N = 29). However, after blank surveys and duplicat e entries were elim inated the actual participation rate was reduced to 12% (N = 24). Because only eight respondents completed qu estionnaires before traveling and after traveling another difficulty emerged. The after travel questionnaire did not contain demographic items as it was thought that this information would be collected using the instrument administered befo re travel commenced. Thus, an attempt was made to recontact these students through the UFIC coordi nator. Six students responded providing their demographic and study abro ad program characteristics.

PAGE 65

55 Participants Before Travel Of the 56 students from the group before traveling who reported their gender the majority 83.6% (N = 46) were female, and 14.5% (N = 8) were male. The participants comprised 10.9% (N = 6) sophomores, 27.3% (N = 15) juniors, 38.2% (N = 21) seniors, and 21.8% (N = 12) were graduate students. They ranged in age from 18-41 with a mean age of 21.5 years; a more detailed demogra phic profile is presented in Table 3-1. Table 3-1. Respondent Profile for the Pre-travel Sample Characteristics Frequency Valid Percent1 Gender (N=54) Male 8 14.5 Female 46 83.6 Class Standing (N=54) Freshman 0 0.0 Sophomore 6 10.9 Junior 15 27.3 Senior 21 38.2 Graduate 12 21.8 Age (N=49) 18 1 2.0 19 9 18.4 20 12 24.5 21 11 22.4 22 4 8.2 23 5 10.2 24 2 4.1 25 1 2.0 26 3 6.1 41 1 2.0 1N values may vary due to missing data. Participants in this study were also asked to report their major or intended major. The majority, 13.8% (N = 8) reported language based majors such as English 6.9% (N = 4), Spanish 3.5% (N = 2), French 1.7% (N = 1), and Russian 1.7% (N = 1). The second

PAGE 66

56 most frequent response was International Business (10%, N = 6); a more detailed breakdown of reported majors is presented in Table 3-2. Furthermore, participants were asked if they spoke the nativ e language of their study abroad country. Of those that responded (N = 54), 46.3% (N = 25) reporte d speaking the native language, with the majority 53.7% (N = 29) not speaking the nati ve language of their study abroad country. Table 3-2. Major or Intended Ma jor prior to Studying Abroad Major Frequency Valid Percent1 Agriculture and Life Sciences Family, Youth and Community Sciences 1 1.7 Agricultural Extension Education 1 1.7 Environmental Science 1 1.7 Forestry 1 1.7 Nutrition 1 1.7 Business Administration Business 2 3.4 Decision and Information Sciences 1 1.7 Finance 1 1.7 International Business 6 10.3 Management 1 1.7 Marketing 3 5.2 Design, Construction and Planning Architecture 3 5.2 Landscape Architecture 2 3.4 English Education 1 1.7 Environmental Engineering 1 1.7 Theatre 1 1.7 Journalism and Communications Advertising 1 1.7 Journalism 1 1.7 Magazine Journalism 1 1.7 Photojournalism 2 3.4

PAGE 67

57 Table 3-2. Continued Major Frequency Valid Percent1 Law 1 1.7 Liberal Arts and Sciences Anthropology 1 1.7 Biology 1 1.7 Chemistry 1 1.7 Classical Civilizations 1 1.7 English 4 6.9 French 1 1.7 History 1 1.7 Linguistics 3 5.2 Political Sciences 3 5.2 Psychology 2 3.4 Public Relations 2 3.4 Russian 1 1.7 Spanish 2 3.4 Women’s Studies 1 1.7 Zoology 1 1.7 1Some reported more than one major N=131 representing number of responses. When asked to identify their first langua ge, the overwhelming majority 83.6% (N = 46) reported English, followed by Spanish 5.5% (N = 3), Chinese 3.6% (N = 2), and lastly Polish with 1.8% (N = 1). Participan ts were also asked if they spoke a second language, only 35.2% (N = 19) reported sp eaking a second language, with 64.8% (N = 35) of respondents not speaking a second la nguage. Of those that reported speaking a second language English (9.1%, N = 5) a nd Spanish (9.1%, N = 5) were equally represented among those that reported a singl e language. However, 3.6% (N = 2) of participants reported Spanish in addition to another language, thus making Spanish the most popular second language. Furthermore, pa rticipants were aske d if they spoke the native language of the country they were going to study in, th e responses were somewhat equal, the majority 53.7% (N = 29) reported no, and 46.3% (N = 25) reported yes.

PAGE 68

58 Participants were asked to provide details regarding their previous international travel experience. Of those that re sponded, 22.2% (N = 12) had never traveled internationally, 37% (N = 20) traveled internationally one to two times, 20.4% (N = 11) three to four times, and 20.4% (N = 11) five or more times. When asked to report the countries they had previously visited, destin ations ranged from Afri ca to Australia. A detailed profile of destinations visited is provided in Table 3-3. Table 3-3. Destinations Visite d prior to Studying Abroad Destination Frequency Valid Percent1 Africa Egypt 1 0.8 Ghana 1 0.8 Morocco 1 0.8 Americas Canada 12 9.2 Colombia 2 1.5 Costa Rica 3 2.3 Ecuador 1 0.8 Honduras 2 1.5 Mexico 7 5.3 Peru 1 0.8 Asia Cambodia 1 0.8 China 2 1.5 India 1 0.8 Japan 3 2.3 Russia 1 0.8 Singapore 1 0.8 South Korea 2 1.5 Thailand 1 08 Middle East Israel 2 1.5 Jordan 1 0.8

PAGE 69

59 Table 3-3. Continued Destination Frequency Valid Percent1 Caribbean Antigua 1 0.8 Bahamas 5 3.8 Cuba 1 0.8 Curacao 1 0.8 Jamaica 4 3.1 St. Maarten 1 0.8 Europe Austria 1 0.8 Denmark 1 0.8 England 12 9.2 France 18 13.7 Germany 7 5.3 Greece 2 1.5 Ireland 4 3.1 Italy 10 7.6 Netherlands 2 1.5 Poland 1 0.8 Scotland 1 0.8 Spain 8 6.1 Sweden 1 0.8 Switzerland 3 2.3 1Some reported more than one country N=131 representing number of responses. Furthermore, participants were asked wh ere they intended to travel while studying abroad with responses ranging from Malaysia to Spain. The most frequent response was Italy with 13.3% (N = 15), followed by Fran ce 12.4% (N = 14); E ngland was the third most reported country with 9.7% (N = 11). A more detailed descrip tion of destinations can be found in Table 3-4. Table 3-4. Countries to be Visited during Study Abroad Destination Frequency Valid Percent1 Africa Kenya 1 0.9 South Africa 1 0.9

PAGE 70

60 Table 3-4. Continued Destination Frequency Valid Percent1 Americas Argentina 1 0.9 Belize 3 2.7 Bolivia 1 0.9 Brazil 1 0.9 Chile 1 0.9 Costa Rica 2 1.8 Mexico 2 1.8 Nicaragua 1 0.9 Asia Cambodia 1 0.9 China 3 2.7 Hong Kong 1 0.9 India 1 0.9 Japan 1 0.9 Malaysia 1 0.9 Myanmar 1 0.9 Russia 1 0.9 Singapore 1 0.9 Thailand 1 0.9 Vietnam 1 0.9 South Pacific Australia 3 2.7 Fiji 2 1.8 New Zealand 2 1.8 Caribbean Bahamas 1 0.9 Europe Belgium 1 0.9 Czech Republic 1 0.9 England 11 9.7 France 14 12.4 Germany 4 3.5 Greece 2 1.8 Ireland 4 3.5 Italy 15 13.3 Netherlands 5 4.4

PAGE 71

61 Table 3-4. Continued Destination Frequency Valid Percent1 Portugal 2 1.8 Spain 9 8.0 Switzerland 6 5.3 Venezuela 1 0.9 Wales 1 0.9 1Some reported more than one country N=113 representing number of responses. Finally, participants were asked the durat ion of their study abroad program. Of those that responded (N = 52), the majority of the students 78.8% (N = 41) were planning to study abroad for three to five months, followed by one to three months 11.5% (N = 6), and the most infrequent response wa s one month or less 9.6% (N = 5). After Travel Of the 24 students from the post-travel group who reported their gender (N = 14) the majority 85.7% (N =12) were female, a nd 14.3% (N = 2) were male. Participants were also asked to provide details regarding their previous international travel experience. Of those that responded (N = 14), 21.4% (N = 3) had never traveled internationally, 42.9% had (N = 6) traveled internationally 1 to 2 times, and 35.7% (N = 5) 5 or more times; there were no responses for 3 to 4 times. Finally, participants were asked the duration of their study abroad program Of those that responded (N = 13), all of the students 100% (N = 13) studied abroad for three to five months. Instrument Michigan State University Study Abroad Inventory The questionnaires used in this study consiste d of three parts. The first part was an inventory developed by the study abroad office at the Michigan Stat e University (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). The purpose of Michigan St ate’s instrument was to understand how the

PAGE 72

62 Nepal study abroad experience that they had sponsored impacted its students and if the results supported the learning objectives of the program. In the present study, the researcher adapted this part of the instrume nt to future tense to assess the students’ perceived benefits prior to th eir study abroad experience and it was used as part of the first instrument for the pre-travel group. A past tense version of the inventory was used for the second instrument for the post-travel group. The original Michigan State University instrument consisted of four open-ended questions and 26 close-ended que stions. For the purpose of this study, only the 26 closeended questions were utilized. The 26 ordina l-scaled questions measured the effects of a study abroad program on students in five areas: personal development, academics, professional development, global perspectiv e, and intellectual development. Each question is measured on a five point Likert-type scale ranging from one ( not at all ) to five ( very much ). Cronbach’s alpha was not repor ted in the original study for the questionnaire as a whole or for the individual domains. The personal development sub-scale contains nine items yielding possible scores between nine and 45. In the present study, stude nt scores for the pre-travel group ranged between 20 and 45, and for the post-tr avel group between 20 and 40. The academics subscale consists of two items yiel ding possible scores between two and 10. In the present study, student scores for the pre-travel group ranged between two and eight, and for the post-travel group between four and eight. The professional development sub-scale contains three items yielding possible scores between three and 15. In the present study, student scores for the pre-travel group ranged between three and 15, and for the posttravel group between five and 15. The global perspective sub-scale consists of nine

PAGE 73

63 items with a total possible sc ore ranging from nine to 45. In the present study, student scores for the pre-travel gr oup ranged between 16 and 45 and for the post-travel group between 28 and 44. The intellectual development sub-scale consists of three items with a total possible score ranging from three to 15. In the present study, student scores for the pre-travel group ranged between five and 15 an d for the post-travel group between three and 15. Mines-Jensen Interpersona l Relationships Inventory The second part of the instrument consis ted of the Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory. This scale was a component of a larger instrument collectively known as The Iowa Student Development Inve ntories and are based on the seven vectors of student development (Chickering, 1969). The Iowa Student Development Inventories were intended to quantify development on the first six dimensions of Chickering’s theory of student development. However, because only the fourth vector Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships was measured in this study, only the fourth instrument from the battery was used. The Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relati onships Inventory measures social development. The Inventory was created to measure Chickering’s fourth vector (Hood & Mines, 1997), Developing Mature Interperso nal Relationships. The developmental phase of interpersonal relationships is comprise d of two areas: (1) im proved tolerance and respect for people of different values, background s, and lifestyles, and (2) a change in the quality of relationships with close family and friends, moving from dependence through independence toward an interdependence that allows for a greater level of personal freedom. The Mines-Jensen Interpersona l Relationships Inventory is a 42-item instrument and includes some reverse coded it ems. The inventory ev aluates interpersonal

PAGE 74

64 relationships in four areas: p eers, adults, friends, and significa nt others. The Inventory is multi-dimensional as it contains two scales th at measure two constructs: (1) the Tolerance sub-scale – measuring openness and acceptance of diversity, and (2) the Quality of Relationships sub-scale – meas uring the transition in rela tionships with friends from either extreme dependence or independence, to ward a state of interdependence. Each scale is measured on a four point Likert-type scale where students reply to a series of statements regarding interpersonal and so cial behavior and attitudes from 1 ( strongly agree ) to 4 ( strongly disagree ). The Tolerance sub-scale consists of 20 items with a total possible score from 20 to 80 with students typically sc oring in the 45 to 65 range. In the original study, student scores for the pre-test ranged between 36 a nd 69, and for the post-test between 47 and 69. Cronbach’s alpha for all the items on the Tolerance scale was originally = .76. A fourmonth test-retest stability coefficient was reported as = .66; longer-term test-retest reliability measures were = .44. The present study yielded a higher Cronbach’s alpha with = .81 for the pre-travel group, and = .68 for the post-travel group. The Quality of Relationships sub-scale contains 22 items yielding possible scores between 22 and 88 with most students scoring between 55 and 75. In the original study, student scores for the pre-test ranged between 37 and 80 and for the post-test between 57 and 80. Cronbach’s alpha for the Quality of Relationships sub-scale was originally = .87; the four-month test-retest stab ility coefficient was reported as = .68; longer-term test-retest reliability measures were = .72. The results from the present study yieleded a Cronbach’s alpha of = .84 for the pre-travel group, and = .62 for the post-travel group.

PAGE 75

65 The correlation between the two scales was originally .25, which suggested construct independence. Studies thus conducte d have indicated construct validity for the dimensions assessed by the inventory (B raverman, 1987; Hallowell, 1991; Long, 1995; Smith-Eggeman, 1993; Taub, 1993 and White & Hood, 1989). Unfortunately, for this study the sample size was not large enough to use factor analysis to establish the construct validity of the instrument. Demographics and Open-Ended Questions The third part of the questionnaire diffe red between the pre-travel group and posttravel group. For the pre-travel group, the third part of the instrument consisted of demographic questions, such as gender and ag e, as well as a series of seven open-ended questions, such as “why are you studying ab road,” “what are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience,” and “do you feel adequately prepared for your study abroad program?” These questions were incorporated primarily to gauge the mood of the student before traveling overseas. Th e third part of the que stionnaire on the posttravel group was comprised of seven openended questions. For example, “what was/were your best experience(s),” “what was the most challenging aspect of studying abroad,” “what did you learn a bout yourself,” “is there anyt hing else that you would like to share with me about your study abroad experi ence?” These were used in an effort to gain a better understanding of the effect the study abroad trip had on the students upon their return, and provide some more insi ght to supplement the quantitative data. Data Analysis The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statist ical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 11.0). Descriptive statistics were run for all the variables to generate frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. These sta tistics were used to

PAGE 76

66 determine the demographics of the sample for the group prior to traveling and for the group after traveling abroad, check for coding er rors, and create a profile of the typical study abroad student at the University of Florida. Mean scores were used to sum the scores and provide a summary score to ease interpretation for all of the research ques tions, a visual analysis was performed on the group before traveling and the group after traveling to c onfirm there were no extreme responses (Hunter & Brown, 1991). For the fi rst research question, part a, the mean scores were used to describe the studen ts’ perceptions before their study abroad experience. For the first resear ch question, part b, the mean sc ores were used to describe the students’ percepti ons after their study abroad experi ence. For the second research question, part a, the mean scores were used to describe the stude nts’ overall level of development before studying abroad. For th e second research question, part b, the mean scores were used to describe the students ’ overall level of deve lopment after studying abroad. For the third research question, part a, the mean sc ores were used to describe differences by gender in terms of level of development before their study abroad experience. For the third research question, part b, the mean scores were used to describe differences by gender in terms of level of development after their study abroad experience. For the fourth research questi on, part a, the mean scores were used to describe differences by previous overseas e xperience and level of development before studying abroad. For the fourth research questio n, part b, the mean scores were used to describe differences by previous overseas experience and level of development after studying abroad. For the fifth research questi on, part a, the mean scores were used to describe differences by duration of study ab road program and level of development

PAGE 77

67 before studying abroad. For the fifth research question, part b, the mean scores were used to describe differences by duration of st udy abroad program and level of development after studying abroad. Cont ent analyses were used to group open-ended comments according to similarity in response, and were used to supplement the findings for the pretravel group and the post-travel group.

PAGE 78

68 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Perceptions of the Study Abroad Experience 1a. What perceptions do the students report before their study abroad experience as measured by the Michigan State University questionnaire? 1b. What perceptions do the students repor t after their study ab road experience as measured by the Michigan State University questionnaire? Pre-travel Group In the pre-travel group almost half (48 %) of the individual questions regarding perceived benefits show high mean scores of 4.0 and above (Table 4-1). Students reported the highest levels of agreement with the statement that, studying abroad “will contribute to my overall unders tanding of the country I will study in” (M = 4.65, SD = .67) (Appendix G). The second most agreed upon statement was, studying abroad “will contribute to my understanding of other cu ltures” (M = 4.60, SD = .74). Finally, respondents agreed that studying abroad “will in crease my ability to c ope with unfamiliar situations” (M = 4.44, SD = .90). The statemen t that students agreed with least was, studying abroad “will distract me from my academic performance.” (M = 1.87, SD = 1.76). The second least agreed upon statem ent was, studying abroad “will make me reconsider my career plans” (M = 2.85, SD = 2.09). Finally, responde nts tended to report moderate agreement with the statement that, studying abroad “will lead to an improvement of my academic performance” (M = 3.22, SD = 1.18).

PAGE 79

69 Table 4-1. Student Perceptions of Study Abroad before and after the Travel Experience Pre-Study Abroad Post-Study Abroad Study abroad… N Mean1 SD N Mean SD Global Perspective2 Contributed to my overall understanding of the country I studied in. 55 4.65 .67 25 4.76 .44 Increased my desire to work and/or study abroad in the future. 55 4.05 1.04 25 4.12 .97 Contributed to my understanding of other cultures. 55 4.60 .74 24 4.50 .72 Increased my curiosity about other cultures. 54 4.00 1.94 25 4.24 .88 Enhanced concern about problems with developing countries. 55 3.60 1.03 25 3.52 1.09 Enhanced my understanding of international issues. 55 4.07 .98 25 3.88 1.05 Increased my appreciation of human difference. 55 4.22 .85 25 3.84 1.03 Contributed and/or created a new understanding of critical social issues. 55 3.85 1.03 25 3.84 .99 Increased my level of comfort around people different from me. 55 4.09 1.06 25 4.12 .88 Personal Development Enhanced my self-reliance. 55 4.24 .94 25 4.48 .77 Increased my ability to cope with unfamiliar situations. 55 4.44 .90 25 4.48 .65

PAGE 80

70 Table 4-1. Continued Pre-Study Abroad Post-Study Abroad Study abroad… N Mean1 SD N Mean SD Increased my openmindedness. 55 4.35 .78 25 4.52 .71 Enhanced my independence. 55 4.40 .81 25 4.56 .77 Increased my understanding of my own culture. 55 3.80 .99 25 3.96 .94 Enhanced my desire to interact with a stranger. 55 3.60 .97 25 3.64 1.11 Increased my feeling of personal effectiveness. 55 3.69 1.00 25 4.08 .95 Encouraged me to seek out a more diverse group of friends. 55 3.49 1.09 25 3.84 1.14 Helped develop my leadership skills. 55 3.44 1.05 25 3.36 1.08 Intellectual Development Increased my skills to communicate in the language of the host culture. 55 4.00 1.37 25 4.00 1.32 Enhanced my critical thinking skills. 55 3.60 1.07 25 3.60 1.16 Improved my problem-solving skills. 54 3.33 1.94 24 3.63 1.14 Professional Development Will favorably impress potential employers. 54 3.98 2.00 25 4.36 .81 Made me reconsider my career plans. 55 2.85 2.09 25 3.36 1.32 Helped me find professional direction. 54 3.29 2.08 25 2.96 1.43

PAGE 81

71 Table 4-1. Continued Pre-Study Abroad Post-Study Abroad Study abroad… N Mean1 SD N Mean SD Academics Led to an improvement of my academic performance. 55 3.22 1.18 25 3.00 1.08 Distracted me from my academic performance. 54 1.87 1.76 25 2.40 1.19 1Mean was based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = some, 4 = quite a lot, and 5 = very much. 2The italicized phrases describe the dimension being measured. Post-travel Group In the post-travel group almost half (48 %) of the individual questions regarding impacts illustrate high mean scores of 4.0 a nd above (Table 4-1). The statement that students agreed with the most strongly was that studying abroad “contributed to my overall understanding of the country I studi ed in” (M = 4.76, SD = .44) (Appendix H). The second most agreed upon statement, was, studying abroad “enhanced my independence” (M = 4.56, SD = .77). Finall y, respondents agreed that studying abroad “increased my open-mindedness” (M = 4.52, SD = .71). The statement that they agreed with the least was that studying abroad “dis tracted me from my academic performance.” (M = 2.40, SD = 1.19). The second least ag reed upon statement was studying abroad “helped me find professional direction” (M = 2.96, SD = 1.43). Students moderately agreed with the statement that, studying abro ad “led to an improvement of my academic performance” (M = 3.00, SD = 1.08).

PAGE 82

72 Student Development and Study Abroad 2a. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) fourth vector of development have the students ach ieved before their study abroad experience? i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the students achieved before thei r study abroad experience? ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale have the students achieved before their study abroad experience? 2b. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) fourth vector of development have the students achieved after their st udy abroad experience? i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the students achieved after thei r study abroad experience? ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale have the students achieved afte r their study abroad experience? Pre-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale The responses to the pre-trav el group statements on the Tolerance sub-scale, which measures improved tolerance and respect for people with different values, backgrounds, and lifestyles, ranged between (agreemen t) 2.00 and 3.33 (toward disagreement) on a four point Likert-type scale, where one repr esents strongly agree and four represents strongly disagree (Table 4-2). The statement (item reverse coded) which participants agreed with the most was, “I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children’s friends or values” (M = 2.00, SD = .84) (Appendix I). Th e second most agreed upon statement was, “my roommate has some habits that annoy and bother me very much” (M = 2.04, SD = .88). Finally, respondent s agreed, “students that get ‘high’ and are caught should be treated like the la wbreakers they are” (M = 2.46, SD = 1.00). The statement that was agreed upon least wa s, “I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was ho mosexual or bisexual” (M = 3.33, SD = 1.11). Following this, the participants disagreed equally with the

PAGE 83

73 statements: Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made to realize what they are doi ng is wrong” (M = 3.22, SD = .99); the other statement (item reverse coded) was, “it would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had sexual relations with another person before I met them” (M = 3.22, SD = 1.05); and the final item (item reverse coded) was, “I think the person I am dating or ‘going with’ should have friends outside of ‘our crowd’” (M = 3.22, SD = .98). Table 4-2. Responses for the Tolerance Sub-sc ale before and after the Travel Experience Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD I accept my friends as they are. 2 55 3.18 .88 24 3.58 .58 In my classes, I have met two kinds of people: those who are for the truth and those who are against the truth. 55 2.91 .82 24 3.17 .87 As I have talked with faculty and adults about their different philosophies, there is probably only one which is correct. 55 3.13 1.00 24 3.46 .83 It would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had sexual relations with another person before I met them. 2 55 3.22 1.05 24 3.13 .99 When I talk to my friends about my religious beliefs, I am very careful not to compromise with those who believe differently than I do. 55 2.51 8.79 24 2.46 .88

PAGE 84

74 Table 4-2. Continued Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD My roommate has some habits that bother and annoy me very much. 53 2.04 .88 24 2.25 .61 Most adults need to change their values and attitudes. 55 2.60 6.83 23 2.74 .55 Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made to realize what they are doing is wrong. 55 3.22 .99 24 3.38 .65 I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was homosexual or bisexual. 55 3.33 1.11 24 3.67 .70 One of the problems with my fellow students is they were not dealt with firmly when they were younger. 55 2.64 .80 24 2.92 .78 I do not disapprove of faculty or other adults getting drunk or high at parties. 2 55 2.67 8.62 24 2.29 .75 I would not discontinue a love relationship if my partner did something I disapproved of. 2 54 2.57 .77 24 2.63 .65 Most instructors teach as if there is just one right way to obtain a solution to a problem. 55 2.71 .85 24 3.00 .51 I personally find it sickening to be around my friends when they do not act in a mature manner. 55 2.87 .86 24 3.08 .78

PAGE 85

75 Table 4-2. Continued Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD Freedom of speech can be carried too far in terms of the ideal because some students and their organizations should have their freedom of speech restricted. 54 3.13 .97 24 3.25 .61 I’m glad to see most of my friends are not dressing like “bums” anymore. 54 2.74 .92 23 2.57 .84 I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children’s friends or values. 2 54 2.00 .84 24 1.79 .72 I only date people who are of the same religious background as me. 53 2.87 1.09 24 2.71 1.12 I think the person I am dating or “going with” should have friends outside of “our crowd.” 2 54 3.22 .98 24 3.50 .59 I think students that get “high” and are caught should be treated like the lawbreakers they are. 54 2.46 1.00 24 2.83 .96 1Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strong ly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4 = strongly disagree. 2Item was reverse coded Post-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale The post-travel group mean scores for statements on the Tolerance sub-scale ranged between (agreement) 1.79 and 3.67 (towar d disagreement) on a four point Likerttype scale, where one represents strongly ag ree and four represents strongly disagree (Table 4-2). The statement (item reverse code d) that participants agreed with the most

PAGE 86

76 was, “I do not get irritated when parents ca nnot accept their children’s friends or values” (M = 1.79, SD = .72) (Appendix J). The sec ond most agreed upon statement was, “my roommate has some habits th at bother and annoy me very much” (M = 2.25, SD = .61). Finally, respondents agreed (item reverse coded) “I do not disapprove of faculty or other adults getting drunk or high at parties” (M = 2.29, SD = .75). The statement that was agreed upon least was, “I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was homosexua l or bisexual” (M = 3.67, SD = .70). The second most disagreed upon statement (item reve rse coded) was, “I accept my friends as they are” (M = 3.58, SD = .58). Finally, respond ents disagreed (item reverse coded) that “I think the person I am dating or ‘going w ith’ should have friends outside of ‘our crowd’” (M = 3.50, SD = .59). Pre-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale The pre-travel group mean scores for the st atements on the Quality of Relationships sub-scale which measures a change in the qual ity of relationships with close family and friends, moving from dependence through indepe ndence toward an interdependence that allows for a greater level of personal fr eedom ranged between (agreement) 2.38 and 3.46 (toward disagreement) on a four point Likert -type scale, where one represents strongly agree and four represents str ongly disagree (Table 4-3). Th e statement that participants agreed with the most was, “I get nervous wh en an instructor cri ticizes my work” (M = 2.38, SD = .71) (Appendix K). The second most agreed upon statement was, “I would feel uncomfortable criticizi ng, to their face, someone I ha d dated a long time” (M = 2.62, SD = .95). The third most agreed upon st atement (item reverse coded) was, “my relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before” (M = 2.64, SD = .81). The

PAGE 87

77 statement (item reverse coded) that partic ipants disagreed with the least was, “my roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please” (M = 3.46, SD = 1.04). The second most disagreed upon statement (item reve rse coded) was, “I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular” (M = 3.43, SD = .94). Finally, respondents disagreed that “I do not view myself as an i ndependent, outgoing person with my friends” (M = 3.39, SD = .88). Table 4-3. Responses to the Quality of Relationships Sub-scale before and after the Travel Experience Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD I would feel uncomfortable criticizing, to their face, someone I had dated a long time. 0.0 2.62 .95 24 2.88 .95 The instructors here do not treat the students like they are adults. 55 3.09 .82 24 3.33 .96 I relate to most students as an equal. 2 55 2.85 .91 24 3.21 .66 I can enjoy myself without needing to have someone with me. 2 55 3.31 .90 24 3.54 .72 I have to go out on a day every weekend. 55 2.73 1.11 24 2.65 1.03 I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work. 55 2.38 .71 24 2.54 1.00 Sometimes I feel I have to make unnecessary apologies for my appearance or conduct to the person(s) I live with. 54 3.09 .96 24 3.29 .75

PAGE 88

78 Table 4-3. Continued Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD I can tell my friends just about anything that is on my mind and know they will accept me. 2 55 3.05 .99 24 3.25 .90 My social life is satisfying to me. 2 55 3.07 .77 24 3.38 .71 I relate with my parents on an adult-to-adult basis. 2 55 2.85 .89 24 3.13 .90 My relationship with my roommate(s) is stagnating my own growth and potential. 54 3.06 .98 24 3.21 .88 I feel comfortable about telling a friend of the same sex “I love you,” without worrying they might get the wrong idea. 2 54 3.13 1.16 24 3.21 1.22 My relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before. 2 53 2.64 .81 23 2.83 .89 My parents do not try to run my life. 2 55 2.98 .97 24 3.25 .94 My friends view me as an independent, outgoing person in my relationship with them. 2 54 3.19 .97 24 3.54 .59 I always hold back when I am at a party which consists of a diverse group of people. 54 2.94 .86 24 3.25 .74 I encourage friends to drop in informally. 2 54 3.04 .99 24 3.38 8.24

PAGE 89

79 Table 4-3. Continued Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD My roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please. 2 54 3.46 1.04 24 3.79 .42 I have gotten to know some instructors as people—not just as faculty members. 2 54 2.96 .95 24 2.83 .87 I worry about not dating enough. 52 2.87 .95 24 2.79 1.02 I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular. 2 54 3.43 .94 24 3.67 .48 I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my friends. 54 3.39 .88 24 3.67 .57 1Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strong ly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4 = strongly disagree. 2Item was reverse coded Post-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale The post-travel group mean scores for the statements on the Quality of Relationships sub-scale ranged betw een (agreement) 2.54 and 3.79 (toward disagreement) on a four point Likert-type scale, where one represents strongly agree and four represents strongly disagree (Table 4-3). The statement th at participants agreed with the most was, “I get nervous when an inst ructor criticizes my work” (M = 2.54, SD = 1.00) (Appendix L). The second most agreed up on statement was, “I have to go out on a day every weekend” (M = 2.65, SD = 1.03). Fi nally, respondents also agreed with the statement (item reverse coded) “I worry a bout not dating enough” (M = 2.79, SD = 1.02). The statement (item reverse coded) that wa s agreed upon least was, “my roommate(s) and

PAGE 90

80 I feel free to come and go as we please” (M = 3.79, SD = .42). The next most disagreed upon statements were equal (the first item was reverse coded), “I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular” (M = 3.67, SD = .48); the next statement was, “I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my friends” (M = 3.67, SD = .57). Gender and Student Development 3a. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector before their study abroad experience? i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Tolerance scale before thei r study abroad experience? ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality of Relationships scale before their study abroad experience? 3b. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector after their study abroad experience? i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Tolerance scale after thei r study abroad experience? ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality of Relationships scale after th eir study abroad experience? Tolerance Sub-scale For the pre-travel group, the mean for the females was 56.33 (SD = 7.92) and for the males the mean was 55.88 (SD = 12.64). For the post-travel group the mean for the males was 65.50 (SD = 0.71) and for the females was 58.18 (SD = 5.60). Quality of Relationships Sub-scale When considering the Quality of Relations hips sub-scale for the pre-travel group, the mean for the females was 67.28 (SD = 8.89) and the mean for the males was 63.88 (SD = 13.42). The mean for the males was 75.00 (SD = 1.41) and the mean for the females was 72.00 (SD = 6.25).

PAGE 91

81 Previous Overseas Experience and Student Development 4a. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous overseas expe rience, regarding Chickering a nd Reisser’s fourth vector prior to their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between students w ho have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Tolera nce scale prior to their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Qualit y of Relationships scale prior to their study abroad experience? 4b. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous overseas expe rience, regarding Chickering a nd Reisser’s fourth vector after their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Tole rance scale after their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those with no previous oversea s experience, and their level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale after their study abroad experience? Tolerance Sub-scale For the pre-travel group, the mean for th e students with no previous overseas experience was 56.75 (SD = 8.36) and the mean for those with previous overseas experience was 56.10 (SD = 8.76). For the posttravel group, the mean for the students with no previous overseas e xperience was 64.00 (SD = 3.46) and the mean for those with previous overseas experience was 55.67 (SD = 3.88). Quality of Relationships Sub-scale For the pre-travel group, the mean for th e students with no previous overseas experience was 67.50 (SD = 11.30) and the mean for those with previous overseas

PAGE 92

82 experience was 66.44 (SD = 9.27). For the posttravel group, the mean for the students with no previous overseas e xperience was 76.00 (SD = 3.46) and the mean for those with previous overseas experience was 71.66 (SD = 5.43). Duration of Program and Student Development 5a. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector prior to their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding level of development as measured by th e Tolerance scale prior to their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale prior to their study abroad experience? 5b. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering and Reisser’s fourth vector afte r their study abroad experience? i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, and the level of development measured by th e Tolerance scale after their study abroad experience? ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale after their study abroad experience? Tolerance Sub-scale For the pre-travel group the mean for t hose whose program was one month or less was 56.20 (SD = 4.55), for those whose program was one to three months the mean was 59.00 (SD = 4.69);, and the mean for those whos e program was three to five months in length was 56.07 (SD = 9.35). Of all the respon dents that reported the duration of their program in the post-travel group a ll of them reported their progr am as lasting three to five months; the mean score was 59.83 (SD = 5.73).

PAGE 93

83 Quality of Relationships Sub-scale With regards to the Quality of Relationshi ps sub-scale for the pre-travel group, the mean for those whose program was one m onth or less was 67.20 (SD = 6.69), for those whose program was one to three months the mean was 69.20 (SD = 1.79), and for those whose programs were three to five months in length, the mean was 66.38 (SD = 10.78). Of all the respondents that repo rted the duration of their pr ogram in the post-travel group all of them reported their program as lasti ng three to five months; the mean score was 73.17 (SD = 5.48). Open-ended Questions Study abroad participants were asked a vari ety of open-ended questions both before their travel experience and afte r their travel experience. This information was collected to provide a greater understa nding of their expectations and experiences of studying abroad. Pre-travel Group When participants were asked, “why are you studying abroad?” the majority of students responded with language acquisition sk ills, self-exploration and for the cultural experience in general. A 22 year-old fema le who had never traveled internationally before wrote “to increase my hi storical consciousness, to see what it is like to be in a totally foreign place, not knowing a soul, to learn about myself and others through this once in a lifetime opportunity.” Another fe male student who was 21, but had traveled overseas previously at least five times stated her reason for studying abroad was “to gain a second language, challenge myself, meet new people, become more worldly, become inspired, something for my resume.” A nother student who did not provide any demographic information said, “to learn Span ish and broaden my hor izons.” Likewise a

PAGE 94

84 20 year-old female student whose program wa s three to five months and had traveled overseas three to four times wrote, “to ma ster the language and learn more about the culture.” Students were also asked to provide insights as to what they were looking forward to regarding their study abroad experience. The majority of students responded with responses pertaining to experi encing a different culture, m eeting new people, and selfexploration. A 20 year-old female who had never traveled overs eas remarked “meeting new people, seeing new things, learning about the world and more about myself.” A 23 year-old female who had previously traveled overseas one to two times explained, “being totally independent of family, meeting new/different people, experiencing new adventures.” A 22 year-old female who ha d never traveled overseas previously and whose program was three to five months wr ote “I am looking forward to meeting openminded, liberal people who are just intere sted in living, seein g, and experiencing a different culture, and hope to learn to be a bit more ballsy and not as self-conscious.” Another 20 year-old female who had previously traveled overs eas three to four times and whose program was three to five months wrote “meeting new people and discovering a culture very different from anything I’ve experienced.” A 22 year-old female who had previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program was three to five months wrote “just going to al l these different places. I ha ve dreamed about this since I was a little kid...an African safari, scuba di ving with great whites, paragliding, etc.” When participants were asked “do you feel adequately prepared for your study abroad program?” the majority 52% (N = 26) said yes. A 19 year-old male who had previously never traveled overseas and whos e program was three to five months wrote

PAGE 95

85 “yes, it doesn’t take much, I feel you just need an open mind and a willingness to learn something new and have fun.” A female student who was 20 years old and had previously traveled overseas one to two times explained: Yes, I’ve traveled before and know how to pack light, but to include the things I’ll need most. I’ve had friends who have gone through the same program and have given me advice about what to pack, wher e to travel, how to travel, and some interesting sites to visit. A 26 year-old male who had previously travel ed overseas three to four times and whose program lasted three to five months explaine d “yes, I feel comfortable in new places and value the opportunity to learn about those places first hand.” In contrast, almost one third (N = 15) felt they were not prepared. Another 20 yearold female student who had previously travel ed overseas one to two times stated “not really but I will try and brush up on my Span ish and learn how to be away from my boyfriend.” Likewise, a 19 year-old female who had no previous overseas experience and whose program lasted three to five m onths exclaimed, “no, I feel as though I could have been much more informed about the progr am that I was entering before I chose it.” Finally, 18% (N = 9) had mixed emotions. A 20 year-old female who had never traveled overseas before mentioned: No and Yes, I am a very open-minded person, but on the other hand I don’t know how I will be treated and accepted there. Pl us I think that it is going to be hard trying to learn the language. Because for the first time in my life I will be a foreigner. A 20 year-old female who had previously trav eled overseas three to four times and whose program was three to five mont hs wrote “I am insecure about my speaking abilities, but I am mentally prepared for the trip.” Simila rly, a 22 year-old female who had no previous overseas experience and whose program lasted th ree to five months wr ote “kind of. I feel like I know what to pack, where to go, but I don’t really know what I’m in for.”

PAGE 96

86 When asked, “what are you not looking forw ard to/and or feel nervous about?” the majority of students were nervous about be ing far from home, terrorism, and language barriers. A female participant who wa s 20 years old and had never traveled internationally before commented “I’m just f eeling nervous about being so far from home away from my family and the fact that te rrorists are bombing countri es.” Likewise, a 26 year-old female student who had previously tr aveled internationally three to four times explained “I am a little worried about the acts of terrorism that have been committed in Madrid and London. I just hope that nothing happens while I am studying abroad.” Another female student who was 20 and had traveled abroad th ree to four times mentioned “my first week when I know I w ill have a pseudo nervous breakdown while I adjust to things, also the fact that I can’t even read the language is somewhat frightening.” A 22 year-old female who had never traveled overseas and whose program lasted three to five months wrote “I’m ner vous to speak Spanish in front of natives and about learning my way around the c ity, I’m bad with directions, but I want to be able to be self-sufficient while I am there.” A 41 year-old female who had never traveled overseas and whose program was three to five months stated “It’s a lot of work, not enough down time, having to leave home for an extended period, financial concerns.” Post-travel Group When asked “what was/were your best e xperience(s)?” the overwhelming response related to cultural immersion in general. Another student who did not provide any demographic information observed: Being able to live in a kibbutz and mee ting people around my age in the program I did. Having the liberty to do what I want ed when I wanted without having to answer to anyone or worry about my parents. Waking up everyday in my superficial “bubble” life and knowing th ere was an amazing beach a walking distance away, dogs running around freely, and be ing able to pick fruit off of trees

PAGE 97

87 when I was hungry. Also being in Israel I got to travel aroun d the area and see amazing places like Sinai, Jordan and Greece. A female student who had traveled interna tionally one to two times before her study abroad trip, and whose program lasted thr ee to five months commented “I had the incredible opportunity of meeting my distant relatives in the North of Spain. I visited them on several occasions and we have formed a life long bond. It is an amazing experience learning about your history and background.” Another female student who had traveled overseas one to two times and whose program was three to five months stated “simply walking around, soaking in the people, sights, sounds, and cultural differences.” While another student who did not provided demographic information wrote “living in a completely different cultur e and adapting to a new way of life.” A male student who had previously traveled overseas five or more times and whose program was three to five months cited “hiking through Fiord land with a group of people I had just met.” Students were also asked “what was/were your worst experience(s)?” with the majority relating to cultural differences a nd being accepted. A female student who had previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose pr ogram lasted three to five months cited: My worst experience has been dealing with drastic changes in my life while being so far away from home. Having to let go of a very important relationship and not having the support of my family and friends from home. Another student felt, “the program was too st ructured, I felt that I was compromising my personal interests for the program I felt the program did not expect me to ‘find my own way’ or act independently in the foreign cult ure.” Another student voiced more concerns about the threat of terrorism as being a downs ide of the experience. He or she wrote:

PAGE 98

88 The knowledge that there were active terrorists that coul d strike anywhere. It did not keep me from living my life there, but the thought of something happening was always on the back of my mind anywhere I went. Also on a lesser note most things in Israel are closed Saturday. A female student who had not previously traveled internationally and whose program lasted three to five months pointed ou t “the differences and inefficiencies of the culture” while another student complained “b eing treated like a stupid American when we knew what we were doing.” When participants were asked, “what was the most challenging aspect of studying abroad?” communication and adjustment issues were most frequently cited. A female student who had traveled inte rnationally one to two times before her study abroad trip, and whose program lasted three to five m onths commented “learni ng the language (which I didn’t know at all before) well enough to be confident in getting around and asking questions.” Another student explained “havi ng to deal with communicating in a different language and getting to know people and unde rstand them through the language barrier. Also not having a car and being able to driv e was a slight annoyance.” A female student who had previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose progr am lasted three to five months remarked: The most challenging aspect is getting to know people from your host country. It is incredible how easy it is to find people of your native tongue no matter where you are. If you are interested in learning a different language it can be very difficult when you are surrounded by people from your own country the majority of the time. In contrast, another student would have liked to be surrounded by people from home as he/she was most challenged by “missi ng home, family, friends, and my old lifestyle...missing things that my friends do th at I used to be there for.” Likewise, a female student who had traveled overseas previously one to two times, and whose

PAGE 99

89 program lasted three to five months wrote th at “interacting with ot hers from different countries (difficulties communicating)” was the most challenging aspect of the program. Students were asked to explain, “what wa ys do you feel the program impacted your life?” The responses overwhelmingly supporte d the personal changes experienced as a result of studying abroad. A male student who had previously trav eled internationally five or more times and whose program last ed three to five months remarked “this experience has made me understand myself bette r. I am more patient, open-minded. I also feel like I can deal with anything that I come in contact with that will challenge me mentally or emotionally.” A female student who had previously traveled internationally five or more times and whose program lasted three to five months observed it “made me strong and independent; I felt lonely very of ten but every time I overcame it I felt like I became stronger.” A male student who had pr eviously traveled overseas three to four times and whose program lasted three to five months wrote it “has made me much more open to anything, willing to step outside of my boundaries.” Simila rly, a female student who had previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program lasted three to five months felt that she had become more introspective, she wrote: I am much more confident in my own abili ties and strengths now than I ever have been. I have also realized that I can enj oy simply being by myself, whereas prior to studying abroad I tended to fill my minutes with plans and people. Now I love to sit and observe. These sentiments were also expressed by a nother student who wrot e that “in every way [the program was] a life changing experience. [It] freed my mind of nuances and made me realize to live life to the fullest.” Another student felt that the experience has in spired them to see more of the world. He or she wrote “the program has made me want to study abro ad again or just travel in

PAGE 100

90 general because it was so exciting going in to a foreign culture and learning and participating in it.” Another student also felt that studying abroad had been a significant experience for them. She/he wrote: My eyes were opened to so many more wa ys of living and unde rstanding my self. For example I realized that I do not have to study imme diately, that it is ok to figure out what I want without having to rush into a univers ity right after high school. And also that it is ok. I learned a lot of things about myself, society, and life. Another female student who ha d previously traveled overseas five or more times and whose program lasted three to five months commented “I met many good friends and was able to grow personally through my experi ences and conversati ons with these new people.” When asked, “what did you learn about your self?” the major ity of responses pertained to self-confidence and a sense of ne wfound independence. One student felt that “I can survive and manage in a foreign count ry and on my own. That simple pleasure[s] in life are some of the most w onderful. That it is ok not to know where the next step in life is.” A female student who had previously traveled internationally one to two times and whose program lasted three to five mont hs replied that she had learned a number of things about herself. She felt she had learne d “that I AM a confiden t person, that I love to learn, love to travel, and can get along well with people from many different backgrounds.” A female student who had prev iously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program lasted three to five months wrote: I learned that I love visiting foreign countri es and diving into th e experience of new cultures. In some ways going away ha s made me more grounded. I have never been so appreciative of all the amazing people in my life. I have learned that I am so loved and this has been the most valuable lesson.

PAGE 101

91 A male student who had previously traveled overseas five or more times whose program lasted three to five months wrote “that things turn out more often then not when I apply myself to a situation fully.” Likewise, another student felt they had learned about themselves. He or she wrote, “I learned th at I am much more easy going than I thought. That it is ok to be scared, and that I need to study Spanish harder.” A female student who had previously traveled overseas five or mo re times and whose program lasted three to five months commented “I am independent and enjoy being with myself.” Another female student who had never previously tr aveled overseas and whose program lasted three to five months reported, “that I can handle new and challenging situations.” Participants were asked “is there anything else that you w ould like to share with me about your study abroad experience?” Of a ll the students who commented (N=14), all but one loved the experience. Some of the comments included the following: “the best experience ever” “loved it” “everyone needs to go” “I would love to do it again” “it was so much fun” “it was amazing” “I will never be more grateful for this opportunity” “the world is filled with many wonder ful things, places, and things to do” The study abroad students who shared these comments were all female whose programs lasted three to five months. The one stude nt who spoke negatively had this to say: Leaving a country where I was the minority and going into another country where people of my descent barely existed made this whole experience frustrating and at times I was very angry and depressed. Leaving the USA where, I think, more people are open-minded because everyone is surrounded by a very diverse population, made me realize that everyone is not like the people where I am from. I know I knew this before I came. But when you become immersed in it, it’s very different. Being stared at and feared by the majority makes a person feel ugly and less than a person.

PAGE 102

92 Unfortunately, this student did not provide any information about which country he or she had studied in. In spite of this, an a dditional female student who had never traveled internationally prior to the study abroad trip and whose program lasted three to five months exclaimed “I think it should be a re quirement at least for a short period of time for every student because college is supposed to broaden your horizons and I don’t think that it is as effective w ithout an experience like it.” Summary The results provide an insight into the perceptions, development, and experiences of study abroad students at the University of Florida. Furthermore, differences by gender, previous overseas expe rience, and duration were de scribed for the group before the travel experience as well as for the group after the travel expe rience. In addition, although not the focus of the study other charact eristics of study abroad students were identified. For example, the primary motiv ations for studying abroad were language acquisition skills, self-exploration and for the cultural experience in general. Students were most looking forward to experiencing a different culture, mee ting new people, and self-exploration. In contrast, students were most nervous about being far from home, terrorism, and language barriers. Students found that cultural issues in general related to their best experiences and their worst. Pa rticipants reported that self-confidence and a sense of newfound independence were the things they learned the most about themselves. Overall, the research questions addressed in this chapter have been used to further understand the experiences of study abroad par ticipants and that th e majority of the students would recommend the experi ence or do it again themselves.

PAGE 103

93 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The purpose of the study was to investigat e the relationship between study abroad participation and student development. Differences by gender, previous overseas experience, and duration of study abroad program were also explored for the pre-travel group and the post-travel group. Th is chapter discusses the find ings of this study as they relate to study abroad participants, and the experiences reported by these students. While the initial design for this st udy was a quasi-experimental design comparing the responses of the same students prior to and after thei r study abroad experience, due to the poor response rate the group before the travel experience and the gr oup after the travel experience were evaluated independently of each other as only eight respondents completed both the preand post-travel questionnaires. Perceptions The need to understand how university s ponsored study abroad programs affect students has become increasingly important as student participation rates have increased (Gardner & Witherell, 2004; St ephenson, 1999) and more univer sities have focused their resources in this area. In fact, the President’s Commission on Foreign Languages and International Studies was created in 1979 in response to this need. The Commission recognized the importance of scholarly inves tigation into international programs that foster global mindedness am ong U.S. college students (Herman, 1996). Topics of interest have included: autonomy, self-aware ness, worldview, attit udes toward others, international understanding, future career or ientation, and academic and cultural interests

PAGE 104

94 among others (Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001). Additionally, international educators agree that due to the increasing number of st udents studying abroad there must be some personal developmental changes, which in turn will impact American society in general (Lamet & Lamet, 1982). Investigating such personal changes was an original goal of this study. However, due to the small number of participants co mpleting the questionnaire before and after the travel experience a comparison was not possible to assess any developmental change. Instead, a descriptive analysis of two groups of participants, a before travel group, and an after travel group was conducted. Using the dimensions of the Michigan State study abroad questionnaire (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003) five domains of student impact were assessed, these included: personal developmen t, academics, professional development, global perspective, and intellectual devel opment. The purpose was to understand the participants’ perceptions of th e study abroad experience prio r to the trip. This same purpose was attained for the post-travel group. Prior to the study abroad experience two of the top three respons es were related to the domain global perspective (Appendix G). For example, the belief that studying abroad would contribute to their overall unders tanding of the country they would study in had the highest agreement; followed by the beli ef that studying abroad would contribute to their understanding of othe r cultures. The third most highly rated assertion was the belief that studying abroad would increase thei r ability to manage new situations, which is related to personal development. Th ese findings are further supported by the comments respondents made in the open-e nded questions before and after studying

PAGE 105

95 abroad. For example, in the pre-test the majority of students responded with language acquisition skills, self-exploration and for the cultural experience in general as to reasons why they were studying abroad; in turn, these responses supp ort the findings that issues related to the domains of gl obal perspective and personal de velopment were pertinent to the students before their experiences abroa d. Specifically, students hoped to improve their historical awareness, to experience what it would be like to live in a completely unfamiliar place, to be in a place where they did not know anyone, to learn more about themselves, as well as others, to improve th eir foreign language abil ities and to broaden their horizons. These are examples of student’s thoughts before embarking on the experience. In the post-travel group the students rate d most highly the belief that studying abroad contributed to their overall unders tanding of the country they studied in (Appendix H), which was under the Global Pe rspective domain, th e other top three statements were related to personal developmen t. For example, the feeling that studying abroad enhanced their independence had the second highest agreement, followed equally by the impression that studying abroad incr eased their open-mindedness and the belief that studying abroad improved their self -reliance. Furthermore, the open-ended comments supported the post-test findings as well. Participants felt that cultural immersion in general was their best expe rience. Memories of walking around and absorbing the sights, sounds, and people, in addition to the excitement of adapting to a new way of living in an completely foreign location is further evidence of the influence the experience had on respondents global perspe ctive. Additionall y, the majority of responses pertained to self-confidence a nd a sense of newfound independence when

PAGE 106

96 asked about what they had learned about them selves. Students appeared proud when they realized they could survive and get along in an unfamiliar country, without much help from others. Participants also reported that they learned to be comfortable with people of diverse backgrounds. They also discovered that they are confident and they could handle different and challenging situations. Overall, most studies that consider st udy abroad and its effects on students report participants are impacted in positive wa ys (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). After studying abroad, students are more likely to engage in on-campus programs that are designed to broaden their international understanding (Gray, Murdock, & Stebbins, 2002). The findings from the open-ended questions that have been mentioned make sense as they suggest students are interest ed in learning languages and th e culture of th e study abroad country. It appears in this study that students did not expe ct such personal changes as evidenced by their pre-travel group responses In fact, Carsello and Greaser (1976) suggest that college students probably give minimal attention to the ways in which they change during their time overseas, as well as how they will be different when they return home. Student Development Student development as measured by the Mi nes-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory was utilized. This instrument meas ures social development and was created to evaluate Chickering’s fourth vector, Deve loping Mature Interpersonal Relationships (Hood & Mines, 1997). The Inventory contai ns two subscales: (1) the Tolerance subscale – measuring openness and acceptance of diversity, and (2) the Quality of Relationships sub-scale – meas uring the transition in rela tionships with friends from either extreme dependence or independence, toward a state of interdependence.

PAGE 107

97 The results from the Mines Jensen Inte rpersonal Relationship Inventory (MJIRI) for the pre-travel group specifically, the scores for the Tolerance sub-scale describe the level of development for participants prior to the travel experien ce (Appendix I). The results from the MJIRI for the post-travel group in particular, the scores for the Tolerance sub-scale describe the level of development fo r participants after the travel experience (Appendix J). Comments made by the partic ipants provide further understanding to the dimensions included in the MJIRI. For ex ample, students portra yed their openness and acceptance of diversity when asked about their best experience(s). Specifically they described their best experiences as mee ting and spending time with the locals and encountering indigenous schools and social life. Students commented that they learned about language, to be more open minded, as we ll as how to adapt to diverse situations and environments. The comments regarding the experiences in this study provide evidence of increased confidence and independe nce which is similar to the findings of Kuh and Kauffman (1988) who found that student s developed a heightened interest in the welfare of others, increased feelings of well-be ing and self-confidence, and an interest in reflective thought through study abroad experien ces. Likewise, most of the students in this study felt that their experi ences abroad had helped them realize their potential and they had gained a deeper understanding of th e world and its people, findings that Dukes et. al (1994) also noted am ong the students they studied. Additionally, the scores for th e Quality of Relationships s ub-scale for the pre-travel group are described (Appendix K), and the scores for the post-travel group are described (Appendix L). Support for the ch anges in relationshi ps and their selves can be found in the comments from the open-ended questions. For instance, when students were asked to

PAGE 108

98 explain in what ways the program had impact ed their lives, many of them felt that they had gained a greater sense of independence and confidence in unfamiliar places. They also felt that they were better able to deal w ith unexpected situations and to stand on their own two feet in coping with th ese situations, instead of relying on their families. The development of mature interpersonal relati onships entails acceptance and admiration of differences, as well as having a capability fo r intimacy. Acceptance can be seen in an interpersonal as well as an intercultural context. At its core is an individual’s ability to react to people based on them as individua ls, rather than as typecasts. Eventually, valuing differences in close relationships will transfer to general acquaintances and then to those from other countries and cultures (Chickering & Reisser, 1993). Awareness, openness, breadth of experience, inquisitivene ss, and impartiality facilitate students’ ability to cultivate first impressions, mini mize prejudice and ethnocentrism, foster empathy and selflessness, and get pleasure from diversity (Chickering & Reisser). Gender Since Chickering’s theory suggests that there may be developmental differences between males and females, the influence of ge nder was also described. It is important to note that the male to female ratio was not equal in the samples. In fact, in the pre-travel group 83.6% of the respondents were female; in the post-travel group 85.7% of the respondents were female. In the pre-trav el group the females had a higher level of development for both the Tolerance and the Qual ity of Relationships sub-scales than the males. In the post-travel group the highest levels of development for both sub-scales were among the males when compared to the females. Although the specific differences by gender were beyond the scope of the current research, as the focus was on differences in development as measured by the Tolerance

PAGE 109

99 sub-scale and the Quality of Relationships sub-scale, previous research has provided insight into such differences. Certainl y, Baty and Dold (1977) found that females reported greater emotional problems at the time of the pre-test than did the males; however, at the time of the post evaluati ons the females reported fewer emotional problems than males did in their study abroad study. The females changed in terms of greater stability, reflecting less depression regarding self and the environment. The males reported more depression and alienation rega rding themselves and the environment. Generally speaking, it appear s that the males’ experien ce was more distressful or upsetting than the females’ experience while studying abroad. Baty and Dold suggested that young adult men and women may exhibit different learning styles and this may possibly explain their findings. For example, females may be more skilled in adapting to new situations in which they are required, fo r a time, to be dependent. For the males, such dependency could be more threateni ng. Further support of gender differences in development can be found in the wo rks of Hood and Jackson (1997a; 1997b). Previous Overseas Experience In addition to differences by gender, prev ious overseas experi ence in relation to level of development achieved was investigate d. The findings suggest that participants with no prior overseas experien ce reported higher levels of de velopment than those with previous overseas experience, as measured by the Tolerance and the Quality of Relationships sub-scales before the travel experience. For the post-travel group the participants with no prior ove rseas experience reported higher levels of development as measured by the Tolerance and the Quality of Relationships sub-scales than those with previous overseas experience. Although thes e results have not been discovered in the literature, it may be a wo rthwhile finding to explore in future studies.

PAGE 110

100 Duration of Program In addition to differences by gender, and previous overseas experience, duration of program was the final variable to be investig ated. The results for the Tolerance sub-scale from the pre-travel group show that those whose program was one to three months had the highest level of development, followed by those whose program was one month or less, followed by those whose program was thr ee to five months. Of all the respondents that reported the duration of their program in the post-travel group all of them reported their program as lasting thr ee to five months, and theref ore a comparison by duration of program is not possible for the post-travel gr oup. Inglis et al. ( 1998), report that the length of the program abroad impacts the l ong-term benefits expe rienced by students. Likewise, Herman (1996) suggests that there is support for the noti on that the longer the length of time a student is immersed in a nother culture the greater the development. Living and studying abroad for an unlimite d length of time may encourage personal development because numerous elements of foreign culture create unique and compelling challenges (Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). Summary and Implications Because students are studying abroad in record numbers (Gardner & Witherell, 2004), the necessity to empirica lly assess the benefits of su ch experiences has become increasingly vital (Chadee & Cutler, 1996). This study provides information on the perceptions and levels of deve lopment of study abroad participants at a large southeastern university. The perceptions reported by students, the leve ls of student development, as well as the responses to the open-ende d questions provided insight in the experiences of study abroad participants. These findings are consis tent with the current literature, but add to

PAGE 111

101 the body of knowledge in that the results ar e framed within a widely used student development theoretical framework. Indee d, this study has shown that the framework can be applied to an educational context that has not previously been investigated before, that of study abroad. This discovery is m eaningful in that the responses to the openended questions may provide more substantiv e support for the notion that study abroad is beneficial and encourages development amongs t students, which of course is a goal in higher education (Chicker ing, 1969; Chickering & Rei sser, 1993; King, 1990). Furthermore, the theoretical framework is essentially used for the first time to guide research in the area of study abroad. This information may be useful for those programs or organizations that require more substa ntive evidence of the importance of studying abroad as well as increasing their ability to explain and identify developmental change. Recommendations for Further Research One of the goals of this study was to us e Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) student development theory of identity to explain the changes expe rienced by students who study abroad. However, due to the length of th e Iowa Student Development Inventories only one of the vectors of student development wa s actually measured. For all the vectors to be measured the instrument would have been more than 400 questions in length and it was feared that students woul d not complete the questionnaire It is suggested that all seven vectors be evaluated in fu ture research. Due to the natu re of the vectors, depending on age a student may identify more heavily wi th one vector than another (Chickering, 1969; Chickering & Reisser, 1993). If this is true, the present study may not have captured the complete progression in de velopment by its participants or the comprehensive nature of development.

PAGE 112

102 In addition, it is suggested that research of this nature includes a control group. In the present study the issue of maturation simply as a result of lapsed time was not accounted for; therefore, it is a challenge to fully determine if the changes in development were due to the study abroad experience or time itself. Limitations There may be several limitations to th is study. One limitation may be confusion experienced by the respondents regarding quest ions or wording. This was minimized by paying attention to wording during instrument development. Additionally, the researcher attempted to lessen this possibility by providing contact inform ation during the predeparture orientation, and in preand post-test instruments, as well as all of the invitation and reminder emails so that they could find answers to any questions they had. An additional limitation may be related to the open-ended questions of the postquestionnaire. Any time an indivi dual is asked to recall prior events or feelings; there is always a chance for memory lapse that may resu lt in inaccurate depic tions of feelings or events. The researcher attempted to mini mize this by reminding students to complete their post-test questionnaire within a week’s return to the U.S. The pre-test questionnaire was administered prior to overseas travel and a post-test was administered immediately upon return in order to examine developmental changes as a consequence of studying abroad. Because the study abroad programs started and ended at different times throughout the fall, data collection wa s staggered accordingly and continued until the last program finished. Ho wever, as a result of start and end dates varying so greatly some students may have b een emailed the link to the survey several weeks to a month prior to th eir departure and especially upon return. Furthermore,

PAGE 113

103 because the students were returning during th e holidays a decrease in response rates may have been the result. Another problem was that the post-test que stionnaire did not contain demographic items as it was thought that this informati on would be collected using the pre-test instrument. In actuality only eight student s who had completed the pre-test completed the post-test. Thus, an attempt was made to re-contact the students who had completed the post-test through the UFIC coordinator. Six students responded providing their demographic and study abroad program characteristics. Delimitations The primary delimitation in this study is the small sample size. There was a potential for approximately 200 responses for the preand post-test each. However, only 56 questionnaires were completed for the pr e-test and 24 were co mpleted for the posttest. Furthermore, only eight respondents comp leted both the preand the post-tests, thus the two groups are essentially independent. An additional delimitation was that only those students who were registered to study abroad at the UFIC during fall 2005 were invited to participat e. This limits the generalizability of the results to those studying abroad fo r no more than five months and may preclude those who for example spend an entire academic year abroad. Another issue related to sampling is that random sel ection was not used thus any generalizability of the results should be made with vigilan ce. Results may also be limited to other institutions with similar characteristics as the University of Florida and comparable study abroad programs.

PAGE 114

104 Conclusion The results of this study s uggest that particip ants in a study abroad program may experience positive impacts as well as enhance their development of mature interpersonal relationships. Also, when considering gende r and duration of program, differences in student development were found. Additionall y, a consistent theme among the responses from the students in this study was a ne wfound sense of confidence, independence and self-esteem. While this study can only draw inferences about studying abroad for a semester or less, it has provided a more in-depth look at study abroad and the impacts experienced by its participants in addition to enhanced levels of development. In closing, the benefits experienced as a result of studying abroad can best be explained by a female student whose program lasted three to five months and who had never tr aveled overseas, she explained that “it [studying abroad] changed ev erything in my life, my view on the world, the future and the past as well as the relations hips in my life. I was able to have a new perspective by experiencing something so differe nt than what I am accustomed to.” This comment brings us full-circle with Chicke ring and Reisser’s (1993) student development theory of identity and the importance of improving tolerance and quality of relationships.

PAGE 115

105 APPENDIX A PRE-TEST QUESTIONNAIRE The entire questionnaire was posted on the world-wide-web only and appears here in accordance with the University of Fl orida Graduate School Thesis guidelines. Study Abroad and Studen t Development Survey DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM, RECREATION & SPORT MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA UF-IRB Informed Consent Please read carefully before participating in this study. This study examines the experiences of fall 2005 Study Abroad participants. You will be asked about your experiences studying abroad, some general attitude quest ions, and demographics. You will also be asked to reflect upon you r overall experiences of traveling and studying abroad. The study involves answering an online questionnaire that will take approx imately ten minutes to complete. The survey is voluntary, but your input is extremely important. There are no “correct” or “incorrect” answers in the survey, so please express your true feelings. Benefits from this study include understandi ng your feelings before and after your fall study abroad experience. Specifically, it is expected that the study can provide international educators with a greater understa nding of the outcomes for participants of study abroad and may act as the basis for future programming and funding. In addition, the responses will contribute to a Master’s thesis investigating the development of individuals who par ticipate in a study abroad program. There is no compensation for completing th e survey, but your input is extremely important. The survey is confidential as ther e is no way to link your survey results to your email address; your confidentiality will be protected to the extent provided by law. Your participation in this study is voluntar y and you have the right not to answer any question(s). There is no penalty for not par ticipating and you are fr ee to withdraw at anytime without penalty. There are no risks a ssociated with particip ation in this study.

PAGE 116

106 If you have any questions concer ning this study, please contact: Heather A. Robalik Master’s Candidate Department of Tourism, Recr eation and Sport Management 300 Florida Gym, P.O. Box 118208 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-8208 Email: hrobalik@hhp.ufl.edu Phone: (352) 395-0580 ext. 1372 Whom to contact about your rights as a research pa rticipant in this study: UFIRB Office Box 112250 University of Florida Gainesville, Fl 32611-2250 Phone: (352) 392-0433 Please keep a copy of this contact information. If you agree to participate, pl ease click on the link below. http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/surveys/hrobalik/ Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Spor t Management fall 2005 The University of Florida Student Development Survey Please create a unique six letter username that you will remember. This username will remain confidential and cannot be traced, ther efore it is important to create something that will be easy to remember. This username will be used to link your responses to the post-test. Username: __________________________ Part One: Assessing Impact The following are a series of statements asking you the experiences and goals you have regarding study abroad. Circle the number that co rresponds to how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please answer every question.

PAGE 117

107 Study abroad… Not at All Very Little Some Quite a Bit Very Much Will contribute to my overall understanding of the country I will study in. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my desire to work and/or study abroad in the future. 1 2 3 4 5 Will contribute to my understanding of other cultures. 1 2 3 4 5 Will enhance my concern about problems with developing countries. 1 2 3 4 5 Will enhance my understanding of international issues. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my appreciation of human difference. 1 2 3 4 5 Will contribute and/or create a new understanding of critical social issues. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my level of comfort around people different from me. 1 2 3 4 5 Will enhance my self-reliance. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my ability to cope with unfamiliar situations. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my openmindedness. 1 2 3 4 5

PAGE 118

108 Study abroad… Not at All Very Little Some Quite a Bit Very Much Will increase my curiosity about other cultures. 1 2 3 4 5 Will enhance my independence. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my understanding of my own culture. 1 2 3 4 5 Will enhance my desire to interact with a stranger. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my feeling of personal effectiveness. 1 2 3 4 5 Will encourage me to seek out a more diverse group of friends. 1 2 3 4 5 Will help develop my leadership skills. 1 2 3 4 5 Will increase my skills to communicate in the language of the host culture. 1 2 3 4 5 Will lead to an improvement of my academic performance. 1 2 3 4 5 Will enhance my critical thinking skills. 1 2 3 4 5 Will improve my problemsolving skills. 1 2 3 4 5 Will favorably impress potential employers. 1 2 3 4 5 Will make me reconsider my career plans. 1 2 3 4 5

PAGE 119

109 Study abroad… Not at All Very Little Some Quite a Bit Very Much Will help me find professional direction. 1 2 3 4 5 Will distract me from my academic performance. 1 2 3 4 5 Part Two: Student Development Scale The following are a series of statements a bout social and interp ersonal behavior and attitudes of college students. The best answ er to each statement is your personal opinion. There are no right or wrong answers. Th e survey covers many different and opposing points of view; you may find yourse lf strongly agreeing with so me of the statements and strongly disagreeing with others. Whether you agree or disagree w ith any statement you can be sure that many other people feel the same as you do. In general, study abroad is a part of your ove rall college education. As a result of living and studying in a different culture, your attitudes and values may change as you experience new things. If you have not experi enced a situation described by a statement, answer on the basis of any similar circumst ances or experience(s) you have had or how you imagine you would answer if the situation would come up. For example, if the statement is about “roommates” and you live at home or are married, answer in relation to the people you do live with. Circle the number that corresponds to how much you agree or disagree with the statement. Please answer every question. Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I accept my friends as they are. 1 2 3 4 I would feel uncomfortable criticizing, to their face, someone I had dated a long time. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 120

110 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree In my classes, I have met two kinds of people: those who are for the truth and those who are against the truth. 1 2 3 4 The instructors here do not treat the students like they are adults. 1 2 3 4 As I have talked with faculty and adults about their different philosophies, there is probably only one which is correct. 1 2 3 4 I relate to most students as an equal. 1 2 3 4 It would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had sexual relations with another person before I met them. 1 2 3 4 I can enjoy myself without needing to have someone with me. 1 2 3 4 When I talk to my friends about my religious beliefs, I am very careful not to compromise with those who believe differently than I do. 1 2 3 4 I have to go out on a day every weekend. 1 2 3 4 My roommate has some habits that bother and annoy me very much. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 121

111 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work. 1 2 3 4 Most adults need to change their values and attitudes. 1 2 3 4 Sometimes I feel I have to make unnecessary apologies for my appearance or conduct to the person(s) I live with. 1 2 3 4 Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made to realize what they are doing is wrong. 1 2 3 4 I can tell my friends just about anything that is on my mind and know they will accept me. 1 2 3 4 I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was homosexual or bisexual. 1 2 3 4 My social life is satisfying to me. 1 2 3 4 One of the problems with my fellow students is they were not dealt with firmly when they were younger. 1 2 3 4 I relate with my parents on an adult-to-adult basis. 1 2 3 4 I do not disapprove of faculty or other adults getting drunk or high at parties. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 122

112 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree My relationship with my roommate(s) is stagnating my own growth and potential. 1 2 3 4 I would not discontinue a love relationship if my partner did something I disapproved of. 1 2 3 4 I feel comfortable about telling a friend of the same sex “I love you,” without worrying they might get the wrong idea. 1 2 3 4 Most instructors teach as if there is just one right way to obtain a solution to a problem. 1 2 3 4 My relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before. 1 2 3 4 I personally find it sickening to be around my friends when they do not act in a mature manner. 1 2 3 4 My parents do not try to run my life. 1 2 3 4 Freedom of speech can be carried too far in terms of the ideal because some students and their organizations should have their freedom of speech restricted. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 123

113 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree My friends view me as an independent, outgoing person in my relationship with them. 1 2 3 4 I’m glad to see most of my friends are not dressing like “bums” anymore. 1 2 3 4 I always hold back when I am at a party which consists of a diverse group of people. 1 2 3 4 I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children’s friends or values. 1 2 3 4 I encourage friends to drop in informally. 1 2 3 4 I only date people who are of the same religious background as me. 1 2 3 4 My roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please. 1 2 3 4 I think the person I am dating or “going with” should have friends outside of “our crowd.” 1 2 3 4 I have gotten to know some instructors as people—not just as faculty members. 1 2 3 4 I think students that get “high” and are caught should be treated like the lawbreakers they are. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 124

114 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I worry about not dating enough. 1 2 3 4 I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular. 1 2 3 4 I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my friends. 1 2 3 4 Part Three: Demographic and additional comm ents. Please tell me a little about yourself. 1. Are you? Male……….1 Female…….2 2. What is your class standing? Freshman……….1 Sophomore……...2 Junior…………...3 Senior…….……..4 Graduate………..5 3. What is your age? _____ 4a. What is your major? __________

PAGE 125

115 4b. If your major is a language, is it the primary language of th e country you will be studying in? Yes………………………….…1 No………………………….….2 My major is not a language…….3 5. What is your first language? __________ 6a. Do you have a second language? Yes……….1 No…….….2 6b. If yes, what language? __________ 7. Do you speak the native language of the country you are going to be studying in? Yes……….1 No………..2 8. How many times have you trav eled internationally prior to your study abroad trip? Never..…………….1 1 to 2 times………..2 3 to 4 times……..…3 5 or more times…….4 9. If you have traveled inte rnationally, where have you tr aveled to in the past? 10. What country or countries are you vi siting during your study abroad experience?

PAGE 126

116 11. How long is your study abroad program? Weeks _____ or Days _____ 12. Why are you studying abroad? 13. What are you looking forward to re garding your study ab road experience? 14. Do you feel adequately prepared for your study abroad program? Please explain. 15. What are you not looking forward to and/or feel nervous about? Your time is greatly appreciated in completing this questionnaire!

PAGE 127

117 APPENDIX B POST-TEST QUESTIONNAIRE The entire questionnaire was posted on the world-wide-web only and appears here in accordance with the University of Fl orida Graduate School Thesis guidelines. Study Abroad and Studen t Development Survey DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM, RECREATION & SPORT MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA UF-IRB Informed Consent Please read carefully before participating in this study. This study examines the experiences of fall 2005 Study Abroad participants. You will be asked about your experiences studying abroad, some general attitude quest ions, and demographics. You will also be asked to reflect upon you r overall experiences of traveling and studying abroad. The study involves answering an online questionnaire that will take approx imately ten minutes to complete. The survey is voluntary, but your input is extremely important. There are no “correct” or “incorrect” answers in the survey, so please express your true feelings. Benefits from this study include understandi ng your feelings before and after your fall study abroad experience. Specifically, it is expected that the study can provide international educators with a greater understa nding of the outcomes for participants of study abroad and may act as the basis for future programming and funding. In addition, the responses will contribute to a Master’s thesis investigating the development of individuals who par ticipate in a study abroad program. There is no compensation for completing th e survey, but your input is extremely important. The survey is confidential as ther e is no way to link your survey results to your email address; your confidentiality will be protected to the extent provided by law. Your participation in this study is voluntar y and you have the right not to answer any question(s). There is no penalty for not par ticipating and you are fr ee to withdraw at anytime without penalty. There are no risks a ssociated with particip ation in this study.

PAGE 128

118 If you have any questions concer ning this study, please contact: Heather A. Robalik Master’s Candidate Department of Tourism, Recr eation and Sport Management 300 Florida Gym, P.O. Box 118208 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-8208 Email: hrobalik@hhp.ufl.edu Phone: (352) 395-0580 ext. 1372 Whom to contact about your rights as a research pa rticipant in this study: UFIRB Office Box 112250 University of Florida Gainesville, Fl 32611-2250 Phone: (352) 392-0433 Please keep a copy of this contact information. If you agree to participate, pl ease click on the link below. http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/surveys/ hrobalik/post.index.html Department of Tourism, Recreati on, and Sport Management fall 2005 The University of Florida Student Development Survey Please input your unique six charact er username (the same one you used for the pre-test). This username will remain confidential and canno t be traced. This username will be used to link your responses from the pre-test. Username: __________________________ Part One: Assessing Impact The following are a series of statements asking you about the expe riences and goals you had related to study abroad. Circle the number that co rresponds to how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please answer every question.

PAGE 129

119 Study abroad… Not at All Very Little Some Quite a Bit Very Much Contributed to my overall understanding of the country I studied in. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my desire to work and/or study abroad in the future. 1 2 3 4 5 Contributed to my understanding of other cultures. 1 2 3 4 5 Enhanced concern about problems with developing countries. 1 2 3 4 5 Enhanced my understanding of international issues. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my appreciation of human difference. 1 2 3 4 5 Contributed and/or created a new understanding of critical social issues. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my level of comfort around people different from me. 1 2 3 4 5 Enhanced my self-reliance. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my ability to cope with unfamiliar situations. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my openmindedness. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my curiosity about other cultures. 1 2 3 4 5

PAGE 130

120 Study abroad… Not at All Very Little Some Quite a Bit Very Much Enhanced my independence. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my understanding of my own culture. 1 2 3 4 5 Enhanced my desire to interact with a stranger. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my feeling of personal effectiveness. 1 2 3 4 5 Encouraged me to seek out a more diverse group of friends. 1 2 3 4 5 Helped develop my leadership skills. 1 2 3 4 5 Increased my skills to communicate in the language of the host culture. 1 2 3 4 5 Led to an improvement of my academic performance. 1 2 3 4 5 Enhanced my critical thinking skills. 1 2 3 4 5 Improved my problem-solving skills. 1 2 3 4 5 Will favorably impress potential employers. 1 2 3 4 5 Made me reconsider my career plans. 1 2 3 4 5 Helped me find professional direction. 1 2 3 4 5 Distracted me from my academic performance. 1 2 3 4 5

PAGE 131

121 Part Two: Student Development Scale The following are the same series of statemen ts that you answered before you left about social and interpersonal behavi or and attitudes of college st udents. The best answer to each statement is your personal opinion. There are no right or wrong answers. The survey covers many different and opposing points of view; you may find yourself strongly agreeing with some of the statements and st rongly disagreeing with others. Whether you agree or disagree with any st atement you can be sure that many other people feel the same as you do. In general, study abroad is a part of your ove rall college education. As a result of living and studying in a different culture, your at titudes and values may have changed as you experienced new things. If you have not experienced a situation described by a statement, answer on the basis of any sim ilar circumstances or experience(s) you have had or how you imagine you would answer if th e situation would come up. For example, if the statement is about “roommates” and you live at home or are married, answer in relation to the peopl e you do live with. Circle the number that corresponds to how much you agree or disagree with the statement. Please answer every question. Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I accept my friends as they are. 1 2 3 4 I would feel uncomfortable criticizing, to their face, someone I had dated a long time. 1 2 3 4 In my classes, I have met two kinds of people: those who are for the truth and those who are against the truth. 1 2 3 4 The instructors at UF do not treat the students like they are adults. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 132

122 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree As I have talked with faculty and adults about their different philosophies, there is probably only one which is correct. 1 2 3 4 I relate to most students as an equal. 1 2 3 4 It would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had sexual relations with another person before I met them. 1 2 3 4 I can enjoy myself without needing to have someone with me. 1 2 3 4 When I talk to my friends about my religious beliefs, I am very careful not to compromise with those who believe differently than I do. 1 2 3 4 I have to go out on a day every weekend. 1 2 3 4 My roommate has some habits that bother and annoy me very much. 1 2 3 4 I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work. 1 2 3 4 Most adults need to change their values and attitudes. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 133

123 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Sometimes I feel I have to make unnecessary apologies for my appearance or conduct to the person(s) I live with. 1 2 3 4 Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made to realize what they are doing is wrong. 1 2 3 4 I can tell my friends just about anything that is on my mind and know they will accept me. 1 2 3 4 I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was homosexual or bisexual. 1 2 3 4 My social life is satisfying to me. 1 2 3 4 One of the problems with my fellow students is they were not dealt with firmly when they were younger. 1 2 3 4 I relate with my parents on an adult-to-adult basis. 1 2 3 4 I do not disapprove of faculty or other adults getting drunk or high at parties. 1 2 3 4 My relationship with my roommate(s) is stagnating my own growth and potential. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 134

124 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I would not discontinue a love relationship if my partner did something I disapproved of. 1 2 3 4 I feel comfortable about telling a friend of the same sex “I love you,” without worrying they might get the wrong idea. 1 2 3 4 Most instructors teach as if there is just one right way to obtain a solution to a problem. 1 2 3 4 My relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before. 1 2 3 4 I personally find it sickening to be around my friends when they do not act in a mature manner. 1 2 3 4 My parents do not try to run my life. 1 2 3 4 Freedom of speech can be carried too far in terms of the ideal because some students and their organizations should have their freedom of speech restricted. 1 2 3 4 My friends view me as an independent, outgoing person in my relationship with them. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 135

125 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I’m glad to see most of my friends are not dressing like “bums” anymore. 1 2 3 4 I always hold back when I am at a party which consists of a diverse group of people. 1 2 3 4 I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children’s friends or values. 1 2 3 4 I encourage friends to drop in informally. 1 2 3 4 I only date people who are of the same religious background as me. 1 2 3 4 My roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please. 1 2 3 4 I think the person I am dating or “going with” should have friends outside of “our crowd.” 1 2 3 4 I have gotten to know some instructors as people—not just as faculty members. 1 2 3 4 I think students that get “high” and are caught should be treated like the lawbreakers they are. 1 2 3 4 I worry about not dating enough. 1 2 3 4

PAGE 136

126 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular. 1 2 3 4 I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my friends. 1 2 3 4 Part Three: Here’s your chance to share so me of your experiences and thoughts about studying abroad with me 1. What was/were your best experience(s)? 2. What was/were your worst experience(s)? 3. What was the most challeng ing aspect of studying abroad? 4. In what ways do you feel the progra m impacted your life? Please explain. 5. What did you learn about yourself? Please explain. 6. Which country or countries did you travel to during your study abroad trip?

PAGE 137

127 7. Is there anything else that you would lik e to share with me about your study abroad experience? Your time is greatly appreciated in completing this questionnaire!

PAGE 138

128 APPENDIX C FIRST EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY Dear 2005 Study Abroad Participant, I hope that you are excited about your upcoming study abroad trip! As you may remember at your study abroad orientation I told you about a st udy I would like you to take part in which is for my master’s thesis. The goal of the study is to understand some of the impacts that st udents experience from studying abroad. I am asking that you fill out one questionnaire before you leave and one questionnaire when you return. If you would like to consider participation, please click on the link below. You will see the informed consent form for this study firs t, please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. After you agree to participate in this study you will be directed to the questionnaire. Please fill out the questionnaire by typing in th e responses, and then click “submit” at the end of the questionnaire. You do not need to email it back as an attachment unless you have difficulties with filling out the questionnaire online. If you have any questions please contact me, Heather Robalik at hrobalik@hhp.ufl.edu. As always your help is very much appreciat ed. Without your input this study would not be possible. Sincerely, Heather Robalik Master’s Candidate http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/surveys/ hrobalik/index.pre.html

PAGE 139

129 APPENDIX D SECOND EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY Dear 2005 Study Abroad Participants, Thank you to those that have already complete d the questionnaire. For those of you that have not, I understand this is a busy time but I hope that you can spare a few minutes to take part in my study before you leave home. If you would like to consider participation, please click on the link below. You will see the informed consent form for this study firs t, please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. After you agree to participate in this study you will be directed to the questionnaire. Please fill out the questionnaire by typing in th e responses, and then click “submit” at the end of the questionnaire. You do not need to email it back as an attachment unless you have difficulties with filling out the questionnaire online. If you have any questions please contact me, Heather Robalik at hrobalik@hhp.ufl.edu. As always your help is very much appreciat ed. Without your input this study would not be possible. Sincerely, Heather Robalik Master’s Candidate http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/surveys/ hrobalik/index.pre.html

PAGE 140

130 APPENDIX E THIRD EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY Dear 2005 Study Abroad Participants, Welcome home! I hope that you had a safe f light home and have recovered from your study abroad trip. Thanks for filling out my survey before you left, now I am asking you to complete the second one, the post study abroad survey. As before, please click on the link below and access the online survey. You will see the informed consent form for this study first, please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. After you agree to participate in this study you will be directed to the questionnaire. Please fill out the questionnaire by typing in th e responses, and then click “submit” at the end of the questionnaire. You do not need to email it back as an attachment unless you have difficulties with filling out the questionnaire online. If you have any questions please contact me, Heather Robalik at hrobalik@hhp.ufl.edu. As always your help is very much appreciat ed. Without your input this study would not be possible. Sincerely, Heather Robalik Master’s Candidate http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/surveys/ hrobalik/post.index.html

PAGE 141

131 APPENDIX F FOURTH EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY Dear 2005 Study Abroad Participant, Thank you to those that have already complete d the questionnaire. For those of you that have not, I understand this is a busy time but I hope that you can spare some time to fill out the second questionnaire fo r my master’s research. As before, please click on the link below and access the online survey. You will see the informed consent form for this study first, please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. After you agree to participate in this study you will be directed to the questionnaire. Please fill out the questionnaire by typing in th e responses, and then click “submit” at the end of the questionnaire. You do not need to email it back as an attachment unless you have difficulties with filling out the questionnaire online. If you have any questions please contact me, Heather Robalik at hrobalik@hhp.ufl.edu. As always your help is very much appreciat ed. Without your input this study would not be possible. Sincerely, Heather Robalik Master’s Candidate http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/surveys/ hrobalik/post.index.html

PAGE 142

132 APPENDIX G STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS PRIOR TO STUDYING ABROAD Perception Statements Valid Percent N Mean1SD 1 2 3 4 5 Global Perspective2 Will contribute to my overall understanding of the country I will study in. 1.8 0.0 0.0 27.370.955 4.65 .67 Will increase my desire to work and/or study abroad in the future. 1.8 7.3 18.229.143.655 4.05 1.04 Will contribute to my understanding of other cultures. 1.8 0.0 3.6 25.569.155 4.60 .74 Will increase my curiosity about other cultures. 0.0 0.0 20.435.244.454 4.00 1.94 Will enhance my concern about problems with developing countries. 1.8 10.936.427.323.655 3.60 1.03 Will enhance my understanding of international issues. 1.8 3.6 21.830.941.855 4.07 .98 Will increase my appreciation of human difference. 0.0 3.6 16.434.545.555 4.22 .85 Will contribute and/or create a new understanding of critical social issues. 3.6 3.6 27.334.530.955 3.85 1.03 Will increase my level of comfort around people different from me. 3.6 3.6 18.229.145.555 4.09 1.06

PAGE 143

133 Perception Statements Valid Percent N Mean1SD 1 2 3 4 5 Personal Development Will enhance my self-reliance. 0.0 5.5 18.223.652.755 4.24 .94 Will increase my ability to cope with unfamiliar situations. 1.8 1.8 10.921.863.655 4.44 .90 Will increase my openmindedness. 0.0 0.0 18.229.152.755 4.35 .78 Will enhance my independence. 0.0 1.8 14.525.558.255 4.40 .81 Will increase my understanding of my own culture. 0.0 9.1 32.727.330.955 3.80 .99 Will enhance my desire to interact with a stranger. 0.0 12.736.429.121.855 3.60 .97 Will increase my feeling of personal effectiveness. 1.8 7.3 36.429.125.555 3.69 1.00 Will encourage me to seek out a more diverse group of friends. 1.8 18.230.927.321.855 3.49 1.09 Will help develop my leadership skills. 1.8 16.438.223.620.055 3.44 1.05 Intellectual Development Will increase my skills to communicate in the language of the host culture. 10.95.5 10.918.254.555 4.00 1.37 Will enhance my critical thinking skills. 3.6 9.1 34.529.123.655 3.60 1.07 Will improve my problemsolving skills. 0.0 14.833.333.318.554 3.33 1.94

PAGE 144

134 Perception Statements Valid Percent N Mean1SD 1 2 3 4 5 Professional Development Will favorably impress potential employers. 1.9 1.9 14.835.246.354 3.98 2.00 Will make me reconsider my career plans. 14.814.838.911.120.454 2.85 2.09 Will help me find professional direction. 9.3 7.4 31.525.925.954 3.29 2.08 Academics Will lead to an improvement of my academic performance. 7.3 20.034.520.018.255 3.22 1.18 Will distract me from my academic performance. 33.333.325.97.4 0.0 54 1.87 1.76 1Mean was based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = some, 4 = quite a lot, and 5 = very much. 2The italicized phrases describe the domain being measured.

PAGE 145

135 APPENDIX H STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AFTER STUDYING ABROAD Perception Statements Percentage (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 5 Global Perspective2 Contributed to my overall understanding of the country I studied in. 0.0 0.0 0.0 24.0 76.0 25 4.76 .44 Increased my desire to work and/or study abroad in the future. 0.0 8.0 16.0 32.0 44.0 25 4.12 .97 Contributed to my understanding of other cultures. 0.0 0.0 12.0 24.0 60.0 24 4.50 .72 Increased my curiosity about other cultures. 0.0 4.0 16.0 32.0 48.0 25 4.24 .88 Enhanced concern about problems with developing countries. 4.0 12.0 32.0 32.0 20.0 25 3.52 1.09 Enhanced my understanding of international issues. 4.0 0.0 36.0 24.0 36.0 25 3.88 1.05 Increased my appreciation of human difference. 4.0 8.0 12.0 52.0 24.0 25 3.84 1.03 Contributed and/or created a new understanding of critical social issues. 4.0 0.0 32.0 36.0 28.0 25 3.84 .99 Increased my level of comfort around people different from me. 0.0 0.0 32.0 24.0 44.0 25 4.12 .88

PAGE 146

136 Perception Statements Percentage (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 5 Personal Development Enhanced my self-reliance. 0.0 0.0 16.0 20.0 64.0 25 4.48 .77 Increased my ability to cope with unfamiliar situations. 0.0 0.0 8.0 36.0 56.0 25 4.48 .65 Increased my openmindedness. 0.0 0.0 12.0 24.0 64.0 25 4.52 .71 Enhanced my independence. 0.0 0.0 16.0 12.0 72.0 25 4.56 .77 Increased my understanding of my own culture. 0.0 4.0 32.0 28.0 36.0 25 3.96 .94 Enhanced my desire to interact with a stranger. 0.0 16.0 36.0 16.0 32.0 25 3.64 1.11 Increased my feeling of personal effectiveness. 0.0 8.0 16.0 36.0 40.0 25 4.08 .95 Encouraged me to seek out a more diverse group of friends. 4.0 8.0 24.0 28.0 36.0 25 3.84 1.14 Helped develop my leadership skills. 4.0 16.0 36.0 28.0 16.0 25 3.36 1.08 Intellectual Development Increased my skills to communicate in the language of the host culture. 8.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 52.0 25 4.00 1.32 Enhanced my critical thinking skills. 8.0 4.0 32.0 32.0 24.0 25 3.60 1.16 Improved my problem-solving skills. 8.0 4.0 24.0 40.0 20.0 24 3.63 1.14 Professional Development Will favorably impress potential employers. 0.0 0.0 20.0 24.0 56.0 25 4.36 .81

PAGE 147

137 Perception Statements Percentage (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 5 Made me reconsider my career plans. 12.0 12.0 28.0 24.0 24.0 25 3.36 1.32 Helped me find professional direction. 20.0 20.0 24.0 16.0 20.0 25 2.96 1.43 Academics Led to an improvement of my academic performance. 8.0 24.0 36.0 24.0 8.0 25 3.00 1.08 Distracted me from my academic performance. 32.0 16.0 36.0 12.0 4.0 25 2.40 1.19 1Mean was based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = some, 4 = quite a lot, and 5 = very much. 2The italicized phrases describe the domain being measured.

PAGE 148

138 APPENDIX I RESPONSES TO ITEMS ON THE TOLERAN CE SUB-SCALE BEFORE STUDYING ABROAD Development Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I accept my friends as they are.2 7.3 9.1 41.8 41.8 55 3.18 .88 In my classes, I have met two kinds of people: those who are for the truth and those who are against the truth. 7.3 16.4 45.5 21.8 55 2.91 .82 As I have talked with faculty and adults about their different philosophies, there is probably only one which is correct. 10.9 10.9 32.7 45.5 55 3.13 1.00 It would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had sexual relations with another person before I met them.2 9.1 18.2 14.5 58.2 55 3.22 1.05 When I talk to my friends about my religious beliefs, I am very careful not to compromise with those who believe differently than I do. 12.7 36.4 38.2 12.7 55 2.51 8.79 My roommate has some habits that bother and annoy me very much. 30.2 41.5 22.6 5.7 53 2.04 .88 Most adults need to change their values and attitudes. 7.3 29.1 60.0 3.6 55 2.60 6.83

PAGE 149

139 Development Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made to realize what they are doing is wrong. 9.1 12.7 25.5 52.7 55 3.22 .99 I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was homosexual or bisexual. 14.5 5.5 12.7 67.3 55 3.33 1.11 One of the problems with my fellow students is they were not dealt with firmly when they were younger. 9.1 29.1 50.9 10.9 55 2.64 .80 I do not disapprove of faculty or other adults getting drunk or high at parties.2 10.9 25.5 49.1 14.5 55 2.67 8.62 I would not discontinue a love relationship if my partner did something I disapproved of.2 9.3 31.5 51.9 7.4 54 2.57 .77 Most instructors teach as if there is just one right way to obtain a solution to a problem. 9.1 27.3 47.3 16.4 55 2.71 .85 I personally find it sickening to be around my friends when they do not act in a mature manner. 7.3 21.8 47.3 23.6 55 2.87 .86 Freedom of speech can be carried too far in terms of the ideal because some students and their organizations should have their freedom of speech restricted. 9.3 13.0 33.3 44.4 54 3.13 .97

PAGE 150

140 Development Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I'm glad to see most of my friends are not dressing like "bums" anymore. 13.0 18.5 50.0 18.5 54 2.74 .92 I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children's friends or values.2 29.6 46.3 18.5 5.6 54 2.00 .84 I only date people who are of the same religious background as me. 15.1 20.8 26.4 37.7 53 2.87 1.09 I think the person I am dating or "going with" should have friends outside of "our crowd."2 11.1 5.6 33.3 50.0 54 3.22 .98 I think students that get "high" and are caught should be treated like the lawbreakers they are. 16.7 40.7 22.2 20.4 54 2.46 1.00 1Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strong ly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4 = strongly disagree. 2Item was reverse coded

PAGE 151

141 APPENDIX J RESPONSES TO ITEMS ON THE TOLER ANCE SUB-SCALE AFTER STUDYING ABROAD Statement Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I accept my friends as they are. 2 0.0 4.2 33.3 62.5 24 3.58 .58 In my classes, I have met two kinds of people: those who are for the truth and those who are against the truth. 8.3 4.2 50.0 37.5 24 3.17 .87 As I have talked with faculty and adults about their different philosophies, there is probably only one which is correct. 4.2 8.3 25.0 62.5 24 3.46 .83 It would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had sexual relations with another person before I met them. 2 8.3 16.7 29.2 45.8 24 3.13 .99 When I talk to my friends about my religious beliefs, I am very careful not to compromise with those who believe differently than I do. 12.5 41.7 33.3 12.5 24 2.46 .88 My roommate has some habits that bother and annoy me very much. 8.3 58.3 33.3 0.0 24 2.25 .61 Most adults need to change their values and attitudes. 0.0 30.4 65.2 4.3 23 2.74 .55

PAGE 152

142 Statement Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made to realize what they are doing is wrong. 0.0 8.3 45.8 45.8 24 3.38 .65 I would discontinue my friendship with a person(s) I am close to if I found out my friend(s) was homosexual or bisexual. 4.2 0.0 20.8 75.0 24 3.67 .70 One of the problems with my fellow students is they were not dealt with firmly when they were younger. 4.2 20.8 54.3 20.8 24 2.92 .78 I do not disapprove of faculty or other adults getting drunk or high at parties. 2 8.3 62.5 20.8 33.3 24 2.29 .75 I would not discontinue a love relationship if my partner did something I disapproved of. 2 4.2 33.3 58.3 4.2 24 2.63 .65 Most instructors teach as if there is just one right way to obtain a solution to a problem. 0.0 12.5 75.0 12.5 24 3.00 .51 I personally find it sickening to be around my friends when they do not act in a mature manner. 0.0 25.0 41.7 33.3 24 3.08 .78 Freedom of speech can be carried too far in terms of the ideal because some students and their organizations should have their freedom of speech restricted. 0.0 8.3 58.3 33.3 24 3.25 .61

PAGE 153

143 Statement Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I'm glad to see most of my friends are not dressing like "bums" anymore. 8.7 39.1 39.1 13.0 23 2.57 .84 I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children's friends or values. 2 37.5 45.8 16.7 0.0 24 1.79 .72 I only date people who are of the same religious background as me. 16.7 29.2 20.8 33.3 24 2.71 1.12 I think the person I am dating or "going with" should have friends outside of "our crowd." 2 0.0 4.2 41.7 54.2 24 3.50 .59 I think students that get "high" and are caught should be treated like the lawbreakers they are. 4.2 41.7 20.8 33.3 24 2.83 .96 1Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strong ly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4 = strongly disagree. 2Item was reverse coded

PAGE 154

144 APPENDIX K RESPONSES TO THE QUALITY OF RE LATIONSHIPS SUB-SCALE BEFORE STUDYING AROAD Development Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I would feel uncomfortable criticizing, to their face, someone I had dated a long time. 12.7 32.7 34.5 20.0 0.0 2.62 .95 The instructors here do not treat the students like they are adults. 7.3 7.3 54.5 30.9 55 3.09 .82 I relate to most students as an equal.2 9.1 21.8 43.6 25.5 55 2.85 .91 I can enjoy myself without needing to have someone with me.2 7.3 7.3 32.7 52.7 55 3.31 .90 I have to go out on a day every weekend. 20.0 18.2 30.9 30.9 55 2.73 1.11 I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work. 10.9 41.8 45.5 1.8 55 2.38 .71 Sometimes I feel I have to make unnecessary apologies for my appearance or conduct to the person(s) I live with. 9.3 13.0 37.0 40.7 54 3.09 .96 I can tell my friends just about anything that is on my mind and know they will accept me.2 9.1 14.5 38.2 38.2 55 3.05 .99

PAGE 155

145 Development Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 My social life is satisfying to me.2 1.8 20.0 47.3 30.9 55 3.07 .77 I relate with my parents on an adult-to-adult basis.2 9.1 20.0 47.3 23.6 55 2.85 .89 My relationship with my roommate(s) is stagnating my own growth and potential. 7.4 22.2 27.8 42.6 54 3.06 .98 I feel comfortable about telling a friend of the same sex "I love you," without worrying they might get the wrong idea.2 16.7 5.6 25.9 51.9 54 3.13 1.16 My relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before.2 7.5 34.0 45.3 13.2 53 2.64 .81 My parents do not try to run my life.2 10.9 14.5 40.0 34.5 55 2.98 .97 My friends view me as an independent, outgoing person in my relationship with them.2 9.3 11.1 31.5 48.1 54 3.19 .97 I always hold back when I am at a party which consists of a diverse group of people. 3.7 27.8 38.9 29.6 54 2.94 .86 I encourage friends to drop in informally.2 11.1 13.0 37.0 38.9 54 3.04 .99 My roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please.2 13.0 16.7 68.5 1.9 54 3.46 1.04

PAGE 156

146 Development Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I have gotten to know some instructors as people—not just as faculty members.2 7.4 24.1 33.3 35.2 54 2.96 .95 I worry about not dating enough. 9.6 23.1 38.5 28.8 52 2.87 .95 I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular.2 9.3 3.7 22.2 64.8 54 3.43 .94 I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my friends. 5.6 9.3 25.9 59.3 54 3.39 .88 1Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strong ly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4 = strongly disagree. 2Item was reverse coded

PAGE 157

147 APPENDIX L RESPONSES TO THE QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIPS SUB-SCALE AFTER STUDYING ABROAD Statement Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I would feel uncomfortable criticizing, to their face, someone I had dated a long time. 8.3 25.0 37.5 29.2 24 2.88 .95 The instructors here do not treat the students like they are adults. 4.2 20.8 12.5 62.5 24 3.33 .96 I relate to most students as an equal. 2 0.0 12.5 54.2 33.3 24 3.21 .66 I can enjoy myself without needing to have someone with me. 2 4.2 0.0 33.3 62.5 24 3.54 .72 I have to go out on a day every weekend. 17.4 21.7 39.1 21.7 24 2.65 1.03 I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work. 12.5 41.7 25.0 20.8 24 2.54 1.00 Sometimes I feel I have to make unnecessary apologies for my appearance or conduct to the person(s) I live with. 0.0 16.7 37.5 45.8 24 3.29 .75 I can tell my friends just about anything that is on my mind and know they will accept me. 2 4.2 16.7 29.2 50.0 24 3.25 .90

PAGE 158

148 Statement Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 My social life is satisfying to me. 2 0.0 12.5 37.5 50.0 24 3.38 .71 I relate with my parents on an adult-to-adult basis. 2 4.2 20.8 33.3 41.7 24 3.13 .90 My relationship with my roommate(s) is stagnating my own growth and potential. 8.3 4.2 45.8 41.7 24 3.21 .88 I feel comfortable about telling a friend of the same sex "I love you," without worrying they might get the wrong idea. 2 16.7 12.5 4.2 66.7 24 3.21 1.22 My relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before. 2 4.3 34.8 34.8 26.1 23 2.83 .89 My parents do not try to run my life. 2 8.3 8.3 33.3 50.0 24 3.25 .94 My friends view me as an independent, outgoing person in my relationship with them. 2 0.0 4.2 37.5 58.3 24 3.54 .59 I always hold back when I am at a party which consists of a diverse group of people. 0.0 16.7 41.7 41.7 24 3.25 .74 I encourage friends to drop in informally. 2 4.2 8.3 33.3 54.2 24 3.38 8.24 My roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please. 2 0.0 0.0 20.8 79.2 24 3.79 .42

PAGE 159

149 Statement Percentages (%) N Mean1 SD 1 2 3 4 I have gotten to know some instructors as people—not just as faculty members. 2 4.2 33.3 37.5 25.0 24 2.83 .87 I worry about not dating enough. 12.5 25.0 33.3 29.2 24 2.79 1.02 I can just be with my friends without having to be doing anything in particular. 2 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 24 3.67 .48 I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my friends. 0.0 4.2 25.0 70.8 24 3.67 .57 1Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strong ly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4 = strongly disagree. 2Item was reverse coded

PAGE 160

150 LIST OF REFERENCES Adler, J. (1985). Youth on the road: Re flections on the hist ory of tramping. Annals of Tourism Research, 12 (3), 335-354. Armstrong, G.K. (1984). Life after study abroad: A survey of undergraduate academic and career choices. The Modern Language Journal 68 (1), 1-6. Babbie, E. (1995). The Practice of Social Research Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Barnhart, R., & Groth, L. (1987). The assessm ent of college student growth resulting from an international cour se and study experience. College Student Journal, 21 7885. Baty, R.M., & Dold, E. (1977). Cross cultural ho mestays; An analysis of college students responses after living in an unfamiliar culture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1 (1), 61-76. Braverman, D.G. (1987). The relationship of developmental level of new members to status and other characteristics of the fraternities they join Unpublished master’s thesis, The University of Iowa, Iowa City. Boyd, B.L., Giebler, C., Hince, M., Liu, Y., Mehta, N., Rash, R., Rowland, J., Saldana, C., & Yanta, Y. (2001, October). Does study abroad make a difference? An impact assessment of the internationa l 4-H youth exchange program. Journal of Extension, 39 (5). Retrieved August 30, 2005, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2001october/rb8.html Brodsky-Porges, E. (1981). The grand tour, travel as an educational device 1600-1800 Annals of Tourism Research 8 (2), 171-186. Carr, N. (2005). Poverty, debt, and cons picuous consumption: University students tourism experiences. Tourism Management, 26 797-806. Carsello, C., & Greaser, J. (1976). How co llege students change during study abroad. College Student Journal, 10 276-278. Chadee, D.D., and Cutler, J. (1996). Insight s into international travel by students. Journal of Travel Research, 35 (2), 75-80. Chickering, A.W. (1969). Education and identity (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

PAGE 161

151 Chickering, A.W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociol ogy of international tourism. Social Research, 39 (1), 164-182. Cohen, E. (1973). Nomads from affluence: Notes on the phenomenon of drifter tourism. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 14 (1-2), 89-103. Comenius Foundation. (n.d.). About John Amos Comenius Retrieved March 15, 2005, from http://www.comeniusfoundation.org/index.php?id=17 Commission on the Abraham Lincoln St udy Abroad Fellowship Program. (2005, November). Global competence and national needs: One million students studying abroad Retrieved January 10, 2006, from http://www.lincolncommission.org/Lincoln Report.pdf Comp, D., & Rhodes, G. (Eds.). (1989-2003). Research on U.S. students study abroad: An update, volume III, 2001-2003, with updates to the 1989 and volume II editions 2000-2003. Retrieved December 3, 2005, from Loyola Marymount University, the Center for Global Education’s Web site http://www.globaled.us/ro/book_research_comp.html Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Califor nia: Sage Publications Inc. Crust, S.L. (1998). Student involvement and study abroad: Exploring Astin’s theory in an overseas program in France Unpublished doctoral di ssertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. Dolby, N. (2004). Encountering an American self: Study abroad and national identity. Comparative Education Review 48 (2), 150-173. Dukes, R., Lockwood, E., Oliver, H., Pezalil a, C., & Wilker, C. (1994). A longitudinal study of a semester at sea voyage. Annals of Tourism Research, 21 (3), 489-498. Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Farrell, P., & Suvedi, M. (2003). Studyi ng abroad in Nepal: Assessing impact. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 9, 175-188. Gardner, D., & Witherell, S. (2003, November 17). American students study abroad in growing numbers: Despite economic and s ecurity concerns post-Sept 11, numbers continue to rise. Open Doors 2003: American Students Studying Abroad Retrieved December 4, 2005, from http://ope ndoors.iienetwork.org/?p=36524

PAGE 162

152 Gardner, D., & Witherell, S. (2004, November 15). Study abroad surging among American students: After Sept 11, interest in study abroad continues to grow rapidly. Open Doors 2004: American Students Studying Abroad. Retrieved March 19, 2005, from http://opendoors.iienetwork.org/?p=50138 Graburn, N. H. (1983). The anthropology of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 10 (3), 9-33. Gray, K.S., Murdock, G.K., & Stebbins, C.D. (2002). Assessing study abroad’s effect on an international mission. Change, 34 (3), 44-51 Hallowell, C.K. (1991). The measurement of developmenta l outcomes related to outdoor experiential leadership training of high school and college students Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Universi ty of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Herman, N.B. (1996). The impact of study abroad experiences on the psychosocial development of college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio University, Athens. Hood, A.B., & Jackson, L.M. (1997a). Devel oping autonomy invent ory. In A.B. Hood (ed.), The Iowa student development inventories (2nd ed., pp. 32-49). Iowa City, Iowa: Hitech Press. Hood, A.B., & Jackson, L.M. (1997b ). Developing competence inventory. In A.B. Hood (ed.), The Iowa student development inventories (2nd ed., pp. 5-21). Iowa City, Iowa: Hitech Press. Hood, A.B., & Mines, L.M. (1997). Mines-Jens en interpersonal relationships inventory. In A.B. Hood (ed.), The Iowa student development inventories (2nd ed., pp.50-64). Iowa City, Iowa: Hitech Press. Hunter, I.R., & Brown. (1991). The applica tion of inferential statistics with nonprobability type samples. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 16 (3), 234-243. Inglis, A., Rolls, C., & Kristy, S. (1998). Th e impact of participation in a study abroad programme on students’ conceptual understa nding of community health nursing in a developing country. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28 (4), 911-917. Institute of Interna tional Education. (n.d.). About IEE Retrieved August 30, 2005, from http://www.iie.org/Template.cfm?Secti on=Mission_and_Profile&Template=/Conte ntManagement/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=17948 Institute of International Education. (2003, November 3). Fall survey: The state of international educational exchange—International students Retrieved November 8, 2005, from http://opendoors.iien etwork.org/file_depot/0-10000000/010000/3390/ folder/28491/IIE+O nline+Survey+Fall+2003.doc

PAGE 163

153 James, N.E. (1976). Students abro ad: Expectations versus reality. Liberal Education, 62 (4), 599-607. King, P.M. (1990). Assessing development from a cognitive-developmental perspective. In D.G. Creamer and Associates (Eds.), College student development: Theory and practice for the 1990’s Alexandria, VA: American College Personnel Association. Koester, J. (1986). A profile of foreign la nguage majors who work, study, and travel abroad. The Modern Language Journal 70 (1), 21-27. Kuh, G.K., & Kauffmann, N.L. (1985). Th e impact of study abroad on personal development of college students. Journal of Internati onal Student Personnel, 2 (May), 6-10. Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S. (1982, November). The impact of study abroad on selected groups of students. Paper presented at the meeting of the Council on International Educational Exchange, New York. Lane, K. (2003). Report, Educators ca ll for more study abroad programs. Black Issues in Higher Education, 20 (22), 11-12. Loker-Murphy, L. (1996). Backpackers in Au stralia: A motivationbased segmentation study. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 5 (4), 23-45. Loker-Murphy, L., and Pearce, P.L. (1995) Young budget travelers: Backpackers in Australia. Annals of Tourism Research, 22 (4), 819843. Long, M.J. (1995). Relationships between psychologi cal development and attitudes toward gay men and lesbians in undergraduate college students Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Marion, P.B. (1978). Evaluation of study abroad (Report No. HE-005-386). Paper presented at the National Convention of the National Association of Foreign Student Affairs. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED089634) Martin, J.N. (1989). Predepar ture orientation: Prepari ng college sojourners for intercultural interaction. Communication Education, 38, 249-258. Martin, J.N., & Rohrlich, B. (1991). The relationship between study-abroad student expectations and selected student characteristics. Journal of College Student Development, 32 (1), 39-46. Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and personality. (2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row. Meyer, A.E. (1972). An educational history of the western world (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-

PAGE 164

154 Mines, R. A. (1977). Development and valida tion of the Mines-Jen sen Interpersonal Relationship Inventory (Iowa Student Development Project Technical Report #6). Unpublished manuscript, the Univ ersity of Iowa, Iowa City. Morgan, E.E., Jr. (1975). Study abroad: A process of adaptation and change. International Review of Education, 21 207-215. Murphy, L. (2001). Exploring social interactions of backpackers. Annals of Tourism Research, 28 50-67. Nash, D. (1976). The personal consequences of a year of study abroad. The Journal of Higher Education, 47 (2), 191-203. Noy, C. (2004). This trip really changed me : Backpackers’ narratives of self-change. Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (1), 78-102. Osler, A. (1998). European citizenship and study abroad: Student teachers' experiences and dentities. Cambridge Journal of Education, 28 (1), 77-97. Pearce, P.L. (1988). The Ulysses factor: Evaluating visitors in tourist settings. New York: Springer-Verlag. Pearce, P.L. (2003). Motivation for pleasure travel. In by Goeldner, C.R., and, J.R. Ritchie, B. (eds.), Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (9th ed., pp. 241259). Hoboken, New Jersey: Jon Wiley & Sons Inc. Pfinster, A.O. (1972). Everyone overseas: Goshen College pioneers. International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 8 (2), 1-12. Riley, P.J. (1988). Road culture of inte rnational long-term budget travelers. Annals of Tourism Research, 15 (3), 313-328. Roeming, R. (1971). Travel. In Deighton, L.C. (Ed.), The encyclopedia of education (Vol. 4, p. 70). New York: Macmillan. Ryan, C. (1998). The travel ca reer ladder: An appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research, 25 (4), 936-957. Sideli, K., Berg, M.V., Rubin, D.L., & Sutt on, R.C. (n.d.). Electronic sampling results: Survey #2: Outcomes assessment and study abroad programs. SECUSSA Data Collection Working Group Retrieved August 30, 2005, from, http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/ samplingresults2.html Smith-Eggeman, B. (1993). A study of a relativ e influence of cooperative education on college students’ development of interpersonal relationships Unpublished doctoral disseration, University of Nort hern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado.

PAGE 165

155 Snmez, S.F., & and Graefe, A.R. (1998). In ternational vacation d ecision and terrorism risk. Annals of Tourism Research, 25 (1), 122-124. Sorenson, A. (2003). Backpacker ethnography. Annals of Tourism Research, 30 (4), 847867. STA Travel. (n.d.). Living abroad. Retrieved December 3, 2005, from http://www.statravel.com/Statra vel/centermain.aspx?MenuID=9000 Stephenson, S. (1999). Study abroad as a transf ormational experience and its effect upon study abroad students and host na tionals in Santiago, Chile. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5 Retrieved December 3, 2005, from http://www.frontiersjournal.com /issues/vol5/vol5-01_Stephenson.pdf Taub, D.J. (1993). The puzzle of autonomy: An explorati on of the relations hip of selected factors to undergraduate women’s development of autonomy Doctoral dissertation, The University of Maryla nd, College Park, Maryland. Todd, S. (2001). Self-concept: A tourism application Journal of Consumer Behavior, 1 (2), 184-196. Trease, G. (1965). The grand tour. London: Heinemann. Tymitz, J.P. (n.d.). Message from the ceo. Retrieved April 14, 2005, from http://www.semesteratsea.com/aboutus/message.html University of Calgary. (n.d.). Student development theory. Retrieved December 3, 2005, from Student and Academic Service’s Web site http://www.ucalgary.ca/sas/sa s_site/ student_dev.html University of Florida In ternational Center. (n.d.). UFIC mission statement Retrieved December 3, 2003, from http://www.ufic.ufl.edu Vogt, J.W. (1976). Wandering: Youth and travel behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 4 (1), 25-41. White, D.B., & Hood, A.B. (1989). An assessment of the validity of Chickering’s theory of student development. Journal of College Student Development, 30 354-361.

PAGE 166

156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Heather Anne Robalik was born on Fe bruary 20, 1977, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She attended Elon University in Elon, North Carolina, where her major was leisure/sport management. After a se mester abroad in London, England, and an internship in Naples, Italy, she realized how transformative the experiences were and consequently decided to attend the Univ ersity of Florida to study tourism.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014293/00001

Material Information

Title: Study Abroad: Impacts and Contributions to Student Development
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014293:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014293/00001

Material Information

Title: Study Abroad: Impacts and Contributions to Student Development
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014293:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












STUDY ABROAD: AN EXPLORATION OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT AND
STUDENT PERCEPTIONS















By

HEATHER ANNE ROBALIK


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Heather Anne Robalik

































I would like to dedicate this project in loving memory of my grandmother, Anna Mary
Leeper, who has inspired me to continually strive to be the best person I can be and not to
waste a single day.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

L IS T O F T A B L E S ........ .................... .. ........ .................................................... .. v ii

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................... ................................ viii

ABSTRACT .............. ......................................... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

State ent of the P problem ............................................................................. ....... .5
Purpose of the Study ............... ................... ..............................7.
Theoretical Rationale .................. .............................. ....... ...............
R research Q u estion s............ ............................................................ ...... .. .......20

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................ ........................ 23

Evolution of Y outh Travel ......................................................................... 23
The G rand Tour ......................................... ........ ....... .. .......... .. 23
T ram p in g ....................................................... ................ 2 8
Long-Term Budget Travelers .................................................... ..................29
B ackpacker ............................................................... .. ... ......... 3 1
Stu dy A broad ................................................................................... 34
P personal D evelopm ent ........................................................................... ........... 44
G e n d e r ......................................................................... 4 6
Previous Overseas Experience ........................................ ........................ 48
Duration of Program .................. ........................ .... ...... ................. 49
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................... 5 1

3 M E T H O D S ........................................................................................................... 5 2

D ata C o lle ctio n ..................................................................................................... 5 2
P a rtic ip a n ts ........................................................................................................... 5 5
Before Travel ............................................. ...................55
A fte r T rav e l ................................................................................................... 6 1
In strum ent ................................................... ........ ..................... 6 1
Michigan State University Study Abroad Inventory .......................................61
Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory ........................................63









Demographics and Open-Ended Questions.............. ....................................65
D ata A nalysis................................................... 65

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................6 8

Perceptions of the Study Abroad Experience..... ............................68
Pre-travel G group ........................................ ................. .... ....... 68
Post-travel Group ................................................... ........ .....71
Student Development and Study Abroad ....................................... ............... 72
Pre-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale .................................... ............... 72
Post-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale................................................... .....75
Pre-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale .....................................76
Post-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale................ .......... 79
Gender and Student Development.. ...................... ...................80
Tolerance Sub-scale.................. ........... ... ............ ..... ............. 80
Quality of Relationships Sub-scale .............. ............................... ................ 80
Previous Overseas Experience and Student Development .........................................81
Tolerance Sub-scale.................. ........... ... ............ ..... ............. 81
Quality of Relationships Sub-scale .............. ........... ......... ............... 81
Duration of Program and Student Development ................. ............ ............... 82
Tolerance Sub-scale .................. ........... ... ............ ..... ............. 82
Quality of Relationships Sub-scale .............. ........... ......... ............... 83
Open-ended Questions .................. ............................. ...... .. .......... .... 83
Pre-travel G group ........................................ ................. .... ....... 83
P o st-trav el G rou p ............. ............................................................ .. .... .. ... .. 86
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................... 9 2

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ............................................. ............... 93

Perceptions.......................................................................... ........ ...... 93
Student D evelopm ent .................. ........................................ .. ............ 96
G en d e r ...................................... .......................................................9 8
Previous O overseas Experience......................................................... ............... 99
D duration of Program ................................................................... 100
Sum m ary and Im plications ................................................................................. 100
Recommendations for Further Research ...................................... ............... 101
L im itatio n s .......................................................................................................... 1 0 2
D elim stations .................................................................................................. ......103
C onclu sion ..................................................................................................... 104

APPENDIX

A PRE-TEST QUESTIONN A IRE ...................................... ....................... .. .......... 105

B POST-TEST QUESTIONN AIRE .................................. ....................................... 117

C FIRST EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY............................128



v









D SECOND EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY .............129

E THIRD EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY................130

F FOURTH EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY .............131

G STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS PRIOR TO STUDYING ABROAD....................132

H STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS AFTER STUDYING ABROAD............................135

I RESPONSES TO ITEMS ON THE TOLERANCE SUB-SCALE BEFORE
STU D Y IN G A B R O A D ......... ................. ...................................... ...................... 138

J RESPONSES TO ITEMS ON THE TOLERANCE SUB-SCALE AFTER
STUDYING ABROAD ...................... ................................... ...............141

K RESPONSES TO THE QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIPS SUB-SCALE
BEFORE STUDYING AROAD ........................................ ......................... 144

L RESPONSES TO THE QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIPS SUB-SCALE AFTER
STUD YING ABROAD .............. ................................................................... 147

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ............................................ ........................... ....................150

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................ ........................ 156
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

3-1 Respondent Profile for the Pre-test Sample .................................. ............... 55

3-2 Major or Intended Major Prior to Studying Abroad .............. ..........................56

3-3 Destinations Visited Prior to Studying Abroad.......................................... ....58

3-4 Countries to be Visited During Study Abroad ............................... ............... .59

4-1 Comparison of Impacts Before and After Studying Abroad...............................69

4-2 Comparison of Tolerance Sub-scale Before and After Studying Abroad................73

4-3 Comparison of Quality of Relationships Sub-scale Before and After Studying
A b ro a d ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ..................................................7 7
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pge

1-1 The Seven V sectors ................................................. ...............10

2-1 The Backpacker Phenomenon: An Evolutionary Framework...............................24
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

STUDY ABROAD: AN EXPLORATION OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT AND
STUDENT PERCEPTIONS

By

Heather Anne Robalik

May 2006

Chair: Heather Gibson
Major Department: Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management

It is generally considered that study abroad programs are educationally beneficial to

students. However, while various aspects of studying abroad have been investigated, few

of these studies have been grounded in any form of developmental theory. The purpose

of this study was to investigate the relationship between study abroad participation and

student development. Furthermore, this study examined gender, previous overseas travel

experience, and duration of the study abroad experience.

Two groups were evaluated, a pre-travel group and a post-travel group. Student

perceptions were divided into five areas: personal development, academics, professional

development, global perspective, and intellectual development. Student development

was divided into two areas: tolerance and quality of relationships. Frequencies were the

primary analysis tools; content analysis was used to reveal patterns in the open-ended

questions.









Differences in level of development were found by gender within the pre-travel

group as well as in the post-travel group. Differences were also found by previous

overseas experience within the pre-travel group and in the post-travel group. Finally,

differences were found by duration of program within the pre-travel group but could not

be evaluated in the post-travel group. Results from the open-ended questions revealed

that language acquisition skills, self-exploration and the cultural experience in general

were the primary motivations for studying abroad. Participants also revealed that they

were most looking forward to experiencing a different culture, meeting new people, and

self-exploration during the study abroad trip. Based on participant responses, prior to

their study abroad programs students felt adequately prepared, while one third did not,

and the rest had mixed emotions. Participants felt most nervous about being far from

home, terrorism, and language barriers. Upon reflection, participants felt that cultural

immersion in general was the best experience of studying abroad. In comparison,

cultural differences and not being accepted by the locals were cited as the worst

experiences. Participants also felt that communication and adjustment issues were the

most challenging aspects of studying abroad. Students reported that the biggest impacts

from the study abroad experience were related to personal changes. Finally, self-

confidence and a sense of newfound independence were identified by the students as the

most important characteristics that they learned about themselves.

This study may be the first to consider a student development theory in a study

abroad context. Regarding the practical applications of this study, practitioners and

researchers alike will be able to use this information to support the benefits experienced

as a result of studying abroad.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The idea of travel as a form of education has a long history. Indeed, early

philosophers such as Mencius (372-289 B.C.) noted the importance of travel by saying,

"to see once is better than to read a hundred times" (cited in Brodsky-Porges, 1981,

p. 174). In the 17th Century Jan Amos Comenius proposed an education system in which

the last two years of study for students were spent seeking freedom and enrichment

through travel (Comenius Foundation, n.d.; Meyer, 1972), in fact, it was during the

1630's that the Grand Tour evolved. Over the next 150 years, young, wealthy

Englishmen were sent abroad on a Grand Tour. This time spent in other countries was

perceived as a finishing school beyond the formal classroom (Brodsky-Porges). While

the Grand Tour was regarded as an integral part of the formal education of young Britons,

in America, young males were discouraged from traveling to Europe. It was considered a

betrayal to the American spirit to send its sons to the old world. However, as the anti-

European sentiments declined with the termination of the Napoleonic hostilities, the

yearly transatlantic journeys to Europe commenced and are still part of the lifestyle of

many young college students today (Brodsky-Porges). In fact, since the 1991-1992

academic school year, the number of U.S. students studying abroad for credit has more

than doubled from 71,154 to 174,629, an increase of 145% (Gardner & Witherell, 2004).

Scholars such as Noy (2004), Graburn (1983) and Brodsky-Porges (1981) suggest

that youth travel may comprise a rite of passage into adulthood for young adults. Many

young people want to learn about themselves, other people and cultures. Vogt (1976)









supports this contention and suggests that such "travel experience is seen as providing the

necessary challenges and opportunities to expand oneself in areas valued by adventurous

youth; independence, adaptability, resourcefulness, open-mindedness..." (p. 28). Due to

the basic elements of living and learning in a foreign country, it is expected that a student

will grow and change from a study abroad experience (Inglis, Rolls, & Kristy, 1998).

Vogt suggests that through travel, growth is sought and achieved in four major ways;

stimulation and intensity in daily life, autonomy in decision-making, intense interpersonal

relations and learning about the world and self. In addition, hardships and difficulties

that are overcome while traveling allow youth to develop a heightened sense of

confidence (Noy, 2004). Vogt explains that the challenge of novel situations and

environments necessitates that the traveler must exist in a new way, thus questioning the

self and consequently learning more about his or her own identity and abilities.

Moreover, a benefit of travel when considered, as a form of physical and emotional

escape is that it can prompt a personal reawakening. This renaissance enables a person to

return to his/her established environment with fresh vivacity and alertness.

The literature shows that young travelers have a variety of feelings regarding their

travel experiences (Todd, 2001). There is a pervasive belief that international travel

changes people's lives both personally and professionally (STA Travel, n.d.).

International travel experiences clearly affect youth and the literature tends to support the

idea that travel is beneficial (Armstrong, 1984; Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser,

1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Martin, 1989; Nash, 1976; Noy,

2004; Todd). Students who participate in study abroad programs experience a heightened

international outlook and personal development (Barnhart & Groth, 1987; Carsello &









Greaser; Dukes, Lockwood, Oliver, Pezalila, & Wilker, 1994; Farrell & Suvedi; Inglis et

al., 1998). A review of the literature informs us that study abroad and its impacts is a

topic that is growing in importance and relevance. For example, the ways in which study

abroad affects alternative language acquisition, self-esteem, self-confidence, emotional

maturity, academic success, peer relationships, and many others have been evaluated

(Inglis et al.).

The participation rates suggest that the number of students studying abroad is

increasing (Gardner & Witherell, 2004; Stephenson, 1999). Particularly, American

students are beginning to recognize the value of study abroad in an internationally inter-

reliant world (Gardner & Witherell). While the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

suppressed much international pleasure travel among Americans, in contrast, 9/11

stimulated interest in study abroad programs among U.S. students (Gardner & Witherell).

It appears among students that a legacy of this national tragedy has been an elevated need

to understand the importance of global affairs. During the first complete school year

following the attacks of 9/11 (academic year 2002-2003), the number of American

college and university students earning credit abroad increased by 8.5% from the

preceding academic year (Gardner & Witherell).

Not only are more and more American students studying abroad, but the diversity

in destinations visited is also increasing (Institute of International Education, 2003).

Historically, most students studied in Western Europe. While the United Kingdom, Italy

and Spain are still the top study abroad destinations for American students, less

traditional destinations are growing in popularity. During the 2001-2002 academic

school year, uncommon destinations like China saw a 33% increase in student visitors up









to a total of 3,911. Japan experienced a 21% increase to 3,168 students, and the Czech

Republic received 30% more student visitors totaling 1,659. In addition, since 1985

Latin America has seen their student visitor population more than double when compared

to the 2001-2002 academic school year (Gardner & Witherell, 2003).

The 8.5% increase in American students earning credit for study abroad during the

academic year 2002-2003 denotes stronger growth than the preceding year's 4.4%

increase. This increase is a strong indicator of the growing interest in studying abroad,

both in the face of, and in reaction to the shifting geopolitical climate subsequent to

September 11, 2001 (Boyd et al., 2001; Gardner & Witherell, 2004). However, although

the study abroad numbers are steadily increasing, still only 1% of all American students

study abroad. As a result, educators are calling for more support to encourage more

students to study abroad (Lane, 2003). One stated goal in higher education is to increase

student participation in study abroad to 20% by the year 2010 and 50% by the year 2040

(Lane). The Institute of International Education (n.d.) argues, "peace and prosperity in

the 21st Century depend on increasing the capacity of people to think and work on a

global and intercultural basis. As technology opens borders, educational and professional

exchange opens minds." The mission statement for the University of Florida's

International Center is consistent with this philosophy as it emphasizes the importance of

enhancing the educational experience and environment of its students by promoting a

global perspective (University of Florida International Center, n.d.). Therefore, not only

is student interest steadily increasing, the academic community is increasingly

recognizing the need to provide programs that allow their students opportunities to travel

abroad as they value global awareness.









Statement of the Problem

Chadee and Cutler (1996) assert, "international travel by students remains a

neglected area of research." A review of the literature indicates that the issue of study

abroad and the effects of such programs on students have been written about at length

(Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Inglis et al., 1998), however, very little of this research has been

grounded in any student development theory and overall, lacks systematic investigation

(Dukes et al., 1994). As a result, empirical studies that have utilized student development

theories in relation to study abroad are extremely scarce. A theoretical framework that

may be of specific use in enhancing our understanding of some of the effects on students

that accrue from studying abroad is located in psychosocial student development.

Conceivably the most widely accepted and influential theory of student development is

Chickering and Reisser's (1993) student development model. This model is based on

Chickering's (1969) work, although the revised version encompasses advances in

research and other theoretical influences over the last 25 years (Chickering & Reisser;

University of Calgary, n.d.). This theoretical perspective "provides a framework for

thinking systematically about students' developmental patterns and makes concrete

suggestions for fostering growth in areas such as interpersonal relationships, identity,

purpose and integrity" (Chickering & Reisser, inside cover). As a result, this framework

appears to be the most logical and meaningful way to assess student development and

study abroad. Despite the importance and wide use of Chickering and Reisser's student

development theory of identity in a variety of educational settings, it has never been used

to comprehensively assess the impact and outcomes as experienced by study abroad

participants. Consequently, the marriage of this robust and greatly utilized theoretical

framework with an increasingly popular form of alternative education (study abroad) may









provide some potentially valuable insights. Accordingly, this study attempted to take the

first steps to bridge a gap in the existing literature. However, due to the lack of survey

participants, an analysis of change in student development is not possible; descriptive

information only is provided for the pre-travel group and the post-travel group.

Most research on the benefits of study abroad is anecdotal; there is a need for

empirical research to illustrate the outcomes (Inglis et al., 1998). This study contributes

to the body of knowledge that exists regarding student outcomes and study abroad, while

being the first study to be guided by Chickering and Reisser's (1993) student

development theory of identity. Some of the literature suggests that gender and previous

international travel experience does not appear to influence the outcomes for students

from study abroad (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). However, Chickering and Reisser suggest

that males and females develop at different rates. This study examined the impact of

gender on student development and study abroad. In addition, Inglis et al. report that the

length of the program abroad impacts the long-term benefits experienced by students. A

final aspect under consideration was previous overseas travel experience; Pearce (1988)

suggests that prior travel experiences impacts the choices and experience individuals

make when traveling. For example, more experienced travelers tend to be less concerned

about safety and security and more concerned with self-actualization needs. Indeed,

Sonmez and Graefe (1998) found that previous travel experiences impacts future

decisions as well as future experiences. Consequently, this study hoped to contribute to

the body of literature regarding developmental differences by gender, previous overseas

experience as well as differences by duration of program. Once again however, due to

the lack of survey participants, an analysis of differences before and after the travel









experience was not possible; descriptive information only is provided for the pre-travel

group and the post-travel group.

The results of such a study hold many potential implications for programming,

curriculum design, and recruitment among other facets for improving study abroad

experiences. Overall, most studies that consider study abroad and its effects on students

report participants are impacted in positive ways (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). After

studying abroad, students are more likely to engage in on-campus programs that are

designed to broaden their international understanding (Gray, Murdock, & Stebbins,

2002). Additionally, study abroad participants experience a heightened interest in the

welfare of others, increased feelings of well-being and self-confidence, and an interest in

reflective thought (Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). Almost collectively, participants felt that

the study abroad experience helped them to realize their potential, and that they had a

deeper understanding of the world and its people (Dukes et al., 1994).

When a student development theory is adopted and applied to practice, the student

service being provided will be the most effective. Without a theoretical and an empirical

grounding, practitioners may design programs that do not help students reach their full

potential through study abroad.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between study abroad

participation and student development. Study abroad participation constituted

undergraduate and graduate students enrolled during the 2005 fall term that participated

in university sponsored study abroad programs. Student development was measured

according to the fourth vector of Chickering and Reisser's (1993) student development

theory: Developing Mature, Interpersonal Relationships. Furthermore, this study









examined the relationship between gender, previous overseas travel experience, and

duration of the study abroad experience on student development.

Theoretical Rationale

The student populations of the U.S. and the developmental tasks they face are more

varied and multifaceted than ever (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998). One of the

most widely known and accepted psychosocial student development theories is

Chickering's (1969) student development theory of identity. In 1993, Chickering and

Reisser introduced a revised version of Chickering's theory based on 25 years of research

and theory development and advancement. This revised framework formed the

foundation for this study.

Chickering and Reisser's student development theory of identity suggests that

human development consists of seven "vectors," these are: Developing competence,

managing emotions, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, developing

mature interpersonal relationships, establishing identity, developing purpose, and

developing integrity.

The development of today's college student involves a complex process. Just as

the typical college student does not necessarily progress through their curriculum as

scheduled, neither does their development fit into an organized predictable path.

However, the seven vectors of development can be utilized as a map to help researchers

and practitioners determine the stage of a student's development as well at the direction

in which they are moving. The purpose of the vectors is that they explain key avenues

for journeying in the direction of individuation. This includes a person's discovery and

continual enhancement of themselves, of relationships, and of people around them and

around the world. Chickering and Reisser (1993) suggest that ultimately all students will









move through the seven vectors, despite the fact that each student will maneuver in a

different way, with varying modes and self-chosen diversions.

Movement along any single vector can take place at various rates and can

intermingle with advancement along the others. Every movement from "lower" to

"higher" produces greater skill, awareness, complexity, confidence, integration, and

stability, although it does not prohibit an unintentional or deliberate return to areas

already navigated. Chickering and Reisser (1993) presume that "higher" is better than

"lower," for the reason that in tallying the strengths and skills encompassed by the

vectors, students mature in strength, versatility, and the aptitude to adjust when

unanticipated obstacles or drawbacks emerge. Chickering and Reisser suggest that

university and college students carry out habitual themes: Learning control and

flexibility, gaining competence and self-awareness, finding one's vocation or voice,

balancing intimacy with freedom, making commitments as well as refining beliefs.

In terms of assessment it is especially important not to oversimplify the stages of

development a college student may go through. As previously stated, it is unlikely that a

person will fit neatly into one stage, instead there could be overlap or relapse (King,

1990). Therefore it is imperative to identify where a person is holistically, rather than to

identify the stage or vector of development within which a student is perceivably located.

Therefore, the seven vectors should be considered as building blocks to the foundation

for human development, rather than a limited linear model of sequential steps (Figure 1-

1). However, the measurement protocol for all seven vectors is extensive. This is due to

the time constraints of respondents, and in the anticipation of a higher response rate, this

study focused only on one of Chickering and Reisser's vectors. The fourth vector,









Developing Mature Personal Relationships was chosen due to its perceived relevant

relationship with some elements of studying abroad. For example, the development of

mature relationships includes acceptance and admiration of differences, and can be seen

in an intercultural context. The foundation for this vector is one's ability to react to

people based on them as individuals, rather than as typecasts. Eventually, the person may

value differences in close relationships. This may ultimately transfer to general

acquaintances and then to those from other countries and cultures.


Developing
Competence
Developing
Managing Emotions Purpose


Moving through Establishing Identity
Autonomy toward
Interdependence


Developing Mature Developing
Interpersonal Integrity
Relationships


-New Students- -Graduating Undergraduate Students- -Graduate Students-


Figure 1-1. The Seven Vectors

The Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory measured social development.

The Inventory was created to measure Chickering and Reisser's fourth vector (Hood &

Mines, 1997), Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships. The developmental phase

of interpersonal relationships is comprised of two areas: (1) improved tolerance and

respect for people of different values, backgrounds, and lifestyles, and (2) a change in the









quality of relationships with close family and friends, moving from dependence through

independence toward an interdependence that allows for a greater level of personal

freedom.

Although the seven vectors should not necessarily be viewed as a linear model, it is

helpful to recognize that there is a generally acceptable timeframe of development.

Figure 1-1 illustrates that first and second year college students usually progress through

the first four vectors, developing competence, managing emotions, moving through

autonomy toward interdependence and developing mature interpersonal relationships

(Chickering & Reisser, 1993). Third and fourth year college students usually experience

the fifth vector, establishing identity. The final vectors, the fifth and sixth, developing

purpose and developing integrity are typically experienced by graduate students or soon

after graduation.

First vector: Developing competence. Three types of competence are cultivated

during the college years, they are: intellectual competence, physical and manual skills,

and interpersonal competence. (a) Intellectual competence is proficiency in utilizing the

mind. It entails expanding artistic and intellectual sophistication, mastering subject

matter, and, primarily, constructing a range of skills to understand, evaluate, and

synthesize. Intellectual competence also involves cultivating new frames of reference so

as to assimilate additional points of view and function as more sufficient formations for

interpreting our experiences and observations. (b) Physical and manual competence may

include artistic and athletic achievements, making and designing intangible items, and

increasing fitness, self-discipline, and physical strength. Creation and competition

promote feelings to emerge as projects and performances are put on view for others'









endorsement or disapproval. Chickering and Reisser suggest that leisure activities may

develop into lasting interests and consequently become part of one's identity.

Interpersonal competence includes not just the abilities of communicating, listening, and

cooperating successfully, but in addition the more complex task of listening without

distraction to another person and providing a proper response, to bring into line

individual agendas along with the objectives of the group, and to select from numerous

strategies in order to aid in the prosperity of a relationship or a group meeting.

Consequently, when students' feelings of competence flourish as they realize how

to have faith in their capabilities, receive reliable comments from others, and are able to

put together their skills into a solid confidence, they have more than likely moved

through the first vector.

Second vector: Managing emotions. Regardless of whether a student is new or

returning back to school from time off, most experience feelings of anger, hurt, fear,

boredom, tension, and longing; these feelings have the potential to disrupt the educational

progression when they become overwhelming or extreme. However, these emotions

simply need to be managed. This can be accomplished by being responsive and

recognizing them as warning signs.

Chickering and Reisser explain that it may be a challenge to accept that a small

amount of boredom and tension is typical and that anxiety can help performance.

Development occurs when students learn to manage these emotions by dealing with fears

before they are immobilized, finding healthy channels to release irritation before they

blow up, and healing emotional damage before other relationships are contaminated. The

challenge is for the student to get in touch with their emotions and learn to exercise self-









regulation rather than repression. Some students are closed and need to open up, while

others may be considered an open book and their undertaking is to develop adaptable

controls. As self-discipline and self-expression acquire balance, perception and

integration ideally support each other.

Positive feelings must also be considered, although instead of learning to manage

them, they should be brought into the consciousness and permitted to exist. It is essential

that students learn to equalize self-assertive tendencies, which include surpassing the

boundaries of the individual self, recognizing or connecting with another, or feeling part

of bigger whole.

Third vector: Moving through autonomy toward interdependence. An

important step in the development process for college students is realizing how to

perform with relative self-sufficiency, to be less influenced by others' judgments, and to

take responsibility for following self-chosen goals. Advancement requires emotional and

instrumental independence, and subsequently acknowledgment and acceptance of

interdependence. (a) Emotional independence can be defined, as autonomy from repeated

and urgent needs for approval, affection, or reassurance. It commences with the parting

from parents and continues through dependence on friends, unrelated adults, and

institutional or professional reference groups. It concludes in the lessening of need for

such supports and improved willingness to jeopardize the loss of status or friends in

exchange for the pursuit of strong interests or position on beliefs. (b) Instrumental

independence is comprised of two chief factors: having the capacity to be mobile and the

aptitude to manage activities and to work out problems in a self-sufficient manner.

Additionally, it indicates developing that volitional piece of the self that is able to think









analytically and individually and can then decipher ideas into concentrated action. It also

entails learning to get from one destination to another without having to be handheld or

given specific instructions, as well as to locate the information or means essential in order

to realize personal desires and needs.

Achieving autonomy concludes in the realization that one cannot function in a

vacuum and that superior autonomy allows improved types of interdependence. New

relationships founded on reciprocity and equality substitutes the outdated, less

deliberately chosen ones. Relationships with parents are modified. Interpersonal

circumstances expand to consist of the world, society and the community. The yearning

for inclusion and the desire to be autonomous become better balanced. Interdependence

denotes respecting the independence of others and trying to discover ways to give and

take with an always-growing network of friends.

Fourth vector: Developing mature interpersonal relationships. The fourth

vector is the focus of this study. According to Chickering (1969), the fourth vector is

comprised of two elements, (1) improved tolerance and esteem for people of diverse

upbringings, values, and life styles, and (2) a change in the quality of relationships with

intimate friends and loved ones. Improved tolerance can be defined as an openness to

and acceptance of diversity, resulting in the expansion of a person's sensitivities and

options for rewarding relationships. The adjustment in the quality of relationships with

friends refers to moving from dependence through independence toward interdependence,

which gives a person a wider choice of freedom of movement and behavior (Mines,

1977). Young adults are influenced by friends, adults, and loved ones. As freeing of

interpersonal relationships evolves, people react differently to them. Friendships grow









stronger and people choose to spend more time with select friends rather than

participating in a large group activity. Additionally, relationships with adults become

easier.

The development of mature relationships entails acceptance and admiration of

differences, as well as having a capability for intimacy. Acceptance can be seen in an

interpersonal as well as an intercultural context. At its core is one's ability to react to

people based on them as individuals, rather than as typecasts. Eventually, valuing

differences in close relationships will transfer to general acquaintances and then to those

from other countries and cultures. Awareness, openness, breadth of experience,

inquisitiveness, and impartiality facilitate students' ability to cultivate first impressions,

minimize prejudice and ethnocentrism, foster empathy and selflessness, and get pleasure

from diversity.

As well as increased acceptance, the aptitude for healthy intimacy grows. For the

majority of youthful couples, each is the narcissus. Gratifying relationships usually

require geographic proximity, "so that each can nod to the other and in the reflection

observe himself or herself" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 48). Cultivating mature

relationships encompasses selflessness, as well as the aptitude to choose relationships that

are healthy. Additionally, long-term commitments are based on unconditional regard,

responsiveness, and honesty. Better capacity for intimacy includes an adjustment in the

quality of relationships from too much dominance or dependence toward interdependence

amongst equals. Development can be defined as less clinging and more profound

sharing, being more selective in finding nurturing relationships, increased appreciation of









qualities and more acceptance of imperfections, and increased enduring relationships that

thrive through separation, crises, and distance.

Fifth vector: Establishing identity. Developing identity could be compared to the

putting together of a jigsaw puzzle. The formation of identity depends partially on the

four vectors previously mentioned. It is the progression of discovering at what degrees of

frequency and intensity, with what types of experience, we resound in satisfying, in

secure, or in self- detrimental ways. Seven components exist in the development of

identity: (1) contentment with body and appearance, (2) acceptance of sexual orientation

and gender, (3) sense of self in a historical, social, and cultural perspective, (4)

explanation of self-concept through life-style and roles, (5) sense of self in reaction to

feedback from esteemed friends, family and others, (6) self-esteem and self-acceptance,

and (7) individual stability and integration. A sound sense of self is clear when the

individual is comfortable and can harmonize all components of personality.

Establishing one's identity also consists of taking into account ethnic heritage and

family of origin, classifying self as part of a cultural or religious tradition, and

considering self within a historical and social context. It encompasses discovering roles

and methods at home, work and play that are authentic demonstrations of self and that

further delineate self-definition. It includes gaining an awareness of how he or she is

viewed by others. "It leads to clarity and stability and a feeling of warmth for this core

self as capable, familiar, worthwhile" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 50).

Sixth vector: Developing purpose. Most students spend years in college to

prepare for a good job, not necessarily to broaden their philosophy on life. Developing

purpose includes an escalating capability to be purposeful, to evaluate interests and









choices, to clarify objectives, to formulate plans, and to persevere despite hurdles. It

necessitates devising action plans, and a set of priorities that incorporate three key

components: (1) vocational aspirations and plans, (2) personal interests, and (3) family

and interpersonal responsibilities. Also included, is the aptitude to bring together one's

varied goals within the framework of a bigger, more significant purpose, and to live

intentionally day-by-day.

The term vocational is used loosely, as it could be as precise as a career or as far-

reaching as a calling. Vocations are discovered by what is fulfilling and energizing, what

utilizes talents and what challenges a person to develop new ones, what causes joy in

doing, and what actualizes all a person's possibilities for success. The vocations can be

unpaid, paid or both. Preferably, they will surface as a result of intensifying curiosities,

and accordingly provide impetus to further ambitions that contain value and meaning. At

this time, concerns for family and life-style become significant. As long-term

partnerships become a part of the equation and formal education and vocational

explorations come to a close, the next moves must be determined. It is a challenge to

devise a course of action that balances standard of living considerations, vocational

desires, and extracurricular pursuits. Numerous compromises are necessary, and clearer

ideals assist in the decision-making process.

Seventh vector: Developing integrity. This vector entails three chronological,

however, overlapping phases: (1) humanizing values distancing oneself from automatic

use of adamant beliefs and utilizing ethical thinking as a means to balance personal self-

interest with the welfare of others, (2) personalizing values purposely upholding core









beliefs and values at the same time as regarding other viewpoints, and (3) developing

congruence harmonizing individual values with socially sensible actions.

Humanizing values entails a change from a literal application of rules, to a more

situational view resulting in the connection between the rules and the goals they are

meant to support. Rules regarding aggressiveness, honesty or sex may change with

situations and circumstances, while prevailing principles become the most important.

Personalizing of values takes place when the values to be lived are selected

individually as a result of the situations to be encountered, by the work expected to be

completed, and by the people who are viewed as important. In summary, persons select

guiding principles to suit themselves and the circumstances of their lives. Eventually

these elements are adopted as a permanent part of self and grow to be standards by which

to evaluate personal decisions.

The personalizing of values encourages the development of congruence, which is

the realization of behavior that is consistent with the individual values held. In this last

stage, internal debate is reduced. As results of the consequences of a situation are

inherent and the costs of alternative options are evident, the response is easily

determined; the choice is made with conviction, without debate or hedging.

No published study exists according to the author's knowledge that utilizes

Chickering and Reisser's (1993) theory of development to investigate the outcomes of a

study abroad experience. Therefore, a goal of this study was to examine the outcomes

experienced as a consequence of studying abroad guided by a widely used student

development theoretical framework. In addition, there has been a call to investigate the

ways in which cross-cultural and study abroad experiences impact males and females









differently (Baty & Dold, 1977; Crust, 1998; Herman, 1996). Baty and Dold found that

the study abroad experience affected men and women differently. These findings are

supported by studies of student development such as Chickering and Reisser's who found

that males and females develop at different rates. In contrast, several studies reported

there are no differences in personal development outcomes between males and females

(Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Herman). The commonality in all of these studies is the

documented recommendation to further investigate differences in outcomes as

experienced by males and females (Baty & Dold; Farrell & Suvedi; Herman; Noy, 2004).

As a result, this study examined outcomes as they relate to gender differences in the

hopes of providing clarification to this seemingly unclear issue. Another important

variable under consideration is that of previous travel experience. Farrell and Suvedi in a

study investigating the impacts of a study abroad program found that 77% of the

participants had traveled overseas previously. The authors reported that there were no

significant differences in outcomes reported by participants based on those that had

previous overseas experience and those that did not. They attributed these findings,

however, to the fact that the majority of their participants had traveled overseas before.

Therefore, by examining previous overseas experience in the current study the author

hoped to shed some light on the potential impacts) this variable may have on the

psychosocial development of the study abroad participants. Particularly, since there is

evidence in the tourism literature suggesting that pervious travel experiences, impacts,

future travel decisions and experience (Pearce, 1988; Sonmez & Graefe, 1998). A final

consideration in this study is that of length of the study abroad program. The literature

supports the notion that the longer the length of time a student is immersed in another









culture the greater the development (Herman). Nevertheless, published research on this

variable is minimal; therefore this study hoped to contribute to the body of knowledge

regarding the impacts of study abroad program as it pertains to length of program.

Consequently, the goal of this study was to consider Chickering and Reisser's fourth

vector in order to assess the development experienced as a result of the international

experience. However, due to the lack of responses to the questionnaire, the group that

responded prior to the travel experience and the group that responded after the travel

experience were evaluated independently.

Research Questions

The research questions addressed in this study were:

la. What perceptions do the students report before their study abroad experience as
measured by the Michigan State University study abroad questionnaire?

lb. What perceptions do the students report after their study abroad experience as
measured by the Michigan State University study abroad questionnaire?

2a. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser's (1993) fourth
vector of development have the students achieved before their study abroad experience?

i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the
students achieved before their study abroad experience?

ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale
have the students achieved before their study abroad experience?

2b. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser's (1993) fourth
vector of development have the students achieved after their study abroad experience?

i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the
students achieved after their study abroad experience?

ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale
have the students achieved after their study abroad experience?









3a. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and
Reisser's fourth vector before their study abroad experience?

i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the
Tolerance scale before their study abroad experience?

ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality
of Relationships scale before their study abroad experience?

3b. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and
Reisser's fourth vector after their study abroad experience?

i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the
Tolerance scale after their study abroad experience?

ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality
of Relationships scale after their study abroad experience?

4a. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those
with no previous overseas experience, regarding Chickering and Reisser's fourth vector
prior to their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Tolerance scale prior to their study abroad
experience?

ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale prior to
their study abroad experience?

4b. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those
with no previous overseas experience, regarding Chickering and Reisser's fourth vector
after their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Tolerance scale after their study abroad
experience?

ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale after their
study abroad experience?









5a. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering
and Reisser's fourth vector prior to their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding
level of development as measured by the Tolerance scale prior to their study
abroad experience?

ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding
level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale
prior to their study abroad experience?

5b. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering
and Reisser's fourth vector after their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, and the
level of development measured by the Tolerance scale after their study
abroad experience?

ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding
level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale
after their study abroad experience?














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Evolution of Youth Travel

Youth travel dates back to the Grand Tour of the 1630's. Loker-Murphy and

Pearce (1995) illustrate the evolution of youth travel through history (Figure 2-1). After

the Grand Tour phenomenon of the upper class faded, tramping by the working class

became popular; following this trend youth travelers typically were middle-class long-

term budget travelers. Today, the inclination of youth traveling on a budget still exists,

and is currently termed backpacking.

The Grand Tour

Education as a reason for travel was a philosophy that emerged during the medieval

period until around 1800. Charles Wm. Elliot, president of Harvard University said

during his inaugural address that travel is a "foolish beginning and" an "excellent sequel

to education" (cited in Brodsky-Porges, 1981, p.72). The origins of educational travel

can be traced back to the Grand Tour of wealthy British aristocrats. Educational

experiences, status seeking, adventure (Cohen, 1972), and a declaration of independence

have all been linked to the migration of youth travel to Europe (Brodsky-Porges).

Americans share many cultural and traditional ties with England, the idea of travel

as a form of education is one custom Americans have adopted from their ancestors.

Roeming (1971) suggested "the educated American insisted on contact with European

culture as a means of casting into the shadows of the past, coarseness and presumed

undesirability of his frontier origins" (p.70). Several early educators integrated travel










Key Motives


Education/self-
development


Employment/Training
Subsidiary Leisure


Temporary escape
from urban life/health
and fitness


The Grand Tour (travel
as education)


Craft Guilds

Tramping for work


Tramping for touristic
purposes


Youth movement/
wanderlust

Youth hostel
association (YHA)

YHA in Australia


Hitchhiking-Students
and Middle Class Youth
Defining features:
Activity/Transport
Mode

Drifters and Wonderers
Defining features: Low
social/spatial
organization

Long-term budget
travelers
Defining features:
Money/Extended time


Modem Youth Tourism


Defining features: Age/Increasing
degree of independence from family


Contemporary Backpackers


Defining features: Preference for
budget accommodations, Emphasis
on meeting other people,
Independently organized/Flexible
travel schedule, Longer rather than
brief holidays, Emphasis on
informal/participatory recreational
activities


Figure 2-1. The Backpacker Phenomenon: An Evolutionary Framework

into their set of courses, as they believed it increased learning. The Frenchman Michael

Eyquem was the leading voice against an education system that only utilized books.


17th Century


18th Century


19th Century


1910


1930's


1950's

1960's


1970's


1980's









During the 1500's he created a pedagogy that reflected his belief that "A mere bookish

learning is a paltry learning" (cited in Meyer, 1972, p.231). Eyquem also known as

Montaigne felt that students required "... some direct adventuring with the world, a steady

and lively interplay with common folk, supplemented and fortified with trips abroad"

(cited in Meyer, p.231). Another scholar at this time, who shared similar views, was Jan

Amos Comenius. During the 1600's Comenius declared that there was more to education

than what was simply found within the pages of a book. In order to rescue the student

from "degenerating into a mere bookworm, he was to relax his concentration during the

last two years by seeking breadth and enrichment in travel" (Meyer, p.250).

Travel has been a part of human existence since pre-historic times; those that

followed their herds season to season for food are evidence of this. In time, as social

systems developed, people traveled for religious, economic, health, political, recreation,

and finally educational reasons (Brodsky-Porges, 1981). The British government also

played a role in student travel during these earlier years. Often time's students acted as

informed spies and sent letters back to the crown describing social, military, and political

conditions of the places they were visiting. This information often resulted in

compensation usually in the form of a grant (Brodsky-Porges). The Grand Tour was

viewed as a rite of passage, to encourage separation from youth to adulthood (Adler,

1985; Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995; Nash, 1976). However, during this period of time,

youth travel was considered a political obligation more than anything else; self-discovery

was not at the forefront. The sons of the aristocracy used the opportunity of travel to

attend acclaimed universities, meet influential people and to experience the arts (Adler,

1985; Brodsky-Porges).









Three philosophies surrounded the Grand Tour. The first one placed the most

emphasis of travel on meeting the influential and the well known, rather than following

theoretical and scientific knowledge. This philosophy was called "Baconian;" it was

inspired by Francis Bacon who felt that young men should travel for the experience itself,

rather than explicit knowledge (Brodsky-Porges, 1981). The second philosophy placed

the emphasis of travel on fashion, parties, ballet, and the arts. The "Jacobean" traveler

was motivated by societal accomplishments and was to be considered a graduate of the

European finishing school. The combination of the two previously mentioned

philosophies, comprise the third. It promoted the importance of refining social skills, as

well as students attending the best universities.

The level of difficulty in travel, natural topography, religion and politics played

significant roles in determining an individual's route. Brodsky-Porges (1981) explained

that for approximately 30 years there was no predictable route for the Grand Tour,

however, a typical route emerged around 1630. The itinerary varied to some degree, but

usually the starting point was Dover, England. From there, the student crossed the

English Channel to France and would then travel through Switzerland and Italy.

Following extended stays in several Italian cities, the student traveled to Germany and

then back home via the English Channel.

The English are given credit for establishing travel as an educational modality;

however, the wealthy sons of Venice, France, Poland and others also traveled for

education. As a result, the typical tourist during the 1600's was the aristocratic male

(Brodsky-Porges, 1981; Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995). Traveling for education was

considered an essential part of a young man's education. The relative period of peace









during the 16th century allowed for civility among European nations to evolve, thus

making the Grand Tour possible (Brodsky-Porges).

America's youth began experiencing Europe first-hand in the late 1700's.

Brodsky-Porges (1981) explains that the American colonies during this time were very

primitive; accordingly colonial families felt the need to send their sons back to Europe to

enhance their education and social skills. Just a short time after the East to West

migration began, it quickly declined. As a result of America's independence, the

sentiment of sending its youth to England was regarded as a betrayal of the American

sprit. Noah Webster who supported the Grand Tour prior to the War of Independence

turned America's youth away from Europe and instead encouraged students to explore

their own country. Additionally, in 1785 Thomas Jefferson made it known that he

believed students would risk "moral infection" if they traveled to Europe. In time these

feelings subsided, and the tradition for American students to travel to Europe continues to

this day.

Around the middle of the 19th century the era of the Grand Tour was coming to an

end. The time period from 1821 through 1855 saw many changes. In 1821, the first

crossing of the English Channel by steam was made one year after the battle of Waterloo.

Austria, England and France experienced the beginning of the railway networks in 1828.

Later, in 1835 roads were built through the Alps. Karl Baedekor published the first

European guidebook in 1839. In 1841, Thomas Cook introduced "organized profitable

mass touring" (Trease, 1965, p.239), which Cohen (1972) defines as the "least

adventurous" as the traveler remains largely confined to their comfort zone (p. 167). The

timetables for the Continental Railway Guide were first published in 1847, and Napoleon









III held the Paris Exposition, the first world's fair in 1855. "The age of the Grand Tour

was over and the age of tourism had arrived" (Trease, p.239).

Tramping

In the mid 19th century the idea of the Grand Tour "was gradually democratized

and adopted in modified form by the middle classes" (Adler, 1985, p.335). Although

travel by the aristocracy was never constrained, the lower classes did not have the same

access. Their ability to travel freely needed to be justified. Adler explains if they did not

provide written statements from their parish priest regarding their travel, they would face

punishment, which included being whipped in public or arrested.

During this era, there was a shift from prevention by government agencies to

organization and accommodation as government controls changed. Throughout this time

of organization trade guilds, such as those for machine workers and bricklayers among

others started sending young tradesmen overseas to acquire beneficial hands-on training,

essentially "on tramp from town to town" (Adler, 1985, p.338). Upon presentation of an

employment I.D. card, tramps could find themselves ajob and a bed. At this point in

time, the term hostel was coined and utilized by craft associations. Adler explains in

addition to being a financial necessity, this type of travel was also seen as a "passage to

full male adulthood" (p.339), especially for the British.

World War I denoted the end of such travel sponsored by craft associations. The

European tramp phenomenon evolved into one with unskilled workers that were simply

relying on public charity rather than just hospitality for their work. This new movement

was perceived as a social problem that psychologists named wanderlust. Characteristics

of the new-age trampers included one's difficulty adjusting back into work, avoiding









work, and taking pleasure in travel, which led to repeat trips. Trampers used work as a

means to sustain travel, this phenomenon evolved into the long-term budget traveler.

Long-Term Budget Travelers

Long-term budget travelers consider travel as leisure, and sometimes view it as a

means to avoid or delay work (Adler, 1985; Riley, 1988). Riley explains the long-term

budget traveler is usually at a juncture in life, and many times a recent college graduate.

He or she is typically Australian, Canadian, European or from New Zealand, and prefers

to travel alone, and is single. Young adults frequently hope to delay the shift from being

a student to the responsibilities and lifestyle associated with the adult world. Ironically,

in an effort to pro-long the time he or she can stay abroad, the budget traveler commonly

seeks employment (Riley). Because this type of traveler travels for longer than the

typical holiday a tight budget has to be maintained. From this phenomenon, the phrase

"budget" traveler evolved. However, Riley points out that it is important to note that

being classified as a budget traveler does not signify that the traveler came from a low

socio-economic background, in fact, they more often than not had a middle-class

upbringing (Cohen, 1972; Riley).

In Cohen's (1972) groundbreaking article, he describes a typology comprised of

four tourist roles, one of these being the drifter. Traditionally, the long-term budget

traveler has been associated with the drifter role; however, over time as budget tourism

has become more institutionalized the long-term budget traveler can fit into one of two

categories described by Cohen, the Explorer or the Drifter. According to Cohen the

Explorer will organize his or her own trip, and seek comfortable accommodations while

attempting to travel "off the beaten track" (p. 168). The Explorer will try to speak the

native language and socialize with the locals. Although the Explorer actively seeks new









experiences, he or she is never far from familiarity of his or her home lifestyle. Similar,

although different is the Drifter. Cohen explains that this kind of tourist is most likely to

embark on a trip that is the farthest from home and his or her way of living. This tourist

attempts to live, eat and sleep like the indigenous people, rejecting all things that

resemble the mass tourist. The Drifter seeks novelty at the highest level, and life as he or

she used to live it is non-existent. The motivation of the Drifter is curiosity and hunger

for adventure.

Cohen (1973) describes the somewhat minor drifter phenomenon as experiencing

major attention after the publication of his 1972 article. Initially the concept of the drifter

was that of a "counter-culture" role (p.90). In contrast, Cohen argues that drifter tourism

is somewhat of a paradox. On the one hand it is closely aligned with non-routine forms

of travel, while at the same time it has become institutionalized in a way that is

completely separate from, although equivalent to that of the regular mass tourist, with its

own accommodations, food establishments and attractions. Although the drifter shares

several characteristics with other forms of youth travel such as an aversion to a dull and

scheduled way of life, there are also differences. Unlike the tramper who travels for

necessity, the drifter travels by choice; in contrast to the grand tour traveler who is in

pursuit of knowledge, the drifter has no instrumental purpose for traveling. Drifting, as it

is known first appeared several years after World War II when middle-class youth and

students first started to hitch hike in Western Europe and throughout the continent.

However, drifting experienced a major boom as a result of inexpensive airfares during the

late sixties and early seventies. As a result, youth flooded into Europe's hot spots like









London and Amsterdam in unprecedented numbers. Today, this type of tourism is still

popular, although this style of travel is more commonly called backpacking.

Backpacker

The backpacker is today's current youth traveler, and yesterday's budget traveler

(Loker-Murphy, 1996; Murphy, 2001). The backpacker encompasses many

characteristics from the grand tour participants, the trampers, the long-term budget

travelers, and the previously mentioned drifter travelers. Consistent with other forms of

youth travel, the backpacker is usually at a crossroads in life (Loker-Murphy & Pearce,

1992; Noy, 2004). Backpackers are typically between 18-33 years of age (Sorenson,

2003), budget-minded tourists who demonstrate a tendency to stay in low-priced

accommodations, maintain a preference for longer rather than shorter holidays, put an

emphasis on meeting other budget travelers and the indigenous people; they also have

flexible itineraries that are usually independently organized (Loker-Murphy; Loker-

Murphy & Pearce, 1995; Murphy).

Like the long-term budget traveler, backpackers often begin their journey by

traveling solo. However, due to the social climate of hostels and other budget

accommodations, meeting others along the way is easy and sometimes results in attaining

temporary travel companions (Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995). A priority for the

backpacker is to spend as little money as possible, as the length of time on the road for a

typical backpacker is usually three months to one year.

Backpackers typically see themselves as not the typical tourist, and especially not

like the mass tourist (Loker-Murphy, 1996; Sorenson, 2003) described by Cohen (1972).

Many backpackers consider themselves as filling a role that is different from that of the

mainstream tourist. In a study conducted by Murphy (2001), backpackers felt the main









difference between themselves and other travelers was the adherence to a tight budget,

that they had more flexibility in time compared to the other tourists, and that they had the

desire and actively sought out places away from the mainstream tourist routes. Recently,

new characteristics of backpackers have been identified that are reminiscent of drifters

(Cohen, 1973), these include: hedonistic tendencies, they tend to gather in groups with

other Westerners, and they are not socially conscious while overseas (Murphy).

Although it is important to note the accepted characteristics that define

backpacking, Sorenson (2003) questions the idea of backpacking as a homogeneous and

distinctive category. Sorenson asserts that to include all of the above mentioned traits in

one grouping would make it all but impractical to assign them an individual category; in

doing so numerous traits would make up such a broad category as to make it

insignificant. However, Sorenson also points out that if questioned, the majority of the

travelers would more than likely concede that they are backpackers; even those that

would not allow for such labels would still react or relate to them. Furthermore,

Sorenson deems it valuable to employ the concept of culture when attempting to

comprehend backpacker tourism, whereby a backpacker culture is recognized as

fundamental to this style of travel. Sorenson suggests, "instead of defining them

[backpackers] by means of fixed criteria, the cultural angle enables the backpacker to be

viewed as a socially construed category, involving both self-perception and peer

recognition" (p.862).

Sorenson suggests that one construct is consistent across all types of backpacking,

that being experience. Noy (2004) recounts self-change reported by youth travelers in a

study about Israeli backpackers and their shared experiences. Noy conducted 40 in-depth









conversation-interviews with backpackers within five weeks of their return home. Each

backpacker who was interviewed had traveled at least three months, half in Asia, and half

in South America. Noy contends that the unique experiences as a result of adventure and

authenticity inherent in their trips allow backpackers to self-reflect and realize the

changes within themselves. Noy explains that "experienced backpackers tell of their new

place in life in positive terms-they are wiser, more knowledgeable, more socially and

emotionally apt, etc., than they were prior to their journey" (p. 84). A consistent theme

among the narratives was that the backpackers continually portrayed profound and deep

personal changes that resulted from their trips abroad. Furthermore, the changes were

constantly positive, as one male backpacker recounted:

You see, when you leave the country you don't know that much, and when you
return you suddenly know everything. You also know yourself differently, because
you put yourself in may situations, like I told you-suddenly on top of the volcano
mountain, or in very strenuous conditions during the trek ... You extend your own
capabilities, and the limits of your knowledge of yourself. It's just like that. You
know yourself better (p.87).

Likewise one female backpacker said:

All in all, the journey changed me quite a bit. Not that I went searching for myself
and returned a different person-it's just really not like that. It's like I simply
traveled in order to enjoy myself and to have fun, and I was surprised, like-it was
much more fun than I initially thought I could ever experience. And I learned a lot
of things about myself (p.87).

Noy (2004) reported that 62% of the backpackers interviewed revealed that they

experienced significant changes as a result of the trip; the remaining participants

acknowledged the same changes through directed questions during the interview process.

Backpacking for young Israelis is considered a rite of passage. As a result, Noy suggests

that the expectation for positive self-change as a result of backpacking is not surprising.

However, he does believe that travel for young adults and immersion in a foreign culture









is a true catalyst for self-change. Following this line of thinking foreign travel and

cultural immersion may also be used to explain positive self-change and study abroad.

Study Abroad

Many believe that today's study abroad phenomenon shares many characteristics

with the grand tour, tramping, the long-term budget traveler, and the backpacker. Like

the Grand Tour, studying abroad is a form of educational travel (Dukes et al., 1994; Kuh

& Kauffman, 1985). While studying abroad, it is common for students to participate in

internship or practicum programs. Although, the student is not traveling from place to

place to improve their trade, the student is working in another country to improve their

job skills. Additionally, study abroad students encompass similar qualities with the long-

term budget traveler and the backpacker. Although the study abroad student is not on the

road traveling for an extended period of time, they live in another country anywhere from

a week to an academic year. During the study abroad program, it is common to have a

weeklong break from classes. During this time, a student will embody the attributes of

the long-term budget traveler and backpacker by celebrating on a long journey, adhering

to a strict budget, seeking out inexpensive lodging and eating local food.

In this study, the phrases exchange program and study abroad will be used

synonymously. Studying abroad is a vacation; it is an adventure, an opportunity to travel

and visit distant lands that have only been read about. It is a chance to encounter people

of different cultures and backgrounds. Studying abroad provides students an opportunity

to live without parental restrictions, even more so than when students are away from

home during college. Carsello and Greaser (1976) suggest that it is an opportunity to live

in a new and challenging environment. In summary, it is simply an exciting time for

college students.









Study abroad as a topic for research began in the middle of the 1950's (Herman,

1996). With the conclusion of the Second World War, an increased interest in

international understanding developed. As a result, U.S. citizens supported government

programs that promoted a global outlook. Through the years, the American government

has shown its support of study abroad in many ways. William J. Fulbright encouraged

Congress to pass a law for a program that fostered study abroad. Additionally, the G.I.

Bill of Rights to some degree provides grants for foreign study. As well, other

organizations that supply grants for foreign travel and study include: the American Field

Service Committee and the Experiment in International Living. Furthermore, the United

Nations sponsors international educational exchanges under the sponsorship of the United

Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Most recently,

the Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Program asked Congress to

provide $125 million per year in funding by 2011 in order to reach the goal of sending

one million students abroad by the year 2017 (Commission on the Abraham Lincoln

Study Abroad Fellowship Program, 2005).

Since this time, scholarly inquiry related to study abroad has increased as the

number of participants who go abroad has done the same (Herman, 1996; Gardner &

Witherell, 2004). The necessity to understand how study abroad programs impact

students becomes increasingly important as student participation rates increased. The

Presidents Commission on Foreign Languages and International Studies was created in

1979 in response to this need. The Commission recognized the importance of scholarly

investigation into international programs that foster global mindedness among U.S.

college students (Herman). Ever since, researchers have made an effort to learn what









personal and academic outcomes occur as a result of studying, living, and adjusting to life

in another country. Topics of interest have included: autonomy, self-awareness,

worldview, attitudes toward others, international understanding, future career orientation,

and academic and cultural interests among others (Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello &

Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Nash, 1976; Todd,

2001). Additionally, international educators agree that due to the increasing number of

students studying abroad there must be some personal developmental changes, which in

turn will impact American society in general (Lamet & Lamet, 1982).

There are many benefits of studying abroad (Armstrong, 1984; Baty & Dold, 1977;

Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Martin,

1989; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001), and many methods have been used to evaluate them.

Numerous researchers have used standardized instruments (Carsello & Greaser; Kuh &

Kauffman; Marion, 1978; Nash). Others have used participant observation (Morgan,

1975), and others have made use of personal interviews (James, 1976; Pfinster, 1972).

The amount of literature related to study abroad is vast; this is evidenced by the more

than 300 page bibliography entitled "Research on U.S. Students Study Abroad: An

Update, Volume III, 2001-2003, With Updates to the 1989 and Volume II Editions 2000-

2003" produced by the Center for Global Education housed at Loyola Marymount

University in Los Angeles, California (Comp & Rhodes, 1989-2003). Consequently, the

review of every article that exists on the effects of study abroad is beyond the scope of

this project. However, the researcher will attempt to highlight key studies that elucidate

the many findings of the investigations that have examined the impacts of study abroad.









In general, studying abroad appears to have positive effects (Armstrong, 1984; Baty

& Dold, 1977; Carsello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman,

1985; Martin, 1989; Nash, 1976; Todd, 2001); however, there are also areas of concern

for future students and administrators regarding the influences of study abroad (Carsello

& Greaser). Carsello and Greaser suggest that college students probably give minimal

attention to the ways in which they change during their time overseas, as well as how

they will be different when they return home. Studying abroad provides diverse

experiences that may change a student's interests, personality, values, and attitudes. As a

result of studying abroad, their views on life in general may change as well as their

physical and mental health. A consequence of studying abroad may be that a student's

feelings on career and what he or she wants to do with their lives may adjust after being

exposed to new ways of thinking. Additionally, a college student's views on the visited

countries as well as the U.S., and their family may change.

Carsello and Greaser (1976) investigated the positive and negative changes

experienced during a study abroad trip. They surveyed 209 U.S. students in four Western

European countries. The college students were asked to specify whether they had

observed changes in their attitudes, interests, or skills relating to personal or academic

concerns. If the students reported a change, they were asked to assess whether the

change was considered to be positive or negative. The results showed there was a

negative correlation between positive and negative changes. In other words, the more

positive changes experienced by a student, the less negative ones were experienced. The

topics in which the most positive changes occurred were those related to the novel

experiences college students had in the foreign country and consisted of improved









interest in art, travel, history, foreign languages, meeting strangers, and architecture.

Almost 64% of the respondents felt they had experienced a positive change in their self-

concept, 42% experienced an improvement in their social life, more than 37% discovered

greater peace of mind, and 34% felt their emotional health improved. Additionally, 61%

of the students experienced a greater interest in the United States and 57% perceived a

greater interest in their families. Most of the negative experiences were related to health

and academic concerns. However, Carsello and Greaser suggested that this was probably

a transitory situation, produced by the distraction of new places, sights, and experiences.

It was also suggested that health deterioration was temporary, and may have been due to

ignoring normal health practices, or to the change in water or diet. A recommendation

was to better prepare the students in these areas of concern.

Living and studying abroad for an unlimited length of time may encourage personal

development because numerous elements of foreign culture create unique and compelling

challenges (Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). Kuh and Kauffman designed a study to determine

whether changes in selected aspects of personal development were associated with a

study abroad experience. The authors utilized two instruments to assess students, The

Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) Form F and the Debriefing Interview Guide. The

OPI was administered to 126 students who were preparing to study abroad during the fall

semester 1981, as well as to 90 comparable students who were not studying abroad; this

second group was used as a control group. Results indicated that study abroad students

experienced increases in beliefs toward the welfare of others, self-confidence, feelings of

well being, and in reflective thought. Significant increases in impulse expression and the

capacity to actively imagine and attend to sensual reactions were reported, as well as









increased interest in esthetic matters and emotional sensitivity. Decreased nervousness

and tension, in addition to less anxiety were found in the results. Thirty-seven percent

felt they became more self-reliant and better able to make decisions on their own, and all

but one respondent reported being more at peace after studying abroad, as opposed to

before. Thirty percent reported that the most significant aspect of personal development

was enhanced intellectualism and tolerance for ambiguity, while 22% of students

reported that sensitivity to the needs of others was most significant. The changes

recorded were still present one year after the study. The element of surviving different

situations presented by a different culture appeared to be a strong means for promoting

personal development in these college students. The results of this study imply that

differences in three dimensions of behavior performance were associated with study

abroad: (1) increased interest in the welfare of others; (2) increased self confidence and

sense of well being, and (3) increased interest in reflective thought and in the arts,

literature, and culture. The heightened acceptance for uncertainty and interest in deep

thought shared with better emotionality and sensitivity, and an amplified interest in the

esthetic suggest that study abroad may be an integral general education element of the

liberal arts curriculum. The outcomes of this study suggest that engagement in a different

culture may challenge students to develop a more mature, multifaceted view of the world

and themselves.

Growth is the outcome of experiencing significant connections with other people

and cultures (Dukes et al., 1994). It has been demonstrated that students grow from study

abroad experiences. An alternative to the traditional study abroad programs on land is

the Semester at Sea program offered through the University of Pittsburgh. The Semester









at Sea program provides 50 days of classes with 50 days of direct travel observation. The

2005 CEO of Semester at Sea refers to the international educational experience as one

that "is a life-altering learning adventure" (Tymitz, n.d.). Dukes et al. recognized that the

impacts of travel on the growth of meaning had yet to be investigated systematically;

consequently, their study evaluated the degree to which the educational travel experience

was a factor in the development of meaning among the participants. Originally, data

were collected at the commencement, during the middle, and at the conclusion of the

spring 1982 voyage. Students described their experiences, as well as completed the

Purpose in Life (PIL) test (Dukes et al.). One year following the voyage, a random

sample of 100 respondents was selected from the population of 390 participants for a

longitudinal study of 10 years in length. Eighty respondents were contacted by telephone

and through postal mail. The respondents finished a follow-up survey of life events since

the voyage as well as the Purpose in Life test. In 1986, a sub-sample of 40 cases was

drawn, and 26 respondents were surveyed. Results suggested that participants upheld a

worldly perspective; in addition, personal growth perpetuated beyond the conclusion of

the voyage. More or less all participants felt that the international expedition helped

them to come closer to realizing their potential. Most frequently, it was reported that

participants had a more meaningful understanding of the world and its inhabitants.

Respondents said they had experienced a greater level of confidence and self-assured

feelings. Additionally, they had learned to be more self-sufficient and make their own

decisions. The voyage assisted participants in the ability to set their own goals. The

authors concluded that the voyage continued to have an effect on personal growth beyond

the conclusion. The findings suggest that the meaning of a Semester at Sea or









educational travel experience reaches beyond the conclusion of the voyage. Indeed, other

types of international educational experiences produce changes in participants. It seems

therefore that educational travel makes a significant contribution to personal growth, and

that program participants can persistently make the most of the experience long after it is

over. However, it is important to explore these contributions systematically to determine

the significant programmatic impacts. The fundamental characteristic of programs like

Semester at Sea is that they bring together travel with study, and the core curriculum

offers an interpretive basis for the travel experience. Practitioners and administrators

alike should recognize that the international journey is a springboard for the development

of meaning as well as the increased personal growth in some participants.

Colleges and universities should focus on developing the individual student, and

encourage an identity founded on attributes including flexibility, openness to experiences,

creativity and individual accountability (Nash, 1976). Parents mention personal

development most frequently as the principle goal of study abroad programs. The student

that studies abroad should become more autonomous, as they have lived self-reliantly for

an extended period of time in a foreign land. The purpose of a study conducted by Nash

was to evaluate the effects of a year of study abroad on self-realization of a group of

junior-year students in France. Approximately 30 students in the experimental group

were compared with roughly 20 students in the control group. The study abroad

participants reported most frequently that an increased learning of the French language

was their main accomplishment. Multiple personal developments were mentioned almost

as frequently; these included personal growth, self-understanding, increased tolerance,

independence, greater openness, and a higher level of satisfaction. In addition, the degree









of autonomy increased for study abroad participants. Nash also found that self-

perception improved and decreased alienation for study abroad participants were

reported. However, improved tolerance and flexibility did not increase when compared

to the control group. There was also no significant change in the participant's feelings of

purpose and life-direction when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the

majority of the personality changes taken from the international experience did not

continue after the return home. However, Nash suggests that the results of this

exploratory study should only be taken as suggestive and generalizations should be made

very cautiously.

Study abroad practitioners should attempt to provoke within the students, the

ability to remain authentic to one's own beliefs while at the same time truly appreciating

those values of other cultures (Stephenson, 1999). Stephenson designed a study to

examine effects of the study abroad trip upon host families, professors, and students'

personal values and cultural perceptions. For the purposes of this paper only the details

regarding the students will be discussed. In 1998 during the first semester students were

asked to complete a questionnaire immediately upon arrival and shortly before departure

of their stay in Santiago, Chile; this consisted of a five-month duration. The aim of the

questionnaire was to determine two main issues, the first being if the students' original

expectations diverged from their actual experiences, and second, how the students' view

of Chilean culture varied during their stay. The questionnaire asked students to indicate

the difficulty or ease they were expecting (arrival) or what they had experienced

(departure) in adjusting to or adapting to a multitude of value orientations and situation.

The 40-item questionnaire consisted of five themes, opinions/beliefs, life in Santiago,









cultural differences, the host family environment, and the classroom/university

environment. The students anticipated language, academic environment, and making

Chilean friends to be the greatest challenges. Stephenson found however, that the study

abroad experience in general tended to be more stressful than reported upon arrival.

Additionally, the number of items that were reported as being challenging increased from

the first questionnaire. Three areas emerged as the most difficult for the students; these

included social interactions, the academic environment, and cultural/beliefs/values

differences. Stephenson also reported on the items that experienced the largest difference

between the arrival questionnaire and the departure questionnaire. Stephenson found that

keeping a clear concept of one's personal beliefs, maintaining an open mind regarding the

Chilean culture, and adjusting personal beliefs resulting from the study abroad experience

proved to be more challenging than originally anticipated. In an answer to an open-ended

question asking a students' biggest challenge to respecting Chilean values, numerous

students explained how problematical it was in answering the question. One said,

"Chileans tend to be just as diverse, complicated, simple, loving, selfish, brilliant,

ignorant, shy, loud, and fascinating as any other group of people" (p. 16). Another

respondent said, "Chileans are like everyone else in the world. They vary and I don't see

a lot of generalizations worth making" (p. 16). With these final statements the research

comes full circle to the overarching theme of the study, the importance of acknowledging

shared humanity.

When considering that most of the study abroad literature supports the notion that

positive impacts are experienced as a result of studying abroad, it should be noted that for

Americans, it is not the act of "studying abroad" that results in self-exploration and









identity evaluation, but that travel in and of itself is an expression of self-discovery. This

act is what prompts inner reflection and appraisal (Dolby, 2004). Since the 1991-1992

academic year the number of U.S. students who have studied abroad has more than

doubled (Gardner & Witherell, 2003). The trend has continued as the numbers have

increased or remained the same since fall 2003 (Institute of International Education,

2003). In fact, some students place such an importance on travel that it has driven many

into debt (Carr, 2004). In a study of 662 undergraduate students from a British

university, Carr found that the students who were all under the age of 25 were likely to

spend much of their money on travel. Carr reported that university students had a high

propensity for travel as well as a passionate yearning to participate in tourism

experiences. In essence, the study describes the importance of travel for British students,

and that regardless of financial means or the subsequent need to work after the trip, many

students will find a way to travel.

Evaluating the impacts of study abroad is not just an American phenomenon, quite

the opposite. The European education system also emphasizes the importance of being

citizens of the world (Osler, 1998). Osler suggested that the experience of living abroad

and observing another culture encouraged many to evaluate how well they know their

own culture. The American education system should consider the European's emphasis

on international education and view the benefits of the experience to assist in the

justification of program availability.

Personal Development

A primary goal in higher education is the well-rounded development of the whole

person (Evans, Fomey, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998). During the 1982-1983 school year,

Koester (1986) studied applicants who purchased an International Student ID card (ISIC).









Of the 5,900 students who provided responses, the personal goal predominantly cited was

that of adding a new dimension to their schooling. Various studies over the years have

shown that studying abroad contributes to personal growth (Baty & Dold, 1977; Carsello

& Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Nash, 1976; Todd,

2001). In Farrell and Suvedi's study, one student expressed what he learned during his

study abroad program: "I learned the experience to be gained from cross-cultural

experiences is invaluable in the development of perspective, of self-fulfillment, and

educational exposure" (p.175). A female student said:

I plan on getting my doctorate so that I can teach college students. I want my
teaching to reflect the experiential basis that I received from my experiences
overseas. I have a wanderlust that led me into teaching so that others may
experience the value of life outside their comfort level and beyond their own
culture (p.181).

A male student in the same study experienced impacts related to career and worldviews,

he said:

This program has given my career a focus I could not have possibly foreseen prior
to my experience overseas. It has proved invaluable in my exposure to the
possibilities in the changing world, one policy at a time (p.181).

Finally, a second male student summarized his experience best when he said: "it was

easily the most powerful experience I've ever had. I learned that I could let myself go

around people and be accepted for who I am" (Farrell & Suvedi, p.181). James (1976)

reported that 52 students, who studied abroad in 1972 to 1973, experienced increased

self-confidence. They also reawakened their intellectual interest, enhanced their

interpersonal relationships, and improved their perception of the strengths and

weaknesses of American culture. Results of the studies outlined in this study suggest that

studying abroad and experiencing personal development are closely linked.









Gender

According to Chickering and Reisser (1993) the purpose of the vectors is that they

explain key avenues for journeying in the direction of individuation, changes in attitude

toward self, family, and other contributes to this journey. Furthermore, Chickering and

Reisser suggest that there may be differences in the rate of development between male

and female students. Certainly, in the study abroad literature on student development

gender differences have been found. In a study conducted by Baty and Dold (1977),

numerous differences were found between males and females in relation to their feelings

about their study abroad experience. The purpose of their study was to investigate the

effects of a cross-cultural program located in Mexico upon students' attitudes. Students

were asked to take the survey two to three days before the program began, and one week

after it ended. The findings suggested that the females were significantly more optimistic

than the males on both the pre- and post-test, although the difference between them was

reduced by the time of the post-test. Twenty-two percent showed a decrease in optimism

and an increase in tolerance. Sixteen percent decreased in both optimism and tolerance.

In most instances, females showed a greater increase than males. The greatest decrease

was associated with feelings of inadequacy; the greatest increases were associated with

anger and anxiety. The females reported greater emotional problems at the time of the

pre-test than did the males; however, at the time of the post-test the females reported

fewer emotional problems than the males. The differences in scores suggest that females

and males were affected differently by the cross-cultural experience. The females

changed in terms of greater stability, reflecting less depression regarding self and the

environment. The males reported more depression and alienation regarding themselves

and the environment. Generally speaking, it appears that the males' experience was more









distressful or upsetting than the females' experience. Baty and Dold (1977) suggested

that young adult men and women may exhibit different learning styles and this may

possibly explain their findings. For example, females may be more skilled in adapting to

new situations in which they are required, for a time, to be dependent. For the males,

such dependency could be more threatening.

In support of this supposition, Hood and Jackson (1997b), when validating the

Developing Competency Inventory, found that male students tend to report greater self-

confidence scores than female students. Furthermore, when the Emotional

Independence-Parents scale was correlated with gender it showed that males tended to

feel more emotionally independent from their parents than did females (Hood & Jackson,

1997a). Indeed, Martin and Rohrlich (1991) found women had more pre-departure

concerns than men before leaving for a study abroad program. On the other hand, some

of the literature suggests that gender does not appear to influence the outcomes for

students during study abroad (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). For example, the results of the

previously mentioned Semester at Sea study revealed there to be no statistically

significant differences among male and female students (Dukes et al., 1994).

Similarly, Noy (2004) reported that variance in findings might be attributed to

gender differences. Male backpackers described a more distinct connection between

personal changes and their preference for taking part in risky activities. In contrast,

female interviewees rejected the more masculine themes of strenuous or risky activities

as a catalyst for self-change; instead, females tended to describe their experiences

holistically.









Although there is a lack of consistency in terms of gender and development, much

of the literature suggests that there are differences between males and females in terms of

their development. What is clear is that gender differences with regards to study abroad

experiences are inconclusive.

Previous Overseas Experience

Literature exists that implies previous travel experience has an impact on personal

experiences as well as future travel decisions (Stephenson, 1999). The concept of the

travel career ladder has been cited often since Pearce proposed it in 1988 (Ryan, 1998).

The travel career ladder (Pearce, 1988) is a concept based upon Maslow's hierarchy of

needs (1970) and consumer experience modeling (Ryan, 1998). The model postulates

that individuals possess a career in their travel activities; this reflects ones' travel motives

in a hierarchy (Pearce, 2003) as it offers an explanation for the impact of previous travel

behavior (Loker-Murphy, 1996; Pearce, 1988; Ryan). The initial form of the travel

career ladder kept Maslow's principles that lower levels of the ladder must be satisfied

prior to one advancing to higher levels on the ladder. Pearce (2003) hypothesized that

five distinct hierarchical levels which coincide with Maslow's hierarchy of needs affect

travel behavior. Pearce (1988) describes the travel career ladder as highlighting each of a

tourist's motives or patterns, as opposed to one specific reason for traveling. The five

levels beginning with the lowest include: (1) physiological needs, (2) safety/security

needs, (3) relationship needs, (4) self-esteem/development needs, and (5) fulfillment

needs. As lower order needs become fulfilled a person may move towards fulfillment,

the highest level. Pearce (1988) suggests that more experienced travelers concentrate

more on the higher order needs identified by Maslow like relationships, self-esteem

development, and personal fulfillment. Pearce (1988) hypothesized that less experienced









travelers may be more concerned with the lower order physiological needs, such as safety

and relaxation. With up to date and continued modifications, the revised model places

"less emphasis on the strict hierarchy of needs and more on changing patterns of

motives" (Pearce, 2003, p.254). Therefore, the extent of previous travel experiences a

student has prior to their study abroad trip may affect impacts felt by the student.

In a case study conducted by Ryan (1998) tourists from the United Kingdom were

asked at the end of their holiday several questions relating to satisfaction. He found that

the two most experienced groups of tourists showed higher scores in self-actualization

items than the less experienced ones. The travel career ladder concept implies that more

experienced tourists would value more highly the intellectual needs when compared with

the other needs located lower on the hierarchy, and it might be argued that the less

experienced might score higher on such "lower" needs through inexperience; people

ascend towards self actualization as lower needs become fulfilled (Ryan).

The pinnacle of the travel career ladder, the personal journey to self-actualization,

may be applied to the Grand Tour, tramping, long-term budget traveler, backpacking and

study abroad in that all of these young travelers in their various time periods are at a

crossroads in life and essentially looking for a higher sense of self-meaning. Pearce

(1988) advances the notion that holiday experiences enable people to psychologically

mature. The model puts forward a career goal in travel activities, and as tourists become

more skilled they continue to seek fulfillment of higher needs.

Duration of Program

Being exposed to the unique challenges of studying abroad for an extended period

of time may contribute to personal development (Inglis et al., 1998). Gardner and

Witherell (2004) shows that American students continue to study abroad in larger









numbers but for shorter time periods. They reported that more than 50% of U.S.

undergraduates and Master's degree students elect summer, January term, and other

programs of eight weeks or less; the longer-term programs continue to decline in terms of

enrollment numbers. The vast majority of American students who studied abroad in

2002/03 (92%) did so for one semester or less. Only 7% study abroad for a full academic

year, compared to 18% in 1985/86, with 9% studying overseas in very short programs

(eight weeks or less) usually held between semesters. The growth in these short-term

programs, often integrated in the home campus curriculum, allows more students who

were previously unable to study abroad due to financial or curricular constraints to

participate in an international education experience (Gardner & Witherell).

The justification to include duration of travel program in the current study is that it

has been suggested that the short-term study abroad experience is not enough time to

form an accurate opinion of their host country or people (Osler, 1998). This finding

suggests that the duration of the study abroad program may affect the impacts

experienced by students. Additionally, with the rapid growth in study abroad

enrollments, international educators are expressing growing concerns regarding the lack

of data for shorter-term programs. As more students choose shorter programs in winter

and summer terms, instead of enrolling in semester and year-long programs, it is

important to understand if there are differential developmental effects between shorter

and longer study abroad experiences. For example, a student who participates in a

month-long program may not have the opportunities for intercultural learning or foreign

language acquisition similar to that of a student enrolled in a semester program (Sideli,

Berg, Rubin, & Sutton, n.d.).









Summary

In summary, educational experiences (Cohen, 1972), and a declaration of

independence have all been linked to the migration of youth to travel (Brodsky-Porges,

1981). Lengthy overseas travel has also been seen as a passage to adulthood (Adler,

1985); with the travelers usually at a juncture in life, and many times a recent college

graduate (Riley, 1988).

Since the 1950's researchers have made an effort to learn what personal and

academic outcomes occur as a result of studying, living, and adjusting to life in another

country. International educators agree that due to the increasing number of students

studying abroad there must be some personal impacts experienced, which in turn will

impact American society in general (Lamet & Lamet, 1982).

Thus, although numerous studies have shown that students experience positive

change as a result of studying abroad, many are descriptive, and lack a theoretical

foundation. This study hoped to contribute to the body of literature by using a widely

used student development theory (Chickering & Reisser, 1993) to describe the

experiences by students in a systematic way. However, due to the lack of survey

participants, an analysis of change in student development was not possible; descriptive

information only is provided for the pre-travel group and the post-travel group.














CHAPTER 3
METHODS

A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design was originally adopted for this study.

However, due to the small response rate, and the fact that so few participants who

completed the questionnaire before the travel experience completed it after the travel

experience, the design changed to a descriptive study both prior to travel and after travel.

The researcher evaluated responses from the entire group before their travel experience

and then responses from the entire group after their travel experience. Specifically, a

questionnaire was administered before (Appendix A) and after (Appendix B) students

participated in a university sponsored study abroad program. Both closed-ended and

open-ended questions were used.

Participants were students registered at the University of Florida and studied abroad

during the fall 2005 semester. The dependent variables were the perceptions of impacts

experienced by the students (Farell & Suvedi, 2003), as well as responses to the Mines

Jensen Interpersonal Relationship Inventory, which measures the development of mature

interpersonal relationships, the fourth vector of Chickering and Reisser's (1993) student

identity theory. The independent variables were the duration of the study abroad

program, gender, and previous overseas travel experience.

Data Collection

The University of Florida ranks 12th in the nation for doctoral/research institutions

that send students abroad (Gardner & Witherell, 2004). Contact with The University of

Florida's International Center (UFIC) was made in January 2005. The Coordinator for









Study Abroad Services was the primary liaison with the UFIC for this study. During

February 2005 the researcher met with the coordinator, explained the purpose of the

study and permission was given to survey program participants during fall 2005.

Prior to each student's overseas departure, summer and fall program participants

were required to attend one of two information sessions, each of which was held in April

2005. The researcher attended both of these information sessions. The purpose of

attending the sessions was to introduce the study and to explain the purpose of the

research to the study abroad students. Additionally, instructions were given as to how the

students would be contacted, how they would be able to access the on-line survey, and

the researcher's contact information was provided in the event there were any questions

or concerns.

All communication from the researcher to the study abroad participants was

through the Coordinator for Study Abroad Services; this ensured the full anonymity and

privacy of all program participants. Two emails were sent to students periodically prior

to the fall semester beginning and two emails were sent following the conclusion of the

semester. The first email (Appendix C) was sent approximately one week prior to

departure. It was an invitation to participate in the study including a link to the

instrument, as well as instructions for completing the questionnaire. The second email

(Appendix D) was a follow-up to the first. The purpose of the second email was to thank

those who had participated and to encourage those who had not participated; also

included was a link to the instrument, as well as instructions for completing the

questionnaire. The third email (Appendix E) was sent within one week after each student

arrived back in the U.S. This email welcomed students home and was used as a reminder









to complete the post-survey; also included was a link to the instrument, as well as

instructions for completing the questionnaire. The fourth and final email (Appendix F)

was a follow-up to the third, thanking those who had completed the post-travel group

questionnaire, and a reminder to those who had not completed the post-survey;

additionally, a link to the instrument as well as instructions for completion was included.

The survey was posted on the College of Health and Human Performance server at the

University of Florida.

Due to the logistics of this study, non-random sampling procedures were utilized to

obtain participants. Approximately 200 students were registered to study abroad during

the fall 2005 semester. Each study abroad student was invited to participate in the study

during the pre-departure orientation as well as via email. The estimated time to complete

the survey was five to ten minutes. The researcher anticipated a participation rate of at

least 30%. The actual response rate for the group before traveling was 30% (N = 60),

however only 56 surveys were completed fully resulting in an actual participation rate of

28% (N = 56). The initial response rate for the group after traveling was 14.5% (N = 29).

However, after blank surveys and duplicate entries were eliminated the actual

participation rate was reduced to 12% (N = 24).

Because only eight respondents completed questionnaires before traveling and after

traveling another difficulty emerged. The after travel questionnaire did not contain

demographic items as it was thought that this information would be collected using the

instrument administered before travel commenced. Thus, an attempt was made to re-

contact these students through the UFIC coordinator. Six students responded providing

their demographic and study abroad program characteristics.









Participants

Before Travel

Of the 56 students from the group before traveling who reported their gender the

majority 83.6% (N = 46) were female, and 14.5% (N = 8) were male. The participants

comprised 10.9% (N = 6) sophomores, 27.3% (N = 15) juniors, 38.2% (N = 21) seniors,

and 21.8% (N = 12) were graduate students. They ranged in age from 18-41 with a mean

age of 21.5 years; a more detailed demographic profile is presented in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1. Respondent Profile for the Pre-travel Sample
Characteristics Frequency Valid Percent1

Gender (N=54)
Male 8 14.5
Female 46 83.6

Class Standing (N=54)
Freshman 0 0.0
Sophomore 6 10.9
Junior 15 27.3
Senior 21 38.2
Graduate 12 21.8

Age (N=49)
18 1 2.0
19 9 18.4
20 12 24.5
21 11 22.4
22 4 8.2
23 5 10.2
24 2 4.1
25 1 2.0
26 3 6.1
41 1 2.0
N values may vary due to missing data.

Participants in this study were also asked to report their major or intended major.

The majority, 13.8% (N = 8) reported language based majors such as English 6.9% (N=

4), Spanish 3.5% (N = 2), French 1.7% (N = 1), and Russian 1.7% (N = 1). The second









most frequent response was International Business (10%, N = 6); a more detailed

breakdown of reported majors is presented in Table 3-2. Furthermore, participants were

asked if they spoke the native language of their study abroad country. Of those that

responded (N = 54), 46.3% (N = 25) reported speaking the native language, with the

majority 53.7% (N = 29) not speaking the native language of their study abroad country.

Table 3-2. Major or Intended Major prior to Studying Abroad
Major Frequency Valid Percent1

Agriculture and Life Sciences
Family, Youth and Community Sciences 1 1.7
Agricultural Extension Education 1 1.7
Environmental Science 1 1.7
Forestry 1 1.7
Nutrition 1 1.7

Business Administration
Business 2 3.4
Decision and Information Sciences 1 1.7
Finance 1 1.7
International Business 6 10.3
Management 1 1.7
Marketing 3 5.2

Design, Construction and Planning
Architecture 3 5.2
Landscape Architecture 2 3.4

English Education 1 1.7

Environmental Engineering 1 1.7

Theatre 1 1.7

Journalism and Communications
Advertising 1 1.7
Journalism 1 1.7
Magazine Journalism 1 1.7
Photojournalism 2 3.4









Table 3-2. Continued
Major Frequency Valid Percent1

Law 1 1.7

Liberal Arts and Sciences
Anthropology 1 1.7
Biology 1 1.7
Chemistry 1 1.7
Classical Civilizations 1 1.7
English 4 6.9
French 1 1.7
History 1 1.7
Linguistics 3 5.2
Political Sciences 3 5.2
Psychology 2 3.4
Public Relations 2 3.4
Russian 1 1.7
Spanish 2 3.4
Women's Studies 1 1.7
Zoology 1 1.7
Some reported more than one major N=131 representing number of responses.

When asked to identify their first language, the overwhelming majority 83.6% (N =

46) reported English, followed by Spanish 5.5% (N = 3), Chinese 3.6% (N = 2), and

lastly Polish with 1.8% (N = 1). Participants were also asked if they spoke a second

language, only 35.2% (N = 19) reported speaking a second language, with 64.8% (N =

35) of respondents not speaking a second language. Of those that reported speaking a

second language English (9.1%, N = 5) and Spanish (9.1%, N = 5) were equally

represented among those that reported a single language. However, 3.6% (N = 2) of

participants reported Spanish in addition to another language, thus making Spanish the

most popular second language. Furthermore, participants were asked if they spoke the

native language of the country they were going to study in, the responses were somewhat

equal, the majority 53.7% (N = 29) reported no, and 46.3% (N = 25) reported yes.









Participants were asked to provide details regarding their previous international

travel experience. Of those that responded, 22.2% (N = 12) had never traveled

internationally, 37% (N = 20) traveled internationally one to two times, 20.4% (N = 11)

three to four times, and 20.4% (N = 11) five or more times. When asked to report the

countries they had previously visited, destinations ranged from Africa to Australia. A

detailed profile of destinations visited is provided in Table 3-3.

Table 3-3. Destinations Visited prior to Studying Abroad
Destination Frequency Valid Percent1

Africa
Egypt 1 0.8
Ghana 1 0.8
Morocco 1 0.8

Americas
Canada 12 9.2
Colombia 2 1.5
Costa Rica 3 2.3
Ecuador 1 0.8
Honduras 2 1.5
Mexico 7 5.3
Peru 1 0.8

Asia
Cambodia 1 0.8
China 2 1.5
India 1 0.8
Japan 3 2.3
Russia 1 0.8
Singapore 1 0.8
South Korea 2 1.5
Thailand 1 08

Middle East
Israel 2 1.5
Jordan 1 0.8









Table 3-3. Continued
Destination Frequency Valid Percent1

Caribbean
Antigua 1 0.8
Bahamas 5 3.8
Cuba 1 0.8
Curacao 1 0.8
Jamaica 4 3.1
St. Maarten 1 0.8

Europe
Austria 1 0.8
Denmark 1 0.8
England 12 9.2
France 18 13.7
Germany 7 5.3
Greece 2 1.5
Ireland 4 3.1
Italy 10 7.6
Netherlands 2 1.5
Poland 1 0.8
Scotland 1 0.8
Spain 8 6.1
Sweden 1 0.8
Switzerland 3 2.3
Some reported more than one country N=131 representing number of responses.

Furthermore, participants were asked where they intended to travel while studying

abroad with responses ranging from Malaysia to Spain. The most frequent response was

Italy with 13.3% (N = 15), followed by France 12.4% (N = 14); England was the third

most reported country with 9.7% (N = 11). A more detailed description of destinations

can be found in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4. Countries to be Visited during Study Abroad
Destination Frequency Valid Percent1

Africa
Kenya 1 0.9
South Africa 1 0.9









Table 3-4. Continued
Destination Frequency Valid Percent1

Americas
Argentina 1 0.9
Belize 3 2.7
Bolivia 1 0.9
Brazil 1 0.9
Chile 1 0.9
Costa Rica 2 1.8
Mexico 2 1.8
Nicaragua 1 0.9

Asia
Cambodia 1 0.9
China 3 2.7
Hong Kong 1 0.9
India 1 0.9
Japan 1 0.9
Malaysia 1 0.9
Myanmar 1 0.9
Russia 1 0.9
Singapore 1 0.9
Thailand 1 0.9
Vietnam 1 0.9

South Pacific
Australia 3 2.7
Fiji 2 1.8
New Zealand 2 1.8

Caribbean
Bahamas 1 0.9

Europe
Belgium 1 0.9
Czech Republic 1 0.9
England 11 9.7
France 14 12.4
Germany 4 3.5
Greece 2 1.8
Ireland 4 3.5
Italy 15 13.3
Netherlands 5 4.4









Table 3-4. Continued
Destination Frequency Valid Percent1

Portugal 2 1.8
Spain 9 8.0
Switzerland 6 5.3
Venezuela 1 0.9
Wales 1 0.9
Some reported more than one country N= 113 representing number of responses.

Finally, participants were asked the duration of their study abroad program. Of

those that responded (N = 52), the majority of the students 78.8% (N = 41) were planning

to study abroad for three to five months, followed by one to three months 11.5% (N = 6),

and the most infrequent response was one month or less 9.6% (N = 5).

After Travel

Of the 24 students from the post-travel group who reported their gender (N = 14)

the majority 85.7% (N =12) were female, and 14.3% (N = 2) were male. Participants

were also asked to provide details regarding their previous international travel

experience. Of those that responded (N = 14), 21.4% (N = 3) had never traveled

internationally, 42.9% had (N = 6) traveled internationally 1 to 2 times, and 35.7% (N=

5) 5 or more times; there were no responses for 3 to 4 times. Finally, participants were

asked the duration of their study abroad program. Of those that responded (N = 13), all

of the students 100% (N = 13) studied abroad for three to five months.

Instrument

Michigan State University Study Abroad Inventory

The questionnaires used in this study consisted of three parts. The first part was an

inventory developed by the study abroad office at the Michigan State University (Farrell

& Suvedi, 2003). The purpose of Michigan State's instrument was to understand how the









Nepal study abroad experience that they had sponsored impacted its students and if the

results supported the learning objectives of the program. In the present study, the

researcher adapted this part of the instrument to future tense to assess the students'

perceived benefits prior to their study abroad experience and it was used as part of the

first instrument for the pre-travel group. A past tense version of the inventory was used

for the second instrument for the post-travel group.

The original Michigan State University instrument consisted of four open-ended

questions and 26 close-ended questions. For the purpose of this study, only the 26 close-

ended questions were utilized. The 26 ordinal-scaled questions measured the effects of a

study abroad program on students in five areas: personal development, academics,

professional development, global perspective, and intellectual development. Each

question is measured on a five point Likert-type scale ranging from one (not at all) to five

(very much). Cronbach's alpha was not reported in the original study for the

questionnaire as a whole or for the individual domains.

The personal development sub-scale contains nine items yielding possible scores

between nine and 45. In the present study, student scores for the pre-travel group ranged

between 20 and 45, and for the post-travel group between 20 and 40. The academics sub-

scale consists of two items yielding possible scores between two and 10. In the present

study, student scores for the pre-travel group ranged between two and eight, and for the

post-travel group between four and eight. The professional development sub-scale

contains three items yielding possible scores between three and 15. In the present study,

student scores for the pre-travel group ranged between three and 15, and for the post-

travel group between five and 15. The global perspective sub-scale consists of nine









items with a total possible score ranging from nine to 45. In the present study, student

scores for the pre-travel group ranged between 16 and 45 and for the post-travel group

between 28 and 44. The intellectual development sub-scale consists of three items with a

total possible score ranging from three to 15. In the present study, student scores for the

pre-travel group ranged between five and 15 and for the post-travel group between three

and 15.

Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory

The second part of the instrument consisted of the Mines-Jensen Interpersonal

Relationships Inventory. This scale was a component of a larger instrument collectively

known as The Iowa Student Development Inventories and are based on the seven vectors

of student development (Chickering, 1969). The Iowa Student Development Inventories

were intended to quantify development on the first six dimensions of Chickering's theory

of student development. However, because only the fourth vector Developing Mature

Interpersonal Relationships was measured in this study, only the fourth instrument from

the battery was used.

The Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory measures social

development. The Inventory was created to measure Chickering's fourth vector (Hood &

Mines, 1997), Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships. The developmental phase

of interpersonal relationships is comprised of two areas: (1) improved tolerance and

respect for people of different values, backgrounds, and lifestyles, and (2) a change in the

quality of relationships with close family and friends, moving from dependence through

independence toward an interdependence that allows for a greater level of personal

freedom. The Mines-Jensen Interpersonal Relationships Inventory is a 42-item

instrument and includes some reverse coded items. The inventory evaluates interpersonal









relationships in four areas: peers, adults, friends, and significant others. The Inventory is

multi-dimensional as it contains two scales that measure two constructs: (1) the Tolerance

sub-scale measuring openness and acceptance of diversity, and (2) the Quality of

Relationships sub-scale measuring the transition in relationships with friends from

either extreme dependence or independence, toward a state of interdependence. Each

scale is measured on a four point Likert-type scale where students reply to a series of

statements regarding interpersonal and social behavior and attitudes from 1 (strongly

agree) to 4 (strongly disagree).

The Tolerance sub-scale consists of 20 items with a total possible score from 20 to

80 with students typically scoring in the 45 to 65 range. In the original study, student

scores for the pre-test ranged between 36 and 69, and for the post-test between 47 and 69.

Cronbach's alpha for all the items on the Tolerance scale was originally a = .76. A four-

month test-retest stability coefficient was reported as a = .66; longer-term test-retest

reliability measures were a = .44. The present study yielded a higher Cronbach's alpha

with a = .81 for the pre-travel group, and a = .68 for the post-travel group.

The Quality ofRelationships sub-scale contains 22 items yielding possible scores

between 22 and 88 with most students scoring between 55 and 75. In the original study,

student scores for the pre-test ranged between 37 and 80 and for the post-test between 57

and 80. Cronbach's alpha for the Quality of Relationships sub-scale was originally a =

.87; the four-month test-retest stability coefficient was reported as a = .68; longer-term

test-retest reliability measures were a = .72. The results from the present study yielded

a Cronbach's alpha of a = .84 for the pre-travel group, and a = .62 for the post-travel

group.









The correlation between the two scales was originally .25, which suggested

construct independence. Studies thus conducted have indicated construct validity for the

dimensions assessed by the inventory (Braverman, 1987; Hallowell, 1991; Long, 1995;

Smith-Eggeman, 1993; Taub, 1993 and White & Hood, 1989). Unfortunately, for this

study the sample size was not large enough to use factor analysis to establish the

construct validity of the instrument.

Demographics and Open-Ended Questions

The third part of the questionnaire differed between the pre-travel group and post-

travel group. For the pre-travel group, the third part of the instrument consisted of

demographic questions, such as gender and age, as well as a series of seven open-ended

questions, such as "why are you studying abroad," "what are you looking forward to

regarding your study abroad experience," and "do you feel adequately prepared for your

study abroad program?" These questions were incorporated primarily to gauge the mood

of the student before traveling overseas. The third part of the questionnaire on the post-

travel group was comprised of seven open-ended questions. For example, "what

was/were your best experiencess)" "what was the most challenging aspect of studying

abroad," "what did you learn about yourself," "is there anything else that you would like

to share with me about your study abroad experience?" These were used in an effort to

gain a better understanding of the effect the study abroad trip had on the students upon

their return, and provide some more insight to supplement the quantitative data.

Data Analysis

The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences,

Version 11.0). Descriptive statistics were run for all the variables to generate

frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. These statistics were used to









determine the demographics of the sample for the group prior to traveling and for the

group after traveling abroad, check for coding errors, and create a profile of the typical

study abroad student at the University of Florida.

Mean scores were used to sum the scores and provide a summary score to ease

interpretation for all of the research questions, a visual analysis was performed on the

group before traveling and the group after traveling to confirm there were no extreme

responses (Hunter & Brown, 1991). For the first research question, part a, the mean

scores were used to describe the students' perceptions before their study abroad

experience. For the first research question, part b, the mean scores were used to describe

the students' perceptions after their study abroad experience. For the second research

question, part a, the mean scores were used to describe the students' overall level of

development before studying abroad. For the second research question, part b, the mean

scores were used to describe the students' overall level of development after studying

abroad. For the third research question, part a, the mean scores were used to describe

differences by gender in terms of level of development before their study abroad

experience. For the third research question, part b, the mean scores were used to describe

differences by gender in terms of level of development after their study abroad

experience. For the fourth research question, part a, the mean scores were used to

describe differences by previous overseas experience and level of development before

studying abroad. For the fourth research question, part b, the mean scores were used to

describe differences by previous overseas experience and level of development after

studying abroad. For the fifth research question, part a, the mean scores were used to

describe differences by duration of study abroad program and level of development






67


before studying abroad. For the fifth research question, part b, the mean scores were used

to describe differences by duration of study abroad program and level of development

after studying abroad. Content analyses were used to group open-ended comments

according to similarity in response, and were used to supplement the findings for the pre-

travel group and the post-travel group.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Perceptions of the Study Abroad Experience

la. What perceptions do the students report before their study abroad experience as
measured by the Michigan State University questionnaire?

lb. What perceptions do the students report after their study abroad experience as
measured by the Michigan State University questionnaire?

Pre-travel Group

In the pre-travel group almost half (48%) of the individual questions regarding

perceived benefits show high mean scores of 4.0 and above (Table 4-1). Students

reported the highest levels of agreement with the statement that, studying abroad "will

contribute to my overall understanding of the country I will study in" (M = 4.65, SD =

.67) (Appendix G). The second most agreed upon statement was, studying abroad "will

contribute to my understanding of other cultures" (M = 4.60, SD = .74). Finally,

respondents agreed that studying abroad "will increase my ability to cope with unfamiliar

situations" (M = 4.44, SD = .90). The statement that students agreed with least was,

studying abroad "will distract me from my academic performance." (M = 1.87, SD =

1.76). The second least agreed upon statement was, studying abroad "will make me

reconsider my career plans" (M = 2.85, SD = 2.09). Finally, respondents tended to report

moderate agreement with the statement that, studying abroad "will lead to an

improvement of my academic performance" (M = 3.22, SD = 1.18).









Table 4-1. Student Perceptions of Study Abroad before and after the Travel Experience


Pre-Study Abroad


Study abroad...

Global Perspective2
Contributed to my overall
understanding of the country I
studied in.

Increased my desire to work
and/or study abroad in the
future.

Contributed to my
understanding of other
cultures.

Increased my curiosity about
other cultures.

Enhanced concern about
problems with developing
countries.

Enhanced my understanding
of international issues.

Increased my appreciation of
human difference.

Contributed and/or created a
new understanding of critical
social issues.

Increased my level of comfort
around people different from
me.

Personal Development
Enhanced my self-reliance.

Increased my ability to cope
with unfamiliar situations.


N Mean


55 4.65



55 4.05 1


55 4.60


54 4.00 1


55 3.60 1



55 4.07


55 4.22


55 3.85 1



55 4.09 1





55 4.24

55 4.44


SD


Post-Study Abroad
N Mean SD


.67 25 4.76



.04 25 4.12



.74 24 4.50



.94 25 4.24


25 3.52 1.09


25 3.88 1.05


25 3.84 1.03


25 3.84



25 4.12


.94 25 4.48

.90 25 4.48









Table 4-1. Continued


Study abroad...


Increased my open-
mindedness.

Enhanced my independence.

Increased my understanding
of my own culture.

Enhanced my desire to
interact with a stranger.

Increased my feeling of
personal effectiveness.

Encouraged me to seek out a
more diverse group of friends.

Helped develop my leadership
skills.

Intellectual Development
Increased my skills to
communicate in the language
of the host culture.

Enhanced my critical thinking
skills.

Improved my problem-solving
skills.

Professional Development
Will favorably impress
potential employers.

Made me reconsider my
career plans.

Helped me find professional
direction.


Pre-Study Abroad
N Mean1 SD


55 4.35


4.40

3.80


55 3.60 .97


55 3.69 1.00


55 3.49 1.09


55 3.44 1.05



55 4.00 1.37



55 3.60 1.07


54 3.33 1.94



54 3.98 2.00


55 2.85 2.09


54 3.29 2.08


Post-Study Abroad
N Mean SD


.78 25 4.52


4.56

3.96


25 3.64 1.11


25 4.08


25 3.84 1.14


25 3.36 1.08



25 4.00 1.32



25 3.60 1.16


24 3.63 1.14


25 4.36


25 3.36 1.32


25 2.96 1.43









Table 4-1. Continued
Pre-Study Abroad Post-Study Abroad
Study abroad... N Mean1 SD N Mean SD

Academics
Led to an improvement of my 55 3.22 1.18 25 3.00 1.08
academic performance.

Distracted me from my 54 1.87 1.76 25 2.40 1.19
academic performance.

Mean was based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = some, 4 = quite a
lot, and 5 = very much.
2The italicized phrases describe the dimension being measured.

Post-travel Group

In the post-travel group almost half (48%) of the individual questions regarding

impacts illustrate high mean scores of 4.0 and above (Table 4-1). The statement that

students agreed with the most strongly was that studying abroad "contributed to my

overall understanding of the country I studied in" (M = 4.76, SD = .44) (Appendix H).

The second most agreed upon statement, was, studying abroad "enhanced my

independence" (M = 4.56, SD = .77). Finally, respondents agreed that studying abroad

"increased my open-mindedness" (M = 4.52, SD = .71). The statement that they agreed

with the least was that studying abroad "distracted me from my academic performance."

(M = 2.40, SD = 1.19). The second least agreed upon statement was studying abroad

"helped me find professional direction" (M = 2.96, SD = 1.43). Students moderately

agreed with the statement that, studying abroad "led to an improvement of my academic

performance" (M = 3.00, SD = 1.08).









Student Development and Study Abroad

2a. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser's (1993) fourth
vector of development have the students achieved before their study abroad experience?

i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the
students achieved before their study abroad experience?

ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale
have the students achieved before their study abroad experience?

2b. What level of development according to Chickering and Reisser's (1993) fourth
vector of development have the students achieved after their study abroad experience?

i. What level of development according to the Tolerance scale have the
students achieved after their study abroad experience?

ii. What level of development according to the Quality of Relationships scale
have the students achieved after their study abroad experience?

Pre-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale

The responses to the pre-travel group statements on the Tolerance sub-scale, which

measures improved tolerance and respect for people with different values, backgrounds,

and lifestyles, ranged between (agreement) 2.00 and 3.33 (toward disagreement) on a

four point Likert-type scale, where one represents strongly agree and four represents

strongly disagree (Table 4-2). The statement (item reverse coded) which participants

agreed with the most was, "I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their

children's friends or values" (M = 2.00, SD = .84) (Appendix I). The second most agreed

upon statement was, "my roommate has some habits that annoy and bother me very

much" (M = 2.04, SD = .88). Finally, respondents agreed, "students that get 'high' and

are caught should be treated like the lawbreakers they are" (M = 2.46, SD = 1.00).

The statement that was agreed upon least was, "I would discontinue my friendship

with a persons) I am close to if I found out my friends) was homosexual or bisexual"

(M = 3.33, SD = 1.11). Following this, the participants disagreed equally with the









statements: Students who live together before they are married definitely should be made

to realize what they are doing is wrong" (M = 3.22, SD = .99); the other statement (item

reverse coded) was, "it would not matter to me if someone I was going to marry had

sexual relations with another person before I met them" (M = 3.22, SD = 1.05); and the

final item (item reverse coded) was, "I think the person I am dating or 'going with'

should have friends outside of 'our crowd'" (M = 3.22, SD = .98).

Table 4-2. Responses for the Tolerance Sub-scale before and after the Travel Experience
Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD


I accept my friends as they
2
are.

In my classes, I have met two
kinds of people: those who are
for the truth and those who are
against the truth.

As I have talked with faculty
and adults about their
different philosophies, there is
probably only one which is
correct.

It would not matter to me if
someone I was going to marry
had sexual relations with
another person before I met
them. 2

When I talk to my friends
about my religious beliefs, I
am very careful not to
compromise with those who
believe differently than I do.


55 3.18


55 2.91





55 3.13






55 3.22


55 2.51


24 3.58


.82 24 3.17





1.00 24 3.46






1.05 24 3.13






8.79 24 2.46


i









Table 4-2. Continued
Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD


My roommate has some habits
that bother and annoy me very
much.

Most adults need to change
their values and attitudes.

Students who live together
before they are married
definitely should be made to
realize what they are doing is
wrong.

I would discontinue my
friendship with a persons) I
am close to if I found out my
friends) was homosexual or
bisexual.

One of the problems with my
fellow students is they were
not dealt with firmly when
they were younger.

I do not disapprove of faculty
or other adults getting drunk
or high at parties. 2

I would not discontinue a love
relationship if my partner did
something I disapproved of. 2

Most instructors teach as if
there is just one right way to
obtain a solution to a problem.

I personally find it sickening
to be around my friends when
they do not act in a mature
manner.


53 2.04



55 2.60


55 3.22





55 3.33






55 2.64




55 2.67


54 2.57



55 2.71



55 2.87


.88 24 2.25



5.83 23 2.74


.99 24 3.38





1.11 24 3.67






.80 24 2.92




8.62 24 2.29



.77 24 2.63


.85 24 3.00



.86 24 3.08










Table 4-2. Continued
Statement


Freedom of speech can be
carried too far in terms of the
ideal because some students
and their organizations should
have their freedom of speech
restricted.

I'm glad to see most of my
friends are not dressing like
"bums" anymore.

I do not get irritated when
parents cannot accept their
children's friends or values. 2

I only date people who are of
the same religious background
as me.

I think the person I am dating
or "going with" should have
friends outside of "our
crowd." 2

I think students that get
"high" and are caught should
be treated like the lawbreakers
they are.


Mean1

3.13


54 2.74



54 2.00



53 2.87



54 3.22





54 2.46


Mean

3.25


23 2.57


.84 24 1.79


24 2.71


.98 24 3.50





1.00 24 2.83


Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4
= strongly disagree.
2Item was reverse coded

Post-travel Group: Tolerance Sub-scale

The post-travel group mean scores for statements on the Tolerance sub-scale

ranged between (agreement) 1.79 and 3.67 (toward disagreement) on a four point Likert-

type scale, where one represents strongly agree and four represents strongly disagree

(Table 4-2). The statement (item reverse coded) that participants agreed with the most


*


SD

.61







.84



.72



1.12



.59





.96









was, "I do not get irritated when parents cannot accept their children's friends or values"

(M = 1.79, SD = .72) (Appendix J). The second most agreed upon statement was, "my

roommate has some habits that bother and annoy me very much" (M = 2.25, SD = .61).

Finally, respondents agreed (item reverse coded) "I do not disapprove of faculty or other

adults getting drunk or high at parties" (M = 2.29, SD = .75). The statement that was

agreed upon least was, "I would discontinue my friendship with a persons) I am close to

if I found out my friends) was homosexual or bisexual" (M = 3.67, SD = .70). The

second most disagreed upon statement (item reverse coded) was, "I accept my friends as

they are" (M = 3.58, SD = .58). Finally, respondents disagreed (item reverse coded) that

"I think the person I am dating or 'going with' should have friends outside of 'our

crowd'" (M = 3.50, SD = .59).

Pre-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale

The pre-travel group mean scores for the statements on the Quality of Relationships

sub-scale which measures a change in the quality of relationships with close family and

friends, moving from dependence through independence toward an interdependence that

allows for a greater level of personal freedom ranged between (agreement) 2.38 and 3.46

(toward disagreement) on a four point Likert-type scale, where one represents strongly

agree and four represents strongly disagree (Table 4-3). The statement that participants

agreed with the most was, "I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work" (M =

2.38, SD = .71) (Appendix K). The second most agreed upon statement was, "I would

feel uncomfortable criticizing, to their face, someone I had dated a long time" (M = 2.62,

SD = .95). The third most agreed upon statement (item reverse coded) was, "my

relationships with members of the opposite sex have allowed me to explore some

behaviors that I had not felt comfortable with before" (M = 2.64, SD = .81). The









statement (item reverse coded) that participants disagreed with the least was, "my

roommate(s) and I feel free to come and go as we please" (M = 3.46, SD = 1.04). The

second most disagreed upon statement (item reverse coded) was, "I can just be with my

friends without having to be doing anything in particular" (M = 3.43, SD = .94). Finally,

respondents disagreed that "I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with

my friends" (M = 3.39, SD = .88).

Table 4-3. Responses to the Quality of Relationships Sub-scale before and after the
Travel Experience
Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD

I would feel uncomfortable 0.0 2.62 .95 24 2.88 .95
criticizing, to their face,
someone I had dated a long
time.

The instructors here do not 55 3.09 .82 24 3.33 .96
treat the students like they are
adults.

I relate to most students as an 55 2.85 .91 24 3.21 .66
equal. 2

I can enjoy myself without 55 3.31 .90 24 3.54 .72
needing to have someone with
2
me.

I have to go out on a day 55 2.73 1.11 24 2.65 1.03
every weekend.

I get nervous when an 55 2.38 .71 24 2.54 1.00
instructor criticizes my work.

Sometimes I feel I have to 54 3.09 .96 24 3.29 .75
make unnecessary apologies
for my appearance or conduct
to the persons) I live with.










Table 4-3. Continued
Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD


I can tell my friends just about
anything that is on my mind
and know they will accept me.
2
My social life is satisfying to
2
me.

I relate with my parents on an
adult-to-adult basis. 2

My relationship with my
roommate(s) is stagnating my
own growth and potential.

I feel comfortable about
telling a friend of the same
sex "I love you," without
worrying they might get the
wrong idea.2

My relationships with
members of the opposite sex
have allowed me to explore
some behaviors that I had not
felt comfortable with before. 2

My parents do not try to run
my life. 2

My friends view me as an
independent, outgoing person
in my relationship with them.
2


I always hold back when I am
at a party which consists of a
diverse group of people.

I encourage friends to drop in
informally. 2


55 3.05



55 3.07


55 2.85


54 3.06



54 3.13






53 2.64






55 2.98


54 3.19





54 2.94



54 3.04


.99



.77


.89


.98



1.16






.81






.97


.97





.86



.99


24 3.25



24 3.38


24 3.13


24 3.21



24 3.21






23 2.83






24 3.25


24 3.54





24 3.25


24 3.38 8.24


.90



.71


.90


.88



1.22






.89






.94


.59





.74









Table 4-3. Continued
Statement N Mean1 SD N Mean SD

My roommate(s) and I feel 54 3.46 1.04 24 3.79 .42
free to come and go as we
please. 2

I have gotten to know some 54 2.96 .95 24 2.83 .87
instructors as people-not just
as faculty members. 2

I worry about not dating 52 2.87 .95 24 2.79 1.02
enough.

I can just be with my friends 54 3.43 .94 24 3.67 .48
without having to be doing
anything in particular. 2

I do not view myself as an 54 3.39 .88 24 3.67 .57
independent, outgoing person
with my friends.

Mean was based on a 1-4 scale where 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, and 4
= strongly disagree.
2Item was reverse coded

Post-travel Group: Quality of Relationships Sub-scale

The post-travel group mean scores for the statements on the Quality of

Relationships sub-scale ranged between (agreement) 2.54 and 3.79 (toward

disagreement) on a four point Likert-type scale, where one represents strongly agree and

four represents strongly disagree (Table 4-3). The statement that participants agreed with

the most was, "I get nervous when an instructor criticizes my work" (M = 2.54, SD =

1.00) (Appendix L). The second most agreed upon statement was, "I have to go out on a

day every weekend" (M = 2.65, SD = 1.03). Finally, respondents also agreed with the

statement (item reverse coded) "I worry about not dating enough" (M = 2.79, SD = 1.02).

The statement (item reverse coded) that was agreed upon least was, "my roommate(s) and









I feel free to come and go as we please" (M = 3.79, SD = .42). The next most disagreed

upon statements were equal (the first item was reverse coded), "I can just be with my

friends without having to be doing anything in particular" (M = 3.67, SD = .48); the next

statement was, "I do not view myself as an independent, outgoing person with my

friends" (M = 3.67, SD = .57).

Gender and Student Development

3a. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and
Reisser's fourth vector before their study abroad experience?

i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the
Tolerance scale before their study abroad experience?

ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality
of Relationships scale before their study abroad experience?

3b. Do males and females differ in their development according to Chickering and
Reisser's fourth vector after their study abroad experience?

i. Do males and females differ in their development according to the
Tolerance scale after their study abroad experience?

ii. Do males and females differ in their development according to the Quality
of Relationships scale after their study abroad experience?

Tolerance Sub-scale

For the pre-travel group, the mean for the females was 56.33 (SD = 7.92) and for

the males the mean was 55.88 (SD = 12.64). For the post-travel group the mean for the

males was 65.50 (SD = 0.71) and for the females was 58.18 (SD = 5.60).

Quality of Relationships Sub-scale

When considering the Quality of Relationships sub-scale for the pre-travel group,

the mean for the females was 67.28 (SD = 8.89) and the mean for the males was 63.88

(SD = 13.42). The mean for the males was 75.00 (SD = 1.41) and the mean for the

females was 72.00 (SD = 6.25).









Previous Overseas Experience and Student Development

4a. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those
with no previous overseas experience, regarding Chickering and Reisser's fourth vector
prior to their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Tolerance scale prior to their study abroad
experience?

ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale prior to
their study abroad experience?

4b. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously and those
with no previous overseas experience, regarding Chickering and Reisser's fourth vector
after their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Tolerance scale after their study abroad
experience?

ii. Is there a difference between students who have traveled abroad previously
and those with no previous overseas experience, and their level of
development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale after their
study abroad experience?

Tolerance Sub-scale

For the pre-travel group, the mean for the students with no previous overseas

experience was 56.75 (SD = 8.36) and the mean for those with previous overseas

experience was 56.10 (SD = 8.76). For the post-travel group, the mean for the students

with no previous overseas experience was 64.00 (SD = 3.46) and the mean for those with

previous overseas experience was 55.67 (SD = 3.88).

Quality of Relationships Sub-scale

For the pre-travel group, the mean for the students with no previous overseas

experience was 67.50 (SD = 11.30) and the mean for those with previous overseas









experience was 66.44 (SD = 9.27). For the post-travel group, the mean for the students

with no previous overseas experience was 76.00 (SD = 3.46) and the mean for those with

previous overseas experience was 71.66 (SD = 5.43).

Duration of Program and Student Development

5a. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering
and Reisser's fourth vector prior to their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding
level of development as measured by the Tolerance scale prior to their study
abroad experience?

ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding
level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale
prior to their study abroad experience?

5b. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, regarding Chickering
and Reisser's fourth vector after their study abroad experience?

i. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program, and the
level of development measured by the Tolerance scale after their study
abroad experience?

ii. Is there a difference between duration of study abroad program regarding
level of development as measured by the Quality of Relationships scale
after their study abroad experience?

Tolerance Sub-scale

For the pre-travel group the mean for those whose program was one month or less

was 56.20 (SD = 4.55), for those whose program was one to three months the mean was

59.00 (SD = 4.69);, and the mean for those whose program was three to five months in

length was 56.07 (SD = 9.35). Of all the respondents that reported the duration of their

program in the post-travel group all of them reported their program as lasting three to five

months; the mean score was 59.83 (SD = 5.73).









Quality of Relationships Sub-scale

With regards to the Quality of Relationships sub-scale for the pre-travel group, the

mean for those whose program was one month or less was 67.20 (SD = 6.69), for those

whose program was one to three months the mean was 69.20 (SD = 1.79), and for those

whose programs were three to five months in length, the mean was 66.38 (SD = 10.78).

Of all the respondents that reported the duration of their program in the post-travel group

all of them reported their program as lasting three to five months; the mean score was

73.17 (SD = 5.48).

Open-ended Questions

Study abroad participants were asked a variety of open-ended questions both before

their travel experience and after their travel experience. This information was collected

to provide a greater understanding of their expectations and experiences of studying

abroad.

Pre-travel Group

When participants were asked, "why are you studying abroad?" the majority of

students responded with language acquisition skills, self-exploration and for the cultural

experience in general. A 22 year-old female who had never traveled internationally

before wrote "to increase my historical consciousness, to see what it is like to be in a

totally foreign place, not knowing a soul, to learn about myself and others through this

once in a lifetime opportunity." Another female student who was 21, but had traveled

overseas previously at least five times stated her reason for studying abroad was "to gain

a second language, challenge myself, meet new people, become more worldly, become

inspired, something for my resume." Another student who did not provide any

demographic information said, "to learn Spanish and broaden my horizons." Likewise a









20 year-old female student whose program was three to five months and had traveled

overseas three to four times wrote, "to master the language and learn more about the

culture."

Students were also asked to provide insights as to what they were looking forward

to regarding their study abroad experience. The majority of students responded with

responses pertaining to experiencing a different culture, meeting new people, and self-

exploration. A 20 year-old female who had never traveled overseas remarked "meeting

new people, seeing new things, learning about the world and more about myself." A 23

year-old female who had previously traveled overseas one to two times explained, "being

totally independent of family, meeting new/different people, experiencing new

adventures." A 22 year-old female who had never traveled overseas previously and

whose program was three to five months wrote "I am looking forward to meeting open-

minded, liberal people who are just interested in living, seeing, and experiencing a

different culture, and hope to learn to be a bit more ballsy and not as self-conscious."

Another 20 year-old female who had previously traveled overseas three to four times and

whose program was three to five months wrote "meeting new people and discovering a

culture very different from anything I've experienced." A 22 year-old female who had

previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program was three to five

months wrote "just going to all these different places. I have dreamed about this since I

was a little kid...an African safari, scuba diving with great whites, paragliding, etc."

When participants were asked "do you feel adequately prepared for your study

abroad program?" the majority 52% (N = 26) said yes. A 19 year-old male who had

previously never traveled overseas and whose program was three to five months wrote









"yes, it doesn't take much, I feel you just need an open mind and a willingness to learn

something new and have fun." A female student who was 20 years old and had

previously traveled overseas one to two times explained:

Yes, I've traveled before and know how to pack light, but to include the things I'll
need most. I've had friends who have gone through the same program and have
given me advice about what to pack, where to travel, how to travel, and some
interesting sites to visit.

A 26 year-old male who had previously traveled overseas three to four times and whose

program lasted three to five months explained "yes, I feel comfortable in new places and

value the opportunity to learn about those places first hand."

In contrast, almost one third (N = 15) felt they were not prepared. Another 20 year-

old female student who had previously traveled overseas one to two times stated "not

really but I will try and brush up on my Spanish and learn how to be away from my

boyfriend." Likewise, a 19 year-old female who had no previous overseas experience

and whose program lasted three to five months exclaimed, "no, I feel as though I could

have been much more informed about the program that I was entering before I chose it."

Finally, 18% (N = 9) had mixed emotions. A 20 year-old female who had never traveled

overseas before mentioned:

No and Yes, I am a very open-minded person, but on the other hand I don't know
how I will be treated and accepted there. Plus I think that it is going to be hard
trying to learn the language. Because for the first time in my life I will be a
foreigner.

A 20 year-old female who had previously traveled overseas three to four times and whose

program was three to five months wrote "I am insecure about my speaking abilities, but I

am mentally prepared for the trip." Similarly, a 22 year-old female who had no previous

overseas experience and whose program lasted three to five months wrote "kind of. I feel

like I know what to pack, where to go, but I don't really know what I'm in for."









When asked, "what are you not looking forward to/and or feel nervous about?" the

majority of students were nervous about being far from home, terrorism, and language

barriers. A female participant who was 20 years old and had never traveled

internationally before commented "I'm just feeling nervous about being so far from home

away from my family and the fact that terrorists are bombing countries." Likewise, a 26

year-old female student who had previously traveled internationally three to four times

explained "I am a little worried about the acts of terrorism that have been committed in

Madrid and London. I just hope that nothing happens while I am studying abroad."

Another female student who was 20 and had traveled abroad three to four times

mentioned "my first week when I know I will have a pseudo nervous breakdown while I

adjust to things, also the fact that I can't even read the language is somewhat

frightening." A 22 year-old female who had never traveled overseas and whose program

lasted three to five months wrote "I'm nervous to speak Spanish in front of natives and

about learning my way around the city, I'm bad with directions, but I want to be able to

be self-sufficient while I am there." A 41 year-old female who had never traveled

overseas and whose program was three to five months stated "It's a lot of work, not

enough down time, having to leave home for an extended period, financial concerns."

Post-travel Group

When asked "what was/were your best experiencess)" the overwhelming response

related to cultural immersion in general. Another student who did not provide any

demographic information observed:

Being able to live in a kibbutz and meeting people around my age in the program I
did. Having the liberty to do what I wanted when I wanted without having to
answer to anyone or worry about my parents. Waking up everyday in my
superficial "bubble" life and knowing there was an amazing beach a walking
distance away, dogs running around freely, and being able to pick fruit off of trees









when I was hungry. Also being in Israel I got to travel around the area and see
amazing places like Sinai, Jordan and Greece.

A female student who had traveled internationally one to two times before her study

abroad trip, and whose program lasted three to five months commented "I had the

incredible opportunity of meeting my distant relatives in the North of Spain. I visited

them on several occasions and we have formed a life long bond. It is an amazing

experience learning about your history and background." Another female student who

had traveled overseas one to two times and whose program was three to five months

stated "simply walking around, soaking in the people, sights, sounds, and cultural

differences." While another student who did not provided demographic information

wrote "living in a completely different culture and adapting to a new way of life." A male

student who had previously traveled overseas five or more times and whose program was

three to five months cited "hiking through Fiord land with a group of people I had just

met."

Students were also asked "what was/were your worst experiencess)" with the

majority relating to cultural differences and being accepted. A female student who had

previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program lasted three to five

months cited:

My worst experience has been dealing with drastic changes in my life while being
so far away from home. Having to let go of a very important relationship and not
having the support of my family and friends from home.

Another student felt, "the program was too structured, I felt that I was compromising my

personal interests for the program. I felt the program did not expect me to 'find my own

way' or act independently in the foreign culture." Another student voiced more concerns

about the threat of terrorism as being a downside of the experience. He or she wrote:









The knowledge that there were active terrorists that could strike anywhere. It did
not keep me from living my life there, but the thought of something happening was
always on the back of my mind anywhere I went. Also on a lesser note most things
in Israel are closed Saturday.

A female student who had not previously traveled internationally and whose

program lasted three to five months pointed out "the differences and inefficiencies of the

culture" while another student complained "being treated like a stupid American when

we knew what we were doing."

When participants were asked, "what was the most challenging aspect of studying

abroad?" communication and adjustment issues were most frequently cited. A female

student who had traveled internationally one to two times before her study abroad trip,

and whose program lasted three to five months commented "learning the language (which

I didn't know at all before) well enough to be confident in getting around and asking

questions." Another student explained "having to deal with communicating in a different

language and getting to know people and understand them through the language barrier.

Also not having a car and being able to drive was a slight annoyance." A female student

who had previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program lasted three to

five months remarked:

The most challenging aspect is getting to know people from your host country. It is
incredible how easy it is to find people of your native tongue no matter where you
are. If you are interested in learning a different language it can be very difficult
when you are surrounded by people from your own country the majority of the
time.

In contrast, another student would have liked to be surrounded by people from home as

he/she was most challenged by "missing home, family, friends, and my old

lifestyle...missing things that my friends do that I used to be there for." Likewise, a

female student who had traveled overseas previously one to two times, and whose









program lasted three to five months wrote that "interacting with others from different

countries (difficulties communicating)" was the most challenging aspect of the program.

Students were asked to explain, "what ways do you feel the program impacted your

life?" The responses overwhelmingly supported the personal changes experienced as a

result of studying abroad. A male student who had previously traveled internationally

five or more times and whose program lasted three to five months remarked "this

experience has made me understand myself better. I am more patient, open-minded. I

also feel like I can deal with anything that I come in contact with that will challenge me

mentally or emotionally." A female student who had previously traveled internationally

five or more times and whose program lasted three to five months observed it "made me

strong and independent; I felt lonely very often but every time I overcame it I felt like I

became stronger." A male student who had previously traveled overseas three to four

times and whose program lasted three to five months wrote it "has made me much more

open to anything, willing to step outside of my boundaries." Similarly, a female student

who had previously traveled overseas one to two times and whose program lasted three to

five months felt that she had become more introspective, she wrote:

I am much more confident in my own abilities and strengths now than I ever have
been. I have also realized that I can enjoy simply being by myself, whereas prior to
studying abroad I tended to fill my minutes with plans and people. Now I love to sit
and observe.

These sentiments were also expressed by another student who wrote that "in every way

[the program was] a life changing experience. [It] freed my mind of nuances and made

me realize to live life to the fullest."

Another student felt that the experience has inspired them to see more of the world.

He or she wrote "the program has made me want to study abroad again or just travel in









general because it was so exciting going into a foreign culture and learning and

participating in it." Another student also felt that studying abroad had been a significant

experience for them. She/he wrote:

My eyes were opened to so many more ways of living and understanding my self.
For example I realized that I do not have to study immediately, that it is ok to
figure out what I want without having to rush into a university right after high
school. And also that it is ok. I learned a lot of things about myself, society, and
life.

Another female student who had previously traveled overseas five or more times and

whose program lasted three to five months commented "I met many good friends and was

able to grow personally through my experiences and conversations with these new

people."

When asked, "what did you learn about yourself?" the majority of responses

pertained to self-confidence and a sense of newfound independence. One student felt that

"I can survive and manage in a foreign country and on my own. That simple pleasures]

in life are some of the most wonderful. That it is ok not to know where the next step in

life is." A female student who had previously traveled internationally one to two times

and whose program lasted three to five months replied that she had learned a number of

things about herself. She felt she had learned "that I AM a confident person, that I love

to learn, love to travel, and can get along well with people from many different

backgrounds." A female student who had previously traveled overseas one to two times

and whose program lasted three to five months wrote:

I learned that I love visiting foreign countries and diving into the experience of new
cultures. In some ways going away has made me more grounded. I have never
been so appreciative of all the amazing people in my life. I have learned that I am
so loved and this has been the most valuable lesson.