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Viability of wetland trees After twenty years on phosphatic clay settling areas and their role in ecosystem development

University of Florida Institutional Repository Howard T. Odum Center for Wetlands
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VIABILITY OF WETLAND TREES AFTER TWENTY YEARS ON PHOSPHATIC CLAY SETTLING AREAS AND THEIR ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT By WESLEY W. INGWERSEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank and acknowledge the follo wing persons and institutions: my advisor, Dr. Mark Brown, who made possible my involvement in the project, provided me a rich theoretical background from whic h to draw questions for resear ch, and guided me through each successive stage of this thesis; the Florida Institu te of Phosphate Research (FIPR) for its generous support of the Wetlands on Clay project; Daniel Mc Laughlin for his help in site exploration and every aspect of organizing and carrying out the field work and data input necessary for this thesis; Sean King and Tyler Hollingsworth for their hard work in the field and lab during the summer of 2005; Betty Rushton, whose planting trials on clay settling areas and dissertation made possible this investigation; my committee members, Dr. Clay Montague and Dr. Wendell Cropper, for their advice and support; CF-Industries, the Mosai c Company, the Teneroc State Reserve, and the Homeland Office of the Florida DEP for permi ssion to repeatedly access the clay settling areas used in this study; and my family and close frie nds who encouraged me to pursue my interest and supported me as I did.

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iii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................ii LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........v LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......vii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... .............ix INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... ........1 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... ..1 Background..................................................................................................................... .........2 Clay Settling Areas...........................................................................................................2 Wetlands on Clay Settling Areas.....................................................................................2 Planting of Wetland Species on Clay...............................................................................4 Recruitment.................................................................................................................... ..5 Ecosystem Development..................................................................................................6 Plan of Study.................................................................................................................. ..........7 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................... ......9 Site and Plot Selection........................................................................................................ .....9 Field Data Collection.......................................................................................................... ...11 Topography....................................................................................................................11 Hydrology......................................................................................................................11 Planted Trees..................................................................................................................12 Other Tree Species.........................................................................................................12 Recruited Trees..............................................................................................................12 Additional Measures of Ecosystem Devel opment: Shrub and Understory Layers; Soils; Canopy Photos.................................................................................................12 Site Histories................................................................................................................. .13 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. .......13 Topography and Water Levels.......................................................................................13 Tree and Plot Basal Area................................................................................................14 Tree Growth Comparisons.............................................................................................15 Population Size Class Distributions...............................................................................15 Canopy Photos...............................................................................................................16 Understory Vegetation...................................................................................................16 Ordination of Plots by Prevalent Understory Species....................................................18 Correlation Matrices of Ecosys tem Development Variables.........................................18 Tree Population Model.......................................................................................................... .18

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iv RESULTS........................................................................................................................ ..............29 Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors........................................................29 Tree Survival by Site and Species..................................................................................29 Hydrology......................................................................................................................30 Initial Tree Growth and 20-year Tree Survival..............................................................34 Site Disturbance and Tree Survival................................................................................34 Recruited Trees..............................................................................................................35 New Seedling Survival...................................................................................................36 Tree Population Size Class Distributions.......................................................................36 Tree Population Model.......................................................................................................... .37 Ecosystem Development in Ru shton and Reference Plots.....................................................38 Topographic Comparison of Rushton and Reference Plots...........................................39 Plot Basal Area in Rushto n and Reference Plots...........................................................39 Percent Canopy Cover....................................................................................................39 Soil Organic Matter........................................................................................................40 Understory Vegetation...................................................................................................40 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ...........74 Summary........................................................................................................................ ........74 Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors........................................................75 Tree Survival By Site and Species.................................................................................75 Tree Survival and Hydrology.........................................................................................76 Tree Growth Comparison Between Sand-Clay and Clay Sites......................................78 Recruited Trees..............................................................................................................79 Tree Population Model.......................................................................................................... .80 Characteristics of Su ccessful Speci es on CSAs.....................................................................81 Ecosystem Development in Ru shton and Reference Plots.....................................................83 Structural Differences....................................................................................................85 Soil Organic Matter........................................................................................................85 Understory Vegetation...................................................................................................86 Relationships Among Measures of Ecosystem Development........................................88 APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURES, TABLES, AND CODE...............................................................90 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................114 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................118

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v LIST OF TABLES Table page 1. Site summary table......................................................................................................... ...........20 2. Species list for cypress-gum plots......................................................................................... ....22 3. Species list for wet and tra nsitional hydric swamp plots...................................................23 4. Size class key used in tr ee size class distributions....................................................................28 5. Tree survival from initial planting in 25 sampled cypress-gum plots.......................................43 6. Tree survival from initial planting in 12 sampled hydric swamp plots....................................43 7. Comparison of trees growing in different soil media by species..............................................55 8. Results of a two-way ANOVA comparing the effect of two soil types (clay and sand-clay) and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Fraxinus pennsylvanica growth....................55 9. Results of a two-way ANOVA comparing the effect of two soil types (clay and sand-clay) and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Taxodium distichum growth..........................55 10. Site disturbance record................................................................................................... .........56 11. Plots with potential offspring of planted trees ordered by reproductive ratio.........................57 12. Rushton plots/subplots ranked by planted tree basal area ......................................................66 13. Topography and water level compar ison of Rushton and reference plots..............................67 14. Plot-scale basal area comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots...................67 15. Percent canopy cover comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots.................69 16. Soil percent organic matter compar ison in Rushton and reference plots................................70 17. Soil percent organic matter su mmarized by site and plot type...............................................70 18. Average percent understory cover compar ison between Rushton and reference plots...........71 19. Species richness and evenness comparison in Rushton and reference plots...........................71 20. Correlation matrices for ecosystem development variables by site........................................73

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vi 21. Understory species in pair 1 (C FI) ranked by Importance Value (IV)....................................96 22. Understory species in pair 2 ( HOM) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................97 23. Understory species in pair 3 ( OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................98 24. Understory species in pair 4 ( OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................98 25. Understory species in pair 5 ( OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................99 26. Understory species in pair 6 (P RP) ranked by Importance Value (IV)...................................99 27. Understory species in pair 7 ( TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................100 28. Understory species in pair 8 ( TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................100 29. Understory species in pair 9 ( TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................................100 30. Understory species in pair 10 ( TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV)..............................101 31. Autecological characteristics of species prevalent in understory.........................................102

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1. Study site locations....................................................................................................... ............21 2. Cypress-gum plot layout.................................................................................................... .......22 3. Hydric swamp plot layout................................................................................................... ......23 4. Elevation diagram for a cypress-gum plot................................................................................24 5. Elevation diagram for a hydric swamp plot..............................................................................25 6. Soil, understory, shr ub, and canopy photo sampling scheme for cypress-gum plots...............26 7. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy p hoto sampling scheme for hydric swamp plots.............27 8. The format for the transition, A matrix for a matrix population model...................................28 9. Percentage of planted trees surviving in cypress-gum plots.....................................................44 10. Percentage of planted trees su rviving in hydric-swamp plots.................................................45 11. Percentage of plot inundated for all sampled months on cypress-gum plots..........................46 12. Percentage of plot inundated for a ll sampled months on hydric swamp plots........................47 13. Distribution of average water depth at pl anted and surviving tree locations in cypress-gum plots.......................................................................................................................... ...........48 14. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees alive in 2005, in 0.1m depth classes on CFI (sand-clay) on plots R1-R6................................................................49 15. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1m depth classes on OHW (clay) plots R2A and R2B..............................................................50 16. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1m depth classes on TEN (clay) plots R5A, R5B, R6A, R6B, R7A, and R7B.........................51 17. Distribution of average water depth at planted and surviving tree locations in hydric swamp plots.................................................................................................................... .....52 18 Percentage of planted trees surviving in cy press-gum plots by soil type after approximately 1 (Rushton 1988), 3 (Rushton a nd Paulic 2001), and 20 years...........................................53

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viii 19. Distribution of average water depth at surviving tree locations in cypress-gum plots grouped by soil type........................................................................................................... .54 20. Size class distributions of Taxodium distichum seedlings at Ten H3 counted in June and November, 2005................................................................................................................. .58 21. Size class distribution of Taxodium distichum in 6 basins on five CSAs...............................59 22. Size class distributions of Nyssa aquatica in five basins on four CSAs.................................60 23. Size class distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica in five basins on four CSAs.....................61 24. Size class distribution of Fraxinus caroliniana in two basins on two CSAs..........................62 25. Transition matrix for CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum population model.................................63 26. Model predicted population change of CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum ..................................63 27. Transition matrix for OH Wright Taxodium distichum population model..............................64 28. Model predicted population change of OH Wright Taxodium distichum ...............................64 29. Model elasticity values showing sensitivity of different parameters......................................65 30. Subplot basal area and percent canopy c over at HOM...........................................................69 31. NMDS plot of understory species assemblages......................................................................72 32. Succession in a forested system........................................................................................... ...89 33. 2005 water depth in a well at CFI measured by continuo us data logger................................91 34. 2005 water depth in a well at TEN measured by continuo us data logger...............................92 35. Distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica basal area by average 2005 sampled water level for clay, sand-clay, and sand cap sites.................................................................................93 36. Distribution of Nyssa aquatica basal area by average 2005 sampled water level for clay, sand-clay, and sa nd cap sites...............................................................................................94 37. Distribution of Taxodium distichum basal area by average 2005 sampled water level for clay, sand-clay, and sand cap sites......................................................................................94

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science VIABILITY OF WETLAND TREES AFTER TWENTY YEARS ON PHOSPHATIC CLAY SETTLING AREAS AND THEIR ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT By Wesley Ingwersen May 2006 Chair: Mark T. Brown Major Department: Environmental Engineering Sciences Clay settling areas (CSAs) are constructed on about 2,000 acres of land every year to contain waste clays following phosphate mining. The reclamation of CSAs to foster wetland ecosystems has been proposed for these areas but not yet demonstrated as a viable alternative, due to the lack of natural colonization of species typical of mature wetlands. Clay settling areas planted with wetland trees in an early test of for ested wetland viability were revisited after twenty years. Survival and growth of species typical of riverine swamps demonstrated the suitability of planted trees in seasonally wet areas, but the ge neral lack of recruitment does not assure longterm sustainability of the populations. After tw enty years planted trees provide additional canopy structure but they are less influential in the development of soil and understory ecosystem components than site-specific exogenous factors. Engineering of CSAs to promote hydrology typical of natural wetlands and supplementing tree planting with understory species are likely to lead to more persistent and diverse wetland communities.

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1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Phosphate mining has been a major industry in central Florida for the past 60 years. Currently about 5,000 acres of land are mined ev ery year (Richardson 2005). Clay settling areas (CSAs) are dominant features of the post-mining landscape that comprise about 40% of the postmining area. The land use options for CSAs after they have been filled are partially limited due to the unstable nature of the consolidating ground surface. The design and planting of these areas to create wetland ecosystems is one option the industry and state are still exploring for the u se of abandoned CSAs. Species characteristic of wetlands naturally colonize depressional areas on CSAs in the years following abandonment. Recognition of the potential for wetland estab lishment led to attempts to augment the composition of wetland species on these areas. In an attempt to determine if forested wetland ecosystems will persist on CSAs, a limited numbe r of CSAs have been planted with wetland trees. But the success of these plantings has not been evaluated after the initial few years of estalishment. The long-term development and vi ability of forested wetland ecosystems on CSAs are critical to the determination of the suitab ility of wetlands on CSAs. In this study CSAs planted with wetland trees were evaluated after 20 years in one attempt to evaluate forested wetland development and viability on CSAs. The qu estions explored in this study have been grouped under three foci: 1. How have the planted trees fared over time; what are the primary factors influencing tree growth, survival, and recruitment? 2. How might the tree populations change in the future? 3. Are differences discernable in the ecosystem development of areas planted with trees and those not planted?

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2 Background Clay Settling Areas CSAs are depositories for residual clay separat ed from phosphate rock and sand in the first stage of processing following mining. The residual phosphatic clay is then slurried for pipe transport. The handling of the residual clays has changed during the history of phosphate mining in Florida. In the early years of large scale mining clays were pumped into mining cuts. More recently large impoundment areas with high walls, ofte n 1 mile square, have been created for disposal of the clay. Alternatively, clays ar e sometimes mixed with residual sand before being pumped into settling areas. Though the name is typically reserved for impoundment areas for unmixed clay disposal, in this study CSAs refers to all three types of depositories for residual clays. As clay slurry is pumped into CSAs, clay pa rticles settle to the bottom and water is drawn off through outfall structures. A solid crust fo rms on the pond surface after 3-5 years (Richardson 2005), but consolidation of clays under the surf ace continues for decades. The consolidated ground surface is often at an elevation above th e original ground elevation and higher than the surrounding landscape. Rate of consolidation of clays is not even across the CSAs, which are often built on mined land characterized by patterns of mine cuts and spoil piles, resulting in an uneven land surface. One result of the differentia l consolidation is the formation of deeper depressions that hold surface water. These depressions often sink below the elevation of the outfall structure causing them to become hydrologica lly isolated such that they seasonally retain water. Wetlands on Clay Settling Areas Isolated depressions on CSAs as well as water features drained by an outfall structure support the establishment of hydrophytic vegetation characteristic of wetlands. Vegetation begins to colonize these areas before the slurry-water has completely drained off in a phase called dewatering. Algae often colonizes the water surface in the initial phases, followed by wind-

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3 dispersed herbaceous macrophytes like Typha spp. and Scirpus spp or shrubs and small trees like Ludwigia peruviana and Salix caroliniana But the continuation of seral succession with the establishment of species characteristic of mature systems is not common even on the oldest CSAs (Rushton 1983). Rushton (1988) suggested the dominance of these early successional wetlands are characteristic of arrested succession, whereb y climax species fail to establish. However the successional pathway of a CSA and the composition of a climax system are unclear. CSAs are examples of what some members of the scientif ic community have referred to as emerging ecosystems (Odum 1971, Hobbs et al. 2006), defined as new environments which result from heavy modification of the environment by huma n agency. Such ecosystems lack a precedent from which to anticipate long-term composition and dynamics. A few obstacles hinder natural succession on these areas: (1) the landscape surrounding CSAs has generally been cleared and modified, so the recruitment of native species is difficult due to hydrologic isolation, above-grade eleva tion, and distance to seed sources (Odum et al. 1983); (2) soils on CSAs contain a high percentage of clay (60-80%) and initially lack structure, differing significantly from soils characteristic of wetlands in central Florida, which are sandier with developed horizons (Rushton 1988, Myers a nd Ewel 1990, Graetz and Reddy 1997); and (3) the hydrologic regime of these clay depressions may be different than natu ral wetlands due to the high water-holding capacity of clay, the continuing consolidation of the clays, and large watershed:wetland ratios (Rushton 1988). Hydrologic regime and the physical and chemical nature of the soil are important factors in the determination of the type of wetland that may be established (Mitsch and Gosselink 1993). Water level is perhaps the most important factor for determining if a marsh (herbaceous wetland) or swamp (forested wetland) will establish in these areas. Though the period and depth of inundation in CSA depressions is typically unknown, existing vegetation may provide a clue as to what the hydroperiod is like. Areas where Salix caroliniana has established may indicate locations appropriate for forested species. Phosphorous (P) is often the limiting nutrient in

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4 Florida freshwater wetlands systems (Reddy et al. 1999) but residual inorganic phosphorus is high in phosphatic clays (Rushton 1988). Phos phorous has been directly correlated with producitivity in cyress ecosystems (Brown 1981). Highly productive systems situated on a substrate with high clay content is characteristic of some alluvial forested wetlands in the southeastern United States (Faulkner et al. 1991). Depressional areas on CSAs may be suitable for the establishment of forested wetlands. Planting of Wetland Species on Clay Planting species characteristic of midto la te-succession is one method to direct the successional process (Brown and Tighe 1991). Moni tored field trials on CSAs using wetland tree species began in the 1980s (Rushton 1988, Paulic and Rushton 1991a, Everett 1991), and tree survival and growth has been documented dur ing the initial years after planting. Water availability, species properties, tree size, and edaphi c factors including soil age and nutrient levels have all been shown to effect tree survival on clay settling areas. The following list summarizes findings of earlier studies of wetland trees on CSAs. Hydrology was more important in determining tree survival than canopy or understory cover (Rushton 1998, Paulic and Rushton 1991b). Wetland trees typical of floodplain and backwater swamps of central and northern Florida have had greater than 50% survival after 1 year on clays, including Acer rubrum Betula nigra Carya aquatica Liquidambar styraciflua Quercus laurifolia Quercus lyrata Quercus michauxii Sabal palmetto and Ulmus americana (Paulic and Rushton 1991b) Fraxinus spp. and Taxodium spp. had high (>80%) survival after 3 years (Paulic and Rushton 1991a, Everett 1991); Clay is a suitable medium for wetland species (Cates 2001); After three years, trees growing on a sand-clay mix and on sand had higher survival than those on clay. Trees in clay grew faster th an trees in sand (Paulic and Rushton 1991a); Most major nutrients are available in sufficien t quantities for tree growth. Nitrogen may be the limiting nutrient. N-fertilizer increased growth but had no effect on survival of Acer rubrum in a greenhouse experiment (Paulic 199 1). Fertilizer enhanced growth of Taxodium spp. in clay both in the field and in the greenhouse (Everett 1991, Paulic 1991).

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5 Soil age was positively correlated with Acer rubrum growth in a greenhouse experiment (Paulic 1991); Animal grazing can reduce tree survival (Rushton 1988). These earlier studies have censused planted and non-planted trees in a variety of hydrologic conditions, among different vegetati on communities, and on a number of CSAs. However, these earlier studies did not census planted trees after more than a few years, and thus could not consider longer-term survival and growth nor the potential ecosystem function of more mature trees on CSAs. Time until maturity for fo rested swamps can be as long as 250 years in a natural environment. Long-term monitoring is necessary to understand the long-term dynamics of a restored forested system (Clewell 1999). Recruitment An important ingredient for the sustainability of a constructed forested system and an indicator of the appropriateness of an envir onment for introduced species is the ability to propagate. Wetland trees have specific mois ture requirements for successful reproduction (Mitsch and Gosselink 1993). These requirement ca n be important for seed set, germination, and establishment. Poor seed set may occur from po llen limitations (McLanahan 1986). Dispersal is important in order for fertilized seeds to find a viab le location in which to germinate. Together water levels and microtopography are important in determining seed dispersal. Because some seeds float in water they tend to accumulate in gr eatest densities near the edge of water or near obstructions. Seeds of wetland trees do not germ inate in standing water. Thus areas of permanent standing water may preclude the emerge nce of new seedlings. In areas with infrequent drawdown, seed germination may still occur but viability of seeds may be decreased by long periods of inundation (Schneider and Sharitz 1986). If seeds are able to germinate, water conditions during the first few months can be cr itical to survival. Most wetland tree seedlings cannot survive extended periods of inundation.

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6 The recruitment success of wetland trees characteristic of mid to late succession is unknown on CSAs. One direct seeding expe riment on phosphate mined land was largely unsuccessful: 10 of 14 plots that were covered with litter collected from floodplains in the vicinity failed to produce seedlings (Rushton 1988). The quantity of viable seeds in the collected litter was unknown. Ecosystem Development A series of gradual changes in the dominant vegetation community toward a predictable climax state summarizes the traditional concept of succession. Numerous theories have emerged both further elucidating the mechanisms of su ccession (Clements 1916, Egler 1954, Connell and Slayter 1977), and challenging its linearity and predictability (Anand and Desrochers 2004). Yet the changes in the composition of the vegetation co mmunity are just one aspect of alterations to both the abiotic and biotic environment that are associated with succession. In the context of the entire system this dynamic process has been called ecosystem development (Odum 1969). A key aspect in the development of an ecosy stem is an increasing effect of the biotic components of the system on the modification of the environment and the selection of the biota. The increasing control exerted by the biotic com ponents is a characteristic of self-organization (Odum 1989). The dynamics of self-organization in the emerging ecosystems on CSAs are unclear. Measures of the modifications that the biota are making to the environment and the changes in the community composition that ma y be resulting from those changes are potential indicators of ecosystem development. In forested ecosystems, trees are key agents of influence over the local environment and thus the ecosystem. As trees mature and canopies develop, they reduce the quantity of light that is able to penetrate to the lower vertical strata of the forest. The reduction in light penetration alters the microclimate (notably temperature and humidity) underneath the tree canopy. These changes to the abiotic environment imparted by the trees may in turn cau se changes in the cover and composition of the understory vegetation (Beatty 1984) and the rate of organic matter

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7 decomposition in the soil. Trees also contribut e a substantial amount of the detritus that decomposes and becomes incorporated in soil organi c matter (Rhoades et al. 1998). In a study of carbon budgets in the Dismal Swamp, tree leaf litter and fine tree roots composed the largest annual input to the detritus pool in both cypressdominated swamps and mixed forested wetlands (Megongial and Day 1988). All these effects are expected to be enhanced with increasing tree size and dominance in the landscape. Planted wetland trees on CSAs may serve the role of directing ecosystem development. Restoration ecologists have traditionally looked at a spectrum of similar sites of different ages to study the dynamics of ecosystem development. A number of studies of the progress of restoration efforts in the phosphate mining distri cts have adopted this approach (Rushton 1983, Carstenn 2000), and identified trends in ecosy stem development across sites. A potential drawback of this approach is that is overlooks the site-specific influen ces. The topography and its influence over the hydrology and the proximity to seed source are unique to a site and important external drivers of ecosystem development. These external factors may create challenges for cross-site comparison of CSAs. Plan of Study Rushton planted tree species on a number of abandoned CSAs in 1985-1986 as part of her doctoral study (Rushton 1988). Because she publis hed precise information on location, number, and type of species planted as well as growth and survival rates after one year and descriptions of sites conditions, monitoring these planted areas and adjacent non-planted areas provided an opportunity to evaluate tree growth and ecosystem development of areas with and without planted trees after a 20-year time period. To evaluate how the planted trees have fared over time and to determine what factors are influencing growth and survival, survival, si ze, and reproductive success of planted trees was measured. The tree parameters were statistically evaluated in the context of site hydrology and soils. Elevation data and water levels were co llected to estimate water depths and period of

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8 inundation in planted plots during the 2005 growing season, and data on site soils were gathered from the Rushton study (1988). The effect of disturbance was qualitatively assessed through site histories and field evidence. In effort to project how the tree populations mi ght change in the future, the tree data were used to calibrate population models to determine future population trajectories. To determine if the planted trees were steeri ng ecosystem development, selected ecosystem development measures were collected in plante d and non-planted areas with similar hydrologic conditions and external influences. Woody vegetation was measured to assess the development of the tree and shrub strata; canopy photos were taken to estimate canopy cover; soil samples were collected to estimate percent organic matter; and understory vegetation was sampled. The raw data were summarized by plot and statistical techniques were then used to compare measures of ecosystem development in planted and non-planted areas.

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9 METHODOLOGY Site and Plot Selection Five of the CSAs planted by Rushton were select ed for study. Sites were chosen that were currently accessible and that Rushton (1988) had dete rmined had an average of at least 50% tree survival after one year. Table 1 presents a summa ry of the selected sites. Figure 1 provides an overview map of site locations. CFI SP-1 (CFI) is a sand-clay mix settling ar ea abandoned in the early 1980s with two distinct connected lobes. Plots were planted on the fringe of the east lobe. Since the Rushton planting, the site has been planted with additi onal tree and understory species and the water level has been lowered by adjusting the weir. The upland area surrounding the wetland and adjacent to the plots is regularly mowed and shrubs have been removed. The understory of a few of the plots were planted with ferns on their upland half. Homeland (HOM) is a pond formed over an old mine cut backfilled with clay and capped with sand around 1979. The pond is surrounding by pasture that is part of the DEP Homeland office property. Bill Hawkins planted Taxodium distichum trees in 2/3 of the pond approximately in 1982. The Rushton plots traverse the east side of the pond. OH Wright (OHW) is an older CSA (abandoned approximately in 1960) adjacent to the Whidden Creek floodplain. One plot (R1A) traverses a swale just above the outfall structure, which is still active. Four plots (R2A, R2B, H1 and H4) are on the fringe of a pond. Two other plots (H2, H3) lie in a depressi on between two spoil rows. Peace River Park (PRP) was abandoned in 19 68 and leased for pasture until 1986. Two plots are located in small depressions (H1, H6) a nd two are located on the edge of a pond (H4, H5). All plots are connected by surface water when water levels are high.

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10 Tenoroc 4 (TEN) was abandoned around 1972 and is now part of the Tenoroc Fish Management Area. Four plots (R2A, R2B, H2, H3) were located in a depression on the NW corner of the site. The other plots are on the north and south side of an interior spoil pile in the north central area of the site. Prior to a ditching effort in this area to connect isolated depressions and convey water off the site in 2001, the seasonal water levels in the plots were likely higher. Rushton plots. A total of 37 planted plots on 5 CSAs were selected for study. Selected plots were located in the field from site diagrams (Rushton 1988) and matched to an original plot number. All selected plots had at least one surviving tree at the present time. Plots were representative of the two planting schemes used and referred to by Rushton as cypress-gum (CG) plots and hydric-swamp (HS) plots. Figures 2 and 3 depict planting schemes for these two types of plots. Twenty-five cypress-gum plots and 12 hy dric swamp plots were included in the current study. Species planted in the two plots types are listed in Tables 2 and 3. Cypress-gum plots were planted with all three species except for 4 pl ots at Tenoroc 4 planted only with two species. Among the 12 hydric swamp plots, 8 were plante d with species with a group of transitional trees and 4 were planted with a group of wet trees. Reference plots. In order to compare the ecosystem development on non-planted areas that were similar to the Rushton plots, adjacent refere nce plots of equal dimensions to the Rushton plots were selected. Reference plots were at least 25 meters away from Rushton plots to minimize potential influence from Rushton plots. A single reference plot was designated for all plots that shared connection to a water featur e. Reference plot selection was random provided that a plot met the following conditions: (1) it was adjacent to the same water feature as a Rushton plot; (2) the topography was such that a hydrologic regime similar to the Rushton plot could be inferred. An exception to the first c ondition occurred at Homela nd, where the reference plot was located in a pond fed by a ditch from the pond containing the Rushton plots, because not enough non-planted area within the pond with the Rushton plots was available.

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11 Field Data Collection Topography A laser level was used to determine elevations w ithin the plot relative to the water level at the time of first visit. Figure 4 shows where data were collected in cypress-gum plots. For these plots, elevation was recorded every meter along a 42 m longitudinal axis which traversed the planted area as well as 6m in front and back of it. The plots were originally laid out such that this axis ran parallel to the elevation gradient. Add itionally, elevation data were recorded from spots 6m to each side and at the beginning, middle, and end of the longitudinal axis. Figure 5 shows where data were collected in hydric swamp plots. For hydric swamp plots, elevation data were recorded every two meters along two perpendicu lar axes crossing from 6m away from the edge through the center of the plot to 6m beyond the fa r edge. In these plots elevation data were also collected at the soil and plant sample points within the planted plot, and at the four planted plot corners. For reference plots, elevation data were coll ected in the same manner, except in these plots only data within the plot boundary were collected. Hydrology Water levels at a point of recorded eleva tion were manually measured to the nearest centimeter each month through October 2005after th e initial visit to a plot in the spring or early summer of 2005. On CFI SP-1 and Tenoroc 4, continuous digital data loggers were in stalled close to or within Rushton plots to record hourly water leve ls. On these sites, one surface water well within the water feature and one ground water well 25m in to the upland were equipped with loggers. The loggers were operational from the date of inst allation in the early part of the growing season of 2005 through the end of October 2005.

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12 Planted Trees Planted trees were identified by location and species. Using a two-dimensional grid, X,Y plot location was recorded for pl anted trees to the nearest meter. Diameter at 1.5 meters (DBH) was recorded to the nearest centimeter for all st ems originating below that height. If no stems reached 1.5m, height of the tallest stem was recorded to the nearest centimeter. Other Tree Species Each tree within the planted plot of a speci es not planted was identified to species and its DBH was recorded if it had reached 1.5m in he ight. Woody plants were classified as trees or shrubs according to Tobe et al. (1998). For Salix caroliniana which is classified as a tree or shrub, individuals with at least one stem with a DBH > 5cm were classified as trees. In cypressgum plots, the 10m segment (0-10,10-20,20-30) that a tree was found in was noted. Recruited Trees Recruited trees are defined in this study as individuals of the same species as planted trees not occurring in originally planted locations, irrespective of the size of the individuals. X,Y plot location, species, and DBH or height were recorded for recruited trees inside or within 6m of the plot boundary. In the plot on TEN where the greatest number of seedlings emerged, the seedlings were resampled at the end of the growing season to determine the survival rate. Additional Measures of Ecosystem Develo pment: Shrub and Understory Layers; Soils; Canopy Photos Figure 6 and 7 show the standardized sampling locations for shrubs, understory vegetation, soil, and canopy photos for cypress-gum and hydr ic swamp plots. Three 3x3m subplots within each plot were sampled for shrubs. DBH a nd species were recorded for all stems > 1.5m in height. Nine 1x1m subplots within each plot were used to sample all understory macrophytes with stem heights < 1.5m. Each species occurring was identified and the coverage of each species was estimated into one of five possible coverage classes: 1: 1-10%, 2: 10-25%, 3: 25-

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13 50%, 4: 50-75%, 5:75-100%. Coverage was defi ned as the percentage of the 1x1m horizontal plot area covered by the plant. In the case where different species occupied the same horizontal location but different vertical strata, both species were counted. Cores of the top 10cm of the soil were collected with a 7.6 cm-diameter auger w ithin all 1x1m understory sampling plots. To estimate canopy cover, hemispherical photographs were taken using a Nikon digital camera, with 180 degree fish-eye lens. Inside all plots, phot os were taken in 3 equidistant understory subplots. For the Rushton plots, photos were al so taken from the understory subplots outside of the canopy. The camera was placed on a tri pod approximately 50 cm above the ground or slightly above the surface of the water, whichever was higher. The camera was then leveled with the lens pointing up, oriented so the back of th e camera faced north, and zoomed out to 100%. When possible photos were taken close to dawn or dusk or on overcast days to avoid distortion from direct sunlight. Site Histories Information about possible disturbance or site modification during the 20 year period since the trees were planted was collected from site managers, from the Rushton dissertation, through consultation with Betty Rushton, or through inference from evidence found in the plot in 2005 such as burnt stems or plot markers. Data Analysis Topography and Water Levels Topographic data collected were input in X-Y-Z form into Surfer surface mapping software, from which a kriging function was used to create a surface map. From this interpolated map, relative elevations were output for every s quare meter. Using these elevation data and the monthly water level data, water le vels were calculated for the entire sampling area for every date water level was recorded. Average water depth as referred to in the remainder of the study refers to the average of these monthly water levels.

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14 When the water level was below the ground, the level measured in one location was assumed to be the same across the plot because of the small area of the plots and the small differences in ground elevation across the plots. On the two sites with continuous data-logging water level recorders (CFI and TEN), the average of the sampled monthly water levels was compared with the average of all the hourly water levels recorded by the data-loggers to determine if monthly wa ter levels accurately approximated hourly water levels on those sites. Average change in elevation was computed for each plot as the average change in elevation along the longest axis of the plot. Percent inundation was calculated as the area of the plot covered by water at the time of sampling divided by the total plot area. Elevation data for every planted tree along with monthly water level measurements allowed for determination of the average sampled depth of water for every tree and at every location where soils, shrubs, understory vegetati on, and canopy photo sampling occurred. Box plots were created to show the distribution of all trees along the average water depth at the tree base. Tree and Plot Basal Area Basal area, BA (cm2), was calculated for trees and shrubs as the sum of the all stem area at 1.5m for an individual accord ing to the following equation: BADBH *2 [1] Plot basal area (m2/hec) was the sum of the tree and shrub basal area (m2) divided by the plot area (hectares). Plot basal area was calculated for every 10m section of cypress-gum plots as well as for the entire plot, but only for the entire plot in hydric swamp plots because trees were not sub-sampled in these plots.

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15 Tree Growth Comparisons Basal area of all surviving Rushton trees was compared by species and soil type for trees with an average water level in the range of -0 .75 to 0.25m. Trees with a basal area < 7.8 cm2 were assumed to be resprouts, and they were eliminated from the grow th comparison because the stem age was unknown. Tree basal area of the remaining trees was then log-transformed for normality. T-Tests were conducted to compare the effect of two soil types in areas with similar average water depths, assuming that similar hy drologic regimes can be inferred from similar average water depth at the tree base during th e 2005 season. Two way ANOVA was used to simulataneously compare the effect of water leve l, soil type, and soil type-water interactions on tree growth. In the two way ANOVA test trees were split into shallow and deep water levels by species based on the median water level of surviving trees. Soil Percent Organic Matter Soil cores were manually homogenized and three 40g samples of each core were dried a minimum of 48 hours at 30 C. The ignition method without rehydration was then used to estimate % organic matter (% OM) Dried samp les were ground with a mortar and pestle and three 1 g sub-samples were ashed in a muffle furn ace for 6 hours at 450 C. This temperature was deemed appropriate for burning off the orga nic matter without removing inorganic carbon (CaCO3). The following equation is used to calculate percent organic matter: ((dry weight ashed weight) / dry weight)*100% = % organic matter [2] Population Size Class Distributions All surviving planted trees and offspring were pl aced into size classes that represented 5 or 10 cm DBH intervals (Table 4). Classification was done by basal area to accommodate multiple stem trees where summation of DBH would have resulted in inflated values and inconsistent classification.1 Classified trees were then grouped by species and by basins to define a 1 For example, a tree with two 5 cm DBH stems has less basal area (39.4 cm2) than a tree with one 10 cm DBH stem (78.5 cm2).

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16 population. Basins are defined as areas where mu ltiple plots are adjacent to the same body of water and no plot is more than 50 meters away from its nearest neighbor. The sampled area of each basin represented the sum of the seedling sampli ng areas of every plot within the basin; not the area of the entire basin. Canopy Photos Canopy photos were analyzed in Adobe Phot oshop software. Photos were transformed into 2-color black and white images using the Threshold function. The threshold level was subjectively chosen to yield the most accurate conversion of vegetation pi xels to black and sky pixels to white. Before transformation imag es were cleaned up with editing tools to remove shadows, clouds, sun spots, glare, or other asp ects of the image that would been incorrectly assigned to black or white. After transformation, the black and white pixels were counted in Keigan Systems MFworks software. The per cent canopy cover was then calculated as the sum of black pixels divided by the sum of black and white pixels. Understory Vegetation Cover for all understory vegetation in a plot w as estimated using the mean of the coverage class. The classes thus corresponded to the fo llowing percentages: Class 1: 5.0%; Class 2: 17.5%; Class 3: 37.5%; Class 4: 62.5%; Class 5: 87.5%. Species richness was calculated for all plots as the sum of the unique species occurring. Species evenness, a measure of the evenness of th e distribution of species, was calculated with the Shannon evenness formula (Gurevitch et al. 2002): EHS /ln()[3] Hppii i s(*ln())1[4] where evenness, E is equal to the Shannon-Wiener index, H divided by the natural log of the total number of species, S The Shannon-Wiener index was calculated as in Equation 4.

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17 Importance Value is a metric that combines the relative frequency and relative cover in order to consider together both characteristics of a species presence in an understory (Cole 1978). Importance Value for species occurring in the un derstory were calculated using the following equation: I V rf rc s s s [5] where Importance Value of a species, IVs, is equal to the sum of the relative frequency, rfs,and relative cover, rcs, of that species. Relative frequency was calculated using the following equations: rf= f/fs ss s1 n[6] f= o/qs s [7] where relative frequency is equal to the frequency of a species, s, divided by the sum of the frequency of species encountered on a plot. The frequency of a species was calculated by the number of a 1m2 quadrats in which species s occurred, os, divided by the number of 1m2 quadrats, q in a plot. Relative cover was calculated using following equations: rc= c/cs ss s1 n[8] c= cs si i1 q[9] where the relative cover of a species, rcs, is the cover of a species divided by the sum of the cover all species, n in a plot. The cover of a species, cs, is equal to the sum of the mean cover of a species, s in all 1m2 quadrats, q Because a cover class was assigned to a species rather than a mean cover, each cover class was translated to a mean cover (reference on method) as follows: 1: 5%, 2: 17.5%, 3: 37.5%, 4: 62.5%, 5: 87.5%.

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18 Ordination of Plots by Prevalent Understory Species In order to visualize the differences in th e cover of prevalent understory species between plots, the Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (N MDS) ordination technique was applied. The prevalent understory species were those with a Im portance Value of > 0.10 (out of a possible 2.0) for a plot. The NMDS method does not require assumptions that the data fit a normal distribution nor that the data fit a linear pattern (Faith et al. 1987, McCune and Grace 2002). The NDMS was run on a ( n x p ) contingency table of average species cover in a matrix where the rows, n were plots, and the columns, p were species. The data were first standardized using a Wisconsin double standardization and then square-r oot transformed. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity method was used as to create the dissimilarity ma trix necessary to rank plots by dissimilarity and to position the points along the two principal com ponent axes, so that the ordination could be shown in two-dimensional space. Correlation Matrices of Ecosystem Development Variables To find patterns in the relationship between Rushton trees and total basal area, canopy cover, understory cover, understory species ri chness, understory species evenness, and soil organic matter, correlation matrices were created using R statistical software. Pearsons formula was the correlation method used to produce the matrices. Tree Population Model In order to predict the population trajectory of a planted tree population, a size class matrix population model was constructed for populations of planted Taxodium distichum at CFI and in one basin at OHW. Size class matrix population models use principl es of matrix algebra to estimate changes in population distribution over a time series as well as the steady-state population distribution and growth rate (Caswell 2001). Size class bins are de termined and individuals are classified into size classes. A transition matrix, A is constructed by determining probabilities after a year that a tree will remain in a size class, Pi, transition, Gi and/or reproduce, Fi (Figure 8). The transition

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19 matrix is multiplied by a vector of the number of individuals in each size class, Nt, to determine the number of individuals in each size class after one time increment, Nt+1. According to matrix theory the transition matrix alone determines th e long-term population state. Mathematically decomposing the transition matrix, A yields a vector of eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The dominant eigenvalue of A , gives the population growth rate when there is a stable population distribution. The stable population distribution is given by the right eigenvector of the transition matrix. Customarily tracking the growth, survival, and seed production of a cohort of trees over a period of years provides the data from which tran sition probabilities are calculated. In this case, empirical time series data was not available for the entire period. Using data from the most current year and incorporating data on survival and growth after 1 and 3 years, growth of individual trees were interpolated by fitting a curve based on the growth rate of other Taxodium distichum in the phosphate mining area (Miller 1983). Mortality after years 1,3, and 20 years were used to estimate mortalities of the give n size classes, with the assumption that slowergrowing trees were more likely to die. Reproductive probabilities were calculated based on the ratio of first year seedlings to mature adults, distributing this probability among the mature size classes such that each successively larger size class had a greater reproductive probability. The matrix populations models were created in th e Python 2.3 programming language. The model was programmed to estimate population change over a 50 year period. An elasticity analysis (Caswell 2001) of the model was conducted to estim ate the relative sensitivity of the model to the changes in the probability values of the tr ansition matrix, A. The code for the population model is included at the end of the Appendix.

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20 Table 1. Site summary table Symbol CFI-SP1CFI23Sand-Clay60 HomelandHOM46Sand Cap80 O.H. WrightOHW46Clay34 Peace River ParkPRP38Clay04 Teneroc 4TEN34Clay84 Site Name Years Abandoned (Estimated) # Cypress-gum Plots # Hydric Swamp Plots Type

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21 Figure 1. Study site locations. Map adapted from Rushton (1988).

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22 Figure 2. Cypress-gum plot layout from Rushton (1988). Two plots are pictured. Each plots was planted with 93 seedlings. Table 2. Species list for cypress-gum plots SpeciesSymbol Fraxinus pennsylvanica FRPA Nyssa aquatica NYAQ Taxodium distichum TADI

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23 Figure 3. Hydric swamp plot layout from Rushton (1988). Two plots are pictured. Each plots was planted with 108 seedlings. Table 3. Species list for wet and t ransitional hydric swamp plots SpeciesSymbolSpeciesSymbol Fraxinus caroliniana FRCA Acer rubrum ACRU Nyssa sylvatica NYSY Gordonia lasianthus GOLA Persea palustris PEPA Nyssa sylvatica NYSY Quercus laurifolia QULA Quercus laurifolia QULA Taxodium distichum TADI Sabal palmetto SAPA Ulmus americana ULAM Taxodium distichum TADI "Wet" PlotsTransitional' Plots

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24 Figure 4. Elevation diagram for a cypress-gum plot. Numbers are in meters.

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25 Figure 5. Elevation diagram for a hydric swamp plot. Numbers are in meters.

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26 Figure 6. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy photo sampling scheme for cypress-gum plots. Numbers are in meters.

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27 Figure 7. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy ph oto sampling scheme for hydric swamp plots. Numbers are in meters.

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28 Table 4. Size class key used in tree size class distributions. A PFFFFFFF GP GP GP GP GP GP GP 01234567 01 12 23 34 45 56 67000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 Figure 8. The format for the transition matrix, A for the matrix population model. The figure above is a matrix for a population with eight size classes (0-7). The P values along the diagonal represent probabilities of remaining in the same size class; the G values represent the probability of a dvancing into the next class, and the F, values represent the probability of successful reproduction. size classDBH(cm)BA(cm2) 0NA0 10.1-50.01-19.6 25-1019.7-78.5 310-1578.6-176.7 415-20176.8-314.2 520-30314.3-706.9 630-40707-1256.6 7>40>1256.6

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29 RESULTS Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors Survival of trees planted by Rushton is first summarized. Hydroperiod of the planted plots is compared and tree survival is examined across different water depths and on three soil types. The consequences of initial tree growth and site disturbances are considered. Population scale questions are approached by looking at populations of recruited trees within and on the periphery of plots, tree size class distributions, and population models of Taxodium distichum on two sites. Tree Survival by Site and Species Cypress-gum plots Table 5 summarizes the planted tree survival percentages after 1, 3, and 20 years. Aggregating all sites, Taxodium distichum survived best after 20 years (34%), though Fraxinus pennslyvanica had the best survival at the e nd of the three years (70%). Figure 9 presents survival trends by site a nd species in cypress-gum plots. Aggregating all three species, trees at the CFI site had the highest survival after 20 years (50%), and trees at TEN had the lowest survival (9%). More Fraxinus pennslyvanica were found after three years than after one year at CFI and OHW, most likely due to resprouting. Survival of Fraxinus pennslyvanica after 20 years was the poorest at HOM (8 %), but highest of the three species at CFI (70%) and TEN (27%), two of the four s ites with cypress-gum plots. Survival of Taxodium distichum was greater than 98% year-1 (indicated by the slope of the trend line) between years 3 and 20 at all but the TEN site. Nyssa aquatica had poorest survival in the initial year, but the survival rate between years 3 and 20 was the best of the three species at OHW and TEN, and better than Fraxinus pennslyvanica at CFI and HOM. Compared with the survival rate during the first year, all species had improved annual survival rates between years 3 and 20.

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30 Hydric swamp plots Table 6 summarizes tree survival in hydric swamp plots after 1 and 19 years. Acer rubrum Fraxinus caroliniana, and Taxodium distichum, and Ulmus americana were the only species present in sampled plots after 19 years. No individuals of Gordonia lasianthus Nyssa sylvatica Persea palustris Quercus laurifolia or Sabal palmetto were found surviving in any of the plots after 19 years. Figure 10 shows tree survival in hydric swamp pl ots by site and species. Only one individual of Ulmus americana survived 19 years and is not depicted. Of the three other surviving species, total survival after the first year for each was greater than 80% (see Table 2 for survival data by species). Survival of Acer rubrum after 19 years was 20% or less at all sites, with no surviving individuals found at TEN. Fraxinus caroliniana had the best survival in HS plots. At both OHW and TEN, all individuals survived after 19 years, a few having resprouted after the original stem died during the initial year. About half of Taxodium distichum trees that were surviving after 1 year survived 19 years, except at OHW where 20 year survival was only 12%, due to high mortality in two plots. Hydrology Average hourly water levels on the two sites wh ere continuous data loggers were installed were within 3 cm of the average monthly wate r level measurements. Appendix Figures 33 and 34 show the continuous recorded levels and th e monthly sampled levels at CFI and TEN. Cypress-gum plots Figure 11 shows the percentage of a plot that was inundated at the time of monthly water level sampling. Variati on of inundated area occurs within and between sites, with some obvious trends apparent. Plots at CFI demonstrate a range of inundation, varying from R1, which was almost totally inundated on a ll dates, to plot R6, which was at most 15% inundated. Thus all trees at R1 stood in standi ng water much of the season, whereas water level was below ground for most trees in R6. Nearly all eight plots at HOM were inundated upon every visit. At OHW, plots R2A and B, adjacen t plots on a pond fringe, were more than 50% inundated in 4 of 5 months sampled, whereas a bout one third R1A, which crosses a drainage

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31 channel, was consistently covered in water. At TEN all plots were dry in May but for most of the season more than 50% of R2A and R2B were inunda ted. R5A, R5B, R6A, R6B, R7A, and R7B are on a pond fringe, and all plots were mostly in undated when sampled in July and August, but on visits earlier and later in the season were wet only in the deepest ends, if at all. Hydric swamp plots. Occupying less of an elevation gradient than cypress-gum plots, hydric swamp plots exhibit a more uniform response to water level than cypress-gum plots (see Figure 12). Many plots were inundated through th e season, including all plots at PRP and H1 and H4 at OHW, whereas others, such as OHW H2, were dry at every sampling. Sites at TEN all were completely dry when sampled during May, and only H2 and H3 had a small area inundated at the September sampling, but during other mont hs H2 and H3 were completely inundated. TEN and OHW both had two rather wet and two dry s ites, whereas at PRP, all sites were wet. Tree Survival and Hydrology Cypress-gum plots A box plot (Figure 13) showing the average water depth for the planted trees by species are shown in comparison with a box (first from left) showing the average water depth for the plots. As all species we re initially planted along the entire water level gradient in a plot, this box represents the distri bution of water depths at all original planting locations. A comparison of this first box of all planting locations with plots of surviving individuals of each species shows where tree surv ived along the water level gradient. The range of surviving Fraxinus pennslyvanica extends from a water depth of 0.5 to .0 m, excluding the deeper portion of the original range. The population of surviving Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum withstood more inundation than the population of surviving Fraxinus pennslyvanica Only a few outliers of the two populations occu r where the average water level was below .6 meters. Taxodium distichum which had the highest survival, occurs along a broader continuum of water depths than Nyssa aquatica No individuals of any of th e three species survived in the deepest part of the originally planted range.

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32 In Figures 14-16, tree survival after 1 and 20 years is compared by species for all cypressgum plots within the same site. For inst ance, in the bottom chart in Figure 14, Taxodium distichum are split into those surviving after 20 years a nd those that died between years 1 and 20. These two groups are then classified by average wate r depth either at the tree base, or the former location of the tree for those that died between years 1 and 20. At CFI, the range of water depth in which all three species survived did no t change between years 1 and 20. More Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Nyssa aquatica trees died than lived in the shallowest water depths at this site. Once established, Taxodium distichum at CFI appears to be capable of tolerating the entire water level range over which the trees were planted. At OHW (Figure 15), Fraxinus pennsylvanica appears to have a much more limited water to lerance range, as only trees with an average water depth of 0.2-0.3 meters survived. Only a few Nyssa aquatica survived and they appear to have tolerated depths between 0.2 and 0.4 meters, as Taxodium distichum appears to have tolerated those depths as well as 0.0-0.2 meters. At TEN (Figure 16) Fraxinus pennslyvanica tolerated the drier locations where it established, but not in locations with average water levels above the ground surface (0.0 meters). Taxodium distichum survived where water levels were higher than 0.3 meters. Nyssa aquatica survival was poor across the range. Hydric swamp plots. Figure 17 shows distributions of Taxodium distichum in hydric swamp plots where average depths at the surviv ing trees ranged from .5 to 0.9 meters. This species was not found in drier locations from .75 to .5 meters and not in the wettest locations where average depth was >0.9 meters. The range of original planting locations of Fraxinus caroliniana were similar to that for Taxodium distichum but not drier than .3 meters because it was not planted in the drier plots. Surviving individuals were not found where average depths were < .2 or >0.9 meters. Tree Survival and Soil Type Cypress-gum plots Figure 18 summarizes trees survival on the sand-clay, sand-capped, and 3 clay sites. Trees growing on sites with clay soils had the lowest survival after 20 years.

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33 CFI, the sand-clay site, had the best overall survival. Though Nyssa aquatica survived poorly on the clay sites after the first year, the survival ra te between years 3 and 20 on clay was better than on the sand-cap site (HOM) and similar to sand-clay site (CFI). The slope of the trend line can be used to estimate annual survival rates of species. Taxodium distichum average survival rate between years 3 and 20 was poorest on the clay sites at about 97% yr-1, and high on both the sand-cap and sand-clay site, at >99% year-1. The population of Fraxinus pennslyvanica declined about 50% on the clay and sand-cap site between years 3 and 20. Due in part to resprouting, almost as many Fraxinus pennslyvanica trees were alive at CFI after 20 years as there were after 1 year, where a very high percentage (70%) survived. Tree Growth Comparison Between Sand-Clay and Clay Sites Tree populations in clay and sand-clay were compared to examine the effects of soil medium on tree growth. In 2005, all surviving trees on clay occurred within the range of water depths to which trees growing in sand-clay were exposed (see Figure 19). Results of t-tests to determine if a significant difference existed betw een growth of trees on clay and sand-clay are presented in Table 7. Taxodium distichum trees from both cypress-gum plots and hydric swamp plots were considered in the analysis. Growth of Fraxinus pennslyvanica and Taxodium distichum on clay and sand-clay was not statistically different. Growth of Nyssa aquatica was better (at a 95% confidence level) on clay, however there were only 13 Nyssa aquatica trees surviving on clay, a very small percenta ge of those originally planted. Results of the two-way ANOVAs performed to si multaneously compare the effect of water level and soil type on tree growth for trees growi ng in clay and sand-clay are presented in Tables 8 and 9. Trees on the sand-cap s ite (HOM) were eliminated from consideration because of higher water levels. For Fraxinus pennslyvanica trees with an average water depth of less than -0.25m were grouped as shallow and those with a wa ter depth greater than -0.25 were grouped as deep. Fraxinus pennslyvanica did not show a significant difference for either the soil type, water level, or interaction of the two. Taxodium distichum trees were split into shallow and

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34 deep classes using the median average water le vel of 0.0m. This test showed a significant effect for water level and for the interaction of water level and soil type. Trees in deep water had an average basal area of 5.4 cm2, .4cm cm2 greater than trees in shallow water, but the variance in basal area was also much higher for deep trees (1.53 to 1.19). Though planted on both soils, survival of Nyssa aquatica in clay was too low to allow for a comparison of the effects of soil type and water level on growth for this species. Initial Tree Growth and 20-year Tree Survival Records of tree height on cypress gum plots after 1 year were paired with tree survival records within the same plot to determine if trees that grew faster during the 1st year were more likely to survive 20 years. Tree he ight records after one year were available for 6 plots on CFI, 2 plots on OHW, and 6 plots on TEN. Of the trees wi th a height record, 296 were surviving in 2005 and 408 were dead. A T-Test was performed to determine if the heights of the trees after one year were different for these two groups, afte r the height was square root-transformed to satisfy the condition of similar between-group va riance. The outcome, a p-value of 2.2E-16, indicated with a very high level of confidence th at the surviving trees had a greater height after 1 year than the trees that died between 1 and 20 years. Among the six plots on TEN, the average height of planted trees after one year was 35 cm, in comparison with 95 cm at CFI. Twenty-y ear survival of the TEN trees was 17%, versus 54% at CFI. Among these plots there is a strong corr espondence between tree height after 1 year and 20-year survival. Site Disturbance and Tree Survival On a number of sites, disturbance factors direc tly caused mortality or damage to the planted trees within the initial year of establishment or in years since. Where records of these disturbances exist, they are presented in Tabl e 10. Fire, heavy grazing, and mechanical disturbance (tractors, etc.) are known to have influenced a number of plots. A fire occurred in two hydric swamp plots (as well as in a number of cypress-gum plots not monitored in this study)

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35 that lie within a gully between two spoil piles on OHW. Multiple fires burned into all four of the hydric swamp plots in PRP, where dead tree trunks blackened from burning still stand as evidence. On HOM, four transects were subjected to grazing by cattle during their early years. In one basin of TEN, heavy herbivory negatively e ffected tree growth and survival during the first year (Rushton 1988). Segments of a few tran sects were damaged by earth-moving equipment, including the first 8 meters of CFI R2 and th e first few meters of both TEN 5A and 5B. Numerous other disturbances may have occurre d without leaving any direct or anecdotal evidence, including prolonged flood events, drought or heavy winds. Recruited Trees In a few cases, seedlings and mature trees of the same species as planted trees (recruited trees) were found in abundance inside seedling samp le plots, whereas in some plots no recruited trees were found. Tree populations in plots are presented in Table 11, where they are ranked by the ratio of the number of surviving planted tr ees to the number of recruited trees (reproductive ratio). Populations are defined in this table as all trees of a given species within the seedling sampling area of a plot. Only populations with at least one surviving tree and one planted tree are listed; 30 populations met this criterion. Where another plausible source for the recruited trees exists, this source is mentioned in the table. In nine populations, the number of recruited trees was greater than or equal to the number of planted trees. In two of these populations, the number of recruited trees was approximately 100 times greater than the number of planted trees. But in both of these two populations, there are clear seed sources other than the planted trees. Additional plantings of Taxodium distichum adjacent to or within sampling areas since 1985 occurred at CFI and HOM, but locations of those plantings were not available and thus trees not planted by Rushton could have either been plan ted later or are offspring of trees from another planting.

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36 New Seedling Survival The Taxodium distichum seedling (0-100 cm in height) population at TEN H3 was the largest of any plot sampled in June with 128 i ndividuals. In November, the population had been reduced to 52 individuals. As location of the seedlings was noted only to the nearest meter and seedlings were not tagged, it was not possible to track individual seedling growth with certainty. But size class distributions of the seedling popul ations during both peri ods reveal in which segments of the population mortality occurred (Figure 20). A comparative look at the two distributions reveals a close match between trees in classes > 20 cm, but there are many more trees in the first two classes in June than in Nove mber. In June there were a total of 87 trees in the first two classes, whereas there were only 10 in November. The size of class 3 in November indicated that only a few of these trees likely grew into a larger size class during this period. The water level record reveals that the water was between -0.5 and the ground surface in May at the locations were the 87 individuals less than 20 cm stood in June. Of those seedlings, 72 were completely inundated in water during the June and July sampling. Tree Population Size Class Distributions Figure 21-24 show size class distributions of Taxodium distichum Nyssa aquatica Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Fraxinus caroliniana The composition of each size class is split into planted and recruited trees. Populations of Taxodium distichum are shown in six basins in Figure 21. Trees at CFI are the most evenly di stributed across size classes. Recruited trees at CFI appear in the first four size classes. At HOM there is a more normal-shaped distribution, with obvious omissions in the seedling class (class 0). At OHW, PRP, and TEN there are fewer trees, in part because some of the plots were hy dric swamp plots, where fewer trees of a species were planted, and in part because of lower surviv al. The first basin at TEN had an exceptionally high number of seedlings (see Table 11, row 1). Four trees in classes 4, 5, and 6 in this basin appear as recruits but are actually trees planted by Rushton in a plot not included in this study that overlapped with the recruited tree sampling area.

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37 Nyssa aquatica populations were too small in basins at OHW and TEN such that trees were only distributed between 2-3 middle range size classes (Figure 22). CFI has a small number of seedlings but the approximately the same number relative to other size classes in comparison with its Taxodium distichum population. The CFI basin had six times as many surviving Fraxinus pennslyvanica as the other basins and a normal shaped population distribution (Figure 23), but the distributions of the populations are similar in the other basins, albeit they were lacking in smaller trees. Only a small number of Fraxinus caroliniana were planted in two basins and in both cases there are more individuals than originally planted (Figure 24). Tree Population Model The model for Taxodium distichum at CFI used the records of 266 trees to construct the transition matrix (Figure 25). The of this transition matrix was 1.005; the model predicts that if the population were to obtain a st able population distribution, it will increase but at a slow pace. The population projection for the next 50 years shows at first a slowing decline from 150 to a low of about 120 trees after 20 years, but then growing again to 130 at the end of 50 years (Figure 26). The model for the Taxodium distichum population on the OHW basin used records of 106 trees for construction of the transition matrix (Figure 27), with no trees presently in the largest size class (7). The of this transition matrix was .991, indicating a slow long-term population decline. After 50 years the model predicted th at the tree population would fall from 36 to 16 trees in the basin (Figure 28). Though the values represent potential opposite long-term projections for the two populations, the model does not pred ict drastic population change for either basin within the next 50 years. Relative to the mature tree population size, the larger number of new seedlings at CFI compared to OHW resulted in slightly higher fecundity values, or the probability of creating a successful offspring. These values are depicted in the first row of the transition matrices.

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38 The stasis values, or the probability of remain ing in the same size class over the year, are presented along the diagonal. These values are simila r for the two sites. Predicted growth values (the value below the diagonal) were also simila r at both sites. Because no trees were present in the largest size class at OHW, there was no prob ability of advancement into the largest size class at OHW, which does not represent a realistic scenario. Figure 29 shows the results of the elasticity analysis of the CFI model. The elasticity analysis was nearly identical for the OHW model. This analysis shows the chief importance of the stasis values for the largest th ree size classes. Though there are different growth rates for the two populations, the stasis values for the last size class were 0.99 for both models, suggesting that 99 of 100 trees in the largest size class are likely to survive a given year. This value was, according to the sensitivity analys is, nearly five times as important as any other value in the transition matrix. Ecosystem Development in Rushton and Reference Plots Comparisons between pairs of one or more Ru shton and a reference plot were made based on the canopy cover, plot vegetation including trees, shrubs, and understory vegetation, and soil percent organic matter. Samples from Rushton plots were only considered when basal area density of Rushton trees was > 10 m2/hec in the sample area. Selection of Plots for Comparison Table 12 presents all the Rushton plots and subplots ordered by basal area (m2/hec) of Rushton trees. The plots/subplots considered in th e comparative analysis with reference plots are those listed above the dotted line. A distinction was drawn at a basal area of 10 m2/hec below which survival in plots was so poor as to poten tially nullify the effect of planted species on the surrounding environment. This distinction was draw n based on an arbitrary but clear break in the basal area in plots/subplots between the plot with a basal area of approximately 13 m2/hec and the next lowest with a basal area of approximately 8 m2/hec. Five hydric swamp plots and 1

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39 complete cypress-gum plot along with portions of five others were thus removed from consideration in the following comparative analysis. In addition to the Rushton plots removed fro m consideration, one subplot of the reference plot at CFI was removed from consideration upon realizing that this segment had been subjected to repeated disturbance from mowing and would not be representative of reference conditions. Topographic Comparison of Rushton and Reference Plots Table 13 shows a comparison of topography and water levels in Rushton plots and their corresponding reference plots, which are the high lighted items appearing at the bottom of the groups of Rushton plots. In most cases all refere nce plot variables including average change in elevation, average water depth, minimum and maximum water depth fell within 3 standard errors of the mean of the variable for the corresponding Rushton plots. Plot Basal Area in Rushton and Reference Plots Table 14 provides data on plot basal area from Rushton and reference plots. Plot basal area includes the total basal area of all trees and shrubs For all but TEN R2A and R2B, the plot basal area (m2/hec) in reference plots was less than in Ru shton plots. The mean plot basal area in Rushton plots was up to 12 times greater than in corresponding reference plots. Typically the difference in plot basal area between Rushton a nd reference plots grew as planted species made up a larger portion of the plot basal area in a Rushton plot. Percent Canopy Cover Table 15 compares percent canopy cover dete rmined from canopy photos in Rushton and reference plots. In 7 of 10 pairs Rushton plots had greater canopy cover than corresponding reference plots. In the remaining 3 pairs, re ference plots canopy cover were within 1% of Rushton plots. Except at HOM, there was not a difference between the canopy cover in Rushton and reference plots of more than 10%. Figur e 30 demonstrates the trend in canopy cover as subplot basal area increases at HOM, which is typical of other sites. As subplot basal area increases, the canopy cover increases steeply and then levels out between 80 and 90%.

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40 Soil Organic Matter Table 16 provides a comparison of the percent soil organic matter found in samples of the top 10cm of the soil in Rushton and reference plots. At CFI, HOM, and PRP, soil organic matter was greater in Rushton plots, but in most pairings at the older sites of OHW and TEN, percent soil organic matter was higher in reference plot s. In all cases the differences between the Rushton and reference plots as indicated by T-tests were significant at the 90% confidence level. At HOM there was a very wide range of organic matter within the Rushton plots, not present at the other sites. Table 17 compares Rushton and reference plot percent organic matter by site. The variation between reference plots on different sit es is greater than the variation between Rushton plots on different sites. Excluding HOM, the average %OM in Rushton sites varies between 9 and 10.5%. Understory Vegetation Table 18 presents a comparison of the understory coverage in Rushton and reference plots. Inconsistent differences occur between the Ru shton and reference plots. Among the Rushton plots, the highest cover occurs at CFI, where ferns were planted underneath the drier portions of the plots. Understory coverage at OHW is c onsistent around 30% for Rushton plots, lower than at other sites. Table 19 summarizes species richness an d evenness among pairs of Rushton and references plots. No consistent signal of a difference in richness and evenness is apparent between Rushton and reference plots. The aver age number of species occurring in Rushton plots is never more than 13, whereas reference pl ots at CFI and TEN have as many as 21 and 20 species. Species evenness follows a similar tre nd to species richness when comparing within Rushton and reference pairs. The range of both richness and evenness is gr eater in the reference than in the Rushton plots.

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41 In order to determine the dominant species in the understory assemblage within each plot, Importance Values were calculated for each species Lists of the most prevalent species for each plot determined by Importance Values can be found in Appendix Tables 21-30. Each table includes a list of prevalent species for every plot in a comparison pair. The ordination of species assemblages based on the average cover of species can be a useful means of visualizing the similarity of assemblages in different plots. Figure 31 presents the result of an Nonmetric Multidimensional Scali ng (NMDS) of the most prevalent species in the plots. The diagram shows a clear separation of sites and pairs. CFI reference plots are clustered on the left side, with the drier plots R-6 and R-4 close together and R1, the wettest site, on the other end. The CFI reference plots are closer to the HOM Rushton plot. All the HOM Rushton plots (names starting with ) are clustered among themselves and with the 3 PRP sites (names starting with ). The HOM reference plot is isolated from the other groups. All the OHW (names starting with ,, and ) and TEN plot s are clustered within their respective sites. Overall there is a much greater difference in speci es assemblies between sites than within sites or within pairs. Relationship among measures of ecosystem development Table 20 contains correlations among selected ecosystem development variables by site. Rushton and reference plots are combined in this analysis by site. Differences in the relationship strength and the direction of the relationships between these variables occur between different sites. Two hydrologic variables average depth and ra nge of average depth are included in the correlations, along with the total Rushton tree basal area (Rush_BA). The response variables included are total basal area, canopy cover, unde rstory cover, understory richness, understory evenness, and soil percent organic matter. The relationship of the response variables to Rush_BA is of primary interest, though the corre lations between response variables are also worth noting.

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42 At all sites Rush_BA is strongly positively corre lated with total basal area, as was apparent in Table 14, which showed that Rushton trees made up the majority of total basal area in most Rushton plots. However the correlation with ca nopy cover is less clear. At CFI correlation is nearly absent, because all plot s including Rushton and reference have very similar canopy coverage (see Table 15). The trend is more pos itive at the sites where reference plots have less canopy cover. The correlations between Rush_B A and understory cover are mostly negative, except at CFI where understory planting occurred, though the relationship is weak at the older sites of OHW and TEN. Rush_BA ranges from being strongly negatively correlated with understory richness at PRP to strongly positively correlated at OHW. The correlations between understory evenness and also range from strong negative to strong positive. OWH and TEN show the same direction of correlation for all response variables. HOM and PRP, the wettest sites, also show the same direction of correlation in all variables but species evenness.

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43 Table 5. Tree survival from initial planting in 25 sampled cypress-gum plots. 1yr3yrs20yrs Fraxinus pennsylvanica 65172%70%29% Nyssa aquatica 83744%34%18% Taxodium distichum 83766%55%34% % Survival No. Planted Table 6. Tree survival from initial planting in 12 sampled hydric swamp plots. 1yr19yrs Acer rubrum 12694%6% Fraxinus caroliniana 7299%82% Taxodium distichum 21689%31% % Survival No. Planted

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44 Figure 9. Percentage of planted trees surviving by site and species in cypress-gum plots after 1 year (Rushton 1988), 3 years (Paulic and Ru shton 1991a), and 20 years. The dashed line represents a hypothetical trend in between the sampled years. CFI 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920 HOM 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920 OHW 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920 TEN0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920 Year Fraxinus pennsylvanica Nyssa aquatica Taxodium distichum

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45 Figure 10. Percentage of planted trees surviving by site and species in hydric-swamp plots after 1 year (Rushton 1988) and 19 years. The dashed line represents a hypothetical trend in between the sampled years. PRP 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 12345678910111213141516171819 TEN 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 12345678910111213141516171819Year Acer rubrum Fraxinus caroliniana Taxodium distichum OHW 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 12345678910111213141516171819

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46 Figure 11. Percentage of plot inundated at time of monthly sampling during the period of record on cypress-gum plots. The numbers on the x-axis represent month of the year (e.g. 3 = March)

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47 Figure 12. Percentage of plot inundated at time of monthly sampling during the period of record on hydric swamp plots. The numbers on the x-axis represent month of the year (e.g. 3 = March).

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48 Figure 13. Distribution of average water depth inside original plot boundaries (Original) of cypress-gum plots, and at the locations of surviving trees for each of the species planted ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Nyssa aquatica, and Taxodium distichum ). The distributions are presented as box plots that break the data into four quartiles. The middle box represents the 25-75th percentil es, with includes the median value represented by the middle line. The upper and lower hashes represent the 0 and 100 percentiles. The circles beyond the lower hash are outliers.

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49 Figure 14. Number of planted trees that died be tween years 1 and 20 and trees alive in 2005, in 0.1m depth classes on CFI (sand-clay) on plots R1-R6.

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50 Figure 15. Number of planted trees that died be tween years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1m depth classes on OHW (clay) plots R2A and R2B.

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51 Figure 16. Number of planted trees that died be tween years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1m depth classes on TEN (clay) plots R5A, R5B, R6A, R6B, R7A, and R7B.

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52 Figure 17. Distribution of average water depth inside plots boundaries (Original) of hydric swamp plots and at locations of surviving trees. See Figure 3 for explanation of box plot construction.

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53 Figure 18 Percentage of planted trees surviving in cypress-gum plots by soil type after approximately 1 (Rushton 1988), 3 (Paulic and Rushton 1991a), and 20 years. Clay0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920 Sand-Clay Mix0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920 Sand Cap0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1234567891011121314151617181920Years FRPA NYAQ TADI

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54 Figure 19. Distribution of average water depth in cypress-gum plots grouped by soil type.

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55 Table 7. Comparison of trees growing in different soil media by species, among those with similar average water depth. No. of Trees Mean of log(Basal Area) Species Clay Sand-Clay Clay Sand-Clay p-value Fraxinus pennslyvanica 45 89 4.24 4.44 0.20 Nyssa aquatica 13 37 4.61 3.96 0.02* Taxodium distichum 82 67 5.23 5.44 0.63 *Significantly different at the 95% confidence level Table 8. Results of a two-way ANOVA compari ng the effect of two soil types (clay and sandclay) and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Fraxinus pennsylvanica growth. Variable p-value Soil Type 0.39 Water Level 0.52 Interaction 0.16 Table 9. Results of a two-way ANOVA compari ng the effect of two soil types (clay and sandclay) and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Taxodium distichum growth. Variable p-value Soil Type 0.40 Water Level 0.02* Interaction 0.01* *Significantly different at the 95% confidence level

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56 Table 10. Site Disturbance Record SitePlot(s)FireHeavy GrazingMechanical 1,3,4,5,6 --2 --+ 1,2,3,4 --5,6,7,8 -+1A,2A,2B --H1,H4 --H2,H3 +-PRP H1,H2, H3,H4 +-5A,5B -++ 6A,6B, 7A,7B -+H5 -+H2,H3,H6 ---+ Record of incidenceNo record of incidence TEN CFI Disturbance HOM OHW

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57 Table 11. Plots with potential offspring of planted trees ordered by reproductive ratio SitePlotSpecies # Planted trees # Recruited trees Reproductive ratio (planted/recruited) Possible alternate source for nonplanted? Alternate sourceRank Teneroc 4H3TADI11330.01Y other plots 1 OH WrightH2ACRU32230.01Yfloodplain2 CFI SP-1 R4TADI490.44Yother planting3 OH WrightH1FRCA480.50N4 Peace ParkRH6TADI240.50N5 CFI SP-1 R5TADI10160.63Yother planting6 OH WrightH1TADI230.67N7 CFI SP-1 R2TADI12130.92Yother planting8 OH WrightR2BFRPE111.00N9 OH WrightH4FRCA16151.07N10 OH WrightR1ATADI431.33N11 CFI SP-1 R3NYAQ861.33N12 CFI SP-1 R1TADI15111.36Yother planting13 Teneroc 4R6ATADI212.00N14 CFI SP-1 R3TADI2492.67Yother planting15 HomelandR1TADI2583.13Yother planting16 Teneroc 4H6TADI1744.25N17 CFI SP-1 R4FRPE1434.67N18 OH WrightH4TADI515.00N19 CFI SP-1 R5FRPE1535.00N20 Peace ParkRH1TADI1025.00N21 OH WrightR2BTADI818.00N22 Teneroc 4H5TADI919.00N23 Teneroc 4H6FRCA1929.50N24 CFI SP-1 R6TADI20210.00Yother planting25 Peace ParkRH5TADI12112.00N26 CFI SP-1 R3FRPE25212.50N27 CFI SP-1 R1NYAQ15115.00N28 HomelandR3TADI15115.00Yother planting29 Peace ParkRH5FRCA20120.00N30

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58 Figure 20. Size class distributions of Taxodium distichum seedlings at Ten H3 counted in June and November, 2005.

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59 Figure 21. Size class distribution of Taxodium distichum in 6 basins on five CSAs. Light sections represent recruited trees; dark sections planted trees. The size classes represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH; 1: 0-5cm; 2: 5-10cm; 3: 10-15cm; 4: 15-20cm; 5: 20-30cm; 6: 30-40cm; 7: >40cm.

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60 Figure 22. Size class distributions of Nyssa aquatica in five basins on four CSAs. Light sections represent recruited trees; dark sections plan ted trees. The size classes represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH; 1: 0-5cm; 2: 5-10cm; 3: 10-15cm; 4: 15-20cm; 5: 20-30cm; 6: 30-40cm; 7: >40cm.

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61 Figure 23. Size class distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica in five basins on four CSAs. Light sections represent non-planted trees; dark sections planted trees. The size classes represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH; 1: 0-5cm; 2: 5-10cm; 3: 10-15cm; 4: 15-20cm; 5: 20-30cm; 6: 30-40cm; 7: >40cm.

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62 Figure 24. Size class distribution of Fraxinus caroliniana in two basins on two CSAs. The size classes represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH; 1: 0-5cm; 2: 5-10cm; 3: 1015cm; 4: 15-20cm; 5: 20-30cm; 6: 30-40cm; 7: >40cm.

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63 CLASS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 [ 0.699 0.012 0.013 0.015 0.023 0.034 0.051 0.076] 1 [ 0.173 0.751 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. ] 2 [ 0. 0.212 0.804 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. ] 3[ 0. 0. 0.139 0.731 0. 0. 0. 0. ] 4 [ 0. 0. 0. 0.223 0.725 0. 0. 0. ] 5 [ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.244 0.902 0. 0. ] 6[ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.078 0.946 0. ] 7[ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.04 0.991] Figure 25. Transition matrix for CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum population model Figure 26. Model predicted population change of CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum

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64 CLASS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 [ 0.67 0.005 0.006 0.004 0.006 0.01 0.015 0.022] 1 [ 0.247 0.775 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. ] 2 [ 0. 0.194 0.799 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. ] 3 [ 0. 0. 0.109 0.732 0. 0. 0. 0. ] 4 [ 0. 0. 0. 0.188 0.78 0. 0. 0. ] 5 [ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.189 0.938 0. 0. ] 6 [ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.042 0.986 0. ] 7 [ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.991] Figure 27. Transition matrix for OH Wright Taxodium distichum population model Figure 28. Model predicted population change of OH Wright Taxodium distichum

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65 Figure 29. Model elasticity values showing sen sitivity of different parameters. For each parameter type (stasis, growth, fecundity) the first bar from the left represents size class 0 with the bars to the right corresp onding to size class 1,2,3... to 7.

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66 Table 12. Rushton plots/subplots ranked by planted tree basal area (m2/hec) SitePlotSubplotType Rushton Tree Basal Area (m2/hec) CFIR11 CG 226 HOMR22 CG 158 CFIR33 CG 154 HOMR12 CG 142 CFIR32 CG 140 TENH6 NAHS128 CFIR13 CG 108 CFIR23 CG 107 CFIR21 CG 105 CFIR62 CG 96 CFIR61 CG 96 HOMR13 CG 92 OHWR2A1 CG 90 HOMR42 CG 88 CFIR22 CG 87 CFIR63 CG 87 CFIR31 CG 86 CFIR51 CG 86 HOMR41 CG 82 CFIR12 CG 82 CFIR52 CG 80 CFIR43 CG 79 HOMR61 CG 77 HOMR32 CG 76 OHWR2B1 CG 75 CFIR53 CG 65 HOMR11 CG 63 HOMR51 CG 63 HOMR73 CG 61 HOMR71 CG 58 OHWR2A2 CG 57 HOMR62 CG 55 HOMR23 CG 50 HOMR72 CG48 TENH5 NAHS42 CFIR42 CG 41 HOMR63 CG 36 OHWR2B2 CG 35 HOMR33 CG 35 TEN R2B1 CG 32 HOMR53 CG 31 HOMR52 CG 26 OHW H4 NAHS24 OHW H1 NAHS24 HOMR43 CG 22 TEN H2NA HS 21 PRPH5 NAHS19 HOMR21 CG 18 TEN R2B2 CG 17 TEN R2B3 CG 16 HOMR31 CG 15 OHWR1A1 CG 14 PRPH1 NAHS14 TENR2A1 CG 13 HOMR81 CG 8 TENH3 NAHS8 OHW H2 NAHS7 CFIR41 CG 7 HOMR82 CG 6 OHW H3 NAHS4 TEN R2A3 CG 4 PRPH6 NAHS4 PRPH4 NAHS3 OHWR1A3 CG 2 OHWR1A2 CG 1 HOMR83 CG 1 OHWR2A3 CG 0 OHWR2B3 CG0 TEN R2A2 CG 0

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67 Table 13. Topography and water levela comparison of Rushton and reference plots PairSitePlotPlot TypeAvg Elev.(m)Avg Depth(m)Min Depth(m)Max Depth(m)% Inundation 1CFIR1CG0.040.360.070.63100% 1CFIR2CG0.030.32-0.070.5890% 1CFIR3CG0.03-0.05-0.430.3448% 1CFIR4CG0.05-0.30-0.510.3040% 1CFIR5CG0.04-0.19-0.770.3942% 1CFIR6CG0.03-0.36-0.930.1113% 1CFI5CG-Ref0.050.00-0.49 0.68b55% 2HOMR1CG0.040.390.130.71100% 2HOMR2CG0.040.30-0.110.6194% 2HOMR3CG0.030.32-0.090.5194% 2HOMR4CG0.030.33-0.070.5194% 2HOMR5CG0.060.520.090.91100% 2HOMR6CG0.050.550.150.76100% 2HOMR7CG0.050.510.160.74100% 2HOMT1CG-Ref0.040.42-0.100.6394% 3OHWH1HS0.010.45-0.010.5599% 3OHWH4HS0.040.370.190.51100% 3OHWH1RHS-Ref0.020.390.020.50100% 4OHWR1ACG0.050.07-0.060.2181% 4OHWT1CG-Ref0.030.110.020.25100% 5OHWR2ACG0.030.110.020.21100% 5OHWR2BCG0.040.20-0.140.3590% 5OHWT2CG-Ref0.03 0.37b0.10 0.50b100% 6PRPH1HS0.020.610.550.71100% 6PRPH5HS0.020.730.371.12100% 6PRPH1RHS-Ref 0.04b0.530.180.85100% 7TENH2HS0.010.230.170.27100% 7TENH2RHS-Ref0.020.250.20.3100% 8TENH5HS0.02-0.06-0.210.0914% 8TENH5RHS-Ref0.01-0.12-0.20-0.070% 9TENH6HS0.01-0.04-0.170.024% 9TENH6RHS-Ref0.02-0.03-0.090.1513% 10TENR2ACG0.050.08-0.100.1881% 10TENR2BCG0.030.07-0.410.2968% 10TENT1CG-Ref0.048 -0.01c-0.590.2562%aWater depth data from July for all plotsbMore than 3 standard errors from the mean of Rushton plotscLess than 3 standard errors from the mean of Rushton Plots

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68 Table 14. Plot-scale basal area comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots. Standard Deviation BA(m2/hec) PairSiteRushtonRefRushtonRefRushtonRefRushton 1CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 T593NA 107 2526 2HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T197NA 64 623 3OHWH1 H4H1R82NA 29 75 4OHWR1AT130NA 48 16NA 5OHWR2A R2BT271NA 90 713 6PRPH1 H5H1R62NA 27 114 7TENH2H2R47NA 45 17NA 8TENH5HR79NA 53 20NA 9TENH6H6R98NA 131 11NA 10TENR2A R2BT151NA33 47 13a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation Plots Percent of BA from Rushton treesMean BA(m2/hec)a

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69 Table 15. Percent canopy cover comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots Figure 30. Subplot basal area a nd percent canopy cover at HOM. The first 3 (from the left) Rushton subplots had < 10 m2/hec Rushton tr ee basal area, but are included to help illustrate a continuous trend. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% 020406080100120140BA m2/hec Rushton Plot Reference PlotSD PairSiteRushtonRefRushRefRush 1CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 T50.880.850.03 2HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T10.820.300.03 3OHWH1 H4H1R0.860.760.02 4OHWR1AT10.910.89NA 5OHWR2A R2BT20.900.900.01 6PRPH1 H5H1R0.790.680.08 7TENH2H2R0.890.89NA 8TENH5HR0.890.89NA 9TENH6H6R0.900.88NA 10TENR2A R2BT10.870.880.02a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation PlotsMean

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70 Table 16. Soil percent organic matter comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots. Table 17. Soil percent organic matter summarized by site and plot type. SiteRushtonRef CFI9.067.47 HOM8.784.70 OHW10.4211.52 PRP10.217.70 TEN9.1612.91 Mean %OM PairSiteRushtonRefRushtonRefRushtonRefRushtonRef 1CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 T5153189.067.473.391.960.01 2HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T157278.784.711.243.060.01 3OHWH1 H4H1R542710.199.21.651.23.00E-03 4OHWR1AT191810.3113.43.595.110.08 5OHWR2A R2BT2361810.813.143.823.920.04 6PRPH1 H5H1R362710.217.731.546.00E-05 7TENH2H2R27279.2611.581.252.491.00E-04 8TENH5H5R27278.06 14.06 1.692.941.60E-11 9TENH6H6R272711.48 14.84 3.22.681.00E-04 10TENR2A R2BT136188.110.283.14.290.07a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation Standard Deviation %OM P-value from T-test PlotsSamplesMean %OMa

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71 Table 18. Average percent understory cover co mparison between Rushton and reference plots Table 19. Species richness and evenness co mparison in Rushton and reference plots SDSD PairSiteRushtonRefRushto nRefRushRushtonRefRush 1CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 512 21 3.90.590.700.15 2HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T112123.40.51 0.86 0.12 3OHWH1 H4H1R7 9 0.70.71 0.86 0.06 4OHWR1AT198NA0.810.85NA 5OHWR2A R2BT2 12 72.10.840.450.00 6PRPH1 H5H1R5 7 0.7 0.70 0.530.02 7TENH2H2R43NA 0.51 0.27NA 8TENH5H5R13 20 NA0.800.77NA 9TENH6H6R 10 5NA0.780.77NA 10TENR2A R2BT19 12 2.10.720.770.05a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation Species EvennessaPlotsMeanMean Species Richnessa SD PairSiteRushtonRefRushtonRefRushtonRefRush 1CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 53460.960.840.18 2HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T16390.940.860.17 3OHWH1 H4H1R1890.320.220.20 4OHWR1AT1360.350.25NA 5OHWR2A R2BT21250.32 0.86 0.12 6PRPH1 H5H1R1290.83 1.20 0.20 7TENH2H2R990.590.62NA 8TENH5H5R99 0.68 0.58NA 9TENH6H6R98 0.38 0.15NA 10TENR2A R2BT11260.470.370.21a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation Plots Average Cover %aMean Samples

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72 Figure 31. NMDS plot of understory species assemblages. Plot names are condensed to pair-plot name with a * added to the reference plots. The greater the distance between the plot s, the less similar their species assemblages.

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73 Table 20. Correlation matrices for ecosystem de velopment variables by site. Correlations between Rushton BA and response variable s (last five) are highlighted in gray. CFI Rush_BA Depth Range Tot_BA Canop_Cov U_Cover U_Richness U_Evenness Soil_OM Rush_BA 1.00 0.35 -0.72 1.00 -0.03 0.55 -0.91 -0.68 -0.08 Depth 0.35 1.00 -0.65 0.37 -0.83 0.82 -0.23 -0.87 -0.70 Range -0.72 -0.65 1.00 -0.75 0.42 -0.45 0.65 0.72 0.16 Tot_BA 1.00 0.37 -0.75 1.00 -0.06 0.54 -0.92 -0.68 -0.07 Canop_Cov -0.03 -0.83 0.42 -0.06 1.00 -0.47 0.00 0.54 0.46 U_Cover 0.55 0.82 -0.45 0.54 -0.47 1.00 -0.36 -0.93 -0.80 U_Richness -0.91 -0.23 0.65 -0.92 0.00 -0.36 1.00 0.47 -0.16 U_Evenness -0.68 -0.87 0.72 -0.68 0.54 -0.93 0.47 1.00 0.73 Soil_OM -0.08 -0.70 0.16 -0.07 0.46 -0.80 -0.16 0.73 1.00 HOM Rush_BA Depth Range Tot_BA Canop_Cov U_Cover U_Richness U_Evenness Soil_OM Rush_BA 1.00 -0.23 -0.47 0.99 0.71 -0.33 -0.28 -0.95 0.27 Depth -0.23 1.00 0.17 -0.30 -0.09 0.79 -0.60 -0.01 -0.86 Range -0.47 0.17 1.00 -0.40 -0.34 0.09 -0.03 0.41 -0.24 Tot_BA 0.99 -0.30 -0.40 1.00 0.66 -0.43 -0.23 -0.91 0.30 Canop_Cov 0.71 -0.09 -0.34 0.66 1.00 0.09 0.12 -0.68 0.33 U_Cover -0.33 0.79 0.09 -0.43 0.09 1.00 -0.19 0.15 -0.62 U_Richness -0.28 -0.60 -0.03 -0.23 0.12 -0.19 1.00 0.48 0.58 U_Evenness -0.95 -0.01 0.41 -0.91 -0.68 0.15 0.48 1.00 -0.14 Soil_OM 0.27 -0.86 -0.24 0.30 0.33 -0.62 0.58 -0.14 1.00 OWH Rush_BA Depth Range Tot_BA Canop_Cov U_Cover U_Richness U_Evenness Soil_OM Rush_BA 1.00 -0.33 -0.16 0.95 0.34 -0.12 0.71 0.32 -0.19 Depth -0.33 1.00 0.75 -0.57 -0.46 0.21 -0.65 -0.47 -0.31 Range -0.16 0.75 1.00 -0.32 -0.48 0.11 -0.48 -0.13 -0.53 Tot_BA 0.95 -0.57 -0.32 1.00 0.42 -0.17 0.80 0.40 -0.16 Canop_Cov 0.34 -0.46 -0.48 0.42 1.00 0.29 0.03 -0.33 0.49 U_Cover -0.12 0.21 0.11 -0.17 0.29 1.00 -0.19 -0.72 0.49 U_Richness 0.71 -0.65 -0.48 0.80 0.03 -0.19 1.00 0.52 -0.04 U_Evenness 0.32 -0.47 -0.13 0.40 -0.33 -0.72 0.52 1.00 -0.41 Soil_OM -0.19 -0.31 -0.53 -0.16 0.49 0.49 -0.04 -0.41 1.00 PRP Rush_BA Depth Range Tot_BA Canop_Cov U_Cover U_Richness U_Evenness Soil_OM Rush_BA 1.00 0.93 -0.14 0.86 0.89 -0.94 -1.00 0.93 0.78 Depth 0.93 1.00 0.24 0.61 1.00 -1.00 -0.95 0.73 0.49 Range -0.14 0.24 1.00 -0.62 0.33 -0.22 0.06 -0.49 -0.73 Tot_BA 0.86 0.61 -0.62 1.00 0.53 -0.63 -0.82 0.99 0.99 Canop_Cov 0.89 1.00 0.33 0.53 1.00 -0.99 -0.92 0.66 0.40 U_Cover -0.94 -1.00 -0.22 -0.63 -0.99 1.00 0.96 -0.75 -0.51 U_Richness -1.00 -0.95 0.06 -0.82 -0.92 0.96 1.00 -0.90 -0.73 U_Evenness 0.93 0.73 -0.49 0.99 0.66 -0.75 -0.90 1.00 0.95 Soil_OM 0.78 0.49 -0.73 0.99 0.40 -0.51 -0.73 0.95 1.00 TEN Rush_BA Depth Range Tot_BA Canop_Cov U_Cover U_Richness U_Evenness Soil_OM Rush_BA 1.00 -0.22 -0.16 0.96 0.43 -0.06 0.05 0.27 -0.19 Depth -0.22 1.00 -0.20 -0.22 -0.08 0.30 -0.79 -0.88 -0.27 Range -0.16 -0.20 1.00 0.04 -0.13 -0.34 0.10 0.35 -0.47 Tot_BA 0.96 -0.22 0.04 1.00 0.47 -0.11 0.09 0.28 -0.29 Canop_Cov 0.43 -0.08 -0.13 0.47 1.00 -0.23 -0.01 -0.20 -0.29 U_Cover -0.06 0.30 -0.34 -0.11 -0.23 1.00 0.22 -0.26 -0.26 U_Richness 0.05 -0.79 0.10 0.09 -0.01 0.22 1.00 0.64 0.18 U_Evenness 0.27 -0.88 0.35 0.28 -0.20 -0.26 0.64 1.00 0.10 Soil_OM -0.19 -0.27 -0.47 -0.29 -0.29 -0.26 0.18 0.10 1.00

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74 DISCUSSION Summary Evaluating the progress of a created wetland after a long period of time (20 years in this study) is valuable for determin ing which species are appropriately adapted for site conditions and what the role of these species may be in the development of an ecosystem. Though tree survival was higher on the sand-clay mix soil than on pure clay or sand, hydrology and site disturbances were more importa nt factors than soil type in determination of tree survival. Each wetland tree species survived in positions along a hydrologic gradient that fit a species-specific tolerance range for inundation. This positional range wa s more apparent for a species after twenty years than it was after 1 or 3 years. This information provides a good indicator of long-term hydrology within these pl ots and would be valuable for future planting efforts on these sites. Tree growth among surviving individuals was just as high on pure clay soils as on the sand-clay surface. By this measure, established trees were successful on clay. Nevertheless, the sustainability of planted tree populations on CSAs is uncertain. In most cases offspring of the planted trees were scarce after twenty years. M odels showed that the size of tree populations on two sites, each with few offspri ng, will not grow significantly or possibly decline after 50 years, assuming high survival of current mature trees The cause(s) of the low numbers of new seedlings still needs to be clarified. The presen ce of a high number of seedlings on one clay site proved, however, that the clay soils alone do not prohibit seedling establishment. Plants plots are more structurally mature th an non-planted area and this is promoting the accumulation of soil organic matter, but the ra te of accumulation does not always exceed accumulation under other CSA communities. No st rong relationship between planted plots and

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75 understory vegetation has yet em erged on the selected CSAs. The assemblage of understory vegetation appears to be more strongly dete rmined by the site surroundings and the plot hydrology. The influence of the trees may become stronger as the trees continue to mature. For sites planted with trees, the intentional introductio n of additional species in the understory could provide the source for a more diverse community. Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors Tree Survival By Site and Species The presence of wetland trees planted 20 years ago on multiple CSAs is an indication that conditions alone in the planted plots are within the range of conditions in which these wetland trees have evolved to persist. Taxodium distichum, both Fraxinus caroliniana and pennsylvanica, and Nyssa aquatica survived on all sites chosen for the st udy, though not in equal percentages. Though the typical lifespan of trees of these species is much greater than 20 years, their growth and healthy condition on some sites herald conti nued persistence. For the species that did not survive at any of the sites, questions remain as to the site factors that they were unable to tolerate. Mature trees of some of the other species plante d by Rushton were present on one or more of the study sites. Acer rubrum, which survived in small numbers at some sites, was dominant in the understory under canopies with many mature indivi duals at OHW, and to a lesser extent at TEN. This species also occurs in high densities in some areas of CFI. Ulmus americana has also been recruited on some of these same sites, though to a lesser extent than Acer rubrum. Quercus laurifolia is not uncommon at CFI and OHW. Isolated individuals of Persea palustris were found outside the sampled area at OHW. The failure of these species to persist in these planted plots does not preclude their capacity to survive on CSAs, but does indicate a relatively poorer survival capacity in the conditions to which the plots were subjected. Overall Fraxinus caroliniana had a very high survival rate, though it was planted in a limited range of water depth and a smalle r number of individuals were planted. Taxodium distichum was planted more than any of the aforem entioned four species and over a range of

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76 water depths, most of which it tolerated. In term s of survival it was the most successful species of the three in the cypress-gum plots. One and three-year survival was a good predictor of 20-year survival for these four species. Though annual survival rate generally improved as mortality was more common in the first three years, the change in the percentage of each species surviving relative to the other species was relatively consistent across sites. In other words, a similar su rvival trend was present for these species, and the species with the highest survival after three years was most likely the species with the highest survival after 20 years. This perhaps indicates a similar response to environmental stresses among the species. Though individuals become more resistant to environmental stress with age, assuming that the same regime of environmental conditions pers isted from years 3 to 20 as did from years 0 to 3, notwithstanding sporadic disturbances, trees likely succumbed to the same pressures during both periods. Tree Survival and Hydrology Time allows for a clear determination of a suitable landscape position of a wetland species relative to its period of exposure to saturated c onditions and the depth of inundation. At CFI, water depth did not preclude 20-year survival among the trees living after year 1, however, hydrological factors may have had an effect on likelihood of survival of Nyssa aquatica and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. OHW was likely affected by a disturbance even t that affected the drier end of plots R2A and R2B (see Table 10), thus water was not likely th e key factor in mortality of the trees in the drier area. Fraxinus pennslyvanica did not tolerate the wetter locations of this transect, though it appears to have tolerated the same average depth at CFI. That Fraxinus pennsylvanica did not tolerate locations where the average depth was 0.2 and 0.3m at OHW though it did tolerate those dept hs at CFI, could be interpreted as a greater tolerance for standing water in sand-clay than in clay. But there are likely differences in the

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77 hydrologic regime between the two sites that coul d have effected tree survival. In both plots, trees are growing on the fringe of a pond where surface water outfall occurs at a given depth. Though data are not available to determine at what water level relative to the trees that surface outflow occurs in the two basins, it is possible th at water could be retained longer at the same average water level depths at OHW, increasing th e period of inundation. This case exemplifies the difficulty of inferring hydrologic similarity from monthly measurements over a single growing season. Inside the plots perhaps the loca tion of surviving trees relative to one another is a better indication of hydrology than monthly wa ter level measurements, but was an assumption that could not be made within this study. The shallower water depth distribution of surviving trees in the TEN basin (Figure 16) likely does not represent the average depth of wate r trees were exposed to before the basin was ditched in 2001, when average seasonal depths for all trees were likely greater. Hydrologic factors may have impacted mortality, as the less tolerant Fraxinus pennsylvanica did not survive in the deeper part of the range where Taxodium distichum did, but the animal grazing (see Table 10) noted during the initial years of establishmen t was likely also major factor in the high tree mortality in this basin. The long-term change in the hydrology on CSAs due to the continuing settling of the clays is a challenge to long-term wetland creation unique to CSAs. But this study only revealed anecdotal indications of an effect of clay c onsolidation and resultant hydrologic alteration on planted trees. At TEN, laterally branching roots of Taxodium distichum and Fraxinus caroliniana with rigid epidermal cells not typically found ab ove the ground surface were found in two basins. Faint clay stains were present on these roots whic h were as much as 3.5 feet above the ground surface. These root features are potentially signs of clay consolidation, but since the basin hydrology was altered by ditching in 2001, they coul d also be remnants of a dramatic decrease in water levels.

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78Tree Growth Comparison Between Sand-Clay and Clay Sites Comparison of the effects of soil medium on tree growth could not include sand-capped sites because there was no control for th e effect of water level on tree growth. The data clearly indicate that trees survived in greater numbers after 20 yrs on the sandclay site than in the clay, despite similar survival after 1 year for Taxodium distichum and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. For all three species planted in cypress-gum plots survival was better on the sand-clay site. Nevertheless, the soil medium is not the most probable explanation for this difference. Initial growth after one year was similar for cypress-gum plots on CFI and OHW, on which no notable growth occurred. Twenty y ear survival on OHW R2A and R2B was effected by the death of all trees in 1/3 of the plot. B ecause death occurred for all species and because the area experienced similar water level conditions to part of CFI on which some all species survived, it is probable that one or multiple disturbance even ts, likely fire, caused the mortality rather than the water level or the clay soil The domination of that area now by a fire-adapted species, Imperata cylindrica, and reported fires that consumed trees in nearby plots provide further evidence of this mortality hypothesis on OHW. On TEN, the poor initial survival of some of th e trees in the basin used in the survival figure (Figure 16) was reported to be partially due to heavy grazing. Grazing significantly reduced initial tree growth, an important indicator of future survival, and thus likely was the principle cause the high mortality in the proceed ing years. However, water levels possibly resulted in Fraxinus pennsylvanica death in the deeper areas and all species in the extreme dry areas. Though Fraxinus pennsylvanica survived into a much deeper average water depth on other sites, it is likely that this basin stored more water before the hydrology was altered in 2001 and that these trees then earlier were s ubjected to more frequent inundation. High survival percentages in other plots in cl ay where the same trees were planted, like TEN H6, is further evidence that, given appropria te hydroperiods and freedom from devastating disturbance, viability of Taxodium distichum and Fraxinus spp. species on clay is good.

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79 Across the board, Nyssa aquatica had poor initial survival in the clay sites, as the clay possibly impeded the establishment process. Yet once the species established, it grew as well or better and survived at a similar rate on the clay. Recruited Trees The scarcity of recruited trees in the periphery of most plots made it impossible to make broad inferences about the cond itions appropriate for seedling es tablishment on CSAs. Lack of data on seed production, germination success, and seedling survival did not enable a determination of the causes of absence of recruits. First-year Taxodium spp. seedlings cannot tolerate long periods under water (Wilhite and Toliver 1990). On Ten H3, a particular abundance of new seedlings emerged in the spring and early summer 2005, where in May water levels dropped below ground but remained close enough to the surface to maintain saturated conditions appr opriate for germination. However water levels rose and likely remained high enough to complete ly inundate 72 of 85 of these seedlings. This rise in water level is the most likely explana tion for the high mortality among these first-year seedlings. If those seedlings that were inundated are assumed to have died during the period, the survival rate for the remaining seedlings up to 100 cm would be close to 90%. Though unique in the density of seedlings in this study, this plot provides evidence that given the presence of viable seed and appropriate water levels, Taxodium distichum can germinate and establish on a CSA, and that water levels are of critical im portance in the establishment process. The source of seedlings present on some of the sites was impossible to establish when other mature trees had been planted by other parties. At CFI, >500 Taxodium distichum seedlings had been planted on the site since the Rushton plan ting. Mature trees not planted by Rushton are present just off the deeper margin of the plots and in between plots in cases. It could not be determined with certainty that the recruited tr ees found inside the plots were offspring of the planted trees. At HOM Taxodium distichum trees had been planted in the same basin a few years

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80 before the Rushton plantings. The recruite d trees found at HOM were perhaps planted or offspring of trees from the previous planting. Seedling establishment of wetland tree species depends heavily on a gentle rise in the relative topography of the landscape. In natural fl oodplain systems, the extent of the spread of the population is determined by the extent of the flood zone. In some CSAs the flood zone is restricted due to a steep elevation gradient, ofte n a residual of the mine cut spoil pile pre-fill topography. This topography may restrict the ar ea favorable to wetland tree seed establishment, which require fluctuating wate r level conditions for adequa te but tolerable moisture. The size class distributions show normal to left-s kewed shape distributions for most sites. A right skewed or inverse-J shape distribution is a sign of a growing population dominated by smaller individuals (Manabe et al. 2000). Overall scarcity of new seedlings at the sites poses challenges to future population success. In all speci es of planted trees monitored in the study, at least some individuals had reached a maturity to produce seed based on what is reported for individuals of those species (USDA 2004). Though there was no formal collection of seed production data, there were records of seeds presen t on trees or floating in water for each of the species present. If the trees continue to survive it would be natural that they would become more fecund as they grow. Though this study shows that failure of seed ling establishment is not endemic of CSAs, studies need to be conducted to show if establis hment presents any particular challenges. Further study into seedling establishment and growth coul d reveal any obstacles exist on CSAs related to soil clay content or vegetation cover. But to be conclusive, any such st udy needs to take into account all stages of seedling establishment: in cluding seed production, dispersion, viability, germination and initial survival and along a variet y of environmental gradients typical of CSAs. Tree Population Model Because this was a young population there was not good data on survival of older trees. Reclamation of phosphatic clay settling areas di d not begin until the early 1980s and therefore

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81 there is no reference for longevity of Taxodium distichum in these areas. To fill in the data gap, survival probability of larger trees was assumed to continue to increase in larger size classes. The estimated survival probability of the largest size class of Taxodium distichum in the models was consistent with the survival probability of the la rgest size class in models of other woody species (Zuidema and Zagt 2000). Since the mortality of the largest size classes was the most sensitive parameter in the model, the confidence of the mode l could be improved by real data of large tree mortality. The probabilities of growth, survival, and reproduction are affected by the hydrologic conditions. Incorporating the effect of differe nt hydrologic regimes in the transition probabilites of multiple transition matrices is one techni que for implicitly accounting for the effect of hydrology on a wetland tree popula tion (Lytle and Merritt 2004). Fo r these models, a time series of data and a hydrologic record would be necessary to build this model. The small changes in population size predicted by the models for trees on CFI and OHW are a consequence of both high survival probabilities of larger trees and low reproductive probabilities of mature trees. These same trends would have likely been present in models of a number of the other tree populations in this study, but such trends cannot yet be generalized for Taxodium distichum or other tree populations on CSAs. Characteristics of Successful Species on CSAs A common trait among the tree species that survived on multiple sites after 20 years (Fraxinus caroliniana, Fraxinus pennsylv anica, Nyssa aquatica, Taxodium distichum) is the ability to tolerate anaerobic conditions for an exte nded period of time during the growing season. The least tolerant, Fraxinus pennsylvanica can tolerate inundation for up to 40% of the growing season (Fowells 1965). Each of these species has special adaptations that permit extended survival in when the root zone is saturated, including adventitious rooting and buttressing. Also common to these species is the ability to resprout from the root stock and to coppice (resprout from a stump) following disturbance. For environments that may be frequently exposed

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82 to disturbances, especially fire, resprout ability c ould be important for long term survival (Pausas et al. 2004). Evidence of resprouting wa s present in each of the four species. These four species naturally occur in ri verine swamps (Myers and Ewel 1990). Fraxinus caroliniana and Taxodium distichum are also naturally present in a number of other forested wetland types, such as cypress stands and lake fringe swamps. Two of the species, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Nyssa aquatica do not natively occur in Polk County. The southern extent of the range of these species is in the big bend regi on. Among natural forested wetlands in Florida, these two species are typically restricted to riverine swamps The similarity of the natural habitat of thes e species and the CSA environment may help to further explain their success on CSAs. Characteris tics of riverine swamps, a common habitat of these species, include a short hydroperiod and minera l soils typically containing clays. Plots in the study had a mix of hydroperiods during the 2005 growing season, but Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Nyssa aquatica were more successful in plots that had a short to moderate hydroperiod. Fraxinus caroliniana and Taxodium distichum naturally occur in areas with a range of hydroperiod and on CSAs were successful in ar eas with longer hydroperiods. Clay, sand-clay, and sand capped sites in this study all had a low or ganic matter content at the time of planting that would fit a mineral soil characterization. Other species found surviving or volunteering in transitional areas including Acer rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, and Ulmus americana are also naturally found in riverine swamps. Two species that did not survive, Gordonia lasianthus and Sabal palmetto, are more often found in ecosystems with sandier soils and less dramatic fluctuation in inundation. Species characteristics are important in de termining capacity to survive in the new anthropogenic environment of CSAs, and copyi ng species assemblages that exist in natural wetlands with similar characteristics is a poten tial method for finding appropriate species. Yet because the CSA conditions are unique, there is no perfect correlate ecosystem from which to select appropriate species. The species that we re most successful after 20 years in these plots

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83 were those that not only occurred naturally in riverine wetlands, but also those with the most tolerance for anaerobic conditions and the ability to resprout. Species biological characteristics and the similarity of its native habitat are more important to tree success in CSAs than native range, confirming an earlier finding by Paulic and Rushton (1991b). In a 2005 survey not included in this study of Homeland FM-07, another CSA where trees were planted in 1988 (see Paulic and Rushton 1991b for details), a similar assemblage of surviving species was found. A species not planted by Rushton Quercus lyrata and two of the species found surviving in this study, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Taxodium distichum, were the only species found Quercus lyrata is another native of north Flor ida riverine swamps adapted to anaerobic environments. The hydric swamp plots in less wet to more transitional conditions at PRP, OHW, and TEN were mostly devoid of trees or any plot boundary markings. Fire was a likely cause of death at PRP and OHW, whereas circumstances are unclear at TEN. On PRP the transitional areas are dominated by Imperata cylindrica. On another site mentioned in the previous paragraph (FM-07) no trace of plots set-up in transitional areas was av ailable and these areas were also dominated by Imperata cylindrica. At OHW, a mixed forested canopy is now present over transitional plots H2 and H3. Schinus terebinthifolius was dominant in a the remnants of two TEN transitional plots. Drier areas are more susceptible to fire a nd post-fire colonization, and overall had poorer survival after 20 years, leaving the long-term viability of transitional tree species on CSAs uncertain. Ecosystem Development in Rushton and Reference Plots Plot Selection and Comparison Though the study intended to examine whether the surviving Rushton trees have played a role in ecosystem development, there was no clear presumption of the quantity of trees, tree biomass, or tree cover necessary to reveal an effect It was not the purpose of this study to find a minimum level of some quantitative measure of the tr ees at which an effect could be detected, but

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84 at whether or not an effect on ecosystem deve lopment could be detect ed under an condition in which trees were present. Because the measur ements of ecosystem development had different degrees of spatial precision, it was safer to assu me common influence on a plot or subplot when survival of trees was higher a nd thus spatially more homogenous. Adequate descriptions of the vegetation com position in reference plots and Rushton plots at the time of planting (1985-1986) were not available to determine if the composition was identical. By selecting areas adjacent to the same water feature with similar hydrology it was assumed that: (1) the vegetation in the areas at th e time of planting was similar ; (2) the depth and duration of flooding for the Rushton and referen ce plots was similar; and (3) no significant disturbances that would radically alter the vegeta tion and/or soil affected the plots unevenly since the time of planting. The comparison of Rusht on and reference plots rests on these assumptions, and plots or subplots were eliminated from the comparison if they violated one of these assumptions. Hydrology is perhaps the primary driver of wetland ecosystem development (Mitsch and Gosselink 1993). Thus the most important criterion for selection of a reference plot within the site was its hydrology. Though it was impossible to establish a reference plot in the same water feature at Homeland, the reference plot was within 100m of the closest Rushton plot and had a similar minimum, maximum, and average depth, and average change in elevation. In some cases, there was considerable vari ation of water depth and percent inundation within a group of Rushton plots. Mean water depths at CFI ranged from 0.36 m at R1 to .36 meters at R6. The mean water depth of the refe rence plot was appropriately exactly in the middle at 0.0m, but the difference in depth and percent inundation within Rushton plots was large enough to lead to detectable differences in ecosystem development parameters among the Rushton plots. The R1,R2, R3, and R5 unde rstories were dominate d by floating aquatic vegetation, whereas R4 and R6 were dominated by ferns. Yet the understories in these plots were still more similar to one another than the reference plot (see Figure 31). There was also a -0.70

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85 correlation (Table 20) between the between water depth and organic matter on CFI, indicating a difference in soil OM within Rushton plots. Hydrologic variation within Rushton plots made delineation of differences from reference plots more difficult. Structural Differences The clearest distinction between Rushton and reference plots was present in the tree and shrub strata. In planted areas with moderate to high survival of planted trees there was significantly more structure at these levels in the plots. Rushton plots had in 9 of 10 cases a more developed shrub and canopy layer. In plots on CF I, in TEN R2A and R2B, and in TEN H6, plot basal area was more than twice as high as wh at has been found in natural forested wetland systems, including mixed hardwood forest and cypr ess domes, but this difference is confined to the narrow boundaries of the Rushton plots. However, the estimates of canopy cover interpreted from the canopy photos showed little difference between Rushton and reference plots. A possible explanation is the trend that occurs with the estimation of canopy cover as plot ba sal area increases (Figure 30). Estimated canopy cover increases very rapidly and then levels off as basal area continues to increase. Generally the Rushton plots had enough structure so that all were near that asymptotic level of canopy cover. The canopy photo technique was used to esti mate the proportion of light blocked by the tree and shrub layers from reaching the understory. Because of the proximity of the shrub level to the camera lens, also true of the understory, th e shrub layer potentially had a more significant effect on this estimation. The technique does not estimate layering in the canopy, nor the opacity differences in different vegetative structures. Because there is more opaque, woody structure in Rushton plots and likely more frequent overlap of st ructure in different strata, the differences in the light reaching the understory could be greater than estimated in Rushton and reference plots. Soil Organic Matter Woody vegetation is an important contributor of litter that becomes incorporated into soil organic matter. At TEN higher percent soil OM was found in reference plots dominated by Salix

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86caroliniana than in corresponding Rushton plots (pairs 7,8,9), though this was not the case at PRP or CFI, where Salix caroliniana dominated reference plots. At OHW two reference plots dominated Ludwigia peruviana had higher organic matter than corresponding Rushton plots. Both of these species are characteristic of we tlands on CSAs, and may result in faster organic matter buildup than planted species, but this trend is not consistent across all sites. Other factors, such as fire frequency, also were important. At Peace Park, frequent fire and high tree mortality likely caused high deposition of woody particulate matter in Rushton plots that led to high soil organic matter. The presence of floating woody debris and burn scars on dead stumps was qualitative evidence of this effect. Surprisingly, correlation of water depth with soil OM was negative at most sites (see Table 20), which contradicts what is commonly found in wetland systems, where sediment deposition is higher in lower areas (Hupp and Bazemore 1993). This could be due to lack of vegetative colonization of deeper areas. In wetland systems wood biomass and soil or ganic matter often represent the largest storages of organic matter (Megongial and Day 1988) In Rushton plots a larger amount of total basal area and smaller amount of a soil organic matter relative to Rushton sites indicates that relatively more organic matter is bound up in living biomass in Rushton sites. A high percentage of the organic matter pool tied up by living organisms has been proposed as an indicator of a more mature ecosystem (Odum 1969). In a trans ition period the net production of organic matter theoretically peaks and declines as biomass c ontinues to increase (Figure 32). Though gross production is likely still increasing in these system s as indicated by continual tree growth and a greater total basal area in older sites, a greater proportion of the organic matter is being tied up in woody biomass and less deposition to the soil is occurring. Understory Vegetation For most plots, the coverage of plants in the understory, the species richness, and the species evenness was similar among Rushton and re ference plots. The similarity among Rushton and corresponding reference plots was made apparent by the NMDS (Figure 31). A distinct site-

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87 based grouping of understory assembla ges emerged in this plot. CFI (without the reference plot), OWH, and TEN are clustered by themselves and PRP and HOM overlap. This finding demonstrates the importance of site surroundings on understory composition. The dispersal of propagules from outside is the only plant source in CSAs, as there is no seed bank in the clay from which plants can emerge. Seeds must be carri ed in by wind or animals, and this process is limited by the distance to the nearest seed source. Interestingly, the HOM and PRP sites, which overlap on the NMDS, are within a mile from one another and likely share the same source (the Peace River floodplain) of propagules. Alternatively, propagules of wetland species othe r than trees could be brought in during the reclamation process. This was done at CFI, where Nephrolepis spp. were planted under the canopy of Rushton trees. There was some similarity in the understory across sites based on plot hydrology. Floating aquatics, primarily duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodella polyrhiza) and Salvinia minima, were often the most prevalent vegetation on wetter transects. Where they occurred they often accounted for the majority of cover. Though these species have limited to medium shade tolerance, they were present in Rushton and refere nce plots, without a clear trend in a relationship between basal area or canopy cover in their occurre nce, except in pair 5 at OHW and pair 6 at PRP. By and large the species found in the understory of plots have autecological characteristics associated with plants present in early to middl e succession. These characteristics include a rapid growth rate, short lifespan, poor shade tolera nce, high seed abundance, ability to spread vegetatively, and seed dispersal via wind and or water (Odum 1969, Ricklefs 1990, Mitsch and Gosselink 1993). Table 31 in the Appendix presents the prevalent understory species with scores for each of species for all six autecological tra its. Plant autecological characteristics can be related to the stage of succession (Van der Valk 1981). If Rushton trees were helping to accelerate succession on these areas, understory vegetation in Rusht on plot would possess

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88 characteristics typical of later succession. This could be occurring, but the differences between the species assemblages in Rusht on and reference plots were too sm all to test for differences in the autecological characteristics of species. An exception to the trend of similarity among species assemblages may exist at HOM, where the species present in the reference plot were more typical of a freshwater marsh than a shrub or tree-dominated system. The Rushton tr ees planted at HOM may be directing succession toward a forested wetland whereas it otherw ise might be developing into a marsh. Relationships Among Measures of Ecosystem Development The correlation matrices presented by site show some across-site similarity in relationship between causal and response variables for OHW and TEN, and also for PRP and HOM. Generally weak correlations are present between Rushton BA and the response variables This could be because of they are older sites abutte d on one side by a source of propagules, and because the ecosystems reference plots are more developed on these sites, dampening the effect of planted trees. Still there are large differences in total basal area and thus more organic material stored in the living biomass in the Rushton pl ots on these sites, so differences do exist. On both PRP and HOM, the Rushton plots stand out more in their structural differences with reference plots than at other sites. These st ructural differences appear to have a strong effect upon the understory vegetation, and clearly contribute to increased organic matter buildup. Planted trees may have more detectable infl uence on ecosystems development on less vegetated sites.

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89 Figure 32. Succession in a forested system. Fr om Odum (1969). PG=gross production; PN=net production; R=respiration; B=total biomass.

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APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURES, TABLES, AND CODE

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91 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.003/1 3 / 15 3/29 4/12 4/26 5 / 10 5 / 24 6/7 6/21 7 / 5 7 / 19 8/2 8/ 1 6 8/30 9/13 9/ 2 7 10 / 11 10 / 25Water Depth(m ) Figure 33. 2005 water depth in a well at CFI measured by contin uous data logger. Sampling times are marked with diamonds. Th e average of the monthly sampled water levels was 0.66 meters, and the average of the hourly sampled water levels was 0.65 meters. The close proximity of the monthly and hourly sampled water levels (within 1cm) indicates that the monthly sampled water level provided a n accurate average water level for the time period.

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92 -1.20 -1.00 -0.80 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.404/2 4 / 16 4 / 30 5/14 5/28 6 / 11 6 / 25 7/9 7/23 8 / 6 8 / 20 9/3 9/17 1 0/ 1 1 0/ 1 5 10/29Water Depth(m) Figure 34. 2005 water depth in a well at TEN measured by conti nuous data logger. Sampling times are marked with diamonds. Th e average of the monthly sampled water levels was -0.18 meters, and the average of the hourly samp led water levels was -0.15 meters. The c lose proximity of the monthly and hourly sampled water level (within 3 cm) indicates that the monthly sampled water level provided a n accurate average water level for the time period.

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93 Figure 35. Distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica basal area by average water depth for clay, sand-clay, and sand cap sites.

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94 Figure 36. Distribution of Nyssa aquatica basal area by average water depth for clay, sand-clay, and sand cap sites.

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95 Figure 37. Distribution of Taxodium distichum basal area by average water depth for clay, sandclay, and sand cap sites.

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96 Table 21. Understory species in pair 1 (CFI) ranked by Importance Value (IV) PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV R1 Lemna minor 0.985 Lemna minor 0.45 R1 Limnobium spongia 0.285 Salvinia minima 0.31 R1 Pistia stratiotes 0.245 Eryngium baldwinii 0.16 R1 Salvinia minima 0.165 Ludwigia peruviana 0.15 R1 Cladium jamaicense 0.125 Hydrocotyle umbellata 0.10 R2 Lemna minor 0.95 R2 Limnobium spongia 0.27 R2 Pistia stratiotes 0.17 R3 Lemna minor 0.71 R3 Nephrolepis cordifolia 0.71 R3 Limnobium spongia 0.30 R3 Pistia stratiotes 0.18 R4 Lemna minor 0.39 R4 Nephrolepis cordifolia 0.29 R4 Clematis virginiana 0.25 R4 Parthenocissus quinquefolia 0.13 R4 Sambucus canadensis 0.13 R4 Thelypteris hispidula 0.13 R4 Urena lobata 0.12 R5 Lemna minor 0.54 R5 Nephrolepis cordifolia 0.25 R5 Thelypteris hispidula 0.22 R5 Limnobium spongia 0.21 R5 Sambucus canadensis 0.16 R6 Nephrolepis cordifolia 0.48 R6 Thelypteris hispidula 0.43 R6 Lemna minor 0.21 R6 Clematis virginiana 0.18 R6 Sambucus canadensis 0.16R6 Parthenocissus quinquefolia 0.11 RushtonReference

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97 Table 22. Understory species in pair 2 (HOM) ranked by Importance Value (IV) PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV R1 Salvinia minima 1.25T1 Lemna minor 0.46 R1 Lemna minor 0.42T1 Alternanthera philoxeroides 0.32 R1 Typha spp. 0.14T1 Pistia stratiotes 0.24 R2 Salvinia minima 0.86T1 Scirpus cubensis 0.18 R2 Lemna minor 0.25T1 Salvinia minima 0.17 R2 Ludwigia peruviana 0.25T1 Scirpus validus 0.17 R3 Salvinia minima 0.67T1 Panicum repens 0.14 R3 Lemna minor 0.29T1 Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 0.10 R3 Typha spp. 0.16T1 Pontederia cordata 0.10 R3 Alternanthera philoxeroides 0.15 R3 Mikania scandens 0.13 R3 Ludwigia peruviana 0.11 R4 Salvinia minima 0.71 R4 Lemna minor 0.45 R4 Typha spp. 0.20 R4 Imperata cylindrica 0.18 R4 Ludwigia peruviana 0.10 R5 Lemna minor 0.69 R5 Salvinia minima 0.57 R5 Typha spp. 0.32 R5 Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 0.10 R6 Lemna minor 0.78 R6 Salvinia minima 0.58 R6 Typha spp. 0.28 R6 Alternanthera philoxeroides 0.10 R7 Lemna minor 0.70 R7Salvinia minima 0.57 R7 Typha spp. 0.26 R7 Scirpus validus 0.12 RushtonReference

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98 Table 23. Understory species in pair 3 (OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV) Table 24. Understory species in pair 4 (OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV) PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV H1 Salvinia minima 0.77H1R Salvinia minima 0.51 H1 Scirpus validus 0.45H1R Mikania scandens 0.37 H1 Ludwigia peruviana 0.35H1R Ludwigia peruviana 0.31 H1 Mikania scandens 0.21H1R Acer rubrum 0.25 H1 Acer rubrum 0.18H1R Aster carolinianus 0.19 H4 Salvinia minima 1.06H1R Scirpus cyperinus 0.12 H4 Acer rubrum 0.24H1R Salix caroliniana 0.12 H4 Aster carolinianus 0.16 H4 Ludwigia peruviana 0.16 H4 Mikania scandens 0.16 H4 Salix caroliniana 0.16 RushtonReference PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV R1A Aster carolinianus 0.51T1 Imperata cylindrica 0.53 R1A Ludwigia peruviana 0.49T1 Ludwigia peruviana 0.43 R1A Hydrocotyle umbellata 0.25T1 Acer rubrum 0.35 R1A Salvinia minima 0.12T1 Ampelopsis arborea 0.17 R1A Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.12T1 Hydrocotyle umbellata 0.17 R1A Mikania scandens 0.12T1 Rubus argutus 0.17 R1A Commelina diffusa 0.12 R1A Ampelopsis arborea 0.12 R1A Acer rubrum 0.12 RushtonReference

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99 Table 25. Understory species in pair 5 (OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV) Table 26. Understory species in pair 6 (PRP) ranked by Importance Value (IV) PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV R2A Ulmus americana 0.38T2 Salvinia minima 1.09 R2A Hydrocotyle umbellata 0.36T2 Ludwigia peruviana 0.26 R2A Ludwigia peruviana 0.31T2 Mikania scandens 0.25 R2A Acer rubrum 0.21T2 Acer rubrum 0.16 R2A Salvinia minima 0.16 R2A Cephalanthus occidentalis 0.16 R2A Aster carolinianus 0.11 R2B Salvinia minima 0.54 R2B Ludwigia peruviana 0.36 R2B Imperata cylindrica 0.28 R2B Acer rubrum 0.18 R2B Aster carolinianus 0.18 RushtonReference PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV H1 Salvinia minima 0.75H1R Salvinia minima 0.80 H1 Lemna minor 0.73H1R Lemna minor 0.73 H1 Typha spp. 0.35H1R Salix caroliniana 0.16 H1 Mikania scandens 0.11H1R Typha spp. 0.15 H5 Salvinia minima 0.94 H5 Lemna minor 0.49 H5 Typha spp. 0.42 H5 Spirodela polyrhiza 0.16 RushtonReference

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100 Table 27. Understory species in pair 7 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) Table 28. Understory species in pair 8 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) Table 29. Understory species in pair 9 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV H2 Lemna minor 1.21H2R Lemna minor 1.46 H2 Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.39H2R Pistia stratiotes 0.41 H2 Salix caroliniana 0.29H2R Salix caroliniana 0.14 H2 Cyperus virens 0.11 RushtonReference PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV H5 Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.37H5R Mikania scandens 0.38 H5 Schinus terebinthifolius 0.31H5R Eupatorium serotinum 0.31 H5 Eupatorium capillifolium 0.30H5R Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.26 H5 Mikania scandens 0.30H5R Eupatorium capillifolium 0.23 H5 Eupatorium serotinum 0.17H5R Schinus terebinthifolius 0.22 H5 Ludwigia peruviana 0.17 H5 Salix caroliniana 0.10 RushtonReference PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV H6 Schinus terebinthifolius 0.57H6R Salix caroliniana 0.88 H6 Cyperus virens 0.37H6R Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.56 H6 Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.30H6R Cyperus virens 0.34 H6 Boehmeria cylindrica 0.26H6R Cirsium nuttallii 0.11 H6 Pluchea odorata 0.15H6R Eupatorium capillifolium 0.11 H6 Salix caroliniana 0.15 RushtonReference

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101 Table 30. Understory species in pair 10 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) PlotSpecies IV PlotSpecies IV R2A Ludwigia peruviana 0.60T1 Eupatorium serotinum 0.43 R2A Sapium sebiferum 0.23T1 Cyperus virens 0.35 R2A Eupatorium serotinum 0.19T1 Lemna minor 0.31 R2A Mikania scandens 0.19T1 Mikania scandens 0.17 R2A Schinus terebinthifolius 0.19T1 Polygonum hydropiperoides 0.14 R2A Lemna minor 0.16 R2A Salix caroliniana 0.16 R2A Clematis virginiana 0.10 R2A Cyperus virens 0.10 R2A Eupatorium capillifolium 0.10 R2B Lemna minor 0.82 R2B Schinus terebinthifolius 0.43 R2B Salix caroliniana 0.27 R2B Eupatorium serotinum 0.20 R2B Ludwigia peruviana 0.14 RushtonReference

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102 Table 31. Autecological characteristics of species prevalent in understory. Values (0 to 2) are relative to other species with the same growth habit (e.g. grass, shrub, tree) 0 = Rapid General Key 0 = Rapid0 = Short0 = Short0 = Intolerant0 = High0.67 = Moderate0 = Wind&Water 0 = early succession1 = Moderate1 = Moderate1 = Moderate1 = Intermediate1 = Medium1.33 = Slow1 = Wind/Water 2 = late succession2 = Slow2 = Long2 = Long2 = Tolerant2 = Low2 = None2 = Mechanical Only Species Growth Rate Time to Max Intrinsic Growth RateLifespanShade Tolerance Seed Abundance Vegetative Spread RateDispersal Strategies Acer rubrum0222020 Alternanthera philoxeroides0001201 Ampelopsis arborea0012202 Aster carolinianusa1111121 Boehmeria cylindrica1012221 Cephalanthus occidentalis1102122 Cirsium nuttallii0011121 Cladium jamaicense111011.331 Clematis virginiana212121.331 Commelina diffusa000210.671 Cyperus virens1000121 Eryngium baldwinii1011221 Eupatorium capillifolium001111.331 Eupatorium serotinum001111.331 Hydrocotyle ranunculoides0011101 Hydrocotyle umbellata0011101 Imperata cylindrica0011001 Lemna minor0000101 Limnobium spongia1000001 Ludwigia peruvianab011100.671 Mikania scandens0012022 Nephrolepis cordifoliac001200.672 Panicum repens0011102 Parthenocissus quinquefolia0011202 Pistia stratiotes0000101 Pluchea odorata1000121 Polygonum hydropiperoides0000022 Pontederia cordata1110121 Rubus argutus001000.672 Salix caroliniana012111.330 Salvinia minima0001101 Sambucus canadensis0111022 Sapium sebiferumd012201.332 Schinus terebinthifolius1110022 Scirpus cubensis1011121 Scirpus cyperinus1011121 Scirpus validus1011121 Spirodela polyrhiza0000101 Thelypteris hispidulaa101201.332 Typha spp.0011000 Ulmus americana022101.331 Urena lobatae0001022a b c d eFrancis, John K. 2003. Urena lobata. San Juan, Puerto Rico: USDA International Institute of Tropical Forestry. SFWMD. 2003. "Ground Covers and Grasses." WaterWise: South Florida Landscapes. Retrieved February 28, 2006 from http://www.sfwmd.gov/newsr/plant_guide/plant_guide.html Jacobs, SWL, F Perrett, GR Sainty, KH Bowmer, and BJ Jacobs. 1994. Ludwigia peruviana (Onagraceae) in the Botany Wetlands near Sydney, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45, no. 8: 1481 1490. Gillman, Edward. 1999. Nephrolepis exultata. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences FPS-427. McCormick, Cheryl M. 2005. Chinese Tallow Management Plan for Florida. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council.

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103 The code for the matrix population model was written for Python 2.3. Executing the code requires the Matplotlib and Numeric libraries The model consists of two files, CSATreeModel.py, which includes all the model code, and Elasticity.py., which is imported by CSATreeModel.py to calculate model elas ticity values. Both are pasted below. # CSATreeModel.py # Size Class Marix Population Model for Taxodium distichum on Two Clay Settling Areas # Written in Python 2.3 # Method and Model Output described in: # Ingwersen, Wesley. 2006. Viability of Wetland Trees After 20 Years on Phosphatic Clay Settling Areas and Their Role in Ecosystem Development. M.S. Thesis. Gainesville: University of Florida # # This is a modified version orginally created for the course FOR 6156 'Simulation Analysis of Forest Ecosystems', # Univ. of Florida, Spring 2005, taught by Dr. Wendell Cropper # # Modifications in this version include # uses .txt files of tree BA rather than DBH, so skips the BA conversion # changes the size classes puts a time delay of two years in before trees have BA, based on realistic average of the data # changes to the estimate of fecundity # fixed fecundity so first size class fecundity was not changing import math import random from matplotlib.matlab import from Elasticity import import Numeric import LinearAlgebra as LA #Imports tree data from three groups of trees planted trees, planted trees that died and resprouted, and offspring def data_in(): #This file is one column of Basal Areas(BAs) and one of the year during which BA became greater than 0 indata = open(file_names[0], 'r') data = indata.readlines() for t in data: lin = t.split() planted_BA.append(float(lin[0])) time_till_BA.append(float(lin[1])) indata.close() #Resprouted trees one column of (BAs) indata = open(file_names[1], 'r') data = indata.readlines() for t in data: lin = t.split() for i in range(len(lin)): try: resprouted_BA.append(float(lin[i])) except: x = missing indata.close() #Offspring one column of (BAs) indata = open(file_names[2], 'r') data = indata.readlines() for t in data: lin = t.split() for i in range(len(lin)): try: offspring_BA.append(float(lin[i])) except:

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104 x = missing indata.close() del(data) #Solves for growth rate,'a' variable, in the tree growth equation #Created so that the time,t is the years since it began having a basal area def solve_for_a(): for i in range(len(planted_BA)): t = 20-time_till_BA[i] #to get t= the time at which tree got a DBH BAt = planted_BA[i] den = b*math.log10(b+t) planted_a.append(BAt/(t-den)) #For resprouts. Create a random growth rate (a) using the mean and std of the planted tree growth rates def monte_carlo_for_a(trees,trees_a): mu = mean(planted_a) sigma = std(planted_a) for i in range(len(trees)): BAt = trees[i] thisa = abs(random.normalvariate(mu,sigma)) trees_a.append(thisa) #Solves for BA with a given growth rate, a def solve_for_BA(a,t): BA = a*t-b*math.log10(b+t) print a,b,BA return BA def deriv(x,t): dBAdt = (a*t)/(b+t) return(dBAdt) #This function generates tree size in BA for 0 to 20 years for planted,resprouted, #and offspring and puts each tree in a row of the growth_mat matrix. def simulate_growth(): global a for t in rplanted: a = planted_a[t] start_time = time_till_BA[t] growing_yrs = 21 time_till_BA[t] tim = arange(0, growing_yrs, 1) growth = rk4(deriv,0,tim) #Before tree has BA, give it zero for i in range(int(start_time)): growth_mat[t][i] = 0.0 #After tree has basal area, assign it calculated BA for j in range(len(growth)): col = int(start_time+j) growth_mat[t][col] = growth[j] #print growth_mat[t], planted_BA[t] del(t) a = min(planted_a) #Assume time starts at 2 years, when trees have BA start_time = 2 growing_yrs = 19 tim = arange(0,growing_yrs,1) calc_ba = list(rk4(deriv,0,tim)) #Add two yrs where it doesn't grow) calc_ba.insert(0,0) calc_ba.insert(0,0) #print 'calc_ba=',calc_ba #Loop for trees dead by year 3 for t in rdeady3: for i in range(0,3): growth_mat[t][i] = 0 #Don't allow any of the trees to emerge from class 0 #Half die after year 2, half after year 3 if(random.random()<0.5): growth_mat[t][2] = -1 #print t,'Dies at 2' del(t)

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105 for t in rdeady1: growth_mat[t][0] = 0 del(t) #Selects a random year for these trees to die for t in rdeadlater: ##Pick a random year between 3 and 20 death_year = int(ceil(random.random()*(20-3)+3)) #print death_year for i in range(death_year): growth_mat[t][i] = calc_ba[i] del(t) #Resprouted trees : generate growth with a normally distributed random growth rate for t in range(len(resprouted_BA)): #Grow tree until it reaches current size a = resprouted_a[t] tim = arange(0,growing_yrs,1) #max 21 years ba = list(rk4(deriv,0,tim)) #At time zero it doens't have a BA. But add another so after 1 yr it still doesnt have a basal area ba.insert(0,0.0) for i in range(len(ba)): if round(ba[i]) > round(resprouted_BA[t]): #print 'ba before',ba ba = ba[0:i] #print 'ba after', ba break #If basal area is still over 19, delete it and choose another #Now find a dead tree to resprout from sprout_space='false' tries=0 random.seed() while(sprout_space=='false' and tries<25): #Randomly choose the row# of a dead tree j = random.choice(rsprout) dead_tree = list(growth_mat[j]) #Make into list so index works try: death_yr = dead_tree.index(-1) dead_yrs = 21 death_yr #print 'len(ba)',len(ba),'\n len(dead_yrs)',dead_yrs,'\n' #If there is room, insert this resprouted tree into this row of the growth matrix if dead_yrs >= len(ba): sprout_year = (20-len(ba))+1 #print 'growth_mat before', growth_mat[j] growth_mat[j][sprout_year:21] = ba #Replace dead years until 20 with resprout for i in range(21): if growth_mat[j][i]==-1: growth_mat[j][i]=0 sprout_space = 'true' #print 'growth_mat_replaced,',growth_mat[j] else: del(resprout[j]) #del row so it's not selected again tries+=1 print 'into else loop, try',tries except: #print 'Already resprouted=',j,growth_mat[j] tries+=1 if tries==24: raise 'Exception', 'Space for resprouts not found' del(j) #Offspring : generate growth like with resprouted for t in range(len(offspring_BA)): #Grow tree until it reaches current size a = offspring_a[t] tim = arange(0,growing_yrs,1) #max 18 years ba = rk4(deriv,0,tim)

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106 ba = list(rk4(deriv,0,tim)) #First 2 yrs it doesnt have a BA, but at the end of the 3rd it might ba.insert(0,0.0) ba.insert(0,0.0) for i in range(len(ba)): if round(ba[i]) > round(offspring_BA[t]): ba = ba[0:i-1] #print 'offspring ba',ba break #Now put offspring into the growth matrix birth_yr = 21-len(ba) row_num = roffspring[t] #growth_mat[row_num][0:birth_yr:-1] = 0 growth_mat[row_num][birth_yr:21] = ba #print 'offspring row :',growth_mat[row_num] #This function classifies a Basal Area(ba) in its appropriate size class def classify(ba): if ba==sc.get('0'): return 0 if ba>=sc.get('0') and ba=sc.get('1') and ba=sc.get('2') and ba=sc.get('3') and ba=sc.get('4') and ba=sc.get('5') and ba=sc.get('6'): return 7 if ba==sc.get('D'): return 8 #This creates creates size classification matrix from the growth_mat def categorize(): for t in range(trees_planted): t_classes = map(classify,growth_mat[t]) for i in range(len(t_classes)): class_mat[t][i] = t_classes[i] #This function fills the 'State-fate' matrix, state_fate_mat, by determining how many trees stay #in the same size class, move to a another, or die in a given year def tally(): for t in range(trees_planted): for y in range(1,20): current = class_mat[t][y] previous = class_mat[t][y-1] #print 'c=',current,'p=',previous if current==previous: #Don't count dead to dead if current==8: break else: row,col = current,current state_fate_mat[row][col]+=1 else: row,col = current,previous state_fate_mat[row][col]+=1 #Counts all the trees capable of reproducing, which includes all size classes but the first def sum_mature_trees(y): mature_trees=0 for t in range(trees_planted): if 0
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107 return mature_trees #This creates the transition mat, trans_mat, from state_fate_mat, by finding the probabilities #of remaining in a class or moving to another class. #It also adds in probability of successful reproduction for mature classes def fill_trans_mat(): colsums = sum(state_fate_mat) b=1 for j in range(no_classes): for i in range(no_classes): if colsums[i]==0: #Set survival to 1 for now if there are no trees there if i==j: trans_mat[j][i] = 1 else: trans_mat[j][i] = float(state_fate_mat[j][i])/float(colsums[i]) print 'Transition matrix before adding fecundity',trans_mat #Add in fecundity by assuming that each successive size class has 1.5 times the probability of reproductive success print 'trans_mat before fecundity]',trans_mat[0] for j in range(no_classes-1): trans_mat[0][j+1]+= b*x b*=1.5 print trans_mat[0] #This function subtracts the probability of death from the probability of stasis in the transition matrix def subtract_estimated_mortality(trans_mat, start_ind, mort_list): A2 = trans_mat[:] for i in range(len(mort_list)): #print 'before', A2[start_ind+i][start_ind+i] A2[start_ind+i][start_ind+i] = trans_mat[start_ind+i][start_ind+i]-mort_list[i] #print 'after',A2[start_ind+i][start_ind+i] return A2 def fill_size_dist(size_dist_mat,largest_class): for t in range(len(living_BA)): cl = classify(living_BA[t]) if (0<=cl<=largest_class): size_dist_mat[cl]+=1 def run(years,A,size_d,pop_size): popvec = size_d[:] for t in range(years): Tot = sum(popvec) time.append(float(t)) pop_size.append(Tot) popvec = matrixmultiply(A,popvec) print "Year",t,popvec def calc_lamba(mat): e = eig(mat) #print e return max(abs(e [0])) # largest eigenvalue #End of function definitions ######################################################################################### ##### #Program starts if __name__ == '__main__': #Enter site configuration data site_name= 'CFI SP-1' file_names = ['CFplanted.txt','CFresprouted.txt','CFoffspring.txt'] trees_planted = 183 surviving_y1 = 123 surviving_y3 = 93 #OH Wright Basin with H1,H4, R2A,R2B

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108 ## site_name='OH Wright' ## file_names = ['ohplanted.txt','ohresprouted.txt','ohoffspring.txt'] ## trees_planted = 18+18+31+31 ## surviving_y1 = 17+18+18+24 #Assume site average of 90% for H1 and H4 = ## surviving_y3 = 15+16+15+24 #Just have to estimate for H1 and H4 time_till_BA = [] planted_BA = [] resprouted_BA = [] offspring_BA = [] data_in() b = 6.000 #Half of the time it takes until a max growth rate is reached #This b gives good approximations of BA when A is calculated #Calculated by setting BA planted_a = [] resprouted_a = [] offspring_a = [] solve_for_a() #Solve integral for a monte_carlo_for_a(resprouted_BA,resprouted_a) monte_carlo_for_a(offspring_BA,offspring_a) #create blank matrix for growth num_trees = trees_planted + len(offspring_BA) print 'tot_num_trees used in model=',num_trees #The growth mat needs to be big enough for all the trees for 0 to 20 years growth_mat = array([[-1.0]*21]*num_trees) #Define growth rate #a = 0.0 #Assume trees that die after 1 year don't advance out of class 0 #Assume that trees that die later have min growth rate min_growth_rate = min(planted_a) #Determine the indicies of the tree groups for iterating through growth_mat rplanted = range(0,len(planted_BA)-1) rdeady1 = range(max(rplanted)+1,max(rplanted)+1+trees_planted-surviving_y1) rdeady3 = range(max(rdeady1)+1,max(rdeady1)+1+surviving_y1-surviving_y3) rdeadlater = range(max(rdeady3)+1,trees_planted) roffspring = range(trees_planted,num_trees) #Resprouts may occur in any dead spot rsprout = range(rdeady1[0],trees_planted) #print rplanted,rdeady1,rdeady3,rdeadlater,rsprout simulate_growth() #Create a dictionary of max BA values for each size class bin sc = dict({'0':0,'1':19.7,'2':78.6,'3':176.8,'4':314.3,'5':707.0,'6':1256.6,'D':-1}) no_classes = 8 #7 classes put a dead one class_mat = array([[no_classes]*21]*num_trees) categorize() #print 'Class-mat',class_mat[0:20] state_fate_mat = array([[0]*(len(sc)+1)]*(len(sc)+1)) tally() #print 'State-fate table',state_fate_mat #Fecundity num_seedlings = offspring_BA.count(0) # of Mature trees that could have produced seed one year ago that led to current # of seedlings mature_trees = float(sum_mature_trees(19)) #Use year 19 because they are possible parents total_fecundity = num_seedlings/mature_trees #Assume each size class produces 1.5 as many seedlings as the class below it #x = fecundity of smallest mature class(1)

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109 #class 1 = x #class 2 = 1.5x #class 3 = class2+1.5*x div=1 for i in range(no_classes-1): div+=1.5*i #print 'div',div x = total_fecundity/div #print 'x=',x #Make transition matrix trans_mat = array([[0.0]*len(sc)]*len(sc)) trans_mat_w_mortal = array([[0.0]*(len(sc)+1)]*(len(sc))) fill_trans_mat() #fill_trans_mat_w_mortal() #print 'Transition matrix',trans_mat #Estimate mortalities for the largest size classes because we don't have good data on death of those size trees #Mortalities for classes 0,1,2 =0.15839695, 0.04427083, 0.0694864 #Estimate mortalites for classes 3-7 based on fractions of class 2, so each class is 2/3 as likely to die start_ind = 3 mort_list = list([(2.0/3)*.069,(4.0/9)*.069,(8.0/27)*.069,(16.0/81)*.069,(2.0/3)*(16.0/81)*.069]) A2 = subtract_estimated_mortality(trans_mat,start_ind,mort_list) #print 'A2',A2 Transition_matrix = A2[:] for j in range(no_classes): for i in range(no_classes): Transition_matrix[i][j]=round(A2[i][j],3) #print Transition_matrix #Find lamba value Lamba = calc_lamba(A2) print 'Lamba A2=',Lamba living_BA = planted_BA + resprouted_BA + offspring_BA size_dist2 = [0]*no_classes fill_size_dist(size_dist2,no_classes) #Run approach 2 time = [] popsize2 = [] #Years to run model yrs = 50 run(yrs,A2,size_dist2,popsize2) #Plot results figure(1) plot(time,popsize2) xlabel('Years from the Present') ylabel('Number of Trees') font = {'family' : 'Times New Roman'} dim = (0,50,0,300) axis(dim) titl = site_name+' Taxodium dist. Population' title(titl) #Must show() from command line #Elasticity #Change A and dimensions of matrix to run for approach 2 A = A2 #ms = 5 #dimension (size) of matrix ms = no_classes #Approach 2 B = Numeric.transpose(A) Aev = LA.eigenvectors(A) Bev = LA.eigenvectors(B)

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110 A_righteigen = ev_of_dom_ei(Aev) print "Right_eigen", A_righteigen A_lefteigen = ev_of_dom_ei(Bev) ESmat= Numeric.zeros((ms,ms), Numeric.Float32) x = elastic(A_lefteigen, A_righteigen, A, ESmat) #Graph it sum2 = 0.0 yS = [] yG = [] yF = [] yR = [] for i in range(len(x)): # separate values by growth, stasis, etc. for j in range(len(x)): sum2 = sum2 + x[i][j] if A[i][j] > 0.0: if i == j: yS.append(x[i][j]) #stasis elif i > j and i > 0.0: yG.append(x[i][j]) #growth elif i < j and i > 0.0: yF.append(x[i][j]) #fragmentation elif i==0 and j > 2: yR.append(x[i][j]) else: pass Slen = len(yS) Glen = len(yG) Flen = len(yF) Rlen = len(yR) figure(2) S = bar(arange(Slen),yS) G = bar(arange(Slen,Slen+Glen),yG, color='r') F = bar(arange(Slen+Glen, Slen+Glen+Flen), yF, color='y') R = bar(arange(Slen+Glen+Flen, Slen+Glen+Flen+Rlen), yR, color='g') ylim(0,0.55) title('Model Elasticity Values') legend((S[0],G[0],R[0]),('Stasis','Growth','Fecundity')) ###########END OF CSATreeModel.py########################################################

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111 #Elasticity.py #Elasticity analysis for a matrix population model #Authors: Wendell P. Cropper, Wes Ingwersen #Returns the left and right eigenvectors of the dominant eigenvalue of a Leslie matrix import Numeric import LinearAlgebra as LA print 'Imported elasticity.py' #The next goal is to find the dominant eigenvalue, find it's associated eigenvector, # and transform that vector by dividing through by the greatest value def E_scaler(Lv, Rv): #left and right eigenvectors n = len(Lv) sumES = 0.0 for i in range(n): sumES = sumES + Lv[i] Rv[i] return sumES #scalar product of eigenvectors def elastic(Lv, Rv, A, ESmat): #left, right eigenvectors and A matrix N = len(A) WV = E_scaler(Lv, Rv) maxE = 0.0 evals = LA.eigenvalues(A) for ev in evals: if abs(ev) > maxE: maxE = abs(ev) for row in range(N): for col in range(N): a1 = A[row][col]/maxE a2 = Lv[row]*Rv[col]/WV ESmat[row][col] = a1 a2 return ESmat def vector_max(vector): #Finds the maximum value and it's index in a vector ind = 0 max = abs(vector[0]) for x in range(len(vector)): #print vector[x] if abs(vector[x]) > max: ind = x max = abs(vector[x]) return ind, max

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112 def dividethrough_vector(vector,dom_ind): #Divides through a vector by the greatest value list_from_vector = [] for x in range(len(vector)): vector[x] = vector[x]/vector[dom_ind] list_from_vector.append(abs(vector[x])) return list_from_vector def ev_of_dom_ei(array): #Returns transformed eigenvector of dominant eigenvalues EI = array[0] domEI_ind,domEI = vector_max(EI) #print 'domEI_ind ',domEI_ind,'domEI ',domEI EV = array[1][domEI_ind] domEV_ind,domEV_val = vector_max(EV) return dividethrough_vector(EV,domEV_ind) if __name__ == '__main__': #Get right eigenvector A_righteigen = ev_of_dom_ei(Aev) print ' print 'Right Eigenvector of matrix A ',A_righteigen print ' #Repeat for transpose of A to get left eigenvector: A_lefteigen = ev_of_dom_ei(Bev) print 'Left Eigenvector of matrix B ',A_lefteigen print ' print ' ES = E_scaler(A_lefteigen, A_righteigen) Eval = LA.eigenvalues(A) print Eigenvalues = ', Eval print ' print ' x = elastic(A_lefteigen, A_righteigen, A) print x print ' print ' sum2 = 0.0 yS = [] yG = [] yF = [] yR = [] for i in range(len(x)): # separate values by growth, stasis, etc. for j in range(len(x)): sum2 = sum2 + x[i][j] if A[i][j] > 0.0: if i == j: yS.append(x[i][j]) #stasis elif i > j and i > 0.0: yG.append(x[i][j]) #growth

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113 elif i < j and i > 0.0: yF.append(x[i][j]) #fragmentation elif i==0 and j > 2: yR.append(x[i][j]) else: pass print sum of elasticity values = ', sum2 print ' print ' from matplotlib.matlab import Slen = len(yS) Glen = len(yG) Flen = len(yF) Rlen = len(yR) figure(1) S = bar(arange(Slen),yS) G = bar(arange(Slen,Slen+Glen),yG, color='r') F = bar(arange(Slen+Glen, Slen+Glen+Flen), yF, color='y') R = bar(arange(Slen+Glen+Flen, Slen+Glen+Flen+Rlen), yR, color='g') title('Elasticity Values') legend((S[0],G[0],F[0], R[0]),('Stasis','Growth','Fragmentation', 'Fecundity')) figure(2) x = fliplr(x) x = rot90(x) x = rot90(x) pcolor(x, cmap=cm.jet) show()

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114 LIST OF REFERENCES Anand, M., and R. Desrochers. 2004. Quantifi cation of restoration success using complex systems concepts and models. Restoration Ecology 12: 117-123. Beatty, S.W. 1984. Influence of microtopography an d canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants. Ecology 65: 1406-1419. Brown, M.T., and R. E. Tighe. 1991. Development of Techniques and Guidelines for Reclamation of Phosphate Mined Lands. Bartow, FL: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Brown, S. 1981. A comparison of structure, primary productivity, and transpiration of cypress ecosystems in Florida. Ecological Monographs 51: 403-427. Carstenn, S. 2000. Self-organization and Successi onal Ttrajectories of Constructed Forested Wetlands. Dissertation, University of Florida. Caswell, H. 2001. Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis, and Interpretation. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Cates, B. 2001. Guidance in the Reclamation of Forested and Herbaceous Wetlands on Phosphatic Clay Settling Areas. Tallahassee, FL: FDEP Bureau of Mine Reclamation. Clements, F.E. 1916. Plant Succession. Washington, DC: Carnegie Insitute of Washington. Clewell, A. 1999. Restoration of riverine fo rest at Halls Branch on phosphate-mined land, Florida. Restoration Ecology 7: 1-14. Connell, J.H., and R.O. Slayter. 1977. Mechan isms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist 111: 1119-1144. Egler, F.E. 1954. Vegetation concepts I. Initial floristic competition. A factor in old field vegetation development. Vegetatio 4: 412-417. Everett, S. 1991. Growth of bald cypress and pond cypress seedlings and the effect of nutrient tables. In Evaluation of Alternatives for Restoration of Soil and Vegetation on Phosphate Clay Settling Ponds, ed. H.T. Odum: 25-42. Bartow, FL : Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Faith, D. P., P. R. Minchin, and L. Belbin. 1 987. Compositional dissimilarity as a robust measure of ecological distance. Vegetatio 69: 57-68.

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115 Faulkner, P., W. Patrick, R. Gambre ll, W. Parker, and B. Good. 1991. Characterization of Soil Processes in Bottomland Hardwood Wetland-N onwetland Transition Zones in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. Washington, D.C.: USDA Forest Service. Graetz, D.A., and K.R. Reddy. 1997. Soils. In Evaluation of Constructed Wetlands on Phophate Mined Lands, 2:103-139. Bartow: Florida Insitute of Phosphate Research. Gurevitch, J., S. M. Scheiner, and G.A. Fox. 2002. The Ecology of Plants. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Hobbs, R. J., S. Arico, J. Aronson, J. S. Baron, P. Bridgewater, V. A. Cramer, P. R. Epstein, J. J. Ewel, C. A. Klink, A. E. Lugo, D. Norton, D. Ojima, D. M. Richardson, E. W. Sanderson, F. Valladares, M. Vila, R. Zamora, and M. Z obel. 2006. Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology And Biogeography 15: 1-7. Hupp, C.R., and D.E. Bazemore. 1993. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland sedimentation, West Tennessee. Journal of Hydrology 141: 179-196. Lytle, D.A., and D.M. Merritt. 2004. Hydrologic regime and riparian forests: a structured population model for cottonwood. Ecology 85: 2493-2503. Manabe, T., N. Nishimura, M. Miura, and S. Yamamoto. 2000. Population structure and spatial patterns for trees in a temperate old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest in Japan. Plant Ecology 151: 181-197. McCune, B., and J. B. Grace. 2002. Analysis of Ecological Communities. Gleneden Beach, OR: MjM Software Design. McLanahan, T.R. 1986. The effect of seed s ource on primary succession in a forest ecosystem. Vegetatio 65: 175-178. Megongial, J. P., and F.P. Day. 1988. Organic matte r dynamics in four seasonally flooded forest communities of the dismal swamp. American Journal of Botany 75: 1334-1343. Miller, M. 1983. Cypress tree rings for wetland assay. In Interactions of Wetlands with the Phosphate Industry, ed. H.T. Odum and G.R. Best: 11-38. Bartow, FL: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Mitsch, W.J., and J. G. Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands. New York, NY: Van Norstrand Reinhold. Myers, R.L., and J.J. Ewel. 1990. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando: University of Central Florida Press. Odum, H.T. 1971. Environment, Power, and Society. New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons.

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116 Odum, H.T. 1989. Ecological engineering and self-organization. In Ecological Engineering, ed. W.J. Mitsch and S.E. Jorgensen: 79-102. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. Odum, H.T., M. Miller, B. Rushton, T. McClanahan, and G. R. Best. 1983. Interaction of Wetlands with the Phosphate Industry. Bartow, FL: Florida Insitute of Phosphate Research. Paulic, M. 1991. Factors influencing the esta blishment of hardwood swamps on clay settling ponds. In Evaluation of Alternatives for Restoration of Soil and Vegetation on Phosphate Clay Settling Ponds, ed. H.T. Odum:3-24. Bartow, FL : Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Paulic, M., and B. Rushton. 1991a. Longterm su ccess of planted wetland trees in clay settling ponds. In Evaluation of Alternatives for Restoration of Soil and Vegetation on Phosphate Clay Settling Ponds, ed. H.T. Odum: 75-126. Bartow, FL : Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Paulic, M., and B. Rushton. 1991b. Success of seedlings planted under a mature canopy. In Evaluation of Alternatives for Restorati on of Soil and Vegetation on Phosphate Clay Settling Ponds, ed. H.T. Odum: 43-74. Bartow, FL: Flor ida Insitute of Phosphate Research. Pausas, J.G., R.A. Bradstock, D.A. Keith, and J.E. Keeley. 2004. Plant functional traits in relation to fire in crown-fire ecosystems. Ecology 85: 1085-1110. Reddy, K.R., E. Lowe, and T. Fontaine. 1999. Phosphorus in Florida's ecosystems: analysis of current issues. In Phosphorus Biogeochemistry in Subtr opical Ecosystems: Florida as a Case Example, ed. K.R. Reddy, G.A. O'Connor and C.L. Schelske: 10-31. Tallahassee, FL: CRC/Lewis. Richardson, S. 2005. Reclamation of Phosphate Lands in Florida. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. http://www.fipr.state.fl.us/research-area-reclamation.htm Accessed February 2006. Ricklefs, R.E. 1990. Ecology. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman. Rhoades, C.C., G.E. Eckert, and D.C. Coleman. 1998. Effect of pasture trees on soil nitrogen and organic matter: implications for tropical montane forest restoration. Restoration Ecology 6: 262-270. Rushton, B. 1983. Ecosystem organizati on in phosphate clay settlings ponds. In Interactions of Wetlands with the Phosphate Industry, ed. H.T. Odum and G.R. Best: 69-148. Bartow, FL: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Rushton, B. 1988. Wetland Reclamation By Accel erating Succession. Dissertation, University of Florida. Schneider, R. L., and R. R. Sharitz. 1986. Seed ba nk dynamics in a southeastern riverine swamp. American Journal Of Botany 73: 1022-1030.

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117 Tobe, J.D., K.C. Burks, R.W. Cantrell, M.A. Ga rland, M.E. Sweeley, D.W. Hall, P. Wallace, G. Anglin, G. Nelson, J.R. Cooper, D. Bickner, K. Gilbert, N. Aymond, K. Greenwood, and N. Raymond. 1998. Florida Wetlands Plants: An Identification Manual. Tallahassee, FL: Florida DEP. USDA. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, LA: National Plants Data Center. Wilhite, L. P., and J. R. Toliver. 1990. Taxodi um distichum (l.) Rich baldcypress. In Silvics of North America, ed. R.M.Burns and B.H. Honkala: 563-572. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. Zuidema, P.A., and R.J. Zagt. 2000. Using popula tion matrices for long-lived species: a review of published models for 35 woody plants. In Demography of Exploited Tree Species in the Bolivian Amazon, ed. P.A. Zuidema. Rio de Janeiro: PROM

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118 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Wesley Ingwersen was born in 1977 in Atlant a, Georgia, where he grew up and completed high school. He received a B.A. degree from Ge orgetown University in Washington, DC, in 1999.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014272/00001

Material Information

Title: Viability of wetland trees After twenty years on phosphatic clay settling areas and their role in ecosystem development
Physical Description: ix, 118 p.
Language: English
Creator: Ingwersen, Wesley W. ( Dissertant )
Brown, Mark T. ( Thesis advisor )
Montague, Clay ( Reviewer )
Cropper, Wendell ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Environmental Engineering Sciences thesis, M.S   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Environmental Engineering Sciences   ( local )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida
Coordinates: 27.75 x -81.8

Notes

Abstract: Clay settling areas (CSAs) are constructed on about 2,000 acres of land every year to contain waste clays following phosphate mining. The reclamation of CSAs to foster wetland ecosystems has been proposed for these areas but not yet demonstrated as a viable alternative, due to the lack of natural colonization of species typical of mature wetlands. Clay settling areas planted with wetland trees in an early test of forested wetland viability were revisited after twenty years. Survival and growth of species typical of riverine swamps demonstrated the suitability of planted trees in seasonally wet areas, but the general lack of recruitment does not assure long-term sustainability of the populations. After twenty years planted trees provide additional canopy structure but they are less influential in the development of soil and understory ecosystem components than site-specific exogenous factors. Engineering of CSAs to promote hydrology typical of natural wetlands and supplementing tree planting with understory species are likely to lead to more persistent and diverse wetland communities.
Subject: area, clay, construction, development, ecological, ecosystem, engineering, florida, forested, growth, long, matrix, mining, model, monitoring, NMDS, phosphate, planting, population, Python, restoration, settling, survival, swamp, Taxodium, term, tree, wetland
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 127 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2006.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014272:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014272/00001

Material Information

Title: Viability of wetland trees After twenty years on phosphatic clay settling areas and their role in ecosystem development
Physical Description: ix, 118 p.
Language: English
Creator: Ingwersen, Wesley W. ( Dissertant )
Brown, Mark T. ( Thesis advisor )
Montague, Clay ( Reviewer )
Cropper, Wendell ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Environmental Engineering Sciences thesis, M.S   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Environmental Engineering Sciences   ( local )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida
Coordinates: 27.75 x -81.8

Notes

Abstract: Clay settling areas (CSAs) are constructed on about 2,000 acres of land every year to contain waste clays following phosphate mining. The reclamation of CSAs to foster wetland ecosystems has been proposed for these areas but not yet demonstrated as a viable alternative, due to the lack of natural colonization of species typical of mature wetlands. Clay settling areas planted with wetland trees in an early test of forested wetland viability were revisited after twenty years. Survival and growth of species typical of riverine swamps demonstrated the suitability of planted trees in seasonally wet areas, but the general lack of recruitment does not assure long-term sustainability of the populations. After twenty years planted trees provide additional canopy structure but they are less influential in the development of soil and understory ecosystem components than site-specific exogenous factors. Engineering of CSAs to promote hydrology typical of natural wetlands and supplementing tree planting with understory species are likely to lead to more persistent and diverse wetland communities.
Subject: area, clay, construction, development, ecological, ecosystem, engineering, florida, forested, growth, long, matrix, mining, model, monitoring, NMDS, phosphate, planting, population, Python, restoration, settling, survival, swamp, Taxodium, term, tree, wetland
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 127 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2006.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014272:00001


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VIABILITY OF WETLAND TREES AFTER TWENTY YEARS ON PHOSPHATIC CLAY
SETTLING AREAS AND THEIR ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

















By

WESLEY W. INGWERSEN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank and acknowledge the following persons and institutions: my advisor,

Dr. Mark Brown, who made possible my involvement in the project, provided me a rich

theoretical background from which to draw questions for research, and guided me through each

successive stage of this thesis; the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR) for its generous

support of the Wetlands on Clay project; Daniel McLaughlin for his help in site exploration and

every aspect of organizing and carrying out the field work and data input necessary for this thesis;

Sean King and Tyler Hollingsworth for their hard work in the field and lab during the summer of

2005; Betty Rushton, whose planting trials on clay settling areas and dissertation made possible

this investigation; my committee members, Dr. Clay Montague and Dr. Wendell Cropper, for

their advice and support; CF-Industries, the Mosaic Company, the Teneroc State Reserve, and the

Homeland Office of the Florida DEP for permission to repeatedly access the clay settling areas

used in this study; and my family and close friends who encouraged me to pursue my interest and

supported me as I did.






















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Dage


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................. ................. ........ ......... ........ ......... ii


LIST OF TABLES ................. ................. ........ ......... ........ ......... ...._ v


LIST OF FIGURES ................. ...................... .................. ...................vii


ABSTRACT ................. ................. ........ ......... ........ ......... ........ .. ix


INTRODUCTION ............... .................... 1


Statement of the Problem ................. .......... .................. ....................... 1

Background ................ .................... 2
Clay Settling Areas................ ................. 2
Wetlands on Clay Settling Areas ............... .................... 2
Planting of Wetland Species on Clay ................. .............. ......... ........ ...... 4
Recruitment ........._.._......._._.....__ ...._._........__ ......_._........... 5

Ecosystem Development ........_._.......... __ ........._._.....__ ...._._........ 6
Plan of Study ........._.._.......__ ...._. .....__ ....__ ...._._ ........._..... 7


METHODOLOGY ............... .................... 9


Site and Plot Selection ............... .................... 9
Field Data Collection ................ ................... 11

Topography ............... .................... 11
Hydrology ............... .................... 11
Planted Trees ................. ............. ......... ........ ......... ........ ...... 12
Other Tree Species ................ ................... 12
Recruited Trees ............... ... ... .... .. ..... ... ........... 12
Additional Measures of Ecosystem Development: Shrub and Understory Layers:
Soils: Canopy Photos ............... .................... 12
Site H stories ................ ................... 13
Data Analysis ................... ..... .............. 13
Topography and Water Levels ................ ................... 13
Tree and Plot Basal Area................ ................. 14
Tree Growth Comparisons ................ ................... 15
Population Size Class Distributions ................ ................... 15
Canopy Photos ............... .................... 16
Understory Vegetation ...................... ... .. ......... 16
Ordination of Plots by Prevalent Understory Species .................. ......................... 18
Correlation Matrices of Ecosystem Development Variables ................. ............... .... 18
Tree Population Model................ ................. 18












RESULTS ................ .................... 29


Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors ............... ................ .... 29
Tree Survival by Site and Species .......__ ............_ ......._._ ....._ .......... 29
Hydrology ............... ..... .. .. .................. 30
Initial Tree Growth and 20-year Tree Survival ................. ............. ......... ....... 34
Site Disturbance and Tree Survival ................. .............. ......... ........ ...... 34
Recruited Trees ............... .................... 35
New Seedling Survival ..................... ............................ ............. ....... 36
Tree Population Size Class Distributions ......... ........ ................. ................ 36
Tree Population M odel............... ............ ................ 37
Ecosystem Development in Rushton and Reference Plots. ................. ............... ...._... 38
Topographic Comparison of Rushton and Reference Plots ................. ........_..._. ...... 39
Plot Basal Area in Rushton and Reference Plots ............... ................... 39
Percent Canopy Cover ................. ....................__ ...._._................. 39
Soil Organic Matter................ ................. 40
Understory Vegetation ............... .................... 40


DI SCU SSION ................. ................ ........ ......... ........ ......... ........ .. 74


Sum m ary .................... ..... ... ........ ...........74
Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors ............... ................ .... 75
Tree Survival By Site and Species ................ ....................75
Tree Survival and Hydrology ............................... .......... .... ......... ................ 76
Tree Growth Comparison Between Sand-Clay and Clay Sites ................. ................. 78
Recruited Trees ............... .....................79
Tree Population Model................ ..................... 80
Characteristics of Successful Species on CSAs ..................................... 81
Ecosystem Development in Rushton and Reference Plots. ................. ............... ...._... 83
Structural Differences ............... .................... 85
Soil Organic Matter................ ................. 85
Understory Vegetation ............... .... .. .. ................... 86
Relationships Among Measures of Ecosystem Development................... ................ .. 88


APPENDIX


SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURES, TABLES, AND CODE ................ .................... 90


LIST OF REFERENCES .................. ................... .................. ................ 114


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. .................... 118





















Table page

1. Site summary table................ ................. 20

2. Species list for cypress-gum plots................ ................. 22

3. Species list for "wet" and "transitional" hydric swamp plots ................ .................... 23

4. Size class key used in tree size class distributions ................. .................. .............. 28

5. Tree survival from initial planting in 25 sampled cypress-gum plots ................. ................ .. 43

6. Tree survival from initial planting in 12 sampled hydric swamp plots................ .................. 43

7. Comparison of trees growing in different soil media by species ................ .................... 55

8. Results of a two-way ANOVA comparing the effect of two soil types (clay and sand-clay)
and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Fraximes pennsylvanica growth. ................... 55

9. Results of a two-way ANOVA comparing the effect of two soil types (clay and sand-clay)
and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Taxodium distichum growth. ......................... 55

10. Site disturbance record................ ................. 56

11i. Plots with potential offspring of planted trees ordered by reproductive ratio ................... ...... 57

12. Rushton plots/subplots ranked by planted tree basal area ............... ................ .... 66

13. Topography and water level comparison of Rushton and reference plots .................. ............ 67

14. Plot-scale basal area comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots ................... 67

15. Percent canopy cover comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots ................. 69

16. Soil percent organic matter comparison in Rushton and reference plots. ................... ............ 70

17. Soil percent organic matter summarized by site and plot type. .............. ..................... 70

18. Average percent understory cover comparison between Rushton and reference plots........... 71

19. Species richness and evenness comparison in Rushton and reference plots ................... ........ 71

20. Correlation matrices for ecosystem development variables by site ................ .....................73


LIST OF TABLES











21. Understory species in pair 1 (CFI) ranked by Importance Value (IV)................ .................. 96

22. Understory species in pair 2 (HOM) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ............... ................. 97

23. Understory species in pair 3 (OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ................................ 98

24. Understory species in pair 4 (OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ................................ 98

25. Understory species in pair 5 (OHW) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ................................ 99

26. Understory species in pair 6 (PRP) ranked by Importance Value (IV).................. ................ 99

27. Understory species in pair 7 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ................ ............... 100

28. Understory species in pair 8 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ................ ............... 100

29. Understory species in pair 9 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) ................ ............... 100

30. Understory species in pair 10 (TEN) ranked by Importance Value (IV) .............................. 101

31. Autecological characteristics of species prevalent in understory ............... .................... 102





















Figure page

1. Study site locations.. .............. ..................... 21

2. Cypress-gum plot layout ................. ................. ......... ......... ........ ........22

3. Hydric swamp plot layout .................. ....___......_ ....___......_ .............. 23

4. Elevation diagram for a cypress-gum plot ................. .............. ......... ........ ...... 24

5. Elevation diagram for a hydric swamp plot ................. ................. ........ ......... .. 25

6. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy photo sampling scheme for cypress-gum plots. .............. 26

7. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy photo sampling scheme for hydric swamp plots ............. 27

8. The format for the transition, A, matrix for a matrix population model ............... .................. 28

9. Percentage of planted trees surviving in cypress-gum plots ................ ............... ..... 44

10. Percentage of planted trees surviving in hydric-swamp plots................ ................. 45

11. Percentage of plot inundated for all sampled months on cypress-gum plots. ......................... 46

12. Percentage of plot inundated for all sampled months on hydric swamp plots. ....................... 47

13. Distribution of average water depth at planted and surviving tree locations in cypress-gum
plots ................ .................... 48

14. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees alive in 2005, in 0.1m
depth classes on CFI (sand-clay) on plots R1-R6 ......____ ... .... ..__ .. ......__......... 49

15. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1Im
depth classes on OHW (clay) plots R2A and R2B. ................. .............. ......... ..... 50

16. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1Im
depth classes on TEN (clay) plots R5A, R5B, R6A, R6B, R7A, and R7B. ........................ 51

17. Distribution of average water depth at planted and surviving tree locations in hydric
swamp plots ................. ................. ......... ........ ......... ........ ...._ 52

18 Percentage of planted trees surviving in cypress-gum plots by soil type after approximately
1 (Rushton 1988), 3 (Rushton and Paulic 2001), and 20 years. ................ .............. ...... 53


LIST OF FIGURES











19. Distribution of average water depth at surviving tree locations in cypress-gum plots
grouped by soil type. ................. .......... ........ ......... ........ ............... 54

20. Size class distributions of Taxodium distichum seedlings at Ten H3 counted in June and
November, 2005 .......... ................ ............... .................. .............. 58

21. Size class distribution of Taxodium distichum in 6 basins on five CSAs ............................... 59

22. Size class distributions ofNyssa aquatica in five basins on four CSAs................ ..... ..........._ 60

23. Size class distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica in five basins on four CSAs. .................. .. 6 1

24. Size class distribution of Fraxinus carobiniana in two basins on two CSAs .................. ........ 62

25. Transition matrix for CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum population model................ ................ 63

26. Model predicted population change of CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum ................ ..................63

27. Transition matrix for OH Wright Taxodium distichum population model.............................. 64

28. Model predicted population change of OH Wright Taxodium distichum ............................... 64

29. Model elasticity values showing sensitivity of different parameters ................ ................... 65

30. Subplot basal area and percent canopy cover at HOM. ............... .................. .. 69

31i. NMDS plot of understory species assemblages ................. .................. .............._72

32. Succession in a forested system ................. ................. .................. ........... 89

33. 2005 water depth in a well at CFI measured by continuous data logger ................................ 91

34. 2005 water depth in a well at TEN measured by continuous data logger. .................. ........... 92

35. Distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica basal area by average 2005 sampled water level
for clay, sand-clay, and sand cap sites. ...._.._.._ .... ... .___ ....._.._......_.._.......... 93

36. Distribution of Nyssa aquatica basal area by average 2005 sampled water level for clay,
sand-clay, and sand cap sites. ........................... ........94

37. Distribution of Taxodium distichum basal area by average 2005 sampled water level for
clay, sand-clay, and sand cap sites. .............. ..................... 94

















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

VIABILITY OF WETLAND TREES AFTER TWENTY YEARS ON PHOSPHATIC CLAY
SETTLING AREAS AND THEIR ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

By

Wesley Ingwersen

May 2006

Chair: Mark T. Brown
Major Department: Environmental Engineering Sciences

Clay settling areas (CSAs) are constructed on about 2,000 acres of land every year to

contain waste clays following phosphate mining. The reclamation of CSAs to foster wetland

ecosystems has been proposed for these areas but not yet demonstrated as a viable alternative, due

to the lack of natural colonization of species typical of mature wetlands. Clay settling areas

planted with wetland trees in an early test of forested wetland viability were revisited after twenty

years. Survival and growth of species typical of riverine swamps demonstrated the suitability of

planted trees in seasonally wet areas, but the general lack of recruitment does not assure long-

term sustainability of the populations. After twenty years planted trees provide additional canopy

structure but they are less influential in the development of soil and understory ecosystem

components than site-specific exogenous factors. Engineering of CSAs to promote hydrology

typical of natural wetlands and supplementing tree planting with understory species are likely to

lead to more persistent and diverse wetland communities.

















INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem

Phosphate mining has been a major industry in central Florida for the past 60 years.

Currently about 5,000 acres of land are mined every year (Richardson 2005). Clay settling areas

(CSAs) are dominant features of the post-mining landscape that comprise about 40% of the post-

mining area. The land use options for CSAs after they have been filled are partially limited due

to the unstable nature of the consolidating ground surface.

The design and planting of these areas to create wetland ecosystems is one option the

industry and state are still exploring for the use of abandoned CSAs. Species characteristic of

wetlands naturally colonize depressional areas on CSAs in the years following abandonment.

Recognition of the potential for wetland establishment led to attempts to augment the

composition of wetland species on these areas. In an attempt to determine if forested wetland

ecosystems will persist on CSAs, a limited number of CSAs have been planted with wetland

trees. But the success of these plantings has not been evaluated after the initial few years of

establishment. The long-term development and viability of forested wetland ecosystems on CSAs

are critical to the determination of the suitability of wetlands on CSAs. In this study CSAs

planted with wetland trees were evaluated after 20 years in one attempt to evaluate forested

wetland development and viability on CSAs. The questions explored in this study have been

grouped under three foci:

1. How have the planted trees fared over time; what are the primary factors influencing tree
growth, survival, and recruitment?

2. How might the tree populations change in the future?

3. Are differences discernable in the ecosystem development of areas planted with trees and
those not planted?










Background

Clay Settling Areas

CSAs are depositories for residual clay separated from phosphate rock and sand in the first

stage of processing following mining. The residual phosphatic clay is then slurried for pipe

transport. The handling of the residual clays has changed during the history of phosphate mining

in Florida. In the early years of large scale mining clays were pumped into mining cuts. More

recently large impoundment areas with high walls, often 1 mile square, have been created for

disposal of the clay. Alternatively, clays are sometimes mixed with residual sand before being

pumped into settling areas. Though the name is typically reserved for impoundment areas for

unmixed clay disposal, in this study CSAs refers to all three types of depositories for residual

clays.

As clay slurry is pumped into CSAs, clay particles settle to the bottom and water is drawn

off through outfall structures. A solid crust forms on the pond surface after 3-5 years (Richardson

2005), but consolidation of clays under the surface continues for decades. The consolidated

ground surface is often at an elevation above the original ground elevation and higher than the

surrounding landscape. Rate of consolidation of clays is not even across the CSAs, which are

often built on mined land characterized by patterns of mine cuts and spoil piles, resulting in an

uneven land surface. One result of the differential consolidation is the formation of deeper

depressions that hold surface water. These depressions often sink below the elevation of the

outfall structure causing them to become hydrologically isolated such that they seasonally retain

water.

Wetlands on Clay Settling Areas

Isolated depressions on CSAs as well as water features drained by an outfall structure

support the establishment of hydrophytic vegetation characteristic of wetlands. Vegetation begins

to colonize these areas before the slurry-water has completely drained off in a phase called

dewatering. Algae often colonizes the water surface in the initial phases, followed by wind-










dispersed herbaceous macrophytes like Typha spp. and Scirpus spp. or shrubs and small trees

like Ludwigia peneviana and Salix caroliniana. But the continuation of seral succession with the

establishment of species characteristic of mature systems is not common even on the oldest CSAs

(Rushton 1983). Rushton (1988) suggested the dominance of these early successional wetlands

are characteristic of arrested succession, whereby climax species fail to establish. However the

successional pathway of a CSA and the composition of a 'climax' system are unclear. CSAs are

examples of what some members of the scientif ic community have referred to as "emerging

ecosystems" (Odum 1971, Hobbs et al. 2006), defined as 'new" environments which result from

heavy modification of the environment by human agency. Such ecosystems lack a precedent

from which to anticipate long-term composition and dynamics.

A few obstacles hinder natural succession on these areas: (1) the landscape surrounding

CSAs has generally been cleared and modified, so the recruitment of native species is difficult

due to hydrologic isolation, above-grade elevation, and distance to seed sources (Odum et al.

1983); (2) soils on CSAs contain a high percentage of clay (60-80%) and initially lack structure,

differing significantly from soils characteristic of wetlands in central Florida, which are sandier

with developed horizons (Rushton 1988, Myers and Ewel 1990, Graetz and Reddy 1997); and (3)

the hydrologic regime of these clay depressions may be different than natural wetlands due to the

high water-holding capacity of clay, the continuing consolidation of the clays, and large

watershed:wetland ratios (Rushton 1988).

Hydrologic regime and the physical and chemical nature of the soil are important factors in

the determination of the type of wetland that may be established (Mitsch and Gosselink 1993).

Water level is perhaps the most important factor for determining if a marsh (herbaceous wetland)

or swamp (forested wetland) will establish in these areas. Though the period and depth of

inundation in CSA depressions is typically unknown, existing vegetation may provide a clue as to

what the hydroperiod is like. Areas where Salix caroliniana has established may indicate

locations appropriate for forested species. Phosphorous (P) is often the limiting nutrient in










Florida freshwater wetlands systems (Reddy et al. 1999) but residual inorganic phosphorus is

high in phosphatic clays (Rushton 1988). Phosphorous has been directly correlated with

productivity in cyress ecosystems (Brown 1981). Highly productive systems situated on a

substrate with high clay content is characteristic of some alluvial forested wetlands in the

southeastern United States (Faulkner et al. 1991). Depressional areas on CSAs may be suitable

for the establishment of forested wetlands.

Planting of Wetland Species on Clay

Planting species characteristic of mid- to late-succession is one method to direct the

successional process (Brown and Tighe 1991). Monitored field trials on CSAs using wetland tree

species began in the 1980s (Rushton 1988, Paulic and Rushton 1991a, Everett 1991), and tree

survival and growth has been documented during the initial years after planting. Water

availability, species properties, tree size, and edaphic factors including soil age and nutrient levels

have all been shown to effect tree survival on clay settling areas. The following list summarizes

findings of earlier studies of wetland trees on CSAs.

* Hydrology was more important in determining tree survival than canopy or understory
cover (Rushton 1998, Paulic and Rushton 1991b).

* Wetland trees typical of floodplain and backwater swamps of central and northern Florida
have had greater than 50% survival after 1 year on clays, including Acer rubrum, Betula
nigra, Carya aquatica, Liquidambar \ap,, at rybre, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus lyrata,
Quercus michauxii, Sabal palmetto, and Ulmus americana. (Paulic and Rushton 1991b)

* Fraxinus spp. and Taxodium spp. had high (>80%) survival after 3 years (Paulic and
Rushton 1991a, Everett 1991);

* Clay is a suitable medium for wetland species (Cates 2001);

* After three years, trees growing on a sand-clay mix and on sand had higher survival than
those on clay. Trees in clay grew faster than trees in sand (Paulic and Rushton 1991a);

* Most major nutrients are available in sufficient quantities for tree growth. Nitrogen may be
the limiting nutrient. N-fertilizer increased growth but had no effect on survival ofdcer
rubrum in a greenhouse experiment (Paulic 1991). Fertilizer enhanced growth of
Taxodium spp. in clay both in the field and in the greenhouse (Everett 1991, Paulic 1991).










* Soil age was positively correlated with Acer rubrum growth in a greenhouse experiment
(Paulic 1991);

* Animal grazing can reduce tree survival (Rushton 1988).

These earlier studies have censused planted and non-planted trees in a variety of

hydrologic conditions, among different vegetation communities, and on a number of CSAs.

However, these earlier studies did not census planted trees after more than a few years, and thus

could not consider longer-term survival and growth, nor the potential ecosystem function of more

mature trees on CSAs. Time until maturity for forested swamps can be as long as 250 years in a

natural environment. Long-term monitoring is necessary to understand the long-term dynamics

of a restored forested system (Clewell 1999).

Recruitment

An important ingredient for the sustainability of a constructed forested system and an

indicator of the appropriateness of an environment for introduced species is the ability to

propagate. Wetland trees have specific moisture requirements for successful reproduction

(Mitsch and Gosselink 1993). These requirement can be important for seed set, germination, and

establishment. Poor seed set may occur from pollen limitations (McLanahan 1986). Dispersal is

important in order for fertilized seeds to find a viable location in which to germinate. Together

water levels and microtopography are important in determining seed dispersal. Because some

seeds float in water they tend to accumulate in greatest densities near the edge of water or near

obstructions. Seeds of wetland trees do not germinate in standing water. Thus areas of

permanent standing water may preclude the emergence of new seedlings. In areas with infrequent

drawdown, seed germination may still occur but viability of seeds may be decreased by long

periods of inundation (Schneider and Sharitz 1986). If seeds are able to germinate, water

conditions during the first few months can be critical to survival. Most wetland tree seedlings

cannot survive extended periods of inundation.










The recruitment success of wetland trees characteristic of mid to late succession is

unknown on CSAs. One direct seeding experiment on phosphate mined land was largely

unsuccessful: 10 of 14 plots that were covered with litter collected from floodplains in the

vicinity failed to produce seedlings (Rushton 1988). The quantity of viable seeds in the collected

litter was unknown.

Ecosystem Development

A series of gradual changes in the dominant vegetation community toward a predictable

climax state summarizes the traditional concept of succession. Numerous theories have emerged

both further elucidating the mechanisms of succession (Clements 1916, Egler 1954, Connell and

Slayter 1977), and challenging its linearity and predictability (Anand and Desrochers 2004). Yet

the changes in the composition of the vegetation community are just one aspect of alterations to

both the abiotic and biotic environment that are associated with succession. In the context of the

entire system this dynamic process has been called ecosystem development (Odum 1969).

A key aspect in the development of an ecosystem is an increasing effect of the biotic

components of the system on the modif ication of the environment and the selection of the biota.

The increasing control exerted by the biotic components is a characteristic of self-organization

(Odum 1989). The dynamics of self-organization in the "emerging" ecosystems on CSAs are

unclear. Measures of the modifications that the biota are making to the environment and the

changes in the community composition that may be resulting from those changes are potential

indicators of ecosystem development.

In forested ecosystems, trees are key agents of influence over the local environment and

thus the ecosystem. As trees mature and canopies develop, they reduce the quantity of light that

is able to penetrate to the lower vertical strata of the forest. The reduction in light penetration

alters the microclimate (notably temperature and humidity) underneath the tree canopy. These

changes to the abiotic environment imparted by the trees may in turn cause changes in the cover

and composition of the understory vegetation (Beatty 1984) and the rate of organic matter










decomposition in the soil. Trees also contribute a substantial amount of the detritus that

decomposes and becomes incorporated in soil organic matter (Rhoades et al. 1998). In a study of

carbon budgets in the Dismal Swamp, tree leaf litter and fine tree roots composed the largest

annual input to the detritus pool in both cypress-dominated swamps and mixed forested wetlands

(Megongial and Day 1988). All these effects are expected to be enhanced with increasing tree

size and dominance in the landscape.

Planted wetland trees on CSAs may serve the role of directing ecosystem development.

Restoration ecologists have traditionally looked at a spectrum of similar sites of different ages to

study the dynamics of ecosystem development. A number of studies of the progress of

restoration efforts in the phosphate mining districts have adopted this approach (Rushton 1983,

Carstenn 2000), and identified trends in ecosystem development across sites. A potential

drawback of this approach is that is overlooks the site-specific influences. The topography and its

influence over the hydrology and the proximity to seed source are unique to a site and important

external drivers of ecosystem development. These external factors may create challenges for

cross-site comparison of CSAs.

Plan of Study

Rushton planted tree species on a number of abandoned CSAs in 1985- 1986 as part of her

doctoral study (Rushton 1988). Because she published precise information on location, number,

and type of species planted as well as growth and survival rates after one year and descriptions of

sites conditions, monitoring these planted areas and adjacent non-planted areas provided an

opportunity to evaluate tree growth and ecosystem development of areas with and without planted

trees after a 20-year time period.

To evaluate how the planted trees have fared over time and to determine what factors are

influencing growth and survival, survival, size, and reproductive success of planted trees was

measured. The tree parameters were statistically evaluated in the context of site hydrology and

soils. Elevation data and water levels were collected to estimate water depths and period of










inundation in planted plots during the 2005 growing season, and data on site soils were gathered

from the Rushton study (1988). The effect of disturbance was qualitatively assessed through site

histories and field evidence.

In effort to project how the tree populations might change in the future, the tree data were

used to calibrate population models to determine future population trajectories.

To determine if the planted trees were steering ecosystem development, selected ecosystem

development measures were collected in planted and non-planted areas with similar hydrologic

conditions and external influences. Woody vegetation was measured to assess the development

of the tree and shrub strata; canopy photos were taken to estimate canopy cover; soil samples

were collected to estimate percent organic matter; and understory vegetation was sampled. The

raw data were summarized by plot and statistical techniques were then used to compare measures

of ecosystem development in planted and non-planted areas.

















METHODOLOGY

Site and Plot Selection

Five of the CSAs planted by Rushton were selected for study. Sites were chosen that were

currently accessible and that Rushton (1988) had determined had an average of at least 50% tree

survival after one year. Table 1 presents a summary of the selected sites. Figure 1 provides an

overview map of site locations.

CFI SP-1 (CFI) is a sand-clay mix settling area abandoned in the early 1980s with two

distinct connected lobes. Plots were planted on the fringe of the east lobe. Since the Rushton

planting, the site has been planted with additional tree and understory species and the water level

has been lowered by adjusting the weir. The upland area surrounding the wetland and adjacent to

the plots is regularly mowed and shrubs have been removed. The understory of a few of the plots

were planted with ferns on their upland half.

Homeland (HOM) is a pond formed over an old mine cut backfilled with clay and capped

with sand around 1979. The pond is surrounding by pasture that is part of the DEP Homeland

office property. Bill Hawkins planted Taxodium distichum trees in 2/3 of the pond approximately

in 1982. The Rushton plots traverse the east side of the pond.

OH Wright (OHW) is an older CSA (abandoned approximately in 1960) adjacent to the

Whidden Creek floodplain. One plot (R1A) traverses a swale just above the outfall structure,

which is still active. Four plots (R2A, R2B, H1, and H4) are on the fringe of a pond. Two other

plots (H2, H3) lie in a depression between two spoil rows.

Peace River Park (PRP) was abandoned in 1968 and leased for pasture until 1986. Two

plots are located in small depressions (H1, H6) and two are located on the edge of a pond (H4,

H5). All plots are connected by surface water when water levels are high.










Tenoroc 4 (TEN) was abandoned around 1972 and is now part of the Tenoroc Fish

Management Area. Four plots (R2A, R2B, H2, H3) were located in a depression on the NW

corner of the site. The other plots are on the north and south side of an interior spoil pile in the

north central area of the site. Prior to a ditching effort in this area to connect isolated depressions

and convey water off the site in 200 1, the seasonal water levels in the plots were likely higher.

Rushton plots. A total of 37 planted plots on 5 CSAs were selected for study. Selected

plots were located in the field from site diagrams (Rushton 1988) and matched to an original plot

number. All selected plots had at least one surviving tree at the present time. Plots were

representative of the two planting schemes used and referred to by Rushton as cypress-gum (CG)

plots and hydric-swamp (HS) plots. Figures 2 and 3 depict planting schemes for these two types

of plots. Twenty-five cypress-gum plots and 12 hydric swamp plots were included in the current

study. Species planted in the two plots types are listed in Tables 2 and 3. Cypress-gum plots

were planted with all three species except for 4 plots at Tenoroc 4 planted only with two species.

Among the 12 hydric swamp plots, 8 were planted with species with a group of 'transitional'

trees and 4 were planted with a group of 'wet' trees.

Reference plots. In order to compare the ecosystem development on non-planted areas that

were similar to the Rushton plots, adjacent 'reference' plots of equal dimensions to the Rushton

plots were selected. Reference plots were at least 25 meters away from Rushton plots to

minimize potential influence from Rushton plots. A single reference plot was designated for all

plots that shared connection to a water feature. Reference plot selection was random provided

that a plot met the following conditions: (1) it was adjacent to the same water feature as a

Rushton plot; (2) the topography was such that a hydrologic regime similar to the Rushton plot

could be inferred. An exception to the first condition occurred at Homeland, where the reference

plot was located in a pond fed by a ditch from the pond containing the Rushton plots, because not

enough non-planted area within the pond with the Rushton plots was available.










Field Data Collection

Topography

A laser level was used to determine elevations within the plot relative to the water level at

the time of first visit. Figure 4 shows where data were collected in cypress-gum plots. For these

plots, elevation was recorded every meter along a 42 m longitudinal axis which traversed the

planted area as well as 6m in front and back of it. The plots were originally laid out such that this

axis ran parallel to the elevation gradient. Additionally, elevation data were recorded from spots

6m to each side and at the beginning, middle, and end of the longitudinal axis. Figure 5 shows

where data were collected in hydric swamp plots. For hydric swamp plots, elevation data were

recorded every two meters along two perpendicular axes crossing from 6m away from the edge

through the center of the plot to 6m beyond the far edge. In these plots elevation data were also

collected at the soil and plant sample points within the planted plot, and at the four planted plot

corners.

For reference plots, elevation data were collected in the same manner, except in these plots

only data within the plot boundary were collected.

Hydrology

Water levels at a point of recorded elevation were manually measured to the nearest

centimeter each month through October 2005after the initial visit to a plot in the spring or early

summer of 2005.

On CFI SP-1 and Tenoroc 4, continuous digital data loggers were installed close to or

within Rushton plots to record hourly water levels. On these sites, one surface water well within

the water feature and one ground water well 25m into the upland were equipped with loggers.

The loggers were operational from the date of installation in the early part of the growing season

of 2005 through the end of October 2005.










Planted Trees

Planted trees were identified by location and species. Using a two-dimensional grid, X,Y

plot location was recorded for planted trees to the nearest meter. Diameter at 1.5 meters (DBH)

was recorded to the nearest centimeter for all stems originating below that height. If no stems

reached 1.5m, height of the tallest stem was recorded to the nearest centimeter.

Other Tree Species

Each tree within the planted plot of a species not planted was identified to species and its

DBH was recorded if it had reached 1.5m in height. Woody plants were classified as trees or

shrubs according to Tobe et al. (1998). For Salix caroliniana, which is classified as a tree or

shrub, individuals with at least one stem with a DBH 15cm were classified as trees. In cypress-

gum plots, the 10m segment (0-10,10-20,20-30) that a tree was found in was noted.

Recruited Trees

Recruited trees are defined in this study as individuals of the same species as planted trees

not occurring in originally planted locations, irrespective of the size of the individuals. X,Y plot

location, species, and DBH or height were recorded for recruited trees inside or within 6m of the

plot boundary.

In the plot on TEN where the greatest number of seedlings emerged, the seedlings were

resampled at the end of the growing season to determine the survival rate.

Additional Measures of Ecosystem Development: Shrub and Understory Layers; Soils;
Canopy Photos

Figure 6 and 7 show the standardized sampling locations for shrubs, understory vegetation,

soil, and canopy photos for cypress-gum and hydric swamp plots. Three 3x3m subplots within

each plot were sampled for shrubs. DBH and species were recorded for all stems 1.5m in

height. Nine 1xlm subplots within each plot were used to sample all understory macrophytes

with stem heights < 1.5m. Each species occurring was identified and the coverage of each

species was estimated into one of five possible coverage classes: 1: 1-10%, 2: 10-25%, 3: 25-










50%, 4: 50-75%, 5:75-100%. Coverage was defined as the percentage of the 1xlm horizontal

plot area covered by the plant. In the case where different species occupied the same horizontal

location but different vertical strata, both species were counted. Cores of the top 10cm of the soil

were collected with a 7.6 cm-diameter auger within all 1xlm understory sampling plots. To

estimate canopy cover, hemispherical photographs were taken using a Nikon digital camera, with

180 degree "fish-eye" lens. Inside all plots, photos were taken in 3 equidistant understory

subplots. For the Rushton plots, photos were also taken from the understory subplots outside of

the canopy. The camera was placed on a tripod approximately 50 cm above the ground or

slightly above the surface of the water, whichever was higher. The camera was then leveled with

the lens pointing up, oriented so the back of the camera faced north, and zoomed out to 100%.

When possible photos were taken close to dawn or dusk or on overcast days to avoid distortion

from direct sunlight.

Site Histories

Information about possible disturbance or site modification during the 20 year period since

the trees were planted was collected from site managers, from the Rushton dissertation, through

consultation with Betty Rushton, or through inference from evidence found in the plot in 2005

such as burnt stems or plot markers.

Data Analysis

Topography and Water Levels

Topographic data collected were input in X-Y-Z form into Surfer surface mapping

software, from which a kriging function was used to create a surface map. From this interpolated

map, relative elevations were output for every square meter. Using these elevation data and the

monthly water level data, water levels were calculated for the entire sampling area for every date

water level was recorded. 'Average water depth' as referred to in the remainder of the study

refers to the average of these monthly water levels.










When the water level was below the ground, the level measured in one location was

assumed to be the same across the plot because of the small area of the plots and the small

differences in ground elevation across the plots.

On the two sites with continuous data-logging water level recorders (CFI and TEN), the

average of the sampled monthly water levels was compared with the average of all the hourly

water levels recorded by the data-loggers to determine if monthly water levels accurately

approximated hourly water levels on those sites.

Average change in elevation was computed for each plot as the average change in elevation

along the longest axis of the plot. Percent inundation was calculated as the area of the plot

covered by water at the time of sampling divided by the total plot area.

Elevation data for every planted tree along with monthly water level measurements

allowed for determination of the average sampled depth of water for every tree and at every

location where soils, shrubs, understory vegetation, and canopy photo sampling occurred. Box

plots were created to show the distribution of all trees along the average water depth at the tree

base.

Tree and Plot Basal Area

Basal area, BA(cm2), was calculated for trees and shrubs as the sum of the all stem area at

1.5m for an individual according to the following equation:

BA = C x DBH2 2I

Plot basal area (m2/hec) was the sum of the tree and shrub basal area (m2) divided by the

plot area (hectares). Plot basal area was calculated for every 10m section of cypress-gum plots as

well as for the entire plot, but only for the entire plot in hydric swamp plots because trees were

not sub-sampled in these plots.










Tree Growth Comparisons

Basal area of all surviving Rushton trees was compared by species and soil type for trees

with an average water level in the range of -0.75 to 0.25m. Trees with a basal area < 7.8 cm2

were assumed to be resprouts, and they were eliminated from the growth comparison because the

stem age was unknown. Tree basal area of the remaining trees was then log-transformed for

normality. T-Tests were conducted to compare the effect of two soil types in areas with similar

average water depths, assuming that similar hydrologic regimes can be inferred from similar

average water depth at the tree base during the 2005 season. Two way ANOVA was used to

simultaneously compare the effect of water level, soil type, and soil type-water interactions on

tree growth. In the two way ANOVA test trees were split into shallow and deep water levels by

species based on the median water level of surviving trees.

Soil Percent Organic Matter

Soil cores were manually homogenized and three 40g samples of each core were dried a

minimum of 48 hours at 300 C. The ignition method without rehydration was then used to

estimate % organic matter (% OM) Dried samples were ground with a mortar and pestle and

three 1 g sub-samples were ashed in a muffle furnace for 6 hours at 4500 C. This temperature was

deemed appropriate for burning off the organic matter without removing inorganic carbon

(CaCO3). The following equation is used to calculate percent organic matter:

((dry weight -ashed weight) / dry ~ight) 100% = % organic matter [2]

Population Size Class Distributions

All surviving planted trees and offspring were placed into size classes that represented 5 or

10 cm DBH intervals (Table 4). Classification was done by basal area to accommodate multiple

stem trees where summation of DBH would have resulted in inflated values and inconsistent

classification.' Classified trees were then grouped by species and by basins to define a


For example, a tree with two 5 cm DBH stems has less basal area (39.4 cm2) than a tree with
one 10 cm DBH stem (78.5 cm2)










population. Basins are defined as areas where multiple plots are adjacent to the same body of

water and no plot is more than 50 meters away from its nearest neighbor. The sampled area of

each basin represented the sum of the seedling sampling areas of every plot within the basin; not

the area of the entire basin.

Canopy Photos

Canopy photos were analyzed in Adobe E Photoshop software. Photos were transformed

into 2-color black and white images using the Threshold function. The threshold level was

subjectively chosen to yield the most accurate conversion of vegetation pixels to black and sky

pixels to white. Before transformation images were cleaned up with editing tools to remove

shadows, clouds, sun spots, glare, or other aspects of the image that would been incorrectly

assigned to black or white. After transformation, the black and white pixels were counted in

Keigan Systems E MFworks software. The percent canopy cover was then calculated as the sum

of black pixels divided by the sum of black and white pixels.

Understory Vegetation

Cover for all understory vegetation in a plot was estimated using the mean of the coverage

class. The classes thus corresponded to the following percentages: Class 1: 5.0%; Class 2:

17.5%; Class 3: 37.5%; Class 4: 62.5%; Class 5: 87.5%.

Species richness was calculated for all plots as the sum of the unique species occurring.

Species evenness, a measure of the evenness of the distribution of species, was calculated with

the Shannon evenness formula (Gurevitch et al. 2002):

E =H/In(S) [3]


H = 1(p, In(p;))[4]


where evenness, E, is equal to the Shannon-Wiener index, H, divided by the natural log of the

total number of species, S. The Shannon-Wiener index was calculated as in Equation 4.










Importance Value is a metric that combines the relative frequency and relative cover in

order to consider together both characteristics of a species presence in an understory (Cole 1978).

Importance Value for species occurring in the understory were calculated using the following

equation:

IT/= rfs + rcs [5]

where Importance Value of a species, IV,, is equal to the sum of the relative frequency, rfs ,and

relative cover, rcs, of that species. Relative frequency was calculated using the following

equations:



s= > [6]


J = os q [7]

where relative frequency is equal to the frequency of a species, s, divided by the sum of the

frequency of species encountered on a plot. The frequency of a species was calculated by the

number of a 1m2 quadrats in which species s occurred, os, divided by the number of 1m2 quadrats,

q, in a plot.

Relative cover was calculated using following equations:



s=' [8]



'= > [9]
where the relative cover of a species, rcs, is the cover of a species divided by the sum of the cover

all species, n, in a plot. The cover of a species, cs, is equal to the sum of the mean cover of a

species, s, in all 1m2 quadrats, q. Because a cover class was assigned to a species rather than a

mean cover, each cover class was translated to a mean cover (reference on method) as follows: 1:

5%, 2: 17.5%, 3: 37.5%, 4: 62.5%, 5: 87.5%.










Ordination of Plots by Prevalent Understory Species

In order to visualize the differences in the cover of prevalent understory species between

plots, the Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) ordination technique was applied. The

prevalent understory species were those with a Importance Value of > 0.10 (out of a possible

2.0) for a plot. The NMDS method does not require assumptions that the data fit a normal

distribution nor that the data fit a linear pattern (Faith et al. 1987, McCune and Grace 2002). The

NDMS was run on a (n x p) contingency table of average species cover in a matrix where the

rows, n, were plots, and the columns, p, were species. The data were first standardized using a

Wisconsin double standardization and then square-root transformed. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity

method was used as to create the dissimilarity matrix necessary to rank plots by dissimilarity and

to position the points along the two principal component axes, so that the ordination could be

shown in two-dimensional space.

Correlation Matrices of Ecosystem Development Variables

To find patterns in the relationship between Rushton trees and total basal area, canopy

cover, understory cover, understory species richness, understory species evenness, and soil

organic matter, correlation matrices were created using R statistical software. Pearson's formula

was the correlation method used to produce the matrices.

Tree Population Model

In order to predict the population trajectory of a planted tree population, a size class matrix

population model was constructed for populations of planted Taxodium distichum at CFI and in

one basin at OHW.

Size class matrix population models use principles of matrix algebra to estimate changes in

population distribution over a time series as well as the steady-state population distribution and

growth rate (Caswell 2001). Size class bins are determined and individuals are classified into size

classes. A transition matrix, A, is constructed by determining probabilities after a year that a tree

will remain in a size class, P,, transition, G,, and/or reproduce, F, (Figure 8). The transition










matrix is multiplied by a vector of the number of individuals in each size class, N,, to determine

the number of individuals in each size class after one time increment, N,+;. According to matrix

theory the transition matrix alone determines the long-term population state. Mathematically

decomposing the transition matrix, A, yields a vector of eigenvalues and their associated

eigenvectors. The dominant eigenvalue of A, h, gives the population growth rate when there is a

stable population distribution. The stable population distribution is given by the right eigenvector

of the transition matrix.

Customarily tracking the growth, survival, and seed production of a cohort of trees over a

period of years provides the data from which transition probabilities are calculated. In this case,

empirical time series data was not available for the entire period. Using data from the most

current year and incorporating data on survival and growth after 1 and 3 years, growth of

individual trees were interpolated by fitting a curve based on the growth rate of other Taxodium

distichum in the phosphate mining area (Miller 1983). Mortality after years 1,3, and 20 years

were used to estimate mortalities of the given size classes, with the assumption that slower-

growing trees were more likely to die. Reproductive probabilities were calculated based on the

ratio of first year seedlings to mature adults, distributing this probability among the mature size

classes such that each successively larger size class had a greater reproductive probability. The

matrix populations models were created in the Python 2.3 programming language. The model

was programmed to estimate population change over a 50 year period. An elasticity analysis

(Caswell 200 1) of the model was conducted to estimate the relative sensitivity of the model to

the changes in the probability values of the transition matrix, A. The code for the population

model is included at the end of the Appendix.












Table 1. Site summary table

Years
Abandoned # Cypress-gum # Hydric Swamp
Site Name Symbol (Estimated) Type Plots Plots
CFI-SP 1 CFI 23 Sand-Clay 6 0
Homeland HOM 46 Sand Cap 8 0
0.H. Wright OHW 46 Clay 3 4
Peace River Park PRP 38 Clay 0 4
Teneroc 4 TEN 34 Clay 8 4










I


Figure 1. Study site locations. Map adapted from Rushton (1988).


Mulberry


840


630


0 4
m iles


POLK

OF IND. HA DE E





_ L


Table 2. Species list for cypress-gum plots

Species Symbol
Fraximes pennsylvanica FRPA
Nyssa aquatica NYAQ
Taxodium distichitm TADI


23 456
0 0 09 Ra* a 0 0 01























60 0 e Ispl 0 0


Figure 2. Cypress-gum plot layout from Rushton (1988). Two plots are pictured. Each plots was
planted with 93 seedlings.


O PVC PrE
x FLAGGirING





















MuLC



" + + + + +1




ia UlEiIea
a c 9m I +


Table 3. Species list for 'wet' and 'transitional' hydric swamp plots
"Wet" Plots Transitional' Plots
Species Symbol Species Symbol
Fraximes caroliniana FRCA Acer rubrum ACRU
Nssa sylvatica NY SY Gordonia lasianthus GOLA
Persea pahtstris PEPA Nssa sylvatica NY SY
Quercus laurifolia QULA Quercus laurifolia QULA
Taxodium distichum TADI Sabal palmetto SAPA
Ulmus americana ULAM Taxodium distichum TADI


23


Figure 3. Hydric swamp plot layout from Rushton (1988). Two plots are pictured. Each plots
was planted with 108 seedlings.









24





is 6m ,\E6m E/



E
6m

E


30E


28
E


26
E


24
E


22
E


20
E


18
E


16
E




14
E


E


10
E


8
E




4 E


2E~

Planted plot


E


6m
-Elevation
E recorded
Recruited treeE
\/apigarea
E- Gm E 6m

Figure 4. Elevation diagram for a cypress-gum plot. Numbers are in meters.





















6 14) ($ 6 14) (1


I-~i~---------


----------~rr~


|Planted plot
E
(C,0) 1


3 5 1


7I 9


(11,0)


Elevation taken evey 2 m


-E`Elevation recomed


Retainted Iree: samplilng area


E
(5.5,-6)


E
(17.-6)


Figure 5. Elevation diagram for a hydric swamp plot. Numbers are in meters.


































Shrub2


H = 1m2 understory sampling plot
S = 10cm soil core
P = Canopy photo














0 2
Figure 6. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy photo sampling scheme for cypress-gum plots.
Numbers are in meters.














1




Shrub1








Shrub2





Planted plot Shrub3
-1 3 5 7 9 11

H = 1m2 understory sampling plot
S = -10cm soil core
P = Canopy photo
Figure 7. Soil, understory, shrub, and canopy photo sampling scheme for hydric swamp plots.
Numbers are in meters.










Table 4. Size class key used in tree size class distributions.

size class DBH(cm) BA(cm2)
0 NA 0
10.1-5 0.01-19.6
2 5-10 19.7-78.5
3 10-15 78.6-176.7
4 15-20 176.8-314.2
5 20-30 314.3-706.9
6 30-40 707-1256.6
7 >40 >1256.6


'Po Fl F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7
Go P1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 G1P2 0 0 0 0 0 O
0 0 G2 P3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 G3 P4 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 O G4 Ps 0 0
0 0 0 0 O Gs P6 0O
0 0 0 0 0 0 G6 P7
Figure 8. The format for the transition matrix, A, for the matrix population model. The figure
above is a matrix for a population with eight size classes (0-7). The P values along
the diagonal represent probabilities of remaining in the same size class; the G values
represent the probability of advancing into the next class, and the F, values represent
the probability of successful reproduction.

















RESULTS

Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors

Survival of trees planted by Rushton is first summarized. Hydroperiod of the planted plots

is compared and tree survival is examined across different water depths and on three soil types.

The consequences of initial tree growth and site disturbances are considered. Population scale

questions are approached by looking at populations of recruited trees within and on the periphery

of plots, tree size class distributions, and population models of Taxodium distichum on two sites.

Tree Survival by Site and Species

Cypress-gum plots. Table 5 summarizes the planted tree survival percentages after 1, 3,

and 20 years. Aggregating all sites, Taxodium distichum survived best after 20 years (34%),

though Fraxinus pennslyvanica had the best survival at the end of the three years (70%).

Figure 9 presents survival trends by site and species in cypress-gum plots. Aggregating all

three species, trees at the CFI site had the highest survival after 20 years (50%), and trees at TEN

had the lowest survival (9%). More Fraxinus pennslyvanica were found after three years than

after one year at CFI and OHW, most likely due to resprouting. Survival of Fraxinus

pennslyvanica after 20 years was the poorest at HOM (8%), but highest of the three species at

CFI (70%) and TEN (27%), two of the four sites with cypress-gum plots. Survival of Taxodium

distichum was greater than 98% year' (indicated by the slope of the trend line) between years 3

and 20 at all but the TEN site. Nyssa aquatica had poorest survival in the initial year, but the

survival rate between years 3 and 20 was the best of the three species at OHW and TEN, and

better than Fraxinus pennslyvanica at CFI and HOM. Compared with the survival rate during the

first year, all species had improved annual survival rates between years 3 and 20.










Hydric swamp plots. Table 6 summarizes tree survival in hydric swamp plots after 1 and 19

years. Acer rubrum, Fraxinus caroliniana, and Taxodium distichum, and Ulmus americana were

the only species present in sampled plots after 19 years. No individuals of Gordonia lasianthus,

Nyssa sylvatica, Persea palustris, Quercus laurifolia, or Sabal palmetto were found surviving in

any of the plots after 19 years.

Figure 10 shows tree survival in hydric swamp plots by site and species. Only one individual

of Ulmus americana survived 19 years and is not depicted. Of the three other surviving species,

total survival after the first year for each was greater than 80% (see Table 2 for survival data by

species). Survival ofdcer rubrum after 19 years was 20% or less at all sites, with no surviving

individuals found at TEN. Fraxinus caroliniana had the best survival in HS plots. At both OHW

and TEN, all individuals survived after 19 years, a few having resprouted after the original stem

died during the initial year. About half of Taxodium distichum trees that were surviving after 1

year survived 19 years, except at OHW where 20 year survival was only 12%, due to high

mortality in two plots.

Hydrology

Average hourly water levels on the two sites where continuous data loggers were installed

were within 3 cm of the average monthly water level measurements. Appendix Figures 33 and 34

show the continuous recorded levels and the monthly sampled levels at CFI and TEN.

Cypress-gum plots. Figure 11 shows the percentage of a plot that was inundated at the

time of monthly water level sampling. Variation of inundated area occurs within and between

sites, with some obvious trends apparent. Plots at CFI demonstrate a range of inundation, varying

from R1, which was almost totally inundated on all dates, to plot R6, which was at most 15%

inundated. Thus all trees at R1 stood in standing water much of the season, whereas water level

was below ground for most trees in R6. Nearly all eight plots at HOM were inundated upon

every visit. At OHW, plots R2A and B, adjacent plots on a pond fringe, were more than 50%

inundated in 4 of 5 months sampled, whereas about one third R1A, which crosses a drainage










channel, was consistently covered in water. At TEN all plots were dry in May but for most of the

season more than 50% of R2A and R2B were inundated. R5A, R5B, R6A, R6B, R7A, and R7B

are on a pond fringe, and all plots were mostly inundated when sampled in July and August, but

on visits earlier and later in the season were wet only in the deepest ends, if at all.

Hydric swamp plots. Occupying less of an elevation gradient than cypress-gum plots,

hydric swamp plots exhibit a more uniform response to water level than cypress-gum plots (see

Figure 12). Many plots were inundated through the season, including all plots at PRP and H1 and

H4 at OHW, whereas others, such as OHW H2, were dry at every sampling. Sites at TEN all

were completely dry when sampled during May, and only H2 and H3 had a small area inundated

at the September sampling, but during other months H2 and H3 were completely inundated. TEN

and OHW both had two rather wet and two dry sites, whereas at PRP, all sites were wet.

Tree Survival and Hydrology

Cypress-gum plots. A box plot (Figure 13) showing the average water depth for the

planted trees by species are shown in comparison with a box (first from left) showing the average

water depth for the plots. As all species were initially planted along the entire water level

gradient in a plot, this box represents the distribution of water depths at all original planting

locations. A comparison of this first box of all planting locations with plots of surviving

individuals of each species shows where tree survived along the water level gradient. The range

of surviving Fraxinus pennslyvanica extends from a water depth of 0.5 to -1.0 m, excluding the

deeper portion of the original range. The population of surviving Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium

distichum withstood more inundation than the population of surviving Fraxinus pennslyvanica.

Only a few outliers of the two populations occur where the average water level was below -0.6

meters. Taxodium distichum, which had the highest survival, occurs along a broader continuum

of water depths than Nyssa aquatica. No individuals of any of the three species survived in the

deepest part of the originally planted range.










In Figures 14-16, tree survival after 1 and 20 years is compared by species for all cypress-

gum plots within the same site. For instance, in the bottom chart in Figure 14, Taxodium

distichum are split into those surviving after 20 years and those that died between years 1 and 20.

These two groups are then classified by average water depth either at the tree base, or the former

location of the tree for those that died between years 1 and 20. At CFI, the range of water depth

in which all three species survived did not change between years 1 and 20. More Fraxinus

pennsylvanica and Nyssa aquatica trees died than lived in the shallowest water depths at this site.

Once established, Taxodium distichum at CFI appears to be capable of tolerating the entire water

level range over which the trees were planted. At OHW (Figure 15), Fraxinus pennsylvanica

appears to have a much more limited water tolerance range, as only trees with an average water

depth of 0.2-0.3 meters survived. Only a few Nyssa aquatica survived and they appear to have

tolerated depths between 0.2 and 0.4 meters, as Taxodium distichum appears to have tolerated

those depths as well as 0.0-0.2 meters. At TEN (Figure 16) Fraxinus pennslyvanica tolerated the

drier locations where it established, but not in locations with average water levels above the

ground surface (0.0 meters). Taxodium distichum survived where water levels were higher than -

0.3 meters. Nyssa aquatica survival was poor across the range.

Hydric swamp plots. Figure 17 shows distributions of Taxodium distichum in hydric

swamp plots where average depths at the surviving trees ranged from -0.5 to 0.9 meters. This

species was not found in drier locations from -0.75 to -0.5 meters and not in the wettest locations

where average depth was >0.9 meters. The range of original planting locations of Fraxinus

caroliniana were similar to that for Taxodium distichum but not drier than -0.3 meters because it

was not planted in the drier plots. Surviving individuals were not found where average depths

were < -0.2 or >0.9 meters.

Tree Survival and Soil Type

Cypress-gum plots. Figure 18 summarizes trees survival on the sand-clay, sand-capped,

and 3 clay sites. Trees growing on sites with clay soils had the lowest survival after 20 years.










CFI, the sand-clay site, had the best overall survival. Though Nyssa aquatica survived poorly on

the clay sites after the first year, the survival rate between years 3 and 20 on clay was better than

on the sand-cap site (HOM) and similar to sand-clay site (CFI). The slope of the trend line can be

used to estimate annual survival rates of species. Taxodium distichum average survival rate

between years 3 and 20 was poorest on the clay sites at about 97% yr ', and high on both the

sand-cap and sand-clay site, at >99% year '. The population of Fraxinus pennslyvanica declined

about 50% on the clay and sand-cap site between years 3 and 20. Due in part to resprouting,

almost as many Fraxinus pennslyvanica trees were alive at CFI after 20 years as there were after

1 year, where a very high percentage (70%) survived.

Tree Growth Comparison Between Sand-Clay and Clay Sites

Tree populations in clay and sand-clay were compared to examine the effects of soil

medium on tree growth. In 2005, all surviving trees on clay occurred within the range of water

depths to which trees growing in sand-clay were exposed (see Figure 19). Results of t-tests to

determine if a significant difference existed between growth of trees on clay and sand-clay are

presented in Table 7. Taxodium distichum trees from both cypress-gum plots and hydric swamp

plots were considered in the analysis. Growth of Fraxinus pennslyvanica and Taxodium

distichum on clay and sand-clay was not statistically different. Growth of Nyssa aquatica was

better (at a 95% confidence level) on clay, however there were only 13 Nyssa aquatica trees

surviving on clay, a very small percentage of those originally planted.

Results of the two-way ANOVAs performed to simultaneously compare the effect of water

level and soil type on tree growth for trees growing in clay and sand-clay are presented in Tables

8 and 9. Trees on the sand-cap site (HOM) were eliminated from consideration because of higher

water levels. For Fraxinus pennslyvanica, trees with an average water depth of less than -0.25m

were grouped as 'shallow' and those with a water depth greater than -0.25 were grouped as

'deep'. Fraxinus pennslyvanica did not show a significant difference for either the soil type,

water level, or interaction of the two. Taxodium distichum trees were split into 'shallow' and










'deep' classes using the median average water level of0O.0m. This test showed a significant

effect for water level and for the interaction of water level and soil type. Trees in deep water had

an average basal area of 5.4 cm2, .4cm cm2 greater than trees in shallow water, but the variance in

basal area was also much higher for deep trees (1.53 to 1.19). Though planted on both soils,

survival of Nyssa aquatica in clay was too low to allow for a comparison of the effects of soil

type and water level on growth for this species.

Initial Tree Growth and 20-year Tree Survival

Records of tree height on cypress gum plots after 1 year were paired with tree survival

records within the same plot to determine if trees that grew faster during the 1st year were more

likely to survive 20 years. Tree height records after one year were available for 6 plots on CFI, 2

plots on OHW, and 6 plots on TEN. Of the trees with a height record, 296 were surviving in

2005 and 408 were dead. A T-Test was performed to determine if the heights of the trees after

one year were different for these two groups, after the height was square root-transformed to

satisfy the condition of similar between-group variance. The outcome, a p-value of 2.2E-16,

indicated with a very high level of confidence that the surviving trees had a greater height after 1

year than the trees that died between 1 and 20 years.

Among the six plots on TEN, the average height of planted trees after one year was 35 cm,

in comparison with 95 cm at CFI. Twenty-year survival of the TEN trees was 17%, versus 54%

at CFI. Among these plots there is a strong correspondence between tree height after 1 year and

20-year survival.

Site Disturbance and Tree Survival

On a number of sites, disturbance factors directly caused mortality or damage to the planted

trees within the initial year of establishment or in years since. Where records of these

disturbances exist, they are presented in Table 10. Fire, heavy grazing, and mechanical

disturbance (tractors, etc.) are known to have influenced a number of plots. A fire occurred in

two hydric swamp plots (as well as in a number of cypress-gum plots not monitored in this study)










that lie within a gully between two spoil piles on OHW. Multiple fires burned into all four of the

hydric swamp plots in PRP, where dead tree trunks blackened from burning still stand as

evidence. On HOM, four transects were subjected to grazing by cattle during their early years.

In one basin of TEN, heavy herbivory negatively effected tree growth and survival during the first

year (Rushton 1988). Segments of a few transects were damaged by earth-moving equipment,

including the first 8 meters of CFI R2 and the first few meters of both TEN 5A and 5B.

Numerous other disturbances may have occurred without leaving any direct or anecdotal

evidence, including prolonged flood events, drought or heavy winds.

Recruited Trees

In a few cases, seedlings and mature trees of the same species as planted trees ('recruited

trees') were found in abundance inside seedling sample plots, whereas in some plots no recruited

trees were found. Tree populations in plots are presented in Table 11, where they are ranked by

the ratio of the number of surviving planted trees to the number of recruited trees (reproductive

ratio). Populations are defined in this table as all trees of a given species within the seedling

sampling area of a plot. Only populations with at least one surviving tree and one planted tree are

listed; 30 populations met this criterion. Where another plausible source for the recruited trees

exists, this source is mentioned in the table. In nine populations, the number of recruited trees

was greater than or equal to the number of planted trees. In two of these populations, the number

of recruited trees was approximately 100 times greater than the number of planted trees. But in

both of these two populations, there are clear seed sources other than the planted trees.

Additional plantings of Taxodium distichum adjacent to or within sampling areas since 1985

occurred at CFI and HOM, but locations of those plantings were not available and thus trees not

planted by Rushton could have either been planted later or are offspring of trees from another

planting .










New Seedling Survival

The Taxodium distichum seedling (0-100 cm in height) population at TEN H3 was the

largest of any plot sampled in June with 128 individuals. In November, the population had been

reduced to 52 individuals. As location of the seedlings was noted only to the nearest meter and

seedlings were not tagged, it was not possible to track individual seedling growth with certainty.

But size class distributions of the seedling populations during both periods reveal in which

segments of the population mortality occurred (Figure 20). A comparative look at the two

distributions reveals a close match between trees in classes > 20 cm, but there are many more

trees in the first two classes in June than in November. In June there were a total of 87 trees in

the first two classes, whereas there were only 10 in November. The size of class '3' in November

indicated that only a few of these trees likely grew into a larger size class during this period. The

water level record reveals that the water was between -0.5 and the ground surface in May at the

locations were the 87 individuals less than 20 cm stood in June. Of those seedlings, 72 were

completely inundated in water during the June and July sampling.

Tree Population Size Class Distributions

Figure 21-24 show size class distributions of Taxodium distichum, Nyssa aquatica,

Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Fraxinus caroliniana. The composition of each size class is split

into planted and recruited trees. Populations of Taxodium distichum are shown in six basins in

Figure 21. Trees at CFI are the most evenly distributed across size classes. Recruited trees at

CFI appear in the first four size classes. At HOM there is a more normal-shaped distribution,

with obvious omissions in the seedling class (class 0). At OHW, PRP, and TEN there are fewer

trees, in part because some of the plots were hydric swamp plots, where fewer trees of a species

were planted, and in part because of lower survival. The first basin at TEN had an exceptionally

high number of seedlings (see Table 1 1, row 1). Four trees in classes 4, 5, and 6 in this basin

appear as 'recruits' but are actually trees planted by Rushton in a plot not included in this study

that overlapped with the recruited tree sampling area.










Nyssa aquatica populations were too small in basins at OHW and TEN such that trees were

only distributed between 2-3 middle range size classes (Figure 22). CFI has a small number of

seedlings but the approximately the same number relative to other size classes in comparison with

its Taxodium distichum population.

The CFI basin had six times as many surviving Fraxinus pennslyvanica as the other basins

and a normal shaped population distribution (Figure 23), but the distributions of the populations

are similar in the other basins, albeit they were lacking in smaller trees.

Only a small number of Fraxinus caroliniana were planted in two basins and in both cases

there are more individuals than originally planted (Figure 24).

Tree Population Model

The model for Taxodium distichum at CFI used the records of 266 trees to construct the

transition matrix (Figure 25). The h of this transition matrix was 1.005; the model predicts that if

the population were to obtain a stable population distribution, it will increase but at a slow pace.

The population projection for the next 50 years shows at first a slowing decline from 150 to a low

of about 120 trees after 20 years, but then growing again to 130 at the end of 50 years (Figure 26).

The model for the Taxodium distichum population on the OHW basin used records of 106 trees

for construction of the transition matrix (Figure 27), with no trees presently in the largest size

class (7). The h of this transition matrix was .991, indicating a slow long-term population

decline. After 50 years the model predicted that the tree population would fall from 36 to 16 trees

in the basin (Figure 28). Though the h values represent potential opposite long-term projections

for the two populations, the model does not predict drastic population change for either basin

within the next 50 years.

Relative to the mature tree population size, the larger number of new seedlings at CFI

compared to OHW resulted in slightly higher fecundity values, or the probability of creating a

successful offspring. These values are depicted in the first row of the transition matrices.










The stasis values, or the probability of remaining in the same size class over the year, are

presented along the diagonal. These values are similar for the two sites. Predicted growth values

(the value below the diagonal) were also similar at both sites. Because no trees were present in

the largest size class at OHW, there was no probability of advancement into the largest size class

at OHW, which does not represent a realistic scenario.

Figure 29 shows the results of the elasticity analysis of the CFI model. The elasticity

analysis was nearly identical for the OHW model. This analysis shows the chief importance of

the stasis values for the largest three size classes. Though there are different growth rates for the

two populations, the stasis values for the last size class were 0.99 for both models, suggesting that

99 of 100 trees in the largest size class are likely to survive a given year. This value was,

according to the sensitivity analysis, nearly five times as important as any other value in the

transition matrix.

Ecosystem Development in Rushton and Reference Plots

Comparisons between pairs of one or more Rushton and a reference plot were made based

on the canopy cover, plot vegetation including trees, shrubs, and understory vegetation, and soil

percent organic matter. Samples from Rushton plots were only considered when basal area

density of Rushton trees was > 10 m2/hec in the sample area.

Selection of Plots for Comparison

Table 12 presents all the Rushton plots and subplots ordered by basal area (m2/110C) Of

Rushton trees. The plots/subplots considered in the comparative analysis with reference plots are

those listed above the dotted line. A distinction was drawn at a basal area of 10 m2/hec below

which survival in plots was so poor as to potentially nullify the effect of planted species on the

surrounding environment. This distinction was drawn based on an arbitrary but clear break in the

basal area in plots/subplots between the plot with a basal area of approximately 13 m2/hec and

the next lowest with a basal area of approximately 8 m2/hec. Five hydric swamp plots and 1










complete cypress-gum plot along with portions of five others were thus removed from

consideration in the following comparative analysis.

In addition to the Rushton plots removed from consideration, one subplot of the reference

plot at CFI was removed from consideration upon realizing that this segment had been subjected

to repeated disturbance from mowing and would not be representative of reference conditions.

Topographic Comparison of Rushton and Reference Plots

Table 13 shows a comparison of topography and water levels in Rushton plots and their

corresponding reference plots, which are the highlighted items appearing at the bottom of the

groups of Rushton plots. In most cases all reference plot variables including average change in

elevation, average water depth, minimum and maximum water depth fell within 3 standard

errors of the mean of the variable for the corresponding Rushton plots.

Plot Basal Area in Rushton and Reference Plots

Table 14 provides data on plot basal area from Rushton and reference plots. Plot basal area

includes the total basal area of all trees and shrubs. For all but TEN R2A and R2B, the plot basal

area (m2/hec) in reference plots was less than in Rushton plots. The mean plot basal area in

Rushton plots was up to 12 times greater than in corresponding reference plots. Typically the

difference in plot basal area between Rushton and reference plots grew as planted species made

up a larger portion of the plot basal area in a Rushton plot.

Percent Canopy Cover

Table 15 compares percent canopy cover determined from canopy photos in Rushton and

reference plots. In 7 of 10 pairs Rushton plots had greater canopy cover than corresponding

reference plots. In the remaining 3 pairs, reference plots' canopy cover were within 1% of

Rushton plots. Except at HOM, there was not a difference between the canopy cover in Rushton

and reference plots of more than 10%. Figure 30 demonstrates the trend in canopy cover as

subplot basal area increases at HOM, which is typical of other sites. As subplot basal area

increases, the canopy cover increases steeply and then levels out between 80 and 90%.










Soil Organic Matter

Table 16 provides a comparison of the percent soil organic matter found in samples of the

top 10cm of the soil in Rushton and reference plots. At CFI, HOM, and PRP, soil organic matter

was greater in Rushton plots, but in most pairings at the older sites of OHW and TEN, percent

soil organic matter was higher in reference plots. In all cases the differences between the

Rushton and reference plots as indicated by T-tests were significant at the 90% confidence level.

At HOM there was a very wide range of organic matter within the Rushton plots, not present at

the other sites.

Table 17 compares Rushton and reference plot percent organic matter by site. The

variation between reference plots on different sites is greater than the variation between Rushton

plots on different sites. Excluding HOM, the average %OM in Rushton sites varies between 9

and 10.5%.

Understory Vegetation

Table 18 presents a comparison of the understory coverage in Rushton and reference plots.

Inconsistent differences occur between the Rushton and reference plots. Among the Rushton

plots, the highest cover occurs at CFI, where ferns were planted underneath the drier portions of

the plots. Understory coverage at OHW is consistent around 30% for Rushton plots, lower than

at other sites.

Table 19 summarizes species richness and evenness among pairs of Rushton and

references plots. No consistent signal of a difference in richness and evenness is apparent

between Rushton and reference plots. The average number of species occurring in Rushton plots

is never more than 13, whereas reference plots at CFI and TEN have as many as 21 and 20

species. Species evenness follows a similar trend to species richness when comparing within

Rushton and reference pairs.

The range of both richness and evenness is greater in the reference than in the Rushton


plots.










In order to determine the dominant species in the understory assemblage within each plot,

Importance Values were calculated for each species. Lists of the most prevalent species for each

plot determined by Importance Values can be found in Appendix Tables 21-30. Each table

includes a list of prevalent species for every plot in a comparison pair.

The ordination of species assemblages based on the average cover of species can be a

useful means of visualizing the similarity of assemblages in different plots. Figure 3 1 presents

the result of an Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) of the most prevalent species in the

plots. The diagram shows a clear separation of sites and pairs. CFI reference plots are clustered

on the left side, with the drier plots R-6 and R-4 close together and R1, the wettest site, on the

other end. The CFI reference plots are closer to the HOM Rushton plot. All the HOM Rushton

plots (names starting with '2') are clustered among themselves and with the 3 PRP sites (names

starting with '6'). The HOM reference plot is isolated from the other groups. All the OHW

(names starting with '3','4', and '5') and TEN plots are clustered within their respective sites.

Overall there is a much greater difference in species assemblies between sites than within sites or

within pairs.

Relationship among measures of ecosystem development. Table 20 contains

correlations among selected ecosystem development variables by site. Rushton and reference

plots are combined in this analysis by site. Differences in the relationship strength and the

direction of the relationships between these variables occur between different sites.

Two hydrologic variables average depth and range of average depth are included in the

correlations, along with the total Rushton tree basal area (RushBA). The response variables

included are total basal area, canopy cover, understory cover, understory richness, understory

evenness, and soil percent organic matter. The relationship of the response variables to

RushBA is of primary interest, though the correlations between response variables are also

worth noting.










At all sites RushBA is strongly positively correlated with total basal area, as was apparent

in Table 14, which showed that Rushton trees made up the majority of total basal area in most

Rushton plots. However the correlation with canopy cover is less clear. At CFI correlation is

nearly absent, because all plots including Rushton and reference have very similar canopy

coverage (see Table 15). The trend is more positive at the sites where reference plots have less

canopy cover. The correlations between RushBA and understory cover are mostly negative,

except at CFI where understory planting occurred, though the relationship is weak at the older

sites of OHW and TEN. RushBA ranges from being strongly negatively correlated with

understory richness at PRP to strongly positively correlated at OHW. The correlations between

understory evenness and also range from strong negative to strong positive.

OWH and TEN show the same direction of correlation for all response variables. HOM

and PRP, the wettest sites, also show the same direction of correlation in all variables but species

evenness.










Table 5. Tree survival from initial planting. in 25 sampled cypress-gum plots.
No. % Survival
Planted lyr 3yrs 20yrs
Fraxinus pennsylvanica 651 72% 70% 29%
Nyssa aquatica 837 44% 34% 18%
Taxodium distichum 837 66% 55% 34%


Acer rubrum 126 94% 6%
Fraxinus caroliniana 72 99% 82%
Taxodium distichum 216 89% 31%


Table 6. Tree survival from initial planting in 12 sampled hydric swamp plots.


No.
Planted


% Survival
lyr 19yrs





















































1000/
900/
800/
700/
600/
500/
400/
300/
20o/


12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 131415 16 1718 19 20

0 OHW





0 *-*-.



0 E---- ....-
0 ** .......


44


10000CFI


6000





3000



2000
1000
000
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 131415 16 1718 19 20

10000H l
9000
8000
7000
6000-
5000
4000' %-- .


2000%.
1000** .
000


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 131415 16 1718 19 20
TEN
1000
9000
8000

700 o z
6000 **
5000%
400
3000

2000 g__.
1000- .* -
000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Year

-4- Fraxinus pennsylvanica -- Nyssa aquatica 5-- Taxodium distichum


Figure 9. Percentage of planted trees surviving by site and species in cypress-gum plots after 1

year (Rushton 1988), 3 years (Paulic and Rushton 1991a), and 20 years. The dashed
line represents a hypothetical trend in between the sampled years.





Figure 10. Percentage of planted trees surviving by site and species in hydric-swamp plots after 1
year (Rushton 1988) and 19 years. The dashed line represents a hypothetical trend in
between the sampled years.


12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

PRP

'.
















1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

TEN


OHW


10000
9000

8000
7000

6000
5000
4000

3000
2000

1000
000




10 Do

9 0 o
8000

7000
6000

5000
4000

3000
2000

1000
000



10000

9000

8000
7000

6000

5000

4000

3000
2000

1000

000


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Year
- -X- Acer rubrum -A- Fraxinus carohiniana -- Taxodium distichum












CFI SP-1. Homeland




a aR4 m 5R4
O R5 I Illllil l lililll R a
O R6 O 1111111111111111 R6

O R










3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3; 4 6 7 8 9 10


OH WPright Teneoc 4

SR1A 5 R2A
R2A III R2B
0 O R2B 0 R5A
m m R5B
I R6A
II R6B

O RTE










6 7 8 9 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 10




Figure 11. Percentage of plot inundated at time of monthly sampling during the period of record
on cypress-gum plots. The numbers on the x-axis represent month of the year (e.g. 3
= March)










Pea~e Park
w rim ii


HI
H2
O H3
O H4


I RHI
I RH4
O RID
O RH6


0-


6 7 X 9 10


3467819~10


Teneroc 4


H2
I H
~H5
O H6


11


456789101

Figure 12. Percentage of plot inundated at time of monthly sampling during the period of record
on hydric swamp plots. The numbers on the x-axis represent month of the year (e.g.
3 = March).


OH Wright





O



O
O


O
O


Original


FRPE


NYAQ


TFADI


Figure 13. Distribution of average water depth inside original plot boundaries (Original) of
cypress-gum plots, and at the locations of surviving trees for each of the species
planted (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Nyssa aquatica, and Taxodium distichum). The
distributions are presented as box plots that break the data into four quartiles. The
middle box represents the 25-75th percentiles, with includes the median value
represented by the middle line. The upper and lower hashes represent the 0 and 100
percentiles. The circles beyond the lower hash are outliers.








49




CFI SP-1 Fraznns pennsylvnica


I died6twnagelaml20)





0 a_.___.___.

-09 -07 -0. -03~ -01.1 0 01i 01 03 0.4 03d 06 0.7 0.8 09 1

depth


CFI SP-1 Nyssa aquatica


I died btwn earIad 20






-09 -0.7 -0.5 -03 -01 0 01i 01 03 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0)9 1

depth


cH SP-1 Tazedium distichum


a died btn age Iand 20






a9 4.7 4.5 -03 -0.1 0 0.1 01 03 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7; 0.8 09 i


Figure 14. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees alive in 2005, in
0.1m depth classes on CFI (sand-clay) on plots R1-R6.













OH WrCright Fraznus penusylvanica



0 alive







-09 -0.8 -0)T .7 -06 ) -0 4 -03 -0 2 -0.1 0) 0.1 01.2 0r3 0.4 0 5 0~ 60.7 0l.B 09 I


Figure 15. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1m
depth classes on OHW (clay) plots R2A and R2B.


20


OH Wright Taxdium disticham


W died bt~wnage Iand 2
o alive







-09 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -05 -0.4 -03 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 03 0.4 0.5 0 6 0.7 0.B 0.9 I






51



Teneme 4 Frazinus pennsylanica


-a I dial Itwnage I ad 20
0 alive




-09 -0.7 -0. -03 -01.1 0 01i 01 03 0.4 03d 0.6 03 0 B 09 1


depth

Tenerre 4 Nyssa sqluatica


Died btwn eagIad 20


d
I -
d C4
B 3
OI


0 0.1 0t 2 3 0.4 0).5 0.6 0).7 0). B 09 1


depth

Tenerere 4 Tnaxeium d~s~tichumt


a died htn age Iand 20




a9 a.7 4.5 -03 -0.1 0 0.1 0 2 03 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.; 7 .8 09 i


Figure 16. Number of planted trees that died between years 1 and 20 and trees still alive, in 0.1m
depth classes on TEN (clay) plots R5A, R5B, R6A, R6B, R7A, and R7B.


bL I
-09 -0.7 -0.5 -03 -01


















Taxodium distichum


Frazi~nus caroliniana


O









rn
o







E
O
P O
a






in
o


O









V1
O







E
~5 O
P 3







m
o


Original Aiker 20Years


Original


After 20 Years


Figure 17. Distribution of average water depth inside plots boundaries (Original) of hydric

swamp plots and at locations of surviving trees. See Figure 3 for explanation of box

plot construction.











100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20% C
10%
0%



100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%



100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1718 19 20

Sand-Clay Mix


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Years


---W.- TADI


...e...NYAQ


...4.. FRPA


Figure 18 Percentage of planted trees surviving in cypress-gum plots by soil type after
approximately 1 (Rushton 1988), 3 (Paulic and Rushton 1991a), and 20 years.






















































III


O







~I
O





O
O





V~II
d
I





o

I


I



















8


1

Clay


Figure 19. Distribution of average water depth in cypress-gum plots grouped by soil type.


S~an-Cay


Sand Cap










7. Comparison of trees growing in different soil media by species, among those with
similar average water deph
No. of Trees Mean of
log(Basal Area) p-value
Spces Clay ISand-Clay Clay ISand-Cla
Fraxinus pennslyvanica 45 89 4.24 4.44 0.20
Nssa aquatica 13 37 4.61 3.96 0.02*
Taxodium distichum 82 67 5.23 5.44 0.63
*Significantly different at the 95% confidence level


Table 8. Results of a two-way ANOVA comparing the effect of two soil types (clay and sand-
clay) and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Fraxinus pennsylvanica growth.
Variable p -value
Soil Type 0.39
Water Level 0.52
Interaction 0.16


Table 9. Results of a two-way ANOVA comparing the effect of two soil types (clay and sand-
clay) and two water levels (shallow and deep) on Taxodium distichum growth.
Variable p -value
Soil Type 0.40
Water Level 0.02*
Interaction 0.01*
*Significantly different at the 95% confidence level


Table












Table 10. Site Disturbance Record
Disturbance
Site Plot(s) Fire Heavy Grazing Mechanical
CFI 1,3,4,5,6
2 --+
HOM 1,2,3,4
5,6,7,8 -+
OHW 1A,2A,2B
H1,H4
H2,H3 +
PRP H1,H2, +
H3 ,H4
TEN 5A,5B- + +
6A,6B, -+
7A,7B
H5 -+
H2,H3 ,H6
+ Record of incidence
- No record of incidence





Reproductive ratio
(planted/recruited)
0.01
0.01
0.44
0.50
0.50
0.63
0.67
0.92
1.00
1.07
1.33
1.33
1.36
2.00
2.67
3.13
4.25
4.67
5.00
5.00
5.00
8.00
9.00
9.50
10.00
12.00
12.50
15.00
15.00
20.00


source for non-
planted?
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
N
N
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
Y
N
N
N
Y
N


source Rank
other plots 1
floodplain 2
other planting 3



other planting 6

other planting 8

10
11
12
other planting 13
14
other planting 15
other planting 16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
other planting 25
26
27
28
other planting 29
30


Site
Teneroc 4
OH Wright
CFI SP-1
OH Wright
Peace Park
CFI SP-1
OH Wright
CFI SP-1
OH Wright
OH Wright
OH Wright
CFI SP-1
CFI SP-1
Teneroc 4
CFI SP-1
Homeland
Teneroc 4
CFI SP-1
OH Wright
CFI SP-1
Peace Park
OH Wright
Teneroc 4
Teneroc 4
CFI SP-1
Peace Park
CFI SP-1
CFI SP-1
Homeland
Peace Park


Plot
H3
H2
R4
H1
RH6
R5
H1
R2
R2B
H4
R1A
R3
R1
R6A
R3
R1
H6
R4
H4
R5
RH1
R2B
H5
H6
R6
RH5
R3
R1
R3
RH5


Species
TADI
ACRU
TADI
FRCA
TADI
TADI
TADI
TADI
FRPE
FRCA
TADI
NYAQ
TADI
TADI
TADI
TADI
TADI
FRPE
TADI
FRPE
TADI
TADI
TADI
FRCA
TADI
TADI
FRPE
NYAQ
TADI
FRCA


Table 11. Plots with potential offspring of planted trees ordered by reproductive ratio
Possible alternate


Alternate


i


# Planted # Recruited


trees trees






58



TEN H3 June


TEN H3 Nove~mber


100


0 20 40 0 80


H~eighlscm


Figure 20. Size class distributions of Taxodium distichum seedlings at Ten H3 counted in June
and November, 2005.


~r~tb













CHF SP-1 167 trees
6 plets


Homelnd 173 rees
B llts


OH Wright 34C trees
4 plets


,J ammmmmmm
01234561

Size Can.


Peace ark 35 trees
4 plts


1234567

Size lam.


enerer 4 142 trees
3 plts


0)1234557



Tenemw 4 36 trees
5 plets



















0 1 23 4 6


01 1 11 2 3 67


O--'L


S1 2 34 5 6


Figure 21. Size class distribution of Taxodium distichum in 6 basins on five CSAs. Light
sections represent recruited trees: dark sections planted trees. The size classes
represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH: 1: 0-5cm: 2: 5-10cm: 3: 10-15cm: 4:
15-20cm: 5: 20-30cm: 6: 30-40cm: 7: >40cm.


_,,s~s_













CH SP-1 70 trees
6 plets


Homeland 70 tre
5 plets


OH Wrright 2 tres
2 plets




















0)1234567

SizeCsam


E8M2MMI1m__
01234567

Size Cam


Tenerwe 4 4 trees
2 plets


234567

Size Cam


Tenesee 4~ 5 trees
3 plets




















031234567


01234567


Figure 22. Size class distributions ofNyssa aquatica in five basins on four CSAs. Light sections
represent recruited trees: dark sections planted trees. The size classes represent the
following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH: 1: 0-5cm: 2: 5-10cm: 3: 10-15cm: 4: 15-20cm: 5:
20-30cm: 6: 30-40cm: 7: >40cm.














CH SP-1 124 trees
6 plets


Hesmeland -17 tees
3 plets


OII WRright IStrees
2 plets





















Size Clas


0 41 2 34 56


O


0-


0-


Size Clsas


TenrcF 4 15 trBRE
2 plets



















031234567


Siue Cha


Teneswe 4 18 trees
2 plts


0)1234567


Figure 23. Size class distribution of Fraxinus pennsylvanica in five basins on four CSAs. Light
sections represent non-planted trees: dark sections planted trees. The size classes
represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH: 1: 0-5cm: 2: 5-10cm: 3: 10-15cm: 4:
15-20cm: 5: 20-30cm: 6: 30-40cm: 7: >40cm.













OH Wright 49 ~trees
2 plets


peace Prk 21 ~trees
I plets


m_
567


234567


Slz9Qa+a


Figure 24. Size class distribution of Fraxinus caroliniana in two basins on two CSAs. The size
classes represent the following DBH ranges: 0:no DBH; 1: 0-5cm; 2: 5-10cm; 3: 10-
15cm; 4: 15-20cm; 5: 20-30cm; 6: 30-40cm; 7: >40cm.


01234















CLASS 0
0[ 0.699
1[ 0.173
2[ 0.
3[ 0.
4[ 0.
5[ 0.
6[ 0.
7[ 0.


1 2 3


0.015
0.
0.


4 5 6 7
0.023 0.034 0.051 0.076]
0. 0. 0. 0.]
0. 0. 0. 0.]
0. 0. 0. 0.]
0.725 0. 0. 0.]
0.244 0.902 0. 0.]
0. 0.078 0.946 0.]
0. 0. 0.04 0.991]


0.012 0.013
0.751 0.
0.212 0.804


0. 0.139 0.731
0. 0. 0.223
0. 0. 0.
0. 0. 0.
0. 0. 0.


Figure 25. Transition matrix for CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum population model



CFI SP-1 Taxodium dist. Population


20 30
Years frorn the Present


Figure 26. Model predicted population change of CFI SP-1 Taxodium distichum








































CLASS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0[ 0.67 0.005 0.006 0.004 0.006 0.01 0.015
1[ 0.247 0.775 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
2[ 0. 0.194 0.799 0. 0. 0. 0.
3[ 0. 0. 0.109 0.732 0. 0. 0.
4[ 0. 0. 0. 0.188 0.78 0. 0.
5[ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.189 0.938 0.
6[ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.042 0.986
7[ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.


Figure 27. Transition matrix for OH Wright Taxodium distichun2 population model






OH Wright Taxodium dist. Population


7
0.022]
0.]
0.]
0.]
0.]
0.]
0.]
0.991]


20 30
Years from the Present


Figure 28. Model predicted population change of OH Wright Taxodium distichun2








65




Model Elasticity Values

mm tasis
mmGrowth
o.s~ m Fecundity




0.4




0.3-






0.2


Figure 29. Model elasticity values showing sensitivity of different parameters. For each
parameter type (stasis, growth, fecundity) the first bar from the left represents size
class 0 with the bars to the right corresponding to size class 1,2,3... to 7.













Table 12. Rushton plots/subplots ranked by planted tree basal area (m /hec)
Rushton Tree Basal
Site Plot Subplot Type Area (mz hec)
CHI k1 1 CG 226
HOhi R2 2 CG 158
CFI R3 3 CG 154
HOhi R1 2 CG 142
CFI R3 2 CG 140
TEN H6 NA HS 128
CFI R1 3 CG 108
CFI R2 3 CG 107
CFI R2 1 CG 105
CFI R6 2 CG 96
CFI R6 1 CG 96
HOhi R1 3 CG 92
OHW R2A 1 CG 90
HOhi R4 2 CG 88
CFI R2 2 CG 87
CFI R6 3 CG 87
CFI R3 1 CG 86
CFI R5 1 CG 86
HOhi R4 1 CG 82
CFI R1 2 CG 82
CFI R5 2 CG 80
CFI R4 3 CG 79
HOhi R6 1 CG 77
HOhi R3 2 CG 76
OHW R2B 1 CG 75
CFI R5 3 CG 65
HOhi R1 1 CG 63
HOhi R5 1 CG 63
HOhi R7 3 CG 61
HOhi R7 1 CG 58
OHW R2A 2 CG 57
HOhi R6 2 CG 55
HOhi R2 3 CG 50
HOhi R7 2 CG 48
TEN H5 NA HS 42
CFI R4 2 CG 41
HOhi R6 3 CG 36
OHW R2B 2 CG 35
HOhi R3 3 CG 35
TEN R2B 1 CG 32
HOhi R5 3 CG 31
HOhi R5 2 CG 26
OHW H4 NA HS 24
OHW H1 NA HS 24
HOhi R4 3 CG 22
TEN H2 NA HS 21
PRP H5 NA HS 19
HOhi R2 1 CG 18
TEN R2B 2 CG 17
TEN R2B 3 CG 16
HOhi R3 1 CG 15
OHW R1A 1 CG 14
PRP H1 NA HS 14
TEN R2A 1 CG 13

TEN H3 NA HS 8
OHW H2 NA HS 7
CFI R4 1 CG 7
HOhi R8 2 CG 6
OHW H3 NA HS 4
TEN R2A 3 CG 4
PRP H6 NA HS 4
PRP H4 NA HS 3
OHW R1A 3 CG 2
OHW R1A 2 CG1
HOhi R8 3 CG 1
OHW R2A 3 CG 0
OHW R2B 3 CG 0
TEN R2A 2 CG 0













Table 13. Topography and water level" comparison of Rushton and reference plots


Pair Site Plot Plot Type
1CFI R1 CG
1CFI R2 CG
1 CFI R3 CG
1CFI R4 CG
1CFI R5 CG
1 CFI R6 CG
1 CFI 5 CG-Ref
2 HOM R1 CG
2 HOM R2 CG
2 HOM R3 CG
2 HOM R4 CG
2 HOM R5 CG
2 HOM R6 CG
2 HOM R7 CG
2 HOM Tl CG-Ref
3 OHW H1 HS
3 OHW H4 HS
3 OHW H1R HS-Ref
4 OHW R1A CG
4 OHW Tl CG-Ref
5 OHW R2A CG
5 OHW R2B CG
5 OHW T2 CG-Ref
6 PRP H1 HS
6 PRP H5 HS
6 PRP H1R HS-Ref
7 TEN H2 HS
7 TEN H2R HS-Ref
8 TEN H5 HS
8 TEN H5R HS-Ref
9 TEN H6 HS
9 TEN H6R HS-Ref
10 TEN R2A CG
10 TEN R2B CG
10 TEN Tl CG-Ref

aWater depth data from July for all plots


Avg A Eley.(m)
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.01
0.04
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.04b
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.048


Avg Depth(m)
0.36
0.32
-0.05
-0.30
-0.19
-0.36
0.00
0.39
0.30
0.32
0.33
0.52
0.55
0.51
0.42
0.45
0.37
0.39
0.07
0.11
0.11
0.20
0.37b
0.61
0.73
0.53
0.23
0.25
-0.06
-0.12
-0.04
-0.03
0.08
0.07
-0.01C


Min Depth(m)
0.07
-0.07
-0.43
-0.51
-0.77
-0.93
-0.49
0.13
-0.11
-0.09
-0.07
0.09
0.15
0.16
-0.10
-0.01
0.19
0.02
-0.06
0.02
0.02
-0.14
0.10
0.55
0.37
0.18
0.17
0.2
-0.21
-0.20
-0.17
-0.09
-0.10
-0.41
-0.59


Max Depth(m)
0.63
0.58
0.34
0.30
0.39
0.11
0.68b
0.71
0.61
0.51
0.51
0.91
0.76
0.74
0.63
0.55
0.51
0.50
0.21
0.25
0.21
0.35
0.50b
0.71
1.12
0.85
0.27
0.3
0.09
-0.07
0.02
0.15
0.18
0.29
0.25


oo Inundation
1000
900
480
400
42oo
13oo
550
1000
940
940
940
1000
1000
1000
940
990
1000
1000
810
10000
1000
900
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
140
00
40
13oo
810
680
62oo


bore than 3 standard errors from the mean of Rushton plots
CLess than 3 standard errors from the mean of Rushton Plots







68



Table 14. Plot-scale basal area comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots.

Percent of BA from Deviation
Plots Rushton trees Mean BA(m2/hec)a BA(m2/hec)
Pair Site Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rushton
1 CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 T5 93 NA 107 25 26
2 HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 Tl 97 NA 64 6 23
3 OHW H1 H4 HIR 82 NA 29 7 5
4 OHW R1A Tl 30 NA 48 16 NA
5 OHW R2A R2B T2 71 NA 90 7 13
6 PRP H1 H5 HIR 62 NA 27 11 4
7 TEN H2 H2R 47 NA 45 17 NA
8 TEN H5 HR 79 NA 53 20 NA
9 TEN H6 H6R 98 NA 131 11 NA
10 TEN R2A R2B Tl 51 NA 33 47 13
a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation













Ref
T5
T1
H1R
T1
T2
H1R
H2R
HR
H6R
T1


Rush
0.88
0.82
0.86
0.91
0.90
0.79
0.89
0.89
0.90
0.87


Ref
0.85
0.30
0.76
0.89
0.90
0.68
0.89
0.89
0.88
0.88


Rush
0.03
0.03
0.02
NA
0.01
0.08
NA
NA
NA
0.02


a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation







100. 00%
90.00% *
80. 00%* *
70. 00%
60. 00%
50. 00%
40. 00%
30. 00%
20. 00%
10. 00%
0. 00%
0 20 40 60 sil 100 120 140

*Rushton Plot o Reference Plot

Figure 30. Subplot basal area and percent canopy cover at HOM. The first 3 (from the left)
Rushton subplots had < 10 m2/hec Rushton tree basal area, but are included to help
illustrate a continuous trend.


Table 15. Percent canopy cover comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots
Plots Mean SD


Pair
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10


Site
CFI
HOM
OHW
OHW
OHW
PRP
TEN
TEN
TEN
TEN


Rushton
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
H1 H4
R1A
R2A R2B
H1 H5
H2
H5
H6
R2A R2B













Table 16. Soil percent organic matter comparison in Rushton and corresponding reference plots.
Standard
Plots Samples Mean %OMa Deviation %OM P-value
Pair Site Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rushton Ref from T-test
1 CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 T5 153 18 9.06 7.47 3.39 1.96 0.01
2 HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5R6R7 Tl 57 27 8.78 4.7 11.24 3.06 0.01
3 OHW H1 H4 HIR 54 27 10.19 9.2 1.65 1.2 3.00E-03
4 OHW R1A Tl 9 18 10.31 13.4 3.59 5.11 0.08
5 OHW R2A R2B T2 36 18 10.8 13.14 3.82 3.92 0.04
6 PRP H1 H5 HIR 36 27 10.21 7.7 3 1.54 6.00E-05
7 TEN H2 H2R 27 27 9.26 11.58 1.25 2.49 1.00E-04
8 TEN H5 H5R 27 27 8.06 14.06 1.69 2.94 1.60E-11
9 TEN H6 H6R 27 27 11.48 14.84 3.2 2.68 1.00E-04
10 TEN R2A R2B Tl 36 18 8.1 10.28 3.1 4.29 0.07
a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation


Table 17. Soil percent organic matter summarized by site and plot type.
Mean %OM
Site Rushton Ref
CFI 9.06 7.47
HOM 8.78 4.70
OHW 10.42 11.52
PRP 10.21 7.70
TEN 9.16 12.91










Table 18. Average percent understory cover comparison between Rushton and reference plots

Average Cover %a
Plots Samples Mean SD
Pair Site Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rush
1 CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 5 34 6 0.96 0.84 0. 18
2 HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T1 63 9 0.94 0.86 0. 17
3 OHW H11 H14 H1R 18 9 0.32 0.22 0.20
4 OHW R1A T1 3 6 0.35 0.25 NA
5 OHW R2A R2B T2 12 5 0.32 0.86 0. 12
6 PRP H11 H15 H1R 12 9 0.83 1.20 0.20
7 TEN H12 H2R 9 9 0.59 0.62 NA
8 TEN H15 H5R 9 9 0.68 0.58 NA
9 TEN H16 H6R 9 8 0.38 0. 15 NA
10 TEN R2A R2B T1 12 6 0.47 0.37 0.21
a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation







Table 19. Species richness and evenness comparison in Rushton and reference plots
Species Richnessa Species Evenness
Plots Mean SD Mean SD
Pair Site Rushton Ref Rushton Ref Rush Rushton Ref Rush
1CFI R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 5 12 21 3.9 0.59 0.70 0.15
2 HOM R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 T1 12 12 3.4 0.51 0.86 0.12
3 OHW H11 H14 H1R 7 9 0.7 0.71 0.86 0.06
4 OHW R1A T1 9 8 NA 0.81 0.85 NA
5 OHW R2A R2B T2 12 7 2.1 0.84 0.45 0.00
6 PRP H11 H15 H1R 5 7 0.7 0.70 0.53 0.02
7 TEN H12 H2R 4 3 NA 0.51 0.27 NA
8 TEN H15 H5R 13 20 NA 0.80 0.77 NA
9 TEN H16 H6R 10 5 NA 0.78 0.77 NA
10 TEN R2A R2B T1 9 12 2.1 0.72 0.77 0.05
a Bolded numbers indicate a difference of more than 1 standard deviation




























2-TI*


5-R2AC


4-TI*


6-2-4 1-5*
2-RI 2-R2

9ib7
22-R3
6-RKl
6-HIR*


5-RBa


1-RI


1-R2

1-R3


4-RIA


3-H4
?-HIRf


1-R6
1-R4


7-IIRf


10-R22


IO-R2A


SB-HJ
S-H5R'


IO-TI*


9~-H6R*


NMDS 1



Figure 31. NMDS plot of understory species assemblages. Plot names are condensed to 'pair-plot name' with a '*' added to the reference

plots. The greater the distance between the plots, the less similar their species assemblages.







73


Table 20. Correlation matrices for ecosystem development variables by site. Correlations
between Rushton BA and response variables (last five) are highlighted in gray.

















DISCUSSION

Summary

Evaluating the progress of a created wetland after a long period of time (20 years in this

study) is valuable for determining which species are appropriately adapted for site conditions and

what the role of these species may be in the development of an ecosystem.

Though tree survival was higher on the sand-clay mix soil than on pure clay or sand,

hydrology and site disturbances were more important factors than soil type in determination of

tree survival. Each wetland tree species survived in positions along a hydrologic gradient that fit

a species-specific tolerance range for inundation. This positional range was more apparent for a

species after twenty years than it was after 1 or 3 years. This information provides a good

indicator of long-term hydrology within these plots and would be valuable for future planting

efforts on these sites.

Tree growth among surviving individuals was just as high on pure clay soils as on the

sand-clay surface. By this measure, established trees were successful on clay. Nevertheless, the

sustainability of planted tree populations on CSAs is uncertain. In most cases offspring of the

planted trees were scarce after twenty years. Models showed that the size of tree populations on

two sites, each with few offspring, will not grow significantly or possibly decline after 50 years,

assuming high survival of current mature trees. The causes) of the low numbers of new

seedlings still needs to be clarified. The presence of a high number of seedlings on one clay site

proved, however, that the clay soils alone do not prohibit seedling establishment.

Plants plots are more structurally mature than non-planted area and this is promoting the

accumulation of soil organic matter, but the rate of accumulation does not always exceed

accumulation under other CSA communities. No strong relationship between planted plots and










understory vegetation has yet emerged on the selected CSAs. The assemblage of understory

vegetation appears to be more strongly determined by the site surroundings and the plot

hydrology. The influence of the trees may become stronger as the trees continue to mature. For

sites planted with trees, the intentional introduction of additional species in the understory could

provide the source for a more diverse community.

Tree Populations in Relation to Environmental Factors

Tree Survival By Site and Species

The presence of wetland trees planted 20 years ago on multiple CSAs is an indication that

conditions alone in the planted plots are within the range of conditions in which these wetland

trees have evolved to persist. Taxodium distichum, both Fraxinus caroliniana and pennsylvanica,

and Nyssa aquatica survived on all sites chosen for the study, though not in equal percentages.

Though the typical lifespan of trees of these species is much greater than 20 years, their growth

and healthy condition on some sites herald continued persistence. For the species that did not

survive at any of the sites, questions remain as to the site factors that they were unable to tolerate.

Mature trees of some of the other species planted by Rushton were present on one or more of the

study sites. Acer rubrum, which survived in small numbers at some sites, was dominant in the

understory under canopies with many mature individuals at OHW, and to a lesser extent at TEN.

This species also occurs in high densities in some areas of CFI. Ulmus americana has also been

recruited on some of these same sites, though to a lesser extent than Acer rubrum. Quercus

laurifolia is not uncommon at CFI and OHW. Isolated individuals of Persea palustris were

found outside the sampled area at OHW. The failure of these species to persist in these planted

plots does not preclude their capacity to survive on CSAs, but does indicate a relatively poorer

survival capacity in the conditions to which the plots were subjected.

Overall Fraxinus caroliniana had a very high survival rate, though it was planted in a

limited range of water depth and a smaller number of individuals were planted. Taxodium

distichum was planted more than any of the aforementioned four species and over a range of










water depths, most of which it tolerated. In terms of survival it was the most successful species

of the three in the cypress-gum plots.

One and three-year survival was a good predictor of 20-year survival for these four

species. Though annual survival rate generally improved as mortality was more common in the

first three years, the change in the percentage of each species surviving relative to the other

species was relatively consistent across sites. In other words, a similar survival trend was present

for these species, and the species with the highest survival after three years was most likely the

species with the highest survival after 20 years. This perhaps indicates a similar response to

environmental stresses among the species.

Though individuals become more resistant to environmental stress with age, assuming that

the same regime of environmental conditions persisted from years 3 to 20 as did from years 0 to

3, notwithstanding sporadic disturbances, trees likely succumbed to the same pressures during

both periods.

Tree Survival and Hydrology

Time allows for a clear determination of a suitable landscape position of a wetland species

relative to its period of exposure to saturated conditions and the depth of inundation. At CFI,

water depth did not preclude 20-year survival among the trees living after year 1, however,

hydrological factors may have had an effect on likelihood of survival of Nyssa aquatica and

Fraxinus pennsylvanica.

OHW was likely affected by a disturbance event that affected the drier end of plots R2A

and R2B (see Table 10), thus water was not likely the key factor in mortality of the trees in the

drier area. Fraxinus pennslyvanica did not tolerate the wetter locations of this transect, though it

appears to have tolerated the same average depth at CFI.

That Fraxinus pennsylvanica did not tolerate locations where the average depth was 0.2

and 0.3m at OHW ,though it did tolerate those depths at CFI, could be interpreted as a greater

tolerance for standing water in sand-clay than in clay. But there are likely differences in the










hydrologic regime between the two sites that could have effected tree survival. In both plots,

trees are growing on the fringe of a pond where surface water outfall occurs at a given depth.

Though data are not available to determine at what water level relative to the trees that surface

outflow occurs in the two basins, it is possible that water could be retained longer at the same

average water level depths at OHW, increasing the period of inundation. This case exemplifies

the difficulty of inferring hydrologic similarity from monthly measurements over a single

growing season. Inside the plots perhaps the location of surviving trees relative to one another is

a better indication of hydrology than monthly water level measurements, but was an assumption

that could not be made within this study.

The shallower water depth distribution of surviving trees in the TEN basin (Figure 16)

likely does not represent the average depth of water trees were exposed to before the basin was

ditched in 2001, when average seasonal depths for all trees were likely greater. Hydrologic

factors may have impacted mortality, as the less tolerant Fraxinus pennsylvanica did not survive

in the deeper part of the range where Taxodium distichum did, but the animal grazing (see Table

10) noted during the initial years of establishment was likely also major factor in the high tree

mortality in this basin.

The long-term change in the hydrology on CSAs due to the continuing settling of the

clays is a challenge to long-term wetland creation unique to CSAs. But this study only revealed

anecdotal indications of an effect of clay consolidation and resultant hydrologic alteration on

planted trees. At TEN, laterally branching roots of Taxodium distichum and Fraxinus caroliniana

with rigid epidermal cells not typically found above the ground surface were found in two basins.

Faint clay stains were present on these roots which were as much as 3.5 feet above the ground

surface. These root features are potentially signs of clay consolidation, but since the basin

hydrology was altered by ditching in 2001, they could also be remnants of a dramatic decrease in

water levels.










Tree Growth Comparison Between Sand-Clay and Clay Sites

Comparison of the effects of soil medium on tree growth could not include sand-capped

sites because there was no control for the effect of water level on tree growth.

The data clearly indicate that trees survived in greater numbers after 20 yrs on the sand-

clay site than in the clay, despite similar survival after 1 year for Taxodium distichum and

Fraxinus pennsylvanica. For all three species planted in cypress-gum plots survival was better on

the sand-clay site. Nevertheless, the soil medium is not the most probable explanation for this

difference. Initial growth after one year was similar for cypress-gum plots on CFI and OHW, on

which no notable growth occurred. Twenty year survival on OHW R2A and R2B was effected

by the death of all trees in 1/3 of the plot. Because death occurred for all species and because the

area experienced similar water level conditions to part of CFI on which some all species survived,

it is probable that one or multiple disturbance events, likely fire, caused the mortality rather than

the water level or the clay soil The domination of that area now by a fire-adapted species,

Imperata cylindrica, and reported fires that consumed trees in nearby plots provide further

evidence of this mortality hypothesis on OHW.

On TEN, the poor initial survival of some of the trees in the basin used in the survival

figure (Figure 16) was reported to be partially due to heavy grazing. Grazing significantly

reduced initial tree growth, an important indicator of future survival, and thus likely was the

principle cause the high mortality in the proceeding years. However, water levels possibly

resulted in Fraxinus pennsylvanica death in the deeper areas and all species in the extreme dry

areas. Though Fraxinus pennsylvanica survived into a much deeper average water depth on other

sites, it is likely that this basin stored more water before the hydrology was altered in 2001 and

that these trees then earlier were subjected to more frequent inundation.

High survival percentages in other plots in clay where the same trees were planted, like

TEN H6, is further evidence that, given appropriate hydroperiods and freedom from devastating

disturbance, viability of Taxodium distichum and Fraxinus spp. species on clay is good.










Across the board, Nyssa aquatica had poor initial survival in the clay sites, as the clay

possibly impeded the establishment process. Yet once the species established, it grew as well or

better and survived at a similar rate on the clay.

Recruited Trees

The scarcity of recruited trees in the periphery of most plots made it impossible to make

broad inferences about the conditions appropriate for seedling establishment on CSAs. Lack of

data on seed production, germination success, and seedling survival did not enable a

determination of the causes of absence of recruits.

First-year Taxodium spp. seedlings cannot tolerate long periods under water (Wilhite and

Toliver 1990). On Ten H3, a particular abundance of new seedlings emerged in the spring and

early summer 2005, where in May water levels dropped below ground but remained close enough

to the surface to maintain saturated conditions appropriate for germination. However water levels

rose and likely remained high enough to completely inundate 72 of 85 of these seedlings. This

rise in water level is the most likely explanation for the high mortality among these first-year

seedlings. If those seedlings that were inundated are assumed to have died during the period, the

survival rate for the remaining seedlings up to 100 cm would be close to 90%. Though unique in

the density of seedlings in this study, this plot provides evidence that given the presence of viable

seed and appropriate water levels, Taxodium distichum can germinate and establish on a CSA,

and that water levels are of critical importance in the establishment process.

The source of seedlings present on some of the sites was impossible to establish when

other mature trees had been planted by other parties. At CFI, >500 Taxodium distichum seedlings

had been planted on the site since the Rushton planting. Mature trees not planted by Rushton are

present just off the deeper margin of the plots and in between plots in cases. It could not be

determined with certainty that the recruited trees found inside the plots were offspring of the

planted trees. At HOM Taxodium distichum trees had been planted in the same basin a few years










before the Rushton plantings. The recruited trees found at HOM were perhaps planted or

offspring of trees from the previous planting.

Seedling establishment of wetland tree species depends heavily on a gentle rise in the

relative topography of the landscape. In natural floodplain systems, the extent of the spread of

the population is determined by the extent of the flood zone. In some CSAs the flood zone is

restricted due to a steep elevation gradient, often a residual of the mine cut spoil pile pre-fill

topography. This topography may restrict the area favorable to wetland tree seed establishment,

which require fluctuating water level conditions for adequate but tolerable moisture.

The size class distributions show normal to left-skewed shape distributions for most sites.

A right skewed or inverse-J shape distribution is a sign of a growing population dominated by

smaller individuals (Manabe et al. 2000). Overall scarcity of new seedlings at the sites poses

challenges to future population success. In all species o planted trees monitored in the study, at

least some individuals had reached a maturity to produce seed based on what is reported for

individuals of those species (USDA 2004). Though there was no formal collection of seed

production data, there were records of seeds present on trees or floating in water for each of the

species present. If the trees continue to survive it would be natural that they would become more

fecund as they grow.

Though this study shows that failure of seedling establishment is not endemic of CSAs,

studies need to be conducted to show if establishment presents any particular challenges. Further

study into seedling establishment and growth could reveal any obstacles exist on CSAs related to

soil clay content or vegetation cover. But to be conclusive, any such study needs to take into

account all stages of seedling establishment: including seed production, dispersion, viability,

germination and initial survival and along a variety of environmental gradients typical of CSAs.

Tree Population Model

Because this was a young population there was not good data on survival of older trees.

Reclamation of phosphatic clay settling areas did not begin until the early 1980s and therefore










there is no reference for longevity of Taxodium distichum in these areas. To fill in the data gap,

survival probability of larger trees was assumed to continue to increase in larger size classes. The

estimated survival probability of the largest size class of Taxodium distichum in the models was

consistent with the survival probability of the largest size class in models of other woody species

(Zuidema and Zagt 2000). Since the mortality of the largest size classes was the most sensitive

parameter in the model, the confidence of the model could be improved by real data of large tree

mortality.

The probabilities of growth, survival, and reproduction are affected by the hydrologic

conditions. Incorporating the effect of different hydrologic regimes in the transition probabilites

of multiple transition matrices is one technique for implicitly accounting for the effect of

hydrology on a wetland tree population (Lytle and Merritt 2004). For these models, a time series

of data and a hydrologic record would be necessary to build this model.

The small changes in population size predicted by the models for trees on CFI and OHW

are a consequence of both high survival probabilities of larger trees and low reproductive

probabilities of mature trees. These same trends would have likely been present in models of a

number of the other tree populations in this study, but such trends cannot yet be generalized for

Taxodium distichum or other tree populations on CSAs.

Characteristics of Successful Species on CSAs

A common trait among the tree species that survived on multiple sites after 20 years

(Fraxinus caroliniana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Nyssa aquatica, Taxodium distichum) is the

ability to tolerate anaerobic conditions for an extended period of time during the growing season.

The least tolerant, Fraxinus pennsylvanica can tolerate inundation for up to 40% of the growing

season (Fowells 1965). Each of these species has special adaptations that permit extended

survival in when the root zone is saturated, including adventitious rooting and buttressing.

Also common to these species is the ability to resprout from the root stock and to coppice

resproutt from a stump) following disturbance. For environments that may be frequently exposed










to disturbances, especially fire, resprout ability could be important for long term survival (Pausas

et al. 2004). Evidence of resprouting was present in each of the four species.

These four species naturally occur in riverine swamps (Myers and Ewel 1990). Fraxinus

caroliniana and Taxodium distichum are also naturally present in a number of other forested

wetland types, such as cypress stands and lake fringe swamps. Two of the species, Fraxinus

pennsylvanica and Nyssa aquatica do not natively occur in Polk County. The southern extent of

the range of these species is in the big bend region. Among natural forested wetlands in Florida,

these two species are typically restricted to riverine swamps

The similarity of the natural habitat of these species and the CSA environment may help to

further explain their success on CSAs. Characteristics of riverine swamps, a common habitat of

these species, include a short hydroperiod and mineral soils typically containing clays. Plots in

the study had a mix of hydroperiods during the 2005 growing season, but Fraxinus pennsylvanica

and Nyssa aquatica were more successful in plots that had a short to moderate hydroperiod.

Fraxinus caroliniana and Taxodium distichum naturally occur in areas with a range of

hydroperiod and on CSAs were successful in areas with longer hydroperiods. Clay, sand-clay,

and sand capped sites in this study all had a low organic matter content at the time of planting that

would fit a mineral soil characterization. Other species found surviving or volunteering in

transitional areas including Acer rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, and Ulmus americana are also

naturally found in riverine swamps. Two species that did not survive, Gordonia lasianthus and

Sabal palmetto, are more often found in ecosystems with sandier soils and less dramatic

fluctuation in inundation.

Species characteristics are important in determining capacity to survive in the new

anthropogenic environment of CSAs, and copying species assemblages that exist in natural

wetlands with similar characteristics is a potential method for finding appropriate species. Yet

because the CSA conditions are unique, there is no perfect correlate ecosystem from which to

select appropriate species. The species that were most successful after 20 years in these plots










were those that not only occurred naturally in riverine wetlands, but also those with the most

tolerance for anaerobic conditions and the ability to resprout. Species biological characteristics

and the similarity of its native habitat are more important to tree success in CSAs than native

range, confirming an earlier finding by Paulic and Rushton (1991b).

In a 2005 survey not included in this study of Homeland FM-07, another CSA where trees

were planted in 1988 (see Paulic and Rushton 1991b for details), a similar assemblage of

surviving species was found. A species not planted by Rushton Quercus lyrata and two of the

species found surviving in this study, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Taxodium distichum, were the

only species found Quercus lyrata is another native of north Florida riverine swamps adapted to

anaerobic environments.

The hydric swamp plots in less wet to more transitional conditions at PRP, OHW, and

TEN were mostly devoid of trees or any plot boundary markings. Fire was a likely cause of death

at PRP and OHW, whereas circumstances are unclear at TEN. On PRP the transitional areas are

dominated by Imperata cylindrica. On another site mentioned in the previous paragraph (FM-07)

no trace of plots set-up in transitional areas was available and these areas were also dominated by

Imperata cylindrica. At OHW, a mixed forested canopy is now present over transitional plots H2

and H3. Schinus terebinthifolius was dominant in a the remnants of two TEN transitional plots.

Drier areas are more susceptible to fire and post-fire colonization, and overall had poorer

survival after 20 years, leaving the long-term viability of transitional tree species on CSAs

uncertain.

Ecosystem Development in Rushton and Reference Plots

Plot Selection and Comparison

Though the study intended to examine whether the surviving Rushton trees have played a

role in ecosystem development, there was no clear presumption of the quantity of trees, tree

biomass, or tree cover necessary to reveal an effect. It was not the purpose of this study to find a

minimum level of some quantitative measure of the trees at which an effect could be detected, but










at whether or not an effect on ecosystem development could be detected under an condition in

which trees were present. Because the measurements of ecosystem development had different

degrees of spatial precision, it was safer to assume common influence on a plot or subplot when

survival of trees was higher and thus spatially more homogenous.

Adequate descriptions of the vegetation composition in reference plots and Rushton plots

at the time of planting ( 1985- 1986) were not available to determine if the composition was

identical. By selecting areas adjacent to the same water feature with similar hydrology it was

assumed that: (1) the vegetation in the areas at the time of planting was similar; (2) the depth and

duration of flooding for the Rushton and reference plots was similar; and (3) no significant

disturbances that would radically alter the vegetation and/or soil affected the plots unevenly since

the time of planting. The comparison of Rushton and reference plots rests on these assumptions,

and plots or subplots were eliminated from the comparison if they violated one of these

assumptions .

Hydrology is perhaps the primary driver of wetland ecosystem development (Mitsch and

Gosselink 1993). Thus the most important criterion for selection of a reference plot within the

site was its hydrology. Though it was impossible to establish a reference plot in the same water

feature at Homeland, the reference plot was within 100m of the closest Rushton plot and had a

similar minimum, maximum, and average depth, and average change in elevation.

In some cases, there was considerable variation of water depth and percent inundation

within a group of Rushton plots. Mean water depths at CFI ranged from 0.36 m at R1 to -0.36

meters at R6. The mean water depth of the reference plot was appropriately exactly in the middle

at 0.0m, but the difference in depth and percent inundation within Rushton plots was large

enough to lead to detectable differences in ecosystem development parameters among the

Rushton plots. The R1,R2, R3, and R5 understories were dominated by floating aquatic

vegetation, whereas R4 and R6 were dominated by ferns. Yet the understories in these plots were

still more similar to one another than the reference plot (see Figure 31). There was also a -0.70










correlation (Table 20) between the between water depth and organic matter on CFI, indicating a

difference in soil OM within Rushton plots. Hydrologic variation within Rushton plots made

delineation of differences from reference plots more difficult.

Structural Differences

The clearest distinction between Rushton and reference plots was present in the tree and

shrub strata. In planted areas with moderate to high survival of planted trees there was

significantly more structure at these levels in the plots. Rushton plots had in 9 of 10 cases a more

developed shrub and canopy layer. In plots on CFI, in TEN R2A and R2B, and in TEN H6, plot

basal area was more than twice as high as what has been found in natural forested wetland

systems, including mixed hardwood forest and cypress domes, but this difference is confined to

the narrow boundaries of the Rushton plots.

However, the estimates of canopy cover interpreted from the canopy photos showed little

difference between Rushton and reference plots. A possible explanation is the trend that occurs

with the estimation of canopy cover as plot basal area increases (Figure 30). Estimated canopy

cover increases very rapidly and then levels off as basal area continues to increase. Generally the

Rushton plots had enough structure so that all were near that asymptotic 'level' of canopy cover.

The canopy photo technique was used to estimate the proportion of light blocked by the

tree and shrub layers from reaching the understory. Because of the proximity of the shrub level to

the camera lens, also true of the understory, the shrub layer potentially had a more significant

effect on this estimation. The technique does not estimate layering in the canopy, nor the opacity

differences in different vegetative structures. Because there is more opaque, woody structure in

Rushton plots and likely more frequent overlap of structure in different strata, the differences in

the light reaching the understory could be greater than estimated in Rushton and reference plots.

Soil Organic Matter

Woody vegetation is an important contributor of litter that becomes incorporated into soil

organic matter. At TEN higher percent soil OM was found in reference plots dominated by Salix










caroliniana than in corresponding Rushton plots (pairs 7,8,9), though this was not the case at

PRP or CFI, where Salix caroliniana dominated reference plots. At OHW two reference plots

dominated Ludwigia peruviana had higher organic matter than corresponding Rushton plots.

Both of these species are characteristic of wetlands on CSAs, and may result in faster organic

matter buildup than planted species, but this trend is not consistent across all sites. Other factors,

such as fire frequency, also were important. At Peace Park, frequent fire and high tree mortality

likely caused high deposition of woody particulate matter in Rushton plots that led to high soil

organic matter. The presence of floating woody debris and burn scars on dead stumps was

qualitative evidence of this effect. Surprisingly, correlation of water depth with soil OM was

negative at most sites (see Table 20), which contradicts what is commonly found in wetland

systems, where sediment deposition is higher in lower areas (Hupp and Bazemore 1993). This

could be due to lack of vegetative colonization of deeper areas.

In wetland systems wood biomass and soil organic matter often represent the largest

storage of organic matter (Megongial and Day 1988). In Rushton plots a larger amount of total

basal area and smaller amount of a soil organic matter relative to Rushton sites indicates that

relatively more organic matter is bound up in living biomass in Rushton sites. A high percentage

of the organic matter pool tied up by living organisms has been proposed as an indicator of a

more mature ecosystem (Odum 1969). In a transition period the net production of organic matter

theoretically peaks and declines as biomass continues to increase (Figure 32). Though gross

production is likely still increasing in these systems as indicated by continual tree growth and a

greater total basal area in older sites, a greater proportion of the organic matter is being tied up in

woody biomass and less deposition to the soil is occurring.

Understory Vegetation

For most plots, the coverage of plants in the understory, the species richness, and the

species evenness was similar among Rushton and reference plots. The similarity among Rushton

and corresponding reference plots was made apparent by the NMDS (Figure 31). A distinct site-










based grouping of understory assemblages emerged in this plot. CFI (without the reference plot),

OWH, and TEN are clustered by themselves, and PRP and HOM overlap. This finding

demonstrates the importance of site surroundings on understory composition. The dispersal of

propagules from outside is the only plant source in CSAs, as there is no seed bank in the clay

from which plants can emerge. Seeds must be carried in by wind or animals, and this process is

limited by the distance to the nearest seed source. Interestingly, the HOM and PRP sites, which

overlap on the NMDS, are within a mile from one another and likely share the same source (the

Peace River floodplain) ofpropagules.

Alternatively, propagules of wetland species other than trees could be brought in during the

reclamation process. This was done at CFI, where Nep~hrolep~is spp. were planted under the

canopy of Rushton trees.

There was some similarity in the understory across sites based on plot hydrology. Floating

aquatics, primarily duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodella polyrhiza) and Salvinia minima, were

often the most prevalent vegetation on wetter transects. Where they occurred they often

accounted for the majority of cover. Though these species have limited to medium shade

tolerance, they were present in Rushton and reference plots, without a clear trend in a relationship

between basal area or canopy cover in their occurrence, except in pair 5 at OHW and pair 6 at

PRP.

By and large the species found in the understory of plots have autecological characteristics

associated with plants present in early to middle succession. These characteristics include a rapid

growth rate, short lifespan, poor shade tolerance, high seed abundance, ability to spread

vegetatively, and seed dispersal via wind and or water (Odum 1969, Ricklefs 1990, Mitsch and

Gosselink 1993). Table 31 in the Appendix presents the prevalent understory species with scores

for each of species for all six autecological traits. Plant autecological characteristics can be

related to the stage of succession (Van der Valk 1981). If Rushton trees were helping to

accelerate succession on these areas, understory vegetation in Rushton plot would possess










characteristics typical of later succession. This could be occurring, but the differences between

the species assemblages in Rushton and reference plots were too small to test for differences in

the autecological characteristics of species.

An exception to the trend of similarity among species assemblages may exist at HOM,

where the species present in the reference plot were more typical of a freshwater marsh than a

shrub or tree-dominated system. The Rushton trees planted at HOM may be directing succession

toward a forested wetland whereas it otherwise might be developing into a marsh.

Relationships Among Measures of Ecosystem Development

The correlation matrices presented by site show some across-site similarity in relationship

between causal and response variables for OHW and TEN, and also for PRP and HOM.

Generally weak correlations are present between Rushton BA and the response variables This

could be because of they are older sites abutted on one side by a source of propagules, and

because the ecosystems reference plots are more developed on these sites, dampening the effect

of planted trees. Still there are large differences in total basal area and thus more organic material

stored in the living biomass in the Rushton plots on these sites, so differences do exist.

On both PRP and HOM, the Rushton plots stand out more in their structural differences

with reference plots than at other sites. These structural differences appear to have a strong effect

upon the understory vegetation, and clearly contribute to increased organic matter buildup.

Planted trees may have more detectable influence on ecosystems development on less vegetated

sites.






89
















20 40 60 80
Figure 32. Succession in a forested system. From Odum (1969). PG=gross production: PN=net
production: R=respiration: B-total biomass.
















APPENDIX
SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURES, TABLES, AND CODE














1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00


~~ ~Lb i\4~0 i\~~


6~ b~LI ~ ~9 y~ ~h ~1~30 4~ 9'n~ ~\0~


Figure 33. 2005 water depth in a well at CFI measured by continuous data logger. Sampling times are marked with diamonds. The average of the
monthly sampled water levels was 0.66 meters, and the average of the hourly sampled water levels was 0.65 meters. The close
proximity of the monthly and hourly sampled water levels (within 1cm) indicates that the monthly sampled water level provided an
accurate average water level for the time period.